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Digital and multimedia forensics justified

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Title:
Digital and multimedia forensics justified an appraisal on professional policy and legislation
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Popejoy, Amy Lynette ( author )
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English
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1 electronic file (55 pages). : ;

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Electronic discovery (Law) ( lcsh )
Forensic sciences ( lcsh )
Electronic discovery (Law) ( fast )
Forensic sciences ( fast )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
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Recent progress in professional policy and legislation at the federal level in the field of forensic science constructs a transformation of new outcomes for future experts. An exploratory and descriptive qualitative methodology was used to critique and examine Digital and Multimedia Science (DMS) as a justified forensic discipline. Chapter I summarizes Recommendations 1, 2, and 10 of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Report 2009 regarding disparities and challenges facing the forensic science community. Chapter I also delivers the overall foundation and framework of this thesis, specifically how it relates to DMS. Chapter II expands on Recommendation 1: The Promotion and Development of Forensic Science, and focuses chronologically on professional policy and legislative advances through 2014. Chapter III addresses Recommendation 2: The Standardization of Terminology in Reporting and Testimony, and the issues of legal language and terminology, model laboratory reports, and expert testimony concerning DMS case law. Chapter IV analyzes Recommendation 10: Insufficient Education and Training, identifying legal awareness for the digital and multimedia examiner to understand the role of the expert witness, the attorney, the judge and the admission of forensic science evidence in litigation in our criminal justice system. Finally, Chapter V studies three DME specific laboratories at the Texas state, county, and city level, concentrating on current practice and procedure.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.)--University of Colorado Denver.
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Includes bibliographic references.
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System requirements: Adobe Reader.
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College of Arts and Media
Statement of Responsibility:
by Amy Lynette Popejoy.

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|University of Colorado Denver
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Auraria Library
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Full Text
DIGITAL AND MULTIMEDIA FORENSICS JUSTIFIED:
AN APPRAISAL ON PROFESSIONAL POLICY AND LEGISLATION
by
AMY LYNNETTE POPEJOY
B.M., University of Texas Arlington, 2010
A thesis submitted to the
F acuity of the Graduate School of the
University of Colorado Denver
in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Science
Recording Arts
2015


2015
AMY LYNNETTE POPEJOY
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
11


This thesis for the Master of Science degree by
Amy Lynnette Popejoy
has been approved for the
Recording Arts Program
by
Catalin Grigoras, Chair
Jeff M. Smith
Mary Dodge
May 28, 2015


Popejoy, Amy Lynnette (M.S., Recording Arts- Media Forensics)
Digital and Multimedia Forensics Justified: An Appraisal on Professional Policy and Legislation
Thesis directed by Director- National Center for Media Forensics, Catalin Grigoras, Ph.D.
ABSTRACT
Recent progress in professional policy and legislation at the federal level in the field of forensic
science constructs a transformation of new outcomes for future experts. An exploratory and descriptive
qualitative methodology was used to critique and examine Digital and Multimedia Science (DMS) as a
justified forensic discipline. Chapter I summarizes Recommendations 1, 2, and 10 of the National Academy
of Sciences (NAS) Report 2009 regarding disparities and challenges facing the forensic science
community. Chapter I also delivers the overall foundation and framework of this thesis, specifically how it
relates to DMS. Chapter II expands on Recommendation 1: The Promotion and Development of Forensic
Science, and focuses chronologically on professional policy and legislative advances through 2014.
Chapter III addresses Recommendation 2: The Standardization of Terminology in Reporting and
Testimony, and the issues of legal language and terminology, model laboratory reports, and expert
testimony concerning DMS case law. Chapter IV analyzes Recommendation 10: Insufficient Education
and Training, identifying legal awareness for the digital and multimedia examiner to understand the role
of the expert witness, the attorney, the judge and the admission of forensic science evidence in litigation in
our criminal justice system. Finally, Chapter V studies three DME specific laboratories at the Texas state,
county, and city level, concentrating on current practice and procedure.
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication.
Approved: Catalin Grigoras
IV


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to thank, from my Texas sized heart, the NCMF TRIPLE THREAT TEAM of the
University of Colorado, Denver! Leah, your ability to communicate via distance learning is impeccable. I
could not have done this without you. Thank you for directly answering every bullet point of every email I
sent, including all the ones you added, with immediate attention. Jeff, thank you for challenging me every
step of the way. If I took three steps, you took five, and that dedication to teaching is priceless. I dont
know how, on top of everything else that you do, you were able to address any and all questions, with such
detail, within 24 hours every time. CG, thank you for being so incredibly intricate and so incredibly simple
all at the same time, its magical this talent that you have. You are brilliant! I will never forget no
problems, only solutions. You are remarkable at removing the intimidation of science from forensic
thinking to make it viable. I would also like to thank Mary Dodge, Irma Rios, and David Hallimore for
their guidance and contribution.
The team at NCMF didnt just teach media forensics to me. You took me from beginning student
and delivered me straight into the core of Digital and Multimedia Science with a professional mindset
upholding DMS as a valid forensic discipline. You helped me understand my responsibility to this field as a
future expert and I intend to work, with commitment and dedication, on continued advancement of our
evolving Federal progress. I am convinced, there has never been a more exciting time to be a part of digital
and multimedia forensic science and I am so proud, honored, and grateful to be a graduate of NCMF.
Thank you, thank you, thank you.
To the entire digital and multimedia forensic science community, some of you I have met but most
not, thank you for fighting like hell since the beginning for our discipline. You are the ones who have
paved the way for upcoming professionals like myself and what a great example you have been!
V


TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION- NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES REPORT 2009..................1
Challenges Facing the Forensic Science Community...............2
Disparities in the Forensic Science Community..................3
II. PROMOTE THE DEVELOPMENT OF FORENSIC SCIENCE.............................8
III. STANDARDIZED TERMINOLOGY IN REPORTING AND TESTIMONY....................21
Legal Terminology..............................................21
Model Laboratory Reports.......................................22
Expert Testimony...............................................23
IV. INSUFFICIENT EDUCATION AND TRAINING....................................27
The Role of the Expert Witness.................................27
The Role of the Attorney.......................................28
The Role of the Judge..........................................28
Admission of Forensic Science as Evidence in Litigation........29
V. PRACTICE OF FORENSIC SCIENCE- TEXAS CRIME LABORATORIES.................30
Case Study 1- State- Deputy Assistant Director Brady Mills.....30
Texas Department of Public Safety
LES Crime Laboratoiy DME ASCLD #ALI-051-T
Case Study 2- County- Sgt. Noel Martin, Detective Justin Hall..33
Smith County Sheriffs Office
Criminal Investigation Division Crime Laboratory
Case Study 3- City- Irma Rios, Sgt. David Hallimore............39
Houston Police Department Forensic Audio/Video Unit
Houston Forensic Science Center, Inc
BIBLIOGRAPHY..........................................................................43
VI


LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE
1.1- Innocence Project Wrongful Convictions Breakdown by Discipline.............................3
http://www.innocenceproject.org/causes-wrongful-conviction/FSBreakdownDiscipline.pdf
1.2- Young Forensic Scientist Forum- Call for Reform Orlando 2015..............................4
1.3- Young Forensic Scientist Forum- Federal Response Orlando 2015.............................5
1.4- NIST Presentation for NCFS, February 2014..................................................6
http://www.nist.gov/forensics/upload/NIST-OSAC-Plan- NCFS-Feb-4-2014-2-3-14-FINAL.pdf
2.1- Young Forensic Scientist Forum- NAS Report 2009 Orlando 2015..............................8
2.2- Young Forensic Scientist Forum- National Commission of Forensic Science Orlando 2015.....12
2.3- Young Forensic Scientist Forum- Organization of Scientific Area Committees Orlando 2015..14
2.4- NIST Proposed Organization of Scientific Area Committees- OSAC.............................15
http://mst.gov/forensics/upload/NIST-OSAC-Plan-NCFS-Feb-4-2014-2-3-14-FINAL.pdf
2.5- Young Forensic Scientist Forum- Forensic Science Standards Board Orlando 2015............17
2.6- OSAC Organization Chart....................................................................18
http://www.nist.gov/forensics/osac/upload/OSAC-org-chart-10-29-14.pdf
2.7- Young Forensic Scientist Forum- Dept, of Justice Work Product Orlando 2015...............19
2.8- Organization of Scientific Area Committees with Subcommittees..............................20
http://www.nist.gov/forensics/osac/index.cfm
5.1- SCSO- Digital Media Evidence Submission Form...............................................36
5.2- SCSO- Digital Media Evidence Monthly Case Log Form.........................................37
5.3- SCSO- Digital Media Evidence Monthly Statistic Form........................................38
5.4- Houston Forensic Science Center, Inc. Code of Ethics.......................................42
vii


LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
ABBREVIATIONS
1. AAFS- American Academy of Forensic Science
2. ASCLD- American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors
3. ASTM- American Society for Testing and Materials
4. ATF- Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives
5. CODIS- Combined DNA Index System
6. DEA- Drug Enforcement Agency
7. DFBA- Defense Forensics and Biometrics Agency
8. DFSC- Defense Forensic Science Center
9. DHS- Department of Homeland Security
10. DME- Digital and Multimedia Evidence
11. DMS- Digital and Multimedia Science
12. DOD- Department of Defense
13. DOJ- Department of Justice
14. FBI- Federal Bureau of Investigation
15. FBI-QAS- Federal Bureau of Investigation Quality Assurance Standards
16. FRCP- Federal Rules of Civil Procedure
17. FRCRP- Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure
18. FRE- Federal Rules of Evidence
19. FSSB- Forensic Science Standards Board- OSAC
20. FQS- Forensic Quality Services
21. HCFS- Houston Center of Forensic Science
22. HFC- Human Factors Committee- OSAC
23. IAI- International Association for Identification
24. IAFIS- Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System
25. ICSIA- International Crime Scene Investigators Association
26. IOCE- International Organization on Computer Evidence


27. IRS-CID- Internal Revenue Service Criminal Investigation Division
28. LGC- Local Government Corporation
29. LRC- Legal Resource Committee- OSAC
30. NAS- National Academy of Sciences
31. NCFS- National Commission of Forensic Science
32. NDAA- National District Attorneys Association
33. NIB IN- National Integrated Ballistic Identification Network
34. NIFS- National Institute of Forensic Science
35. NIJ- National Institute of Justice
36. NIST- National Institute of Standards and Technology
37. NRC- National Research Council
38. NSF- National Science Foundation
39. NSTC- National Science and Technology Council
40. OSAC- Organization of Scientific Area Committees
41. QIC- Quality Infrastructure Committee- OSAC
42. SAC- Scientific Area Committee- OSAC
43. SC SO- Smith County Sheriffs Office
44. SDO- Standards Development Organizations
45. SoFS CoS- Subcommittee on Forensic Science Committee on Science- NSTC
46. SOP- Standard Operating Procedures
47. SWGDE- Scientific Working Group on Digital Evidence
48. SWGSTAIN- Scientific Working Group on Bloodstain Pattern Analysis
49. TSWG- Technical Support Working Group
IX


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION- NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES REPORT 2009
The Science, State, Justice, Commerce, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act of 2006,
became law in November 2005. As a result of that Act, the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), authorized by
Congress, sponsored the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee Project Identifying the Needs
of the Forensic Science Community, to conduct a study within the field of forensic science. (1) The
appointed Forensic Science Committee met on eight occasions and later delivered the February 18, 2009,
NAS Executive Summary- Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward, i.e. the
NAS Report 2009. (2) The executive summary identified findings of the study and outlined 13
Recommendations for the forensic science community to consider. This thesis will explore
Recommendation 1 Promote the Development of Forensic Science, Recommendation 2- Standardized
Terminology in Reporting and Testimony, and Recommendation 10- Insufficient Education and
Training.
Recommendation 1 Promote the Development of Forensic Science, suggests allocation of an
independent federal entity, funded by Congress, with expertise in but not limited to research, education,
multiple forensic science disciplines, and law. The oversight of this entity should develop programs to
improve best practices, standards, and all related strategies to advance the credibility and reliability of
forensic science at the federal, state, and local levels. Chapter II of this thesis expands on Recommendation
1 and focuses chronologically on professional policy and legislative advances since the release of NAS
Report 2009 through 2014, specifically how these developments relate to digital and multimedia science
(DMS).
Recommendation 2- Standardized Terminology in Reporting and Testimony, currently, there
are no federally accepted standards or guidelines for terminology used in testifying and reporting results of
forensic science investigations or any laboratory format with defined minimums specifying information
needed to convey conclusions to the court. Chapter III addresses Recommendation 2 and the issues of legal
language and terminology, model laboratory reports, and expert testimony concerning DMS case law.
Recommendation 10- Insufficient Education and Training, forensic evidence lies at the juncture
between science, technology, and the legal community. In the age of information, everyone who plays a
1


role in the criminal justice system must be accountable to increased learning and knowledge in and around
their area of expertise. Chapter IV analyzes Recommendation 10 identifying legal awareness for the digital
and multimedia examiner to understand the role of the expert witness, the attorney, the judge and the
admission of forensic science evidence in litigation in our criminal justice system.
Challenges Facing the Forensic Science Community
David Shawn Pope, Edgar Steele, Brandon Mayfield, and George Zimmerman, are just a few
cases, discussed with detail in Chapter III- Expert Testimony, indicating troubling legal issues based on
interpretations of forensic evidence. The Innocence Project website, http://www.innocenceproject.org,
highlights the multitude of cases and consequences of invalidated and improper forensic science used in the
criminal justice system. In fact, many forensic science disciplines, outside the Deoxyribonucleic Acid
(DNA) gold standard, have never been subjected to rigorous peer-reviewed scientific evaluation. The
Innocence Project defines invalidated and improper forensic science as 1- the use of forensic disciplines
or techniques that have not been tested to establish their validity and reliability, 2- testimony about forensic
evidence that presents inaccurate statistics, gives statements of probability or frequency (whether numerical
or non-numerical) in the absence of valid empirical data, interprets non-probative evidence as inculpatory,
or concludes/suggests that evidence is uniquely connected to the defendant without empirical data to
support such testimony, or 3- misconduct, either by fabricating inculpatory data or failing to disclose
exculpatory data. Invalidated and improper forensic science is the second greatest contributing factor of
wrongful convictions, first being eyewitness misidentification, liable for 51% of the 300 exonerates to date
(Fig 1.1), for which 17 could have been executed. This factor has also led to claims not supported by
science, errors due to unreliable methods, scientific negligence, misconduct, concealed evidence of
innocence, and vague or confusing terms that jurors could not be expected to understand. An even colder
fact is that in 90-95% of all criminal cases, DNA testing is not an option and the justice system must rely
on non-DNA forensic disciplines for the presentation of evidence.
Disparities in the Forensic Science Community
The word forensic by definition implies a relationship to scientific knowledge and the court of
law and forensic science is a key factor to the fundamental functioning of our criminal justice system. DNA
2


51% of 300 DNA Exonerations Involved Use of
Improper/Unvalidated Forensic Science: Breakdown by Discipline
Serology Hair DNA Bitemarks Fingerprints Other
Total Improper* Unvalidated, exon not eliminated
* Improper category includes: testimony or analysis which drew conclusions beyond the limits of science as known at that time;
cases in which there was negligence in analysis, fabrications/alterations of reports and possible failures to conduct elimination
testing or comparison; and withholding laboratory reports, analysis, data, or the very existence of evidence
(Figure 1.1- Innocence Project Wrongful Convictions Breakdown by Discipline)
became a highly accepted discipline standard of science, mainly because of federal funding, research,
provision, and necessity. In 1994, as a result of the DNA Identification Act, an advisory board was
established to address research relevant to DNA. Professionals from the public and private sector came
together and developed quality assurance standards for testing in laboratories. These working groups
created a pathway for the DNA community to follow and federal funding supported the implementation of
new practices, database index systems, and eventually led to the Innocence Protection Act of 2004 which
allows imprisoned people access to DNA testing to prove innocence. DNA is relied upon to provide a high
level of certainty in the criminal justice system because it was science-based and tested before it was
presented in the courtroom. Likewise, the pharmaceutical industry tests and approves medication long
before it is released to the public, but there are differences among the disciplines of science. (3) (4)
3


In August of 2013, President Barack Obama stated in an interview, "I think there are legitimate
concerns that people have that technology is moving so quick that, you know, at some point, does the
technology outpace the laws that are in place and the protections that are in place? (5) This idea, combined
with the lack of federal standards referenced across state and local law enforcement investigation units,
raises a very valid point. Technology only continues to develop forcing the courts to reconcile related
forensic arguments. Digital and multimedia evidence (DME), referred to as a non-DNA discipline, relies to
some extent on observation, experience, and reasoning based analysis. DNA evidence relies more on
biological and chemical based analysis. Although all forensic analysis is subject to the human factor,
CALLS FOR REFORM
Forensic Science Reform
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Smart on Crime:
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(Figure 1.2- Young Forensic Scientist Forum- The Past, the Present, and our Future, Orlando 2015)
non-DNA evidence analyzed using the more subjective methods can lead to higher error rates and less
accuracy and reliability in drawing expert conclusions. However, when non-DNA forensic
evidence is adequate, it can still be accurate and reliable and should not be dismissed altogether.
4


Understanding and evaluating these limitations of evidence will help toward reform of attaining supreme
forensic truth, depressing wrongful conviction rates of the innocent and increasing public safety from
criminals who go free.
In response to long awaited and disturbing questions about the accuracy and reliability of non-
DNA forensic science (Fig 1.2), the Consortium of Forensic Science Organization (CFSO) urged Congress
to pass legislation directing NAS to create an independent needs assessment study within these forensic
disciplines. The vehicle used to pass this legislation was the Science, State, Justice, Commerce, and Related
Agencies Appropriations Act of 2006 and the findings then became the NAS Report 2009. Before the
report, it was just assumed that non-DNA forensic science was well grounded in scientific methodology
and unlike DNA, non-DNA forensic disciplines did not have a cheerleading commission to support or
represent them at the federal level. Creating the National Commission of Forensic Science (NCFS)
independent of the jurisdiction of the legal or law enforcement community, allowed a governing board to
FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
RESPONSE
EXECUTIVE SoFS, NCFS, OSAC
LEGISLATIVE Leahy-Comyn Rockefeller
JUDICIAL Melendez-Diaz, etc.
(Figure 1.3- Young Forensic Scientist Forum- The Past, the Present, and our Future, Orlando 2015)
5


mandate and manage setting new standards for validation methods and practices to correct inconsistent
science. The goal being that through verified and validated methodology, human error and bias can be
decreased, terminology can be unified, and report findings can be consolidated with scrutinized evidence
before it ever reaches the court of law.
There is response to forensic science reform in all three branches of government (Fig 1.3). The
Executive Branch is presently building the framework of reform with SoFS, NCFS, and OSAC. The
Legislative Branch is continuing to draft and re-introduce legislation in support of that framework and the
Judicial Branch persists to decide and argue case law, causing reform. It is the goal of OSAC, to create the
(Figure 1.4- NIST Presentation for NCFS, February 2014) (7)
Forensic Science Code of Practice- Registry of Approved Standards and Registry of Approved Guidelines.
This registry will catalog a database of documents from all of the forensic science disciplines (Fig 1.4).
OSAC will not write the documents but will require a vetting process, promoting documents for the
6


standards development process, in order for the approved standards and guidelines to be added to the
registry. (6)
How does DME fit into forensic science reform? How do we validate, for admissibility to the
court, every single tool used for analysis of digital and multimedia evidence? How do you factor in,
measure or explain, or attempt to mitigate the human factor, i.e. cognitive bias, etc., as an element of
forensic science analysis? It is thought provoking to decide how to write best practices and standard
operating procedures, or mapping details of likelihood ratio statistics, regarding the limitless conditions and
variables related to DME. As soon as technology changes, which happens at an alarmingly rapid rate, the
validation process must begin all over again. Just last year in the case of Michael Brown, Ferguson,
Missouri, the point was raised again that one technological solution for law enforcement encounters is that
all police officers should be required to wear body cameras. Unfortunately, several state and local law
enforcement agencies that decide to use this technology, might purchase new equipment first and think
about long-term implementation, data storage management, retrieval, and privacy issues after the fact. The
progress made since the release of the NAS Report 2009, outlined in the next chapter, ensures that as
professionals, we are focusing on the challenges. As a forensic community, we are identifying next steps
and the groundwork is being laid to address our challenges. (8) (9) (10)
7


CHAPTER II
PROMOTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF FORENSIC SCIENCE
Recommendation 1 of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Executive Summary Report
2009- Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward, (Fig 2.1) is the promotion
and development of forensic science. This chapter expands on Recommendation 1 and focuses
chronologically on professional policy and legislative advances since the release of said report through
2014, specifically to how these developments relate to digital and multimedia evidence (DME). A brief
summary from 1998 -2006, will provide background information relating to the NAS Report 2009. (2)
National Academy of Sciences (NAS)
Report: Strengthening Forensic Science
in the United States: A Path Forward
2009
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(Figure 2.1- Young Forensic Scientist Forum- The Past, the Present, and our Future, Orlando 2015)
In 1998, the Scientific Working Group on Digital Evidence (SWGDE) was formed by the Federal
Crime Laboratory Directors group. This group was one of the earliest organizations to explore and combine
digital audio, video, and photography with computer forensics as a forensic discipline. Agencies
represented by founding SWGDE members were the ATF, DEA, FBI, IRS-CID, U.S. Customs, U.S. Postal
8


Inspection Service, and the U.S. Secret Service. SWGDE worked in cooperation with other organizations
including IOCE and ASCLD adopting and publishing principles and definitions concerning
acknowledgement and recognition of digital evidence as an accredited discipline. (11) In 2008, the
American Academy of Forensic Science (AAFS) created the Digital and Multimedia Sciences (DMS)
Section recognizing the importance of the growing new field. This section to date has 111 members. (12)
In 2006, NIJ sponsored the NAS Project- Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Science
Community. (1) The appointed Forensic Science Committee met on eight occasions and later delivered the
February 18, 2009 National Academy of Sciences Executive Summary- Strengthening Forensic Science in
the United States: A Path Forward, ISBN: 978-0-309-13130-8, a total of 352 pages, i.e. the NAS Report
2009. (2)
On March 10, 2009, a hearing before the Subcommittee on Technology & Innovation Committee
on Science and Technology, House of Representatives: Strengthening Forensic Science in the United
States: The Role of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, convened. The hearing focused on
reviewing scientific and technical issues raised by the NAS Report 2009, along with the role of National
Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Chairman David Wu, U.S. Democratic Representative from
the State of Oregon, opened with three considerations: the possibility of building on federal resources and
capabilities versus creating a whole new government structure, full support and agreement to the goal of
improving forensic science in the U.S., and taking the first step in moving from entertainment to reality
with the expectations of forensic science. Representatives present were Adrian Smith (NE), Paul Broun
(GA), and Donna Edwards (MD). The witness panel included Mr. Peter M. Marone, Ms. Carol E.
Henderson, Mr. John W. Hicks, Mr. Peter Neufeld, and Dr. J.C. Upshaw Downs. (10)
On March 18, 2009, a hearing before the Committee on the Judiciary United States Senate: The
Need to Strengthen Forensic Science in the United States: The National Academy of Sciences Report on A
Path Forward, convened. Chairman Patrick J. Leahy, U.S. Democratic Senator from the State of Vermont,
in his opening statement addressed the NAS Report 2009 confirming problems demonstrated at the heart of
our whole criminal justice system and that it showed the CSI Effect is not reality in the field of forensic
science. Leahy gave two examples, Detroit and Houston- Case Study #3 of this thesis, of laboratories shut
down when audits found less than adequate case results. In 2005, the DOJ reported a backlog of 350,000
9


forensic exams nationwide and alleged 1 in 5 labs did not meet American Society of Crime Laboratory
Directors (ASCLD) accreditation standards. Leahy stated forensic science is critical to our criminal justice
system in order to punish the guilty and exonerate the innocent. He referenced the Brandon Mayfield case,
where an FBI examiner affidavit was recanted, and the Kirk Bloodsworth case as two examples of faulty
forensic science in the courts. The Honorable Harry T. Edwards, (Senior Circuit Judge and Chief Judge
Emeritus, United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, and Co-Chair, Committee on
the Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Science Community, National Research Council of the National
Academies, Washington, D.C.) gave his statement. Edwards stated his Committee concluded congressional
action was needed to cure serious problems facing the forensic science community and admitted his
preconceived views about the practice of scientific disciplines were incorrect assumptions and the simple
principal point called for an overhaul of forensic science in the United States.
Hearing Submissions for the Record were as follows:
-ASCLD, Laboratory Accreditation Board, Gamer, North Carolina: Jami St Clair, Chair, Lab Board, March
16, 2009, letter, Dean Gialamas, President and Beth Greene, President-Elect, March 17, 2009, letter, Dean
Gialamas, President and Beth Greene, President-Elect, December 2008, statement,
-Edwards, Harry T., Senior Circuit Judge and Chief Judge Emeritus, U.S. Court of Appeals for the District
of Columbia Circuit, and Co-Chair, Committee on Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Science
Community, National Research Council of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., statement,
-IAI, Robert J. Garret, Metuchen, New Jersey, March 18, 2009, letter,
-NDAA, Joseph I. Cassilly, President, Alexandria, Virginia, letter,
-Neufeld, Peter, Co-Director, Innocence Project, New York, New York, statement. (8)
On May 13, 2009, a hearing before the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland
Security of the Committee on the Judiciary House of Representatives: National Research Councils
Publication Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward convened. Chairman
Robert C. Scott, U.S. Democratic Representative from the State of Virginia, in his opening statement
acknowledged the unreliable role forensic science plays in criminal investigations, the fact that the CSI
effect reaches most jury pools across the country, and confirmed fears about the national forensic science
system. Scott felt the most disturbing findings regarded judges and trial attorneys. He stated the NAS
10


Report 2009 found that trial judges rarely exclude forensic evidence and trial attorneys lack scientific
training to adequately assess and question the forensic expert witnesses conclusions. Ranking Member
Louie Gohmert, U.S. Republican Representative from the State of Texas, opened with statements from the
perspective of prosecutor, district judge, and chief justice. He stated DNA is the forensic gold standard but
his most important point challenged the belief that although particular forensic disciplines have not been
scientifically validated, it does not mean they are invalid and unreliable. Representatives present were Mr.
Robert C. Scott (VA), Mr. Anthony D. Weiner (NY), Mr. Louie Gohmert (TX), and Mr. Ted Poe (TX). The
witness panel included Mr. Kenneth E. Melson, Mr. Peter M. Marone, Mr. John W. Hicks, and Mr. Peter
Neufeld. (9)
On September 9, 2009, a hearing before the Committee on the Judiciary United States Senate:
Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States, convened. Chairman Patrick J. Leahy, U.S.
Democratic Senator from the State of Vermont, in his opening statement suggested the need to ensure the
highest scientific standards and maximum reliability of forensic science. Leahy referenced the Cameron
Todd Willingham case where an innocent man may have been executed for a crime he did not commit,
based in large part on forensic expert witness testimony and forensic evidence without scientific basis. The
NAS Report 2009 was summarized as a foundation to move forward with mandating national standards,
enforcing best practices, certification of examiners, and accreditation of laboratories. Senators present were
Mr. Richard J. Durbin (IL), Mr. Sheldon Whitehouse (RI), Ms. Amy Klobuchar (MN), Mr. A1 Franken
(MN), and Mr. Jeff Sessions (AL). The witness panel included Mr. Eric Buel, Mr. Paul Giannelli, Mr.
Harold Hurtt, Mr. Barry Matson, Mr. Peter Neufeld, and Mr. Matthew F. Redle. (4)
On September 17, 2009, SWGDE released their Position on the National Research Council (NRC)
Report to Congress- NAS Report 2009. The position encompassed all 13 recommendations; however, this
chapter addresses Recommendation 1- The creation of the National Institute of Forensic Science (NIFS).
SWGDE recognized the time needed to create a new federal bureaucracy, NIFS, and supposed an
immediate national strategy with existing forensic organizations. SWGDE stated that minimum efforts
should include standards for recognizing new forensic disciplines, newly established analytical methods,
and a community-wide code of ethics. The position also suggested, that funding allocation could follow the
competitive Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) example. (13)
11


On January 31, 2011, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), Under
Executive Order 12881, issued the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) Charter of the
Committee on Science. The purpose was to increase overall effectiveness and productivity of federally
supported efforts that develop new knowledge in the sciences... Functions of the Charter included science
policy-making processes, science policy decisions and programs, integration of science policy agenda,
development and implementation federally, NSTC clearance of documents, and international cooperation in
science. On March 29, 2012, OSTP issued the Charter of the Subcommittee on Forensic Science
Committee on Science (SoFS CoS) NSTC to authorize and develop a White Paper summarizing the SoFSs
recommendation to achieve: the Goals of the NAS Report 2009, a prioritized national forensic science
research agenda, and a draft detailing strategy for developing and implementing common interoperability
standards to facilitate the appropriate sharing of fingerprint data across technologies. (14) (15)
THE NATIONAL COMMISSION
ON FORENSIC SCIENCE
> The work of the NCFS is policy
> Co-Chaired by DOJ & NIST
> Recommendations go to the Attorney General
> The lifespan of the NCFS is limited
DEPARTMENT y** JUSTICE
Hnm
NATIONAL COMMISSION ON FORENSIC SCIENCE
IMIST
Notional Institute of
Standards and Technology
U.S. Deportment of Commerce
(Figure 2.2- Young Forensic Scientist Forum- The Past, the Present, and our Future, Orlando 2015)
12


On February 15, 2013, through a Memorandum of Understanding, the Department of Justice
(DOJ) and NIST announced the intent to establish a National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS-Fig
2.2). This 30-member group would develop federal guidance at the intersections between forensic science
and the courtroom, working together to create national standards for practitioners in the areas of
professional policy, training, and certification. Deputy Attorney General James M. Cole stated forensic
science is an essential tool in the administration of justice and scientifically valid and accurate forensic
analysis strengthens all aspects of our criminal justice system. (16)
On June 18, 2013, chairs for 18 of 21 SWGs gathered and discussed the NIST responsibility to
create guidance groups intended to replace SWGs with a new infrastructure. (17)
On September 27, 2013, under Docket No. 130508459-3459-01, NIST, the Department of
Commerce released a Notice of Inquiry for proposed reorganization of scientific working groups and
considered open input toward the Possible Model for the Administration and Support of Discipline-
Specific Guidance Groups for Forensic Science. The goal was to explore the establishment and structure
of governance models. Comments were requested across questions concerning the structure, the impact, the
representation, and the scope of the guidance groups. (56)
SWGDE and combined SWGs released their DME Response to NIST, Federal Register Notice-
September 27, 2013. Two sections spoke to Possible Models for the Administration and Support of
Discipline-Specific Guidance Groups for Forensic Science. Section I overviewed the request for model
perspectives and Section II provided SWGs opinions with a collected 35 years of direct industry
experience. In reference to Recommendation 1 of the NAS Report 2009, Section I indicated the DME
discipline has already proven accepted and successfully tested as a science by the courts at all levels of the
judicial process by providing information and results to juries as expert testimony through technical
assistance and quality assurance guidance. SWGDEs established productive history, dedicated strong
leadership, and positions with response to federal progress, display a relentless and continued commitment
to DME as a forensic discipline. (57)
By November 26, 2013, the Notice of Inquiry generated 82 public comments consisting of 337
pages across numerous forensic disciplines (20) and the overall infrastructure was defined in the NIST
January Summary, renaming the guidance groups the Organization of Scientific Area Committees (OSAC).
13


OSAC is practice-focused, reporting only to the Forensic Science Standards Board (FSSB) and will not
provide advice to the Attorney General, NIST Director, or the NCFS (Fig 2.3). This summary also detailed
the FSSB, LRC, QIC, SACs, and other infrastructure specifics. (17)
NIST ORGANIZATION OF
SCIENTIFIC AREA COMMITTEES
NFSC (FACA rules)
r Policy
r- limited term
r recommends to AG
NIST OSAC (not FACA)
r- Practice
r unlimited term
r community-driven
(Figure 2.3- Young Forensic Scientist Forum- The Past, the Present, and our Future, Orlando 2015)
On January 10, 2014, the DOJ and NIST announced the first-ever appointed National Commission
of Forensic Science and AAFS released a statement applauding the broad representation listing NCFS
named members. NCFS members will work to develop guidance and recommended policy to the U.S.
Attorney General on improving forensic science (Fig 2.3). (18) (19)
On February 3-4, 2014, at the first NCFS meeting, NIST presented the infrastructure summary
plan and slide presentation for the new OSAC (previously called guidance groups,) unifying and
incorporating the independent scientific working groups with more than 600 practitioners. The objective of
the infrastructure is to produce standards and guidelines for improving the quality and consistency of
14


forensic science. OSAC was then launched at the AAFS meeting on February 18th, in Seattle, Washington.
It is important to note that digital evidence was not included in the IT/Multimedia SAC, as shown in the
figure below (Fig 2.4). (58)
Organization of Scientific Area Committees (OSAC)
Forensic Science Standards Board (FSSB)
Legal Resource Committee (LRC) Quality Infrastructure Committee (QIC)

SAC = Scientific Area Committee Sub Subcommittee

SAC Biology/DNA SAC Chemistry/ Instrumentation SAC Crime Scene/ Death Investigation SAC IT/Multimedia SAC Physics/Pattern


| DMA Analyst Sub1 | Controlled Substances Sub | Anthropology Sub | Facial Identification Sub | Friction Ridge Sub |

| DMA Analysts Sub2 | Fire Debris and Explosives Sub (lab) Blood Stain Pattern Analysis Sub | Imaging Technologies Sub | Firearms & Tooimarks Sub

Witdife Forensics Sub
| Geological Materials Sub | Disaster Victim
Identification Sub
.. . ^
Shot Residue Sub | Dogs and Sensors Sub |

Speaker Recognition Sub
Footwear
& Tire Tread Sub
Toxicology Sub
Fre Scene and
Explosives Sub
Questioned Documents
Sub
Medical/Legai Death
Invest Sub
(Figure 2.4- NIST Proposed Organization of Scientific Area Committees- OSAC) (21)
On February 12, 2014, John D. Rockefeller IV, U.S. Democratic Senator from the State of West
Virginia, introduced the Forensic Science and Standards Act 2014 to establish a national forensic science
research program. The purpose of this act is to strengthen forensic science by promoting scientific research,
establishing science-based voluntary consensus standards and protocols across forensic science disciplines,
and encouraging the adoption of these standards. (22)
On March 27, 2014, Patrick Leahy and John Comyn introduced the Criminal Justice and Forensic
Science Reform Act. Leahy stated our confidence in the criminal justice system should be strengthened by
evidence and testimony, which is accurate, credible, and scientifically grounded. Since 1989, because of
faulty forensic evidence, 314 DNA exonerates spent a total of 4,202 unnecessary years in prison and guilty
15


men went free, possibly continuing to commit other crimes. Law Enforcement, Defense Attorneys,
Prosecutors, Judges, Scientists, and Practitioners, all want forensic evidence that is accurate and reliable to
the court and executive action is not enough. In the interest of justice, legislation must address
comprehensive forensic science reform. (23) (24) Leahy originally introduced this landmark forensics
reform legislation bill in 2011. It was read by Congress twice and referred to the Committee on the
Judiciary and is still not law. The bill is scheduled to be re-introduced in March, 2015.
On April 11, 2014, after the DOJ turned the guidance groups over to NIST and OSAC was
established, NIST defined the OSAC roles and responsibilities. The Organizational Authorities and Duties
outlined the FSSB, HFC, LRC, QIC, SAC, SACsubs, and the process for application. (25)
On May 2, 2014, the NSTC Report Strengthening the Forensic Sciences was released to
summarize three years work of the OSTP SoFS in response to the NAS Report 2009 National Academy of
Sciences Executive Summary. SoFS comprised 200 experts across 23 federal agencies and delivered the
first set of research findings covering issues related to laboratory accreditation, certification of forensic
science, and medicolegal personnel, proficiency testing, and ethics. (26)
On May 7, 2014, NSF and NIJ partnered as co-sponsors to solicit proposals for
Industry/University Cooperative Research Centers to develop the relationship between industry, academia,
and government in the relevant areas of forensic science. Federal agencies represented are DOD, DFSC,
DFBA, DHS, DOJ, ATF, DEA, FBI, and NIST. (27)
On June 26, 2014, NIST and DOJ appointed 17 members of the first Forensic Science Standards
Board (FSSB- Fig 2.5). This marked the transition from planning to doing in the effort to improve the
scientific basis of forensic evidence used in courts of law. The board consists of 5 research community
members, 5 OSAC-SAC Chairs, 6 national forensic science professional organization members, and 1 ex
officio. Richard Vorder Bruegge, Ph.D., FBI, Senior Photographic Technologist, will Chair the OSAC-
SAC IT/Multimedia. (28)
On August 19, 2014, NIST announced competition to create a Forensic Science Center of
Excellence anticipating $4 million in funding annually over 5 years. The mission of this center will focus
on two branches of forensic science, pattern evidence and digital evidence. This is just one of several
centers that NIST proposes. (29)
16


FORENSIC SCIENCE STANDARDS BOARD
1 Professional AAFS Barry K Logan NMS Labs.'Fredric Reiders Family Renaissance Foundation
2 Professional AFTE Mark A. Keisler Indiana State Police Laboratory
3 Professional ASCLD Jeremy Triplett Kentucky State Police
4 Professional IAI Steven Lee Johnson Ideal Innovations. Inc.
5 Professional NAME Andre* Michael Baker Hennepin County Medical Examiner, Hennepin County. Minnesota
6 Professional SOFT Laurel J Farrell ASCLD/LAB
7 SAC Biology Chair Geoige Hemn. Jr. Georgia Bureau of Investigation-Division of Forensic Sciences
8 SAC Chemistry Chair Scott R. Oulton US Department of Justice Drug Enforcement Administration
9 SAC Clime Scene Chair Gregory George Daws University of Alabama at Birmingham
10 SAC IT Chair Richard W. Voider Bruegge Federal Bureau of Investigation
11 SAC Physics Chair R. Austin Hicklin Noblis
12 : Researcher 1 Anil K. Jain Michigan State University
13 : Researcher 2 Douglas H Ubetaker Smithsonian institution
14 : Researcher 3 Joe Francisco University of Nebraska Lincoln (American Chemical Society President 2009-10)
15 : Researcher 4 Karen Kafadar University of Virginia (after 8/2612014)
16 : Researcher 5 Sarah Kerrigan Sam Houston State University
B Ex-OfltdiS NIST Mak Stotoro* HIST
http://www.nist.gov/forensics/osac/upload/
0SAC-20FSSB-20Presentation-20July-207-202014-20FINAL-2
0-20web.pdf
(Figure 2.5- Young Forensic Scientist Forum- The Past, the Present, and our Future, Orlando 2015)
On September 3-8, 2014, NIST appointed 70 new SAC Committee members bridging the 24
discipline-specific SAC subcommittees with the FSSB. The SAC IT/Multimedia Committee changed to
become the 15-member SAC Digital/Multimedia Committee adding digital evidence to the facial
identification, imaging technologies, and speaker recognition subcommittees (Fig 2.6). (30) (31) (32)
Richard Vorder Braegge, Ph.D., Committee Chair, U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation
Joseph Campbell, Ph.D., MIT Lincoln Laboratory
Eoghan Casey, Ph.D., MITRE
James Darnell, U.S. Secret Service, chair of OSAC Digital Evidence Subcommittee
John Garofolo, U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology
Carl Kriigel, U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Laboratory, Defense Forensic Science Center,
chair of the OSAC Imaging Technologies Subcommittee
Samuel Liles, Ph.D., Purdue University
Abhyuday Mandal, Ph.D., University of Georgia
Hirotaka Nakasone, Ph.D., U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, Chair- OSAC Speaker
Recognition Subcommittee
Lam Nguyen, U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration
Paul Penders, Connecticut Department of Emergency Services and Public Protection
Michael Piper, Target Corporation
Mark Pollitt, Ph.D., Digital Evidence Professional Services, Inc.
17


Reva Schwartz, United States Secret Service
Lora Sims, Ideal Innovations Inc., chair of OSAC Facial Identification Subcommittee
Traditional Hierarchal Organizational Chart
SAC
Biology/DNA
DNA Analysis Subl
DNA Analysis Sub2
Wildlife Forensics Sub
SAC
Chemistry/
I instrumental Analysis
SAC
Crime Scene/
Death Investigation
Controlled Substances Sub
Anthropology Sub
Fire Debris and Explosives Sub (lab) Disaster Victim Identification Sub

Geological Materials Sub | Dogs and Sensors Sub
I |
Gunshot Residue Sub 1 Fire Scene and Explosives Sub

Materials (Trace) Sub


Toxicology Sub | Investigation Sub
SAC = Scientific Area Committee
Sub = Subcommittee
Odontology Sub
www.nist.eov/forensics/uoload/orgchart3-18-14-new.Ddf
SAC
Digital/Multimedia
] [
Digital Evidence Sub
Facial Identification Sub
Imaging Technologies Sub
Speaker Recognition Sub
SAC
Physics/Pattern
Blood Stain Pattern
Analysis Sub
Friction Ridge Sub
Firearms & Toolmarks
Sub
Footwear
&TireTreadSub
Questioned Documents
Sub
Oct. 29, 2014
(Figure 2.6- OSAC Organization Chart) (33)
On October 24, 2014, NCFS released six draft policy/view documents for public review and
comment: Recommendation on Discovery, Recommendation on Universal Accreditation, Recommendation
on Expert Testimony, Document on Defining Forensic Science and Forensic Science Service Provider,
Document on Scientific Literature in Support of Forensic Science and Practice, and the Recommendation
on Accreditation and Certification of Medicolegal Death Investigation Personnel (Fig 2.7). (34) (35)
On October 29, 2014, NIST appointed 402 members to serve on 24 SAC Subcommittees (Fig 2.8)
and the new Digital Evidence Subcommittee was finalized in December 2014; 19 members were appointed:
James Darnell, Subcommittee Chair, U.S. Secret Service
Samuel Brothers, U.S. Customs and Border Protection
Joshua Brantly, Marshall University
Ovie Carroll, U.S. Department of Justice
Joseph Cassilly, State's Attorney for Harford County, Md.
18


TII F. f S' I T . I) STATH
DEPARTMENT^ JUSTICE
http://www.justice.gov
...SPARoL g fSII
HOME ABOUT AGENCIES 8USMESS RESOURCE*
;F- 1 i WORK PRODUCTS
f * '
Work Product* > D * v-- A. | FiE^;. - ,

R - ' _
R* ' J'* * K
lr Jr: sir
Comment: FIum See lot (ruction* Below)
Draft Work Products:
Discovery
r, Expert Testimony
. (CurrentlyOpen: " Definitions
Inconsistent Terminology
Final Work Products:
r Survey of Forensic Providers
Universal Accreditation
r. :j*ehcvRe"_ - *alArc- I
Certification of MLDI
i. p - Accreditation of ME/C
^VV rw,.. .1 -=*(1 Literature in 5 ; 7; Scientific Literature
Pracr I
(Figure 2.7- Young Forensic Scientist Forum- The Past, the Present, and our Future, Orlando 2015)
William Eber, Defense Cyber Crime Center, Air Force Office of Special Investigations
Sabrina Feve, U.S Attorney's Office, Southern District of California, Department of Justice
Daren Ford, Weld County (Colorado) Sheriffs Office
David Hallimore, Houston Forensic Science Center, Inc.
James Holland, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.
Mary Horvath, U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation
James Lyle, Ph.D., U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology
Andrew Neal, TransPeifect Legal Solutions
Mark Phillips, Johnson County (Kansas) Sheriffs Office Criminalistics Laboratory
Ryan Pittman, NASA Office of Inspector General Computer Crimes Division
Paul Reedy, District of Columbia Department of Forensic Sciences
Marcus Rogers, Ph.D., Purdue University
Jeffrey Taylor, Arkansas State Crime Laboratory
Steve Watson, Intel Corporation
Members who are currently part of SWGDE will play a dual role as OSAC will not replace the SWGs.
OSAC Affiliate memberships for task groups are available and encouraged. (36) (37)
19


(Figure 2.8- Organization of Scientific Area Committees with Subcommittees)
20


CHAPTER III
STANDARDIZED TERMINOLOGY IN REPORTING AND TESTIMONY
Recommendation 2 of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Executive Summary Report
2009- Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward, is the standardization of
terminology in reporting and testimony. This chapter addresses Recommendation 2 and the issues of legal
language and terminology, model laboratory reports, and expert testimony concerning DME case law.
Currently, there are no federally accepted standards or guidelines for terminology used in
testifying and reporting results of forensic science investigations or any laboratory format with defined
minimums specifying information needed to convey conclusions to the court. SWGDEs Position on the
National Research Council Report to Congress- NAS Report 2009, agrees with standardization of
terminology. They released an updated SWGDE/SWGIT Digital & Multimedia Evidence Glossary,
Version: 2.7 on April 8, 2013, (38) and worked closely with ASCLD/LAB and ASTM International on the
document Standard Terminology for Digital and Multimedia Evidence Examination E2916 13, (39)
toward a national acceptance of terminology. (13) However, SWGDE confirms a consolidation of
terminology is needed across all new Discipline-Specific Guidance Groups for Forensic Science. (57)
Legal Terminology
Although there are several available glossaries related to DME, terminology used in the court of
law is not uniform. It contains vague interpretation with analysis instead of a scientific basis and does not
adequately express probabilities or likelihood ratios of presented evidence. Scientific literature in support
of forensic science and practice must be clearly cited and undergo a rigorous peer-reviewed process. Most
evidence is not properly vetted and error rates are not fully understood by juries. To understand the
language of DME, the vocabulary must be clear and consistent. All parties involved across the legal and
scientific community must communicate on the same page without ambiguity.
In the initial draft views document of Inconsistent Terminology, (35) the NCFS outlines examples
of this erratic language. It looks at inconsistency within and across forensic disciplines, the overstatement
and exaggeration of terminology meaning and limitations, and the confusion and misapplication of usage as
a result. The American Bar Associations Resolution 101 C(2) considers the regulation of expert witness
testimony and the presentation of opinion regarding the impact of terminology used during the trier of fact
21


evaluation. Under Misleading Terms in Testimony of the Presentation of Expert Testimony Policy
Recommendations, NCFS identifies zero error rate, hundred percent accurate, scientific, reasonable
degree of scientific certainty, claims of uniqueness, consistent with, and match as potentially
misleading terms needing to be validated and explained.
NCFS, in released draft documents, has defined Forensic Science as: the application of
scientific practices to the recognition, collection, analysis, and interpretation of physical evidence for
criminal and civil law or regulatory purposes. Digital evidence is inclusive in this definition. They have
defined Forensic Science Service Provider as: A person or entity that (1) applies scientific practices to
recognizing, collecting, analyzing, or interpreting physical evidence and (2) issues test results, provides
reports, or provides interpretations, conclusions, or opinions through testimony with respect to such
evidence. This broad range universal definition will be adopted and cited in footnotes by all NCFS
subcommittees for the purpose of work product. (35)
Model Laboratory Reports
There is a lack of enforcement with federal standards for reporting scientific results in the
courtroom. Parameters for interpretation of data, report writing, and court testimony have never been
developed; therefore, a formal system of vetting evidence is needed. Scientific methods for technology,
structure for report writing, and proper expert witness testimony should not fall on the shoulders of the
judges to be sifters of the wheat from the chaff. In the medical field, ten different doctors with ten different
definitions of one diagnosis along with ten different reporting standards would not be accepted. (10)
The way FRE 702 is written, experience counts as expertise with presentation of evidence.
Specified in the Melendez-Diaz v Massachusetts case, it is not enough for the examiner to submit a report
only. Analysis must have a scientific basis, an examiner must present evidence, and the examiner must be
subject to cross-examination. (4) Developing and enforcing federal standards with reporting itself would
allows judges another way to measure and qualify experts. Model reports should include error rates to
clearly represent probabilities and likelihood ratio statistics when possible. (8)
SWGDEs Position on the National Research Council Report to Congress- NAS Report 2009,
describes a continued development of published documents and templates suitable for report
standardization. These models could be used for standard operating procedures, validation testing, and
22


minimum elements needed for report findings. (13) SWGDE also follows a standardized development
process for all work products. A development topic is picked based on need of discipline, specific
committees schedule meetings to work on document progress, a draft is completed and general membership
votes the draft release for public comment, comments are evaluated, and the final version is released. This
process, described in the SWGDE position, is similar to existing standards development organizations
(SDOs) and should be recognized by NIST. (57)
Expert Testimony
Several cases demonstrate why we need the highest qualified experts providing opinions based on
validated forensic science. In August of 1985, David Shawn Pope was arrested for the rape of a woman
from Garland, TX. Prosecutors presented evidence against him that included eyewitness misidentification
and invalidated or improper forensic science. Regarding the latter, three experts testified at his trial: Larry
Howe Williams, Dr. Henry Truby, and Stuart R. Ritterman. Larry Howe Williams, a Houston police
officer, testified as a certified examiner competent to conduct voice print analysis. He claimed to match
exactly a comparison of Popes voice samples to voicemail messages left on the victims answering
machine. Dr. Henry Truby, Ph.Ds. in Linguistics and Phonetics with 40 years experience, used spectrogram
comparison to also render a match of Popes voice to the voicemail messages. Stuart R. Ritterman, an
academic professor in Communicology, testified disputing voice spectrographic analysis as a valid science
and could not determine an exact match between the voices. (40) Pope was convicted and spent 15 years, of
a 45 year sentence, in prison. In January of 1999, Popes case was reopened and he became the first person
to be exonerated by DNA testing in Dallas County. In 2001, Pope was pardoned by Governor Rick Perry.
(41)
In May of 2004, Brandon Mayfield was arrested in connection with a train bombing in Madrid,
Spain. The Spanish National Police found fingerprints on evidence from the scene that they released to the
FBI through Interpol. Mayfield was one of 20 possible matches flagged in the FBI database due to a
previous arrest and became the prime suspect. Although Spanish authorities contested Mayfields
fingerprints and eventually announced the arrest of an Algerian national, an FBI examiner described
Mayfields fingerprints as 100% verified and he was detained undisclosed with no access to family or legal
23


counsel. He was never formally charged. In 2006, the FBI issued a formal apology and Mayfield received a
$2 million dollar settlement. (42)
In April of 2011, an alleged murder-for-hire was captured and recorded involving Edgar Steele
and Larry Fairfax. The defense team of Edgar Steele was unable to call Dennis Walsh and Dr. George
Papcun as audio expert witnesses due to a ruling by U.S. District Judge Lynn Winmill. It was concluded
that Walsh, a former New York City detective with a B.A. in Criminal Justice, used unreliable techniques
and did not have the background or experience to qualify as an expert. Papcuns testimony, even though he
had a Ph.D. Philosophy in Acoustic Phonetics, was ruled irrelevant and potentially misleading to the jury.
(43)
In June of 2013, the case of George Zimmerman, 6 audio experts were consulted to testify in
regards to the 911 call evidence. Identifying the screams in the recording could have determined the
aggressor in a confrontation between Trayvon Martin and George Zimmerman. The prosecution called
Tom Owen and Alan Reich. Judge Debra S. Nelson ruled against the prosecution for admissibility of
testimony from Owen and Reich as unreliable stating, There is no evidence to establish that their scientific
techniques have been tested and found reliable. Tom Owen, certified by the American College of Forensic
Examiners Institute (ACFEI) with a B.A. in History, was retained by the Orlando Sentinel to examine the
audio-recorded evidence. He used voice-recognition technology (Easy Voice software analysis of which he
has a financial interest in) to testify that the seven seconds of screams on the 911 call did not match the
voice sample of Zimmeiman. Dr. Alan Reich, who holds a Ph.D. in Speech Science, was retained by the
Washington Post and testified that the screams matched the voice of Martin. His conclusion was based on
digital enhancement and transcription software, aural perception, and acoustic-phonetic analysis methods.
The defense called Dr. Hirotaka Nakasone, Dr. Peter French, Dr. George Doddington, and Dr. Jim
Wayman. Dr. Hirotaka Nakasone, Ph.D. in Speech Science and FBI- Senior Scientist Voice Recognition
Program, concluded there was less than three seconds of usable audio on the 911 call and that screams were
not suitable for comparison to ones normal speaking voice. Dr. Peter French, Ph.D. Analysis of Recorded
Conversion, dismissed the recorded 911 call screams as unsuitable for any type of forensic analysis. Dr.
George Doddington, Ph.D in Electrical Engineering- Information Technology with NIST affiliation,
viewed the States voice indentification conclusions as ridiculous. Dr. Jim Wayman, Ph.D. in
24


Engineering, after reviewing the 911 call evidence, testified that less than one second of data was available
in each of the screams and that no software accepted in the forensic science community could produce
reliable comparison results. (44) (45) (46) (47)
NCFS released policy recommendations on the Presentation of Expert Testimony (35), which are:
(1) Experts should be asked to identify and explain the theoretical and factual basis for any conclusion and
the reasoning on which the conclusion is based- and any limitations of their conclusions,
(2) Experts should present testimony in a manner that accurately and fairly conveys the significance of their
conclusions, avoiding unexplained or undefined technical terms or words of art,
(3) Experts should remain neutral, and attorneys should respect this neutrality,
(4) Experts should not testify beyond their expertise and should also appreciate the difference between
testimony that the witness may give as an expert and testimony that the same witness may give as a lay/fact
witness,
(5) Experts should not testify on direct or redirect examination concerning case-specific conclusions not
contained in the report(s)/documentation submitted in discovery- unless in fair response to issues raised on
cross-examination. If an expert changes his or her opinion, a supplementary report should be submitted
except where the change is occasioned by new information, presented during testimony and not previously
available to the witness,
(6) Experts should not testify concerning conclusions that are beyond the limits of a laboratorys testing
protocols,
(7) Experts should not use invalid or problematic terms in their reports or when testifying,
(8) Experts should not use misleading terms that suggest that the methodology or the expert is infallible
when testifying,
(9) Experts should not use potentially misleading terms in their reports or when testifying without a clear
explanation of the terms significance and limitations,
(10) Experts should not use the term scientific when testifying unless the basis for their opinions has been
scientifically validated,
(11) Trial judges should not declare a witness to be an expert in the presence of the jury,
25


(12) Attorneys have an obligation to understand the discipline- including its strengths and limitations-
underlying the expert testimony that is presented at trial and to appreciate the importance of consulting with
experts prior to trial,
(13) The proponent of the expert testimony should not cause an expert to testify beyond the opinion
submitted in discovery or beyond the limits of the laboratorys testing protocols and
(14) Attorneys should not mischaracterize expert evidence in their comments to the jury.
26


CHAPTER IV
INSUFFICIENT EDUCATION AND TRAINING
Recommendation 10 of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Executive Summary Report
2009- Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward, refers to insufficient
education and training. Forensic evidence lies at the juncture between science, technology, and the law. In
the age of information, everyone who plays a role in the justice system must be accountable to increased
learning and knowledge in and around their domain. This chapter analyzes Recommendation 10 identifying
legal awareness for the digital and multimedia examiner to understand the role of the expert witness, the
attorney, the judge and the admission of forensic science evidence in litigation in our criminal justice
system.
The Role of the Expert Witness
A DNA exonerate review revealed that 72 forensic analysts from 52 labs across 25 states provided
inappropriate court testimony. (9) Digital and multimedia examiners, analysts, and technicians must
understand their potential role in the criminal justice system. The expert witness is defined as someone who
knows more than a layperson based on knowledge, skill, education, training, and experience. Certification,
competency and proficiency testing, and continued acknowledgement of procedural updates should be
maintained. An examiner should be familiar with digital and multimedia specific case law and understand
the precedents set in our forensic discipline. He/she can further understand relevance, reliability, and
admissibility of evidence through the Federal Rules of Evidence: Article IV, Article VII, and Article IX.
Ultimately, we can help the criminal justice system make our communities safer and aid in the resolution of
legal matters.
The examiner must be prepared to give science-based opinions, rely on supplementary expertise,
and refer to documentation during testimony. As an expert witness, the examiner assists the trier of fact and
is responsible for educating the jury, attorneys, and the judge in their areas of expertise alone. Testimony
should remain neutral to the case presenting clear scientific definitions and conclusions without bias. It is
acceptable to disclose and testify any information regarding the limitations of technology and to correct any
errors concerning the statements of expert testimony. There is obligation to the Brady Rule, which states an
affirmative duty to disclose evidence to the Defense even when favorable, hurting the Prosecution or
27


helping the Defense. The decision of guilt or innocence must be left to the trier of fact and personal
opinions should not be reached. All rules of the case regarding full disclosure, discovery, and
confidentiality must be realized and maintained.
The process of qualifying as an expert witness begins with current and relevant information
provided in the curriculum vitae (CV) proving areas of expertise. Solid pre-trial preparation will ensure
valuable testimony and keep the expert witness within their competence level, free to display comfort when
admitting areas outside their confines. Learned treatises, social media, transcripts of previous case
testimony, and any published material written at any time by the expert witness are fair game in the process
of qualifying as a witness. (55)
The Role of the Attorney
In criminal cases, the Prosecutor represents the Peoples interest carrying the burden of proof in
trial, ultimately seeking justice served above all else. They are liable to reviewing and filing the criminal
charge, have an affirmative duty to disclose, and must comply with the Brady Rule even after the
conviction. The Prosecutor is accountable to all fair and true admissible information, in possession or
accessible in the case, including law enforcement investigations and laboratory analysis. During direct
examination, open-ended questions like how, what, where, and why are used by the Prosecutor and use of
leading questions are not permitted.
The Defense Council is advocate to the client warranting that all elements of the Prosecutors
charge are ascertained before a conviction. A clients rights are protected by Defense under the Sixth
Amendment and the Bill of Rights. Cross-examination confronts the Peoples witness and reserves the right
to challenge checks and balances surrounding roles of power in the adversarial justice system. (55)
The Role of the Judge
The Judge can be thought of as the court referee and is the neutral arbiter in the criminal justice
system. Charged with the title Gatekeeper, the Judge decides what laws apply to the issues of the case,
communicates directly to the jury, and sentences the defendant in criminal cases. He/she also, handles any
administrative functions affecting scheduling and courtroom personnel. In a jury trial, the jurors are the
finders/triers of fact, but in a bench trial, the Judge becomes the finder/trier of fact. The judge determines if
an expert witness is qualified, the limits of their testimony, and whether or not evidence is admissible.
28


Legal objections raised during trial bring attention to the Judge, and the ruling of sustained or over ruled
resolves the dispute. (55)
The Admission of Forensic Science Evidence in Litigation
Invalidated and improper forensic science, stated earlier within the challenges facing the forensic
science community, is the second greatest contributing factor of wrongful convictions based on
interpretation of forensic evidence and illustrates the cases already present in the criminal justice system.
Why is this? The NAS Report 2009 quotes that, ... the judicial system is encumbered by judges and
lawyers who generally lack the scientific expertise necessary to comprehend and evaluate forensic evidence
in an informed manner. Expert witnesses are testifying with credentials difficult forjudges to restrict.
Industry experience is permitted as a qualifying component under the FRE 702; therefore, knowledge and
practice or doing something for a long time counts, possibly even in the case of the pseudo expert. A
nationally approved system of certification would create the standard for which Judges could measure the
admissibility of expert witness testimony against. (2)
Carol Henderson is the Director of the National Clearinghouse for Science, Technology, and the
Law (NCSTL.org). Chapter II of this thesis notes her involvement at the federal level. NCSTL.org is an
online resource that educates and shares information across the forensic science community focusing
specifically on gaps between science, technology, and law. An online database can be searched by
scientific topic, preference of resource, and can be keyword filtered. For example, case law and legislation
specific to digital evidence or voice analysis can be categorized. NCSTL.orgs newest partnership with the
Law Enforcement Innovation Center is to develop an online course for locating, evaluating, and selecting
the expert witness. These types of resources will aid all areas of the legal system. (48)
29


CHAPTER V
PRACTICE OF FORENSIC SCIENCE- TEXAS CRIME LABORATORIES
Forensic science laboratories and examiners will see changes in areas like accreditation, examiner
certifications, and standard operating procedures as the recommendations of the NAS Report 2009 take
effect and organizations like OSAC begin to strengthen in purpose. Creating a federal standard means that
laboratories qualified as forensic science service providers will have to meet these new requirements and
guidelines in order to be allocated federal funding.
Three current Texas laboratories, at the state, county, and city level are surveyed in this chapter
using an interview format. The Texas Department of Public Safety is a state ASCLD accredited laboratory
under the category of law enforcement division. The Smith County Sherriffs Office Criminal Investigation
Division Crime Lab is an unaccredited county laboratory under the category of law enforcement division.
The Houston Forensic Science Center is an independent laboratory in the process of attaining accreditation
and is under the category of local government corporation (LGC) for the City of Houston, within the
government but outside law enforcement. HFSC is of particular interest because the suggestion of the NAS
Report 2009 to remove forensic laboratories from the jurisdiction of law enforcement is highly debated.
Case Study I State Lab Deputy Assistant Director Brady Mills
Texas Department of Public Safety LES Crime Lab DME ASCLD #ALI-051-T
5800 Guadalupe St., Austin, Texas 78752 512-424-7151
The TXDPS digital and multimedia evidence laboratory conducts audio, video, and computer
forensics. I contacted Brady Mills and requested an interview. Although he denied an on-site tour and visit,
he agreed to forward any questions I had via email communication. (49)
Interview Questions and Answers: Brady Mills
1. Are you familiar with the 2009 National Academy of Sciences Executive Summary- Strengthening
Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward and the progress made at the federal level regarding
DME and the resulting recommendations 1, 2, and 10? see question 2 answer.
2. How has/will developments at the federal level in the field of forensic science affect the TXDPS crime
lab and its operations at the state level? 1&2- We are very aware of the progress being made at many
different levels regarding the NAS summary. You may be aware of some of the current legislation, here
30


is an excerpt and link to the entire article.
From DNA to digital evidence, prosecutors, defense attorneys, and judges are becoming
increasingly reliant on the collection and analysis of various forms offorensic evidence in a
criminal investigation or prosecution, Leahy said in a statement The legislation I am
introducing with Senator Cornyn represents a comprehensive and common sense approach
toward guaranteeing the effectiveness and integrity of forensic evidence used in criminal
cases, and in ensuring that Americans can have faith in their criminal justice system.
http://www.leahv.senate.sov/press/leahv-and-cornvn-introduce-sweepins-forensics-reform-lesislation
Here closer to home, a good example of local progress is the Houston, Texas PD laboratory. It has been
taken from the oversight of the police department and is now a local government corporation created to
provide independent forensic services to the HPD and other local law enforcement agencies and others
in the legal system.
3. What is the current state governing organization that legally oversees TXDPS crime lab?
Since 2005 the Texas Forensic Science Commission is an independent over sight body, created by the
Texas Legislature.
4. What role, if any, do the Scientific/Technical Working Groups play regarding TXDPS crime lab?
With the recent creation of the National Forensic Science Commission and now the inclusion of
computer forensics in the establishment of the new Organization for Scientific Area Committees (OSAC)
the Texas DPS crime laboratory follows best practices and recommendations set forth by these scientific
and technical working groups. Another resource we rely heavily on for guidance is the ASCLD/LAB
Guiding Principles of Professional Responsibility for Crime Laboratories and Forensic Scientists. I
know of several of our laboratory personnel, including myself, who have recently sent application in to
be consideredfor committee membership or technical points of contact for these organizations as well as
ASCLD/LAB Professional Review Committees.
5. Is it possible to get a copy of the current Standard Operating Procedures used by TXDPS crime lab?
To receive a copy of the current Standard Operating Procedures for any or all of our disciplines here in
the laboratory, simply email this request to CrimeLabRecords@dps.texas.gov.
6. What are the current standards/guidelines used for forensic report writing? Is it possible to get an
31


example report? Each of our disciplines should have a report-writing module included in their
SOPs. We incorporate aU. of the required elements that our ASCLD/LAB ISO accreditation standards
set forth. Specifically to the DME discipline, we also provide a report to our clients in digital form so
they can view the files recovered or extractedfrom the devices they submit. These digital reports are
treated and tracked as evidence would be. Our reports are generated by our Laboratory Information
Management System (LIMS), which is called JustceTrax. You can ask in your email for records if
there is a generic report template that you can have or request a certain disciplines report template.
7. What is the 2013 overall percentage of Digital Evidence cases compared to all cases worked by TXDPS
crime lab? Are the statistics reported? If so, is it possible to get a copy of the report?
In 2013 DME had 81 cases out of the entire 13-laboratory system total of approximately 86,000+
cases. This would calculate to slightly less than 1% of the laboratory systems cases for the year. Austin
is the only lab of the 13 that offers digital evidence services. Statistics are generated and reported
regularly to the Public Safety Commission. You can ask for those reports also through the email above.
8. What is the current training program used by TXDPS crime lab to educate your forensic experts in Lab
operations? Our training programs consist of general laboratory training and discipline specific
training. We take advantage of external training courses offered by numerous
agencies/organizations/programs such as government funded training and professional organization
workshops. We strive for consistency in our training programs, which are evaluatedfor competency and
ultimately end with approval of the Deputy Assistant Director of the laboratory.
9. What is the current training program used by TXDPS crime lab to educate your forensic experts in court
testimony? The current training program regarding court testimony consists of something akin to an in-
house certification. Required readings, mock trials and direct observation are some of the methods
employed This portion of training also goes through the evaluation process as above.
10. Does TXDPS crime lab have a forensic expert code of ethics? If so, is it possible to get a copy?
We receive rigorous training on the topic of ethics. There is departmental wide training conducted
annually. We abide by the ASCLD/LAB Guiding Principles that I mentioned in an earlier answer,
among numerous resources that are scattered in our System Manuals such as the Laboratory Operations
Guide, the General Laboratory Training Manual and discipline specific Training Manuals as well
32


Case Study II County Lab Sgt. Noel Martin and Detective Justin Hall
Smith County Sheriffs Office (SCSO) Criminal Investigation Division Lab
227 N. Spring Ave, Tyler, Texas 75702 903-590-2696
The SCSO Criminal Investigation Division Crime Lab serves a dual role of both the criminalists
Crime Scene and Cyber Crime Units with three total practitioners. Responsibilities include crime scene
acquisition, collection and preservation of evidence, chain of custody, all crime scene photography in-
house, fingerprint detection, development and comparison, bloodstain pattern analysis, shooting
reconstruction, cell phone and digital extraction, computer processing, online impersonation, and others.
Professional membership includes ICSIA. All policy documentation covers SCSO as a whole and DME lab
specific policy documentation is not available. Continuing education and training is strongly encouraged;
however, no DME lab specific training is available.
I spent a total of 6 months interning at SCSO and it was my first exposure to a real world
laboratory. The cases analyzed and worked covered all areas of CID including crimes against children,
homicide, suicide, theft, burglary, and crime scene. I was impressed with Det. Hall and his willingness to
include me as part of the team. It was a comfortable working environment in that I could work on cases at a
distance asking any and all questions as they came up. Overall, there was very little awareness in this
laboratory of the federal level changes discussed in this thesis. However, when I made suggestions for
things that could help Det. Hall, he welcomed the ideas of improvement and when I asked all my dumb
questions he would start over at the beginning with complete patience and explain, Heres how you turn
this on...
I learned first hand how to document chain of custody and intake of evidence by actually filling
out the forms necessary for SCSO. We processed guns, clothes, computers, cell phones, and cars as just a
few examples. I went into the field and processed vehicles for fingerprints, saw how detectives worked and
trained the K9 drug dogs, how the emergency 911 call center operated, pulled CCTV footage from various
crime scene locations, and experienced how officers and CID together handled deaths at the scene. I was
able to listen to discussions as detectives tried to figure how to write search warrants for social media
evidence and I sat in on meetings when major cases were being discussed and organized. I was exposed to
horrible images through crime scene photography as well as real life content of numerous digital cases with
33


various media formats. So far, no nightmares!
Det. Hall was open to new ideas for creation and adoption of new documentation; therefore, a
Digital and Multimedia Evidence Submission Form (Fig 5.1), a Monthly Case Log Form (Fig 5.2), and a
Monthly Case Log Statistic Form (Fig 5.3) was designed, introduced, approved, and established for SCSO
CID. During the time spent at SCSO, approximately 400 case stats were calculated within the Cyber Crime
Unit between 2010-2013, to find the following percentages: 60% cell phone, 16% computer, and 23% other
data storage. Det. Hall was 100% responsible for analyzing these cases and recalls testifying in only about
8 cases. A policy handbook was suggested to contain the collection of SWGDE best practices and
development of an SCSO DME SOP was discussed. Forensic tool upgrades, totaling a $13,000 investment,
consisting of a new Digital Intelligence FRED system, a Cellebrite UFED Touch Ultimate, EnCase V7, and
Oxygen Forensic Suite Analyst 7 were requested and approved.
Interview Questions and Answers: Detective Hall
1. Are you familiar with the 2009 National Academy of Sciences Executive Summary- Strengthening
Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward and the progress made at the federal level
regarding DME and the resulting recommendations 1, 2, and 10? No
2. How has/will developments at the federal level in the field of forensic science affect SCSO CID and its
operations at the state level? Federal Case Law
3. What is the current state governing organization that legally oversees SCSO CID?
Texas Rangers would investigate SCSO as a whole, not necessarily lab specific.
4. What role, if any, do the Scientific/Technical Working Groups play regarding SCSO CID?
Only SWGSTAIN referenced in relation to terminology usedfor reporting on the crime scene side of lab.
5. Is it possible to get a copy of the current Standard Operating Procedures used by SCSO CID?
No DME lab specific SOPs available.
6. What are the current standards/guidelines used for forensic report writing? Is it possible to get an
example report? No DME lab specific standards/guidelines available.
7. What is the 2013 overall percentage of Digital Evidence cases compared to all cases worked by SCSO
CID? Are the statistics reported? If so, is it possible to get a copy of the report? N/A
8. What is the current training program used by SCSO CID to educate your forensic experts in Lab
34


operations? No DME lab specific lab operations training available.
9. What is the current training program used by SC SO CID to educate your forensic experts in court
testimony? No DME lab specific court testimony training available.
10. Does SCSO CID have a forensic expert code of ethics? If so, is it possible to get a copy?
No DME lab specific code of ethics available.
Since my internship, I have stayed in contact with Det. Hall and on my desk, I have a SCSO patch
and a plaque that was given to me before I left. I was lucky to get the internship at SCSO as I have
absolutely no background in law enforcement and SCSO is law enforcement only. I think this speaks
volumes to the openness of SCSO as an organization. It was a win/win situation. I have also since learned
that changes are occurring in this laboratory. Det. Hall is now considered Cyber Unit only and no longer
has to crossover to the crime scene side as they are now separated into two units. Det. Hall will focus only
on digital evidence, should be receiving his new FRED system any day now, and is headed to Myrtle Beach
in June for the Techno Security and Forensic Investigations Conference. We plan on staying in touch to
discuss future ideas and cases and if I have it my way, he will be at AAFS next February!
35



Smith County Sheriffs Office Cyber Crimes
Criminal Investigation Division
111 N. Spring Ave, Tyler, TX 75702
Phone: 903-590-2696 Fax: 903-590-2679
Digital Media Evidence Submission
SCSO Case #
Investigator: Date:

Division/Agency Phone Number
Offense/Date Email
Digital Evidence Item/Format
Analysis Requested
Cell Phone Submission: Do you grant permission to conduct a manual examination of cell phone[s) submitted? Cell phone
data extraction occasionally requires manual examination meaning the screen is photographed during navigation. DYes DNo
Cell Phone Numher/Device ID Number Password Pattern Lock
Owner's Name D
Manufacturer/Make/Brand
Password
f LAB USE ONLY- DO NOT WRITE BELOW THIS LINE____________________________________1
Process/Analysis Performed:
Cell Phone Direct Copy Still Frame Capture Format Conversion CCTV
O Computer/Hard Drive Internet/Online D Print(s) Made Other
Manufacturer/Model/Make Serial Number
SIM Card Info Service Provider/CDMA-GSM
SATA/IDE Other
Hard Drive Size
Analysis Tools Used:
Cellebrite Oxygen FTK EnCase Photography Other
Case Notes:
Examiner:.
Date Completed:.
(Figure 5.1- Digital Media Evidence Submission Form)
36


Smith County Sheriffs Office Cyber Crimes
Criminal Investigation Division
227 N. Spring Ave, Tyler, TX 75702
Phone: 903-590-2696 Fax: 903-590-2679
Monthly Case Log
D ate :________
SCSO Case #______________Division/Agency___________Investigator______________Device/Analysis___________Date
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
Examiner:.
.Date Completed:.
(Figure 5.2- Digital Media Evidence Monthly Case Log Form)
37


Smith County Sheriffs Office Cyber Crimes
Criminal Investigation Division
227 N. Spring Ave, Tyler, TX 75702
Phone: 903-590-2696 Fax: 903-590-2679
Monthly Case Log Statistics
Month/Year*________________
Examiner:.
.Days Worked:___________Total Cases:.
NC A CDA CE IAFIS LPC CSI IQ SI FP C CP AA

NC- New Cases Assigned This Month
CE- Cleared By Exception
CSI- Crime Scene Investigations
FP- Forensic Processing
AA- Agency Assists
A- Active
IAFIS- IAFIS
IQ- Inquests
CP- Cell Phone Analyzed
CDA- Cleared/Filed with DA
LPC- Latent Print Comparisons
SI- Suicide Investigations
C- Computers Analyzed
Examiner:.
.Date Completed:.
(Figure 5.3- Digital Media Evidence Monthly Statistic Form)
38


Case Study III City Lab Irma Rios, Sgt. David Hallimore
Houston Police Department (HPD)- Forensic Audio/Video Unit
Houston Forensic Science Center, Inc. (HFSC)
1200 Travis St, Houston, Texas 77002 713-308-3084
Harris County, Texas has had its share of legal controversy resulting in eight total exonerations.
(50) Harold Hurtt, Chief of Police Houston, proactively requested an independent state crime laboratory
audit by Texas DPS in November 2002. The results suspended DNA testing immediately. Internal Affairs
Investigations and two Grand Juries followed. No indictments were charged, but reprimand, terminations,
and a separation of management from employees ensued and backlogs of rape kits were outsourced by the
City Council costing $4.4 million. (51) In 2003, a review of the DNA cases conducted at HPD were re-
tested by three outside agencies and National Forensic Science Technology Center was hired to evaluate
lab operations and employees. In 2004, an independent review of the laboratory and property room was
conducted with stakeholder oversight and a final disclosure report was issued in June 2007. Chief Hurtt,
when asked after the fact, still supports a well-funded independent laboratory as the most appropriate
solution for crime laboratory reform. (4)
I first met Sgt. David Hallimore in the Fall of 2013 when I toured the HPD Forensic Audio/Video
Unit. At that time, he had 17 years experience with HPD and 10 years affiliation with SWGDE. The lab
itself had 6 commissioned employees (2 audio and 4 video) within the Identification Unit, was located in
the fourth largest city in the U.S., and was not accredited. Sgt. Hallimore introduced me to the Texas
Forensic Science Commission, http://www.fsc.texas.gov, and the 2005 Texas legislative session 79(R)
House Bill 1068, as well as other ideas and resources. Although the Forensic Audio/Video Unit was never
actually part of the HPD crime laboratory, Sgt. Hallimore is currently appointed to the HPD transition to
independence and agreed to disclose information described in this case study.
In 2012, a Texas Local Government Corporation (LGC) began to transition crime laboratory
operations from HPD. The nine-member board of directors of the Houston Forensic Science Center (HFSC)
was appointed and governed by Mayor Parker and the Houston City Council with Texas State
Representative Hon. Scott Hochberg as Chairman. (52) Dr. Daniel Gamer became CEO and President
leaving his retirement to bring years of credible experience to the new founded center. This transition
39


required the HPD laboratory to shift out from under the jurisdiction of law enforcement into an
independent, third party laboratory and aligns itself to the recommendations of the NAS Report 2009. The
transfer was unprecedented and HFSC could likely become the new model for laboratories nationwide. (53)
The legal process took two years and on April 6, 2014, HFSC officially assumed the eight forensic
disciplines of HPD and changed over 160 employees across the Houston Police Officers Union, the
Houston Organization of Public Employees, and corporate administrative HPD positions. HFSC organized
into five divisions: Evidence Collection, Forensic Analysis, Training, Methods Research and Development,
and Quality Assurance. In September 2014, just 6 months after the official launch, HFSC achieved
Forensic Quality Services (FQS) accreditation in Controlled Substance, Toxicology, Forensic Biology, and
Firearms. Accreditation for Latent Prints, Digital Forensics, Crime Scene, and Forensic Audio/Video will
continue to be pursued. The FQS accreditation meets international and global standards of ISO/IEC
17025:2005 and FBI-QAS. As a criminal justice organization, HFSC has access to CODIS, IAFIS, and
NIB IN databases. HFSC is currently housed within 20,000 sq. ft. at HPD and is expected, within 3-5 years,
to expand to a brand new 200,000 sq. ft. distinct regional service facility. Grants, including those from NIJ,
have been awarded to HFSC and substantial efforts to decrease backlog cases are underway. The code of
ethics of HFSC was effective as of May 28, 2014. (54)
Interview Questions and Answers: Sgt. Hallimore
1. Are you familiar with the 2009 National Academy of Sciences Executive Summary- Strengthening
Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward and the progress made at the federal level regarding
DME and the resulting recommendations 1, 2, and 10? Yes, intimately familiar.
2. How has/will developments at the federal level in the field of forensic science affect FAVU and its
operations at the state level? HFSCs charter documents were a result of the NAS Report 2009. Lab
transition began in April 2014. HFSC watching closely to stay aligned with Federal Standards.
3. What is the current state governing organization that legally oversees FAVU?
Mayor, HFSC Governing Board.
4. What role, if any, do the Scientific/Technical Working Groups play regarding FAVU?
HFSC working towardfull FQS accreditation.
5. Is it possible to get a copy of the current Standard Operating Procedures used by FAVU?
40


HFSC SOPs are in process.
6. What are the current standards/guidelines used for forensic report writing? Is it possible to get an
example report?
Narrative case by case, work notes worksheet, chain of custody, no needfor scientific opinion.
7. What is the 2013 overall percentage of Digital Evidence cases compared to all cases worked by FAVU?
Are the statistics reported? If so, is it possible to get a copy of the report? N/A
8. What is the current training program used by FAVU to educate your forensic experts in Lab operations?
Internal training program ending with LEVA Competency Test, 6 months of monitored casework,
continued education training, vendor support of tools.
9. What is the current training program used by FAVU to educate your forensic experts in court testimony?
Various Moot Court training from the Prosecutors Office, but only approximately 35 total expert
testimonies given within 60 years of work experience combined with 5 employees working countless
cases. State of Texas Code DE exception.
10. Does FAVU have a forensic expert code of ethics? If so, is it possible to get a copy? (Fig 5.4)
After the previous interview was conducted, on March 23, 2015,1 became the first civilian
Forensic Analyst hired by the Houston Forensic Science Center for the Forensic Audio/Video Unit. Our
unit is one of the four remaining HFSC forensic disciplines working toward accreditation. HFSC is right in
the middle of making the cultural shift from law enforcement to independent forensic science service
provider and all of my fellow analysts are HPD officers. It is interesting to note that HFSC is actually
trying to measure this cultural transition and might eventually present those statistics at future industry
events. As I write this, new SOPs, training manuals, and training checklists are underway.
The leadership that represents HFSC is a force steadfast toward the goal of excellence with
laboratory independence. I heard Dr. Gamer say that, HFSC wants the best people, with the best training,
in the best environment... when talking about the standards of forensic services provided to customers. I
can speak to this personally as within the first 6 months of employment my training will involve
certification, on site laboratory audit and assessment, the Texas Forensic Science Commission, a lecture
series, and moot court training. It is also being discussed that the HFSC digital evidence and forensic
audio/video units might combine into one forensic discipline but that is not confirmed at this time.
41


HOUSTON FORENSIC SCIENCE CENTER
CODE OF ETHICS
EFFECTIVE MAY 28, 2014
Introduction
The public is entitled to unbiased and quality forensic work conducted with integrity so
that stakeholders may have confidence in our collection and testing. To maintain public
confidence, it is important that all employees adhere to the highest standards of
professionalism in their dealings with members of the public, stakeholders, and one
another. Employees at all levels of the organization are committed to these minimum
standards of behavior.
The Code
1. Evidence Employees shall be unbiased and objective in all evidence
examinations and assignments.
2. Truth Employees shall seek to discover the scientific truth in the evidence and
shall report their findings and represent their credentials accurately.
3. Honesty Employees shall interact with others in a cooperative, respectful, and
honest manner.
4. Independence Employees shall perform their work in a manner independent of
undue influence, whether real or perceived.
5. Confidentiality Employees shall maintain confidentiality of restricted
information obtained in the course of professional endeavors.
6. Scientific Employees shall follow sound scientific techniques and practices.
Implementation
Intentional violations of any part of this code may result in corrective action. Employees
shall report to the appropriate individual(s) unethical, illegal, or scientifically questionable
conduct of which they have knowledge. Moreover, employees should feel free to report
violations without fear of retaliation.
(Figure 5.4- Houston Forensic Science Center, Inc. Code of Ethics)
42


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(36) . "OSAC Digital Evidence Subcommittee." 12 2014. NIST.gov. 2015
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(37) NIST. "402 Members Named to Forensic Science Standards Organization." 29 10 2014. NIST.gov. Ed.
Jennifer Huego. 2015
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(38) SWGDE/SWGIT. "SWGDE/SWGIT Digital and Multimedia Evidence Glossaiy." Vers. 2.7. 8 4 2013.
SWGDE.org. 2014 08%20SWGDE-SWGIT%20Glossary%20v2.7>.
(39) ASTM. "Standard Terminology for Digital and Multimedia Evidence." Vers. E2916-13. 2013.
ASTM.org. 2014 .
(40) Pope v. State. No. 05-86-00235-CR. Court of Appeals of Texas, Dallas, casetext.com: 4 8 1988.
(41) Innocence Project. David Shawn Pope. 1 1999. 2015 imprisonment/david-shawn-pope >.
(42) Wikipedia. Brandon Mayfield. 5 2004. 2015 .
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(44) Forensic Science, Statistics & the Law. "Disturbing and Ridiculous Expertise in State v. Zimmerman."
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(45) The Guardian. "Zimmerman Trial Judge: Prosecution Audio Experts Cannot Testify." 22 6 2013.
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(48) The National Clearinghouse for Science, Technology, and the Law. Carol Henderson. 2015
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(49) Texas Dept, of Public Safety. "Digital/Multimedia Evidence Section." TXDPS. 2014
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(51) . Lured Back to Forensic Science, New Lab Director Ready for Challenge in Houston. Ed. Anita
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(52) Houston Forensic Science Center. 2015 .
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5876592.php>.
(54) Gamer, Daniel. "SWGDE Business Meeting." Houston, 1 2015.
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! DIGITAL AND MULTIMEDIA FORENSICS JUSTIFIED : AN APPRAISAL ON PROFESSIONAL POLICY AND LEGISLATION by AMY LYNNETTE POPEJOY B.M., University of Texas Arlington, 2010 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science Recording Arts 2015

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"" 2015 AMY LYNNETTE POPEJOY ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

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""" This thesis for the Master of Science degree by Amy Lynnette Popejoy has been approved for the Recording Arts Program by Catalin Grigoras Chair Jeff M. Smith Mary Dodge May 28 2015

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"# Popejoy, Amy Lynnette (M.S., Recording Arts Media Forensics) Digital and Multimedia Forensics Justified: An Appraisal on Professional Policy and Legislation Thesis directed by Director National Center for Media Forensics Catalin Grigoras, Ph.D. ABSTRACT Recent pro gress in professional policy and legislation at the federal level in the field of forensic science constructs a transformation of ne w outcomes for future experts. A n exploratory and descriptive qualitative methodology was used to critique and examine Digit al and Multimedia Science (DMS ) as a justified forensic discipline. Chapter I summarizes Recommendations 1, 2, and 10 of the N ational A cademy of S ciences (NAS) Report 2009 regarding disparities and challenges facing the forensic science community. C hapter I also delivers the overall foundation and framework of th is thesis, specifically how it relate s to DMS Chapter II expands on Recommendation 1: The Promotion and Development of Forensic Science, and focuses chronologically on profess ional policy and le gislative advances through 2014 Chapter III addresses Recommendation 2: The Standardization of Terminology in Reporting and Testimony, and the issues of legal language and terminology, model laboratory reports and expert testimony concerning DMS case law Chapter IV analyzes Recommendation 10: Insufficient Education and Training identifying legal awareness for the digital and multimedia examiner to understand the role of the e xpert witness, the attorney, the judge and the admission of forensic science evidence in litigation in our criminal justice system. Finally, Chapter V studies three DME specific lab oratories at the Texas state, county, and c ity level concentrating on current practice and procedure The form and content of this abstract are approved I recommend its publication. Approved: Catalin Grigoras

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# ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to thank from my Texas sized heart, the NCMF TRIPLE THREAT TEAM of the University of Colorado, Denver! Leah, your ability to communicate via distance learning is impeccable. I could not have done this without you. Thank you for directly answering every bullet poi nt of every email I sent, including all the ones you added, with immediate attention. Jeff, thank you for challenging me every step of the way. If I took three steps, you took five, and that dedication to teaching is priceless. I don't know how, on top of everything else that you do, you were able to address any and all questions, with such detail, within 24 hours every time. CG, thank you for being so incredibly intricate and so incredibly simple all at the same time, it's magical this talent that you have You are brilliant! I will never forget "no problems, only solutions." You are remarkable at removing the intimidation of science from forensic thinking to make it viable. I would also like to than k Mary Dodge Irma Rios, and David Hallimore for t he i r gui dance and contribution. The te am at NCMF didn't just teach media forensics to me You took me from beginning studen t and delivered me straight into the core of Digital and Multimedia Science with a professional mindset upholding DMS as a valid forensic di scipline. You helped me understand my responsibility to this field as a future expert and I intend to work, with commitment and dedication, on continu ed advancement of our evolving Federal progress. I am convinced there has never been a more exciting time to be a part of digital and multimedia forensi c science and I am so proud, honored and grateful to be a graduate of NCMF. Thank you, thank you, thank you. To the entire digital and multimedia forensic science co mmunity, some of you I have met but most not, thank you for fighting like hell' since the beginning for our discipline You are the ones who have paved the way for upcoming professionals like myself and what a great example you have been!

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#" TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES REPORT 2009 1 Challenges Facing the Forensic Science Community ...2 Disparities in the Forensic Science Community ...3 II. PROMOTE THE DEVELOPMENT OF FORENSIC SCIENCE...8 III. STANDARDIZED TERMINOLOGY IN REPORTING AND TESTIMONY 21 Legal Terminology ..21 Model Laboratory Reports ..22 Expert Testimony 23 IV. INSUFFICIENT EDUCATION AND TRAINING ..27 Th e Role of the Expert Witness ...27 The Role of the Attorney .28 The Role of the Judge ..28 Admission of Forensic Science as Eviden ce in Litigation ..29 V. PRACTICE OF FORENSIC SCIENCE TEXAS CRIME LABORATORIES 30 Case Study 1 State Deputy Assistant Director Bra dy Mills .30 Tex as Department of Public Safety LES Crime Lab oratory DME ASCLD #ALI 051 T Case Study 2 County Sgt. Noel Martin, Detective Justin Hall .33 Smith County Sheriff's Office Criminal Investigation Division Crime Lab oratory Case Study 3 City Irma Rios, Sgt. David Hallim ore 39 Houston Police Department Forensic Audio/Video Unit Houston Forensic Science Center Inc BIBLIOGRAPHY ...43

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#"" LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1.1 Innocence Project Wrongful Convictions Breakdown by Dis cipline ...3 http://www.innocenceproject.org/causes wrongf ul conviction/FSBreakdownDiscipline.pdf 1.2 Young F orensic Scientist Forum "Call for Reform" Orlando 2015 4 1.3 Young F orensic Scientist Forum "Federal Response" Orlando 2015 ... ..5 1.4 NIST Presentation for NCFS, February 2014 ...6 http://www.nist.gov/forensics/upload/NIST OSAC Plan NCFS Feb 4 2014 2 3 14 FINAL.pdf 2.1 Young F orensic Scientist Forum "NAS Report 2009" Orlando 2015 .8 2.2 Young Forensic Scientis t Forum "National Commission of Forensic Science" Orlando 2015 ....12 2.3 Young F orensic Scientist Forum "Organization of Scientific Area Committees" Orlando 2015 .....14 2.4 NIST Proposed Organization of Scientific Area Committees OSAC ...15 http://nist.gov/forensics/upload/NIST OSAC Plan NCFS Feb 4 2014 2 3 14 FINAL.pdf 2.5 Young F orensic Scientist Forum "Forensic Science Standards Board" Orlando 2015 .17 2.6 OSAC Organization Chart ...18 http://www.nist.gov/forensics/osac/upload/OSAC org chart 10 29 14.pdf 2.7 Young F orensic Scientist Forum "Dept. of Justice Work Product" Orlando 2015 ...19 2.8 Organization of Scientific Are a Committees with Subcommittees 20 http://ww w.nist.gov/forensics/osac/index.cfm 5.1 SCSO Digital Media Evidence Submission Form .36 5.2 SCSO Digital Media Evidence Monthly Case Log Form .37 5.3 SCSO Digital Media Evidence Monthly Statistic Form ....38 5.4 Houston Forensic Scie nce Center, Inc. Code of Ethics ..42

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! LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ABBREVIATIONS 1. AAFS American Academy of Forensic Science 2. ASCLD American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors 3 ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials 4 ATF Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives 5 CODIS Combined DNA Index System 6 DEA Drug Enforcement Agency 7 DFBA Defense Forensics and Biometrics Agency 8 DFSC Defense Forensic Science Center 9 DHS Department of Homeland Security 10 DME Digital and Multimedia Evidence 11 DMS Digital and Multimedia Science 1 2. DOD Department of Defense 1 3. DOJ Department of Justice 14 FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation 15 FBI QAS Federal Bureau of Investigation Quality Assurance Standards 16 FRCP Federal Rules of Civil Procedure 17 FRCRP Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure 18 FRE Federal Rules of Evidence 19 FSSB Forensic Science Standards Board OSAC 2 0 FQS Forensic Qual ity Services 2 1 HCFS Houston Center of Forensic Science 2 2 HFC Human Factors Committee OSAC 2 3 IAI International Association for Identification 2 4 IAFIS Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System 2 5 ICSIA International Crime Scene In vestigator's Association 26 IOCE International Organization on Computer Evidence

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"$ 27 IRS CID Internal Revenue Service Criminal Investigation Division 28 LGC Local Government Corporation 2 9 LRC Legal Resource Committee OSAC 30 NAS National Academy of Sciences 3 1 NCFS National Commission of Forensic Science 32 NDAA National District Attorneys Association 3 3 NIBIN National Integrated Ballistic Identification Network 34 NIFS National Institute of Forensic Science 3 5 NIJ National Institute of Justice 3 6 NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology 37 NRC National Research Council 38 NSF National Science Foundation 3 9 NSTC National Science and Technology Council 40 OSAC Organization of Scientific Area Committees 41 QIC Quality Infrastructure Committee OSAC 42 SAC Scientific Area Committee OSAC 4 3 SCSO Smith County Sheriff's Office 44 SDO Standards Development Organizations 45 SoFS CoS Subcommittee on Forensic Science Committee on Science NSTC 46 SOP Standard Operating Procedures 47 SWGDE Scientific Working Group on Digital Evidence 48 SWGSTAIN Scientific Working Group on Bloodstain Pattern Analysis 49 TSWG Technical Support Working Group

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% CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES REPORT 2009 The Science, State, Justice, Commerce, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act of 2006, became law in November 2005. As a result of that Act, the N ational I nstitute of J ustice (NIJ), authorized by Congress, sponsored the National A cademy of Sciences (NAS) Committee Project Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Science Community, to conduct a study within the field of forensic science. (1) The appointed Forensic Science Committee met on eight occasions and later delivered the February 18, 2009 NAS Executive Summary Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward i.e. the NAS Report 2009 (2) The executive summary identified findings of the study and outlined 13 Recommendations for the forensic science community to cons ider. This thesis will explore Recommendation 1 Promote the Development of Forensic Science, Recommendation 2 Standardized Terminology in Reporting and Testimony and Recommendation 10 Insufficient Education and Training. Recommendation 1 Promote the Development of Forensic Science, suggests allocation of an independent federal entity, funded by Congress, with expertis e in but not limited to research, education, multiple forensic science disciplines, and law. The oversight of this entity should develop programs to improve best practices, standards, and all related strategies to advance the credibility and reliability of forensic science at the federal, state, and local levels. Chapter II of this thesis expands on Recommendation 1 and focuses chronologically on professional policy and legislative advances since the release of NAS Report 2009 through 2014, specifically how these developments relate to digital and multimedia science ( DM S ). Recommendation 2 Standardized Terminology in Reporting and Testimony, currently, there are no federally accepted standards or guidelines for terminology used in testifying and reporting results of forensic science investigations or any laboratory format with defined minimums specifying information needed to convey conclusio ns to the court. Chapter III addresses Recommendation 2 and the issues of legal language and terminology model laboratory reports and expert testimony concerning DMS case law Recommendation 10 Insufficient Education and Training, forensic evidence lies at the juncture between science, technology, and the legal community. In the age of information, everyone who plays a

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& role in the criminal justice system must be accountable to increased learning and know ledge in and around their ar ea of expertise Chapter IV analyzes Recommendation 10 identifying legal awareness for the digital and multimedia examiner to understand the role of the expert witness, the attorney, the judge and the admission of forensic science evidence in litigation in our criminal justice system. Challenges Facing the Forensic Science Community David Shawn Pope, Edgar Steele, Brandon Mayfield, and George Zimmerman, ar e just a few cases, discussed with detail in Chapter III Expert Testimony indicating troubling legal issues based on interpretation s of forensic evidence T he Innocence Project website http://www.innocenceproject.org highlights the multitude of cases and consequences of i nvalidated and improp er forensic science used in the criminal justice system In fact, many forensic science disciplines, outside the Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) gold standard, have never been subjected to rigorous peer reviewed scientific evaluation. The Innocence Project defines i nvalidated and i mproper forensic s cience' as 1 the use of forensic disciplines or techniques that have not been tested to establish the ir validity and reliability, 2 testimony about forensic evidence that presents inaccurate statistics, gives statements of probability or frequency (wheth er numerical or non numerical) in the absence of valid empirical data, interprets non probative evidence as inculpatory, or concludes/suggests that evidence is uniquely connected to the defendant without empirical data t o support such testimony, or 3 misc onduct, either by fabricating inculpatory data or failing to disclose exculpatory data. I nvalidated and improper forensic science is the second greatest con tributing factor of wrongful con victions first being eyewitness misidentification, liable for 51% o f the 300 exonerates to date (Fig 1.1) for which 17 could have been executed. This factor has also led t o claims not supported by science, errors due to unreliable methods, scientific negligence, misconduct, concealed evidence of innocence, and vague or confusing terms that jurors could not be expected to understand. An even colder fact is that in 90 95% of a ll criminal cases, DNA testing is not an option and the justice system must rely on non DNA forensic disciplines for the presentation of evidence. Disparities in the Forensic Science Community The word forensic' by definition implies a relationship to sc ientific knowledge and the court of law and forensic science is a key factor to the fundamental functioning of our criminal justice system. DNA

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' ( Figure 1.1 Innocence Project Wrongful Convictions Breakdown by Discipline ) became a highly accepted discipline standard of science, mainly because of federal funding, research, provision, and necessity. In 1994, as a result of the DNA Identification Act, an advisory board was established to address research relevant to DNA. Professiona ls from the public and private sector came together and developed quality assurance standards for testing in laboratories. These working groups created a pathway for the DNA community to follow and federal funding supported the implementation of new practi ces database index systems, and eventually led to the Innocence Protection Act of 2004 which allows imprisoned people access to DNA testing to prove innocence. DNA is relied upon to provide a high level of certainty in the criminal justice system because it was s cience based and tested before it was presented in the courtroom. Likewise, the pharmaceutical industry tests and approves medication long before it is released to the public, b ut there are differences among the disciplines of science. (3) (4)

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( In August of 2013, President Barack Obama stated in an interview, "I think there are legitimate concerns that people have that technology is moving so quick that, you know, at some point, does the technology outpace the laws that are in place and the protections that are in place ?" (5) This idea, combined with the lack of federal standards referenced across state and local law enforce ment investigation units, raises a very valid point. Technology only continues to develop forcing the courts to reconcile related forensic arguments. Digital and multimedia evidence (DME ) referred to as a non DNA discipline relies to some extent on observatio n, experience, and reasoning based analysis. DNA evidence relies more on biologi cal and chemical based analysis. Although all forensic analysis is subject to the human factor, (Figure 1.2 Young Forensic Scientist Forum "The Past, the Present, and our Future," Orlando 2015) non DNA evidence analyzed using the more subjective methods can lead to higher error rates and less accuracy and reliability in drawing expert conclusions. However, when non DNA forensic evidence is adequate, it can still be accura te and reliable and should not be dismissed altogether.

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) Understanding and evaluating these limitations of evidence will help toward reform of attaining supreme forensic truth, depressing wrongful conviction rates of the innocent and increasing public safe ty from criminals who go free. I n response to long awaited and disturbing questions about the accuracy and reliability of non DNA forensic science (Fig 1.2) the Consortium of Forensic Science Organization (CFSO) urged Congress to pass legislation direc ting NAS to create an independent needs assessment study within these forensic disciplines. The vehicle used to pass this legislation was the Science, State, Justice, Commerce, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act of 2006 and the findings then became th e NAS Report 2009. Before the report it was just assumed that non DNA forensic science was well grounded in scientific methodology and unlike DNA, non DNA forensic disciplines did not have a cheerleading commission to support or represent them at the federal level Creating the National Commission of Forensic Science ( NCFS ) independent of the jurisdiction of the legal or law enforcement community, allowed a governing board to (Figure 1.3 Young Forensic Scientist Forum "The Past, the Presen t, and our Future," Orlando 2015 )

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* mandate and manage setting new standards for validation methods and practices to correct i nconsistent science. The goal being that through verified and validated methodology, human error and bias can be decreased, termino logy can be unified, and report findings can be consolidated with scrutinized evidence before it ever reaches the court of law T here is response to forensic science reform in all three branches of government (Fig 1.3) The Executive Branch is presently building the framework of reform with SoFS, NCFS, and OSAC. The Legislative Branch is continuing to draft and re introduce legislation in support of that framework and the Judicial Branch persists to decid e and argue cas e law causing reform. It is the goal of OSAC, to create the (Figure 1.4 NIST Presentation for NCFS, February 2014) (7) Forensic Science Code of Practice Registry of Approved Standards and Registry of Approved Guidelines. This registry will catalog a database of documents from all of the forensic science disciplines (Fig 1.4). OSAC will not write the documents but will require a vetting process, promoting documents for the

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+ standards development process, in order for the approved standards and guidelines to be added to the registry. (6) How does DME fit into forensic science reform ? How do we validate, for admissibility to the court, every single tool used for analysis of digital and multimedia evidence ? How do you factor in measure or explain or attempt to mitigate the human factor i.e. cognitive bias, etc., as an element of forensic science analysis? It is thought provoking to decide how to write best practice s and sta ndard operating procedures or mapping details of likelihood ratio statistics, regarding the limitless conditions a nd variables related to DME. As soon as technology changes, which happens at an alarmingly rapid rate, the validation process must begin all over again. Just last year in the case of Michael Brown, Ferguson, Missouri the point was raised again that one technological solution for law enforcement encounters is that all police officers should be required to wear body cameras. Unfortunately, several state and local law enforcement agencies that decide to use this technology, might purchase new equipment first and think about long term implementation, data storage management retr i eval, and privacy issues after the fact. The progress made since the release of the NAS Report 2009, outlined in the next chapter, en sures that as professionals we are focusing on the challenges. As a forensic community, we are identifying next steps and the groundwork is being laid to address our challenges. (8) (9) (10)

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, CHAPTER II PROMOTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF FORENSIC SCIENCE Recommendation 1 of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Executive Summary Report 2009 Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward ,' (Fig 2.1) is the promotion and development of forensic science. This chapter expands on Recommendation 1 and focuses chronologically on professional policy and legislative advances since the relea se of said report through 2014 specifically to how these development s relate to digital and multimedia evidence ( DM E). A brief summary from 1998 2006, will provide b ackground information relating to the NAS Report 2009. (2) (Figure 2.1 Young Forensic Scientist Forum "The Past, the Present, and our Future," Orlando 2015) In 1998, the Scientific Working Group on Digital Evidence (SWGDE) was formed by the Federal Crime Laboratory Directors group. This group was one of the e arliest organizations to explore and combine digital audio, v ideo, and photography with computer forensics as a forensic discipline. Agencies represented by founding SWGDE members were the ATF, DEA, FBI, IRS CID, U S Customs, U S Postal

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! Inspection Service, and the U S Secret Service. SWGDE worked in cooperation w ith other organizations including IOCE and ASCLD adopting and publishing principles and definitions concerning acknowledgement and recognition of digital evidence' as an accredited discipline. (11) In 2008, the American Academy of Forensic Science (AAFS) created the Digital and Multimedia Sciences (DMS) Section recognizing the importance of the growing new field. This section to date has 111 members. (12) In 2006, N IJ sponsored the NAS Project Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Science Community. (1) The appointed Forensic Science Committee met on eight occasions and later delivered the February 18, 2009 National Academy of Sciences Executive Summary Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward ISBN: 978 0 309 13130 8, a total of 352 pages, i.e. the NAS Report 2009 (2) On March 10, 2009, a hearing b efore the Subcommittee on Technology & Innovation Committee on Science and Technology House of Representative s : Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: The Role of the National Institute of Standards and Technology ,' convened The hearing focused on review ing scientific and technical issues raised by the NAS Report 2009, along with the role of National Institute of Standards and Technology ( NIST ) Chairman David W u, U.S D emocratic Representative from the State of Oregon opened with three considerations: the possibility of building on federal resources and capabilities versus creating a whole new government structure, full support and agreement to the goal of improving forensic science in the U.S., and taking the first st ep in moving from entertainment to reality with the expectations of forensic science. Representatives present were Adrian Smith (NE), Paul Broun (GA), and Donna Edwards (MD). The witness panel included Mr. Pete r M. Marone, Ms. Carol E. Henderson, Mr. John W. Hicks, Mr. Peter Neufeld, and Dr. J.C. Upshaw Downs. (10) On March 18, 2009, a hearing b efore the Committee on the Judiciary United States Senate: The Need to Strengthen Forensic Science in the United States: The National Academy of Sciences' Report on A Path Forward, convened Chairman Patrick J. Leahy, U.S. Democratic Senator from the State of Vermont, in his opening statement addressed the NAS Report 2009 confirming problems demonstrated at the heart of our whole criminal j ustice system and that it showed the CSI Effect' is not reality in the field of forensic science. Leahy gave two examples, Detroit and Houston Case Study #3 of this thesis of laboratories shut down when audits found less than adequate case results. In 2005, the DOJ reported a backlog of 350,000

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%. forensic exams nationwide and alleged 1 in 5 labs did not meet American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors (ASCLD) accre ditation standards. Leahy stated forensic science is critical to our cr iminal justice system i n order to punish the guilty and exonerate the innocent He referenced the Brandon Mayfield case, where an FBI examiner affidavit was recanted, and the Kirk Bloodsworth case as two examples of faulty forensic science in the courts. T he Honorable Harry T. Edwards, ( Senior Circuit Judge and Chief Judge Emeritus, United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, and Co Chair, Committee on the Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Science Community, National Research Co uncil of the National Academies, Washing ton, D.C. ) gave his statement. Edwards stated his Committee concluded congressional action was needed to cure serious problems facing the forensic science com munity and admitted his preconceived views about the pract ice of scientific disciplines were incorrect assumptions and the simple principal point called for an overhaul of forensic science in the United States. Hearing Submissions for the Record were as follows : ASCLD Laboratory Accreditation Board, Garner, N orth Carolina: Jami St Clair, Chair, Lab Board, Ma rch 16, 2009, letter, Dean Gialamas, President and Beth Greene, President Elect, M arch 17, 2009, letter, Dean Gialamas, President and Beth Greene, President Elect, Decembe r 2008, statement, Edwards, Harry T., Senior Circuit Judge and Chief Judge Emeritus, U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, and Co Chair, Committee on Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Science Community, National Research Council of the National Academies, Washingt on, D.C., statement IAI Robert J. Garret, Metuchen, New Jersey, March 18, 2009, letter NDAA Joseph I. Cassilly, President, Alexandria, Virginia, letter Neufeld, Peter, Co Director, Innocence Project, New York, New York, statement. (8) On May 13, 2009, a hearing before the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security of the Committee on the Judiciary House of Representatives: National Research Council's Publication Strengthening Fore nsic Science in the United States: A Path Forward' convened. Chairman Robert C. Scott, U.S. Democratic Representative from the State of Virginia, in his opening statement acknowledged the unreliable role forensic science plays in criminal investigations, t he fact that the CSI effect' reaches most jury pools across the country, and confirmed fears about the national forensic science system. Scott felt the most disturbing findings r egarded judges and trial attorneys He stated the NAS

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%% Report 2009 found that trial judges rarely exclude for ensic evidence and trial attorneys lack scientific training to adequately assess and question the forensic expert witnesses' conclusions. Ranking Member Louie Gohmert, U.S. Republican Representative from the State of Texas, o pened with statements from the perspective of prosecutor, district judge, and chief justice. He stated DNA is the forensic gold standard but his most important point challenged the belief that although particular forensic disciplines have not been scientif ically validated, it does not mean they are invalid and unreliable. Representatives present were Mr. Robert C. Scott (VA), Mr. Anthony D. Weiner (NY), Mr. Louie Gohmert (TX), and Mr. Ted Poe (TX). The witness panel included Mr. Kenneth E. Melson, Mr. Peter M. Marone, Mr. John W. Hicks, and Mr. Peter Neufeld. (9) On September 9, 2009, a hearing before the Committee on the Judiciary United States Senate: Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States, convened. Cha irman Patrick J. Leahy, U.S. Democratic Senator from the State of Vermont, i n his opening statement suggested the need to ensure the highest scientific standards and maximum reliability of forensic science. Leahy referenced the Cameron Todd Willingham case where an innocent man may have been executed for a crime he did not commit, based in large part on forensic expert witness testimony and forensic evidence without scientific basis. The NAS Report 2009 was summarized as a foundation to move forward with mandating national standards, enforcing best practices, certification of examiners, and accreditation of laboratories. Senators present were Mr. Rich ard J. Durbin (IL), Mr. Sheldon Whitehouse (RI), Ms. Amy Klobuchar (MN), Mr. Al Franken (MN), and Mr. Jeff Sessions (AL). The witness panel included Mr. Eric Buel, Mr. Paul Giannelli, Mr. Harold Hurtt, Mr. Barry Matson, Mr. Peter Neufeld, and Mr. Matthew F Redle. (4) On September 17, 2009, SWGDE released their Position on the National Research Council (NRC) Report to Congress NAS Report 2009. The position encompassed all 13 recommendations; however, this chapter addres ses Recommendation 1 The creation of the National Institute of Forensic Science (NIFS). SWGDE recognized the time needed to create a new federal bureaucracy, NIFS, and supposed an immediate national strategy with existing forensic organizations. SWGDE sta ted that minimum efforts should include standards for recognizing new forensic disciplines, newly established analytical methods, and a commu nity wide code of ethics. The position also suggested, that funding allocation could follow the competitive Technic al Suppor t Working Group (TSWG) example. (13)

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%& On January 31, 2011, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), Under Executive Order 12881, issued the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) Cha rter of the Committee on Science. The purpose was "to increase overall effectiveness and productivity of federally supported efforts that develop new knowledge in the sciences" Functions of the Charter included science policy making processes, science pol icy decisions and programs, integration of science policy agenda, development and implementation federally, NSTC clearance of documents, and international cooperation in science. On March 29, 2012, OSTP issued the Charter of the Subcommittee on Forensic Sc ience Committee on Science (SoFS CoS) NSTC to authorize and develop a White Paper summarizing the SoFS's recommendation to achieve: the Goals of the NAS Report 2009, a prioritized national forensic science research agenda, and a draft detailing strategy fo r developing and implementing common interoperability standards to facilitate the appropriate sharing of fingerprint data across technologies. (14) (15) (Figure 2.2 Young Forensic Scientist Forum "The Past, the Present, and our Future," Orlando 2015)

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%' On February 15, 2013, through a Memorandum of Understanding the Department of Justice (DOJ) and NIST a nnounce d the intent to establish a National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS Fig 2.2). This 30 member group would develop federal guidance at the intersections between forensic science and the courtroom, working together to create national standards for practitioners in the areas of professional policy, training, and certifi cation. Deputy Attorney General James M. Cole stated forensic science is an essential tool in the administration of justice and scientifically valid and accurate forensic analysis strengthens all aspects of our criminal justice system. (16) On June 18, 2013, chairs for 18 of 21 SWGs gathered and discussed the NIST responsibility to create guidance groups intended to replace SWG's with a new infrastructure. (17) On September 27, 2013, under Docket No. 130508459 3459 01, NIST, the Dep artment of Commerce released a Notice of Inquiry for proposed r eorganizati on of scientific working groups and considered open input toward the Possible Model for the Administration and Support of Disciplin e Specific Guidance Groups for Forensic Science'. The goal was to explore the establishment and structure of governance models. Comments were requested across questions concerning the structure, the impact, the representation, and the scope of the guidance groups. (56) SWGDE and combined SWG's released their DME Response to NIST, Federal Register Notice September 27, 2013. Two sections spoke to Possible Models for the Administration and Support of Discipline Specific Guidance Groups for Forensic Science'. Section I overviewed the request for model perspectives and Section II provided SWG's opinions with a collected 35 years of direct industry experience. In reference to Recommendation 1 of the NAS Report 2009, Section I indicated the DME discipline has already proven accepted and successfully tested as a science by the courts at all levels of the judicial process by providing information and results to juries as expert testimony through technical assistance and quality assurance guidance. SWGDE's established productive history, dedicated strong leadership, and positions with response to federal progress, display a relentless and continued commitment to DME as a forensic discipline. (57) By November 26, 2013, the Notice of Inquiry generated 82 public comments consisting of 337 pages across numerous forensic disciplines (20) and the overall infrastructure was defined in the NIST January Summary, renam ing the guidance groups the Organization of Scientific Area Committees (OSAC).

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%( OSAC is practice focused, reporting only to the Forensic Science Standards Board (FSSB) and will not provide advice to the Attorney General, NIST Director, or the NCFS (Fig 2.3) This summary also detailed the FSSB, LRC, QIC, SACs, and other infrastructure specifics. (17) (Figure 2.3 Young Forensic Scientist Forum "The Past, the Present, and our Future," Orlando 2015) On January 10, 201 4, the DOJ and NIST announced the first ever appointed National Commission of Forensic Science and AAFS released a statement applauding the broad representation listing NCFS named members. NCFS members will work to develop guidance and recommended policy t o the U.S. Attorney General on improving forensic science (Fig 2.3) (18) (19) On February 3 4, 2014, at the first NCFS meeting, NIST presented the infrastructure summary plan and slide presentation for the new OSAC (previously called guidance groups ) unifying and incorporating the independent scientific working groups with more than 600 practitioners. The objective of the infrastructure is to produce standards and guidelines for i mproving the quality and consistency of

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%) forensic science. OSAC was then launched at the AAFS meeting on February 18 th in Seattle, Washington. It is important to note that digital evidence was not included in the IT/Multimedia SAC, as shown in the figure below (Fig 2.4) (58) (Figure 2.4 NIST Proposed Organization of Scientific Area Committees OSAC) (21) On February 12, 2014, John D. Rockefeller IV, U.S. Democratic Senator from the State of West Virginia, introduced the Forensic Science and Standards Act 2014 to establish a national forensic science research program. The purpose of this act is to strengthen forensic science by promoting scientific research, establis hing science based voluntary consensus standards and protocols across forensic science disciplines, and encouraging the adoption of these standards. (22) On March 27, 2014, Patrick Leahy and John Cornyn i ntroduce d the Criminal Justice and Forensic Science Reform Act Leahy stated our confidence in the criminal justice system should be strengthened by evidence and testimony, which is accurate, credible, and scientifica lly grounded. Since 1989, because of faulty forensic evidence, 314 DNA exonerates spent a total of 4,202 unnecessary years in prison and guilty

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%* men went free, possibly continuing to commit other crimes. Law Enforcement, Defense Attorneys, Prosecutors, Judges, Scientists, and Practitioners, all want forensic evidence that is accurate and reliable to the court and executive action is not enough. In the interest of justice, legislation must address comprehensive forensic science reform. (23) (24) Leahy originally introduced this landmark forensics reform legislation bill in 2011. It was read by Congress twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary and is still not law. The bill is scheduled to be re introduced in March, 2015. On April 11, 2014, after the DOJ turned the guidance groups over to NIST and OSAC was established, NIST defined the OSAC roles and responsibilities. The Organizational Authorities and Duties outlined the FSSB, HFC, LRC, QIC, SAC, SACsub s and the process for application. (25) On May 2, 2014, the NSTC Report Strengthening the Forensic Sciences' was released to s ummarize three years w ork of the OSTP SoFS in response to the NAS Report 2009 National Academy of Sciences Execu tive Summary SoFS comprised 200 experts across 23 federal agencies and delivered the first set of research findings covering issues related to laboratory accreditation, certification of forensic science, and medicolegal personnel, proficiency testing, and ethics. (26) On May 7, 2014, NSF and NIJ partnered as co sponsors to solicit p roposals for Industry/University Cooperative Research Centers to develop the relationship between industry, academia, and government in the relevant areas of forensic science. Federal agencies represented are DOD, DFSC, DFBA, DHS, DOJ, ATF, DEA, FBI, and NIST. (27) On June 26, 2 014, NIST and DOJ appointed 17 members of the first Forensic Science Standards Board ( FSSB Fig 2.5 ) This marked the transition from planning to doing in the effort to improve the scientific basis of forensic evidence used in courts of law. The board cons ists of 5 research community members, 5 OSAC SAC Chairs, 6 national forensic science professional organization members, and 1 ex officio. Richard Vorder Bruegge, Ph.D., FBI, Senior Photographic Technologist, will Chair the OSAC SAC IT/Multimedia. (28) On August 19, 2014, NIST a nnounce d competition to c reate a Forensic Science Center of Excellence anticipating $4 million in funding annually over 5 years. The mission of this center will focus on two branches of forensic science, pattern evidence and digital evidence. This is just one of several centers that NIST proposes. (29)

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%+ (Figure 2.5 Young Forensic Scientist Forum "The Past, the Present, and our Future," Orlando 2015) On September 3 8, 2014, NIST appointed 70 new SAC C ommittee m embers bridging the 24 discipline specific SAC subc omm ittees with the FSSB. The SAC IT/Multimedia Committee changed to become the 15 member SAC Digital/Multimedia Committee adding digital evidence to the facial ident ification, imaging technologies and spea ker recognition subcommittees (Fig 2.6) (30) (31) (32) Richard Vorder Bruegge, Ph.D., Committee Chair, U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation Joseph Campbell, Ph.D., MIT Lincoln Laboratory Eoghan Casey, Ph.D., MITRE James Darnell, U.S. Secret Service, chair of OSAC Digital Evidence Subcommittee John Garofolo, U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology Carl Kriigel, U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Laboratory, Defense Forensic Science Cent er, chair of the OSAC Imaging Technologies Subcommittee Samuel Liles, Ph.D., Purdue University Abhyuday Mandal, Ph.D., University of Georgia Hirotaka Nakasone, Ph.D., U.S. Fe deral Bureau of Investigation, Chair OSAC Speaker Recognition Subcommittee Lam Ng uyen, U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration Paul Penders, Connecticut Department of Emergency Services and Public Protection Michael Piper, Target Corporation Mark Pollitt, Ph.D., Digital Evidence Professional Services, Inc.

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%, Reva Schwartz, United States Secret Service Lora Sims, Ideal Innovations Inc., chair of OSAC Facial Identification Subcommittee (Figure 2.6 OSAC Organization Chart ) (33) On October 24, 2014, NCFS released six draft policy/view documents for public review and comment: Recommendation on Discovery, Recommendation on Universal Accreditation, Recommendation on Expert Testimony, Document on Defining Forensic Science and Forensic Science Service Provider, Document on Scient ific Literature in Support of Forensic Science and Practice, and the Recommendation on Accreditation and Certification of Medicolegal Death Investigation Personnel (Fig 2.7) (34) (35) On October 29, 2014, NIST appointed 402 members to serve on 24 SAC Subcommittees (Fig 2.8) and t he new Digital Evidence Subcommit tee was finalized in December 2014; 19 members were appointed: James Darnell, Subcommittee Chair, U.S. Secret Service Samue l Brothers, U.S. Customs and Border Protection Joshua Bruntly, Marshall University Ovie Carroll, U.S. Department of Justice Joseph Cassilly, State's A ttorney for Harford County, Md.

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%! (Figure 2.7 Young Forensic Scientist Forum "The Past, the Present, and our Future," Orlando 2015) William Eber, Defense Cyber Crime Center, Air Force Office of Special Investigations Sabrina Feve, U.S Attorney's Office, Southern District of California, Department of Justice Daren Ford, Weld County (Colorado) Sheriff's Office David Hallimore, Houston Forensic Science Center, Inc. James Holland, Wal Mart Stores, Inc. Mary Horvath, U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation James Lyle, Ph.D., U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology Andrew Neal, TransPerfect Legal Sol utions Mark Phillips, Johnson County (Kansas) Sheriff's Office Criminalistics Laboratory Ryan Pittman, NASA Office of Inspector General Computer Crimes Division Paul Reedy, District of Columbia Department of Forensic Sciences Marcus Rogers, Ph.D., Purdue U niversity Jeffrey Taylor, Arkansas State Crime Laboratory Steve Watson, Intel Corporation Members who are currently part of SWGDE will play a dual role as OSAC will not replace the SWGs. OSAC A ffiliate membership s for task groups are available and encouraged (36) (37)

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&. (Figure 2.8 Organization of Scientific Area Committees with Subcommittees)

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&% CHAPT ER III STANDARDIZED TERMINOLOGY IN REPORTING AND TESTIMONY Recommendation 2 of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Executive Summary Report 2009 Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward ,' is the standardization of terminology in reporting and testimony. This chapter addresses Recomm endation 2 and the issues of legal language and terminology model laboratory reports and expert testimony concerning DME case law Currently, there are no federally accepted standards or guidelines for terminology used in testifying and reporting results of forensic science investigations or any laboratory format with defined minimums specifying information needed to convey conclusions to the court. SWGDE's Position on the National Research Council Report to Congress NAS Report 2009, agrees with standardization of terminology. They released an updated SWGDE/SWGIT Digital & Multimedia Evidence Glossary, Version: 2.7 on April 8, 2013 (38) and worked closely with ASCLD /LAB and ASTM International on th e document Standard Terminology for Digital and Multimedia Evidence Examination E2916 13, (39) toward a national acceptance of terminology. (13) However, SWGDE confirms a consolidation of terminology is needed across all new Discipline Specific Guidance Groups for Forensic Science. (57) Legal Terminology Although there are several available glossaries related to DME terminology used in the court of law is not uniform. It contains vague interpretation with analysis instead of a scientific basis and does not adequately express probabilities or likelihood ratios of presented evidence Scientific l iterature in support of forensic science and practice must be clearly cited and undergo a rigorous peer reviewed process. Most evidence is not properly vetted and error rates are not fully understood by juries. To understand the language of DME, the vocabu lary must be clear and consistent. All parties involved across the legal and scientific community must communicate on the same page without ambiguity. In the initial draft views document of Inconsistent Terminology, (35) the NCFS outlines examples of this erratic language. It looks at inconsistency within and across forensic disciplines, the overstatement and exaggeration of terminology meaning and limitations, and the confusion and misapplication of usage as a result. T he American Bar Association's Resolution 101C(2) considers the regulation of expert witness testimony and the presentation of opinion regarding the impact of terminology used during the trier of fact

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&& evaluation. Under Misleading Terms in Testimony of the P resentation of Expert Testimony Policy Recommendations, NCFS identifies zero error rate ,' hundred percent accurate ,' scientific ,' reasonable degree of scientific certainty,' claims of uniqueness,' consistent with,' and match' as potentially misleadi ng terms needing to be validated and explained. NCFS, in released draft documents, has defined Forensic Science as: "the application of scientific practices to the recognition, collection, analysis, and interpretation of physical evidence for criminal and civil law or regulatory purposes." Digital evidence is inclusive in this definition. They have defined Forensic Science Service Provider as: "A person or entity that (1) applies scientific practices to recognizing, collecting, analyzing, or interpret ing physical evidence and (2) issues test results, provides reports, or provides interpretations, conclusions, or opinions through testimony with respect to such evidence." This broad range universal definition will be adopted and cited in footnotes by all NCFS subcommittees for the purpose of work product. (35) Model Laboratory Reports There is a lack of enforcement with federal s tandards for reporting scientific results in the courtroom P arameters for interpretation o f data, report writing, and court testim ony have never been developed; therefore, a formal system o f vetting evidence is needed. S cientific m ethods for technology, structure for repor t writing, and proper expert witness testimony should not fall on the sho ulders of the judges to be sift ers of the wheat from the chaff. In the medical field, ten different doctors with ten different definitions of one diagnosis along with ten different reporting standards would not be accepted. (10) The way FRE 702 is written, experience counts as expertise with presentation of evidence. Specified in the Melendez Diaz v Massachusetts case, it is not enough for the examiner to submit a report only. Analysis must have a scientific basis, an e xaminer must present evidence, and the examiner must b e subject to cross examination. (4) Developing and enforcing f ederal standards with reporting itself would allows judges a nother way to meas u re and qualify experts. M odel reports should include error rates to clearly represent pro babilities and likelihood ratio statistics when possible. (8) SWGDE's Position on the National Research Council Report to Congress NA S Report 2009, descr ibes a continued development of published documents and templates suitable for report standardization. These models could be used for standard operating procedures, validation testing, and

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&' minimum eleme nts needed for report findings. (13) SWGDE also follows a standardized development process for all work products A development topic is picked based on need of discipline, specific committees schedule meetings to work on document progress, a draft is completed and general me mbership votes the draft release for public comment, comments are evaluated, and the final version is released. This process described in the SWGDE position, is similar to existing standards development organizations (SDO's) and should be recognized by NIST. (57) Expert Testimony Several cases demonstrate why we need the highest qualified experts providing opinions based on validated forensic science. In August of 1985, David Shawn Pope was arrested for the rap e of a wom an from Garland, TX. Prosecutor s presented e vidence against him that included eyewitness misidentification and invalidated or improper forensic science. Regarding the latter, three experts testified at his trial: Larry Howe Williams, Dr. Henry Truby, and Stuart R. Ritterman. Larry Howe Williams, a Houston police officer, t estified as a certified examiner competent to conduct voice print analysis. He claimed to match exac tly a comparison of Pope's voice samples to voicemail message s left on the victim's answering machine. Dr. Henry Truby, Ph.Ds. in Linguistics and Phonetics with 40 years experience, used spectrogram comparison to also render a match of Pope's voice to the voicemail messages. Stuart R. Ritterman, an academic professor in C ommunicology, testified disputing voice spectrographic analysis as a valid science and co uld not determine an exact match between the voices (40) Pope was convic ted and spent 15 years, of a 45 year sentence, in prison. In January of 1999, Pope's case was reopened and he became the first person to be exonerated by DNA testing in Dallas County. In 2001, Pope was pardoned by Governor Rick Perry. (41) In May of 2004 Brandon M ayfield was arrested in connection with a train bombing in Madrid Spain. The Spanish National Police found fingerprints on evidence from the scene that they released to the FBI through Interpol. Mayfield was one of 20 possible matches flagged in the FBI database due to a previous arrest and became the prime suspect. Although Spanish authorities contested Mayfield's fingerprints and eventually announced the arrest of a n Algerian national, an FBI examiner described Mayfield's fingerprint s as 100% verified and he was detained undisclosed with no access to family or legal

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&( counsel He was never formally charged. In 2006, the FBI issued a formal apology and Mayfield received a $2 million dollar settlement. (42) In April of 2011, an alleged murder for hire was captured and recorded involving Edgar Steele and Larry Fairfax. T he defense team of Edgar Steele was unable to call Dennis Walsh and Dr. George Papcun as audio expert witnesses due to a ruling by U.S. District Judge Lynn Winmill. It was concluded that Walsh, a former New York City detective with a B.A. i n Criminal Justi ce used unreliable techniques and did not have the background or experience to qualify as an expert. Papcun's testimony, even though he had a Ph.D. Philosophy in A coustic P honetics, was ruled irrelevant and potentially misleading to the jury. (43) In June of 2013 the case of George Zimmerman, 6 audio experts were consulted to testify in regards to the 911 call evidence Identifying the screa ms in the recording could have determined the aggressor in a confrontation between Trayvon Martin and George Zimmerman. The prosecution called Tom Owen and Alan Reich. Judge Debra S. Nelson ruled against the prosecution for admissibility of testimony from Owen and Reich as unreliable stating, "There is no evidence to establish that their scientific techniques have been tested and found reliable." Tom Owen, certified by the American College of Forensic Examiners Institute (ACFEI) with a B.A in History was retained by the Orlando Sent inel to examine the audio recorded evidence. He used voice recognition technology (Easy Voice software analysis of which he has a financial interest in) to testify that t he seven seconds of screams on the 911 call did not match the voice sample of Zimmerma n. Dr. Alan Reich who holds a Ph D in Speech Science, was retained by the Washington Post and testified that the screa ms matched the voice of Martin. His conclusion was based on digital enhancement an d transcription software, aural perception and acoustic phonetic analysis methods. The defense called Dr. Hiro taka Nakasone, Dr. Peter French, Dr. George Doddington, and Dr. Jim Wayman. Dr. Hirotaka Nakasone Ph.D. in Speech Science and FBI Senior Scientist Voice Recognition Program, concluded there was less than three seconds of usable audio on the 911 call and that screams were not suitable f or comparison to one's normal spe aking voice. Dr. Peter French, Ph. D. Analysis of Recorded Convers ion, dismissed the recorded 911 call screams as unsuitab le for any type of forensic analysis. Dr. George Doddington Ph.D in Electrical Engineering Information Technology with NIST affiliation, viewed the State's voice indentification conclusions as "ridiculous." Dr. Jim Wayman, Ph.D. in

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&) Engineering, a fter rev iewing the 911 call evidence, testified that less than one second of data was available in each of the screams and that no software accepted in the forensic science community could produce reliable comparison results. (44) (45) (46) (47) NCFS released policy recommendations on the Presentation of Expert Testimony (35) which are : (1) Experts should be asked to identify and explain the theoretical and factual basis for any conclusion and the reasoning on which the conclusion is based and any li mitations of their conclusions, (2) Experts should present testimony in a manner that ac curately and fairly conveys the significance of their conclusions, avoiding unexplained or undefined technical terms or words of art, (3) Experts should remain neutral, and attorneys should respect this neutrality, (4) Experts should not testify beyond the ir expertise and should also appreciate the difference between testimony that the witness may give as an expert and testimony that the same witness may give as a lay/fact witness, (5) Experts should not testify on direct or redirect examination concerning case specific conclusions not contained in the report(s)/documentation submitted in dis covery unless in fair response to issues raised on cross examination. If an expert changes his or her opinion, a supplementary report should be submitted except where t he change is occasioned by new information, presented during testimony and not previou sly available to the witness, (6) Experts should not testify concerning conclusions that are beyond the limits of a lab oratory's testing protocols, (7) Experts should not use invalid or problematic terms in t h eir reports or when testifying, (8) Experts should not use misleading terms that suggest that the methodology or the exper t is infallible when testifying, (9) Experts should not use potentially misleading terms in their reports or when testifying without a clear explanation of the term s significance and limitations, (10) Experts should not use the term "scientific" when testifying unless the basis for their opinions has been s cientifically validated, (11) Trial jud ges should not declare a witness to be an expe rt in the presence of the jury,

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&* (12) Attorneys have an obligatio n to understand the discipline including its strengths and limitations underlying the expert testimony that is presented at trial and to appreci ate the importance of consulti ng with experts prior to trial, (13) The proponent of the expert testimony should not cause an expert to testify beyond the opinion submitted in discovery or beyond the limits of the labora tory's testing protocols and (14) Attorneys should not mischaracterize expert evidence in their comments to the jury.

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&+ CHAPTER IV INSUFFICIENT EDUCATION AND TRAINING Recommendation 10 of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Executive Summary Report 2009 Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward ,' refers to insufficient education and training. Forensic evidence lies at the juncture between science, technology, and the law. In the age of information, everyone who plays a role in the justice system must be accountable to increased learning and knowledge in and around their domain. This chapter analyzes Recommendation 10 identifying legal awareness for the digital and multimedia examiner to understand the role of the expert witness, the attorne y, the judge and the admission of forensic science evidence in litigation in our criminal justice system. Th e Role of the Expert Witness A DNA exonerate review revealed that 72 forensic analysts from 52 labs across 25 states provided inappropriate court testimony (9) Digital and mu ltimedia examiners, analysts, and technicians must understand their potential role in the criminal justice system. T he expert witness is defined as someone who knows more than a layperson based on knowledge, skill, educa tion, training, and experience. Certification, competency and proficiency testing, and continued acknowledgement of procedural updates should be maintained. An examiner should be familiar with digital and multimedia specifi c case law and understand the precedents set in our forensic discipline. He/she can further understand relevance, reliability, and admissibility of evidence through the Federal Rules of Evidence : Article IV, Article VII, and Article IX. Ultimately, we can help the criminal justice system make our communities safer and aid in the resolution of legal matters. The examiner must be prepared to give science based opinions, rely on supplementary exper tise, and refer to doc umentation during testimony. As an expert witness, the examiner assists the trier of fact and is responsible for educating the jury, attorneys, and the judge in their areas of expertise alone. Testimony should remain neutral to the ca se presenting clear scientific definitions and conclusions without bias. It is acceptable to disclose and testify any information regardin g the limitations of technology and to correct any errors concerning the statements of expert testimony. There is obli gation to the Brady Rule, which states an affirmative duty to disclose evidence to the Defense even when favorable, hurting the Prosecution or

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&, helping the Defense. The decision of guilt or innocence must be left to the trier of fact and personal opinions s hould not be reached. All rules of the case regarding full disclosure, discovery, and confidentiality must be realized and maintained. The process of qualifying as an expert witness begins with current and relevant information provided in the curriculum vitae (CV) proving areas of expertise. Solid pre trial preparation will ensure valuable testimony and keep the expert witness w ithin their competence level, free to display comfort when admitting areas outside their confines. Learned treatises, social medi a, transcripts of previous case testimony, and any published materi al written at any time by the expert witness are fair game in the process of qualifying as a witness (55) The Role of the Attorney In criminal cases, t he P rosecutor represents the People's interest carrying the burden of proof in trial, ultimately seeking justice served above all else. They are liable to reviewing and filing the criminal charge, have an affirmative duty to disclose, and must comply with the Brady Rule even after the conviction The Prosecutor is accountable to all fair and true admissible information in possession or accessible in the case, including law enforcement investigations and laboratory analysis. During direct examination, open ended questions like how, what, where, and why are used by the Prosecutor and use of leading questions are not permitted. The Defense Council is advocate to the client warranting that all elements of the Prosecutor's charge are ascertained before a c onviction. A client's rights are protected by Defense under the Sixth Amendment and the Bill of Rights. Cross examination confronts the People's witness and reserves the right t o challenge checks and balances surrounding roles of power in the adversarial j ustice system. (55) The Role of the Judge The Judge can be thought of as the court referee and is the neutral arbiter i n the criminal justice system. Charged with the title Gatekeeper, the Judge decides what laws apply to the issues of the case, communicates directly to the jury, and sentences the defendant in criminal cases. He/she also, handles any administrative functions affecting scheduling and courtroom personnel. In a jury trial, the jurors are the finders /triers of fact, but in a bench trial, the Judge becomes the finder /trier of fact. The judge determines if an expert witness is qualified, the limits of their testimony, and whether or n ot evidence is admissible

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&! Legal objections raised during trial bring attenti on to the Judge, and the ruling of sustained or over ruled re solves the dispute. (55) The Admission of Forensic Science Evidence in Litigation Invalidated and improper forensic science, stated earlier within the challenges facing the forensic science community, is the second greatest contributing factor of wrongful convictions based on interpretation of forensic evidence and illustrates the cases already present in the criminal justice system. Why is this? The NAS Report 2009 quotes that, t he judicial system is encumbered by judges and lawyers who generally lack the scientific expertise necessary to comprehend and evaluate forensic evidence in a n informed manner." Expert witnesses are testifying with credentials difficult for judges to restrict. Industry experience is permitted as a qualifying component under the FRE 702; therefore, knowledge and practice or doing something for a long time' coun ts, possibly even in the case of the pseudo expert. A nationally approved system of certification would create the standard for which Judges could measure the admissibility of expert witness testimony against. (2) Carol Henderson is the Director of the National Clearinghouse for Science, Technology, and the Law (NCSTL.org). Chapter II of this thesis notes her involvement at the federal level. NCSTL.org is an online resource that educates and shares information across the forensic science community focusing specifically on gaps between science, technology, and law. An online database can be searched by scientific topic, preference of resource, and can be keyword filtered. For example, case law and legislation specific to d igital evidence or voice analysis can be categorized. NCSTL.org's newest partnership with the Law Enforcement Innovation Center is to develop an online course for locating, evaluating, and selecting the expert witness. These types of resources will aid all areas of the legal system. (48)

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'. CHAPTER V PRACTICE OF FORENSIC SCIENCE TEXAS CRIME LABORATORIES Forensic science l aboratories and examiners will see changes in areas like accreditation, examiner certification s and s tandard operating procedures as the recommendations of the NAS Rep ort 2009 take effect and organizations like OSAC begin to strengthen in purpose. Creating a federal standard means that laboratories qualified as forensic science service providers will have to meet these new requirements and guidelines in order to be allocated federa l funding. Three current Texas laboratories, at the state, county, and city level are surveyed in this chapter using an interview format. The Texas Department of Public Sa fety is a state ASCLD accredited lab oratory under the category of law enforcement division. The Smith County Sherriff's Office Criminal Investigation Division Crime Lab is an unaccredited county laboratory under the category of law enforcement division. The Houston Forensic Science Center is an independent laboratory in the process of at taining accreditation and is under the category of local government corporation (LGC) for the City of Hou ston, within the government but outside law enforcement. HFSC is o f particular interest because the suggestion of the NAS Report 2009 to remove forensic laboratories from the jurisdiction of law enforcement is highly debated. Case Study I State Lab Deputy Assistant Director Brady Mills Te xas Department of Public Safe ty LES Crime Lab DME ASCLD #ALI 051 T 5800 Guadalupe St., Austin, Texas 78752 512 424 7151 The TX DPS digital and multimedia evidence lab oratory conducts audi o, video, and computer forensics. I contacted Brady Mills and requested an interview. Although he denied an on site tour and visit, he agreed to forward any questions I had via email communication. (49) Interview Questions and Answers : Brady Mills 1. Are you familiar with the 2009 National Academy of Sciences Executive Summary Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward' and the progress made at the federal level regarding DME and the resulting recommendations 1, 2, and 10? see question 2 answer. 2. How has/will developments at the fede ral level in the field of forensic science affect the TXDPS crime lab and its operations at the state level? 1&2 We are very aware of the progress being made at many different levels regarding the NAS summary. You may be aware of some of the current legi slation, here

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'% is an excerpt and link to the entire article. "From DNA to digital evidence, prosecutors, defense attorneys, and judges are becoming increasingly reliant on the collection and analysis of various forms of forensic evidence in a criminal inves tigation or prosecution," Leahy said in a statement "The legislation I am introducing with Senator Cornyn represents a comprehensive and common sense approach toward guaranteeing the effectiveness and integrity of forensic evidence used in criminal cases, and in ensuring that Americans can have faith in their criminal justice system." http://www.leahy.senate.gov/press/leahy and cornyn introduce sweeping forensics reform legislation Here closer to home, a good example of local progress is the Houston, Texas PD laboratory. It has been taken from the oversight of the police department and is now a local government corporation created to provide independent forensic services to the HPD and other local law enforcement agencies and others in the legal system. 3. What is the current state go verning organization that legally oversees TXDPS crime lab ? Since 2005 the Texas Forensic Science Commission is an independent over sight body, created by the Texas Legislature. 4. What role, if any, do the Scientific/Technical Working Groups play regarding TXDPS crime lab ? With the recent creation of the National Forensic Science Commission and now the inclusion of computer forensics in the establishment of the new Organization f or Scientific Area Committees (OSAC) the Texas DPS crime laboratory follows best practices and recommendations set forth by these scientific and technical working groups. Another resource we rely heavily on for guidance is the ASCLD/LAB Guiding Principles of Professional Responsibility for Crime Laboratories and Forensic Scientists. I know of several of our laboratory personnel, including myself, who have recently sent application in to be considered for committee membership or technical points of contact for these organizations as well as ASCLD/LAB Professional Review Committees. 5. Is it possible to get a copy of the current Standard Operating Procedures used by TXDPS crime lab ? To receive a copy of the current Standard Operating Procedures for any or al l of our disciplines here in the laboratory, simply email this request to CrimeLabRecords@dps.texas.gov 6. What are the current standards/guidelines used for forensic report writing? Is it possible to g et an

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'& example report? Each of our disciplines should have a report writing module included in their SOPs. We incorporate all of the required elements that our ASCLD/LAB ISO accreditation standards set forth. Specifically to the DME discipline, we also provide a report to our clients in digital form so they can view the files r ecovered or extracted from the devices they submit. These digital reports are treated and tracked as evidence would be. Our reports are generated by our Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS ), which is called JustceTrax¨. You can ask in your em ail for records if there is a generic report template that you can have or request a certain discipline's report template. 7. What is the 2013 overall percentage of Digital Evidence cases compared to all cases worked by TXDPS crime lab ? Are the statistics reported? If so, is it possible to get a copy of the report? In 2013 DME had 81 cases out of the entire 13 laboratory system total of approximately 86,000+ cases. This would calculate to slightly less than 1% of the laboratory system's cases for the year. Austin is the only lab of the 13 that offers digital evidence services. Statistics are generated and reported regularly to the Public Safety Commission. You can ask for those reports also through the email above. 8. What is the current training program used by TXDPS crime lab to educate your forensic experts in Lab operations? Our training programs consist of general laboratory training and discipline specific training. We take advantage of external training courses offered by numerous agencies/organiz ations/programs such as government funded training and professional organization workshops. We strive for consistency in our training programs, which are evaluated for competency and ultimately end with approval of the Deputy Assistant Director of the lab oratory. 9. What is the current training program used by TXDPS crime lab to educate your forensic experts in court testimony? The current training program regarding court testimony consists of something akin to an in house certification. Required readings mock trials and direct observation are some of the methods employed. This portion of training also goes through the evaluation process as above. 10. Does TXDPS crime lab have a forensic expert code of ethics'? If so, is it possible to get a copy? We receive rigorous training on the topic of ethics. There is departmental wide training conducted annually. We abide by the ASCLD/LAB Guiding Principles that I mentioned in an earlier answer, among numerous resources that are scattered in our System Manual s such as the Laboratory Operations Guide, the General Laboratory Training Manual and discipline specific Training Manuals as well.

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'' Case Study II County Lab Sgt. Noel Martin and Detective Justin Hall Smith County Sheriff's Office (SCSO) Criminal Inve stigation Division Lab 227 N. Spring Ave, Tyler, Texas 75702 903 590 2696 The SCSO Criminal Investigation Division Crime Lab serves a dual role of both the criminalist's Crime Scene and Cyber Crime Units with three total practitioners. Responsibilities include crime scene acquisition, collection and preservation of evidence, cha in of custody, all crime scene photography in house, fin gerprint detection, development and comparison, bloodstain pattern analysis, shooting reconstruction, cell phone and digital extraction, computer processing, online impersonation, and others. Professi onal membership includes ICSIA. All policy documentation covers SCSO as a whole and DME lab specific policy documentation is not available. Continuing education and training is strongly encouraged; however, no DME lab specific training is available. I sp ent a total of 6 months interning at SCSO and it was my first exposure to a real world laboratory. The cases analyzed and worked covered all areas of CID including crimes against children, homicide, suicide, theft, burglary, and crime scene. I was impresse d with Det. Hall and his willingness to include me as part of the team. It was a comfortable working environment in that I could work on cases at a distance asking any and all questions as they came up. Overall, there was very little awareness in this labo ratory of the federal level changes discussed in this thesis. However, when I made suggestions for things that could help Det. Hall, he welcomed the ideas of improvement and when I asked all my dumb questions' he would start over at the beginning with com plete patience and explain, "Here's how you turn this on" I learned first hand how to document chain of custody and intake of evidence by actually filling out the forms necessary for SCSO. We processed guns, clothes, computers, cell phones, and cars as j ust a few examples. I went into the field and processed vehicles for fingerprints, saw how detectives worked and trained the K9 drug dogs, how the emergency 911 call center operated, pulled CCTV footage from various crime scene locations, and experienced h ow officers and CID together handled deaths at the scene. I was able to listen to discussions as detectives tried to figure how to write search warrants for social media evidence and I sat in on meetings when major cases were being discussed and organized. I was exposed to horrible images through crime scene photography as well as real life content of numerous digital cases with

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'( various media formats. So far, no nightmares! Det. Hall was open to new ideas for creation and adoption of new documentation; the refore, a Digital and Multimedia Evidence Submission Form (F ig 5.1 ), a Monthly Case Log Form (F ig 5.2 ), and a Monthly Case Log Statistic Form (F ig 5.3 ) was designed, introduced, approved, and established for SCSO CID During the time spent at SCSO, a pproximately 400 case stats were calculated within the C yber Crime Unit between 2010 201 3, to find the following percentages: 60% cell phone, 16% computer, and 2 3% other data storage. Det. Hall was 100% responsible for analyzing these cases and recalls tes tifying in only about 8 cases. A policy handbook was suggested to contain the collection of SWGDE best practices and development of a n SCSO DME SOP was discussed Forensic tool upgrades totaling a $13,000 investment, consisting of a new Digital Intelligen ce FRED system, a Cellebrite UFED Touch Ultimate, EnCase V7, and Oxygen Forensic Suite Analyst 7 were requested and approved. Interview Questions and Answers : Detective Hall 1. Are you familiar with the 2009 National Academy of Sciences Executive Summary Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward and the progress made at the federal level regarding DME and the resulting recommendations 1, 2, and 10? No 2. How has/will developments at the federal level in the field of fore nsic science affect SCSO CID and its operations at the state level? Federal Case Law 3. What is the current state governing organization that legally oversees SCSO CID ? Texas Rangers would investigate SCSO as a whole, not necessarily lab specific. 4. What role, if any, do the Scientific/Technical Working Groups play regarding SCSO CID ? Only SWGSTAIN referenced in relation to terminology used for reporting on the crime scene side of lab. 5. Is it possible to get a copy of the current Standard Operating Procedures used by SCSO CID ? No DME lab specific SOP's available. 6. What are the current standards/guidelines used for forensic report writing? Is it possible to get an example report? No DME lab specific standards/guidelines available. 7. What is the 2013 overall percentage of Digital Evidence cases compare d to all cases worked by SCSO CID ? Are the statistics reported? If so, is it possible to get a copy of the report? N /A 8. What is the current training program used by SCSO CID to educate your forensic experts in Lab

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') operations? No DME lab specific lab operations training available. 9. What is the current training program used by SCSO CID to educate your forensic experts in court testimony? No DME lab specific court testimony training available. 10. Does SCSO CID have a forensic expert code of ethics'? If so, is it possible to get a copy? No DME lab specific code of ethics available. Since my internship, I have sta yed in contact with Det. Hall and o n my desk, I have a SCSO patch and a plaque that was given to me before I left. I was lucky to get the internship at SCSO as I have absolutely no background in law enforcement and SCSO is law enforcement only. I think this speak s volumes to the openness of SCSO as an organization. It was a win/win situation. I have also since learned that changes are occurring in this laboratory. Det. Hall is now considered Cyber Unit only and no longer has to cros sover to the crime scene side as t hey are now separated into two units. Det. Hall will focus only on digital evidence, should be receiving his new FRED system any day now, and is headed t o Myrtle Beach in June for the Techno Security and Forensic Investigations Conference. We plan on staying in touch to discuss future ideas and cases and if I have it my way, he will be at AAFS next February!

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'* (Figure 5.1 Digital Media Evidence Submission Form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'+ (Figure 5.2 Digital Media Evidence Monthly Case Log Form) "#$%&'()*$+&!%,-#../0&1..#2,&'+3,-&'-#",0 & !"#$#%&'()%*+,-#.&-#/%(0#*#,#/% ( ( ( ( ( ( 4(*$%5+&'60,&7(8 & 112(34(56"#%.(7*+8(9:'+"8(9;(2<2=1( ( >?/%+@ ( A=B C
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', (Figure 5.3 Digital Media Evidence Monthly Statistic Form) "#$%&'()*$+&!%,-#../0&1..#2,&'+3,-&'-#",0 & !"#$#%&'()%*+,-#.&-#/%(0#*#,#/% ( ( ( ( ( ( 4(*$%5+&'60,& 7(8& !$6$#0$#20 & & 112(34(56"#%.(7*+8(9:'+"8(9;(2<2=1( ( >?/%+@ ( A=B C =! & 7?' & '!= & =@ & != & >? & & '? & :: & ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( & 9' A ( 3+N(!&,+,(7,,#.%+M(9?#,(G/%-? ( ( ( : A ( 7O-#*+ ( ( ( ( ( ';: A ( !'+&"+MHE#'+M(N#-?(07 ( '< A ( !'+&"+M(P:(JFO+6-#/% ( ( ( ( ( =:>=! A ( )7E)5 ( ( ( ( ( 7?' A ( Q&-+%-(>"#%-(!/$6&"#,/%, ( '!= A ( !"#$+(5O+%+()%*+,-#.&-#/%, ( ( ( ( =@ A ( )%RS+,-, ( ( ( ( ( != A ( 5S#O#M+()%*+,-#.&-#/%, ( >? A ( E/"+%,#O(>"/O+,,#%. ( ( ( ( ( '? A ( !+''(>?/%+(7%&':T+M ( ( ( A ( !/$6S-+",(7%&':T+M ( :: A ( 7.+%O:(7,,#,-, ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( JF&$#%+"@ ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( 0&-+(!/$6'+-+M@ ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (

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'! Case Study III City Lab Irma Rios, Sgt. David Hallimore Houston Police Department (HPD) Forensic Audio/Video Unit Houston Forensic Science Center Inc. (HFSC) 1200 Travis St, Houston, Texas 77002 713 308 3084 Harris County, Texas has had its share of legal controversy resulting in eight total exonerations. (50) Harold Hurtt, Chief of Police Houston, proactively requested an independent state crime laboratory aud it by Texas DPS in November 2002 The results suspended DNA testing immediately. Internal Affairs Investigations and two Grand Juries followed. N o indictments were ch arged, but reprimand, terminations and a separation of man a g e m ent from emplo yees ensued and backlogs of rape kits were outsourced by the City Council costing $4.4 million. (51) In 2003 a review of the DNA cases conducted at HPD were re tested by three outside agencies and N ational F orensic S cience T echnology C enter was hired to evaluate lab operation s and employees. In 2004 an independent review of the lab oratory and property room was conducted with stakeholder oversight and a final disclosure report was issued in June 2007. Chief Hurtt, when asked after the fact, still supports a well funded independent laboratory as the most appropriat e solution for crime lab oratory reform. (4) I first met Sgt. David Hallimore in the Fall of 2013 when I toured the HPD Forensic Audio/Video Unit. At that time, he had 17 years experience with HPD and 10 years affiliation with SWGDE. The lab itself had 6 commissioned employees (2 audio and 4 video) within the Identification Unit, was located i n the fourth largest city in the U.S. and was not accredited Sgt. Hallimore introduced me to the Texas Forensic Science Commission http://www.fsc.texas.gov and the 2005 Texas legislative session 79(R) House Bill 1068, as well as other ideas and resourc es. Although the Forensic Audio/Video Unit was never actually part of the HPD c rime lab oratory Sgt. Hallimore is currently appointed to the HPD transition to independence and agreed to disclose information described in this case study. In 2012, a Texas L ocal Government Corporation (LGC) began to transition crime lab oratory operations from HPD. The nine member board of directors of the Houston Forensic Science Center (HFSC) was appointed and governed by Mayor Parker and the Houston City Council with Texas State Representative H on. Scott Hochberg as Chairman. (52) Dr. Daniel Garner became CEO and President leaving his retirement to bring years of credible experience to the new founded center. This transition

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(. required the HPD lab oratory to shift out from under the jurisdiction of law enforcement into an independent, third party lab oratory and aligns itself to the recommendations of the NAS Report 2009. The transfer was u nprecedented and HFSC could likely become the new mode l for laboratories nationwide. (53) The legal process took two years and on April 6, 2014, HFSC officially assumed the eight forensic disc iplines of HPD and changed over 160 employees across the Houston Police Officer 's Union, the Houston Organization of Public Employees, and corporate administrative HPD positions. HFSC organized into five divisions: Evidence Collection, Forensic Analysis, Training, Methods Research and Development, and Quality Assurance. In September 2014, just 6 months after the official launch, HFSC achieved Forensic Quality Services (FQS) accreditation in Controlled Substance, Toxicology, Forensic Biology, and Firearms. Accreditation for Latent Prints, Digital Forensics, Crime Scene, and Forensic Au dio/Video will continue to be pursued. The FQS accreditation meets international and global standards of ISO/IEC 17025:2005 and FBI QAS. As a criminal justice org anization, HFSC has access to CODIS, IAFIS, and NIBIN databases. HFSC is currently housed with in 20,000 sq. ft. at HPD and is expected, within 3 5 years, to expand to a brand new 200,000 sq. ft. distinct regional service facility. Grants including those from NIJ, have been awarded to HFSC and substantial efforts to decrease backlog cases are underway. The code of ethics' of HFSC was effective as of May 28, 2014. (54) Interview Questions and Answers : Sgt. Hallimore 1. Are y ou familiar with the 2009 National Academy of Sciences Executive Summary Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward' and the progress made at the federal level regarding DME and the resulting recommendations 1, 2, and 10? Yes, in timately familiar. 2. How has/will developments at the federal level in the field of forensic science affect FAVU and its operations at the state level? HFSC's charter documents were a result of the NAS Report 2009. Lab transition began in April 2014. HFSC watching closely to stay aligned with Federal Standards. 3. What is the current state governing organization that legally oversees FAVU ? Mayor, HFSC Governing Board. 4. What role, if any, do the Scientific/Technical Working Groups play regarding FAVU ? HFSC working toward full FQS accreditation 5. Is it possible to get a copy of the current Standard Operating Procedures used by FAVU?

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(% HFSC SOPs are in process. 6. What are the current standards/guidelines used for forensic report writing? Is it possible t o get an example report? Narrative case by case, work notes worksheet, chain of custody, no need for scientific opinion. 7. What is the 2013 overall percentage of Digital Evidence cases compared to all cases worked by FAVU ? Are the statistics reported? If so, is it possible to get a copy of the report? N / A 8. What is the current training program used by FAVU to educate your forensic experts in Lab operations? Internal training program ending with LEVA Competency Test, 6 months of monitored casework continued education training, vendor support of tools. 9. What is the current training program used by FAVU to educate your forensic experts in court testimony? Various Moot Court training from the Prosecutors Office, but only approxi mately 35 total exp ert testimonies given within 60 years of work experience combined with 5 employees working countless cases. State of Texas Code DE exception. 10. Does FAVU have a forensic expert code of ethics'? If so, is it possible to get a copy? (Fig 5.4) After the p revious interview was conducted, o n March 23 2015, I became the first civilian Forensic Analyst hired by the Houston Forensic Sc ience Center for the Forensic Audio/Video Unit. Our unit is one of the four remaining HFSC forensic disciplines working toward accreditation. HFSC is right in the middle of making the cultural shift from law enforcement to independent forensic science service prov ider and a ll of my fellow analysts are HPD officers. It is interesting to note that HFSC is actually tr ying to measure this cultural transition and might eventually present those statistics at future industry events. As I write this, new SOPs, training manuals, and training checklists are underway. The leadership that represents HFSC is a force steadfast toward the goal of excellence with laboratory independence. I heard Dr. Garner say that, "HFSC wants the best people, with the best training, in the best environment" when talking about the standards of forensic services provided to customers. I can speak to this personally as within the first 6 months of employment my training will involve certification, on site laboratory audit and assessment, the Texas Forensic Science Commission a lecture series and moot court training. It is also being discussed tha t the HFSC digital evidence and forensic audio/video units might combine into one forensic discipline but that is not confirmed at this time.

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(& (Figure 5.4 Houston Forensic Science Center, Inc. Code of Ethics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(' BIBLIOGRAPHY (1) 109th Congress 1st Session. Appropriations Bill H.R. 2862. U.S. Senate. D.C.: GPO, 2006. (2)Committee on Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Science Community, National Research Council. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward D.C.: National Academies Press, 2009. (3)FBI. CODIS Quality Assurance Laboratory Services. 2015 . (4) Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States Hearing. Committee on the Judiciary. D.C.: GPO, 2009. (5)Obama, Barack. "Transcript of President Obama's Interview on "New Day"" with Chris Cuomo. Pres. Obama on Congress CNN Politics. CNN.com. 23 8 2013. (6) "OSAC Catalog of External Standards and Guidelines ." Ed. Shannan Williams. 2015 . (7) "Presentation for NCFS." NIST.gov 2014 . (8) The Need to Strengthen Forensic Science in the United States: The National Academy of Sciences' Report on a Path Forward Hearing. Committe on the Judiciary. D.C.: GPO, 2009. (9)111th Congress 1st Session. National Research Council's Publication "Strengthening Foren sic Science in the United States: A Path Forward" Hearing. Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security of the Committe on the Judiciary. D.C.: GPO, 2009. (10) Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: The Role of the National Ins titute of Standards and Technology Hearing. Subcommittee on Technology and Innovation, Committee on Science and Technology. D.C.: GPO, 2009. (11)Pollitt, Mark M. "Who is SWGDE and What is the History?" 22 1 2003. SWGDE.org 2014 < https://www.swgde.org/pdf/2003 01 22%20SWGDE%20History.pdf >. (12)DMS Section. "AAFS 2015 DMS business mtg minutes. ." 67th American Academy of Forensic Science Orlando: Marcus Rogers, 2015. (13) "SWGDE Position Paper on the NAS Report." 17 9 2009. SWGDE.org 2014 . (14)White House Office of Science and Technology. "Charter of the Committee on Science." 31 1 2011. Whitehouse.gov 2014 . (15) "Charter of the Committee on Science." 29 3 2012. Whitehouse.gov 2014 .

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(( (16)NIST DOJ. DOJ and NIST announce NCFS 15 2 2013. Jennifer Huego. 2014 . (17) "Summary of the NIST Proposed Plan for the Organization of Scientific Area Committees (OSAC)." 13 1 2014. Nis t.gov 2014 . (18 )American Academy of Forensic Science. 10 1 2014. AAFS.org Barry K. Logan. 2014 . (19) "U.S. DOJ and Commerce Name Experts to First Ever National Commission on Forensic Science." 10 1 2014. NIST.gov Ed. Jennifer Huego. 2014 . (20) "Public Comments on NIST Notice of Inquiry." 26 11 2013. Nist.gov 2014 . (21) "NIST Propsed Organization of Scientific Area Committees (OSAC)." 4 2 2014. NIST.gov 2014 < http://nist.gov/forensics/upload/NIST OSAC Plan NCFS Feb 4 2014 2 3 14 FINAL.pdf >. (22)Rockefeller, John D. U.S. Democratic Senator West Virginia S.2022. Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. D.C., 2014. (23)Leahy, Patrick. U.S. Democrat ic Senator Vermont ALB14200. U.S. Senate, 113th Congress. D.C., 2014. (24)Patrick Leahy, U.S. Democratic Senator Vermont. "Introduction of the Criminal Justice and Forensic Science Reform Act." 27 3 2014. Leahy.senate.gov 2014 . (25) "NIST Organization of Scientific Area Committees Roles and Responsibilities." 11 4 2014. NIST.gov 2014 . ( 26)National Scienc e and Technology Council. "Stregthening the Forensic Sciences." 2 5 2014. AAFS.org 2014 . (27)National Science Foundation/NIJ. 7 5 2014. NSF.gov 2014 . (28) "NIST Names Members to First Forensic Science Standards Board." 26 6 2014. NIST.gov Ed. Jennifer Huego. 2014 . (29) "NIST to Establish Research Center of Excellence for Forensic Science." 19 8 2014. NIST.gov Ed. Michael Baum. 2014 . (30) "Organization of Scientifc Area Committees." 3 8 9 2014. NIST.gov 2 014 . (31) "Forensic Science Standards Effort Takes Shape as NIST Appoints Scientific Area Committee Members." 3 9 2014. NIST.gov 2014 . (32) "New Forensic Subcommittee on Digital Evidence Added to Organization of Scientific Area Committees." 8 9 2014. NIST.gov 2014 .

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() (33) "Traditional Heirarchal Organizational Chart." 29 10 2014. NIST.go v 2015 . (34) "National Commission on Forensic Science Update." 24 10 2014. AAFS.org 2015 . (35)Dept of Justice. "Work Products." 24 10 2014. Justice.gov 2015 . (36) "OSAC Digital Evidence Subcommittee." 12 2014. NIST.gov 2015 . (37)NIST. "402 Members Named to Forensic Science Standards Organization." 29 10 2014. NIST.gov Ed. Jennifer Huego. 2015 . (38)SWGDE/SWGIT. "SWGDE/SWGIT Digital and Multimedia Evidence Glossary." Vers. 2.7. 8 4 2013. SWGDE.org 2014 . (39)ASTM. "Standard Terminology for Digital and Multimedia Evidence." Vers. E2916 13. 2013. ASTM.org 2014 . (40)Pope v. State. No. 05 86 00235 CR. Court of Appeals of Texas, Dallas. casetext.com: 4 8 1988. (41)Innocence Project. David Shawn Pope 1 1999. 2015 . (42)Wikipedia. Brandon Mayfield 5 2004. 2015 . (43)The Spokesman Review. "Setback for Steele's Bid to Challenge FBI Tapes." 21 4 2011. Ed. Betsy Z. Russell. 2015 . (44)Forensic Science, Statistics & the Law. "Disturbing and Ridiculous Expertise in State v. Zimmerman." 24 6 2013. For sci law now.blogspot.com Ed. DH Kaye. 2015 . (45)The Guardian. "Zimmerman Trial Judge: Prosecution Audio Experts Cannot Testify." 22 6 2013. Theguardian.com 2015 . (46) "State of Florida v. George Zimmerman." 11 4 2012. Wikipedia.org 2015 . (47)Re NewsIt! "Tom Owens and Ed Primeau Forensic Audio Witnesses." 6 5 2013. Re Newsit.com 2015 . (48)The National Clearinghouse for Science, Technology, and the Law. Carol Henderson. 2015 . (49)Texas Dept. of Public Safety. "Digital/Multimedia Evidence Section." TXDPS 2014 . (50)Innocence Project of Texas. Texas Exoneration Statistics 2015 .

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(* (51) Lured Back to Forensic Science, New Lab Director Ready for Challenge in Houston Ed. Anita Hassan. Houston, 26 9 2014. (52) Houston Forensic Science Center. 2015 . (53)Houston Chronicle. "Garner: Independent Forensics Lab on its Way to Becoming Model." 6 11 2014. Ed. Dr Daniel Garner. 2015 . (54)Garner, Daniel. "SWGDE Business Meeting." Houston, 1 2015. (55) "Scientific Neutrality in Expert Witness Testimony." 67th Annual Scientific Meeting Ed. Charlotte J. Word. Orlando, 2015. (56 )Dept. of Commerce NIST. "Federal Register." Vers. 78. 27 9 2013. GPO.gov 2014 . (57 )SWGDE. "Response to Notice of Inqui ry Federal Register." 2013. SWGDE.org 2014 . (58) "NIST Presents an Infrastructure Plan to Strengthen Forensic Science Committees." 7 2 2014. NIST.gov Ed. Linda Joy. 2014 . !