Citation
Thesis presentation material

Material Information

Title:
Thesis presentation material
Creator:
Chrysler, Marissa Frances ( author )
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 electronic file (xx pages). : ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Education, Bilingual ( lcsh )
Dance in education ( lcsh )
Dance in education ( fast )
Education, Bilingual ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Review:
Language acquisition and kinesthetic intelligence are interconnected in terms of how a child acquires both a first (L1) and second (L2) language. Many language-teaching methods have been developed with varying theories regarding the most effective way of learning language. Very few of these methods incorporate dance as a significant way of learning. By incorporating Afro Cuban dance and its successor Salsa into teaching methods a student may have greater opportunity to retain the language, to develop a positive sense of self, and to become more culturally and linguistically competent. The Dance Kids Dance and Language Program teaches children culture and language through dance, and is designed as an additional resource for teachers and parents
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of Colorado Denver.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographic references.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Marissa Frances Chrysler.

Record Information

Source Institution:
|University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
919505523 ( OCLC )
ocn919505523

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Full Text
AFRO CUBAN/SALSA DANCE IN
BILINGUAL EDUCATION AND THE
DEVELOPMENT OF HISPANIC CULTURAL
COMPETENCY
By: Marissa Frances Chrysler


Abstract
Language acquisition and kinesthetic intelligence are
interconnected in terms of how a child acquires both a
first (L1) and second (L2) language.
Few language teaching methods incorporate dance as
a way of learning.


ABSTRACT
Afro Cuban/Salsa as a teaching method offers
students:
a greater opportunity to retain the language
a reflection of self and identity
exposure to other cultures
a fun way to learn a language
The Dance Kids Dance and Language Program
teaches children culture and language through dance
and is to be used as an additional resource for
teachers and parents.


I represent the target student group in this thesis because Spanish
and Salsa were not part of my everyday life growing up.


My Background
I grew up in Colorado with a Irish mother and a Hungarian father.
Although my parents exposed me to other cultures and languages,
neither Afro Cuban/Salsa nor Spanish were part of my daily life.
I have been a Salsa dancer since I was a young teenager dancing
several different forms and styles in a variety of countries and dance
communities.
I have taught Spanish for 10 years ranging from Kindergarten to
college level.
I currently teach 7th grade Spanish and dance to kids in the 6th-8th
grade and am often in the K-5th grade classrooms.


Afro Cuban/Salsa Dance and
History
Today there are several types of Salsa:
Cuban, On1, On2, LA, Colombian...
Rhythmically Salsa uses
between 150-250 bmp
(beats per minute)
The clave provides the heartbeat for the Salsa.
Some instruments are the clave,
congas, piano, timbales, tres guitar,
bongos, cowbell, guiro, maracas,
bass, horns


The Evolution of Afro Cuban/Salsa
The African
slave trade
brings Africans
to Cuba
Invention of the
radio, tourism,
international
travel
Fania Record
Company uses
the term Salsa
The tribes'"'
(Yoruba,
Lacurm, Bantu,
and Congo)
brought their
music, stories,
chants, and
instruments
Contradanse,
Danzon,
Guajira,
Cha Cha Cha,
Guaguanco,
Son
Afro
Cuban/Salsa
spreads
internationally
Fusion of
African and
European
and dance
and music
Haitian and French
communities
contribute to the
musical evolution
Salsa Competitions,
conferences, ESPN
championships, different
styles


Salsa Comes to the First
Grade Classroom!


Dance and the Classroom
Dance is not seen as a valued teaching tool and students are not
regularly exposed to dance
For me dance fosters a learning environment that is fun, creative
and positively contributes to student development and expanded
viewpoints about themselves and others.
Key questions:
1. How can students learn a second language in a fun, interactive
way while retaining the information long-term?
2. How can students develop a positive sense of self?
3. How can a student be exposed to other cultures?
4. How can dance improve language acquisition in U.S.
education?


Percent of public elementary schools offering instruction designated specifically
for various arts subjects for the school year 2009-10
(United States Department of Education [Page 12]).
Out of 67,148 public elementary schools
o
music drama/theatre dance visual arts


Kinesthetic Intelligence
Learning style in which learning takes place by the students carrying out
physical activities
Howard Gardners theory of multiple intelligences:
1 .visual/spatial,
2. musical
3. logical/mathematical
4. verbal/linguistic
5. interpersonal
6. intrapersonal
7. bodily-kinesthetic intelligence
8. linguistic
Dance and rhythmic movement is a type of kinesthetic intelligence that lends
itself to developing the other intelligences as well (Schwartz 8).


Proprioception
-N
Otherwise known
as the
kinesthetic sense
Proprioception gives us the \
awareness of our bodies as we
are moving; it is the awareness
of the location of our body
parts as they are moving in the
now moment.
a neurological occurrence that is based in
sensory receptors associated with joints
and muscles that sense and provide
feedback to the demands placed on joints
and muscles both from without and within
(Gill 3).
CL
If a word is paired with a
movement, then the language
learner may have a higher
chance of retaining the new
information because as
proprioception translates
qualities between memory and
sensorimotor responses as
expressions (Gill 3).


Music, Dance
and
Movement


Native Language Acquisition
Noam Chomsky
biological characteristics and structures already in the
brain (Sakai).
Lev Vygotsky and Jerome Bruner
The social interactionist theory: language is acquired
through interaction with others (Bruner).
Ray Jackendoff and Fred Lerdahl
innate resources in the human brain that make it possible
to acquire music grammar. (Jackendoff 34).


Second Language Acquisition
Researchers have found that:
there is a clear distinction and contrast between the
development of L1 and learning L2.
each individual is different when learning an L2.
The optimal time to become fluent in a second language
is before age 12 (Abello 170).
Second-language acquisition can be divided up into five
stages: preproduction, early production, speech
emergence, intermediate fluency, and advanced fluency.


Stephen Krashen's theory of second language
acquisition
Of his five theories, The Acquisition-Learning is the
most prominent (The others are: Monitor, Input hypothesis, Natural Order hypothesis, Affective
Filter)
Acquired system: meaningful interaction in the target
language
Learning System: formal instruction and it comprises a
conscious process which results in conscious knowledge
'about' the language, (for example knowledge of grammar
rules).


Principle Views in Second Language
Acquisition Theory:
Structural Vfew
Ww
'V
& Dogme
Approach


This video is an example of pairing
Spanish, movement, and dance


Cultural Gateway
Dance is a catalyst for creating a gateway to cultural
and linguistic competence.
Lise Waxer in her book, Situating Salsa: Global
Markets and Local Meaning in Latin Popular Music
states:
Salsa is also a gateway to the cultural Other, a fascinating and often exotic
world where new selves find liberation from cultural structures (3).
Breaking free from restrictive cultural structures through dance may
even help form a new identity.


Culture and Identity
Students are not only
learning about a new
culture, but they are
deriving meaning from
their own culture.
J
By dancing you are
othering yourself by
doing something new
and from another
culture but you are
experiencing it
proprioceptively as
yourself (Gill).

We are potentially enlivening
and teaching all the
intelligences. When we teach to
all the intelligences in an active
way, we foster creativity, a
sense of I, and openness
towards other people and
cultures (Sheets-Johnstone).


The Development of Self
Nurturing students in
the development of
their cognitive,
psychomotor, and
emotional capacities
(Holt & Flinchum 54).
Higher mental
functions are being
constructed through
social contact.
he development of certain parts of the brain:
The corpus callosum connects the two
sides of the brain.
The cerebellum contributes
tp timing, coordination,
.and precision.


The Dance Kids Dance and
Language Program
Produced and created a DVD called Salsa with Me in
2007 sold to schools nationally.
Proposed DVD/TV series divided into episodes
focusing on specific dances, cultures, and language
concepts with the target age of 3-11 years old.
The series uses diverse characters, magical settings in
an interactive format.
The focus is on culture, geography, traditions,
language, history, and other educational aspects of the
dance.


The Dance Kids Snapshot


Conclusion
Learning Afro Cuban/Salsa can be an opportunity for
students to:
Learn a language in a fun and interactive way
Heighten language retention
Develop cultural awareness
Develop a deeper awareness about themselves.


Conclusion
Salsas infectious draw and transcendence of
geographical and cultural boundaries can transcend
linguistic and educational boundaries


El Gran Combo:
Sin Salsa No
Hay Paraiso


Thank you for watching


References
Bruner, Jerome, and Rita Watson. Child's Talk: Learning to Use Language. N.p.:
W.W. Norton, 1983. Print.
Chomsky, Noam. On Nature and Language. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002. Print.
"Did Language Evolve from Singing?" Science 2.0. Frontiers in Psychology, 23
Feb. 2013. Web. 29 Mar. 2015. Singing?>.
El Gran Combo de Puerto Rico. Sin Salsa no Hay Paraiso. CD
Fine, Edward, Catalina lonita, and Linda Lohr. "The History of the Development
of the Cerebellar Examination." Seminars in Neurology (2002): 375-85.
Print.
Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind. New York: Basic, 1985. Print.
Giedd, Jay. "Inside the Teenage Brain." PBS. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2015.
giedd.html>.
Gill, Sam. "Dancing as Making." June 2009. Body Dance Play. Web. 29 Mar. 2015.
.
. "Dancing: Creative, Healthy Teen Activity." Intellect Limited 1.1
(2014): 181-207. Print.
- -. Telephone interview. 19 Mar. 2015.


References
Jackendoff, Ray, and Lerdahl Fred. "The Capacity for Music: What is it and what's Special about it?" Cognition 100 (2006): 33-72.
Print.
Ospina, Hernando Calvo. Salsa Havana Heat, Bronx Beat. London: LAB, 1995. Print.
Sakai, Kuniyoshi L. "Language Acquisition and Brain Development." Science. 310.574
815. Print
(2005)
Scarry, Elaine. The Body in Pain: The Making and Unmaking of the World. New
York: Oxford UP, 1985. Print.
Sheets-Johnstone, Maxine. The Primacy of Movement. 2nd ed. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2011. Print.
Waxer, Lise. Situating Salsa: Global Markets and Local Meanings in Latin Popular
Music. New York: Routledge, 2002. Print.
United States. U.S> Department of Education. A Snapshot of Arts Education in
Public Elementary and Secondary Schools: 2009-10. Washington: National
Center for Education Statistics, 2011. Print.


Full Text

PAGE 1

AFRO CUBAN/SALSA DANCE IN BILINGUAL EDUCATION AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF HISPANIC CULTURAL COMPETENCY By: Marissa Frances Chrysler

PAGE 2

Abstract Language acquisition and kinesthetic intelligence are interconnected in terms of how a child acquires both a first (L1) and second (L2) language. Few language teaching methods incorporate dance as a way of learning.

PAGE 3

ABSTRACT Afro Cuban/Salsa as a teaching method offers students: a greater opportunity to retain the language a reflection of self and identity e xposure to other cultures a fun way to learn a language The Dance Kids Dance and Language Program teaches children culture and language through dance and is to be used as an additional resource for teachers and parents.

PAGE 4

I represent the target student group in this thesis because Spanish and Salsa were not part of my everyday life growing up.

PAGE 5

My Background I grew up in Colorado with a Irish mother and a Hungarian father. Although my parents exposed me to other cultures and languages, neither Afro Cuban/Salsa nor Spanish were part of my daily life. I have been a Salsa dancer since I was a young teenager dancing several different forms and styles in a variety of countries and dance communities. I have taught Spanish for 10 years ranging from Kindergarten to college level. I currently teach 7 th grade Spanish and dance to kids in the 6 th 8 th grade and am often in the K 5th grade classrooms.

PAGE 6

Afro Cuban/Salsa Dance and History Some instruments are the clave, congas piano, timbales, tres guitar, bongos, cowbell, giro maracas, bass, horns T he clave Today there are several types of Salsa: Rhythmically Salsa uses between 150 250 bmp (beats per minute)

PAGE 7

The Evolution of Afro Cuban/Salsa The African slave trade brings Africans to Cuba The tribes (Yoruba, Lacum,Bantu and Congo) brought their music, stories, chants, and instruments Fusion of African and European and dance and music Haitian and French communities contribute to the musical evolution Contradanse Danzn Guajira, Cha Cha Cha, Guaguanco Son Invention of the radio, tourism, international travel Fania Record Company uses Afro Cuban/Salsa spreads internationally Salsa Competitions, conferences, ESPN championships, different styles

PAGE 8

Salsa Comes to the First Grade Classroom!

PAGE 9

Dance and the Classroom Dance is not seen as a valued teaching tool and students are not regularly exposed to dance For me dance fosters a learning environment that is fun, creative and positively contributes to student development and expanded viewpoints about themselves and others. Key questions: 1. How can students learn a second language in a fun, interactive way while retaining the information long term? 2. How can students develop a positive sense of self? 3. How can a student be exposed to other cultures? 4. How can dance improve language acquisition in U.S. education?

PAGE 10

Percent of public elementary schools offering instruction designated specifically for various arts subjects for the school year 2009 10 (United States Department of Education [ Page 12] ). 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 music drama/theatre dance visual arts Out of 67,148 public elementary schools

PAGE 11

Kinesthetic Intelligence Learning style in which learning takes place by the students carrying out physical activities Howard of multiple intelligences: 1.visual /spatial, 2. musical 3. logical / mathematical 4. verbal / linguistic 5. interpersonal 6. intrapersonal 7. bodily kinesthetic intelligence 8. linguistic Dance and rhythmic movement is a type of kinesthetic intelligence that lends itself to developing the other intelligences as well (Schwartz 8).

PAGE 12

Proprioception Otherwise known as the kinesthetic sense If a word is paired with a movement, then the language learner may have a higher chance of retaining the new information because as proprioception translates qualities between memory and sensorimotor responses as Proprioception gives us the awareness of our bodies as we are moving; it is the awareness of the location of our body parts as they are moving in the now moment sensory receptors associated with joints and muscles that sense and provide feedback to the demands placed on joints (Gill 3).

PAGE 13

Music, Dance and Movement Language Acquisition Language Instruction

PAGE 14

Native Language Acquisition (L1) Noam Chomsky biological characteristics and structures already in the brain (Sakai). Lev Vygotsky and Jerome Bruner The social interactionist theory: language is acquired through interaction with others (Bruner). Ray Jackendoff and Fred Lerdahl innate resources in the human brain that make it possible to acquire music grammar ( Jackendoff 34).

PAGE 15

Second Language Acquisition (L2) Researchers have found that: t here is a clear distinction and contrast between the development of L1 and learning L2. each individual is different when learning an L2. The optimal time to become fluent in a second language is before age 12 ( Abello 170). Second language acquisition can be divided up into five stages: preproduction, early production, speech emergence, intermediate fluency, and advanced fluency

PAGE 16

Stephen Krashen's theory of second language acquisition Of his five theories, The Acquisition Learning is the most prominent (The others are: Monitor, Input hypothesis, Natural Order hypothesis, Affective Filter) Acquired system : meaningful interaction in the target language Learning System : formal instruction and it comprises a conscious process which results in conscious knowledge 'about' the language, (for example knowledge of grammar rules).

PAGE 17

Principle Views in Second Language Acquisition Theory: Language as a vehicle to express or accomplish a certain function Language as the creation and maintenance of social interactions Treats language as a system of structurally related elements to code meaning All these techniques can be productive and successful, with respect to instruction of valuable skills.

PAGE 18

This video is an example of pairing Spanish, movement, and dance

PAGE 19

Cultural Gateway Dance is a catalyst for creating a gateway to cultural and linguistic competence. Lise Waxer in her book, Situating Salsa: Global Markets and Local Meaning in Latin Popular Music states: Salsa is also a gateway to the cultural Other a fascinating and often exotic world where new selves find liberation from cultural structures (3). Breaking free from restrictive cultural structures through dance may even help form a new identity.

PAGE 20

Culture and Identity learning about a new culture, but they are deriving meaning from their own culture. We are potentially enlivening and teaching all the intelligences. When we teach to all the intelligences in an active way, we foster creativity, a towards other people and cultures ( Sheets Johnstone ) By dancing you are othering doing something new and from another culture but you are experiencing it proprioceptively as yourself (Gill).

PAGE 21

The Development of Self The essentials: Touch Human contact Relationships Higher mental functions are being constructed through social contact. Nurturing students in the development of their cognitive, psychomotor, and emotional capacities (Holt & Flinchum 54). The development of certain parts of the brain : The corpus callosum connects the two sides of the brain. The cerebellum contributes to timing coordination and precision.

PAGE 22

The Dance Kids Dance and Language Program Produced and created a DVD called Salsa with Me in 2007 sold to schools nationally. Proposed DVD/TV series divided into episodes focusing on specific dances, cultures, and language concepts with the target age of 3 11 years old. The series uses diverse characters, magical settings in an interactive format. The focus is on culture geography, traditions, language, history, and other educational aspects of the dance

PAGE 23

The Dance Kids Snapshot

PAGE 24

Conclusion Learning Afro Cuban/Salsa can be an opportunity for students to: Learn a language in a fun and interactive way Heighten language retention D evelop cultural awareness Develop a deeper awareness about themselves

PAGE 25

Conclusion infectious draw and transcendence of geographical and cultural boundaries can transcend linguistic and educational boundaries

PAGE 26

El Gran Combo:

PAGE 27

Thank you for watching!

PAGE 28

References Bruner Jerome, and Rita Watson. Child's Talk: Learning to Use Language N.p .: W.W. Norton, 1983. Print. Chomsky, Noam. On Nature and Language Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002. Print. "Did Language Evolve from Singing?" Science 2.0 Frontiers in Psychology, 23 Feb. 2013. Web. 29 Mar. 2015. . El Gran Combo de Puerto Rico. Sin Salsa no Hay Paraso CD Fine, Edward, Catalina Ionita and Linda Lohr "The History of the Development of the Cerebellar Examination." Seminars in Neurology (2002): 375 85. Print Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind New York: Basic, 1985. Print Giedd Jay. "Inside the Teenage Brain." PBS N.p ., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2015. Gill, Sam. "Dancing as Making." June 2009. Body Dance Play Web. 29 Mar. 2015. . "Dancing: Creative, Healthy Teen Activity." Intellect Limited 1.1 (2014): 181 207. Print. Telephone interview. 19 Mar. 2015.

PAGE 29

References Jackendoff Ray, and Lerdahl Fred. "The Capacity for Music: What is it and what's Special about it?" Cognition 100 (2006): 33 72. Print Ospina Hernando Calvo Salsa Havana Heat, Bronx Beat London: LAB, 1995. Print. Sakai, Kuniyoshi L. "Language Acquisition and Brain Development." Science 310.574 ( 2005): 815. Print Scarry Elaine. The Body in Pain: The Making and Unmaking of the World New York: Oxford UP, 1985. Print. Sheets Johnstone Maxine. The Primacy of Movement 2nd ed. Amsterdam: John Benjamins 2011. Print. Waxer Lise Situating Salsa: Global Markets and Local Meanings in Latin Popular Music New York: Routledge 2002. Print. United States. U.S> Department of Education. A Snapshot of Arts Education in Public Elementary and Secondary Schools: 2009 10 Washington: National Center for Education Statistics, 2011. Print.