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Afro Cuban/Salsa dance in bilingual education and the development of Hispanic cultural competency

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Title:
Afro Cuban/Salsa dance in bilingual education and the development of Hispanic cultural competency
Creator:
Chrysler, Marissa Frances ( author )
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 electronic file (xx pages). : ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Education, Bilingual ( lcsh )
Dance in education ( lcsh )
Dance in education ( fast )
Education, Bilingual ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Review:
Language acquisition and kinesthetic intelligence are interconnected in terms of how a child acquires both a first (L1) and second (L2) language. Many language-teaching methods have been developed with varying theories regarding the most effective way of learning language. Very few of these methods incorporate dance as a significant way of learning. By incorporating Afro Cuban dance and its successor Salsa into teaching methods a student may have greater opportunity to retain the language, to develop a positive sense of self, and to become more culturally and linguistically competent. The Dance Kids Dance and Language Program teaches children culture and language through dance, and is designed as an additional resource for teachers and parents
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of Colorado Denver.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographic references.
General Note:
Department of Modern Languages
Statement of Responsibility:
by Marissa Frances Chrysler.

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Source Institution:
|University of Colorado Denver
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Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
919505523 ( OCLC )
ocn919505523

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Full Text
AFRO CUBAN/SALSA DANCE IN
BILINGUAL EDUCATION AND THE DEVELOPMENT
OF HISPANIC CULTURAL COMPETENCY
By
MARISSA FRANCES CHRYSLER
B. A., University of Colorado at Boulder 2005
A thesis submitted to the
Faculty of the Graduate School of the
University of Colorado in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Masters of Arts
Spanish
2015


This thesis for the Master of Spanish degree by
Marissa Frances Chrysler
has been approved for the
Spanish Program
By
Michael Abeyta, Chair
Kathleen Bollard
Sam Gill
Claudia Parodi
June 1, 2015


Chrysler, Marissa Frances (M.A., Spanish)
Afro/Cuban Salsa Dance in the Bilingual Classroom and the Development of Hispanic Cultural
Competency
Thesis directed by Professor Michael Abeyta
ABSTRACT
Language acquisition and kinesthetic intelligence are interconnected in terms of how a child
acquires both a first (LI) and second (L2) language. Many language-teaching methods have been
developed with varying theories regarding the most effective way of learning language. Very few
of these methods incorporate dance as a significant way of learning. By incorporating Afro
Cuban dance and its successor Salsa into teaching methods a student may have greater
opportunity to retain the language, to develop a positive sense of self, and to become more
culturally and linguistically competent. The Dance Kids Dance and Language Program teaches
children culture and language through dance, and is designed as an additional resource for
teachers and parents.
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication.
Approved: Michael Abeyta
m


TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION..................................................1
II. KINESTHETIC INTELLIGENCE, LANGUAGE LEARNING, AND TEACHING
METHODOLOGIES.................................................6
Language Acquisition.....................................6
Kinesthetic Intelligence................................15
Language Teaching Methods and Contributors..............19
Chapter Two Conclusions.................................27
III. AFRO CUBAN/SALSA DANCE AND ITS HISTORY.......................28
IV. CULTURAL COMPETENCY, MOVEMENT AND MEANING, AND THE SENSE
OF SELF......................................................37
V. FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE: THE DANCE KIDS DANCE AND LANGUAGE
PROGRAM......................................................52
Studies Conducted.......................................56
Thesis Conclusion.......................................57
REFERENCES............................................................58
IV


CHAPTERI
INTRODUCTION
As a middle school Spanish teacher, I have an enormous responsibility for
preparing students to be bilingual while encouraging them to appreciate, value, and
accept people from different religious, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds. It is essential
that they receive the tools to be effective leaders, life-long learners, and successful
people. Often times, however, many students are bored, uninspired, unimaginative, and
not interested in school. I have continuously asked myself what is lacking from our
educational system from inspiring children while teaching language effectively. What can
be done to improve education in the United States?
Early childhood education in the United States generally does not implement a
dance program despite the fact the kids can greatly benefit from this type of learning.
There is a mind-body split in elementary school not conducive to how we learn.
Integrating Latin dance into language teaching methods will connect the mind and body
and can contribute positively to how students learn, retain information, and view other
cultures. Not only does a bilingual Latin dance program use methods to appeal to the
multiple intelligences by supporting the different ways children learn, but it also
improves language skills and can serve as a gateway to learn about other cultures,
communities, traditions, and ways of life. As culturally diverse as the United States is
today, the need to communicate in other languages is not only suggested but becoming a
necessity. Dance can be a means to learn many languages, however, throughout this
thesis I will use Spanish as the target second language, and with special reference to Afro
Cuban dance and Salsa.


Language acquisition and kinesthetic intelligence are interconnected with respect
to a child acquiring both a first (LI) and second (L2) language. Many language-teaching
methods have been developed with varying theories regarding the most effective way of
learning language. Very few of these methods incorporate dance as a significant way of
learning. In my thesis I will explain the role of kinesthetic intelligence in language
acquisition in both LI and L2 acquisition and pre-existing teaching methodologies,
theories, and contributors. Within each section I emphasize that by adding dance to
language instruction, more specifically Afro Cuban/Salsa dance, the student may more
affectively learn a second language. Although Afro Cuban and Salsa are separate dances,
they share a relationship and for the purpose of this thesis I pair them together to talk
about an overall genre of music and dance. Language acquisition, teaching
methodologies, and contributors will be explained in chapter two of this thesis.
A bilingual Latin dance program uses methods to appeal to the multiple
intelligences by supporting the different ways children learn. This type of program
provides opportunity for a student to improve their language skills while simultaneously
teaching cultural content with the goal of expanding a childs knowledge of other cultures
and communities. By learning about other cultures and communities, a student can reflect
on their own culture, therefore deepening their awareness about themselves.
Dance pedagogy is rarely addressed in the traditional school setting or identified
as a valid teaching tool included in curriculum. A study conducted by the National Dance
Education Organization (NDEO) showed that 88% of Americans believe that the so-
called basics in education alone are not adequate for the 21st Century workforce without
the ability to be imaginative, creative, and innovative. This same 88% of voters believe
2


that an education in and through the arts is essential to cultivating the imagination and
innovation (1). Research in arts education shows improvement in cognitive capacities.
Participation in high quality arts education programs improves student imagination,
creativity, symbolic understanding, conditional reasoning, critical thinking, and
collaborative learning and action (McMahon 104). By dancing and moving, there is more
opportunity to ignite the brain, capture the attention of students, and inspire participation
and inclusion. Participation in high quality arts education programs nurtures persistence,
resilience, achievement motivation, and engagement.
During the 2003-2004 school year, according to the Department of Education,
there are around 50 million students from kindergarten to twelfth grade. The report
showed that approximately 57% of American children receive no training in dance
education. Only 36% receive some instruction usually delivered in either physical
education programs taught by physical education teachers and coaches or in other classes
taught by generalist teachers, volunteers, parents, artists in schools, etc. and 7 % taught
by full- and part-time dance specialists. Thirteen states do not provide educators
opportunities to obtain highly qualified status in dance (National Center for Education
Statistics). This shows the sparse state and lack of recognition of dance education in the
United States. Teaching Salsa to students would give them an opportunity to expand their
imagination, improve their self-confidence and problem-solving skills, and help them
develop an understanding of other cultures. Teaching Afro Cuban/Salsa in a classroom in
the United States doesnt mean that students can fully understand or know the culture of
where the dances originated, however it can serve as an introduction or an entryway to
other cultures. This introduction may expose the students to other ways of life and
3


promote an interest about other cultures, which may lead them to travelling or living
abroad to experience it first hand. By teaching language and dance simultaneously, there
is opportunity for the development of Hispanic cultural competency in the classroom.
Afro Cuban/Salsa has an extensive history stemming back to the African slave
trade. In present day, Salsa has expanded in regards to the styles, timing, and footwork. It
is danced internationally in different capacities. There are Salsa competitions,
conferences, social dancing, and even the ESPN world championships. In chapter three,
the history of Salsa and its relevance in the world today will be further explained.
Movement, gesture, and touch are fundamental elements in dancing. Movement
shapes who we are and gives us a sense of self and dancing can help shape a persons
development, sense of self and relationship to other people and cultures. Cultural
competency, movement and meaning, and the development of self will be further
explored in chapter four.
In the fifth chapter I will describe the Dance Kids Dance and Language Program,
which puts the theory into the practice. The program combines elements of pre-existing
teaching methods while incorporating dance as a means to learn language and develop
oneself personally, emotionally, and physically while promoting cultural competency.
This new method is a DVD program to be used as an additional teaching tool for both
parents and teachers and requires no prior knowledge of the dance or language.
I believe that children should dance many types of dances and experience dance
in many contexts. It is important that kids simply just get up and move their bodies, have
fun, smile, and play through dance. While all types of dance can be beneficial, rarely is
Salsa dance brought into discussion when it comes to a childs development and
4


understanding of themselves and others. Not often viewed as a tool for development,
Salsa can serve as an additional platform to teach language, create a positive sense of
self, and increase cultural competence and understanding.
5


CHAPTER II
KINESTHETIC INTELLIGENCE, LANGUAGE LEARNING, AND TEACHING
METHODOLOGIES
Researchers, parents, and educators have been fascinated with how children
acquire language especially when they have had no formal instruction. Several language
theorists have analyzed language acquisition. Well-known theorist Noam Chomsky
developed theories about how language is successfully acquired, and his and other
theories in language acquisition have been adapted to effective teaching methodologies.
Many methods teach language structure and conversation highly emphasizing grammar,
pronunciation, speaking, and writing skills. This thesis proposes to show how Salsa and
Afro Cuban style dance can be a catalyst for learning language.
Language Acquisition
Native language (LI) and the relevance of this to foreign language learning (L2)
has long been analyzed, researched, and discussed. Language is one of the main ways of
communication and one of the most fundamental human traits. Language acquisition is
the method by which humans develop the ability to perceive and understand language, as
well as to generate and use words and sentences to communicate. Because non-humans
do not converse through language, language acquisition is one of the archetypal human
traits. The information about its neurobiological basis has increased over the past decades
(Friederici 1357).
There has been a major debate about how infants acquire language. Nativists
(those who believe that certain skills or abilities are hard-wired into the brain) such as
Noam Chomsky believe that the human brain has biological characteristics and structures
6


that guide the process of language acquisition in an infant. Because of the complexity of
grammar and the infants relatively limited cognitive abilities, nativists argue that it would
not be possible for a child to master such complex grammatical rules without a biological
structure already in place. Other scholars believe that it is not a matter of biology, but
rather, it is similar to a child learning other cognitive skills like riding a bike or
developing other motor skills. This is an example of nature and nurture debate;
nature referencing other non-humans not being able to learn a language, and nurture
referring to a child learning a language within the environment they are raised (Sakai).
The role of social contact and interaction between a child and linguistically
knowledgeable adults supports the social interactionist theory. Based principally on the
socio-cultural theories of psychologist Lev Vygotsky and brought to the West by Jerome
Bruner, this theory stresses that language is acquired through interaction with parents and
other adults while emphasizing a concept called the zone of proximal development. This
concept refers to the development of child and what he can do with or without help. In
language, it describes linguistic tasks such as using correct vocabulary and proper syntax
that a child cannot carry out on their own, but can learn to carry out if guided by an adult
(Bruner).
The relational frame theory (RFT) proposes that a child solely acquires language
through interaction with their environment. This view suggests learning a language can
only occur through a system of inherent reinforcements opposing the view that language
acquisition is founded on cerebral capacities and biologically based abilities (Hayes).
Emergentist theories support the idea that language acquisition is a cognitive process that
occurs from both the environment and biological pressures. Nature or nurture on its own
7


is not adequate enough to produce language learning according to these theories. Both
nature and nurture must work together in order for language acquisition to occur
(MacWhinney).
Despite the different viewpoints, most scholars recognize and express that the
human brain is wired to learn languages and during the early years of language
acquisition, grammatical regularities and linguistic information are stored in the brain
(Sakai 815). Linguists have found that despite having no prior language exposure, there
are set grammatical rules built into the human brain, therefore a language system already
exists when a child is bom. Due to the rapid rate in which a child learns, it is evident that
essential aspects of grammar are innate- represented in the brain of the neonate
(otherwise known as a newborn up to 28 days old). Researchers suggest that newborns
are sensitive to certain input configurations in the auditory domain, a perceptual ability
that might facilitate later language development (Gervain 1). Within a few years, a child
acquires a language without explicit grammar instruction or aid of analytical thinking
typically taught in school (Chomsky 30).
Linguists regard language comprehension, speaking, and singing as primary
faculties of language as well as being inherent, innate, and biologically determined. The
competence and knowledge for human language is attained through a variety of modality
types and other various means. Being that singing is also a primary faculty of language,
then it is important to acknowledge that music can be essential to language learning.
Linguists Ray Jackendoff and Fred Lerdahl were interested in the human capacity for
music and language and the relationship between the two. In their article The Capacity
8


for Music: What is it and what's Special about it? they asked five essential questions in
terms of capacity for music:
(1) (Musical structure): When a listener hears a piece of music in an idiom (or
style) with which he/she is familiar, what cognitive structures (or mental
representations) does he/she construct in response to the music?
(2) (Musical grammar): For any particular musical idiom MI, what are the
unconscious principles by which experienced listeners construct their
understanding of pieces of music in MI (i.e., what is the musical grammar of MI)?
(3) (Acquisition of musical grammar): How does a listener acquire the musical
grammar of MI on the basis of whatever sort of exposure it takes to do so?
(4) (Innate resources for music acquisition): What pre-existing resources in the
human mind/brain make it possible for the acquisition of musical grammar to take
place? (34)
(5) (Broad vs. narrow musical capacity): What aspects of the musical capacity are
consequences of general cognitive capacities, and what aspects are specific to
music? (36)
To answer the first question about musical structure, Jackendoff and Lerdahl explain that
the cognitive structures are responses that the listener has to music, therefore they form
an understanding of the music that goes beyond just listening to a stream of sound. The
focus is primarily on the listener rather than the performer because listening is universal.
They state that:
Given that a listener familiar with a musical idiom is capable of understanding
novel pieces of music within that idiom, we can characterize the ability to achieve
such understanding in terms of a set of principles, or a musical grammar, which
associates strings of auditory events with musical structures. (34)
This leads to answering the following questions about musical grammar, the acquisition
of musical grammar, and the innate resources for music acquisition. Jackendoff and
Lerdahl argue that the fundamental questions that are asked about language faculty are
parallel to the questions being asked about music capacity by saying the following:
In particular, the term capacity for language has come to denote the pre-
existing resources that the child brings to language acquisition. We propose
therefore that the term capacity for music be used for the answer to Q4. The
musical capacity constitutes the resources in the human mind/brain that make it
9


possible for a human to acquire the ability to understand music in any of the
musical idioms of the world, given the appropriate input. (34)
Jackendoff and Lerdahl explain that there are different properties between language and
musical capacities. The ability for linguistic competence is universal while musical
competence is more varied. Some people have a higher capacity for musical competence
than others. They explain that:
we approach the musical capacity in terms parallel to those of linguistic theory -
that is, we inquire into the formal properties of music as it is understood by
human listeners and performers. As in the case of linguistic theory, such inquiry
ideally runs in parallel with experimental research on the real-time processing of
music, the acquisition of musical competence (as listener or performer), the
localization of musical functions in the brain, and the genetic basis of all of this.
At the moment, the domain of formal analysis lends itself best to exploring the
full richness and complexity of musical understanding. (34)
Jackendoff and Lerdahl ask a further important question in regards to music, as in
language: what aspects of the capacity are specific to that faculty, and what aspects are a
matter of more general properties of human cognition? (34) In the human auditory
system, there is frequency sensitivity to different ranges of pitch. While listening,
perceiving, and understanding music, there are general human capacities that are required
including long-term memory, attention, and working memory.
To answer the last question that addresses broad verses narrow musical capacity,
Jackendoff and Lerdahl explain that,
Broad musical capacity ... includes any aspect of the mind/brain involved in the
acquisition and processing of music, and the narrow musical capacity... includes
just those aspects that are specific to music and play no role in other cognitive
activities.
Music has structure as well as grammar and when a listener hears music, the listener
constructs an unconscious understanding of the music. There are innate resources in the
10


human mind that make it possible to acquire music grammar. The same applies to
learning a language.
Humans can communicate important information and can also have a melodic
capacity and an ability to recombine parts of the uttered language. Because of this,
humans can generate finite vocabularies that produce a seemingly infinite string of
words. Researchers suggest that humans first had the ability to sing. Many researchers
believe that music is above all a symbolic representation of socio-cultural and bodily
conditions, and is thought to be a primitive form of communication that arose before
language proper, but that also must have co-evolved with language (Did Language
Evolve from). Music is a symbolic representation of culture, tradition, and social
situations, and is grounded in local, culturally significant meanings. Because of this,
music is meaningful.
Music is culturally meaningful and importance for early childhood language
development. According to researchers, initial acquisition of LI occurs from the time a
child is bom and continues to age five or six. Language development, grammatical
knowledge, and speech development start within the first few months after birth proving
that language acquisition starts from birth (Sakai 816). At each age there are distinct
linguistic faculties that develop throughout the brain: infants ages 6 to 8 months will
begin babbling leading to one-word speech at 10 to 12 months. Babies respond daily to
spoken language and music by mimicking, pointing, babbling, and moving thus proving
that language is inherent, natural, innate, experiential and consistently acquired. This also
shows that there is a kinesthetic intelligence that is developed very early. Young children
make associations between the sounds they hear and the actions and movements they see,
11


and absorb what they are observing at a rapid rate. At 2 years old, a child will begin the
two-word stage and begin to formulate sentences, express their thoughts clearly and can
converse fluently in their native language. Although a child may not know language
rules, grammar, and sentence structure, young English speakers can distinguish between
sound units of words, such as "dog" and "cat," and unconsciously construct and
reconstruct correct phrases and sentences. Learning a native language therefore occurs
intuitively and unconsciously as the child interacts with her environment. Author and
linguist R.P. Carrigan explains that:
Knowing a language means one has developed the ability to understand
the pragmatics and nuances of language, and then to unconsciously create
original language patterns that are unique and specific to the exact time
and situation in which they are spoken. It also means being able to
understand the language that one hears. We know instinctively what
belongs to our language and what does not belong. (57)
Language in before language out is perhaps one of the more overlooked, yet
logical principles in learning a language. Before a learner can produce a language, she
must be able to comprehend it. Pairing music, dance, and language can increase how
much a child can acquire in a more concentrated amount of time and will provide the
learner with a multitude of opportunities of language input. Not only will she hear
language, but also having it paired with music and dance provides a kinesthetic approach,
therefore increasing the rate at which she acquires language.
Students exposed to language can more readily understand and comprehend it by
hints and context. Some researchers say that students who read for pleasure will more
easily absorb and understand language structure and grammar. When a learner attempts
to write and speak, then they have already processed the language on an input level and
can then in turn explore and create language on their own (Carrigan 57). Accordingly,
12


writing and reading are secondary abilities. Typically a child will learn reading and
writing at school, thus making these abilities influenced culturally rather than biologically
(Sakai 815).
There is a clear distinction and contrast between the development of LI and
learning L2. Students and their experiences vary; therefore, when learning an L2, it can
be met with open arms or with resistance. Some students highly enjoy learning a new
language while others dont see the value or just have a lack of interest. There are an
exceeding number of factors that can affect L2 learning. Researchers have found that
there are no clearly determined steps of development and that each individual is different
when learning an L2. Although evidence for L2 learning ability declining with age is
controversial, a common notion is that children learn L2 easily and can achieve fluency
while older learners rarely achieve fluency. This stems from the Critical Period
Hypothesis created in 1967 by Eric Lenneberg claiming that L2 learning ability declines
with age (Abello 170). According to this theory there is an optimal period for language
acquisition typically ending at puberty (171).
Research conducted on this hypothesis showed varied results. Some research has
shown that older learners have the advantage due to a greater knowledge of basic skills
such as reading and writing, while other research has shown that pre-pubescent children
acquire language more easily. Many educators simply believe that there is no magic
age for L2 learning, that both older and younger learners may achieve advanced levels of
proficiency in L2, and that the specific and general characteristics of the learning
environments are also likely to be variables of equal or greater importance (Abello 171).
Even though there is a debate about age and language aptitude, it is nevertheless
13


beneficial for a child to learn a second language at an early age. The language and dance
program proposed in this thesis is therefore made to be implemented in the early
elementary classroom (pre-school- 1st grade), but can and should be used continuously
throughout a childs education.
Many researchers have theories about L2 acquisition including Krashen's theory
of second language acquisition that consists of five main hypotheses: acquisition-
learning, monitor, natural order, input, and the affective filter hypothesis. The acquired
system, or acquisition, is the product of a subconscious process very similar to the
process children undergo when they acquire their first language. Natural communication
and meaningful interaction in the target language that produce a communicative act in
which speakers are not concentrated in the form of their utterances are all elements of the
acquisition hypothesis. It is essential that students connect personally with the target
language; if it is not meaningful, they will not retain the information for a long period of
time or they simply will not learn it. Rhythmic movement in response to music is innate
and personal, therefore, by pairing language with dance when learning an L2, a student
will more likely connect personally with the language, which would support Krashens
acquisition-learning hypothesis. The monitor hypothesis explains the relationship
between acquisition and learning; it defines the influence of the latter on the former. The
monitoring function is the practical result of the learned grammar. The natural order
hypothesis is based on research findings that suggested that the acquisition of
grammatical structures follows a 'natural order that is predictable (Schiitz 1). With the
input hypothesis Krashen attempts to explain how the learner acquires a second language.
In other words, the input hypothesis is only concerned with acquisition, not learning.
14


According to this hypothesis, the learner improves and progresses along the 'natural
order' when he/she receives second language 'input' that is one step beyond his/her
current stage of linguistic competence (1). Finally, the fifth hypothesis, the affective
filter hypothesis, embodies Krashen's view that a number of affective variables play a
facilitative, but non-causal, role in second language acquisition. These variables include:
motivation, self-confidence, and anxiety. Krashen claims that learners with high
motivation, self-confidence, a good self-image, and a low level of anxiety are better
equipped for success in second language acquisition (1). Dance can increase self-
confidence, reduce anxiety, and promote a more positive sense of self while appealing to
the majority of learners because it uses an innate and natural intelligence: kinesthetic
intelligence.
Kinesthetic Intelligence
Howard Gardners theory of multiple intelligences is crucial to understanding
child development and the various learning styles. He describes seven different discrete
intelligences, one of which is the bodily kinesthetic. He defines an intelligence as
having an identifiable core, characteristic patterns of development, a number of
specifiable end states, evidence for neurological representation, and discernible patterns
of breakdown (Gilbert 43). The seven intelligences that Gardner defined are:
visual/spatial, musical, logical/mathematical, verbal/linguistic, interpersonal,
intrapersonal, and kinesthetic intelligence.
Gardner coined the term bodily-kinesthetic and brought this concept into the
national discussion on educational reform. Dance and rhythmic movement is a type of
kinesthetic intelligence that lends itself to developing the other intelligences as well
15


(Schwartz 8). While often not recognized, dance can be the root from which other
intelligences are bom, developed, and expanded upon. By exploring the interdependence
of kinesthetic intelligence and other intelligences, the dancers sense of self is a
significant component of dance intelligence. Schwartz proposes that, this sense of self,
the awareness of being-in-motion, relates to body/mind harmony and is a key component
of kinesthetic intelligence (8).
Proprioception is an important concept that can be otherwise known as the
kinesthetic sense. In his article Dancing as Making Sam Gill explains proprioception.
As Gill explains, it is neurological occurrence that is based in sensory receptors
associated with joints and muscles that sense and provide feedback to the demands placed
on joints and muscles both from without and within (3). In his article, Gill references
Brian Massumis book Parables for the Virtual. Massumi writes:
Proprioception folds tactility into the body, enveloping the skins contact with the
external world in a dimension of medium depth: between epidermis and viscera.
The muscles and ligaments register as conditions of movement what the skin
internalizes as qualities:.. Proprioception translates the exertions and ease of the
bodys encounters with objects into muscular memory of relationality. This is the
cumulative memory of skill, habit, posture. At the same time as proprioception
folds tactility in, it draws out the subjects reactions to the qualities of the objects
it perceives through all five senses, bringing them into the motor realm of
extemalizable response.
Gill summarizes the importance of proprioception by stating the following:
Through movement proprioception translates into relationships the way the body
encounters objects
Inversely proprioception translates qualities held in memory into patterns of
movement
Proprioception translates sensations on the skin, conditions of movement, as
qualities
Rationalities are proprioceptive recorded as posture, habit, skill, body schemas,
and sensorimotor patterns
Proprioception translates qualities between memory and sensorimotor responses
as expressions (4)
16


Gill explains that proprioceptors measure movement and therefore there is a sensation
demands on the body. Proprioception is an important concept because it relates directly to
the sense and development of self. Gill states that, Proprioception is inseparable from
our sense of self, fundamental relationality, subjective-objective interplay, consciousness,
and body ownership (5). Proprioception gives us the awareness of our bodies as we are
moving; it is the awareness of the location of our body parts as they are moving in the
now moment.
Proprioception is relevant in regards to language learning. If a word is paired with
a movement, then the language learner may have a higher chance of retaining the new
information because as Gill stated, proprioception translates qualities between memory
and sensorimotor responses as expressions (3).
Kinesthetic intelligence is often overlooked in the classroom, which seems
counterintuitive being that from birth we learn so much from movement. As babies
interact with their environment, they are constantly moving and mimicking movement, or
doing something that involves some sort of movement. Just by hearing music, a baby will
naturally start moving. Also, by learning through movement, language learners will play
with the language that they are learning. In his book The Function of Language Play in
the Acquisition ofL2 Spanish author J. Lantolf states that, Play is an important activity
for child development (13). Language play mediates the interactions between learners
and the language being learned and can be interpreted as a means of appropriating this
new linguistic tool (Brooks 80).
By learning a dance in a foreign language, the student is pairing movement with
new words and phrases. As the student moves and consecutively hears or says the words
17


in the foreign language, the student personalizes the information. Body movement forms
muscle memory; when pairing movement with a correlating word, a student can more
easily retain that word just like they remember a body movement. When the student does
the same movement, the word, like muscle memory, is remembered. Another example of
this is the learned action that shaking ones head up and down directly correlates with the
word yes; the movement and correlating word both have meaning. While this is just a
gesture and not a dance move, the idea is that a person is moving their body with an
associating word; therefore both the movement and the word have meaning.
Dancing adds a third element to that movement and word correlation by adding in
music. When there is music, body movement, and audio reception of the foreign language
consecutively there is a multisensory effect providing a student with multitude of ways
of retaining the information. Rather than teaching to only one type of learner, this
methodology can appeal to various learning styles. Gardner brought the theory of
multiple intelligences into the education field, stating that people learn differently,
therefore not one approach can work for everyone. Some people learn by listening or
speaking while others learn by reading or moving. Dancing, listening to music, learning
words and phrases in a foreign language all at the same time create the opportunity for all
types of students to learn and retain information according to their learning style. In this
way dance can be a significant addition to teaching a foreign language. Although
combining dance, language, and music in one lesson may sound complex, confusing, and
overwhelming, there is an effective teaching method design that will be furthered
described in the fifth chapter of this thesis. Even though Salsa and Afro Cuban dance and
18


Spanish language are the primary focus of this thesis, the integration of dance in language
learning can translate seamlessly the learning of other languages.
As a kinesthetic learner myself, I understand that many students need to move to
learn. To not move our body throughout the school day seems unnatural, can feel
unproductive, and boring. When it comes to learning in general, standing up and moving
ones body is always favorable. Kinesthetic teaching methods and language learning are
directly correlated. Being a teacher and student of foreign language myself, I have found
that activities and lessons that incorporate body movement heighten awareness and
attention-span, increase long-term learning of the language, promote student involvement
and interest, personalize the information, and can simply be a fun way of learning. When
I have my students move or do choreographed actions during a lesson, their attention
span is longer and they appear to be enjoying what they are learning. Using a kinesthetic
approach while teaching a foreign language is essential and extremely beneficial for the
student. There are a variety of teaching methods that incorporate body movement,
however, rarely is dance incorporated into a language lesson or viewed as a valid
teaching approach. Dance can be an incredibly effective way of teaching a language.
Language Teaching Methods and Contributors
Many theorists and educators have developed language-teaching methodologies
according to their beliefs and studies on how children learn language. There have been
two major branches in the field of language learning and effective teaching
methodologies: the empirical and the theoretical. The empiricist approach assumed that
the nature of the biological endowment relevant to language could be deduced from
studies of competence grammar. Research in developmental neuroscience has since
19


begun to show more direct and specific evidence about how brains are structured and
develop. Humans have an inherent and innate capacity for language learning. The
empirical theory developed by such researchers as Palmer, Bloomfield, and Jespersen
promotes memorization and mimicry with pattern drills. The empiricist position states
that a student will develop habits formed by drilling and conditioning. This theory is
based on the way other species communicate and compares human communication to that
of other animals (Stem 8). Observing this approach conducted in elementary classroom,
one would see the students using flashcards, repeating words several times after the
teacher, and memorizing vocabulary.
The theoretical branch developed by language theorist Noam Chomsky and
dovetailed by others such as M.D. Berlitz and Elime de Sauze encompasses a wide
variety of learning methods. Noam Chomsky has highly influenced modern thinking
about language. He created the generative paradigm in which most research has been
conducted over the past 30 years. Although alternative theories exist, many still share
similar assumptions with Chomsky about language acquisition and the goals of linguistic
theory (Seidenberg 26). Grammar-translation, formulating meaningful sentences to gain
grammar rules and functional knowledge are the base for this major language learning
theory. Contrary to the empirical theory, this theory takes the position that language is a
uniquely human trait and that man is born to think. According to Chomskys theoretical
position, although people speak different languages, all humans share a universal
grammar already built into our brain structure. This allows humans to create sentences
never heard before, but that can still have meaning and be understood by the learner
20


(Stem 10). While both theories have had separate histories, each at one point or another
has gained ground over the other.
Second Language Acquisition (SLA) has been a major topic of research and study
in recent years and there are several methods and techniques for teaching language that
have come out of this research. In order to introduce dance into the bilingual classroom or
language lesson, it is necessary to look at pre-existing language teaching methodologies
and programs for both English and Spanish, and the results from their implementation in
schools. A childs culture, background, life experiences, interest level, first language, age,
and prior language exposure are also additional factors in learning a second language
(L2). Some methodologies have been recognized as being out dated or not fit for the 21st
century student, while others have grown in popularity in recent years. As second
language research has provided extensive evidence in support of more implicit
communication-based instruction, the more traditional grammar-based methodologies,
such as the grammar-translation method, the audio-lingual method, and the direct
method, for the most part, have been abandoned (Carrigan 58). Several significant
theories have emerged over the years that are worth discussing in order to see what
already exists and if there are any missing pieces to these teaching methodologies.
There are three principal views regarding second language acquisition theory: the
structural view, the functional view, and the interactive view. The structural view treats
language as a system of structurally related elements to code meaning (e.g. grammar).
The functional view considers language as a vehicle to express or accomplish a certain
function, such as requesting something. The interactive view defines language as the
creation and maintenance of social relations focusing on acts, negotiations, interactions,
21


and conversational exchanges. This last view has been fairly dominant since the 1980s
(Richards 3). Within each view there are various teaching methods.
Grammar translation, the audio-lingual, and the proprioceptive methods are
teaching approaches that fall under the category of the structural view. The grammar
translation method instructs students in grammar and provides vocabulary with direct
translations to memorize language and a student will repeatedly do grammatical analysis
of sentences. A teacher might have students diagram sentences, translate, and chart out
verbs (Richards 5). The audio lingual method focuses on contrastive analysis and
grammar to find differences between the students target language and native language in
order to prepare specific material to address problems in language learning. This method
arose directly after World War II when there was a need for foreign language proficiency
(6). Drilling, repetition, and habit-formation are central elements of instruction; in the
classroom, lessons were organized by grammatical structure and presented through short
dialogues. Students would listen to dialogues and short stories and mimic the
grammatical structures and pronunciation (6). The proprioceptive language learning
method emphasizes simultaneous development of neurological, motor, cognitive, and
hearing as all part of a language learning process. This method focuses primarily on
spoken language training. It stresses that mere vocabulary and grammar memory is not
the sole requirement for spoken language fluency, but that the mind receives real-time
feedback from both hearing and neurological receptors of the mouth and related organs in
order to constantly regulate the store of grammar and vocabulary memory in the mind
during speech. Therefore all students must repeat the sentence or word outloud and full
volume. Sentences and vocabulary are consistently repeated (Richards 8). The grammar
22


translation, audio-lingual, and proprioceptive language teaching methods all support the
theory that by learning grammar and vocabulary thoroughly through drills and
memorization, one can understand how the mother tongue functions. There is no music,
or dance movement incorporated whatsoever within the structural view.
Within the functional view are the oral approach, situational language teaching,
and the directed practice approach. The oral approach and situational language teaching
was based on the theory that a language will typically use a standard 2000 words and if
the student mastered the vocabulary then they could greatly increase their reading
comprehension. The notion of grammar control emphasized that there are sentence
patterns in spoken language; these patterns were put into handbooks and dictionaries and
given to students. All language points were to be presented in situations leading
students to acquire good habits to be repeated in situations. This teaching method stressed
PPP: presentation of new material in context, practice, and production (Richards).
Although teachers do not use this method today, emphasis on grammar and sentence
patterns and on oral practice are elements that had long lasting effects on language
teaching. The directed practice method, used by U.S. diplomatic courses, simply had
students repeating phrases. It provides a quick phrasebook-type format and knowledge of
the language so that students usage is precise and accurate but limits students in their
choice of how to use the language. The oral approach, situational language teaching, and
directed practice methods are all examples of the functional view of SLA. Once again,
body movement is not part of the functional view nor does it recognize or acknowledge
the culture of the target language.
23


The direct method (sometimes also called the natural method), series method,
communicative language teaching, language immersion, Dogme language teaching, the
Natural Approach, the Silent Way, Suggestopedia, the Proprioceptive language learning
method, Total Physical Response (TPR), Teaching Proficiency through Reading and
Storytelling are all examples of the interactive view (Diller 5). The direct method solely
uses the target language and does not use the native language of the student. This method
believes that one must imitate another language emulating how we learn language as
children; a child never relies on another language to learn LI (6). This method stresses
correct pronunciation and does not emphasize translation and grammar. The direct
method is based on the belief that a teacher should keep written text and printed language
away from the student as long as possible-just as a child does not read or write LI first,
according to this method, an L2 student should not either. Learning writing and spelling
should be delayed until the student has learned the words orally, while grammar and
translation should be avoided entirely because this would involve the application of the
learners first language. This method depends on a step-by-step progression based on
question-answer sessions, which begin with naming common objects such as desk, apple,
person etc. (Diller 7).
The series method, also within the interactive view, is based on the personal
experiences of a man named Francois Gouin who decided that language learning was a
matter of transforming perceptions into conceptions, using language to represent what
one experiences and expressing that language is not an arbitrary set of conventions but
a way of thinking and representing the world to oneself where a learner actively
organizes his perceptions into linguistic concepts (Diller 12). This method includes
24


some of the cultural aspects of the language; however culture is not the focus. Gouin
observed that children grasp concepts at a more rapid rate when presented in a
chronological sequence. He also discovered incubation, which is a second insight into
memory: he found that linguistic concepts take time to settle into the memory. Due to
this, learners must use the concepts frequently after learning them either in acting,
speaking, or presentation in order to master the new concepts. Gouins other observation
was that the verb in the sentence was the most crucial piece of language structure. In one
lesson, Gouin would have only the verb elements visible, and in no more than twenty-five
sentences, he would have students recite the sequence of actions in full sentences. While
he believed that language was rule-governed, he did not believe that grammar rules and
structure should be taught (Diller 9).
Communicative language teaching, like the Dogme approach, is a communicative
approach that promotes teaching a language while introducing authentic texts into the
learning situation. The focus on verbal communication emphasizes successful
completions of tasks. The communicative language teaching approach is based on the
notion that learning emerges through language production focusing on speech and
writing. This approach emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of
learning a language while introducing authentic texts into the learning situation. Example
activities of this approach are role-play, interviews, information gaps, games, language
exchanges, surveys, pair work and learning by teaching (Galloway).
Presently one of the most known and used methods employs TPR (total physical
response) type strategies and techniques (derived from Krashens monitor theory and
Tracy Terrells work in the Natural approach). This approach states that language is
25


internalized first through listening and reading prior to production. Students respond to
commands that require physical movement. These commands could be as simple as
levantense (stand up), sientense (sit down), caminen (walk), bailen cha cha cha (dance
the cha cha cha). In the classroom the teacher and students take on roles similar to that of
the parent and child respectively. Students must respond physically to what the teacher
says. The activity may be a simple game such as Simon says or may involve more
complex grammar and more detailed scenarios. TPR is well suited to teaching classroom
language and other vocabulary connected with actions and can be used to teach
imperatives and various tenses and aspects. It is also useful for storytelling. This
approach develops students listening abilities early on and does not push or force oral
production (Brooks 73). Blaine Rays TPR Storytelling is an extend on of TPR and
involves physical/mental interaction through storytelling. The stories are simple and
short, and are created and elaborated upon by both the teachers and students using a clear
sequence and limited, repetitive vocabulary accompanied with pictures. This approach
subscribes to the sociocultural approach to learning, especially second language learning,
and lays out a fundamental relationship between speaking (language use), thinking (the
development of higher mental functions), and the cultural institutions (like schools) in
which thinking and speaking are formally practiced and developed. I use the TPR
teaching method consistently in my classroom and the students enjoy it when I give them
commands and when they can carry out an action that physically corresponds to the
word. By pairing movement to language, the learner seems to internalize the material.
While these methods may teach grammar, writing, speaking, and listening skills,
adding dance to teaching methodologies can deepen personal meaning and connection to
26


the language, thus making the act of acquiring language easier and more seemless.
Furthermore, including cultural elements from the country where the language is used
provides the learner with a more profound connection to the material.
Chapter Two Conclusions
There are a variety of language teaching methods. Each method has its benefits
and having a variety of methods to use in the language classroom can provide learners
with diverse activities therefore appealing to the different intelligences. The importance
of movement and dance is often overlooked. Although movement is highly incorporated
in the Total Physical Response method, dance is not highlighted. A learner needs to
connect to the language. To teach a language, a teacher must give it depth, meaning, and
significance, otherwise the learner will not care. Adding dance can create a more
powerful learning experience for a student.
As we have seen, there are several methods of teaching a foreign language. A
combination of methods, providing a variety for students, will result in the greatest
amount of enjoyment, retention, and fluency while avoiding monotony (Spurr 433). In
the classroom, The purpose of the lesson is to make the course so vivid as to stimulate
student interest and enthusiasm. With increased enjoyment, students will be more likely
to retain the information and benefit from the lesson so that they can feel more
acquainted with the subject. Careful planning and implementation of a dance in foreign
language curriculum can help to avoid the mundane repetition of daily lessons and
provide variety. Variety is not only the spice of life, but life itself (436).
27


CHAPTER III
AFRO CUBAN/SALSA DANCE AND ITS HISTORY
To look at Salsa dancing and its relationship to the self, it is important to look at
the history of Salsa, its African roots, meaning and cultural relevance. Many people who
dance Salsa experience a connection between the mind, body, and spirit. This connection
can therefore affect ones thoughts, self-esteem, and attitude. Salsa dance today is
internationally recognized and danced around the world. It is one of the most popular
social dances where one will see all ages and ethnicities participating.
Over the last several hundred years, one of the main elements of culture being
passed from generation to generation in Latin America is dance and music. While other
Caribbean islands have produced one or two national styles of dance and music, Cuba has
been the birthplace for numerous music styles and infectious rhythms. Son, Charanga,
Danzon, Cuban Rumba, Cha Cha Cha, Guaguanco, Timba, Latin Jazz, Rumba, Conga,
Mambo, Contradanza, Bolero, and Salsa are just a few popular Latin dances that still
exist today and several of them are danced internationally.
Salsa has strong musical influences from Cuba, Puerto Rico and Latin America
with movements originating from Cuban Son, Cha Cha Cha, Mambo Rumba and other
dance forms. Because of the evolution of the Salsa, there are various styles that often
times represent their geographical location. LA, New York, Columbian, and Miami are
just a few styles of Salsa that have evolved and are defined by their footwork, basic steps,
attitude, timing, body rolls, and how the partners hold each other. Although Salsa is
primarily a partner dance with a lead and a follow, a dancer may dance and enjoy the
music alone or with a group of people.
28


Rhythmically Salsa uses between 150-250 bmp (beats per minute) whereas most
other dancing is done been 160-220 bmp. The key instruments are the clave (two wooden
sticks), congas, piano, timbales, tres guitar, bongos, cowbell, giiiro, maracas, and bass.
The main instrument that provides the groove for Salsa is the clave and there are four
types of clave rhythm. Afro Cuban percussion based around the clave rhythm is the
foundation for all Salsa composition. This rhythm has an extensive and deep-rooted
history demonstrating Salsas complexity, significance, and evolution.
The dictionaries tell us that Salsa means sauce or savor, a type of condiment or
flavoring; it is the savory result of mixing various ingredients. It also is a term to describe
a range of dance rhythms found in the Spanish-speaking Caribbean. Author Hernando
Calvo Ospina explains the history of the Salsa dance and its evolution in his book /Salsa!
Havana Heat, Bronx Beat. Ospina describes Salsa as a commercial creation formed in
the early 1970s in New York City when the Fania Record Company wanted to
popularize Salsa musicians and music. In order to do this, there was a need to craft an
effective and catchy term to appeal to the listeners and create a brand that would identify
this type of music. Prior to Salsa, other words like sabor (flavor), amor (love), fuego
(fire), and bembe (big-lipped) had been used to describe this emotional, rhythmic, and
personal dance form. Some musicologists have said that the word Salsa has been used
extensively throughout the Caribbean musical history and argue that it was used during
the black slave celebrations (1). Despite the varying perspectives about the origin of the
word, all agree that the Salsa was always meant for dancing. Ospina describes it as the
granddaughter of the African slaves drums, daughter of the Cuban Son rhythms (3).
29


In his book From the First Drums to theMambo author Ned Sublette expresses
that Afro Cuban music may have existed more than 2000 years before what is now
known as Cuba. He expresses that the song-and-dance that so repulsed and attracted
the Romans might have been.. .informed by centuries of direct and indirect contact with
black Africa, [whose] music was as rhythmic and infectious then as it is now (8). The
history and cultural importance of Afro Cuban music is extensive and during the 20th
century there was significant growth in the development of Cuban music.
African slaves played an essential part in the evolution of Cuban music and this
history has been passed down song to song and from mouth to mouth. African slaves
were brought to Cuba primarily from the tribes Yoruba, Lucumi, Bantu and Congo.
These tribes brought to the Americas their music, stories, chants, and dances that still
exist today within Salsa and are incorporated into different dance styles and lyrics in
present day Salsa. Despite the horrible conditions that they had to endure during the
crossing at sea from Africa to Cuba and the life they endured upon arrival in the
Caribbean, the African slaves traditions, beliefs in their own religion, and musical
expressions did not die (Ospina 6). Black slaves were organized into groups or
associations and in this way they were able to preserve some of their traditions and
rituals. It was out of these groups that new percussion instruments were created. The
custom of playing sacred drumbeats remained strong. Leonardo Acosta wrote, If we
wish to find a symbol that embraces the cultural identity of the Africans brought by the
slave trade and which has been able to represent that identity throughout the four
centuries of resistance despite the most inhuman and alienating condition known in
history, that symbol would be the drum (Ospina 7). The drums were a sacred instrument
30


and the chants, music, and dances represented the rituals and customs of the African
slaves. It was said that even if in Africa, the Gods danced, then the same was going to
happen in Cuba (9).
Songs, dances and lyrics were addressed to the divinities. These songs were
sacred and were sung by the Yoruba people; the songs that told stories and tales that
derived from and preserved the Yoruba traditions. The following are lyrics from a version
by Celina and Reutilio from a song titled, Tambores Africanos (African Drums):
Cuando siento los tambores africanos
con su ritmo misterioso de Arara
hierve el eco de la sangre de mis venas
y a mi Santo una oracion quiero cantar
Santa Barbara que escuchas desde el cielo
oye el ruego de esta mistica oracion
dame siempre, papa mio, tu consuelo
y salud para alegrar mi corazon.
When I hear the African Drums
with their mysterious Arara rhythm
they echo in the hot blood of my veins
and make me want to sing to my Saint.
Santa Barbara listening in heave
hear the plea of this mystic prayer
give me forever your consolation, Father,
and health to gladden my heart. (Ospina 10)
The Yoruba people adapted to the circumstances but still maintained their sacred
traditions. This kind of a song is a demonstration of not only the importance and
significance of the music, but also of a difficult element that is involved in this music: the
ability to improvise. In many Salsa songs, one will hear references to Chango, the
African divinity that is the God of fire, thunder, and virility. A special song is given to
31


every special god. The following is an example of a song for Chango sung alternating the
solo and chorus:
Solo: Chango moti awa.
Chorus: Ea.
Solo: Aladdo miti awa.
Chorus: Ea.
Solo: Obba odo aladdo
Chango miti awa
Chorus: Ea
Solo: Ala mole bi
Chorus: Ea
Solo: Eni la mo do la koka
Chorus: Ea
Solo: Addeun elesha
Chorus: Ea (Ospina 8)
This song is an example of alternating of solo and chorus, which gives the singer the
opportunity to improvise. This tradition has spanned over hundreds of years and is a main
feature in Salsa music in present day. Lyrics that reference the gods and other divinities
are still sung today and improvisation was and is still an important part of Salsa music.
The Europeans contributed to Cuban music culture as well. The Spaniards
brought their folklore of rhythms, songs and their musical instruments. Trumpets, double
bases, flutes, violins, trombones, the accordion, and the guitar were just some of the
instruments brought to Cuba. From the essential guitar, the Cuban tres, the Puerto
Rican Cuatro and the Colombian triple guitar were born. Poor Spanish migrants had
settled in the Cuban countryside since the late seventeenth century bringing with them the
Spanish couplet. Both rhymes and verses, the Spanish couplet was an ancient form of
singing that owed a lot to the Arabs. With the different social conditions existing at the
time, the mix of African-Spanish culture and communities created a fusion of music and
dance (Ospina 13). Haitians and French communities also had a profound effect on the
32


musical evolution of Cuban music after a revolution broke out against French colonial
rule in 1791. Some of the French and Creoles fled from Haiti to Cuba. The blending of
cultures created new dance forms and added to the evolution of what is now known as
Salsa dance (14).
After Napoleon sold the territory in 1820, many people fled to Cuba from French
Louisiana therefore creating more contact between the Cubans and the French. From this
point on, other elements of Western European music and dance were incorporated into
Cuban peoples dance forms (Ospina 16). The Cuban form of Contredanse became
popular which brought on a demand to form orchestras and find musicians. New
instruments from Europe were introduced into these musical groups. The clarinet, flute,
violin, and trombone were adopted by the musicians and incorporated into the music
(17). Danzon, another type of dance, was also popular until the early 1900s. Ospina
explains an important time in history:
Cubas ten-year war of independence against Spanish colonial rule (1868-78)
destroyed the sugar industry but contributed to the abolition of slavery in 1886.
This meant while the blacks won freedom of movement, they were not free from
poverty, as the slump in sugar production created high rural unemployment. It
was this combination of factors, which prompted not only thousands of former
slaves, but also creoles and mulattos to migrate to the towns, taking their cultural
traditions with them.
The Guajira was danced during this time. This music was influenced by Spanish
traditions and was played in the Cuban countryside. The tres guitar, the clave, the
maracas, and giiiro are used in this dance. The lyrics describe the peasants daily life
(135). Guajira was a significant dance because the Cuban aristocracy used it to wipe out
black music. At the same time any playing of drums in public was banned. In response,
mulattos and blacks used the guitar and lutes in public spaces (21).
33


The Son was developed in the 19th and early 20th centuries and is a type of Cuban
song and dance. It combines African and European musical influences (Ospina 138).
Salsa received Sons harmonic and rhythmic models. The fusion of instruments brought
by the various cultural groups over time created what was identified as the Cuban Son.
Couples would dance to this type of music in a simple way and the musicians were
mainly peasants or workers (22-23). Son gained momentum and popularity and is
expressed in the song Sin Clave y Bongo no Hay Son:
Dicen que de Cuba bella
es originario el son
tierra de cafe y tabaco,
y tiene sabor a ron.
Que ritmo mas rico tiene el son
alegre y Cubano pa bailar.
Dicen que la ma Teodora
fue fundadora del son,
ella es merecedora
de la vivencia del son.
Que ritmo mas rico tiene el son...
Si vienes del extranjero
Y tu lo quieres bailar,
lleva el ritmo de las claves,
marca el compas del bongo
y versa como te sabe,
que rico y que bueno el son...
They say that lovely Cuba
is the birthplace of the son
a land of coffee and tobacco
with the sweet taste of rum.
Listen to the beautiful rhythm of the son
so lively and Cuban to dance to
They say that old ma Teodora
was the creator of the son
34


shes the one to praise
for bringing son to life.
Listen to the beautiful rhythm of the son...
If youre coming from abroad
and you want to dance the son
listen to the rhythm of the claves
listen to the bongo beat
and youll see how sweet it is
how wonderful is the son... (25-26)
The lyrics of the song express how Son represents Cuban culture. Son is important
because as mentioned earlier, it provided Salsa the harmonic and rhythmic models that
are now danced today. It is also important linguistically today because the music matches
the specific dialectal variations of Afro Cuban Spanish.
As time went on and with the spreading of the radio and records the son began to
spread. By the 1930s, the son was also mixing with other Cuban songs. Guajira
Guantanamera is a famous song composed by Joseito Fernandez and was one of the first
Guajira-Son types of songs (Ospina 27). After the Second World War, tourism grew in
Cuba, and the demand for live music was prevalent. Many singers would sing in hotels
and clubs to satisfy the interests of tourists. The famous singer Celia Cruz was one of
singers featured in the luxury hotels. Television, cinema production, and radio were key
factors in exposing Cuban music to other countries (27).
During this time period, many Puerto Rican and Cuban musicians traveled to New
York. The 1950s was an important period for sound technology and record producing.
During the 1960s and 70s, Salsa was highly developed in the Latino barrios of New
York City. Based largely on the Cuban forms of the 1930s, 40s, and 50s, it also
incorporated Puerto Rican elements and influences from Jazz and Rock. Salsas Cuban
and Puerto Rican antecedents were themselves a fusion of African and European
35


elements (Waxer 4). During this time period, the music had its own interracial heritage
including many Jewish and African-American musicians. The music spread to places like
Venezuela, Panama, and Colombia. The lyrics reflected the experiences of the Latin
American black, and mix-race working class, and mirrored the violence and discontent of
the inner city- a distinction to its Cuban antecedents, which came out of the rural milieu.
In the 1970s when the social message caught on with Latin American leftist intellectuals
from the middle and upper-middle classes, Salsa music shed its lower-class associations
to establish a broader devoted following both across national and social boundaries. By
the 1980s, Salsa spread across the world becoming known as an international music and
dance genre (Waxer 4).
Salsa has become one of the most popular dances internationally and has grown to
be a global music phenomenon. Dancers, musicians, and other participants can take part
in Salsa through competitions, social dancing, bands, and online websites and videos. In
1933 when Cuban composer Ignacio Pineiro wrote the song Echale Salsita (put a little
sauce into it) little did he know that this term would come to be known as an
internationally recognized Latin sound (Waxer 3).
Looking at the history of Salsa and Afro Cuban dance paints the picture of the
significance and continuous appeal that has impacted generation after generation. Salsas
infectious draw and transcendence of geographical and cultural boundaries can transcend
linguistic and educational boundaries as well. With its capacity to literally move millions
of people, Salsa has the ability to transform education, cultural relations, and language
acquisition. It can also serve as an example in analyzing the meaning of movement, the
development of self, and how this self relates to other cultures.
36


CHAPTER TV
CULTURAL COMPETENCY, MOVEMENT AND MEANING, AND THE SENSE
OF SELF
Dance is highly disregarded as a valid teaching tool in traditional school settings.
While many schools offer physical education, that alone isnt enough to foster an
environment where creativity and imagination emerge through physical activity. Dance
uses kinesthetic intelligence, which can serve as a platform for all the other intelligences.
As mentioned in chapter two, dance can be one source from which other intelligences are
born, developed, and expanded upon. Dance can also help prepare a child for two
essential parts of development: development of self and this self in relation to other
cultures and customs. Defining who am I is part of childhood and life. Children have to
navigate throughout the day; how they fit in and how they are to relate to others. Living
in diverse communities, they often have to figure out the similarities and differences
between themselves and others and what that means. Salsa and Afro Cuban dance can
offer a way to expose youth to other cultures and languages in a positive manner while
helping answer the question of who am I?
As a teacher, I feel that it is not beneficial for a student to be sitting for long
periods of time, but rather they should be up and moving at some point during a class
period. It is not that a student needs to be moving the entire class but it is important that
there be a balance between how long they are sitting and being talked to and how much
they are getting up and moving their bodies. To sit for long periods of time and be told
information seems counterintuitive to our natural state, which is moving. In the
classroom, the traditional expectation is that the mind is the principal tool we use for
37


learning; our bodies are meant to be used only during P.E. classes or for drama classes
and play rehearsals. In core subject classes like math, history, science, and English,
movement is not emphasized as an additional learning tool. This is not to say that many
teachers dont use movement, but the overall value and emphasis on movement is
miniscule compared to other teaching methods and strategies. After many years of being
a teacher, working in a variety of schools, having a teaching credential, and taking
countless courses in education at the university level, I am perplexed by how little
movement, music, and dance is discussed or acknowledged as a valid teaching tool. It
seems to me that administrators, professors, and other educational specialists should
consider the importance of movement more often.
As a Spanish speaker, a middle school language teacher, and a Salsa dancer I have
continuously asked myself why and how Salsa has played such a huge role in my life, in
the development of who I am, how it has affected my language skills, and how it has
supported and encouraged my relationship with others. Over the many years that I have
danced, I have become aware of the importance of movement in the development of
oneself, and in relating to others in a culturally competent manner. Therefore, it is one of
my goals to teach children language and culture through dance. In this chapter I will talk
about dance as a catalyst for creating a gateway to cultural and linguistic competence, the
connection between movement and meaning, and the development of self.
I propose that Afro Cuban/Salsa dance and movement is meaningful for language
development, cultural competency and development of the sense of self. The
meaningfulness of dance is essential to learning in general. In his article Dancing:
Creative, Healthy Teen Activity Sam Gill talks about how it may be difficult to
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articulate the meaning in dance and music. He says the following about music and
meaning:
Most things that have meaning are what I call propositional; that is, we may
propose a statement to explain what something means despite others who may
argue with that proposal and offer different statements of meaning. On the other
hand, when something is felt to be meaningful, it is something known, heartfelt,
experienced; there is no proposition; there is no need for argument or need for
explanation. Others may experience it differently, but for us, we simply know that
something is meaningful, and we are unlikely to be bothered at all by our
difficulty in articulating some kind of meaning. Now, music and art and dance
have no exclusive claim on being meaningful as opposed to having meaning;
anything can be found to be meaningful by some. I would suggest, however, the
activities we find meaningful are those that meet our most basic human needs and
that invoke the greatest value. These are the intrinsically valued activities. Almost
all education theory I know confirms that intrinsically valued activities have the
greatest educational value (188).
I agree with Gill that activities that have the greatest educational value are those that are
intrinsically valued. I experience this often in the classroom with students. On a daily
basis my students are stressed with the amount of homework they have to produce, with
expectations that they must live up to, and the pressure they feel to get good grades,
satisfy their parents and others, and be able to do everything perfectly. This produces a
lot of anxiety and worry in the students, something I see daily. The pressure to get into a
good high school, a good college, and get a good job starts very young for many children.
When an activity is meaningful to the students, I find that it is intrinsically valued. While
doing these activities, the students are calm and having fun while learning. When I teach
Spanish and Salsa together to children, I see that there is an intrinsic motivation to
learning both the language and dance. This may not be the case for all students, but I find
that the majority of students are involved in the lessons and are enjoying themselves
while learning at the same time. For this reason, movement and dance become
meaningful. They are not driven by external factors like getting a good grade, receiving
39


money or completing a project to satisfy their teachers or peers, but rather they are driven
purely by the gratification they feel when dancing.
Gill is stating that something is felt to be meaningful; it is something known,
heartfelt and experienced. Putting words to a meaningful activity can be difficult to
articulate. Furthermore, he explains that meaningful activities are those that are not
extrinsically driven, but rather are driven intrinsically, and that they meet our most basic
human needs. Needs like touch, human contact, and relationships are essential to the
development of self.
In a similar vein psychologist and author Lev Vygotsky investigated
developmental psychology, child development and education, and how this was guided
by the role of culture and interpersonal communication. Vygotsky observed how children
developed individually within their own cultural groups and how their higher mental
functions were affected through social interactions. Through these interactions a child
came to learn written language, speech patterns, and habits of their own culture through
which a child derives meaning, therefore influencing a childs construction of his/her
own knowledge (Santrock 200). Vygotsky argued that:
A persons intellectual development cannot be reduced to the individual struggle
to construct a linguistic system via input to the individual brain but rather must
take into account the individuals interactions with other people in the social and
material world, which he considered the very mechanism underlying higher
mental functions [since] all higher mental functions are internalized social
relationships ... and that it is through participation in the socially-mediated
processes- such as those that constitute daily life in classrooms- the individual
comes to use, and thereby learn, language as a tool with which to think and to act.
In this way, human psychology is the sum of all internalized social relationships,
and it is out of this process that the individual becomes formed as a member of
community. (Brooks 77)
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Vygotsky is explaining that a childs intellectual development is highly influenced by the
social interaction that a child experiences with others. Learning a language requires social
interaction and by participating in social relationships, a higher mental function is
developed. By teaching language and dance simultaneously, these higher mental
functions are being constructed through social contact. As students are learning a new
dance and language, they are not only learning about a new culture, but they are deriving
meaning from their own culture.
Salsa encompasses cultural traditions and identity. It can be a creative outlet, a
form of play, and create a sense of community. One of the biggest attractions is its ability
to make people move together- to dance. Everyday troubles are forgotten and participants
laugh, smile, and enjoy how the music comes to life through the elaborate rhythms,
through an assortment of instruments and powerful voices that transcend this genre of
music. It is important to talk about the dancers experience while listening to the music
and dancing at the same time in order to further look at the importance of movement and
how this can relate to language acquisition.
While people may have different experiences when dancing, I would like to
describe a common experience. When dancing Salsa, a dancer will listen to the music and
simultaneously move their body while dancing with a partner. Some Salsa dancers may
listen to all the instruments both together and separately and time their movements to the
sounds of those particular instruments. The clave (the two wooden sticks) provides the
main beat and all the other instruments play within that beat. While all the musicians
maintain a beat with the individual instrument, a dancer can improvise and be creative
within the limits of the beat of the clave. The musicians work together as a team or
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community to produce music that is energetic, meaningful, and representative of the
culture. The dancer receives the energy from the music and band, and may adopt or sense
the feeling of community and family that the band is emulating. All the meanwhile, the
dancer is dancing with a partner and also has to work together with that partner to
communicate, read body language, and respect each others space and style.
Different skill sets are being developed when dancing: intuition, trial and error,
listening skills, and cultural awareness and acceptance. As author Lise Waxer says in her
book Situating Salsa: Global Markets and Local Meaning in Latin Popular Music.
The social interaction of the Salsa dance is mirrored and reinforced by the
dynamic exchanges of the musicians themselves ... following the complex
polyrhythmic conversations of Salsa performance can be as exhilarating as getting
down on the dance floor. Salsa is also a gateway to the cultural Other, a
fascinating and often exotic world where new selves find liberation from cultural
structures (3).
Waxer expresses that by dancing Salsa, the participant may be inadvertently exposed to
other cultures and customs. The essential word she uses is gateway to express that it
can give a dancer the opportunity to be exposed to a cultural other. This is not saying
that a dancer will fully understand or automatically be part of that culture, but rather it
can serve as a door that opens to the discovery of new cultures. This exposure may
promote cultural sensitivity and awareness, and the dance experience can connect the
dancer inextricably to the roots out of which Afro Cuban/Salsa dance developed.
Breaking free from restrictive cultural structures through dance may even help form a
new identity.
The dancers, band, audience, and others involved have a shared experience where
there is a sense of community and coming together that can dissipate negative stereotypes
about Hispanic culture. Salsa is a gateway to see, feel, and experience a deeper part of
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history through the sharing of music and dance. We become close to the other in the
sense that we feel connected to the rhythm, the music, the other dancers, and everyone
involved which gives us a connection to the roots where it came from. El Gran Combo de
Puerto Rico, a well-known Salsa band, expresses the significance of these ideas through
meaningful symbolism in their famous song, Sin Salsa no Hay Paralso. The following
lyrics give an example of the deeper meaning of Salsa:
Oiga mi gente yo bailo Salsa
bailando Salsa papa me hizo
cantando Salsa me elevo al cielo
porque sin Salsa no hay paraiso...
La baila el chino, la baila el suizo...
por eso estamos en el mismo ritmo
esto es internacional y mundial, y a la gente le encanta...
el mundo entero baila esta Salsa
Listen, my people, I dance Salsa
father made me dance Salsa
singing Salsa elevated me to heaven
because without Salsa there is no paradise
A Chinese person dances it, a Swiss person dances it
because we are all in the same rhythm
it is international and of the world, and people love it...
the whole world dances this Salsa
This song is often played and one will observe all the dancers enjoying and singing the
lyrics along with the band. Even if a dancer doesnt understand the exact meaning, there
is an essence and energy that is transmitted to those listening. The lyrics represent how
Salsa is passed down generation to generation. They sing, Me elevo al cielo [it took me
to heaven], showing that this genre of music is a gateway to the other, whether that be
a cultural other as mentioned by Waxer, or a spiritual other as referenced in the song.
The lyrics demonstrate how Salsa is intended to be a shared experience, inclusive of
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everyone regardless of ethnicity, cultural background, language spoken, or upbringing.
The song says, esto es intemacional y mundial [it is international and of the world],
expressing how dancing can bring people together because it has no limits, barriers, or
stereotypes. By teaching language through Afro Cuban/Salsa dance, there is an
opportunity for a student to deepen their knowledge of Hispanic culture by connecting
personally to the music and thus developing culturally competency.
Salsa dancing brings people together because of the nature of the music, its
history, and the connections formed between the dancers, the musicians, and others
involved. A dancer may also form a new relationship with themself. What I have come to
discover is how movement and music positively influences a students sense of self. Over
the span of a school year, I will see a student develop a new sense of self through the
combination learning of a second language with dance and music. A possible reason for
this growth is that through the teaching of dance, we are potentially enlivening and
teaching to all the intelligences.
A child can learn language through interactions with the social and
material world and through dance a child is given the opportunity to connect with
others on a personal and cultural level. Sam Gill states that:
Dancing as making is the making through movement of an other, a corporeal
other, an other whose body is coincident with the body of the maker, the dancer.
The dancer then experiences this other not as object, but rather as subject,
proprioceptively. The dancer feels the other in exactly the same way the dancer
feels and knows herself... the other is known in movement; experienced as
posture, habit, skill, body schemas, and sensorimotor patters. In dancing, the other
is mesoperceived. (4)
Gill expresses that in dancing you are othering yourself by doing something new and
from another culture but you are experiencing it proprioceptively as yourself. In dancing
44


you are making yourself and making another of your own body then feel what the other
is feeling as though it was yourself. Because gestures and movements are often culturally
based, learning these new gestures and movements exposes you to aspects of other
cultures. A gestural movement can be the bridge from one culture to another. This is
similar to learning a new language. You are experiencing the language yourself and
therefore there is a gateway to another culture that you experience by speaking the
language. Gill explains in his article Dancing as Making the significance of dance and
how dance can be an act of making and unmaking. He explains the process of making as
presented by Elaine Scarry in her book The Body in Pain: The Making and Unmaking of
the World where she states, It is a crazy insight to recognize that all made things are, in
some sense, patterned on the body or at least our idea of what a body should be. It is
important that we realize that in making stuff, we are remaking ourselves (1). By learning
a new dance we are actually remaking ourselves. This can happen at any age with any
type of dance. When a person dances a dance from a culture that is new to them, there is
an opportunity for that person to remake themselves. Dancing does have the ability to
help create, expand, and develop identity. Dancing at a fundamental level also helps in
the development of the brain.
At the National Institute of Health, Jay Giedd conducted research on the
cerebellum (Giedd). This is a separate part that is attached to the bottom of the brain and
in Latin cerebellum means little brain (Fine 375). Other parts of the brain and the
sensory systems of the spinal cord send input to the cerebellum, therefore this region
plays an important role in motor control. Other cognitive functions such as attention and
language may also be involved with the cerebellum as well as being connected to social
45


behaviors. The cerebellum contributes to timing, coordination, and precision but does not
initiate movement (375). Giedds research showed that the cerebellum continues to
change and develop throughout adolescence (Giedd). Knowing that the brain changes
throughout adolescence, it is essential that a child engage in activities that promote brain
development.
Dancing, music, and movement are essential to the development of self. The
corpus callosum is the part of the brain that connects the right and left sides allowing for
communication between the two. It is a thick band of nerve fibers that divides the
cerebrum and is involved in several functions of the body including tactile location, eye
movement, and maintaining the balance of arousal and attention (Baily). In the article
Early Musical Training and White-Matter Plasticity in the Corpus Callosum: Evidence
for a Sensitive Period researchers found that musical training for children under the age
of seven showed increased plasticity of the corpus callosum. This happened during the
sensitive period of time in development and they hypothesized that early musical
training might have a differential impact on plasticity in the white-matter fibers
connecting sensory and motor regions resulting in better sensorimotor integration
(Steele 1282-1283).
In his article, Gill states that research has shown that cross-lateral movement can
lead to communication between the left and right brain. This exercises and helps develop
the brain. The communication between the two sides of the brain happens through the
corpus callosum. This cross-lateral movement can just be a simple movement of your
hand crossing your midline. Gill talks about how dancing uses movement across several
axes of orientation thus promoting the communication between the left and the right
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brain. He uses a dance called Rueda, to exemplify cross-lateral movements saying that,
the ambidextrous nature in doing every dance movement in both the lead and follow
positions has the benefit of requiring extensive communication within the brain, and
requiring both halves of the brain to be equally involved (191). Rueda is a particular
type of Salsa dance developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Afro Cuban/Salsa is
similar to Rueda when partner dancing and uses similar movements. Doing these
movements helps in the development of the brain and can increase communication
between both hemispheres.
As Holt and Flinchum say in the article Feel the Sound: Integrating Music and
Movement:
The more practice a student has in the psychomotor domain, the better she will be
in using the sensory input and performing with a richer and more complete motor
response. The movement taxonomy of fine and gross motor skills ranges from
reflex action through perceptual-motor skills, physical abilities, and complex
skills to interpretive and creative expression. The growth and development of
children takes place through a series of beginning stages and progresses through a
continuum to refinement. As basic motor skills develop, the child is now ready to
make conceptual applications to complex, advanced motor acts. (53)
While what Holt and Flinchum describe is the physical result of movement, it is the
foundation from which other meaning is derived. Movement can make a learner
physically stronger and positively affect a childs ability to perform, create, and
understand varying material. Most importantly movement affects the areas of human
feeling, attitudes, and values. In language learning, if the child feels the words through
performance with music, there is more depth to the understanding of the words than if the
child only learns the phrase, or sees a picture of that action. Thus, a teaching approach
that incorporates dance and music will nurture students in the development of their
cognitive, psychomotor, and emotional capacities (Holt & Flinchum 54).
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When we teach to all the intelligences in an active way, we foster creativity, a
sense of I, and openness towards other people and cultures. Sheets-Johnstone writes
that movement forms the I that moves before the I that moves forms movement,
which suggest that the ability to move oneself is the groundwork of any and all
constitutive processes and also locates agency and subjectivity in the body (Tolbert 138).
Sheets-Johnston explains that,
Movement validates and gives expression to an I not in the sense of a self, a
reified, conceptual entity, but in the sense of agency, of capability, hence in the
sense of a kinesthetic/kinetic reality. Movement is indeed the basis of our
experience of ourselves as capable and effective agents in the world: we can do
things, accomplish things, make things happenand correlatively, we have the
possibility of changing the way we do things, accomplish things, and make things
happen. (1)
Movement forms the I, but this I is ever changing and by learning new movement we
are able to transform our sense of self. Salsa has the capability to add, shape, or create
identity. Sheets-Johnston expresses that through movement we are able to be active
participants in the world and make things happen.
There are a multitude of ways of viewing, describing, and analyzing the lived
experience and meaning of dance and movement. In her article, Creativity and Dance:
Implications for Pedagogy and Policy author Peggy Schwartz examines Howard
Gardners theory of multiple intelligences and Rudolf Labans language for movement
description as a means to discuss creativity and meaning in dance. Laban developed a
method and language for interpreting, describing, visualizing and notating all modes of
human movement that is comprised of four main categories: body, effort, shape, and
space. Labans Movement Analysis is one of the most widely used systems of human
movement analysis.
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Many educators believe that educating through art is essential and that through art
they are educating for life. By using dance as an educational tool, it in turn, can be a life
tool by bringing attention to the awareness of oneself, others, and the environment while
teaching for an experience of wholeness, of body/mind/spirit integration, of awareness
that heightens rather than interferes with the experience of the lived moment (8).
As discussed in chapter two of this thesis, Howard Gardner describes seven
different discrete intelligences, one being bodily kinesthetic. The bodily kinesthetic
intelligence can be the grounds from which other intelligences grow, and dancer and
dance educator Anne Green Gilbert describes this concept in A conceptual approach to
studio dance Pre K-12 In the conceptual approach students will:
work with spatial concepts (visual/spatial intelligence);
work with rhythm and music concepts (musical intelligence);
analyze movement, learn patterns and create logical movement sequences
(logical/mathematical intelligence);
learn the meaning of the dance vocabulary and verbally discuss and evaluate
choreography (verbal/ linguistic intelligence);
work with others in a variety of relationships (interpersonal intelligence);
gain an understanding of their feelings, and express inner thought through
movement (intrapersonal intelligence); and;
learn to control their bodies (kinesthetic intelligence)
According to Gilbert, when a teacher uses the conceptual approach, students not only
strengthen all intelligences, but are also engaged in and develop a deeper understanding
of dance (Gilbert 43-44). I will add to this conviction that by tapping into all the
intelligences, a student will then therefore tap into a deeper sense of self. Dance
movement, then, can lead to the development of self.
Although there are several factors in a persons life that contribute to their health
and well-being such as environment, physical injury, nutrition etc., studies have found
that there is a profound connection between the effect the mind and spirit have on the
49


body and vice versa (Larson 1). Through dance, people can learn holistically using
mind/body integration with an awareness that heightens rather that interferes with the
experience of the lived moment (Schwartz 8). The body refers to the biological,
chemical and physical aspects of a person while mind refers to the emotions, thoughts,
feelings, and mental processes. Spirit refers to ones relationship with the Divine (it
doesnt have specific denominational overtones) (Fosarelli 208). The medical world has
acknowledged that the mind and body are intimately connected and the one affects the
other; more and more chemical and biological evidence showed that ones emotions,
reactions, and thoughts could ultimately alter the physical body (209). As stated in
Fosarellis article,
Researchers in one of the newest medical fields, psychoneuroimmunology,
underscore a fundamental fact of life: that how we think (psycho) affects not only
our nervous system but also our immune systems (immunology). Ultimately, how
we think can play a role in the genesis and outcome of a given illness (209)... and
it is said that the person who is healthy emotionally is also healthy spiritually, and
vice versa. A person who has appropriate self-esteem does not suffer from
inadequacy or arrogance. Such a person can rejoice in other peoples gifts and not
be threatened by them (212).
Movement and music in education can be an excellent learning tool in helping
develop cognitive, emotional, and physical skills. Movement can be a wonderful
motivator; dance, specifically, can have a deep and significant meaning that goes beyond
physical skills. In a typical school day, a child will sit the majority of the time. They
become restless, uninterested, tired and frustrated. As a teacher, I see the moment in
which their eyes glaze over and they are no longer present in the classroom. The minute
that the students hear music they immediately start to perk up, get out of their chairs, and
want to move their bodies. The energy in the room changes and the transformation from
being checked-out to checked-in has occurred. When I teach Salsa dance to my
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students, they are enlivened, creative, and completely engaged. Some students surprise
me by their interest, enthusiasm, and willingness to learn something that is not often
taught. When they get up and are moving and dancing, they are transformed, and the
more they dance, the more their sense of self is shaped, formed, and constructed. I
consistently use movement as a means to learn language in the classroom, and the
students often are excited and happy when involved in activities that include music and
movement.
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CHAPTER V
FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE: THE DANCE KIDS DANCE AND
LANGUAGE PROGRAM
The Dance Kids Dance and Language Program is a DVD series used in
classrooms or at home as a resource for teachers and parents to teach children about
language and culture through dance. It is an interactive program that uniquely
teaches children dances from around the world in an exciting and interactive
manner. The series uses diverse characters, various teaching techniques, and
magical elements to expose children to a particular dance from a foreign country,
giving them the opportunity to learn about the culture, geography, traditions,
language, history, and other educational aspects of the dance.
The target age group is 3-10, grade level pre-kindergarten to fifth grade.
There is a pilot video already produced called Salsa With Me. The proposed DVD
series is divided into episodes that will focus on a specific dance and culture while
teaching a set of words and phrases from the language corresponding to that culture.
For example, the Salsa dance comes from the Spanish speaking countries Cuba and
Puerto Rico; therefore students will be learning words and phrases in Spanish.
There are two principal characters and settings: a teacher in a classroom who
is both a language teacher and dancer (Magic Maestra Marissa) and an elfin
creature who is part human and part elf (Terrific Tobito) in the forest of fantasy;
there are additional supporting characters as well. In the DVD series a group of
students are transported between the two settings as they learn a new dance,
language, and the cultural aspects of that dance. The viewer goes on the same
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adventure, participates in the same activities, does the same movements etc. as the
student characters in the series. The entire episode teaches words and phrases in the
target language while teaching the dance.
Each episode has set words and phrases that will be continually repeated in the
target language. For example a group of words in Spanish that a student may learn in one
episode would be the following words or phrases: estudiantes (students),pon (put), toca
(touch), pies (feet), cabeza (head), hombros (shoulders), pier nets (legs), los (th e), juntos
(together), atras (back), adelante (forward), muy bien (very good), badamos (we dance),
somos (we are). Nouns, commands, prepositions, articles, verbs etc. are grouped together
in order to give the students an overall foundation of the language. Each episode will
build on the vocabulary, grammar, etc. presented in the previous episodes.
An example of the use of language with a dance movement goes as follows: As
Magic Maestra Marissa is teaching the main Salsa dance step she will say, students,
estudiantes, put both feet together, pon los dos pies juntos. Can you say pies juntosl
Repite, pie juntos. Both the students in the episode and viewers will then put their feet
together and repeat pies juntos She will then continue by saying, step your right foot
back, pie derecho atras, now bring it back together, pies juntos. At the same time the
words in both languages will be shown on screen to appeal to visual learners as well. The
students will learn the Salsa steps and will be learning corresponding words in Spanish.
Music will then be added after the steps have been practiced two or three times. By doing
the action and repeating the corresponding word in the second language, a student is
using kinesthetic intelligence, thus giving him a greater opportunity to retain the
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information being taught. The viewer is consistently asked to repeat the word and take
part in the action, movement, or activity shown.
After being with Magic Maestra Marissa the students are then transported to the
Forest of Fantasy with Terrific Tobito whose role is to expose children to the cultural
aspects of the dance and language, such as the instruments, clothing, food, history, and
art. An example activity is as follows: Terrific Tobito will take out instruments used in
the Salsa dance and say to the students, iQue es esto? What is this? These are called las
maracas. Can you say yo toco las maracas (I play the maracas)? The students will then
repeat yo toco las maracas and then they act as though they are playing the
instruments. He will explain about the maracas saying that they may be made with beans
or rice, and then continue to introduce other instruments and cultural facts. By learning
the cultural aspects of the language students are deepening their knowledge of other
cultures as well as their own.
The students are then transported back to Magic Maestra Marissas classroom
where they dance in partners and play a game reviewing all the words, phrases, and
cultural facts that they have learned throughout the episode. Viewers at home should feel
as though they are having the same experiences as the students in the DVD. At the end
the students will participate in a sing-along song that incorporates the words and phrases
taught in the episode with both Terrific Tobito and Magic Maestra Marissa.
The Dance Kids Dance and Language Program is designed to be interactive,
educational, and fun with the goal of inspiring children to approach learning a language
in an imaginative and accepting manner. The characters are articulate, respectful, and
inquisitive, servings as role models that encourage young viewers to exhibit these same
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behaviors. While the show promotes travel and exploration, it also demonstrates that
school can be a comfortable, fun, and safe place. The series provides a positive setting for
learning where partner and teamwork is encouraged and manners are demonstrated. This
type of program will:
1. Provide a vehicle for the authentic study of culture, since language and culture are
inseparable.
2. Provide the setting for practice in human relations
3. Provide a setting for inter-personal communication in Spanish
4. Provide a setting for encouragement and appreciation
5. Provide a setting where students may learn about self and others
6. Enrich respect for other cultures and peoples
7. Provide for the use of creative skills
8. Provide a setting for participation in authentic cultural experiences (Schrade 519)
The Dance Kids Dance and Language Program combines a variety of pre-
existing language teaching methods while adding in dance as an additional teaching tool.
Total Physical Response (TPR) is often used as the students hear a command and are
expected to do the corresponding action. By imitating another language without
emphasizing grammar the direct method is being implemented. The series method uses
chronological order to teach a language through incubation, in which linguistic
concepts take time to settle into the students memory. Using these concepts frequently
after teaching words and expressions in acting, speaking, or presentation will help a child
learn the material at a more rapid rate. This is seen in the Dance Kids Dance and
Language Program, as the student will imitate the teacher while doing the action and
saying the newly learned word or phrase; then they will use it again in the dance, thus
using the words directly afterwards. The way the dance and language is initially taught is
presented in a sequential and chronological order making it both logical and intuitive for
the child. The series method, created by Gouin, uses question and answer sessions to
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provide a step-by-step progression to learning a language. In the Dance Kids program,
the teacher asks the viewer questions in Spanish such as, iQue es esto? What is this?
and gives the viewer time to answer. Gouin believed that the most important part of the
sentence is the verb and Dance Kids often uses phrases that start with a verb, Toca,
touch, mueve, move, pan, put, hnnca, jump, baila, dance, etc. The communicative
language teaching approach emphasizes interaction and the introduction of authentic
texts. Dance kids students interact with the teacher and the other characters and children
while using the language to interact with the dance as well. The Dance Kids Dance and
Language Program uses the proprioceptive language learning method as the student
repeats what the teacher is saying and by presenting new material in context, practicing
the new knowledge, and producing results. Here, the oral approach/situational learning
teaching method is being implemented.
As described above, many language-teaching methods are being implemented in
this new program. By adding dance, the material being taught is gaining new meaning
and depth with the goal that the students will acquire an L2 at a more rapid rate while
learning new cultural elements.
Studies Conducted
In a study conducted in 1977, results showed how dance and movement integrated
into language arts lessons increased test scores. Research was conducted on 250 students
from four different elementary schools showing an increase of 13% on the MAT scores
from fall to spring due to the movement and dance based lessons. The district-wide
average showed a decrease of 2%! A classroom with 15 minutes per week of movement
56


during the lessons showed the least amount of improvement while classrooms with 15
minutes of movement per day showed significant improvement (Gilbert 1).
Theodorakou and Zervas (2003) investigated the influence of the creative
teaching method and the traditional teaching method on self-esteem of 107 fifth and
sixth-grade children using The Self-Perception Profile for Children. Results showed that
the teaching method of creative movement was most effective in improving the pupils
general self-esteem and also specific areas of self-esteem such as the cognitive, social,
and physical ones (Boumelli 105).
Thesis Conclusion
The education system in the United States has methods that can be improved upon in
order to better serve children in their development and growth. International advisor on
education, Sir Ken Robinson, spoke regarding student success and engagement in a talk
titled How to Escape Educations Death Valley. He suggests that there are three ways to
improve education:
First, it should foster diversity by offering a broad curriculum and encourage
individualization of the learning process; secondly, it should foster curiosity
through creative teaching, which depends on high quality teacher training and
development; and finally, it should focus on awakening creativity through
alternative didactic processes that put less emphasis on standardized testing,
thereby giving the responsibility for defining the course of education to individual
schools and teachers.
According to Robinson, the present education system primarily focuses on
standardization, compliance, and conformity rather than using creative approaches to
learning. He emphasizes that schools are an organic system, not a mechanical one. It is
important to remember that education can and should be dynamic, diverse, and engaging.
57


Robinson expresses that offering a broad curriculum to students will expand the
education system in a positive and forward-thinking manner. I am proposing that dance is
a way to acquire a language, which reaffirms Robinsons idea of fostering diversity in
curriculum. Dance is one way to appeal to different types of learners while using a
creative approach to learning. Creativity is defined as the ability to transcend traditional
ideas, rules, patterns, relationships, or the like, and to create meaningful new ideas,
forms, methods, interpretations, etc.; originality, progressiveness, or imagination
(dictionary.com). Incorporating Afro Cuban/Salsa into the traditional language-learning
classroom transcends traditional ideas while creating meaningful new ideas. It can inspire
creativity in students by transcending their previous thought processes about what
learning looks like. Dance can be incorporated seamlessly into the school day to
complement other teaching methods and techniques.
Learning a new language through dance adds another perspective to previous
formed language teaching methods. There are different theories on language acquisition
and second language learning. Some theorists believe that there is a biological structure
already in place in the brain making it possible to learn complex grammatical structures
at a young age while others believe that social contact and interaction are the essential
components to learning a first language. Many language theorists believe that it is a
combination of both. A variety of teaching methods and approaches have been developed
in accordance with how people think students will most effectively learn a second
language.
Many of these methods use role-plays, listening activities, reading material,
memorization techniques, and other approaches. All of these methods are applicable and
58


some are essential to learning a language. Movement is incorporated into some of the
methods and appeals to the kinesthetic intelligence. Dance, however is not integrated into
previously formed language teaching methods. The Dance Kids Dance and Language
Program encourages learning a language through dance and promotes cultural
competency.
Part of Sir Ken Robinsons methods of improving education is to foster curiosity
through creative teaching. Afro Cuban/Salsa dance can initiate curiosity about other
cultures, communities, and traditions. The rich history and evolution of this unique dance
is extensive, deeply rooted, and now, internationally recognized. Learning Afro
Cuban/Salsa can be an opportunity for students to develop cultural awareness while
developing a deeper understanding about others. This awareness of others can also lead to
a deeper awareness about them selves. The act of learning about a new culture can lead to
a more profound reflection about ones own culture and customs. Because of this, a
person may expand and develop their identity and sense of self. As a teacher, Salsa
dancer, and language learner, I know that Spanish and Afro Cuban/Salsa has played and
continues to play an integral part in who I am today, how I perceive myself, and how I
perceive other cultures.
59


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