Citation
Stigma and the intergenerational transmission of health

Material Information

Title:
Stigma and the intergenerational transmission of health
Alternate title:
Implications for physical and mental health among children of sex workers
Creator:
Rael, Christine Tagliaferri ( author )
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 electronic file (179 pages) : ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Stigma (Social psychology) ( lcsh )
Stigma (Social psychology) ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Review:
Experiencing stigma is associated with poor health outcomes and health-related inequalities in adults. However, little is known about how parental perceptions of stigma are associated with physical and mental health outcomes in children. This study sheds light on the intergenerational transmission of health disparities and fills an important gap in the stigma literature by examining the relationship between parent self-reports of perceived and internalized sex work-related stigma and child physical slash mental health outcomes. Additionally, it considers the role of stigma projects in moderating the relationship between perceived and internalized stigmas, and identifies the effect of internalized stigma on producing fear of discrimination and self-isolation behaviors in female sex workers (FSW). This dissertation is a mixed-methods study, building on previous work in the Dominican Republic. FSW (N equals 349) and a control group of women living with HIV-AIDS (WLWHA N equals 239) were recruited for study participation to disentangle the effects of the stigma associated with engaging in sex work from the stigma associated with living with HIV-AIDS. FSW (N equals 20) and WLWHA (N equals 20) were purposively selected from quantitative respondents for inclusion in qualitative interviews. The WLWHA group was composed of women who have never engaged in sex work and former sex workers; N equals 20 WLWHA reported current involvement in sex work. Several findings are notable. Specifically, FSW of Dominican nationality were more likely to perceive sex work-related stigma from the community than FSW of Haitian nationality. Alternatively, WLWHA of Haitian nationality were more likely to perceive HIV-related stigma from the family than WLWHA of Dominican nationality. FSW and WLWHA perceived more sex work or HIV-related stigma from their communities than from their families. Both FSW and WLWHA successfully implemented strategies to reduce the effects of perceived stigma to prevent stigma internalization, called stigma projects. In terms of child health outcomes, internalized stigmas were associated with some child mental health outcomes for FSW and WLWHA. Lastly, FSW and WLWHA feared discrimination, but only FSW engaged self-imposed isolation behaviors. The findings from this study place stigma within the cultural context of the Dominican Republic and should be considered to inform stigma prevention/reduction interventions in FSW and WLWHA.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Colorado Denver
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographic references,
System Details:
System requirements: Adobe Reader.
General Note:
Department of Health and Behavioral Sciences
Statement of Responsibility:
by Christine Tagliaferri Rael.

Record Information

Source Institution:
|University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
922009639 ( OCLC )
ocn922009639
Classification:
LD1193.L566 2015d R34 ( lcc )

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
STIGMA AND THE INTERGENERATIONAL TRANSMISSION OF HEALTH:
IMPLICATIONS FOR PHYSICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH AMONG CHILDREN
OF FEMALE SEX WORKERS
by
CHRISTINE TAGLIAFERRIRAEL
B.A., University of Wisconsin-Parkside, 2006
M.S., University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2008
A thesis submitted to the
Faculty of the Graduate School of the
University of Colorado in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
Health and Behavioral Sciences
2015


This thesis for the Doctor of Philosophy degree by
Christine Tagliaferri Rael
has been approved for the
Health and Behavioral Sciences Program
by
David Tracer, Advisor
Jean Scandlyn, Chair
John Brett
Richard Miech
June 22, 2015
11


Rael, Christine Tagliaferri (Ph.D., Health and Behavioral Science)
Stigma and the Intergenerational Transmission of Health: Implications for Physical and
Mental Health Among Children of Female Sex Workers
Thesis directed by Professor David P. Tracer.
ABSTRACT
Experiencing stigma is associated with poor health outcomes and health-related
inequalities in adults. However, little is known about how parental perceptions of stigma
are associated with physical and mental health outcomes in children. This study sheds
light on the intergenerational transmission of health disparities and fills an important gap
in the stigma literature by examining the relationship between parent self-reports of
perceived and internalized sex work-related stigma and child physical/mental health
outcomes. Additionally, it considers the role of stigma projects in moderating the
relationship between perceived and internalized stigmas, and identifies the effect of
internalized stigma on producing fear of discrimination and self-isolation behaviors in
female sex workers (FSW). This dissertation is a mixed-methods study, building on
previous work in the Dominican Republic. FSW (N=349) and a control group of women
living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA; N=239) were recruited for study participation to
disentangle the effects of the stigma associated with engaging in sex work from the
stigma associated with living with HIV/AIDS. FSW (N=20) and WLWHA (N=20) were
purposively selected from quantitative respondents for inclusion in qualitative interviews.
The WLWHA group was composed of women who have never engaged in sex work and
former sex workers; N=20 WLWHA reported current involvement in sex work. Several
findings are notable. Specifically, FSW of Dominican nationality were more likely to
perceive sex work-related stigma from the community than FSW of Haitian nationality.


Alternatively, WLWHA of Haitian nationality were more likely to perceive HIV-related
stigma from the family than WLWHA of Dominican nationality. FSW and WLWHA
perceived more sex work or HIV-related stigma from their communities than from their
families. Both FSW and WLWHA successfully implemented strategies to reduce the
effects of perceived stigma to prevent stigma internalization, called stigma projects. In
terms of child health outcomes, internalized stigmas were associated with some child
mental health outcomes for FSW and WLWHA. Lastly, FSW and WLWHA feared
discrimination, but only FSW engaged self-imposed isolation behaviors. The findings
from this study place stigma within the cultural context of the Dominican Republic and
should be considered to inform stigma prevention/reduction interventions in FSW and
WLWHA.
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication.
Approved: David P. Tracer


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I owe many thanks to countless people for help in the completion of this
dissertation. First and foremost, I thank CEPROSH and its tireless army of outreach
workers, clinic staff, peer heath educators, and care providers. This project would not
have been possible without the support, guidance, and collaboration of this unique and
progressive organization. I give special thanks for the endless talents of Dr. Bayardo
Gomez, Lucia Santana, Sheyla Calderon, and Yasmin Soto.
However, I owe the deepest debt of gratitude to my research assistant, Maria
Nena del Rosario Martinez Munoz. Without her expert knowledge of the sex work
community and her boundless compassion for people living with HIV/AIDS, this project
would not have happened. Also, I would have surely been run over by a car. Nena: I
thank you for your hard work, your dedication to this project, your generosity, and your
quick wit (which was often a much needed reprieve). But most of all, I thank you for
your friendship.
I owe many thanks to the faculty of the Health and Behavioral Science program at
the University of Colorado-Denver. Richard Miech is primarily responsible for helping to
structure this project in a way that asks meaningful questions and makes important
contributions to the literature. Richard: thank you for your expert technical knowledge
and endless patience during the early stages. Thank you for being my advocate, my
cheerleader, my mentor, and for showing me that I am capable of doing independent
research abroad.
I also owe a huge debt to David Tracer, who graciously stepped into the advisor
role on this project in the middle of its development. Despite a litany of other
v


professional obligations, David made this project, its completion, and my intellectual
development a priority. He is a true ally of students and an excellent teacher. Thank you
for helping me to make sense of my results and to see this dissertation through to the end.
Thank you to Jean Scandlyn for your ethnographic genius and for walking me
through my first major qualitative project. Additionally, thank you for your help in
developing my writing skills: you have truly been on my team since the beginning. Thank
you to John Brett for helping me to navigate the IRB process, both at home and abroad.
Also, I am grateful for your role in helping me to develop my field skills by encouraging
me to make independent decisions on the ground.
I am deeply grateful for my incredibly supportive and generous partner, who
stepped away from his career and left our home to join me on this adventure. Mike:
without your support this process would have been far more difficult, and life in the
Dominican Republic far less enjoyable. Thank you for your adventurous spirit, your
giving nature, and your ability to always make me laugh, no matter the circumstances.
Additionally, thank you to my parents and sister: your unwavering support and
encouragement is truly a blessing. Thank you for showing me what it means to persist
through adversity and for always insisting that I finish what I start. But mostly, thank you
for teaching me to work hard, to not take myself too seriously, and to always keep a sense
of humor in the face of a challenge. I love you all.
vi


TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION...................................1
II. PROJECT AIMS...................................4
III. PROJECT SITTING................................6
IV. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES...........................11
V. THEORY........................................16
VI. METHODS.......................................38
VII. STUDY RESULTS.................................76
VIII. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS........................131
IX. CONCLUSIONS AND LIMITATIONS..................149
REFERENCES.............................................159
APPENDIX...............................................168
vii


CHAPTERI
INTRODUCTION
The interaction among stigma, sex work, and health in the Dominican Republic is
a case study of a larger phenomenon. Similar to many areas of the developing world,
economic opportunities for women in the Dominican Republic are declining (Brannon,
1999, 2004, 2004b; Cabezas, 1999). Like other developing economies, the Dominican
Republic is increasingly adopting a tourism-based economic model an industry that
largely excludes female workers (Brannon, 2004, 2004b; Cabezas, 1999). A focus on
attracting foreigners to the island has led to the near abandonment of centrally controlled
manufacturing and sugar production (Cabezas 1999). Consequently, many Dominican
mothers turn to the highly stigmatized sex trade to meet family income needs (Brennan,
1999, 2004, 2004a; Cabezas, 1999, 2008). Regularly experiencing stigma leads to poorer
health outcomes (Sayles et. al. 2008) and few groups experience the same quantity and
intensity of stigmatization as sex workers (Scambler and Paoli, 2008; Vanwesenbeeck,
2001). Alarmingly, little is known about how parental perceptions of stigma relate to the
transmission of poor health from parents to children, and thus perpetuate health
inequalities across generations. Understanding the transmission of stigma-based health
outcomes is timely and important for the Dominican Republic, since tens of thousands of
women work in a variety of sex work settings across the country (Donastorg et. al. 2014).
Significance
The proposed project fills two important gaps in the stigma literature. This
investigation, (1) examines the relationship between parental perceptions of stigma and
child physical and mental health, and (2) disentangles the stigma of engaging in sex work
1


from the stigma of living with HIV and determines the specific implications of sex work-
related stigma on child physical and mental health. This study is only the second
investigation to empirically examine the stigma associated with sex work independent
from the stigma associated with HIV/AIDS; it is the first to examine this theme in the
Latin America/Caribbean region. The dissertation accomplishes this objective by
sampling a case group of female sex workers (FSW; N=349) and a control group of
women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA; N= 239) and performing a direct, comparative
analysis.
Additionally, to ensure accuracy in the data and subsequent conclusions, this
study takes an intensely collaborative approach to research design. Local professionals
and members of the sex work community are closely involved in all phases of research.
This approach helps to construct a project that informs potential future interventions that
have the capacity to create real and lasting change for the populations under study.
Organization of the Dissertation
With the proposed overarching objectives in mind, the dissertation contains the
following: (1) specific aims examining the relationship between parental perceptions of
sex work-related stigma and child health, (2) hypotheses and the theoretical model
associated with these aims, (3) a detailed discussion of the theoretical literature
formulating these specific predictions, (4) background information about sex work and
stigma in the Caribbean that allows readers to place the theoretical argument in context,
(5) a summary of the findings from exploratory and pilot research, (6) a detailed
description of the proposed methodology, including the sampling strategy, description of
the research site, and operationalization of key concepts, (7) analytical plans to address
2


the proposed hypotheses, (8) study results, (9) an in-depth discussion of study results, and
(10) project limitations and conclusions.
3


CHAPTER II
PROJECT AIMS
The Dominican Republic provides a unique case study to examine the relationship
between perceived sex work-related stigma, internalized stigma related to sex work, and
child physical and mental health outcomes. The absence of pimps, coupled with the
decriminalized status of sex work (Codigo Penal de la Republica Dominican 2014;
Kerrigan et. al. 2001), allows for virtually unrestricted access to the voices of female sex
workers. Findings suggest that perceptions of stigma are strong predictors of adult health,
yet there are no studies about whether the health effects of stigma are passed to
subsequent generations. The proposed research is a mixed-methods study aiming to
identify the links between parental perceptions of stigma and child physical and mental
health.
Much of the methodology and research instrumentation was adopted from the
HIV/AIDS literature. To account for the distinct natures of female sex workers and
women living with HIV/AIDS, and to show that findings are unique to sex workers, this
project employs WLWHA as a control group. Research objectives are as follows:
1. To document variation in the amount of stigma perceived and internalized by
female sex workers, compared to women living with HIV/AIDS in Puerto Plata,
the Dominican Republic and its municipalities.
a. To document variation in the amount of stigma perceived by female sex
workers compared to women living with HIV/AIDS in Puerto Plata and its
municipalities. Factors to be considered include: age, nationality,
education, permanent income indicators, partnership status, number of
4


children, depression level, health consciousness, perceived stigma from
the community, and perceived stigma from the family.
b. To document variation in the amount of stigma internalized by female sex
workers compared to women living with HIV/AIDS in Puerto Plata and its
municipalities. Factors to be considered include: age, nationality,
education, permanent income indicators, partnership status, number of
children, depression level, health consciousness, perceived stigma from
the community, and perceived stigma from the family.
2. To test competing hypotheses about the relationship between the effects of
parental experiences of perceived and internalized stigma, and physical and
mental health outcomes in children in Puerto Plata, the Dominican Republic.
a. To determine if perceived stigma from the community is a predictor of
variation in child health by examining the following markers: (i) child
physical health, and (ii) child mental health.
b. To determine if perceived stigma from family is a predictor of variation in
childhood wellness by examining the following markers: (i) child physical
health, and (ii) child mental health.
c. To determine if internalized stigma is a predictor of variation in childhood
wellness by examining the following markers: (i) child physical health,
and (ii) child mental health.
3. To perform a qualitative study to determine if stigma proj ects influence child
physical and mental health outcomes.
5


CHAPTER III
PROJECT SETTING
Existing literature shows that health disparities exist between the economically
disadvantaged and those in the middle and upper classes (Alleyne 2001). Furthermore,
evidence demonstrates that these disparities are usually passed from parent to child
through exposure to a variety of quantifiable phenomena such as low-income, low-
education, and weak social networks, among others (Iaupuni et. al. 2005). However, there
is no research examining whether there is a similar collateral effect of experiencing
stigma that impairs the health of dependent children. That is, there is no evidence that
shows whether or not coming from a stigmatized family creates additional disparities in
child health and wellbeing. The proposed project fills this gap in the literature by
examining the collateral effects of stigma and the processes through which stigma
operates to produce measurable outcomes in child physical and mental health.
Female sex workers in the Dominican Republic are an ideal group to study the
collateral effects of stigma. The unique history of sex work on the island produces a
situation that is particularly strategic for addressing the specified research aims. Sex work
is decriminalized in the Dominican Republic, meaning that the exchange of sexual
services for money, goods, or services is not punishable by law for persons over the age
of 17 (Codigo Penal de la Republica Dominicana 2014; Kerrigan et al. 2001). This same
legislation prohibits profiting from anothers sexual labor by third parties (Codigo Penal
de la Republica Dominicana 2014), to criminalize pimping (Brennan 2004).
Most women involved in sex work in the Dominican Republic are not trafficked
or pimped by men, but rather recruited to the profession through female social networks
6


(Brennan 2004). The decriminalization of sex work and rarity of sex trafficking allows
for the examination of stigma in a context where the stigma associated with sex work is
not confounded by the stigma associated with doing something illegal. For instance, if a
similar case-control study were to be conducted in the United States, it would be difficult
to determine whether the collateral effects of stigma are due to the stigma associated with
engaging in sex work or the stigma associated with breaking the law. Thus, conducting
research in the Dominican Republic allows for further controls to be imposed on the
sample.
A second strength of conducting research in the Dominican Republic is the
homogeneity and stratification of the labor force. The vast majority of female sex
workers are Dominican or Haitian women (Brennan 2004, Cabezas 1999). In fact, a
literature review yielded no evidence of women outside of these nationality groups
engaging in sex work in Puerto Plata. Additionally, the organization of sex work in the
Dominican Republic is highly stratified and hierarchical, resulting in a system where
Dominican and Haitian sex workers rarely live or work together (Brennan 2004).
Specifically, with some exceptions, Haitian women perform sex work independently1,
while Dominican women work in cabarets/casas de cita2, car washes3, escort resorts4, and
1 Independent sex workers are sex workers who are not formally employed by any
particular business. Typically, these women work on a freelance basis on the street, from
their homes, or in local bars.
2 Cabarets/casas de citas are bars and brothels that employ women to sell alcoholic
drinks, dance with customers, and provide sexual services. Female employees may or
may not live on the premises
3 Women who engage in car wash-based sex work, work in carwashes with on-site bars
staffed by sex workers available for hire
4 Escort resorts are adults-only resorts staffed by sex workers available for hire.
7


work independently. The sex work infrastructure in the Dominican Republic limits the
effects of confounding by naturally controlling for cultural, demographic and linguistic
factors.
The Dominican Republic: An Economic and Social Case Study of a Larger
Caribbean Phenomenon
According to the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural
Organization, the Dominican Republic fits a profile similar to other independent states in
the Caribbean. The per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the Dominican Republic
is US$1,250, making it the fourth poorest of the sixteen independent nations in the
Caribbean region (Haiti, Guyana, Suriname, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, St. Vincent
and the Grenadines, Dominica, Grenada, Belize, St. Lucia, Trinidad and Tobago, St. Kitts
and Nevis, Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Cuba, and Bahamas), and the second poorest
of the five large-island states (Haiti, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Trinidad and
Tobago, and Cuba).
In 1980, the World Bank and International Monetary Fund began enforcing
regional structural adjustment programs in the Caribbean. Structural adjustment programs
heightened poverty and unemployment among the Caribbean working class and slowed
the production of goods for export (Kempadoo, 1999). Additionally, in an effort to
protect their own sugar industry, the United States significantly cut sugar quotas from the
Dominican Republic, beginning in 1980 (Safa, 1999). The aggregate effect of these
efforts caused measurable decline in the Dominican Republics Human Development
Index (HDI) rankings (Kempadoo, 1999). Perhaps owing to female exclusion from the
labor force, the Dominican Republic reports one of the lowest Gender Development
8


Index (GDI) ratings in the region, second only to Haiti. Formal unemployment in the
Dominican Republic is measured at 15%, but is likely much higher, due to the fact that
many individuals are self-employed as mobile beach vendors, money changers, or sex
workers. This rate fits the regional profile where unemployment ranges from 12%
(Jamaica) to 60% (Haiti). In terms of regional wealth, the poorest 20% of Dominican
households hold 4.2% of the nations wealth. This is the lowest wealth-concentration
estimate within the large-island group, and is the third lowest of the sixteen independent
Caribbean states for which there are data. The United Nations Educational, Scientific,
and Cultural Organization estimates that 21% of Dominicans live in absolute poverty,
placing them eighth out of the sixteen-member group, and third in the five-member
group.
Due to political unrest in the early 20th century, the Dominican Republic did not
become a tourist destination until the end of the 1960s (Cabezas 2008). A focus on
attracting foreigners to the island led to the near abandonment of centrally controlled
manufacturing and sugar production (Cabezas 1999). This sudden transition facilitated
the movement towards an exclusive reliance on North American and European tourism as
a means of income production. Since females are largely relegated to tourism-based
employment activities that generate limited capital and afford no upward mobility
(Cabezas 2008), many women must supplement their incomes with informal labor,
including sex work.
Tens of thousand of women are estimated to work in the sex work profession in
the Dominican Republic (Donastorg et. al. 2014). Though it is nearly impossible to
quantify its growth, it is plausible that sex work is expanding rapidly, based on tangible
9


measures such as income and employment in the region. Thus, the Dominican Republic
serves as a case study of a much larger Caribbean trend. The quick economic transition to
a tourism-based model that took place throughout the entire Caribbean basin left many
women in financial crisis (Kempadoo 1999). Such large-scale upheavals in social and
economic processes serve to create gender-based marginalization that led to an increase
in antisocial behavior such as sex work, domestic violence, rape, and substance
addiction (Tauli-Corpuz 1997). Additionally sex work rarely provides permanent upward
mobility (Brennan 2004), and sex workers frequently find themselves and their families
in a perpetual state of economic crisis. Kempadoo (1999) suggests that although sex
workers produce both labor and capital, they are still marginalized.
10


CHAPTER IV
RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Stigma exists when social differences are linked to negative attributes and
stereotypes. Possessing undesirable characteristics, or belonging to a stigmatized group
creates distance between the group member and other members of society through status
loss and various forms of discrimination. Ones position in the social hierarchy
significantly influences ones life chances, particularly among those occupying the lower
social strata (Goffman 1963). The relationship between social status and life chances has
implications for health outcomes. Specifically, perceiving increased amounts of stigma
implies the increased likelihood of experiencing poor health outcomes (Weiss,
Ramakrishna, and Somma 2006). The link between stigma and health is especially salient
in the Dominican Republic, since in some developing countries, the effects of social
support as a predictor of health outcomes is amplified (Iaupuni et. al. 2005). Because of
this, it can be hypothesized that the negative health effects produced by perceiving stigma
will be passed on to dependent children. Due to the complexity of these interactions, the
theory literature and subsequent proposed research is most efficiently expressed in the
form of a model (Figure 1).
11


c.
"" Denotes that variable is excluded from
perceived and internalized stigma models!!
Figure 1: Conceptual Framework for Analysis of Maternal Stigma and Child Health


Here, social stigma, internalized stigma, stigma projects, and child health
outcomes are displayed within the context of other key influences on stigma and health,
as identified by the literature. According to this model, contextual factors exist prior to
the proposed stigma pathway and thus directly affect social and/or internalized stigma
(pathways A, B) or they can bypass the pathway to independently predict child health
(pathway C). Perceived stigma is associated with internalized stigma (pathway D)
Stigma moderators cause variation in social stigma (box E), and/or moderate the pathway
between social stigma and internalized stigma (pathway F). The relationship between
perceived stigma and internalized stigma and child health can be either direct (pathways
G, H) or filtered through consequent predictors (i.e., predictors of child health outcomes
that are consequences of internalized stigma) (pathway I). All proposed hypotheses are
based the stigma type relationships described in Figure 2.
From Family
From Community
Figure 2: Stigma Relationships by Type
It is necessary to refer back to figure 1 to follow the hypothesized associations between
the various stigma pathways and child health, as outlined below.
Hypothesis Pathways
13


Pathway A. Factors associated with contextual variables that produce variation in
perceived stigma: contextual variables such as age, partnership status, education,
number of living biological or adopted children, income, nationality, and
depression level will be associated with perceived social stigma
Pathway B. Hypothesis about contextual variables that produce variation in
internalized stigma: contextual variables such as age, partnership status,
education, number of living biological or adopted children, income, nationality,
and depression level will be associated with variation in internalized stigma.
Pathway C. Hypotheses about contextual variables that produce variation in child
health outcomes while operating outside of stigma processes: contextual variables
such as age, partnership status, education, number of living biological or adopted
children, income, nationality, depression level, and health consciousness will be
significantly associated with child physical and mental health outcomes.
Pathway D. Hypothesis about the relationship between perceived stigma and
internalized stigma: higher levels of perceived stigma from the community and
perceived stigma from the family will correspond to greater levels of internalized
stigma.
Pathway E. Hypotheses about stigma moderators: the following variables
including, home community norms about sex work, number of medically or self-
induced abortions, childcare arrangements, legal immigration status, and stigma
projects will moderate the relationship between perceived (community, family)
and internalized stigmas.
14


Box F. Hypothesis about home community norms about sex work: sex workers
will perceive significantly more stigma from the community than from the family.
Pathway G. Hypotheses about perceived social stigma as a predictor for child
health outcomes: (1) the effects of participant perceptions of community stigma
will translate to children, and will be associated with child physical and mental
health outcomes, (2) the effects of participant perceptions of family stigma will
translate to children, and will be associated with child physical and mental health.
Pathway H. Hypotheses about internalized stigma as a predictor for child health
outcomes: the effects of internalized stigma will translate to children, and will be
associated with child physical and mental health outcomes.
Pathway I Hypothesis related to the consequent effects of internalized stigma and
child health outcomes: internalizing large amounts of stigma will be associated
with fearing discrimination and yield self-imposed isolation.
15


CHAPTER V
THEORY
It is the intent of this theory section to accomplish the following goals (a) to
provide the background necessary to understand the application of stigma theory to the
present dissertation project, (b) to clarify the relationship between stigma and child
physical and mental health outcomes (c) to explicate the conceptualization of how stigma
functions within a Dominican context, and (d) to demonstrate how stigma theory
provides a framework for the hypotheses above.
Stigma and its Relationship to Health in the Developing World
Sociologist Erving Goffman pioneered contemporary stigma theory with his
1963 publication, Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Here, Goffman
asserts that individuals bearing a discrediting attribute an indicator of negative
difference have fewer opportunities (Goffman 1963). Thus, the development of
effective public health strategies necessitates an understanding of the relationship
between stigma and health, since experiencing and/or feeling stigmatization often leads to
increased negative outcomes in nearly all facets of life (Goffman 1963; Stuber et. al.
2008). This is because the emotional disqualification linked to experiencing social
discrediting may delay or prevent appropriate help-seeking behavior for treatable medical
problems (Weiss et. al. 2007). Conversely, normalizing certain behaviors or conditions
serves to reduce stigma in nearly all stigmatized groups (Goffman 1963).
16


Children raised in adverse circumstances more likely to experience disadvantages
that continue to affect them in adulthood (Moore et. al., 2009; Pells, 2011), perpetuating
intergenerational inequalities (Bird, 2007). The link between stigma and health is
especially salient in the Dominican Republic, since the effects of social support in
predicting health outcomes are amplified in some developing countries (Iaupuni et. al.
2005). Because of this, it can be hypothesized that the negative effects produced by
perceiving and/or internalizing stigma are passed on to dependent children. Identifying
relationships between stigma and child health within a developing world context allows
for a better understanding of how stigma is enacted or felt by individuals and
communities and how people and groups arrive at their current health outcomes (Parker
and Aggleton 2003).
The Application of Stigma Theory to the Current Project
Stigma can be enacted, felt or both (Figure 2). Enacted stigma refers to actual
experiences of stigma, committed by individuals who are not members of the stigmatized
group (Scambler and Paoli 2008). Felt stigma refers to one or both of the following: (1)
an internalized feeling of shame and/or blame (internalized stigma), and (2) a disruptive
or disabling fear of being discriminated against (perceived social stigma; Scambler and
Paoli 2008; Stuber et. al. 2008). Scambler and Paoli (2008) introduce a third analytic
descriptor of stigma that they term stigma projects strategies engaged by stigmatized
individuals to avoid internalizing stigma.
This research examines stigma in its perceived, internalized, and project forms; it
will exclude assessment of stigma in its enacted form. This is because it is possible to
perceive or internalize stigma, or to engage stigma projects without having directly
17


experienced an enacted stigma event (Angermeyer et. al. 2003; Stuber 2008).
Additionally, it is possible that trying to reconstruct experiences of enacted stigma events
would be subject to significant recall bias (Hassan, 2005).
In-Depth Explanations of Perceived, Internalized, and Project Stigmas
Perceived stigma occurs in two forms: (1) perceived stigma from the community
and (2) perceived stigma from the family (Liu et al. 2011). Making distinctions between
perceived stigma from the community and perceived stigma from the family is important,
since negative feelings about ones membership in a stigmatized group are associated
with opinions about social norms (Scambler and Paoli 2008). Families and communities
may respond differently to the renegotiation of accepted behavior (Padilla 2007) and
subsequently social norms. Evidence from Liu et. al. (2011) supports this assertion and
posits that the distinctive natures of these two domains are differentially influenced by
related factors.
Though stigma is intricately tied to the perceptions and attitudes of outsiders, this
concept has an equally close relationship with the thoughts and feelings of the
stigmatized individual him/herself (Lee, Kochman and Sikkema 2002). Feelings of shame
about deviating from accepted norms and behaviors is common among those who
participate in immoral or illicit activities (Goffman 1963). Goffman (1963) states,
.. .the very notion of shameful differences assumes a similarity in regard to crucial
beliefs, those regarding identity. Membership in a stigmatized group may conflict with
internal conceptions of right and wrong and create strong feelings of guilt, disgust,
and embarrassment (Goffman 1963; Lee, Kochman, and Sikkema 2002; Wolitski et. al.
18


2009). Individuals internalize stigma when they believe and/or agree with the negative
stereotypes about their stigmatized identity (Lee, Kochman and Sikkema 2002).
Stigma projects are a recent application of stigma theory. This term recognizes
that some stigmatized individuals respond to their ascribed characteristics without
internalizing shaming or blaming narratives or becoming fearful of discrimination.
Specifically, these individuals avoid internalized stigmas by formulating positive
strategies that acknowledge the risk of enacted or perceived stigma, and reject
conventional understandings of their stigmatized attribute (Scambler and Paoli 2008).
These tactics constitute a stigmatized individuals stigma projects.
The importance of cultural context for estimating relationships between stigma and
health. By understanding the cultural context of stigma and sex work in the Dominican
Republic, contemporary norms and attitudes about its existence can be situated within a
local framework. The following section places scholarly understandings of stigma within
a Dominican context. The relationships between the hypotheses and the literature are
considered with the objective of building a framework that situates predictions within
theory-informed evidence. This places the relationship between stigma and child physical
and mental health outcomes within a framework unique to the Dominican Republic.
Relationship Between the Proposed Hypotheses and Theoretical Rationale
The pathways below detail the proposed hypotheses and their grounding in stigma
theory (Figure 1). Given the scant literature about stigma, sex work, and health, findings
from the HIV literature are often used to support the proposed hypotheses. Because of
this, there is extensive discussion about the relationship between HIV, stigma, and how
findings relate to the sex work community. Each of the proposed hypothesis pathways are
19


controlled for demographic factors, including age (years), partnership status
(partnered/unpartnered), and education (years). Control variables will not be discussed in
the subsequent paragraphs, since it is not customary to include them.
Pathway A. Factors associated with contextual variables that produce variation in
perceived stigma: contextual variables such as age, partnership status, education,
number of living biological or adopted children, income, nationality, and depression
level will be associated with perceived stigma.
Number of living biological or adopted children. Almost all sex workers in the
Dominican Republic have dependent children to support financially (Brennan 2004a).
Brennan (2004) shows that Dominican women cite the necessity of providing for children
as a primary motivator for initiating sex work. Qualitative work in Colombia triangulates
these findings, showing that childless sex workers are worried that God would not forgive
them for engaging in sex work, since they do not have families to support (Mayorga and
Velasquez 1999). Thus, participants number of living biological or adopted dependent
children could be negatively associated with perceived stigma related to sex work.
Income. Poverty is a primary motivator for entering the sex work profession in the
Dominican Republic (Brennan 2004, Cabezas, 1999). Often, poor women perceive sex
work as their only option to make a living (Buscardo et. al. 2004) and initiate sex work
due to financial need (Vanwesenbeeck.2001). Data from a pilot study, conducted in the
Dominican Republic from December 2011-January 2012, support this finding. As one
participant explained,
Its just really hard here [in the Dominican Republic] and a lot of people think
that Im here doing this because Im lazy and dont want to do work. But the thing
is this is work! It really is! And Im still poor and if I stopped who would feed
my daughters? Certainly not the people who judge me...
20


Alternatively, research examining perceived sex work-related stigma in India
demonstrates that higher income is associated with less perceived stigma for female sex
workers (FSW) (Liu et. al. 2011). However, these findings did not hold in the Dominican
Republic (Rael, 2015). Therefore, it is possible that lower income is associated with less
perceived stigma related to sex work.
Nationality. Anti-Haiti anism in the Dominican Republic is well documented
(Martinez 2003). This term refers to Dominicans view of Haitians as more African, less
civilized, and superstitious practitioners of Voudou (Howard 2007). Anti-Haitianism is an
ultra-nationalistic, overtly racist ideology that relegates Haitians to the lowest rung in a
racial-moral hierarchy (Bartlett, Jayaram, and Bonhomme 2011). Anti-Haitianism plays a
central role in perpetuating the stark socioeconomic disparities between Dominicans and
Haitians living in the Dominican Republic (Carnales, Vargas Becerra, and Montiel
Armas 2009).
Perceived stigma and discrimination are central to self-reported experiences of
Haitians living in the Dominican Republic (Keys et. al. 2014). Existing evidence shows
that perceiving stigma and discrimination worsens quality of life and mental health for
migrant families (Lin et. al. 2011). It is likely that this is especially true for Haitian FSW
living in the Dominican Republic. Here, Haitian and Dominican women rarely work in
the same place and Dominican sex workers accuse Haitian FSW of price gouging and
having AIDS (Brennan 2004). Additionally, new anti-Haitian laws in the Dominican
Republic require all persons of Haitian descent, even those who were bom in the
Dominican Republic, to obtain Haitian passports at the risk of being deported (Leclerc
21


2014). Given this, it is likely that Haitian ethnicity will be associated with an increase in
perceived stigma related to sex work.
Depression level. There is a positive relationship between depression and
perceived AIDS-related stigma among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA; Li et. al.
2009; Murphy, Austin, and Greenwell 2006). Among PLWHA in the United States, HIV-
related stigma and depression work together to produce negative health effects, including
reduced treatment adherence, limited use of social support systems due to fear of
rejection, and reduced HIV status disclosure to sexual partners (Grov et. al. 2010). Given
the similarities between the two populations, it is plausible that the relationship between
stigma and depression extends to FSW. Consequently, it is likely that higher levels of
participant depression will be associated with increased perceived stigma.
Pathway B. Hypothesis about contextual variables that produce variation in
internalized stigma: contextual variables such as age, partnership status, education,
number of living biological or adopted children, income, nationality, and depression
level will be associated with variation in internalized stigma.
Number of living biological or adopted children. Almost all sex workers in the
Dominican Republic are mothers (Brennan 2004). Brennan (2004a) asserts that
motherhood and a mothers obligation to her children is critical to FSW narratives about
involvement in sex work. Women see sex work as a sacrifice they make for their
children; it is a burden they endure to ensure that their families advance from poverty
(Brennan 2004a). Research in India shows that childlessness is a major predictor of
suicidal behavior among FSW (Shahmanesh et. al. 2009). Taken together, this evidence
22


suggests that having more children may be associated with lower levels of sex work-
related internalized stigma.
Income. Economic need is a primary reason for entry into the sex work profession
in the Dominican Republic (Brennan 2004, Cabezas 1999). Many poor FSW feel that
they have no options besides sex work (Buscardo et. al. 2004). Field observations from
the pilot study informing this project corroborate these findings. Participants in this
project suggest that poverty is a justifiable reason for continued involvement in sex work,
since other work opportunities are limited. Given this reality, it is likely that as income
decreases internalized stigma will decrease.
Nationality. Stigmatization based on national identity contributes to psychosocial
distress (Keyes et. al. 2014). For instance, second generation Mexican-Americans readily
identify their Mexican heritage as a reason for stigmatizing practices directed against
them (Viruell-Fuentes 2007, Viruell-Fuentes, Miranda, and Abdulrahim 2012). Emerging
literature suggests that similar phenomena may be at work among persons of Haitian
descent living in the Dominican Republic (Keys et. al. 2014).
Being of Haitian nationality in the Dominican Republic is precarious. Keys et. al.
(2014) shows that anti-Haiti anism is significantly associated with mental distress,
depression symptoms, and anxiety. Though it was not measured in this study, it is
possible that stigma and discrimination against Haitians is associated with internalized
stigma. For sex workers, Dominican resentment of Haitians frequently culminates in
abuse by clients, profiling by the local police, and vicious anti-Haitian rumors fueled by
Dominican gossip (Brannon 2004; Cabezas 1999). The recent legislation requiring all
23


Haitians, including Haitian-Dominicans5, to petition the Haitian embassy for Haitian
passports (Leclerc 2014) puts this group at increased risk for deportation and abuse (Keys
et. al. 2014). Given these complexities, it is likely that being of Haitian nationality is
related to increased internalized stigma.
Depression level. There is a strong relationship between depression and
internalized stigma related to HIV/AIDS (Kalichman et. al. 2009; Lee et. al. 2002; Li et.
al. 2009; Simbayi et. al. 2007). Findings from Rael and Hampanda (n.d.) show that this
relationship holds true among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA) in the
Dominican Republic. Like WLWHA, FSW are highly stigmatized. Therefore, it is
plausible that the positive relationship between depression and internalized stigma could
extend to FSW.
Pathway C. Hypotheses about contextual variables that produce variation in child
health outcomes while operating outside of stigma processes: contextual variables
such as age, partnership status, education, number of living biological or adopted
children, income, nationality, depression level, and health consciousness will be
significantly associated with child physical and mental health outcomes.
It is necessary to include the following section in this theory chapter to provide a
baseline for the relationship between independent variables and child physical and mental
health outcomes. Specifically, stigma may explain a part of the variation in child physical
and mental health outcomes, though it does not explain all of it. So, it is important to look
at the relationships between the proposed independent variables and child physical and
5 Haitian-Dominicans are persons of Haitian descent who were bom in the Dominican
Republic.
24


mental health. Given the vastness of the child health literature and the objectives of this
section, reported findings about childrens health are limited accordingly.
Number of living biological or adopted children. The literature about the
relationship between family size and child health outcomes is conflicting. Some research
shows that the number of living biological or adopted children in a family is not
associated with variation in child physical health (Leon and Younger 2008). Other
research demonstrates that large family size has a deleterious effect on child physical
health outcomes (Garg and Morduch 1998). Additionally, the number of living biological
or adopted children is positively associated with poorer child mental health (Leon and
Younger 2008; Strohschein 2005). Therefore, it is possible that there is a positive
relationship between the number of living biological or adopted children in a family and
poor child mental health for certain measures. It is unlikely that a statistically significant
relationship exists between this independent variable and any child physical health
outcomes.
Income. Parental income is strongly correlated with child health, where poor
families are at increased risk for having less healthy children. For instance, poor children
have a higher likelihood of asthma diagnosis (Currie and Lin 2007; Leon and Younger
2008). In a sample of 8.3 million children, only 70 percent of poor participants were
estimated to be in very good or excellent health by their parents, compared to 89.6
percent of higher-income children (Currie and Lin 2007).
Parental income is also associated with increased odds of mental illness. Currie
and Lin (2007) found that poor children are 1.2 times more likely than non-poor children
to be diagnosed with ADHD and are 1.6 times more likely to experience limitations as a
25


result. Additionally, children who are persistently poor demonstrate significantly higher
levels of depression. If their families remain poor, these children continue to exhibit
antisocial behavior that increases in frequency and severity over time at a more rapid
pace than children whose families move out of poverty (Strohesehein 2005).
Nationality. Health data about Haitians living in the Dominican Republic are
virtually nonexistent. The little available information suggests that on average, Haitian
children are far more likely than Dominicans to be in poor health. Haitian children age 0-
4 are roughly 2.5 times as likely to be infected with HIV/AIDS, and fewer than 75% have
received the recommended vaccines for their age (Canales. Vargas Becerra, and Montiel
Armas, 2009). Additionally, Keys et. al. (2014) shows that Haitian adults living in the
Dominican Republic frequently report anxiety and depression symptoms, due to
perceived stigma and discrimination. It is possible that these mental health findings
extend to Haitian children. Furthermore, new anti-Haitian laws limit health services
availability for Haitians who cannot pay cash for services (Keys et. al. 2014).
Consequently, it is plausible that Haitian nationality is associated with poor child
physical and mental heath outcomes, independent of the effects of sex work-related
perceived or internalized stigmas.
Depression level. Mothers depression symptomology plays an important role in
child psychiatric health outcomes across a wide range of behaviors (Bagner et. al. 2010,
Luoma et. al. 2001). Additionally, mothers with high levels of psychosocial stress are
more likely to report negatively about their childrens health (Kinsman and Wildman
2001). For instance, children with chronically depressed mothers have higher levels of
parent-reported internalizing and externalizing behavior problems (Trapolini, McMahon,
26


and Ungerer 2007). Therefore, it is plausible that relationships will exist between
depression and child mental and child physical health measures; that is, as mothers
depression increases, child mental and physical health outcomes will worsen.
Health consciousness level. Health consciousness is defined as a sense of self-
efficacy and responsibility to exercise control over the maintenance and promotion of
ones health (Dutta-Bergman 2004). Increased health consciousness is associated with
better health attitudes and a greater likelihood to engage in preventive health behaviors
(Fumham and Forey 1994; Iverson and Kraft 2006; Jayanti and Burns 1998; Michaelidou
and Hassan 2008). For instance, among adult PLWHA in the United States, increased
health consciousness leads to healthier dietary choices (Kim et. al. 2001). Additionally,
scholars argue that health consciousness reveals an individuals intent to maintain good
health and provides insight into their perceived health-related responsibilities (Dutta-
Bergman 2004). Therefore, it is reasonable to think that variation in motivation to
maintain good health and differences in perceived health-related responsibilities may
have implications for health outcomes in dependent children. So, it is likely that as health
consciousness increases, child mental and physical health outcomes will improve.
Pathway D. Hypothesis about the relationship between perceived stigma and
internalized stigma: higher levels of perceived stigma from the community and
perceived stigma from the family will correspond to greater levels of internalized
stigma.
Few studies have measured the relationship between perceived and internalized
stigmas. However, it is possible that relationships exist between these stigma types, since
they occupy related domains (Liu et. al. 2011; Scambler and Paoli 2008). For instance,
27


among Dominican women living with HIV/AIDS, perceived stigma from the community
and perceived stigma from the family were associated with internalized stigma (Rael and
Hampanda, n.d.). It is likely that this relationship extends to female sex workers, since
FSW are also highly stigmatized. Therefore, it is plausible that as perceived stigma from
the community and family increases, internalized stigma will increase.
Pathway E. Hypotheses about stigma moderators: the following variables including,
home community norms about sex work, number of medically or self-induced
abortions, childcare arrangements, legal immigration status, and stigma projects
will moderate the relationship between perceived (community, family) and
internalized stigmas.
Home community norms about sex work. The term normal or normalized
refers to a situation where a given stigmatizing behavior is not seen as out of the ordinary
or treated as deviant. This means that the stigmatized individual is surrounded by
sympathetic others, or those who are either members of the stigmatized group
themselves or can identify with the stigmatized individual (Goffman 1963). The stigma
literature suggests that normalizing a particular condition or experience leads to reduced
stigma (Hirschfield and Piquero 2010). Therefore, it is possible that FSW who originate
from home communities where sex work is normal, internalize less stigma than FSW
who come from other communities.
Childcare arrangements. Separation from children is likely to moderate the
relationship between perceived and internalized stigmas. FSW frequently leave children
behind with family members, friends, or paid caretakers while they relocate for sex work
(Brennan 2004). Women who work in the sex trade away from their families violate two
28


central assumptions of Dominican motherhood and femininity. These assumptions
include that, (1) mothers are the primary caregivers for their children, and (2) women,
especially mothers, are not sexually promiscuous (Brennan 2004). These assumptions are
accepted by both genders (Brennan 2004a). Therefore, it is highly likely that sex workers
internalize the stigma of leaving children behind with family members, friends, or paid
caretakers. Mayorga and Velasquez (1999) corroborate this assertion by demonstrating
that sex workers consider motherhood an important part of life and desire traditional
family constructions, where they provide direct care to their dependents. So, it is
plausible that mothers who do not live with their children will internalize more stigma
than those mothers who do.
Number of medically or self-induced abortions. Dominican law criminalizes
medically or self-induced abortion in the Dominican Republic (Codigo Penal de la
Republica Dominicana 2014). Additionally, Christian religious beliefs (Miller et. al.
2005) and negative attitudes about medically or self-induced abortion (Proujansky 2008)
create social pressure to carry unwanted pregnancies to term. It is plausible that having
had medically or self-induced abortions will act as an additional layer of stigma and
moderate the relationship between perceived stigma and internalized stigma. Therefore, it
is likely that an increased number of medically or self-induced abortions will correspond
to an increased amount of internalized stigma for participants.
Legal immigration status. Haitians in the Dominican Republic are often
undocumented, leaving them vulnerable to police abuse and deportation (Brennan 2004).
New legislation requiring all persons of Haitian descent to petition the Haitian embassy
for passports puts this group at unprecedented risk for expulsion from the Dominican
29


Republic (Leclerc 2014). These new laws make undocumented FSW especially
vulnerable and may act as an additional layer of stigma. Therefore, it is likely that there
will be a positive relationship between undocumented immigration status and internalized
stigma.
Stigma projects. Studies of chronic and disabling illness as well as studies
examining stigmatized social conditions provide examples of what Scambler and Paoli
(2008) call stigma projects. These studies show how stigmatized individuals formulate
strategies to moderate the relationship between perceived and internalized stigma by
acknowledging the existence of stigma and directly challenging it. For instance, Berger
et. al. (2001) showed that many people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) exercise a
stigma project called disclosure control. Here, PLWHA keep close control over who
does and does not know about their HIV-positive status. Additionally, Park (2002)s
work examining stigma in voluntarily childless couples found that many individuals use a
stigma project identified by Sykes and Matza (1957) called condemning the
condemners. Here, stigmatized individuals admit to performing a deviant act, but
highlight its irrelevancy, because others also commit this same act and/or worse acts that
go unnoticed.
Additionally, Park (2002) found that stigmatized individuals may adopt superior
identities to their stigmatizers. Here, stigmatized people acknowledge that those who
stigmatize them lack the information necessary to make informed judgments. Reutter et.
al. (2009)s study examining poverty stigma found that some impoverished individuals
are able to disregard the negative stereotypes projected onto them by acknowledging that
their stigmatizers ignorance of their life circumstances, in fact, has little to do with them.
30


Moreover, Cross (2006) found that normalizing a disease or social condition is
effective in reducing stigma. The stigma project, normalizing sex work, was also
identified in the pilot study. Many participants acknowledged that stigma exists around
sex work, but felt that few people actually stigmatized them, since sex work is so
common.
Finally, purposefully asserting ones position as an outsider to the most
stigmatizing aspects of the discredited group is a stigma project specifically identified in
sex workers. For instance, Ragsdale and Anders (1999) found that many Belizean sex
workers feigned innocence about features of their occupation that contradicted traditional
feminine gender roles. Most notably, participants reported refusal to handle condoms.
FSW participants explained that good women are not sexually aggressive with men. A
reluctance to apply condoms to male clients reiterates a sex workers female gender
identity and confirms that she is different from other, sexually forward, FSW.
Other stigma projects identified during the pilot study included acknowledging a
lack of employment options for women and using sex work as an advancement strategy.
For instance, many women during the pilot study reported that they did not feel guilty
about engaging in sex work, since there were no other jobs available to them.
Additionally, FSW acknowledged the benefits of sex work, since they used the money
they earned to benefit theirs and their families lives. Therefore, it is likely that
participants who do not internalize stigma employ stigma projects. Some of these stigma
projects may include the ones summarized above.
Box F. Hypothesis about home community norms about sex work: sex workers will
perceive significantly more stigma from the community than from the family.
31


Perceived personal similarities encourage empathy and decrease stigmatization
(Vanwesenbeeck 2001). Therefore, it is likely that sex workers will perceive more stigma
from the community than from family members, with whom they share commonalities.
Family members are more likely to understand personal economic motivators that predict
entry into and continued work in the sex trade (Vanwesenbeeck 2001). Evidence from the
Caribbean HIV/AIDS literature supports this assertion. Anderson et. al. (2008) found that
Jamaican PLWHA rarely report experiencing HIV-related stigma from their families.
Additionally, Rael and Hampanda (n.d.) found that Dominican PLWHA did not
anticipate severe, negative consequences resulting from HIV status disclosure to family
members.
Research about FSW in India suggests that greater family financial need is
associated with declines in perceived stigma from the family (Liu et. al. 2011). This may
mean that sex workers are less likely to perceive stigma from sympathetic family
members than from the community, since for family members, sex work provides an
economic benefit. Evidence from the pilot study supports this evidence. Of a sample of
50 FSW, only one participant reported feeling that her family would disown her if they
were to discover her involvement in the sex work profession. Therefore, it is likely that
FSW perceive significantly more sex work-related stigma from the community than from
their families.
Pathway G. Hypotheses about perceived social stigma as a predictor for child health
outcomes: (1) the effects of participant perceptions of community stigma will
translate to children, and will be associated with child physical and mental health
32


outcomes, (2) the effects of participant perceptions of family stigma will translate to
children, and will be associated with child physical and mental health.
The effects of participant perceptions of community stigma will translate to
children, and act as predictors for child physical and mental health outcomes. In some
developing countries, the health of family members is closely related (Iaupuni et. al.
2005). Therefore, parental perceptions of stigma should have a significant influence on
childrens health outcomes. Evidence suggests that perceived stigma results in self-
isolation (Gossart-Walker and Moss 1998) and thus, may result in reluctance to seek
health services. The literature supports this finding. For instance, Liu et. al. (2011)
demonstrates that sex worker prior experiences visiting health clinics are correlated with
increased stigma from the community. These correlations held even after controlling for
multiple related factors, implying possible worse physical health for sex workers and
their children, since many of these women do not receive preventive care.
Additionally, pilot study data suggest a link between increased perceptions of
community stigma and worse child health outcomes for specific disease markers. Field
observations reveal that some sex workers are fearful that their childrens clinic staff
might find out that they are a sex worker and discriminate against them and/or their child.
Some participants even reported a history of discrimination from within the clinic setting.
One participant recounted, When people know youre a sex worker they can treat you
bad. Fve taken my son to the doctor and been turned away. I dont know why I was
turned away. Maybe they knew I was a sex worker. Maybe they knew that Fm Haitian.
People here hate both. Therefore, it is likely that as perceptions of community stigma
increase, child physical health will worsen.
33


Perceived stigma from the community may affect child mental health outcomes
(Bauman et. al. 2002). Evidence from the HIV literature suggests that this may occur
directly, or through poorer parenting and lack of social support. Additionally, some HIV-
positive mothers may instruct children to keep their HIV diagnosis a secret, which could
have negative implications for the parent/child relationship. This secrecy may result in
social isolation from other children and adults, since mothers may fear that children will
accidentally disclose their HIV status (Bauman et. al. 2002, Gossart-Walker and Moss
1998). This too may negatively impact child mental health. It is possible that these
findings apply to FSW, since like PLWHA, sex workers are highly stigmatized.
Therefore, it is likely that FSW who perceive high levels of stigma from the community
have children with worse mental health.
(2) The effects of participant perceptions of family stigma will translate to
children, and act as predictors for child physical and mental health. Perceiving stigma
from individuals who are emotionally close to oneself is more damaging than perceiving
stigma from those with whom one shares only a peripheral relationship (Goffman 1963).
This is because the consequent self-isolating behavior prompted by perceived stigma
isolates the stigmatized person from some or all of their family kinship networks.
Children are especially vulnerable to the isolation-provoking effects of perceived family
stigma, since the absence of familial social support is significant in predicting poor
overall child physical health outcomes (Iaupuni et. al. 2005). Cox and Fafchamps (2007)
suggest that this relationship is due to the reduced parental ability to pool labor and
income when kinship networks are weak or non-existent. Therefore, it is plausible that as
perceived stigma from the family increases, child physical health outcomes worsen.
34


Findings from the HIV/AIDS literature suggest that perceived stigma results in
self-isolation (Gossart-Walker and Moss 1998). Mothers living with HIV/AIDS may
isolate themselves and their children from others to prevent children from accidentally
disclosing their HIV status (Bauman et. al. 2002). Isolation from kinship networks due to
perceived stigma from the family can have implications for child mental health (Bauman
et. al. 2002). For instance, kinship relationships offer children mental health benefits such
as emotional support and intimacy. When access to these kinship-based resources is
restricted, childrens mental health declines. Weak kinship networks offer children fewer
resources and strategies for managing stress, which can translate into internalized or
externalized behavioral problems (Iaupuni et. al. 2005).
Evidence from the pilot study suggests that this may be the case for FSW. Many
FSW relocate with their children to other cities and provinces in the Dominican Republic
to engage in sex work outside of their home communities. Because of this, the children of
FSW are temporarily removed from their family networks, which may negatively affect
their mental health. Therefore, it is likely that as perceived stigma from the family
increases, child mental health outcomes will worsen.
Pathway H. Hypotheses about internalized stigma as a predictor for child health
outcomes: the effects of internalized stigma will translate to children, and will be
associated with child physical and mental health outcomes.
A literature review yielded only one peer-reviewed article examining the
relationship between mothers internalized stigma ratings and child mental health
outcomes. Bauman et. al. (2002) shows that in the United States higher internalized
stigma ratings among HIV-positive mothers is associated with child behavioral problems.
35


So, it is plausible that for FSW, increased mothers internalized stigma is associated with
poorer child mental health outcomes. To date, no study has examined the relationship
between mothers internalized stigma and child physical heath outcomes. However, given
the relationship between internalized stigma and child mental health, it is possible that
there is an association between increased mothers internalized stigma ratings and poor
child health outcomes.
Pathway I. Hypothesis related to the consequent effects of internalized stigma and
child health outcomes: internalizing large amounts of stigma will be associated with
fearing discrimination and yield self-imposed isolation.
For some participants, internalizing stigma results in fearing discrimination and
generating self-imposed isolation. Internalized stigma may increase anticipation of
rejection and discrimination (Kalichman et. al. 2009). Lee et. al. (2002) cites the fear of
stigma-based discrimination as an important consequence of stigma internalization, since
disclosing ones stigmatized status may result in rejection, hostility, or physical violence.
Literature suggests that sex workers fear disclosing their involvement in sex work to
outsiders, since they anticipate feeling shamed or discriminated against by others. One
sex worker explained,
Anytime I am at a party, if someone starts, or if I overhear, someone saying,
What do you do for a living?, I get anxious. All the time, anytime... (Tomura
2009).
Evidence from the pilot study confirms this finding, since some participants reported that
they expected rejection from non-sex workers. One participant clarified,
Its true... people think they can do anything to you [because youre a sex
worker], I mean, I feel bad [about being a sex worker], but people here just think
youre... I dont know... people will just mistreat you... Theres a lot of
mistreatment...
36


It is possible that women in the Dominican Republic who anticipate sex-work-related
rejection come from communities where sex work is not normalized or accepted. That is,
they come from communities where few women enter into the sex work profession. Other
women, who do not anticipate rejection related to their involvement in sex work, may
come from communities where friends, family members, and/or neighbors work as sex
workers.
Self-imposed isolation is also associated with internalizing stigma (Nyblade
2006). Literature suggests that this is because stigmatizing attributes violate an
individuals self-ideal, creating the assumption within the stigmatized person that they
cannot share the full truth about their authentic self with others (Phillips 2011).
Additionally, Phillips (2011) asserts that internalized stigma causes the stigmatized
person to reassess their moral-ethical-spiritual self in a way that shames, blames, and
guilts them into feeling unworthy of social interaction. Kalichman et. al. (2009)
triangulates this finding and suggests an inverse relationship between internalized stigma
and social support. Therefore, it is likely that FSW and WLWHA who internalize large
amounts of stigma will report fearing discrimination and self-isolation behavior.
37


CHAPTER VI
METHODS
The research presented in this dissertation occurred in three phases. The first two
phases were designed to inform the third phase, which is the full execution of the
dissertation project. Information about the first two phases of research is summarized
below.
Phase 1 of Research (Exploratory Research)
Phase 1 comprised the exploratory research phase for the dissertation project and
occurred in May of 2011. During this time, Sheyla Calderon and Lucia Santana of El
Centro de Promocion y Solidaridad Humana (CEPROSH) served as cultural liaisons and
organizational contacts. CEPROSH is a local nonprofit that advocates for HIV-positive
individuals and female sex workers in Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic. Under the
initial direction of Ms. Calderon and with the input of 26 local FSW, the following
specific objectives were met: (1) to observe and meet members of the Puerto Plata sex
work community; (2) to ask sex workers questions about what health issues are important
to them; (3) to become familiar with the local establishments frequented by sex workers
and their clientele; (4) to devise a culturally competent survey questionnaire and
informed consent form for dissertation research.
Phase 2 of Research (Pilot Study)
38


Phase two of this project comprised the pilot study and occurred from December
2011-January 2012. The specific objectives of this undertaking were as follows: (1) to
complete fifty pilot surveys of the quantitative survey instruments designed during the
exploratory phase to ensure their reliability; (2) to clarify and practice methods to recruit
and interview participants in the study; (3) to design, with the collaboration of Puerto
Plata sex workers, a culturally competent qualitative data collection instrument; and (4)
to become familiar with sex work community affiliates, including sex work venue
managers, female sex workers, and CEPROSH outreach workers.
Measuring social stigma during phase 2 of research (pilot study). During the pilot
study, the ten-item Sex Worker Stigma Index (Appendix A; Liu et. al. 2011) was
administered in a population of fifty female sex workers to identify variation in
perceptions of sex work-related stigma. The scale was informed by previous studies
designed to capture HIV-related stigma and thus effectively preserves underlying themes
related to social distance and non-support (Liu et. al. 2011; Nyblade 2006). The Sex
Worker Stigma Index (SWS) quantifies perceptions of stigma felt by female sex workers
and distinguishes between perceived stigma from the community and perceived stigma
from the family (Liu et. al. 2011). Making distinctions between perceived stigma from
the community and perceived stigma from the family is important, since previous work
suggests that negative feelings towards ones involvement in the sex trade are related to
the perception of the violation of social norms and that families and communities may
respond differently to sex work involvement (Padilla 2007).
The SWS was translated into Spanish and then back translated into English to
ensure accuracy. Four-point Likert scales were locally contextualized, based on feedback
39


from the target population, to fit local understandings. Originally, scale responses were,
Strongly Disagree, Disagree, Agree, and Strongly Agree. Dominican sex
workers had trouble distinguishing between Strongly Disagree and Disagree and
between Strongly Agree and Agree. Thus, the scale response options were modified
to, No, I Doubt it, Its Possible, and Yes.
To distinguish between perceived stigma from the community and perceived
stigma from the family, the SWS was divided into two, five-item domains. The first
domain measured perceived stigma from the community and the second domain
measures perceived stigma from the family. Internal consistency and construct validity of
the scales were estimated by calculating the Cronbachs Alpha coefficient and total-item
statistics for each domain. Items were removed from the perceived stigma from the
community and perceived stigma from the family scales if they met at least one of the
following criteria: (1) the item had an item-rest score of <0.3, (2) the item caused a
significant drop (>10%) in the scales Cronbachs Alpha score, and (3) the item was not
unique, evidenced by a pairwise correlation coefficient >0.8 (Betz, 2000; Nunnally and
Bernstein, 1994).
Using Findings from the Pilot Study to Inform Other Components of the
Dissertation
Measuring internalized stigma. Though stigma is intricately tied to the perceptions
and attitudes of outsiders, this concept has an equally close relationship with the thoughts
and feelings of stigmatized individuals (Sayles et. al. 2008). Feelings of shame about
deviating from accepted behavior are common among those who participate in immoral
or illicit activities (Goffman 1963). Phillips et. al. (2011) characterizes internalized
40


stigma as a socially constructed view, informed by negative stereotypes about a
marginalized group and its people, that become incorporated into the self-concept of the
stigmatized groups members.
Measuring internalized stigma is important, since existing literature suggests that
internalized stigma is associated with higher levels of poor physical health, depression,
and other mental health issues (Kalichman et. al. 2009; Phillips 2011; Sayles et. al. 2008).
Internalized stigma for WLWHA was measured using the IA-RSS. The original iteration
of the IA-RSS used dichotomous answer choices (Yes/No; Kalichman et. al. 2009).
However, Rael and Hampanda (n.d.) found that expanding the answer choices to a four-
point scale improved the IA-RSS internal consistency by 5%.
Wording for the Internalized Sex Work-Related Stigma Scale (ISW-RSS;
Appendix B) was adapted from the Internalized AIDS-Related Stigma Scale (IA-RSS;
Kalichman et. al. 2009). The wording of the ISW-RSS frames the instrument to represent
negative self-perceptions and self-abasement in relationship to engaging in sex work.
Specifically, this scale includes items that focus on self-shame/blame and concealment of
sex work (Kalichman et. al. 2009).
The ISW-RSS was translated into Spanish, verified by a native speaker, and back-
translated to English. Respondents indicated their level of agreement with six item-
statements, using a four-point scale to measure internalized stigma. The ISW-RSS was
tested for internal consistency and construct validity, using methods identical to those
used with the perceived stigma scales (Betz 2000; Nunnally and Bernstein, 1994).
41


Measuring stigma projects. All qualitative data from the pilot study phase were
obtained from informal conversations with FSW. Field notes were then coded to identify
recurring themes. These themes will be discussed in greater detail in subsequent sections.
Dissertation Research Design Overview
The dissertation research project was a mixed-methods, case-control study that
employed quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews. To demonstrate that the stigma
associated with sex work is different from the stigma associated with having HIV, this
study included a case group of female sex workers (FSW; N=349) and a control group of
women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA; N=239). The FSW group contained women
who were currently engaged in the sex work profession. The WLWHA group was
composed of women who have never engaged in sex work and former sex workers.
Additionally, N=20 WLWHA reported current involvement in sex work.
The project contains a quantitative survey to obtain participant age, partnership
status, education, number of living biological or adopted children, permanent income
indicators, nationality, depression level, health consciousness level, perceived stigma
from the community, perceived stigma from the family, internalized stigma, and mother-
reported child physical and mental health outcomes.
Qualitative interviews occurred following quantitative surveys. Participants for
qualitative interviews were purposively sampled from quantitative respondents.
Qualitative respondents included FSW (N=20) and WLWHA (N=20) who reported
abnormally high or low levels of perceived and internalized stigmas. Qualitative
42


interviews were conducted in a semi-structured, open-ended format. Interview prompts
elicited responses about stigma projects related to sex work or living with HIV/AIDS.
Human Subjects Approval
The Colorado Multiple Institutional Review Board (COMIRB), Consejo Nacional
de Bioetica en Salud (CONABIOS), and Centro de Promocion y Solidaridad Humana
(CEPROSH) granted approval for this study. The research team obtained informed,
written consent from all study participants. All consents, surveys, and interviews took
place in private, reasonably quiet locations to ensure participant confidentiality.
Respondents were asked to complete one-time, verbal, tablet-based questionnaire in
Spanish, administered by trained interviewers. Study participation was voluntary and
subjects could withdraw at any time.
Sampling
Sampling goals for this study were ascertained through power calculations. All
study participants were non-pregnant females, who were at least 18 years old at the time
of study and had at least one living biological or adopted child between the ages of 0 and
15. Women in the FSW group self-identified as sex workers and participants in the HIV-
positive group were formally diagnosed by a physician with HIV/AIDS. Women in both
groups were affiliated with CEPROSH.
Sampling summary sex work group. To ensure current involvement in sex work,
recruitment of the FSW group took place in cabarets/casas de cita, car washes, escort
resorts, and the street. Potential participants were approached by a two-person research
team, consisting of the study PI and an HIV-positive peer-interviewer with over 20 years
of sex work experience in Puerto Plata. Subject interest and eligibility was ascertained
43


and respondents were asked to give informed, written consent prior to completing
surveys or interviews.
To ensure safety for the research team and study participants, the peer-interviewer
contacted sex work establishments on the morning of the planned interviews. Through
this process, the peer-interviewer obtained verbal approval of sex work site managers for,
(1) the research team to conduct surveys/interviews, and (2) sex workers to take time off
of the floor to participate in the project.
All surveys/interviews took place in private, reasonably quiet locations. Locations
included participants bedrooms, or areas of the sex work site that are closed off to
customers. Respondents in the quantitative survey received a monetary incentive
comparable to the money they would have made spending an equal amount of time
working with a Dominican or Haitian male client (RD$150/US$3.35). Qualitative
participants were purposively selected, and included FSW who reported the highest or
lowest amount of stigma possible on the ISW-RSS. Participants who were involved with
the qualitative piece of the study received additional compensation (RD$100/US$2.23).
Sampling summary WLWHA group. To ensure HIV-positive diagnosis,
participants were recruited from the waiting room at CEPROSH HIV clinic sites.
Potential participants were approached by a two-person research team that consisted of
the study PI and a peer-interviewer. Subject interest and eligibility was ascertained and
respondents were asked to give informed, written consent prior to completing surveys or
interviews. The day before scheduled HIV-clinics, the peer-interviewer coordinated with
CEPROSH outreach workers to, (1) reconfirm that surveys/interviews are still approved
44


to take place, and (2) ensure that there are a sufficient number of scheduled appointments
to justify data collection efforts.
All surveys and interviews took place in quiet, private locations. Locations
included unoccupied patient rooms, borrowed physician offices, or the clinic conference
room. Respondents received monetary incentives for participation in quantitative surveys
in the amount of RD$150 (US$3.35). Qualitative participants were purposively selected,
and included WLWHA who reported the highest or lowest amount of stigma possible on
the IA-RSS. Individuals who participated in qualitative interviews received an additional
RD$100 (US$2.23).
Operationalization of Key Concepts
Dependent variables. Main outcome variables in this study were related to child
physical and mental health. Child physical health outcomes were drawn from the WHO
Health Facility Survey, and pertained only to the respondents youngest child (e.g., In
the past year has your youngest child had a fever?; yes/no). The use of the youngest
child as an index person served three purposes: (1) it prevented respondent fatigue by
keeping the survey to a reasonable length, (2) it prevented respondent confusion by
limiting health reports to one child, and (3) it limited recall bias from having to remember
health events for older children. Results from the pilot study warranted the inclusion of
illnesses unique to the Dominican Republic that were not included on the WHO Health
Facilities survey (e.g., In the past year has your youngest child had dengue?; yes/no).
Adding diseases specific to the Dominican Republic did not allow aggregation of the
scale to obtain an overall measure of child health. Each symptom or illness was
considered separately.
45


Child mental health was measured using the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC;
Appendix C). The PSC is a 35-question instrument, divided into three separately scored
subscales and scored overall as an aggregate measure of child mental health. The
instrument asks parents to report how often they observe their child engaging in a list of
behaviors (e.g., never, sometimes, often). The PSC subscales measure three
distinct child mental health problems including, (1) attention disorders (e.g.,
hyperactivity, Fidgety, unable to sit still; never, sometimes, often), (2) internalizing
disorders (e.g., depression, Feels sad; never, sometimes, often), and (3) externalizing
disorders (e.g., aggression, Fights with other children; never, sometimes, often). When
scored in aggregate, the 35-item PSC measures the likelihood of behavioral or emotional
problems. Scoring 28 points (80% of the total possible points) on the PSC suggests the
presence of a significant child behavioral or emotional problem.
Stigma-related independent variables. Independent variables related to stigma
included perceived stigma (from the community, from the family) and internalized
stigma. Perceived stigma for the sex worker group was measured by the Sex Worker
Stigma Index (Appendix A; Liu et. al. 2011). The Sex Worker Stigma Index (SWS)
consists of two domains: perceived stigma from the community (e.g., I feel that if I
disclosed being a sex worker to some people, they would not talk to me anymore; no, I
doubt it, its possible, yes) and perceived stigma from the family (e.g., I feel that if I
disclosed being a sex worker to my family, they would abandon me; no, I doubt it, its
possible, yes). The original iteration of the SWS contained 10 items. However, analysis
of preliminary data from the pilot study warranted the removal of one item in the
perceived stigma from the family domain (item 8), reducing the original 10-item scale to
46


9 items. Response options are based on 4, locally contextualized choices (e.g., no, I
doubt it, its possible, yes), ascertained during the pilot study. Stigma scores were
obtained by calculating the scale means for each domain (perceived stigma from the
community, perceived stigma from the family). Higher mean ratings meant greater
perceptions of sex work-related stigma from either domain.
The wording of the SWS was adapted for relevance to the WLWHA group. This
scale is referred to as the HIV/AIDS Stigma Index (HAS) in this dissertation. Like the
SWS, the HAS contains 9-items and two distinct perceived stigma domains. Perceived
stigma domains include perceived stigma from the community (e.g., I feel that if I
disclosed having HIV/AIDS to some people, they would not talk to me anymore; no, I
doubt it, its possible, yes) and perceived stigma from the family (e.g., I feel that if I
disclosed having HIV/AIDS to my family, they would abandon me; no, I doubt it, its
possible, yes). Total stigma scores were ascertained by calculating means for each
perceived stigma domain (perceived stigma from the community and family). Higher
mean ratings indicate greater perceptions of HIV/AIDS-related stigma from either
domain.
Internalized AIDS-related stigma was measured using Kalichman et. al. (2009)s
6-item Internalized AIDS-Related Stigma Scale (Appendix B; I feel guilty that I am
HIV-positive; no, rarely, sometimes, yes). The original iteration of the Internalized
AIDS-Related Stigma Scale (IA-RSS) operated on a dichotomous scale (e.g., yes/no).
However Rael and Hampanda (n.d.) show that expanding the response options for the IA-
RSS to a 4-point, locally contextualized scale (e.g., no, rarely, sometimes, yes) increases
47


internal validity by 5%. Total internalized stigma was obtained by calculating the scale
mean, where higher ratings meant greater levels of internalized stigma.
The wording of the IA-RSS was adapted to apply to the FSW group (e.g., I feel
guilty that I am a sex worker; no, rarely, sometimes, yes). The re-conceptualized version
of the scale for sex workers is referred to as the Internalized Sex Work-Related Stigma
Scale (ISW-RSS; Appendix B) in this dissertation. Confirmatory factor analysis shows
that the new scale wording for sex workers was reliable and valid in the FSW group.
Internalized stigma was calculated using the mean scores of the scale for FSW
and WLWHA groups, where higher ratings meant increased levels of internalized stigma
related to sex work or living with HIV/AIDS.
Independent variables related to child health. Several independent variables
related to child health were included in the analysis. Independent variables were
ascertained by questions developed and tested during the pilot study or were drawn from
the most recent version of one of the following three sources: the USAID Demographics
and Health Survey (DHS) Womens Questionnaire, the WHO World Health Survey
(WHS) Household Questionnaire, and the WHO World Health Survey (WHS) Individual
Questionnaire. Questions developed and tested during the pilot study included legal
immigration status (e.g., Do you have a government-issued Dominican identification
card or passport?; yes/no), childcare arrangements (e.g., Do your children currently live
with you?; yes/no), and home community norms about sex work (e.g., How many
friends or family members from your home town do you know of that are currently sex
workers?; 0-10+). Questions derived from the DHS Womens Questionnaire included
the number of medically or self-induced abortions (e.g., Have you had any miscarriages,
48


abortions or stillbirths;? noted medically or self-induced abortions separately from
miscarriages and stillbirths, 0-8+ medically or self-induced abortions). One independent
variable, number of living biological or adopted children, was ascertained through a
series of DHS-based questions (e.g., How many live births have you had?; 0-8+ Have
you ever given birth to a boy or girl who was bom alive but later died?; yes/no How
many children have you formally/informally adopted?; 0-8+ To be certain, you have xx
living adopted or biological children at this time; 0-8+), the WHO WHS Household
questionnaire determined nationality (e.g., What is your nationality?;
Dominican/Haitian), if the respondent provided principal economic support for the
household (e.g., Who is the person who provides the main economic support for the
household?), if the respondent was living in the same household as children (self-reports
of each household members age, sex, and relationship to the respondent), and permanent
income indicators (e.g., Does anyone in your household have a washing machine for
clothes?; yes/no).
Independent variables related to mothers mental health or health consciousness.
Participants depression level was obtained using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies
Short Depression Scale (CES-D 10; Appendix D) The CES-D 10 is a 10-item scale that
measures how many days in the past week respondents experienced each item (e.g., I
was bothered by things that usually dont bother me; rarely or none of the time (less than
1 day), some or a little of the time (1-2 days), occasionally or a moderate amount of time
(3-4 days), all of the time (5-7 days)). Depression level was obtained by calculating the
mean score for the scale, where a higher scale mean meant increased depression.
Respondents with a score of 10 or higher on the CES-D 10 are considered depressed.
49


Respondents health consciousness was measured using the Re-conceptualized
Health Consciousness Scale (Hong, unpublished manuscript; Appendix E). The Re-
conceptualized Health Consciousness Scale is an 11-item tool that estimates health
consciousness by estimating participants level of agreement with a series of health
statements (e.g., My health depends on how well I take care of myself; no, rarely,
neutral, sometimes, yes). Overall health consciousness was determined by obtaining a
mean score for the scale. Higher meant values meant greater health consciousness.
Finally, participant age (years), education (last grade completed), and partnership
status (which of the following best describes your relationship type?;
partnered/unpartnered) were controlled in all models.
Semi-structured open-ended interviews. Semi-structured, open-ended interviews
were given to groups of key informants. Key informants were selected purposively from
quantitative survey participants and included FSW or WLWHA who reported abnormally
low/high levels of perceived and internalized stigmas. Interview prompts were designed
to elicit responses about stigma projects (e.g., What do you do to avoid feeling bad when
other stigmatize you for [being a sex worker/having HIV]? ), self-isolation (e.g., Is
there anybody that you would never tell that you are [a sex worker/living with HIV]?;
Why would you never tell this person?), and fearing discrimination (e.g., Do you feel
like people stigmatize [sex workers/people who live with HIV/AIDS]?; Why do you
think that people do this? Have you ever been stigmatized for [being a sex worker/living
with HIV]?).
Data Analysis
50


The analysis section accomplishes the following: (1) summarizes the independent
and dependent variables, (2) describes normality and multicollinearity in the sample, and
(3) describes the analysis plans for pathways A-I. All statistical analyses were conducted
in Stata 13.1. Descriptive analyses summarize participant characteristics. To minimize
issues due to missing data, means were used for continuous variables (e.g., age,
education) and percentage frequencies for categorical variables (e.g., respondent lives in
same household as children). Statistical significance was ascertained at the p<0.05,
p<0.01, and p<0.001 levels for all analyses.
To justify the treatment of FSW and WLWHA as two distinct groups in the
regression analyses, one-way ANOVAs and Scheffe tests were calculated. Since
dependent variables are categorical, multivariate ordered logistic regression was used to
test for associations between independent and dependent variables. Dependent variables
included the three domains of child mental health outcomes (attention, internalizing, and
externalizing disorders), and child mental health overall. Additionally, dependent
variables included the child physical health outcomes (fever, diarrhea, vomiting, cough,
fast or difficult breathing, ear problems, cold, dengue, pneumonia, chickungunya 6, and
other) experienced by the participants youngest child in the past 12 months. The primary
independent variables under investigation were the two perceived stigma domains
(community, family) and internalized stigma.
6 Chikungunya is an illness caused by a virus spread through mosquito bites. Symptoms
of chikungunya include fever, debilitating joint pain, headache, muscle pain, joint
swelling, and rash (Chikungunya 2015). The Dominican Republic was the epicenter of
the chikungunya epidemic in the Western hemisphere. Some estimates indicate that 5
million people in the Dominican Republic (50% of the population) could be infected by
the chikungunya virus (Basile 2015).
51


Each model was adjusted for the following independent variables: number of
living biological or adopted children (e.g., How many live births have you had?; 0-8+
Have you ever given birth to a boy or girl who was bom alive but later died?; yes/no
How many children have you formally/informally adopted?; 0-8+ To be certain, you
have xx living adopted or biological children at this time; 0-8), nationality (e.g., What
is your nationality?; Dominican/Haitian), permanent income indicators (e.g., Does
anyone in your household have a refrigerator?; yes/no), and depression level (e.g., I
had trouble keeping my mind on what I was doing; rarely or none of the time (less than
1 day), some or a little of the time (1-2 days), occasionally or a moderate amount of time
(3-4 days), all of the time (5-7 days)). Models containing dependent variables related to
child physical or mental health (pathways D-H) contained the independent variable,
health consciousness (e.g., I reflect about my health a lot; no, rarely, neutral,
sometimes, yes).
Depression and health consciousness. Depression and health consciousness levels
were ascertained by calculating the mean scores for the CES-D 10 (Appendix A) and Re-
conceptualized Health Consciousness Scale (Appendix B), respectively. For the
depression measure, higher means meant more depression; a score of 10 or more
indicated that the participant was depressed. The minimum mean score for the CES-D 10
was 0 and the maximum was 3. For the health consciousness measure, higher scores
meant better health consciousness. The minimum mean score for this measure was 1 and
the maximum was 5.
Assessing normality and multicollinearitv. Separate models were built for each
pathway. The final multivariate models were adjusted for age, nationality, years of
52


education, permanent income indicators, whether or not the respondent is partnered,
number of living biological or adopted children, depression level, and health
consciousness level. Non-normality and multicollinearity were assessed by
skewness/kurtosis tests and examination of variance inflation factors. Results
demonstrated that collinearity played a role in the relationship between child mental
health outcomes and child sex for female sex workers. Child sex was subsequently
removed from all child mental health models for FSW. Apart from this, multicollinearity
and non-normality did not influence study results. Since missing data account for less
than 5% of the sample, listwise deletion was used in the final analyses.
Additionally, Scheffe tests were conducted to identify significant differences
between FSW and WLWHA groups in the demographic data. Demographic variables
included age, nationality, education, permanent income indicators, partnership status, and
number of living biological or adopted children.
Testing for true population effects and addressing confounding. Independent
variables that acted differently between study groups (FSW, WLWHA) were further
examined to determine if the differential effects were truly associated with group
membership. This was done by calculating multiplicative interaction terms and running
new multiple logistic regression models containing these terms. Variables that were
determined to have no true statistical effect after new models were run were not
considered statistically significant.
Additionally, associations that were inconsistent with proposed hypotheses were
tested using simple logistic regression to identify spurious relationships. Variables that
had statistically significant relationships with the dependent variable and one or more
53


other independent variables in the model were thought to be confounders and were
excluded from reports.
Qualitative data analysis Qualitative interviews were used to gather information
about stigma projects (pathway E) fearing discrimination, and self-imposed isolation
(pathway I). Interview transcripts of all participants were coded to identify a priori and in
vivo codes. To ensure interrater-reliability, English translations of qualitative interviews
were independently coded for recurring themes by two Health and Behavioral Science
(HBS) graduate students and one Medical Anthropology Masters student. The analyses
for pathways A-I are summarized below.
Analysis Plans for Pathways A-I
Hypotheses about the dependent variable for pathway A, perceived stigma (Liu et.
al. 2011), were measured using the SWS (Sex Worker Stigma Scale) and HAS
(HIV/AIDS Stigma Scale) for FSW and WLWHA, respectively (Appendix A). The SWS
and HAS are divided into two domains, measuring perceived stigma from the community
(5 items; e.g., I feel that if I disclosed being a sex worker/having HIV to some people,
they would treat me differently; no, I doubt it, its possible, yes) and perceived stigma
from the family (4 items; e.g., I feel that if I disclosed being a sex worker/having HIV to
my husband or boyfriend, he would hit me or punch me; no, I doubt it, its possible,
yes). Thus, pathway A contains two dependent variables: perceived stigma from the
community and perceived stigma from the family. Means for each domain (perceived
stigma from the community, family) were calculated. Means range from a minimum of 1
to a maximum of 4; higher means meant higher levels of perceived stigma for each
domain.
54


Table 1 summarizes the analysis for pathway A. Relationships between the
independent variables (age, nationality, education, permanent income indicators,
partnership status, number of living biological or adopted children, depression level) and
dependent variables (perceived stigma from the community, perceived stigma from the
family) were determined using ordered multiple logistic regression. Separate models
were calculated for each dependent variable.
55



p
P
o>
P
P
O
o
3
o>
<
p
n.
cr
?T
'p'
CfQ
o>
td
H
=r
o>
S
o
p
V>
or
>3*
V>
cr
?T
K>
V3
P
3
3
fa
P.
N*
o>
V3
o>
p
p
<
£T
o>
3*
tr
o>
V3
o
p
o
p
3
o
3
3
o
>-+>
3
gg
n"
ft>
a-
5>
P
V>
P
P
OQ
tr
rr>
X
>
OQ
1
o
3
gg
n"

a-
fa
1
ffi
t/J
o
3
o>
-h
3
o>
o>
V3

P^r
o>
X
l-H
<
o>
V>
o>
o
rH
<
n
vf
>
*a
rr>
3
&
P
P
Q-
l-H
00
?5J
m
in
3*
3
t/j_
5
OQ
P+
tr
rr>
HH
>
m
m
*o
S
tr
fa
*<
td
3
gg
n"

X
o
p+
tr
rr>
Vi

Vi
O'
o
3
Table 1: Analytical Plan for Pathway A
Independent Variable Dependent Variable Analysis Process Study Groups Included
Age, nationality, education, permanent income indicators, partnership status, number of living biological or adopted children, depression level Perceived stigma from the community Ordered multiple logistic regression FSW, WLWHA
Age, nationality, education, permanent income indicators, partnership status, number of living biological or adopted children, depression level Perceived stigma from the family Ordered multiple logistic regression FSW, WLWHA
5
&
o'
£
o
1
Vi
*a
fa
3-
3
O
Vi
tr
S'
3
S
o
3
P
P+
o>
Q-
P
O
P
o
p
0-
o>
1-
o>
p
r+
tr
o
S'
o
"35
O
3
&-
o
3
3
o
3
3
P
3*
"35
3
3
H- V 3
C/3 p+_ P
O CfQ* o> P
P 3 P
P p V>
Q- 3
p+ H P o> P P
P* tt> P* o>
3 P p+
p P CfQ
3 o>
5* 5* p
p p p+
p 3 p 3 o>

V>
3
o
Vi
3
O
3
3
3
X
>
3
3
&-
3j
CO
£,
o'
3
3
3
3
o
g,
to
o
o
VO
OQ
o
o
3
Vi
3
1
o
a-
3
o
a-
o
"35
O
3
a-
o
3
P+
<
P
P.
a;
?T
3*


status, number of living biological or adopted children, depression level) and the
dependent variable (internalized stigma) were determined using ordered multiple logistic
regression.
57


Dependent variables
physical health outcomes and
Child physical health
the WHO Health Facilities
defined by parent-reports of
participants youngest child in
the past year has your
yes/no). The child health
pa
C8
*
C8
Plh
u
£
=
C8
C8
*£
IS
=
<
3

H
a
s
o
O '
a
S u
m e
(Z2 HH
K
4>
w
o
a.
=
Xi
.2
"S
=
4>
a
=
a
p
<
E
£
GO
Ph
o
00
o
(L)
31
S a
22 o
' O *<
£h ^
-75 S-H
12 5P
a3
a
60
-o
N
15
c
u-
4)
3
.2
*2
ce
=
4)
"O
=
4)
a
a>
"O
=
60 U
g.s &
O > P5
g e
5 C4H o
G uh wa
g-e fci
p £
E 3 ^
4> C <-T
cl rt
^ C/3 -3 S-h
g -g T3
0 5)^
l-H * Z2
h m Jh
g a
3 S
O C/3
-o
+->
Cl
=5 O1
3 ^
^ b
2 3
D .O
g "or
j o
for pathway C included child
child mental health outcomes,
outcomes were obtained using
Survey. This measure was
illnesses experienced by
the past 12 months (e.g., In
youngest child had diarrhea?;
outcomes under examination
58


in this study included, fever, diarrhea, vomiting, cough, fast or difficult breathing, ear
problems, cold, dengue, pneumonia, chickungunya, and other. Since the original WHO
Health Facilities Survey instrument was modified, based on pilot study data, to include
health outcomes unique to the Dominican Republic, it was not possible to aggregate the
scale to obtain an overall measure of child health. Subsequently, each health outcome
was examined separately. Means for this measure were not calculated, since answer
choices are dichotomous.
Child mental health was determined using the Pediatric Symptoms Checklist
(PSC; Appendix C). The PSC is a 35-item questionnaire that asks parents to respond to
questions about behavior they have observed in their children. The PSC contains three
subscales to identify attention (e.g., Acts as if driven by a motor; never, sometimes,
often), internalizing (e.g., Feels hopeless; never, sometimes, often), and externalizing
(e.g., Does not listen to rules; never, sometimes, always) disorders. When scored in
aggregate, the PSC ascertains overall child mental health and suggests the possibility of
severe emotional or behavioral health problems.
Thus, pathway C contains four dependent variables pertaining to child mental
health. Dependent variables include attention problems, internalizing disorders,
externalizing disorders, and overall child mental health. An aggregate PSC score of 28
(80% of total possible points) indicates the presence of a severe emotional or behavioral
problem. To account for missing data, means for each domain (attention, internalizing,
and externalizing disorders) and the index overall are calculated. Means range from a
minimum of 1 to a maximum of 3; higher means indicate worse child mental health for
each domain and for child mental health overall.
59


Table 3 summarizes the analysis plan for pathway C. Relationships between the
independent variables (age, nationality, education, permanent income indicators,
partnership status, number of living biological or adopted children, depression level,
health consciousness) and child health dependent variables (fever, diarrhea, vomiting,
cough, fast or difficult breathing, ear problems, cold, dengue, pneumonia, chickungunya,
other) are calculated separately using ordered multiple logistic regression. Ordered
multiple logistic regression models were calculated to determine the relationship between
covariates and mothers likelihood to suspect a child mental health problem. Then,
ordered multiple logistic regression was calculated separately for each child mental
health outcome to ascertain relationships between the independent variables and child
mental health outcomes (attention problems, internalizing disorders, externalizing
disorders, and overall child mental health) for al FSW and WLWHA. Lastly, separate
ordered multiple logistic regressions were calculated for each child mental health
outcome to identify relationships between covariates and the child mental health
outcomes, where the sample included only mothers who suspected a child mental health
problem.
60


Table 3: Analytical Plan for Pathway C
Independent Variables
Age, nationality, education, permanent
income indicators, partnership status,
number of living biological or adopted
children, depression level
Dependent Variables Analysis Process
Child physical health: fever, diarrhea,
vomiting, cough, fast or difficult breathing,
ear problems, cold, dengue, pneumonia,
chickungunya, other
______________________________________________Ordered multiple
Child mental health: attention disorders, logistic regression
internalizing disorders, externalizing
disorders, severe emotional or behavioral
problem
Study Groups
Included
FSW, WLWHA,


Hypotheses about the dependent variable for pathway D, internalized stigma,
were measured using the IA-RSS (Kalichman et. al. 2009; Internalized AIDS-Related
Stigma Scale) and ISW-RSS (Internalized Sex Work-Related Stigma Scale) for WLWHA
and FSW, respectively.
Internalized stigma for FSW and WLWHA groups was indicated by mean values
for this measure. Higher means mean greater amounts of internalized stigma. The
minimum mean value for the scale was 0 and the maximum was 3. Table 4 summarizes
the analysis plan for pathway D. The relationships between the independent variables
(age, nationality, education, permanent income indicators, partnership status, number of
living biological or adopted children, depression level, perceived stigma from the
community, perceived stigma from the family) and the dependent variable (internalized
stigma) was determined using ordered multiple logistic regression.
62


Table 4: Analytical Plan for Pathway D
Independent V ariables Dependent V ariables Control Variables Analysis Process Study groups included
Perceived stigma from the community, perceived stigma from the family Internalized stigma Age, nationality, education, permanent income indicators, partnership status, number of living biological or adopted children, depression level Ordered multiple logistic regression FSW, WLWHA


Hypotheses about the dependent variable for pathway E, internalized stigma, were
measured using the IA-RSS (Kalichman et. al. 2009; Internalized AIDS-Related Stigma
Scale) and ISW-RSS (Internalized Sex Work-Related Stigma Scale) for WLWHA and
FSW, respectively.
Internalized stigma for FSW and WLWHA was indicated by mean internalized
stigma values. Higher means meant greater amounts of internalized stigma. The
minimum mean value for the scale is 0 and the maximum is 3. Table 5 summarizes the
analysis plan for pathway E. The relationships between the independent variables (age,
nationality, education, permanent income indicators, partnership status, number of living
biological or adopted children, depression level, home community norms about sex work,
childcare arrangements, number of medically or self-induced abortions, legal
immigration status, perceived stigma from the community, perceived stigma from the
family) and the dependent variable (internalized stigma) were determined using ordered
multiple logistic regression.
64


Table 5: Analytical Plan for Pathway E
Independent Variables Dependent Variables Control Variables Analysis Process Study groups included
Home community norms about sex work, number of medically or self- induced abortions, childcare arrangements, legal immigration status, perceived stigma from the community, perceived stigma from the family Internalized stigma Age, nationality, education, permanent income indicators, partnership status, number of living biological or adopted children, depression level Ordered multiple logistic regression FSW, WLWHA


Qualitative interviews were used to gather information about stigma projects.
Interview transcripts of all participants were coded to identify a priori and in vivo codes.
A priori codes for FSW and WLWHA are summarized in Table 6 and included disclosure
control, condemning the condemners, adopting a superior identity, normalizing the
stigmatized attribute, and asserting an outsiders position. Since in vivo codes were
identified during the review of the interview transcripts, it is impossible to include them
in Table 8. Some stigma projects are unique to female sex workers. Stigma projects
unique to FSW include, viewing sex work as an economic necessity, and viewing sex
work as an advancement strategy.
66


Table 6. A Priori Codes Related to Stigma Projects for Pathway E
A Priori Code Description of A Priori Code
Female Sex Workers
Disclosure control The stigmatized person decides to keep their stigmatizing attribute a secret (Berger et. al. 2001) or decides to disclose only to certain people.
Condemning the condemners The stigmatized individual admits to performing a deviant act, but highlights its irrelevancy because others also commit this same act and/or worse acts that go unnoticed (Sykes and Matza 1957).
Adopting a superior identity The stigmatized individual asserts that stigmatizers lack the information necessary to make informed judgments about their stigmatizing attribute (Park 2002).
Normalizing the stigmatized attribute Stigmatized individuals acknowledge that stigma exists around their stigmatizing attribute, but feel that few people actually stigmatize them, since the attribute is so common (Cross 2006, Goffman 1963).
Asserting an outsiders position 5 Viewing sex work as an economic necessity Viewing sex work as an advancement strategy Stigmatized individuals highlight ways that they are not like others in their stigmatized group (Ragsdale and Anders 1999). Sex workers acknowledge that they have extensive economic responsibilities and few means, outside of sex work, to meet them. Therefore they should not feel stigmatized (pilot study) Sex workers acknowledge the benefits of sex work, such as financial independence, the ability to pursue higher education, or other positive outcomes (pilot study).
Women Living with HIV/AIDS
Disclosure control The stigmatized person decides to keep their stigmatizing attribute a secret (Berger et. al. 2001) or decides to disclose only to certain people.
Condemning the condemners The stigmatized individual admits to performing a deviant act, but highlights its irrelevancy because others also commit this same act and/or worse acts that go unnoticed (Sykes and Matza 1957).
Adopting a superior identity The stigmatized individual asserts that stigmatizers lack the information necessary to make informed judgments about their stigmatizing attribute (Park 2002).
Normalizing the stigmatized attribute Stigmatized individuals acknowledge that stigma exists around their stigmatizing attribute, but feel that few people actually stigmatize them, since the attribute is so common (Cross 2006; Goffman 1963).
Asserting an outsiders position Stigmatized individuals highlight ways that they are not like others in their stigmatized group (Ragsdale and Anders 1999).


Hypotheses for box F used students t-tests for comparing independent means.
This estimated whether significant differences exist between mean perceived stigma from
the community and mean perceived stigma from the family for FSW and WLWHA.
Students t-tests for comparing independent means are calculated separately for sex
workers and women living with HIV/AIDS. Table 7 summarizes the analysis plan for box
F.
68


Table 7: Analytical Plan for Box F
Variable 1 Variable 2 Analytical Process Study Groups Included
Perceived stigma from the community Perceived stigma from the family Students t-test for comparing independent means FSW, WLWHA


Hypotheses for dependent variables for pathway G include child physical and
mental health outcomes. Child physical health outcomes were yes/no parent-reported
responses to whether or not participants youngest child has had certain illnesses within
the past 12 months. Illnesses included, fever, diarrhea, vomiting, cough, fast or difficult
breathing, ear problems, cold, dengue, pneumonia, chickungunya, and other. Means were
not calculated for child physical health outcomes since response choices were
dichotomous.
Child mental health outcomes included attention problems, internalizing
disorders, externalizing disorders, and overall child mental health. Attention,
internalizing, and externalizing disorders were ascertained by calculating the means for
these measures on the PSC subscales. Overall child mental health was determined by the
total mean for the PSC. A PSC score of 28 or higher (80% of the possible total score)
indicated the presence of a severe emotional or behavioral health problem.
Primary independent variables for pathway G included perceived stigma from the
community and perceived stigma from the family. Both independent variables were
ascertained using mean scores for the community and family domains of the SWS and
HAS for sex workers and WLWHA, respectively.
Table 8 summarizes the analysis processes for pathway G. Dependent variables
for all child physical and mental health indicators are categorical, requiring the use of
ordered multiple logistic regression. Pathways for each child physical health outcome
(fever, diarrhea, vomiting, cough, fast or difficult breathing, ear problems, cold, dengue,
pneumonia, chickungunya, and other) were calculated separately. Ordered multiple
logistic regression models were calculated to determine the relationship between
70


perceived sex work and HIV-related stigma measures (from the community, family) and
mothers likelihood to suspect a child mental health problem. Then, ordered multiple
logistic regression models were calculated separately for each child mental health
outcome to ascertain relationships between the perceived sex work and HIV-related
stigma measures (from the community, family) and child mental health outcomes
(attention problems, internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders, and overall child
mental health) for all FSW and WLWHA. Lastly, separate ordered multiple logistic
regressions were calculated for each child mental health outcome to identify relationships
between perceived sex work and HIV-related stigma (from the community, family) and
the child mental health outcomes, where the sample included only mothers who
suspected a child mental health problem.
Additionally, models were calculated separately for FSW and WLWHA groups.
All models are controlled for age, nationality, education, permanent income indicators,
partnership status, respondents number of living biological or adopted children,
depression level, and health consciousness level.
71


Table 8: Analytical Plan for Pathway G
Independent Variables Dependent Variables Control Variables Analysis Process Study groups included
Perceived stigma variables: perceived stigma from the community, perceived stigma from the family Child physical health: fever, diarrhea, vomiting, cough, fast or difficult breathing, ear problems, cold, dengue, pneumonia, chickungunya, other Child mental health: attention disorders, internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders, severe emotional or behavioral problem Age, nationality, education, permanent income indicators, partnership status, number of living biological or adopted children, depression level, health consciousness Ordered multiple logistic regression FSW, WLWHA


In pathway H, child physical and mental health outcomes act as dependent
variables. Child physical health outcomes include participants yes/no responses to
whether or not their youngest child has had specific illnesses in the last 12 months.
Illnesses include, fever, diarrhea, vomiting, cough, fast or difficult breathing, ear
problems, cold, dengue, pneumonia, chickungunya, and other. Because answer choices
for each of these illness measures are dichotomous, means are not calculated.
Ordered multiple logistic regression models were calculated to determine the
relationship between internalized sex work and HIV-related stigma measures and
mothers likelihood to suspect a child mental health problem. Then, ordered multiple
logistic regression models were calculated separately for each child mental health
outcome to ascertain relationships between internalized sex work and HIV-related stigma
and child mental health outcomes (attention problems, internalizing disorders,
externalizing disorders, and overall child mental health) for all FSW and WLWHA.
Lastly, separate ordered multiple logistic regressions were calculated for each child
mental health outcome to identify relationships between internalized stigma and the
specific child mental health outcomes, where the sample included only mothers who
suspected a child mental health problem to begin with.
Additionally, all models were calculated separately for FSW and WLWHA
groups. All models are controlled for age, nationality, education, permanent income
indicators, partnership status, respondents number of living biological or adopted
children, depression level, and health consciousness level.
73


Table 9: Analytical Pathway for Pathway H
Independent Variables Dependent Variables Control Variables Analysis Process Study groups included
Child physical health: fever, diarrhea, vomiting, cough, fast or difficult breathing, ear problems, cold, dengue, pneumonia, Age, nationality, education,
^1 chickungunya, other permanent income
Internalized stigma Child mental health: attention indicators, partnership , . x x Ordered multiple status, number ol living .... , x ,0 logistic regression biological or adopted FSW, WLWHA
disorders, internalizing disorders, children, depression level,
externalizing disorders, severe emotional or behavioral problem health consciousness


Pathway I summarizes fearing discrimination and self-isolation for FSW and
WLWHA. To identify how internalizing stigma leads to fearing discrimination and self-
imposed isolation, FSW and WLWHA who reported abnormally low or high levels of
internalized stigma were purposively sampled for semi-structured, open-ended
interviews. FSW and WLWHA were divided into two groups: (1) women who reported
extremely high amounts of internalized stigma, and (2) women who reported extremely
low amounts of internalized stigma. Semi-structured, open-ended interviews focused on
participants fearing discrimination and self-imposed isolation.
Interview transcripts of all participants were coded to identify a priori and in vivo
codes. A priori codes for FSW and WLWHA are summarized in Table 10 and include
fearing discrimination and self-imposed isolation. In vivo codes were determined directly
by identifying recurring themes related to stigma projects in the interviews.
75


Table 10: Analytical Plan for Pathway I
A Priori Code Description of A Priori Code
Female Sex Workers, Women Living with HIV/AIDS
Fearing discrimination Self-imposed isolation The stigmatized individual anticipates negative reactions by others upon disclosing sex work and/or HIV status (Lee et. al. 2002) The stigmatized individual avoids social interactions where sex work and/or HIV status could be discovered (Nyblade 2006).


CHAPTER VII
STUDY RESULTS
The goals of the present project are to: (1) document variation in the amount of
stigma perceived and internalized by female sex workers, compared to women living
with HIV/AIDS in Puerto Plata, the Dominican Republic, (2) test competing hypotheses
about the relationship between the effects of parental experiences of perceived and
internalized stigma, and negative physical and mental health outcomes in children, and
(3) identify intervening mechanisms (e.g., project strategies) that may play a role in
predicting how stigma influences child physical and mental health outcomes.
In order to disentangle the stigma associated with sex work from the stigma
associated with having HIV, this project compares two groups of women. Groups under
study include female sex workers (FSW) and women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA),
For both stigmatized groups, subjects are enrolled in the project continuously, beginning
in April 2014 until sampling goals were reached in December 2014.
The current section presents the results of the analysis for hypotheses related to
these objectives. Aims of this chapter are to (1) summarize sampling distributions
between the two comparative groups (FSW, WLWHA), (2) present the results of the
descriptive analysis of project data, and (3) summarize the results of the ordered multiple
logistic regressions and qualitative data analyses for pathways A-I.
Sampling Distribution of Female Sex Workers
A sample of 368 female sex workers were recruited from cabarets/casas de citas,
carwashes, escort resorts, and the street (independent sex workers). To ensure current
involvement in sex work, FSW are recruited directly from sex work establishments. Of
77


these 368 women, 19 (5.2%) are excluded due to refusal or ineligibility. Little is known
about the distribution of sex workers between sex work venues in the Dominican
Republic. Sampling distribution is inferred using data from PLACE La Republica
Dominicana (2014). PLACE estimates suggest that 23% of sex workers working at
cabarets/casas de citas are not formally employed by these establishments. It can be
inferred from these data that approximately 25% of the sample should be made of sex
workers who work independently. Encargadas7 at the two escort resorts in town
confirmed that 100% of sex work staff is formally employed by these venues; all women
at both establishments are included in the sample data. Sex workers from the three largest
car washes in Puerto Plata are included and encargadas confirmed that all eligible women
are recruited from these sites into the sample. Car wash-based sex workers make up 9.2%
of the sample. The rest of the sample distribution is populated with cabaret/casa de cita
workers.
Sampling Distribution of Women Living with HIV/AIDS
To ensure confidentiality for the WLWHA group, participants (N=239) are
recruited from a CEPROSH clinic in Dajabon, a city located approximately 90 minutes
from Puerto Plata. Eligible respondents are recruited directly from the HIV clinic waiting
room upon presenting for scheduled appointments. A total of 266 WLWHA are
approached for participation in this study and 27 (10.2%) are excluded due to refusal or
ineligibility. Respondents in this group are not stratified based on any additional
sampling criteria.
7 Women who act as shift managers for sex work staff at some sex work establishments.
78


Differences Between FSW and WLWHA in the Demographic Data
Scheffe tests are conducted to identify significant differences between FSW and
WLWHA. Demographic variables include age, nationality, education, permanent income
indicators, partnership status, and number of living biological or adopted children.
Results of the analysis indicate that significant differences exist between groups for
almost all demographic measures.
Descriptive Statistics About Demographic Variables
Participants are Dominican and Haitian, Spanish-speaking women between the
ages of 18 and 71 years old (mean age=29.3). Subjects are divided into two groups
female sex workers (60.0%) and women living with HIV/AIDS (40.0%). A total of 613
women are approached for participation and 31 (5.1%) are excluded due to refusal or
ineligibility. Descriptive data for the study population are presented in Table 13 and
summarized for each of the two groups below.
79


Table 11: Demographic Characteristics of the Sample
i
Female Sex Workers (N=342) Women living with HIV/AIDS (N=231)
Characteristics Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Age (years) 27.5 (6.7) 32.1 (7.5)
Education (years) 8.4 (3.0) N (%) 6.8 (4.3) N (%)
Partnership status (partnered)
Yes 112(32.4%) 135 (58.2%)
Nationality
Dominican 254 (73.0%) 153 (66.2%)
Haitian 94 (27.0%) 78 (33.8%)
Has a government-issued Dominican identification card or Haitian passport
Yes 276 (79.1%) 159 (68.5%)
# living biological or adopted children (mean) 2.2 2.8
# medically or self-induced abortions (mean) 1.1 0.6
Respondent lives in same household as children
Yes 176 (50.6%) 156 (67.2%)
No 151 (43.4%) 48 (20.7%)
Lives with some children 21 (6.0%) 28 (12.1%)
Provides the principal economic support for the household
Yes 266 (76.2%) 95 (41.0%)
Permanent income indicators (yes)
Motorcycle/scooter 118(33.8%) 77 (33.2%)
Clock/watch 280 (80.2%) 188 (81.0%)
Water jug 334 (95.7%) 226 (97.4%)
Washing machine for clothes 267 (76.5%) 148 (63.8%)
Refrigerator 250 (71.6%) 129 (55.6%)
Stove 319(91.4%) 179 (77.2%)
Fixed line telephone 42 (12.0%) 17 (7.3%)
Cellular telephone 322 (92.3%) 189 (81.5%)
Television 306 (87.7%) 163 (70.3%)
Computer 61 (17.5%) 23 (9.9%)
Summary of the Groups Under Study
FSW and WLWHA differed along several measures. For instance, FSW had a
mean age of 27.5 years and 6.8 years of education, while WLWHA had a mean age of
32.1 years and 8.4 years of education. Almost one-third (32.4%) of FSW and 58.2% of
WLWHA were partnered. Just under three-quarters (73.0%) of FSW were of Dominican
nationality and 27.0% were Haitian. For WLWHA, two-thirds (66.2%) of participants
80


were Dominican and 33.8% were Haitian. Additionally, 79.1% of FSW and 68.5% of
WLWHA had a government-issued Dominican identification card or Haitian passport.
FSW had an average of 2.2 living biological or adopted children and 1.1 medically or
self-induced abortions. WLWHA had an average of 2.8 living biological or adopted
children and 0.6 medically or self-induced abortions over their lifetimes. Just over half of
FSW (50.6%) and over two-thirds of WLWHA (67.2%) lived in the same households as
their children. Over three-quarters of FSW (76.2%) and 41.0% of WLWHA provided the
principal economic support for their households. For the measures of permanent income
indicators, FSW (95.7%) and WLWHA (97.4%) most frequently owned a water jug.
Conversely, FSW (12.0%) and WLWHA (7.3%) least frequently had a fixed line
telephone. However, not owning a fixed line telephone is likely due to the high
prevalence of cellular phones in both groups (FSW = 92.3%; WLWHA 81.5%).
Children. Descriptive data for participants children, stratified by stigmatized
group, are presented in Table 12 and summarized here.
81


Table 12: Sex and Age of Children in Sample, Stratified by Stigmatized Group
i
Female Sex Women living with j temaleSex HIV/AIDS Workers Children I /tvt cqq\ Children (N=589) (N=398) ,
Characteristics N (%) N (%) i
Child sex i
Girls 299 (50.8%) 200 (50.3%) i
Boys 290 (49.2%) 198 (49.7%) i
Child age i
<1 29 (4.9%) 9 (2.3%) i
1 26 (4.4%) 13 (3.3%) i
2 51 (8.7%) 30 (7.5%) |
3 60 (10.2%) 25 (6.3%)
4 49 (8.3%) 27 (6.8%)
5 55 (9.3%) 43 (10.8%) 1
6 42 (7.1%) 36 (9.0%) i
7 71 (12.1%) 38 (9.5%) i
8 52 (8.8%) 34 (8.5%) i
9 34 (5.8%) 34 (8.5%) i
10 53 (9.0%) 38 (9.5%) i
11 45 (7.6%) 34 (8.5%) i
12 35 (5.9%) 36 (9.0%) |
13 32 (5.4%) 27 (6.8%)
14 28 (4.8%) 40 (10.1%)
15 27 (4.6%) 49 (12.3%) 1
i The sample includes 589 children from the sex worker group, and 398 children from the WLWHA group. The sample is split evenly between girls and boys for each stigmatized population. For sex workers, slightly more than half of children (50.8%) are girls and
slightly less than half (49.2%) are boys. Sampling distribution by child sex is similar for
WLWHA. 50.3% of women living with HIV/AIDS children are girls and 49.7% are
boys.
Ages of children range between <1 year old to 15 years old for each stigmatized
group. For FSW, 7 year olds are the largest age group by frequency (12.1%). Among
women living with HIV/AIDS, 15 year olds comprise the largest age group by frequency
(12.3%).
82


Descriptive Statistics About Stigma Variables
Descriptive data about mean perceived and internalized stigma variables for sex
work and WLWHA are presented in Table 13 and discussed here. All stigma scales
operate on locally contextualized 4-point scales (scale range 1-4; no, I doubt it, its
possible, yes).
83


Table 13. Mean responses for the Perceived Community Stigma Scale,
Perceived Family Stigma Scale, and Internalized Stigma Scales
FSW WLWHA
(N=342) (N=231)
Item Statement Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Perceived Stigma from the Community Scale a
1. I feel that if I disclosed (being a sex worker / having 2.48 3.25
HIV) to some people they would not talk to me anymore (1.06) (0.95)
2. I feel that if I disclosed (being a sex worker / having 2.23 2.81
HIV) to some people, they would not talk to my family (1.06) (1.09)
3. I feel that if I disclosed (being a sex worker / having 3.07 3.13
HIV) to some people, I would be threatened with violence (0.94) (1.04)
4. I feel that if I disclosed (being a sex worker / having HIV) 3.02 2.56
to some people, they would think I was immoral (1.04) (1.11)
5. I feel that if I disclosed (being a sex worker / having HIV) 2.85 3.48
to some people, they would treat me differently (1.10) (0.93)
Scale mean 2.73 3.05
(0.71) (0.69)
Perceived Stigma from the Family Scale3
6. I feel that if I disclosed (being a sex worker / having HIV) 1.75 2.08
to my husband or boyfriend, he would hit me or punch me (1.06) (1.17)
7. I feel that if I disclosed (being a sex worker / having HIV) 1.81 2.13
to my husband or boyfriend, he would not talk to me anymore (1.13) (1.18)
8. I feel that if I disclosed (being a sex worker / having HIV) to 2.26 1.75
my family, I would not be able to see my children* * (1.14) (1.12)
9. I feel that if I disclosed (being a sex worker / having HIV) to 1.53 2.04
my family, they would abandon me (0.98) (1.26)
10.1 feel that if I disclosed (being a sex worker / having HIV) 1.70 2.47
to my family, they would treat me differently (1.12) (1.40)
Scale mean 1.70 2.17
(0.81) (0.97)
Internalized Stigma Scale b_____________________________________
1. It is difficult to tell people (that I am a sex worker / about my
HIV infection)
2. Being (a sex worker / HIV positive) makes me feel dirty
3. I feel guilty that I am (a sex worker / HIV positive)
4. I am ashamed that I am (a sex worker / HIV positive)
5. I sometimes feel worthless because I am (a sex worker / HIV
positive)
6. I hide (that I am a sex worker / my HIV status) from others
Scale mean
2.99 3.58
(1.12) (0.89)
3.02 2.64
(1.00) (1.26)
2.44 2.65
(1.22) (1.23)
2.81 3.19
(1.15) (1.18)
2.74 3.13
(1.16) (1.13)
2.84 3.28
(1.18) (1.13)
2.81 3.08
(0.84) (0.76)
a l=No, 2=1 doubt it, 3=Its possible, 4=Yes
b l=No, 2=Rarely, 3=Sometimes, 4=Yes
* Item removed from scale due to poor fit
84


Female sex workers. For FSW, mean perceived stigma from the community is
high (mean = 2.73; SD=0.71). Participants report the greatest amount of perceived stigma
from the community in response to the statement I feel that if I disclosed being a sex
worker to some people, they would not talk to my family (mean=3.07; SD=0.94). Mean
perceived stigma from the family is moderate for FSW (mean = 1.70; SD=0.81).
Participants reported the greatest amount of perceived stigma from the family in response
to the statement I feel that if I disclosed being a sex worker to my husband or boyfriend,
he would not talk to me anymore (mean = 1.81; SD=1.13). Mean internalized stigma is
also high for FSW (mean = 2.81; SD=0.84). Respondents report the highest amount of
internalized stigma in response to the statement Being a sex worker makes me feel
dirty (mean = 3.02; SD=1.00).
Women living with HIV/AIDS. Mean perceived stigma from the community in
the WLWHA group is high, (mean=3.05; SD=0.69), even in comparison to the FSW
group. Participants report the highest amount of perceived stigma from this source in
response to the statement, I feel that if I disclosed having HIV to some people, they
would treat me differently (mean=3.48; SD=0.93). Mean perceived stigma from the
family is also moderate (mean = 2.17; SD=), though notably higher than perceived stigma
in the FSW group. Participants report perceiving the most stigma in response to the
statement, I feel that if I disclosed having HIV to my family, they would treat me
differently (mean = 2.47; SD=1.40). Mean internalized stigma is high for the WLWHA
group (mean=3.08; SD=0.76). Respondents report the highest amount of internalized
stigma in response to the statement It is difficult to tell people about my HIV infection
(mean = 3.58; SD=0.89).
85


Comparing perceived and internalized stigma in FSW and WLWHA. Students t-
tests for independent means demonstrate that sex work-related and HIV-related stigmas
are different from one another. Women living with HIV/AIDS perceive more stigma than
female sex workers across all measures. This includes perceived stigma from the
community, (T-value = 5.35; p<0.001), perceived stigma from the family, (T-value =
6.41; p<0.001), and total perceived stigma (T-value = 7.05; p<0.001). Additionally,
WLWHA internalized significantly more stigma than FSW (T-value = 3.95; p<0.001).
Results from this analysis indicated that the stigma associated with sex work is
measurably different than the stigma associated with HIV/AIDS; therefore, FSW and
WLWHA should be examined separately.
Descriptive Statistics About Depression and Health Consciousness
Descriptive data about mothers depression and health consciousness variables for
sex workers and women living with HIV/AIDS are presented in Table 14 and discussed
here.
86


Table 14: Mean responses for the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression
Scale and the Re-Conceptualized Health Consciousness Scale
FSW WLWHA
(N=349) (N=239)
Item Statement Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CES-D 10) b
1.1 was bothered by things that usually dont bother me
2.1 had trouble keeping my mind on what I was doing
3.1 felt depressed
4.1 felt that everything I did was an effort
5.1 felt hopeful about the future (reversed)
6.1 felt fearful
7. My sleep was restless
8.1 was happy (reversed)
9.1 felt lonely
10.1 could not get going
Scale mean
0.93 0.77
(0.93) (0.78)
1.14 1.66
(1.03) (1.18)
1.41 1.90
(1.02) (1.13)
1.52 1.96
(1.06) (1.16)
1.21 2.09
(1.00) (0.97)
1.28 1.78
(1.03) (1.26)
1.22 1.72
(1.05) (1.24)
1.13 1.66
(1.00) (1.17)
1.50 1.89
(1.07) (1.26)
1.51 2.00
(1.02) (1.19)
12.85 17.38
(5.82) (7.12)
Re-Conceptualized Health Consciousness Scale c
1. Im very self-conscious about my health
2. Im generally attentive to my inner feelings about my health
3.1 reflect about my health a lot
4. Im concerned about my health all the time
5.1 notice how I feel physically as I go through the day
6.1 take responsibility for the state of my health
7. Good health takes active participation on my part
8.1 only worry about my health when I get sick (reversed)
9. Living life without disease and illness is very important to me
10. My health depends on how well I take care of myself
11. Living life in the best possible health is very important to me
Scale mean
4.23 4.77
(1.17) (0.71)
4.37 4.78
(1.08) (0.67)
4.52 4.55
(0.94) (1.04)
4.52 4.76
(0.99) (0.72)
4.50 4.60
(0.87) (0.86)
4.57 4.81
(0.99) (0.72)
4.55 4.69
(0.81) (1.02)
2.76 3.67
(1.86) (1.83)
4.73 4.67
(0.85) (1.10)
4.66 4.63
(0.77) (1.15)
4.72 4.68
(0.84) (1.20)
4.38 4.60
(0.53) (0.57)
b 0= rarely or none of the time, 1 =some or a little of the time, 2=occasionally or a moderate amount of time,
3=all of the time
c l=no, 2=rarely, 3=neutral, 4=sometimes, 5=yes
87


The depression instrument (CES-D 10) operates on a 4-point scale, designed to
assess the number of days in the past week participants experienced depression symptoms
(rarely or none of the time, some or a little of the time, occasionally or a moderate
amount of time, all of the time), and has a score range of 0-30. Participants with
depression scores of 10 or greater are considered depressed. The health consciousness
scale operates on a locally contextualized 5-point scale (scale range 1-5; no, rarely,
neutral, sometimes, yes). While a previous study found that the scale is both valid and
reliable, it did not specify discrete cut-points for low, moderate, or high levels of health
consciousness (Hong, unpublished manuscript).
Female sex workers. Mean overall depression level in the sex work group shows
that on average, FSW are depressed (mean=12.85; SD=5.82). Participants report the
highest mean depression-related response to the statement I felt that everything I did
was an effort (mean=1.52; SD=1.52). Mean overall health consciousness in this group is
high (mean=4.38; SD=0.53). Respondents report the highest mean rating to the statement,
Living life without disease and illness is very important to me (mean=4.72; SD=0.84).
Women living with HIV/AIDS. Mean overall depression level in the WLWHA
group demonstrates that on average, women living with HIV/AIDS are depressed
(mean=17.38; SD=7.12). Scheffe tests show that depression levels in the WLWHA group
are significantly higher than those in the FSW group (p<0.001), which is noteworthy.
Participants report the highest mean depression rating to the statement, I felt hopeful
about the future (reversed) (mean=2.00; SD=1.19). Mean overall health consciousness
in WLWHA was high (4.60; SD=0.57). Participants report the highest health
88


consciousness rating to the statement, I take responsibility for the state of my health
(mean=4.81; SD=0.72).
Descriptive Statistics About Child Physical Health
Descriptive data about child physical health outcomes for FSW and WLWHA are
presented in Table 15 and discussed below. Child physical health outcomes are
ascertained from parents yes/no responses to whether their youngest child has had any of
the specified illnesses in the past 12 months. Specified illnesses include fever, diarrhea,
vomiting, cough, fast or difficult breathing, ear pain, cold, dengue, pneumonia,
chikungunya, and other. The other illnesses participants most commonly report
include, sore throat/tonsillitis, sickle cell anemia, bronchitis, chest congestion, HIV,
malnutrition, allergic reactions, and headache.
89


Table 15: Responses for Child Physical Health Outcomes Observed in
the Past 12 Months for Sex Workers and Women Living with HIV/AIDS
Female Sex Workers Women Living with HIV/AIDS
N % N %
Fever
Yes 300 86.1% 160 69.0%
No 48 13.8% 72 31.0%
Diarrhea
Yes 149 42.7% 56 24.0%
No 200 57.3% 177 76.0%
Vomiting
Yes 149 42.8% 45 19.3%
No 199 57.2% 188 80.7%
Cough
Yes 240 68.8% 110 52.8%
No 109 31.2% 123 47.2%
Fast or difficult breathing
Yes 160 45.9% 51 21.9%
No 189 54.2% 182 78.1%
Ear pain
Yes 67 19.2% 19 8.2%
No 282 80.8% 214 91.9%
Cold
Yes 300 86.0% 175 75.1%
No 49 14.0% 58 24.9%
Dengue
Yes 36 10.3% 23 9.9%
No 313 89.7% 210 90.1%
Pneumonia
Yes 41 11.8% 23 9.9%
No 308 88.3% 210 90.1%
Chickungunya
Yes 82 23.5% 32 13.7%
No 267 76.5% 201 86.3%
Other
Yes 131 37.5% 52 22.3%
No 218 62.5% 181 77.7%
Female sex workers. The most common illnesses for female sex workers
youngest child in the past 12 months are fever (86.1%) and cold (86.0%). The least
common illness is dengue (10.3%). Other illnesses for the children in this group
90


include sore throat/tonsillitis, sickle cell anemia, bronchitis, chest congestion,
malnutrition, allergic reactions, and headache.
Women living with HIV/AIDS. Among women living with HIV/AIDS, the most
common illness among dependent children is fever (69.0%) and the least common is ear
pain (8.2%). Other illnesses for children in the WLWHA group include sore
throat/tonsillitis, sickle cell anemia, HIV, bronchitis, chest congestion, malnutrition,
allergic reactions, and headache.
Descriptive Statistics About Child Mental Health
Descriptive data about child mental health are presented in Table 16 and
discussed below.
91


Table 16: Mean Responses for Pediatric Symptoms Checklist in Female Sex Worke
Women Living with HIV/AIDS d
Female Sex Women Living
Workers with HIV/AIDS
(N=101) (N=37)
Mean SD Mean SD
1. Complains of aches and pains 0.20 0.45 0.54 0.61
2. Spends more time alone 0.53 0.66 0.38 0.55
3. Tires easily, has little energy 0.91 0.78 0.30 0.62
4. Fidgety, unable to sit still 0.55 0.77 1.05 0.81
5. Has trouble with teacher 1.04 0.83 0.54 0.69
6. Less interested in school 0.82 0.77 1.19 0.81
7. Acts as if driven by a motor 1.15 0.80 1.22 0.67
8. Daydreams too much 0.97 0.73 0.68 0.75
9. Distracted easily 0.75 0.67 1.27 0.61
10. Is afraid of new situations 0.75 0.59 0.76 0.80
11. Feels sad, unhappy 1.02 0.67 0.59 0.60
12. Is irritable, angry 0.45 0.56 1.03 0.69
13. Feels hopeless 0.70 0.73 0.49 0.73
14. Has trouble concentrating 0.98 0.85 0.92 0.76
15. Less interested in friends 0.84 0.70 0.81 0.78
16. Fights with other children 0.40 0.62 0.95 0.74
17. Absent from school 1.13 0.85 0.70 0.74
18. School grades dropping 0.51 0.60 1.08 0.81
19. Is down on oneself 0.63 0.77 0.49 0.65
20. Visits the doctor with doctor finding nothing wrong 0.30 0.58 0.62 0.76
21. Has trouble sleeping 0.65 0.69 0.27 0.56
22. Worries a lot 1.58 0.65 0.65 0.79
23. Wants to be with you more than before 0.73 0.65 1.30 0.81
24. Feels he or she is bad 0.60 0.66 0.84 0.69
25. Takes unnecessary risks 0.46 0.58 0.72 0.74
26. Gets hurt frequently 0.79 0.73 0.62 0.68
27. Seems to have less fun 0.86 0.82 0.76 0.72
28 Acts younger than children his/her age 1.08 0.71 1.08 0.72
29. Does not listen to rules 1.06 0.86 1.08 0.68
30. Does not show feelings 1.02 0.80 0.97 0.80
31. Does not understand others feelings 0.58 0.67 0.84 0.60
32. Teases others 0.57 0.69 0.76 0.80
33. Blames others for his troubles 0.24 0.49 0.78 0.75
34. Takes things that do not belong to him 0.85 0.81 0.30 0.52
35. Refuses to share 0.85 0.81 0.89 0.77
Pediatric Symptoms Checklist: Mean scores for aggregate scale, indicating the presence of
severe emotional or behavioral problems for children_________________________________
Mean scores for aggregate scale indicating the presence q 28 0
of severe emotional or behavioral problems____________________'__________________'
d0=Never, l=Sometimes, 2=Often
92


The Pediatric Symptoms Checklist (PSC) identifies the presence of problem
behaviors associated with attention, internalizing, and externalizing disorders. The scale
also identifies the presence of severe emotional or behavioral problems. The PSC
operates on a 3-point scale (never, sometimes, always) and answer choice option values
range from 0-2. For children ages 6 through 16, a PSC score of 28 or higher indicates the
presence of a significant behavioral or emotional problem.
Table 17 summarizes the descriptive results for participants children who have
significant mental health disorders for the two comparative stigma groups (FSW,
WLWHA). The PSC is divided into three subscales, designed to identify the presence of
attention, internalizing, and externalizing disorders. For the attention and internalizing
disorders subscales, children with scores >4.0 are considered to have attention or
internalizing problems. For the externalizing disorders subscale, children with a score
>5.6 are considered to have externalizing problems.
93


Full Text

PAGE 1

nrrrn n rrnnnr n rr n !"#$%"&$"'(!)"* +,,!"#$%"&$"'./(0) +,,1 #2 """03## *#$#2 (&0.#$%#2 !(*0(# &2$$.$%#2 !"#$%$.$!(*$4(!#(.%0.%..3 # $%#2 50! 3 #"%$!#2 6! $% $&#$!$%2.$"$42 n (.#2(* 2($!(.& & +,78

PAGE 2

2"#2 ""%$!#2 $&#$!$%2.$"$42* 6! 2!"# (6.(% !!( 2(" (44!$ *%$!#2 n (.#2(* 2($!(.& & "!$6!(3 (*!(& !*"$! 9 (&(*.2(! 9$2! ## &2(!* &2 90 +++,78

PAGE 3

( .2!"# (6.(% !!:2n (.#2(* 2( $!(.& & ; #63((*#2 # !6 !(#$(.!("3""$$%n (.#234.&(#$"%$!2"&(.(* #(.n (.#23$62.*! $% 3(. <$!) !"2 ""*! &# *!$% ""$!(*!(& <4 &6"#63("(""$&(# */#24$$!2 (.#2 $0#&$3 "(*2 (.#2'! .(# 50(.# "(*0.#"n$/ !.##. ")$/( $0#2$/4(! #(.4 !& 4#$"$%"#63( (! (""$&(# */#242"&(.(*3 #(.2 (.#2$0#& $3 "&2.*! 2""#0*"2 *" .62#$#2 # !6 !(#$(.#!("3""$$%2 (. #2*"4(!# "(*%.."(34$!#(#6(4 #2 "#63(.# !(#0! <(36#2 .(#$" 24 #/ 4(! #" .%'! 4$!#"$% 4 !& *(*# !(.= *" 3 #(.2 (.#2 $0#&$3 "**#$(..#&$"* !"#2 !$. $%?" #63(4!$@ &#"A3$* !(#6#2 .(#$"24 #/ 4 !& *(*# !(.= *"# 63("(** #% "#2 %% &#$% # !(.= *"#63($4!$*0&6% (!$%*"&!3( #$(*" .%'"$.(#$ 2($!" % 3(. :nGB+CE;/ ! &!0# %$!"#0*4(!#&4(#$#$ *" #(6. #2 %% &#"$%#2 "#63((""$&(# */ #2 6(66" : B+,;(*n:B+,;/ 40!4$" ." &# *%!$350(##(# "4$* #" %$!&.0"$50(.#(# # /" 2 n6!$04/("&$34$" *$%/$3 /2$2( 6(6 *"
PAGE 4

.# !(# .n$%n(#((#$(.#/ 3$ .) .#$4 !& nF'! .(# "#63(%!$3#2 %(3.#2(n$%$3&((# $(.#(*n 4 !& *3$! ! *0&#$# #$"(* n 2 %$!3(*&$# #$%#2"("#!(&#(! (44!$ &$33 *#"40.&(#$ 44!$ *(*!(&

PAGE 5

nrrr $/ 3(#2()"#$&$0#. ""4 $4. %$!2 .4# 2 &$34. #$$%#2" *"" !#(#$!"#(*%$! 3$"##2()rn( *#"#! ""(!3$%$0#! (&2 /$!) !"&.&"#(%%4 !2 (#2 *0&(#$!"(*&( 4!$* !"2"4!$@ &#/$0.*$# 2( 4$"". /#2$0##2 "044$!#60*(& ( *&$..($!(#$$%#2"050 (* 4!$6! "" $!6(=(#$6 "4 &(.#2()"%$! #2 *. ""#(. #"$%!((!*$ $3 =0&H((#((2 .((.* !I(*("3H $#$ n$/ !$/ #2 4 "#* #$%6!(##0* #$3 (!&2("""#(#(!H( ? (A* .$"(!$(!#H =0J$=#2$0#2 <4 !#)$/. *6 $%#2 #2"4!$@ &# /$0.*$#2( 2(44 *."$/$0.*2( "0! !0$ !(&(! ( #2()$0%$!$0!2(!*/$!)$0!* *&(#$#$#2 "4!$@ &#$0!6 !$"#(*$0! 50&)/#:/2&2/("$%# (30&2 *! 4! ; 0#3$"#$%(..#2()$0%$! $0!%! *"24$/ 3(#2()"#$#2 %(&0.#$%#2 n (.#2(* 2($!(.& & 4!$6!(3(# #2 !"#$%$.$!(*$' !&2(!* &2" 4!3(!.! "4$". %$!2 .46#$ "#!0�! #2"4!$@ &#(/(#2(#(")"3 (6%0 .50 "#$"(*3() "34$!#(# &$#!0#$"#$#2 .# !(#0! &2(!*#2()$0 %$!$0! <4 !## &2&(.)$/. *6 (* *. ""4(# & *0!6#2 (!."#(6 "2() $0%$! 63(*$&(# 3 &2 !. (* !33 #$!(*%$!"2$/63 #2(#( 3&(4(. $%*$6* 4 # (!&2(!$(*(."$$/ (206 ##$(*!(& !/2$6!(&$ 0"."# 44 *#$#2 (*"$! !$. $#2"4!$@ &##2 3**. $%#"* .$43 # "4# (.#($%$#2

PAGE 6

4!$% ""$(.$.6(#$"(*3(* #2"4!$@ &# #"&$34. #$(*3# .. �(. .$43 #(4!$!#n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

PAGE 7

rnnr n rrKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK7 r9KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKD r9KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKF nnrnKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK77 F nrKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK7F nrKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKC1 F KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKLF rrKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK7C7 rrrKKKKKKKKKKKKK7DE KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK78EKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK7-1

PAGE 8

7 r nn 2 # !(&#$(3$6"#63("
PAGE 9

+ %!$3#2 "#63($%.6/#2nF(** # !3 "# 2 "4 &%&34.&(#$"$%" G#"#2 %!"##$ <(3 #2"#2 3 #2 (#3 !&(>(! (! 6$ 2 *"" !#(#$(&&$34."2 "#2"$@ &# "(34.6(&(" 6!$04$%% 3(. :nGB+CE;(*4 !% $!36(*! &#&$34(!(# ((."" **#$(..#$ "0! (&&0!( *(#((*"0 50 #&$&.0"$"#2" "#0*#() "(# .&$..($!(# (44!$(&2#$ (!&2* "6$&(.4!$% ""$(." (*3 3 !"$%#2
PAGE 10

C #2 4!$4$" *24$#2 ":1;"#0*! "0.#":E;( '* 4#2*"&0""$$%"#0*! "0.#"(* :7,;4!$@ &#.3#(#$"(*&$&.0"$"

PAGE 11

D r n#r 2 $3&( 40.&4!$* "(050 &(" "#0* #$ <(3 #2 .(#$"24 #/ 4 !& *" .# !(#0! $(&&$0#%$!#2 *"#&#( #0! "$%% 3(. (*#$"2$/#2(#%* 6"(! 050 #$" 0 !#$.(#( #2 $3&( 40.&(*#"30&4(.# ( $*$&03 #(!(#$#2 (3$0#$%"#63(4 !& *% 3(. < /$!) !"&$34(! *#$/$3 .6/#2nF> 0 !#$.(#((*#" 30&4(.# "(&#$!"#$ &$"* *&.0* ( 6 (#$(.# *0&(#$4 !3( #&$3 *&(#$!"4(!# !"24 "#(#0"03 !$%

PAGE 12

8 &2.*! 4! ""$. .2 (.#2&$"&$0" ""4 !& *"#63(%!$3 #2 &$330#(*4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 %(3. $*$&03 #(!(#$#2 (3$0#$%"#63(# (.= *% 3(. < /$!) !"&$34(! *#$/$3 .6/#2n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

PAGE 13

r n#rr <"#6.# !(#0! "2$/"#2(#2 (.#2*"4(!# <"# #/ #2 &$$3&(.. *"(*(#(6 *(*#2$" #2 3**. (*044 !&.( "" ":.. +,,7;0!#2 !3$! & 3$"#!(# "#2(##2 *"4(!# "(! 0" 0(..4("" *%!$34(! ##$&2.* #2!$062 <4$"0! #$((! #$%50(#%(. 42 $ 3 ("0&2(".$/'&$3 .$/' *0&(#$(*/ ()"$&(. #/$!)"(3$6$#2 !": (040 #(.+,,8;n$/ !#2 "$! (!&2 <(36/2 #2 !#2 "("3.(! &$..(# !(. %% &#$% <4 &6 "#63(#2(#34(!"#2 2 (.#2$%* 4 #&2.*! 2(#"#2 "$ & #2(# "2$/"/2 #2 !$!$#&$36%!$3("#63(#= *%(3 .&! (# "(**#$(.*"4(!# &2.*2 (.#2(*/ .. 62 4!$4$" *4!$@ &#% .."#2"6(4#2 .# !(#0! <(36#2 &$..(# !(. %% &#"$%"#63((*#2 4!$& "" "#2!$062/2&2"#63( $4 !(# "#$4!$*0& 3 ("0!(. $0#&$3 "&2.*42 "&(.(*3 #(.2 (.#2 3(.
PAGE 14

L :! (+,,D;2 &!3(.=(#$$%" &("("* &# (+&(!/("2 "C "&$!#! "$!#"D(* 7* 4 #" &("("* &#("(! (!"(*!$#2 ."#2(# 34.$/$3 #$" ..(.&$2$.& *!)"*(& /#2&0"#$3 !"(*4!$* <0(." !& 3(. 34.$ "3($! 3($#. $#2 4! 3" "C$3 /2$ 6(6 &(!/("2'(" *"
PAGE 15

1 /$!)* 4 #.2
PAGE 16

E <:;!(#6"#2 6$" &$*$.#$n (#$!3(.0 34.$3 ##2 $3&( 40.&"3 ("0! *(#78P0#".) 30&2262 !*0 #$#2 %(&##2(# 3(**0(."(! ?" .%' 34.$ *A("3$. (& 2 *$!"3$ &2(6 !"$!" < /$!) !"2"!(# %#"#2 6$(.4!$%. /2 0 34.$3 #!(6 "%!$37+P :9(3(&(;#$-,P:n(#;# !3"$%! 6$(./ (. #2#2 4$$! "#+,P$%$3&( 2$0" 2$.*"2$.*D+P$%#2 (#$N"/ (.#22" "#2 .$/ "#/ (.#2'&$& #!(#$ "#3(# /#2#2 .(!6 '".(*6!$04(*"#2 #2!*.$/ "#$%#2 "<# 4 # (! ("#(# "%$!/2&2#2 (! *(#(2 # *(#$"*0&(#$(.& #%& (*0.#0!(.r!6(=(#$ "#3(# "#2(#+7P$%$3 &(". ("$.0# 4$ !# 4.(&6#2 3 62#2$0#$%#2 "<# '3 3 !6!$04 (*#2!*#2 % '3 3 6!$04 0 #$4$.#&(.0! "##2 (!.+,#2& #0!#2 $3&( 40.&**$# &$3 (#$0!"#* "#(#$0#.#2 *$%#2 7 E-,N":( =("+,,1;%$&0"$ (##!(%$! 6 !"#$#2 ".(*. *#$#2 (! ((*$3 #$%& #!(..&$#!$.. 3(0%(�!6(*"06(!4!$*0&#$:( =("7EEE; 2""0** #!("#$%(&.#(# #2 3$ 3 ##$/(!*"( <&.0" .(& $$!#2 3 !&((*0!$4 (#$0!"3(" (3 ("$%&$3 4!$*0&#$& % 3(. "(! .(! 6 .! 6(# *#$#$0!"3'(" 34.$3 #(&## "#2(#6 !(# .3# *&(4#(. (*(%%$!*$04/(!*3$.# :( =("+,,1;3(/$3 30"#"044. 3 ##2 &$3 "/#2%$!3(..($! &.0*6"
PAGE 17

7, 3 ("0! ""0&2("&$3 (* 34.$3 ##2 6$ 20"#2 $3&( 40.& "("(&(" "#0*$%(30&2.(!6 !(! (# *2 50&) &$$3&#!("#$#$ (#$0!"3'(" *3$* .#2(##$$)4.(& #2!$062$0##2 #! (! ((". %#3( /$3 %(&(.&!"": 34(*$$7EEE;0&2.(! 6 '"&(. 042 ((.""$&(.(* &$$3&4!$& "" "" #$&! (# 6 !'(" *3(! 6(.=(#$#2(#. *#$(&! (" ?(#"$&(.A 2($!"0&2(""
PAGE 18

77 r, rr-nrr #63( <"#"/2 "$&(.*%% & "(! .) *#$ 6(# (##!0# "(* "# $#4 "$"" ""60* "!(. &2(!(&# !"#&" $! .$66#$("#63(#= *6!$04 &! (# "*"#(& #/ #2 6!$043 3 !(*$#2 3 3 !"$%"$& ##2!$062"#(#0" .$""(*(!$0"%$!3"$%*"&!3(#$r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

PAGE 19

7+ &.) %&($/ 0 (+"" ($*!(*(! $# <#0(.:&$#!$.;(!(. " 6 (#$(.# *0&(#$ !3( #&$3 (!# !"24"#(#0" 03 !$%&2.*! 4! ""$. n (.#2&$"&$0" ""QQ $&(.#63( (3."#63( $330#"#63( # 6 3 ( $ ( . # !(.= "#63( $" 50 #4! *&#$!" .%'34$" *"$.(#$ (!$%*"&!3(#$ 2.*n (.#2 2"&(.2 (.#2 #(.2 (.#2 r#2 !) %.0 & "$"#63((*2 (.#2 n$3 &$330#$!3"($0#"
PAGE 20

7C n "$&(."#63(# !(.= *"#63("#63(4! $@ &#"(*&2.*2 (.#2 $0#&$3 "(! *"4.( */#2#2 &$# <#$%$#2 ) %.0 & "$"#63((*2 (.#2 ("* #% *#2 .# !(#0! &&$!*6#$#2" 3$* .&$# <#0(.%(&#$!" <"#4!$!#$ #2 4!$4$" *"#63(4(#2/((*#20"*! &#.(%% & #"$&(.(*>$!# !(.= *"#63( :4(#2/(";$!#2 &(4(""#2 4(#2/(#$ 4 #.4! *&#&2.*2 (.#2 :4(#2/(; !& *"#63("(""$&(# */#2 # !(.= *"#63(:4(#2/(; #63(3$* !(#$!"&(0" (!(#$"$&(."#63( :$<;(*>$!3$* !(# #2 4(#2/( #/ "$&(."#63((*# !(.= *"#63(:4(#2 /(;2 .(#$"24 #/ 4 !& *"#63((*# !(.= *"#63((*&2.* 2 (.#2&( #2 !*! &#:4(#2/(" n;$!%.# *#2!$062&$" 50 #4! *&#$!": 4! *&#$!"$%&2.*2 (.#2$0#&$3 #2(#(! &$" 50 & "$%# !(.= *"#63(;:4(#2 /(;..4!$4$" *24$#2 "(! (" *#2 "#63(#4 .(#$"24"* "&! 60! + &2)$( "!%"'++%#" & ""(!#$! % !(&)#$%60! 7#$%$..$/ #2 24$#2 "= *(""$&(#$" #/ #2 (!$0""#63(4(#2/("(*&2.*2 (.#2("$0 #. .$/ +% !""!/+" #63( .##63( (&# *#63( #63(!$@ &#" # !(.= *#63( !& *#63( !$3(3. !$3$330#

PAGE 21

7D (#2/( (&#$!"(""$&(# */#2&$# <#0(.(!(. "#2(#4 !$*0& (!(#$ 4 !& *"#63(&$# <#0(.(!(. ""0&2("(6 4(!# !"24"#(#0" *0&(#$ 03 !$%.6$.$6&(.$!(*$4# *&2.*! &$3 (#$(.#(* 4! ""$. ./.. (""$&(# */#24 !& "$&(."#63( (#2/( n4$#2 ""($0#&$# <#0(.(!(. "#2(#4!$*0& (!(#$ # !(.= *"#63(&$# <#0(.(!(. ""0&2("( 6 4(!# !"24"#(#0" *0&(#$03 !$%.6$.$6&(.$!(*$4# *& 2.*! &$3 (#$(.# (** 4! ""$. ./.. (""$&(# */#2(!(# $# !(.= *"#63( (#2/( n4$#2 "($0#&$# <#0(.(!(. "#2(#4!$*0& (!(#$&2.* 2 (.#2$0#&$3 "/2. $4 !(#6$0#"* $%"#63(4 !$& "" "&$# <#0(.(!(. "0&2("(6 4(!# !"24"#(#0" *0&(#$03 $%.6$.$6&(.$!(*$4# &2.*! &$3 (#$(.#* 4! ""$. .( *2 (.#2&$"&$0" ""/.. "6%&(#.(""$&(# */#2&2.*42"&(.(*3 #(.2 (.#2$0#&$3 " (#2/( n4$#2 ""($0##2 .(#$"24 #/ 4 !& "#63((* # !(.= *"#63(262 !. ."$%4 !& *"# 63(%!$3#2 &$330#(* 4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 %(3./..&$!! "4$*#$ 6! (# !. ."$%# !(.= "#63( (#2/(n4$#2 "($0#"#63(3$* !(#$!"#2 %$..$/6(!(. &.0*62$3 &$330#$!3"($0#"
PAGE 22

78 $< n4$#2 ""($0#2$3 &$330#$!3"($0#"
PAGE 23

7r, rn#"#2 # #$%#2"#2 $!" &#$#$(&&$34. "2#2 %$..$/66$(.":(;#$ 4!$* #2 (&)6!$0* & ""(!#$0* !"#(*#2 (44.&(#$$%"#63(#2 $!#$#2 4! #*"" !#(#$4!$@ &#:;#$&.(!%#2 .(#$"24 #/ "#63((*&2.* 42"&(.(*3 #(.2 (.#2$0#&$3 ":&;#$ <4.&(# #2 &$& 4#0(.=(#$$%2$/"#63( %0&#$"/#2($3&(&$# <#(*:*;#$* 3$"#!(# 2$/"#63(#2 $! 4!$* "(%!(3 /$!)%$!#2 24$#2 "($ $*"( "!% (!!3( % (* $&$.$6"#!6$%%3(4$ *&$# 34$!(!" #63(#2 $!/#22" 7E-C40.&(#$ nnrrrnnr n $%%3( ("" !#"#2(#**0(." (!6(*"&! *#6(## !0# '(*&(#$!$% 6(# *%% & R2( % / !$44$!#0# ":$%%3(7E-C ;20"#2 .$43 #$% %% &# 40.&2 (.#2"#!(# 6 & ""#(# "( 0* !"#(*6$%#2 .(#$"24 #/ "#63((*2 (.#2"& <4 &6(*>$ !% .6"#63(#=(#$$%# (*"#$ &! (" 6(# $0#&$3 (!.(..%(& #"$% .% :$%%3(7E-CG#0 #(. +,,1;2"" &(0" #2 3$#$(.*"50(.%&(# $.) *#$ <4 &6"$&(. *"&! *#63(* .($!4! #(44!$4!(# 2 .4' )6 2($!%$!#! (#(. 3 *&(. 4!$. 3": "" #(.+,,L;$ !" .$!3(.= 6& !#( 2($!"$!&$*#$" "#$! *0& "#63( (!.(.."#63(#= *6 !$04":$%%3(7E-C;

PAGE 24

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�(. <4 & "$%"#63(&$33## ***0(."/2$ (! $#3 3 !"$%#2 "#63(#= 6!$04:&(3. !(*($.+,,1; .#"#63(! % !" #$$ $!$#2$%#2 %$..$/6:7; (# !(.= *% .6$%"2(3 (*>$!.(3 :# !(.= *"#63(;(*:+;(*"!04# $!*"(.6% (!$% 6*"&!3(# *(6("#:4 !& *"$&(."#63(G&(3. !(* ($.+,,1G#0 #(.+,,1;&(3. !(*($. :+,,1;#!$*0& (#2!*((.#& "&!4#$!$%"#63(#2(##2 # !3?"#63(4!$@ &# "A'"#!(# 6 6(6 *"#63(#= **0(."#$($*# !(.=6"#63(2"! (!&2 <(3 ""#63(#"4 !& # !(.= *(*4!$@ &#%$!3"G# /.. <&.0* ("" ""3 #$%"#63(#" (&# *%$ !32"" &(0" #"4$"". #$ 4 !& $!# !(.= "#63($!#$ 6(6 "#63( 4!$@ &#"/#2$0#2(6*! &#.

PAGE 25

71 <4 & *( (&# *"#63( #:6 !3 # (.+,,CG#0 !+,,1; **#$(..#"4$"". #2(##!6#$! &$"# !0&# <4 & "$% (&# *"#63( #" /$0.* "0@ &##$"6%&(#! &(..(":n(""( +,,8; 5%!r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

PAGE 26

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
PAGE 27

+, &$#!$.. *%$!* 3$6!(42&%(&#$!"&.0*6(6 : (!";4(!# !"24"#(#0" :4(!# *>04(!# *;(* *0&(#$: (!";$ #!$.(!(. "/..$# *"&0"" #2 "0" 50 #4(!(6!(42""& #"$#&0"#$3(! #$&.0* #2 3 !/+1 """ */! 6&(3 '("!% *&3 %3*"$) 6&(3'(""&!"7 %"!%"&"7*& 7 &$' (3' ( ( %*!(*7 $7 (+7**%"" (3(/(('"" */!%3*"$1 03 !$%.6$.$6&(.$!(*$4# *&2.*! .3$"#(.."
PAGE 28

+7 .# !(# .! (!&2 <(364 !& *"
PAGE 29

++ +,7D; #2"#".) .#2(#n(#( #2&#/. (""$&(# */#2(&! (" 4 !& *"#63(! .(# *#$" :nG #(. +,,EG0!420"#(*! / ..+,,-;3$6 n#2 # *#(# "nF' .(# *"#63((** 4! ""$/$!)#$6 #2 !#$4!$* 0& 6(# 2 (.#2 %% &#"&.0*6 *0& *#! (#3 #(*2 & .3# *0" $%"$&(. "044$!#""# 3"*0 #$% (!$% @ &#$(*! *0& *nF"#(#0"*"&.$"0! #$" < 0(.4(!# !":!$ #(.+,7,; #2 "3.(!# #/ #2 #/$4$40.(#$"#" 4.(0". #2(##2 .(#$"24 #/ "#63((** 4! ""$ <# *"#$$" 50 #. #".) .#2(#262 !. ."$% 4(!#&4(#* 4! ""$/.. (""$&(# */#2&! (" *4 !& *"#63( !/+1+% !""' & 6&(3'("! % *&3 (*"$) 6&(3'(""&!" 7%"!%"&"7*& 7 &$' (3' ( ( %*!(*7 $7 (+7**%"" (3(/(('"" */!3 ( *"$1 03 !$%.6$.$6&(.$!(*$4# *&2.*! 3$"#(.."
PAGE 30

+C "066 "#"#2(#2(63$! &2.*! 3( (""$&(# */#2.$/ !. ."$%"
PAGE 31

+D n(#("&.0*6n(#('$3&("8#$4 ##$#2 n(#( 3(""%$!n(#( 4(""4$!#": &. !&+,7D;40#"#2"6!$04(#&! (" *!")%$!* 4$!#(#$(*(0" : #(.+,7D; #2 &$34. <# "#".) .#2(# 6$ %n(#((#$(.#" .(# *#$&! (" *# !(.= *"#63( 4! ""$. .2 "("#!$6! .(#$"24 #/ 4! ""$(* # !(.= *"#63(! .(# *#$nF>:(.&23( #(.+,,EG #(.+,,+G # (.+,,EG3( #(.+,,L;*6"%!$3( (*n(34(*(:*;"2$/#2(##2" .(#$"242$.*"#!0 (3$6/$3 .6/#2nF >:n;#2 $3&( 40.&) n(! 262."#6 3(#= *2 %$! #" 4.(0". #2(##2 4$"# .(#$"24 #/ 4! ""$(*# !(.= *"#63(&$0.* <# *#$!/+1+% !""' & 6&(3'("! % *&3 !(* !(! & $"/!( % &"* "$% """) 6&(3'(" "&!"7%"!%"&"7*& 7&$' (3' ( ( %* !(*7 $7 (+7*%"" (3(7 *!(! &"""/((' "(+"" */!!(*%!+"(*$ (!(! & $"1 #" & ""(!#$&.0* #2 %$..$/6" &#$ #2"#2 $!&2(4# !#$4!$* ( (" %$!#2 .(#$"24 #/ 4 # (!(. "(*&2.*42"&(.(*3 #(. 2 (.#2$0#&$3 "4 &%&(.."#63(3( <4.(( 4(!#$%#2 (!(#$&2.*42"&(. (*3 #(.2 (.#2$0#&$3 "#2$062#*$ "$# <4. ((..$%#$#"34$!#(##$.$$) (##2 .(#$"24" #/ #2 4!$4$" ** 4 #(!(. "(*&2.*42"&(.(* 8n(#('$3&("(! 4 !"$"$%n(#(* "& # /2$/ $!#2 $3&( 40.&

PAGE 32

+8 3 #(.2 (.#2 #2 ("# ""$%#2 &2.*2 (. #2.# !(#0! (*#2 $@ &# "$%#2" &#$! 4$!# *%*6"($0#&2.*! N"2 (.#2 (! .3# *(&&$!*6. 03 !$%.6$.$6&(.$!(*$4# *&2.*! 2 .# !(#0! ($0##2 .(#$"24 #/ %(3."= (*&2.*2 (.#2$ 0#&$3 ""&$%.$3 (!&2 "2$/"#2(##2 03 !$%.6$.$6&(.$!(*$4# *&2.*! (%(3."$# (""$&(# */#2(!(#$&2.*42"&(.2 (.#2 : $(*$06 !+,,1;r#2 ! (!&2* 3$"#!(# "#2(#.(!6 %(3."= 2("( # !$0" %% &#$&2.*42"&(. 2 (.#2$0#&$3 ":(!6(*$!*0&27EE1;**#$(. .#2 03 !$%.6$.$6&(. $!(*$4# *&2.*! "4$"# .(""$&(# */#24 $$! !&2.*3 #(.2 (.#2: $(* $06 !+,,1G#!$2"&2 +,,8;2 %$! #"4 $"". #2(##2 "(4$"# .(#$"24 #/ #2 03 !$%.6$.$6&( .$!(*$4# *&2.*! (%(3.(* 4$$!&2.*3 #(.2 (.#2%$!& !#(3 ("0! "# "0.) .#2(#("#(#"#&(.."6%&(# .(#$"24 <"#" #/ #2"* 4 #(!( (*(&2.*42"&(.2 (.#2 $0#&$3 &$3 (! #(.&$3 ""#!$6.&$!! .(# */#2&2.*2 (.#2/2 4$$! %(3. "(! (#&! (" *!")%$!2(6. ""2 (. #2&2.*! $!"#(& 4$$!&2.*! 2( (262 !.) .2$$*$%("#23(*(6$"":0!! (*+,,LG $(*$06 +,,1;("(34. $%1C3..$&2.*! $.L, 4 !& #$%4$$!4(!#&4(#"/ "#3(# *#$ !6$$*$! <& .. #2 (.#2 #2 !4(! #"&$34(! *#$1E4 !& #$%262 !'&$3 &2.*! :0!! (*+ ,,L; (! #(.&$3 "(."$(""$&(# */#2&! (" *$ **"$%3 #(... ""0!! (*:+,,L;%$0*#2(#4$$!&2.*! (! 7+#3 "3$! .) .#2($'4$$!&2.*! #$ *(6$" */#2n(*(! 7-#3 "3$! ) .#$ <4 & .3#(#$"("(

PAGE 33

+! "0.#**#$(..&2.*! /2$(! 4 !""# #. 4$$!* 3$"#!(# "6%&(#.262 ."$%* 4! ""$%#2 !%(3. "! 3(4$$! #2 &2.*! &$#0 #$ <2# (#"$&(. 2($!#2(#&! (" "%! 50 &(* !#$ !#3 (#(3$! !(4* 4(& #2(&2.*! /2$" %(3. "3$ $0#$%4$ #:#!$2 2 +,,8; (#$(.#n (.#2*(#(($0#n(#(".6 #2 $3&( 40.&(! !#0(..$ <"# #2 .##. ((.(. %$!3( #$"066 "#"#2(#$( !(6 n(#( &2.*! (! %(!3$! .) .#2($3&("#$ 4$$!2 (.#2n(#(&2.*! (6 ,' D(! !$062.+8#3 "(".) .#$ % &# */ #2nF>(*% / !#2(L8P2( & *#2 &$33 *(&& "%$!#2 !(6 :( (. "F(!6(" & !!((*$# !3("+,,E;**#$(.. #(.:+,7D;"2$ /"#2(#n(#((*0.#".6#2 $3&( 40.&%! 50 #.! 4$!#(< #(** 4! ""$"34#$3"*0 #$ 4 !& *"#63((**"&!3(#$#"4$"". #2(##2 3 #(.2 (.#2%*6" <# *#$n(#(&2.*! 0!#2 !3$! /(#'n (#(.(/".3#2 (.#2" !& ((.(.#%$!n(#("/2$&($#4(&("2%$!" !& ": #(.+,7D; $" 50 #.#"4.(0". #2(#n(#((#$(. #"(""$&(# */#24$$!&2.* 42"&(.(*3 #(.2 (#2$0#&$3 "* 4 #$% #2 %% &#"$%"
PAGE 34

+L (*6 !+,,L;2 %$! #"4.(0". #2(# .(#$"24"/.. <"# #/ 4! ""$(*&2.*3 #(.(*&2.*42"&(.2 (. #23 ("0! "G#2(#"("3$#2 !"N 4! ""$&! (" "&2.*3 #(.(*42"&(.2 ( .#2$0#&$3 "/../$!" n (.#2&$"&$0" "". n (.#2&$"&$0" """* % *("(" $%" .%' %%&(&(*! "4$".##$ < !&" &$#!$.$ !#2 3(# (& (*4!$3$#$$% $ N"2 (.#2:0##(' !63(+,,D;&! (" *2 (.#2 &$"&$0" """(""$&(# */#2 ## !2 (.#2(###0* "(*(6! (# !.) .2$$*#$ 6(6 4! # 2 (.#2 2($!" :0!2(3(*$! 7EEDG !"$(*!(%#+,,-G9( (#(*0!"7EE1G&2( .*$0 (*n(""(+,,1;$!"#(& (3$6(*0.#n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n$/ !#"4$"". #2(#! .(#$"24" <"# #/ #2 "#63(#4 ""& #2 $&&04! .(# **$3(":0 #(.+,77G&(3 !(*($.+,,1;$!"#(&

PAGE 35

+1 (3$6$3&(/$3 .6/#2nF>4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 &$330# (*4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 %(3./ (""$&(# */#2# !(.= *"#63(:( .(* n(34(*(*;#".) .#2(##2"! .(#$"2 4 <# *"#$% 3(.
PAGE 36

+E & #!(.(""034#$"$%$3&(3$#2 !2$$*(*% 3 #2 (""034#$" &.0* #2(#:7;3$#2 !"(! #2 4!3(!&(! 6 "%$!#2 !&2.*! (*:+;/$3 "4 &(..3$#2 !"(! $#" <0(..4!$3"&0$0": (+,,D;2 (""034#$"(! (&& 4# *$#26 !":! (+,,D(;2 %$! #"262..) .#2(#"
PAGE 37

C, 40.&: &. !&+,7D;2 /.(/"3() 0*$&0 3 # "4 &(.. 0. !(. (*3((&#("((**#$(..( !$%"# 63(2 %$! #".) .#2(##2 /.. (4$"# .(#$"24 #/ 0*$&03 # *336!(#$"#(#0"(*# !(.= "#63( #63(4!$@ &#"#0* "$%&2!$&(**"(.6 .. ""("/ ..(""#0* <(36"#63(#= *"$&(.&$*#$"4!$* <( 34. "$%/2(#&(3. !(*($. :+,,1;&(..?"#63(4!$@ &#"A2 "#0* ""2$/2 $/"#63(#= ***0(."%$!30.(# "#!(# 6 "#$3$* !(# #2 .(#$"24 #/ 4 & *(*# !(.= *"#63( (&)$/. *66#2 <"# & $%"#63((**! &#. &2(.. 66#$!"#(& !6 #(.:+,,7;"2$/ *#2(#3(4 $4. .6/#2 nF>:n; < !&" ( "#63(4!$@ &#&(.. *?*"&.$"0! &$#!$.An n) 4&.$" &$#!$.$ !/2$ *$ "(**$ "$#)$/($0##2 !nF'4$"# "#( #0"**#$(..(!):+,,+;N" /$!) <(36"#63($.0#(!.&2.*. ""&$04 "%$0*#2(#3(**0(."0" ( "#63(4!$@ &#* #% *) "(*(#=(:7E8L; &(.. *?&$* 36#2 &$* 3 !"An "#63(#= ***0(."(*3##$ 4 !%$!36(* (#(�# 262.62##"!! (& &(0" $#2 !"(."$&$33 ##2""(3 (&#(*>$!/$!" (&#"#2(# 6$0$#& ***#$(..(!):+,,+;%$0*#2(#"#63(#= **0(."3((*$4#"04 !$! ## "#$#2 !"#63(#= !"n "#63(#= 4 $4. (&)$/. *6 #2(##2$" /2$ "#63(#= #2 3.(&)#2 %$!3(#$ & ""(!#$3 () %$!3 *@0*63 #" 0## # (.:+,,E;N""#0* <(364$ !#"#63(%$0*# 2(#"$3 34$ !"2 ***0(." (! (. #$*"! 6(!*#2 6(# "# $#4 "4!$@ &# *$#$#2 3(&)$/. *66#2(# #2 !"#63(#= !N"6$!(& $%#2 !.% &!&03" #(& "%((".##. #$*$/#2#2 3

PAGE 38

C7 $! $ !!$"":+,,-;%$0*#2(#?$!3(.=6A( *" (" $!"$&(.&$*#$" %% &# *0&6"#63(2 "#63(4!$@ &#? $!3(.=6"
PAGE 39

C+ !& *4 !"$(."3.(!# &$0!(6 34(#2( ** &! (" "#63(#=(#$ :F(/ &)+,,7;2 %$! #".) .#2(# .# !(#0! "044$!#"#2"("" !# $* !"$ #(.:+,,1;%$0*#2(# 9(3(&(n!(! .! 4$!# <4 &6nF'! .(# *"#63(%!$3#2 !%(3. **#$(..( .(*n(34(*(:*;%$0*#2(# $3&(n**$# (#&4(# 6(# &$" 50 & "! "0.#6 %!$3nF"#(#0"*"&.$"0! #$%(3. 3 3 !" (!&2($0#*("066 "#"#2(#6! (# %(3.%(&(. *" (""$&(# */#2* &. "4 !& *"#63(%!$3# 2 %(3.:0 #(.+,77;2"3( 3 (#2(#"
PAGE 40

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r 4(!#&4(#! &$0# *?2 4 $4. )$/$0N! ("
PAGE 41

CD !& *"#63(%!$3#2 &$330#3((%% &#&2. *3 #(.2 (.#2$0#&$3 :(03( #(.+,,+;* & %!$3#2 nF.# !( #0! "066 "#"#2(##2"3($&&0! *! &#.$!#2!$0624$$! !4(! #6(*.(&)$%" $&(."044$!#**#$(.."$3 nF' 4$"# 3$#2 !"3("#!0&#&2.*! #$) 4#2 !nF*(6$""(" &! #/2&2&$0.* 2( 6(# 34.&(#$"%$!#2 4(! #>&2.*! (#$"242"" &! &3(! "0.# "$&(."$.(#$%!$3$#2 !&2.*! (*(*0.#"" & 3$#2 !"3(% (!#2(#&2.*! /.. (&&* #(..*"&.$" #2 !nF"#(#0":(03( # (.+,,+$""(!#'(.) !(*$"" 7EE1;2"#$$3( 6(# .34(&#&2.*3 #(. 2 (.#2#"4$"". #2(##2 %*6"(44.#$"& .) n"
PAGE 42

C8 *6"%!$3#2 nF>.# !(#0! "066 "##2(# 4 !& *"#63(! "0.#" .%'"$.(#$:$""(!#'(.) !(*$""7EE1;$#2 !".6/#2nF>3( "$.(# #2 3" "(*#2 !&2.*! %!$3$#2 !"# $4! #&2.*! %!$3(&&* #(.. *"&.$"6#2 !nF"#(#0":(03( #(.+,,+; "$.(#$%!$3)"24 #/$!)"*0 #$ 4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 %(3.&(2( 34.&(# $"%$!&2.*3 #(.2 (.#2:(03( #(.+,,+;$!"#(& )"24! .(#$"24" $%% !&2.*! 3 #(.2 (.#2 %#""0&2 (" 3$#$(."044$!#(*#3(&2 (&& ""#$# 2 )"24'(" *! "$0!& "" "#!&# *&2.*! N"3 #(.2 (.#2* &. () )"24 #/$!)"$%% !&2.*! % / ! "$0!& "(*"#!(# 6 "%$!3((66"#! ""/2&2 &(#!(".(# #$# !(.= *$! <# !(.= 2($!(.4!$. 3":(040 #(.+ ,,8; & %!$3#2 4.$#"#0*"066 "#"#2(##2"3( #2 &(" %$!( .$&(# /#2#2 !&2.*! #$$#2 !&# "( *4!$& "#2 $3&( 40.& #$ 6(6
PAGE 43

C$#"4.(0". #2(#%$!&! (" *3$#2 !N "# !(.= *"#63("(""$&(# */#2 4$$! !&2.*3 #(.2 (.#2$0#&$3 "$*(# $"# 0*2(" <(3 *#2 .(#$"24 #/ 3$#2 !N"# !(.= *"#63((*&2.*42" &(.2 (#2$0#&$3 "n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
PAGE 44

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n/2$# !(.= .(!6 (3$0#"$%"#63(/..! 4$!#% (!6*"&!3(#$ (*" .%'"$.(#$ 2($!

PAGE 45

C1 r, rn 2 (!&24! # *#2"*"" !#(#$$&&0!! *#2! 42(" "2 %!"##/$ 42(" "/ "6 *#$%$!3#2 #2!*42(" /2 &2"#2 %0.. < &0#$$%#2 *"" !#(#$4!$@ &#%$!3(#$($0##2 %!"## /$42(" "$%! (!&2""033(!= .$/ !". "!8r6%( +"!9 2(" 7&$34!" *#2 <4.$!(#$!! (!&242(" %$ !#2 *"" !#(#$4!$@ &#(* $&&0!! *($%+,770!6#2"#3 2 .( (.* !I(*0&H((#T($%. #!$* !$3$&I$.*(!*(*n03((:rn; *("&0.#0!(..("$"(* $!6(=(#$(.&$#(&#"rn"(.$&(.$4!$% ##2(#(*$&(# "%$!nF'4$"# **0(."(*% 3(.
PAGE 46

CE 2(" #/$$%#2"4!$@ &#&$34!" *#2 4.$#"#0* (*$&&0!! *%!$3 & 3 +,77'9(0(!+,7+2 "4 &%&$@ &# "$%#2" 0* !#()6/ ("%$..$/":7;#$ &$34. # %%#4.$#"0! "$%#2 50(##(# "0 "#!03 #"* "6 **0!6#2 <4.$!(#$!42(" #$ "0! #2 !! .(.#G:+; #$&.(!%(*4!(&#& 3 #2$*"#$! &!0# (*# /4(!#&4(#"#2 "#0*G:C;#$* 6/#2#2 &$..($!(#$$%0 !#$ .(#("
PAGE 47

D, %!$3#2 #(!6 #4$40.(#$#$%#.$&(.0* !"#(* 6"r!6(.."&(. "4$" "/ ?#!$6."(6! A?"(6! A?6! A(*?#!$ 6.6! A$3&(" < /$!) !"2(*#!$0. *"#60"26 #/ ?#!$6. "(6! A(*?"(6! A(* #/ ?#!$6.6! A(*?6! A20"#2 "&( "4$" $4#$"/ 3$*% #$?$A?$0##A?#N"$"". A(*? "A $*"#60"2 #/ 4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 & $330#(*4 !& "#63(%!$3#2 %(3.#2 /("** *#$#/ $% '# 3*$3("2 %!"# *$3(3 ("0! *4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 &$330# (*#2 &$**$3( 3 ("0! "4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 %(3.# !(. &$""# &(*&$"#!0&#(.*#$% #2 "&(. "/ "#3(# *&(.&0.(#6#2 !$( &2N".42(&$ %%& #(*#$#(.'# 3 "#(#"#&"%$! (&2*$3(# 3"/ ! 3$ *%!$3 #2 4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 &$330#(*4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 %(3."&(. "%#2 3 #(#. ("#$ $%#2 %$..$/6&!# !(:7;#2 # 32(*(# 3'! "#" &$! $%Y,C:+;#2 # 3&(0" *( "6%&(#*!$4:Z7,P;#2 "&(. N"!$(&2N" .42("&$! (*:C;#2 # 3/("$# 050 & *(4(!/" &$!! .(#$&$ %%& #[,1: #=+,,,G0(..(* !"# 7EED;"*" $!( &*+ $n! $% "" ("0!6# !(.= *"#63(2$062"#63(" #!&(# .# *#$#2 4 !& 4#$" (*(###0* "$%$0#"* !"#2"&$& 4#2("( 50 (..&.$" .(#$"24/#2#2 #2$062#" (*% .6"$%"#63(#= ***0(.":(. # (.+,,1; .6"$%"2(3 ($0# (#6%!$3(&& 4# 2($!(! &$33$(3$6# 2$" /2$4(!#&4(# ?33$!(.A $!?..&#A(&## ":$%%3(7E-C;2..4" # (.:+,77;&2(!(&# != "# !(.=

PAGE 48

D7 "#63(("("$&(..&$"#!0&# /%$!3 6(# "# $#4 "($0#( 3(!6(.= *6!$04(*#"4 $4. #2(# &$3 &$ !4$!(# *#$#2 .%'&$& 4#$%#2 "#63(#= *6!$04N"3 3 !" ("0!6# !(.= *"#63("34$!#(#"& <"#6.# !(#0! "066 "#"#2(# # !(.= *"#63("(""$&(# */#2262 !. "$%4$$!42"&(.2 (.#2* 4! ""$ (*$#2 !3 #(.2 (.#2""0 ":(.&23( #(.+ ,,EG2..4"+,77G(. #(.+,,1; # !(.= *"#63(%$!n/("3 ("0! *0"6#2 '2 $!6(.# !(#$ $%#2 '0" **&2$#$3$0"("/ !&2$& ": "> $G(.&23( #(.+,,E; n$/ !( .(*n(34(*(:*;%$0*#2(# <4(* 6#2 ("/ !&2$& "#$(%$0!' 4$#"&(. 34!$ *#2 'N# !(.&$""# &8P $!*6%$!#2 # !(.= <$!)' .(# *#6 3(&(. :'G 44 *<;/("(*(4# *%!$3#2 # !(.= *' .(# *#63(&(. :'G (.&23( #(.+,,E;2 /$!*6$%#2 %!(3 "#2 "#!03 ##$! 4! # 6(# .%'4 !& 4#$"(*" .%'((" 3 #! (#$"24#$ 6(66" .(3 (*&$& (.3 #$%
PAGE 49

D+ ("0!6"#63(4!$@ &#"..50(.#(# *(#(%!$ 3#2 4.$#"#0*42(" / $#( *%!$3%$!3(.&$ !"(#$"/#2 *$# "/ #2 &$* *#$* #% &0!!6#2 3 "2 #2 3 "/.. *"&0"" 6! (# !* #(."0" 50 #" &#$" "" "!"n33/ 2 *"" !#(#$! (!&24!$@ &#/("(3< *'3 #2$ *"&(" '&$#!$."#0*#2(# 34.$ *50(##(# "0! "(*50(.#(# # /"$* 3$"#!(# #2(##2 "#63( (""$&(# */#2" :nGB+CE;2 6!$04&$#( */$3 /2$/ &0!! #. 6(6 *#2
PAGE 50

DC # /"/ &$*0&# *(" 3'"#!0�! *$4 *%$!3(## /4!$34#" .&# *! "4$" "($0#"#63(4!$@ &#"! .(# *#$ &$&'4"%% 3( 2 $.$!(*$0.#4. "##0#$(. /$(!*: r;$" @$(&$(. $\#&( (.0*:rr;(* #!$* !$3 $&I$.*(!*(*n03(( :rn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rn (34.6"033(!R" &("("* &#(&(!/("2 "&$!# "$!#"(*#2 "#! #$# #(.4(!#&4(#"/ (44!$(&2 *(#/$'4 !"$! (!&2 # (3&$""#6$%#2 "#0*(*(nF'4$"# 4 !'# / !/#2$ !+, (!" $%"
PAGE 51

DD (*! "4$* #"/ (") *#$6 %$!3 */!## &$" #4!$!#$&$34. #6 "0! "$!# /" $ "0! "(% #%$!#2 (!&2# (3(*"#0*4( !#&4(#"#2 4 !'# / &$#(&# *" # /" (*:+;" # /"#$$)4.(& 4!(# ("$ (.50 #.$&(#$"$&(#$" &.0* *4(!#&4(#"N *!$$3"$!(! ("$%#2 OCC8;S0(.#(# 4(!#&4(#"/ 40!4$" ." &# *(*&.0* */2$! 4$!# *#2 262 "#$! .$/ "#(3$0#$%"#63(4$"". $#2 '( !#&4(#"/2$/ $. */#2 #2 50(.#(# 4 & $%#2 "#0*! & *(**#$ (.&$34 "(#$:O7,,>O++C; (34.6"033(!Rn6!$04 $ "0! nF'4$"# *(6$"" 4(!#&4(#"/ ! &!0# *%!$3#2 /(#6!$$3( #rnnF&.&"# $# #(.4(!#&4(#"/ (44!$(&2 *(#/$'4 "$! (!&2# (3#2(#&$""# *$% #2 "#0*(*(4 !'# / !0@ &## "#(* .6.#/("("& !#( *(* "4$* #"/ (") *#$6 %$!3 */!## &$ #4!$!#$&$34. #6"0! "$! # /"2 *( %$! "&2 *0. *nF'&.&"# 2 4 !'# / !&$$!*(# */#2 rn$0#! (&2/$!) !"#$:7;! &$%!3#2(#"0! "># /"(! "#..(44!$

PAGE 52

D8 #$#() 4.(& (*:+; "0! #2(##2 (! ("0%% & #03 !$%"&2 *0. *(44$#3 #" #$@0"#%*(#(&$.. &#$ %%$!#" .."0! "(*# /"#$$)4.(& 50 #4! (# .$&(#$"$&(#$" &.0* *0$&&04 *4(# #!$$3"$!!$/ *42"& ($%%& "$!#2 &.&&$% & !$$3 "4$* #"! & *3$ #(!& # "%$! 4(!#&4(#$50(##(# "0! #2 (3$0#$%O78,:OCC8;S0(.#(# 4(!# &4(#"/ 40!4$" ." &# (*&.0* *n/2$! 4$!# *#2 262 "#$!.$/ "#(3$0#$%"#63(4$"". $ #2 '**0(."/2$4(!#&4(# *50(.# (# # /"! & *((**#$(. O7,,:O++C;n% ( + %" 4 #(!(. "($0#&$3 (!(. "#2" "#0*/ ! .(# *#$&2.* 42"&(.(*3 #(.2 (.#22.*42"&(.2 (.#2$ 0#&$3 "/ *!(/%!$3#2 nr n (.#2(&.#0! (*4 !#( *$.#$#2 "4$* #N"$06 "#&2.*: 6? #2 4("# (!2("$0!$06 "#&2.*2(*(% !XA G ">$;2 0" $%#2 $06 "# &2.*("(* <4 !"$" *#2! 40!4$" ":7; #4! # *! "4$* #%(#60 ) 46#2 "0! #$(! ("$(. 6#2:+;#4 # *! "4$* #&$%0"$ .3#62 (.#2! 4$!#"#$$ &2.*(*:C;#. 3# *! &(..("%!$32(6#$! 3 3 2 (.#2 #"%$!$.* !&2.*! "0.#"%!$3#2 4.$#"#0*/(!!(# *#2 &.0"$$% .. "" "050 #$#2 $3&( 40.(#/ $#&.0* *$#2 nrn (.#2 (&.# ""0! : 6?#2 4("# (!2("$0! $06 "#&2.*2(** 60 XAG ">$; **6*" (" ""4 &%&#$#2 $3&( 40.& **$#(..$/(66! 6(#$$%#2 "&(. #$$#(($ !(..3 ("0! $%&2.*2 (.#2 (&2"34#$3$!.. ""/(" &$"* *" 4(!(#

PAGE 53

D2.*3 #(.2 (.#2/("3 ("0! *0"6#2 *(#! &34#$32 &)."#:G 44 *<;2 "(C8'50 "#$"#!03 #* *#$#2! 4(!(# ."&$! "0"&(. "(*"&$! *$ !(..("((66! 6(# 3 ("0! $%&2.*3 #(.2 (.#22 "#!03 #(")"4(! #"#$! 4$!#2$/$%# #2 $ #2 !&2.* 6(66(."#$% 2($!": 6? !A?"$3 #3 "A?$%# A;2 "0"&(. "3 ("0! #2! *"#&#&2.*3 #(.2 (.#24!$. 3"&.0*6:7 ;(## #$*"$!* !": 6 24 !(&##?*6 #0(. #$"#"#..AG !"$3 #3 "$%# ;:+;# !(.=6 *"$!* !": 6* 4! ""$? .""(*AG !"$ 3 #3 "$%# ;(*:C; <# !(.=6 *"$!* !": 6(66! ""$?62#"/#2$#2 !&2 .*! AG !"$3 #3 "$%# ;2 "&$! *(66! 6(# #2 C8'# 33 ("0! "#2 ) .2$$*$% 2($!(.$! 3$#$(. 4!$. 3"&$!6+14$#":1,P$%#2 #$#(.4$"" 4$#";$#2 "066 "#"#2 4! & $%("6%&(#&2.* 2($!(.$! 3$# $(.4!$. 3 #63('! .(# ** 4 #(!(. "* 4 # (!(. "! .(# *#$"#63( &.0* *4 !& *"#63(:%!$3#2 &$330#%!$3 #2 %(3.;(*# !(.= "#63( !& *"#63(%$!#2
PAGE 54

DL E# 3" "4$" $4#$"(! (" *$D.$&(..& $# <#0(.= *&2$& ": 6?$ *$0###N"4$"". "A;("& !#( **0!6 #2 4.$#"#0*#63("&$! "/ $#( *&(.&0.(#6#2 "&(. 3 ("%$! (&2*$ 3(:4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 &$330#4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 %(3.;n62 !3 (!(#6"3 (#6! (# 4 !& 4#$"$%" #63(* <: n;#2"*"" !#(#$) #2 #2 n&$#("E'# 3"(*#/$*"# !& *"#63(*$3(" !& "#63(*$3("&.0* 4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 &$ 330#: 6?% .#2(#% *"&.$" *2(6nF>#$"$3 4 $4. #2 /$0. *$##(.)#$3 (3$! AG$ *$0###N"4$"". ";(*4 !& *"#63( %!$3#2 %(3.: 6?% .#2(#% *"&.$" *2(6nF>#$3%(3.#2 /$0.* ((*$3 AG$*$0###N" 4$"". ";$#(."#63("&$! "/ ("& !#( *&(.&0.(#63 ("%$! (&2 4 !& *"#63(*$3(:4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 &$330#(*%(3.;n62 3 (!(#6"*&(# 6! (# !4 !& 4#$"$%nF> '! .(# *"#63(%!$3 #2 *$3( # !(.= *'! .(# *"#63(/("3 ("0! *0"6 (.&23( #(.:+,,E;N" -'# 3# !(.= *' .(# *#63(&(. :44 *$; n$/ !( .(*n(34(*(:*;"2$/#2(# <4(* 6#2 "4$" $4#$"%$!#2 #$(D'4$#.$&(..&$# <#0(.= *"&(. : 6 $!(! ."$3 #3 ";&! ("

PAGE 55

D1 # !(.(.*#8P$#(.# !(.= *"#63( /("$#( *&(.&0.(#6#2 "&(. 3 (/2 262 !!(#6"3 (#6! (# !. ."$% # !(.= *"#63( 2 /$!*6$%#2 '/("(*(4# *#$(44.#$# 2 6!$04: 6?% 60.##2(#(3(" 4 #(!(. "! .(# *#$&2.*2 (.#2 !(.* 4 #(!(. .(# *#$&2.*2 (.#2/ &.0* *#2 ((." "* 4 #(!(. "/ ("& !#( *50 "#$"* .$4 *(*# "# **0! 6#2 4.$#"#0*$!/ *!(/%!$3 #2 3$"#! & # !"$$%$ $%#2 %$..$/6#2! "$0!& "#2 3$6!(42&" (*n (.#20! :n;$3 N"S0 "#$(! #2 nr$!.*n (.#20! :n;n$0" 2$.*S0 "#$(! (*#2 nr$!.*n (.#20! :n;**0(. S0 "#$(! S0 "#$"* .$4 *(*# "# **0! 6#2 4.$#"#0*&.0* *. 6(. 336!(#$"#(#0": 6?$$02( (6$ !3 # '""0 *$3&(* #%&(#$ &(!*$!4(""4$!#XAG ">$;&2.*&(! (!!(6 3 #" : 6?$$0!&2.*! &0!! #.. /#2$0XG ">$;(*2$3 &$330#$!3"($0#
PAGE 56

DE ($!#$"$!"#..!#2"GXA$# *3 *&(..$!" .% '*0& *($!#$"" 4(!(# .%!$3 3"&(!!(6 "(*"#..!#2",'1]3 *&(..$!" %'*0& *($!#$";r 4 # (!(. 03 !$%.6$.$6&(.$!(*$4# *&2 .*! /("("& !#( *#2!$062( "$%n'(" *50 "#$": 6?n$/3(. !#2"2( $02(*XAG,'1]?n( $0 !6 !#2#$($$!6!./2$/("$! (. 0#.(# !* *XAG ">$?n$/ 3(&2.*! 2( $0%$!3(..>%$!3(..(*$4# *X AG,'1]?$ & !#($02( << .6(*$4# *$!$.$6&(.&2.*! (##2"#3 A G,'1];#2 nrnn$0" 2$.* 50 "#$(! # !3 *(#$(.#: 6?2(# "$0!(#$(.#XAG $3&(>n(#(;%#2 "4$* #4!$* *4! &4(. &$$3&"044$!#%$!#2 2$0" 2$.*: 6?2$"#2 4 !"$/2$4!$* "#2 3( &$$3&"044$!#%$!#2 2$0" 2$.*XA;%#2 "4$* #/(".6#2 (3 2$0" 2$.*("&2.*! :" .%'! 4$!#" $% (&22$0" 2$.*3 3 !"N(6 <(*! .(#$"2 4#$#2 "4$* #;(*4 !3( # &$3 *&(#$!": 6?$ "($ $0!2$0" 2$.*2( (/("263(&2 %$! &.$#2 "XAG ">$; 4 #(!(. "! .(# *#$3$#2 !"N3 #(.2 (.#2$!2 (.#2&$"&$0" "" (!#&4(#"N* 4! ""$. ./("$#( *0"6# 2 # !%$!4* 3$.$6�* 2$!# 4! ""$&(. :'7,G44 *<;2 '7,"(7,'# 3"&(. #2(# 3 ("0! "2$/3(*("#2 4("#/ )! "4$* #" <4 & (&2# 3: 6? /("$#2 *#26"#2(#0"0(..*$N#$#2 !3 AG!(! .$!$ $%#2 #3 :. ""#2( 7*(;"$3 $!(.##. $%#2 #3 :7'+*(";$& &("$(..$!(3$* !(# (3$0#$%#3 :C'D*(";(..$%#2 #3 :8'L*(";; 4! ""$ ./("$#( *&(.&0.(#6#2 3 ("&$! %$!#2 "&(. /2 (262 !"&(. 3 ( 3 (#&! (" ** 4! ""$ "4$* #"/#2("&$! $%7,$!262 !$#2 '7,(! &$"* ** 4! ""

PAGE 57

8, "4$* #"N2 (.#2&$"&$0" ""/("3 ("0! *0" 6#2 '&$& 4#0(.= n (.#2$"&$0" ""&(. :n$6040."2 *3(0" &!4#G44 *<;2 &$& 4#0(.= *n (.#2$"&$0" ""&(. "(77' # 3#$$.#2(# "#3(# "2 (.#2 &$"&$0" "" "#3(#64(!#&4(#"N. .$% (6! 3 #/#2(" "$%2 (.#2 "#(# 3 #": 6?2 (.#2* 4 *"$2$// .. #() &(! $%3" .%AG$!(! 0#!(."$3 #3 ";r !(..2 (.#2&$"&$0" ""/("* # !3 *$#(6( 3 ("&$! %$!#2 "&(. n62 !3 (#(.0 "3 (# 6! (# !2 (.#2&$"&$0" "" (..4(!#&4(#(6 : (!"; *0&(#$:.("#6 !(* &$34. # *;(*4(!# !"24 "#(#0":?/2&2$%#2 %$..$/6 "#* "&! "$0! .(#$"24#4 XAG 4(!# *>04(!# *;/ &$#!$.. *(..3$* 3'"#!0�! *$4 *# /" 3'"#!0� *$4 *# /" / 6 #$6!$04"$%) %$!3(#" %$!3( #"/ &# *40!4$" .%!$3 50(##(# "0! 4(!#&4(#"(*&.0* *$ !n/2$! 4$!# *($!3(.. .$/>262. ."$%4 !& *(*# !(.= *"#63 ("# /4!$34#"/ "6 #$ .&#! "4$" "($0#"#63(4!$@ &#": 6? 2(#*$$0*$#$($*% .6(*/2 $#2 !"#63(#= $0%$!U 6(" 2(6 nFVXA;" .%'"$.(#$: 6?" #2 ($*#2(#$0/$0.* !# ..#2(#$0(! U(" .6/#2nFVXG 2/$0.*$0 !# ..#2"4 !"$XA;(*% (! 6*"&!3(#$: 6?$$0% .) 4 $4. "#63(#= U" 4 $4. /2$. /#2nF>VXG2*$$0 #2)#2(#4 $4. *$#2"Xn( $0 "#63 (#= *%$!U 6(" .6 /#2nFVXA;(+""

PAGE 58

87 2 ((.""" &#$(&&$34."2 "#2 %$..$/6:7 ;"033(!= "#2 4 # (** 4 #(!(. ":+;* "&! "$!3(.#( *30.#&$.. (!##2 "(34. (* :C;* "&! "#2 ((.""4.("%$!4(#2/("' .."#(#"#&(.((." "/ &$*0&# #(#(7C7 "&!4# ((." ""033(!= 4(!# &4(#&2(!(&# !"#&"$33= ""0 "*0 #$3""6*(#(3 ("/ 0" *%$!&$ #0$0"(!(. ": 6(6 *0&(#$;(*4 !& #(6 %! 50 & "%$!&(# 6$!& (.(!(. ": 6! "4$* #. "(3 2$0" 2$.*("&2.*! ;#(#"#&(."6%&( & /("("& !#( *(##2 4Y,,8 4Y,,7(*4Y,,,7. ."%$!(..((." $@0"#%#2 #! (#3 #$%(*n("#/$* "#!$04"#2 6! ""$((." "$ '/(r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

PAGE 59

8+ (&23$* ./("(*@0"# *%$!#2 %$..$/6* 4 #(!(. "03 !$% .6$.$6&(.$!(*$4# *&2.*! : 6?n$/3 (. !#2"2( $02(*XAG,'1] ?n( $0 !6 !#2#$($$!6!./2$/(" $!(. 0#.(# !* *XAG ">$ ?n$/3(&2.*! 2( $0%$!3(..>%$!3(..(*$ 4# *XAG,'1]?$ & !#($0 2( <<.6(*$4# *$!$.$6&(.&2.*! (##2 "#3 AG,'1;(#$(.#: 6?2(# "$0!(#$(.#XAG$3&(>n(#(;4 !3( #&$3 *&(#$!": 6?$ ($ $0!2$0" 2$.*2( (! %!6 !(#$!XAG >$;(** 4! ""$. .: 6? 2(*#!$0. ) 4633*$/2(#/("*$6AG! (! .$!$ $%#2 #3 :. ""#2( 7*(;"$3 $!(.##. $%#2 #3 :7'+*(";$& &("$(..$!(3$* !(# (3$0#$%#3 :C'D*(";(..$%#2 #3 :8'L*(";;$* ."&$ #(6* 4 #(!(. "! .(# *#$ &2.*42"&(.$!3 #(.2 (.#2:4(#2/("'n;&$# ( *#2 4 #(!(. 2 (.#2&$"&$0" "": 6?! %. &#($0#32 ( .#2(.$#AG$!(! 0#!(. "$3 #3 "; 4! ""$(*2 (.#2&$"&$0" "" 4! ""$(* 2 (.#2&$"&$0" "". ." / ("& !#( *&(.&0.(#6#2 3 ("&$! "%$! #2 '7,:44 *<;(* &$& 4#0(.= *n (.#2$"&$0" ""&(. :44 *< ;! "4 &# .$!#2 4! ""$3 ("0! 262 !3 ("3 (#3$! 4! "" $G("&$! $%7,$!3$! *&(# *#2(##2 4(!#&4(#/("* 4! "" *2 3 3033 ("&$! %$!#2 '7, /(",(*#2 3(<303/("C$!#2 2 (.#2&$"&$ 0" ""3 ("0! 262 !"&$! 3 (# ## !2 (.#2&$"&$0" ""2 33033 ( "&$! %$!#2"3 ("0! /("7(* #2 3(<303/("8 "" ""6$!3(.#(*30.#&$.. (!# 4(!(# 3$* ."/ 0.#%$! (&2 4(#2/(2 %(.30.#(!(# 3$* ."/ (*@0"# *%$!(6 (#$(.# (!"$%

PAGE 60

8C *0&(#$4 !3( #&$3 *&(#$!"/2 #2 !$! $##2 "4$* #"4(!# 03 !$%.6$.$6&(.$!(*$4# *&2.*! 4! ""$. .(*2 (.#2 &$"&$0" "". .$'$!3(.#(*30.#&$.. (!#/ ("" "" ") / "">)0!#$""# "#"(* <(3(#$$%(!(& %.(#$%(&#$!" "0.#" 3$"#!(# *#2(#&$.. (!#4.( *(!$. #2 .(#$"24 #/ &2.*3 #(. 2 (.#2$0#&$3 "(*&2.*" <%$!% 3(.
PAGE 61

8D $#2 !* 4 #(!(. "#2 3$* ./ #2$06 2##$ &$%$0* !"(*/ <&.0* *%!$3! 4$!#" S0(.#(# *(#(((.""S0(.#(# # /" / 0" *#$6(#2 !%$!3(#$ ($0#"#63(4!$@ &#":4(#2/(;% (!6*"&!3 (#$(*" .%'34$" *"$.(#$ :4(#2/(;# /#!("&!4#"$%(..4(!#&4( #"/ &$* *#$* #% n (* r n &$* "$ "0! # !!(# !'! .(.#6."2# !(".(#$"$%50(.#(# # /" / 4 #.&$* *%$!! &0!!6#2 3 "#/ $n (.#2(* 2($!(.& & :n;6!(*0(# "#0* #"(*$ *&(.#2!$4$.$6 ("# !N""#0* #2 ((." %$!4(#2/("'(! "033(!= .$/(+""(" !/+"5n4$#2 "($0##2 4 #(!(. %$!4(#2/( 4 !& *"#63(:0 # (.+,77;/ 3 ("0! *0"6#2 : <$!) #63(&(. ;(*n :nF>#63(&(. ;%$!(*n! "4 &# .:44 *<;2 (*n(! ** *#$#/$*$3("3 ("0!64 & *"#63(%!$3#2 &$330# :8# 3"G 6?% .#2(#%*"&.$" 6( 2(6nF#$"$3 4 $4. #2 /$0.*#! (#3 *%% #.AG$*$0## #N"4$"". ";(*4 !& *"#63( %!$3#2 %(3.:D# 3"G 6?% .#2(#%* "&.$" 6(" 2(6nF#$ 320"(*$!$%! *2 /$0.*2#3 $!40&23 AG$*$0###N"4$"". ";20"4(#2/(&$#("#/$* 4 #(!( "4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 &$330#(*4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 %(3. ( "%$! (&2*$3(:4 !& "#63(%!$3#2 &$330#%(3.;/ &(.&0.(# ("!(6 %!$3(3303$%7 #$(3(<303$%DG262 !3 ("3 (#262 !. ." $%4 !& *"#63(%$! (&2 *$3(

PAGE 62

88 (. 7"033(!= "#2 ((.""%$!4(#2/( (#$"24" #/ #2 4 #(!(. ":(6 (#$(.# *0&(#$ 4 !3( #&$3 *&(#$!" 4(!# !"24"#(#0"03 !$%.6$.$6&(.$! (*$4# *&2.*! 4! ""$. .;(* 4 #(!(. ":4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 &$33 0#4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 %(3.;/ # !3 *0"6$!* *30.#4. .$6 "#&! 6! ""$ 4(!(# 3$* ." / &(.&0.(# *%$! (&2* 4 #(!(.

PAGE 63

8n4$#2 "($0##2 4 #(!(. %$! 4(#2/(# !(.= *"#63(/ 3 ("0! 0"6#2 :(.&23( #(.+,,E; (*'%$! n(* "4 &# .:44 *3nF "#(#0"%!$3$#2 !"AG$ !(! ."$3 #3 "; # !(.= "#63(%$!(* n6!$04"" *&(# *3 ((.0 %$!#2"3 ("0! n62 !3 ("3 (#6! (# !(3$0#"$%# !(.= *"#63(2 33033 ((.0 %$!#2 "&(. ",(*#2 3(<303"C(. +"033(!= #2 ((.""%$!4(#2/( 2 .(#$"24" #/ #2 4 # (!(. ":(6 (#$(.# *0&(#$ 4 !3( #&$3 *&(#$!"4(!# !"24'(.)(+(( !/+ *%*,'(%*,'((+"" "" & + & % (&** 6 ( # $( # *0& ( # $4 !3 ( # & $3 *&(#$!"4(!# !"24"#(#0"03 !$%.6 $.$6&(.$!(*$4# *&2.*! 4! ""$. !& *"#63(%!$3#2 &$330# r!* *30.#4. .$6"#&! 6! ""$ n 6 ( # $( # *0& ( # $4 !3 ( # & $3 *&(#$!"4(!# !"24"#(#0"03 !$%.6 $.$6&(.$!(*$4# *&2.*! 4! ""$. !& *"#63(%!$3#2 %(3. r!* *30.#4. .$6"#&! 6! ""$ n

PAGE 64

8L "#(#0"03 !$%.6$.$6&(.$!(*$4# *&2. *! 4! ""$. .;(*#2 4 #(!(. :# !(.= *"#63(;/ # 3 *0"6$!* *30.#4. .$6"#& 6! ""$

PAGE 65

81 4 #(!(. "%$!4(#2/(&.0* *&2.* 42"&(.2 (.#2$0#&$3 "(*&2.*3 #(.2 (.#2$0 #&$3 2.*42"&(.2 (.#2$0#&$3 "/ $#( *0"6#2 nrn (.#2(&.# "0! 2"3 ("0! /("* % *4(! #'! 4$!#"$%.. "" <4 & 4(!#&4(#"N$06 "#&2.*#2 4("#7+3$#2" : 6? #2 4("# (!2("$0!$06 "#&2.*2(**(!!2 (X AG ">$;2 &2.*2 (.#2$0#&$3 "0* <(3(#$ '(2)(+(( !/+ *%*,'(%*,'((+"" "" & + & % (&** 6 ( # $( # *0& ( # $4 !3 ( # & $3 *&(#$!"4(!# !"24"#(#0"03 !$%.6 $.$6&(.$!(*$4# *&2.*! 4! ""$. # !(.= *"#63( r!* *30.#4. .$6"#&! 6! ""$ n

PAGE 66

8E #2""#0*&.0* *% !*(!!2 ($3#6 &$062%("#$!*%%&0.#! (#26 (! 4!$. 3"&$.** 60 4 03$(&2&)060(( *$#2 !& #2 $!6(.nr n (.#2(&.# "0! "#!03 #/("3$*% (" *$4.$#"#0**(#(#$&.0* 2 (.#2$0#&$3 "050 #$#2 $3&( 40.& #/("$#4$"". #$(66! 6(# #2 "&(. #$$#(($ !(..3 ("0! $%&2.*2 (.#2 0" 50 #. (&22 (.#2$0#&$3 /(" <(3 *" 4(!(# ("%$!#2"3 ("0! / $#&(.&0.(# *"& ("/ &2$& "(! *&2$#$3$0" 2.*3 #(.2 (.#2/("* # !3 *0"6#2 *(# !&34#$3"2 &)."# :G44 *<;2 "(C8'# 350 "#$( #2(#(")"4(! #"#$! "4$*#$ 50 "#$"($0# 2($!#2 2( $" *#2 !&2.*! 2 &$#("#2! "0"&(. "#$* #%(## #$: 6?&#"("% *! (3$#$!AG !"$3 #3 $%# ;# !(.=6: 6? ."2$4 ""AG !"$3 #3 "$%# ;(* <# !(.=6 : 6?$ "$#."# #$!0. "AG !"$3 #3 (./(";*"$!* !"2 "&$! (66! 6(# #2 ("& !#("$ !(..&2.*3 #(. 2 (.#2(*"066 "#"#2 4$"".#$% 3$#$(.$! 2($!(.2 (.#24!$. 3" 20"4(#2/(&$#("%$0!* 4 #(!(. "4 !#(6#$&2.*3 #(. 2 (.#2 4 #(!(. "&.0* (## #$4!$. 3"# !(.=6*"$!* !" <# !(.=6*"$!* !"(*$ !(..&2.*3 #(.2 (.#2(66! 6(# "&$! $%+1 :1,P$%#$#(.4$"". 4$#";*&(# "#2 4! & $%(" 3$#$(.$! 2($!(. 4!$. 3$(&&$0#%$!3""6*(#(3 ("%$! (& 2*$3(:(## #$# !(.=6 (* <# !(.=6*"$!* !";(*#2 <$ !(.. (! &(.&0.(# ("!(6 %!$3( 3303$%7#$(3(<303$%CG262 !3 ("*&( # /$!" &2.*3 #(.2 (.#2%$! (&2*$3((*%$!&2.*3 #(.2 (.#2$ !(..

PAGE 67

-, (. C"033(!= "#2 ((.""4.(%$!4(#2/( .(#$"24" #/ #2 4 #(!(. ":(6 (#$(.# *0&(#$ 4 !3( #&$3 *&(#$!" 4(!# !"24"#(#0"03 !$%.6$.$6&(.$! (*$4# *&2.*! 4! ""$. 2 (.#2&$"&$0" "";(*&2.*2 (.#2* 4 #( !(. ":% !*(!!2 ($3#6 &$062%("#$!*%%&0.#! (#26 (!4!$. 3"& $.** 60 4 03$(&2&)060( $#2 !;(! &(.&0.(# *" 4(!(# .0"6$!* *30.# 4. .$6"#&! 6! ""$r!* 30.#4. .$6"#&! 6! ""$3$* ."/ &(.&0.(# #$* # !3 #2 .(#$"24 #/ &$(!(# "(*3$#2 !"N.) .2$$*#$"0"4 &#(&2 .*3 #(.2 (.#24!$. 32 $!* *30.#4. .$6"#&! 6! ""$/("&(.&0.(# 4(!(# .%$! (&2&2.*3 #(. 2 (.#2$0#&$3 #$("& !#(! .(#$"24" #/ # 2 4 #(!(. "(*&2.* 3 #(.2 (.#2$0#&$3 ":(## #$4!$. 3"# !( .=6*"$!* !" <# !(.=6 *"$!* !"(*$ !(..&2.*3 #(.2 (.#2;%$!(. (*n("#." 4(!(# $!* *30.#4. .$6"#&! 6! ""$"/ &(.&0.(# *%$! (&2&2.*3 #(.2 (.#2 $0#&$3 #$* #%! .(#$"24" #/ &$(!(# "(*#2 &2.*3 #(.2 (.#2 $0#&$3 "/2 #2 "(34. &.0* *$.3$#2 !"/2 $"0"4 &# *(&2.*3 #(.2 (.#2 4!$. 3

PAGE 68

-7 *%*,'("%*,'("(+"" "" & + & % (&** 6 (#$(.# *0&(#$4 !3( #&$3 *&(#$!"4(!# !"24"#(#0"03 !$%.6$.$6&(.$!(*$4# *&2.*! 4! ""$. ( % +" ( ( ) % !* ( !!2 ( $3#6&$062%("#$!*%%&0.#! (#26 (!4!$. 3"&$.** 60 4 03$(&2&)060($#2 r!* *30.#4. .$6"#&! 6! ""$ n ( $ ( ( ) ( # # # $* $!* !" # !(.=6*"$!* !" <# !(.=6*"$!* !"" 3$#$(.$! 2($!(. 4!$. 3 ( ; ) ( + ( ( / +

PAGE 69

-+ n4$#2 "($0##2 4 #(!(. %$!4(#2/( # !(.= *"#63( / 3 ("0! *0"6#2 ':(.&23( #(.+ ,,EG# !(.= *' .(# #63(&(. ;(*':# !(.= <$!)' .(# *#63(&(. ;%$!n (*! "4 &# .# !(.= *"#63(%$!(*n6!$04"/(" *&(# *3 ((.0 %$!#2"3 ("0! n62 !3 ("3 (6! (# !(3$0#" $%# !(.= *"#63(2 33033 ((.0 %$!#2 "&(. /(",(*#2 3(< 303/("C(. D"033(!= #2 ((.""4.(%$!4(#2/(2 .(#$"24" #/ #2 4 #(!(. :(6 (#$(.# *0&(#$4 !3( #&$3 &(#$!"4(!# !"24"#(#0"03 !$% .6$.$6&(.$!(*$4# *&2.*! 4! ""$. .4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 &$330#4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 %(3.;(*#2 4 #(!(. :# !(.= "#63(;/("* # !3 *0"6$!* *30.#4. .$6" #&! 6! ""$

PAGE 70

-C '(<)(+(( !/+ *%*,'("%*,'(" (, '("(+"" ""&*+ &%"(&** !& *"#63(%!$3#2 &$330#4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 %(3. # !(.= *"#63( 6 ( # $( # *0& ( # $ 4 !3( #&$3 *&(#$!"4(!# !"24"#(#0"03 !$% .6$.$6&(.$!(*$4# *&2.*! 4! ""$. r!* *30.#4. .$6"#&! 6! ""$ n

PAGE 71

-D n4$#2 "($0##2 4 #(!(. %$!4(#2/( # !(.= *"#63(/ 3 ("0! *0"6#2 ':(.&23( #(.+,,EG # !(.= *' .(# *#63( &(. ;(*':# !(.= <$!)' .(# #63(&(. ;%$!n(* "4 &# .# !(.= *"#63(%$!(*n/("*&(# *3 (# !(.= "#63((.0 "n62 !3 ("3 (#6! (# !(3$0#"$ %# !(.= *"#63(2 33033 ((.0 %$!#2 "&(. ",(*#2 3(<3 03"C(. 8"033(!= "#2 ((.""4.(%$!4(#2/(2 .(#$"24" #/ #2 4 #(!(. ":(6 (#$(.# *0&(#$4 !3( #&$3 *&(#$!" 4(!# !"24"#(#0"03 !$%.6 $.$6&(.$!(*$4# *&2.*! 4! ""$. .2 $3 &$330#$!3"($0#"
PAGE 72

-8 '(=)(+(( !/+r *%*,'("%*,'(" (, '("(+"" ""&*+ &%"(&** n $3 & $3 3 0 # $!3 ( $0# < /$!)03 !$%3 *&(..$!" .%'*0& *($!#$"&2.*&(! (!!(6 3 #". 6(.336!(#$"#(#0"4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 &$330#4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 %(3. # !(.= *"#63( 6 (#$(.# *0&(#$ 4 !3( #&$3 *&(#$!"4(!# !"24"#(#0"03 !$% .6$.$6&(.$!(*$4# *&2.*! 4! ""$. r!* *30.#4. .$6"#&! 6! ""$ n

PAGE 73

-S0(.#(# # /"/ 0" *#$6(#2 !%$!3(# $($0#"#63(4!$@ &#" # /#!("&!4#"$%(..4(!#&4(#"/ &$* *#$* #% n (* rn &$* n &$* "%$!(*n(! "033(!= *(. (*&.0* **"&.$"0! &$#!$.&$* 36#2 &$* 3 !"(*$4#6("04 !$!* ##$!3(.=6#2 "#63(#= *(##!0# (*("" !#6($0#"* !N" 4$"#$& rn &$* "/ #% **0!6#2 /$%#2 # /#!(" &!4#"#"34$"". #$&.0* #2 3 (. 1$3 "#63(4!$@ &#"(! 050 #$% 3(
PAGE 74

-L '(>1 *"(* $ 4" !/+r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�(.."#63(#= #2 3"& #2 (##! 0# ""$&$33$:!$""+,,-$%%3(7E-C; "" !#6($0#"* !N"4$"#$ #63(#= ***0(."262.62#/("#2(##2 (! ?$#.) A$#2 !"#2 !"#63(#= *6!$04 :(6"*(. (** !"7EEE; F /6" $!/$!" (&#" #2(#6$0$#& *:) "(*(#=(7E8L; *$4#6("04 !$!* ## 2 # 6 3 ( # = * 0 ( ( " # # 2 ( # "# 6 3 ( # = .( & ) #2 % $ 3 ( #$ & " ( #$ 3 ( ) % $ 3 @0*63 #"($0##2 !"#63(#=6(##!0# :(!) +,,+; $!3(.=6#2 "#63(#= (##!0# #63(#= ***0(."(&)$/. *6 #2(#"#63( < "#"(!$0*#2 !"#63(#=6(##!0# 0#% .# 2(# % /4 $4. (�(.."#63(#= #2 3"& #2 (##! 0# ""$&$33$:!$""+,,-G$%%3(7E-C; "" !#6($0#"* !N"4$"#$ #63(#= ***0(."262.62#/("#2(##2 (! ?$#.) A$#2 !"#2 !"#63(#= *6!$04 :(6"*(. (** !"7EEE;

PAGE 75

-1 n4$#2 "%$!$<0" *"#0* #N"#'# "#"%$!&$3 4(!6* 4 #3 (" 2" "#3(# */2 #2 !"6%&(#*%% & <" # #/ 3 (4 !& *"#63(%!$3 #2 &$330#(*3 (4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 %( 3.%$!(*n #0* #N"#'# "#"%$!&$34(!6* 4 #3 ("( &(.&0.(# *" 4(!(# .%$!" < /$!) !"(*/$3 .6/#2nF>(. L"03 3(!= "#2 ((.""4.(%$!$<

PAGE 76

-E '(@)(+(( 6 ,'(.,'(2(+( "" & + & % (&** !& *"#63(%!$3#2 &$330# !& *"#63 (%!$3#2 %(3. #0* #N"#'# "#%$!&$34(!6 4 #3 (" n

PAGE 77

L, n4$#2 "%$!* 4 #(!(. "%$!4(#2/( &.0* &2.*42"&(.(* 3 #(.2 (.#2$0#&$3 "2.*42"&(.2 (.#2$0#&$ 3 "/ ">$4(! #'! 4$!# "4$" "#$/2 #2 !$!$#4(!#&4(#"N$06 "# &2.*2("2(*& !#(.. "" "/#2 #2 4("#7+3$#2".. "" "&.0* *% !*(! !2 ($3#6&$062%("#$!*%%&0.# (#26 (!4!$. 3"&$.** 60 4 03$(& 2&)060((*$#2 ("/ $#&(.&0.(# *%$!&2.*42"&(.2 (.#2$0#&$3 "" & "4$" &2$& "/ *&2$#$3$0"2.*3 #(.2 (.#2$0#&$3 "&.0* *(## #$4! $. 3"# !(.=6 *"$!* !" <# !(.=6*"$!* !"(*$ !(..&2 .*3 #(.2 (.#2## #$ # !(.=6(* <# !(.=6*"$!* !"/ ("& !#( *&(.&0.(#6#2 3 ("%$! #2 3 ("0! "$#2 "0"&(. "r !(..&2.* 3 #(.2 (.#2/("* # !3 *#2 #$#(.3 (%$!#2 "&$! $%+1$!262 :1,P$%#2 4$"". #$#(."&$! ; *&(# *#2 4! & $%(" 3$#$(.$! 2 ($!(.2 (.#24!$. 3 !3(!* 4 #(!(. "%$!4(#2/(&.0* *4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 &$330#(*4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 %(3.$# 2* 4 #(!(. "/ ("& !#( *0"63 ("&$! "%$!#2 &$330#(* %(3.*$3("$%#2 (* n%$!"
PAGE 78

L7 4 !& *"
PAGE 79

L+ '(A)(+(( !/+ *%*,'("%*,'(" (, '("(+"" ""&*+ &%"(&** 3*"$3'(") 4 !& "#63(%!$3#2 &$330#4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 %(3. ( % +" ( ( ) % *(!!2 ($3#6&$062%("#$!*%%&0.#! (#26 (!4!$. 3"&$.** 60 4 03$(&2&)060($#2 6 (#$(.# *0&(#$4 !3( #&$3 *&(#$!" 4(!# !"24"#(#0" 03 !$%.6 $.$6&(.$!(*$4# &2.*! 4! ""$. .2 (.#2&$"&$0" "" r!* *30.#4. .$6"#&! 6! ""$ n ( $ ( ( ) ( # # # $ *"$!* !"# !(.=6*"$!* !" <# !(.=6*"$!* !"" 3$#$(.$! 2($!(.4!$. 3

PAGE 80

LC 4(#2/(n&2.*42"&(.(*3 #(.2 (.#2$0#& $3 "(&#("* 4 # (!(. "2.*42"&(.2 (.#2$0#&$3 "&.0* 4 (!#&4(#"N ">$! "4$" "#$ /2 #2 !$!$##2 !$06 "#&2.*2("2(*"4 &% &.. "" "#2 .("#7+3$#2" .. "" "&.0* % !*(!!2 ($3#6&$062 %("#$!*%%&0.#! (#26 (! 4!$. 3"&$.** 60 4 03$(&2&)060(( *$#2 &(0" ("/ !&2$& %$! (&2$%#2 .. ""3 ("0! "(! *&2$#$3$0" 3 ("(! $#&(.&0.(# r!* *30.#4. .$6"#&! 6! ""$3$* ."/ &( .&0.(# *#$* # !3 #2 .(#$"24 #/ # !(.= *"
PAGE 81

LD '(B)(+(!/+ !/+ *%*,'("%*,'(" (, '("(+"" ""&*+ &%"(&** # !(.= *"#63( ( % +" ( ( ) % *(!!2 ($3#6&$062%("#$!*%%&0.#! (#26 (!4!$. 3"&$.** 60 4 03$(&2&)060($#2 6 (#$(.# *0&(#$ 4 !3( #&$3 *&(#$!"4(!# !"24"#(#0"03 !$%.6 $.$6&(.$!(*$4# &2.*! 4! ""$. .2 (.#2&$"&$0" "" r!* *30.#4. .$6"#&! 6! ""$ n ( $ ( ( ) ( # # # $ *"$!* !"# !(.=6*"$!* !" <# !(.=6*"$!* !"" 3$#$(.$! 2($!(.4!$. 3

PAGE 82

L8 (#2/("033(!= "% (!6*"&!3(#$(*" %'"$.(#$%$!(* n$* #%2$/# !(.=6"#63(. (*"# $% (!6*"&!3(#$(*" .%' 34$" *"$.(#$(*n/2$! 4$!# *($! 3(...$/$!262. ."$% # !(.= *"#63(/ 40!4$" ."(34. *%$!" 3'"#!0�! *$4 * # /"(*n/ ** *#$#/$6!$ 04":7;/$3 /2$! 4$!# <#! 3 .262(3$0#"$%# !(.= *"#63((* :+;/$3 /2$! 4$!# <#! 3 .$/(3$0#"$%# !(.= *"#63( 3'"#!0�! $4 *# /"%$&0" *$ 4(!#&4(#"N% (!6*"&!3(#$(*" .%'34$" *"$.(#$ # /#!("&!4#"$%(..4(!#&4(#"/ &$* *#$* #% n (* rn &$* n &$* "%$!(*n(! "033(!= *(. 7, (*&.0* % (!6*"&!3(#$(*" .%'34$" *"$.(#$ rn &$* "/ # !3 **! &#. #%6! &0!!6#2 3 "! .(# *#$"#63(4 !$@ &#"#2 # /"

PAGE 83

L'(.C)(+(( !/+ % $( 6 0 7 $ 3 / ? ( 6 & 3 ( # $ 2 # 63 ( # = * *0( ( # & 4( # 6( # ( & # $" $# 2 !" 04$* & $" 6" $! nF"#(#0": #(.+,,+; .% 3 4$" $. ( # $ 2 # 63 ( # = * *0( ( $ *" $& ( # !( & # $" / 2 $!n F # ( # 0" & $0. *"&$ *:.(* +,,-;

PAGE 84

LL r, -r 2 6$(."$%#2 4! #4!$@ &#(! #$:7;*$&03 #(!(#$#2 (3$0#$% "#63(4 !& *(*# !(.= *% 3(. 0 !#$.(#(#2 $3&( 40. &:+;# "#&$34 #624$#2 " ($0##2 .(#$"24 #/ #2 %% &#"$%4(! #(. <4 & "$%4 !& *(* # !(.= *"#63((* 6(# 42"&(.(*3 # (.2 (.#2$0#&$3 "&2.*! (* :C;* #%# 63 &2("3": 6^4!$@ &# N"#!(# 6 ";#2(#3(4.((!$. 4! *>$/"#63(%.0 & "&2.*42"&(.(* 3 #(.2 (.#2$0#&$3 $!* !#$*" #(6. #2 "#63((""$&(# */#2 :n; $!$#2"#63(#= *6!$04""0@ &#"(! !$.. #2 4!$@ &#&$#0$0". 66 4!.+,7D0#."(34.66$(."/ ! (&2 & 3 !+,7D 2 &0!! #" &#$4! #"#2 "0.#"$%#2 (( .""%$!24$#2 "! .(# *#$ #2 $@ &# "3"$%#2"&2(4# !(! #$:7;" 033(!= "(34.6*"#!0#$" #/ #2 #/$&$34(!(# 6!$04":n;:+ ;4! ##2 "0.#"$%#2 "&!4# ((.""$%4!$@ &#*(#((*:C;"033( != #2 "0.#"$%#2 $!* *30.#4. .$6"#&! 6! ""$"(*50(.#(# *(#(((." %$!4(#2/("' $%("'& $(6 0" "(34. $%C-1% 3(. &("("* &#(" &(!/("2 "&$!#! "$!#"(*#2 "#! #:* 4 #"
PAGE 85

L1 #2 C-1/$3 7E:8+P;(! <&.0* **0 #$! %0 "(.$! .6.###. ")$/ ($0##2 *"#!0#$$%" &("("* &#("(! $#%$!3(.. 34.$ #2 "#(."23 #"#&( % !! *%!$3#2 *(#(#2(#(44!$<3(# .+8P$% #2 "(34. "2$0.* 3(* $%" < /$!) !"/2$/$!)* 4 #.&(!6(*("L(##2 #/$ "&$!#! "$!#"#$/ &$%!3 *#2(#7,,P$%" &("(* &#( /$!) !" $%("'& $3/!,? $ "0! &$%* #(.#%$!#2 n6!$044(!# &4(#":B+CE;(! &!0# *%!$3(rn&.&(@(I(&# .$&(# *(44!$<3(# .E,30# %!$30 !#$.(#(.6. "4$* #"(! &!0# **! &#.%!$3#2 nF&.&/(#6 !$$304$4! #6%$!"&2 *0. *(44$#3 #" #$#(.$%+--n(! (44!$(&2 *%$!4(!#&4(#$#2""#0*(*+L: 7,+P;(! <&.0* **0 #$! %0"(.$! .6.# "4$* #"#2"6!$04(! $#"# !(#% *(" *$((**#$(. "(34.6&!# !( L$3 /2$(&#(""2%#3((6 !"%$!"
PAGE 86

LE "/*!$ %! &2 %% # "#"(! &$*0&# *#$* #%"6%&( #*%% & #/ (* n 3$6!(42&(!(. "&.0* (6 (#$(. # *0&(#$4 !3( #&$3 *&(#$!"4(!# !"24"#(#0"(*03 !$%. 6$.$6&(.$!(*$4# *&2.*! "0.#"$%#2 ((.""*&(# #2(#"6%&(#* %% & <"# #/ 6!$04"%$! (.3$"#(..* 3$6!(42&3 ("0! ""%3""' &$ %!,'(" (!#&4(#"(! $3&((*n(#(4("2'"4 ()6/$3 #/ #2 (6 "$%71(*L7 (!"$.*:3 ((6 B+EC;0@ & #"(! ** *#$#/$6!$04" % 3(. :D,,P;#$#(.$%-7C /$3 (! (44!$(&2 *%$!4(!#&4(#$(*C7:87P ;(! <&.0* **0 #$! %0"(.$! .6.# "&!4# *(#(%$!#2 "#0*4$40. (#$(! 4! # *(. 7C(* "033(!= *%$! (&2$%#2 #/$6!$04" .$/

PAGE 87

1, &$$+ &%"*&*+(*n*%% *(.$6" !(.3 ("0! "$! "#(& 2(*( 3 ((6 $%+L8 (!"(*-1 (!"$% *0&(#$ /2. n2(*(3 ((6 $% C+7 (!"(*1D (!"$% *0&(#$.3$"#$ '# 2!*:C+DP;$%(*81+P$% n/ 4(!# *90"#0* !#2! '50(!# !":LC ,P;$%/ $%$3&( (#$(.#(*+L,P/ n(#($!n#/$' #2!*":--+P;$%4(!#&4(#"'(..)$ %!!"" !$%( $(6 0" 8D;<29 $(3/! ,? 8D2;.9 !""8989 6 : (!"; +L8:-L;C+7:L8; *0&(#$: (!";1D:C,;-1:DC; 8E9 8E9 (!# !"24"#(#0":4(!# *; 77+:C+DP; 7C8:81+P; (#$(.# $3&(n(#( +8D:LC,P;ED:+L,P; 78C:--+P;L1:CC1P; n("(6$ !3 #'""0 *$3&(* #%&(#$&(!*$!n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

PAGE 88

17 / $3&((*CC1P/ n(#(**#$(.. LE7P$%(*-18P$% n2(*(6$ !3 #'""0 *$3&(* #%&(# $&(!*$!n(#(4(""4$!# 2(*(( !(6 $%++.6$.$6&(.$!(*$4 # *&2.*! (*773 *&(..$! .%'*0& *($!#$"n2(*(( !(6 $%+1 .6$.$6&(.$!(*$4# &2.*! (*,-3 *&(..$!" .%'*0& *($!#$ "$ !#2 !.% #3 "90"#$ !2(.%$% :8,-P;(*$ !#/$'#2!*"$%n:-L+P;. *#2 "(3 2$0" 2$.*"(" #2 !&2.*! r !#2! '50(!# !"$%:L-+P; (*D7,P$%n4!$* *#2 4!&4(. &$$3&"044$!#%$!#2 !2$0" 2$.*"$ !#2 3 ("0! "$%4 !3( #&$3 *&(#$!":E8LP;(*n:ELDP;3$"#%! 5 0 #.$/ *(/(# !@06 $ !" .:7+,P;(*n:LCP;. ("#%! 5 0 #.2(*(%< *. # 42$ n$/ !$#$/6(%< *. # 42$ ".) .*0 #$#2 262 4! (. & $%& ..0.(!42$ "$#26!$04":B E+CPGn178P; 2.*! "&!4# *(#(%$!4(!#&4(#"N&2.*! "#!(#% *"#63(#= 6!$04(! 4! # *(. 7+(*"033(!= *2

PAGE 89

1+ 2 "(34. &.0* "81E&2.*! %!$3#2 N&2.*! (! 6!."(*DELP(! $" 6 "$%&2.*! !(6 #/ Y7 (!$.*#$78 (!"$.*%$! (&2"#63(#= 6!$04$!L (!$.*"(! #2 .(!6 "#(6 6!$ 04%! 50 &:7+7P;3$6 /$3 .6/#2nF>78 (!$.*"&$34!" # 2 .(!6 "#(6 6!$04%! 50 & :7+CP;'(.2)6* !(*$%(7 *'+$* &% $(6 0"F!(* 8D=AB9 $(3/! ,?F !(* 8D;BA9 !""8E98E9 2.*"
PAGE 90

1C "%3""' &$,'(" "&!4# *(#(($0#3 (4 !& *(*# !(. = *"#63((!(. "%$!" < /$!)(*n(! 4! # *(. 7C(**"&0" *2 .."#63("&(. $4 !(# $.$&(..&$# <#0(.= *D'4$#"&(. ":" &(. !(6 7'DG$*$0###N" 4$"". ";

PAGE 91

1D '(.;1"% "" !3* $$& +$(7 3*$(+$(7*(* $(" 8D;<29 8D2;.9 $$ ( :; ( :; 3*$ $! $$&+( 7% .#2(#%*"&.$" *: 6(" 2(6 nF;#$"$3 4 $4. #2 /$0.*$##(.)#$3 ( 3$! +D1 :7,-; C+8 :,E8; +% .#2(#%*"&.$" *: 6(" 2(6 nF;#$"$3 4 $4. #2 /$0.*$##(.)#$3 %(3. ++C :7,-; +17 :7,E; C% .#2(#%*"&.$" *: 6(" 2(6 nF;#$"$3 4 $4. /$0.* #2! (# */#2 $. & C,L :,ED; C7C :7,D; D% .#2(#%*"&.$" *: 6(" 2(6nF; #$"$3 4 $4. #2 /$0.*#2)/("33$!(. C,+ :7,D; +8:777; 8% .#2(#%*"&.$" *: 6(" 2(6nF; #$"$3 4 $4. #2 /$0.*#! (#3 *%% #. +18 :77,; CD1 :,EC; &(. 3 ( +LC :,L7; C,8 :,-E; 3*$ $!$(+( -% .#2(#%*"&.$" *: 6(" 2(6nF; #$320"(*$!$%! *2 /$0.*2#3 $! 40&23 7L8 :7,-; +,1 :77L; L% .#2(#%*"&.$" *: 6(" 2(6nF; #$320"(*$!$%! *2 /$0.*$##(.)# $3 (3$! 717 :77C; +7C :771; 1% .#2(#%*"&.$" *: 6(" 2(6nF;#$ 3%(3./$0.*$# (. #$" 3&2.*! Q ++:77D; 7L8 :77+; E% .#2(#%*"&.$" *: 6(" 2(6nF;#$ 3%(3.#2 /$0.*((*$3 78C :,E1; +,D :7+-; 7,% .#2(#%*"&.$" *: 6(" 2(6nF; #$3%(3.#2 /$0.*#! (#3 *%% #. 7L, :77+; +DL :7D,; &(. 3 ( 7L, :,17; +7L :,EL; (*$( 7#"*%%&0.##$# ..4 $4. :#2(#(3(" < /$!) !>($0#3 nF% &#$; +EE :77+; C81 :,1E; + 6:(" nF4$"# ;3() "3 % .*!# C,+ :7,,; +-D :7+-; C% .60.##2(#(3:(" nF4$" # ; +DD :7++; +-8 :7+C; D(3("2(3 *#2(#(3:(" nF4$"# ; +17 :778; C7E :771; 8"$3 #3 "% ./$!#2. "" &(0" (3:(" nF 4$"# ; +LD :77-; C7C :77C; -2* :#2(#(3(" 3nF"#(#0"; %!$3$#2 !" +1D :771; C+1 :77C; &(. 3 ( +17 :,1D; C,1 :,L-; (7B$+B*$0##CB#N"4$"". DB "7B$+B(! .CB$3 #3 "DB Q# 3! 3$ *%!$3"&(. *0 #$4$$!%#

PAGE 92

18 3(. (4 !& *"#63(% !$3#2 &$330# #2 n6!$04"262:3 (BC,8GB,-E; &$34(!"$#$#2 6!$04(!#&4(#"! 4$!##2 262 "#(3$0#$%4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2""$0!& "4$" #$#2 "#(# 3 #?% .#2(#%*"&.$ *2(6nF#$"$3 4 $4. #2 /$0.*#! (#3 *%% #.A:3 (BCD1GB,EC; (4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 %(3."(."$3$* !(# :3 (B+7LGB;#2$062 $#(.262 !#2(4 !& *"#63( #2 6!$04(!#&4(#"! 4$!#4 !& 6#2 3$"#"#63(! "4$" #$#2 "#(# 3 #?% .#2(#%*"&.$" *2(6nF# $3%(3.#2 /$0.*#! (#3 *%% #.A:3 (B+DLGB7D,; (# !(. = *"#63("262%$!#2 n 6!$04:3 (BC,1GB,L-; "4$* #"! 4$!##2 262 "#(3$0#$%# !(.= "#63(! "4$" #$#2 "#(# 3 #?#"*%%&0. ##$# ..4 $4. ($0#3nF% &#$A :3 (BC81GB,1E;

PAGE 93

1$34(!64 !& *(*# !(.= *"#63( (*n#0* #N"#' # "#"%$!* 4 #3 ("* 3$"#!(# #2(#" 4 !& 3$! "#63(#2( % 3(. G#2 %$! (* n"2$0.* <(3 *" 4(!(# ."%3""' &%"" *(! &""" "&!4# *(#(($0#3$#2 !"N* 4! ""$(*2 (. #2&$"&$0" ""(!(. "%$! (! 4! # *(. 7D(**"&0"" 2

PAGE 94

1L '(.<) "% "" r%*$ ( & *"! %"" (*!5 %&(*(! &"" "(,B!(! .$!$ $%#2 #3 7B"$3 $!(.##. $ %#2 #3 +B$&&("$(..$!(3$* !(# (3$0#$% #3 CB(..$%#2 #3 &7B$+B!(! .CB 0#!(.DB"$3 #3 "8B 8D;
PAGE 95

11 2 4! ""$"#!03 #:'7,;$4 !(# "$( D'4$#"&(. "6 *#$ ("" ""#2 03 !$%*("#2 4("#/ )4(!#&4 (#" <4 & ** 4! ""$"34#$3" :!(! .$!$ $%#2 #3 "$3 $!(.##. $%#2 #3 $&&("$(..$!(3$* !(# (3$0#$%#3 (..$%#2 #3 ;(*2("("&$! (6 $%,'C,(!#&4(#"/#2 4! ""$"&$! "$%7,$!6! (# !(! &$"* ** 4! "" *2 2 (.#2&$"&$0" "" "&(. $4 !(# "$(.$&(..&$# <#0(.= *8'4$# "&(. :"&(. !(6 7'8G$!(! 0#!(."$3 #3 ";2. (4! $0""#0*%$ 0*#2(##2 "&(. "$#2(.*(* .(. #**$#"4 &%*"&! # &0#'4$#"%$ !.$/3$* !(# $!262. ."$%2 (.#2 &$"&$0" "":n$6040."2 *3(0"&!4#; 3(. ($ !(..* 4! ""$ .#2 n 6!$04* 3$"#!(# "#2(#$( !(6 /$3 .6/ #2nF>(! 4! "" :3 (B7LC1GBL7+;&2 %% # "#""2$/#2(#* 4! ""$. ."#2 n6!$04 (! "6%&(#.262 !#2(#2$" #2 6!$0 4:4Y,,,7;/2&2"$# /$!#2 (!#&4(#"! 4$!##2 262 "#3 (* 4! ""$!(# 6#$#2 "#(# 3 #?% .#2$4 %0. ($0##2 %0#0! :! !" *;A:3 (B+,,GB77E; ($ !(..2 (.#2&$"&$0" "" n/("262:D-,GB,8L;(!#&4(#"! 4 $!##2 262 "#2 (.#2

PAGE 96

1E &$"&$0" ""!(#6#$#2 "#(# 3 #?#() "4 $".#%$!#2 "#(# $%32 (.#2A :3 (BD17GB,L+;"%3""' &!(*!+"((! "&!4# *(#(($0#&2.*42"&(.2 (.#2$0#&$ 3 "%$!(*n(! 4! # *(. 78(**"&0"" .$/2.*42 "&(.2 (.#2$0#&$3 "(! ("& !#( *%!$34(! #"N ">$! "4$" "#$/2 #2 !#2 !$06 "#&2.*2("2(*($% #2 "4 &% *.. "" "#2 4("#7+3$#2"4 & % *.. "" "&.0* % !*(!!2 ( $3#6&$062%("#$!*%%&0.#! (#26 (!4 (&$.** 60 4 03$( &2)060((*$#2 !2 ?$#2 !A.. "" "4(!# &4(#"3$"#&$33$.! 4$!# &.0* "$! #2!$(#>#$"..#""&). & ..( 3 (!$&2#"&2 "#&$6 "#$nF 3(.0#!#$(.. !6&! (&#$"(*2 (*(&2

PAGE 97

E, 3(.
PAGE 98

E7 &.0* "$! #2!$(#>#$"..#""&). & ..( 3( !$&2#"&2 "#&$6 "#$ 3(.0#!#$(.. !6&! (&#$"(*2 (*(&2 $3 .6/#2nF>3$6/$3 .6/#2 nF>#2 3$"# &$33$.. ""(3$6* 4 #&2.*! "% !:E,P;(*#2 ("#&$33$" (! 4(:1+P;?r#2 !A.. "" "%$!&2.*! #2 n6!$04&.0* "$! #2!$(#>#$"..#""&). & ..( 3(nF!$&2 #"&2 "#&$6 "#$3(.0#!#$ (.. !6&! (&#$"(*2 (*(&2 "%3""' &!(*((! "&!4# *(#(($0#&2.*3 #(.2 (.#2(! 4! # *(. 7-(* *"&0"" .$/

PAGE 99

E+ '(.>)"% "" *+$% $"!0(" $(6 0 $3/!,?* *,B !7B$3 #3 "+Br%# $(6 0" 8D.C.9 $3 /!,? 8D;@9 7$34.("$%(&2 "(*4(",+,,D8,8D,-7 +4 *"3$! #3 (.$ ,8C,--,C1,88C! (".2(".##. !6,E7,L1,C,, -+ D*6 #0(. #$"#"#..,88,LL7,8,17 8n("#!$0. /#2# (&2 !7,D,1C,8D,-E""# "# *"&2$$.,1+,LL77E,17L&#"("%*! (3$#$!778,1,7++,-L 1(*! (3"#$$30&2,EL,LC,-1,L8E"#!(&# (".,L8,-L7+L,-77,"(%!(*$% /"#0(#$",L8,8E,L-,1, 77 .""(*02(447,+,-L,8E,-,7+"!!#(. (6!,D8,8-7,C,-E7C ."2$4 "" ,L,,LC,DE,LC 7Dn("#!$0. &$& #!(#6,E1,18,E+,L-78 ""# "# *%! *",1D,L,,17,L17-62#"/#2$#2 !&2.*! ,D,,-+,E8,LD7L" #%!$3"&2$$.77C,18,L,,LD71&2$$.6!(* "*!$446,87,-,7,1,177E"*$/$$ .%,-C,LL,DE,-8+,F"#"#2 *$&#$!/#2*$&#$!%*6$#26/!$6 ,C,,81,-+,L+7n("#!$0. ". 46,-8,-E,+L,8-++$!! "(.$# 781,-8,-8,LE +C(#"#$ /#2$03$! #2( %$! ,LC,-8 7C,,17 +D ."2 $!"2 "(*,-,,--,1D,-E+8() "0 & ""(!!")",D-,81,L+,LD+#"20!#%! 50 #.,LE,LC,-+,-1+L 3"#$2( ""%0,1-,1+,L-,L++1&#"$06 !#2(&2.*! 2">2 !(6 7,1,L7 7,1,L+ +E$ "$#."# #$!0. "7,-,1-7,1,-1C,$ "$#"2$/% .6"7,+,1,,EL,1,C7$ "$#0* !"#(*$#2 !"N% .6",81,-L ,1D,-, C+ (" "$#2 !" ,8L,-E,L-,1, CC.(3 "$#2 !"%$!2"#!$0. ",+D,DE,L1, L8 CD() "#26"#2(#*$$# .$6#$23,18,1 7,C,,8+ C8 %0" "#$"2(! ,18,17,1E,LL*+$% $"!0(")" "(7*!%" "3$ ( '!3 (% '($" !(* ("&$! "%$!(66! 6(# "&(. *&(#6#2 4! & $%" 3$#$(.$! 2($!(.4!$. 3" +-,+1,

PAGE 100

EC 2 *(#!&34#$3"2 &)."#:;* #% "#2 4! & $%4 !$. 3 2($!"(""$&(# */#2(## #$# !(.=6(* <# !(.=6*"$!* "2 "&(. (."$* #% "#2 4! & $%" 3$#$(.$! 2($!(.4!$. 3"2 $4 !(# "$(C'4$#"&(. : !"$3 #3 "(./(";(*("/ !&2$& $4 #$(.0 !(6 %!$3,'+$!&2.*! (6 "-#2!$0627-("&$! $%+1$!262 !*&(# "#2 4! & $%("6%&(# 2($!(.$! 3$#$(.4!$. 3 (. 7L"033(!= "#2 "&!4# "0.#"%$!4(!#&4(#"N&2.*! /2$2( "6%&(#3 #(.2 (.#2*"$!* !"%$!#2 #/$&$34(!(# "#63(6! $04": n;2 "** *#$#2! "0"&(. "* "6 *#$* #%#2 4! & $% (## #$# !(.=6(* <# !(.=6*"$!* !"$!#2 (## #$(*# !( .=6 *"$!* !""0"&(. "&2.*! /#2"&$! "ZD,(! &$"* *#$2( (## # $$! # !(.=64!$. 3"$!#2 <# !(.=6*"$!* !""0"&(. &2 .*! /#2("&$! Z8-(! &$"* *#$2( <# !(.=64!$. 3"

PAGE 101

ED '(.@)"% "" 7( 7*r6(" *" $(6 0"7* $3/!,? 8*+$% $"!0("9*,B !7B$3 #3 "+Br%# 6 0" 8D.C.9 $(3/! ,? 8D;@9 *" *6 #0(. #$"#"#..,88,LL7,8,17 &#"("%*! (3$#$!778,1,7++,-L(*! (3"#$$30&2,EL,LC,-1,L8"#!(&# (".,L8,-L7+L,-7n("#!$0. &$& #!(#6,E1,18,E+,L-" "&'"( ("&$! %$!(66! 6(# "0"&(. D,8, (" *" .""(*7,+,-L,8E,-, ."2$4 "",L,,LC,DE,LC"*$$$ .%,-C,LL,DE,-8$!! "(.$#781,-8,-8,LE 3"#$2( ""%0,1-,1+,L-,L+" "&'"( ("&$! %$!(66! 6(# "0"&(. 8,C, r6(" *" 62#"/#2$#2 !&2.*! ,D,,-+,E8,LD $ "$#."# #$!0. "7,-,1-7,1,-1$ "$#0* !"#(*$#2 !"N% .6",81,-L,1D ,-, (" "$#2 !",8L,-E,L-,1,.(3 "$#2 !"%$!2"#!$0. ",+D,DE,L1,L8() "#26"#2(#*$$# .$6#$23,18,17, C,,8+ %0" "#$"2(! ,18,17,1E,LL" "&'"( ("&$! %$!(66! 6(# "0"&(. 8,C,

PAGE 102

E8 (. 71"033(!= "#2 4!$4$!#$$%&2.*! /2$**$!**$#2( (## #$ # !(.=6 <# !(.=6$!" 3$#$(.$! 2($!(.4!$. 3 "2 "0.#"$% #(. "71'+,(! *"&0"" *#2 4(!(6!(42" .$/ 3(. r%/$3 .6/#2nF>78EP:BCL; 4(!#&4(#""0"4 &##2(#(#. ("#$ $%#2 !&2.*! 2("(3 #(.2 (. #24!$. 3r% #2 4(!#&4(#"#2 3 ("&$! "%$!#2 #$#(."#!03 #! (.# 2(#$( !(6 &2.*! 2( "6%&(# 2($!(.$! 3$#$(.4!$. 3":3 ("&(. &$! B+1,; (n:177P;2( &2.*! /#2(## #$4!$. 3"(*D,8P2( &2.*! '(.A):&+* !(*! 3 7(7 r6(7 3r$ ( !3 ( '($"$(6 0" $3/!,? $(6 0"8D.C.9 $3/!,? 8D;@9 ":P;$:P; ":P;$:P; ## #$*"$!* !-+:-+,P;C1:CE,P;C,:177P; L:71EP; # !(.=6*"$!* !L8:L8,P;+8:+8,P;78:D, 8P;++:8E8P; <# !(.=6*"$!* !DD:DD,P;8-:8-,P;+,:88 -P;7-:DDDP; 3$#$(.$! 2($!(.4!$. 3 D7:D-7P;D1:8CEP;7E:8+1P;7L:DL+P;

PAGE 103

E/#2# !(.=64!$. 3"$! #2(2(.%$%4(!#&4(#":88-P;2( &2 .*! /#2 <# !(.=6*"$!* !"(.""$%#2 "&(. (66! 6(# (.# 2(#".62#.3$! #2(2(.%$%n! "4$* #":8+1P;2( &2.*! /#2" 3$#$(.$! 2($!(.4!$. 3"$!#2 "0"&(. "#2 ( !(6 !(#6"%$! (## #$ # !(.=6(* <# !(.=64!$. 3"(! 8,C,(*C,! "4 &# .n& $" !(+"" %!/+"G2 "0.#"$%#2 ((.""$%4(#2/("R(! "033(!= .$/!/+1 """ */! 6&(3'("!% *&3 %3*"$) 6&(3'(""&!"7%"!%"&"7 *& 7 &$' (3' ( ( %*!(*7 $7 (+7**% "" (3(/(('"" */!%3*" ("$1 "0.#"* 3$"#!(# #2(##2 4 #(!(. "(""$&(# */#24 !& *" < /$!)'! .(# *"#63((! "3.(!#$#2 4 #(!(. "(""$&(# */#24 !& nF'! .(# *"#63($#24 !& *"#63(*$3("(. 7E"2$/"#2(# &$# <#0(. (!(. "%.0 & 4 !& *"$&(."#63(%$!(*/$3 .6/# 2nF> (&2$%#2 #/$*$3("

PAGE 104

EL "0.#"%$!24$#2 "! .(# *#$4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 &$330#$ !$#2 (*n(&! (" 4! ""$. .""6%&(#.(""$&(# */ #2( &! (" *$**"$%4 !& 6"#63(%!$3#2 &$330#:rB77C4Y,,,7GnrB77D4Y,,,7;$!"
PAGE 105

E1 &$' (3' ( ( %*!(*7 $7 (+7**% "" (3(/(('"" */!3 (*"$1(. +,"2$/"#2(#"$3 4 #(!(. "(! (""$&(# */#2# !(.= *"#63(%$!(*n4 &%&(..#2 # !(.= *"#63( (""$&(# */#2" & *! .(#$"24" #/ 4 #(** 4 #(!(. "0.#"%$!24$#2 "! .(# *#$# !(.= *"#63($!(*n 4! ""$. .:rB7714Y,,,7GnrB77+4Y,,,7;(*$3&((#$(.#:rB+D,4Y,,7GnrB,+C4Y,,,7;(! "6%&(#.(""$&(# */#2# !(.= *"#63($!4 !3( #&$3 *&(#$!" :rB7+D4Y,,,7;(! (""$&(# */#2# !(.= *"#63('(2C1!/+)*4&"*n**" $&( 3 n** """ *(* $ Y,,8GQQ Y,,7GQQQ Y,,,7 nB=E $(6 0"8D;<29 6 : (!";,E1U,E87,+V (#$(.#:$3&(;+D,QQU78,C1DV *0&(#$: (!";7,7U,ED7,1V !3( #&$3 *&(#$!"7+DQQQU7777CEV(!# !"24"#(#0":4(!# *;,L8U,8,777V_.6$.$6&(.$!(*$4# *&2.*! 77+U,ED 7CCV 4! ""$. .771QQQU77D7++V $3/!,?8D2;.9 6 : (!";,E8U,E+,EEV (#$(.#:$3&(;,+CQQQU,77,D1V *0&(#$: (!";,E1U,E+7,-V !3( #&$3 *&(#$!"7,LU,E+7+DV(!# !"24"#(#0":4(!# *;,1,U,8,7+EV_.6$.$6&(.$!(*$4# *&2.*! ,EEU,17 7+7V 4! ""$. .77+QQQU7,177LV

PAGE 106

EE !/+1+% !""' & 6&(3'("!% *&3 !(*!(! & $"/!( % &"* "$% """) 6 &(3'(" "&!"7%"!%"&"7*& 7&$' (3' ( ( % !(*7 $7 (+7*%"" (3(7*!(! &"" "/((' "(+"" */!!(*%!+"(*$(!(! & $ "1 "0.#"%$!24$#2 "! .(# *#$&2.*42"&(.2 (.#2(. +7"2$/"#2(#% $! (*n% /4! *&#$!"(! (""$&(# */#2* 4 #&2.*42" &(.2 (.#2 (!(.

PAGE 107

7,, ( 2.1' ( ) ( % / 3 ( $ ( ( 3!, $ &! &( '! r % '($" (*&&$ !0&&+n! n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI $(6 0"8D;<.9 6 : (!"; 7 ,7 U,ED7,EV ECQQ U,11,E1V EU,E77,7V E8 U,E77,,V EU,E77,7V 7 ,, U,E87,-V 1EQQQ U,1D,E-V 7 ,, U,EC7,LV 7 ,, U,EC7,LV EE U,ED7,8V EE U,E87,DV (#$(.# :$3&(; 7+1 U,88+ELV ,LC U,D77+EV 7,U,-771LV ,D-Q U,+D,1-V ,1, U,D-7CEV ,LC U,CL7D+V ,8C U,++7C7V ,-8 U,+178+V +,D U,1+8,EV 78L U,17C,CV 7-7 U,E7+1LV *0&(#$: (!"; EL U,1L7,EV ED U,1L7,CV 7 ,D U,E-77CV E1 U,E,7,-V EE U,E+7,1V 7 ,8 U,ED77LV 7 ,L U,E877EV EU,1D7,EV 7 ,U,EC7+7V E+ U,1D7,7V E1 U,E,7,-V !3( #&$3 *&(#$!" 7,1 U,1E7C,V 77+ U,EL7+EV ,E1 U,1-77+V 7,E U,E87+8V 777 U,EL7+LV ,E1 U,1C778V ,EL U,1,771V 77+ U,117D+V 7,C U,1C7+1V 7,U,E77+8V 7,8 U,E+7+,V ( # 2 4 # ( # 0 :4(!# *; LC U,C-7DLV 1L U,8C7DCV -8 U,D,7,-V -1 U,D777CV L1 U,D17+LV DL U,+D,E+V 7 DC U,-1+E1V DL U,7E778V 11 U,D7711V EU,8D7-1V 7 C+ U,17+7CV _.6$.$6&(.$!(*$4# *&2.*! 77E U,187-1V 7,U,187CCV 7+, U,EL78,V ,ED U,L-77LV 7+8 U7,778-V 7,U,1C7C-V 7CU,E171EV 7+E U,E-7LCV 7CD U7,,71,V 7+1 U7,77-7V 7++ U,EE7DEV 2.*(6 18QQ U,L-,E8V E7Q U,1D,EEV EE U,E77,LV EL U,E,7,8V EL U,E,7,8V 7 ,7 U,E+777V 7 ,+ U,E+77DV EU,187,EV 7 ,D U,E+77-V 7 ,+ U,ED77+V EE U,E+7,LV 4! ""$. ED U,11,EEV 7 ,, U,E-7,DV EU,E+7,,V 7 ,7 U,EL7,-V ED U,E,,E1V EL U,E+7,+V E8 U,E,7,7V ED U,117,7V ED U,117,,V EL U,EC7,+V 7 ,7 U,EL7,8V n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n (.#2&$"&$0" "". 711 U7,+CD8V 7+L U,--+DDV ,EL U,8+71,V 7+7 U,LC+,+V ,-+ U,C-7,LV ,E, U,CL+71V 7,E U,-D71CV ,E8 U,CL+D7V ,E7 U,C1++7V CC+ U,EL77CEV 718 U,LEDC+V Y ,8G QQ Y ,7G QQQ Y ,,7

PAGE 108

7,7 /* 4 #(!(. "#2(#$4 !(# $0#"* $%#2 "#63(4(#2/((! (""$&(# */#2&2.*42"&(.2 (.#2$0#&$3 &(0" $%#2"&2.*42" &(.2 (.#2 $0#&$3 "/..$# #2 4!3(!%$&0"$%#2 "0.#"$!*"&0""$" &#$ "0.#"%$!24$#2 "! .(# *#$&2.*3 #(.2 (.#2(. ++"2$/"#2(#%$! (*n$.4 !3( #&$3 :rB,1D4Y,,8GnrB,L84Y,,8;"(""$&(# */#23$#2 !"N! 4$!#"$%"0"4 &# *3 #(.2 (.#2 4!$. 3"&2.*! (. +C"2$/"#2(#$&$(!(# "(! (""$&(# */#2"4 &%&&2.*3 #(. 2 (.#2 $0#&$3 "%$!(*n ("0! "$%&2.*3 #(.2 (.#2&.0* (## #$# !(.=6(* <# !(.=6*"$!* !"("/ ..("$ !(..&2.*3 #(.2 ( .#2 '(221!/+)*4&"*n**" $n* *&(%( "" &$$!( "!%/ 3 "* !"F % &"%*((! '($"!( Y,,8GQQ Y,,7GQQQ Y,,,7 D2
PAGE 109

7,+ (. +D"2$/"#2(#/2 #2 "(34. &.0* "$.(*n/2$ "0"4 &##2(##2 !&2.*2("(3 #(.2 (.#24!$. 3% /* 4 #%(&#$! "#2(#$4 !(# $0#"* $%#2 "#63(4(#2/(%.0 & #2 %$0!3 ("0! "$%&2.*3 #(.2 (. #2'(2;1!/+)*4&"*n**" $n* *&(%( """ &$$ !( "!%/3*$*!(* ((!n& $" ($%( ( r6( n3((!(*((! n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI $(6 0"8D2
PAGE 110

7,C 2 #2 "(34. &.0* "$.&2.*! /#2("0"4 &# *3 #(.2 (.#24!$. 3 .(#$"24" #/ 4 #(!(. "(*&2.*3 #(.2 (.#2$0#&$3 (! "#63(#= *6!$04(!#&4(#"N(6 "#2 $.(!(. #2(#""6 %&(#.(""$&(# *'(2<1!/+)*4&"*n**" $n* *&(%( """ &$$ !( "!%/ 3"*!(* ((!n& $" !"! &"% !(*((! '($ Y,,8GQQ Y,,7GQQQ Y,,,7 ( r6( n3((!(*( (! n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI $(6 0"8D>.9 6 : (!"; ,E, U,LE7,+V ,1+QQ U,L7,E8V 7,7 U,1E77DV ,1L U,LC7,+V $3&( ,LC U,7E+1,V 78L U,DC8LLV ,-8 U,7E++-V 7+C U,C7DE+V *0&(#$: (!"; 7,L U,E77+-V ,E+ U,LE7,1V ,E+ U,L17,LV ,EL U,1C77CV !3( #&$3 *&(#$!" 77U,1178CV 77, U,187D+V 77E U,E+788V 7CL U7,871,V (!# !"24"#(#0":4(!# *; 7CL U,DDD+,V +C1 U,-L1D+V ,-+ U,+,7ECV 7LC U,8D888V _.6$.$6&(.$!(*$4# *&2.*! 7EL U77EC+8V 71C U77++E1V 78U,E-+8+V CC, U7-1-8,V 6 $%&2.*/#23 #(.2 (.#24!$. 3 771 U,E-7DDV 7,U,1-7C7V 77, U,E,7C8V 7++ U,E178DV 2.*. "/#23$#2 ,E7 U,CD+D-V +-1 U7,7L7DV 78C U,88D+8V +,U,L78EEV 4! ""$. 77, U7,,7+7V 7,8 U,E-77-V ,EE U,E,7,EV ,EE U,1E77,V n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n (.#2&$"&$0" "". 7D1 U,D,888V 1C7Q U,ELL77CV ,18 U,++C+1V DD+ U,17+D7-V

PAGE 111

7,D /#2&2.*# !(.=6*"$!* !":rB77C4Y,,8;%$!#2 n6!$04* 4! ""$. .:rB7+E4Y,,7;"(""$&(# */#2&2.*# !(.=6*"$!* !"(* 4(!#&4(#"N03 !$%.6$.$6&(.$!(*$4# *&2.*! :rB,D,4Y,,7; (""$&(# */#2&2.* <# !(.=6*"$!* !"$# <#0(.%(&#$!"(! (""$&(# */#2#2 .) .2$$*$%4(!#&4(#"! 4 $!#6 3$#$(.$! 2($!(.4!$. 3"%$!#2 !&2.*! n 4 # (!(. "(""$&(# */#2#2"$0#&$3 &.0* *0&(#$:rB,LD4Y,,8;" <$%# 2 &2.*/#2#2 3 #(.2 (.#24!$. 3:rB,D+4Y,,8;(*! "4$* #N"* 4! ""$. .:rB7CE4Y,,,7;!/+1+% !""' &!( "!%'/%3*"$ (*"$)!!(3(" %3*"$ $! $ $&+* %3*"$ $!$(+/(( "% (3(" (* "$1 "0.#"! .(# *#$24$#2 "($0##2 .(#$"24 #/ 4 !& *(* # !(.= *"#63("(. +8"2$/"#2(#4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 &$330 #: rBC--4Y,,,7GnrBC-84Y,,,7;(*4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 %(3.:rB7D+4Y,8GnrB7--4Y,,7;(! (""$&(# */#2# !(.= *"#63(%$!(*n2 .(#$"24 #/ 4 !& *(* # !(.= *"#63("*$ "$#*%% #/ 6!$04"

PAGE 112

7,8 !/+r1 +% !""' &"$$ ")! (( /3'("(&*7 $ $$&+ $"' &"6/ 07&$' $*((+ "(5*&* "7!(*$"7(($$ "&"7*"$% 4 /(($ *!( "!%'/%3*8 $$&+7$ (+9* (*"$"1 "0.#"%$!#2 %% &#$%"#63(3$* !(#$!"$#2 .(#$"24 #/ 4 !& (*# !(.= *"#63("(. +-"2$/"#2(#%$!$ $%#2 4!$4$" *"#63 ( 3$* !(#$!":2$3 &$330#$!3"($0#"
PAGE 113

7,! .(#$"24 #/ 4 !& *"#63(:%!$3#2 &$330#%!$3#2 %(3 .;(* # !(.= *"#63(:$330#rBCL,4Y,,,7G(3.rB7CL4Y,,8;2 "(3 "#!0 %$!n:$330#rBC-,4Y,,,7G(3.rB7-L 4Y,,7;/#2#2 <& 4#$$%. 6(.336!(#$"#(#0":rB,+E4Y,,8;/2&2" (""$&(# */#2# !(.= *"#63( '(2>1!/+r)*4&"*n**" $n* *&(%( "" &$$!( "!%/ 3*$* (*$ Y,,8GQQ Y,,7GQQQ Y,,,7 nB=E $(6 0"8D;;=9 6 : (!"; ,ELU,ED7,,V (#$(.#:$3&(;7C8U,L,+-7V *0&(#$: (!"; 7,,U,ED7,1V !3( #&$3 *&(#$!"7+CQQQU77,7CEV(!# !"24"#(#0":4(!# *;,L1U,8+77LV_.6$.$6&(.$!(*$4# *&2.*! 77-U,EL 7C1V n$3 &$330#$!3"($0#"
PAGE 114

7,L "0.#"%!$3#2 50(.#(# ((.""%$!4(#2/((. +L"033(!= 4!$! (*r$&$* "* #% *50(.#(# # /"%$!(*n(." "$% 50(.#(# # /""2$/"" !(.34$!#(##2 3 "! .(# *#$"#63( 4!$@ &#"2 "#63(4!$@ &#"3$* !(# #2 .(#$"24 #/ 4 !& *"# 63(:%!$3#2 &$330#%!$3#2 %(3.;(*# !(.= *"#63(%$!$#2(*n 1 &0!!6n"#63(4!$@ &#"$# *50(.#(# # /"&.0* *"&.$"0! &$#!$.: 6#2 "#63(#= *4 !"$" &# .*"&.$" "#2 "#63(#=6 12 03 !$%4(!#&4(#"/2$ 6(6 (&2"#63(4!$@ &#"$#*"&0"" * #(. "& %! 50 & "(! $##2 "#/(#$ (.0(# 50(.#(# *(#('(2=1!/+r) nn *" *:&(33/" nn *J%%""% nn $(6 0" "&.$"0! &$#!$.7D 2 "#63(#= *4 !"$* &* "#$) 4#2 !"#63( #=6(##!0# ( &! #: !6 #(.+,,7;$!* &* "#$*"&.$" $.#$& !#(4 $4. *$4#6("04 !$!* ##E 2 "#63(#= ***0(.("" !#"#2(#"#63(#= ".(&)#2 %$!3(#$ & ""(!#$3() %$!3 *@0*63 #"($0##2 !"# 63(#=6(##!0# :(!)+,,+; $!3(.=6#2 "#63(#= (##!0# 1 #63(#= ***0(."(&)$/. *6 #2(#"#63( < "#"(!$0*#2 "#63(#=6(##!0# 0#% .#2(#% /4 $4. (& #0(.."#63(#= #2 3 "& #2 (##!0# ""$&$33$:!$""+,,-$%%3 (7E-C; F /6"
PAGE 115

7,1 (##!0# ;(*$4#6("04 !$!* ##: 6"#63(#= ***0(." ("" !##2(#$44$"6 $.$6 ".(&)#2 %$!3(#$ & ""(!#$3() %$!3 *@0*63 #";$!3(. =6#2 "#63(#= *(##!0# : 6"#63(#= ***0(."(&)$/. *6 #2(#" #63( <"#"(!$0* ((##!0# 0#% .#2(#% /4 $4. 4!$(.(�(.."#63 (#= #2 3"& #2 (##!0# ""$&$33$; /6" $!/$!" (&#";(*("" !#6( $0#"* !N" 4$"#$: 6"#63(#= ***0(."262.62##2 /("#2 (! *%% #%! $3$#2 !" #2 "#63(#= *6!$04; &0!!6r$"#63(4!$@ &#"&.0* "?! @ #2 @ &# !"A%$! $!nn"#63(4!$@ &#"&.0* *"&.$"0! &$#!$.(*(*$4#6( "04 !$!* ##rn"#63(4!$@ &#"%$!n&.0* @ #2 @ &# !" /6nF("(&2!$&(*3((6 (. &$*#$%(#2$*(*$" !(& $%2!"#(! .6$0"#!(*#$"(*nF'! .(# *0&(#$2 %$..$/64( !(6!(42" 4! #n(*rn&$* "%$!(*n(*4! #4(!#&4(#50$# %!$3# /# <#"&(" *"*** "0.#"%$!*"&.$"0! &$#!$.(!#&4(#"! 4$!# 6(66*"&.$"0! & $#!$. 2""#63(4!$@ &#"&2(!(&# != *" &# *"&.$"0! $%
PAGE 116

7,E /$!)(" &! #/$!)6%(!%!$32$3 ) 46"
PAGE 117

77, r#2 !) 4" $!. ($0# 6("
PAGE 118

777 U#$.*33$3(*""# !#2(#N3(" U/$0.*N## ..3*(*#2(#2( nFV &(0" 3*(*"(3(/2$.) "2"(.&$2$.n *!)"(.$#*"$/2 2 *!)"(.&$2$.2 &(N#) 4(#26#$23" .%K ..(*2 N*% .(*n *$ "N#2( #2 (/(! ""K#$$## .. 4 $4. U#2(#. /#2nFV:(!#&4(#.6/#2nF%$!8 (! "; r#2 !n" &# .*"&.$" #2 !nF"#(#0" &(0" #2 #2(## & ""(!(*>$!0($*(. 4 &%&(..#2 n# .." & #$#2 !": 6 4(! #$%! *20"(*;#2(##2 /#2nF &(0" #2 % .#2 (! 0(. #$ ) 4#(" &! #$3 4(!#&4(#"*"&.$" #2 !nF"#(#0" &( 0" #2 / 4! $0". "34#$3(#&(....(*&$0.*$#2* # K/("! (..")2(*#2"#26K#2$062##/("((3$ (K.$$) *.) /("6$6#$* (*3""# !#$$)3 #$#2 2$"4#(.*#2 **(# "#*"$3""# !&(.. *#2 3U3%(3.V2 !" .%(*/2 6$# (&)#$32$0" 6(#2 *3"#! 6#2(*&(.. *33$3(*"(*^(3 *#$# ..$0"$3 #26# "# *4$"# %$!nFN(") *2 !%3" "# 2(*(.! (*"(*"$3 #26#$2 !(*"2 "(* "K90"#3%(3.)$/":(!#&4(#.6/#2nF%$!78 (!"; r#2 !n4(!#&4(#"" &# .*"&.$" #2(##2 2( nF &(0" #2 (! (#(nF&.&$!(! $ !2 (!*#(.)6($0#nF K$! <(34. 2 #2 UnFV4!$6!(3KN..!0#$4 $4. %!$33" (3 62$!2$$*K*/ N.."(^n22N(*/ N.."#!) 04(&$ !"(#$K &(0" / N! $#22 */ N.."#(!##$#(.) &(0" "$3 #3 "$0 6$ #2!$062.% 2*6 &(0" $0N..#2)^2 &(N#" 3 W2 &(N#" 3 U*$6(#26#2(#&$0.**&(# #2(#(3.6/#2nFVWN*N.."( ^$N#/$!!$0"(/3 (*"(/$00#/2 / 6$(&)#$$0! 62$!2$$***N#" (#26 N! #2 "(3 &(0" (#26/$0.*

PAGE 119

77+ "(#$20!#$0/$0.*20!#3 #$$ N! #2 "(3 KN:(!#&4(#.6/#2nF%$!8 (!"; "0.#"%$!(*$4#6("04 !$!* ##2 "#63(4!$@ &#(*$4# 6("04 !$! ##"&2(!(&# != *#2 ("" !#$#2(#"#63(#= !".(&)#2 %$!3(#$ & ""(! #$3() %$!3 *@0*63 #"($0#"#63(#= ***0(."*$4#6("04 !$! ## $&&0!"#/$/("2 /("&.0* ("" !#6#2(#"#63(#= !".(& )0* !"#(*6$% .% &!&03"#(& "(*(&)$/. *66#2 6$!(& $%"#63(#= (!#&4(#"! 4$!##2(#"#63(#= !".(&)0* !"#(*6$%. % &!&03"#(& "$!"#(& "4$* #" <4.(#2(#"#63(#= "*$$# &$34! 2 *#2 !4$ !# &$$3&! "4$".# "$!.(&)$% 34.$3 # 4!$"4 &#" ..U4 $4. "#63(#= $!.% <4 & KU $4. "#63(#=
PAGE 120

77C Kn$/*$ <4.(#2"K2 %!"## "# *4$"# "#(!# *6(#2 6 %$!3(#$ &(0" #2 N"4 $4. /2$/.."(?W$0*!()$0#$%#2(#6.(""N3$#*!)6#2(#WA#N" &(0" #2 (! 6$!(#4 $4 K:(!#&4(# .6/#2nF%$!L'1 (!"; "&(" *"** "0.#"%$!%$!3(.=6#2 "#63(#= *(##!0# #2#2 "#63(4 !$@ &# $!3(.=6#2 "#63(#= *(##!0# **0(."(&)$/. *6 #2(#"#63( <"#(!$0* #2 !&2(!(&# !"#&0#% .#2(#% /4 $4. .) ."#63(# = #2 3%$!#"& #2 (##!0# ""$&$33$ "4$* #"$!3(.= #2 "#63(#=6(##!0# C/("&.0*6(&)$/. *66#2(#"
PAGE 121

77D "0.#"%$! /6"
PAGE 122

778 4(%$!3"&2$$./#2#2"3$ U#2(#3() #2!$062" $!nF'! .(# *"#63((*"#63(#= !" ..#2"U <4 &6"#63(V*$ "N#! (..2(44 &(0" #2 &$* "$3 $*"("(#26.) #2(##$3 N3.) ?N3*$ A(*6$(&)#$3 2$0" $$*N"6$6#$K$$*N"6$6#$6 #$3 %"$3 $*N"6$6#$! @  /2 6$$0#N3.) ?$4 WA(*. ( K:((! #/$!) ; n(."$?! @ &##2 @ &# !"A ../2 (4 !"$/(#"#$20!#3" .%' "# 3*$#2 %$..$/66$! #2 3.(062(##2 3@$) *(& K*#2 "(^$$)"2 N"&!(=WN:(!#&4(#.6/#2nF%$!7+ (!";rnn"&(" *"**F /6nF("(&2!$&(*3((6 (. &$*#$F /6nF("(&2!$ & (*3((6 (. &$*#$!(#2 !#2(((&0# (#2" # & "34$!#(#%$! n #2""#0*<"#6.# !(#0! "2$/"#2(#nF'! .(# *"#63(* &. "("#! (#3 # $4#$" &$3 3$! (*.((.(. %$!n:("#!$(*(!3 !+, ,8; K ..#2 N"#! (#3 ##2(##2 &.&6 "%$!%! ..2( #$*$ "6$#2 /#2#2 4(4 !#2#2 4$"# # "#! "0.#*6 #3" .%((44$#3 #(* 6$#$3(44$#3 #%"23(44$#3 #K(*#2 N..6 3 #! (#3 #!$3#2" !"#(#* &* *#$.$$)(##2 4$"".# "$%3.. ""(*

PAGE 123

77(./("#() 3" .%#2 #2 #2 #2 U#$#2 nF&.&V:(!# &4(#.6 /#2nF%$!(!";(#2$*(*$" !(& $%2!"#(! .6$0"#!(*#$"(4(!#&4( #" &# *%(#2$*(*$" !(& $%2!"#(! .6$0"#!(*#$"("34$!#(## $$."%$! 3$* !(#6#2 .(#$"24 #/ 4 !& *(*# !(.= *"#63 ("4 &%&(.. 3(n% .#2(#(""66(262 !40!4$" #$.6nF$! 6#2(#$* /..60* (*"044$!##2 3#2!$062.% /#2nF" !34$!#(# $K@0"#"$3 #3 "K*$N#% .(*($0##26"R#N"$#.) %$! U/2 %!"#%$0*$0#V% .! .(< *($0##$/ 3$*#2 $!*:(!#&4(#.6/#2nF%$!7, (!";nF'! .(# *0&(#$(.""$%50(.#(# *(#("2$/"#2(#nF'! .(# *0&(#$3$* !(# "#2 .(#$"24 #/ 4 !& *(*# !(.= *"# 63("#" / ..*$&03 # *#2(#(.(&)$%)$/. *6 ($0#nF(*&$%0"$($0#2$/nF"#!("3## *"(""$&(# */#2&! (" *"#63(: #(.+,77;nF'! .( # *0&(#$ $4 !(# "#/$/("&.0*6" .%' *0&(#$(* *0&(#6$#2 !"($0#nF K*/("&!6(*/$/**N#2( (%$!3(#$U($0#nFV(*#"$.(# *3 % .#0&$3%$!#(. &(0" % .#.) &$0.*6 #4 $4. "&)@0"# #(.)6#$#2 3U0#$/V/2 !#2 6 (#(.)($0#nF6$ &(0" /2 %!"#"#(!# *#$6$#$#2 #(.)"! (.= *#2(#2( #2 &(4 (&#K#$*$ /2(# *#$*$ #2$0622( nFK$/#2(#)$/#2"K% ## !K% ."0! K."$N3$#"&)N32 (.#2#2)^N3$#"& )% 6$$*N3"#!$6N2()$*:(!#&4(#.6/#2nF%$!77 (!"; r#2 !4(!#&4(#"262.62##2 34$!#(& $% *0&(#6$#2 !"($0#n F #%!"#/#233$#2 !K(*3".6"U"#63(#= *3 V2 %!"#% $0* $0#2(*#2"UnFVK2 3(* 3 0" 3$/" 4(!(# 4.(# 6.(""(*"4$$#$ (# &(0" #2 #2$062#/("6$6#$6 #2"#$#2 3K*#2""*"&!3(#$ &(0" #2"20!#3 W <4.( *U#2(##2""$#2$/nF" #!("3## *V#$#2 3(*6( #2 3($$)2 0* !"#(*(..$%# !/ ..KU2 #! (#3 V !*%% ##2(%!$3 %$! :(!#&4(#. 6/#2 nF%$!L (!";

PAGE 124

77L 61+% !""' &! $ $$&+ $"' &"6/ 0)"6/ 0"/((%3"(+$ "$ $! $$&+! $! $(+1 "0.#"! .(# *#$24$#2 "($0#2$3 &$330#$!3"($0#"
PAGE 125

771 nr *4&"*n**" $n**&(%( "" &$$!( "!%/ 3*$*!(*!+"((!n& $" 3!, $ &! &( '! r % '($" (*&&$ !0&&+n! n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI $ ( 6 0 8 D ; < 9 6 : (!"; 7 ,7 U,ED7,EV ECQQ U,11,E1V E8 U,E77,,V EU,E77,7V EU,E77,7V 7 ,, U,ED7,8V 1EQQ U,1C,E-V 7 ,, U,EC7,LV EE U,E+7,-V EE U,ED7,8V EE U,E87,DV ( # $ ( # : $ 3 & ( ; 7 +E U, 8 D C 7 V LC U, D 7 C + V 7 ,D U, 8 1 7 1 L V 8C U, + 1 7 + V 1+ U, D 7 D V -1 U, C D 7 C L V 8D U, + 7 7 C 1 V -, U, + 8 7 D D V 7 17 U, L 7 D V 7 DU, L D + 1 L V 7 -7 U, 1 E + E + V *0&(#$: (!"; EL U,1-7,1V ED U,1-7,+V 7 ,D U,E-77CV EE U,E77,1V 7 ,, U,E+7,1V 7 ,C U,EC778V 7 ,L U,E-7+,V EL U,1D777V 7 ,U,EC7+7V E+ U,1C7,7V E1 U,E,7,-V 3 ( # & $ 3 *&(#$!" 7 ,1 U,1E7C,V 7 7+ U,EL7+EV E1 U,1877+V 7 77 U,E-7+1V 7 77 U,EL7+1V EL U,1+778V EL U,1,771V 7 77 U,1L7D7V 7 ,7 U,1+7+-V 7 ,U,E,7+DV 7 ,8 U,E77+,V ( # 2 4 # ( # 0 :4(!# *; L+ U,C-7D-V 1U,8+7D+V -8 U,D,7,-V -1 U,D,77CV L1 U,D17+LV DU,+C,E,V 7 DD U,-EC,7V D1 U,7E77-V 1E U,D+7E7V EU,887L,V 7 C7 U,17+7CV 6 $. $6 & ( $! (*$4# *&2.*! 7 +, U,187-1V 7 ,U,1D7,,V 7 +, U,EL78,V EC U,LD77LV 7 +8 U7,778-V 7 ,U,1+7CLV 7 CU,E17E,V 7 C, U,EL7L8V 7 CU,,771DV 7 +E U7,+7-CV 7 ++ U,EE78,V 2.*(6 18QQ U,L-,E8V E7Q U,1D7,,V EE U,E77,LV EU,1E7,DV EL U,E,7,8V 7 ,+ U,EC77CV 7 ,+ U,E+77DV EL U,1877,V 7 ,D U,EC77LV 7 ,C U,ED77+V EE U,E+7,LV & # 6 3 ( % $ 3 #2 &$330# EL U,8-7-1V E1 U,-L7DCV 7 ,D U,L+78,V L+ U,D17,1V E8 U,--7CLV 7 77 U,L,7LLV EU,8-7-8V 7 +U,-E+C+V 7 CD U,L8+D,V 7 +7 U,LE71LV 7 ,, U,-E7D8V & # 6 3 ( % $ 3 #2 %(3. E7 U,-,7C1V 1D U,-7778V E, U,--7+CV 7 8C U7,E+7-V 7 7, U,177DEV 8U,C-,1EV 7 7+ U,LC7L+V 7 7L U,L+7E,V 1D U,877CEV E8 U,-L7C8V EU,L77C,V 4! ""$. ED U,117,7V 7 ,, U,E-7,8V EL U,E+7,7V 7 ,7 U,E-7,-V ED U,E,,E1V EE U,EC7,DV E8 U,1E7,7V EC U,1L7,,V EC U,1L7,,V EL U,E+7,+V 7 ,7 U,EL7,-V n ( # 2 &$ "& $ 0 "" . C1 U,7C7,EV -,Q U,C1,EDV 8D U,CD,11V 7 D7 U,1L+C,V LE U,8+7+CV EC U,88781V 7 +C U,-1+++V 7 CC U,-D+LLV LL U,DD7C8V 7 ,+ U,-+7--V 7 +8 U,LL+,CV $ 3 / ? 8 D 2 ; 9 6 : (!"; E1 U,EC7,8V 7 ,, U,ED7,LV E8 U,1E7,CV EE U,ED7,8V 7 ,7 U,E87,1V 7 ,1 U,EE771V 7 ,U,EE77CV 7 ,7 U,EC77,V ED U,1-7,DV E7 U,1D,EEV EU,E,7,CV ( # $ ( # :$3&(; 81 U,+77-CV 7 1C U,-C8+EV E7 U,+E+18V C ,1Q U7711,DV + D1 U,LD1+-V + ,E U,D,77,CV + C7 U11C-D8V 7 8, U,+ELEDV 7 8E U,+E117V EU,+CD,LV 7 ,, U,C7C7-V *0&(#$: (!"; 7 7C U7,+7+8V E+ U,1C7,7V 7 ,, U,E,77+V ED U,1-7,+V 7 ,C U,E+778V E8 U,17777V 7 ,7 U,E+777V EE U,18778V E+ U,L17,1V 7 ,8 U,E+7+,V 7 ,D U,EC77-V 3 ( # & $ 3 *&(#$!" 7 ,, U,1+7++V 1D U,-17,CV 7 ,D U,1C7C7V EL U,1777-V 7 ,C U,1+7C7V 1+ U,-,77DV E7 U,LD77+V 7 CD U,ED7E7V 7 D+ U,EL+,EV EE U,L87C7V E1 U,L17+CV ( # 2 4 # ( # 0 :4(!# *; 7 +U,-L+C-V L1 U,D77D-V 7 DD U,L7+EDV 7 C1 U,LE+D7V E1 U,DE7EDV L1 U,+E+7CV 7 DL U,LE+L-V 7 -8 U,-7DDDV + C7 U,L8L7,V 7 87 U,-CC-7V E8 U,DL7E,V 6 $. $6 & ( $! (*$4# *&2.*! 7 ,L U,1+7CEV 1C U,-+77,V 7 7L U,1L78LV 7 78 U,E,7D1V 7 7U,1-781V EU,-C7DLV 7 ,+ U,LL7C8V 7 ,E U,L77-1V 7 +1 U,17+,+V 7 81 U777++CV 7 DD U7,17ECV 2.*(6 11Q U,1,,ELV 7 ,, U,E,77,V 7 ,8 U,ED77LV EL U,1E7,-V E+ U,1C7,CV 1L U,L87,CV E+ U,1C7,7V 7 ,D U,E777EV 7 ,D U,E,7+,V 7 +, U7,-7CL` 7 77 U7,,7+CV & # 6 3 ( % $ 3 #2 &$330# LL U,D+7D7V LC U,D+7+EV 8D U,C,,EEV EC U,8-78DV L1 U,DD7C1V 1L U,C17EEV 7 ++ U,-L+++V E, U,D77E8V LC U,CC7-DV 7 +C U,-++D7V 7 ,, U,8L7L-V & # 6 3 ( % $ 3 #2 %(3. -E U,D87,-V 7 ,7 U,-878LV 7 ,+ U,-C7-8V 7 71 U,177L+V 1E U,8-7D+V ED U,DL711V E, U,817CEV -U,CD7+EV D, U,71,1EV 8L U,C77,DV 8-Q U,CD,E7V 4! ""$. EL U,E+7,CV EE U,ED7,8V 7 ,, U,ED7,-V 7 ,8 U7,,77,V EL U,E77,CV EL U,1E7,-V E1 U,EC7,DV 7 ,, U,E+7,1V 7 ,, U,E+7,EV E8 U,1E7,+V E1 U,E+7,DV n (.#2&$"&$0" "". 71-Q U7,,CD-V 7+8 U,--+C1V EC U,EC U, 8 7 7 L 7 V 7+C U,LD+,8V ,-7 U,C87,8V ,11 U,CL+7DV 7 ,1 U,-D71CV ,EC U,C-+C1V ,1, U,CC7ELV C8L U7,,7+L1V 71U,L1DDDV Y ,8G QQ Y ,7G QQQ Y ,,7

PAGE 126

77E "0.#"%$!24$#2 "! .(# *#$&2.*3 #(.2 (.#2(. +E"2$/"#2(#%$! (*n$.4 !3( #&$3 :rB,1D4Y,,8GnrB,L84Y,,8;"(""$&(# */#23$#2 !"N! 4$!#"$%"0"4 &# *3 #(.2 (.#2 4!$. 3"&2.*! (. C,"2$/"#2(#$&$(!(# "(! (""$&(# */#2"4 &%&&2.*3 #( .2 (.#2 $0#&$3 "%$!(*n '(2B1!/+)*4&"*n**" $n* *&(%( "" &$$!( "!%/ 3*$5(* 3"* !"F% &"%*( (! '($"!(* Y,,8GQQ Y,,7GQQQ Y,,,7 D2

PAGE 127

7+, (. C7"2$/"#2(#/2 #2 "(34. &.0* "$.(*n/2$ "0"4 &##2(##2 !&2.*2("(3 #(.2 (.#24!$. 3#2 %% &#"$%4(!# &4(#4 !& 4#$"'(;C1!/+)*4&"*n**" $n* *&(%( """ &$$ !( "!%/3*$*!(* ((!n& $" ($%( Q4Y,,8GQQ4Y,,7GQQQ4Y,,,7 ( r6( n3((!(*((! n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI $(6 0"8D2
PAGE 128

7+7 $%" $!nF'! .(# *"#63(%!$3#2 &$330#(*%(3.*$$##!( ".(# #$ 4 #&2.*!

PAGE 129

7++ '(;.1!/+)*4&"*n**" $n* *&(%( """ &$$ !( "!%/3*$*!(* ((!n& $" !" &"%!(*((! '($ ( r6( n3((!(*( (! n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI $(6 0"8D>.9 6 : (!"; ,18 U,LD,ELV ,1+ U,L7,E8V 7,D U,E7771V ,18 U,L+7,7V $3&( ,+E U,,-7+EV 7-C U,D,-8CV ,18 U,++CC8V ,E, U,+,D7DV *0&(#$: (!"; 777 U,E87C,V ,ED U,1,777V ,E7 U,LL7,LV ,EE U,18778V !3( #&$3 *&(#$!" 7,1 U,1+7D7V 77+ U,1-7D-V 7+D U,E87-7V 7D, U7,-718V (!# !"24"#(#0":4(!# *; 7LL U,8L88DV +D8 U,-E1LDV ,-+ U,+,7EDV 7EC U,-7-7CV _.6$.$6&(.$!(*$4# *&2.*! 7E8 U77-CC,V 71L U77DC,-V 78+ U,E++DEV CCL U7L,--LV 6 $%&2.*/#23 #(.2 (.#24!$. 3 7CEQQ U7,E7L-V 7,8 U,1D7C+V 7,L U,187CCV 7+L U7,77-7V 2.*. "/#23$#2 ,LD U,+8+78V +CE U,1L-8DV 7D8 U,87D78V 7-C U,8DDE,V !& *"#63(%!$3#2 &$330# +D1 U7,18L,V ,L, U,+E7--V ,8+ U,+C77EV ,1E U,CL+71V !& *"#63(%!$3#2 %(3. ,DL U,+777,V ,L, U,C+787V ,E1 U,DL+,DV ,DD U,7E7,8V 4! ""$. 777 U,EE7+8V 77, U,E17+CV 7,C U,E7778V 7,8 U,E+7+7V n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n (.#2&$"&$0" "". 787 U,CE817V 78-E U78D78EE+V ,E8 U,+CC1DV DD1 U,1-+C+-V Y,,8GQQ Y,,7GQQQ Y,,,7

PAGE 130

7+C !/+1+% !""' &(*"$"%* !(*!( & $")!" (*"$/(("( !( *7*/((' "" */!!(*%!+"(*$(!(! & $"1 "0.#"%$!24$#2 "! .(# *#$&2.*42"&(.2 (.#2(. C+"2$/"#2(# # !(.= *"#63("$#(""$&(# */#2&2.*42"&(.2 (.#2$0#&$3 %$! #2 !"#0* 6!$044 &%&(..#2 %% &#"$%# !(.= *"#63((! $##!(".( # *#$* 4 # &2.*! #$(%% &#&2.*42"&(./ .. 6%$!$!n2 % $! &2.* 42"&(.2 (.#2$0#&$3 "(! $#(4!3(!%$&0"$%#2 "0.#">*"&0"" $" &#$"$3 .(#$"24" #/ 4 #(** 4 #(!(. "/ (" *$& $%$0*6 .(#$"24"(*/ #2 %$! *(&# *%!$3#2 "0.#"

PAGE 131

7+D nr *4&"*n**" $n**&(%( "" &$$!( "!%/ (*$*!(*!+"((!n& $ Y,,8GQQ Y,,7GQQQ Y,,,7 3!, $ &! &( '! r % '($" (*&&$ !0&&+n! n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI 6 0"8D;<.9 6 : (!"; 7,7 U,ED7,EV ,ECQQ U,11,E1V ,EU,CE,E-V ,E8 U,E77,,V ,EU,E77,7V 7,, U,E87,-V ,1E U,1D,E-V 7,, U,EC7,LV 7,, U,EC7,LV ,EE U,ED7,8V 7,, U,E87,DV (#$(.# :$3&(; 7+E U,88C,CV ,LD U,D77C+V 7,D U,8171DV ,D-Q U,+D,1LV ,LL U,DD7C-V ,LC U,CL7D8V ,87 U,+,7+1V ,81 U,+D7CEV 7E+ U,L8D1EV 78D U,LEC,7V 7D+ U,LE+8LV *0&(#$: (!"; EL U,1L7,EV ED U,1L7,CV 7 ,8 U,E-77DV E1 U,E,7,-V 7 ,, U,E+7,1V 7 ,8 U,ED77LV 7 ,L U,E877EV EL U,1D77,V 7 ,U,EC7+7V E+ U,1D7,7V E1 U,E,7,-V 3 ( # & $ 3 *&(#$!" 7 ,1 U,1E7C7V 7 7+ U,EL7C,V EL U,1877+V 7 ,E U,ED7+-V 7 7, U,E87+-V E1 U,1+77-V EU,LE77LV 7 ,E U,187CEV 7 ,+ U,177+LV 7 ,U,E,7+8V 7 ,7 U,1177LV ( # 2 4 # ( # 0 :4(!# *; LC U,C-7DLV 1L U,8C7DCV -8 U,D,7,LV -1 U,D777CV LE U,DE7+1V DL U,+D,E+V 7 DD U,-EC,7V D1 U,+,771V 1E U,D77E,V EU,8D7-EV 7 CL U,1D+++V _.6$.$6&(.$!(*$4# *&2.*! 7+, U,187-1V 7,U,187CCV 7+, U,E-7DEV ,ED U,L-77LV 7+8 U7,,788V 7,U,1C7C-V 7C8 U,EL711V 7+1 U,E87L+V 7CC U,EE7LEV 7+LQ U7,77-7V 7+, U,EL7D1V 2.*(6 18QQ U,L-,E8V E7Q U,1C,EEV EE U,E77,LV EL U,E,7,8V EL U,E,7,-V 7 ,7 U,E+777V 7 ,+ U,E+77DV EL U,1877,V 7 ,D U,E+77LV 7 ,+ U,ED77+V 7 ,, U,E+7,LV # !(.= *"#63( E1 U,-778-V E1 U,L,7C-V 7 ,L U,L17D1V 7 ,, U,L77D7V 7 77 U,1778DV EE U,--7DLV 7 7, U,-E7L-V 7 CD U,LL+CCV 7 7U,-E7EDV 7 ,8 U,L+788V 7 D+ U7,77EEV 4! ""$. ,ED U,117,,V 7,, U,E87,DV ,EU,E+7,,V 7,7 U,EL7,-V ,EDQQ U,1E,E1V ,EL U,E+7,CV ,E8 U,1E7,7V ,EC U,1-7,,V ,EC U,1L7,,V ,EL U,E+7,+V ,EE U,E87,DV n ( # 2 &$"&$0" "". C1 U,7C77,V -7Q U,E77,7V 8D U,CC,1LV 7 C8 U,1C+71V LL U,8,77EV E1 U,8E7-CV 7 71 U,-8+78V 7 +1 U,8E+L-V LD U,D+7C+V 7 ,7 U,-77--V 7 7U,L771EV ,K / $ 8 D 2 ; 9 6 : (!"; EE U,ED7,-V 7 ,, U,ED7,LV EU,1E7,CV EE U,ED7,8V 7 ,+ U,E87,1V 7 ,1 U,EE771V 7 ,U,EE77CV 7 ,7 U,EC77,V EU,1L7,8V E7 U,1D,EEV EL U,E77,CV (#$(.# :$3&(; ,L1 U,+E+78V 7L8 U,-,877V ,1D U,+L+-1V C7-Q U77E1CLV +1, U,1+E8+V +7+ U,D,77C,V +C+ U,1+-8-V 78U,+11-DV 71D U,C77,1CV 778 U,+-87DV 7C, U,D,D+LV *0&(#$: (!"; 77DQQ U7,C7+8V ,E+ U,1C7,+V 7,+ U,E777CV ,ED U,1-7,+V 7,D U,ED77LV ,E8 U,17777V 7,7 U,E+777V 7,, U,1-77LV ,EU,1+77CV 7,8 U,E+7+,V 7,8 U,ED77LV 3 ( # & $ 3 *&(#$!" EE U,1+7+7V 1D U,-E7,CV 7 ,8 U,1D7C7V EU,1,778V 7 ,+ U,1,7+EV 1+ U,-,77DV E7 U,L877+V 7 CD U,ED7E,V 7 C8 U,EC7EDV 7 ,, U,L-7CCV EL U,L17++V (!# !"24"#(#0":4(!# *; 7+8 U,-L+C+V ,L1 U,D77D-V 7D+ U,L,+11V 7D7 U,17+D8V 7,, U,8,7E1V ,LL U,+1+,1V 7D8 U,L1+L7V 7-8 U,-+DC1V +7L U,LC-DCV 7DU,-+CDDV ,EC U,DL71DV 6 $. $6 & ( $! (*$4# *&2.*! 7 77 U,187DCV 1D U,-C777V 7 7E U,1E7-,V 7 7D U,1E7D-V 7 +7 U,1E7-CV EL U,-D7D1V 7 ,+ U,LL7CDV 7 7C U,L87L7V 7 C7 U,18+,,V 7 -,QQ U77D++8V 7 8, U77C+,,V 2.*(6 1E Q U,1,,E1V 7 ,, U,E,777V 7 ,8 U,E877LV EL U,1E7,-V EC U,1C7,CV 1L U,LD7,CV E+ U,1C7,7V 7 ,8 U,E77+,V 7 ,8 U,E77++V 7 +, U7,87C-V 7 77 U7,,7+CV # !(.= *"#63( 7 +7 U,L87EDV 1U,8D7C1V L8 U,D-7+CV 7 7U,1,7L1V 7 7L U,L77EDV EL U,DL7E1V 7 ,7 U,-+7--V EC U,D171,V 1L U,DD7LDV EL U,887LCV 7 7C U,-E71-V 4! ""$. ED U,1E,EEV EE U,ED7,DV E1 U,EC7,DV 7 ,8 U7,777,V E8Q U,E,7,,V EU,1E7,DV E1 U,EC7,CV EL U,E,7,8V E8 U,117,CV EC U,1L7,,V E D U,1E,EEV n ( # 2 &$"&$0" "". 7 E, Q U7,CCDEV 7 +U,--+D7V E8 U,877LLV 7 ++ U,LC+,DV -C U,C-7,EV E, U,CL+7LV 7 ,E U,-D71CV ED U,CL+CEV E, U,C1+7LV C C, U,E-77C-V 7 11 U,1,DDCV

PAGE 132

7+8 "0.#"%$!24$#2 "! .(# *#$&2.*3 #(.2 (.#2(. CC"2$/"#2(#%$! $.4 !3( #&$3 :rB,174Y,,8;"(""$&(# */#23$#2 !"N! 4$!# "$% "0"4 &# *3 #(.2 (.#24!$. 3"&2.*! $* 4 #(!(. "(! (""$&(# /#2#2"$0#&$3 %$!n (. CD"2$/"#2(#$&$(!(# "(! (""$&(# */#2"4 &%&&2.*3 #( .2 (.#2 $0#&$3 "%$!(*n'(;;1!/+)*4&"*n**" $n* *&(%( "" &$$!( "!%/ (*$5(* 3"* !"F% &"%*( (! '($"!(* Y,,8GQQ Y,,7GQQQ Y,,,7 D2

PAGE 133

7+(. C8"2$/"#2(#/2 #2 "(34. &.0* "$.(*n/2$ "0"4 &##2(##2 !&2.*2("(3 #(.2 (.#24!$. 3# !(.= *"#63( %.0 & 30.#4. 3 ("0! "$%&2.*3 #(.2 (.#2'(;<1!/+)*4&"*n**" $n* *&(%( """ &$$!( "!%/(* $*!(*((! n& $" ($%( Y,,8GQQ Y,,7GQQQ Y,,,7 ( r6( n3((!(*((! n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI $(6 0"8D2
PAGE 134

7+L '(;=1!/+)*4&"*n**" $n* *&(%( """ &$$!( "!%/(* $*!(*((! n& $" !"! &"%!(*( (! '($ ( r6( n3((!(* ((! n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI n HB=EI $(6 0"8D>.9 6 : (!"; ,E+ U,1,7,DV ,1CQ U,L+,ELV 7,7 U,1E77DV ,1L U,LC7,CV $3&( ,C8 U,,17D-V 7+E U,CDD11V ,L7 U,+,+81V 7,7 U,++D81V *0&(#$: (!"; 777 U,EC7C7V ,E+ U,L17,1V ,E7 U,L17,-V ,EL U,1C77CV !3( #&$3 *&(#$!" ,EL U,LC7+1V 7,C U,L17C8V 7++ U,EC7-7V 7CD U7,77LLV (!# !"24"#(#0":4(!# *; ,1U,+-+11V +,+ U,8-L+1V ,-1 U,+7+71V 78+ U,DD87EV _.6$.$6&(.$!(*$4# *&2.*! 7-8 U7,77L,V 7-D U7,,+L,V 781 U,EL+81V C,-QQ U787-+7V 6 $%&2.*/#23 #(.2 (.#24!$. 3 7+LQ U7,+781V 7,E U,1L7C8V 7,E U,1E7CDV 7+D U,E178-V 2.*. "/#23$#2 ,1, U,C,+7DV +C, U,1--7-V 781 U,8LDCEV 7EC U,--8-LV # !(.= *"#63( CC7QQ U78CL7CV 711 U,11D,CV ,1+ U,D77-DV 7C7 U,8E+EDV 4! ""$. 7,+ U,E+77DV 7,+ U,E777CV 7,, U,E,777V ,EL U,1-7,EV n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n (.#2&$"&$0" "". +78 U,8-1+-V 1--Q U,E1L-87V 7+L U,C+8,1V 1E1 U78C8+-EV Y,,8GQQ Y,,7GQQQ Y,,,7

PAGE 135

7+1 2 #2 "(34. &.0* "$.(*n/2$"0"4 &#(&2.*3 #(. 2 (.#24!$. 3# !(.= *"#63(""6%&(#.(""$&(# */ #2(## #$*"$!* !"%$! (*n:rBCC74Y,,7GnrBCEE4Y,,7;# !(.= *"#63("$#"6%&(#.(""$&(# */#2# !(.= 6*"$!* !"%$! #2 "#63(#= *6!$04n$/ !# !(.= *"#63("(""$&(# */#2 <# !(.=6&2.* 2 (.#2*"$!* !":rBLC14Y,,,7;(*$ !(..&2.*3 #(.2 (.#2:rBDDC 4Y,,,7;%$!n !/+1+% !""(* ":&" (* "$* !(*!(! & $")(($ &" "$/(('"" */! *"$ *+(*"(5$% "*" ( 1(." "$%50(.#(# # /""2$/"34$!#(##2 3 "! .(# *#$#2 .(#$"24 #/ # !(.= *"#63((*% (!6*"&!3(#$(*>$! .%'34$" "$.(#$$#2(*n/2$! 4$!##2 3$"## !(.= *"#63(4$"" $ #2 '$!'*"&.$" &0!!6#2 3 "($0#% (!6*"&! 3(#$ # "#6.n*$$#*&(# 6(66" .%'"$.(#$ 2( $!"(44 (! $.#$34$" .%'"$.(#$# 34$!(!.33 *(# .%$..$/6("#6 3(#=6 # (.""$%50(.#(# *(#(*&(# "#2(#% (!6*"&!3(#$$4 !(# "(.3$"# #&(..(*n6!$04" .%'34$" *"$.(#$2$/ !"$."2$! # # !3(*"$.! 4$!# r%#2 50(.#(# 4(!#&4(#"E(*Ln! 4$!##2 3$"# # !(.= *"#63(4$"". 2 4(!(6!(42" .$/! 4$!#! "0.# "($0#2$/# !(.= "#63("(""$&(# */#2% (!6*"&!3(#$(*>$!" .%'34$" "$.(#$

PAGE 136

7+E (!6*"&!3(#$ (!6*"&!3(#$! % !"#$#2 &!&03"#( & /2 "#63(#= *4 !"$"(#&4(# 6(# (&#$"%!$3$#2 !"04$*"&. $"6#2 "#63(#=6(##!0# : #(.+,,+;(*n% (!#/$%$!3"$%" U*$N## ..4 $4. &(0" V#N"#2(#2( (%! *0##2"%! *2("$#2 %! *"(**$N#/(#2 !# ..6$#2 !4 $4. #!#$) 4#2"%$!3(# $#$ 3" .% &(0" *$N#/(##$2( ("&(*(.$32(*"K:(!#&4(#.6 /#2nF%$!78 (!"; $#2 !n4(!#&4(# <4.(" U ..64 $4. 2( nF/$0.**$2(!3V$3" .% &(0" !$* /$0.* "#(!##(.)6($0#$0 2*$0!(&)$0N* /(.)6(.$6(*(%# !$0 4("" !$*/$0.*"(?$$)W2 2("W*$0)$/#2(#XA !$*/$0.* # ..6 !$*:(!#&4(#.6/#2nF%$!7+ (!"; r%#2 50(.#(# 4(!#&4(#"/2$! 4$!##2 3$"#"
PAGE 137

7C, #2 "4$* #"% (!#2(#$#2 !"/..$#(""$&(# /#2#2 3%#/ ! (. *#2(# #2 (! $! 6(# .(&)$/. *6 *$#2 !"S0(.#(# # /*( #( (.#2(#n/2$! 4$!##2 262 "#(3$0#$%# !(.= *"#63(4$"" $ #2 '*$$#" .%'"$.(# #2 "#0*34$" .%'"$.(#$0#$. $( # 34$!(!(""(%# !(4(!#&0.(!."#63(#=6 #r%#2 E4(!#&4(#"/2$ 4$!## !(.=6#2 3$"#"#63(4$"". $#2 'D34$" .%'"$.(#$ $3 #3 "$0N.. /(.)6"$3 /2 (*"$3 $*/.. .) ?r 2.$$) #2 N"(/2$! A$!"$3 #26.) #2(#$3 #3 "#2)($0##(**$N#

PAGE 138

7C7 )$//2(#N"6$6#$2(44 (*"$*$N#. ( #2 2$0" &(0" / ..3(6 K:((! #/$!) !; L

PAGE 139

7C+ r, nnr 2""#0*(3 *#$(&&$34."2" !(.6$(."2 6$(."&.0* :7;#$*$&03 #(!(#$#2 (3$0#$%4 !& *(*# !(.= *"#63(% 3(. < /$!) !"&$34(! *#$/$3 .6/#2nF>:+;#$# "#&$34 #624$#2 " ($0##2 .(#$"24 #/ #2 %% &#"$%4(! #(. <4 & $%4 !& *(* # !(.= *"#63((* 6(# 42"&(.(*3 #(.2 (.#2$0#&$3 "&2.*! (* :C;#$* #%# 63 &2("3": 6"#63(4!$@ &#";#2(#3( 4.((!$. 4! *>$/"#63(%.0 & "&2.*42"&(.(*3 #(.2 (.#2$0#&$3 2"*"" !#(#$ 6(6 "(&(" 6!$04$%% 3(. 2"* "6(..$/"%$!#2 "#0*#$* #%#2 %% &#" $%"#63(40! .! .(# *#$" 0" 50 #."#63(" <(3 4(!(# .% 3(. #2"* "" !#(#$ 2 %$..$/6" &#$*"&0"" "#2 ) %*6"$%#2 *"" !#(#$ %*6 "4 &%&(..&.0* "0.#"#2(#(! 050 #$#2""#0*$!(! $#$" 4! $0" (!&2

PAGE 140

7CC *.1 $ (+$ (0(+ %3"6/ 05(*"$ $! $$&+! (+1 2$062#2"! .(#$"24"&$#!(!#$(#&4(# *$0#&$3 <"#6! ( !&2 :( .+,78;! 4$!#""3.(!%*6"2$062#"4$"". $.#$"4 &0.(# # !(#$(.36!(#$%$!"
PAGE 141

7CD *213("$% 4"$ *!( "!%'/ %3** (*"$" *1 (.""$%50(.#(# *(#("2$/"#2(#" !(."#63(4!$@ &#"3$* !( # #2 .(#$"24 #/ 4 !& *(*# !(.= *"#63("%$!(*n #63( 4!$@ &#"(! % */#2#2 &$# <#$%#2"! (!&2("# #$(."#!( # 6 6(6 "#63(#= ***0(."#$($*# !(.=6"#63(2$062"$3 "#63(4! $@ &#" $ !.(4 #/ (*n$ !(..#2 (!*!("#&(.. #/ #2 6!$04" $ ## !..0"#!(# 2$/"#63(4!$@ &#"$4 !(# (*n# 2 %$..$/6&(" "#0* "&$#!("##/$/$3 /2$2( $## !(.= *"#63($ (" "#0*$%" .. E" .. "++%!$30 !#$.(#((*2("/$!) *(" ("
PAGE 142

7C8 3 60 30"&G#"4$"". #$0" < <4 .(.3$"#(/ 2 2
PAGE 143

7C"4# #2 *(6 !"2 ##$#2
PAGE 144

7CL 0#(%# !"(*?2 "#2 %(#2 !$%3&2.*! A"$/ ##$#2 "#! # "(* #$.* !$*U#2(#2 2("nFV(*"#( */#223 2$!#.(%# !2 !*(6$""/#2nF. !#(.) *#$2 !20"(*($0#/2(#2(*2(44 *2 %$!3 *23#2(#"2 ) /2 2(*6 2 !nF(*#2(#$/2 2("(! "4$".#$##$4(""#2"% &#$#$$#2 !"n$/ !#"0&. (!/2 # 2 !$!$# #2"/(" %% &# K"(*^$02( #$#2) &(0" $0N! "&)$0&(N# !06#2 "#! #"6 ##6$#2 !4 $4. "&)KNU0#V2 N"#2 "#! #"(.$#" 23#2 "#! #"(..#2 #3 Kn "(*2 2("N#2(*"
PAGE 145

7C1 )*"(3K$0!)*"(! #2 #26#() &(! $%#2 3$"#)$/2$/#$#() &(! $%#2"UnFV(* !#26N*"$2(*#$. ( U3@$V(*@0"#%$! 6 # ($0##2 /2$. #26 $#2 !/(. !?! @ &#"#2 @ &# !"A" !(..* % 62 !" .%#$2 "#63(#= (2K0#$0)$/K2 U3%$!3 34.$ !V3(* 4!$. 3"%$!3 2 #$.*(.$#$%4 $4. ^$$)#2".(*2("nF(*"2 /("/$!)62 32$0" WN*"(*#$2 !^$$)$0N! (*W$0*$N#2( #$K$0*$N#2( #$6$"4! (*6#2"(!$0*r#2 !4 $4. N". "(! 4!(# KN. !"&(! %0.($0#/2$"2 # .."($0#2 !nF% &#$$%(!$.2 %(3.)$/"(*(2(*%0.$% 62$!"/2$%$0*$0#$2 !$/#"34$!#(##$2 !#$) 4#2"%$!3(#$4!(# "$"2 34.$"("#63(4!$@ &#&(. *?*"&.$"0! &$#!$.A2(#""2 *"&.$" "2 !nF"#(#0"$.#$%(3.3 3 !" U2( #$.*V3$3K$0)$/#2"/("2(!*$2 !K2 /("! (..* 4! "" *(*3""# !"K0##2 6( 3 (.$#$%"044$!#6$#(.$#$% "044$!#K ..64 $4. 2( nF/$0.**$2(!3V$3" .% &(0" !$*/$0.*"#(!##(.)6($0#$0 2*$0!(&)$0N* /(.)6(.$6(*(%# !$04("" !$*/$0.*"(?.$$)"2 2("W*$0)$/#2(#XA !$*/$0.* # ..6 !$*A **#$(... /"nF("(&2!$&(*3((6 (. &$*#$ ..$/#2)#26"(! ## &(0" (#. ("#$//2 (4 !"$6 #" "&) U/#2nFV#2 6 #(.$#$%"044$!#2 &(6 #3 *&(#$* %$! 3 3 !K.) 71 (!" %$! K2 /(".6/#233$3#/$4 $4. *$%nF***N#)$/#2 * &(0" $%#2(#*"(*^2(#"#2(#X2(#**#2 $%XN*/("#$.*^2 *$%"$3 #26#2(#2("$&0! N0#$/"& & !(*(& *(*#2 (! (.$#$%#26"$0##2 %$!$0%$02( #2" !"(2!"#(2 0" "2 !%(#2$*(*$" !(& $%2!"#(! 6$0" #!(*#$"#$($*# !(.=6nF'! .(# *"#63( K0#N32$ "#.$#("2(3 *($0##2"U2(6nFVK2()$*2( #2"UnFV &(0" #/("$*/2$6( #2"#$3 *%N36$6#$* $%#2"#N"#2 /$!)$%$*2( (*(062# !/2$"($0##$#0!7+K"2 /("#2 .("#&2.*#2(#2(* &(0" 6$#nFK*#2 / "$3(4 $4. (#

PAGE 146

7CE 32$0" !663 4.."K!663 # ("K*4!( *%$!$*#$3 () 3.##. 6!.2 (.#2K(*#2()" #$$*#2(#3*(062# !/("$!2 (.# 2 UnF' 6(# VKU0#(%# !%$0*$0##2(#2( nFV% .#! (.. $.*(7, #$/(!*"320"(*4!( *#$$*#$!*3 $%#2"% .6 &(0" 2 "#2 %(#2 !$%3&2.*! K2( 8)*"/#223K$3 #3 "#2)^r23$*6 #!*$%#2"W**N#6$.$$)6%$!#2"W**N#(")%$!#2"WN0##2 (")#2 $!*#$%$!6 3 &(0" (.$#$%#3 "K$0)$/K$0N.."(K &(0" (.$#$%#3 "N.."(#26"/#2$0##2)6%!"#K2( *(" /2 "#32$0" K$$)6%$!(%62#U/#2320"(*VK &(0" % .K$)K.) $.*(K"&0""$$%"#63(4!$@ &#"(*n2 &(" "#0* ""2$/ #2(#$#2(*n 34.$"#63(4!$@ &#"#63(4!$@ &#" 3$* !(# #2 .(#$"24 #/ 4 !& *(*# !(.= *"#63("! *0&6$! .3(#6#2 %% &#$%4 !& *"#63("$(*>$!nS0(.#(# # /" "2$/#2(# .3#6#2 (3$0#$%"
PAGE 147

7D, 3$#2 !U)$/"#2(#(3("
PAGE 148

7D7 "#(#0"(*262.62# *#2 34$!#(& $%%(3."044$!#"0&& ""%0..3( (66 nF> K ..2 U3"$V&(3 (*6( 3 (206(*"(*?2(#"#2"X2 N! # ..63 #2(#$02( "$3 #26A$0)$/*3" .%' "# 3/(".$/0##3(* 3 2(44#2(#2 /("663 "044$!#:(!#&4(#.6/#2 nF%$! 7+ (!"; !$/6%(3.'. ."044$!#%$!n3( <4.(#2 (" & $%( .(#$"24 #/ 4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 %(3.(*&2.*42"&(.(*3 #(. 2 (.#2 $0#&$3 $ !" .#2 (" & $%(! .(#$"24 #/ 4 !& *"#63( %!$3#2 %(3.(*&2.*42"&(.(*3 #(.2 (.#2$0#&$3 "3( *0 #$.$/ %(3.' .*"&.$"0! "$%$. 3 #/#2" (*( <4(*6((.(.#$%nF>#! (#3 #$4#$" UnF'! .(# *"#63("* &. %!$3 (!"4("# &(0" VK# N"34$!#(##$ *0&(# #2 &$330#($0#4 $4. /2$2( nF"$#2 N! $#&$%0" *(*#2)6#26".) ?%(3$"50#$# ""$3 $*/#2nF(*#2 # "3 N36$6#$6 #nF(."$A$0*$N#6 ##.) #2"K:(!#&4(#.6 /#2 nF%$!8 (!"; K #2$0622( #2"&("#... @0"#2( #$*$34(!#(*#2 UrnV/..2 .43 K:(!#&4(#.6/#2nF%$!8 (!";

PAGE 149

7D+ r#2 !n4(!#&4(#"**$#4 !& "#63(%!$3#2 &$330# &(0" #2 / ("34#$3(#&(***$#*"&.$" #2 !nF"#(#0"#$&$330#3 3 !" 262.62#6#2 34$!#(& $%?"#63(4!$@ &#"A33=6#2 % % &#"$%"#63( $U*$N#4 !& "#63(%!$3#2 &$330#V &(0" 3(6 K2"2(" !2(44 *#$3 &(0" $$*)$/"K2 $.4 $4. /2$)$/(! $#2 !4 $4. /2$. #2 "(3 &$*#$("*$:(!#&4(#.6/#2n F %$!(!";2 "0&& ""%0.34. 3 #(#$$%"#63(4!$@ &#"%$!3((."$2 4#$ <4.(#2 (" #! .(#$"24 #/ 4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 &$330#(*&2.* 42"&(.(*3 #(.2 (.#2$0#&$3 "$"#$#(./#22 .*%$!3(#$( $0# #2 !$. 3 #" nF'! .(# *# !( .= *"#63((* &2.*3 #(.2 (.#2$0#&$3 "r !(..# !(.= *"#63("$#(""$&(# */#2($% #2 &2.*2 (.#2$0#&$3 "0* "#6(#$%$!$!nn$/ !/2 #2 "(34. &.0* "$.&2.*! /2$" 3$#2 !""0"4 &#(&2.*3 #(.2 (.#24!$ 3

PAGE 150

7DC # !(.= *"#63("(""$&(# */#2(## #$*"$!* !"%$!$! n # !(.= *"#63("(""$&(# */#2(## #$*"$!* !" <# !(.=6 *"$!* !"(* $ !(..&2.*3 #(.2 (.#22 .(#$"24 #/ # !(.= *"#63(( *4$$!3 #(. 2 (.#2(*0.#"2(" $# *4! $0"/$!):(.&23( #(.+,,E;n$/ !#2 %% &#"2( $# $# *%$!&2.*! 0#.$/2 .(#$"24 #/ # !(.= *"#63((*n'! 4$!# *( ## #$ <# !(.=6(*$ !(..3 #(.2 (.#2*"$!* !"&2.*! &( 4(!#(. <4.( #2 %% &# ""$%rnN"nF>4!$6!(3..n#2"" #0*(! 3 3 !"$%rn$!rn'(%%.(# *nF>#! (#3 #& .&".. rnnF>4(# #"(! 50! *#$&$34. # (#. ("#$ n F>'! .(# &$0" .6" ""$04$#2 !(&& 4#(& #$#2 4!$6!(3(# #"/2$! 50! $6$6 4"&2(#!&&(! &( !$..%! 3 #(.2 (.#2#! (#3 ##" 4$"". #2(#! 60.(! (&& ""#$3 #(.2 (.#2&(! &! (# "(2 62# *(/(! ""$%3 #(.2 (.#2*"$!* !" &2.*! (*(6! (# !/..6 ""#$" )#! (#3 # K &(0" 2( #2"&$*#$UnFV#(.) *#$#2 3U3&2.*! V#$$)#2 3#$#2 4"&2$.$6"#K(* !#26K#%!"#/2 #2 %$0*$0##2 $.* "#2(*(K !"#!$6! (&#$ &(0" #2""N#"$3 #26#2(#$0/$0.* <4 &#:(!#&4(#.6/#2nF%$!8 (!";0" 50 #.#"4$"". #2(#n0* !6$6#! (#3 #%$!nF'! .(# 3 #(.2 (.#24!$. 3"&.0*6# !(.= *"#63($# 3$! "#(& $% 6(# 3 #(.2 (.#2 2($!"&2.*! *>1 !**"$ (* 6 / 0 (3/!,?1 /37 (+% "(5" ( !3 "1 $#2(*n/2$! 4$!##2 3$"## !(.= *"#63(4$"". $#2

PAGE 151

7DD '$!'*"&.$" &0!!6#2 3 "($0#% (!6*"&!3 (#$ $ !" ./$3 .6/#2nF>*$$#! 4$!#" .%'"$.(#$#2 6!$044(!#&4(#"(44 (!$.#$34$" .%'"$.(#$# 34$!(!. 33 *(# %$..$/6("#63(#=6 #(.""$%50(.#(# *(#(*&(# "#2(# % (!6 *"&!3(#$$4 !(# "(.3$"#* #&(..(*n6!$04" .%'34$" "$.(#$2$/ !"$."2$!## !3(*"$.! 4$!# *2 %$..$/6& (" "#0* "&$#!("#(4(!#&4(#/#2(n4(!#&4(##$"2$/2$/ % (!$% *"&!3(#$(*" .%'"$.(#$$4 !(# #2 #/$6!$04" (" "#0*$%. "+7(*#2 .$63$#2 !$%(% (!'$.* &2.*2 (*2 !$%! *! & #.!$) 04. "%!$3(#$$36$0#2(" "4 ##2 4("#7D3$#2"/$!)6(#( "&$!#! "$!#0 !#$.(#( %$! # 2(#"2 /$!) *("("
PAGE 152

7D8 .$&(# *%!$3(#$$36$#$0 !#$.(#(#$ 6(6
PAGE 153

7D#2 "#! #/$0.*N#/(#4 $4. #2 "#! ##$)$/U#2(#(3(" %$!77 (!"90.("0"4 &#"#2(# "2 (&50! *nF#2!$062" K*2 /("#2 66 "#"044$!# !#2(#N !&$3 (&!$""r *(/2 / / $0#2 "(*^(3&$3 2 N(*2 #$$)3 /($0##$/2 2"%(3.. "2 /("(/$3(/2$/(".6/#2nF0#"2 /("N#(U#! (#3 #V4!$6!(32 **N#2( 3 *&(#$(*"2 /(".6/($0##2 *2 "(*^$$)(#2 !2 "/#2nF#$$(*"2 2("($!3(..% K %# !#$N"* (#2#2 (" & $%2""044$!#90.( 6(#$% (!*"&!3 (#$ .(# *#$2 !nF2 "4 &(..(%!(*$% 6! @ &# *2 &2.*! r *(!$062#(..$%#2 3U3&2.*! V#$4&)0433 *&(#$(*#2$062##$# ..#2 3#2 0#* &* *$##$ &(0" 3U&0!! #V$%! *#$.*3 $$##$# ..#2 3(#26 &(0" #2"""$3 #26#2(##2 *$N#2( #$" K(3(%!(*#2(#3)*"362#! @  K "K "4# % (!6! @ &#$.) (..n4(!#&4(#"#2""# 0*90.(*$ "$# 4$!#" .%'"$.(#$ 2($! (!6*"&!3(#$0* !.6#!66 !" .*$" !(#$""2$/#2(##2 .(#$"24 #/ # !(.= *"#63((*% (!6*"&!3(#$.) .$4 !(#

PAGE 154

7DL #2!$062! 4 (# <4$"0! #$ (&# *"#63($!"#(& 4(!#&4(#"/2$ % (! *"&!3(#$(! .) .#$2( <4 & *( (&# *"#63( ##2 3" "$!#$ )$/"$3 $* ." /2$2("r!#2 3(2( %! *"$!%(3.3 3 !"/2$2( 3(* *"4(!(66! 3(!)"($0#$!n2 %$! #2 (#&4( #
PAGE 155

7D1 #2 %(3./("&$"* !(..$/%$!n#2""#0*! *0&6#2 *%$! .%' 34$" *"$.(#$%((n#2""(34. 4$!# **"&.$"6#2 !nF "#(#0"#$%(3.3 3 !"$.0#(!. &(0" &$"* !6#2(##2 (! 3%(3.**N##2)#2(#"2$0.*2* # 2" 4!$. 3UnFV%!$3#2 3:(!#&4(#.6/#2nF%$!(.3$"#( !"; r#2 !4(!#&4(#"! 4$!# *#2(#%(3.3 3 !"%$0*$0#($0##2 !nF" #(#0"$#2 /(" $#/("N#@0"#3 /2$#$.*#2 3U3%(3.V2 **#2 UnFV# "#$ $% 320"(*N"&$0"""(/#2(##/("4$"# (*#$.* !$*3%(3.(*"$/ 2(*#$# .. !$ :(!#&4(#.6/#2nF%$!7L (!";U%(3.%$0*$0#2( nFV &(0" 4 $4. "(/3 (##2 &.& K )*")$/ &(0" $ "77 (!"$.*(*$ /..#0!-K(*$ "+(*#2 #/$' (!'$.*"nF'4$"# :(!#&4(#.6/#2nF%$!-3$#2"; 4$%(3.3 3 !"%*6$0#($0##2 !nF"#(#0"4(!#&4(#"! 4$! #! & 6 .$ (*"044$!#%)n0n!r#n) )"1nr) ()##nr)r )r )n"r )nr,-# (n/ 2)()n))nn"n ,-# (n.34nr)()rr) )nnn ))n2##n))n,-# (n5n$/ !"$3 4(!#&4(#" <4.(#2(#%(3.3 3 !"(! $#(./( "(&& 4#6$! &$34(""$(# #$/(!*"#2 3/2 #2 %!"#*"&.$" #2 !nF"#(#0" ..#2 U3%(3.VK#2 3(* 3 0&$3%$!#(. U/2 #2 %$0*$0#2( nFVK#3(* 3 $#/(##$&$#0 6$6#$#2 2$"4#(.K:(!#&4(#.6/#2nF%$!(!";2$/**#2 % .(#%!"#X ..(#%!"##2 /("(.$#(.$#$%*"&!3 (#$ 2 U3%(3.V40# !#26(4(!# !#26 !#26 !#26 (4(!#K:(!#&4(#.6/#2nF%$!7L (!";

PAGE 156

7DE n$/ !%(3.3 3 !"#4&(..(&& 4#! "4$* #"(%# !. (! 63$! ($0#nF (*2$/#"#!("3## *! *0&6#2 *#$34$" .%'"$.(#$ #%!"#/#233$#2 !K(*3".6"2 %!"#%$0*$0#2(*#2"UnFVK2 3(* 3 0" 3$/" 4(!(# 4.(# 6.(""(*"4$$#$ (# &(0" #2 #2$062#/("6$6#$6 #2"UnFV#$#2 3K*#2"" *"&!3(#$ &(0" #2"20!#3 W <4.( *U#2(##2""$#2$/nF" #!("3## *V#$#2 3(*6( #2 3($$)2 0* !"#(*(..$%# !/ ..KU#2 #! (#3 VF !*%% ##2(%!$3 %$! :(!#&4(# .6/#2 nF%$!L (!";

PAGE 157

78, rM nnn (&" 2""#0*%.."#/$34$!#(#6(4"#2 "#63(.# !(#0! 2" "#6 (#$:7; #% "! .(#$"24 #/ 4(! #(.4 !& 4#$"$%"#63((* &2.*42"&(.(* 3 #(.2 (.#2(*:+;*" #(6. "#2 "#63($% 6(66" G#"#2 %!"##$ <(3 #2"#2 3 #2 (#3 !& (>(! ( 6$ 2"*"" !#(#$2("" !(.34$!#(#%*6"$!4(#2/(4 !& *"#63( %!$3#2 &$330#(*4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 %(3.(! %.0 & **%% # 4 #(!(. "%$!% 3(. :n;2"*&(# "#2(#4 !& *"#63($4 !(# "*%% #. (* n2 %$! 4 !& *"#63(" #/ #2 #/$6!$04""2$0.* #! (# *(" 050 (* <(3 *" 4(!(# .2""(."$#!0 %$!# !(.= *"#63( "0. #"%!$3 4(#2/("2$/#2(## !(.= *"#63("(""$&(# */#2*%% #* 4 # (!(. "%$!(*n$#2 # !(.= *"#63((""$&(# */#2" (#2/("2$/"#2(#* 4 #(!(. "$4 !(#6$0#"* $%#2 "#63( 4(#2/((! (""$&(# */#2&2.*42"&(.(*3 #(.2 (.#2$0#&$3 "%$! (*

PAGE 158

787 n2""2$/"#2(#! .(#$"24" #/ 4 #(** 4 #(!( (! $#(" *"$. .$"#63( "0.#"%!$34(#2/("2$/"#2(#4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 &$330#( 4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 %(3.(! (""$&(# */#2# !(.= *"#63(%$!(* n .(# *#$#2"4(#2/("2$/"#2(#! .(#$"24" #/ 4 !& *"#63( :%!$3#2 &$330#%!$3#2 %(3.;(*# !(.= *"#63((! $#3$* (# *#2 %$..$/6"#63('! .(# *(!(. "2$3 &$330#$!3"($0#"
PAGE 159

78+ $<"2$/"#2(#$#2(*n4 !& 3$! "#63(%!$3#2 &$330##2(%!$3#2 %(3.n$/ !n4 !& "6%&(#.3 $! "#63( #2(%!$3 (&2$%#2 "$0!& "0.#"%!$34(#2/("2$/"#2(#/#2# 2 <& 4#$$%#2 .(#$"24 #/ 4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 %(3. (*&$062%$! $&2.*2 (.#2$0#&$3 "(! (""$&(# */#24 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 &$330# $!%(3. !& *"#63(%!$3 #2 !"$0!& :&$330#%(3.;/(" $#(""$&(# /#23$#2 !"N.) .2$$*#$"0"4 &#(&2.*3 #(.2 (.#24!$. 3$!/("#(" "$&(# /#2($%#2 &2.*3 #(.2 (.#24!$. 3":(## #$# !(.=6 <# !(.=6 *"$!* !"(*$ !(..&2.*3 #(.2 (.#2;0* "#6(#$%$!#2 #$#(."(34. n$/ !%$!(*n/2$"0"4 &# *(&2.*3 #(.2 (.#24!$. 3 4 !& *"#63(%!$3#2 &$330#"(""$&(# */#2(## #$*"$!* "%$!(* # !(.=6*"$!* !"%$!n !& *"#63(%!$3#2 %(3."( ""$&(# */#2 <# !(.=6*"$!* !"%$!/$3 .6/#2nF>(#2/(n"2$/"#2(## !(.= *"#63("$.(""$&(# */#2$ &2.* 42"&(.2 (.#2$0#&$3 ?$#2 !A%$!# !(.= *"#63(*$ "$#2( ( .(#$"24/#2&2.*42"&(.2 (#2$0#&$3 "%$!n**#$(..4 (#2/(n "2$/"#2(## !(.= *"#63("$#(""$&(# */#23$#2 !"N.) .2$$*#$"0"4 &#( &2.*3 #(.2 (.#2*"$!* !$!#2 #$#(."(34. $%(*n# !(.= "#63("$#(""$&(# */#2($%#2 &2.*3 #(.2 (.#2$0#&$3 <(3 *#2" "#0*n$/ !%$!(*n/2$"0"4 &#(&2.*3 #(.2 (.#2*"$!* !# !(.= *"#63("(""$&(# */#2(## #$*"$!* !"%$!$#2(* n **#$(..# !(.= *"#63("(""$&(# */#2 <# !(.=6*"$! !"(*$ !(.. &2.*3 #(.2 (.#2%$!/$3 .6/#2nF>

PAGE 160

78C (#2/("2$/"#2(#(*n/2$! 4$!##2 3$"## !(.= *"#63( 4$"". $#2 '$!'*"&.$" % (!6" %$!(.$6 !4 !$*$%#3 "(" "$&(# /#2. ""*"&!3(#$:F((. #(.+,,-;(*"#63((*&$0.*2( %.0 & *2$/4(!#&4(#"! "4$* *#$#2 "#63(3 ("0! "#2 "#0*..n4(!#&4(#"#2""#0*(! rn(*rn'(%% .(# nF4(# #"4! #6%$!! 60.(!."&2 *0. *&.&(44$#3 #" 2"3 ("#2(#(.. n! "4$* #"(! & 6&.&(.(*4$"".4"&2(#!& &(! #"/ .. "#(."2 *#2(#(&& ""#$nF#! (#3 #! *0& "nF'! .(# *"#6 3(:("#!$(*(!3 +,,8;4$"".("6! "0.#"**#$(..(..4(!#&4(#"#2" "#0*2( &

PAGE 161

78D (#. ("#$ nF'! .(# *&$0" .6" ""$/2&23(%.0 & #2 !! 4$! #"$% 4! ""$2 (.#2&$"&$0" ""4 !& *"#63((*# !(.= *"#63( $!4(#2/("(*n$.3$#2 !"/2$"0"4 &# *(&2.*3 #(.2 (.#2 4!$. 3&$34. # *#2 $#2 !"/2$**$#"0"4 &#(&2.*3 #(.2 (.#24!$ 3 **$#&$34. # #2 50 "#$(! (*/ (""6 *("&$! $%?,A%$!(..&2.*3 # (. 2 (.#2$0#&$3 "*&(#64 !% &#&2.*3 #(.2 (.#2#"4!$(. #2(#"$3 &2.*! /2$! & *("&$! $%?,A*** *2( (3 #(.2 (.#24!$. 3$" 50 #.&2.*3 #(.2 (.#2"3$"#.) .$ !%.(# *%$!#2"4$!#$$% #2 ((."" $! $ !&2.*(6 (*" (* &.0* #2 3("("06!$04%$!&$34(!"$"#0*n$/ !$.71nF'4$"# < /$!) !"/ #% **0!6#2 &$0!" $%#2"4!$@ ()6#34 $"". #$*!(/ 3 (6%0.&$&.0"$"%!$3#2 *(#($3 %$!3(#$6(#2 *%!$350(.#(# # /"/(".$"#*0 #$""0 /#2#2 #(4 &$!*6$!"#(& (&)6!$0*$" 4! # *#2 %0..#!( "&!4#$$%

PAGE 162

788 #2! 50(.#(# # /"#2 n6!$04(*$ # /#2 6!$04 $$ !&$3 #2 ""0 "/#2*(#(.$""(* "0! "(#0!(#$$%50(.#(# *(#( 50(.#(# 4(!#&4(#"/ $ !"(34. ** & $%*(#("(#0!(#$(4 4 (!"/ .. %$! #2 "(34.66$(."$%B+,(! (&2 *%$!(*n6!$0 4" ("#. &(0" #2""#0*/("&$*0&# *#2 $3&( 40.&! "0.# "3( $# 6 !(.=(. #$$#2 !6 $6!(42&(! ("* &&"! *6"$%#2"*"" !#(#$(! "4 &(..#3 .(*34$!#(#"& .$46 &$$3 "(! &! ("6.(*$4#6#$0!"3'(" *3$* ."/2&2$%# <&.0* % 3(. /$!) !":!($+,,D+,,DG( =("7EEE;$" 50 #.3(/$3 #2 .$46/$!.*! .$"
PAGE 163

783(3 (#2(#/2$3$ (!$(* <4 &
PAGE 164

78L 34(&#%0."& #"4$"". #2(##2 "#63(4!$@ &#"(! ( #0!(.(*>$!#0# %$! #2 /$3 $! $ !(0%$! %% &#$%#2""#0*"#2 #%&(#$(**"&0""$$% &2(.. 6 "2 ##$$. 3 #" $!.6/#2nF>$!"#(& (*n$#2! 4$!# *(44! 2 ""($0#*"&.$"6#2 $. 3 #"
PAGE 165

781 3 3 !"($0##2 !/$!)4.("&2$.(!"$# (! .(#$"24 #/ "$&( ."$.(#$ (** 4! ""$:&2# "# #(.+,,+;2$062#"34$"". #$*!(/((""$&( # .(#$"24 #/ .%'"$.(#$(** 4! ""$%!$3#2 &0!! #*(#(# "4$"". #2(# 4(!(#$%!$3%! *"(*%(3.3 3 !"4.("(!$. #2 262* 4! "" $. ." #2"6!$04.&("/2$4!$* 3 #(.2 (.#2&(! #$" .(!6 $062#$*!(/3 (6%0.&$&.0"$"($0#"#63(0#0! "#0* "2$0.*%$&0"$nF'4$"#
PAGE 166

78E 4(6" <0(.4(!# !"##. ")$/($0#(%# !#2 # "#4$" # 2"" 34$!#(#"& "$3 .# !(#0! "066 "#"#2(#(&#("(?!*6 A4$4 0.(#$ :$/* #(.+,,,G.."+,,,;$!4$40.(#$"/2$(! (#262!")%$!&$#!(&# 6 (*4(""6$nF#..$#2 !"&2$.(!"*$0##2(##2""#!0 :&(3. !(* ($. +,,1;%$!3(#$($0#(*2 & (*&$*$30" &$0.*"2 *.62#$#$#2"* (#

PAGE 167

7-, rrrr .. r:+,,7;50(.#(*n (.#2 $r%&n'r rr("r&&("$(.0$1C'77 !"$.(3 !$.(! #$(*("# !!$$):+,,1; nF>'! .(# *"#63((**"&!3(#$&&$0#"$%nF'4$"# (! (4 $4. #2 # *6*$3nrrr")*:8; LE,'LE1 6 !3 !&20.= #!&2:+,,C;$0!# "#63( $&0"!$04#0*$% .(# "$%&2=$42! ((# #"n'r nn"+,:7,;8EC'-,+ (6 ###9 /"$2 9:+,7,;%% &#$%(# !(. 4! ""$$2.* 2($! "# !$*X-nrnr n.rnr'"/0:L;-EE'L,L (!#. ##9((!(3(*$2$33 :+,77;#(# # !(& "(* 50(.# ((66n(#(336!(#"#2 $3&( 40.&rrnr-nr n nr1nr"+2"81L'8E8 (". +,78?T.""4* 3(* 2)060( $3&(('n(#" # 3("* (.0*(4(&*(** "40 "#("# 6!(. # !3(&I$&$(3 #( .3nrn"7'1 (03(9(3(&2$. !9n0*"9!(3+,,+? 2($!(. !$. 3"&2$$.'6 *2.*! $%$#2 !"/#2nF>A.r. 'nnr'"*:7;CE'8D (03(9. !9(*# :+,,-;030.(# "$&(."(*(#(6 (*2.*n (.#2'"22*:7C+7; !6 !!("("2. 2:+,,7; ("0!6#63( $4. #2 nF"&2$3 #!&"" ""3 #$%#2 nF#63(&(. rr r4"5/:-;871'8+E #=:+,,,;6nrnr6nnr7nn8n rrr*# $60"#9 2$0"(*r()"(6 0.&(#$" !*:+,,L;2 # !6 !(#$(.#!("3""$$%4$ !#$ /2!$&$ !# (!&2 #! $!)64(4 !! (:7EEE;9nr9n8:6nrn"1nrr 7.:"22:+;7L'D7

PAGE 168

7-7 (:+,,7;$0!"3!("(#$(..(& "$3&( <$!) !"(* !3( <$0!"#"3(6 r $#2 !r*:D;-+7'--C (:+,,D;9!;n6$3 ( <$0!"#$/rnnn>**:D;L,8'LCC 0"&(!*$9 34. 9!(6('F(.. @$(.((## !"$:+,,D; S0(.#(# <4.$!(#$$% 3(. <$!)@0(( <&$n :(n"++:D;CDC'C87 ( =(":7EEE;9nr!9n81nr:6nrn"6 1nrr7r":"r
PAGE 169

7-+ "62#"(*$.0#$(!! &#$"r4r7nn8n1nr nrn" %n/(0.&20.#=(*9$2#!(0"": *"; !$""n:+,,-;# #$"#$**! ""#2 "#63(""$&(# *#2 4!$" !"4 &# $#2 ""0 "'nn"4rr"22:C;C-L'CLC 0!! 9(*:+,,L;2446/((#n (.#2$! $#2 .(#$"24 #/ &$3 (*2.*n (.#245):+;CC7'CDD $("#$!6(!!6#$ = !!6(:+,7D;! *$"0 !#(" (" *6"%!$3(# 6!(# *# #$#$!$3$# #$! (#3 #(*(! 3$66/#2nF#2 $3&( 40.&'n#r"0:+;7'E 0##(' !63(:+,,D;(.# !(# (44!$(&2#$"$&(.&(4#(.<4. $!6#2 .)(6 #/ 2 (.#2&$"&$0" ""(*&$330#4(!#&4(#$4 .nrnr"2):D;CEC'D,E 0!2(3(*$! 9:7EED;2 (###0* 2($!"(* %"$%4(# #" $% &$ #$(."&$34. 3 #(!:(.# !(# ;3 *& -nrn.r 'nn"?B:C;D81'D-E (!6(*$!*0&29:7EE1;.6!(.!(*#2 6 !6(4* & %!$3&2.*2 (.#2$0#&$3 "2((-'n nr"22:D;DL7'DEC $%%3(!6:7E-C;nnrrrnnr / $!)3$(*&20"# !& $""(!#'(.) !(*$"":7EE1;044$!#!$04"%$!nF'%% &# 2.*! -nrn.rnr>///"40&$3>@$0!(.>#2 c# #c@$0!(.c$%c 4* 3$.$6>( !&2 >$. 03 cCc03 !c+c7+2#3. n!"&2% .*9(*50 !$:+,7,;$!3(.=(#$(*. 6#3(#$$* .6 "#63(#=6(###0* "#$/(!*" <'$%% !".rnn"/,:7;+L'88 n$6n:+,,E;&(. .$43 #%$! ("0!6n (.#2$"&$0" "" $& 4#0(.=(#$Cr7rn$/(!*:+,,L; .$43 #(&"3(*"&!3(#$#2 $3&(

PAGE 170

7-C 40.&1nrr'"2*L+8'LD1 (040$(#$2$34"$'$.$#((&):+,,8;$0#6$ $&(. #/$!)"$&(.044$!#(*2.*n (.#2#(#0"n@n,+:C;77CL'77-D !"$(*!(%#:+,,-;$ ""$&$' &$$3&"#(#0"(*2 (.#2&$"&$0" "" %.0 & 2$//$3 "4$*#$2 (.#2! .(# *3 ""(6 "3 *(X4 nr"52:8;-,7'-7, 9((#(*0!":7EE1;2 (# & #"$%4! # 2 (.#2&(! 2($! 34!&(."#0*n8rr"5):7;E'78(.&23( &) "".$ # #2 30)2$#(a *=(:+,,E; ("0!6"#63("4 $4. .6/#2nF>2 # !(.= *' .(# *#63(&(. 1."52:7;1L'EC (.&23(3(9$$"# $ %(2 !!a(6 :+,,8; .$43 #$%(! %"&(. #$3 ("0! '! .(# *"#63( $0#2 %!&(1("0:+;7C8'7DC (""(2:7EE1;$330#'(" *! 2(.#(#$(*"#63(3((6 3 # 42"&(..*"(. *4 $4. 2((17r7nr"5B:+;--'LC 34(*$$:7EE1;.#r#1 Cr61nrr7")3$6 3(. <$!) !"#2 $3&( 40.&Ar-nr n'74"E-:7;7+,'7+8 "n(" !$"# !90!6$"(($2!#:+,7D;

PAGE 171

7-D !& *"&!3(#$n03.(#$(* #(.n (.#2< *' #2$*"#0*3$6n(#(6!(#"#2 $3&( 40.& rr4 7'++ 3:+,,8;$ !#(*%$!3(. &$$34(!#&4(#$* & %!$3$3(( nrnn6rnr"2+:7;7-C'718 39n4 6 .3(33$!(&2:+,,7;2 &$!! .(# "$%* #(! #() (3$6nF'4$"# (*0.#"-.r"*/:-;18+'1-7 "3((*.*3(:+,,7;$#2 !(*2.* !& 4#$"$%2.* 0&#$6 .(#$"24#$(# !(."#! ""@'n"/B:+;7-C'7L+ &. !&:+,7D;?F & n$.(=$* .( (#0!(.=(&IA;r1n(#$$36$ 4M.&($3&(( $&23()) 3(:+,,+;# !(.= *#63(3$6 $4. 6 #2nF>1r(n":-;C,E'C7E $(*$06 !:+,,1;!("% !4(3 #"3$#2 !"N&$3 (*&2.* 2 (.#2&0(*$!6-nrn1nr"/+:-;77+-'77DC 2(33(/@((9!(42$6"($#2 !(3'$!0"9:+,,E; #63("$&(."044$!#(** 4! ""$(3$64 $4. .6/#2nF2(. (*1."52:1;7,,L'7,7C &2# "# (")(.(!9:+,,+;2!$&"$!!$/#2 nF'4$"# 4(# #""0 "$%!(& 6 !(*"$&(."044$!#1'r.r61" 2):7;+L'C1 (6n$6(6S#(#$:+,77; "&!3(#$4 !& *"$&(. 50#(*3 #(.2 (.#2(3$6!0!(.'#$ '0!( 36!(#"2(A.nrr-nr"/*7L7'71, 0n!)!"2(b .(($.$3$ #($2 !3( :+,77; ("0!64 !& *"#63(% 3(.
PAGE 172

7-8 !(.*$:+,,,;((6 3 #$%" <0(..#!("3## **" (" "(*nF 4! #$3 (#262!")(!6 #6&. #"(*$'4(6" <0(.4(!# !" $%% 3(.
PAGE 173

7-r(! (:+,7,;#6nrn-r:9n8r (! ( (!):+,,+;#63(3((6 3 #(3$6#2 $.0#(!.&2.*. ""nnn '"/?:7;46"+7'D8 (!) !(*66. #$:+,,C;nF(*'! .(# *"#63((**"&!3(#$ &$& 4#0(.%!(3 /$!)(*34.&(#$"%$!(&#$nrr r"?*:7;7C'+D ..":+,77;$ !#!")(*%(3. "N "4$" & %!$3$06. $06 "$.&(4 !D 2..4":+,77;$& 4#0(.* .$43 #$%("#!03 ##$3 ("0! #2 # !(.= *"#63($%(" *$#2 $(*(4#$3$* .rr >"5/:D;C,-'C7, 2..4"$ 2(3(*(()$.:+,77; .$43 #$%("#!03 ##$ ("0! # !(.= *#63(2$" #2nF>rr4 r"+5"C8E'C-'( 4M.&($3&((:+,7D;!$!*(* "4(!(.$" "%0 != $".$&(. "* $#!$.* (! 6$$!# "0.#$"4! .3(! !$0@("):+,,1;$3&(3(# !#/(!*r-nrnr" 2B,:7+;D,'DC ( .:+,78; !& 4#$"$%" 420:C;+EL'C77 2$* "(.$/9$..:+,7,;$330#'(" *4(!#&4(#$!! (!&2

PAGE 174

7-L :; /(*$#'"$' /(44!$(&2#$nF>4! #$&(! (*#! (#3 #1 '"55:C;7LC'71C (%(n:7EEE;$3 &$46/#2&!""$&(.&$" 50 & "$% <4$!#'. *0"#!(.=(#$#2 $3&( 40.&6nInr"+)"7'++ (. "9n("(!)"((2(@(4#= !(*062(3 :+,,1; .$43 #(*4"&2$3 #!&("" ""3 #$%(30.#*3 "$(.3 ("0! $%# !(.= *nF"#63(("(34. $%nF'4$"# (*0.#" 1 ("25:8;LD1'L81 &(3. !(*($.:+,,1;n (.#2/$!)% 3(. .$(.(*.$&(.*3 "$"$%"#63((** (& ("(!! !"#$ %% &# # #$"nrGr))D1;71D1'71-+ 2(23( "2((.$/(( $4("(# .F:+,,E; 0&*(. 2($!(3$6% 3(. >4*%0"(*6$>4*%c*$&">4*(&0-DC4*%

PAGE 175

7-1 :+,7+;4%J1n;rr. 77r #! %!$32##4>>4*%0"(*6$>4*%c*$&">4*(&0-D,4*% F((. (! .(!##. /$$*:+,,-;34(&#$%nF! (# "#63($2 (.#2 2($!"(*4"&2$.$6&(.(*@0"#3 #(3$6nF4$" # 3 (*/$3 1("2B:8;DLC'D1+ F(/ &):+,,7;$#2 !* &(* $%"$&(."& #%&/$!)$" >////2$#>&$0#! ">*$3> > $!.*n (.#2r!6(=(#$:+,,+;$!.*n (.#20! Rn$0" 2$.*S0 "#$(! #! *%!$32##4>>////2$#>2 (.#2%$>"0! >/2".$62$0" 2$.*.$/4*% $!.*n (.#2r!6(=(#$:+,,+;$!.*n (.#20! R**0(.S0 "#$(! #! *%!$32##4>>////2$#>2 (.#2%$>"0! >/2".$6**0(.(4*%

PAGE 176

7-E % % 6 ) 6 0 ? 5 ( $ 6 8 9 7B$+B*$0##CB#N"4$"". DB "Q# 3! 3$ **0 #$! "0.#"$%%(&#$!((."" $ $ 3 $ $! $$& + $ 7% # 2( # % & $" *: 6( 2( 6n F ;# $" $3 4 $4. # 2 / $0. *$# # ( )# $3 ( 3 $! +% # 2( # % & $" *: 6( 2( 6n F ;# $" $3 4 $4. # 2 / $0. *$# # ( )# $3 % ( 3 C% # 2( # % & $" *: 6( 2( 6n F ;# $" $3 4 $4. / $0. # 2! ( # */ # 2 $. & D% # 2( # % & $" *: 6( 2( 6n F ;# $" $3 4 $4. / $0. *# 2 )/ ( 3 3 $!( 8% .#2(#%*"&.$" *: 6(" 2(6nF;#$"$3 4 $4. #2 /$0.*#! (#3 %% #. 3 $ $! $ ( + $ % # 2( # % & $" *: 6( 2( 6n F ;# $3 20" ( *$!$% 2 / $0. *2 # 3 $!40& 23 L % # 2( # % & $" *: 6( 2( 6n F ;# $3 20" ( *$!$% *2 / $0. *$# # ( )# $3 ( 3 $! 1 % # 2( # % & $" *: 6( 2( 6n F ;# $3 % ( 3 / $0. *$# ( # $ 3 & 2 *! Q E % # 2( # % & $" *: 6( 2( 6n F ;# $3 % ( 3 # 2 / $0. *( ( *$3 7, % # 2( # % & $" *: 6( 2( 6n F ;# $3 % ( 3 # 2 / $0. *# ( # 3 % % #

PAGE 177

7L, %%*6)(*86 0?,5(*9 $( ( 8 6 0 ?, 5 ( 9 $ ( $ $ 7#"*%%&0.##$# ..4 $4. :#2(#(3(" < /$!) !>($0#3nF% &#$; + 6:(" nF4$"# ;3() "3 % .*!# C% .60.##2(#(3:(" nF4$" # ; D(3("2(3 *#2(#(3:(" nF4$"# ; 8"$3 #3 "% ./$!#2. "" &(0" (3:(" nF4$"# ; -2* :#2(#(3(" 3nF"#(#0"; %!$3$#2 !" 7B$+B(! .CB$3 #3 "DB

PAGE 178

7L7%%*6)*+$% $"!0("89 ,B !7B$3 #3 "+Br%# *+$% $"!0(" $$ 7$34.("$%(&2 "(*4(" +4 *"3$! #3 (.$ C! (".2(".##. !6D*6 #0(. #$"#"#..8n("#!$0. /#2# (&2 !""# "# *"&2$$.L&#"("%*! (3$#$!1(*! (3"#$$30&2E"#!(&# (".7,"(%!(*$% /"#0(#$"77 .""(*02(447+"!!#(. (6!7C ."2$4 ""7Dn("#!$0. &$& #!(#678 ""# "# *%! *"7-62#"/#2$#2 !&2.*! 7L" #%!$3"&2$$.71&2$$.6!(* "*!$4467E"*$/$$ .%+,F"#"#2 *$&#$!/#2*$&#$!%*6$#26/ !$6 +7n("#!$0. ". 46++$!! "(.$#+C(#"#$ /#2$03$! #2( %$! +D ."2 $!"2 "(*+8() "0 & ""(!!")"+#"20!#%! 50 #.+L 3"#$2( ""%0+1&#"$06 !#2(&2.*! 2">2 !(6 +E$ "$#."# #$!0. "C,$ "$#"2$/% .6"C7$ "$#0* !"#(*$#2 !"N% .6"C+ (" "$#2 !"CC.(3 "$#2 !"%$!2"#!$0. "CD() "#26"#2(#*$$# .$6#$23C8 %0" "#$"2(!

PAGE 179

7L+ %%*6) r%*$ ( &*"! %"" ( ,B!(! .$!$ $%#2 #3 7B"$3 $!(.##. $ %#2 #3 +B$&&("$(..$!(3$* !(# (3$0#$%#3 CB(. .$%#2 #3 r%*$ ( &*"! %"" (8r5.C9 $$ 7/("$#2 *#26"#2(#0"0(..*$N#$#2 !3 +2(*#!$0. ) 4633*$/2(#/("*$ 6 C% .#* 4! "" *D% .##2(# !#26**/("( %%$!#8% .#2$4 %0.($0##2 %0#0! :! !" *;-% .#% (!%0.L". 4/("! "#. ""1/("2(44:! !" *;E% .#.$ .7,&$0.*$#?6 #6$6A %%*6r)5 %&(*(! &""" ( 7B$+B!(! .CB 0#!(.DB"$3 #3 "8B 5 %&(*(! &"""( $$ 7N3 !" .%'&$"&$0"($0#32 (.#2 +N36 !(..(## # #$3 !% .6"($ 0#32 (.#2 C! %. &#($0#32 (.#2(.$#DN3&$& *($0#32 (.#2(..#2 #3 8$#& 2$/% .42"&(..("6$#2!$062#2 *( -#() "4$".#%$!#2 "#(# $%32 (.#2L$$*2 (.#2#() "(&# 4(!#&4(#$$34(!# 1$./$!!($0#32 (.#2/2 6 #"&):! !" *; E6.% /#2$0#*" (" (*.. """ 34$!#(##$3 7,2 (.#2* 4 *"$2$// ..#() &(! $%3 .% 776.% #2 "#4$"". 2 (.#2" 34$!#(##$3