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Fantasound

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Title:
Fantasound a retrospective of the groundbreaking sound system of Disney
Creator:
Griffin, Kristina M. ( author )
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 electronic file (59 pages). : ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Surround-sound systems ( lcsh )
Sound -- Recording and reproducing -- Digital techniques ( lcsh )
Sound -- Recording and reproducing -- Digital techniques ( fast )
Surround-sound systems ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Review:
The recording techniques and creation of the Fantasound system changed the way moviegoers perceive the motion picture experience. This thesis explores the creation, adaptation, and presentation of Fantasound. This is accomplished through an in depth look at Fantasia; including special features from bonus DVD materials, interviews with the creators, fresh interviews with leading experts, and period articles about the Fantasia experience. The purpose of this retrospective is create a single collective of information about Fantasound, what came before and what followed.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.)--University of Colorado Denver.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographic references.
System Details:
System requirements: Adobe Reader.
General Note:
College of Arts and Media
Statement of Responsibility:
by Kristian M. Griffin.

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Source Institution:
|University of Colorado Denver
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Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
930178414 ( OCLC )
ocn930178414

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Full Text
FANTASOUND: A RETROSPECTIVE OF THE
GROUNDBREAKING SOUND SYSTEM OF DISNEY
by
KRISTINA M GRIFFIN
B.A. Music Education, Colorado Mesa University, 2008
A thesis submitted to the
Faculty of the Graduate School of the
University of Colorado in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Masters of Science
Recording Arts
2015


This thesis for the Masters of Science degree by
Kristina M Griffin
has been approved for the
Recording Arts Program
by
Sam McGuire, Chair
David Bondelevitch
Fred Johnson


Griffin, Kristina M (M.S., Recording Arts)
Fantasound: a Retrospective of the Groundbreaking Sound System of Disney
Thesis directed by Professor Sam McGuire
ABSTRACT
The recording techniques and creation of the Fantasound system changed the
way moviegoers perceive the motion picture experience. This thesis explores the
creation, adaptation, and presentation of Fantasound. This is accomplished through
an in depth look at Fantasia; including special features from bonus DVD materials,
interviews with the creators, fresh interviews with leading experts, and period articles
about the Fantasia experience. The purpose of this retrospective is create a single
collective of information about Fantasound, what came before and what followed.
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication.
Approved: Sam McGuire, Chair


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Thank you:
To my husband, who reminded me that having something to eat and a good nights
sleep were both actually quite important.
To Messrs. Tom Holman, loan Allen, and Larry Blake for agreeing that this work was
important, and willingly offered their knowledge. I appreciate your unending
assistance.
To the committee for being certain of my abilities to pursue this, even when I
sometimes took offense to their words.
To the members of R.E.L.I.C., because everyone needs a place where they can be
themselves while imagining they are someone else.
To the management and associates of Sams Club 6219 for putting up with my wicked
mood swings, frustrated and/or exhausted nights, and not firing me in the process.
To the girls and adults of Pikes Peak Assembly #4 of the International Order of the
Rainbow for Girls for being so supportive and understanding about every little thing.
To my family for knowing I would get through it, even when I wasnt so sure myself,
and loving me despite my occasional avoidance.
Thank you, everyone, for Believing.
IV


TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION....................................................1
Purpose of Retrospective.........................................1
Methods of Retrospective.........................................1
Disney and Fantasia..............................................1
II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE...........................................5
Articles.........................................................5
Interviews.......................................................9
III. THE ROAD TO FANTASOUND.......................................12
Vision..........................................................12
Previous Innovations............................................15
IV. DISNEY INNOVATIONS...........................................22
Recording Techniques............................................22
System and Setup................................................24
V. PRESENTATION AND BEYOND......................................32
Production Factors..............................................32
After Fantasia..................................................35
VI. CONCLUSION....................................................43
BIBLIOGRAPHY......................................................44
APPENDIX..........................................................50
v


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure
I - (left) Edison with his Phonograph; (right) Stereoscopic Viewer.......16
2- Labelled Cinematograph................................................17
3 - Photographophone....................................................17
4 - Sound on Film System and Film Strip.................................18
5 - Gaumont's Chronophone Vocal Projection System.......................18
6 - Warner Bros Vitaphone System........................................20
7-3 Channel Pan Pot Mixing Station.......................................24
8 - Simplified diagram of the Variable-Gain Amplifier...................26
9 - Circuit Diagram for first Tone-Rectifier............................27
10 - Simplified Diagram of Fantasound Road-show Rig.....................31
II - Cinerama System.....................................................36
12 - Todd-AO System.....................................................37
13 - Quadrophonic Diagram...............................................37
14 - Dolby Stereo Diagram...............................................38
15 - 35mm film print: Blue is SDDS, Grey is Dolby Digital, the optical track, and DTS
time code is the dashed line to the far right............................40
16 - Dolby Atmos Diagram................................................41
17 - Auro 3D Diagram....................................................42
VI


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Purpose of Retrospective
This retrospective will explore the creation, adaptation, and presentation of
Fantasound. It has been created in order to gather the information about Fantasound
into a single collective reference about Disneys audio innovation and provide an
abbreviated history of progress to current sound systems.
Methods of Retrospective
Much of the information in this retrospective has been found through
historical articles and scientific documents. There is also some information that has
been gathered from previous interviews and discussions with modern specialists.
This retrospective has been limited by the amount of information readily
available from the literature review. Further information is either lost or buried in
the archives of Disney Enterprises, Inc., which are currently unavailable.1
Disney and Fantasia
Walt Disney burst into the still fairly young film industry with the help of his
brother, Roy, in late 1923.2 Through their unique perspective on entertainment, and
their drive for innovation, the world of film sound has been given many techniques;
1 See letter from Disney Enterprises, Inc. in the Appendix
2 October 16th Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio sign contract with M.J. Winkler Productions. (Poisson)
1


some of those techniques are still in use today. They started with a series called the
Alice Comedies, which featured a live-action Alice exploring an animated world.3
The Disney Company had proven that animated feature films could sell when
they released Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs in 1937.4 Inspired by success,
Disney released two feature films in 1940: Pinocchio, in February,5 and Fantasia, in
November.6 Both, in true Disney fashion, led into a new world of animation and
sound reproduction.
Disney introduced the public to his love of music in 1929 with the Silly
Symphonies collection, the first being The Skeleton Dance, which is still a Halloween
favorite to this day.7 Walts love for new technologies appeared in Silly Symphonies
when his friend Herbert Kalmus, the creator of Technicolor,8 convinced him to
produce Flowers and Trees in color.9 Since that time, all of the Silly Symphonies
were in color.
Fantasia was started, like many things in Disneys world, by a mouse. Walt
Disney wanted to create one of his Silly Symphonies using Paul Dukas symphonic
piece The Sorcerers Apprentice, starring Mickey Mouse, for which he obtained the
3 Winkler pays for six of the Alice films, with an option for six more. (Poisson)
4 December 21st, the first full feature animated film. (Poisson)
5 Premiered at the Central Theatre in New York. (Poisson)
6 Premiered at New York's Broadway Theater. (Poisson)
7 May 10th. (Poisson)
8 a system of making color motion pictures by means of superimposing the three primary colors to
produce a final colored print, (dictionary.com)
9 July 1932 (disneyshorts.org)
2


rights in 1937.10 One night he had an impromptu dinner with the famous conductor
Leopold Stokowski, who expressed interest in helping to create the music for the
short.11 This recording was done with eighty-five studio musicians at the Pathe
Studio,12 in Culver, California in 1938.13 They were experimenting with different
recording techniques in order to better capture the work done by the orchestra. This
included capturing the orchestra in sections instead of as a whole.
The [orchestra] shell was then divided into five sections by means of double
plywood partitions. Two difficulties were encountered with such a set-up; one
was poor low-frequency separation; the other was the inability of the
musicians at the rear of the sections to hear the music from the other sections,
to such an extent the tempo was impaired.14
This was when the idea of Fantasound began to develop with the Disney
engineers. As expected by those who work for Disney, they met the challenges given
to them with their full creative force.15
The creators of Fantasia were so confident of its success that,16 despite a war in
Europe, they were already planning the musical selections for the next installment.
Once it was decided that Fantasia would be a feature film, Disney intended for it to be
like any other concert you may see performed by an orchestra; after the initial
release, new pieces would be added to the repertoire while still keeping some of the
10 It was intended to be a comeback feature for Mickey. (Solomon)
11 They had both been eating alone when Disney chose to sit with the conductor. (Solomon)
12 Now called Culver Studios (Culver Studios)
13 Culhane, pp 15-16
14 Garity and Jones Experiences in Road-Showing
15 Peri was told this by multiple artists in his books
16 Disney commented that he thought Fantasia would outlive him (Robins)
3


old favorites.17 This is implemented in Fantasia 2000, when The Sorcerers
Apprentice was left in the lineup with the new technologically advanced pieces.18
17 Disney is quoted saying they could release a new version every year. Stevens, 1991
18 Noxon, 1999. One measure of Disney's commitment is the presentation of the film in Los Angeles.
Unable to reach an agreement with the operators of the only Imax theater in central Los Angeles,
Disney has built a temporary theater especially for the run of Fantasia 2000.
4


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Articles
For this thesis, articles published about Fantasia both recently and when
Fantasia was originally released in 1940 have been reviewed.
Disney Again Tries Trailblazing by Sam Robins. One of the first articles
written about Fantasia was a promotional piece written by Sam Robins for the New
York Times Magazine, ten short days before the premiere. He talked about the
atmosphere at the Disney studios, remarking specifically on how everyone was on a
first name basis. While he did not exactly name Fantasound, he did make mention of
the sound system and gave descriptions of what it should accomplish.
But over everything there is music, music coming not through one loud-
speaker behind the screen but through many strategically placed speakers
around the theatre. Thus, when the waters hurl Mickey Mouse down a flight
of stairs in Dukas The Sorcerers Apprentice, the music pours out of one
corner of the theatre and floods across the auditorium. 19
Robins continues his colorful descriptions, describes Disneys hopes for the film, and
goes on to talk about the recording of the Philadelphia Philharmonic. The recordings
were done at the Philadelphia Academy of Music which had been deemed the perfect
acoustic environment for the recording based on tests done by Bell Labs.
Small Articles of Interest, New York Times. There were a couple of articles
written about a dinner that was to be held prior to the premiere of Fantasia, where all
19 Robins, 1940
5


of the proceeds would be going to relief assistance for the bombings in Britain. While
America was currently not involved in the war, they still heavily favored helping out
the British people. There was at least one article detailing a group of New York
debutantes that would be passing out programs and acting as ushers during the
premiere to help raise money for the relief effort.
Hollywood Gets a Peek at Fantasia A Problem of Too Many Extras and
Amateur Range-Riders by Douglas Churchill. In another article released prior to the
premiere by Douglas Churchill, Fantasound is discussed in slightly more detail. He
starts off explaining that while the animated sequences were not quite finished, the
sound system had already been crated up and shipped to Manhattan. The Disney
engineers have solved the problem of dimensional sound which has been regarded in
many quarters as the next step toward reality on the screen.20 The article goes on to
explain that the moviegoer would be immersed in the sound of the orchestra and that
the entire event would be a spectacular experience for all.
Fantasound by William Garity and J.A. Hawkins. Many of the specifics on the
recording process were found in a technical paper published by William Garity, the
head audio engineer on the Fantasia project. It was originally released in the August,
1941 issue of the Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers and walks
through the process used to develop Fantasound. Garity begins by defining the
deficiencies of the conventional sound-picture reproduction. He lists them in this
20 Churchill, 1940
6


order: limited volume range, point-source of sound, fixed localization of the sound-
source at screen center, and fixed source of sound. In order to address these issues the
Disney engineers developed new equipment. They developed the pan pot to move
the sound away from the center speaker, allowing the sound to also follow the
characters on screen. They created the variable-gain amplifier and the tone-operated
gain-adjusting device to combat the amplification and clarity problems. This will be
covered in detail later on.
A Sorcerer, Not an Apprentice by Theodore Strauss. In an almost biographical
article written by Theodore Strauss, we were given one of the few numerical values
about the amount of speakers being used in a theater. He was speaking of Disney
awaiting the run through of Fantasia before the premiere that night. .. .all about the
half-lit house engineers were stringing new cable to loudspeakers more than
seventy in all fixed to the sides and back walls.21
Disneys Experiment: Second Thoughts on Fantasia and Its Visualization of
Music by Olin Downes. One of the reviews on the production was published in the
New York Timesby Olin Downes four days after the premiere. He distinguishes
between those viewers who go to see a movie and those who go to see a concert. The
comments and critiques he collected from moviegoers ranged from the music was
too loud, to questions on the musical selection. He did not comment on the actual
sound system that was in place for the premiere.
21 Strauss, 1940
7


Mickey Mouse Goes Classical by Andrew R. Boone. In January of 1941, the
magazine Popular Science released a three-page article about Fantasia and its
wonderful sound system. The article, written by Andrew Boone, noted the number
of microphones, simplifying their uses, and the sheer amount of optical film that was
used. Exactly 483,000 feet of sound track were recorded in forty-two days.22 He
also makes mention of the nine complete tracks that the Disney engineers had trouble
syncing together. In the end, they dubbed the amount of tracks down to four; three
for actual film content and one to assist with volume control.
Walt Disneys New Movie Imparts Life to Music by Bide Dudley. In the
Denver Post on November 17, 1940, journalist Bide Dudley seemed to compliment
and insult the project at the same time. He commented that the audience is robbed of
its own imagination by the animators at Disney, going on about how some enthusiasts
believe that opera should not contain words for the same reason. Then he continues,
claiming that if Disney was indeed flawed by this, then his animators had done a
wonderful job of replacing the audiences imaginations with something equally as
wonderful, yet down to earth.
The Nation: Films by Franz Hoellering. Franz Hoellering from The Nation
wrote a lengthy commentary in their November 23rd issue in 1940. He commented
that Disney had no chance of being able to match the genius of Bach or Beethoven
with his animations. He did not understand why Disney strove to hear pictures or see
22 Boone, 1940
8


music, and thought it to be fundamentally wrong. He did, however, compliment
the sheer mass of the sound being produced and the pieces that lent themselves more
naturally to stories, such as the ballets and The Sorcerers Apprentice.
Fantastic Fantasia : Disney Channel Takes a Look at Walts Great Experiment
in Animation by Charles Solomon. While Fantasia had several revivals over the
years, the most recent one was in the early 1990s, when the decision was made to
release the movie in its original form. Over the years, several sequences had been cut
and the commentary from Deems Taylor had been completely removed. Thankfully,
Roy Disney convinced the Board of Directors not only to make a new Fantasia but to
also give the public the full, as-original-as-possible version that most had never seen
before. This choice was cataloged in the Los Angeles Times in August of 1990, by
Charles Solomon, an animation historian, critic, and lecturer at UCLA.
Interviews
In all of the publicity for Fantasia, Disney always expressed his excitement for
all of the new things that were happening in the creation process. Disney reportedly
said, You know, I think this picture will make Beethoven to Deems Taylor and
Leopold Stokowski in the early stages of the project.23 He spoke of the new
developments with animation and showed enthusiasm for the Fantasound system.
As far as the public is concerned, maybe therell be a few concertgoers who
will take exception to our conception of the music, but theyre a minority. To
23 Merlock Jackson, 2006
9


millions whove always thought of classical music as longhaired and arty it
may reveal some of the excitements of listening to the great composers.24
Disney knew that he was on to something when he introduced the system. He did it
not only to improve the experience of his picture, but because he knew that it would
change the audio world.
In the commentary performed on the newer releases of Fantasia, Roy E.
Disney, the nephew of Walt Disney, informed us that the original roadshow was
presented as an event. It was played with the entire Fantasound system installed in
twenty-five theaters at most. He also commented that Fantasia was reshown in 1942,
though all of the commentary by Deems Taylor had been cut out, shortening the
show by almost an hour.25
There are three leading professionals in the current sound world who were
contacted in order to obtain fresh interviews about Disneys historic sound system.
Those professionals were Tomlinson Holman, who has worked closely with
LucasFilms, loan Allen from Dolby and Farry Blake from Swelltone Fabs. These
interviews were conducted by email almost exclusively in the month of February,
2015. See the appendix for full transcriptions. They were able to shed light on the
lack of a comprehensive document regarding the reasons and workings of the
Fantasound system. They also shed light on how the system failed to catapult the
industry into surround sound in 1940. Farry Blake stated that, It was cumbersome
24 Churchill, 1940
25 Fantasia commentary included with the Fantasia Anthology collection
10


and expensive, and that it was a one-off event that didnt directly influence any
sound system developments that came after it.26 Tom Holman responded to the same
questions with, The wind had gone out of its sales by Dec. 41 since it had opened 13
months earlier and was running out of box office gas long before that date so it wasnt
the onset of WWII.27(that caused the failure.)
26 Email Interview with Larry Blake, 2015
27 Email Interview with Tom Holman, 2015
11


CHAPTER III
THE ROAD TO FANTASOUND
Vision
Not long after the first recording had been made, Disney announced they
would be creating a full-length feature of musical animation.28 This decision was
reached when the cost for The Sorcerers Apprentice exceeded what it would
presumably draw in.29 Thus, within a year of the fateful dinner, Stokowski was
contracted to conduct the entire symphonic collection.30
Leopold Stokowski was a dynamic and impressive conductor, known for being
able to stretch musicians to the edge of their talent before pushing them to a new
level of musical performance. His musicians were the best, not necessarily because
they had massive talent but because he was able to lead them to create something
cohesive as a group.
Stokowski conducted hundreds of broadcasts and world premieres; thousands
of recordings; the first transcontinental orchestral tour; and the revolutionary
film Fantasia, which introduced stereophonic sound, brought symphonic
music to mass audiences, and established his orchestra and himself as popular
institutions.31
28 Garity and Hawkins, 1940
29 The cost was already over $125,000. Solomon, 1990. Thats about $2.5 million today
30 Poisson
31 Chasins, 1979. p. x of the prologue
12


Stokowski began his professional training at the Royal College of Music, in London,
England, when he was thirteen,32 and began professionally conducting at St. James
Church when he was appointed organist and choirmaster at eighteen.33 His small
amount of fame grew for him as an organist, and then as an orchestral conductor,
until he arrived to conduct the Philadelphia Orchestra, beginning in October of 1912,
where he then spent the majority of his career.34 While in Philadelphia, he
conducted many premieres of orchestral works and orchestrated or adapted many
older pieces to suit his orchestra. As a lifelong fan of the newest and most
experimental techniques in recording, Stokowski spent much of his time studying the
technologies35 and had his orchestra recorded by several of them.36 He worked closely
with Bell Labs starting in 1930 to create high fidelity recordings and broadcasts. In
early 1932, they participated in what is considered the earliest stereophonic
recordings.
In March, 1932, Bell Laboratories recorded the Philadelphia Orchestra in
binaural or stereophonic sound, by connecting two different microphones
each to its own cutting stylus, with each moving [a magnetic] cutting
stylus. The two cutting styli were each in its own arm, parallel to the other,
but one recording from the outer edge of the wax disk (as was normal), and
the other beginning half-way into the disk. As a result, each stylus would cut
half of the 78 RPM disk with a record groove containing a right or a left audio
channel. Playback was the reverse process, using two playback styli.37
32 Chasins, 1979, p 4
33 Chasins, 1979, p 9
34 Robinson, 1977, p 15
35 He made the first electrical recording of a full symphony in 1924. Artner, 1990
36 This included some of the first stereo recordings. Artner, 1990
37 Leopold Stokowski, Harvey Fletcher and Bell Laboratories Experimental High Fidelity and
Stereophonic Recordings 1931-1932
13


In April 1933, he participated in the first long distance concert to ever be broadcast.
It was of the Philadelphia Orchestra, under the conduction of assistant conductor,
Alexander Smallens, while Stokowski controlled the sound balance of the recording.38
This broadcast boasted the capture of 10 kHz with the use of Class A telephone lines.
After recording The Sorcerers Apprentice and being further contracted to record the
rest of the feature, he had Disney record most of the soundtrack over the same Class
A telephone lines laid down to the basement of the Academy of Music in
Philadelphia.
The working title for the full film was simply The Concert Feature, and the
studio was entertaining many different story ideas, musical selections and art styles.
At Stokowskis suggestion, Disney changed the name of the film to Fantasia?9 The
pieces of music were narrowed down and chosen by Disney and Stokowski with the
assistance of famous musicologist Deems Taylor, who later acted as the commentator
for the film.
Taylor, the main radio art critic of the time, was believed to be trusted by the
audience to make the introduction to each piece of music to help the audience feel
comfortable with the whole experience.40 Another interesting thought for the
38 Leopold Stokowski, Harvey Fletcher and Bell Laboratories Experimental High Fidelity and
Stereophonic Recordings: 1933 Long Distance Concert Philadelphia to Washington
39 Solomon, 1990. It was postulated by Chasins in his book in 1979 that a full feature was always
Stokowskis intention. P 168
40 Pegolotti, p 235
14


experience was to include scents to be pumped into the theater, something that was
never taken off the drawing board by Disney until the creation of Disneyland many
years later.
Fantasound started out with the idea that having the music move across the
screen with the animation would make a wonderful show. While this was not a
completely new idea, it had never been successfully attempted; Disney wanted to
make it happen. The idea expanded as they continued working on the system and
was, in the end, created to fully immerse the listener in sound. It was intended to
have the viewer feel as though instruments were dancing around them.41 Fantasound
actually accomplished a pseudo stereophonic mix on a large scale, one that could be
sent around from the front to the side, and then to the back speakers in a movie
theater with the use of newly developed equipment. They not only created a
multichannel mix but also helped to create the equipment to send the sound around
the room.42 This was monumental and astonished its audience.
Previous Innovations
The experimentation of sound with film started back in the late 1870s with
Thomas Edison stating that his phonograph was so clear that if paired with a
41 Robins, 1940
42 Garity and Hawkins paper gives a detailed technical description of the advancements. It is discussed
more later.
15


stereoscopic photograph, it would be difficult to carry the illusion of real presence
much further.43
Figure 1 (left) Edison with his Phonograph; (right) Stereoscopic Viewer
Stereoscopic photographs are two copies of a single image placed side by side to give
the illusion of a 3D image.44 It was very shortly after that statement when
Wordsworth Donisthorpe, an Englishman, suggested pairing the phonograph with his
Kinesigraph, an early moving film camera.45 Edison attempted the pairing with his
own invention, the Kinetoscope, in 1891; he ran into two major problems,
synchronization and amplification.46
The Lumiere brothers created projected films on a cinematograph, in 1895,
and people were so impressed by the rapid advancements of film that the lack of
43 Ulano quoting Edison in his article Moving Pictures that Talk
44 Dictionary.com
45 In an article he wrote in early 1878 (Ulano)
46 1891 is when he applied for the patent for the Kinetoscope. He started his people on it years earlier.
(Ulano)
16


recorded sound seemed to be unimportant to the general public.47 Silent films were
accompanied by live musicians with sound effects and music, or traveling theatrical
groups that learned the lines of several different films.48
Figure 2- Labelled Cinematograph
Despite the lack of interest in recorded sound by the public, the first optical
sound recordings were created in the early 1900s. In 1901, Ernst Ruhmers invention,
the Photographophone used selenium cells to record light variations.49
Figure 3 Photographophone
47 For the most part, people were just excited that the pictures moved. (Ulano, part 2)
48 Film Reference
49 Ruhmer, 1901
17


In 1904, the Frenchman, Eugene Lauste, tracked signals from a microphone with a
fixed mirror on a diaphragm to reflect light onto film stock.50
Figure 4 Sound on Film System and Film Strip
The most successful of the engineers and inventors who tried to improve the
motion picture experience in the early 1900s was arguably another Frenchman, Leon
Gaumont. He demonstrated his Chronophone sound projection system in 1910 to an
audience of almost four thousand people.51 He linked it with the Auxetophone by
C.A. Parsons, which used compressed air, and successfully improved amplification.52
Figure 5 Gaumont's Chronophone Vocal Projection System
50 Monaghan, 2010
51 100 Years of Cinema Loudspeakers, Aldred
52 Ulano, Part 2
18


While he was not the only inventor working on loudspeakers at the time, he is
distinguished as the inventor who first dreamed of having the speaker located behind
the projection screen.53 It is also said that he was interested in having a stagehand
behind the screen to move the speaker with the film, to make the story more realistic.
These ideas were to hide the mechanics and improve the illusion created on film.54
By the late 1910s several companies were in the business of building and
improving audio amplifiers. Many of these companies, such as Bell Labs and Siemens,
based their technology off of telephone speakers that were modified to project and
amplify the sound. The complications with this were poor amplification and small
frequency range.55
Another ten years would pass until recorded sound successfully returned to
the theater, most effectively in the form of the Warner Bros Vitaphone sound on disk
system. It was originally developed by Bell Labs and was cumbersome, with a large
projector attached to a record player in an attempt to keep the two in sync. The sync
was inconsistent and did not draw crowds to recorded sound films as originally
expected.56
53 Aldred
54 Aldred originally published in AMPS newsletter issue 21
55 Aldred also speaks about Theodore Case
56 Vitaphone information from The Belknap Collection
19


4.
Figure 6 Warner Bros Vitaphone System
The theater would receive two items, a roll of film and a record, to be played together
for the audience. Using this system, the company released Don Juan in 1926, which
used the system to play music and sound effects through a single amplifier into an
auditorium. They soon followed this success with The Jazz Singerm. 1927, which
featured A1 Jolson singing and playing the piano.57
When they began work on Fantasia, recorded sound had been used in theaters
for about fifteen years.58 All of these theaters were setup with a single mono
loudspeaker that was situated behind the projection screen. The first broadcast of a
stereo performance was done by Leopold Stokowski and the Philadelphia Orchestra
with the assistance of Bell Labs. The audience at Constitution Hall in Washington
57 Vitaphone website
58 Holman, 1998
20


D.C. listened to the broadcasted orchestra through three large loudspeakers sitting on
stage, while colored lights decorated the lowered screen.59
The actual orchestra was still sitting in the Academy of Music concert hall in
Philadelphia while Stokowski simply operated three tone level controls for the
speakers. The engineers at Bell Labs had setup their equipment there because they
found that the hall had wonderful built-in acoustics and transmitted their
performance from there.60
A main contributor to the mechanical pieces of the Fantasound system was
RCA, the Radio Corporation of America. The company was created at the end of
World War I, when private companies such as General Electric joined together with
the U.S. government to create a business intended to keep America at the forefront of
transatlantic communications.61 Their involvement with Disney during the creation
of Fantasound is often glossed over for other innovations accomplished by the
company. RCA engineers were greatly involved in the sound reproduction research
and assisted in the creation of the Fantasound system.62 When the soundtrack was
transferred to magnetic tape in the 1950s, it was RCA who handled the transfer over
the same type of Class A telephone wires used in the original recording.63
59 Broadcast in Color, Rothman
60 Rothman again
61 Encyclopedia Britannica; RCA
62 Klapholz, p 68
63 Klapholz, p 70
21


CHAPTER IV
DISNEY INNOVATIONS
Recording Techniques
Recording began in April 1939 and lasted for seven weeks at the Academy of
Music in Philadelphia, the orchestra's home, which was chosen for its excellent
acoustics, as proven by Stokowski and engineers from Bell Labs in 1932. Thirty-three
microphones were placed around the orchestra, capturing the music onto eight
optical sound recording machines placed in the hall's basement.64 They would create
a visual representation of the sound onto a piece of film. Each one represented an
audio channel that focused on a different section of instruments: cellos and basses,
violins, brass, violas, woodwinds and tympani. The seventh channel was a mixdown
of the first six, while an eighth channel provided a distant pickup of the orchestra.65
A click was created, more for the animators than the other musicians, who were led
by Stokowski and thus had no need of the track; animators lined up their frames of
animation with the musical track by the click.66
The first major advancement asked for by Disney was to have the sound
moving across the stage. They began this process by developing the pan pot system.
With the help of research done by Bell Labs, they discovered that placing the
speakers about twenty feet apart made it possible to move the sound without the
64 Stokowski, Fletcher, and Bell Labs
65 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 pp 14-15
66 Stokowski, p 172
22


sound completely disappearing in the middle. This effect could not be accomplished
with simple volume control, thus the pan pot, or panoramic potentiometer was
created.67 It allowed the signal to travel through a left, center, and right speaker using
constant fades as it shifts from speaker to speaker to create a seamless movement of
sound. It took six people to operate those first various pan pots in real time. Leopold
Stokowski himself conducted the troop with the level and pan changes which he had
marked on his score. The next advancement of the pan pot came from the
complications of having so many people making adjustments, only because the
musical director, the music cutter and the enhancing mixer, could no longer
remember from one rehearsal to the next, What should come out where?68 One of
the struggles the engineers were not able to fix with their equipment at the time was
that the panning was not as discrete as one would hope. The point of discrete
panning is to hide the location of the actual speakers from the listener. Their eyes
should not be drawn across a room as the sound moves, but rather, stay fixed on the
screen despite the sounds movement.
67 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 p 4
68 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 p 13
23


Figure 7-3 Channel Pan Pot Mixing Station
In addition, Disney ordered several tricolor oscillators from Hewlett-Packard,
a brand new company having been founded in January 1939, to monitor levels at
lower frequencies. These oscillators were the predecessor to VU meters used today,
ensuring that the lower frequencies were included in the music. Almost a fifth of
the film's budget was spent on its recording techniques.69
System and Setup
As mentioned before, William Garity defined four deficiencies of sound-
picture reproduction that the engineers worked to address: limited volume range,
point-source of sound, fixed localization of the sound-source at screen center, and
fixed source of sound. By limited volume range, Garity means that the extremely
dynamic works produced by symphonic orchestras are marred by excessive ground
noise or interference, and amplitude distortion. Point-source of sound means that
having all sound come from a single speaker alters the perception of effects and music
over dialog, often resulting in phasing. Fixed localization of the sound-source at
69 peri
24


screen center gives the audio engineer less to work with to enhance the picture. He
describes how having multiple sources allows for a more flexibility with the sound
medium. Lastly, fixed source of sound is speaking directly of the inability of
movement of sound across the screen.70 This movement was Disneys original request
of his engineers; much like Gaumont, he wanted the sound to move with the
picture.71
The engineers discovered that by placing two speakers approximately twenty
feet apart they could move the sound from one to the other through fading, without
too much loss of sound.72 The technique was simplified with the pan pot, a 3-circuit
differential junction network used to move the sound from one to all three of the
speakers smoothly while maintaining sound levels throughout.73 While panning is
used in almost every instance of recorded music today, this was the origin of the
invention and first application of the device.
Garity also explains what he calls the brains of the reproduction system: the
TOGAD or tone-operated gain-adjusting device. This device included two main
functions: the variable-gain amplifier and the tone rectifier.74 Figure 8 shows the
simplified block diagram from Garitys paper to illustrate the system.75 The variable-
gain amplifier, abbreviated VGA, is an electronic amplifier that can change the
70 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 p 2
71 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 p 1
72 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 p 3
73 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 p 4
74 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 p 8
75 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 p 4
25


perceived level of the audio based off of voltage control. This, coupled with the tone
rectifier which converts alternating current to direct current, simplified the volume
control through the system.76 By converting to direct current the engineers were
afforded more control over the volume than ever before.
me
me
re c
Figure 8 Simplified diagram of the Variable-Gain Amplifier
The Mark I Fantasound system used a five speaker setup, three across the front
and two in the back corners of the theater. Two audio tracks were used to test this
system: one in the center speaker, the other sent through the other four speakers
using a four-circuit pan pot system. This proved the advantages of a broad sound-
source to the engineers; problem two solved.77
76 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 p 5
77 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 p 12
26


The Mark II was an expansion of the first, placing three additional speakers:
two on the sides, about halfway back from the screen, and one on the ceiling in the
center of the house.
This system used three tracks and a 6-circuit, manually controlled differential
junction network. In addition to creating the effect of moving the sound
around the theater, the controls allowed side to side movements in any plane
between the screen and rear wall of the house. Simultaneous fore and aft
control was also available.78
The problem that arose with this version was that the pan pots were operated by a
single engineer. This was not only difficult for the engineer but also presented the
problem of human error for the need of consistent performances.
These problems were addressed in the Mark III system which implemented a
single channel TOGAD expander. Control of the system was handed over to either an
oscillator or tone track. New problems arose, this time as crosstalk, timing, and
amplitude issues.79
Figure 9 Circuit Diagram for first Tone-Rectifier
78 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 pl3
79 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 pl3
27


The Mark IV replaced all manual control with the TOGAD. It also added
eight tone controls on a single control track that was logarithmically spaced. This
whole system was moved with the Disney Company from their studio on Hyperion to
the new Burbank location early in 1940.80
The next advent, the Mark V, still had eight speakers, three program tracks
and the eight tone controls. With the advancement of eight hybrid coils in the
program circuits they found that the system was more flexible. This system, however,
was only in use for a single day, as they found that the musical director, the music
cutter and the "enhancing mixer" could no longer remember from one rehearsal to
the next where each element should be placed in the speakers.81
The Mark VI systems main contribution was narrowing the amount of
program mixers needed for the dubbing. There were originally ten, but with the use
of newly designed pan pots, six mixers were able to control the twenty-four program
circuits.82
By this time, Disney had started working heavily with RCA, Radio
Corporation of America, to help them design the new system. They manufactured
the Mark VII, which was created with a different tone rectifier. The previous systems
used a log-log tone rectifier, whereas RCA put in a linear tone rectifier. This was an
80 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 pl3
81 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 pl3
82 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 pl3
28


important development because of the way the rectifiers work.83 A log-log rectifier
will amplify by multiplying the signal tone by its logarithmic number, approximately
1.2 times the original signal. A linear rectifier will multiply the signal by itself.
The Mark VIII system is said to have been rearranged, though Garity does not
specify how. He also mentions that RCA redeveloped the log-log tone rectifier and
returned it to the system, as it proved to be more effective than the linear model. The
signal was clearer and better amplified by this new model. It is interesting to note
that the system that was actually used for the premiere was not the final advent, the
Mark X, but was instead the Mark VIII.
The second dubbing of Fantasia was done through this system. After adding a
stand-by channel, this equipment was installed in the Broadway Theater in
New York for Fantasia's World Premiere.84
After the premiere, the Mark IX system had another rearrangement of
equipment. Two sets of rear-house speakers were switched in to supplement the left
and right screen speakers, sometimes completely replacing them. This system was
used for eight of the roadshow stops.85
The final advent of the system, the Mark X was identical in setup to the Mark
IX, however, the system was now completely automatic with a relay timing system
connected to the notches in the film.86 This system was installed at the Carthay Circle
83 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 pl4
84 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 pl4
85 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 pl4
86 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 pl4
29


Theater in Los Angeles and is said to have included over thirty speakers, though this
information could not be corroborated.87
Fantasound used two projectors running at the same time; one contained the
picture film with a mono soundtrack for backup purposes, while the other ran a four-
track sound film mixdown from the original eight-channel optical recording.88 Three
of those channels contained the audio for the left, center and right stage speakers,
while the fourth was a control track with amplitude and frequency that drove the
amplifiers to control the volume of the three audio tracks. In addition, there were
three house speakers placed on the left, right and center of the auditorium whose
signals were derived from the left and right stage channels which acted as surround
channels. As the original recording was captured at almost peak modulation to
increase signal-to-noise ratio, traditionally about 40dB, the control track was used to
restore the dynamics to where Stokowski thought they should be. Several reviews
and articles mentioned having up to sixty-eight speakers in one given setup, though
87 Emails with Mr. Holman, 2014
88 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 pl4
30


this may have simply been hype
CfTOl ttX'unLS MbT **frt*TU)
Figure 10 Simplified Diagram of Fantasound Road-show Rig
31


CHAPTER V
PRESENTATION AND BEYOND
Production Factors
The first tour of Fantasia began in New York in November of 1940.89 Disney
leased the Broadway Theater for a year, equipping it with a complete Fantasound
system that took a full week to install.90 Fantasia ran at the Broadway for forty-nine
consecutive weeks, the longest run achieved by a film at the time. There were twelve
other roadshows held throughout 1941: Los Angeles, Pittsburgh, San Francisco,
Cleveland, Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, Buffalo, Minneapolis, Washington
D.C. and Baltimore. While Fantasia initially did well in the box office it was
expensive to move and setup for each showing, thus limiting its profits. It took the
crew several days to install it each time they moved to a new theatre.91
Another event that limited profits for Fantasia was the Second World War. It
prevented plans for a potential release in Europe, normally a great source of income
for the studio. The studio had to be careful of their musical selections for the
presentation as well, ensuring that there was no potential for showing support of one
side or the other. At this time, America was largely a neutral party in the conflict.
89 Garity and Jones, 1942
90 Peck from Scientific American, 1941
91 Klapholz, 1991
32


For this reason, Wagners Ride of the Valkyries, which had originally been
storyboarded for the first Fantasia, was removed from the lineup.92
Up to eighty-eight engagements were outlined across five years, but wartime
demands for material limited the number of Fantasound prints to sixteen. All but one
of the Fantasound setups were eventually dismantled and given to the war effort. In
this capacity they were repurposed as pieces for communications for the US Army.
Upon acquiring the film's distribution rights RKO initially continued the
roadshow. After the first half of the tour in theaters, however, Fantasound use was
discontinued; instead they presented the film in mono, which was easier to exhibit.93
This was not as well accepted by moviegoers because of the now limited volume and
frequency ranges. They had lost the entire immersive factor that Fantasound brought
to the film. Fantasia s potential was stunted by the impractical nature of the
Fantasound setup. Theaters were forced to close for a week to install the sound
system. Because of the closures, Fantasia ended its tour at a greater loss than
Pinocchio just a year earlier.
Fantasia was also greatly altered in later releases, in some cases cutting up to at
least an hour of the original footage.94 All of the commentaries presented by Deems
Taylor and several scenes with Stokowski were removed, eliminating the intermission
and further straying from the intention of Fantasia being a complete experience.
92 Fantasia 2000, comment made by Bette Midler
93 Klapholz, 1991
94 Neibaur, 1958
33


With the help of conductor Irwin Kostal the entire soundtrack was re-
recorded for the 1982 release of Fantasia. It was mixed for Dolby Stereo and used a
121-piece orchestra and 50-voice choir. To ensure that the film would still align with
the music, Kostal matched the tempos used by Stokowski. He also used Stokowskis
cuts and revisions for everything except Night on Bald Mountain, where he used the
original score.95 This new recording was able to fix some of the two-frame lag that
was caused by the recording techniques originally used. The narrations by Deems
Taylor were completely removed and a voice over was created by Hugh Douglas, as
the studio felt the modern audience "is more sophisticated and knowledgeable about
music."96
It wasnt until the 1990s that the full performance was put back together.
According to the commentary from the DVD, the footage of Deems Taylor had been
saved, but all of his actual commentary had been lost.97 Luckily for the people at
Disney, a transcription of his work had been made, allowing them to have voice actor
Corey Burton impersonate the famous critic for the new presentation.
95 Bob Thomas, 1982
96 Paris, 1982
97 Fantasia, dvd commentary, 2000
34


After Fantasia
Fantasound brought together, for the first time, the idea of moving sound and
picture in a pseudo-stereophonic system; it introduced to the world the first multi-
channel sound system. These technological advancements branched off, progressed
and upgraded over again separately. Cinematic sound saw what Disney had done with
Fantasound and was not prepared for the revolution. After Fantasia, the
advancements in cinematic sound dwindled, mostly because of the advent of
television.98 People watched from their home screens, and cinematic sound further
developed stereo sound systems with the release of Cinerama in 1952.99 It employed a
widescreen format shot on three-parallel strips of 35mm film with seven complete
audio channels.
The individual frames were six perforations high instead of the usual four and
the frame rate was increased from 24 to 26 frames per second to reduce the
apparent flicker on the giant 146 degree screen. Cinerama's three frames
formed an image of approximately six times the definition of the conventional
35mm film.100
Fantasounds multi-channel system was a foundational gift to the musical
recording world. Cinerama began the true progression from single channel
recordings to the multi-channel. There were five front channels that handled all of
the front speakers and two auditorium speakers.101 This is a similar setup that
98 Holman, Surround Sound Up and Running, 2008, p 5
99 Cinerama, American WideScreen Museum, 1996
100 Cinerama, The American WideScreen Museum
101 Cinerama, Memories Worth Preserving.
35


Fantasound employed in the final versions of the system.102 Cinerama premiered at
the same theater as Fantasia had done twelve years earlier.
Figure 11 Cinerama System
In 1953, 20th Century Fox developed what they called CinemaScope which
developed a way of lowering the hiss of speakers when they were not being used.
The simple device generated at 12 kHz tone, too high for speaker reproduction of the
time, to turn the speakers on and off. The four track magnetic audio was striped on
the edge of the 35mm film.103
Michael Todd, along with his son, had paired with American Optical in 1955
to create the Todd AO system.104 This utilized 70mm film in an effort to give the
visual and audio information more physical purchase on the film. Their system
included a single auditorium track while still using five tracks from the front of the
102 Garity and Hawkins
103 CinemaScope, originally published in the March, 1953 issue of American Cinematographer.
104 Todd-AO business site, they now focus more on post production, and were acquired by
3rdStreetADR in Nov 2014
36


house. This single auditorium track was split in two so that the sound could come
from both sides.105
Figure 12 Todd-AO System
Quadrophonic sound was developed in the late 1960s through the early part of
the 1970s. It used a reel-to-reel system that pumped four tracks through each of the
four speakers.106 Though it was not a commercial success, it did create two different
mixing philosophies: sound all around, and sound up front.
Figure 13 Quadrophonic Diagram
105 Todd-AO business site
106 Popular Science, Hans Fantel, 1971
37


It was around this time that Dolby Labs appeared on the scene, first marketing
a noise reduction system geared for professional studios.107 Dolby released Dolby
Stereo in 1975; the noise reduction system allowed for more channels on a 35 mm
stereo optical film.108 This system was installed in thousands of theaters worldwide in
less than ten years. Dolby has been a leader in theater sound ever since.
L
R
Dolby Stereo
Figure 14 Dolby Stereo Diagram
When Lucasfilms released Star Wars: Return of the Jedi in 1983, an
audio/visual reproduction standard was created by Tomlinson Holman called THX.109
This strict standard was created to ensure that the film was heard and viewed in the
optimal environment no matter what location it was screened at. While not a part of
the sound reproduction equipment, it did play a major role in assuring that movies
were presented in a predictable environment, making the job of the mixing engineers
easier. The idea of this was very similar to the touring version of the Fantasound
system. In order for all of the people to experience their movie as it was originally
intended they created something new.
107 Dolby Labs FAQ.
108 Dolby Timeline
109 THX website, The THX Story
38


In the late 1980s, surround sound was becoming popular with movie makers
and theaters began to install surround systems in their auditoriums. Many systems
were available to make this conversion, and by the 1990s they were all also moving
into the digital era.110 The three main systems were Dolby Digital, Digital Theatre
Systems (DTS), and Sony Dynamic Digital Sound (SDDS). Dolby Digital was released
in 1992 with the movie Batman Returns,111 and contains six channels of discrete
sound. Typically, the first five channels are used for higher audio content while the
last is used for super low frequencies that were fed into the subwoofer.112 It was
created as an advanced form of digital audio coding, making it possible to store and
transmit digital sound more efficiently and at a higher quality than previously
possible.113 DTS was developed to be a versatile system that could be manipulated to
fit any theater or recording setup was available; it appears on a film strip as a dotted
time code. SDDS, Sony Dynamic Digital Sound, was made by Sony and was originally
slated to appear before Dolby Digital in theaters, however, the system was delayed
and not able to appear until almost a year after Dolbys system was on the market.114
While SDDS runs along the edges of the film on both sides, Dolby takes the place
between the holes in film.
110 Miller, History of Surround Sound, 2004
111 IMDb, Batman Returns
112 Dolby FAQ.
113 Dolby FAQ.
114 Notes from Fred lohnsons Surround Sound Class
39


Figure 15 35mm film print: Blue is SDDS, Grey is Dolby Digital, the optical track, and DTS
time code is the dashed line to the far right
The two biggest names in immersive cinematic sound systems right now are
Dolby Atmos and Auro-3D. As seen above, Dolby has been deeply involved in
cinematic sound since the creation of the company. Their latest creation, the Atmos
system released in 2012,115 is the closest we have come to Disneys vision of
Fantasound. While Fantasound did not directly inspire these advancements, it is clear
that they have been trying to achieve the same goal: a completely immersive sound
environment.
Dolby Atmos is an object based system, which uses imbedded technology to
relay audio information to designated speakers in a theaters specific setup. It makes
it possible to separate individual objects from their backgrounds, allowing more
control over the production.116 This creates a 3D audio effect in real time for each
particular film and theater. This theory allows smaller theaters to be able to produce
a similar effect as large theaters that can house more speakers.117 The difficulty with
115 Pixars Bra vc was the first movie it was used for, BBC.com, 2012
116 Dolby Atmos White Paper, p 7
117 Dolby Atmos White Paper, p 12
40


this system, much like previous advancements, has been the cost for the theaters to
upgrade and install the equipment.
Figure 16 Dolby Atmos Diagram
The Auro 3D 11.1 system made by Galaxy Studios and Auro Technologies was
initially created to address the addition of a height channel to further draw the
audience in aurally.118 The system boasts the Auro 3D Octopus codec, allowing all
audio to be reduced for the setup of current theaters and, with the decoder, allowing
those theaters to switch to the new system when they are ready.119 The advantage of
118 Auro-3d.com
119 Auro 3D Octopus White Paper, p 2
41


this codec is the ability to still show movies that have been mixed for Auro during the
lengthy and expensive process of converting to the 11.1 system.

,<-y

Figure 17 Auro 3D Diagram
Though these systems have their differences, both have been successfully
installed and used in theaters around the world. They have also been adapted into
home use systems.120 It is hard to say which one will be more widely accepted in the
long run or if they will both continue to be utilized.
As it is with many of these advancements, Fantasound is often only mentioned
in passing to new students of the audio trade. Audio engineering history is taught in
conjunction with other courses or in master classes such as the one put on by Dubspot
LA and Disney Interactive.121 While the industry is focused on the future it should
never overlook the past accomplishments of pioneering audio engineers. This is why
Fantasound and the advancements that followed should not be forgotten.
120 Dolby.com and Auro-3d.com
121 Entitled The History of Fantasia and Fantasound: Technical Innovations for Multitrack Recording
and Production, and was put on in May 2014 prior to the release of the game Disney Fantasia: Music
Evolved
42


CHAPTER VI
CONCLUSION
In conclusion, Fantasound has had a large impact on how we view movies
today; though the systems of today were not directly influenced by it, they were
changed by its contributions. When asked what Fantasounds greatest contribution to
movie sound was, Tom Holman responded, Without a doubt, multichannel sound.
While the TOGAD counted too, the primary contribution is the spatial sensation.122
The engineers at Disney gave the world techniques that are taken for granted
today, because the pan pot and the Togad systems electronic descendants come
included in all modern systems. With these technologies, and with the help of
Leopold Stokowski, Bell Labs, RCA, and engineers such as William Garity, Disney
was able to create a multi-channel sound experience for the audiences of America in
1940 and 1941.
Fantasia was created to be a completely new experience, and while this was
accomplished it was imagined to be so much more. With the technology available to
the audio world today, surround sound is approaching Fantasias original intent. The
Fantasound experience was impressive, but slightly diminished, because of the
limitations of the technology of the day; it was unable to completely immerse the
audience in sound. Because of Fantasia s accomplishments it has led music
production to pursue complete viewer immersion: a goal we are still striving for.
122 Email interview with Mr. Tom Holman, 2015
43


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APPENDIX
A. Email interview with Mr. Tom Holman
Tomlinson Holman
Tue 2/17/2015 4:58 PM
To:
Griffin, Kristina;
On Feb 17, 2015, at 1:53 PM, Griffin, Kristina wrote:
Hello Mr. Holman!
Thank you very much for the help you have given me with my thesis thus far! One
of the suggestions of my thesis committee was to conduct a slightly more formal
interview, via email. Your contact information would, of course, be removed from
any content used for the publication. I have four questions for you. The first, I know
you have already answered in part from our previous emails. You may answer any or
all of them with whatever information you would like to pass on. Thank you again! I
look forward to your answers!
Kristina Griffin
P.S. I have copied this email to my thesis advisor, Sam McGuire, so that he stays
informed on my progress.
1. Do you have any knowledge or information of the speaker setup used in the
touring version of the Fantasound system?
No I dont have any information other than what Ive given you. I dont think Disney
has any records either. The people I knew have retired but you could try calling a
librarian at the Disney library.
2. What, in your opinion, was Fantasound's greatest contribution to modern theater
sound?
Without a doubt, multichannel sound. While the TOGAD counted too, the primary
contribution is the spatial sensation. If you see the introduction to my book Sound for
Film and Television there I break down the sensations of hearing into frequency
range, dynamic range, and spatial capability, and while it pushed the first two, it
introduced the third for the first time.
50


3. It has been speculated that Disney's Fantasound could have catapulted us into the
surround sound age many years before we actually arrived there had world events
not prevented it. Do you agree or disagree, and why?
I disagree. The wind had gone out of its sales by Dec. 41 since it had opened 13
months earlier and was running out of b.o. gas long before that date so it wasnt the
onset ofWWII.
4. What do you believe are the top three influences for modern surround sound?
1. Fantasia
2. 4-track 35mm mag and 6-track 70mm mag prints in the 1950s.
3. Star Wars
Tomlinson Holman
B. Email Interview with Mr. Larry Blake
Wed 2/18/2015 4:15 AM
To:
Griffin, Kristina;
Cc:
McGuire, Sam;
You replied on 2/18/2015 6:41 PM.
Hi Kristina;
Yes, David told me of your work.
My answers are below, in ALL CAPS, not for shouting, but for visual clarity.
I am sending this to you on the condition that I see any quotes that you have of mine,
in context, before your thesis is published. That is, that I not just see your quotes of
mine, but those surrounding it so I have context.
Thank you.
best,
Larry
On Feb 17, 2015, at 4:56 PM, Griffin, Kristina wrote:
51


Mr. Blake,
My name is Kristina Griffin, and I am a student of David Bondelevitch at the
University of Colorado Denver. He recommended that I contact you as a professional
on Fantasound.
For my thesis I am attempting to amass a complete collection of information on
Fantasound, which will also include a brief history of theater sound before and after
Disney's creation. I am currently conducting interviews with professionals which
will be included in my thesis documentation; from which your contact information
will, of course, be removed. If you would be willing, I have four questions that I
would like to begin with in the hopes that it will lead us into an educational
conversation. Thank you in advance for your assistance!
Kristina Griffin
MSRA Candidate
University of Colorado Denver
P.S. I have copied this email to my thesis advisor, Sam McGuire, so that he stays
informed on my progress.
1. Do you have any knowledge or information of the speaker setup used in the
touring version of the Fantasound system?
NOTHING MORE THAN YOU HAVE PROBABLY ALREADY UNCOVERED IN
SMPE JOURNALS.
2. What, in your opinion, was Fantasound's greatest contribution to modern theater
sound?
NONE . .IT WAS A ONE-OFF EVENT AND INFLUENCED NOTHING, NO
STUDIO, NO MOVIE. EVERYTHING THAT CAME LATER-CINERAMA,
CINEMASCOPE, AND TODD-AO-HAD NO CONNECTION TO FANTASOUND.
3. It has been speculated that Disney's Fantasound could have catapulted us into the
surround sound age many years before we actually arrived there had world events
not prevented it. Do you agree or disagree, and why?
"COULD HAVE"?? POSSIBLE. BUT IT DIDN'T. IT WAS CUMBERSOME AND V.
EXPENSIVE.
4. What do you believe are the top three influences for modern surround sound?
FORMATS OR FILMS?
52



Enterprises, Inc.
April 24, 20i 5
VIA PDF & MATF.
Ms. Kristina Griffin
Deal Ms. Griffin:
Thank you for your email message of March 25"1 requesting permission to conduct
research in the Walt Disney Archives on the Fantasound system lor your University ot
Colorado Denver thesis.
Regrettably, I am placed in the unen viable posinon of hiving to inform you that \vc must
deny your request. Given the increasing demands on the services of the Wall Disney
Archives, we must necessarily decline almost all csternal requests for access so that the
stall can adequately meet our internal demands.
We thank you fot your interest in Disney, anc we wish you success with your future
endeavors.
Rest regards.
J l 61
Margaret Adamic
Paralegal Specialist, Ihtblishing
Corporate Administration
VlA:am
cc: Rebecca Clone
SX&iul 13 nri'4K tf.vr.ia.u-i'orrap 9.!:2.*o??3
TtfiJ3*6;312? Fi ?V'-i-ii.l.n
53


Full Text

PAGE 1

FANTASOUND : A RETROSPECTIVE OF THE GROUNDBREAKING SOUND SYSTEM OF DISNEY by KRISTINA M GRIFFIN B.A. Music Education, Colorado Mesa University, 2008 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fu lfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science Recording Arts 2015

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ii This thesis for the Masters of Science degree by Kristina M Griffin has been approved for the Recording Arts Program by Sam McGuire Chair David Bondelevi tch Fred Johnson 23 July 2015

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iii Griffin, Kristina M (M.S., Recording Arts) Fantasound: a Retrospective of the Groundbreaking Sound System of Disney Thesis directed by Professor Sam McGuire ABSTRACT The r ecording techniques and cr eation of the Fantas ound system changed the way movie goers perceive the motion pictu re experience. This thesis explore s the creation, adaptation, and presentation of Fantasound. This is accomplished through an in depth look at Fantasia ; including special features from b onus DVD materi als interviews with the creators, fresh interviews with leading experts, and period articles about th e Fantasia experience The purpose of this retrospective is create a single collective of information about Fantasound what came before and what followed The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication. Approved: Sam McGuire Chair

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iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S Thank you: To my husband, who reminded me that having som ething to eat and a good night sleep were both actually quite important. To Messrs. Tom Holma n, Ioan Allen, and Larry Blake for agreeing that this work was important, and willingly o ffered their knowledge I appreciate your unending assistance. To the committee for be ing certain of my abilitie s to pursue this, even when I sometimes took offense to their words. To the members of R.E.L.I.C. because everyone needs a place where they can be themselves while imagining they are someone else. Club 6219 for putting up with my wicked mood swings, frustrated and/ or exhausted night s and not firing me in the process. To the girls and adults of Pikes Peak Assembly #4 of the International Order of the Rainbow for Girls for being so supportive and understanding ab out every little thing. To my family for knowing I w ould get through it and loving me despite my occasional avoidance Thank you, everyone, for B elieving

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v TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 1 Purpose of Retrospective ................................ ................................ ............................... 1 Methods of Retrospective ................................ ................................ .............................. 1 Disney and Fantasia ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 1 II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE ................................ ................................ ......................... 5 Articles ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 5 Interviews ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 9 III. THE ROAD TO FANTASOUND ................................ ................................ .............. 12 Vision ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 12 Previous Innovations ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 15 IV. DISNEY INNOVATIONS ................................ ................................ ......................... 22 Recording Techniques ................................ ................................ ................................ 22 System and Setup ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 24 V. PRESENTATION AND BEYOND ................................ ................................ ............. 32 Production Factors ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 32 After Fantasia ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 35 VI. CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 43 BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 44 APPENDIX ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 50

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vi L IST OF FIGURES Figure 1 (left) Edison with his Phonograph; (right) Stereoscopic Viewer ............................ 16 2 Labelled Cinematograph ................................ ................................ ............................. 17 3 Photographophone ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 17 4 Sound on Film System and Film Strip ................................ ................................ ....... 18 5 Gaumont's Chronophone Vocal Projection System ................................ ................. 18 6 Warner Bros Vitaphone System ................................ ................................ ................ 20 7 3 Channel Pan Pot Mixing Station ................................ ................................ ............ 24 8 Simplified diagram of the Variable Gain Amplifier ................................ ................. 26 9 Circuit Diagram for first Ton e Rectifier ................................ ................................ ... 27 10 Simplified Diagram of Fantasound Road show Rig ................................ ................ 31 11 Cinerama System ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 36 12 Todd AO System ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 37 13 Quadrophonic Diagram ................................ ................................ ........................... 37 14 Dolby Stereo Diagram ................................ ................................ .............................. 38 15 35mm film print: Blue is SDDS, Grey is Dolby Digital, the optical track, and DTS time code is the dashed line to the far right ................................ ................................ ... 40 16 Dolby Atmos Diagram ................................ ................................ .............................. 41 17 Auro 3D Diagram ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 42

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1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Purpose of Retrospective This retrospective will explore the creation, adaptation, a nd presentation of Fantasound. It has been created in order to gather the information about Fantasound n abbreviated history of progress to current sound s ystems Methods of Retrospective M uch of the information in this retrospective has been found through historical articles and scientific documents. There is also some information that has been gathered from previous interviews and discussions with modern specialists. This retrospective has been limited by the amount of information readily available from the literature review. Further information is either lost or buried in the archives of Disney Enterprises, Inc. which are currently unavailable. 1 Disney and Fantasia Walt Disney burst i nto the still fairly young film industry with the help of his brother, Roy, in late 1923. 2 Through their unique perspective on entertainment, and their drive for innovation, the world of film sound has been given many techniques ; 1 See letter from Disney Enterprises, Inc. in the Appendix 2 October 16 th Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio sign co ntract with M.J. Winkler Productions. (Polsson)

PAGE 8

2 some of those techniques are still in use today. They started with a series called the Alice Comedies which featured a live action Alice exploring an animated world. 3 The Disney Company had proven that animated feature films could sell when they released Snow White and the Sev en Dwarf s in 1937. 4 Inspired by success, Disney released two feature films in 1940: Pinocchio in February, 5 and Fantasia in November. 6 Both, in true Disney fashion, led into a new world of animation and sound reproduction. Disney introduced the public to his love of music in 1929 with the Silly Symphonies collection, the first being The Skeleton Dance which is still a Halloween favorite to this day. 7 Silly Symphonies when his friend Herbert Kalmus, the crea tor of Technicolor, 8 convinced him to produce Flowers and Trees in color. 9 Since that time, all of the Silly Symphonies were in color. Fantasia D isney wanted to create one of his Silly Symphonies piece starring Mickey Mouse for which he obtained the 3 Winkler pays for six of the Alice films, with an option for six more. (Polsson) 4 December 21 st the first full feature animated film. (Polsson) 5 Premiered at the Central Theatre in New York. (Polsson) 6 P remiered at New York's Broadway Theater. (Polsson) 7 May 10 th (Polsson) 8 a system of making color motion pictures by means of superimposing the three primary colors to produce a final colored print. (dictionary.com) 9 July 1932 (disneyshorts.org)

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3 rights in 1937 10 One night he had an impromptu d inner with the famous conductor Leopold Stokowski, who expressed interest in helping t o create the music for the short. 11 This recording was done with eighty five studio musicians at the Path Studio, 12 in Culver, California in 1938. 13 They were experimenting with different recording techniques in order to better capture the work done by the orchestra. This included capturing the orchestra in sections instead of as a whole. The [orchestra] shell was then divided into five sections by means of double plywood partitions. Two difficulties were encountered with such a set up; one was poor low f requency separation; the other was the inability of the musicians at the rear of the sections to hear the music from the other sections, to such a n extent the tempo was impaired. 14 This was when the idea of Fantasound began to develop with the Disney engin eers. As expected by those who work for Disney, they met the challenges given to them with their full creative force. 15 The creators of Fantasia were so confident of its success that 16 despite a war in Europe, they were already planning the musical select ions for the next installment. Once it was decided that Fantasia would be a feature film, Disney intended for it to be like any other concert you may see performed by an orchestra; a fter the initial release, new pieces would be added to the repertoire whi le still keeping some of the 10 It wa s intended to be a comeback feature for Mickey. (Solomon) 11 They had both been eating alone when Disney chose to sit with the conductor. (Solomon) 12 Now called Culver Studios (Culver Studios) 13 Culhane, pp 15 16 14 Garity and Jones Experiences in Road Sho wing 15 Peri was told this by multiple artists in his books 16 Disney commented that he thought Fantasia would outlive him (Robins)

PAGE 10

4 old favorites. 17 This is implemented in Fantasia 2000, when The Apprentice was left in the lineup with the new technologically advance d pieces. 18 17 Disney is quoted saying they could release a new version every year. Stevens, 1991 18 commitment is the presentation of the film in Los Angeles. Unable to reach an agreement with the operators of the only Imax theater in central Los Angeles, Disney has built a temporary theater especially for the run of Fantasia 2000.

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5 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE Articles F or this thesis, article s published about Fantasia both recently and when Fantasia was originally released in 1940 have been reviewed Disney Again Tries Trailblazing by Sam Robin s One of the first articles written about Fantasia was a promotional piece written by Sam Robins f or the New York Times Magazine ten short days before the premiere He talked about the atmosphere at the Disney studios, remarking specifically on how everyone was on a first name basis. While he did not exactly name Fantasound, he did make mention of t he sound system and gave descriptions of what it should accomplish. But over everything there is music, music coming not through one loud speaker behind the screen but through many strategically placed speakers around the theatre. Thus, when the waters hu rl Mickey Mouse down a flight of stairs in corner of the theatre and floods across the auditorium. 19 Robins continues his colorful descriptions describes and goes on to talk about the recording of the Philadelphia Philharmonic The recordings were done at the Philadelphia Academy of Music which had been deemed the perfect acoustic environment for the recording based on tests done by Bell Labs Small Articles of In terest New York Times There were a couple of articles written about a dinner that was to be held prior to the premiere of Fantasia where all 19 Robins, 1940

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6 of the proceeds would be going to relief assistance for the bombings in Britain. While America was currently n ot involved in the war, they still heavily favored helping out the British people. There was at least one article detailing a group of New York debutant e s that would be passing out programs and acting as ushers during the premiere to help raise money for the relief effort. Hollywood Gets a Peek at Fantasia : A Problem of Too Many Extras and Amateur Range Riders by Douglas Churchill. In another article released prior to the premiere by Douglas Churchill, Fantasound is discussed in slightly more detail. H e starts off explaining that while the animated sequences were not quite finished, the sound system had already been crated up and shipped engineers have solved the problem of dimensional sound which has been regarded in many qua 20 The arti cle goes on to explain that the movie goer would be immersed in the sound of the orchestra and that the entire event would be a spectacular experience for all. Fantasound by William Garity and J.A. Hawkins. M any of the specifics on the recording process were found in a technical paper published by William Garity, the head audio engineer on the Fantasia project. It was originally released in the August, 1941 issue of the Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers and walks through the proc ess used to develop Fantasound. Garity begins by defining the 20 Chur chill, 1940

PAGE 13

7 order: limited volume range, point source of sound, f ixed localization of the sound source at screen center, and fixed source of sound. In order to address these issues the Disney engineers developed new equipment. They developed the pan pot to move the sound away from the center speaker, allowing the soun d to also follow the characters on screen. They created the variable gain amplifier and the tone operated gain adjusting device to combat the amplification and clarity problems. This will be covered in detail later on. A Sorcerer, Not an Apprentice by Th eodore Strauss. In an almost biographical article wri tten by Theodore Strauss we were given one of the few numerical values about the amount of speakers being used in a theater. He was speaking of Disney awaiting the run through of Fantasia before the p half lit house engineers were stringing new cable to loudspeakers more than seventy in all 21 Experiment Music by Ol in Downes. One of the reviews on t he production was published in the New York Times by Olin Downes four days after the premiere. He distinguishes between those viewers who go to see a movie and those who go to see a concert. The comments and criti que s h e collected from movie actual sound sys tem that was in place for the premiere 21 Strauss, 1940

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8 Mickey Mouse Goes Classical by Andrew R. Boone. In January of 1941, the magazine Popular Science released a three page article about Fantasia and its wonderful sound system. The article, written by Andrew Boone, noted the number of microphones, simplifying their uses, an d the sheer amount of optical film that was used. 22 He also makes mention of the nine complete tracks that the Disney engineers had trouble syncing together. In the end, they dubbed th e amount of tracks down to four; three for actual film content and one to assist with volume control. In the Denver Post on November 17, 1940, journalist Bide Dudley seemed to compliment and insult the project at the same time. He commented t hat the audience is robbed of its own imagination by the animators at Disney, going on about how some enthusiasts believe that opera should not contain words for the same reason. Then he continues claiming that if Disney was indeed flawed by this, then h is animators had done a wonderful job of replacing imaginations with something equally as wonderful, yet down to earth. The Nation: Films by Franz Hoellering. Franz Hoellering from The Nation wrot e a lengthy commentary in their November 23 rd issue in 1940. He commented that Disney had no chance of being able to match the genius of Bach or Beethoven with his animations. He did not understand why Disney strove to hear pictures or see 22 Boone, 1940

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9 music, and thought it to be H e di d however, compliment the sheer mass of the sound being produced and the pieces that lent themselves more naturally to stories, such as the ballets and Fantastic Fantasia in Animation by Charles Solomon. While Fantasia had several revivals over the years, the most recent one was in the early 1990s, when the decision was made to release the movie in its original form. Over the years, several sequenc es had been cut and the commentary from Deems Taylor had been completely removed. Thankfully, Roy Disney convinced the Board of Directors not only to make a new Fantasia but to also give the public the full, as original as possible version that most had never seen before. This choice was cataloged in the Los Angeles Times in August of 1990, by Charles Solomon, an animation historian, critic, and lecturer at UCLA. Interviews In all of the publicity for Fantasia Disney always expressed his excitement for all of the new things th at were happening in the creation process. Disney reportedly said, his picture will make Beethoven Leopold Stokowski in the early stages of the project. 23 He spoke of the new developments with animation and showed enthusiasm for the Fantasound system. 23 Merlock Jackson, 2006

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10 red and arty it may reveal some of the excitements of li stening to the great composers. 24 Disney knew that he was on to something when he introduced the system H e did it not only to improve the experience of his picture but because he knew that it would change the audio world. In the commentary performed on the newer releases of Fantasia Roy E. Disney, the nephew of Walt Disney, informed us that the original roadshow was presented as an event. It was played with the entire Fantasound sys tem installed i n twenty five theaters at most He also commented that Fantasia was reshown in 1942, though all of the commentary by Deems Taylor had been cut out, shortening the show by almost an hour. 25 There are three leading professionals in the current sound world who were Those professionals were Tomlinson Holman, who has worked closely with Lu casFilms, Ioan Allen from Dolby and Larry Blake from Swelltone Labs. These interviews w ere conducted by email almost exclusively in the month of February 2015. See the appendix for full transcriptions. They were able to shed light on the lack of a comprehensive document regarding the reasons and workings of the Fantasound system. They al so shed light on how the system failed to catapult the some 24 Churchill, 1940 25 Fantasia commentary included with the Fantasia Anthology collection

PAGE 17

11 was a one sound system developments that came after it. 26 Tom Holman responded to the same months e arlier and was running out of box office 27 (that caused th e failure.) 26 Email Interview with Larry Blake, 2015 27 Email Interview with Tom Holman, 2015

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12 CHAPT ER III THE ROAD TO FANTASOUND Vision Not long after the first recording had been made, Disney announced they would be creating a full length feature of musical animation. 28 This decision was reached when the cost for s Apprentice exceeded what it would presumably draw in. 29 Thus, within a year of the fateful dinner, Stokowski was contracted to conduct the entire symphonic collection. 30 Leopold Stokowski was a dynamic and impressive conductor, known for being able to st retch musicians to the edge of their talent before pushing them to a new level of musical performance. His musicians were the best, not necessarily because they had massive talent but because he was able to lead them to create som ething cohesive as a grou p of recordings; the first transcontinental orchestral tour; and the revolutionary film Fantasia which introduced stereophonic sound, brought symphonic music to mass audiences, an d established his orchestra and himself as popular 31 28 Garity and Hawkins, 1940 29 30 Polsson 31 Chasins, 1979. p. x of the prologue

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13 Stokowski began his professional training at the Royal College of Music in London, England, when he was thirteen 32 and began professionally conducting at St. James Church when he was ap pointed organist and choirmaster at eighteen. 33 His small amount of fame grew for him as an organist and then as an orchestral conductor until he arrived to conduct the Philadelphia Orchestra, beginning in October of 1912, where he then spent the majorit y of his career. 34 While in Philadelphia, he conducted man y premieres of orchestral works and orchestrated or adapted many older pieces to suit his orchestra. As a lifelong fan of the newest and most experimental techniques in recording, Stokowski spent m uch of his time studying the technologies 35 and had his orchestra recorded by several of them. 36 He worked closely with Bell Labs starting in 1930 to create high fidelity recordings and broadcasts. In e arly 1932, they participated in what is considered the earliest stereophonic recordings adelphia Orchestra in or stereophonic sound, by connecting two different microphones each to its own cutting stylus, with each moving [a magnet ic] cutting sty lus. The two cutting styli were each in its own arm, parallel to the other, but one recording from the outer edge of the wax disk (as was normal), and the other beginning half way into the disk. As a result, each stylus would cut half of the 78 RPM disk with a record groove containing a right or a left audio channel. Playback was the reverse proc 37 32 Chasins, 1979, p 4 33 Chasins, 1979, p 9 34 Robinson, 1977, p 15 35 He made the first electrical recording of a full s ymphony in 1924. Artner, 1990 36 This included some of the first stereo recordings. Artner, 1990 37 Leopold Stokowski, Harvey Fletcher and Bell Laboratories Experimental High Fidelity and Stereophonic Recordings 1931 1932

PAGE 20

14 In April 1933, he participated in the first long distance concert to ever be broadcast. It was of the Philadelphia Orchestra, under the conduction of assistant conductor, Alexander Smallens, while Stokowski controlled the sound balance of the recording. 38 This broadcast boasted the capture of 10 kHz with the use of Class A telephone lines. After recording The Apprenti ce and being further contracted to record the rest of the feature, he had Disney record most of the soundtrack over the same Class A telephone lines laid down to the basement of the Academy of Music in Philadelphia. The working title for the full film was simply The Concert Feature and the studio was entertaining many different story ideas, musical selections and art styles. Fantasia 39 The pieces of music wer e narrowed down and chosen by D isney and Stokowski with the as sistance of famous musicologist Deems Taylor, who later acted as the commentator for the film. Taylor, the main radio art critic of the time, was believed to be trusted by the audience to make the introduction to each piece of music to help the audience feel comfortable with the whole experience. 40 Another interesting thought for the 38 Leopold Stokowski, Harvey Fletche r and Bell Laboratories Experimental High Fidelity and Stereophonic Recordings: 1933 Long Distance Concert Philadelphia to Washington 39 Solomon, 1990. It was postulated by Chasins in his book in 1979 that a full feature was always P 168 40 Pegolotti, p 235

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15 experience was to include scents to be pumped into the theater, something that was never taken off the drawing board by Disney until the creati on of Disneyland many years later. Fantasound started out with the idea that having the music move across the screen with the ani mation would make a wonderful show While this was not a completely new idea, it had never been successfully at tempted; Disn ey wanted to make it happen. The idea expanded as they continued working on the system and was in the end, created to fully immerse the listener in sound. It was intended to have the viewer feel as though instruments we re dancing around them. 41 Fantasou nd actually accomplished a pseudo stereo phonic mix on a large scale, one that could be sent around from the front to the side and then to the back speakers in a movie theater with the use of newly developed equipment They not only created a multichannel mix but also helped to create the equipment to send the sound around the room. 42 This was monumental and astonished its audience. Previous Innovations Thomas Edison stating tha t his phonograph was so clear that if paired with a 41 Robins, 1940 42 more later.

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16 it would be difficult to carry the illusion of real presence 43 Figure 1 (left) Edison with his Phonograph; (right) Stereoscopic Viewe r Stereoscopic photographs are two copies of a single image placed side by side to give the illusion of a 3D image. 44 It was very shortly after that statement when Wordsworth Donisthorpe, an Englishman, suggested pairing the phonograph with his Kinesigrap h, an early movin g film camera. 45 Edison attempted the pairing with his own invention, the Kinetoscope in 1891; he ran into two major problems, synchroniza tion and amplification. 46 T he Lumiere brothers created projected films on a cinematograph, in 1895, and people were so impressed by the rapid advancements of film that the lack of 43 44 Dictionary.com 45 In an article he wrote in early 1878 (Ulano) 46 1891 is when he applied for the patent for the Kinetoscope. He started his people on it years earlier. (Ulano)

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17 recorded sound seemed to be un important to the general public. 47 accompanied by live musicians with sound effects and music, or traveling theatrical groups that learned the lines of several different films. 48 Figure 2 Labelled Cinematograph Despite the lack of interest in recorded sound by the public, t he first optical sound recordings were created in the early 1900s. In 1901, Er the Photographophone used selenium cells to record light variations. 49 Figure 3 Photographophone 47 For the most part, people were just excited that the pictures moved. (Ulano, part 2) 48 Film Reference 49 Ruhm er, 1901

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18 In 1904, t he Fre nchman Eugene Lauste, tracked signals from a microphone with a fixed mirror on a diaphrag m to reflect light onto film stock. 50 Figure 4 Sound on Film System and Film Strip T he most successful of the e ngineer s and inventor s who tried to improve the motion picture experience in the early 1900s was arguably another Frenchman, Leon Gaumont He demonstrated his Chronophone sound projection system in 1910 to an audience of almost four thousand people 51 He linked it with the Auxetophone by C.A. Parsons, which used compressed air, and successfully improved amplificatio n. 52 Figure 5 Gaumont's Chronophone Vocal Projection System 50 Monaghan, 2010 51 100 Years of Cinema Loudspeakers, Aldred 52 Ulano, Part 2

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19 While he was not the only inventor working on loudspeakers at the time, he is distinguished as the inventor who first dreamed of having the speaker locat ed behind the projection screen. 53 It is also said that he was interested in having a stagehand behind the screen to move the speaker with the film, to make the story more realistic. These ide as were to hide the mechanics and improve the illusion created on film. 54 By t he late 1910s several companies were in the business of building and improving audio amplifiers. Many of these companies, such as Bell Labs and Siemens based their technology off of telephone speakers that were modified to project and amplify the sound. The complications with this were poor amplification and small frequency range. 55 Another ten years would pass until recorded sound successfully returned to system. I t was originally developed by Bell Labs and was cumbersome, with a large projector attached to a record player in an attempt to keep the two in sync. The sync was inconsistent and did not draw crowds to recorded sound films as originally expected. 56 53 Aldred 54 Aldred originally published in AMPS newsletter issue 21 55 Aldred also speaks about Theodore Case 56 Vitaphone information from The Belknap Collection

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20 Figure 6 Warner Bros Vitaphone System The theater would receive two items, a roll of film and a record, to be played together for the audience. Using this system, the company released Don Juan in 1926, which used the system to p lay music and sound effects through a single amplifier into an auditorium. They soon followed this success with The Jazz Singer in 1927, which featured Al Jolson singing and playing the piano. 57 When they began work on Fantasia recorded sound had been use d in theaters for about fifteen years. 58 All of these theaters were set up with a single mono loudspeaker that was situated behind the projection screen. The first broadcast of a stereo performance was done by Leopold Stokowski and the Philadelphia Orchest ra with the assistance of Bell Labs. The audience at Const itution Hall in Washington 57 Vitaphone website 58 Holman, 1998

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21 D.C. listened to the broadcasted orchestra through three large l oudspeakers sitting on stage, while colored lights decorated the lowered screen 59 The actual orchestra w as still sitting in the Academy of Music concert hall in Philadelphia while Stokowski simply operated three tone level controls for the speakers The engineers at Bell Labs had set up their equipment there because they found that the hall had wonderful bui lt in acoustics and transmitted their performance from there 60 A main contributor to the mechanical pieces of the Fantasound system was RCA, the Radio Corporation of America. The company was created at the end of World War I, when private com panies such as General Electric joined together with the U.S. government to create a business intended to keep America at the forefront of transatlantic communications. 61 Their involvement with Disney during the creation of Fantasound is often glossed over for other i nnovations accomplished by the company. RCA engineers were greatly involved in the sound reproduction research an d assisted in the creation of the Fantasound system. 62 When the soundtrack was transferred to magnetic tape in the 1950s, it was RCA who handl ed the transfer over the same type of Class A telephone wires used in the original recording. 63 59 Broadcast in Color, Rothman 60 Rothman again 61 Encyclopedia Britannica; RCA 62 Klapholz, p 68 63 Klapholz, p 70

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22 CHAPTER IV DISNEY INNOVATIONS Recording Techniques Recording began in April 1939 and lasted for seven weeks at the Academy of Music in Philadelphia, the orches tra's home which was chosen for its excellent acoustics, as proven by Stokowski and engineers from Bell Labs in 1932. Thirty three microphones were placed around the orchestra, capturing the music onto eight optical sound recording machines placed in the hall's basement. 64 They would create a visual representation of the sound onto a piece of film. Each one represented an audio channel that focused on a different section of instruments: cellos and basses, vi olins, brass, violas, woodwinds and tympani. T he seventh channel was a mix down of the first six, while an eighth channel provided a distant pick up of the orchestra. 65 A click was created more for the animators than the other music ians, who were led by Stokowski and thus had no need of the track; anim ators lined up their frames of animat ion with the musical track by the click. 66 The first major advancement asked for by Disney was to have the sound moving across the stage They began this process by developing the pan pot system. With the help of resea rch done by Bell Labs, the y discovered that placing the speakers about twenty feet apart made it possi ble to move the sound without the 64 Stokowski, Fletcher, and Bell Labs 65 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 pp 14 15 66 Stokowski, p 172

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23 sound completely disappearing in the middle This effect could not be accomplished with simple volume control, thus the pan pot, or panoramic potentiometer was created. 67 It allowed the signal to travel through a left, center, and right speaker using constant fades as it shifts from speaker to speaker to create a seamless movement of sound It took six people to operate t hose first various pan pots in real time. Leopold Stokowski himself conducted the troop with the level and pan changes which he had marked on his score. The next advancem ent of the pan pot came from the complications of having so many people making adjus t mus ical director, the music cutter 68 One of the struggles the engineers were not able to fix with their equipment a t the time was that the panning was not as discrete as one would hope. The point of discrete panning is to hide the location of the actual speakers from the listener. Their eyes should not be draw n across a room as th e sound moves, but rather, stay fixed on the screen despite the sound s movement. 67 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 p 4 68 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 p 13

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24 Figure 7 3 Channel Pan Pot Mixing Station In addition, Disney ordered several tricolor oscillators from Hewlett Packard, a brand new company having been founded in January 1939, to m onitor levels at lower frequencies. These oscillators were the predecessor to VU meters used today ensuring that the lower frequencies were included in the music the film's budget was spent on i 69 System and S etup As mentioned before, William Garity defined four de ficiencies of sound picture reproductio n that the engineers worked to address : limited volume range, point source of sound, fixed localization of the sound source at screen center, and fixed source of sound. By limited volume range, Garity means that the extremely dynamic works pro duced by symphonic orchestras are marred by excessive ground noise or interference, and amplitude distortion. Point source of sound means that having all sound come from a single speaker alters the perception of effects and music over dialog, often resulting in phasing. Fixed localization of the sound source at 69 Peri

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25 screen center gives the audio engineer less to work with to enhance the picture. He describes how having multiple sources allows for a more flexibility with the sound medium. Lastly, fixed source of sound is speaking directly of the inability of movement of sound across the screen. 70 request of his engineers; much like Gaumont, he wanted the sound to move with the picture. 71 The engineers discovered that by placing two speakers approximately twenty feet apart they could move the sound from one to the other through fading without too much loss of sound. 72 The technique was simplif ied with the pan pot a 3 circuit differential junction network used to move the sound from one to all three of the speakers smoothly while maintaining sound levels throughout. 73 While panning is used in almost every instance of recorded music today, this was the origin of the invention and first application of the device. Garity also explains what he calls the brains of the reproduction system: the TOGAD or tone operated gain adjusting device. This device included two main functions: the variable gain amplifier and the tone rectifi er. 74 Figure 8 shows the 75 The variable gain amplifier, abbreviated VGA, is an electronic amplifier that can change the 70 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 p 2 71 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 p 1 72 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 p 3 73 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 p 4 74 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 p 8 75 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 p 4

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26 perceived level of the audio based off of voltage control. This, coupled with the tone rectifier which converts alternating current to direct current, simplified the volume control through the system. 76 By converting to direct current the engineers were afforded more control over the volume than ever before. Figure 8 Simplified diagram of the Variable Gain Amplifier The Mark I Fantasound system used a five speaker set up, three across the front and two in the back corners of the theater. Two audio tracks were use d to test this system: one in the center speaker, the other sent through the other four sp eakers using a four circuit pan pot system. This proved the advantages of a broad sound source to the engineers; problem two solved. 77 76 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 p 5 77 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 p 12

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27 The Mark II was an expansion o f the first, placing three additional speakers: two on the sides, about halfway back from the screen, and one on the ceiling in the center of the house. This system used three tracks and a 6 circuit, manually controlled differential junction network. In addition to creating the effect of moving the sound around the theater, the controls allowed side to side movements in any plane between the screen and rear wall of the house. Simultaneous fore and aft control was also available. 78 The problem that arose wit h this version was that the pan pots were operated by a single engineer. This was not only difficult for the engineer but also presented the problem of human error for the need of consistent performances. These problems were addressed in the Mark II I system which implemented a single channel TOGAD expander. Control of the system was handed over to either an oscillator or tone track. New problems arose, this time as crosstalk, timing, and amplitude issues. 79 Figure 9 Circ uit Diagram for first Tone Rectifier 78 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 p13 79 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 p13

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28 The Mark IV replaced all manual control with the TOGAD It also added eight tone controls on a single control track that was logarithmically spaced. This whole system was moved with the Disney Company from their studi o on Hyperion to the new Burbank location early in 1940. 80 The next advent, the Mark V, still had eight speakers, three program tracks and the eight tone controls. With the advancement of eight hybrid coils in the program circuits they found that the sys tem was more flexible. This system, however, was only in use for a single day, as they found that the musical director, the music c utter and the "enhancing mixer could no longer remember from one rehearsal to the next where each element should be placed in the speakers. 81 program mixers needed for the dubbing. There were originally ten, but wit h the use of newly designed pan pots, six mixers were able to control the twenty four program ci rcuits. 82 By this time, Disney had started working heavily with RCA, Radio Corporation of America, to help them design the new system. They manufactured the Mark VII, which was created with a different tone rectifier. The previous systems used a log log tone rectifier, whereas RCA put in a linear tone rectifier. This was an 80 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 p13 81 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 p13 82 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 p13

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29 important development because of the way the rectifiers work. 83 A log log rectifier will amplify by multiplying the signal tone by its log arithmic number, approximately 1.2 times the original signal. A linear rectifier will multiply the signal by itself. The Mark VIII system is said to have been rearranged, though Garity does not specify how. He also mentions that RCA redeveloped the log log tone rectifier and returned it to the sys tem as it proved to be more effective than the linear model. The signal was clearer and better amplified by this new model. It is interesting to note that the system that was actually used for the premiere was not the final adve nt, the Mark X, but was i nstead the Mark VIII. The second dubbing of Fantasia was done through this system. After adding a stand by channel, this equipment was installed in the Broadway Theater in New York for Fantasia's World Premiere. 84 After the premiere, the Mark IX system h ad another rearrangement of equipment. Two sets of rear house speakers were switched in to supplement the left and right screen speakers, sometimes completely replacing them. This system was used for eight of the roadshow stops. 85 The final advent of the system, the Mark X was ide ntical in set up to the Mark IX, however, the system was now completely automatic with a relay timing system connected to the notches in the film. 86 This system was installed at the Carthay Circle 83 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 p14 84 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 p14 85 Gar ity and Hawkins, 1941 p14 86 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 p14

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30 Theater in Los Angeles and is said to have include d over thirty speakers, though this information could not be corroborated. 87 Fantasound used two projectors running at the same time; one contained the picture film with a mono soundtrack for backup purposes, while the other ran a four track sound film mix down from the original eight channel optical recording. 88 Three of those channels contained the audio for the left, center and r ight stage speakers, while the fourth was a control track with amplitude and freq uency that drove the amplifiers to control the volume of the three audio tracks. In addition there were three house spe akers placed on the left, right an d center of the auditorium whose signals were derived from the left and right stage channels which acted as surround channels. As th e original recording was captured at almost peak modulation to increase signal to noise ratio, traditionally about 40dB, the control track was used to restore the dynamics to where Stokowski thought they should be. Several reviews and articles mentioned h aving up to sixty eight speakers in on e given set up, though 87 Emails with Mr. Holman, 2014 88 Garity and Hawkins, 1941 p14

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31 this may have simply been hype. Figure 10 Simplified Diagram of Fantasound Road show Rig

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32 CHAPTER V PRESENTATION AND BEYOND Production Factors The first tour of Fantas ia began in New York in November of 1940. 89 Disney leased the Broadway Theater for a year, equipping it with a complete Fantasound system that took a full week to install. 90 Fantasia ran at the Broadway for forty nine consecutive weeks, the longest run ach ieved by a film at the time. There were twelve other roadshows held throughout 1941: Los Angeles, Pittsburgh, San Francisco, Cleveland, Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, Buffal o, Minneapolis, Washington D.C. and Baltimore. While Fantasia initially did well in the box office i t was expensive to move and set up for each showing, thus limiting its profits. It took the crew several days to install it each time they moved to a new theatre. 91 Another event that limited profits for Fantasia was the Second World War It prevented plans for a potential release in Europe, normally a great source of income for the studio The studio had to be careful of their musical selections for the presentation as well, ensuring that there was no potential for showing sup port of one side or the other. At this time America was largely a neutral party in t he conflict. 89 Garity and Jones, 1942 90 Peck from Scientific American, 1941 91 Klapholz, 1991

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33 For this reason, Wa Ride of the Valkyries, which had originally been storyboarded for the first Fantasia was removed from the lineup. 92 Up to eighty eight engagements were outlined across five years, but wartime demands for material limited the number o f Fantasound prints to sixteen. All but one of the Fantasound setups were eventually dismantled and given to the war effort. In this capacity they wer e repurposed as pieces for communications for the US A rmy. Upon acquiring the film's distribution rights RKO i nitially continued the roadshow After the first half of the tour in theaters, however, Fantasound use was discontinued; instead they presented the film in mo no, which was easier to exhibit. 93 This wa s not as well accepted by movie goers because of the now limited volume and frequency ranges. They had lost the entire immersive factor that Fantasound brought to the film. potential was s tunted by the impractical nature of the Fantasound setup. Theaters were forced to close for a week to install the sound system. Because of the closures, Fantasia ended its tour at a greater loss than Pinocchio just a year earlier. Fantasia was also gre atly altered i n later releases, in some cases cutting up to at least an hour of the original footage. 94 All of the commentaries presented by Deems Taylor and several sce nes with Stokowski were removed, eliminating the intermission and further straying from the intention of Fantasia being a complete experience. 92 Fantasia 2000, comment made by Bette Midler 93 Klapholz, 1991 94 Neibaur, 1958

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34 With the help of conductor Irwin Kostal the entire soundtrack was re recorded for the 1982 release of Fantasia. It was mixed for Dolby Stereo and used a 121 piece orchestra and 50 voice choir. To ensure that the film would still align with cuts and revisions for everything except Night on Bald Mountain where he used the original score. 95 This new recording was able t o fix some of the two frame lag that was caused by the recording techniques originally used. The narrations by Deems Taylor were completely removed and a voice over was created by Hugh Douglas as the studio felt the modern audience "is more sophisticated and knowledgeable about music." 96 According to the commentary from the DVD, the footage of Deems Taylor had been saved, but all of his actual commentary had been lost. 97 Luckily fo r the people at Disney, a transcription of his work had be en made, allowing them to have voice actor Corey Burton impersonate the famous critic for the new presentation. 95 Bob Thomas, 1982 96 Paris, 1982 97 Fantasia, dvd commentary, 2000

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35 After Fantasia Fantasound brought together, for the first time, the idea of moving sound and picture in a pseudo stereophonic system; it introduced to the world the first multi channel sound system. T hese t echnological advanc ements branched off, progressed and upgraded over again separately. Cinematic sound saw what Disney had done with Fantasound and was not prepared for the revolution. After Fantasia the advancements in cinematic sound dwindled mostly b ecause of the advent of television 98 People watched from their home screens, and cinematic sound further developed stereo sound syste ms with the release of Cinerama in 1952. 99 It employed a widescreen format shot on three parallel strip s of 35m m film with seven complete audio channels. The individual frames were six perforations high instead of the usual four and the frame rate was in creased from 24 to 26 frames per second to reduce the apparent flicker on the giant 146 degree screen. Cinerama's three frames formed an image of approximately six times the definition of the conventional 35mm film. 100 channel system was a foundational gift to the musical recording world. Cinerama began the true progression from single channel recordings to the multi channel. There were five front channels that handled al l of the front speakers and two auditorium speakers. 101 This is a si milar set up that 98 Holman, Surround Sound Up and Running, 2008 p 5 99 Cinerama, American WideScreen Museum, 1996 100 Cinerama, The American WideScreen Museum 101 Cinerama, Memories Worth Pr eserving.

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36 Fantasound employed in the final versions of the system. 102 Cinerama premiered at the same theater as Fantasia had done twelve years earlier. Figure 11 Cinerama System In 1953, 20th Century Fox developed what th ey called CinemaScope which developed a way of lowering the hiss of speakers when they were not being used. The simple device generated at 12 kHz tone, too high for speaker reproduction of the time to turn the speakers on and off The four track magneti c audio was striped on the edge of the 35mm film. 103 Michael Todd, along with his son, h ad paired with American Optical in 1955 to create the Todd AO system. 104 This utilized 70mm film in an effort to give the visual and audio information more physical purc hase on the film. Their system included a single auditorium track while still using five tracks from the front of the 102 Garity and Hawkins 103 CinemaScope, originally published in the March, 1953 issue of American Cinematographer 104 Todd AO business site, they now focus more on post production, and were acquired by 3rdStreetADR in Nov 2014

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37 house. This single auditorium track was split in two so that the sound could come from both sides. 105 Figure 12 Todd AO System Quadrophonic sound was developed in the late 1960s through the early part of the 1970s. It used a reel to reel system that pumped four tracks through each of the four speakers. 106 Though it was not a commercial success, it did create two different mixing philosophies: sound all around, and sound up front. Figure 13 Quadrophonic Diagram 105 Todd AO business si te 106 Popular Science, Hans Fantel, 1971

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38 It was around this time that Dolby Labs appeared on the scene, first marketing a noise reduction system geared for professional studios. 107 Dolby r eleased Dolby Stereo in 1975; the noise reduction system allowed for more channels on a 35 mm stereo optical film 108 This system was in stalled in thousands of theater s worldwide in less than ten years. Dolby has been a leader in theater sound ever since. Figure 14 Dolby Stereo Diagram When Lucasfilms released Star Wars: Return of the Jedi in 1983, an audio/visual reproduction standard was created by Tomlinson Holman called THX. 109 This strict standard was created to ensure that the film was heard and viewed in the optimal environment no matter what location it was screened at. While not a part of the sound reproduction equipment, it did play a major role in assuring that movies were presented in a predicta ble environment, making the job of the mixing engineers easier. The idea of this was very similar to the touring version of the Fantasound system. In order for all of the people to experience their movi e as it was originally intended they created somethi ng new. 107 Dolby Labs FAQ 108 Dolby Timeline 109 THX website, The THX Story

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39 In the late 19 80s, surround sound was becoming popular with movie makers and theaters began to install su rround systems in their auditoriums. Many systems were available to make this conversion and by the 1990s they were all also moving into the digital era. 110 The three main systems were Dolby Digital, Digital Theatre Systems (DTS), and Sony Dynamic Digital Sound (SDDS). Dolby Digital was released in 1992 with the movie Batman Returns 111 and contains six channels of discrete sound. Typically th e first five channels are used for higher audio content while the last is us ed for super low frequencies that were fed into the subwoofer. 112 It was created as an advanced f orm of digital audio coding making it possible to store and transmit digital sound more efficiently and at a higher quality than previously possible. 113 DTS was developed to be a versatile system that could be manipulated to f it any theater or recording set up was available; it appears on a film strip as a dotted time code. SDDS, Sony Dyn amic Digital Sound, was made by Sony and was originally slated to appear b efore Dolby Digital in theaters, however, the system was delayed 114 While SDDS runs al ong the edges of the film on both sides Dolby takes the place between the holes in film. 110 Miller, History of Surround Sound, 2004 111 IMDb, Batman Returns 112 Dolby FAQ 113 Dolby FAQ 114

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40 Figure 15 35mm film print: Blue is SDDS, Grey is Dolby Digital, the optical track, and DTS time code is the dashed line to the far right The two bi ggest names in immersive cinematic sound systems right now are Dolby Atmos and Auro 3D. As seen above, Dolby has been deep ly involved in cinematic sound since the creation of the company. Their latest creation, the Atmos system released in 2012, 115 is the Fantaso und. While Fantasound did not directly inspire these advancements, it is clear that they have been trying to achieve the same goal: a completely immersive sound environment. Dolby Atmos is an object based system, which uses imbedded techn ology to relay audio information to designated speak up. It makes it possible to separate individual objects from their backgrounds, allowing more control over the production. 116 This creates a 3D audio effect in real time for each particular film and theater. This theory allows smaller theaters to be able to produce a similar effect as large theaters that can house more speakers. 117 The difficulty with 115 Brave was the first movie it was used for, BBC.com, 2012 116 Dolby Atmos White Paper, p 7 117 Dolby Atmos White Paper, p 12

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41 this system, much like previous advancemen ts, has been the cost for the theaters to upgrade and install the equipment. Figure 16 Dolby Atmos Diagram The Auro 3D 11.1 system made by Galaxy Studios and Auro Technologies was initially created to address the addition of a height channel to further draw the audience in aurally. 118 The system boasts the Auro 3D Octo pus codec, allowing all audio to be reduced for the setup of current theaters and, with the decoder, allowing those theaters to switch to the new system when they are ready. 119 The advantage of 118 Auro 3d.com 119 Auro 3D Octopus White Paper, p 2

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42 this codec is the ability to still show movies that have been mixed for Auro during the lengthy and expensive process of converting to the 11.1 system. Figure 17 Auro 3D Diagram Though these system s have their differences, both have been successfully installed and used in theaters around the world. They have also been adapted into home use systems. 120 It is hard to say which one will be more widely accepted in the long run or if they will both conti nue to be utilized As it is with many of these advancements, Fantasound is often only mentioned in passing to new students of the audio trade. Audio engineering history is taught in conjunction with other courses or in master classes such as the one put on by Dubspot LA and Disney Interactive. 121 While the industry is focused on the future it should never overlook the past accomplishments of pioneering audio engineers. This is why Fantasound and the advancements that followed should not be forgotten. 120 Dolby.com and Auro 3d.com 121 Fantasia and Fantasound: Technical In novations for Multitrack Recording and was put on in May 2014 prior to the release of the game Disney Fantasia: Music Evolved

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43 CHA PTER VI CONCLUSION In conclusion Fantasound has had a large impac t on how we view movies today; though the systems of today were not directly influenced by it, they were movie sound was While the TOGAD counted too, the primary contribu 122 The engineers at Disney gave the world techniques that are take n for granted today, because the p an pot and the Togad system electronic desc endants come included in all modern systems. With these technologies and with the help of Leopold Stokowski, Bell Labs, RCA, and engineers such as William Garity Disney was able to create a multi channel soun d experience for the audiences of America in 1940 and 19 41. Fantasia was created to be a completely new experien ce, and while this was accomplished it was imagined to be so much more. With the technology available to the audio world today, surround sound is approaching s original intent. The Fantasound experience was impressive, but slightly diminished, because of the limitations of the te chnology of the day ; i t was unable to completely immerse the audience in sound. Because of accomp lishmen ts it has le d music production to p ursue complete viewer immersion: a goal we are still striving for. 122 Email interview with Mr. Tom Holman, 2015

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44 BIBLIOGRAPHY A History of Audio Innovation (n.d.). Retrieved 10 23, 2014, from Dolby History: http://www.dolby.com/us/en/about /history.html Aldred, J. (n.d.). 100 Years of Cinema Loudspeakers. Retrieved 10 25, 2014, from FilmSoung.org: http://www.filmsound.org/articles/amps/loudspeakers.htm Artner, A. G. (1990, September 23). Conductor's Sound Innovations Make The Most of The Mus ic. Chicago Tribune Batman Returns (1992) (n.d.). Retrieved 12 15, 2014, from Internet Movie Database: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0103776/technical?ref_=tt_dt_spec Blake, L. (2015, 2 17). Email interview with Mr Larry Blake. (K. Griffin, Interviewer) Bo one, A. R. (1941, January). Mickey Mouse Goes Classical. Popular Science pp. 65 67. Bosi, M., Smyth, S., & Smith, P. (1999). DTS Surround Sound for Multiple Applications. UK 14th Conference: Audio The Second Century (pp. 166 174). Cavitt, S. (2014, Aug ust 18). Auro 3D and Dolby Atmos Compete for 3D Audio Format Supremacy. Retrieved from Residential Systems: http://www.residentialsystems.com/collums/004/auro 3d and dolby atmos compete for 3d audio format supremacy/86011 Chasins, A. (1979). Leopold Stokow ski: a profile. New York: Hawthorn Books. Churchill, D. (1940, October 20). HOLLYWOOD GETS A PEEK AT 'FANTASIA': A Problem of Too Many Extras and Amateur Range Riders. New York Times p. 139. CinemaScope (1953). Retrieved 10 23, 2014, from The American Wi deScreen Museum: http://www.widescreenmuseum.com/widescreen/cscope ac.htm Cinerama (1996 2010). Retrieved 10 23, 2014, from The American WideScreen Museum: http://www.widescreenmuseum.com/widescreen/wingcr1.htm Cohen, R. (2008). Hollingshead's Story Retr ieved from New York Drive ins.com: http://www.newyorkdriveins.com/history/history.htm

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45 Culhane, J. (1987). Walt Disney's Fantasia. New York: Abrams. DeBoer, C. (n.d.). What is DTS Sound? Retrieved 2014, from Audiogurus: www.audiogurus.com/learn/electronics/ dts sound/198 Dolby Atmos Next Generation Audio for Cinema. (2012). Retrieved 10 25, 2014, from Dolby.com: http://www.dolby.com/us/en/technologies/dolby atmos/dolby atmos next generation audio for cinema white paper.pdf Dolby Cinema (n.d.). Retrieved 2014 from Dolby: www.dolby.com/us/en/cinema/index.html Downes, O. (1940, November 17). DISNEY'S EXPERIMENT: Second Thoughts on 'Fantasia' and Its Visualization of Music. New York Times Dudley, B. (1940, November 17). Walt Disney's New Movie Imparts Life to M usic. The Denver Post p. 6. Fantel, H. (1971, November). Four Channel Sound...Where Will it All End? Popular Science pp. 86 88, 128. FAQ (n.d.). Retrieved 10 25, 2014, from Dolby Investor Relations: http://investor.dolby.com/faq.cfm Fischer, L. (1992, A ugust 12). COMPANY NEWS: A Sound Idea; Dolby Theater Format Adapted to Home Uses. New York Times Garity, W. E., & Hawkins, J. A. (1941, August). Fantasound. Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers Garity, W. E., & Jones, W. (1942, July). Exper iences in Road showing Walt Disney's "Fantasia". Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers Geringer, J. M., Cassidy, J. W., & Byo, J. L. (1996, Fall). Effects of Music with Video on Responses of Nonmusic Majors: An Exploratory Study. Journal of R esearch in Music Education 44(240 51). Gutmann, P. (2001, Sept 21). Classical Classics: Stravinsky's "Rite of Spring". Goldmine 27(19). History (n.d.). Retrieved 4 9, 2015, from The Culver Studios: http://theculverstudios.com/history/

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46 Hoellering, F. (19 40, November 23). The Nation: Films. The Nation pp. 513 14. Hollis, T., & Ehrbar, G. (2006). Mouse Tracks: The Story of Walt Disney Records. Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi Jackson. Holman, T. (1998). The Roots of Surround Sound: Fantasound. Surround Professional, 1 (1). Holman, T. (2008). Surround Sound Up and Runnin. Burlington, MA: Focal Press. Holman, T. (2014). Emails with TH. (K. Griffin, Interviewer) Holman, T. (2015, 2 17). Email interview with Mr. Tom Holman. (K. Griffin, Interviewer) Klapholz, J. (1991, Jan/Feb). Fantasia: Innovations in Sound. Journal of the Audio Engineering Society pp. 66 70. Korkis, J. (2010). The Vault of Walt: Unofficial, Unauthorized, Uncensored Disney Stories Never Told. United States: Ayefour Publishing. LA, D. (2014, May 21). Dubspot LA and Disney Interactive Present: Technical Innovations for Multitrack Recording and Production + Previous Contest Winner! Retrieved 07 02, 2015, from dubspot.com: http://blog.dubspot.com/dubspot los angeles disney interactive p resent history fantasia fantasound technical innovations multitrack recording production/ Leebron, E., & Gartley, L. (1979). Walt Disney: a guide to references and resources. Boston, Mass.: G.K. Hall and Co. Leong, D. (2002/2003). "Fantasia's Rite of Sprin g" as Multimedia: A Critique of Nicholas Cook's Analysis. Intgral 16/17(237 50). Leopold Stokowski, Harvey Fletcher and Bell Laboratories Experimental High Fidelity and Stereophonic Recordings 1931 1932 (n.d.). Retrieved 10 25, 2014, from Stokowski.org: stokowski.org/Harvey_Fletcher_and_Bell_Labs_stereo.htm Malone, P. (n.d.). Flowers and Trees Retrieved 10 2014, from The Encyclopedia of Disney Animated Shorts: http://www.disneyshorts.org/shorts.aspx?shortID=166

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47 McQuiston, K. (2006). [Review] "Tunes for 'Toons: Music and the Hollywood Cartoon," by Daniel Goldmark. Current Musicology, Spring 2006 155 162. Merlock Jackson, K. (Ed.). (2006). Walt Disney Conversations. Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi Jackson. Miller, M. (2004, Sept 24). The Hist ory of Surround Sound. Retrieved 12 15, 2014, from Que Publishing: http://www.quepublishing.com/articles/article.aspx?p=337317 Monaghan, P. (2010, August 24). Detecting the History of Sound on Film. Retrieved 10 2014, from Moving Image Archive News: http:/ /www.movingimagearchivenews.org/detecting the history of sound on film/ Music: Music in Silent Film (n.d.). Retrieved 10 12, 2014, from Film Reference: http://www.filmreference.com/encyclopedia/Independent Film Road Movies/Music MUSIC IN SILENT FILM.html Neibaur, J. L. (1958). The RKO Features. North Carolina: McFarland and Company. Noxon, C. (1999, December 30). The 'Sorcerer's' Apprentices. Retrieved 10 23, 2014, from The LA Times: http://articles.latimes.com/1999/dec/30/entertainment/ca 48778 Paris, B. (1982, November 13). 'Fantasia' gets a re recorded soundtrack. Pittsburgh Post Gazette p. 27. Peck, A. P. (1941, January). What Makes 'Fantasia' Click. Scientific American pp. 28 30. Pegolotti, J. (2003). Deems Taylor: A Biography. Northeastern. Peri, D. (2008). Working with Walt: Interviews with Disney Artists. United States: University Press of Mississippi. Peri, D. (2011). Working with Disney: Interviews with Disney Artists. United States: University Press of Mississippi. Pixar's Brave to debut new Dol by Atmos sound system (2012, April 25). Retrieved 10 25, 2014, from BBC.com: Technology: http://www.bbc.com/news/technology 17840821

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48 Polsson, K. (n.d.). Chronology of the Walt Disney Company Retrieved 12 2014, from Chronology of the Walt Disney Company: http://kpolsson.com/disnehis/ RCA Corporation (n.d.). Retrieved 12 15, 2014, from Encyclopedia Britannica: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/492643/RCA Corporation Robins, S. (1940, November 3). DISNEY AGAIN TRIES TRAILBLAZING: DISNEY AGAIN. New Y ork Times Magazine pp. 6 7, 19. Robinson, P. (1977). Stokowski. Canada: The Vanguard Press, Inc. Rothman, J. (2012, June 5). Broadcasting with Color Retrieved 10 22, 2014, from The Philadelphia Orchestra: https://www.philorch.org/blog/stokowski celebrati on/broadcasting color#/ Ruhmer, E. (1901). The Photographophone 1901. Retrieved 11 1, 2014, from Machine History.com: http://www.machine history.com/Photographophone%201901 Selter, S. (2011). Multichannel Audio Upconversion Through Convolution Based on Sur round Microphone Patterns. Denver, CO: University of Colorado Denver. Sharpsteen, B., Roberts, B., Nichols, C., Hahn, D., & Goldberg, E. (Directors). (2000). Fantasia Legacy [Motion Picture]. Solomon, C. (1990, August 26). Fantastic 'Fantasia': Disney Chan nel Takes a Look at Walt's Great Experiment in Animation. Los Angeles Times Solomon, C. (1990, August 26). Fantastic 'Fantasia': Disney Channel Takes a Look at Walt's Great Experiment in Animation. Los Angeles Times Stereoscopic (n.d.). Retrieved 10 12, 2014, from Dictionary.com: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Stereoscopic?s=t Stevens, M. (1991, November 1). More Music for Fans of 'Fantasia'. Chicago Tribune Stewart, W. (2009). Who Was Walt Disney. New York: Grosset and Dunlap. Stokowski Signed For Disney Films. (1939, Jan 25). The Evening Independent Strauss, T. (1940, November 17). A SORCERER, NOT AN APPRENTICE. New York Times p. 140.

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49 technicolor (n.d.). Retrieved 4 8, 2015, from dictionary.com: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/technic olor The Disney Strike, 1941. (n.d.). Retrieved 2010, from The Animation Guild: animationguild.org/disney strike 1941/ The THX Story (n.d.). Retrieved 12 15, 2014, from THX.com: http://www.thx.com/about us/the thx story/ Thomas, B. (1982, March 13). Disne y Gives 'Fantasia' New Sound Work Over. Kentucky New Era p. 10. Thomas, B. (1994). Walt Disney: An American Original. New York: Hyperion. Torick, E. (1998, Jan/Feb). Highlights in the History of Multichannel Sound. Journal of the Audio Engineering Society pp. 27 31. Ulano, M. (n.d.). Moving Pictures that Talk Part 1: How is it Possible? Retrieved 2014, from Film Sound: www.filmsound.org/ulano/talkies.htm Van Daele, B., & Van Baelen, W. (2011). Auro 3D Octopus Codec. Retrieved 10 25, 2014, from auro 3d.c om: http://www.auro 3d.com/wp content/uploads/documents/Auro3D Octopus White Paper v2 7 20111117.pdf Vitaphone (2002). Retrieved 10 25, 2014, from The Belknap Collection for the Performing Arts: http://uflib.ufl.edu/spec/belknap/exhibit2002/vitaphone.htm Ward, N. (1990, November). 1940 Fifty years ago: Time Machine. American Heritage 41(44). Wilson, K. (2011, May). A Bit Mickey Mouse. The Word 25 26.

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50 APPENDIX A. Email interview with Mr. Tom Holman Tomlinson Holman Tue 2/17/2015 4:58 PM To: Griffi n, Kristina; On Feb 17, 2015, at 1:53 PM, Griffin, Kristina wrote: Hello Mr. Holman! Thank you very much for the help you have given me with my thesis thus far! One of the suggestions of my thesis committee was to conduct a slightly more formal intervi ew, via email. Your contact information would, of course, be removed from any content used for the publication. I have four questions for you. The first, I know you have already answered in part from our previous emails. You may answer any or all of the m with whatever information you would like to pass on. Thank you again! I look forward to your answers! Kristina Griffin P.S. I have copied this email to my thesis advisor, Sam McGuire, so that he stays informed on my progress. 1. Do you have any kno wledge or information of the speaker set up used in the touring version of the Fantasound system? has any records either. The people I knew have retired but you could try calling a librarian at the Disney library. 2. What, in your opinion, was Fantasound's greatest contribution to modern theater sound? Without a doubt, multichannel sound. While the TOGAD counted too, the primary contribution is the spatial sensation. If you see the introduction to my book Sound for Film and Television there I break down the sensations of hearing into frequency range, dynamic range, and spatial capability, and while it pushed the first two, it introduced the third for the first time.

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51 3. It has been speculated that Disney's Fantasound could have catapulted us into the surround sound age many years before we actually arrived there had world events not prevented it. Do you agree or disagree, and why? I disagree. The wind had gone out of it onset of WWII. 4. What do you believe are the top three influences for modern surround sound? 1. Fantasia 2. 4 track 35mm mag and 6 3. Star Wars Tomlinson Holman B. Email Interview with Mr. Larry Blake Wed 2/18/2015 4:15 AM To: Griffin, Kristina; Cc: McGuire, Sam; You replied on 2/18/2015 6:41 PM. Hi Kristina; Yes, David told me of yo ur work. My answers are below, in ALL CAPS, not for shouting, but for visual clarity. I am sending this to you on the condition that I see any quotes that you have of mine, in context, before your thesis is published. That is, that I not just see your qu otes of mine, but those surrounding it so I have context. Thank you. best, Larry On Feb 17, 2015, at 4:56 PM, Griffin, Kristina wrote:

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52 Mr. Blake, My name is Kristina Griffin, and I am a student of David Bondelevitch at the University of Colorado Denv er. He recommended that I contact you as a professional on Fantasound. For my thesis I am attempting to amass a complete collection of information on Fantasound, which will also include a brief history of theater sound before and after Disney's creation. I am currently conducting interviews with professionals which will be included in my thesis documentation; from which your contact information will, of course, be removed. If you would be willing, I have four questions that I would like to begin with in the hopes that it will lead us into an educational conversation. Thank you in advance for your assistance! Kristina Griffin MSRA Candidate University of Colorado Denver P.S. I have copied this email to my thesis advisor, Sam McGuire, so that he stays i nformed on my progress. 1. Do you have any knowledge or information of the speaker set up used in the touring version of the Fantasound system? NOTHING MORE THAN YOU HAVE PROBABLY ALREADY UNCOVERED IN SMPE JOURNALS. 2. What, in your opinion, was Fantasoun d's greatest contribution to modern theater sound? NONE . .IT WAS A ONE OFF EVENT AND INFLUENCED NOTHING, NO STUDIO, NO MOVIE. EVERYTHING THAT CAME LATER -CINERAMA, CINEMASCOPE, AND TODD AO -HAD NO CONNECTION TO FANTASOUND. 3. It has been speculated tha t Disney's Fantasound could have catapulted us into the surround sound age many years before we actually arrived there had world events not prevented it. Do you agree or disagree, and why? "COULD HAVE"?? POSSIBLE. BUT IT DIDN'T. IT WAS CUMBERSOME AND V. E XPENSIVE. 4. What do you believe are the top three influences for modern surround sound? FORMATS OR FILMS?

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