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Empowering the creative practitioner

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Title:
Empowering the creative practitioner towards an ecological framework of creativity as embedded practice to inform environmental design
Creator:
Malinin, Laura Healey ( author )
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English
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1 electronic file (293 pages). : ;

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Design -- Environmental aspects ( lcsh )
Ecology ( lcsh )
Creative ability ( lcsh )
Creative ability ( fast )
Design -- Environmental aspects ( fast )
Ecology ( fast )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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What role if any does the designed environment play in creativity Cities like Athens Florence Paris and Vienna are known for periods of spectacularly high creativity. Majestic landscapes and contemplative architecture are credited with inspiring creative insight. Famously creative people like Proust Kipling and Kant describe how rooms tools and inspirational objects are instrumental for their creativity. However there is a lack of empirical investigation into the relationship between the designed environment and people's creative processes. On the rare occasions when creativity researchers do consider the role of the designed environment they dismiss it as insignificant for creativity or suggest it is impossible to examine empirically. My inquiry is a response to the conflicting beliefs between creativity researchers who feel the physical environment is unimportant for creativity and environmental designers who create settings with the specific intention of increasing creative productivity. ( ,, )
Review:
With my dissertation I seek to lay the theoretical groundwork for a scholarly investigation of creativity as a physically situated process. This process is driven by a thorough evaluation of the creativity cognitive science and environmental psychology literatures an analysis of environmental design strategies first person accounts of creativity and my own experience as a creative practitioner. From this analysis I develop three creative contributions. First I construct the Multi Modal Process Model of Creative Practice which describes creativity as a combination of five physically situated and interrelated modes of creative cognition. This model rebuts opinions expressed in the creativity literature that the designed environment is unimportant for creativity. Second I develop the Creativity in Context theoretical framework which provides a structure to organize empirical investigation into the relationship between people's creative processes and features of the designed environment. This framework rebuts suggestions that empirical examination of this relationship is impossible. Third I present some implications for practice with the Rich Environments Design Guidelines which provide a preliminary structure to inform the design of settings intended to support creativity. Finally I suggest that these three creative contributions might form the foundation for a new stream of research an ecological psychology of creativity.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Colorado Denver.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographic references.
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System requirements: Adobe Reader.
General Note:
College of Architecture and Planning
Statement of Responsibility:
by Laura Healey Malinin.

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|University of Colorado Denver
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Auraria Library
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930291210 ( OCLC )
ocn930291210

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Full Text
EMPOWERING THE CREATIVE PRACTITIONER:
TOWARDS AN ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK OF CREATIVITY AS EMBEDDED PRACTICE
TO INFORM ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN
by
Laura Healey Malinin
B.A., Rice University, 1990
M.Ed., University of Texas, 2005
A thesis submitted to the
Faculty of the Graduate School of the
University of Colorado in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
Cognitive Science
and
Design and Planning
2013


This thesis for the Doctor of Philosophy degree by
Laura Healey Malinin
has been approved for
Cognitive Science Program
and
Design and Planning Program
by
Louise Chawla, Chair
Raymond McCall, Advisor
Gerhard Fischer
Michael Eisenberg
Melanie Shellenbarger
April 19, 2013


Malinin, Laura Healey (Ph.D., Cognitive Science, Design and Planning)
Empowering the Creative Practitioner: Towards an Ecological Framework of Creativity as
Embedded Practice to Inform Environmental Design
Thesis directed by Associate Professor Raymond McCall
ABSTRACT
What role (if any) does the designed environment play in creativity? Cities like Athens,
Florence, Paris, and Vienna are known for periods of spectacularly high creativity. Majestic
landscapes and contemplative architecture are credited with inspiring creative insight. Famously
creative people, like Proust, Kipling, and Kant, describe how rooms, tools, and inspirational
objects are instrumental for their creativity. However there is a lack of empirical investigation into
the relationship between the designed environment and people's creative processes. On the rare
occasions when creativity researchers do consider the role of the designed environment, they
dismiss it as insignificant for creativity or suggest it is impossible to examine empirically. My
inquiry is a response to the conflicting beliefs between creativity researchers who feel the
physical environment is unimportant for creativity and environmental designers who create
settings with the specific intention of increasing creative productivity.
With my dissertation I seek to lay the theoretical groundwork for a scholarly investigation
of creativity as a physically situated process. This process is driven by a thorough evaluation of
the creativity, cognitive science, and environmental psychology literatures; an analysis of
environmental design strategies; first-person accounts of creativity; and my own experience as a
creative practitioner. From this analysis I develop three creative contributions. First, I construct
the Multi-Modal Process Model of Creative Practice, which describes creativity as a combination
of five physically-situated and interrelated modes of creative cognition. This model rebuts
opinions expressed in the creativity literature that the designed environment is unimportant for
creativity. Second, I develop the Creativity-in-Context theoretical framework, which provides a
structure to organize empirical investigation into the relationship between people's creative
processes and features of the designed environment. This framework rebuts suggestions that


empirical examination of this relationship is impossible. Third, I present some implications for
practice with the Rich Environments Design Guidelines, which provide a preliminary structure to
inform the design of settings intended to support creativity. Finally, I suggest that these three
creative contributions might form the foundation for a new stream of research an ecological
psychology of creativity.
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication.
Approved: Raymond McCall
IV


TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. SETTING THE STAGE...........................................................................1
Introduction.........................................................................1
Creative Places....................................................................1
The Four P's of Creativity.........................................................3
Bridging the Gap: Linking Creative Process and Place.................................5
The Designed Environment...........................................................6
The Creative Practitioner..........................................................7
Creative Cognition: Situated, Embodied and Embedded...............................10
The Structure of the Dissertation...................................................11
Goals.............................................................................12
Methods...........................................................................13
Organization of the Chapters......................................................16
II. CREATIVE PLACE.............................................................................22
Highlights..........................................................................22
Introduction........................................................................22
Review............................................................................22
Thesis............................................................................23
Significance......................................................................24
Creative Press (Place)..............................................................24
Creative Cities and Regions.........................................................26
Overview..........................................................................27
Links and Nodes: Social Interaction and Creativity................................29
Inspirational Settings: Motivation and Creativity.................................36
Flexibility: The Temporal Nature of Exploration Zones in the City.................38
Creative Cities as Places of Problem-Finding and Evaluation.......................40
Limitations of the Creative City Approach.........................................41
Summary of Key Findings from the Creative City Literature.........................42
Urban Design: Creative Districts and Neighborhoods..................................42
Third Places......................................................................43
Interstitial Spaces...............................................................44
Urban Design Strategies for Creativity............................................45
Mobility and Creativity...........................................................46
Summary of Key Findings from the Urban Design Literature..........................47
Creativity and Landscape Architecture...............................................47
Instrumental Leisure..............................................................48
Inspirational Settings............................................................50
Summary of Key Findings from the Landscape Architecture Literature................53
Architectural Design: Behavior Settings for Creativity..............................54
Circulation Configurations for Social Interaction.................................54
Spatial Flexibility to Accommodate Dynamic Creative Processes.....................60
Summary of Key Findings from the Architecture Literature..........................65
Interior Design: Creativity Rooms...................................................66
Communication and Privacy.........................................................67
Inspirational Spaces..............................................................68
v


Effects of Spatial Characteristics on Arousal and Processing Disfluency........70
Flexible Workplaces: Innovation Labs and Creativity Rooms......................71
Summary of Key Findings from the Interior Design Literature....................73
Product Design: Tools to Think With..............................................73
Socio-technical Environments for Creativity....................................73
Inspirational Things to Organize Imaginative Experiences.......................74
Summary of Key Findings from the Product Design Literature.....................75
The Gap Between Design Strategies and Empirical Evidence.........................75
III. THEORIES OF PERSON-ENVIRONMENT RELATIONSHIPS.........................................79
Highlights.......................................................................79
Introduction.....................................................................80
Review.........................................................................80
Thesis.........................................................................80
Significance...................................................................81
Person-Environment Relationship: Four Environmental Design Approaches............82
Physical Determinism...........................................................82
The Mind-Building Problem......................................................83
Mind-Body-World................................................................85
Person-Environment Relationship: The Ecological Psychology Perspective...........86
Behavior Settings..............................................................87
Environment....................................................................88
Affordance Theory..............................................................89
Strengths and Limitations of Ecological Psychology Theories....................92
Person-Environment Relationship: The Cognitive Science Perspective...............93
Situated Cognition.............................................................94
Embodied Cognition.............................................................95
Embedded Cognition.............................................................98
Extended Cognition............................................................100
Enactive Cognition............................................................101
Strengths and Limitations of the Cognitive Science Theories...................103
Towards an Ecological and Enactive View of Creativity...........................103
Creative Spaces: Environments, Umwelts, Milieus or Niches?....................105
The Structural Unit of Analysis for a New Creativity Framework................105
Direct and Indirect Perception................................................106
My Definition of Affordance...................................................107
Creativity and "Potential Affordances"........................................108
Next Steps Towards a New Theoretical Framework of Creativity..................109
IV. THE CREATIVE PROCESS.................................................................Ill
Highlights......................................................................Ill
Introduction....................................................................112
Review........................................................................112
Thesis........................................................................112
Significance..................................................................113
Background......................................................................113
Creative Stage Models: A Critical Review and Analysis...........................114
The Romantic Stage Models and the Preparation-Incubation Stages...............116
The Rationalist Stage Models and the Generation-Elaboration Stages............118
The Socially-Situated Stage Models............................................119
Limitations of the Stage Models...............................................120
Mechanisms Behind the Stages: Creative Cognition Theories.......................121
VI


Problem-Finding...............................................................122
Generating Ideas..............................................................126
Incubating....................................................................132
Elaborating...................................................................134
Implementing..................................................................138
Key Findings from the Creative Cognition Theories.............................139
Towards a Multi-Modal Model of Physically-Situated Creativity....................140
V. THE MULTI-MODAL PROCES MODEL OF CREATIVE PRACTICE....................................143
Highlights.......................................................................143
Introduction.....................................................................143
Review........................................................................143
Thesis........................................................................144
Significance..................................................................145
Creative Practice................................................................145
Situated Creative Practices: Flow and Reflection-in-Action....................146
Breakdown and Repair During Creative Ideation.................................147
Immersion: The Flow of Intuitive Investigation...................................147
Sustaining Immersion..........................................................149
Engendering Immersion.........................................................155
When Immersion Breaks Down....................................................157
Reflection: Making the Intuitive Explicit........................................158
Direct Feedback and the Rhetoric of Tools and Materials.......................160
Indirect Feedback: Using Things to Think With.................................161
Feedback From Others..........................................................162
Reflection and Imagination....................................................163
Sustaining Reflection: Externalization and Reframing..........................164
Engendering Reflection: Breakdowns, Critiques, and Feedback From Use........165
When Reflection Breaks Down...................................................166
Semi-Explicit (Adaptive) Rumination..............................................167
Repairing Creative Fixation: The Potential Role of Defocused Attention........168
Adaptive Rumination and Creative Problems.....................................169
Enactive Cognition and Semi-Explicit (Adaptive) Rumination....................171
Engender Rumination...........................................................171
Sustaining Rumination.........................................................172
Inhibiting Rumination.........................................................172
Summary of Relationships Between Three Creative Modes............................173
Three Creative Modes and Environmental Conditions................................174
Completing the Creative Practice Model...........................................176
Problem-finding...............................................................176
Evaluation....................................................................178
Propositions About the Person-Environment Relationship During Creativity.......181
VI. THE CREATIVITY-IN-CONTEXT THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK.......................................183
Highlights.......................................................................183
Introduction.....................................................................184
Review........................................................................184
Thesis........................................................................184
Significance..................................................................185
The Designed Environment in Creativity: Three Theoretical Propositions...........185
Proposition 1.................................................................186
Proposition 2.................................................................186
vii


Proposition 3...................................................................188
A Physically Situated Framework for Creativity....................................189
The Creative Person.............................................................191
The Designed Environment........................................................192
Affordance......................................................................194
Putting the Creative Modes in Context.............................................196
Problem-Finding and Feynman's Wobbling Plate....................................196
Environmental Features That Supported Feynman's Problem-Finding.................200
Conclusion: Implications for Practice.............................................201
VII. RICH ENVIRONMENTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE...........................................203
Highlights........................................................................203
Introduction......................................................................203
Review..........................................................................203
Thesis..........................................................................204
Significance....................................................................205
Rich Environments.................................................................205
Design Principles for Problem-Finding.............................................208
Problem-Finding Places: Serendipitous Settings..................................209
Problem-Finding Events and Processes: Attractor/Reactor Spaces..................211
Problem-Finding (Place-scale) Objects: Loose Parts..............................212
Problem-Finding Relationships: Participant/Observer.............................213
Problem-Finding Attributes: Apertures and Thresholds............................214
Design Principles for Intuitive Immersion.........................................215
Immersion Places: Inspirational Settings........................................216
Immersion Events and Processes: Improvisation Spaces............................218
Immersion (Place-scale) Objects: Instrumentation................................219
Immersion Relationships: Transparent Equipment..................................220
Immersion Attributes: Buffers...................................................221
Design Principles for Explicit Reflection.........................................221
Reflection Places: Deliberation Settings........................................222
Reflection Events and Processes: Evocation Spaces...............................224
Reflection (Place-scale) Objects: Things to Think With..........................225
Reflection Relationships: Cognitive Artifacts...................................227
Reflection Attributes: Variables................................................227
Design Principles for Semi-explicit Rumination....................................228
Rumination Places: Restorative Settings.........................................228
Rumination Events and Processes: Interstitial Spaces............................229
Rumination (Place-scale) Objects: Diversions....................................231
Rumination Relationships: Intersections.........................................231
Rumination Attributes: Sensorimotor Experiences.................................232
Design Principles for Evaluation..................................................232
Evaluation Places: Curatorial Settings..........................................232
Evaluation Events and Processes: Implementation Spaces..........................233
Evaluation (Place-scale) Objects: Ventures......................................233
Evaluation Relationships: Feedback..............................................234
Evaluation Attributes: Networks and Filters.....................................235
Rich Environments Empower Creative People in Five Ways............................237
1. Rich Environments Help Creative People Move Between Creative Modes.........237
2. Rich Environments Amplify Creative People's Creative Abilities..............238
3. Rich Environments Help Creative People Orchestrate Creative Experiences....238
4. Rich Environments Inspire and Restore Creative Productivity.................239
5. Rich Environments Promote Creativity-in-Action..............................240
viii


Design Methods for Rich Environments..........................................240
User-Centered Design: Performance and Phenomenology..........................240
Multiscalar Design Strategies................................................242
Participatory Practices......................................................243
User-Responsive Design.......................................................244
Empowering the Creative Practitioner Through Rich Environments................245
VIII. SUMMATION, FUTURE RESEARCH, AND CONCLUSION.........................................246
Summation......................................................................246
Why the Gap Between Theory and Practice?.....................................247
Embodied and Embedded Cognition Form a Bridge................................248
A New Physically-Situated Creativity Model...................................248
A New Theoretical Framework to Link Theory and Practice.....................249
New Design Principles and Methods to Assist Environmental Designers.........249
Future Research: Radically Rethinking The Places Where We Work, Learn, and Live 251
The Future Creative Workplace................................................252
The Future of Educational Settings to Support Creativity.....................253
The Future (New) Urban Neighborhood..........................................253
Conclusion: Towards an Ecological Psychology of Creativity.....................254
REFERENCES...............................................................................255
IX


LIST OF TABLES
Table
IV. 1 Stage Models of Creativity.................................................115
IV. 2 Preliminary List of Creative Modes and Creative Activities.................142
V. l Three Creative Modes and Environmental Conditions..........................175
VII. 1 Summary of Rich Environments Design Principles.............................236
x


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure
II. 1 Map of the Island of Murano, Italy.............................................31
11.2 Downtown Boulder, CO............................................................35
11.3 Map of Boulder, CO Greenbelt and Attractions...................................36
11.4 The Inspirational Rocky Mountain Setting in Boulder, CO........................37
11.5 The Norlin Library Commons, University of Colorado, Boulder.....................46
11.6 The Campus of the University of Colorado, Boulder...............................47
11.7 The Mesa Lab by I.M. Pei in Boulder, CO.........................................51
11.8 Sunset on the Equinox at the Salk Institute in La Jolla, CA.....................53
11.9 Cross Section of the Salk Instute Laboratory by Louis Kahn......................55
II. 10 The Dining Patio at the Salk Institute by Louis Kahn..........................57
II. 11 The Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine, La Jolla, CA................59
11.12 The SCRM Main Entrance........................................................61
11.13 "A Green Outlook" Office at SCRM..............................................62
11.14 "Brainstorming" Room at SCRM..................................................62
11.15 Conference Room at SCRM.......................................................63
11.16 Open Office Area at SCRM......................................................63
11.17 Pipe Spaces at The Salk Institute, La Jolla, CA...............................64
III. 1 Affordances..................................................................110
V.l The Nucleus of the Creative Practice Model.......................................158
V.2 Three Creative Modes: Immersion, Reflection, and Rumination......................173
V. 3 The Multi-Modal Process Model of Creative Practice.............................181
VI. 1 The Creativity-in-Context Theoretical Framework...............................189
VI.2 Illustration of Richard Feynman's Problem-finding Process.......................199
XI


CHAPTER I
SETTING THE STAGE
CONSIDERING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CREATIVITY
AND THE DESIGNED ENVIRONMENT
Introduction
Stories abound about how creative people believe that aspects of their settings
including the spaces they inhabit along with the tools and materials they use are important to
their creative process. Anecdotes relay how Immanuel Kant felt he needed the church steeple
view from his bedroom window to be creative (Wasianski, 1902), Marcel Proust preferred to work
in a cork-lined room (Fuss, 2004), and Rudyard Kipling would only write with obsidian black ink
(Kipling, 1937). Despite the appearance of idiosyncratic behavior commonly associated with
creative people, these stories suggest that an individual's creative process may be intrinsically
linked with the physical setting. This belief has motivated the design of buildings (Doorley &
Witthoft, 2012; Groves, Knight, & Denison, 2010; McCallam, 2010) and the planning policies of
cities (Florida, 2003, 2004, 2012; Landry & Bianchini, 1994; Landry, 2000) yet current theoretical
models of creativity do little to address the role of such settings in a person's creative process
(Drake, 2003; Dul, Ceylan, & Jaspers, 2011; Moultrie et al., 2007). As product designers, interior
designers, architects, and city planners spend considerable time and money designing artifacts of
the physical environment to foster human creativity, they do so with no common theory to guide
such practice. This dissertation aims to begin to address this gap in the creativity literature.
Creative Places
Settings that are intended to foster creativity can be found across time and at every scale
of intervention from the single room including the designed objects within it, all the way up to
1


the city. Design of these settings is sometimes employed as a behavioral intervention, aimed at
fostering social collaborations toward increasing creative productivity (Doorley & Witthoft, 2012;
Dul et al., 2011; Harrington, 2011; Sawyer, 2007, pp. 164-166). At other times designs
incorporate affective or phenomenological methods to provide settings to inspire people to
produce creative work (Drake, 2003; McCoy & Evans, 2002; Roth, 1993).1 III The Salk Institute in La
Jolla, California, is one iconic example of a building that uses both strategies (Roth, 1993). This
visually compelling facility constructed in the 1960's was planned to provide flexible spaces to
support the creative work of the scientists that occupy it. World-renowned architect Louis Kahn
gave much consideration to the ways the scientists worked, designing the structure to maximize
inspirational views and facilitate social interaction and collaboration among the occupants.
Although Kahn's Salk Institute may be one of the best known examples of a building designed to
foster creativity, it is certainly not a unique case.
The earliest American colleges constructed during the colonial period also show evidence
of architectural planning and design intended to foster new knowledge and innovation among the
population of students and faculty (P. V. Turner, 1984). Like the Salk Institute, the colonial
colleges were located in natural settings away from the bustle of the city. Influenced in large part
by the belief that being close to nature would best lead the students to achieve enlightenment,
this trend to incorporate nature views into the design of university buildings continues to this day
(P. V. Turner, 1984). Connection to nature is also a theme in interior design, where studies have
shown people identify rooms with natural materials and views of nature as being more likely to
foster creativity in the workplace (McCoy 8i Evans, 2002). Common to all these examples is the
inspirational quality of nature. Creativity is often anecdotally associated with the act of removing
oneself from the structure and routine of daily life by escaping to inspirational natural places, but
there has been little empirical investigation into the relationship between people and natural
settings in this regard.
1 Affective and phenomenological strategies are aimed at using materials, shapes, colors,
textures, light, and shadow to engage the user's senses in the experience of a place. See Chapter
III for additional discussion of this theoretical approach in architecture.
2


More recently, the social aspects of creativity have been emphasized in architectural
designs and city planning strategies (Dul et al., 2011; Florida, 2004, 2012; Landry, 2000; McCoy,
2005). This reflects a shift in thinking about creativity from something that happens in the
unaided human mind to that of a process influenced by the person's socio-cultural environment
(Amabile, 1996; Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; Feldman, Csikszentmihalyi, & Gardner, 1994a).
Workplace design has been significantly impacted by this shift, reflecting increased emphasis on
design strategies intended to foster social interaction and collaboration (Doorley & Witthoft,
2012; McCoy, 2005; A. Williams, 2009). Recent interest in the city as an incubator for creativity
has also influenced the development of planning policies (Florida, 2004, 2012; Landry, 2000). In
city planning, emphasis is placed on the relationship between geographic proximity and
knowledge transfer as a means to increase creative productivity (Bettencourt, Lobo, Helbing,
Kuhnert, & West, 2007; Carlino, 2001; Glaeser, Kallal, Scheinkman, & Shleifer, 1992; Stolarick &
Florida, 2006). Whether the scientific research laboratory, the collegiate campus, an office
building, or even a city, there are many designs that exemplify the attempt to associate cognitive
and behavioral goals with the physical planning of rooms, buildings, and urban spaces. Despite
these numerous examples, there is a lack of evidence that such design strategies are based on
more than anecdotal evidence or substantiated by post occupancy analysis (Moultrie et al.,
2007). Specifically, there is little indication that empirical findings from the psychology of
creativity literature have been meaningfully integrated into architectural designs and urban plans.
Conversely, the creativity literature also largely ignores the role of physical settings in creative
processes (Dul et al., 2011).
The Four P's of Creativity
Creativity is a multifaceted phenomenon that cannot be fully understood from the
perspective of a singular perspective or domain of study (Mark A. Runco, 2007a; Sawyer, 2012),
yet the physical context of creativity has received relatively little attention in the creativity
literature (Dul et al., 2011; Hunter, Bedell, & Mumford, 2007). Over the past century, the field
3


has evolved from a focus on psychometric studies of creative personalities, to a multi-faceted and
multidisciplinary approach informed by research from psychology, fine and applied arts, biological
sciences, education, computer science, sociology, and business (Mark A. Runco, 2007a; Sawyer,
2012). Not surprisingly, there have been several attempts to organize the empirical contributions.
One widely recognized structure was developed by Mel Rhodes (1961) who proposed a system to
categorize different perspectives according to Four Ps: Person, Process, Product, and Press.
Research on the creative person has focused primarily on who is creative through
identification of common personality traits. Despite the volume of literature generated in this
research strand, it is frequently criticized for weak external validity (Feldman et al., 1994a) and
its lack of accounting for environmental (Mark A. Runco, 2007a) and cultural (Csikszentmihalyi,
1996) differences among participants. Its low predictive value makes it improbable that findings
solely from this domain could inform real world problems such as the design of buildings. Equally
ineffective for practical application is the creative product literature. The product literature
focuses on what people create and is generally concerned with efforts to measure creativity.
Although this approach facilitates methods of objective analysis, it is also criticized for its low
predictive value and the lack of insight it provides about the creative process (Mark A. Runco &
Kim, 2011; Mark A. Runco, 2007a). This leaves the creative process and press literatures as the
most relevant for understanding the relationship between creative people and the settings they
inhabit while engaged in creative processes.
The creative process strand is concerned with how people are creative by identifying
mental processes and cognitive mechanisms. This literature most commonly conveys findings
through explanatory models. These models describe the mental stages of individual creativity
and have influenced creativity training approaches (Rhodes, 1961; Mark A. Runco, 2007a;
Sawyer, 2012; T. B. Ward & Saunders, 2003). Process models are not sufficient as "recipes" to
predict creativity however, because individual personality factors and environmental conditions
also come into play (Amabile, 1996, 1996; Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; Feldman et al., 1994a). The
effect of environmental contexts on creativity is considered in the creative press literature.
4


The creative press addresses where creativity happens and considers the environmental
influences that may affect creative behavior (Rhodes, 1961). This perspective has historically
privileged socio-cultural over physical environments (Drake, 2003; Dul et al., 2011). Mooney
(1963) describes the press literature as concerned with "what patterns of circumstances around
individuals or groups accompanies what patterns of behavior in them" (p. 332). Much of the
recent stream of creativity research has taken a systems (confluence) view of creativity that
suggest multiple factors (personality, process, and/or environmental) are necessary for creativity
to occur (Mark A. Runco, 2007a; Sawyer, 2012; R. J. Sternberg, 1999). The work of Amabile
(1996) and Csikszentmihalyi (1996) are closely associated with this perspective and both describe
creativity as an interaction between the creative person and the socio-cultural context of
creativity. Despite emerging research from the systems perspective, there is still minimal
integration between research strands in the Four Ps of creativity (Mark A. Runco & Kim, 2011;
Sawyer, 2012).
Bridging the Gap: Linking Creative Process and Place
In order to effectively design places to support creativity, architects, planners, and other
design professionals need a descriptive theory to inform them about what role these settings
might play in creative cognition. There is, however, a significant gap in the literature where it
concerns the physical context of creativity (Dul et al., 2011; Moultrie et al., 2007). Creative
process models generally describe creativity as entailing purely mental activities (Kozbelt,
Beghetto, & Runco, 2010; T. B. Ward & Saunders, 2003) and the creative press research
prejudices the social context of creativity over the physical (Amabile, 1998; Drake, 2003; Dul et
al., 2011) thus rendering both these literatures insufficient for informing the design of settings
to support creativity. Further, the creative press literature has suggested that the physical
environment is not a productive area of investigation in creativity. Amabile (1998), who is known
for her work on social environments and creativity, argues that the physical environment does
not play any significant role in creative processes. Csikszentmihalyi (1996, p. 135), another highly
5


regarded creativity researcher, acknowledges that the physical environment may play a role in
creativity, but argues that it is impossible to obtain empirical evidence to explain how features of
the physical environment serve to catalyze creative processes. Although tools, rooms, buildings,
landscapes, neighborhoods, and cities are designed with the intention of fostering creativity,
knowledge gleaned from their design and implementation does not inform the creativity
literature. This dissertation seeks to begin to bridge this gap in the creativity literature by
addressing the problem of how to consider people's relationships to their physical environments
during periods of creativity.
The Designed Environment
Although both man-made and natural settings may play some role in people's creative
processes, this dissertation focuses primarily (albeit not exclusively) on man-made environments.
I refer to these as designed environments. A designed environment encompasses all of the man-
made objects in a particular setting, including tools, materials, furniture, rooms, buildings,
streets, parks, plazas, etc. The professional disciplines involved in the design of these artifacts
are thus referred to collectively as the field of environmental design, and the people who work in
the field as environmental designers. The National Academy of Environmental Design (2011)
defines environmental design as addressing "the impact of the built environment on individuals
and the natural world and... comprises architects, planners, landscape architects, interior
designers, preservationists, building technology specialists, and researchers from a wide range of
disciplines." I extend this definition to include the discipline of product design (also referred to as
industrial design.)
Product designers are not typically associated with the creation of designed
environments; however in practice there is no hard boundary between product design, interior
design, architecture, landscape architecture, and urban planning. Generally disciplinary divisions
occur at the scale of the design intervention, with product designers responsible for the smallest
scale artifacts, such as tools and furniture, and urban planners responsible for the largest scale of
6


environmental design, including the land use and transportation systems of cities and regions.
However many professionals work across the different disciplinary scales. The inventor
Buckminster Fuller famously blurred the division between product design and architecture, with
his work on such projects as the geodesic dome and the Dymaxion House (Sieden, 2000) and
architects frequently design artifacts commonly associated with product design. Many famous
architects are well-known for their furniture designs, including Alvar Aalto, Eileen Gray, Le
Corbusier and Mies van der Rohe (Hesse & Lueg, 2012). Michael Grave's product designs for the
retail store Target has arguably made him more famous among the general population than his
building designs (Patton & Graves, 2004). Creative insight is also strongly (although anecdotally)
associated with occurring in the bed, bus, and bath all artifacts of the product design scale
(Dart, 1989; Gruber, 1981a). There is evidence to suggest that when creative people inhabit a
setting, all the features of their designed environments including those at the scale of product
design may be leveraged in pursuit of a creative problem (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990, 1996;
Schon, 1983). The literature about creative places however, is typically framed from the
traditional disciplinary perspectives of interior design, architecture, urban design, or city and
regional planning. I propose in this dissertation that it is useful to consider people's relationships
with the artifacts of their environments during creativity across all scales of the designed
environment from tools to cities unencumbered by the constraints of disciplinary
boundaries.
The Creative Practitioner
Creative places are designed for creative people; therefore it is necessary to define who
is creative in order to determine what population these places may potentially serve. Researchers
generally agree that creativity entails a suite of ordinary cognitive processes involving both
conscious and unconscious mental work (T. B. Ward 8i Kolomyts, 2010). This suggests that
anyone of normal abilities may be creative at a given point in time. To distinguish the high level
of expertise and creative achievement of eminently creative people like Ben Franklin, Albert
7


Einstein, Pablo Picasso, and Mozart from people who engage in creative activities for the pleasure
of the experience, creativity is typically categorized as either extraordinary or everyday (Boden,
2004; Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; Kaufman & Beghetto, 2009). Extraordinary creativity is defined by
ideas that are a significant departure from those of their time and may transform knowledge or
methods in a particular domain (Boden, 2004; Csikszentmihalyi, 1996). Everyday creativity
encompasses ideas that are creative primarily to the person or persons who conceived of them
(Boden, 2004; Csikszentmihalyi, 1996). These categories are not particularly useful for this
dissertation. Settings that are intended to support creativity are typically designed for a more
general population of creative peoples than the small sample of the extraordinarily creative, but a
more specific group of people than the everyday creative population (which includes nearly
everyone who is not extraordinarily creative.) Creative achievement is clearly a continuum, but
more nuanced categories are required to support the practical application of creativity research
(Kaufman & Beghetto, 2009).
Settings intended to support creativity are most often designed for people who are
engaged in creative activities for a significant portion of their day (Drake, 2003; Fig, 2009;
Groves et al., 2010; McCallam, 2010; McCoy, 2005). I refer to these people as creative
practitioners.2 They are creative professionals who earn a living by practicing their creative work.
They may be artists, writers, composers, choreographers, designers, scientists, mathematicians,
or anyone else who is paid to produce creative ideas or products whether or not they are
typically associated with a creative discipline. There is a debate in the literature regarding
whether creativity is domain-specific (domain-dependent) or domain-general (domain-
2 Creative practitioner is a term that is similar to, yet distinct from, both Richard Florida's (2004)
"creative class" and the "Pro-c" category of creative expertise proposed by Kaufman and
Beghetto (2009). Florida's creative class definition has been criticized for being based largely on
educational attainment without a clear relationship to creativity (Markusen, 2006). The Pro-c
definition of creativity does not include all professionals working in a creative field, only those
who have achieved "world-class, expert-level status" (p. 5). My definition includes both people
who are becoming creative professionals as well as eminently creative practitioners who have
achieved extraordinary levels of success.
8


independent) (Baer, 2010)3; however Silvia et al (2009) argue that the method of research has
much to do with one's perspective. Research that focuses on the creative person or cognitive
processes often appears domain-general, whereas with examination of creative products the
phenomenon appears domain-specific. It is my intention here to examine the domain-general
aspects of the creative process as a means to understand the relationship between creative
practitioners and their designed environments.
The term creative practitioner reflects the current understanding that creativity is a craft
that can be practiced and develops from expertise (Boden, 2001; Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; Hayes,
1989; Jay 8i Perkins, 1997; Mark A. Runco, 2007a; T. B. Ward 8i Saunders, 2003). Creative
practitioners have developed expertise in their domains and are financially rewarded for it
whether they are still in the process of establishing a reputation in their career or have already
achieved extraordinary levels of creative achievement. There is a general agreement in the
creativity literature that domain knowledge expertise is necessary to be creative within a field,
although the precise amount of knowledge remains unanswered and may vary by discipline
(Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; Hayes, 1989; Jay 8i Perkins, 1997; Mark A. Runco, 2007a). In lieu of
quantifying expertise by years of knowledge acquisition, it is assumed that creative practitioners
have sufficient expertise as evidenced by their ability to earn a living through their creative
practice. Although this dissertation focuses primarily on the creative practices of professionals, I
will occasionally use examples from people who are learning to become creative practitioners
(e.g. design students) to illustrate how creative practice develops. Another debate in the
literature concerns the appropriate level of empirical analysis: the creative individual or the group
(Sawyer, 2010). Although both levels of analysis are important, I am interested in understanding
the role of the designed environment in both explicit and intuitive creative processes. Intuitive
processes are more challenging to examine in social groups; therefore my research focuses on
the creative individual.
3 See also the debate between Baer (1998) and Plucker (1998).
9


Creativity is what the creative practitioner does, but the term is used in so many different
contexts and situations that there is no single accepted definition (Mark A. Runco, 2007a;
Sawyer, 2012). Since definitions serve to guide empirical investigation, variations in the creativity
literature also generally reflect differences of focus on creative personality, individual or social
processes, and creative product (Rhodes, 1961). For this dissertation the term must be defined in
a way that is both appropriate and useful for understanding how creative practitioners may use
the designed environment to support their creative practices. With this in mind, I extend
Sternberg and Lubart's definition (1999, p. 3) by describing creativity as the mental, social, and
physical processes (from preliminary concern or problem identification through to externalization,
materialization, or concretization of an idea) of creating some thing (e.g. a product, theory,
technique, etc.) that is both original and has value or purpose for a segment of society. My
definition acknowledges 1) the mental, social, and physical process of creativity, 2) the full range
of human activities involved throughout the creative process, and 3) the role of the socio-cultural
environment in evaluating what is creative. This definition, I suggest, more fully reflects current
theories of human cognition as a situated phenomenon that involves not only mental processes,
but also social and physical conditions.
Creative Cognition: Situated, Embodied and Embedded
Contrary to the creativity literature which largely ignores the role of the physical
environment (or suggests that it is not important) (Amabile, 1998; Dul et al., 2011; Flarrington,
2011), there is general agreement in the cognitive science literature that human cognition is
situated, both physically and socially (Anderson, 2003; Robbins 8i Aydede, 2009).4 Situated
cognition is a theory based on the premise that knowledge cannot be separated from context,
that knowing is "inextricably situated in the physical and social context of its acquisition and use"
(Brown et al, 1988, p. 1). There are three central ideas in situated cognition (Robbins 8i Aydede,
4 Cognitive science is a multi-disciplinary field of study that typically includes psychology,
neuroscience, computer science, philosophy, education, linguistics, anthropology, and others
involved in human cognition research (Robbins 8i Aydede, 2009)
10


2009), 1) the embodied thesis that cognition encompasses both the mind and the body; (Clark,
1998; Reed, 1996) 2) the embedded thesis that people exploit features of the physical and
social environment to increase cognitive capabilities; (Clark, 2008; Hutchins, 2006; Noe, 2004)
and 3) the extended mind thesis that cognitive processes are extended beyond the boundaries
of a person's body through "cognitive coupling" with artifacts in the environment (Clark 8i
Chalmers, 1998; Clark, 2008.) Of these claims, the first two are commonly accepted in the field
of cognitive science, whereas the third remains controversial (Robbins 8i Aydede, 2009; M.
Wilson, 2002). This dissertation will consider how creativity is physically situated, by
demonstrating how creative processes align with the embodied and embedded views of situated
cognition. I will use the theory of situated cognition to begin to bridge the gap between the
creativity and environmental design literatures.
The Structure of the Dissertation
This dissertation intends to respond to a recent surge in interest around creativity and
the sometimes-problematic communication in the media about how the designed environment
may impact people's creativity. For example, Jonah Lehrer (2012) popularized the idea that the
color blue makes people more creative with the publication of his book on creativity. In it he
describes a study by Mehta and Zhu (2009) published in Science where the researchers
examined the effect of red or blue background computer screen colors on detail-oriented versus
creative tasks. The results indicated improved accuracy under the red background condition in
the detail-oriented task and improved creativity scores under the blue background condition.
Although the researchers discussed the limitations of the study and cited other studies with
conflicting results, Lehrer (2012) uses this as evidence to assert that "We can now begin to
understand why being surrounded by blue walls makes us more creative" (p. 51.)5 The study had
5 See Chapter III for a discussion about architectural determinism and how a statement like this
suggests that the designed environment will determine human behavior.
11


nothing to do with environmental (wall) color, yet the publicity around the publication of Lehrer's
book popularized the idea that blue walls will increase creativity.6
While it is certainly possible that certain colors may improve creative productivity under
some conditions, examples like Lehrer's run the risk of popularizing unfounded information
which may ultimately undermine efforts to truly understand the role of the designed environment
in creativity. The intention behind this dissertation is to investigate the role of the designed
environment in creativity. I will discuss how evidence suggests that it does play a role but not
as a stimulus intended to elicit specific creative behaviors as it is sometimes considered in the
environmental design literature. I will demonstrate instead how features of the designed
environment scaffold different creative processes for people and suggest what implications this
may have for the design of settings to support people's creative practices.
o I will not prescribe paint colors.
o I will not profess that the "right" environment will make you creative.
o I will illustrate how creative people leverage features of their designed environments
in order to increase their creative productivity. I will also formulate a hypothesis
about why these strategies may work for them.
Goals
The ultimate goal of this dissertation is to first inform scholarly discourse around the
subject of creativity as a form of embodied and embedded cognition, and then to suggest a
framework that may begin to guide the design and evaluation of settings intended to support
creative work. To that end, I will conduct an inquiry into the role of the designed environment in
creativity. This inquiry is in response to the conflicting beliefs between creativity researchers who
feel that the physical environment is not significant to creativity and environmental designers
who create settings with the specific intention of supporting creativity. I approach the question
6 In an interview published in Dwell Magazine, a periodical marketed to architects and interior
designers, Lehrer encourage architects and designers to use red or blue room colors to influence
the way people think (Pederson, 2012). For the full quote see
http://www.metropolismaa.com/storv/20120608/designinq-for-creativitv
12


" What (if any) role does the designed environment play in creativity?" as a three-stage process.
First I identify the different situated modes of creativity and describe the relationship between
them through the development of the Multi-Modal Process Model of Creative Practice. This model
suggests (contrary to Amabile's (1998) view) that the physical environment is instrumental to
people's creative processes. Next I illustrate through the development of the Creativity-in-Context
Theoretical Framework, how people use features of the designed environment to engender,
sustain, and inhibit different creative modes. This framework is a response to Csikszentmihalyi's
(1996, p. 135) claim that it is impossible to empirically investigate the role of the physical
environment in creativity. I suggest that the Creativity-in-Context framework provides the
structure to empirically ground research on the relationship between people and their
environments during creativity. Finally, I suggest the implications the framework has for
environmental design strategies through the concept of Rich Environments. I consider this model
and framework a first step in beginning to bridge the gap between the creativity and
environmental design literatures. It is my hope that they will form a preliminary structure, to be
further refined and developed as a future body of knowledge is constructed around the
relationship between creativity and the designed environment.
Methods
This dissertation follows in the footsteps of the theoretical traditions established in
creativity, architecture, and cognitive science research. The earliest (and most enduring)
theoretical model of the creative process was developed by Graham Wallas (1926) and based
primarily on two first-person accounts of creativity. The first was a speech given by the German
physicist Flermann von Flelmholtz at a banquet to celebrate his 70th birthday (pp. 79-80). The
second was from a chapter titled "Mathematical Invention" in the book Science and Method
written by the French mathematician Jules Henri Poincare (p. 75). From these Wallas developed
his four-stage model of creativity entailing preparation, incubation, illumination, and verification,
which continues to be influential in the creativity literature to this day (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996;
13


Mark A. Runco, 2007a).7 My research builds on the theoretical process models developed by
Wallas and others by integrating theoretical work from cognitive science on situated cognition.
The hypotheses I develop from this integration is further informed by and tested against
empirical research, documented first-person accounts from creative practitioners, and my
personal experiences as an architect and educator of design students. First-person accounts
provide practical, context-dependent knowledge that is particularly valuable for informing fields
of applied practice, such as the environmental design professions (Merriam, 2009).
The methods employed in this dissertation are used with the intention of developing a
testable theory. Karl Popper (1974) argues that scientific knowledge progresses more quickly
when researchers develop theories and then attempt to refute them. As there is no current
theory suitable for understanding what role the designed environment may play in people's
creative processes, this dissertation is primarily a theory building effort. My research adopts the
method of logic model analysis (Yin, 2009) to gain insight into the relationship between creativity
and the designed environment. Models are recommended by Frankfort-Nachmias and Nachmias
(2008) "for gaining insights into phenomena that the scientist cannot observe directly, such as
'decision making'" (p. 40). Logic model analysis consists of comparing both documented first-
person accounts and observed events to a detailed hypothetical logic model that visually
illustrates the relationship between events. When the data does not match the logic model, rival
explanations are examined and the logic model is revised. The process of revision and
comparative analysis continues until the model accurately reflects events.
The first model I develop through this method is the Multi-Modal Model of Creative
Practice.8 It describes situated modes of cognition involved in the creative process and explains
the relationships between them. The model is derived from an analysis of existing creative
process models and uses as its starting point Csikszentmihalyi's (1990) work on creative flow and
Schon's (1983) theory of reflective practice. It extends this work by drawing from empirical
7 Csikszentmihalyi (1996) regularly references Wallas's four stage model in his own research on
creativity. Also, see Chapter IV for further explanation of the Wallas model.
8 The Multi-Modal Process Model of Creative Practice is introduced in Chapter V.
14


research, documented first-person accounts, and personal observations of creativity to describe
five modes of creativity: problem-finding, immersion, reflection, rumination, and evaluation. The
modes are organized to describe the "breakdown-and-repair" relationships between them.
The second model is the Creativity-in-Context Theoretical Framework. This framework
integrates the Creative Practice model with the taxonomy of environmental features.9 The
taxonomy is derived from the same data used to inform the Creative Practice model and
identifies a system of six environmental categories that play a role in creativity: places, events,
processes, place-scale objects, attributes, and relationships. Grounded in Gibson's (1977)
affordance theory, the Creativity-in-Context (CiC) framework describes relationships between a
creative practitioner (when engaged in a mode of creativity) and features of his or her
environment. With the framework I illustrate how people use environmental features to increase
their creative productivity by demonstrating how the framework explains first-person accounts of
creativity. Finally I use the CiC framework to discuss implications for practice by discussing how
the particular features of the designed environment support the different modes of creativity.
Lang and Moleski propose (2010) functional theory as the instrument through which
empirical evidence can meaningfully inform the practice of environmental design.10 Functional
theory is "the positive basis for design in the sense that it consists of empirical assertions, or
hypotheses, about reality" (Lang & Moleski, 2010, p. 315). In contrast to normative theory, which
focuses on design principles often associated with stylistic trends, functional theory focuses on
the principles of environmental experience and the relationship between users and their
environments (both natural and designed.) It is a response to the gap between what
environmental designers claim they are trying to achieve and the performance of their designed
9 Frankfort-Nachmias and Nachmias (2008) describe a taxonomy as "a system of logically related
categories constructed to fit empirical observations in such a way that relationships among the
categories can be defined" (p. 34). See Chapter VI for a detailed explanation of the taxonomy of
environmental features and the Creativity-in-Context Theoretical Framework.
10 They adopt the term from Kevin Lynch (1981) who coined the phrase to avoid negative
connotations associated with positive theory. See Chapter II for a discussion of the negative
connotations of positive theory in architecture and its relationship to the concept of architectural
determinism.
15


environments. The functional theory developed in this dissertation aims to begin to bridge this
gap for the design of settings intended to support creativity.
Organization of the Chapters
This dissertation will build a theoretical argument about the role of the designed
environment in the creative processes of individual practitioners. The task will require the focus
on three different literatures: creative press, cognitive theory, and creative process, organized as
Chapters II IV.
Creative press.
In Chapter III present an overview of the environmental design literatures that
addresses creativity. The intention behind this chapter is to 1) identify common themes across
different scales of the designed environment and 2) uncover implicit theories that may be
manifest in the design of places for creativity. There are three main design strategies used to
support creativity. Most common is the links/nodes design strategy intended to build social
density, diversity, and connectivity. This strategy reflects an understanding of creativity as a
socially situated process and design interventions are implemented with the intention of
increasing social interactions (Bettencourt et al., 2007; Stolarick & Florida, 2006). Flexible design
is another common strategy where spaces are under-designed so that the users can determine
their function. This strategy is a response to the uncertain and transitory nature of creativity
(Apitzsch & Piotti, 2012). The third strategy involves designing for inspiration. Designs that
incorporate majestic views of nature to inspire creativity suggest that the aesthetic qualities of an
environment will inspire creative ideation. The inspiration strategy thus considers creativity a sub-
-conscious mental activity. Design strategies sometimes also incorporate environmental cues
intended to sub-consciously shape creative ideation. The review of the environmental design
literature suggests that 1) empirically grounded design strategies are most frequently based on
the premise that increased social interactions will produce higher levels of creativity, 2) design
16


strategies reflect the debate in the academy concerning the nature of person-environment
relationships, and 3) although similar design strategies are found across scales of the designed
environment, they are not theoretically grounded in a common framework that describes the
relationship between creativity and the physical environment. There is a gap between creativity
theory and environmental design practices.
Environment and cognition relationship.
Chapter III frames the person-environment relationship debate in the environmental
design literature by relating four environmental design approaches (deterministic, possibilistic,
probabilistic, and free-will) to the epistemologies of human cognition. The intention behind this
chapter is to identify theories of cognition that may help bridge the gap between the
environmental design and creativity literatures. I will discuss how current theories of cognition
suggest that the deterministic and free-will design approaches are not empirically supported in
the literature. The theory of situated cognition does offer empirical support for the possibilistic
and probabilistic approaches. Situated cognition theory considers people as autonomous agents
who construct their own knowledge based on their interactions with the world and other people.
The person-environment system view described by situated cognition indicates that the physical
environment may impact people's behavior but does not determine it. It also suggests that there
is a fifth design approach one that considers not how the environment affects people, but how
people, as active agents, use the designed environment to extend their cognitive abilities. This
approach differs from the other four (deterministic, probabilistic, and possibilistic, and free-will)
because it does not consider the person a passive recipient of environmental interventions.
Instead the designed environment is considered a cognitive and behavioral resource for people,
and affords them opportunities for action. This chapter illustrates how situated cognition and in
particular theories of affordances from ecological psychology and embodied, embedded, and
enactive cognition from cognitive science can frame the person-environment relationship
17


during creativity and thus serve to bridge the creativity and environmental design creativity
literatures.
Creative process.
Chapter IV is an overview of the creative process literature. The intention behind this
chapter is to use the situated cognition theories to critique the creativity process models in terms
of their applicability for informing the design of settings to support creativity. The process
literature consists of stage models that describe creativity as a series of steps (e.g. the Wallas
model mentioned previously) as well as creative cognition theories that examine the cognitive
processes used in creativity, such as analogy and metaphor. An analysis of the creative process
literature reveals that 1) there appear to be five modes of creativity: problem-finding, idea-
generating, incubating, elaborating, and implementing, 2) these modes involve both intuitive and
explicit cognitive processes, 3) the stage models and creative cognition theories do not
adequately describe what people do during creativity nor do they explain the relationships
between stages, and 4) none of the stage models sufficiently addresses the physical context of
creativity.
I identify Csikszentmihalyi's (1990) theory of creative flow as one creativity theory that
does convey the physically situated nature of creativity. Flow describes a single mode of
creativity, the process of intuitive immersion, which is employed to generate ideas. This mode is
also described in Donald Schon's (1983) theory of reflective practice, referred to there as
knowing-in-action. Schon's theory describes the interaction of two modes, the intuitive process
of knowing-in-action and the explicit process of reflection-in-action, used by engineers,
architects, town planners, managers, and psychotherapists during idea generation. Although
reflective practice is more typically considered as either a situated design theory (Chai 8i Xiao,
2012) or experiential learning theory (Russell, 2005), I propose that together the theories of flow
and reflective practice may provide a starting point for a new physically situated model of
creativity.
18


The multi-modal process model of creative practice.
In Chapter VII will introduce the Multi-Modal Process Model of Creative Practice. The
Creative Practice model extends Csikszentmihalyi's (1990) flow (which I refer to as intuitive
immersion) and Schon's (1983) reflection-in-action (which I call explicit reflection) to describe
five interrelated modes of situated creativity: problem-finding, intuitive immersion, explicit
reflection, adaptive rumination, and evaluation. First I illustrate how the physical environment is
instrumental in Csikszentmihalyi's theory of flow and use this as a starting point to build a model
of situated creativity. Next I critique Schon's work with respect to the creativity and situated
cognition literatures. This critique demonstrates how Schon's theory of reflective practice
implicitly and systematically incorporates a physically situated view of creative processes. It also
describes the intertwined relationship between two modes of creativity: immersion and explicit
reflection. His theory, however, falls short of fully describing creativity in a number of ways. I
propose how to extend Schon's theory by using it as the nucleus for a more developed and
explicit theoretical model of creative practice that is grounded in the situated cognition literature.
I draw from current and emerging research in creativity and cognitive science, along with other
relevant work from design theory, first-person accounts, and my own experiences as a practicing
architect and educator to further illustrate, develop, and extend Schon's theory to describe five
modes of creativity. The formulation of this Multi-Modal Process Model of Creative Practice will
provide the structure for a new framework that describes the relationship between people and
their designed environments during creativity.
The creativity-in-context theoretical framework.
In Chapter VII, I will introduce the Creativity-in-Context theoretical framework as a
means to organize knowledge about person-environment relationships during creativity in a way
that is both useful and appropriate for informing environmental design strategies. The
framework, grounded in situated cognition theory, incorporates Gibson's (1977) theory of
affordances to illustrate the role of perception during creativity. Affordance theory suggests that
19


features of the environment present action opportunities for people. I illustrate how people's
perception of these opportunities changes according to the mode of creative cognition in which
they are engaged. Further, I develop the taxonomy of environmental features to help
environmental designers consider how design interventions at different scales (e.g. products,
rooms, buildings, etc.) may support creativity. Ultimately the framework describes three
propositions about the relationship between people and their designed environments during
creativity. First, people exploit, leverage, manipulate and alter features of the designed
environment to enhance their creative ability and productivity. Second, environmental features
serve different roles in engendering, sustaining, and inhibiting/curtailing five modes of creativity.
Finally, changes in environmental features and changes in a person's mode of creative cognition
both alter the affordances of the person-environment relationship, thus affecting a person's
opportunities for action in the creative situation.
Rich environments.
In Chapter VIII discuss the implications the Creativity-in-Context framework has for
environmental design practices. I suggest the concept of Rich Environments as a method of
empowering creative practitioners through environmental design. Rich Environments entails a set
of design guidelines along with their rationale based on the Creative Practice model and
Creativity-in-Context theoretical framework to inform the design of settings intended to
support creative practitioners. These design principles may be used as a preliminary critiquing
system to both assist the environmental designer and advocate for the creative practitioner.
Because environmental design is like any other creative endeavor, it is impossible to predict every
possible outcome and use of a design intervention in advance. Rich Environments, therefore,
provide both structure based on best empirical evidence to support creativity and responsivity
that empowers users to adapt, modify, and customize environmental features to suit their needs
over time.
20


Summation, future research, and conclusion.
In the final Chapter, I provide a summary of my creative contributions, discuss the
limitations of this dissertation, and make recommendations for future scholarly investigations. In
particular, I explain that what I propose here is not a fully developed theory of creativity as
situated cognition, but rather a framework to serve as a starting point for future scholarly
discussion. I suggest that together the Creative Practice model and Creativity-in-Context
framework may contribute to a body of future research including new methods of investigation
into the role of the physical environment in human creativity by providing a preliminary
structure to bridge research and practice.
21


CHAPTER II
CREATIVE PLACE
A REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN STRATEGIES AND NORMATIVE THEORIES
IMPLICIT IN SETTINGS TO SUPPORT CREATIVITY
Highlights
Creativity research is often categorized according to the topic of study, commonly
referred to as the "Four Ps:"Person, Process, Product, and Press. This chapter focuses on the
creative press the environments that exert "pressure" on the creative person. The creative
press literature has largely focused on the socio-cultural environment, with little consideration for
the role of the physical environment in individual creative processes. Yet, despite the lack of
substantial theoretical support from the creative press literature, some physical environments are
intentionally designed to foster both individual and social creativity. This chapter examines the
man-made artifacts of the physical environment ranging from the design of tools to the
planning policies of cities with the intention of uncovering common strategies and implicit
theories of creativity in their design. It illustrates the lack of empirical investigation into how
environmental design strategies may support creativity and highlights underlying issues that may
help to explain the gaps between the environmental design and creativity literatures.
Introduction
Review
In the first chapter I briefly described how settings (cities, landscapes, buildings, rooms,
and the artifacts within them) have historically been designed to foster creativity, yet their design
strategies are rarely based upon empirical evidence or verified through post-occupancy
evaluation. I also explained how the creativity literature is organized according to the four P's:
22


person, process, product and press. The creative press literature, which entails systematic study
of creative practitioners in their environments, has focused primarily on socio-cultural
environments and thus is insufficient for informing the design of physical settings. In this chapter
I will conduct a more detailed cross-disciplinary review of the environmental design literature
that addresses creativity.
Thesis
I will illustrate in this chapter how a cross-disciplinary review of the environmental
design literature is essential for understanding key issues concerning 1) how the relationship
between environmental design and creativity has been considered in settings and products, and
2) why common design strategies to support creativity have produced inconsistent results. Such
a review is unusual in environmental design, where scholarly publications tend to be discipline-
specific. This cross-disciplinary review reveals three common design strategies employed to
support creativity across different scales of the designed environment. They are listed in order of
the frequency with which they are referenced with respect to creativity in the literature. The first
strategy, links/nodes, is intended to increase social interaction and collaboration by creating
areas of social density and connectivity. Inspiration, the second strategy, makes use of the
attributes, materials, and natural elements believed to appeal to creative practitioners in order to
provide aesthetically pleasing settings. Flexibility is the third strategy often referenced in the
literature, however the term is not used consistently. Each design strategy thus suggests a
different normative theory about the relationship between the creative person and the designed
environment during creativity: 1) that environmental designs can determine social interactions
and thus increase creativity, 2) that the aesthetics of a setting may influence intuitive creative
processes, and 3) environmental designs cannot predict creative behavior so users should
customize flexible settings to suit their needs.
23


Significance
This chapter seeks to illustrate the need for a common framework to guide the design
and evaluation of settings intended to support creativity. The following review of the
environmental design literature suggests that 1) common design strategies are found across
scales of the designed environment, 2) the normative theories implicit in these design strategies
are generally based on anecdote, folk knowledge, and people's preferences for certain
environmental features, 3) the perceived effectiveness of these design strategies is inconsistent,
and 4) the few empirical studies that examine the effect of environmental design strategies on
creative productivity yield results that often appear to contradict the normative design theories
upon which they are based. The significance of this review is that it reveals that the role of the
designed environment in creativity is a "chicken-and-egg" problem. Environmental design
strategies rely largely on anecdote and folk knowledge, which yield inconsistent outcomes. The
apparent ineffectiveness of environmental design to produce predictable outcomes leads
creativity researchers like Amabile (1998) to suggest that the physical environment is not
important for creativity. Yet, without a sufficient creativity theory to guide empirical investigation
in environmental design, environmental design research currently consists primarily of studies
that examine people's preferences for different environmental features during creativity
instead of examining the role such features might play in the creative process. This suggests that
without a theoretical framework to link environmental design and creativity, creativity researchers
may continue to ignore the physical context of creativity and environmental designers may
continue to replicate ineffective design strategies to support creativity.
Creative Press (Place)
Press is a term introduced by Murray (1938) to broadly describe environmental pressures
that influence people's behavior. Much of the creative press literature has emerged in the past 35
years and emphasizes the influences of social environments on creativity (Amabile 8i Pillemer,
2012). Teresa Amabile (1983), whose research focuses on the social psychology of creativity,
24


formulated the componential model of creativity, which describes the relationship between intra-
individual components (e.g. skills and motivation) and the social environment (an external
component.) Componential models describe the separate component necessary (but not
individually sufficient) for creativity to happen (T. B. Ward & Saunders, 2003). A number of
researchers have developed their own componential models based on Amabile's work (Amabile &
Pillemer, 2012).
Today four influential componential models are those developed by Gruber (1988),
Amabile et al. (1996), Sternberg and Lubart (1991), and Feldman, Csikszentmihalyi, and Gardner
(1994a). Gruber's (1988) evolving systems model approaches creativity from the developmental
perspective, describing how it evolves over time and is based on new schemas that emerge from
encounters with a variety of different experiences and social situations. Amabile's (1996)
componential model demonstrates the effect of the social environment on a person's task
motivation, domain-relevant skills, and creativity-relevant skills. In their investment theory of
creativity, Sternberg and Lubart (1991) suggest that six resources work together to form a
creative investment: intellectual processes, knowledge, intellectual styles, personality, motivation,
and environmental context. They hypothesize that creative practitioners "buy low" by investing in
creative problems and ideas that are little known or previously abandoned and present their work
when it is likely to be most favorably received, thus "selling high." Finally, the DIF model
developed by Feldman, Csikszentmihalyi, and Gardner (1994a) describes creativity as an
interaction of three systems: 'domain,' 'individual,' and 'field.' The domain consists of the
knowledge, rules, and procedures for a specific discipline and the field is the members of the
discipline. They suggest that the field must not only judge the product of a creative process to be
creative, but the product itself must also transform the domain. There are no componential
models that include the physical environment with respect to creativity.
This review will draw together the literatures that consider the physical context of
creativity. Recently, Runco (2007b) has recommended sub-categorizing the press literature by
distinguishing distal press, such as historical and cultural influences, from immediate press, which
25


he refers to as place. This chapter will focus on a sub-set of the place literature by addressing
primarily the physical aspect of place. I will refer collectively to the environmental design
literature in the following sections as the creative place literature.
In the following sections I have organized the creative place literature by discipline, with
the creative city literature presented first. The creative city literature is the largest body and
frames the discussion for the remaining sections. The remaining literatures are organized by
scale around the disciplines of urban design, landscape architecture, architecture, interior design,
and product design. For each of these scales, I will describe the design strategies that have
commonly been employed to support creativity. I will also discuss how these design strategies
are informed by different implicit theories of creativity and normative theories about the role of
the designed environment in creativity. Although some environmental design scales appear to
have been the focus of little or no empirical investigation, I will compare research findings with
the design strategies whenever possible to reveal both similarities and inconsistencies.
Creative Cities and Regions
It is often said, "necessity is the mother of invention." In recent decades many cities and
regions have felt the pressures of scarcity due to dwindling resources, growing unemployment,
and the changing global economy (Apitzsch & Piotti, 2012) and in response have brought
innovation and creativity to the forefront of discussions about city planning and development
policies as a means to attract creative professionals and improve economic competitiveness
(Currid, 2009; Florida, 2002a, 2012; Hilpert, 1991; Mawson, Begg, Fairley, & Foley, 1990). Cities
have been a dominant focus of the creative place literature in part because there is compelling
evidence to suggest that levels of innovation rise exponentially with an increase in population
density (Bettencourt et al., 2007). The scholarly literature at the city/regional scale considers
creativity through a socio-economic lens, as a form of human capital (Florida, 2002a, 2012;
Landry, 2000, 2006). At the foundation of this movement is the question of whether geographical
proximity is necessary and sufficient to enhance creativity. The creative city literature generally
26


considers four dimensions: economic, social, environmental, and cultural (Landry, 2000). Three
main themes emerge from the environmental dimension: networks and clusters, density and
diversity, and flexibility (Florida, 2002a; Landry, 2000).
Overview
Historically, some cities (like Athens, Florence, and Paris) have been associated with
periods of high levels of creativity. Prior to the early 2000's, however, the geography of creativity
at the city or regional scale was not a widely recognized concept (Landry, 2006). Two books,
published within a couple years of each other, spurred a global paradigm shift by introducing
strategies to encourage growth of creative capital into the planning policies of cities: The Creative
City: A Toolkit for Urban Innovators by Charles Landry (2000) and The Rise of the Creative Class
by Richard Florida (2002a). Based on studies of European cities conducted with Comedia, a think
tank Landry founded in 1978, he and Bianchini (1994) proposed the notion of "the creative city"
as a solution to the problems of modern society in a small publication. It was not until a decade
later when Landry developed his research into a toolkit for city planners and managers and the
effects of global restructuring were beginning to profoundly impact the economies of cities in
North America and Europe that the concept began to gain popular attention (Landry, 2006).
Landry (2000) identifies key criteria that distinguish a creative city, including the environmental
factors: density, diversity, distinctiveness, and linkages. It was the work of economist Richard
Florida, however, that truly galvanized the creative city movement (Landry, 2006). Florida
(2002a) popularized the idea that a "creative class" of people profoundly influences economic
conditions and social norms. He first classifies these creative class people as a form of human
capital and then identifies the environmental factors that influence their decisions to live in a
particular place. Landry (2000), Florida (2002a), and others identify some similar characteristics
of creative cities, such as networks/linkages, clusters/scenes, density, diversity, and flexibility.
27


Despite the popularity of his ideas and widespread adoption of them into planning
practices, negative critiques of Florida's work have been numerous.11 Fie has been criticized for
his definition and measurement of the creative class (e.g. conflating creativity with educational
attainment) (Markusen, 2006); use of same-sex male households as a measure for diversity (T.
N. Clark, 2004; Markusen, 2006); an inability to describe significant correlation between level of
creativity and the growth of cities (Malanga, 2004); failure to identify causal mechanisms
(Huggins & Clifton, 2011; Peck, 2005; A. J. Scott, 2006); prejudicing urban areas as more
creative than suburban or rural areas without examining the spatial distribution of where creative
practitioners live and work (Huggins & Clifton, 2011; Stam, De Jong, & Marlet, 2008); and even
running the risk of "hyping the concept out of favour" (Landry, 2006). Nonetheless, as of 2006
there were over 60 self-proclaimed creative cities (Landry, 2006) demarking a profound shift
in thinking about creativity from something that happens solely in the mind of the individual to
that of a socially situated, collaborative process.
In the next sections I will introduce the design strategies and planning policies commonly
employed to increase creative productivity in the city. Some design strategies are simply aimed at
attracting creative practitioners in order to increase the city population, because larger cities
appear to have exponentially higher rates of creativity (Florida, 2002a; Johnson, 2010; Landry,
2000). These often entail providing the type of city attributes believed desirable by creative
practitioners such as ready access to outdoor recreation opportunities and cultural venues.
Other design strategies are geared toward facilitating knowledge transfer and the diffusion and
adoption of innovation (Blair, 2009; Florida, Mellander, 8i Stolarick, 2010; Landry 8i Bianchini,
1994; Landry, 2000; O'Connor, 2004; Stolarick 8i Florida, 2006). Three common spatial themes
emerge from this second strategy: 1) network and cluster configurations, 2) density and diversity
characteristics, and 3) flexibility attributes that allow places to change and evolve over time. 11
11 Florida has also been accused of promoting neo-liberalism, although this discussion is beyond
the scope of this dissertation, see for example Zimmerman (2008), Christophers (2008), and
Markusen (2006).
28


Although they are sometimes addressed separately in the literature, I consider the first two
themes different aspects of the same link/nodes design strategy.
Links and Nodes: Social Interaction and Creativity
The diffusion and adoption of innovation.
Much of the research on the creative city or region is marked by the tendency to frame
the diffusion and adoption of creative ideas in terms of clusters and networks (Apitzsch & Piotti,
2012; Harvey, Hawkins, & Thomas, 2011). A cluster is an agglomeration of people from a
particular creative industry, such as music, art, design, or fashion (Florida, 2002a), which creates
a distinct area of concentration, or node, within a city or region. Networks form the links between
clusters and determine how creative ideas are controlled, encouraged, disseminated, and/or
accepted (Apitzsch & Piotti, 2012). Networks may be physical or virtual, but the creative city
literature emphasizes physical connectivity both within a city or region and between them. This
type of links/nodes model assumes that creative production depends upon social relationships
and physical proximity (Blair, 2009; Florida et al., 2010; Landry & Bianchini, 1994; Landry, 2000;
Stolarick & Florida, 2006). Similar in concept to Amabile's (1996) componential theory, the
creative city literatures hypothesize that clusters function to disseminate both explicit knowledge
and tacit skills within the domain (Leadbeater & Oakley, 1999, p. 14; O'Connor, 2004; Ribault,
2010). The glass industry cluster in Murano, Italy, which has long been associated with a
distinctive style of decorative Venetian glassware, is a well-known example of knowledge and
skill transfer within a creative cluster. The Murano glass industry has functioned for centuries to
pass specific localized skills in glass blowing from generation to generation, from master to
apprentice, with small innovations evolving over time (Ribault, 2010). Although there has been
little empirical investigation into the role of physical networks in the transfer of either explicit
29


knowledge or tacit skills, the very nature of tacit learning suggests that physical proximity may be
important if not essential to this type of learning (O'Connor, 2004).12
Networks function as the links between clusters and serve as "gatekeepers" to control
the evaluation and dissemination of creative products. As such they can vary widely concerning
how they foster or inhibit creativity. They may contain a homogenous population who inhibit
innovation within a domain in favor of protecting traditional methods and practices; or they may
contain a very diverse membership that embraces change and rewards those who challenge the
status quo (Harrington, 2011). For example, since 1291 the Murano, Italy glass industry has been
geographically isolated on an island near Venice (Figure II.l.) Although its location was primarily
intended to reduce the risk of fire, this geographic separation also helped preserve the secrets of
the craft. Until the early 20th century the knowledge and skills associated with Venetian glasswork
were closely guarded and master glassmakers were forbidden to leave Venice under penalty of
imprisonment (Ribault, 2010). The closely controlled network allowed for the preservation and
incremental perfection of the craft for generations. Venetian glass was a highly sought out
commodity due to the scarcity and exclusivity of the product until after World War I, when the
laws regulating trade were significantly loosened (Ribault, 2010). Today the knowledge and skills
required to produce Venetian glass are widespread and have resulted in low cost production in
Asia, threatening the Murano industry, which has been slow to innovate (Ribault, 2010).
12
See Chapter III for further explanation of tacit and explicit learning.
30


Figure II.1 Map of the Island of Murano, Italy.
The Murano glass industry is geographically isolated from Venice, which helped to
preserve the secrets of the craft.
The function of cluster-network relationship bears resemblance to the DIFI (Domain
Individual Field Interaction) model of creativity (Feldman et al., 1994a), and suggests that
networks serve two primary functions in the creative process; they not only control how domain
knowledge and skills are transferred between clusters, but they also serve an evaluative role in
the adoption of creative ideas and products. When networks restricted the flow of trade secrets
between clusters while simultaneously facilitating the distribution of Murano glasswork in the
Venetian glass industry the glasswork was considered highly creative. As the restrictions on
the transfer of domain knowledge and skills between the different glass industry clusters
loosened, the glassware produced was no longer considered as unique (or creative). The industry
failed to develop new innovations to sufficiently distinguish itself from the other glass industry
clusters that began producing Venetian style glass. Research concerning networks in the creative
city literature has focused primarily on policy issues and social networks and clusters (Brennan-
Florley & Gibson, 2009; Y. Evans & Smith, 2006; Hilpert, 1991; Jayne, 2005; Landry, 2006;
O'Connor, 2004). One study by Brenan-Horley and Gibson (2009), however, uses a Graphical
Information System (GIS) to examine creative practitioners' physical networks during creativity.
Their work reveals an apparent disconnect between how the policy approach considers creative
31


clusters and networks and the more varied types of physical networks that surface when the
physical context of creativity is considered from the perspective of the creative individual
(Brennan-Horley & Gibson, 2009). This approach is unusual for the creative city literature, and
suggests that new methods like GIS may lead to greater understanding regarding the role of
physical networks in creativity. For the majority of the creative city literature, however, physical
proximity is considered as a means to foster informal social networks through serendipitous social
interactions and knowledge spillover (Johnson, 2010; Landry, 2000).
Knowledge spillover and creativity.
Density and diversity are characteristics of clusters and networks that are believed to
increase creativity in four key ways: (1) dense clusters attract creative practitioners because the
excitement generated by social and cultural stimuli motivates and inspires them (Drake, 2003;
Florida, 2002a); (2) dense clusters generate "knowledge spillover" which is transferred across
industries and sectors through geographic proximity and fosters the diffusion of innovation
(Carlino, 2001; Glaeser et al., 1992; Jacobs, 1970; Stolarick & Florida, 2006); (3) diverse
networks create tolerant environments that are more conducive to experimentation and
innovation (Florida, 2002a); and (4) networks that are both dense and diverse create resource
rich edge conditions, or adjacencies, where knowledge can easily transfer across domains
through geographic proximity and facilitate creative problem-finding and ideation (Johnson,
2010). Much of the literature addresses the affective qualities of the social environment as noted
in points (1) and (3), whereas points (2) and (4) begin to address some of the mechanisms
underlying creativity in cities by examining the role of density and diversity in knowledge transfer
and creative ideation. The affective qualities of the links/nodes approach will be discussed in the
next section. The remainder of this section will focus on the mechanisms that may help to explain
why increased density and diversity is associated with exponential leaps in creativity.
Many have written qualitatively about the creative benefits resulting from the density
and diversity of city life. Jane Jacob's (1961, 1970) description of her Greenwich New York
32


neighborhood is among the better known examples. Even in 1890 Sir Alfred Marshall (1961)
considered how urban density seemed to foster innovation and famously wrote that ideas may be
found "in the air" (p. 261). Athens during the Classical period, Renaissance Rome, and fin de
siecle Paris are just a few cities that people may commonly associate with periods of exceptional
levels of creativity. Researchers have recently been looking to quantitative measures to better
understand why some cities seem to be more creative than others. Theoretical physicist Geoffry
West and colleagues have found evidence that cities become exponentially more creative with
increased population density (Bettencourt et al., 2007). Their research suggests that creativity,
as measured by quantity of patents, research and development budgets, and creative
professions, follows a positive 1.2 power law scale relationship with city growth. This suggests
that there are mechanisms in urban environments that may enhance the creative abilities of
people, leading to increased creative productivity.
One hypothesis commonly referenced in the literature attempts to explain how density
and diversity in cities may increase creative ideation through a concept called "knowledge
spillover" (Carlino, 2001; Glaeser et al., 1992; Stolarick 8i Florida, 2006). Knowledge spillover is a
principle from economics that describes the exchange of knowledge, skills, and ideas between
people. There are two types of spillovers considered relevant to creativity: MAR spillovers and
Jacobs spillovers (Carlino, 2001). Sir Alfred Marshall developed the MAR spillovers theory in 1890;
and it was extended by Arrow in 1962 and Romer in 1986. It describes how the density of firms
within the same industry facilitates the transfer of knowledge and, consequently, increases
growth and creativity (Carlino, 2001; Glaeser et al., 1992). Jacobs spillovers are named for Jane
Jacobs's (1970) theory that the most important knowledge transfers for increasing creativity and
growth are those that occur between different industries as a result of industrial diversity in a city
(Glaeser et al., 1992). Both types of knowledge spillover lead to ideation either by obtaining
new domain-specific knowledge or by applying knowledge from another domain. This hypothesis
bears some resemblance to Sternberg and Lubart's (1991) investment theory of creativity,
33


suggesting that greater diffusion of knowledge will provide more opportunities for creative
practitioners to discover and invest in ideas.
A second hypothesis considers how density and diversity may help creative practitioners
make novel conceptual combinations (Johnson, 2010). This hypothesis is grounded in Gruber's
(1988) evolving systems model which describes how creativity develops through encounters with
different environmental situations (Johnson, 2010). Gruber's theory was largely influenced by
Charles Darwin's work on the origin of species (Gruber, 1981a, 1981b). Darwin chronicled his
creative developments in notebooks, allowing Gruber to see how this thinking was influenced by
environmental experiences. The ability to radically restructure schemas within a particular domain
is prerequisite for making creative leaps in the knowledge base within the domain (Dunbar, 1995;
Finke, 1997; Welling, 2007). Some of the most creative minds have used knowledge from other
disciplines to transform domain knowledge in their own field including Piaget (who used biology
to transform cognitive development,) Freud (who used physiology to transform psychoanalysis,)
and Darwin (who used geography and geology to transform evolutionary biology) (Dunbar,
1995). Johnson (2010) borrows a term from chemistry, describing this phenomenon as "the
adjacent possible" (pp. 23-42). Fie suggests that density and diversity in the physical
environment can influence the creative mindset about a problem or concern.
Design strategies to support knowledge transfer in the city are generally informed by
planning policies, which may delineate and describe particular development zones for different
geographic areas (e.g. business, retail, entertainment, recreation, residential, etc.). Landry
(2000) emphasizes the need for public spaces in cities that support social density and facilitate
knowledge spillover, such as public plazas; urban centers (where the majority of public facilities
are located); meeting places (conference facilities as well as bars, clubs, and coffee shops);
research and educational facilities; and cultural facilities that offer affordable entertainment (pp.
119-123). Landry (2000, pp. 34-35) and Florida (2002a, pp. 283-314) both describe how the city
urban core may provide a central hub around which other nodes of social density may be
organized in an inner ring. This spatial arrangement is believed to facilitate connectivity between
34


the nodes (Landry, 2006). Thus many of the design strategies referenced in the creative city
literature are founded on the belief that, in the designed environment, cluster density will foster
knowledge spillover within a particular domain and cluster diversity will create edge conditions
where rich cross-disciplinary knowledge spillover increases creative ideation.
Figure II.2 Downtown Boulder, CO.
Boulder, CO was ranked highest on Florida's (2012) creativity index (see Appendix Table
A.2 in his book). The Pearl Street Mall in downtown Boulder offers pedestrian
connections between the public plaza, meeting places, and cultural facilities located in
the city urban center. Image from www.sanares.com/colorado/boulder/boulder.htm
35


Figure II.3 Map of Boulder, CO Greenbelt and Attractions.
Features of Boulder include close geographic proximity between the urban center
(downtown), education hub (university), retail hub (pedestrian mall), and
transportation hubs (bus, plane, and highway). Recreations opportunities are
offered by the surrounding greenbelt and nearby Rocky Mountains.
Inspirational Settings: Motivation and Creativity
Much of the environmental design literature at the city and regional scale is based on the
assumption that attracting more people (and particularly creative practitioners) to a city or region
will cause an exponential increase in creative productivity (Florida, 2012, pp. 304-349).13 Florida
(2002a) argues that the physical attractions that most cities emphasize (sports arenas, shopping
malls, amusement parks, etc.) are not attractors for the creative class (p. 218). Instead he
13 Florida (2012) has been criticized for presenting a tautological argument that "creative people
seek out places that draw a lot of creative people." (See for example Macgillis (2009)). In his
defense, he references Aaron Renn's explanation that urban development is tautological, because
it is a "positive feedback system" (p. 318).
36


suggests that cities focus their efforts on developing the "just-in-time" recreational opportunities
that creative practitioners have expressed preferences for such as park and trail systems and
pedestrian friendly nightlife attractions that include cultural venues, bars, clubs, and coffee shops
(pp. 224-225). Design strategies to encourage creative productivity in the city thus often focus on
developing these types of attractions to bring more creative practitioners to a city or region
(Florida, 2002a; Landry, 2000).
Figure II.4 The Inspirational Rocky Mountain Setting in Boulder, CO.
Boulder attracts creative practitioners despite the relatively high cost of living.
Image from the University of Colorado website
http://ibq.colorado.edu/qeneral information/about boulder.html
Of the creative city researchers, Florida, an urban planner, focuses the most on design
strategies to influence the physical environment (2002a, pp. 215-234). Yet even he is primarily
concerned with the economic geography of cities, which focuses on planning policies to address
the socio-cultural creative environment (Florida et al., 2010; Florida, 1999, 2002b, 2002c;
Stolarick & Florida, 2006). Although networks may be considered as physical artifacts (e.g. roads,
bike paths, transit lines, etc.) the creative city literature focuses primarily on socio-cultural
networks, formed by conditions of social diversity and geographic proximity (Florida, 2002a,
37


2012; Landry, 2000, pp. 111-113). Diverse places may create the tolerant social networks that
inspire and motivate experimentation and innovation (Drake, 2003; Florida, 2012, pp. 293-294;
Landry, 2000, pp. 111-113; Stolarick & Florida, 2006).
Florida (2002a, 2012) describes how cities that inspire and motivate creative practitioners
possess the 3T's: Technology, Talent, and Tolerance. Technology references the level of
innovation (measured by number of patents) and concentration of high-tech industries in a city
or region. Talent refers to the percentage of people working in a creative industry (Creative Class
Index).14 Tolerance concerns how receptive a city or region is to innovative ideas. Florida uses
the Composite Diversity Index, which includes three measures: The Melting Pot index
(percentage of immigrants), the Gay Index (percentage of the population who identify as gay for
sexual orientation), and the Bohemian Index (percentage of people working in creative arts
professions.) This combination of existing innovation, intelligent people, and socio-cultural
diversity, Florida believes, creates an ideal setting to foster creativity. Amabile's (1996)
componential model also emphasizes the motivational significance for the social environment in
creativity. The numerous parallels between her work on workplace environments and Florida's
creative city research are discussed later in this chapter. Tolerant environments are thus believed
to reduce barriers to creative exploration and risk-taking (Amabile et al., 1996; Csikszentmihalyi,
1996; Feldman et al., 1994a; Florida, 2002a)
Flexibility: The Temporal Nature of Exploration Zones in the City
Flexibility is an attribute frequently associated with a variety of creative environments,
and the city where creative industries must respond to economic uncertainty, exploit informal
networks, and depend upon flexible labor conditions is no exception (Apitzsch & Piotti, 2012;
Haunschild, 2003; McKinlay & Smith, 2009). The uncertain and transitory nature of creative
14 In his original research on the creative class, Florida (2002a) combined the Creative Class
Indicator with a Human Capital Index (HCI), determined by the level of educational attainment of
the area's population. (HCI is based on the percentage of the population who have a Bachelor's
degree or higher.) In response to criticisms that he conflated creativity with education, he
removed the human capital measure and found similar results (Florida, 2012, p. 231).
38


industries is considered unique. City planning policies have attempted to remove structural
barriers and provide strategies to adapt to the spontaneous and sometimes chaotic evolution of
informal clusters and networks that can emerge within a creative city or region (Apitzsch & Piotti,
2012; Landry, 2000, pp. 224-253). Historically many cities have experienced an ebb and flow of
creative production (Landry, 2000, pp. 205-210). The spectacular levels of creativity and
innovation associated with Classical Athens, Renaissance Rome, or fin de siecle Paris, suggest
that while a particular environment may engender high levels of creativity, the effect appears to
be temporary. Although there has been little empirical investigation into the mechanisms behind
this phenomenon, I posit that mature creative clusters may suffer from a concept in creativity
called the cost of expertise and flexible environments may help to ameliorate this problem.
Although adequate domain knowledge is essential to be creative, expertise can also
create barriers to creativity (Mark A. Runco, 2007a, p. 225). Experts have large knowledge bases
that are organized in sophisticated schemas with multiple interconnections between knowledge
(R. J. Sternberg, 2006a). Unlike novices, their knowledge tends to be highly organized and
structured by years of experience. Although this complex knowledge structure may facilitate
creativity, it may also lead to problems developing creative insights (Runco, 2007). Experts tend
to make assumptions and rely on tacit understandings instead of questioning the way knowledge
is structured in their own domain (Sternberg, 2006). Novices, on the other hand, have much
looser systems of knowledge making it easier to restructure schemas to develop novel insights
(Runco, 2007). It is perhaps for this reason that many creative practitioners move from one field
to another creating what Runco (2007) refers to as "professional marginality." Florida (2012)
makes particular mention of physical mobility among creative practitioners (p.306-308). Such
mobility may help to determine the natural lifecycle of creative clusters.
Mobility may also help to increase creativity through a concept called reseeding (Fischer
& Ostwald, 2002; Fischer et al., 2001). Seeds are the knowledge, ideas, skills, processes, tools,
products, and methods found within a creative cluster or node (Fischer et al., 2001; Harrington,
2011). As that cluster matures, rates of creative productivity typically peak and then begin to
39


decline. The insertion of new knowledge or restructuring of existing knowledge within the cluster
(reseeding) may improve creative productivity once again (Fischer & Ostwald, 2002; Fischer et
al., 2001). This suggests that mobility is instrumental to the reseeding process and,
consequently, creative productivity both for the creative practitioner as well as the creative
cluster. Creative practitioners may seek out environments where they will encounter new seeds
for creativity (Flarrington, 2011). Conversely, their participation in new environments may initiate
a reseeding process for those creative clusters. The creative city design strategies have focused
on attracting and retaining the mobile creative population (Florida, 2012).15 The concept of
cluster reseeding suggests, however, that some mobility among the creative population may be
beneficial.
Creative Cities as Places of Problem-Finding and Evaluation
There is a clear focus on the social context of creativity in both the creative city literature
and the componential models of creativity. From the creative city literature five implicit theories
about the relationship between the physical context of the city emerge: 1) physical socio-cultural
networks serve as gatekeepers for the evaluation and dissemination of creative products or
ideas; 2) social density and geographic proximity facilitate the transfer of explicit and tacit
domain knowledge and skills required for creativity; 3) diverse clusters foster cross-disciplinary
interactions, which facilitates seeding of creative ideas and paradigmatic shifts within a domain;
4) diverse networks create an inspirational climate, conducive to motivating creative practitioners
to take risks and experiment, and 5) the temporal nature of creativity suggests that flexible
environments allow creativity to develop over time and respond to the ebb and flow of creative
cluster formations. These theories describe how the creative city may play a role in both the
adoption and diffusion of creative ideas. It is possible, therefore, that cities may play a role in
15 The creative city literature often considers creativity from an economic geography perspective.
It is possible that this has focused empirical investigations around concerns for how to attract
and retain a mobile creative population, ignoring the potential benefits for creativity of some
mobility within a city or region.
40


how people find creative problems to pursue and how their creative ideas and products are
implemented and evaluated by others.
Limitations of the Creative City Approach
There are several significant limitations of the creative city with regard to how it may
successfully inform design strategies. First, a review of the creative city literature reveals a lack
of investigation into the relationship of the city with the suburban and rural geographies of a
creative region. Critics have argued that this literature prejudices the city as the only place to be
creative, and recommends researchers look at larger regions and also examine individual
processes to see how and when people are creative in the city (Brennan-Florley & Gibson, 2009;
Drake, 2003; Morris, 2005). Second, the literature review presents a narrow focus on the physical
attributes of the designed environment as mediator for social interactions. This is a theme that is
prevalent at other scales of the designed environment as well. Although the body of creative city
literature does acknowledge the relationship between place and personal inspiration, it focuses
almost entirely on social interactions while neglecting individual creativity (Drake, 2003). It does
not consider how features of the designed environment may play a role in non-social creative
processes. The most significant shortcoming of the creative city literature, however, is that it has
failed to empirically identify causal mechanisms to explain how environmental design strategies
may help to increase creative productivity (Huggins & Clifton, 2011; Markusen, 2006; Peck, 2005;
A. J. Scott, 2006).
The most compelling evidence that cities may cause an increase in creative productivity
is the study by Geoffry West and colleagues (Bettencourt et al., 2007), which showed that
creative productivity follows a positive 1.2 power law scale relationship with city growth. This
suggests that there are mechanisms in urban environments that may enhance the creative
abilities of people, leading to increased creative productivity. Florida's (2012) research has also
uncovered direct correlations between the percentage of creative workers in a city, levels of
technological innovation, and social diversity, suggesting that all three components are necessary
41


for economic development (p. 228). The policy decisions and design strategies aimed at
increasing creative productivity are primarily based on this descriptive evidence. The assumption
that increasing the density of a creative population in a city will increase creative productivity has
not been empirically tested.
Summary of Key Findings from the Creative City Literature
Empirical findings suggest that cities with higher creative population densities have
exponentially higher rates of creative productivity.
City planning strategies have focused on "attracting and connecting" creative people by
appealing to their preferences for certain amenities.
Implicit in these planning policies is the belief that creative productivity increases with social
interaction through knowledge spillover.
There does not appear to be any empirical evidence to validate the effectiveness of these
planning policies.
Urban Design: Creative Districts and Neighborhoods
Urban design is primarily distinguished from the city planning literature by its focus on
the proactive, physical design of urban spaces (Saelens, Sallis, 81 Frank, 2003). City planning
emphasizes regulatory policies that may influence physical designs by considering the interaction
between physical, social, and political factors in a city or region. Urban design is more concerned
about the relationship between buildings and exterior spaces and the effect these relationships
have on the people who use them (Carmona, Fleath, Oc, 8iTiesdell, 2003; Saelens et al., 2003).
Urban design is not specifically limited to a particular geographic size, but for the purposes of this
literature review I will delimit the scale to the area of a neighborhood or district. This geographic
area is a size within the realm of the average pedestrian or bicyclist at its largest.
There is no evidence of explicit empirical investigation into the role of urban design in
creativity, however there is a recent stream of literature that considers how creative practitioners
42


seek out different types of environments (creative milieus) during their creative processes
(Borggren, 2010; Meusburger, 2009; Tornqvist, 2004; Wu, Wen, Wu, & Lin, 2007). This concept
is also a key theme in an earlier seminar report authored by Ann Buttimer (1983). She describes
the results of a conference held in June 1978 in Sigtuna, Sweden where 45 scholars from diverse
disciplinary fields met to discuss the physical context of creativity. Several key themes emerged
from the conference. First, when considering the context of creativity, it is most useful to
consider creativity as a process that entails different stages. Second, the significance of context
for the participants varies with the creative stage. Third, styles of communication during
creativity also vary according to the creative stage. Although the participants could not agree on
the specific stages in the creative process, they did agree that they all sought out different types
of environments according to their perception of the stage in which they were engaged. Many of
the participants described moving between their offices, outdoor settings, and third places (such
as the coffee shop).
Third Places
The third place is a concept developed by Oldenburg (1989) to describe the role of
informal public gathering spaces in communities. Third places are the coffee shops, pubs, cafes,
markets, community centers, or other places where people seek informal social interaction.
Oldenburg explains that people inhabit home (first place) and work (second place) to meet a
need, such as to sleep or to earn a living. The third place is inhabited by choice. Creative
practitioners often talk about going to third places as part of their creative processes (Buttimer,
1983; Tdrnqvist, 2004; Wu et al., 2007). Historically the coffee house has been a place for the
exchange of knowledge and scholarly debate (Livingstone, 2003, pp. 84-86). The London coffee
houses in the 17th and 18th centuries often hosted scientific lectures and became places of
knowledge propagation through the mingling of people from different walks of life (Livingstone,
2003, p. 84). Although third places are recommended as places to support creativity (Florida,
2002a, 2012; Landry, 2000), there has been little empirical examination of their modern day role
43


in the creative process (Wu et al., 2007). Based on Florida's work, Wu et al. (2007) examine the
modern coffee house in the cities of Taipai and Flsinchu. They found that the coffee house serves
as a "social bridge" between talent and entrepreneurship among urban and professional people.
Because the researchers did not find a relationship between third places and social diversity, they
suggest that like-minded people use the coffee shop as a place to network and share ideas.
Creative practitioners also use third places for solitary work. Buttimer (1983) describes
how creative practitioners sometimes feel more productive there than in their offices.
Csikszentmihalyi (1996) also found that many creative practitioners like to work alone in a social
context. Fie suggests that they seem to draw inspiration and motivation from such settings.
Although third places are generally considered to be buildings, the preference that some people
have for working on the train was mentioned in both Buttimer's (1983) report and in Tornqvist's
(2004) analysis of biographies written about Nobel Laureates.
Interstitial Spaces
There are many stories by creative practitioners about the importance of interstitial
spaces the areas between places like buildings, districts, or cities to their creative processes
(Buttimer, 1983; Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; Tdrnqvist, 2004). Tornqvist (2004), examines the role of
geographic mobility and travel in his study of Nobel Laureates and describes how the train was
instrumental to Niels Bohr's creative process. Tdrnqvist suggests that Bohr's preference for the
train as a place of both solitary and social work may help to explain the central role he played in
the physics network during his lifespan. Trains and carriages are so often referenced in
anecdotes about creativity that Harding and Nichols (1948) suggest that the rhythm of these
transportation modes may induce in creative practitioners a hypnotic state conducive to
ideation.16 Mozart famously described in his correspondences how his creative ideas often came
during a carriage ride, while walking, or at night when he couldn't sleep (Holmes, 1845, p. 329).
The interstitial spaces between destinations such as the train, time sitting in traffic while
16 This phenomenon is commonly referred to as the "bed, bus, and bath," referring to the places
people often associate with "a-ha" moments of creative insight (Dart, 1989).
44


driving, the bicycle ride, and the walk are often described by creative practitioners as
opportunities to think (Buttimer, 1983; Ghiselin, 1954).
Urban Design Strategies for Creativity
Third places and interstitial spaces are themes prevalent in urban design strategies to
promote creativity through the physical design of universities and colleges. Architectural historian
Paul Turner (1984) describes how the designs of the early American colleges were based on a
radical new curriculum intended to foster creative innovation in their students. He hypothesizes
that the great variety in building design among the nine colonial colleges was a result of
experimentation in architecture designed to support these educational goals. Some of these
design strategies intended to create an "academic village", a concept that persists in collegiate
planning to this day (Turner, 1984, p. 3). The extensive grassy lawns of the campus invite
strolling or bicycling in the interstitial spaces between buildings, and also foster a feeling of
connection and receptivity to the world at large. The integration of working, living, dining, and
recreation facilities into one campus plan is intended to create a sense of community that the
students and faculty are one body working together to creatively solve the world's problems. The
third spaces of the dining halls, recreational facilities, and plazas invite informal social
interactions, connecting spaces of solitary reflection like offices, dormitories, and libraries. Today,
however, many universities are re-envisioning the library as another third space to support social
creativity. This likely reflects the current shift in thinking from creativity and learning as primarily
solitary activities to social processes.
45


Figure II.5 The Norlin Library Commons, University of Colorado, Boulder.
The library was recently renovated as a "third place" to include a coffee bar,
computer stations, and a variety of reconfigurable seating options. Image from
the University of Colorado website at
http://ucblibraries.colorado.edu/about/coffee.htm
Mobility and Creativity
Although empirical investigation into the relationship between urban design and creativity
is virtually nonexistent, the stories creative practitioners tell about their creative processes
suggest that this scale of the designed environment may be overlooked. These people seem to
vote with their feet. They change environments in an effort to keep their creative productivity
high (Buttimer, 1983). They describe how they take advantage of opportunities to move between
home, work, and third places and even use the interstitial spaces between these places as part
of their creative process. Buttimer (1983) suggests that "creative work demands quiet and
privacy, but also needs movement and a sense of change..." (p. 59.) Despite the lack of research
in this area, it appears that urban designs may incorporate some of the same strategies used in
city planning. On the university campus, for example, the primary spatial form is the links/nodes
arrangement where landscaped lawns form interstitial spaces, linking the nodes of living,
working, and socializing located in dormitories, classrooms, dining halls, and libraries.
46


Figure II.6 The Campus of the University of Colorado, Boulder.
Interstitial spaces such as plazas and lawns link destinations at the University of
Colorado in Boulder and provide opportunities for physical activity, relaxation,
and informal social gatherings. Photograph by Neil Kearney.
Summary of Key Findings from the Urban Design Literature
People seek out third places for solitary and social work.
People prefer to move to different spaces when creative productivity wanes.
The interstitial spaces between destinations may also support creative processes.
There does not appear to be any empirical investigation into the effectiveness of design
strategies at this scale.
Creativity and Landscape Architecture
The role of landscape architecture in creativity is primarily addressed through the
concept of "greening" the creative city (Florida, 2002a, 2012; Landry & Bianchini, 1994; Landry,
2000).17 Natural areas are most often described as desirable features of a creative city (or as
ideal characteristics of any healthy city), but without much rationale for the role they may
17 There is another body of Landscape Architecture literature that considers the relationship
between creativity and landscape design, but it is primarily focused around children's playscapes
and beyond the scope of this dissertation. I will describe one concept from this literature, the
theory of "loose parts," in Chapter 7.
47


specifically play in the creative process (Landry & Bianchini, 1994; Landry, 2000, 2006). This
approach generally seems to reflect an acknowledgement of people's preferences for natural
views during creativity. Florida (2012), however, suggests that for many creative practitioners,
outdoor leisure activities (such as walking, running, rock climbing, bicycling, kayaking, and
snowboarding) appear to be part of their creative work process (pp. 133-147). Banks (2009) has
coined the term "instrumental leisure" to describe the phenomenon of employing leisure activities
in service to economic productivity. Natural areas that afford recreational activities are one of
the city attributes that Florida suggests may help to attract and retain a creative population.
Instrumental Leisure
Anecdotes about creative practitioners suggest that the integration of leisure activities
(especially walking) into the creative process is commonplace (Buttimer, 1983; Ghiselin, 1954).
Research on the relationship between exercise and creativity also suggests that creative
productivity increases after exercise (Ben-Soussan, Glicksohn, Goldstein, Berkovich-Ohana, 8i
Donchin, 2013; Blanchette, Ramocki, O'del, 8i Casey, 2005; Cavallera, Boari, Labbrozzi, 8i Bello,
2011). Walking and creative thinking have historically gone hand-in-hand. The Peripatetic School
of ancient Athens was so named because its founder, Aristotle, was said to have habitually
walked together with his students while he taught (Solnit, 2001).18 According to Solnit (2001),
Hobbes, Kant, and Wittgenstein were also known to include walks as part of their daily routines.
More recently, scientists have been examining the positive effects of walking in natural settings
on attention and memory (Berman, Jonides, 8i Kaplan, 2008; Hartig, Evans, Jamner, Davis, 8i
Garling, 2003)19. These studies suggest that natural landscapes may help to combat cognitive
18 Peripatetic means "one who walks habitually and extensively" (Solnit, 2001, p. 15). According
to Solnit, (2001) the Sophists, who predated the Peripatetics, are also associated with habitual
walking and teaching.
19 Many studies consider the effect of nature on attention in both sedentary and active (walking)
conditions, with positive effects found in both conditions. Physical activity alone has also been
shown to have a positive effect on cognition in numerous studies and with people of different
ages. See for example Hillman et al. (2008) and Weuve (2004).
48


fatigue (Berman et al., 2008; Herzog, Colleen, Maguire, 81 Nebel, 2003; Kaplan, 1995; Van Den
Berg, Hartig, 8i Staats, 2007).
Florida (2012) references some of this research to describe how outdoor areas may play
an instrumental role in creative work (pp. 133-147). He cites a study conducted by Marc Berman
and colleagues (2008) that compared the restorative effects of a 50 minute walk in a natural
setting (Ann Arbor arboretum) versus an urban setting (downtown Ann Arbor, MI). The
researchers found that cognitive attention (as measured by a backwards digit-span task and the
Attention Network task) was significantly improved in the natural setting condition. This study
was based on Kaplan's (1995) Attention Restoration Theory (ART) which hypothesizes that
stimuli from natural settings grab people's attention in a "bottom-up" fashion, allowing directed
attention to replenish. There does not appear to be any empirical investigation into the role of
walking in natural settings on creativity in particular. However, creativity is understood to entail
ordinary cognitive processes thus the apparent benefits of walking in natural settings for
attention and memory may also help to explain why many creative practitioners incorporate such
activities into their routines.
Emerging research suggests that there may be some evidence behind the benefits of
instrumental leisure to creativity. Blanchette et al. (2005) found that moderate aerobic exercise
had immediate positive effects as well as enduring residual effects on creative productivity.
Cavallera et al. (2011) found that participation in sports had a positive effect on creative
elaboration. Ben-Soussan et al. (2013) examined whether it is the cognitive or motor effects of
exercise that positively influence ideational fluency and concluded that it is the combination that
is effective. The concept of instrumental leisure is beginning to influence the design of some
landscapes intended to support creativity. The landscape at Pixar in Emeryville, CA, designed by
Peter Walker Partners (PWP), is one such example (Searer, 2012). PWP designed the 20 acre
grounds as a place to invite both casual leisure activities and more structured exercise
opportunities. The site includes soccer fields, a volleyball court, a basketball court, an Olympic
swimming pool, and jogging trails. It also provides an outdoor amphitheater, a variety of
49


vegetable and flower gardens, wildflower meadows, and numerous native and exotic trees to
foster casual exploration of the grounds. The intention was to create "many seemingly
undiscovered places to walk, sit and talk, or eat lunch."
Inspirational Settings
People often claim to draw inspiration from majestic, natural settings during the creative
process (Buttimer, 1983; Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; Jermome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the
Study of Invention and Innovation, 2007; McCoy 8i Evans, 2002). The association of creativity
with majestic settings has frequently influenced the selection of building sites toward places that
maximize natural views. Two famous scientific facilities are well known for their spectacular
landscapes: The Mesa Lab for the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder,
CO and The Salk Institute in La Jolla, CA.20 Designed by I.M. Pei, the Mesa Lab sits high above
the Boulder valley in Colorado, where Table Mesa meets the Flatirons formations of the Rocky
Mountain foothills (2.7).
20 La Jolla, CA is in the San Diego area, which ranked sixth on Richard Florida's (2012) Creativity
Index for 2010.
50


Figure II.7 The Mesa Lab by I.M. Pei in Boulder, CO.
I.M.Pei's Mesa Lab at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) is
located on the Table Mesa. The facility is surrounded by acres of designated
open space and has views of the Rocky Mountain Flatirons and the Boulder
Valley. Image from the NCAR website at
http://nar.ucar.edu/2012/lar/paae/ncar-wide-efforts
The Mesa Lab was constructed in an area beyond the "blue line," which is intended to restrict
development adjacent to the foothills in order to retain views and open space for the city
residents (S. W. Leslie, 2010). As a condition of the City of Boulder's development terms, NCAR
agreed to leave its 565 acre parcel on the mesa as public open space, surrounding the facility
with a naturalistic landscape (S. W. Leslie, 2010). Leslie (2008, 2010) describes how Pei's design
responds to the scientists' requests for views from their offices, benches located around the site
where they could sit and take in the scenery, and a building design that would not detract from
the natural beauty of the site. Pei also provided a variety of other ways that occupants could take
in the mountain air and inspirational views from tiny perches located atop the building towers,
on an outdoor dining patio, in the formal tree-lined courtyard, and by the walkway that
connected the staff lounge to the mesa. Although high winds on the mesa often prevent these
outdoor areas from the heavy use Pei envisioned, the inspirational significance of the natural
51


landscape to the scientific work at NCAR is documented through post-occupancy interviews and
the continued tradition of annual mountain retreats.
In contrast to NCAR's naturalistic landscape, the grounds around The Salk Institute are
quite formal (2.8). The facility was designed by Louis Kahn to perch above the cliffs adjacent to
the Pacific Ocean in La Jolla, CA. The central plaza is arguably one of the most recognized
features of the facility and its form is strategically designed to draw people's attention toward the
ocean (Lobell, 2008, pp. 76-77). The Salk plaza design intends to focus and magnify the majesty
of nature.21 A central trough of water visually connects the main entrance of the facility to the
western sky, giving the illusion that the courtyard is suspended in the air. On the equinoxes the
sun sets on axis with the trough, further adding to the visual effect. The architect Stephen Holl
(1989) describes how the design of the plaza and its natural setting are "phenomenologically
linked" (pp. 9-10).
At Louis Kahn's Salk Institute, there is a time of day when the sun, reflecting on
the ocean, merges with light reflecting on the rivulet of water in the trough
bisecting the central court. Ocean and courtyard are fused by the phenomenon
of sunlight reflecting on water. Architecture and nature are joined in a
metaphysics of place.
Holl attempts to capture the experience that many people describe concerning the visual play of
light, water, surface, and sky in the design of the courtyard (Moe, 2008).
21 The courtyard was the idea of Mexican architect Louis Barragan (Kahn, 2003, pp. 208-209).
Kahn originally intended a garden with trees where the courtyard now sits; but when Barragan
saw the plans, he convinced Kahn to create a paved plaza instead, to "add another fagade, a
fagade which looks to the sky." It is unclear how much influence Baragan had on the final design
with axial water trough.
52


Figure II.8 Sunset on the Equinox at the Salk Institute in La Jolla, CA.
A crowd waits for sunset in the plaza of the Salk Institute by Louis Kahn during the
2012 autumnal equinox.
Historically there has been little scientific attempt to understand why spaces like the Salk plaza
seem to inspire creativity. There is some emerging research that uses fMRI studies to examine
the neurological effects of environmental design. Images of the Salk plaza were found to induce
contemplative states according to preliminary results from one fMRI study.22 This research
indicates that new methods of empirical investigation may eventually lead to better
understanding about the physiological effects of inspirational settings.
Summary of Key Findings from the Landscape Architecture Literature
Creative people claim to draw creative inspiration from majestic settings.
Emerging research suggests that majestic settings may induce psychological states.
Creative people engage in instrumental leisure activities to increase creative productivity.
Exercise has been found to have immediate and residual benefits for creativity.
Engagement with nature has been found to have positive effects on attention.
22 Julio Bermudez of Catholic University presented this work-in-progress on architecturally
induced contemplative states at the ANFA 2012 conference.
53


Architectural Design: Behavior Settings for Creativity
The Salk Institute and the Mesa Lab are projects commissioned by people who believed
that a signature architectural design could shape both user experiences and collective identity in
an organization (S. W. Leslie, 2008). Built in the 1960's, the projects shared common design
strategies and intentions (S. W. Leslie, 2008) although The Salk Institute is more often
regarded as an iconic example of a building designed to foster creativity (C. W. Taylor, 1988, p.
102). Jonas Salk hired Kahn to fulfill his dream of designing a place to inspire the kind of
creativity that he experienced at the St. Francis of Assisi monastery (S. W. Leslie, 2008, 2010).
Salk credited the contemplative environment at the monastery with his breakthrough in
developing the polio vaccine, and hoped that Kahn could capture some of the same aesthetic
qualities. Kahn set out to design a visually compelling facility that both captured the spirit of the
monastery and reflected his understanding about how space could foster creativity for the Salk
researchers (Kahn, 2003, pp. 132-134, 142, 207-208). He gave much consideration to the ways
the scientists worked, designing the structure to maximize inspirational views and facilitate social
interaction and collaboration among the occupants (Kahn, 2003, pp. 71, 132-134, 142-145). The
strategies that Kahn and Pei incorporated in their designs are still prevalent today: inspirational
spaces for solitary work; flexible spaces to accommodate changes in workplace practices; and
circulation configurations that link destinations with hallway nooks and crannies, gardens, and
courtyards. These places for meeting and relaxation create opportunities for social interaction
and collaboration (Kahn, 2003, p. 71; S. W. Leslie, 2008).
Circulation Configurations for Social Interaction
Similar to the patterns found in the creative city literature, buildings designed to support
creativity most often emphasize strategies intended to influence social interactions (McCoy,
2005). At the Salk Institute, Kahn separated the scientists' studies from their laboratories. He
linked the studies and labs with small courtyard spaces intended for the impromptu conversations
and collaborations that would occur as people passed by them on their way between these two
54


spaces. Prior to beginning his design, Kahn met with the scientists and learned that they had
studies adjacent to their labs. The scientists told him, however, that when they worked in the
studies they were often bothered by all the equipment noises coming from the labs (Kahn, 2003,
p. 133). He also observed that the scientists habitually ate their lunch in the lab, even though the
place was "full of microbes" (Kahn, 2003, p. 133). Although the scientists told him that it was
important that they be close to their labs, Kahn (2003) decided that "they were all wrong about
what they wanted" (p. 202) and chose to separate the laboratory "architecture of clean air" from
the study "architecture of the oak table and the rug" (p. 133). In collaboration with Salk, he
chose to locate a courtyard garden directly across from every lab and place the studies over
arcades such that they are not visible from the labs (p. 207).
Figure II.9 Cross Section of the Salk Instute Laboratory by Louis Kahn.
A sectional view showing the relationship between the column-free laboratory
spaces, interstitial service "pipe" spaces, courtyard garden, studios, and arcades.
The links/nodes design approach is prevalent in buildings intended to facilitate social
creativity, yet there is little evidence of its effectiveness at promoting social interaction or
collaboration (Fayard & Weeks, 2007; McCoy, 2005; Steen, 2009). Kahn located the labs, studios,
and dining area at the Salk as distributed nodes, which are linked by pleasant exterior spaces
where he envisioned people would stop for impromptu socialization. He even located chalkboards
on the equipment chases in the plaza so that people could jot down their ideas as they develop.
55


Although the facility is largely considered a success, many of Kahn's design strategies did not
produce the social interactions he envisioned. The scientists rarely used the studies, choosing
instead to build out office spaces in the labs and giving their postdoctoral fellows the study as a
place to work (and sometimes live) (S. W. Leslie, 2008).23 The gardens outside the laboratories
have become places to store surfboards and the plaza remains generally free of the impromptu
social collaborations Kahn imagined. Pei's Mesa Lab design has experienced similar outcomes.
Postdoctoral researchers use the "crows-nests" he designed as scientists' studies atop the towers
because they are too far from the labs. The nooks and crannies intended for social interactions
along the corridors are rarely used and the courtyard is largely deserted, its fountain long since
shut down. Social spaces that have been successful in both of these projects, however, are the
dining areas. The cafeteria at the Mesa Lab is the source of the spontaneous conversations
envisioned by Pei. Kahn's strategy of designing a small dining room may have contributed to the
social success of the outdoor dining patio below the main plaza. This area became a place where
postdoctoral fellows could dine with Salk himself.
23 On a recent visit to the Salk I had the occasion to chat with several of the scientists who have
worked there for decades as well as some of the post doctoral students. I was told several stories
about how the high cost of housing in the area meant that some junior researchers choose to live
in the studies, which have adjacent full baths. The senior scientists also shared with me stories
about the informal collaborative culture in the dining plaza.
56


I.
Figure II.10 The Dining Patio at the Salk Institute by Louis Kahn.
The dining patio at the Salk Institute is said to successfully foster the type of
informal social interactions intended by Khan in other areas of the facility. The
patio is below the main plaza, adjacent to the small dining room (located in the
lower right area of the photo) and overlooks the natural cliffs leading to the
Pacific Ocean.
Despite the apparent failure of the design strategies employed at The Salk Institute and
Mesa Lab to facilitate social interaction, many of these same strategies are used today in
buildings designed to support creativity. One such example, the newly constructed and award-
winning Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine (SCRM) building by Fentress Architects is
located across the street from the Salk Institute (Figure II. 11).24 It mirrors many of Kahn's
strategies including housing senior scientists' studies in isolated pods with views of the ocean
with the intention of "fostering collaboration and communication among researchers"
("Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine / Fentress Architects," 2011). Frank Gehry's
24 The building has received several awards since its completion in 2011: The 2012 Gold Nugget
Grand Award ("Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine Wins Gold Nugget Grand Award,"
2012), the 2012 AIA Colorado Honor Award for Built Architecture, and the 2012 AIA Denver Merit
Award for Built Architecture ("Fentress Architects take home three prestigious design awards and
Colorado Architect of the Year," 2012)
57


controversial Stata Center completed in 2004 at The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
also employs a links/nodes model (based on the suburban cul-de-sac neighborhood form) to
promote chance social encounters (Hughes, 2008).25 Gehry intended to induce the types of
serendipitous social encounters associated with the beloved (and since razed) Building 20 by
creating corridors based on a "prairie dog town" that link classrooms, an auditorium, library, and
cafe (S. W. Leslie, 2010). At Pixar the building atrium is used an attractor hub of activity nodes to
facilitate social interaction (Isaacson, 2011, pp. 430-431). It houses the employee mailboxes, a
cafe, recreational center, fitness center, and theaters. Steve Jobs famously described how he
intended to have only one restroom located in this area for the roughly 1,000 employees in order
to "make people get out of their offices and mingle in the central atrium with people they might
not otherwise see" (Isaacson, 2011, p. 431). Although there is more than one restroom location
in the current facility, John Lasseter considers the design a success, stating "I've never seen a
building that promoted collaboration and creativity as well as this one" (Isaacson, 2011, p. 431).
The perceived success of the atrium in fostering social interactions in several research facilities
has prompted Yaneva (2010) to suggest that the atrium may be more important than the lab for
creativity. In practice environmental designs intended to facilitate social interactions have often
produced unintended effects (Fayard 8i Weeks, 2007; Grajewski, 1993).
25 Users and critics have called the building "a disorienting zoo" (S. W. Leslie, 2010), "difficult-to-
alter and inflexibly complex" (Hughes, 2008).
58


Figure II.11 The Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine, La Jolla, CA.
Designed by Fentress Architects, the SCRM building incorporates private office
"pods" (colored red and beige to the left in the photo) that are separated from
each other and the rest of the building by exterior walkways.
Empirical evidence regarding the relationship between workplace design and social
interactions has been both limited and contradictory (Fayard & Weeks, 2007; McCoy, 2005). The
often-cited research by Thomas Allen (1977) suggests that frequency of all forms of
communication declines with respect to social distance, a phenomenon called the Allen Curve.
Grajewski (1993) found that 64% of creative interactions occurred in private offices, and not in
multi-purpose rooms, cafes, or meeting rooms. Similarly, social interactions were greater among
workers in enclosed office spaces than those in open office workstations in a study conducted by
Flatch (1987). Studies by Sundstrum and Flerbert (1982) and Oldham and Bass (1979) suggests
that lack of privacy leads to decreased job satisfaction. These findings run contrary to the study
by Szilagyi and Holland (Szilagyi 8i Holland, 1980) that suggests increased social density will lead
to reduced stress and improved communication and job satisfaction. Although architectural
design strategies intended to influence social behaviors persist, there appears to be a lack of
59


empirical evidence to support them. Strategies aimed at increasing social density and connectivity
may not predict increased social interactions or creative productivity.
Spatial Flexibility to Accommodate Dynamic Creative Processes
Flexibility is another common theme in buildings designed for creativity. The term is
rarely defined, however, and can mean anything from 1) giving people freedom to choose from a
variety of spaces, 2) designing spaces that are easy (and relatively inexpensive) to remodel and
reconfigure, or 3) under-designing a space so that users become "co-designers" in order to
make it functional. The first approach is evident in the design of SCRM. The Salk Institute and
Building 20 at MIT are both often described as examples of the second strategy. The third
strategy falls more directly under the realm of interior design and will be discussed in that
section.
The SCRM building by Fentress Architects provides a variety of spaces for different types
of activities and social interactions. Signage is provided outside of different rooms to describe to
occupants how the architects intended they be used. The exterior courtyard adjacent to the main
entrance hosts colorful flags that convey the purpose of the facility to foster imagination,
innovation, communication, and acceleration of research (Figure 11.12). This signage appears to
convey the implicit theories of creativity that informed the building design. For example, a space
configured for solitary work has a desk oriented to a window with a western view of the golf
course and Pacific Ocean. The signage on this space states "a green outlook" (Figure 11.13),
perhaps reflecting studies that demonstrate people's preference for views of nature during
creativity. The same signage is found on the private office "pods" that hang from the western
fagade of the building. A room on the interior of the building (Figure 11.14), configured with a
white board and informal seating, is labeled "brainstorming is a circular flow," referencing
Osborn's (1953) creative method. A small conference room, located in a corner of the building,
displays the statement "none of us is as smart as all of us" (Figure 11.15). Finally, a space with
modular workstations is labeled "plant don't land" (Figure 11.16). The personal artifacts displayed
60


on work surfaces suggest that employees have disregarded the signage in this case. With the
exception of the private office pods, all of these spaces are intended to remain open to use by
any of the building occupants.
Figure 11.12 The SCRM Main Entrance
A series of colorful flags outside of the main entrance convey the buildings
design intentions. They are labeled (from front to back) imagin[ase]on,
innov[ase]on, communic[ase]on, and acceler[ase]on.
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Figure 11.13 "A Green Outlook" Office at SCRM
Signage labeled "a green outlook" on a small room with a desk and two chairs
oriented to the western view of the golf course and Pacific Ocean.
Figure 11.14 "Brainstorming" Room at SCRM
A space designed for brainstorming is located in the center of the building with
glass walls to corridors on either side. It contains informal seating, a white
board, and technology for digital projection and teleconferencing.
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Figure 11.15 Conference Room at SCRM
Signage on a small conference room states that "none of us is as smart as all of
us," conveying the idea that creativity requires social collaboration.
Figure 11.16 Open Office Area at SCRM
A room with flexible furniture systems and a white board is labeled "land don't
plant." The personal artifacts on the desks, however, suggest that users have
already "planted."
As well known as The Salk Institute is for its plaza design, it is perhaps even more highly
regarded for its innovative and flexible laboratory design (Latour & Woolgar, 1979; S. W. Leslie,
63


2008; T. Leslie, 2003; Moe, 2008). Kahn used Vierendeel trusses and enclosed them in a service
floor above each laboratory floor (Figure 11.17). This allowed for clear spans up to 45 feet in the
laboratory below (Moe, 2008). Kahn (2003) referred to the interstitial service floor as the "pipe
space," because it provided for movement of pipes, water, and air required to reconfigure the
labs (p.209.) Salk, however, referred to it as "mesenchyme space," using the analogy of
mesenchyme tissue to describe the role the space plays in the temporal adaptability and capacity
for growth to support laboratory research (Moe, 2008). Even the curtain wall that provides
natural lighting and views to the gardens is considered a flexible and moveable system (T. Leslie,
2003). Fred Gage, a scientist at The Salk, describes how "periodically, and more often than you
would think, [they] tear out whole sections of the soft wall spaces and just redesign it" (Jermome
and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation, 2007).
Figure 11.17 Pipe Spaces at The Salk Institute, La Jolla, CA.
The pipe areas at The Salk Institute are full story spaces above the laboratories
that allow the lab spaces to be easily reconfigured.
In his book, How Buildings Learn, Brand (1994) describes the flexibility of Building 20 at
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Although it was designed as a temporary
structure to provide space for radiation research during the Manhattan Project, the building has
64


become known as one of the most creative places of our time. It was designed in an afternoon
by Don Whinston and remained in use for 50 years, housing a number of significant scientific
breakthroughs. It was the ease with which the building could by changed, however, that people
attributed to its success as a place to support creativity. As Merton Flemings describes it,
Even later, when other buildings began to go up around MIT, people still loved
that lab. And not just from memory, they loved it to work ini....If they didn't like
a wall, they could knock it out! It didn't take much more than sticking a foot
through it. (Jermome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention
and Innovation, 2007, p. 13)
Like the Salk laboratories, the construction system used in Building 20 allowed its users to easily
configure the space.
Numerous buildings have been designed with the intention of increasing the creativity of
the occupants, yet architects largely base their design decisions on intuitive knowledge gleaned
from prior personal experiences and anecdotal evidence. Design strategies from award-winning
buildings are frequently replicated in new projects, whether or not they were successful in the
original design. These decisions are infrequently substantiated by post-occupancy analysis or
other behavioral research, and at best are informed by 'fragmented empirical insights.' (Hamilton
& Watkins, 2009; Zeisel, 2006) Not only is the effect of the built environment on creativity
unmeasured, but building awards are largely based on the aesthetics of design, emphasizing the
architect's imagination and originality over the users' health, happiness, and creativity.
(Mikellides, 2008)
Summary of Key Findings from the Architecture Literature
Architects commonly replicate design strategy patterns in order to create settings to
influence social behaviors. This frequently involves physically separating building functions to
require that people move between spaces.
Anecdotal and empirical evidence suggest that these design strategy patterns produce
unintended results.
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Post occupancy evaluations are rare for buildings that are easily reconfigured, but findings do
suggest that this design strategy supports creativity.
Emerging fMRI research suggests that inspirational settings may induce physiological
responses. The relationship between such physiological responses and creativity remains
unexplored.
Interior Design: Creativity Rooms
Virginia Woolf (2001) famously said all she required to write fiction was money and a
room of her own. Many anecdotes relate the importance that creative practitioners place on the
room where they feel they are most creative. The story of Immanuel Kant is one such example.
Kant worked from a room with a view of an old church tower (De Quincey, 1873, pp. 115-116).
When a neighbor's trees grew to obscure he view he felt that it so negatively impacted his
creativity that he insisted they be cut down (De Quincey, 1873, p. 116). The view appears to
have been for Kant a significant part of his creative process. As Thomas De Quincy (1873, p.
115) observed:
During this state of repose he took his station winter and summer by the stove,
looking through the window at the old tower of Lobenicht; not that he could be
said properly to see it, but the tower rested upon his eye as distance music on
the ear-obscurely, or but half revealed to his consciousness. No words seemed
forcible enough to express his sense of the gratification which he derived from
this old tower, when seen under these circumstances of twilight and quiet
reverie.
The fascination that people have with these personal places of creativity is evident in the books
published about artists' studios, blogs on writers' offices, and the numerous museums created to
document the places where famous artists, writers, architects, and scientists worked.26 However
the small body of empirical literature in interior design focuses on creativity in the corporate
workplace. Half of the studies examine people's perceptions about how different features of
26 For books on artist studios see for example: Richards (2004), Kirwin and Lord (2007), and Fig
(2009). A blog on The Guardian website documents the spaces where writers' work ("Writers'
rooms," 2008). Some museums include The Mark Twain and Harriet Beecher Stowe houses in
Hartford CT; the studios of N.C. and Andrew Wyeth in Chadds Ford, PA; Frank Lloyd Wright's
studio in Oak Park, IL; Thomas Edison's lab in Menlo Park in New Jersey and the "Places of
Invention" exhibit at the Smithsonian Museum in Washington, DC.
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interior spaces support creativity. Of these, three compare people's experiences in open office
versus private office spaces (Ekvall 81 Tlngeberg-Andersson, 1986; Sailer, 2011;
Vithayathawornwong, Danko, 81 Tolbert, 2003) and two examine design features such as
materiality and lighting (Ceylan, Dul, 8i Aytac, 2008; McCoy 8i Evans, 2002). Other studies
consider how aspects of the interior office space (such as spatial arrangements, social density,
and noise) affect creative productivity.
Communication and Privacy
Although Virginia Woolf wrote that creativity required a room of one's own, the trend in
workplace design has been to implement open plan office systems with workstation "cubicles" to
increase communication, collaboration, and flexibility.27 Studies by Vithayathawornwong et al.
(2003), Ekvall and Tlngeberg-Andersson (1986), and Sailer (2011), however, bring into question
the benefits of open office systems for creativity. Vithayathawornwong et al. (2003) compared
perceptions of creative professionals working in four different office environments. They found
that workers perceived the environment with private offices to best support interpersonal
interactions, communication, and the exchange of information and ideas. Ekvall and Tlngeberg-
Andersson examined workers in a creative Swedish newspaper office who moved from an open
office environment to a space with private offices. The workers perceived that the move reduced
the frequency of discussions, quantity of information, and playfulness among workers, but
increased the quality of information and level of freedom in the environment. Sailer (2011) found
that spatial configurations that increased social density also increased chance encounters among
office workers. Although serendipitous social interactions are believed to increase creativity, the
workers in this study perceived that the interactions decreased their creativity by causing loss of
concentration on their work. None of these studies measured creative productivity, relying
instead on participants' perceptions of productivity. The three studies suggest that social density
27 Open offices may also be adopted for financial reasons, but this rationale was not given with
respect to the creativity literature.
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may increase social interactions. However, the quality of those interactions may not be beneficial
for creativity and their frequency may negatively impact creative productivity.
Inspirational Spaces
Daylighting, nature, color, and visual complexity.
Several studies examine people's preferences for certain interior design features during
creativity (Ceylan et al., 2008; de Korte, Kuijt, 81 Kleij, 2011; McCoy 81 Evans, 2002). Two of the
studies examined meeting rooms (Ceylan et al., 2008; de Korte et al., 2011) and one included
photographs of a variety of spaces where people might be creative including classrooms,
waiting rooms, libraries, offices, living rooms, hallways, dining facilities, sports facilities, and retail
stores (McCoy 8i Evans, 2002). Two studies found that people prefer rooms that have natural
lighting and views of nature (Ceylan et al., 2008; McCoy 8i Evans, 2002). This feature was not
examined in the third study. All three studies considered colors and materials, but the findings
were contradictory for these features. Two studies found that people preferred warmer colors
and visual complexity (Ceylan et al., 2008; McCoy 8i Evans, 2002) whereas the other study had
the opposite results. The differences may be attributed to the sample populations (undergraduate
students in the former and office managers in the latter) or the perceptions of the creative task
(divergent versus convergent thinking.) Numerous studies have found positive effects of
daylighting on mood and cognition in healthcare, educational and office settings (Boubekri, Hull,
8i Boyer, 1991; Choi, 2012; Heschong et al., n.d.; Leather, Pyrgas, Beale, 8i Lawrence, 1998;
Wang 8i Boubekri, 2010, 2011). The relationship between daylighting and creativity, however, is
not specifically investigated. Nature in the workplace has also been a topic of empirical
investigation, with several studies finding positive effects for views of indoor plants on attention
and stress (Bringslimark, Hartig, 8i Patil, 2009; Dijkstra, Pieterse, 8i Pruyn, 2008; Raanaas,
Evensen, Rich, Sjostrpm, 8i Patil, 2011). Shibata and Suzuki (2004) compared creative
productivity in three rooms (with a plant, with a magazine rack, and with no decoration.) They
found that creative performance was higher for all participants in the plant and magazine rooms,
68


and higher for female participants in the plant room. They also found that some participants used
the magazines as a visual source of information (i.e. an environmental cue) during the creativity
task, which may account for the differences between male and female participants in the plant
room.
Environmental cues.
Some emerging design strategies in workplace settings include the use of visual cues and
themed spaces intended to influence creative ideation (Groves et al., 2010; McCallam, 2010).
Workplaces incorporate visual cues about company goals and objectives, such as stories about its
history, inspirational action words or phrases, or themed interiors to help the employee "think" in
a particular way. At Johnson & Johnson in the New York Starett-Lehigh Building, the growing
history of the products developed (from bandages to baby shampoo) is displayed as living
artwork on the reception area wall (Groves et al., 2010, p. 112). The SCRM facility in La Jolla,
described earlier, uses colorful graphics to encourage workers to imagine, innovate,
communicate, and collaborate (Figure 11.12). The office interiors at Adams & Knight, an
advertising agency in Avon, Connecticut, are decorated to look like the 1960's designed to
reflect the Baby Boomer demographic of their target audience (McCallam, 2010, pp. 15-19).
Another common design strategy is to use unexpected or surprising design features to create
unconventional workspaces. Some companies create work areas that look more like the rooms in
a home. This is the case at Naked Communications in Sydney, Australia where one workspace is
designed as a large, functioning bathroom (McCallam, 2010, pp. 147-151). A large piece of glass
sits atop the central bathtub, converting it to a small conference table. The theory behind this
design strategy is that unconventional spaces will foster unconventional thinking. Use of visual
cues and themed spaces appear to be quite popular in modern workplace designs for creative
workers. Yet there is no evidence of post occupancy evaluation concerning people's perceptions
of these design strategies or their effectiveness at increasing creative productivity.
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Perception and productivity.
There are a few studies that consider the relationship between people's perceptions
about how their workplace supports creativity and their creative productivity. Dul and Ceylan
(2011) conducted a survey with 409 Dutch employees working in 49 different companies from
various industries. The survey included measures for both social-organizational (9 items) and
physical (12 items) environment (Dul et al., 2011). They found that people who believed that
their office environment supported creativity also reported higher levels of creative productivity.
Dul et al. (2011) used the same instrument plus a creative personality measure in a study with
274 Dutch people employed in creative industries. In this study they found that highly creative
people report greater increases in creative productivity in supportive environments. McCoy and
Evans (2005) found similar results in their study which isolated the physical features of the
environment. They measured actual creative performance in two settings designed to reflect low
creative potential and high creative potential as based on their previous study. They also found
that the effect of the supportive environment was more pronounced for people who scored
higher on creative potential. Although these studies suggest that physical space does impact
creative productivity, it remains unclear whether productivity increases because people accurately
identify features that support productivity or due to other psychological effects such as overall
satisfaction with the workplace.
Effects of Spatial Characteristics on Arousal and Processing Disfluency
Although many of the creativity studies use self-report to assess people's perceptions, a
few (like McCoy and Evans's) consider how spatial characteristics of a creative setting influence
measured creative performances. Three of the studies consider the role of arousal in creative
productivity (de Korte et al., 2011; McCoy & Evans, 2002; Mehta, Zhu, & Cheema, 2012). Of
these, two attempt to identify the mechanisms behind increased productivity (de Korte et al.,
2011; Mehta et al., 2012). In the study by McCoy and Evans (2005) the authors suggest that the
interior design features (e.g. warm colors, high visual complexity, daylighting, and views of
70


nature) of the setting found to increase creative productivity may be more stimulating. De Korte
and colleagues (2011) compared creative productivity in three rooms designed to be neutral,
restful, or high arousal. They measured participants' heart rate variability (HRT) and confirmed
arousal only in the "high arousal" setting. The researchers found that ideational fluency was
higher in both the restful and high arousal settings and originality was higher only in the high
arousal setting. These findings suggest that arousal may improve original thinking, but that there
may be other physical factors that influence fluency. A study by Mehta and colleagues (2012),
however, suggests that it may not be arousal but processing disfluency (e.g. distraction) that
influences idea originality.
Mehta et al. (2012) examine the effect of ambient noise on creative productivity in a
series of five studies. They find that the relationship between noise and creativity is an inverted-
u, with productivity increasing from no noise to moderate noise environments and then declining
again as noise increases to high levels. The researchers rule out arousal as the mechanism
behind increased productivity and suggest that processing disfluency (moderate environmental
distraction) may help people come up with more original ideas. Processing disfluency has been
found to increase abstract thinking and reduce confirmation bias (the tendency that people have
to let prior beliefs and expectations influence their thinking) (Hernandez & Preston, 2013; Mehta
et al., 2012). Although research is quite limited, these few studies do provide some evidence that
characteristics of a setting can increase creative productivity. It is possible that the settings
people find inspirational may distract them slightly from the creative task, helping people think
more abstractly and flexibly about the creative problem.
Flexible Workplaces: Innovation Labs and Creativity Rooms
An emerging trend in interior design is to designate a particular space for creativity
either as a separate space in the workplace setting or, more typically as a place "away" from the
office (Lewis & Moultrie, 2005; Magadley & Birdi, 2009). Two studies examined "innovation labs"
in the United Kingdom. These labs provide a separate space that is designed to support
71


organizational creativity (Lewis & Moultrie, 2005; Magadley & Birdi, 2009). Lewis and Moultrie
(2005) conducted a comparative case study analysis of innovation labs designed for three
different organizations: a postal service, a government department of trades and industry, and
an academic institution. They found that, despite the differences among the organizations they
serve, all three labs are very similar in design. All the labs conveyed intentions to influence
human behavior through the physical design of the setting; but none of the designs appeared to
be explicitly based on empirical research or theory. The labs employed curved walls, flexible
seating configurations, write-on surfaces, toys, and "brainstorming" technology (e.g. computer
software, internet access, and projection devices.) Findings also revealed that although the labs
were designed to be flexible and reconfigurable, the curved walls and technology caused high
degrees of spatial inflexibility. The researchers found that users generally attributed the
brainstorming technology and the ability to "get away" from the regular office environments as
beneficial to creativity.
Magadley and Birdi (2009) conducted a mixed-methods quasi-experimental study
examining the effect of one innovation lab from Lewis and Moultrie's (2005) research on
employee productivity. They found that employees working in the innovation lab produced many
more ideas (and that the ideas were generally more useful) than employees in the regular office
environment. It remains unclear whether the increased productivity might be attributed to the
new environment, the spatial design, the use of technology, or simply the expectations
communicated by the setting. Lewis and Moultrie (2005) previously found a correlation between
how "junk laden" (i.e. full of toys and other materials) a setting is and the level of creativity
expected from the participants in the space. Although the interior design literature appears to be
the most promising in terms of providing evidence that physical space affects creativity, the lack
of any consistent theory behind interior design strategies greatly impairs the ability for
researchers to identify mechanisms that may inhibit or support creative processes.
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Summary of Key Findings from the Interior Design Literature
Workplace design strategies to support creativity commonly employ open office designs to
increase social interactions and creative collaborations and environmental cues to influence
creative ideation.
Evidence suggests that open office designs do increase social interactions; but these
interactions are not productive and negatively impact creativity. Creative collaborations
appear to occur most often in private offices.
People associate settings that provide natural daylighting and views of nature with creative
productivity; and evidence suggests that these features have positive influences on attention
and stress.
Settings that highly creative people feel support their creativity do have significant positive
effects on creative productivity, although the mechanisms behind the effects remain unclear.
Emerging research suggests settings may cause moderate processing disfluency (distraction),
which may improve ideational fluency and originality.
Product Design: Tools to Think With
A thorough evaluation of the entire product design literature is well beyond the scope of
this dissertation. However, the innovation lab design discussed in the previous section highlights
two themes prevalent in the product design literature as it pertains to creativity: technological
settings to support social creativity and things with which to think creatively.
Socio-technicaI Environments for Creativity
People often associate creativity support tools with computer based applications that
facilitate brainstorming and group ideation (Lewis & Moultrie, 2005). When people engage with
these technologies they form a socio-technical environment. A socio-technical environment is an
organizational system that includes both people and technology and may involve physical and/or
virtual settings (Fischer, 2007; E. Mumford, 1985; Whitworth 8i Sylla, 2012). Fischer's (2005a,
73


2007) research has specifically focused around how socio-technological settings can support
creativity. There are parallels between concepts in his research and themes presented thus far in
this chapter. The seeding, evolutionary growth, reseeding (SER) model, discussed previously with
respect to the natural lifespan of clusters, describes how "reseeding" can counteract a trend
toward a decline in creative productivity over time (Fischer et al., 2001). Meta-design is a
concept that falls under the flexibility design strategy. It involves empowering stakeholders by
allowing them to co-design the socio-technicaI system at both the planning stage and
throughout the lifespan of the system (Fischer & Scharff, 2000). The idea of empowering creative
practitioners is central to his work on expert systems (Fischer & Nakakoji, 1992). These systems
are intended to help creative practitioners perceive problems and opportunities in a design
situation, by providing them with information-rich digital "objects to think with" (Fischer &
Nakakoji, 1992, p. 27).
Inspirational Things to Organize Imaginative Experiences
The "junk laden" space in the innovations labs mentioned by Lewis and Moultrie (2005)
provided materials intended to inspire play and creativity. The variety of different toys and
magazines provided were influenced by Weick's (1977) assertion that to foster creativity,
laboratories should be like "Frank Oppenheimers Exploratorium in San Francisco" (p. 126). Weick
(1977) appears be describing the importance of "things to think with" during creativity. People
have historically used inspirational objects to spur creativity. The "cabinet of curiosities," popular
in Renaissance Europe, was a way that people curated and displayed unique objects
(Livingstone, 2003, pp. 27-33). The "curiosities" included both scientific specimens and
fabricated mythological histories about common objects to inspire the imagination. The role of
inspirational objects in creativity is the subject of many anecdotes (Fig, 2009). Rudyard Kipling
(1937) wrote an entire chapter in his autobiography dedicated to the significance of his "working
tools." These "tools" included meaningful objects from his travels kept on his desk, as well as the
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particular pen and ink that he felt were instrumental to his creativity. He explains how he feels
these items are essential for influencing his creative thoughts.
Some products are designed to intentionally influence the way people think about and
with them. The design of "things to think with" is the focus of the Things That Think initiative at
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab (Resnick, 1996). This initiative considers
how technologically enhanced objects can "change not only what we do, but how we think, what
we think about, and who we think with" (Resnick, 1996, p. 441). These products use
environmental cues that go beyond the visual thematic strategies used in interior design. Michael
and Ann Eisenberg (1998; 2002) take the concept a step further by linking computationally
enhanced objects to creativity through "craft technology." Technologically enhanced craft
construction kits inspire and motivate creativity by helping creators extend their abilities through
computation while still supporting engagement in tactile and embodied experiences (Crawford,
2009, pp. 23-24; Eisenberg 8i Eisenberg, 1998).
Summary of Key Findings from the Product Design Literature
Socio-technicaI environments are intended to empower creative practitioners through
knowledge sharing, co-design, and critique.
Both "low tech" and computationally enhanced objects are "things to think with" that may
affect the ways creative practitioners physically, socially, and mentally engage with a creative
problem.
The Gap Between Design Strategies and Empirical Evidence
A review of the empirical literature that examines the relationship between the designed
environment and creativity reveals that 1) there is very little empirical research in this area, 2)
what research there is focuses primarily on identifying people's preferences for certain
environments during creativity, and 3) the few empirical studies that consider the effect of
environmental features on creative productivity suggest that some commonly accepted design
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strategies to support creativity may actually inhibit creativity. There is a gap between the
empirical literature and design strategies that are based on anecdote and folk knowledge.
Three common design strategies reveal their own implicit theories about creativity. First,
the links/nodes strategy considers creativity a product of social interactions. It assumes that
design interventions will increase impromptu social interactions, thereby increasing creativity. The
city planning, urban design, architectural, interior, and product design scales all reflect this
ideology. The creative city literature is almost exclusively focused on how knowledge transfer
may increase creativity. Buildings and interiors are often designed to "push" people into social
interactions. Empirical examination of this strategy is minimal, but studies do suggest that interior
design strategies that influence social interaction do in fact increase communication levels in an
organization; however the quality of the communication is low and overall creative productivity is
negatively affected. Conversely, socio-technicaI environments appear to use a "pull" strategy by
enticing social interaction through empowerment.
The inspiration strategy considers creativity a sub-conscious mental activity. It assumes
that the aesthetic qualities of a design will inspire creative ideation. This strategy is found at all
scales of the designed environment. Strategies at the interior and product design scale
sometimes also incorporate environmental cues intended to shape creative ideation. A few
empirical studies have examined the direct and indirect (perceived) effects of this strategy.
Research suggests that the environments people perceive to be creative do increase their
creative productivity (Dul et al., 2011; Dul & Ceylan, 2011; McCoy & Evans, 2002). It remains
unclear whether this is because they correctly identify mechanisms that affect creativity or if
other variables are involved (such as motivation or satisfaction.) There appear to be three
primary hypotheses regarding the direct effects of inspirational settings on creativity. First, the
attention restoration hypothesis suggests that the aesthetic qualities of nature restore cognitive
fatigue (Kaplan, 1995). Although numerous studies have confirmed the relationship between
nature and stress, the effect on creativity remains largely unexplored. Second, the arousal
hypothesis suggests that aesthetics stimulate people, improving ideational fluency. Evidence
76


suggests that although aesthetics do appear to have a stimulating effect on people, it is unclear
whether arousal affects ideation (de Korte et al., 2011). Finally the processing disfluency
hypothesis suggests that the aesthetic qualities of a space provide low level distractions that help
increase abstraction and reduce confirmation bias, thus affecting ideational fluency and
originality. This hypothesis has been confirmed in one study, thus currently only the processing
disfluency hypothesis has empirical support (Mehta et al., 2012).
Finally, the flexibility strategy considers creativity is an idiosyncratic personal process. It
assumes that individual creative processes are impossible to predict, so environments must be
designed to accommodate a variety of different activities that may change over time. This
strategy is manifest in three different design approaches. The first approach, choice, provides
creative practitioners with a variety of different spaces to use for creative work. This approach is
evident in the design of the SCRM building in La Jolla, CA. There does not appear to be any
empirical investigation into how this approach might impact creativity. The second approach
involves designing spaces that are easy (and relatively inexpensive) to remodel and reconfigure.
This approach was employed at the Salk Institute and post occupancy evaluations suggest that it
has been successful there (Latour & Woolgar, 1979; S. W. Leslie, 2008; T. Leslie, 2003; Moe,
2008). The third approach involves under-designing a space so that users become "co-
designers" in order to make it functional. While it is often associated with creativity, there is
remarkably little reference to this approach outside of the product design literature. The
approach is sometimes used as justification for modular office systems; but there is no discussion
about how or when such systems are reconfigured or the effect reconfiguration has on creativity.
This review of the environmental design literature reveals that a few design strategies
are replicated across scales of the designed environment and that strategies persist despite
evidence that they are ineffective or even counter-productive. Ultimately there appears to be a
lack of coherent understanding about the role of the designed environment in creative cognition
and behavior. Environmental design strategies would benefit from theoretical grounding in a
framework that links creativity and the designed environment. Such a framework should consider
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three things: 1) the physically situated processes involved in the stages of creativity, 2) the
nature of the relationship between creative practitioners and their environments during these
processes, and 3) the features of the designed environment (across the environmental scales
from product design to city planning) that support creativity.
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CHAPTER III
THEORIES OF PERSON-ENVIRONMENT RELATIONSHIPS
TOWARDS A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK TO BRIDGE CREATIVE PROCESS AND PLACE:
AN EXAMINATION OF EMBODIED, EMBEDDED, EXTENDED, AND ENACTIVE COGNITION
THEORIES IN ECOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY AND COGNITIVE SCIENCE
Highlights
As illustrated in Chapter II, the gap between the literatures on environmental design
and creativity is due to a lack of coherent theory concerning the role of the designed
environment in creative cognition and behavior. This chapter frames the person-environment
relationship debate in the environmental design literature and compares theories that address
this relationship in the ecological psychology and cognitive science literatures. The intention
behind the chapter is to identify theories that might form an initial structure to help bridge the
gap between the environmental design and creativity literatures. I propose that Gibson's (1977)
Theory of Affordances provides the most appropriate starting point from which to develop
common theoretical grounding for two literatures. I also point to the enactive literature in
cognitive science (which describes how action and perception are intertwined,) to provide the
empirical basis from which to address the limitations of Gibson's affordance theory for describing
creativity. The enactive literature helps to explain how Gibson's theory might account for
imagination, planning, and reasoning during creativity. Based on the enactive cognition research,
I introduce the concept of potential affordances. Potential affordances are action opportunities in
the environment that are not yet available to the perceiver who imagines them. They will require
additional work in order to actualize them. I conclude this chapter with a list of next steps
required to develop this preliminary structure based on affordance theory into a framework that
describes the person-environment relationship during creativity.
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Introduction
Review
My review of the environmental design literature in Chapter II described how common
design strategies are employed across the different scales of the designed environment. These
strategies reveal three implicit theories of creativity: 1) that creativity arises through social
interactions, 2) that creativity is an intuitive mental process, and 3) that creativity is the product
of individualized practices that change and evolve over time. I suggested that the differences
between the design strategies and their respective implicit theories is likely due to particular
assumptions designers make about the person-environment relationship during creativity. Design
strategies intended to influence social behaviors suggest that human behavior is a response to
environmental stimuli. Design strategies to provide inspirational settings suggest that mental
processes may be subconsciously influenced by the aesthetics of the environment. Finally, design
strategies that make no attempt to provide spaces that support particular activities may suggest
that the environment has no influence on either creative behavior or cognition. It is clear from
this review that environmental designers would benefit from a functional (i.e. useful) theory to
guide the design and evaluation of settings intended to support creativity.
Thesis
This chapter will consider how theories of situated cognition in ecological psychology and
cognitive science might ground design strategies and begin to bridge the gap between the
environmental design and creativity literatures. Situated cognition takes the position that
knowledge emerges from a person's experiences in the world (Robbins & Aydede, 2009). A
review of the situated perspective in ecological psychology and cognitive science reveals two key
aspects of the person-environment relationship that are significant for environmental design.
First, people initiate exploratory actions in their environments. They are not passive recipients of
stimulus provided by design interventions. Instead they make changes in their environments to
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better support their needs; or they seek out new environments when it is difficult or impractical
to alter an existing one. Second, people have a reciprocal relationship with their environments.
Their sensory and motor experiences shape how people think and act. They exploit features of
their environments to improve their cognitive and psychomotor abilities and they adapt their
behavior to fit their environment. The complementary theories of affordances from ecological
psychology and enactive cognition from cognitive science describe how the designed
environment is not only a cognitive and behavioral resource for people. This chapter illustrates
how together the theories of affordances and enactive cognition can form an empirically
grounded structure for the person-environment relationship during creativity thus providing
the first step towards bridging the creativity and environmental design literatures.
Significance
This chapter provides the theoretical grounding for a new framework to bridge the
creativity and environmental design literatures. In Chapter III proposed that such a framework
should consider three things: 1) the physically situated processes involved in the stages of
creativity, 2) the nature of the relationship between creative practitioners and their environments
during these processes, and 3) the features of the designed environment (across the
environmental scales from product design to city planning) that support creativity. The second
point highlights the gap that I will begin to address in this chapter. I propose that an extension of
Gibson's (1977) Affordance theory may provide a solution to the person-environment relationship
problem. I suggest that enactivism, a new paradigm in cognitive science, addresses some of the
limitations of Gibson's original theory. Enactivism is based on the assumption that people are
autonomous agents and cognition emerges through person-environment relationships (Di Paolo,
Rohde, & De Jaegher, 2010). Enaction theory helps to explain imagination, a key component of
creativity and something Gibson's theory does not adequately address (Reed, 1996, p. 183).
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Person-Environment Relationship: Four Environmental Design Approaches
The debate over the nature of the relationship between people and their environments
has been largely contested in the environmental design literature and particularly so in
architecture (Franck, 1984; Lang 81 Moleski, 2010; Lang, 1987). This is evident in the different
design strategies reviewed in Chapter II. Lang (1987) categorizes environmental design
approaches according to four different theories of the person-environment relationship:
deterministic, possibilistic, probabilistic, and free-will. Deterministic approaches employ design
strategies with the intention of determining a desired user behavior. Conversely, the free-will
approach assumes that the physical environment exerts no influence on people's behavior.
Probabilistic approaches suggest that the environment exerts pressures on people but other
factors, such as personal and social influences, also influence how environments affect people's
behaviors. This approach takes the position that design strategies are likely to cause certain
behaviors, but do not fully predict them. Finally, the possibilistic approach suggests that the
environment provides opportunities for certain behaviors, but people chose whether or not to
make use of them. As the literature review in Chapter II reveals, environmental designers employ
all of these approaches. However, the deterministic approach has failed to produce predictable
outcomes and free-will approaches are neither empirically supported by the ecological
psychology literature nor the situated cognition view in cognitive science two fields of research
that examine the structure of the person-environment relationship.
Physical Determinism
Physical determinism posits that natural and designed environments directly predict
people's behaviors (Franck, 1984; Lang, 1980, 1987).28 Design strategies based on this approach
support a limited range of desired activities and are sometimes inflexible to alternative uses
28 Lang (1980) and Franck (1984) recommend the use of the term physical determinism in lieu of
environmental determinism in order to avoid the nature versus nurture debate often associated
with the later term. Physical determinism is the inclusive term to describe the theories commonly
referred to as geographical determinism, a term associated with the natural environment and
architectural determinism, which refers to the built environment (Franck, 1984).
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(Mikellides, 1980). As described in Chapter II, some environmental design strategies intended to
increase creative productivity (e.g. links/nodes) remain largely influenced by physical
determinism. Such a design approach is problematic however, for it follows a trend in
architectural practice where the designer's intentions for a building becoming equated with the
answer to social and spatial problems. The utopian visions prevalent in modern architecture were
largely influenced by deterministic theories that equated architecture and planning with social
engineering (Lang, 1980). The deterministic approach is influenced by Barker's (1968) eco-
behavioral theory of behavior settings, discussed in the next section. However, the application of
Behavior Setting Theory to environmental design strategies has produced unpredictable
outcomes.29 Modern cognitive and social theories describe how behavior is influenced by such
individual factors as intentionality, forethought, self-regulation, meaning, and purpose (Bandura,
2001), which are not considered in deterministic design approaches. A significant body of
research has shown that individual and social behaviors cannot be predicted solely by the
physical conditions of their environments. Thus the deterministic approach is likely untenable and
an unproductive design approach (Franck, 1984; Lang, 1980).
The Mind-Building Problem
Reactions against the failure of designed environments to determine human behavior
influenced a counter movement in environmental design (and architecture in particular). The
abysmal failure of projects like the Pruitt-Igoe housing development, based on Le Corbusier's
idealized Ville Radieuse planning principles, to solve complex social problems gave rise to stern
criticism of the deterministic design approach (Boys, 2011; Lang 8i Moleski, 2010; Lang, 1987).
Behavioral scientist blamed architects and planners for 1) failing to meet social objectives, 2)
simplistic models of human behavior, and 3) naive perceptions of the person-environment
relationship (Lang 8i Moleski, 2010, p. 10). This backlash caused many environmental design
professionals to wash their hands of social issues, focusing instead on materiality and visual form.
29
See Chapter II for more detailed explanation and examples of these outcomes.
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The free-will design approach posits that the physical environment has no effect on
people's behavior (Franck, 1984; Lang, 1987). In architecture these ideologies may be manifest
in design approaches that primarily consider the building an object to behold as opposed to a
sequence of spaces to inhabit (i.e. environments) (Lang 81 Moleski, 2010). This approach
provides settings that may be appropriated by users as they see fit. In contrast to the
deterministic approach where the environment is understood to cause behavior, the free-will
design approach suggests that the behavior helps to create the environment. In other words,
"environment" is a socially constructed mental representation and there is no meaningful
relationship between the physical form of a setting and the events that take place within it.30
Around the time that the Pruitt-Igoe housing development was demolished in the early
1970's a group of scientists were reacting against the behaviorist tradition in psychology, which
focused exclusively on functional relationships between environmental stimulus and behavioral
response. This gave rise to a counter movement, Cognitivism, which considered the role of
internal mental representations in human cognition. Cognitivism takes an information processing
perspective on human cognition. It assumes that environmental sensory stimuli are converted to
mental symbols, and that rule-based processes operate on the structure of these mental symbols
to produce behavior (Thagard, 2005). In other words, people receive sensory information from
the environment, but they use mental processes, such as judgment, to determine how to react.
This perspective was the foundation upon which the cognitive sciences were laid (Leidlmair,
2009; Thagard, 2005). It also gave some theoretical support for the free-will approach.
Current thinking in cognitive science, as discussed later in this chapter, challenges the
Cognitivism categorical structural and centralized processing perspective (Thagard, 2005). It is
now generally accepted that environmental structure is critical to human cognition (Leidlmair,
2009; Robbins 8i Aydede, 2009; Thagard, 2005). Thus, although it remains influential in
30 The architect Bernard Tschumi (1981) famously questioned whether there could be any
meaningful relationship between architecture and event with his publication The Manhattan
Transcripts.
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architectural theory and education, the free-will approach is no longer empirically supported by
the cognitive science literature (Lang & Moleski, 2010).
Mind-Body-World
The possibilistic and probabilistic design approaches remain as the most potentially viable
of the four proposed by Lang. Theories in cognitive science and ecological psychology of the
person-environment relationship describe how the environment does not determine behavior,
but it does appear to be part of our cognitive system.31 The problem remains, however, in
understanding how and why environmental designs can "possibly" or "probably" predict human
activity. What are the relationships between the mind, the body, and the world in a person's
cognitive system? This is a question that the fields of ecological psychology and cognitive science
have sought to address.
In the following sections I will review theories of the person-environment relationship in
ecological psychology and cognitive science with the aim of identifying those most appropriate for
bridging the environmental design and creativity literatures. Although historically quite separate,
there is today significant overlap between cognitive science and ecological psychology. This
reflects the shift in cognitive science from a focus on categorical structures of human cognition to
environmental structures. First, I will explain some of the fundamental principles from the field of
ecological psychology, focusing on Barker's (1968) behavior setting concept and Gibson's (1977)
Theory of Affordances. I will describe the influence of these two schools on environmental design
approaches and discuss the strengths and limitations of each for informing a new framework to
bridge creativity and environmental design. Next. I will review the situated cognition literature in
cognitive science. Lakoff and Johnson (1999), who were instrumental in laying the groundwork
for this literature, argue that cognition is shaped by our brain, our body, and our interactions
with the world around us. I will demonstrate how emerging research in enactive cognitive science
has moved the field much closer to ecological psychology. Finally I suggest how theories of
31 Clark (2008a) describes a cognitive system as including the mind, body, and the environmental
resources that people use to help them think.
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enactive cognition may address some limitations of affordance theory for informing the design of
settings to support creativity.
Person-Environment Relationship: The Ecological Psychology Perspective
Ecological psychology takes as its central tenet the interdependent relationship between
living organisms and their environment (Barker, 1968; Gibson, 1977; Heft, 2001; Reed, 1996;
von Uexkull, 2010). Two foundational principles can be traced back to the early 20th century work
of theoretical biologist Jakob von Uexkull (2010). First, the appropriate unit of empirical analysis
for understanding the person-environment relationship is the interaction between organisms and
their environment, because "meaning" is embodied in the experience of exploring and obtaining
information from the environment. Second, such interactions must be examined in their naturally
occurring context (as opposed to a laboratory environment), because cognition and behavior
emerges from the dynamic and self-organizing system of the organism and its environment.
These principles are evident in two schools of thought that have influenced the field of ecological
psychology, one based on James Gibson's (1977) ecological theory of perception and the other
on Roger Barker's (1968) concept of behavior settings (Heft, 2001).
There are many similarities between these theories, the most notable being how they
describe human-environment interactions as dynamic systems (Heft, 2001). The key difference
between them is the ecological unit of empirical analysis.32 Gibson was interested in the
interactions between individual organisms and the structure of their environments thus a single
person would be used to define the boundary of the ecological unit. The setting defines the unit
of analysis in Barker's theory. Although Barker refers to his research as ecological psychology, his
theory also focuses primarily on social behaviors.33 For this reason, Heft (2001) refers to it as
eco-behavioral science. Both theories have influenced the environmental design professions.
32 The ecological unit of analysis refers to the subject of empirical investigation. In Gibson's case
he considered a single person the appropriate unit to examine empirically. Barker examined the
behavior setting as an episodic unit defined by space, behavior, and time.
33 Barker's behavior setting theory is also commonly called environmental psychology. Gibson's
theory is more consistently referred to as ecological psychology.
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Gibson's work has had particular impact in product design where his term affordance was
appropriated (and redefined) by Donald Norman (2002) for use in human-computer interaction
design. Barker's theory, with its focus on the setting, historically has had more impact on
architectural and urban design theory and practice than Gibson's (Lang & Moleski, 2010; Lang,
1987).
Behavior Settings
According to Barker (1968), behavior settings are defined by both dynamic and structural
properties, including 1) a standing pattern of social behavior and 2) a setting, or milieu, which
encompasses and supports the activities inherent in the pattern of social behavior. Synomorphy
is a term Barker uses to describe the congruence between environmental properties of the milieu
and behavior patterns required to form a behavior setting. He developed the behavior setting
theory with Herbert Wright in 1949, based on observations that different people behave more
similarly when they are in a particular setting (such as church or school) than individual people
behave in different settings (Barker, 1968). A behavior setting exists for the period of time that a
milieu (setting) and a particular pattern of behaviors co-exist (Lang 8i Moleski, 2010). A single
milieu may be part of multiple behavior settings if it supports several different patterns of
behavior. Because of its emphasis on behaviors (as opposed to individual psychology), Heft
(2001) refers to Barker's theory as eco-behaviorai science.
According to Lang and Moleski (2010), architects and urban planners are generally
concerned with two types of behavior settings: places (e.g. nodes) and the connections between
them (e.g. links). Barker's concept of behavior settings was influential in the development of
design patterns in architecture and urban planning (Lang 8i Moleski, 2010). Design patterns are
spatial strategies that environmental designers employ with the intention of creating behavior
settings. They often replicate patterns of physical features in existing behavior settings based
upon assumptions about what behavior patterns should occur in a new setting (Lang 8i Moleski,
2010). The goal of the design pattern is to create a milieu, which will bound and sustain a
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desired behavior. The architect Christopher Alexander and colleagues (1977) popularized the
design pattern approach in architecture and urban planning. Informed by the belief that patterns
of event-spaces in architecture and urban design form a design language, they set out to define
and document 253 specific behavior settings that covered a range of scales from interior design
to urban.
As was illustrated in Chapter II, although the practical application of design patterns has
been controversial and the results inconsistent, their use persists in buildings intended to foster
creativity. Settings observed to encourage creativity and collaboration at the urban scale, such as
the street, atrium, hub, cafe, and nook are used as links/nodes design pattern metaphors in
office buildings and schools intended to promote creativity (Nair & Fielding, 2007). Architects and
urban designers have applied design patterns with the assumption that replicating the spatial
patterns observed to promote particular behaviors will predict and produce those same patterns
of behavior in a new space (Nair & Fielding, 2007). Design patterns are thus often associated
with the deterministic design approach. Although the intention may be to provide the proper
milieu to fit a particular behavior, this strategy tends to treat people as a collective and assumes
they perceive the environment in the same way. This is very different than the way environment
is considered by von Uexkull's (1926) and Gibson's (1977) ecological approaches.
Environment
The subjective nature of the environment was paramount to von Uexkull's (1926)
concept of Umwelt. Fie described Umwelt as the "surrounding environment" of an organism that
is structured through its senses and abilities. Every organism has its own Umwelt, even if multiple
organisms occupy the same space. The living organism is always at the center of its Umwelt and
is conceptually bound to it.34 Environment, as it may be collectively referred to in a building or
urban space, is therefore heterogeneous. It entails the relationships between people and the
objects that they sense and with which they interact. This concept of the heterogeneous
34
People can conceptually escape this boundary by using their imagination.
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environment reveals a limitation of the behavior setting theory for informing environment design
strategies. It fails to address the idea of environment from the perspective of the individual. This
shortcoming is highlighted by Heft (2001) and Wicker (2002) who both suggest that the theory
would be strengthened by addressing the individuality of the behavior setting participants. Heft
(2001) proposes that a synthesis of Barker's behavior setting theory and Gibson's Theory of
Affordances might provide a much-needed unified theory of ecological psychology. To more fully
understand how the relationship between people and their environments might impact
environmental design strategies, we must shift from the focus on behavior settings to
affordances and the interactions between individual people and their environments.
Affordance Theory
Von Uexkull first introduced the concept of affordances, describing the latent action
possibilities of an object as funktionale Tonung (functional coloring) and a person's perceptions of
an object as related to the ability to exploit such action possibilities. Psychologist J.J. Gibson
(1977) extended the work begun by Uexkull with the Theory of Affordances, which was based on
his research in visual perception. Gibson believed that people understand the world in terms of
functional relevance; the form and capabilities of a person's body and its interactions with the
external environment shape that person's conceptions of the world (Wilson, 2002). According to
Gibson, an affordance is the relationship between a persons abilities and intentions with respect
to features of their physical environment. For example, a person may view a chair as something
which affords sitting, or perhaps even something with which to prop open a door. If that person
had a body that was much smaller, or was limbless, he or she would have a different conception
of the chair. Donald Norman popularized the affordance principle in design theory, introducing
the term in his book "The Design of Everyday Things" (1988). Where Gibson considered
affordance any and all potentially actionable properties of the physical environment, Norman's
definition concerns only the actionable properties consciously perceived by an individual.
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Full Text

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EMPOWERING THE CREATIVE PRACTITIONER: TOWARDS AN ECOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK OF CREATIVITY AS EMBEDDED PRACTICE TO INFORM ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN by Laura Healey Malinin B.A., Rice University 1990 M.Ed. University of Texas 2005 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Cognitive Science and Design and Planning 2013

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ii This thesis for the Doctor of Philosophy degree by Laura Healey Malinin has been approved for Cognitive Science Program and Design and Planning Program by Louise Chawla Chair Raymond McCall, Advisor Gerhard Fischer Michael Eisenberg Melanie Shellenbarger April 19, 2013

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iii Malinin Laura Healey (Ph.D., Cognitive Science, Design and Planning ) Empowering the Creative Practitioner: Towards an Ecol ogical Framework of Creativity as Embedded Practi ce to Inform Environmental Design Thesis directed by Associate Professor Raymond McCall ABSTRACT What role (if any) does the designed environment play in creativity? Cities like Athens, Florence, Paris, and Vienna are known for periods of spectacularly high creativity. Majestic landscapes and contemplative architecture are credited with inspiring crea tive insight. Famously creative people, like Proust, Kipling, and K ant describe how rooms, tools, and inspirational objects are instrumental for their creativity. However there is a lack of empirical investigation into the relationship between the designed environment and people's creative processes. On the rare occasions wh en creativity researchers do consider the role of the designed environment, they dismiss it as insignificant for creativity or suggest it is impossible to examine empirically. My inquiry is a response to the conflicting beliefs between creat ivity researche rs who feel the physical environment is unimportant for creativity and environmental designers who create settings with the specific in tention of increasing creative productivity With my dissertation I seek to lay the theoretical groundwork for a scholarl y investigation of creativity as a physically situated process. This process is driven by a thorough evaluation of the creativity, cognitive science, and environmental psychology literatures; an analysis of environmental design strategies; first person acc ounts of creativity; and my own experience as a creative practitioner. From this analysis I develop three creative contributions. First, I construct the Multi Modal Process Model of Creative Practice, which describes creativity as a combination of five phy sically situated and interrelated modes of creative cognition. This model rebuts opinions expressed in the creativity literature that the designed environment is unimportant for creativity. Second, I develop the Creativity in Context theoretical framework, which provides a structure to organize empirical investigation into the relationship between people's creative processes and features of the designed environment. This framework rebuts suggestions that

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iv empirical examination of this relationship is impossi ble. Third, I present some implications for practice with the Rich Environments Design Guidelines, which provide a preliminary structure to inform the design of settings intended to support creativity. Finally, I suggest that these three creative contribut ions might form the foundation for a new stream of research an ecological psychology of creativity. The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication. Approved: Raymond McCall

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v TABLE OF CONTENTS C HAPTER I SETTING THE STAGE ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 1 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 1 Creative Places ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 1 The Four P's of Creativity ................................ ................................ ..................... 3 Bridging the Gap: Linking Creative Process and Place ................................ ................ 5 The Designed Environment ................................ ................................ .................. 6 The Creative Practitioner ................................ ................................ ..................... 7 Creative Cognition: Situated, Embodied and Embedded ................................ ....... 10 The Structure of the Dissertation ................................ ................................ ........... 11 Goals ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 12 Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 13 Organization of the Chapters ................................ ................................ ............. 16 II CREATIVE PLACE ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 22 Highlights ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 22 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 22 Review ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 22 Thesis ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 23 Significance ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 24 Creative Press (Place) ................................ ................................ ........................... 24 Creative Cities and Regions ................................ ................................ ................... 26 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 27 Links and Nodes: Social Interaction and Creativity ................................ ............... 29 Inspirational Settings: Motivation and Creativity ................................ .................. 36 Flexibility: The Temporal Nature of Exploration Zones in the City .......................... 38 Creative Cities a s Places of Problem Finding and Evaluation ................................ 40 Limitations of the Creative City Approach ................................ ............................ 41 Summary of Key Findings from the Creative City Literature ................................ .. 42 Urban Design: Creative Districts and Neighborhoods ................................ ............... 42 Third Places ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 43 Interstitial Spaces ................................ ................................ ............................. 44 Urban Design Strategies for Creativity ................................ ................................ 45 Mobility and Creativity ................................ ................................ ....................... 46 Summary of Key Findings from the Urban Design Literature ................................ 47 Creativity and Landscape Architecture ................................ ................................ .... 47 Instrumental Leisure ................................ ................................ ......................... 48 Inspirational Settings ................................ ................................ ......................... 50 Summary of Key Findings from the Landscape Architecture Literature ................... 53 Architectural Design: Behavior Settings for Creativity ................................ .............. 54 Circulation Con figurations for Social Interaction ................................ ................... 54 Spatial Flexibility to Accommodate Dynamic Creative Processes ............................ 60 Summary of Key Findings from the Architecture Literature ................................ ... 65 Interior Design: Creativity Rooms ................................ ................................ .......... 66 Communication and Privacy ................................ ................................ ............... 67 Inspirational Spaces ................................ ................................ .......................... 68

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vi Effects of Spatial Characteristics on Arousal and Processing Disfluency ................. 70 Flexible Wo rkplaces: Innovation Labs and Creativity Rooms ................................ 71 Summary of Key Findings from the Interior Design Literature ............................... 73 Product Design: Tools to Think With ................................ ................................ ...... 73 Socio technical Environments for Creativity ................................ ........................ 73 Inspirational Things to Organize Imaginative Experiences ................................ .... 74 Summary of Key Findin gs from the Product Design Literature .............................. 75 The Gap Between Design Strategies and Empirical Evidence ................................ .... 75 III THEORIES OF PERSON ENVIRONMENT RELATIONSHIPS ................................ ................. 79 Highlights ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 79 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 80 Review ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 80 Thesis ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 80 Significance ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 81 Person Environment Relationship: Four Environmental Design Approaches .............. 82 Physical Determinism ................................ ................................ ........................ 82 The Mind Building Problem ................................ ................................ ............... 83 Mind Body World ................................ ................................ ............................. 85 Person Environment Relationship: The Ecological Psychology Perspective ................ 86 Behavior Settings ................................ ................................ .............................. 87 Environment ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 88 Affordance Theory ................................ ................................ ............................ 89 Strengths and Limitations of Ecological Psychology Theories ................................ 92 Person Environment Relationship: The Cognitive Science Perspective ...................... 93 Situated Cognition ................................ ................................ ............................. 94 Embodied Cognition ................................ ................................ .......................... 95 Embedded Cognition ................................ ................................ ......................... 98 Extended Cognition ................................ ................................ ......................... 100 Enactive Cognition ................................ ................................ .......................... 101 Strengths and Limitations of the Cognitive Science Theories ............................... 103 Towards an Ecological and Enactive View of Creativity ................................ .......... 103 Creative Spaces: Environments, Umwelts, Milie us or Niches? .............................. 105 The Structural Unit of Analysis for a New Creativity Framework .......................... 105 Direct and Indirect Perception ................................ ................................ .......... 106 My Definition of Affordance ................................ ................................ .............. 107 Creativity and "Potential Affordances" ................................ ............................... 108 Next Steps Towards a New Theoretical Framework of Creativ ity ......................... 109 IV THE CREATIVE PROCESS ................................ ................................ .............................. 111 Highlights ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 111 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 112 Review ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 112 Thesis ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 112 Significance ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 113 Background ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 113 Creative Stage Models: A Critical Review and Analysis ................................ ........... 114 The Romantic Stage Models and the Prepa ration Incubation Stages ................... 116 The Rationalist Stage Models and the Generation Elaboration Stages .................. 118 The Socially Situated Stage Models ................................ ................................ .. 119 Limitations of the Stage Models ................................ ................................ ........ 120 Mechanisms Behind the Stages: Creative Cognition Theories ................................ 121

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vii Problem Finding ................................ ................................ ............................. 122 Generating Ideas ................................ ................................ ............................ 126 Incubating ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 132 Elaborating ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 134 Implementing ................................ ................................ ................................ 138 Key Findings from the Creative Cognition Theories ................................ ............ 139 Towards a Multi Modal Model of Physically Situated Creativity .............................. 140 V THE MULTI MODAL PROCES MODEL OF CREATIVE PRACTICE ................................ ......... 143 Highlights ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 143 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 143 Review ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 143 Thesis ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 144 Significance ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 145 Creative Practice ................................ ................................ ................................ 145 Situated Creative Practices: Flow and Reflection in Action ................................ 146 Breakdown and Repair During Creative Ideation ................................ ................ 147 Immersion: The Flow of Intuitive Investigation ................................ ..................... 147 Sustaining Immersion ................................ ................................ ...................... 149 Engendering Immersion ................................ ................................ .................. 155 When Immersion Breaks Down ................................ ................................ ........ 157 Reflection: Making the Intuitive Explicit ................................ ................................ 158 Direct Feedback and the Rhetoric of Tools and Materials ................................ .... 160 Indirect Feedback: Using Thin gs to Think With ................................ .................. 161 Feedback From Others ................................ ................................ .................... 162 Reflection and Imaginat ion ................................ ................................ .............. 163 Sustaining Reflection: Externalization and Reframing. ................................ ........ 164 Engendering Reflection: Breakdowns, Critiques, and Feedback From Use ............ 165 When Reflection Breaks Do wn ................................ ................................ ......... 166 Semi Explicit (Adaptive) Rumination ................................ ................................ .... 167 Repairing Creative Fixation: The Potential Role of Defocused Attention ............... 168 Adaptive Rumination and Creative Problems ................................ ..................... 169 Enactive Cognition and Semi Explicit (Adaptive) Rumination .............................. 171 Engender Rumination ................................ ................................ ...................... 171 Sustaining Rumination ................................ ................................ ..................... 172 Inhibiting Rumination ................................ ................................ ...................... 172 Summary of Relationships Between Three Creative Modes ................................ .... 173 Three Creative Modes and Environmental Conditions ................................ ............ 174 Completing the Creative Practice Model ................................ ............................... 176 Problem finding ................................ ................................ .............................. 176 Evaluation ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 178 Propositions About the Person Environment Relationship During Creativity ............ 181 VI THE CREATIVITY IN CONTEXT THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ................................ .......... 183 Highlights ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 183 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 184 Review ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 184 Thesis ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 184 Significance ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 185 The Designed Environment in Creativity: Three Theoretical Propositions ................ 185 Proposition 1. ................................ ................................ ................................ 186 Proposition 2. ................................ ................................ ................................ 186

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viii Proposition 3. ................................ ................................ ................................ 188 A Physically Situated Framework for Creativity ................................ ...................... 189 The Creative Person ................................ ................................ ........................ 191 The Designed Environment ................................ ................................ .............. 192 Affordance ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 194 Putting the Creative Modes in Context ................................ ................................ 196 Problem Finding and Feynman's Wobbling Plate ................................ ................ 196 Environmental Features That Supported Feynman's Problem Finding ................. 200 Conclusion: Implications for Practice ................................ ................................ .... 201 VII RICH ENVIRONMENTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE ................................ ................. 203 Highlights ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 203 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 203 Review ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 203 Thesis ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 204 Significance ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 205 Rich Environments ................................ ................................ .............................. 205 Design Princi ples for Problem Finding ................................ ................................ .. 208 Problem Finding Places: Serendipitous Settings ................................ ................. 209 Problem Finding Events and Processes: Attractor/Reactor Spaces ....................... 211 Problem Finding (Place scale) Objects: Loose Parts ................................ ........... 212 Problem Finding Relationships: Participant/ Observer ................................ ......... 213 Problem Finding Attributes: Apertures and Thresholds ................................ ....... 214 Design Principles for Intuitive Immersion ................................ ............................. 215 Immersion Places: Inspirational Settings ................................ ........................... 216 Immersion Events and Processes: Improvisation Spaces ................................ .... 218 Immersion (Place scale) Objects: Instrumentation ................................ ............. 219 Immersion Relationships: Transparent Equipment ................................ ............. 220 Immersion Attributes: Buffers ................................ ................................ .......... 221 Design Principles for Explicit Reflection ................................ ................................ 221 Reflection Places: Deliberation Set tings ................................ ............................ 222 Reflection Events and Processes: Evocation Spaces ................................ ........... 224 Refle ction (Place scale) Objects: Things to Think With ................................ ....... 225 Reflection Relationships: Cognitive Artifacts ................................ ...................... 227 Reflection Attributes: Variables ................................ ................................ ........ 227 Design Principles for Semi explicit Rumination ................................ ..................... 228 Rumination Places: Restorative Settings ................................ ........................... 228 Rumination Events and Processes: Interstitial Spaces ................................ ........ 2 29 Rumination (Place scale) Objects: Diversi ons ................................ .................... 231 Rumination Relationships: Intersections ................................ ............................ 231 Rumination Attributes: Sensorimotor Experiences ................................ .............. 232 Design Principles for Evaluation ................................ ................................ ........... 232 Evaluation Places: Curatorial Settings ................................ ............................... 232 Evaluation Events and Processes: Implementation Spaces ................................ 233 Evaluation (Place scale) Objects: Ventures ................................ ........................ 233 Evaluation Relationships: Feedback ................................ ................................ .. 234 Evaluation Attributes: Networks and Filters ................................ ....................... 235 Rich Environments Empower Creative People in Five Ways ................................ .... 237 1. Rich Environments Help Creative People Move Between Creative Modes ......... 237 2. Rich Environments Amplify Creative People's Creative Abilities ........................ 238 3. Rich Environments Help Creative People Orchestrate Creative Experiences ...... 238 4. Rich Environments Inspire and Restore Creative Productivity .......................... 239 5. Rich Environments Promote Creativity in Action ................................ ........... 240

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i x Design Methods for Rich Environments ................................ ................................ 240 User Centered Design: Performance and Phenomenology ................................ .. 240 Multiscalar Design Strategies ................................ ................................ ........... 242 Participatory Practices ................................ ................................ ..................... 243 User Responsive Design ................................ ................................ .................. 244 Empowering the Creative Practitioner Through Rich Environments ......................... 245 VIII SUMMATION, FUTURE RESEARCH, AND CONCLUSION ................................ ................. 246 Summation ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 246 Why the Gap Between Theory and Practice? ................................ ..................... 247 Embodied and Embedded Cognition Form a Bridge ................................ ............ 248 A New Physically Situated Creativity Model ................................ ....................... 248 A New Theoretical Framework to Link Theory and Practice ................................ 249 New Design Principles and Methods to Assist Environmental Designers ............... 249 Future Research: Radically Rethinking The Places Where We Work, Learn, and Live 251 The Future Cr eative Workplace ................................ ................................ ........ 252 The Future of Educational Settings to Support Creativity ................................ .... 253 The Future (New) Urban Neighborhood ................................ ............................ 253 Conclusion: Towards an Ecological Psychology of Creativity ................................ ... 254 REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 255

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x LIST OF TABLES Table IV.1 Stage Models of Creativity. ................................ ................................ ............. 115 IV.2 Preliminary List of Creative Modes and Creative Activities. ................................ 142 V.1 Three Creative Modes a nd Environmental Conditions. ................................ ........ 175 VII.1 Summary of Rich Environments Design Principles. ................................ .......... 236

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xi LIST OF FIGURES Figure II.1 Map of the Island of Murano, Italy. ................................ ................................ .... 31 II.2 Downtown Boulder, CO. ................................ ................................ .................... 35 II.3 Map of Boulder, CO Greenbelt and Attractions. ................................ ................... 36 II.4 The Inspirational Rocky Mountain Setting in Boulder, CO. ................................ ... 37 II.5 The Norli n Library Commons, University of Colorado, Boulder. ............................. 46 II.6 The Campus of the University of Colorado, Boulder. ................................ ............ 47 II.7 The Mesa Lab by I.M. Pei in Boulder, CO. ................................ ........................... 51 II.8 Sunset on the Equinox at the Salk Institute in La Jolla, CA. ................................ 53 II.9 Cross Section of the Salk Instute Laboratory by Louis Kahn. ................................ 55 II.10 The Dining Patio at the Salk Institute by Louis Kahn. ................................ ........ 57 II.11 The Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine, La Jolla, CA. ....................... 59 II.12 The SCRM Main Entrance ................................ ................................ ................ 61 II.13 "A Green Outlook" Office at SCRM ................................ ................................ ... 62 II.14 "Brainstorming" Room at SCRM ................................ ................................ ....... 62 II.15 Conference Room at SCRM ................................ ................................ .............. 63 II.16 Open Office Area at SCRM ................................ ................................ ............... 63 II.17 Pipe Spaces at The Salk Institute, La Jolla, CA. ................................ ................. 64 III.1 Affordances. ................................ ................................ ................................ 110 V.1 The Nucleus of the Creative Practice Model. ................................ ..................... 158 V.2 Three Creative Modes: Immersion, Reflection, and Rumination. ......................... 173 V.3 The Multi Modal Process Model of Creative Practice ................................ .......... 181 VI.1 The Creativity in Context Theoretical Framework. ................................ ........... 189 VI.2 Illustration of Richard Feynman's Problem finding Process. .............................. 199

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1 CHAPTER I SETTING THE STAGE CONSIDERING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CREATIVI TY AND THE DESIGNED ENVIRONMENT Introduction Stories abound about how creative people believe that aspects of their settings including the spaces they inhabit along with the tools and materials they use are important to their creative process. Anecdotes relay how Immanuel K ant felt he needed the church s teeple view from his bedroom window to be creative (Wasianski, 1902) Marcel Proust preferred to work in a cork lined room (Fuss, 2004) and Rudyard Kipling would only write with obsidian black ink (Kipling, 1937) Despite the appearance of idiosyncratic behavior commonly associated with creative people, these stories suggest that an individual's creative process may be intrinsically linked with the physical setting. This belief has motivat ed the design of buildings (Doorley & Witthoft, 2012; Groves, Knight, & Denison, 2010; McCallam, 2010) and the planning policies of cities (Florida, 2003, 2004, 2012; Landry & Bianchini, 1994; Landry, 2000) yet current theoretical models of creativity do little to address the role of such settings in a person's creative process (Drake, 2003; Dul, Ceylan, & Jaspers, 2011; Moultrie et al., 2007) As product designers, interior designers, architects, and c ity planners spend considerable time and money designing artifacts of the physical environment to foster human creativity, they do so with no common theory to guide such practice. This dissertation aims to begin to address this gap in the creativity liter ature. Creative Places Settings that are intended to foster creativity can be found across time and at every scale of intervention from the single room including the designed objects within it, all the way up to

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2 the city. Design of these settings is som etimes employed as a behavioral intervention, aimed at fostering social collaborations toward increasing creative productivity (Doorley & Witthoft, 2012; Dul et al., 2011; Harrington, 2011; Sawyer, 2007, pp. 164 166) At other times designs incorporate affective or phenomenological methods to provide settings to inspire people to produce creative work (Drake, 2003; McCoy & Evans, 2002; Roth, 1993) 1 The Salk Institute in La Jolla, California, is one iconic example of a building that uses both strategies (Roth, 1993) This visually compelling facility constructed in the 1960's was planned to provide flexible spaces to support the creative work of the scientist s that occupy it World renowned architect Louis Kahn gave much consideration to the ways the scientists worked, designing the structure to maximize inspirational views and facilitate social interaction and collaboration among the occupants. Although Kahn's Salk Institute may be one of the best known example s of a building designed to foster creativity, it is certainly not a unique case. The earliest American colleges constructed during the colonial period also show evidence of architectural planning and design intended to foster new knowledge and innovation among the population of students and faculty (P. V. Turner, 1984) Like the Salk Institute, the colonial colleges were located in natural settings away from th e bustle of the city. Influenced in large part by the belief t hat being close to nature would best lead the students to achieve enlightenment, this trend to incorporate nature views into the design of university buildings continues to this day (P. V. Turner, 1984) Connection to natu re is also a theme in interior design, where studies have shown people identify rooms with natural materials and views of nature as being more likely to foster creativity in the workplace (McCoy & Evans, 2002) Common to all these examples is the inspirational quality of nature. Creativity is often anecdotally associated with the act of removing oneself from the structure and routine of daily life by escaping to inspirational natural places, but there has been little empi rical investigation into the relationship between people and natural settings in this regard. 1 Affective and phenomenological strategies are aimed at using materials, shapes, colors, textures, light, and shadow to engage the user's senses in the experience of a place. See Chapter III for additional discussion of this theoretical approach in archite cture.

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3 More recently, the social aspects of creativity have been emphasized in architectural designs and city planning strategies (Dul et al., 2011; Florida, 2004, 2012; Landry, 2000; McCoy, 2005) This reflects a shift in thinking about creativity from something that happens in the unaided human mind to that of a process influenced by the person's socio cultural environment (Amabile, 1996; Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; Feldman, Csikszentmihalyi, & Gardner, 1994a) Workplace design has been significantly im pacted by this shift, reflecting increased emphasis on design strategies intended to foster social interaction and collaboration (Doorley & Witthoft, 2012; McCoy, 2005; A. Williams, 2009) Recent interest in the city as an incubator for creativity has also influenced the development of planning policies (Florida, 2004, 2012; Landry, 2000) In city planning, emphasis is placed on the relationship between geographic proximity and knowledge transfer as a means to increase creative productivit y (Bettencourt, Lobo, Helbing, KŸhnert, & West, 2007; Carlino, 2001; Glaeser, Kallal, Scheinkman, & Shleifer, 1992; Stolarick & Florida, 2006) Whether the scientific research laboratory, the collegiate campus, an office building, or even a city, there are many designs that exemplify the attem pt to associate cognitive and behavioral goals with the physical planning of rooms, buildings, and urban spaces. Despite these numerous examples there is a lack of evidence that such design strategies are based on more than anecdotal evidence or substanti ated by post occupancy analysis (Moultrie et al., 2007) Specifically, there is little indication that empirical findings from the psychology of creativity literature have been meaningfully integrated into architectu ral designs and urban plans. Conversely, the creativity literature also largely ignores the role of physical settings in creative processes (Dul et al., 2011) The Four P's of Creativity C reativity is a multifaceted phenomenon that cannot be fully understood from the perspective of a singular perspective or domain of study (Mark A. Runco, 2007a; Sawyer, 2012) yet the physical context of creativity has received relatively little attention in the creativity literature (Dul et al., 2011; Hunte r, Bedell, & Mumford, 2007) Over the past century, the field

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4 has evolved from a focus on psychometric studies of creative personalities, to a multi faceted and multidisciplinary approach informed by research from psychology, fine and applied arts, biol ogical sciences, education, computer science, sociology, and business (Mark A. Runco, 2007a; Sawyer, 2012) Not surprisingly, there have been several attempts to organize the empirical contributions. One widely recognized structure was developed by Mel Rhodes (196 1) who proposed a system to categorize different perspectives according to Four Ps : Person, Process, Product, and Press. Research on the creative person has focused primarily on who is creative through identification of common personality traits Desp ite the volume of literature generated in this research strand, it is frequently criticized for weak external validity (Feldman et al., 1994a) and its lack of account ing for environmental (Mark A. Runco, 2007a) and cultural (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996) differences among participants Its low predictive value makes it improbable that findings solely from this domain could inform real world problems such as the design of buildings Equally ineffective for practical application is the creative product literature. The product literature focuses on what people create and is generally concerned with efforts to measure creativity. Alth ough this approach facilitates methods of objective analysis, it is also criticized for its low predictive value and the lack of insight it provides about the creative process (Mark A. Runco & Kim, 2011; Mark A. Runco, 2007a) This leaves the creative process and press literatures as the most relevant for understanding the relationship between creative people and the settings they inhabit while engaged in creative processes. The creative process strand is concerned with how people are creative by identifying menta l processes and cognitive mechanisms. This literature most commonly conveys findings through explanatory models. These models describe the mental stages of individual creativity and have influenced creativity training approaches (Rhodes, 1961; Mark A. Runco, 2007a; Sawyer, 2012; T. B. Ward & Saunders, 2003) Process models are not sufficient as "recipes" to predict creativity however, because individual personality factors and en vironmental conditions also come into play (Amabile, 1996, 1996; Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; Feldman et al., 1994a) The effect of environmental contexts on creativity is considered in the creative press l iterature.

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5 The creative press addresses where creativity happens and considers the environmental influences that may affect creative behavior (Rhodes, 1961) This perspective has historically privileged socio cultural over physical e nvironments (Drake, 2003; Dul et al., 2011) Mooney (1963) describes the press literature as concerned with "what patterns of circumstances around individuals or groups accompanies what patterns of behavior in them" (p. 332). Much of the recent stream of creativity resear ch has taken a systems (confluence) view of creativity that suggest multiple factors (personality, process, and/or environmental) are necessary for creativity to occur (Mark A. Runco, 2007a; Sawyer, 2012; R. J. Sternberg, 1999) The work of Amabile (1996) and Csikszentmihalyi (1996) are closely associa ted with this perspective and both describe creativity as an interaction between the creative person and the socio cultural context of creativity. Despite emerging research from the systems perspective, there is still minimal integration between research s trands in the Four Ps of creativity (Mark A. Runco & Kim, 2011; Sawyer, 2012) Bridging the Gap: Linking Creative Process and Place In order to effectively design places to support creativity, architects, planners, and other design professionals need a descriptive theory to inform them about what role these settings might play in creative cognition There is, however, a significant gap in the literature where it concerns the physical context of creativity (Dul et al., 2011; Moultrie et al., 2007) Creative process models generally describe creativ ity as entailing purely mental activities (Kozbelt, Beghetto, & Runco, 2010; T. B. Ward & Saunders, 2003) and the creative press research prejudices the social context of creativity over the physical (Amabile, 1998; Drake, 2003; Dul et al., 2011) thus rendering both these literatures insufficient for informing the design of settings to support creativity. Furthe r, the creative press literature has suggested that the physical environment is not a productive area of investigation in creativity. Amabile (1998) who is known for her work on social environments and creativity, argues that the physical environment does not play any significant role in creative processes. Csikszentmihalyi (1996 p. 135) another highly

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6 regarded creativity researcher, acknowledges that the physical environment may play a role in creativity, but argues that it is impossible to obtain empirical evidence to explain how features of the physical environment serve t o catalyze creative processes. Althou gh tools, rooms, buildings, landscapes, neighborhoods, and cities are designed with the intention of fostering creativity, knowl edge gleaned from their design and implementation does not inform the creativity literature Thi s dissertation seeks to begin to bridge this gap in the creativity literature by addressing the pro blem of how to consider people's relationships to their physical environments during periods of creativity The Designed Environment Although both man made and natural settings may play some role in people's creative processes, this dissertation focuses primarily (albeit not exclusively) on man made environments. I refer to these as designed environments A designed environment encompasses all of the ma n made objects in a particular setting, including tools, materials, furniture, rooms, buildings, streets, parks, plazas, etc. The professional disciplines involved in the design of these artifacts are thus referred to collectively as the field of environme ntal design and the people who work in the field as environmental designers The National Academy of Environmental Design (2011) defines environmental design as addressing the impact of the built environment on individuals an d the natural world and comprises architects, planners, landscape architects, interior designers, preservationists, building technology specialists, and researchers from a wide range of disciplines. I extend this definition to include the discipline of product design (also referred to as industrial design.) Product designers are not typically associated with the cr eation of designed environments; however in practice there is no hard boundary between product design, interior design, architecture, landsca pe architecture, and urban planning. Generally disciplinary divisions occur at the scale of the design intervention, with product designers responsible for the smallest scale artifacts, such as tools and furniture, and urban planners responsible for the la rgest scale of

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7 environmental design, including the land use and transportation systems of cities and regions. However many professionals work across the different disciplinary scales. The inventor Buckminster Fuller famously blurred the division between pr oduct design and architecture, with his work on such projects as the geodesic dome and the Dymaxion House (Sieden, 2000) and architects frequently design artifacts commonly associated with product design. Many famous architects are we ll known for their furniture designs, including Alvar Aalto, Eileen Gray, Le Corbusier and Mies van der Rohe (Hesse & Lueg, 2012) Michael Grave's product designs for the retail store Target has arguably made him more famo us among the general population than his building designs (Patton & Graves, 2004) Creative insight is also strongly (although anecdotally) associated with occurring in the bed, bus, and bath all artifacts of the p roduct design scale (Dart, 1989; Gruber, 1981a) Th ere is evidence to suggest that when creative people inhabit a setting, all the features of their designed environments including those at the scale of product design may be leveraged in pursuit of a creative problem (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990, 1996; Schšn, 1983) The literature about creative places however, is typically framed from the traditional disciplinary perspe ctives of interior design, architecture, urban design, or city and regional planning. I propose in this dissertation that it is useful to consider people's relationships with the artifacts of their environments during creativity across all scales of the de signed environment from tools to cities unencumbered by the constraints of disciplinary boundaries. The Creative Practitioner Creative places are designed for creative people; therefore it is necessary to define who is creative in order to determine what population these places may potentially serve. Researchers generally agree that creativity entails a suite of ordinary cognitive processes involving both conscious and unconscious mental work (T. B. Ward & Kolomyts, 2010) This suggests that anyone of normal abilities may be creative at a given point in time. To distinguish the high level of expertise and creative achievement of eminently creative people like Ben Fra nklin, Albert

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8 Einstein, Pablo Picasso, and Mozart from people who engage in creative activities for the pleasure of the experience, creativity is typically categorized as either extraordinary or everyday (Boden, 2004; Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; Kaufman & Beghetto, 2009) Extraordinary creativity is defined by ideas that are a significant departure from those of their time and may transform knowledge or methods in a particular domain (Boden, 2004; Csikszentmihalyi, 1996) E veryday creativity encompasses ideas that are cre ative primarily to the person or persons who conceived of them (Boden, 2004; Csikszentmihalyi, 1996) These categories are not particular ly useful fo r this dissertation. S ettings that are intended to support creativity are typically designed for a more gener al population of creative peoples than the small sample of the extraordinarily creative but a more specific group of people than the everyday crea tive population (which includes nearly everyone who is not extraordinarily creative ) Creative achievement is clearly a continuum, but more nuanced categories are required to support the practical application of creativity research (Kaufman & Beghetto, 2009) Settings intended to support creativity are most often designed for people who are engaged in creative activities for a significant portion of their day (Drake, 2003; Fig, 2009; Groves et al., 2010; McCallam, 2010; McCoy, 2005) I refer to these peopl e as creative practitioners 2 They are creative professionals who earn a living by practicing their creative work. They may be artists, writers, composers, choreographers, designers, scientists, mathematicians, or anyone else who is paid to produce creative ideas or products whether or not they are typically associated with a creative discipline. There is a debate in the literature regarding whether creativity is domain specific (domain dependent) or domain general (domain 2 Creative practitioner is a term that is similar to, yet distinct from, both Richard Florida's (2004) "creative class" and the "Pro c" category of creative expertise proposed by Kaufman and Beghetto (2009) Florida's creative class definition has been criticized for being based largely on educational attainment without a clear relationship to creativity (Markusen, 2006) T he Pro c definition of creativity does not include all professionals working in a creative field, only those who have achieved "world class, expert level status" (p. 5). My definition includes both people who are becoming creative professionals as well as eminently creative practitioners who have achieved extraordinary levels of success.

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9 independent) (Baer, 2010) 3 ; however Silvia et al (2009) argue that the method of research has much to do with one's perspective. Research that focuses on the creative person or cognitive processes often appears domain general, whereas with examination of creative products the phenomenon appears dom ain specific. It is my intention here to examine the domain general aspects of the creative process as a means to understand the relationship between creative practitioners and their designed environments. The term creative practitioner reflects the curre nt understanding that creativity is a craft that can be practiced and develops from expertise (Boden, 2001; Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; Hayes, 1989; Jay & Perkins, 1997; Mark A. Runco, 2007a; T. B. Ward & Saunders, 2003) Creative practitioners have developed expertise in their domains and are financially rewarded for it w hether they are still in the process of establishing a reputation in their career or have already achieved extraordinary levels of creative achievement. There is a general agreement in the creativity literature that domain knowledge expertise is necessary to be creative within a field, although the precise amount of knowledge remains unanswered and may vary by discipline (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; Hayes, 1989; Jay & Perkins, 1997; Mar k A. Runco, 2007a) In lieu of quantifying expertise by years of knowledge acquisition, it is assumed that creative practitioners have sufficient expertise as evidenced by their ability to earn a living through their creative practice. Although this dis sertation focuses primarily on the creative practices of professionals, I will occasionally use examples from people who are learning to become creative practitioners (e.g. design students) to illustrate how creative practice develops. Another debate in th e literature concerns the appropriate level of empirical analysis: the creative individual or the group (Sawyer, 2010) Although both levels of analysis are important, I am interested in understanding the role of the designed environm ent in both explicit and intuitive creative processes. Intuitive processes are more challeng ing to examine in social groups; therefore my research focuses on the creative individual. 3 See also the debate between Baer (1998) and Plucker (1998)

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10 Creativity is what the creative practitioner do es but the term is used i n so many different contexts and situation s t hat there is no single accepted definition (Mark A. Runco, 2007a; Sawyer, 2012) Since definitions serve to guide empirical investigation, variations in the creativity literature also generally reflect differences of focus on creative personalit y, individual or social processes, and creative product (Rhodes, 1961) For this dissertation the term must be defined in a way that is both appropriate and useful for understanding how creative practitioners may use the designed environment to support their creative practices. With this in mind, I extend Sternberg and Lubart's definition (1999, p. 3) by describing creativity as the mental, social, and physical processes (from preliminary concern or problem identification through to externalization, materialization, or concretization of an idea) of creating some thing (e.g. a product, theory, technique, etc.) that is both original and has value or purpose for a segment of society. My defin ition acknowledges 1) the mental, social, and physical process of creativity, 2) the full range of human activities involved throughout the creative process, and 3) the role of the socio cultural environment in evaluating what is creative. This definition, I suggest, more fully reflects current theories of human cognition as a situated phenomenon that involves not only mental processes, but also social and physical conditions. Creative Cognition: Situated, Embodied and Embedded Contrary to the creativity literature which largely ignores the role of the physical environment (or suggests that it is not important) (Amabile, 1998 ; Dul et al., 2011; Harrington, 2011) there is general agreement in the cognitive science literature that human cognition is situated, both physically and socially (Anderson, 2003; Robbins & Aydede, 2009) 4 S ituated cognition is a theory based on the premise that k nowledge can not be separated fro m context, that knowing is "inextricably situated in the physical and social context of its acquisition and use" (Brown et al, 1988, p. 1). There are three central ideas in situated cognition (Robb ins & Aydede, 4 Cognitive science is a multi disciplinary field of study that typically includes psychology, neuroscience, computer science, philoso phy, education, linguistics, anthropology and others involved in human cognition research (Robbins & Aydede, 2009)

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11 2009) 1) the embodied thesis that cognition encompasses both the mind and the body; (Clark, 1998; Reed, 1996) 2) the embedded thesis that people exploit features of the physical and social environment to increase cognitive capabilitie s; (Clark, 2008; Hutchins, 2006; No‘, 2004) and 3) the extended mind thesis that cognitive processes are extended beyond the boundaries of a person's body through "cognitive coupling" with artifacts in the environment (Clark & Chalmers, 1998; Clark, 2008 .) Of these claims, the first two are commonly accepted in the field of cognitive science, whereas the third remains controversial (Robbins & Aydede, 2009; M. Wilson, 2002) This dissertation will consider how creativity is physically situated, by demonstrating how creative pro cesses align with the embodied and embedded views of situated cognition. I will use the theory of situated cognition to begin to bridge the gap between the creativity and environmental design literatures. The Structure of the Dissertation This dissertatio n intends to respond to a recent surge in interest around creativity and the sometimes problematic communication in the media about how the designed environment may impact people's creativity. For example, Jonah Lehrer (2012) p opularized the idea that the color blue makes people more creative with the publication of his book on creativity. In it he describes a study by Mehta and Zhu (2009) published in Science where the researchers examined the effec t of red or blue background computer screen colors on detail oriented versus creative tasks. The results indicated improved accuracy under the red background condition in the detail oriented task and improved creativity scores under the blue background con dition. Although the researchers discussed the limitations of the study and cited other studies with conflicting results, Lehrer (2012) uses this as evidence to assert that "We can now begin to understand why being surrounded b y blue walls makes us more creative" (p. 51.) 5 The study had 5 See Chapter III for a discussion about architectural determinism and how a statement like this suggests that the designed environment will determine human behavior

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12 nothing to do with environmental (wall) color, yet the publicity around the publication of Lehrer's book popularized the idea that blue walls will increase creativity. 6 While it is certainly pos sible that certain colors may improve creative productivity under some conditions, examples like Lehrer's run the risk of popularizing unfounded information which may ultimately undermine efforts to truly understand the role of the designed environment i n creativity. The intention behind this dissertation is to investigate the role of the designed environment in creativity. I will discuss how evidence suggests that it does play a role but not as a stimulus intended to elicit specific creative behaviors as it is sometimes considered in the environmental design literature. I will demonstrate instead how features of the designed environment scaffold different creative processes for people and suggest what implications this may have for the design of setting s to support people's creative practices. o I will not prescribe paint colors. o I will not profess that the "right" environment will make you creative. o I will illustrate how creative people leverage features of their designed environments in order to increase their creative productivity. I will also formulate a hypothesis about why these strategies may work for them. Goals The ultimate goal of this dissertation is to first inform scholarly discourse around the subject of creativity as a form of embodied and embedded cognition, and then to suggest a framework that may begin to guide the design and evaluation of settings intended to support creative work. To that end, I will conduct an inquiry into the role of the designed environment in creativity. This inquiry is in response to the conflicting beliefs between creativity researchers who feel that the physical environment is not significant to creativity and enviro nmental designers who create settings with the specific intention of supporting creativity. I approach the question 6 In an interview published in Dwell Magazine, a periodical marketed to architects and interior designer s Lehrer encourage architects and designers to use red or blue room colors to influence the way people think (Pederson, 2012) For the full quote see http://www.metropolismag.com/story/20120608/designing for creativity

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13 What (if any) role does the designed environment play in creativity ?" as a three stage process. First I identify the different situated mod es of creativity and describe the relationship between them through the development of the Multi Modal Process Model of Creative Practice This model suggests (contrary to Amabile's (1998) view) that the physical environment is instrumental to people's creative processes. Next I illustrate through the development of the Creativity in Context Theoretical Framework, how people use features of the designed environment to engen der, sustain, and inhibit different creative modes. This framework is a response to Csikszentmihalyi's (1996, p. 135) claim that it is impossible to empirically investigate the role of the physical environment in creativity. I suggest tha t the Creativity in Context framework provides the structure to empirically ground research on the relationship between people and their environments during creativity. Finally, I suggest the implications the framework has for environmental design strateg ies through the concept of Rich Environments I consider this model and framework a first step in beginning to bridge the gap between the creativity and environmental design literatures. It is my hope that they will form a preliminary structure, to be further refined and developed as a future body of knowledge is constructed around the relationship between creativity and the designed environment. Methods This dissertation follows in the footsteps of the theoretical traditions esta blished in creativity, architecture, and cognitive science research. The earliest (and most enduring) theoretical model of the creative process was developed by Graham Wallas (1926) and based primarily on two first person accounts of creativity. The f irst was a speech given by the German physicist Hermann von Helmholtz at a banquet to celebrate his 70 th birthday (pp. 79 80). The second was from a chapter titled "Mathematical Invention" in the book Science and Method written by the French mathematician Jules Henri PoincarÂŽ (p. 75). From these Wallas developed his four stage model of creativity entailing preparation, incubation, illumination, and verification, which continues to be influential in the creativity literature to this day (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996;

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14 Mark A. Runco 2007a) 7 My research builds on the theoretical process models developed by Wallas and others by integrating theoretical work from cognitive science on situated cognition. The hypotheses I develop from this integration is further informed by and tested against empirical research, documented first person accounts from creative practitioners, and my personal experiences as an architect and educator of design students. First person accounts provide practical, context dependent knowledge that is particularl y valuable for informing fields of applied practice, such as the environmental design professions (Merriam, 2009) The methods employed in this dissertation are used with the intention of developing a testable theory. Karl Popper (1974) argues that scientific knowledge progresses more quickly when researchers develop theories and then attempt to refute them. As there is no current theory suitable for understanding what role the designed environment may pl ay in people's creative processes, this dissertation is primarily a theory building effort. My research adopts the method of logic model analysis (Yin, 2009) to gain insight into the relationship between creativity and the designed environm ent. Models are recommended by Frankfort Nachmias and Nachmias (2008) "for gaining insights into phenomena that the scientist cannot observe directly, such as decision making'" (p. 40). Logic model analysis consists of comparin g both documented first person accounts and observed events to a detailed hypothetical logic model that visually illustrates the relationship between events. When the data does not match the logic model, rival explanations are examined and the logic model is revised. The process of revision and comparative analysis continues unti l the model accurately reflects events. The first model I develop through this method is the Multi Modal Model of Creative Practice. 8 It describes situated modes of cognition involved in the creative process and explains the relationships between them. The model is derived from an analysis of existing creative process models and uses as its starting point Csikszentmihalyi's (1990) work on creative flow and Schšn's (1983) theory of reflective practice. It extends this work by drawing from empirical 7 Csikszentmihalyi (1996) regularly references Wallas's four stage model in his own research on creativity. Also, see Chapter IV for fu rther explanation of the Wallas model. 8 The Multi Modal Process Model of Creative Practice is introduced in Chapter V.

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15 research, documented first person accounts, and personal observations of creativity to d escribe five modes of creativity: problem finding, immersion, reflection, rumination, and evaluation. The modes are organized to describe the "breakdown and repair" relationships between them. The second model is the Creativity in Context Theoretical Frame work. This framework integrates the Creative Practice model with the taxonomy of environmental features. 9 The taxonomy is derived from the same data used to inform the Creative Practice model and identifies a system of six environmental categories that pla y a role in creativity: places, events, processes, place scale objects, attributes, and relationships. Grounded in Gibson's (1977) affordance theory, the Creativity in Context (CiC) framework describes relationships between a c reative practitioner (when engaged in a mode of creativity) and features of his or her environment. With the framework I illustrate how people use environmental features to increase their creative productivity by demonstrating how the framework explains fi rst person accounts of creativity. Finally I use the CiC framework to discuss implications for practice by discussing how the particular features of the designed environment support the different modes of creativity. Lang and Moleski propose (2010) functional theory as the instrument through which empirical evidence can meaningfully inform the practice of environmental design. 10 Functional theory is "the positive basis for design in the sense that it consists of empir ical assertions, or hypotheses, about reality" (Lang & Moleski, 2010, p. 315) In contrast to normative theory, which focuses on design principles often associated with styl istic trends, functional theory focuses on the principles of environmental experience and the relationship between users and their environments (both natural and designed.) It is a response to the gap between what environmental designers claim they are try ing to achieve and the performance of their designed 9 Frankfort Nachmias and Nachmias (2008) describe a taxonomy as "a system of logically related categories c onstructed to fit empirical observations in such a way that relationships among the categories can be defined" (p. 34). See Chapter VI for a detailed explanation of the taxonomy of environmental features and the Creativity in Context Theoretical Framework 10 They adopt the term from Kevin Lynch (1981) who coined the phrase to avoid negative connotations associated with positive theory. See Chapter II for a discussion of the negative connotations of positive theory in architectu re and its relationship to the concept of architectural determinism

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16 environments. The functional theory developed in this dissertation aims to begin to bridge this gap for the design of settings intended to support creativity. Organization of the Chapters This dissertati on will build a theoretical argument about the role of the designed environment in the creative processes of individual practitioners. The task will require the focus on three different literatures: creative press, cognitive theory, and creative process, o rganized as Chapters II IV Creative p ress In Chapter II I present an overview of the environmental design literatures that addresses creativity. The intention behind this chapter is to 1) identify common themes across different scales of the designed environment and 2) uncover implicit theories that may be manifest in the design of places for creativity. There are three main design strategies used to support creativity. Most common is the links/nodes design strategy intended to build social density, di versity, and connectivity. This strategy reflects an understanding of creativity as a socially situated process and design interventions are implemented with the intention of increasing social interactions (Bettencourt et al., 2007; Stolarick & Florida, 2006) Flexible design is another common strategy where spaces are under designed so that the users can determine their function. This strategy is a response to the uncertain and transitory nature of creativity (Apitzsch & Piotti, 2012) The third strategy involves design ing for inspiration Designs that incorporate majestic views of nature to inspire creativity suggest that the aesthetic qualities of an environment will inspire creative ideation. The inspiration strategy thus considers creativity a sub conscious mental activity. Design s trategies sometimes also incorporate environmental cues intended to sub consciously shape creative ideation. The review of the environ mental design literature suggests that 1) empirically grounded design strategies are most frequently based on the premise that increased social interactions will produce higher levels of creativity, 2) design

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17 strategies reflect the debate in the academy co ncerning the nature of person environment relationships, and 3) although similar design strategies are found across scales of the designed environment, they are not theoretically grounded in a common framework that describes the relationship between creati vity and the physical environment. There is a gap between creativity theory and environmental design practices. Environment and cognition r elationship Chapter III frames the person environment relationship debate in the environmental design lit erature by relating four environmental design approaches (deterministic, possibilistic, probabilistic, and free will) to the epistemologies of human cognition The intention behind this chapter is to identify theories of cognition that may help bridge the gap between the environmental design and creativity literatures. I will discuss how current theories of cognition suggest that the deterministic and free will design approaches are not empirically supported in the literature. The theory of situated cognition does off er empirical support for the possibilistic and probabilistic approaches. Situated cognition theory conside rs people as autonomous agents who construct their own knowledge based on their interactions with the worl d and other people The person environment s ystem view described by situated cognition indicates that the physical environment may impact people's behavior but does not determine it. It also suggests that there is a fifth design approach one that considers not how the environment affects people, b ut how people, as active agents, use the designed environment to extend their cognitive abilities. This approach differs from the other four (deterministic, probabilistic, and possibilistic, and free will) because it does not consider the person a passive recipient of environmental interventions. Instead the designed environment is considered a cognitive and behavioral resource for people, and affords them opportunities for action. This chapter illustrates how situated cognition and in particular theories of affordances from ecological psychology and embod ied, embedded and enactive cognition from cognitive science can frame the person environment relationship

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18 during creativity and thus serve to bridge the creativity and environmental design creativity literatures. Creative p rocess Chapter IV is an overview of the creative process literature. The intention behind this chapter is to use the situated cognition t heories to critique the creativity process models in terms of their applicability for informing the design of settings to support creativity The proce ss literature consists of stage models that describe creativity as a series of steps (e.g. the Wallas mod el mentioned previously) as well as creative cognition theories that examine the cognitive processes used in creativity, such as analogy and metaphor. An analysis of the creative process literature reveals that 1) there appear to be five modes of creativit y: problem finding, idea generating, incubating, elaborat ing, and implementing, 2) these modes involve both intuitive and explicit cognitive processes, 3) the stage models and creative cognition theories do not adequately describe what people do during cre ativity nor do they explain the relationships betw een stages and 4) none of the stage models sufficiently addresses the physical context of creativity. I identify Csikszentmihalyi's (1990) theory of creative flow as one creati vity theory that does convey the physically situated nature of creativity. Flow describes a single mode of creativity, the process of intuitive immersion, which is employed to generate ideas. This mode is also described in Donald Schšn 's (1983) theory of reflective practice referred to there as knowing in action Schšn 's theory describes the interaction of two modes, the intuitive process of knowing in action and the explicit process of reflection in action used by engineers, architects, town planners, managers, and psychotherapists during idea generation. Although reflective practice is more typically considered as either a situated design theory (Chai & Xiao, 2012) or experi ential learning theory (Russell, 2005) I propose that together the theories of flow and reflective practice may provide a starting point for a new physically situated model of creativity.

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19 The multi modal process model of creative p ractice In Chapter VI I will introduce the Multi Modal Process Model of Creative Practice. The Creative Practice model extends Csikszentmihalyi's (1990) flow (which I refer to as intuitive immersion) and Schšn 's (1983) reflection in action (which I call explicit reflection) to describe five interrelated modes of situated creativity: problem finding, intuitive immersion, explicit reflection, adaptive rumination, and evaluation. First I illustrate how th e physical environment is instrumental in Csikszentmihalyi's theory of flow and use this as a starting point to build a model of situated creativity. Next I critique Schšn 's work with respect to the creativity and situated cognition literatures This criti que demonstrates how Schšn's theory of reflective practice implicitly and systematically incorporates a physically situated view of creative processes. It also describes the intertwined relationship between two modes of creativity: immersion and explicit r eflection. His theory, however, falls short of fully describing creativity in a number of ways. I propose how to extend Schšn's theory by using it as the nucleus for a more developed and explicit theoretical model of creative practice that is grounded in t he situated cognition literature I draw from current and emerging research in creativity and cognitive science, along with other relevant work from design theory, first person accounts, and my own experiences as a practicing architect and educator to furt her illustrate, develop, and extend Schšn's theory to describe five modes of creativity. The formulation of this Multi Modal Process Model of Creative Practice will provide the structure for a new framework that describes the relationship between people an d their designed environments during creativity The creativity in context theoretical f ramework In Chapter VII, I will introduce the Creativity in Context theoretical framework as a means to organize knowledge about person environment relationships during creativity in a way that is both useful and appropriate for informing environmental design strategies. The framework, grounded in situated cognition theory, incorporates Gibson's (1977) theory of affordances to illustrate the role of perception during creativity. Affordance theory suggests that

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20 features of the environment present action opportunities for people. I illustrate how people's perception of these opp ortunities changes according to the mode of creative cognition in which they are engaged. Further, I develop the taxonomy of environmental features to help environmental designers consider how design interventions at different scales (e.g. products, rooms, buildings, etc.) may support creativity. Ultimately the framework describes three propositions about the relationship between people and their designed environments during creativity. First, people exploit, leverage, manipulate and alter features of the d esigned environment to enhance their creative ability and productivity. Second, environmental features serve different roles in engendering, sustaining, and inhibiting/curtailing five modes of creativity. Finally, changes in environmental features and chan ges in a person's mode of creative cognition both alter the affordances of the person environment relationship, thus affecting a person's opportunities for action in the creative situation. Rich e nvironments In Chapter VII I discuss the implications the C reativity in Context framework has for environmental design practices. I suggest the concept of Rich Environments as a method of empowering creative practitioners through environmental design. Rich Environments entails a set of design guidelines along wi th their rationale based on the Creative Practice model and Creativity in Context theoretical framework to inform the design of settings intended to support creative practitioners. These design principles may be used as a preliminary critiquing system to both assist the environmental designer and advocate for the creative practitioner. Because environmental design is like any other creative endeavor, it is impossible to predict every possible outcome and use of a design intervention in advance. Rich Envir onments, therefore, provide both structure based on best empirical evidence to support creativity and responsivity that empowers users to adapt, modify, and customize environmental features to suit their needs over time.

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21 Summation, future r esearch and co nclusion. In the final Chapter, I provide a summary of my creative contributions, discuss the limitations of this dissertation and make recommendations for future scholarly investigations. In particular, I explain that what I propose here is not a fully d eveloped theory of creativity as situated cognition, but rather a framework to serve as a starting point for future scholarly discussion. I suggest that together the Creative Practice model and Creativity in Context framework may contribute to a body of fu ture research including new methods of investigation into the role of the physical environment in human creativity by providing a preliminary structure to bridge research and practice

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22 CHAPTER II CREATIVE PLACE A REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN STRATEGIES AND NORMATIVE THEORIES IMPLICIT IN SETTINGS TO SUPPORT CREATIVITY Highlights Creativity research is often categorized according to the topic of study, commonly referred to as the "Four Ps:" Person, Process, Product, and Press. This chapter focuses on the creative press the environments that exert "pressure" on the creative person. The creative press literature has largely focused on the socio cultural environment, with little consideration for the role of t he physical environment in individual creative processes. Yet, despite the lack of substantial theoretical support from the creative press literature, some physical environments are intentionally designed to foster both individual and social creativity. Th is chapter examines the man made artifacts of the physical environment ranging from the design of tools to the planning policies of cities with the intention of uncovering common strategies and implicit theories of creativity in their design. It illust rates the lack of empirical investigation into how environmental design strategies may support creativity and highlights underlying issues that may help to explain the gaps between the environmental design and creativity literatures. Introduction Review In the first chapter I briefly described how settings (cities, landscapes, buildings, rooms, and the artifacts within them) have historically been designed to foster creativity, yet their design strategies are rarely based upon empirical evidence or verified through post occupancy evaluation. I also explained how the creativity literature is organized according to the four P's:

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23 person, process, product and press. The creative press literature, which entails systematic study of creative practitioners in their environments, has focused primarily on socio cultural environments and thus is insufficient for informing the design of physical settings. In this chapter I will conduct a more detailed cross disciplinary review of the en vironmental design literature that address es creativity. Thesis I will illustrate in this chapter how a cross disciplinary review of the environmental design literature is essential for understanding key issues concerning 1) how the relationship between environmental design and creativity has been considered in settings and products, and 2) why common design strategies to support creativity have produced inconsistent results. Such a review is unusual in environmental design, where scholarly publications tend to be discipline specific. This cross disciplinary review reveals three common design strategies employed to support creativity across different scales of the designed environment. They are listed in order of the frequency with which they are referenced with respect to creativity in the literature. The first strategy, links/nodes is intended to increase social interaction and collaboration by creating areas of social density and connectivity. Inspiration the second strategy, makes use of the attributes, materials, and natural elements b elieved to appeal to creative practitioners in order to provide aesthetically pleasing settings. Flexibility is the third strategy often referenced in the literature, however the term is not used consistently. Each design strategy thus suggests a different normative theory about the relationship between the creative person and the designed environment during creativity: 1) that environmental designs can determine social interactions and thus increase creativity, 2) that the aesthetics of a setting may influ ence intuitive creative processes, and 3) environmental designs cannot predict creative behavior so users should customize flexible settings to suit their needs.

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24 Significance T his chapter seeks to illustrate the need for a common framework to guide the des ign and evaluation of settings intended to support creativity The following review of the environmental design literature suggests that 1) common design strategies are found across scales of the designed environment, 2) the normative theories implicit in these design strategies are generally based on anecdote, folk knowledge, and people's preferences for certain environmental features, 3) the perceived effectiveness of these design strategies is inconsistent, and 4) the few empirical studies that examine the effect of environmental design strategies on creative prod uctivity yield results that often appear to contradict the normative design theories upon which they are based. The significance of this review is that it reveals that the role of the designed environment in creativity is a "chicken and egg" problem. Envir onmental design strategies rely largely on anecdote and folk knowledge, which yield inconsistent outcomes. The apparent ineffectiveness of environmental design to produce predictable outcomes leads creativity researchers like Amabile (1998) to suggest that the physical environment is not important for creativity. Yet, without a sufficient creativity theory to guide empirical investigation in environmental design, environmental design research currently consists primarily of studi es that examine people's preferences for different environmental features during creativity instead of examining the role such features might play in the creative process. This suggests that without a theoretical framework to link environmental design an d creativity, creativity researchers may continue to ignore the physical context of creativity and environmental designers may continue to replicate ineffective design strategies to support creativity. Creative Press (Place) Press is a term introduced by Murray (1938) to broadly describe environmental pressures that influence people's behavior. Much of the creative press literature has emerged in the past 35 years and emphasizes the influences of social environments on creativ ity (Amabile & Pillemer, 2012) Teresa Amabile (1983) whose research focuses on the social psychology of creativity,

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25 formulated the componential model of creativity, which describes the relationship between intra individual components (e.g. skills and motivation) and the social environment (an external component.) C omponential models describe the separate component necessary ( but not individually sufficient ) for creativity to happen (T. B. Ward & Saunders, 2003) A number of researchers have developed their own componential models based on Amabile's work (Amabile & Pillemer, 2012) Today four influential componential models are those developed by Gruber (1988) Amabile et al. (1996) Sternberg and Lubart (1991) and Feldman, Csikszentmihalyi, and Gardner (1994a) Gruber's (1988) evolving systems model approaches creativity from the developmental perspective, describing how it evolves over time and is based on new schemas that emerge from encounters with a variety of diffe rent experiences and soci al situations. Amabile's (1996) componential model demonstrates the effect of the social environmen t on a person's task motivation, domain relevant skills and creativity relevant skills In their investment theory of creativity Sternberg and Lubart (1991) suggest that six resources work together to form a creative investment: intellectual processes, knowledge, intellectual styles, personality, motivation, and environmental context. They hypothesize t hat creative practitioners "buy low by investing in creative problems and ideas that are little known or previously abandoned and present their work when it is likely to be most favorably received, thus "selling high." Finally, the DIF model developed by Feldman, Csikszentmihalyi, and Gardner (1994a) describes creativity as an interaction of three systems: domain,' individual,' and field. The domain consists of the knowledge, rules, and procedures for a specific discipline and the field is the members of the discipline. They suggest that the field must not only judge the product of a creative process to be creative, but the product itself must also transform the domain There are no componential models that include the phys ical environment with respect to creativity. This review will draw together the literatures that consider the physical context of creativity. Recently, Runco (2007b) has recommended sub categorizing the press literature by distinguishing distal press, such as historical and cultural influences, from immediate press, which

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26 he refers to as p lace This chapter will focus on a sub set of the place literature by addressing primarily the physical aspect of place. I will refer collectively to the environmental design literature in the following sections as the creative place literature In the following sections I have organized the creative place literature by discipline, wi th the creative city literature presented first. The creative city literature is the largest body and frames the discussion for the remaining sections. The remaining literatures are organized by scale around the disciplines of urban design, landscape archi tecture, architecture, interior design, and product design. For each of these scales, I will describe the design strategies that have commonly been employed to support creativity. I will also discuss how these design strategies are informed by different im plicit theories of creativity and normative theories about the role of the designed environment in creativity. Although some environmental design scales appear to have been the focus of little or no empirical investigation, I will compare research findings with the design strategies whenever possible to reveal both similarities and inconsistencies. Creative Cities and Regions It is often said, "necessity is the mother of invention." In recent decades many cities and regions have felt the pressures of scarc ity due to dwindling resources, growing unemployment, and the changing global economy (Apitzsch & Piotti, 2012) and in response have brought innovation and creativity to the forefront of discussions about city p lanning and development policies as a means to attract creative professionals and improve economic competitiveness (Currid, 2009; Florida, 2002a, 2012; Hilpert, 1991; Mawson, Begg, Fairley, & Foley, 1990) Cities have been a dominant focus of the creative place litera ture in part because there is compelling evidence to suggest that levels of innovation rise exponentially with an increase in population density (Bettencourt et al., 2007) The scholarly literature at the city/ regional scale considers creativity through a socio economic lens, as a form of human capital (Florida, 2002a, 2012; Landry, 2000, 2006) At the foundation of this movement is the question of whether geographical proximity is necessary and sufficient to enhance creativity. The creative city literature generally

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27 considers four dimensions: economic, social, environmental, and cultural (Landry, 2000) Three main themes emerge from the environmental dimension: networks and clusters, de nsity and diversity, and flexibility (Florida, 20 02a; Landry, 2000) Overview Historically, some cities (like Athens, Florence, and Paris) have been associated with periods of high levels of creativity. Prior to the early 2000's, however, the geography of creativity at the city or regional scale was n ot a widely recognized concept (Landry, 2006) Two books, published within a couple years of each other, spurred a global paradigm shift by introducing strategies to encourage growth of creative capital into the planning policies of ci ties: The Creative City: A Toolkit for Urban Innovators by Charles Landry (2000) and The Rise of the Creative Class by Richard Florida (2002a) Based on studies of European cities conducted with Com edia, a think tank Landry founded in 1978, he and Bianchini (1994) proposed the notion of "the creative city" as a solution to the problems of modern society in a small publication It was not until a decade later when Landry developed his research into a toolkit for city planners and managers and the effects of global restructuring were beginning to profoundly impact the economies of cities in North America and Europe that the concept began to gain popular attention (Landry, 2006) Landry (2000) identifies key criteria that distinguish a creative city, including the environmental factors: density, diversity, distinctiveness, and linkages. It was the work of e conomist Richar d Florida however, that truly galvanized the creative city movement (Landry, 2006) Florida (2002a) popularized the idea that a "creative class" of people profoundly influences economic conditions and social norm s He first classifies these creative class people as a form of human capital and then identifies the environmental factors that influence their decisions to live in a particular place. Landry (2000) Florida (2002a) and others identify some similar characteristics of creative cities, such as networks/linkages, clusters/scenes, densi ty, diversity, and flexibility.

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28 Despite the popularity of his ideas and widespread adoption of them into planning practices, negative critiques of Florida's work have been numerous. 11 He has been criticized for his definition and measurement of the creative class (e.g. conflating creativity with educational att ainment) (Markusen, 2006) ; use of same sex male households as a measure for diversity (T. N. Clark, 2004; Markusen, 2006) ; an inability to describe significant correlation between level of creativity and the growth of cities (Mala nga, 2004) ; failure to identify causal mechanisms (Huggins & Clifton, 2011; Peck, 2005; A. J. Scott, 2006) ; prejudicing urban areas as more creative than suburban or rural areas without examining the spatial distribution of where creative practitioners live and work (Huggins & Clifton, 2011; Stam, De Jong, & Marlet, 2008) ; and even running the risk of "hy ping the concept out of favour" (Landry, 2006) Nonetheless, as of 2006 there were over 60 self proclaimed creative cities (Landry, 2006) demarking a profound shift in thinking about creativity from something t hat happens solely in the mind of the individual to that of a socially situated, collaborative process. In the next sections I will introduce the design strategies and planning policies commonly employed to increase creative productivity in the city Some design strategies are simply aimed at attract ing creative practitioners in order to increase the city population because larger cities appear to have exponentially higher rates of creativity (Florida, 2002a; Johnson, 2010; Landry, 2000) These often entail providing the type of city attributes believed desirable by creative practitioners such as ready access to outdoor recreation opportunities and cultural venues. Other design strategies are geared toward facilitating knowledge transfe r and the diffusion and adoption of innovation (Blair, 2009; Florida, Mellander, & Stolarick, 2010; Landry & Bianchini, 1994; Landry, 2000; O'Connor, 2004; Stolarick & Florida, 2006) Three common spatial themes emerge from this second strategy : 1) network and cluster confi gurations 2) density and diversity characteristics and 3) flexibility attributes that allow places to change and evolve over time. 11 Florida has also been accused of promoting neo liberalism, although this discussion is beyond the scope of this dissertation, see for example Zimmerman (200 8) Christophers (2008) and Markusen (2006)

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29 Although they are sometimes addressed separately in the literature, I consider the first two themes different aspects of th e same link/nodes design strategy. Links and Nodes: Social Interaction and Creativity The diffusion and adoption of innovation. Much of the research on the creative city or region is marked by the tendency to frame the diffusion and adoption of creative i deas in terms of clusters and networks (Apitzsch & Piotti, 2012; Harvey, Hawkins, & Thomas, 2011) A cluster is an agglomeration of people from a particular creative industry, such as music, art, design, or fashion (Florida 2002a) which creates a distinct area of concentration, or node within a city or region. Networks form the links between clusters and determine how creative ideas are controlled, encouraged, disseminated, and/or accepted (Apitzsch & Piotti, 2012) Networks may be physical or virtual, but the creative city literature emphasizes physical connectivity both within a city or region and between them. This type of links/nodes model assumes that creative production depends upon social relationships and physical proximity (Blair, 2009; Florida et al., 2010; Landry & Bianchini, 1994; Landry, 2000; Stolarick & Florida, 2006) Similar in concept to Amabile's (1996) componential theory the creative city literatures hypothesize that clusters function to disseminate both explicit knowledge and tacit skills within the domain (Leadbeater & Oakley, 1999, p. 14; O'Connor, 2004; Ribault, 2010) The glass industry cluster in Murano, Italy, which has long been associated with a distinctive style o f decorative Venetian glassware, is a well known example of knowledge and skill transfer within a creative cluster. The Murano glass industry has functioned for centuries to pass specific localized skills in glass blowing from generation to generation, fro m master to apprentice, with small innovations evolving over time (Ribault, 2010) Although there has been little empirical investigation into the role of physical networks in the transfer of either explicit

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30 knowledge or tacit skil ls, the very nature of tacit learning suggests that physical proximity may be important if not essential to this type of learning (O'Connor, 2004) 12 Networks function as the links between clusters and serve as "gatekeepers" to control the evaluation and dissemination of creative products. As such they can vary widely concerning how they foster or inhibit creativity. They may contain a homogenous popula tion who inhibit innovation within a domain in favor of protecting traditional methods and practices; or they may contain a very diverse membership that embraces change and rewards those who challenge the status quo (Harrington, 2011) For example, since 1291 the Murano, Italy glass industry has been geographically isolated on an island near Venice (Figure II .1.) Although its location was primarily intended to reduce the risk of fire, this geographic separation also helped pre serve the secrets of the craft. Until the early 20 th century the knowledge and skills associated with Venetian glasswork were closely guarded and master glassmakers were forbidden to leave Venice under penalty of imprisonment (Ribault, 2010) The closely controlled network allowed for the preservation and incremental perfection of the craft for generations. Venetian glass was a highly sought out commodity due to the scarcity and exclusivity of the product until after World War I, when the laws regulating trade were significantly loosened (Ribault, 2010) Today the knowledge and skills required to produce Venetian glass are widespread and have resulted in low cost production in Asia, threatening the Murano industr y, which has been slow to innovate (Ribault, 2010) 12 See Chapter III for further explanation of tacit and explicit learning.

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31 Figure II 1 Map of the Island of Murano, Italy The Murano glass industry is geographically isolated from Venice, which helped to preserve the sec rets of the craft. The function of cluster network relationship bears resemblance to the DIFI ( Domain Individual Field Interaction ) model of creativity (Feldman et al., 1994a) and suggests that networks serve two pr imary functions in the creative process; they not only control how domain knowledge and skills are transferred between clusters, but they also serve an evaluative role in the adoption of creative ideas and products. When networks restricted the flow of tra de secrets between clusters while simultaneously facilitating the distribution of Murano glasswork in the Venetian glass industry the glasswork was considered highly creative. As the restrictions on the transfer of domain knowledge and skills between t he different glass industry clusters loosened, the glassware produced was no longer considered as unique (or creative). The industry failed to develop new innovations to sufficiently distinguish itself from the other glass industry clusters that began prod ucing Venetian style glass. Research concerning networks in the creative city literature has focused primarily on policy issues and social networks and clusters (Brennan Horley & Gibson, 2009; Y. Evans & Smith, 2006; Hilpert, 1991; Jayne, 2005; Landry, 2006; O'Connor, 2004) One study by Brenan Horley and Gibson (2009) however, uses a Graphical Information System (GIS) to examine creative practitioners' physical networks during creativity. Their work reveals an apparent disconnect between how the policy approach considers creative

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32 clusters and networks and the more varied types of physical networks that surface when the physical context of creativity is considered from the perspective of the creat ive individual (Brennan Horley & Gibson, 2009) This approach is unusual for the creative city literature, and suggests that new methods like GIS may lead to greater understanding regarding the role of physical networks in creativity. For the majority of the creative city literature, however, physical proximity is considered as a means to foster informal social networks through serendipitous social interactions and knowledge spillover (Johnson, 2010; Landry, 2000) Knowledge spillover and creativity. Density and diversity are characteristics of clusters and networks that are believed to increase creativity in four key ways: (1) dense clusters attract creative practitioners because the excitement generated by social and cultural stimuli motivates and inspires them (Drake, 2003; Florida, 2002a) ; ( 2) dense clusters generate "knowledge spillover" which is transferred across industries and sectors through geographic proximity and fosters the diffusion of innovation (Carlino, 2001; Glaeser et al., 1992; Jacobs, 1970; Stolarick & Florida, 2006) ; (3) diverse networks create tolerant environments that are more conducive to experimentation and innovation (Florida, 2002a) ; and (4) networks that are both dense and diverse create resource rich edge conditions, or adjacencies, where knowledge can easily transfer across domains through geographic proximity and facilitate creative problem finding and ideation (Johnson, 2010) Much of the lite rature addresses the affective qualities of the social environment as noted in points (1) and (3), whereas points (2) and (4) begin to address some of the mechanisms underlying creativity in cities by examining the role of density and diversity in knowledg e transfer and creative ideation. The affective qualities of the links/nodes approach will be discussed in the next section. The remainder of this section will focus on the mechanisms that may help to explain why increased density and diversity is associat ed with exponential leaps in creativity. Many have written qualitatively about the creative benefits resulting from the density and diversity of city life. Jane Jacob's (1961, 1970) description of her Greenwich New York

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33 neighborhood is among the better known examples. Even in 1890 Sir Alfr ed Marshall (1961) considered how urban density seemed to foster innovation and famously wrote that ideas may be found "in the air" (p. 261). Athens during the Classical period, Renaissance Rome, and fin de sicle Paris are just a few cities that people may commonly associate with periods of exceptional levels of creativity. Researchers have recently been looking to quantitative measures to better understand why some cities seem to be more creative than others. Theoretical physic ist Geoffry West and colleagues have found evidence that cities become exponentially more creative with increased population density (Bettencourt et al., 2007) Their research suggests that creativity, as measure d by quantity of patents, research and development budgets, and creative professions, follows a positive 1.2 power law scale relationship with city growth. This suggests that there are mechanisms in urban environments that may enhance the creative abilitie s of people, leading to increased creative productivity. One hypothesis commonly referenced in the literature attempts to explain how density and diversity in cities may increase creative ideation through a concept called "knowledge spillover" (Carlino, 2001; Glaeser et al., 1992; Stolarick & Florida, 2006) Knowledge spillover is a principle from economics that describes the exchange of knowledge, skills, and ideas between people. There are two types of spillovers considered relevant to creativity: MAR spillovers and Jacobs spillovers (Carlino, 2001) Sir Alfred Marshall dev eloped the MAR spillovers theory in 1890; and it was extended by Arrow in 1962 and Romer in 1986. It describes how the density of firms within the same industry facilitates the transfer of knowledge and, consequently, increases growth and creativity (Carlino, 2001; Glaeser et al., 1992) Jacobs spillovers are named for Jane Jacobs's (1970) theory that the most important knowledge transfers for increasing creativity and growth are those that occur between different industries as a result of industrial diversity i n a city (Glaeser et al., 1992) Both types of knowledge spillover lead to ideation either by obtaining new domain specific knowledge or by applying knowledge from another domain. This hypothesis bears some resemblan ce to Sternberg and Lubart's (1991) investment theory of creativity

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34 suggesting that greater diffusion of knowledge will provide more opportunities for creative practitioners to discover and invest in ideas. A second hypothesis considers how density and diversity may help creative practitioners make novel conceptual combinations (Johnson, 2010) This hypothesis is grounded in Gruber's (1988) evolving systems m odel which describes how creativity develops through encounters with diffe rent environmental situations (Johnson, 2010) Gruber's theory was largely influenced by Charles Darwin's work on the origin of species (Gruber, 1981a, 1981b) Darwin chronicled his creative developments in notebooks, al lowing Gruber to see how this thinking was influenced by environmental experiences. The ability to radically restructure schema s within a particular domain is prerequisite for making creative leaps in the kn owledge base within the domain (Dunbar, 1995; Finke, 1997; Welling, 2007) Some of the most creative minds have used knowledge from other disciplines to transform domain knowledge in thei r own field including Piaget (who used biology to transform cognitive development,) Freud (who used physiology to transform psychoanalysis,) and Darwin (who used geography and geology to transform evolutionary biology) (Dunbar, 1995) Johnson (2010) borrows a term from chemistry, describing this phenomenon as "the adjacent possible" (pp. 23 42). He suggests that density and diversity in the physical environment can influence the creative mindset about a probl em or concern. Design strategies to support knowledge transfer in the city are generally informed by planning policies, which may delineate and describe particular development zones for different geographic areas (e.g. business, retail, entertainment, rec reation, residential, etc.). Landry (2000) emphasizes the need for public spaces in cities that support social density and facilitate knowledge spillover, such as public plazas; urban centers (where the majority of public facili ties are located); meeting places (conference facilities as well as bars, clubs, and coffee shops); research and educational facilities; and cultural facilities that offer affordable entertainment (pp. 119 123). Landry (2000, pp. 34 35) and Florida (2002a, pp. 283 314) both describe how the city urban core may provide a central hub around which other nodes of social density may be organized in an inner ring. This spatial arrangement is believed to facilitate connectivity between

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35 the nodes (Landry, 2006) Thus many of the desi gn strategies referenced in the creative city literature are founded on the belief that, in the designed environment, cluster density will foster knowledge spillover within a particular domain and cluster diversity will create edge conditions where rich cr oss disciplinary knowledge spillover increases creative ideation. Figure II 2 Downtown Boulder, CO Boulder, CO was ranked highest on Florida's (2012) creativity index (see Appendix Table A.2 in his book ). The Pearl Street Mall in downtown Boulder offers pedestrian connections between the public plaza, meeting places, and cultural facilities located in the city urban c enter. Image from www.sangres.com/colorado/boulder/boulder.htm

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36 Figure II 3 Map of Boulder, CO Greenbelt and Attractions Features of Boulder include clos e geographic proximity between the urban center (downtown), education hub (university), retail hub (pedestrian mall), and transportation hubs (bus, plane, and highway). Recreations opportunities are offered by the surrounding green belt and nearby Rocky Mou ntains. Inspirational Settings: Motivation and Creativity Much of the environmental design literature at the city and regional scale is based on the assumption that attracting more people (and particularly creative practitioners) to a city or region will cause an exponential increase in creative productivity (Florida, 2012, pp. 304 349) 13 Florida (2002a) argues that the physical attractions that most cities emphasize (sports arenas, shopping malls, amusement parks, etc.) are not attractors for the creative class (p. 218). Instead he 13 Florida (2012) has been criticized for presenting a tautological argument that "creative people seek out places that draw a l ot of creative people." (See for example Macgillis (2009) ). In his defense, he re ferences Aaron Renn's explanation that urban development is tautological, because it is a "positive feedback system" (p. 318 ).

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37 suggests that cities focus their eff orts on developing the "just in time" recreational opportunities that creative practitioners have expressed preferences for such as park and trail systems and pedestrian friendly nightlife attractions that include cultural venues, bars, clubs, and coffee shops (pp. 224 225). Design strategies to encourage creative productivity in the city thus often focus on developing these types of attractions to bring more creative practitioners to a city or region (Florida, 2002a; Landry, 2000) Figure II 4 The Inspirational Rock y Mountain Setting in Boulder, CO. Boulder attracts creative practitioners despite the relatively high cost of living. Image from the University of Colorado website http://ibg. colorado.edu/general_information/about_boulder.html Of the creative city researchers, Florida, an urban planner, focuses the most on design strategies to influence the physical environment (2002a, pp. 215 234) Yet even he is primarily concerned with the economic geography of cities, which focuses on planning policies to address the socio cultural creative environment (Florida et al., 2010; Florida, 1999, 2002b, 2002c; Stolarick & Fl orida, 2006) Although networks may be considered as physical artifacts (e.g. roads, bike paths, transit lines, etc.) the creative city literature focuses primarily on socio cultural networks, formed by conditions of social diversity and geographic prox imity (Florida, 2002a,

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38 2012; Landry, 2000, pp. 111 113) Diverse places may create the tolerant social networks that inspire and motivate experimentation and innovation (Drake, 2003; Florida, 2012, pp. 293 294; Landry, 2000, pp. 111 113; Stolarick & Florida, 2006) Florida (2002a, 2012) describes how cities that inspire and motiv ate creative practitioners possess the 3T's: Technology, Talent, and Tolerance. Technology references the level of innovation (measured by number of patents) and concentration of high tech industries in a city or region. Talent refers to the percentage of people working in a creative industry (Creative Class Index). 14 Tolerance concerns how receptive a city or region is to innovative ideas. Florida uses the Composite Diversity Index, which includes three measures: The Melting Pot index (percentage of immigra nts), the Gay Index (percentage of the population who identify as gay for sexual orientation), and the Bohemian Index (percentage of people working in creative arts professions.) This combination of existing innovation, intelligent people, and socio cultur al diversity, Florida believes, creates an ideal setting to foster creativity. Amabile's (1996) componential model also emphasizes the motivational significance for the social environmen t in creativity. The numerous parallels be tween her work on workplace environments and Florida's creative city research are discussed later in this chapter. Tolerant environments are thus believed to reduce barriers to creative exploration and risk taking (Amabile et al., 1996; Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; Feldman et al., 1994a; Florida, 2002a) Flexibility: The Temporal Nature of Exploration Zones in the City Flexibility is an attribute frequently associated with a variety of creative environments, and the city where creative industries must respond to economic uncertainty, exploit informal networks, and depend upon flexible labor conditions is no exception (Apitzsch & Piotti, 2012; Haunschild, 2003; McKinlay & Smith, 2009) The uncertain and transitory nature of creative 14 In his original research on the creative class, Florida (2002a) combined the Creative Class Indic ator with a Human Capital Index (HCI), determined by the level of educational attainment of the area's population. (HCI is based on the percentage of the population who have a Bachelor's degree or higher.) In response to criticisms that he conflated creati vity with education, he removed the human capital measure and found similar results (Florida, 2012, p. 231)

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39 industries is considered unique. City planning policies have attempted to remove structural barriers and provide strategies to adapt to the spontaneous and sometimes chaotic evolution of informal clusters and networks that can emerge within a creative city or region (Apitzsch & Piotti, 2012; Landry, 2000, pp. 224 253) Historically many cities have experienced an ebb and flow of creative production (Landry, 2000, pp. 205 210) The spectacular levels of creativity and innovation associated with Classical Athens, Renaissance Rome, or fin de sicle Paris, suggest that while a particular environment may engender high levels of creativity, the effec t appears to be temporary. Although there has been little empirical investigation into the mechanisms behind this phenomenon, I posit that mature creative clusters may suffer from a concept in creativity called the cost of expertise and flexible environm ents may help to ameliorate this problem. Although adequate domain knowledge is essential to be creative, expertise can also create barriers to creativity (Mark A. Runco, 200 7a, p. 225) Experts have large knowledge bases that are organized in sophisticated schema s with multiple interconnections between knowledge (R. J. Sternberg, 2006a) Unlike novices, their knowledge tends to be highly organized and structured by years of experience. Although this complex knowledge structure may facilitate creativity, it may also lead to problems developing creative insights (Runco, 2007). Experts tend to make assumptions and rely on tacit underst andings instead of questioning the way knowledge is structured in their own domain (Sternberg, 2006). Novices, on the other hand, have much looser systems of knowledge making it easier to restructure schema s to develop novel insights (Runco, 2007). It is p erhaps for this reason that many creative practitioners move from one field to another creating what Runco (2007) refers to as "professional marginality." Florida (2012) makes particular mention of physical mobility among creative practitioners (p.306 308 ) Such mobility may help to determine the natural lifecycle of creative clusters. Mobility may also help to increase creativity through a concept called reseeding (Fischer & Ostwald, 2002; Fischer et al., 2001) Seeds are the knowledg e, ideas, skills, processes, tools, products, and methods found within a creative cluster or node (Fischer et al., 2001; Harrington, 2011) As that cluster matures, rates of creative productivity typically peak and then begin to

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40 decline. The insertion of new knowledge or restructu ring of existing knowledge within the cluster (reseeding) may improve creative productivity once again (Fischer & Ostwald, 2002; Fischer et al., 2001) This suggests that mobility is instrumental to the reseeding process and, consequently, creative productivity both for the creative practitioner as well as the creative cluster. Creative practitioners may seek out environments where they will encounter new seeds for creativity (Harrington, 2011) Conversely, their participation in new envir onments may initiate a reseeding process for those creative clusters. The creative city design strategies have focused on attracting and retaining the mobile creative population (Florida, 2012) 15 The concept of cluster reseeding sug gests, however, that some mobility among the creative population may be beneficial. Creative Cities as Places of Problem Finding and Evaluation There is a clear focus on the social context of creativity in both the creative city literature and the componen tial models of creativity From the creative city literature five implicit theories about the relationship between the physical context of the city emerge: 1) physical socio cultural networks serve as gatekeepers for the evaluation and dissemination of cre ative products or ideas; 2) social density and geographic proximity facilitate the transfer of explicit and tacit domain knowledge and skills required for creativity; 3) diverse clusters foster cross disciplinary interactions, which facilitates seeding of creative ideas and paradigmatic shifts within a domain; 4) diverse networks create an inspirational climate, conducive to motivating creative practitioners to take risks and experiment, and 5) the temporal nature of creativity suggests that flexible enviro nments allow creativity to develop over time and respond to the ebb and flow of creative cluster formations. These theories describe how the creative city may play a role in both the adoption and diffusion of creative ideas. It is possible, therefore, t hat cities may play a role in 15 The creative city literature often considers creativity from an economic g eography perspective. It is possible that this has focused empirical investigations around concerns for how to attract and retain a mobile creative population, ignoring the potential benefits for creativity of some mobility within a city or region.

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41 how people find creative problems to purs u e and how their creative ideas and products are implemented and evaluated by others. Limitations of the Creative City Approach There are several significant limitations of the creative ci ty with regard to how it may successfully inform design strategies. First, a review of the creative city literature reveals a lack of investigation into the relationship of the city with the suburban and rural geographies of a creative region. Critics have argued that this literature prejudices the city as the only place to be creative, and recommends researchers look at larger regions and also examine individual processes to see how and when people are creative in the city (Brennan Horley & Gibson, 2009; Drake, 2003; Morris, 2005) Second, the literature review presents a narrow focus on the physical attribut es of the designed environment as mediator for social interactions. This is a theme that is prevalent at other scales of the designed environment as well. Although the body of creative city literature does acknowledge the relationship between place and per sonal inspiration, it focuses almost entirely on social interactions while neglecting individual creativity (Drake, 2003) It does not consider how features of the designed environment may play a role in non social creative processes. Th e most significant shortcoming of the creative city literature, however, is that it has failed to empirically identify causal mechanisms to explain how environmental design strategies may help to increase creative productivity (Huggins & Clifton, 2011; Markusen, 2006; Peck, 2005; A. J. Scott, 2006) The most compelling evidence that cities may cause an increase in creative productivity is the study by Geoffry West and colleagues (Bettencourt et al., 2007) which showed that creative productivity follows a positive 1.2 power law scale relationship with city growth. This suggests that there are mechanisms in urban environments that may enh ance the creative abilities of people, leading to increased creative productivity. Florida's (2012) research has also uncovered direct correlations between the percentage of creative workers in a city, levels of technological i nnovation, and social diversity, suggesting that all three components are necessary

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42 for economic development (p. 228). The policy decisions and design strategies aimed at increasing creative productivity are primarily based on this descriptive evidence. Th e assumption that increasing the density of a creative population in a city will increase creative productivity has not been empirically tested. Summary of Key Findings from the Creative City Literature Empirical findings suggest that cities with higher cr eative population densities have exponentially higher rates of creative productivity. City planning strategies have focused on "attracting and connecting" creative people by appealing to their preferences for certain amenities. Implicit in these planning p olicies is the belief that creative productivity increases with social interaction through knowledge spillover. There does not appear to be any empirical evidence to validate the effectiveness of these planning policies. Urban Design: Creative Districts an d Neighborhoods Urban design is primarily distinguished from the city planning literature by its focus on the proactive, physical design of urban spaces (Saelens, Sallis, & Frank, 2003) City planni ng emphasizes regulatory policies that may influence physical designs by considering the interaction between physical, social, and political factors in a city or region. Urban design is more concerned about the relationship between buildings and exterior s paces and the effect these relationships have on the people who use them (Carmona, Heath, Oc, & Tiesdell, 2003; Saelens et al., 2003) Urban design is not specifically limited to a particular geographic size, but for the purposes of this lit erature review I will delimit the scale to the area of a neighborhood or district. This geographic area is a size within the realm of the average pedestrian or bicyclist at its largest. There is no evidence of explicit empirical investigation into the role of urban design in creativity, however there is a recent stream of literature that considers how creative practitioners

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43 seek out different types of environments ( creative milieus ) durin g their creative processes (Borggren, 2010; Meusburger, 2009; Tšrnqvist, 2004; Wu, Wen, Wu, & Lin, 2007) This concept is also a key theme in an earlier semin ar report authored by Ann Buttimer (1983) She describes the results of a conference held in June 1978 in Sigtuna, Sweden where 45 scholars from diverse disciplinary fields met to discuss the physical context of creativity. Sev eral key themes emerged from the conference. First, when considering the context of creativity, it is most useful to consider creativity as a process that entails different stages. Second, the significance of context for the participants varies with the cr eative stage. Third, styles of communication during creativity also vary according to the creative stage. Although the participants could not agree on the specific stages in the creative process, they did agree that they all sought out different types of e nvironments according to their perception of the stage in which they were engaged. Many of the participants described moving between their offices, outdoor settings, and third places (such as the coffee shop). Third Places The third place is a concept dev eloped by Oldenburg (1989) to describe the role of informal public gathering spaces in communities. Third places are the coffee shops, pubs, cafŽs, markets, community centers, or other places where people seek informal social i nteraction. Oldenburg explains that people inhabit home (first place) and work (second place) to meet a need, such as to sleep or to earn a living. The third place is inhabited by choice. Creative practitioners often talk about going to third places as par t of their creative processes (Buttimer, 1983; Tšrnqvist, 2004; Wu et al., 2007) Historically the coffee house has been a place for the exchange of knowledge and scholarly debate (Livingstone, 2003, pp. 84 86) The London coffee houses in the 17 t h and 18 th centuries often hosted scientific lectures and became places of knowledge propagation through the mingling of people from different walks of life (Livingstone, 2003, p. 84) Although third places are recommended as places to support creativity (Florida, 2002a, 2012; Landry, 2000) there has been little empirical ex amination of their modern day role

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44 in the creative process (Wu et al., 2007) Based on Florida's work, Wu et al. (2007) examine the modern coffee house in the cities of Taipai and Hsinchu They found that the coffee house serves as a "social bridge" between talent and entrepreneurship among urban and professional people. Because the resea rchers did not find a relationship between third places and social diversity, they suggest that like minded people use the coffee shop as a place to network and share ideas. Creative practitioners also use third places for solitary work. Buttimer (1983) describes how creative practitioners sometimes feel more productive there than in their offices. Csikszentmihalyi (1996) also found that many creative practitioners like to work alone in a social cont ext. He suggests that they seem to draw inspiration and motivation from such settings. Although third places are generally considered to be buildings, the preference that some people have for working on the train was mentioned in both Buttimer's (1983) report and in Tšrnqvist 's (2004) analysis of biographies written about Nobel Laureates. Interstitial Spaces There are many stories by creative practitioners about the importance of interstitial spaces the areas between places like buildings, districts, or cities to their creative processes (Buttimer, 1983; Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; Tšrnqvist, 2004) Tšrnqvist (2004) examines the role of geographic mobility and travel in his study of Nobel Laureates and describes how the train was instrumental to Niels Boh r's creative process. Tšrnqvist suggests that Bohr's preference for the train as a place of both solitary and social work may help to explain the central role he played in the physics network during his lifespan. Trains and carriages are so often reference d in anecdotes about creativity that Harding and Nichols (1948) suggest that the rhythm of these transportation modes may induce in creative practitioners a hypnotic state conducive to ideation. 16 Mozart famously described in hi s correspondences how his creative ideas often came during a carriage ride, while walking, or at night when he couldn't sleep (Holmes, 1845, p. 329) The interstitial spaces between desti nations such as the train, time sitting in traffic while 16 This phenomenon is commonly referred to as the "bed, bus, and bath," referring to the places people often associate with "a ha" moments of creative insight (Dart, 1989)

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45 driving, the bicycle ride, and the walk are often described by creative practitioners as opportunities to think (Buttimer, 1983; Ghiselin, 1954) Urban Design Strategies for Creativity Third places and interstitial spaces are themes prevalent in urban design strategies to promote creativity through the physical design of universities and colleges. Architectural historian Paul Turner (1984) describes how the designs of the early American colleges were based on a radical new curriculum intended to foster creative innovation in their students. He hypothesizes that the great variety in building design among the nine colonial colleges was a result of experimentation in architecture designed to support these educational goals. S ome of these design strategies intended to create an "academic village", a concept that persist s in collegiate planning to this day (Turner, 1984, p. 3). The extensive grassy lawns of the campus invite strolling or bicycling in the interstitial spaces between buildings and also foster a feeling of connection and receptivity to the world at large. The integration of working, living, dining, and recreation facilities into one campus plan is intended to create a sense of community that the students and faculty are one body working together to creatively solve the world's problems The third spaces of the dining halls, recreational facilities, and plazas invite informal social interactions, connecting spaces of solitary reflection like offices, dormitories, and libraries Today, however, many universities are re envisioning the library as another third space to support social creativity. This likely reflects the current shift in thinking from creativity and learning as primarily solitary activities to social processes.

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46 Figure II 5 The Norlin Library Commons, University of Colorado, Boulder The library was recently renovated as a "third place" to include a coffee bar, computer stations, and a variety of reconfigurable seating options. Im age from the University of Colorado website at http://ucblibraries.colorado.edu/about/coffee.htm Mobility and Creativity Although empirical investigation into the relationship between urban design and creativity is virtually nonexistent, the stories creative practitioners tell about their creative processes suggest that this scale of the designed environment may be overlooked. These people seem to vote with their feet They change environment s in an effort to keep their creative productivity high (Buttimer, 1983) They describe how they take advantage of opportunities to move between home, work, and third places and even use the interstitial spaces between these pla ces as part of their creative process. Buttimer (1983) suggests that "creative work demands quiet and privacy, but also needs movement and a sense of change" (p. 59.) Despite the lack of research in this area, it appears that urban designs may incorporate some of the same strategies used in city planning. On the university campus, for example, the primary spatial form is the links/nodes arrangement where landscaped lawns form interstitial spaces, linking the nodes of living, working, and socializing located in dormitories, classrooms, dining halls, and libr aries.

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47 Figure II 6 The Campus of the University of Colorado, Boulder Interstitial spaces such as plazas and lawns link destinations at the University of Colorado in Boulder and provide opportunities for physical activit y, relaxation, and informal social gatherings. Photograph by Neil Kearney. Summary of Key Findings from the Urban Design Literature People seek out third places for solitary and social work. People prefer to move to different spaces when creative productiv ity wanes. The interstitial spaces between destinations may also support creative processes. There does not appear to be any empirical investigation into the effectiveness of design strategies at this scale. Creativity and Landscape Architecture The role of landscape architecture in creativity is primarily addressed through the concept of "greening" the creative city (Florida, 2002a, 2012; Landry & Bianchini, 1994; Landry, 2000) 17 Natural areas are most often described as desirable features of a creative city (or as ideal characteristics of any healthy city), but without much rationale for the role they may 17 There is another body of Landscape Architecture literature that consid ers the relationship between creativity and landscape design, but it is primarily focused around children's playscapes and beyond the scope of this dissertation. I will describe one concept from this literature, the theory of "loose parts in Chapter 7.

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48 specifically play in the creative process (Landry & Bianchini, 1994; Landry, 2000, 2006) This approach generally seems to reflect an acknowledgement of people's preferences for natural views during creativity. Florida (2012) however, suggests that for many creative practitioners, outdoor leisure activities (such as walking, running, rock climbing, bicycling, kayaking, and snowboarding) appear to be part of their creative work process (pp. 133 147). Banks (2009) has coined the term "instrumental leisure" to describe the phenomenon of employing leisure activities in service to economic productivity. Natural areas that afford recreational activities are one of the city attri butes that Florida suggests may help to attract and retain a creative population. Instrumental Leisure Anecdotes about creative practitioners suggest that the integration of leisure activities (especially walking) into the creative process is commonplac e (Buttimer, 1983; Ghiselin, 1954) Res earch on the relationship between exercise and creativity also suggests that creative productivity increases after exercise (Ben Soussan, Glickso hn, Goldstein, Berkovich Ohana, & Donchin, 2013; Blanchette, Ramocki, O'del, & Casey, 2005; Cavallera, Boari, Labbrozzi, & Bello, 2011) Walking and creative thinking have historically gone hand in hand. The Peripatetic School of ancient Athens was so n amed because its founder, Aristotle, was said to have habitually walked together with his students while he taught (Solnit, 2001) 18 According to Solnit (2001) Hobbes, Kant, and Wittgenstein were also known to include walks as part of their daily routines. More recently, scientists have been examining the positive effects of walking in natural settings on attention and memory (Berman, Jonides, & Kaplan, 2008; Hartig, Evans, Jamner, Davis, & GŠrling, 2003) 19 These studies suggest that natural landscapes may help to combat cognitive 18 Peripatetic means "one who walks habitually and extensively" (Solnit, 2001, p. 15) According to Solnit, (2001) the Sophists, who predated the Peripatetics, are also associated with habitual walking and teaching. 19 Many studies consider the effect of nature on attention in both sedentary and active (walking) conditions, with positive effects found in both conditions. Physical activity alone has also been shown to have a positive effect on cognition in numerous studies and with people of different ages. See for example Hillman et al. (2008) and Weuve (2004)

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49 fatigue (Berman et al., 2008; Herzog, Colleen, Maguire, & Nebel, 2003; Kaplan, 1995; Van Den Berg, Hartig, & Staats, 2007) Florida (2012 ) references some of this research to describe how outdoor areas may play an instrumental role in creative work (pp. 133 147). He cites a study conducted by Marc Berman and colleagues (2008) that compared the restorative eff ects of a 50 minute walk in a natural setting (Ann Arbor arboretum) versus an urban setting (downtown Ann Arbor, MI). The researchers found that cognitive attention (as measured by a backwards digit span task and the Attention Network task) was significant ly improved in the natural setting condition. This study was based on Kaplan's (1995) Attention Restoration Theory (ART) which hypothesizes that stimuli from natural settings grab people's attention in a "bottom up" fashion, al lowing directed attention to replenish. There does not appear to be any empirical investigation into the role of walking in natural settings on creativity in particular. However, creativity is understood to entail ordinary cognitive processes thus the ap parent benefits of walking in natural settings for attention and memory may also help to explain why many creative practitioners incorporate such activities into their routines. Emerging research suggests that there may be some evidence behind the benefit s of instrumental leisure to creativity. Blanchette et al. (2005) found that moderate aerobic exercise had immediate positive effects as well as enduring residual effects on creative productivity. Cavallera et al. (2011) found that participation in sports had a positive effect on creative elaboration. Ben Soussan et al. (2013) examined whether it is the cognitive or motor effects of exercise that positively influence idea tional fluency and concluded that it is the combination that is effective. The concept of instrumental leisure is beginning to influence the design of some landscapes intended to support creativity. The landscape at Pixar in Emeryville, CA, designed by Pet er Walker Partners (PWP), is one such example (Searer, 2012) PWP designed the 20 acre grounds as a place to invite both casual leisure activities and more structured exercise opportunities. The site includes soccer fields, a volleyba ll court, a basketball court, an Olympic swimming pool, and jogging trails. It also provides an outdoor amphitheater, a variety of

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50 vegetable and flower gardens, wildflower meadows, and numerous native and exotic trees to foster casual exploration of the gr ounds. The intention was to create many seemingly undiscovered places to walk, sit and talk, or eat lunch." Inspirational Settings People often claim to draw inspiration from majestic, natural settings during the creative process (Buttimer, 1983; Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; Jermome and Dorothy Lemelson C enter for the Study of Invention and Innovation, 2007; McCoy & Evans, 2002) The association of creativity with majestic settings has frequently influenced the selection of building sites toward places that maximize natural views. Two famous scientific facilities are well known for their spectacular landscapes: The Mesa Lab for the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, CO and The Salk Institute in La Jolla, CA. 20 Designed by I.M. Pei, the Mesa Lab sits high above the Boulder valley i n Colorado, where Table Mesa meets the Flatirons formations of the Rocky Mountain foothills ( 2 .7). 20 La Jolla, CA is in the San Diego area, which ran ked sixth on Richard Florida's (2012) Creativity Index for 2010.

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51 Figure II 7 The Mesa Lab by I.M. Pei in Boulder, CO I.M.Pei's Mesa Lab at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) is located on the Table Mesa. The facility is surrounded by acres of designated open space and has views of the Rocky Mountain Flatirons and the Boulder Valley Image from the NCAR website at http://nar.ucar.edu/2012/lar/page/ncar wide efforts The Mesa Lab was constructed in an area beyond the "blue line," which is intended to restrict development adjacent to the foothills in order to retain views and open space for the city reside nts (S. W. Leslie, 2010) As a condition of the City of Boulder's development terms, NCAR agreed to leave its 565 acre parcel on the mesa as public open space, surrounding the facility with a naturalistic landscape (S. W. Leslie, 2010) Leslie (2008, 2010) describes how Pei's design responds to the scientists' requests for views from their offices, benches located around the site where they could sit and take in the scenery, and a building design that would not detract from the natural beauty of the site. Pei also provided a variety of other ways that occupants could take in the mountain air and inspirational views from tiny perches located atop the building towers, on an outdoor dining patio, in the formal tree lined court yard, and by the walkway that connected the staff lounge to the mesa. Although high winds on the mesa often prevent these outdoor areas from the heavy use Pei envisioned, the inspirational significance of the natural

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52 landscape to the scientific work at NCA R is documented through post occupancy interviews and the continued tradition of annual mountain retreats. In contrast to NCAR's naturalistic landscape, the grounds around The Salk Institute are quite formal ( 2 .8). The facility was designed by Louis Kahn t o perch above the cliffs adjacent to the Pacific Ocean in La Jolla, CA. The central plaza is arguably one of the most recognized features of the facility and its form is strategically designed to draw people's attention toward the ocean (Lobell, 2008, pp. 76 77) The Salk plaza design intends to focus and magnify the majesty of nature. 21 A central trough of water visually connects the main entrance of the facili ty to the western sky, giving the illusion that the courtyard is suspended in the air. On the equinoxes the sun sets on axis with the trough, further adding to the visual effect. The architect Stephen Holl (1989) describes how the design of the plaza and its natural setting are "phenomenologically linked" (pp. 9 10). At Louis Kahn's Salk Institute, there is a time of day when the sun, reflecting on the ocean, merges with light reflecting on the rivulet of water in the trough bisecting the central court. Ocean and courtyard are fused by the phenomenon of sunlight reflecting on water. Architecture and nature are jo ined in a metaphysics of place. Holl attempts to capture the experience that many people describe concerning the visual play of light, water, surface, and sky in the design of the courtyard (Moe, 2008) 21 The courtyard was the idea of Mexican architect Louis Barragan (Kahn, 2003, pp. 208 209) Kahn originally intended a garden with trees where the courtyard now sits; but when Barragan saw the plans, he convinced Kahn to create a paved plaza instead, to "add another faade, a faade which looks to the sky." It is unclear how much influence Baragan had on the final design with axial water trough.

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53 Figure II 8 Sunset on the Equinox a t the Salk Institute in La Jolla, CA A crowd waits for sunset in the plaza of the Salk Institute by Louis Kahn during the 2012 autumnal equinox. Historically there has been little scientific attempt to understand why spaces like the Salk plaza seem to inspire creativity. There is some emerging research that uses fMRI studies to examine the neurological effects of environmental design. Images of the Salk plaza were found to induce contemplative states according to preliminary results from one fMRI study. 22 This research indicates that new methods of empirical investigation may eventually lead to better understanding about the physiological effects of inspirational settings. Summary of Key Findings from the Landscape Architecture Literature Creative peopl e claim to draw creative inspiration from majestic settings. Emerging research suggests that majestic settings may induce psychological states. Creative people engage in instrumental leisure activities to increase creative productivity. Exercise has been found to have immediate and residual benefits for creativity. Engagement with nature has been found to have positive effects on attention. 22 Julio Bermudez of Catholic University presented this work in progress on arc hitecturally induced contemplative states at the ANFA 2012 conference.

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54 Architectural Design: Behavior Settings for Creativity The Salk Inst itute and the Mesa Lab are projects commissioned by people who believed that a signature architectural design could shape both user experiences and collective identity in an organization (S. W. Leslie, 2008) Built in the 1960's, the projects shared common design strateg ies and intentions (S. W. Leslie, 2008) although The Salk Institute is more often regarded as an iconic example of a building designed to foster creativity (C. W. Taylor, 1988, p. 102) Jonas Salk hired Kahn to fulfill his dream of designing a place to inspire the kind of creativity that he experienced at the St. Francis of Assisi monastery (S. W. Leslie, 2008, 2010) Salk credited the contemplative environment at the monastery with his break through in developing the polio vaccine, and hoped that Kahn could capture some of the same aesthetic qualities. Kahn set out to design a visually compelling facility that both captured the spirit of the monastery and reflected his understanding about how space could foster creativity for the Salk researchers (Kahn, 2003, pp. 132 134, 142, 207 208) He gave much consideration to the ways the scientists worked designing the structure to maximize inspirational views and facilitate social interaction and collaboration among the occupants (Kahn, 2003, pp. 71, 132 134, 142 145) The strategies that Kahn and Pei incorporated in their designs are still prevalent today: inspirational spaces for solitary work; flexible spaces to accommodate changes in workplace practi ces; and circulation configurations that link destinations with hallway nooks and crannies, gardens, and courtyards. These places for meeting and relaxation create opportunities for social interaction and collaboration (Kahn, 2003, p. 71; S. W. Leslie, 2008) Circul ation Configurations for Social Interaction Similar to the patterns found in the creative city literature, buildings designed to support creativity most often emphasize strategies intended to influence social interactions (McCoy, 2005) At the Salk Institute, Kahn separated the scientists' studies from their laboratories. He linked the studies and labs with small courtyard spaces intended for the impromptu conversations and collaborations that would occur as people passed by them on thei r way between these two

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55 spaces. Prior to beginning his design, Kahn met with the scientists and learned that they had studies adjacent to their labs. The scientists told him, however, that when they worked in the studies they were often bothered by all the equipment noises coming from the labs (Kahn, 2003, p. 133) He also observed that the scientists habitually ate their lunch in the lab, even though the place was "full of microbes" (Kahn, 2003, p. 133) Although the scientists told him that it was important that they be close to their labs, Kahn (2003) decided that "they were all wrong about what the y wanted" (p. 202) and chose to separate the laboratory "architecture of clean air" from the study "architecture of the oak table and the rug" (p. 133). In collaboration with Salk, he chose to locate a courtyard garden directly across from every lab and pl ace the studies over arcades such that they are not visible from the labs (p. 207). Figure II 9 Cross Section of the Salk Instute Laboratory by Louis Kahn. A sectional view showing the relationship between the column free laboratory spaces, interstitial service "pipe" spaces, courtyard garden studios, and arcades. The links/nodes design approach is prevalent in buildings intended to facilitate social creativity, yet there is little evidence of its effectiveness at promoting social interaction or collaboration (Fayard & Weeks, 2007; McCoy, 2005; Steen, 2009) Kahn located the labs, s tudios, and dining area at the Salk as distributed nodes, which are linked by pleasant exterior spaces where he envisioned people would stop for impromptu socialization. He even located chalkboards on the equipment chases in the plaza so that people could jot down their ideas as they develop.

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56 Although the facility is largely considered a success, many of Kahn's design strategies did not produce the social interactions he envisioned. The scientists rarely used the studies, choosing instead to build out offic e spaces in the labs and giving their postdoctoral fellows the study as a place to work (and sometimes live) (S. W. Leslie, 2008) 23 The gardens outside the laboratories have become places to store surfboards and the plaza remains generally free of the impromptu social collaborations Kahn imagined. Pei's Mesa Lab design has experienced similar outcomes. Postdoctoral researchers use the "crows nests" he designed as scientists' studies atop the towers because they are too far from the labs. The nooks and crannies intended for social interactions along the corridors are rarely used and the courtyard is largely deserted, its fountain long since shut down. Social spaces that have been successful in both of these projects, however, are the dining areas. The cafeteria at the Mesa Lab is the source of the spontaneous conversations envisioned by Pei. Kahn's strategy of designing a small dining room may have contributed to the social success of the outdoor dining patio below the main pl aza. This area became a place where postdoctoral fellows could dine with Salk himself. 23 On a recent visit to the Salk I had the occasion to chat with several of the scientists who have worked there for decades as well as some of the post doctoral students. I was told se veral stories about how the high cost of housing in the area meant that some junior researchers choose to live in the studies, which have adjacent full baths. The senior scientists also shared with me stories about the informal collaborative culture in the dining plaza.

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57 Figure II 10 The Dining Patio at the Salk Institute by Louis Kahn. The dining patio at the Salk Institute is said to successfully foste r the type of informal social interactions intended by Khan in other areas of the facility. The patio is below the main plaza, adjacent to the small dining room (located in the lower right area of the photo) and overlooks the natural cliffs leading to the Pacific Ocean. Despite the apparent failure of the design strategies employed at The Salk Institute and Mesa Lab to facilitate social interaction, many of these same strategies are used today in buildings designed to support creativity. One such example, t he newly constructed and award winning Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine (SCRM) building by Fentress Architects is located across the street f rom the Salk Institute (Figure II .11). 24 It mirrors many of Kahn's strategies including housing senior scientists' studies in isolated pods with views of the ocean with the intention of "fostering collaboration and communication among researchers" ("Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine / Fentress Architects," 2011) Frank Gehry's 24 The building has received several awards since its completion in 2011: The 2012 Gold Nugget Grand Award ("Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine Wins Gold Nugget Grand Award," 2012) t he 2012 AIA Colorado Honor Award for Built Architecture, and the 2012 AIA Denver Merit Award for Built Architec ture ("Fentress Arc hitects take home three prestigious design awards and Colorado Architect of the Year," 2012)

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58 controversial Stata Center completed in 2004 at The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M IT) also employs a links/nodes model (based on the suburban cul de sac neighborhood form) to promote chance social encounters (Hughes, 2008) 25 Geh ry intended to induce the types of serendipitous social encounters associated with the beloved (and since razed) Building 20 by creating corridors based on a "prairie dog town" that link classrooms, an auditorium, library, and cafÂŽ (S. W. Leslie, 2010) At Pixar the building atrium is used an attractor hub of activity nodes to facilitate social interaction (Isaacson, 201 1, pp. 430 431) It houses the employee mailboxes, a cafÂŽ, recreational center, fitness center, and theaters. Steve Jobs famously described how he intended to have only one restroom located in this area for the roughly 1,000 employees in order to "make people get out of their offices and m i ngle in the cent r al atrium with people they might not otherwise see" (Isaacson, 2011, p. 431) Although there is more than one restroom location in the current facility, John L asseter considers the design a success, stating "I've never seen a building that promoted collaboration and creativity as well as this one" (Isaacson, 2011 p. 431) The perceived success of the atrium in fostering social interactions in several research facilities has prompted Yaneva (2010) to suggest that the atrium may be more important than the lab for creativity. In practi ce environmental designs intended to facilitate social interactions have often produced unintended effects (Fayard & Weeks, 2007; Grajewski, 1993) 25 Users and critics have called the building "a disorienting zoo" (S. W. Leslie, 2010) difficult to alter and inflexibly co mplex (Hughes, 2008)

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59 Figure II 11 The Sanford Consort ium for Regenerative Medicine, La Jolla, CA. Designed by Fentress Ar chitects the SCRM building incorporates private office "pods" ( colored red and beige to the left in the photo ) that are separated from each other and the rest of the building by exterior walkways. Empirical evidence regarding the relationship between workplace design and social interactions has been both limited and contradictory (Fayard & Weeks, 2007; McCoy, 2005) The often cited research by Thomas Allen (1977) suggests that frequency of all forms of c ommunication declines with respect to social distance, a phenomenon called the Allen Curve. Grajewski (1993) found that 64% of creative interactions occurred in private offices, and not in multi purpose rooms, cafÂŽ s or meeting rooms Similarly, social interactions were greater among workers in enclosed office spaces than those in open office workstations in a study conducted by Hatch (1987) Studies by Sundstrum and Herbert (1982) and Oldham and Bass (1979) suggests that lack of privacy leads to decreased job satisfaction. These findings run contrary to the study by Szilagyi and Holland (Szilagyi & Holland, 1980) that suggests increased social density will lead to reduced stress and improved communication and job satisfaction. Although architectural design strategies intended to influence social behaviors persist, there appears to be a lack of

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60 emp irical evidence to support them. Strategies aimed at increasing social density and connectivity may not predict increased social interactions or creative productivity. Spatial Flexibility to Accommodate Dynamic Creative Processes Flexibility is another com mon theme in buildings designed for creativity. The term is rarely defined, however, and can mean anything from 1) giving people freedom to choose from a variety of spaces, 2) designing spaces that are easy (and relatively inexpensive) to remodel and recon figure, or 3) under designing a space so that users become "co designers" in order to make it functional. The first approach is evident in the design of SCRM. The Salk Institute and Building 20 at MIT are both often described as examples of the second stra tegy. The third strategy falls more directly under the realm of interior design and will be discussed in that section. The SCRM building by Fentress Architects provides a variety of spaces for different types of activities and social interactions. Signage is provided outside of different rooms to describe to occupants how the architects intended they be used. The exterior courtyard adjacent to the main entrance hosts colorful flags that convey the purpose of the facility to foster imagination, innovation, communication, and ac celeration of research (Figure II .12). This signage appears to convey the implicit theories of creativity that informed the building design. For example, a space configured for solitary work has a desk oriented to a window with a weste rn view of the golf course and Pacific Ocean. The signage on this space st ates "a green outlook" (Figure II .13), perhaps reflecting studies that demonstrate people's preference for views of nature during creativity. The same signage is found on the private office "pods" that hang from the western faade of the building. A room on the in terior of the building (Figure II .14), configured with a white board and informal seating, is labeled "brainstorming is a circular flow," referencing Osborn's (1953) creative method. A small conference room, located in a corner of the building, displays the statement "none of us is as smart as all of us" (Figure II .15). Finally, a space with modular workstations is labe led "plant don't land" (Figure II .16). The personal artifacts displayed

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61 on work surfaces suggest that employees have disregarded the signage in this case. With the exception of the private office pods, all of these spaces are intended to remain open to use by any of the building occupa nts. Figure II 12 The SCRM Main Entrance A series of colorful flags outside of the main entrance convey the buildings design intentions. They are labeled (from front to back) imagin[ase]on, innov[ase]on, communic[ase]on, and acceler[ase]on.

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62 Figure II 13 "A Green Outlook" Office at SCRM Signage labeled "a green outlook" on a small room with a desk and two chairs oriented to the western view of the golf course and Pacific Ocean. Figure II 14 "Brainstorming" Room at SCRM A space designed for brainstorming is located in the center of the building with glass walls to corridors on either side. It contains informal seating, a white board, and technology for digital projection and teleconferencing.

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63 Figure II 15 Conference Room at SCRM Signage on a small conference room states that "none of us is as smart as all of us," conveying the idea that creativity requires social collaboration. Figure II 16 Open Office Area at SCRM A room with flexible furniture systems and a white board is labeled "land don't plant ." T he personal artifacts on the desks however, suggest that users have already "planted." As well known as The Salk Institute is for its plaza design, it is perhaps even more highly regarded for its innovative and flexible laboratory design (Latour & Woolgar, 1979; S. W. Leslie,

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64 2008; T. Leslie, 2003; Moe, 2008) Kahn used Vierendeel trusses and enclosed them in a service floor above each laboratory floor (Figure II .17). This allowed for clear spans up to 45 feet in the laboratory below (Moe, 2008) Kahn (2003) referred to the interstitial service floor as the "pipe space," because it provided for movement of pipes, water, and air required to reconfigure the labs (p.209.) Salk, however, referred to it as "mesenchyme space," using the analogy of mesenchyme tissue to describe the role the space plays in the temporal adaptability and capacity for growth to support laboratory research (Moe, 2008) Even the curtain wall that provides natural lighting and views to the gardens is cons idered a flexible and moveable system (T. Leslie, 2003) Fred Gage, a scientist at The Salk, describes how "periodically, and more often than you would think, [they] tear out whole sections of the soft wall spaces and just redes ign it" (Jermome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation, 2007) Figure II 17 Pipe Spaces at The Salk Institute, La Jolla, CA. The pipe areas at The Salk Institute are full story spaces above the laboratories that allow the lab spaces to be easily reconfigured. In his book, How Build ings Learn Brand (1994) describes the flexibility of Building 20 at The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Although it was designed as a temporary structure to provide space for radiation research during the Manhatta n Project, the building has

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65 become known as one of the most creative places of our time. It was designed in an afternoon by Don Whinston and remained in use for 50 years, housing a number of significant scientific breakthroughs. It was the ease with which the building could by changed, however, that people attributed to its success as a place to support creativity. As Merton Flemings describes it, Even later, when other buildings began to go up around MIT, people still loved that lab. And not just from mem ory, they loved it to work in!....If they didn't like a wall, they could knock it out! It didn't take much more than sticking a foot through it. (Jermome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation, 2007, p. 13) Like the Salk laboratories, the construction system used in Building 20 allowed its users to easily configure the space. Numerous buildings have been designed with the intention of increasing the creativity of the occupants, y et a rchitects largely base th eir design decisions on intuitive knowledge gleaned from prior personal experiences and anecdotal evidence. Design strategies from award winning buildings are frequently replicated in new projects, whether or not they were successful in the original design These decisions are infrequently substantiated by post occupancy analysis or other behavioral research, and at best are informed by fragmented empirical insights.' (Hamilton & Watkins, 2009; Zeisel, 2006) Not only is the effect of the built environment on creativity unmeasured, but building awards are largely based on the aesthetics of design, emphasizing the architect's i magination and originality over the users health, happiness, and creativity (Mikellides, 2008) Summary of Key Findings from the Architecture Literature Architects commonly replicate design strategy patterns in order to create settings to influence social behaviors. This frequently involves physically separating building functions to require that people move between spaces. Anecdotal and empirical evidence suggest that these design strategy patterns produce unintended results.

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66 Post occupancy evaluations are rare for buildings that are easily reconfigure d, but findings do suggest that this design strategy supports creativity. Emerging fMRI research suggests that inspirational settings may induce physiological responses. The relationship between such physiological responses and creativity remains unexplor ed. Interior Design: Creativity Rooms Virginia Woolf (2001) famously said all she required to write fiction was money and a room of her own. Many anecdotes relate the importance that creative practitioners place on the room wher e they feel they are most creative. The story of Immanuel Kant is one such example. Kant worked from a room with a view of an old church tower (De Quincey, 1873, pp. 115 116) When a neighbor's trees grew to obscure he view he felt that it so negatively impacted his creativity that he insisted they be cut down (De Quincey, 1 873, p. 116) The view appears to have been for Kant a significant part of his creative process. As Thomas De Quincy (1873, p. 115) observed: During this state of repose he to ok his station winter and summer by the stove, looking through the window at the old tower of Lobenicht; not that he could be said properly to see it, but the tower rested upon his eye as distance music on the ear -obscurely, or but half revealed to his consciousness No words seemed forcible enough to express his sense of the gratification which he derived from this old tower, when seen under these circumstances of twilight and quiet reverie. The fascination that people have with these personal places of creativity is evident in the books published about artists studios, blogs on writers' offices, and the numerous museums created to document the places where famous artists, writers, architects, and scientists worked. 26 However the small body of empirica l literature in interior design focuses on creativity in the corporate workplace. Half of the studies examine people's perceptions about how different features of 26 For books on artist studios see for example: Richards (2004) Kirwin and Lord (2007) and Fig (2009) A blog on The Guardia n website documents the spaces where writers' work ("Writers' rooms," 2008) Some museums include The Mark Twain and Harriet Beecher Stowe houses in Hartford CT; the st udios of N.C. and Andrew Wyeth in Chadds Ford, PA; Frank Lloyd Wright's studio in Oak Park, IL; Thomas Edison's lab in Menlo Park in New Jersey and the "Places of Invention" exhibit at the Smithsonian Museum in Washington, DC.

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67 interior spaces support creativity. Of these, three compare people's experiences in open offi ce versus private office spaces (Ekvall & TÂŒngeberg Andersson, 1986; Sailer, 2011; Vithayathawornwong, Danko, & Tolbert, 2003) and two examine design features such as materiality and lighting (Ceylan, Dul, & Aytac, 2008; McCoy & Evans, 2002) Other studies consider how aspects of the interior office space (such as spatial arrangements, social density, and noise) affect creative productivity. Communication and Privacy Although Virginia Woolf wrote that creativity required a room of one's own, the trend in workplace desig n has been to implement open plan office systems with workstation "cubicles" to increase communication, collaboration, and flexibility. 27 Studies by Vithayathawornwong et al. (2003) Ekvall and TÂŒngeberg Andersson (1986) and Sailer (2011) however, bring into question the benefits of open office systems for creativity. Vithayathawornwong et al. (2003) compared perceptions of creative professio nals working in four different office environments. They found that workers perceived the environment with private offices to best support interpersonal interactions, communication, and the exchange of information and ideas. Ekvall and TÂŒngeberg Andersson examined workers in a creative Swedish newspaper office who moved from an open office environment to a space with private offices. The workers perceived that the move reduced the frequency of discussions, quantity of information, and playfulness among work ers, but increased the quality of information and level of freedom in the environment. Sailer (2011) found that spatial configurations that increased social density also increased chance encounters among office workers. Althoug h serendipitous social interactions are believed to increase creativity, the workers in this study perceived that the interactions decreased their creativity by causing loss of concentration on their work. None of these studies measured creative productivi ty, relying instead on participants' perceptions of productivity. The three studies suggest that social density 27 Open offices may also be adopted for financial reasons, but this rationale was not given with respect to the creativity literature.

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68 may increase social interactions. However, the quality of those interactions may not be beneficial for creativity and their frequency may negati vely impact creative productivity. Inspirational S paces Daylighting, nature, color, and visual complexity. Several studies examine people's preferences for certain interior design features during creativity (Ceylan et al., 2008; de Korte, Kuijt, & Kleij, 2011; McCoy & Evans, 2002) Two of the studies examined meeting rooms (Ceylan et al., 2008; de Korte et al., 2011) and one included photographs of a variety of spaces where people might be creative including classrooms, waiting rooms, libraries, offices, living rooms, hallways, dining facilities, sports facilities, and retail stores (McCoy & Evans, 2002) Two studies found that people prefer rooms that have natural lighting and views of nature (Ceylan et al., 2008; McCoy & Evans, 2002) This feature was not examined in the third study. All three studies considered colors and materials, but the findings were contradictory for these features. Two studies found that people preferred warmer colors and visual complexity (Ceylan et al., 2008; McCoy & Evans, 2002) whereas the other study had the opposite results. The differences may be attributed to t he sample populations (undergraduate students in the former and office managers in the latter) or the perceptions of the creative task (divergent versus convergent thinking.) Numerous studies have found positive effects of daylighting on mood and cognition in healthcare, educational and office settings (Boubekri, Hull, & Boyer, 1991; Choi, 2012; Heschong et al., n.d.; Leather, Pyrgas, Beale, & Lawrence, 1998; Wang & Boubekri, 2010, 2011) The relationship between daylighting and creativity, however, is not specifically inve stigated. Nature in the workplace has also been a topic of empirical investigation, with several studies finding positive effects for views of indoor plants on attention an d stress (Bringslimark, Hartig & Patil, 2009; Dijkstra, Pieterse, & Pruyn, 2008; Raanaas, Evensen, Rich, Sjstrm, & Patil, 2011) Shibata and Suzuki (2004) compared creative productivity in three rooms (with a plant, with a magazine rack, and with no d ecoration.) They found that creative performance was higher for all participants in the plant and magazine rooms,

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69 and higher for female participants in the plant room. They also found that some participants used the magazines as a visual source of informat ion (i.e. an environmental cue) during the creativity task, which may account for the differences between male and female participants in the plant room. Environmental cues. Some emerging design strategies in workplace settings include the use of visual cu es and themed spaces intended to influence creative ideation (Groves et al., 2010; McCallam, 2010) Workplaces incorporate visual cues about company goals and objectives, such as stories about its history, inspirational action words or phrases, or themed interiors to help the employee "think" in a particular way. At Johnson & Johnson in the New York Starett Lehigh Building, the growing history of the products developed (from bandages to baby shampoo) is displayed as living artwork on the reception area wall (Groves et al., 2010, p. 112) The SCRM facility in La Jolla, described earlier, uses colorful graphics to encourage workers to imagine, innovate, commun icate, and collaborate (Figure II .12). The offic e interiors at Adams & Knight, an advertising agency in Avon Connecticut, are decorated to look like the 1960's designed to reflect the Baby Boomer demographic of their target audience (McCallam, 2010, pp. 15 19) Another common design strategy is to use unexpected or surprising design features to create unconventional workspaces. Some companies create work areas that look more like the rooms in a home. This is the case at Naked Communications in Sydney, Australia where one workspace is designed as a large, functioning bathroom (McCallam, 2010, pp. 147 151) A large piece of glass sits atop the central bathtub, converting it to a small conference table. The theory behind this design strategy is that unconventional spaces will foster unconventional thinking. Use of visual cues and themed spaces appear to be quite popular in modern workplace designs for creative workers. Yet t here is no evidence of post occupancy evaluation concerning people's perceptions of these design strategies or their effectiveness at increasing creative productivity.

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70 Perception and productivity. There are a few studies that consider the relationship between people's perceptions about how their workplace supports creativity and their creative productivity. Dul and Ceylan (2011) conducted a survey with 409 Dutch employees working in 49 different companies from various industries. The survey included measures for both social organizational (9 items) and physical (12 items) environment (Dul et al., 2011) They found that people who believed that their office environment supported creativity also reported higher levels of creative productivity. Dul et al. (2011) used the same instrument plus a creative personality measure in a study with 274 Dutch people employed in creative industries. In this study they found that highly creative people report greater increases in creative productivity in supportive environments. McCoy and Evans (2005) found similar results in their study which isolated the physical features of the environment. They measured actual creative performance in two settings designed to reflect low creative potential and high creative potential as based on their previous study. They also found that the effect of the supportive environment was more pronounced for people who scored higher on creative potential. Although these studies suggest that physical space does impact creative productivity, it remains un clear whether productivity increases because people accurately identify features that support productivity or due to other psychological effects such as overall satisfaction with the workplace. Effects of Spatial Characteristics on Arousal and Processing D isfluency Although many of the creativity studies use self report to assess people's perceptions, a few (like McCoy and Evans's) consider how spatial characteristics of a creative setting influence measured creative performances. Three of the studies cons ider the role of arousal in creative productivity (de Korte et al., 2011; McC oy & Evans, 2002; Mehta, Zhu, & Cheema, 2012) Of these, two attempt to identify the mechanisms behind increased productivity (de Korte et al., 2011; Mehta et al., 2012) In the study by McCoy and Evans (2005) the authors suggest that the inter ior design features (e.g. warm colors, high visual complexity, daylighting, and views of

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71 nature) of the setting found to increase creative productivity may be more stimulating. De Korte and colleagues (2011) compared creative pr oductivity in three rooms designed to be neutral, restful, or high arousal. They measured participants' heart rate variability (HRT) and confirmed arousal only in the "high arousal" setting. The researchers found that ideational fluency was higher in both the restful and high arousal settings and originality was higher only in the high arousal setting. These findings suggest that arousal may improve original thinking, but that there may be other physical factors that influence fluency. A study by Mehta and colleagues (2012) however, suggests that it may not be arousal but processing disfluency (e.g. distraction) that influences idea originality. Mehta et al. (2012) examine the effect of ambient noise on creative productivity in a series of five studies. They find that the relationship between noise and creativity is an inverted u, with productivity increasing from no noise to moderate noise environments and then declining again as noise increases to h igh levels. The researchers rule out arousal as the mechanism behind increased productivity and suggest that processing disfluency (moderate environmental distraction) may help people come up with more original ideas. Processing disfluency has been found t o increase abstract thinking and reduce confirmation bias (the tendency that people have to let prior beliefs and expectations influence their thinking) (Hernandez & Preston, 2013; Mehta et al., 2012) Although research is quite limited, these few studies do provid e some evidence that characteristics of a setting can increase creative productivity. It is possible that the settings people find inspirational may distract them slightly from the creative task, helping people think more abstractly and flexibly about the creative problem. Flexible Workplaces: Innovation Labs and Creativity Rooms An emerging trend in interior design is to designate a particular space for creativity either as a separate space in the workplace setting or, more typically as a place "away" from the office (Lewis & Moultrie, 2005; Magadley & Birdi, 2009) Two studies examined "innovation labs" in the United Kingdom. These labs provide a separate space that is designed to support

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72 organizational creativity (Lewis & Moultrie, 2005; Magadley & Birdi, 2009) Lewis and Moultrie (2005) conducted a comparative case study analysis of innovation labs designed for three different organizations: a postal service, a government department of trades and industry, and an academic institution. They found that, despite the differences among the organizations they serve, all th ree labs are very similar in design. All the labs conveyed intentions to influence human behavior through the physical design of the setting; but none of the designs appeared to be explicitly based on empirical research or theory. The labs employed curved walls, flexible seating configurations, write on surfaces, toys, and "brainstorming" technology (e.g. computer software, internet access, and projection devices.) Findings also revealed that although the labs were designed to be flexible and reconfigurable the curved walls and technology caused high degrees of spatial inflexibility. The researchers found that users generally attributed the brainstorming technology and the ability to "get away" from the regular office environments as beneficial to creativit y. Magadley and Birdi (2009) conducted a mixed methods quasi experimental study examining the effect of one innovation lab from Lewis and Moultrie's (2005) research on employee productivity. They found that employees working in the innovation lab produced many more ideas (and that the ideas were generally more useful) than employees in the regular office environment. It remains unclear whether the increased productivi ty might be attributed to the new environment, the spatial design, the use of technology, or simply the expectations communicated by the setting. Lewis and Moultrie (2005) previously found a correlation between how "junk laden" (i.e. full of toys and other materials) a setting is and the level of creativity expected from the participants in the space. Although the interior design literature appears to be the most promising in terms of providing evidence that physical space affec ts creativity, the lack of any consistent theory behind interior design strategies greatly impairs the ability for researchers to identify mechanisms that may inhibit or support creative processes.

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73 Summary of Key Findings from the Interior Design Literatur e Workplace design strategies to support creativity commonly employ open office designs to increase social interactions and creative collaborations and environmental cues to influence creative ideation. Evidence suggests that open office designs do incre ase social interactions; but these interactions are not productive and negatively impact creativity. Creative collaborations appear to occur most often in private offices. People associate settings that provide natural daylighting and views of nature with creative productivity; and evidence suggests that these features have positive influences on attention and stress. Settings that highly creative people feel support their creativity do have significant positive effects on creative productivity, although th e mechanisms behind the effects remain unclear. Emerging research suggests settings may cause moderate processing disfluency (distraction), which may improve ideational fluency and originality. Product Design: Tools to Think With A thorough evaluation of the entire product design literature is well beyond the scope of this dissertation. However, the innovation lab design discussed in the previous section highlights two themes prevalent in the product design literature as it pertains to creativity: technolo gical settings to support social creativity and things with which to think creatively Socio technical Environments for Creativity People often associate creativity support tools with computer based applications that facilitate brainstorming and group id eation (Lewis & Moultrie, 2005) When people engage with these technologies they form a socio technical environment A socio technical environment is an organizational system that includes both people and technolog y and may involve physical and/or virtual settings (Fischer, 2007; E. Mumford, 1985; Whitworth & Sylla, 20 12) Fischer's (2005a,

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74 2007) r esearch has specifically focused around how socio technological settings can support creativity. There are parallels between concepts in his research and themes presented thus far in this chapter. The seeding, evolutionary growth, reseeding (SER) model, di scussed previously with respect to the natural lifespan of clusters, describes how "reseeding" can counteract a trend toward a decline in creative productivity over time (Fischer et al., 2001) Meta design is a concep t that falls under the flexibility design strategy. It involves empowering stakeholders by allowing them to co design the socio technical system at both the planning stage and throughout the lifespan of the system ( Fischer & Scharff, 2000) The idea of empowering creative practitioners is central to his work on expert systems (Fischer & Nakakoji, 1992) These systems are intended to help creative practitioners perceive problems and opportunities in a design situation, by providing them with information rich digital "objects to think with" (Fischer & Nakakoji, 1992, p. 27) Inspirat ional Things to Organize Imaginative Experiences The "junk laden" space in the innovations labs mentioned by Lewis and Moultrie (2005) provided materials intended to inspire play and creativity. The variety of different toys a nd magazines provided were influenced by Weick's (1977) assertion that to foster creativity, laboratories should be like Frank Oppenheimer's Explorator ium in San Francisc o" (p. 126). Weick (1977) a ppears be describing the importance of "things to think with" during creativity. People have historically used inspirational objects to spur creativity. The "cabinet of curiosities," popular in Renaissance Europe, was a way that people curated and displaye d unique objects (Livingstone, 2003, pp. 27 33) The "curiosities" included both scientific specimens and fabricated mythological histories about co mmon objects to inspire the imagination. The role of inspirational objects in creativity is the subject of many anecdotes (Fig, 2009) Rudyard Kipling (1937) wrote an entire chapter in his autobiography dedicated to the significance of his "working tools." These "tools" included meaningful objects from his travels kept on his desk, as well as the

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75 particular pen and ink that he felt were instrumental to his creativity. He explains how he feels these items are essent ial for influencing his creative thoughts. Some products are designed to intentionally influence the way people think about and with them. The design of "things to think with" is the focus of the Things That Think initiative at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab (Resnick, 1996) This initiative considers how technologically enhanced objects can "change not only what we do, but how we think, what we think about, and who we think with" (Resnick, 1996, p. 441) These products use environmental cues that go beyond the visual thematic strategies used in interior design. Michael and Ann Eisenberg (1998; 2002) take the concept a step further by linking comp utationally enhanced objects to creativity through "craft technology." Technologically enhanced craft construction kits inspire and motivate creativity by helping creators extend their abilities through computation while still supporting engagement in tact ile and embodied experiences (Crawford, 2009, pp. 23 24; Eisenberg & Eisenberg, 1998) Summary of Key Findings from the Product Design Literature Socio technical environments are intended to empower creative p ractitioners through knowledge sharing, co design, and critique. Both "low tech" and computationally enhanced objects are "things to think with" that may affect the ways creative practitioners physically, socially, and mentally engage with a creative pro blem. The Gap Between Design Strategies and Empirical Evidence A review of the empirical literature that examines the relationship between the designed environment and creativity reveals that 1) there is very little empirical research in this area, 2) what research there is focuses primarily on identifying people's preferences for certain environments during creativity, and 3) the few empirical studies that consider the effect of environmental features on creative productivity suggest that some commonly acc epted design

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76 strategies to support creativity may actually inhibit creativity. There is a gap between the empirical literature and design strategies that are based on anecdote and folk knowledge. Three common design strategies reveal their own implicit the ories about creativity. First, the links/nodes strategy considers creativity a product of social interactions. It assumes that design interventions will increase impromptu social interactions, thereby increasing creativity. The city planning, urban design, architectural, interior, and product design scales all reflect this ideology. The creative city literature is almost exclusively focused on how knowledge transfer may increase creativity. Buildings and interiors are often designed to "push" people into so cial interactions. Empirical examination of this strategy is minimal, but studies do suggest that interior design strategies that influence social interaction do in fact increase communication levels in an organization; however the quality of the communica tion is low and overall creative productivity is negatively affected. Conversely, socio technical environments appear to use a "pull" strategy by enticing social interaction through empowerment. The inspiration strategy considers creativity a sub conscio us mental activity. It assumes that the aesthetic qualities of a design will inspire creative ideation. This strategy is found at all scales of the designed environment. Strategies at the interior and product design scale sometimes also incorporate environ mental cues intended to shape creative ideation. A few empirical studies have examined the direct and indirect (perceived) effects of this strategy. Research suggests that the environments people perceive to be creative do increase their creative productiv ity (Dul et al., 2011; Dul & Ceylan, 2011; McCoy & Evans, 2002) It remains unclear whether this is b ecause they correctly identify mechanisms that affect creativity or if other variables are involved (such as motivation or satisfaction.) There appear to be three primary hypotheses regarding the direct effects of inspirational settings on creativity. Firs t, the attention restoration hypothesis suggests that the aesthetic qualities of nature restore cognitive fatigue (Kaplan, 1995) Although numerous studies have confirmed the relationship between nature and stress, the effect on creat ivity remains largely unexplored. Second, the arousal hypothesis suggests that aesthetics stimulate people, improving ideational fluency. Evidence

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77 suggests that although aesthetics do appear to have a stimulating effect on people, it is unclear whether aro usal affects ideation (de Korte et al., 2011) Finally the processing disfluency hypothesis suggests that the aesthetic qualities of a space provide low level distractions that help increase abstraction and reduce con firmation bias, thus affecting ideational fluency and originality. This hypothesis has been confirmed in one study, thus currently only the processing disfluency hypothesis has empirical support (Mehta et al., 2012) Fina lly, the flexibility strategy considers creativity is an idiosyncratic personal process. It assumes that individual creative processes are impossible to predict, so environments must be designed to accommodate a variety of different activities that may cha nge over time. This strategy is manifest in three different design approaches. The first approach, choice, provides creative practitioners with a variety of different spaces to use for creative work. This approach is evident in the design of the SCRM build ing in La Jolla, CA. There does not appear to be any empirical investigation into how this approach might impact creativity. The second approach involves designing spaces that are easy (and relatively inexpensive) to remodel and reconfigure. This approach was employed at the Salk Institute and post occupancy evaluations suggest that it has been successful there (Latour & Woolgar, 1979; S. W. Leslie, 2008; T. Leslie, 2003; Moe, 2008) The thi rd approach involves under designing a space so that users become "co designers" in order to make it functional. While it is often associated with creativity, there is remarkably little reference to this approach outside of the product design literature. T he approach is sometimes used as justification for modular office systems; but there is no discussion about how or when such systems are reconfigured or the effect reconfiguration has on creativity. This review of the environmental design literature reveals that a few design strategies are replicated across scales of the designed environment and that strategies persist despite evidence that they are ineffective or even counter productive. Ultimately there appears to be a lack of coherent understandin g about the role of the designed environment in creative cognition and behavior. Environmental design strategies would benefit from theoretical grounding in a framework that links creativity and the designed environment. Such a framework should consider

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78 th ree things: 1) the physically situated processes involved in the stages of creativity, 2) the nature of the relationship between creative practitioners and their environments during these processes, and 3) the features of the designed environment (across t he environmental scales from product design to city planning) that support creativity.

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79 CHAPTER III THEORIES OF PERSON ENVIRONMENT RELATIONSHIPS TOWARDS A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK TO BRIDGE CREATIVE PROCESS AND PLACE: AN EXAMINATION OF EMBODIED, EMBEDDED, EXTENDED, AND ENACTIVE COGNITION THEORIES IN ECOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY AND COGNITIVE SCIENCE Highlights As illustrated in Chapter II, t he gap between the literatures on environmental design and creativity is due to a lack of coherent theory concerning the role of the designed environment in creative cognition and behavior. This chapter frames the person environment relationship debate in the environmental design literature and compares theories that addres s this relationship in the ecological psychology and cognitive science literatures. The intention behind the chapter is to identify theories that might form an initial structure to help bridge the gap between the environmental design and creativity literat ures. I propose that Gibson's (1977) Theory of Affordances provides the most appropriate starting point from which to develop common theoretical grounding for two literature s I also point to th e enactive literature in cognitiv e science (which describes how action and perception are intertwined, ) to provide the empirical basis from which to address the limitations of Gibson's affordance theory for describing creativity. The enactive literature helps to explain how Gibson's theor y might account for imagination, planning, and reasoning during creativity. Based on the enactive cognition research, I introduce the concept of potential affordances Potential affordances are action opportunities in the environment that are not yet avail able to the perceiver who imagines them. They will require additional work in order to actualize them. I conclude this chapter with a list of next steps required to develop this preliminary structure based on affordance theory into a framework that describ es the person environment relationship during creativity.

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80 Introduction Review My review of the environmental design literature in Chapter II described how common design strategies are employed across the different scales of the designed environment. These strategies reveal three implicit theories of creativity: 1) that creativity arises through social interactions, 2) that creativity is an intuitive mental process, and 3) that creativity is the product of individualized practices that change and evolve over time. I suggested that the differences between the design strategies and their respective implicit theories is likely due to particular assumptions designers make about the person environment relationship during creativity. Design strategies intended to i nfluence social behaviors suggest that human behavior is a re sponse to environmental stimuli Design strategies to provide inspirational settings suggest t hat mental processes may be sub consciously influenced by the aesthetics of the environment. Finally, design strategies that make no attempt to provide spaces that support particular activities may suggest that the environment has no influence on either creative behavior or cognitio n. It is clear from this review that environmental designers would benefit from a functional (i.e. useful) theory to guide the design and evaluation of settings intended to support creativity. Thesis This chapter will consider how theories of situated cognition in ecological psychology and cognitive science might ground design st rategies and begin to bridge the gap between the environmental design and creativity literatures. S ituated cognition takes the position that knowledge emerges from a person's experiences in the world (Robbins & Aydede 2009) A review of the situated perspective in ecological p sychology and cognitive science reveals two key aspects of the person environment relationship that are significant for environmental design. First, people initiate exploratory actions in thei r environments. They are not passive recipients of stimulus provided by design interventions. Instead they make changes in their environments to

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81 better support their needs; or they seek out new environments when it is difficult or impractical to alter an e xisting one. Second, people have a reciprocal relationship with their environments. Their sensory and motor experiences shape how people think and act. They exploit features of their environments to improve their cognitive and psychomotor abilities and the y adapt their behavior to f it their environment. The comple mentary theories of affordances from ecological psychology and enactive cognition from cognitive science describe how t he designed environment is not only a cognitive and beha vioral resource for pe ople. This chapter illu strates how together the theories of affordances and enactive cognition can form an empirically grounded structure for the person environment relationship during creativity thus providing the first step towards bridging the creativ ity and environmental design literatures. Significance This chapter provides the theoretical grounding for a new framework to bridge the creativity and environmental design literatures. In Chapter II I proposed that such a framework should consider three t hings: 1) the physically situated processes involved in the stages of creativity, 2) the nature of the relationship between creative practitioners and their environments during these processes, and 3) the features of the designed environment (across the en vironmental scales from product design to city planning) that support creativity. The second point highlights the gap that I will begin to address in this chapter. I propose that an extension of Gibson's (1977) Affordance theor y may provide a solution to the person environment relationship problem. I suggest that enactivism, a new paradigm in cognitive science, addresses some of the limitations of Gibson's original theory. Enactivism is based on the assumption that people are au tonomous agents and cognition emerges through person environment relationships (Di Paolo, Rohde, & De Jaegher, 2010) Enaction theory helps to explain imagination, a key component of creat ivity and something Gibson's theory does not adequately address (Reed, 1996, p. 183)

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82 Person Environment Relationship: Four Environmental Design Approaches The debate over the nature of the re lationship between people and their environments has been largely contested in the environmental design literature and particularly so in architecture (Franck, 1984; Lang & Moleski, 2010; Lang, 1987) This is evident in the different design strategies reviewed in Chapter II. Lang (1987) categorizes environmental design approaches according to four diff erent theories of the person environment relationship: deterministic possibilistic probabilistic and free will Deterministic approaches employ design strategies with the intention of determining a desired user behavior. Conversely, the free will approach assumes that the physical environment exerts no influence on people's behavior. Probabilistic approaches suggest that the environment exerts pressures on people but other factors, such as personal and social influences, also influence how environ ments affect people's behaviors. This approach takes the position that design strategies are likely to cause certain behaviors, but do not fully predict them. Finally, the possibilistic approach suggests that the environment provides opportunities for cert ain behaviors, but people chose whether or not to make use of them. As the literature review in Chapter II reveals, environmental designers employ all of these approaches. However, the deterministic approach has failed to produce predictable outcomes and f r ee will approaches are neither empirically supported by the ecological psychology literature nor the situated cognition view in cognitive science two fields of research that examine the structure of the person environment relationship. Physical Determin ism P hysical determinism posits that natural and designed environments directly predict people's behaviors (Franck, 1984; Lang, 1980, 1987) 28 Design strategies based on this approach support a limited range of desired activities and are sometimes inflexible to alte rnative uses 28 Lang (1980) and Franck (1984) recommend the use of the term physical determinism in lieu of environmental determinism in order to avoid the nature versus nurture debate often associated with the later ter m. Physical determinism is the inclusive term to describe the theories commonly referred to as geographical determinism, a term associated with the natural environment and architectural determinism, which refers to the built environment ( Franck, 1984)

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83 (Mikellides, 1980) As described in Chapter II, some environmental design strategies intended to increase creative productivity (e.g. links/nodes) remain largely influenced by physical determinism. Such a design a pproach is problematic however, for it follows a trend in architectural practice where the designer's intentions for a building becoming equated with the answer to social and spatial problems. The utopian visions prevalent in modern architecture were large ly influenced by deterministic theories that equated architecture and planning with social engineering (Lang, 1980) The deterministic approach is influenced by Barker's (1968) eco behavioral theory of behavior settings, discussed in the next section. However, the application of Behavior Setting Theory to environmental design strategies has produced unpredictable outcomes. 29 Modern cognitive and social theories describe how behavior is influenced by such individua l factors as intentionality, forethought, self regulation, meaning, and purpose (Bandura, 2001) which are not considered in deterministic design approaches. A significant body of research has shown that individual and social behavi ors cannot be predicted solely by the physical conditions of their environments. Thus the deterministic approach is likely untenable and an unproductive design approach (Franck, 1984; Lang, 1980) The Mind Building Problem Reactions against the failure of designed environments to determine human behavior inf luenced a counter movement in environmental design (and architecture in particular). The abysmal failure of projects like the Pruitt Igoe housing development, based on Le Corbusier's idealized Ville Radieuse planning principles, to solve complex social pro blems gave rise to stern criticism of the deterministic design approach (Boys, 2011; Lang & Moleski, 2010; Lang, 1987) Behavioral scientist blamed architects and planners for 1) failing to meet social objectives, 2) simplistic models of human behavior, and 3) na•ve perceptions of the person environment relationship (Lang & Moleski, 2010, p. 10) This backlash caused many environmental design professionals to wash their hands of social issues, focusing instead on materiality and visual form. 29 See Chapter II for more detailed explanation and examples of these outcomes.

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84 The free will design approach posits that the physical environmen t has no effect on people's behavior (Franck, 1984; Lang, 1987) In architecture these ideologies may be manifest in design approaches that primarily consider the building an object to behold as opposed to a sequence of spaces to inhabit (i.e. environments) (Lang & Moleski, 20 10) This approach provides settings that may be appropriated by users as they see fit. In contrast to the deterministic approach where the environment is understood to cause behavior, the f r ee will design approach suggests that the behavior helps to cr eate the environment. In other words, "environment" is a socially constructed mental representation and there is no meaningful relationship between the physical form of a setting and the events that take place within it. 30 Around the time that the Pruitt Igoe housing development was demolished in the early 1970's a group of scientists were reacting against the behaviorist tradition in psychology, which focused exclusively on functional relationships between environmental sti mulus and behavioral response. This gave rise to a counter movement, Cognitivism, which considered the role of internal mental representations in human cognition. Cognitivism takes an information processing perspective on human cognition. It assumes that e nvironmental sensory stimuli are converted to mental symbols, and that rule based processes operate on the structure of these mental symbols to produce behavior (Thagard, 2005) In other words, people receive sensory information from the environment, but they use mental processes, such as judgment, to determine how to react. This perspective was the foundation upon which the cognitive sciences were laid (Leidlmair, 2009; Thagard, 2005) It also gave some theoretical support for the free will approach. Current thinking in cogn itive science, as discussed later in this chapter, challenges the Cognitivism categorical structural and centralized processing perspective (Thagard, 2005) It is now generally accepted that environmental structure is critical to huma n cognition (Leidlmair, 2009; Robbins & Aydede, 2009; Thagard, 2005) Thus, although it remains influential in 30 The architect Bernard Tschumi (1981) famously questioned whether there could be any meaningful relationship between architecture and event with his publication The Manhattan Transcripts

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85 architectural theory and education, the free will approach is no longer empirically supported by the cognitive science literature (Lang & Moleski, 2010) Mind Body World The possibilistic and probabilistic design ap proaches remain as the most potentially viable of the four proposed by Lang. Theories in cognitive science and ecological psychology of the person environment relationship describe how the environment does not determine behavior, but it does appear to be p art of our cognitive system. 31 The problem remains, however, in understanding how and why environmental designs can "possibly" or "probably" predict human activity. What are the relationships between the mind, the body, and the world in a person's cognitive system? This is a question that the fields of ecological psychology and cognitive science have sought to address. In the following sections I will review theories of the person environment relationship in ecological psychology and cognitive science with t he aim of identifying those most appropriate for bridging the environmental design and creativity literatures. Although historically quite separate, there is today significant overlap between cognitive science and ecological psychology. This reflects the s hift in cognitive science from a focus on categorical structures of human cognition to environmental structures. First, I will explain some of the fundamental principles from the field of ecological psychology, focusing on Barker's (1968) behavior setting concept and Gibson's (1977) Theory of Affordances. I will describe the influence of these two schools on environmental design approaches and discuss the strengths and limitations of each for informing a new framework to bridge creativity and environmental design. Next. I will review the situated cognition literature in cognitive science. Lakoff and Johnson (1999) who were instrumental in laying the groundwork for this lite rature, argue that cognition is shaped by our brain, our body, and our interactions with the world around us. I will demonstrate how emerging research in enactive cognitive science has moved the field much closer to ecological psychology. Finally I suggest how theories of 31 Clark (2008a) describes a cognitive system as including the mind, body, and the environmental resources that people use to help them think.

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86 enactive cognition may address some limitations of affordance theory for informing the design of settings to support creativity. Person Environment Relationship: The Ecological Psychology Perspective Ecological psychology takes as its cent ral tenet the interdependent relationship between living organisms and their environment (Barker, 1968; Gibson, 1977; Heft, 2001; Reed, 1996; von UexkŸll, 2010) Two foundational principles can be traced back to the early 20 th century work of theoretical biologist Jakob von UexkŸll (2010) First, the appropriate unit of empirical analysis for understanding the person environment relationship is the interaction between organisms and their environment, because "meaning" is embodied in the experience of exploring and obtaining information from the environment. Second, such interactions must be examined in their naturally occurring context (as opposed to a laboratory environment), because cognition and behavior emerges from the dynamic and self organizing system of the organism and its environment. These principles are evident in two schools of thought that have influenced the field of ecological psychology, one based on James Gibson's (1977) ecological theory of perception and the other on Roger Barker's (1968) concept of behavior settings (Heft, 2001) There are many similarities between these theories, the most notable being how they describe human environment interactions as dynamic systems (Heft, 2001) The key difference between them is the ecological unit of empirical analysis. 32 Gibson was interested in the interactions between individual organisms and the structure of their envi ronments thus a single person would be used to define the boundary of the ecological unit. The setting defines the unit of analysis in Barker's theory. Although Barker refers to his research as ecological psychology, his theory also focuses primarily on social behaviors. 33 For this reason, Heft (2001) refers to it as eco behavioral science. Both theories have influenced the environmental design professions. 32 The ecological unit o f analysis refers to the subject of empirical investigation. In Gibson's case he considered a single person the appropriate unit to examine empirically. Barker examined the behavior setting as an episodic unit defined by space, behavior, and time. 33 Barke r's behavior setting theory is also commonly called environmental psychology. Gibson's theory is more consistently referred to as ecological psychology.

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87 Gibson's work has had particular impact in product design where his term affordance was appropriated (and redefined) by Donald Norman (2002) for use in human computer interaction design. Barker's theory, with its focus on the setting, historically has had more impact on architectural and urban desig n theory and practice than Gibson's (Lang & Moleski, 2010; Lang, 1987) Behavior Settings According to Barker (1968) behavior settings are defined by both dynamic and structural properties, including 1) a standing pattern of social behavior and 2) a setting, or milieu which encompasses and supports the activities inherent in the pattern of social behavior. Synomorphy is a term Barker uses to describe the congruence between environmental properties of the milieu and behavior patterns required to form a behavior setting He developed the behavior setting theory with He r bert Wright in 1949, based on observations that different people behave more similarly when they are in a particular setting (such as church or school) than individual people behave in different settings (Barker, 1968) A behavior setting exists for the period of time that a milieu (setting) and a particular pattern of behaviors co exist (Lang & Moleski, 2010) A single milieu may be part of multiple b ehavior settings if it supports several different patterns of behavior. Because of its emphasis on behaviors (as opposed to individual psychology), Heft (2001) refers to Barker's theory as eco behavioral science According to Lan g and Moleski (2010) architects and urban planners are generally concerned with two types of behavior settings: places (e.g. nodes) and the connections between them (e.g. links). Barker's concept of behavior settings was influen tial in the development of design patterns in architecture and urban planning (Lang & Moleski, 2010) Design patterns are spatial strategies that environmental designers employ with the intention of creating behavior settings. They often replicate patterns of physical features in existing behavior settings based upon assumptions about what behavior patterns should occur in a new setting (L ang & Moleski, 2010) The goal of the design pattern is to create a milieu, which will bound and sustain a

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88 desired behavior. The architect Christopher Alexander and colleagues (1977) popularized the design pattern approach i n architecture and urban planning. Informed by the belief that patterns of event spaces in architecture and urban design form a design language, they set out to define and document 253 specific behavior settings that covered a range of scales from interior design to urban. As was illustrated in Chapter II, although the practical application of design patterns has been controversial and the results inconsistent, their use persists in buildings intended to foster creativity Settings observed to encourage cr eativity and collaboration at the urban scale, such as the street, atrium, hub, cafŽ, and nook are used as links/nodes design pattern metaphors in office buildings and schools intended to promote creativity (Nair & Fiel ding, 2007) Architects and urban designers have applied design patterns with the assumption that replicating the spatial patterns observed to promote particular behaviors will predict and produce those same patterns of behavior in a new space (Nair & Fielding, 2007) Design patterns are thus often associated with the deterministic design approach. Although the intention may be to provide the proper milieu to fit a particular behavior, this strateg y tends to treat people as a collective and assumes they perceive the environment in the same way. This is very different than the way environment is considered by von UexkŸll's (1926) and Gibson's (1977) ecological approaches. Environment The subjective nature of the environment was paramount to von UexkŸll's (1926) concept of Umwelt. He described Umwelt as the "surrounding environment" of an organism that is structured through its senses and abilities. Every organism has its o wn Umwelt, even if multiple organisms occupy the same space. The living organism is always at the center of its Umwelt and is conceptually bound to it. 34 Environment, as it may be collectively referred to in a building or urban space, is therefore heterogen eous. It entails the relationships between people and the objects that they sense and with which they interact. This concept of the heterogeneous 34 People can conceptually escape this boundary by using their imagination.

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89 environment reveals a limitation of the behavior setting theory for informing environment design strategies. I t fails to address the idea of environment from the perspective of the individual. This shortcoming is highlighted by Heft (2001) and Wicker (2002) who both suggest that the theory would be strengthened by addressing the individuality of the behavior setting participants. Heft (2001) proposes th at a synthesis of Barker's behavior setting theory and Gibson's Theory of Affordances might provide a much needed unified theory of ecological psychology. To more fully understand how the relationship between people and their environments might impact envi ronmental design strategies, we must shift from the focus on behavior settings to affordances and the interactions between individual people and their environments. Affordance Theory Von UexkŸll first introduced the concept of affordances, describing t he l atent action possibilities of an object as funktionale Tšnung (functional coloring ) and a person's perceptions of an object as related to the ability to exploit such action possibilities. Psychologist J.J. Gibson (1977) extende d the work begun by UexkŸll with the Theory of Affordances, which was based on his research in visual perception. Gibson believed that people understand the world in terms of functional relevance; the form and capabilities of a person's body and its intera ctions with t he external environment shap e that person's conceptions of the world (Wilson, 2002). According to Gibson, an affordance is the relationship between a perso ns abilities and intentions with respect to features of their physical environment. For example, a person may view a chair as something which affords sitting, or perhaps even something with which to prop open a door. If that person had a body that was much smaller, or was limbless, he or she would have a different conception of the chair. Do nald Norman popularized the affordance principle in design theory, introducing the term in his book "The Design of Everyday Things" (1988) Where Gibson considered affordance any and all potentially actionable prop erties of the physical environment, Norman's definition concerns only the actionable properties consciously perceived by an individual.

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90 According to Gibson, an affordance "is neither an objective property nor a subjective property; or it is both if you li ke" (1979, p. 129). This definition has led to great debate among scholars as they have tried to clarify his intentions. Reed (1996) describes affordances as resources, which suggests that they may exert selection pressure on the perceiver. Turvey's (1992) definition considers affordances as dispositional properties of the environment, which depend upon the presence of animals who can actualize (make use of) them. In Turvey's definition affordances do not exert selection pressure but they do depend upon the abilities (effectivities) of an animal to actualize them. Heft's (1989) definition considers the role of body scale and addresses species specific and culturally significant aspects of affordances. Finally, Chemero (2003) describes affordances as a relationship between person and environment. This co ntrasts with both Reed's and Turvey's views of affordances as properties of the environment. 35 As Chemero (2003) points out, there is agreement among the different definitions that affordances are "animal relative." The disagreemen t concerns whether affordances exist without people or other animals to perceive them. In other words, are affordances qualities of an environment or the relationship between a person and the environment? The second point of debate concerns relevant proper ties of the animal. Is it abilities (effectivities) or body scale that is necessary for the perception and actualization of affordances? There are four concepts in affordance theory that are particularly relevant for informing environmental design, the fun ctional level of analysis, reciprocity, agency, and perception. Affordance theory takes as a first principle that person and environment are inseparable and thus must by analyzed together in order to understand human cognition and behavior (Heft, 2001; Reed, 1996) (Environment, in the Gibsonian sense, is similar to von UexkŸll 's concept of Umwelt.) Thus the relationship between person and environment is the functional level of analysis. This suggests that to understand a person's creative processes one must examine them within the context in which they naturally o ccur. 35 Reed (1996) describes affordances as resources in the environment that exist independently of an organism (see pages 18 & 26).

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91 Reciprocity refers to the adaptive relationship between person and environment, and is revealed in three ways. First, people seek our environments that fit their needs. Simply put, if I n eed to sleep, I seek out a quiet dark place with furniture tha t affords reclining (such as my bedroom.) If I need to eat, I may stop by a restaurant on my way home from work. Second, people adjust their behaviors to fit an environment. This is the foundational principle behind Barker's behavior settings theory. Third people alter environments when they do not meet their needs. They may shut a door if they find an environment too noisy to be able to concentrate on work; or they may turn on a light when it is too dark to read. As described in Chapter II, people move fu rniture and even knock out walls in a building when it suits their intentions. Unique to humans is our ability to construct entire (designed) environments to serve our needs. As Winston Churchill is famously credited with saying, "We shape our buildings, a nd afterwards our buildings shape us." Although affordance theory describes how the environment exerts pressures on people, it breaks with the stimulus response behaviorist model because it posits that people have autonomous agency (Heft, 2001; Reed, 1996) Knowledge is grounded in immediate experience as the result of self initiated exploratory actions. Reed describes three characteristics, borrowed from Eleanor Gibson, that explain agency: prospectivity retrospectivity and flexibility (Reed, 1996, p. 12) Prospectivity describes how people have agency when they prospectively seek out information in their environments according to their goals and intentions. Retrospectivity concerns how a person learns from prior experiences to find meaning or relevance in current experiences. Flexibility refers to how people can devise multiple ways to achieve a goal or intention. Thus people's experiences are an outcome of the information they select (perceive) and the opportunities for action they exploit (actualize.) Th eir actions do not need to be triggered by environmental stimulus. The concept of perception in affordance theory has both benefits and limitations for informing environmental design. An advantage is that perception and action are intertwined in affordance theory. Perceiving is a "mode of activity" where actions promote information pick up

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92 and information obtained from the environment informs exploratory actions ( Heft, 2001, pp. 176 177) This perception in action concept links cognitive processes with physical conditions, which may be particularly useful for understanding the role of the designed environment in individual creative processes. Things become probl ematic, however, with Gibson's (1977) explanation that perception is direct meaning it is unmediated by mental processes such as perceptual judgment and interpretation. The concept of direct perception has been the topic of in tense debate in the literature (Chandrasekharan & Osbeck, 2010; Greeno, 1994; No‘, 2002; Vicente, 2003; Withagen, 2004) An advantage of the direct perception concept is that it does not rely on the central processing view of cognition described by Cognitivism. However, Gibson's direct perception concern fails to account for processes like remembering and imagining that do not appear to rely on direct experience (Reed, 1996, p. 183) Hence, this may presents challenges for the suitability of affordance theory as a foundational framework for creativity. S trengths and Limitations of Ecological Psychology Theories The concept of behavior settings has been used to inform environmental design strategies with mixed results. A benefit of this theory is its emphasis on the setting (milieu) and activity as the structural system of interest. It also considers the fit (synomorphy) between people as a collective and features of the environment. These concepts transfer easily to the form (spatial) and function (programmatic) aspects of environmental design strategies. It also presents a predictive model of human behavior. Unfortunately that aspect of the theory has been problematic for environmental design strategies that suggest the setting (milieu) will determine human behavior. The most significant limitation of this theory is that it focuses solely on social behaviors. It does not account for the relationship between individuals and their environments. Nor does it examine the psychological implications of this structure. As Heft (2001) suggests, be havior setting theory would benefit from a more fine grained approach that considers both the role of the individual in a behavior setting and the particular features (and affordances) of the milieu that support patterns of activities in the behavior setti ng.

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93 Affordance theory offers some clear advantages over the behavior settings concept for informing environmental design strategies to support creativity. Most significantly, it focuses on the individual as an autonomous agent in the environment (as opposed to a social group), which aligns with the goals of this dissertation. Second, it considers the person and environment as one structural unit of analysis emphasizing the interactions between them This useful for environmental design, where settings are designed to support su ch interactions. Finally, affordance theory considers the psychological aspects of the person environment relationship (as opposed to the eco behavioral approach in behavior settings theory). This may prove particularly beneficial for considering the perso n environment relationship during creativity a psychological process. Thus affordance theory c oncepts of human agency, person environment reciprocity, and perception in action make this theory more attractive than Barker's behavior settings concept Aff ordance theory is not without its limitations, however. Its most significant drawback for informing environmental design is that it does not provid e a means to predict how features of the designed environment might fit a person's goals and intentions. Firs t, Gibson and his followers have made no attempt to categorize environmental features in a way that could be useful to environmental designers. Further, as I will illustrate in the next section, people can rarely anticipate all of the activities they may n eed to complete a creative task so they cannot be relied upon to specify in advance all of the environmental conditions desired to meet their goals and intentions. I t is also unclear how affordance theory addresses imaginative experiences which are so im portant for creativity Finally, the theory suffers from a lack of any commonly accepted definition about what is an affordance (Chemero, 2003) Although affordance theory appears promising as the foundation for a new framework to link creativity and the designed environment, it is not sufficient by itself. Person Environment Relationship: The Cognitive Science Perspective Gibson laid the groundwork for emerging research in cognitive science by helping to establish the foundation for mo dern theories of situated cognition (Clancey, 2009; No‘, 2004; D.

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94 Ward & Stapleton, 2012) Situated cognition is a theory based on the premise that knowledge cannot be separated from context, that knowing is "inextricably situated in the physical and social context of its acquisition and use" (Brown et al, 1988, p. 1). There are four cent ral i deas in situated cognition. First, the embodied thesis argues that cognition encompa sses both the mind and the body (Clark, 1998; Reed 1996). Second, the embedded thesis maintains that people exploit features of the physical and social environment to incr ease their cognitive capabilities (Clark, 2008; Hutchins, 2006; No‘, 2004) Third, the extended mind thesis states that cognitive processes are extended beyond the boundaries of a person's body through "cognitive coupling" with artifacts in the environment (Clar k & Chalmers, 1998; Clark, 2008 ) Fourth, the enaction thesis describes cognition as dependent upon a person's actions in the world (No‘, 2004; D. Ward & Stapleton, 2012) Of these claims, the first two are fundamental for understanding how the designed environ ment may support creative processes. The third claim will be briefly considered, but is less significant for this dissertation than the other claims Finally, I suggest that the fourth claim is the most useful of the four, because it encompasses the first two claims (and possibly the third claim) and also connects the cognitive science and ecological psychology literatures. Situated Cognition The terms situated cognition embodied cognition and embedded cognition are sometimes used interchangeably; however in the creativity literature situated cognition is a term used to refer primarily (and sometimes exclusively) to the social context (Robbins & Aydede, 2009) Embodied, embedded, and enactive cognition t ak e the grounding of cognition in the physical environment as their central tenet and thus generally are understood to refer to the physical context (No‘, 2004; Robbins & Aydede, 2009) Although, according to Robbins and Aydede (2009) situate d cognition is the "genus" and embodied and embedded cognition the "ilk," these terms are not always used this way in the literature. For clarity when I refer to situated cognition in this dissertation I intend the "genus" meaning of the term and will spe cify if

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95 I am speaking of only the social or physical context, whereas when I use the terms embodied and embedded cognition I will always be referring to the physical grounding of cognition. Embodied Cognition Embodied cognition maintains that cognition is deeply dependent upon the physical characteristics of the body (M. Wilson, 2002) This thesis argues that the sensory and motor capabilities of our bodies shape our mind to the extent that perception, thought, and action are co c onstructed (Robbins & Aydede, 2009) Three streams of research have informed this hypothesis: linguistic, robotic, and philosophical. Linguistic research by Lakoff and Johnson (1980, 1999) considers the use of metaphor in everyday speech as evidence that mental representations are grounded in real world experiences. Artificial intelligence research by Rodney Brooks (1991a, 1991b) introduced the embodied approach to robotics as an alternative to the central processing view of artificial intelligence. His "bottom up" approach to cognition mirrors Gibson 's work in ecological psychology, suggesting that knowledge is constructed through exploratory actions in the world. Finally, the philosophical approach is based in the phenomenological works of Edmund Husserl and Maurice Merleau Ponty who maintain that th e body is at the center of perception and experience (Gallagher, 2009; Pallasmaa, 2010; V arela, Thompson, & Rosch, 1991) Empirical support for embodied cognition has generally focused on either the relationship between abstract cognitive states and physical states of the body or how states of the body influence cognition (A. D. Wilson & Golonka, 2013) The relevance of embodied cognition theory for understanding person environment relationships during creativity is considered with respect to three areas: creative places (environmental de sign), creative activities (tool usage), and creative processes (metaphor). The philosophical approach is at the root of embodied cognition theory in architecture and environmental design (Holl, Pallasmaa, & Pe rez Go mez, 2006; Pallasmaa, 2005, 2010, 2011) Juhani Pallasmaa is largely responsible for bringing an awareness of embodied cognition principles to the design of environments (Mallgr ave, 2011) He criticizes the visual bias in

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96 architectural design, blaming it for the creation of "impoverished environments" that create feelings of detachment and alienation in users (Pallasmaa, 2005) Instead, he advocates for a multi sensory approach that engages the senses of hearing, smell, and touch (Pallasmaa, 2005, p. 70) Althoug h he bases his argument largely on philosophical theory, personal experience, and observation, his more re cent work references some empirical studies in embodied cognition (Pallasmaa, 2005, 2011) Mallgrave (2011) also examines the concept of embodiment in architecture and attempts t o organize architectural theories with empirical evidence from neuroscience. Such efforts, however, are limited to basing architectural designs on scientific research and do not empirically examine the effects of architectural strategies. Based on the lite rature review in Chapter II, a phenomenological approach to architectural design may have some benefit for creativity. However, without a theoretical framework empirically grounded in scientific knowledge from embodied cognition, it is nearly impossible to know what architectural features may be beneficial and why. For now the embodiment thesis only provides some theoretical support that place matters to creativity. The skillful use of t ools and materials by the hand is often considered integral to creati vity (Sennett, 2008) Pallasmaa (2010) wrote a book about "the thinking hand" in architectural design and the s ociologist Ri chard Sennett (2008) refers to "the intelligent hand" of the craftsman (p. 149). They both describe an embodied view where creativity emerges from the connection between head, hand and the creative artifact. The "bottom up" approach to embodiment advocated by Rodney Brooks (Brooks, 1991a, 1991b) and Andy Clark (A. Clark, 1999, 2001, 2008a) argues that the mind exists for action and that thinking depends on the work of the body. Clark (2008a) uses the example of a famous exchange between the ph ysicist Richard Feynman and historian Charles Weiner to illustrate this principle. In the anecdote, Feynman argues with Weiner that a paper he wrote is not a record of his thinking, but actually is his thinking. Clark explains how Feynman's use of pen and paper is "responsible for the shape of the flow of thoughts and ideas" (p. xxv). Empirical support for embodied cognition theory is often based on studies which demonstrate activation of motor processes in the brain when people 1)

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97 think about using tools, 2) say words associated with tool use, or 3) watch someone else use a tool during experimental tasks (Mahon & Caramazza, 2008; PulvermŸller, Hauk, Nikulin, & Ilmoniemi, 2005) Embodied cognition theory may be particularly relevant for understanding how creative practitioners' interactions with tools, materials, and other features of the environment may influence their creative thinking. The relationship between embodied cognition and creati ve proc esses is the focus of a study about metaphor use conducted by Leung et al. (2012) The researchers consider how metaphors for creative thinking often reference physical actions and conditions, such as to "think outside the box," consider a creative problem "on one hand, then on the other hand," and "p ut two and two together." They found that embodiment activates creative cognitive processes and increases creative productivity in a series of five experiments. The first study considered the "thinking on the other hand" metaphor. Participants in control a nd experimental groups completed two trials. In the first trial they were asked to come up with creative responses while standing and holding out the right hand. In the second trial they were asked to do the same thing, but the experimental group was told to hold out the left hand instead of the right. Creative fluency (number of ideas) was significantly higher for the "left hand" group only. The next three studies considered the "thinking outside the box" metaphor. Participants completed creativity tasks 1 ) inside and outside a 5 foot by 5 foot cardboard box, 2) while rectangular walking, free walking, or sitting, and 3) while "virtually" rectangular walking or free walking in a three dimensional computer environment (Second Life.) The results found a posit ive effect on convergent thinking when outside the cardboard box, a positive effect on creative originality in both the free walking condition and the "virtual" free walking condition. The final study considered the "put two and two together" metaphor. Par ticipants completed two repetitive tasks where they either moved coasters from one stack to another or from two stacks simultaneously to the center of the table. The second condition was intended to mimic an integrative hand gesture. There was a positive e ffect of the "integrative gesture" condition on rates of convergent

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98 thinking but not divergent thinking. This research suggests some compelling evidence about the relevance of embodied cognition theory for creativity. Embedded Cognition Embodied and embed ded cognition often go hand in hand, and thus are sometimes referred to collectively as embodied, embedded cognition (A. Clark, 2008b) Where embodied cognition considers how people use their bodies to help them think, embedded cognition theory considers how people use features of their environment to improve their cognitive abilities (Robbins & Aydede, 2009) A common theme in embedded cognition theory is how people off load cognitive wo rk to their environments (A. Clark, 2001) Andy Clark refers to this as the "007 Principle," which he explains means to know only as much as you need to know to get the job done" (p. 46). In other words, he suggests that peopl e will not store or process information that they can easily off load to the environment. People act on their environments to improve mental processes (epistemic actions), they alter their environments in specific ways to help them make decisions (niche c onstruction), and they manipulate their environments to help them learn about complex situations (cognitive bootstrapping). Kirsh and Maglio's (1994) research on epistemic actions uses the Tetris computer game to illustrate how players use epistemic actions to improve game play. Players physically rotate playing pieces as they drop to help them solve the puzzle faster than performing those rotations in their minds. Another principle in embedded cognition theory is niche construc tion where people exploit features of their environment to help them think (A. Clark, 2008a, p. 64) Kirsh (1995a) describes how people alter their envir onments, thereby making cognitive niches to 1) simplify choices (such as organizing things in a production line), 2) simplify perception (such as organizing puzzle pieces by color), and simplify mental computation (such as ordering Scrabble pieces to help remember words.) When problems are particularly challenging, niche construction can be used as a form of cognitive bootstrapping where learning is the process of "incremental cognitive self stimulation" through feedback from environmental conditions. These

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99 concepts are manifest within two embodied cognition theories that may be especially useful for understanding the person environment relationship during creativity: Lucy Suchman's (1987, 2007) situated action theory and Donald Schšn's (1983) reflective practice the ory. Situated action. Suchman's (2007) situated action theory describes planning as an "imaginative and discursive practice" (p. 13). The concept of situated action describes how plans are not mental maps that determine actions ; but rather they co evolve with and in response to actions. Suchman uses the example of white water canoeing to describe how successfully navigating the rapids is not the result of a detailed plan laid out before the adventure started, but rather a se ries of strategies in response to embodied actions. The "plan" may best be described as a means to "orient you in the best possible position from which to use those embodied skills on which, in the final analysis, your success depends (p.18). Each plan is a strategy in response to actions in situ, and a resource to guide the next situated action. Suchman's conception of situated action thus appears to be a type of creative problem solving where the activities and processes required to reach a solution canno t be fully known in advance. They emerge through exploratory actions in the creative situation. Reflective practice. Donald Schšn's (1983) reflective practice theory describes how professionals solve problems "in action." His use of the term "action" refers both to the situated nature of reflective practice and references what he calls "the action present" (p. 278). Action present is the period of time in which an action can have an effect on the problematic situation (p. 62). Sch šn's theory describes the intertwined nature of think ing and doing through two comple mentary processes: knowing in action and reflection in action. Knowing in action is a tacit process of thinking through doing (p. 49 54). Schšn uses the example of a baseb all pitcher who describes having a "feel for" the ball and trying not to "think" during a game. This tacit form of embedded cognition

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100 is a kind of intuitive and improvisatory performance between the baseball player and the ball. Reflection in action is an explicit process that focuses on 1) the outcomes of the action (e.g. "That pitch didn't go where I wanted!"), 2) the action itself (e.g. "I wonder if I over rotated during the pitch?"), or 3) the intuitive knowledge implicit in the action (e.g. "There was something off about my stance. It just didn't feel right.") Reflection in action is triggered by a surprise, such as when intuitive performance yields unexpected results (p. 56). Although Schšn does not describe his theory as a form of creative problem sol ving, he developed it by examining the practices of creative professionals (such as engineers, architects and town planners). Extended Cognition Extended cognition is a concept that describes cognition as a system that can exceed the bounds of a person's body (A. Clark & Chalmers, 2008) Andy Clark (2008a) is an advocate for the extended cognition theory, arguing that when people recruit neural, bodily, and environmental resources to solve tasks they extend their cognition between those things This thesis has been hotl y contested in the cognitive science literature (A. Clark, 2008a) Therefore, since the concept is not essential to this dissertation, I will merely give it mention as a point of possible future investigation. A related concept that is not as controversial, however, is distributed cognition. Edwin Hutchins (1995) introduced the concept in his analysis of ship navigation systems and processes. A primary distinction between Clark's concept of extended co gnition and Hutchins's theory of distributed cognition is that Hutchins's theory relies on other people as the primary means of cognitive extension and distribution. He refers to this as "systems of socially distributed cognition" (p. xiii). Hutchins (2000) maintains the cognition is distributed in three ways: across people in a group such as the ship's crew members; between internal (mental) and external (material and environmental structures) such as the ship s navigation al system; and across time such as how historical events influence current events. Although the physical environment is part of this system (as referenced in his metaphor "cognition in the wild"), his distributed

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101 cognition theory is more often recognized as a theory of social cognition. Distributed cognition theory may be useful for developing greater understanding about how group creativity may be not only a socially situated process, but a lso a physically situated one. Enactive Cognition The foundationa l principle behind enactive cognition is that perception and cognition depend upon a person's interactions with the world. This theory is generally treated as separate from embodied, embedded, and extended cognition. However, some researchers have suggeste d that if cognition is enactive that it must also be embodied and embedded (and it might also be extended) (D. Ward & Stapleton, 2012) Enactive theory suggests that cognition emerges through autonomous agenc y and adaptive interaction with the environment (Di Paolo et al., 2010; Thompson, 2005; Varela et al., 1991) How, exactly, a person obtains sensory information is debated among researchers (No‘, 2004, 2012; D. Ward, Roberts, & Clark, 2011) Of particular interest for this dissertation are theses presented by No‘ (2004) who emphasizes sensorimotor knowledge and Ward, Roberts, and Clark (2011) wh o align their work more directly with J.J. Gibson's to emphasize the visual system. The similarity between these two schools of thought is that they both appear to be addressing the problem of direct perception. How do people directly obtain information fr om the world without intervening mental processes? The theories presented by No‘ (2004) and Ward et al. (2011) attempt to avoid the problem of the "sandwich model" of cognition that assumes three sta ges of information processing: first perception, then cognition, and finally action. According the enactive approach, the human mind is embodied and embedded in the world and not reducible to these mental structures. No‘'s (2004) sensorimotor theory describes the direct relationship between perception and action. Perception is determined by what a person does, knows how to do, or is able to do. He refers to this as sensorimotor knowledge a type of bodily self awareness that may be intuitive. Perception, No‘ suggests, is based on the body's abilities. This concept helps to explain

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102 how, for example, we are able to perceive the back of an object even though we cannot see it. Our perception of the object is shaped by our locomotive abilities. The advantage of the sensorimotor model is that it both solves the problem of direct perception while accounting for imagination and remembering. At the biological level, the sensorimotor approach to p erception is congruent with common coding theory (Chandrasekharan & Osbeck, 2010) Common coding describes how action and perception are functionally intertwined in the nervous system. Perception tr iggers the motor cortex when people anticipate performing an action, when they watch another person engage in an action, and when they imagine an action (Chandrasekharan & Osbeck, 2010) Conversely, action also affects perception. Action possibilities in the environment can restrict perception and imagination (such as demonstrated in the enactive metaphor study mentioned earlier.) No‘'s (2004) sensorimotor model of enactive cognition appears to be particularly relevant for understanding the role of the designed environment in creativity because it establishes a link between perception, action, and imagination. Although there is considerable support for the sensorimotor appr oach in the enactivist literature, it is important to note that Ward, Roberts, and Clark (2011) argue that it does not effectively account for the level of abstraction required for reasoning and planning processes. These proces ses are clearly important for creativity, thus I will briefly highlight their position. Ward et al. propose an enactive model based directly on Gibson's affordance theory. In this action space model, people's perceptions depend upon their plans, knowledge, and intentions with respect to the "currently enabled action space" (or environment). Ward et al. also maintain (like Gibson) that the visual system is the primary means of obtaining perceptual information. They base their model on the discovery by Goodal e and Milner (1992) of two visual systems in the brain. The two streams hypothesis describes two parallel vision processes in the brain: a ventral stream (the "what pathway") that is involved in object identification (i.e. visi on for perception) and a dorsal stream (the "how pathway") that is involved in spatial awareness and action guidance (i.e. vision for action) (Goodale & Milner, 1992; Milner & Goodale, 2008) Ward

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103 et al. explain that the benefit of their approach is that it accou nts for both direct perception as well as more abstract reasoning, planning, imagining and intention formation and that these processes may run in parallel (D. Ward et al., 2011) Strengths and Limitations of the Cognitive Science Theories The main strength of the cognitive science theories of embodied, embedded, and enactive cognition is that they provide a more granular level of detail about the person environment relationship than the ecological theories. The ma jor limitation of these theories is that they do not provide a functional structure appropriate for informing design strategies at the scale of the designed environment. Although there has been some attempt by architects to incorporate finding from cogniti ve and neuroscience research (E. M. Sternberg & Wilson, 2006) these efforts are often criticized for attempting to link research at two significantly different scales of empirical analysis with "a b ridge too far." 36 Emerging research in enactive cognition, however, may hold the key to bridging the ecological affordance theory and the cognitive science theories of embodied and embedded cognition thus providing the groundwork for a functional (i.e. us eful) model of the person environment relationship. Towards an Ecological and Enactive View of Creativity The most significant finding from this review of the ecological psychology and cognitive science theories is how the two bodies of literature are hig hly congruent and complementary. Barker's (1968) behavior setting theory, which has historically had the most influence on environmental design strategies, would benefit from integrating a cognitive (social psychology) perspectiv e that might be provided by integrating Hutchins's (2006) distributed cognition theory. Together these two theories would be more strongly positioned to describe the people environment relationship for group (social) creativity The embodied, embedded, and enactive literature s all describe how cognition is shaped by people's interactions with their environments. 36 I borrow this phrase from Bruer's (1997) criticism of brain based education.

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104 The embodied cognition literature could inform how creative thinking is shaped by the actions of the body. The embedde d literature might illustrate the role of situated plans, actions, and reflection during creativity. Emerging research in enactive cognition directly references Gibson's (1977) affordance theory as a model for understanding the role of the environment in human cognition. The enactive literature (and by association the embodied and embedded cognition literature) may begin to address the limitations of affordance theory by 1) shedding new light on Gibson's concept of direct percep tion and 2) providing an additional perspective for how affordances might best be defined. Ultimately, however, the embodied, embedded, and enactive cognition literature s provide empirical support for the relevance of Gibson's affordance theory for underst anding the person environment relationship during creativity. I set out in this chapter to lay the groundwork for a theoretical framework to describe the person environment relationship during creativity. This review of the literature reveals the benefits to adopting Gibson's affordance theory framework and exten ding it with emerging and comple mentary research in enactive cognition to address its limitations. The goal of this new theoretical framework is to provide a functional structure, useful for inform ing environmental design. Towards that end, I propose that several key issues still need to be addressed. First, the term environment must be clearly defined. Second, this definition should delimit the structural unit of analysis for the theoretical framew ork. Third, the problem of direct perception must be addressed. Fourth, the term affordance must be defined with respect to the relevant properties of the person and the qualities of the environment. Finally, although the new framework is intended to descr ibe the relationship between a single creative person and his or her environment, it should be a complement to behavior setting theory and a social (collective) view of creativity. It is generally accepted in the creativity literature that individual creat ivity and social creativity are unique phenomena and, to truly understand creativity, ultimately we need an account of the role of the designed environment for each.

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105 Creative Spaces: Environments, Umwelts, Milieus or Niches? There are many definitions to d escribe the place where creativity happens. In this chapter alone I have referenced four different terms: environment, umwelt, milieu, and niche. I elect to use the more general term "environment," since this is already in common use in the environmental d esign literature. For the purpose of this dissertation, I adopt von UexkŸll 's definition to describe the environment as the area around a person that is structured through that person's senses, abilities and actions, and to which he or she is conceptually bound I will refer to the collective environment of multiple people as either "their environments" (to describe the sum of the individually constructed environments) or "space" to describe the heterogeneous and socially constructed quality of the collecti ve environment. Finally, I will use the term "setting" to describe only the physical aspects of a place. T he Structural Unit of Analysis for a New Creativity Framework The first step toward creating a theoretical framework bridging environmental design and creativity is to determine what scale of analysis is most useful for understanding the person environment relationship during creativity. As I stated in Chapter I and illustrated in Chapter II, considering creativity as a social phenomenon has not been pa rticularly useful for informing environmental design strategies. Gibson wrote in 1976 "architecture and design do not have a satisfactory theoretical basis" (1976, p. 413). This statement holds true today (Hensel, Menges, & Hight, 2009; Lang & Moleski, 2010) He went on to ask "Can an ecological approach to the psychology of perception and behavior provide it?" Although affordance theory has not yet provided a strong theoretical basis for environmental design, I suggest that by extending the theory with rese arch from enactive cognition, it could. The concept of affordances provides the most appropriate foundation for a common theory linking creative cognition and the designed environment.

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106 Direct and Indirect Perception Murray (1938) describes two types of creative press, objective pressures (alpha) and perceived pressures (beta). Alpha press influences are those that are perceived through direct sensory stimulation and may not be attended to, whereas beta influences are the result of attention and personal interpretation. He explains that environmental factors may fall under both categories of press. For example, if a person directly perceives background music in a setting through the auditory system but does not specifically pay at tention to it, it is an alpha press. But the music becomes a beta press if it is attended to and thereby may be perceived either negatively as a distraction or positively as a productive influence on creativity. Some environmental design researchers take the position that the physical environment only affects behavior when it is perceived and transformed into social knowledge (Franck, 1984) As I illustrated in Chapter II, when the relationship between the designed environment and crea tivity is empirically investigated, it is generally with respect to people's perceptions about and preferences for certain environments (Buttimer, 1983; Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; McCoy & Evans, 2002) There is some empirical evidence however, that alpha press (such as views of nature or ambient sound) may affect creative productivity (McCoy & Evans, 2002; Mehta et al., 2012) Franck (1984) argues that both types of press are worthy of investigation, and joins a small group of researchers who suggest that efforts to understand how the physical environment affects behavior must include both direct (b eta press) and indirect (alpha press) influences. Gibson's concept of direct perception in affordance theory is congruent with this perspective. Affordance theory describes how people directly perceive both alpha and beta press, even though they may only a ttend to the latter. As I mentioned previously, the limitations of Gibson's concept of dire ct perception for creativity, are that it does not consider how imagination and abstract reasoning processes vitally important to creativity fit with the model. Recent work in enactive cognition by No‘ (2004) and Ward et al. (2011) demonstrate how these processes (which have typically been associated with a representational theory of mind) are understood through neuroscience research

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107 to be a form of direct perception. My intention here is not to in corporate neuroscience into my theoretical framework. I merely point out that what we currently understand about how the human neurological system works lends empirical evidence to the appropriateness of Gibson's model as the foundational structure from wh ich to build a theoretical framework of the person environment relationship during creativity. My Definition of Affordance Gibson (1977) described an affordance as equally a fact of the environment and a fact of behavior. It i s both physical and psychical, yet neither. An affordance points both ways, to the environment and to the user (p. 129). As I mentioned earlier, this definition has proven problematic for researchers who debate whether affordances are properties of the en vironment or instrumental relationships between people and features of their environments For the purpose of this dissertation I will take the position supported by Chemero (2003) and Stoffregen (2003) that affordances are a type of relationship between person and environment. I define an affordance as an instrumental relationship between a person and features of his or her environment Affordances are l atent action possibilities that have intrinsic val ue to a person according to the person's abilities, intentions, goals, and values. They are both real and perceivable, but are not a property of either the environment or the person. I also argue that perception and actualization of affordances is dependen t upon both the physical abilities and cognitive qualities (e.g. intentions, goals, and values) of a person. Affordances provide action opportunities for people and may be physical, social, or cognitive. For example, a doorknob offers a physical affordanc e, "ability to turn," between a person and the knob. I t provides latent opportunities for turning Similarly, social affordances are opportunities for social actions and cognitive affordances permit cognitive actions (e.g. changes in modes of thinking) Th ese affordances are not mutually exclusive. Enactive cognition theory explains how thinking and acting are intertwined. Thus an affordance may simultaneously provide both physical and cognitive opportunities. Because affordances encompass all possible acti on

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108 possibilities in a situation they are not always perceived or actualized (exploited) Affordances may also be hidden (when the person is unable to perceive them) or false (when a person perceives an affordance that is not real or does not actually prov ide the anticipated action opportunities ) (Gaver, 1991) For example, if I walk into a room with the intention of sitting down, the affordances of that room are the latent action opportunities for sitting provided by the features of the room (with respect to my physical abilities). If I see there is a chair at the far side of the room, but I have not yet sat in it, it is a perceived affordance If I cannot see that chair because it is located behind a column, it is a hidden affordance W hen I sit in the chair it is an actualized affordance However, if someone has removed all the fasteners between the frame and the seat of the chair, and it falls apart when I try to sit on it, it is a false affordance Creativity, as I will illustrate lat er in this dissertation, relies on the detection and actualization of the affordances in a creative situation. Creativity and "Potential Affordances" I propose in this dissertation that creative practitioners develop expertise that helps them perceive non obvious affordances. 37 Sometimes ot her people cannot perceive non obvious affordances because they do not actually exist yet. Th ese are potential affordances. 38 I suggest that the concept of potential affordances describes how creative practitioners perceive opportunities for action even though they are not yet available for them to actualize. They use their imaginations to help them perceive how an affordance might em erge from changes to either features of the en vironment or to some aspect of the ir own a bilities or intentions. To use another chair example, if I walk into a room and see a pile of miscellaneous chair parts strewn around the 37 This concept is in troduced in Chapter IV and discussed in more detail in Chapters V, VI, and VII. 38 Heft (1989) proposes the concept of potential affordances to describe qualities of the environment that might provide an affordance should a pers on have the appropriate skills and intentions to perceive and actualize the affordance. I propose that a potential affordance also exists when qualities of the environment do not yet provide an appropriate resource to meet a person's skills and intentions, but the person could imagine how the environment might be changed to create a new affordance. KyttŠ (2003) refers to human created affordances as "affordances that have been shaped" (p. 55).

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109 room and nowhere else to sit, I might perceive the potential affordance for sitting in the chair parts. They do not presently afford sitting, but, with some effort, I could combine a few pieces to create a place to sit. In order to perceive this potential affordance, I would have to imagine assembling the parts into some form of n ew chair. This is, of course, a rather "uncreative" example of creativity. However, the very unusual materials from which chairs have been created in the past suggest that their designers uncovered hidden or potential affordances in things like sheets of c orrugated cardboard (like the material in Frank Gehry's Wiggle Chair) or notebook spiral binder springs (which form Yangsoo Pyo's Afro Chair) The enactive cognition literature demonstrates how imagination can be explained as a form of direct perception. W ith this empirical support, I propose to extend Gibson's affordance theory to include this concept of potential affordances. Next Steps Towards a New Theoretical Framework of Creativity At this point in the dissertation I have demonstrated the need for a new theoretical framework that describes the person environment relationship during creativity. I have proposed that Gibson's affordance theory provides the most appropriate foundation for this framework. I also addressed some of the limitations of Gibson' s affordance theory, such as how affordances are defined and how direct perception might account for the imaginative experiences that appear to be instrumental for creativity. I draw from cognitive science research in embodied, embedded, and enactive cogni tion to provide the empirical support for extending Gibson's model to more effectively describe person environment relationship during creative processes. This empirical evidence also provides support for my concept of potential affordances and the role th ey play in the person environment during creativity. This preliminary work is illustrated in the following diagram (Figure III .1).

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110 Figure III 1 Affordances I define an affordance as an instrumental relationship between person and environment. Affordances may be perceived, actualized, false, hidden, or potential. This diagram describes affordances as an instrumental relationship between a person and his or her environment. It does not yet describe the person environment relationship during creativity, which I develop in the following three chapters. First, I will describe how the creative practitioners' intentions and abilities are determined by their mode of creative thinking. This discussion begins in Chapter IV with a review of the creative process literature and continues in Chapter V with a proposal for a new Multi modal Process Model of Creative Practice. Second, I will illustrate the nature of the reciprocal relationship between person and environment during creativ ity. The Creativity in Context Theoretical Framework introduced in Chapter VI illustrates how creative practitioners use features of their environment to engender, sustain, and inhibit different creative modes. They also change their environments in order to create new affordances in a creative situation. Third, I propose a new taxonomy of environmental features that considers the different scales of the designed environment. This is also introduced in Chapter VI. Heft (2001) argued that greater integration is needed between Gibson's affordance theory and Barker's behavior setting theory. Although bridging these two theories is beyond the scope of this dissertation, I will suggest in Chapter VII how future efforts might integr ate my work with Barker's behavior setting concept to better understand the role of the designed environment in group (social) creativity.

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111 CHAPTER IV THE CREATIVE PROCESS A REVIEW OF CREATIVE STAGE MODELS AND COGNITIVE PROCESS LITERATURE AND THEIR SUITAB ILITY FOR PHYSICALLY SITUATING CREATIVITY Highlights This review and analysis of the creative process literature presents the next step toward developing a new framework to bridge the creativity and environmental design literatures: the identification o f the physically situated processes that are involved in different stages of creativity. The creative process literature consists of two streams of research: stage models that describe the sequence of steps involved in creativity and cognitive process theo ries that strive to identify the mechanisms behind the creative stages. An analysis of the creative process literature reveals that the stage models primarily describe purely mental processes. None of them sufficiently addresses the physical context of cre ativity. Nor do they describe the relationships between the stages. Although the models vary in the number of stages they describe, I suggest that when one organizes the stages around the physical activities in which people typically engage, five physicall y situated modes of creativity emerge: problem finding, idea generating, incubating, elaborating, and implementing. Next, I organize the cognitive process theories around these modes to identify those that best describe the physically situated processes be hind the modes. I suggest that Csikszentmihalyi's (1990) theory of creative flow and Schšn's (1983) reflective practice model may together provide the nucleus for a new model of creativity as a physical ly situated process.

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112 Introduction Review Chapter II illustrated the need for a theoretical framework to bridge the environmental design and creativity literatures. In Chapter III, I presented a first step toward that goal, the identification of a prelimina ry framework to develop towards describing the person environment relationship during creativity. Key issues from the ecological psychology and cognitive science literature s suggest that, first, people have different conception of their environments based on their personal abilities and intentions. Second, people are autonomous agents in their environments who exploit features of the ir environment s to mediate and extend their cognitive abilities. They are not passive recipients of stimulus provided by desig n interventions. They initiate exploratory actions in their environments and make changes in their environments or move to new environments to better support their needs. Third, people have a reciprocal relationship with their environments. Their sensory a nd motor experiences in their environments shape their knowledge and behavior. Finally, a lthoug h there is no single theory to sufficiently bridge the environmental design and creativity literature ecological psychology may provide an appropriate preliminary structure when it is extended by the enactive cognition literature from cognitive science. Thesis Chapter IV provides an overview of the creative process literature. The intention behind this chapter is to identify the physically situated proce sses involved in creativity. The creative process literature cons ists of two streams of research; stage models that describe creativity as a series of steps, and empirical studies that examine the cognitive processes used in the stages (like analogy and me taphor). I use theories of embodied, embedded, and enactive cognition reviewed in Chapter III to assess the process literature in terms of its applicability for developing a new framework to bridge the environmental design and creativity literatures An an alysis of the

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113 literature reveals that 1) there appear to be five physically situated modes of creativity: problem finding, idea generating, incubating, elaborating, and implementing, 2) these modes involve both intuitive and explicit cognitive processes, 3 ) the literature does not adequately describe relationships between stages or modes, 4) none of the stage models sufficiently addresses the physical context of creativity, and 5) although Csikszentmihalyi's (1990) flow theory do es describe the physically situated nature of creativity, it only considers one mode (stage) of creativity. I suggest that Csikszentmihalyi's (1990) theory of creative flow when combined with Schšn's (198 3) complementary theory of reflective practice introduced in Chapter III, might form the nucleus for a new, physically situated creative process model. Significance This chapter provides the next step towards a new framework to bridge the creativity and environmental design literatures: the identification of the physically situated processes involved in the stages of creativity. Current research in cognitive science understands cognition to be embodied, embedded, and enactive, but for the most part the c reativity literature does not take this perspective. It still reflects the influence of Cognitivism, emphasizing mental states instead of physically embodied and embedded activities. This helps to explain why the creative process literature has not been pa rticularly useful for informing environmental design, where settings are intended to support physical activities. Ultimately this review of the creative process literature illustrates the need for a new creativity model that describes both the physically s ituated modes of cognition involved in creativity as well as the relationships between these modes. Background How do we describe the process of human creativity as it happens in the world ? What are the activities and events in which creative people engage during dogged pursuit of an issue or problem that help them eventually arrive at a solution that is both novel and

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114 technically appropriate? The cognitive process approach to creativity seeks to address these questions by examining mental processes and constructs with the goal of identifying the intellectual skills and cognitive processes that are general to all creative people (Kozbelt et al., 2010) There are two main streams of research in this literature: the development of stage models to describe the steps in individual or group creative process es and the empirical examination of cognitive mechanisms that comprise creative thinking (Kozbelt et al., 2010) Process theories have informed many of the prevailing ideas that people have about creativity (e.g. divergent thinking, associative thinking, and metaphorical thinking) and numerous strategies proposed to f oster or improve an individual's creative thinking abilities (Mark A. Runco, 2007a; T. B. Ward & Saunders, 2003) There is a general agreement in the literature that creativity consists of an interrelated series of stages involving both explicit and intuitive mental processes and both solitary and social behaviors (Kozbelt et al., 2010; Mark A. Runco, 2007a; Sawyer, 2012) This chapter addresses some of the issues in the process literature that are relevant to understanding creativity as a form of physically situated cognition by : 1) investigating the common sequences of activities and behaviors (i.e. stages) that occur during creativity, 2) examining the cognitive mechanisms behind these activities, and 3) identifying the theori es of cognition implicit in current models of creativity and design. The aim of this chapter is to determine which (if any) stage models m ay serve as a framework for physically situating the cognitive processes of creativity. Creative Stage Models : A Critical Review and Analysis One of the earliest and most well known stage models was developed by Graham Wallas (192 6) and describes creativity as a sequence of preparation, incubation, illumination a nd verification stages. J.P. Guilford (1950) referenced Wallas's model in his address to the American Psychological Association. This speech is credited with igniting the field of creative process research which was later fueled in the 1960's and 1970's by the emerg ing field of cognitive science (Feldman et al., 1994a ; R. J. Sternberg & O'Hara, 1999; I. A. Taylor, 2007) The process

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115 approach has since dominate d the creativity literature, with a virtual explosion in development of various stage models informed by work across fields such as psychology, cognitive scien ce, business, education, and design (Mark A. Runco, 2007a) I have selected a few of the most commonly referenced stage models to review in this chapter and organized them in a common framework for comparison ( Table IV 1). Table IV 1 Stage Models of Creativity. This overview of the creative stage models serves to illustrate the similarities and highlight the differences among them The models share common stages that are similarly sequenc ed. I have organized these as five general phases: problem finding, generating, incubating, elaborating, and implementing. Problem finding entails all the stages prior to novel idea generation, including problem discovery, problem framing, knowledge acquis ition, etc. The generating phase includes all stages involved in coming up with new ideas, including exploration, play, and creating novel combinations. The incubating phase is distinguished by periods of rest, Model Author(s) Wallas 1926 Preparation Incubation, Illumination Verification Rossman 1931 Osborn 1953 Hypothesis Incubation Synthesis, Verification Gordon 1961 Groundwork Implementation Bransford & Stein 1984 Explore Approaches Act on Plan Look at effects De Bono 1985 Barron 1988 Conception Gestation, Pasturation Bring Up Baby Evans & Russell 1989 Preparation, Frustration Incubation, Insight Working Out Mumford et al. 1991 Evaluation Finke 1992 Generative Exploratory Van Gundy 1992 Idea finding Solution Finding Acceptance finding Feldman et al. 1994 Inernalize domain generate novelty externalize ideas Csikszentmihalyi 1996 Preparation Incubation, Insight Evaluation, Elaboration Isaksen et al. 2000 Develop solutions build acceptance Submit to field, Evaluate, Disseminate Implementation and feedback Creative Stages problemfinding generating elaborating implementing Problem construction, Knowledge acquisition, Concept selection Objective finding, Fact finding, Problem finding Frame problems, Explore data, Construct opportunities Generate ideas, Construct opportunities Observation, Analysis, Survey Orientation, Preparation, Analysis, Hypothesis Identify Problem, Define Goals White Hat / focus on information Formulation, Critique, Invention Immersion, Divergent Exploration Novel combinations, Ideation incubating Green Hat/ seek new ideas Experimentation, Selection, Perfection Selection, Articulation, Transformation Black Hat, Yellow Hat, Blue Hat, Red Hat

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116 when a creative person is not actively workin g on a problem. Elaborating is characterized by stages of verification, articulation, selection, and refinement. Finally, the implementing phase conveys how the creative idea is tested and evaluated in a socio cultural context. A clear difference between the stage models is whether or not they include an incubating or implementing stage. Some models ( particularly earlier ones) emphasize the relationship between the preparation phase and the incubation phase, a period when a person is not actively working on a problem (Barron, 1988; Csikszentmihal yi, 1996; Roger Evans & Russell, 1989; Osborn, 1953; R. J. Sternberg, 2006b; Wallas, 1926) Thes e models convey the role of sub conscious processes of creativity, and reflect the hypothesis that creativity cannot be fully directed. I will refer to this gr oup as romantic models. 39 Other models, which I will call rationalist describe only the explicit (conscious) processes of creativity, emphasizing the relationship between generative and elaboration /articulation st ages ( Bransford & Stein, 1984; Gordon, 1961; Isaksen, Stead Dorval, & Treffinger, 2000; M. D. Mumford, Mobley, ReiterPalmon, Uhlman, & Doares, 1991; Rossman, 1931; Van Gundy, 1987) These stage models are founded on the hypothesis that creativity is a form of problem solving using ordinary cognitive proce sses. M ore recent models often include a stage (or stages) for implementation or externalization of the creative product in the public domain (Feldman et al., 1994a; Isaksen et al., 2000; M. D. Mumford et al., 1991; Van Gundy, 1987) This reflects the shift in thinking about creativity as a socially situated activity (Amabile, 1996; Feldman et al., 1994a) These three categories of the stage models will be examined in greater detail in the following sections. The Romantic Stage Models and the Preparation Incubation Stages The most compelling stories of creativity often describe the moment of creative insight as coming from out of the blue (s uch as how Nikola Tesla's idea for alternating current came to him during a walk), during a dream like state (like KekulÂŽ's insight into the ring like structure of benzene), or when the creative person was engaged in an unrelated activity (such as the famo us 39 The terms rational and romantic a re commonly used to distinguish between the different conceptions of creativity in the literature. See for example (Sawyer, 2012, p. 23)

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117 myth of Archimedes's "eureka" moment during a bath). This phenomenon is captured in the romantic stage models, which are generally characterized by a knowledge acquisition stage followed by a stage of rest or incubation from which ideation arises. Graha m Wallas's (1926) enduring four stage model of creativity is an early example of a romantic stage model. Based on introspective accounts from the German physicist Hermann von Helmholtz and the French mathematician Jules Henri PoincarÂŽ, Wallas observed that the creative process i s comprised of both conscious (explicit) and subconscious (intuitive) stages. An explicit process occurs when a person is aware of his or her own c ognitive state and the influences affecting it (Reingold & Ray, 2003) An intuitive process refers to influences that affect a person's perception, memory, and learning without his or her awareness (Reingold & Ray, 2003) O ften what distinguishes intuitive from explicit cognition is the person's inability to communicat e or describe the process. Intuitive processes often happ en informally, so while creative people may not be complete ly unaware of the process, they are typically not self reflective about it and thus may have trouble articulating it (VandenBos, 2006) PoincarÂŽ hypothesized that creativity consists of conscious work on a problem, followed by a period of rest when the mind works subconsciously until an idea emerges into conscious thought. Then, because subconscious work does not supply the idea "ready made," a period of verification follows to test and develop it (Wallas, 1926, p. 81) Wallas's model is so prevalent, it is sometimes referred to simply as the four stage model of creativity (Mark A. Runco, 2007a, p. 19) The first stage, preparation is the conscious stage where knowledge is acquired. Next is incubation a subconscious stage, where the probl em is not consciously addressed but the knowledge acquired during p reparation i s restructured Walla s describes incubation as a period of "voluntary abstention" from a problem that occurs during times of rest or when a person is engaged in work on other problems or activities (1926, p. 86) Ideation is manifest from subconscious processes during incubation when new associations or novel combinations of information previously obtained in the preparation phase are formed and evaluated. The illumination stage follows incubation and is sometimes referred to

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118 as the "aha!" stage of the creative process. It is the moment of revelation where what was previously sub conscious becomes a conscious idea. The final verification stage is whe n the idea is evaluated (and possibly applied.) Other romantic models extend Wallas's fou r stage model, either by dividing one of his stage s into additional steps to the preparation (Osborn, 1953; R. J. Sternberg, Kaufman, & Pretz, 2002) or evaluation stages (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; R. J. Sternberg et al. 2002) or by suggesting a new stage altogether, such as Evans's and Russell's (1989) frustration stage or the new first ( redefine problems ) and last ( sell idea ) stages proposed by Sternberg (2006b ) Criticism s of the roma ntic models generally center around the debate in the field of psychology regarding whether subconscious processes are appropriate topics for scientific investigation (Reingold & Ray, 2003) Even when deemed appropriate for empirical investigation, there are numerous methodological challenges to studying intuitive processes because people cannot simply say what they are thinking This may explain why subconscious stages have been de emphasized in some cognitive models and why the literature often fails to distinguish between purely subconscious processes and tacit (semi explicit) processes. The Rationalist Stage Models and the Gene ration Elaboration Stages The rational models are characterized by their omission of subconscious stages (e.g. incubation) in the creative p rocess. These models reflect the belief that creativity is a rational process that is comprised of "ordinary" cognit ive activities (Finke, Ward, & Smith, 1992, p. vii) C reative insights in these models are also understood to happen throughout the various stages of the creati ve process as opposed to a single moment of illumination (Gruber, 1988) Most of the rational stage models include stages at the beginning of the creative process that describe problem finding, problem framing, and goal setting (Bransford & Stein, 1984; Isaksen et al., 2000; M. D. Mumford et al., 1991; Rossman, 1931; Van Gundy, 1987) They are particularly distinguished, however, by the emphasis on idea generation and elaboration stages, generally

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119 reflecting the view of creativity as a combination of divergent thinking and convergent thinking (Finke et al., 1992; Gordon, 1961; Rossman, 1931; Van Gundy, 1987) Creativity is often understood to entail divergent and conver gent mental processes. Divergent thinking is associated with the ability to come up with many potential solutions to a problem, whereas convergent thinking is the ability to "converge" on a single optimal solution (Sawyer, 2012, p. 46) Convergent thinking is typically affiliated with a generating stage (such as ideation, exploration, formulation, etc.) and convergent thinking is associated with an elaborating stage (like verification, articul ation, selection, synthesis, etc.) William J.J. Gordon 's (1961) early "synectics" stage model makes extensive use of divergent thinking, particularly through analogy and metapho r. Finke's (1992) later "geneplore" model is based on the premise that divergent thinking is at the root of creative processes. He organizes creativity into two stages: generative and exploratory. During the generative ("gen ") phase people generate mental structures, called pre inventive forms, through strategies like conceptual synt hesis and transformation. These pre inventive forms are then examined for meaning and purpose during the exploration (" plore") phase during a process of elaboration, testing, and evaluation (T. B. Ward & Sau nders, 2003) The Socially Situated Stage Models Many of the rational stage models consider creativity a social process. This perspective is particularly prevalent during the elaborating and implementing stages, reflecting the belief that creativity is ultimately determined by consensual assessment (De Bono, 1985; Feldman et al., 1994a; Isaksen et al., 2000; M. D. Mumford et al., 1991; Van Gundy, 1987) De Bono's (1985) popular lateral thinking, "six thinking ha ts" model of creativity describes the role of social processes in different stages of social elaboration of a creative idea. Four of the "hats" are associated with the elaborating stages, and describe processes that include looking for the benefits of an i dea (yellow hat), looking for the problems in an idea (black hat), focusing on emotional and intuitive responses to an idea (red hat), and thinking about thinking (blue hat). The implementing stages include evaluation and feedback from both users as well a s critics and

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120 experts in the field (Feldman et al., 1994a; M. D. Mumford et al., 1991) The need to gain social acceptance in order for an idea to be deemed creative is articulated in a number of the rational stage models (Isaksen et al., 2000; Van Gundy, 1987) Social aspects of the cr eative process are not restricted to the rational models. Osborn's (1953) early stage model included both an incubation phase and introduced his famous concept of brainstorming for idea generation through social processes. Brain storming is a group divergent thinking strategy that entails four principles, "criticism of ideas must be withheld," "the wilder the idea the better," "quantity is wanted," and "combination and improvements are sought" (Osborn, 1953, pp. 300 301) Despite the wide popularity of this method, research suggests that groups are less effective at generating creative ideas than the same number of people working alone (Diehl & Stroebe, 1987, 1991; Mullen, Johnson, & Salas, 1991; D. W. Taylor, Berry, & Block, 1958) Limitations of the Stage Models There are two significant limitations of the creative stage models. First, they are primarily explanatory and thus do not predict creativity. Second, they describe creativity as a progression of stages without any explanation for the relationships between stage s. Although stage models have been used as a means to improve creative productivity, there is little empirical evidence that following any particular stage model actually yields higher creativity. As described earlier, empirical investigation into the effe ctiveness of certain creative stages has been limited primarily to social processes, such as brainstorming. Although people often feel that social processes during creativity increases their productivity, empirical evidence points to the opposite effect. T his is a concept known as the illusion of group effectiveness (N. J. Allen & Hecht, 2004; Paulus, Larey, & Dzindolet, 2001; Paulus, Larey, & Ortega, 1995; Rowatt, Nesselroade, Beggan, & Allison, 1997) Although these findings suggest that social processes do not improve creativity, this may be due to a lack of coh erent understanding about when social processes are beneficial to creativity and when they are detrimental. Ultimately the usefulness of the stage models to

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1 21 predict creativity is limited by the fact that they focus almost exclusively on mental processes, f ailing to suggest any practical tools for applied creative thinking T hey largely ignore the physically situated activities and behaviors in which people engage during the different stages. This underscores the inappropriateness of the stage models to info rm environmental design. They do not describe what people do in the world; thus they have no direct implications for the design of physical space s. The second criticism of the stage models concerns the lack of explanation about the relationship between th e different stages in a model. The stage models are commonly illustrated as a linear process with each stage occ urring in a particular order. When organized into a common framework, it is clear that there are significant similarities in both the types and sequencing of stages betwee n the different models (Table IV .1). Yet there is agreement in the literature that creativity is iterative suggesting that stages may occur multiple times, or even out of sequence (Armbruster, 1989; Csikszentmihalyi, 1996) How this happens remai ns largely ignored by the process models. A few of the rational models do begin to suggest the intertwined nature of ideation and elaboration a foundational concept in Finke's (1992) genoplore model, for example but how and when these stages are implemented remains unresolved. The mechanisms that trigger, sustain, or inhibit the different stages of creativity are not addressed in the models. Creative cognition theories, however, do attempt to understand the mechanisms involve d in creative cognitive processes. In the following section, I will organize this stream of creative process literature to identify physically situated cognitive processes involved in the stage models. Mechanisms Behind the Stages: Creative Cognition Theo ries Although this chapter has addressed only a few of the most referenced stage models, there are a number of cognitive p rocesses that are common to many of the theoretical models: problem finding, knowledge acquisition, strategies for forming new mental schema s intuition, incubation, and evaluation. Some of these processes describe explicit cognitive strategies that

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122 might be practiced until one gained expertise wher eas others seem to necessitate sub conscious or semi conscious cognition that might be fo stered by affective states or environmental conditions. This may explain why people typically describe "fostering," "facilitating," or "engendering" creativity. The following creative cognition literature is loosely organized around the problem finding, ge nerating, incubation, elaborating, and implementing stages of creativity. The intention behind this review is to identify creative process theories that describe physically situated processes of embodied, embedded, and enactive cognition. Problem Finding It may seem obvious that the creative process cannot begin without first identifying a problem or issue to pursue, but this stage may actually be more critical to the creative process than it might at first appear. In creativity research, problem finding i s defined as "a question raised or to be raised for inquiry" (Jay & Perkins, 1997, p. 259) Problems may be either "presented" or "discovered," but they always need to be str uctured and defined as part of the creative process (Getzels & Csikszentmihalyi, 1975; M. D. Mumford, Baughman, Maher, Costanza, & Supinski, 1997) Creative problem s are typically complex and ill defined (M. D. Mumford et al., 1997) Rittel and Webber (1973) distinguish "wicked" creative design problems from "tame" problems by the fact that the pr oblem definition is itself another creative problem Research on the role of problem finding in creative processes indicates that some creative people are better at finding problems and others at solving them. Of these two abilities, problem finding has been found to have the greatest impact on the quality of the creative product, because the nature of the problem definition determines the solution (Mark A. Runco, 2007a) Albert Einstein (1966 ) explains this role of problem finding in a frequently quoted remark: The formulation of a problem is often more essential than its solution, which may be merely a matter of mathematical or experimental skill. To raise new questions, new possibilities to regard old problems from a new angle, requires creative imagination an d marks real advance in science (p.92). Although Einstein wrote this observation in the 1930's, it wasn't until much later that researchers began to confirm the importance of prob lem finding in creative processes.

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123 Problem formulation. Investigation into the role of problem finding in creativity began in earnest following a study conducted by Getzels and Jackson in 1962 (Get zels & Csikszentmihalyi, 1975) Getzels and Jackson compared intelligence and creativity in children and revealed that children in the high I.Q. group differed from children in the high divergent group in the way that they used picture stimulus to write a story (Getzels & Csikszentmihalyi, 1975) The high IQ children tended to use the picture stimulus to closely focus the stories they developed, using conventional categories of relationships within the plot development. The high divergent group, however, deviated strongly from the stimulus, using it p rimarily as a point of departure in their stories. The stories from the high divergent group were generally more creative and rich with self expression. This study provided the basis for the seminal work of Getzels and Csikszentmihalyi (1975) where they investigated problem finding with a group of 179 third and fourth year art students. The study by Getzels and Csikszentmihalyi (1975) reveals a high degree of correlation between the level of problem finding behavior (interacting with and altering still life compositions) and the degree of creativity exhibited in the final product (originality and aesthetics of the drawing produced). Like the children in the prior study, all the participants completed tests of intelligence and divergent thinking. The art students who touched or changed the objects in a still life model prior to beginning their painting had significantly higher levels of creativity. This problem finding behavior of the artists who inter acted with the object was also found to predict their career success seven and eighteen years after the initial study (Jay & Perkins, 1997) The results from this study ignited interest into the role of problem finding in creativity. A meta analysis of problem finding res earch by Jay and Perkins (1997) indicates that problem finding includes several sub processes: conceiving of the question or issue to pursue, defining and structuring the proble m, regularly assessing the quality of the problem statement, and reformulating the problem statement in pursuit of the problem. Further, an analysis of the significant body of research conducted in the two decades following Getzel and Csikszentmihalyi's

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124 se minal art student study reveals that context and disposition determine why creative people problem solve, but cognitive abilities and processes do not appear to play a role in problem finding because they do not promote the ability of a person to raise que stions (Jay & Perkins, 1997) A review o f the literature indicates that problem finding is a critical stage in the creative process, that problem finding ability is predictive of creativity, and that problem finding abili ty is a factor of both personality and environmental conditions. This suggests that problem finding may be a physically situated process where a person's interactions in a situation help them perceive questions to pursue and formulate goals and intention s toward the creative situation. Knowledge acquisition. Knowledge acquisition is often included in the early stages of the creative process models (Gordon, 1961; M. D. Mumford et al., 1991; Osborn, 1953; Van Gundy, 1987; Wallas, 1926) .There is agreement in the literature that a certain amount of knowledge is required in order to be creative (Jay & Perkins, 1997) I t is also widely believed that creative people must have adequate domain specific knowledge (Brower, 2001; Hayes, 1989) however "too much" doma in specific knowledge may actually inhibit creativity (Mark A. Runco, 2007a) The relationship between general knowledge and domain spec ific knowledge remains unclear (Brower, 2001) When knowledge acquisition occurs during the creative process an understanding of how much knowledge is necessary and sufficient also remains up for debate (Mark A. Runco, 2007a) The majority of the research on knowledge acquisitio n in creativity has focused primarily on the role of domain specific knowledge (Mark A. Runco, 2007a) Studies that examine the creative processes of experts and novices indicate that domain knowledge is particularly cr itical for the problem finding stage (Hayes, 1989; Jay & Perkins, 1997; Mark A. Runco, 2007a) Without adequa te knowledge of the domain it would be impossible for a person to recognize problems, frame them, and understand what will be necessary to go about solving them. Yet expertise can also cause barriers to creativity. As mentioned in Chapter II there is a co st to

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125 expertise. Experts have large knowledge bases that are organized in sophisticated schema s with multiple interconnections between knowledge. Unlike novices, their knowledge tends to be highly organized and structured by years of experience. Although t his complex knowledge structure may facilitate creativity, it may also lead to problems developing creative insights (Runco, 2007). Experts tend to make assumptions and rely on tacit understandings instead of questioning the way knowledge is structured in their own domain (R. J. Sternberg, 2006b) Novices, on the other hand, have much looser systems of knowledge making it easier to restructure schemas to develop novel insights (Mark A. Runco, 2007a) The ability to radically restructure schema s within a particular domain is prerequisite for making creative leaps in the knowledge base within the domain. In his book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Kuhn (1996) refers to this shift in the underlying assumptions associated with a particular model of scientific inquiry (including the rules and standards of practice) as a paradigm transformation. It is perhaps for this reason that many creative people move from one field to an other creating what Runco (2007a) refers to as "professional marginality." Some of the most creative minds have used knowledge from other disciplines to transform domain knowledge in their own field including Piaget (who used biology to transform cognitive development,) Freud (who used physiology to transform psychoanalysis,) and Darwin (who used geography and geology to transform evolutionary biology) (Dunbar, 199 5) A glimpse into Darwin's life reveals how he was able to combine knowledge from different disciplines as he developed his theory of natural selection (Johnson, 2010) Fresh out of college, Darwin was invited to join Robert Fit zRoy on a five year trip to chart the South American coastline. Along the journey Darwin made detailed notes of his observations including the rich biodiversity that occurs in coral reefs, the significant number of finch varieties in the Gal‡pagos Islands and evidence about the formation of atolls. While on his travels he read Lyell's Principles of Geography Many of his notes and theories about his observations reveal Lyell's influence. In other words, his abilities to perceive affordances in the environ ment appear to have been influenced by the way Lyell's theory framed his goals and intentions. Later as his ideas and

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126 theories were developing, Darwin read Thomas Malthus' s theory about population growth. In his autobiography Darwin attributes Malthus' s t heory for the insight needed to formulate his theory on the origins of species. Darwin applied Malthus' s ideas about conditions that are favorable or unfavorable for population growth to the evolution of species and natural selection. The influence of diff erent disciplinary knowledge and theories allowed Darwin to re frame and re consider his observations in support of a new theory of evolutionary biology. As Steven Johnson (2010) points out in his book about the origins of innov ation, what becomes clear from Darwin's story is that the places he visited and the things that he did there all influenced the way he thought about the evolution of species. Would Darwin have conceived of his theory if he had not met FitzRoy? What if he h ad not spent five years traveling around South America? If he had only read the works of Lysell and not Malthus would he still have realized a new theory was needed to explain his observations ? Stories like Darwin's indicate that environmental context play s a role in both knowledge acquisition and formation (or re formation) of conceptual frameworks. Knowledge acquisition is a physically situated process. Just as "professional marginality" helps the expert develop a "novice" mindset, a new physical context may also allow the creative person to see things "in a new light" by becoming a novice in the environment. Generating Ideas Some of the early creativity researchers equated creativity with insight (I. A. Taylor, 2007) Insi ght is defined as "a sudden solution to a problem" (Mark A. Runco, 2007a, p. 201) This view of creativity is based on gestalt theory of holistic thinking that claims the h uman perceptual system is designed to create meaningful wholes from partial b its of information (Mark A. Runco, 2007a) This perspective has largely influenced the romantic stage models and describes the ideation process as almost entirely implicit. Today insight is often explained by the concept of restructuring information (Brower, 2001; Mark A. Runco, 2007a; T. B. Ward & Saunders, 2003) Researchers theorize that creative people employ specific strategies to

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127 restructure schemas in order to lead to creative insight. These strat egies involve using as sociation conceptual combination, mental imagery, and analogical reasoning (Mark A. Runco, 2007a; T. B. Ward & Saunders, 2003) These strategies appear to require a certain amount of expertise and involve both intuitive and explicit cognitive processes. What is unclear from this stream of research, however, is how creative activities typically associated with idea generating processes like sketching, writing, diagramming, constructing, etc. fit with these schema restructuring strategies. The physically sit uated nature of generating ideas is really only addressed in one creative process theory: Csikszentmihalyi's (1990) theory of creative flow In the following sections I will first briefly review the mental strategies associated with creative insight. Then I will describe the role of expertise and intuition during idea generation. Finally I will explain how Csikszentmihalyi's (1990) flow theory provides a physically situated account of idea generating p rocesses without necessarily excluding schema restructuring mental strategies. Association. Associative strategies are commonly employed in divergent thinking processes (such as brainstorming) to come up with a large quantity of creative ideas (Osborn, 1953; Mark A. Runco, 2007a) A ssoci ation employs primarily explicit cognitive processes where people use different categorical structures (associations ) to come up with many diverse ideas. Associative theory is influenced by tests of divergent thinking that measure fluency (number of ideas ) flexibility (types of ideas) and originality (unique ideas), such as the Torrance Test of Creativity (Mark A. Runco, 2007a) Research on associative thinking suggests that association does help people increase fluenc y and flexibility of ideas. Original ideas, however, are often remote and generally are arrived at after coming up with an extensive number of unoriginal or conventional ideas (Mark A. Runco, 2007a)

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128 Conceptual combinat ion. Koestler's (1964) bisociation model of creativity incorporates combinatorial thinking into an explanation of the creative process. He maintains that creativity is the intersection of different "frames of reference." Two con ceptual systems (or mental schema s ) are reversed, fused together with a direct mental mapping, or juxtaposed to reveal a paradox in order to form a new creative idea or product (Deacon, 2006) This model developed from Koestler's discovery that creativity in both the arts and sciences was frequently caused by "a sudden fusion of schemata" (We lling, 2007, p. 176) Darwin appears to have used this strategy when he credits his exposure to Malthus' s population theory with his insight into his theory of natural selection. He combined the theory of population growth with his own theories of speci es evolution. Darwin's journals reveal drawings and notes that indicate he was close to arriving at the theory before he was exposed to Malthus' s work, but it was exposure to the population theory that provided insight into his own observations (Johnson, 2010) Koestler felt that visualization and mental imagery were particularly important for bisociation and he argued that conscious thought and language inhibited cre ative insights (Deacon, 2006) Mental imagery Jung (1923) claimed that mental imagery is the means by which information can be carried to and from the unconscious mind. A well known example of this strategy is the story of Friedrich KekulÂŽ and his discovery of the benzen e ring. The visual imagery of snakes allowed KekulÂŽ to realize that the structure of the chemical bond was not in a straight line, but instead formed in a ring. KekulÂŽ's account of his experience is as follows: I was sitting writing on my textbook, but th e work did not progress; my thoughts were elsewhere. I turned my chair to the fire and dozed. Again the atoms were gamboling before my eyes. This time the smaller groups kept modestly in the background. My mental eye, rendered more acute by the repeated vi sions of the kind, could now distinguish larger structures of manifold conformation; long rows sometimes more closely fitted together all the twining and twisting in snake like motion. But look! What was that? One of the snakes had seized hold of its own t ail, and the form swirled mockingly before my eyes. As if by a flash of lightening

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129 I awoke; and this time also I spent the rest of the night working out the consequences of the hypothesis (Andreasen, 2005, p. 45 46). A number of studies have explored the ways in which imagery contributes t o creative insight (Finke, 1997) Mental images often have the same perceptual qualities as visual objects, thus allowing for mental manipulations to explore movement and spatial relationships (Finke, 1997) This may help people visualize complex relationships that might be difficult or time consuming to physically model or to quickly construct spatial analogies. Mental images may also contain details of an object that were not expli citly noted (Finke, 1997) This allows a person to recall and examine details from memory, providing them freedom to pursue a creative idea in any time or space. Mental images are believed to facilitate mental transformations, combinatio ns, analogy, and reinterpretation (Finke, 1997) Mental imagery may be used explicitly as a strategy for divergent thinking, but it also seems to be instrumental in implicit processes as is revealed in KekulÂŽ's description of how his m ind seemed to unconsciously form the image of the snake. Analogy. Analogy is another frequently described cognitive process of creativity (Mark A. Runco, 2007a) Welling (2007) compared the use of associations, combinations, and analogy as strategies to achieve creative insight. He found that analogies are unique because "no new cognitive structure is r equired" ( Welling, 2007, p. 175) Analogy involves transferring the cognitive structure from one context where it is well established to a new context where it ha d never been used. Dunbar (1995) describes three types of analogical thin king that he identified through his research with scientists: selective comparison, local analogy, and regional analogy. These processes differ in the domain distance between the two contexts. Selective comparison uses different cognitive structures from w ithin the same domain. Local analogy involves application of a cognitive structure from one domain to a related domain. Regional analogy involves transferring the cognitive structure between completely dissimilar domains. KekulÂŽ's

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130 story is an example of th e use of regional analogy because he applied the cognitive structure of the snake's physical form to the structure of benzene. Expertise. Welling (2007) hypothesizes that the distinction between processes like analogy (which do not form new cognitive structures) and processes like combination (which do) may help us understand why some people are eminently creative whereas others only exhibit everyday creativity. His research indicates that "everyday creative" people tend to rely solely on the direct application of knowledge (such as is found in craftsmanship) or the use of analogy. These findings remain controversial because it is difficult to distinguish between the different processes people use since most creativity is produc ed by using combinatio ns of strategies (Mark A. Runco, 2007a) Welling (2007) also points out that for all of the creative strategies identified thus far association, combination, imagery a nd analogy no new knowledge is required. Knowledge acquisition occurs prior to these processes. Simonton (1997) found that scientists spend, on average, 10 years of work before they provide any significant contribution to the ir field and they typically need 20 years to make a major creative contribution. This supports the idea that creativity is slow to occur even though the moment of insight may seem d ramatic and sudden (Mark A. Runco, 2007a) Creative "experts" may employ intuitive knowledge acquired through years of experience to make dramatic leaps in insight, thus giving the impression that it is a gestalt phenomenon. Intuition. According to the literature, intuition is a sub consci ous (or sometimes semi conscious) process that is commonly linked to the creative (Jay & Perkins, 1997; Mark A. Runco, 2007a) The definitions of intuition vary in the literature, but generally describe the process as "a form of foresight" and "a vague anticipatory perceptio n that orients creative work" (Eubanks, Murphy, & Mumford, 2010, p. 171) Perhaps most significantly, intuition is a process that seems to occur

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131 whi le the creative person is pursuing a problem. The relationship between intuition and insight is evidenced by research on phenomena such as the "feeling of warmth" and "tip of the tongue" experiences that people have when they feel they are close to having insight into a creative problem (Dorfman, Shames, & Kihlstorm, 1996) Intuition may be a key factor in the ability of creative people to make paradigm shifts in conceptual knowledge structur es because the process appears to take precedence over the rational argumentation that focuses on internal consistency and coherence (Jay & Perkins, 1997; Miller, 2007) Miller (2007) hypothesizes that working memory may be i mportant for creative intuition in his "network thinking" model of creativity. He argues that the motivation that creative people have to solve a problem "holds" that problem in the unconscious. Over a period of time they unconsciously combine knowledge an d experiences from different domains and contexts. These unconscious combinations are not "bound by logic" and so eventually lead to new knowledge structures and creative insight (Miller, 2007, p. 48) The relationship between expertise and intuition has been a topic of discussion throughout history (Langan Fox & Shirley, 2003) Historically, intuition has been considered an important topic i n philosophy and science, with the philosopher Baruch Spinoza even referring to it as the "highest form of knowledge" (Langan Fox & Shirley, 2003, p. 208) The 18 th century scientist Thomas Reid advocated a "common sense" approach to scientific exploration that embraced intuition and reflection. Modern theories also address the important role that intuition may play in human cognition. Both Lucy Suchman's (2007) situated action theory and Donald Schšn's (1983) the ory of reflective practice introduced in Chapter III, describe creative problem solving as a combination of intuitive and explicit processes. Csiks zentmihalyi's (1990) theory of creative flow also describes the value of intuitive processes to idea generation. Idea generation as situated action. Creative flow theory describes a physically situated process of intuitive immer sion employed to generate ideas during creativity (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990) The theory arose from Csikszentmihalyi's observations that creative people would become so immersed in their wor k

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132 during the generative pro cess that they sometimes would forget to eat or sleep. Flow involves undivided focused attention on a creative situation to the point where the creative practitioner becomes completely immersed in a task at hand (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990, p. 49) It is a time when people often feel the most creative and ideas seem to flow easily. Csikszentmihalyi (1990) d escribes flow as a "phenomenological model of consciousness" (p. 25) that depends upon events, experiences and perceptions. Creative flow requires several things. First the creative practitioner must have clear goals and intentions prior to engaging in a c reative situation. It is assumed these are formed during the problem finding stages. Second, the creative practitioner must sustain undivided focus on the task at hand. An appropriate balance of task challenge and personal skill level helps to sustain atte ntion. Finally, creative practitioners must be able to perceive clear feedback from the results of their actions, and use these to inform new intentions. Flow theory resembles Suchman's (1987, 2007) concept of situated action and, like it, appears to be a form of embedded cognition. Flow also suggests an enactive approach to creative cognition. Each new action is an intuitive response to feedback from a prior action, thus suggesting the action and perception are intertwined. Because flow is an intuitive process, it may account for mental strategies like association, combination, imagery, and analogy only whe n they occur intuitively or tacitly. This suggests that explicit appli cation of these strategies may run contrary to flow, and thus may not be part of the generative stage. A few of the stage models do suggest this possibility, listing these some of these strategies during the elaborating stage (Osborn, 1953; G. Scott, Leritz, & Mumford, 2004; R. J. Sternberg, 2006b) Incubating Incubation is a sub conscious stage that occurs when the creative practitioner intentionally stops explicitly and consciously pursuing t he problem at hand (Armbru ster, 1989) According to the Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science a common theme among most anecdotes about cr eativity is that they describe : a solution sequence in which the thinker devotes considerable deliberate effort towards solving a problem, reac hes an impasse, withdraws temporarily, and is

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133 then struck with a sudden rea lization for a problem solution (Ward & Saunders, 2005). The term "incubation" is a biological metaphor that attempts to convey the often extraordinary leaps in creative problem s olving that occur during the unconscious stage between explicit pursuit of the problem at hand and the moment of insight (Olton & Johnson, 1976) The fact that KekulÂŽ was dozing by the fire and not actively pursuing the problem of the benzene structure when he had his moment of insight makes his story one of the frequently cited stories about creative incubation (T. B. Ward & Saunders, 2003) Although it is the topic of many anecdotes about creativity, the incubation stage has been the subject of the least amount of empirical investigation (T. B. Ward & Saunders, 2003) There are a number of different theories that attempt to explain the phenomenon of incubation: conscious work, unconscious work, forgetting, recovery, and assimilation (T. B. Ward & Saunders, 2003) Most of the theories describ e incubation as the sub conscious process it is commonly understood to be, but the conscious work hypothesis provides a rival explanation. The conscious work hypothesis states that the creative person is still thinking about the problem at hand even while e ngaged in other, more mundane, activities and due to the distraction of the intervening activities simply forgets the conscious thoughts that led to the moment of insight (T. B. Ward & Saunders, 2003) The unconsciou s work hypothesis states that sub conscious work continues on the problem at hand but remains inaccessible to the conscious mind until the moment of insight (T. B. Ward & Saunders, 2003) The forgetting hypothesis states that the incubation stage allows creative people to forget the unfruitful ideas and strategies they previously pursued and therefore frees the mind to focus only on productive concepts (T. B. Ward & Saunders, 2003) The recovery hypothesis states that a resting state allows the creative thinker to recover from the fatigue caused by actively pursuing the problem (T. B. Ward & Saund ers, 2003) Finally, the assimilation hypothesis states that the creative thinker remains sensitive to environmental cues even while not actively pursuing the problem at hand (T. B. Ward & Saunders, 2003) A key principle that distinguishes these different theori es is whether the role

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134 of the sub conscious is passive as in the forgetting and recovery hypotheses or active as in the unconscious work and assimilation hypotheses. It is clear that much mo re research is needed to understand the mechanisms behind incubation. Anecdotal support for the importance of incubation is well documented in the literature, but experimental research has yielded littl e insight into this stage of the creative process (Patrick, 1986; T. B. W ard & Saunders, 2003) According to a review of experimental research on incubation, to date only 39 studies have been conducted since the first attempt to examine incubation in 1938 (Dodds, Ward, & Smith, 2012) Of these studies approximately 75% did demonstrate an incubation effect, yet no single theory of incubation was supported (Dodds et al., 2012) Meta analyses of the literature do indicate some factors that affect incubation. Greater preparation and ex pertise appear to increase the benefits of incubation (Dodds et al., 20 12; Patrick, 1986; Sio & Ormerod, 2009) Work on mundane (or low cognitive load) tasks during periods of incubation also appears to increase the benefits of incubation whereas rest and high cognitive load tasks have either little effect or prove detrime ntal (Di jksterhuis & Meurs, 2006; Sio & Ormerod, 2009) Divergent thinking tasks (as opposed to convergent thinking, linguistic, and visual insight tasks) seem to benefit the most from periods of incubation (Dijksterh uis & Meurs, 2006; Sio & Ormerod, 2009) Finally, environmental cues encountered immediately before or during incubation may either benefit or hinder the creative process (Sio & Ormerod, 2009) These re sults suggest that incubation may be affected by the environmental conditions under which it takes place. Yet creativity research has thus far failed to address the role of the physical context where incubation naturally occurs. Elaborating Historically t he final stage of creativity has been considered the evaluation or verification stage. Many process models, however, now include implementation as the final stage, following evaluation. I suggest that "elaborating" may be a more appropriate title for the e valuation stage, because it better reflects the role this stage plays in creative ideation. People reflect, select,

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135 evaluate, and refine ideas throughout the creative process (Jay & Perkins, 1997; Schšn, 1983) The literature in this area, however, focuses on the role of eva luation in creativity. The evaluation process has long been associated with convergent thinking, which may account for why it has been t ypically described as a discrete stage that occu rs late in the creative process (Guilford, 1950; Mark A. Runco, 2007a) Yet current research indicates that not all evaluative processes entail convergent thinking. Evaluation may include both explicit processes that employ convergent thinking as well as intuitive processes that correspond more closely with divergent thinking (Mark A. Runco & Chand, 1994) It is evident from the prior examination of the various stages and cognitiv e processes of the creative act that some type of evaluation is ongoing throughout the creative process. Kozbelt and Serafin (2009) refer to this continuous process as "d ynamic evaluation," Schšn (1983) calls it "reflection in ac tion" and Runco and Chand (1994) describes the proce ss as "valuation." McCall (2013) describes evaluation and ideation as being "intertwined" with evaluation often serving as a catalys t for creativity. Kozbelt (2008) also hypothesizes that evaluative processes may be central to creativity. Despite the fact that evaluation is alluded to so frequently in the cognitive literature, there is surprisingly little empirical investigation of evaluative cognition in the creativity literature (Mark A. R unco & Chand, 1995; Mark A Runco, 2003) Runco and Chand (1995) argue that to more effectively understand the mechanisms behind the evaluation process, future research should distinguish between evaluation (critical) and val uation (appreciative) as well as between intrapersonal evaluation (personal reflection) and interpersonal evaluation (evaluation that involves interaction with other people.) Intrapersonal valuation and idea generation. Intrapersonal valuation occurs thro ughout the creative process (Mark A. Runco & Chand, 1994) and is used when an individual looks for the worth of an idea or appreciates a specific direction of thought" (Mark A. Runco & Smith, 1992, p. 296) During the valuative process, the creative practitioner is looking for strengths or desirable features of a creative idea as opposed to

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136 looking for criti cal weaknesses and using valuation to guide decisions throughout the creative process Intuitive valuation thus appears to play a role, for example, in Csikszentmihalyi's creative flow a generative process. When people are in the flow state, they make dynamic, intuitive, valuative judgments about the outcomes of their actions in the creative situation (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990, pp. 54 58) These valuations help them determine the next course of action. Divergent thinking models often emphasize the need to s eparate ideation and evaluation because it is believed that evaluation is a convergent process that inhibits divergent productivity. Di vergent thinking emphasizes th e fluency of original ideas and recommends suspension of any judgment or evaluation until the divergent thinking process is exhausted (McCall, 2013; Osborn, 1953) Yet the premise on which these principles are based may be false. Runco and Chand (19 94) have demonstrated through empirical research that intrapersonal valuation skills correlate with divergent think ing abilities. P eople who are skilled in divergent thinking are also skilled in valuation. This suggests that although valuative processes may occur at any stage of creativity, they may be particularly significant to the idea generating stages. Critical reflection and idea elaboration. Runco and Chand (1994) state that intrapersonal (critical) evaluation is sometimes referred to as reflective thinking and there are many parallels between their theory of intrapersonal eval uation and Donald Schšn's (19 83) theory of reflective practice. Schšn's theory consists of two related processes: knowing in action and reflection in action. Schšn describes knowing in action as a form of tacit performance like Csikszentmihalyi's (1990) flow Although judgments are made during this process, they are spontaneous, intuitive, and valuative (Schšn, 1983, p. 54) Reflection in ac tion occurs when there is a mismatch of expectations and observed results during knowing in act ion (Schšn, 1983, p. 305) In other words, reflection in action happens when intuitive performance breaks down and the creative person thinks explicitly and critically about the creative situation. Schšn explains that reflection in action is a way for the creative person to "surface and criticize the tacit underst andings" of the p roblem (p. 61). A

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137 distinguishing feature of Schšn's concept of reflection in action is the role of feedback from the creative situation Schšn (1983) desc ribes the process of reflection in action as a conversation with a situation (p. 151). It is evaluation as a form of physically situated cog nition (McCall, 2013) This evaluative response to feedback from the creative situation is also described in Kozbelt and Serafin's (2009) theory of "dyn amic evaluation," which they use to describe the evaluative process employed by artists as they work on a painting. I ntrapersonal evaluation is a physically situated process that is ce ntral to creative productivity, plays a significant role during the elaborating stages of creativity, and is intertwined with idea generative processes like flow and knowing in action. Interpersonal evaluation: off hand and deliberative judgments. Rittel (1972) describes two processes of interpersonal evaluation: "off hand" (intuitive) and "deliberative" ( expli cit.). He considers these comple mentary processes althou gh he does not describe off h and judgments as purely appreciative or d eliberative judgments as purely critical. H e explains that all de sign decisions involve both off hand and deliberative judg ments. People rely primarily on off hand judgments during creative evaluations and convert them to deliber ative judgments for two reasons: either because they do not trust the intuitive judgment or because they need to explain the judgment to someone else. He describes the latter process of making the intuitive judgment explicit as "objectification." Ultimately, Rittel argues, all final design decisions are intu itive, because creative problems are so complex that all issues cannot be conceived of, never mind deliberated. Evaluation and ideation intertwined. Findings from the creative cognition literature indicate that evaluation and ideation are intrinsically intertwined throughout th e creative process. Intrapersonal valuation, in particular, may be closely related to the divergent thinking skills necessary for creative ideation and appears particularly instrumental during the idea generating stages Furthermore, reflective evaluation

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138 occurs when the creative person consciously stops to consider the problem often as a result of feedback from the situation caused by an unexpected developmen t in the creative process. Both intrapersonal and interpersonal e valuation of the creative situat ion may be intuitive or explicit but even explicit evaluation involves intuitive judgments. W hether intrapersonal or interpersonal, intuitive or explicit, it appears that the situation of the creative problem may "talk back" to the evaluators thus info rming their judgment. This suggests that the process of evaluation is often (and perhaps always) physically and socially situated in a particular context. Implementing It is generally agreed t hat creativity social consensus determines if a creative idea i s truly novel and appropriate for furthering a field of knowledge or practice (Amabile, 1996; Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; Feldman, Csikszentmihalyi, & Gardner, 1994b) The final stage in the creative process, therefore, involves implementing the creative idea or product in the world (Bransford & Stein, 1984; Feldman et al., 1994b; Gordon, 1961; Isaksen et al., 2000; M. D. Mumford et al., 1991; Van Gundy, 1987) This stage involves the ability of the creative practitioner to disseminate and "sell" the creative idea or product to a larger audience (R. J. Sternberg, 2006b) It also entails evaluation by members of the creative practitioner s field (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; Feldman et al., 1994a) Although this stage is considered the end of the creative process, it also may facilitate creative ideation (McCall, 2013) W hen a creative practitioner obtains feedback from members of the field, critics, and users, it may trigger reflection in action and creative ideation (McCall, 2013) Schšn (1983) also refers to a process of re flection on action that is triggered by feedback from implementation and use, but occurs when it is too late to make changes to the particular creative situation (p.62). Reflection on action may also promote novel ideas that engender problem finding or ide a generating stages. This intertwined nature of evaluation and ideation corresponds to the belief shared by some creativity researchers that creativity evolves through incremental insights and a network of creative

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139 enterprises (Gruber, 1981a, 1981b, 1988; Kozbelt et al., 2010) Thus the creative process is much more iterative than the stage models describe. Key Findings from the Creative Cognition Theories A key finding from this review of the creative process literature reveals the incongruence between the ways creativity is described in stage models and "mental" theories of creative cognition, versus observations of creativity in situ such as those conduct ed by Csikszentmihalyi (1990; 1975) and Schšn (1983) The idea generating stages that are typically associated with mental schema restructuring processes like association, conceptual combination, mental imagery, and analogy do not consider the activities in which cr eative people typically engage to generate ideas such as writing, diagramming, sketching and model building. The concept of creative flow, however, does address these situated activities. It also reveals that explicit mental strategies like association, combination, and analogy are not congruent with the intuitive processes of flow. Instead they are more appropriate to the elaboration stages and the process of reflection in action. Evaluation, typically associated only with the final stages of creativity, actually entails different intuitive, explicit, intrapersonal, and interpersonal processes that support different creative stages. Valuation (intuitive, intrapersonal evaluation) appears particularly important for the idea generating phase. Reflection (e xplicit, intrapersonal evaluation) is instrumental to the elaborating stages of creativity. Intrapersonal evaluation is useful during elaborating stages, and essential for the implementing stages, which rely on feedback from critics and users. I t becomes c lear from this review that certain creative processes are intertwined in a way that is neither described nor explained in the stage models. This suggests that stage models that describe a sequence of idea generating, incubating, elaborating may not reflect the natural sequencing of these activities by creative practitioners. The creative process literature, it appears, would benefit by examining creativity as a physically situated process.

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140 Towards a Multi Modal Model of Physically Situated Creativity The i ntention behind this c hapter is to identify the physically situated processes involved in the stages of creativity as the next step toward developing a new framework to bridge the environmental design and creativity literatures. This review of the creative process literature reveals that there is no appropriate stage model to adapt for this framework because they are incompatible with a physically situated view of creativity. First, they do not adequately account for what people do when they are creative in the world. Second, they do not describe the conditions under which the creative stages are engendered, sustained or inhibited. Third, they do not consider the relationships between stages that might explain how creativity is an iterative process. Further, a review of the creative cognition theories reveals that the mental processes believed to occur during certain stages of the creative process contradict observations of "real world" creativity. It appears that only a single creativity theory, Csikszentmih alyi's (1990) concept of creative flow, accounts for the physically situated nature of creativity. It, however, describes only a single mode of creativity, a state of enactive cognition that people engage when they are immersed in the creative task at hand. I suggest that flow theory should form the nucleus for a new model of physically situated creativity. I also propose that Schšn 's (1983) complementary theory of reflective practice can provide the bas is for a second mode of creativity, because it describes the intertwined relationship between the intuitive immersive processes of flow and the explicit evaluative processes of reflection in action. Together these two theories create the foundation from wh ich to develop a physically situated model of creativity that describes five enactive modes of creativity. A multi modal process model of creativity has some clear benefits over the stage models. Each mode describes a state of enactive cognition. An enact ive state may entail different physical, social, and mental processes, but the quality of the state is fairly constant, and it is engendered, sustained, or inhibited by consistent environmental conditions. A modal process model will therefore be useful for aligning creative processes with environmental conditions. It also reflects the ecological psychology and enactive cognition perspective that the relationship

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141 between person and environment is reciprocal and must be considered as one structural unit of an alysis. Although the stage models profess to be iterative, they describe creativity as a series of mental steps. A modal approach describes enactive states, as opposed to mental steps, which can account for the sub processes within a particular mode as we ll as the various creative activities and behaviors in which people engage during a mode. The stage models do not describe the relationship between stages, whereas a modal process model considers the conditions under which a mode is engendered, sustained, or inhibited, which may clarify how people transition between modes of creativity. The review of the creative process literature does suggest that there may be five discrete modes of creativity: problem finding, idea generating, incubating, elaborating, an d implementing. This organization is further supported when one considers the activities and behaviors in which people engage during these five modes. I have compiled a preliminary list of these derived from first person accounts of creative processes, my personal observations and experiences, and empirical studies of creativity and design, presented in Table IV .2. Using the five mode organization, along with the theories of creative flow and reflective practice, I will develop in the next chapter a new multi modal process model of creativity.

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142 Table IV 2 Preliminary List of Creati ve Modes and Creative Activities.

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143 CHAPTER V THE MULTI MODAL PROCESS MODEL OF CREATIVE PRACTICE Highlights In this chapter I present my proposal for a new process model of creativity. Through the lenses of ecological psychology and cognitive science, I examine and extend Csikszentmihalyi's (1990) theory of creative flow and Schšn's (1983) work on reflective practice to illustrate how creativity is a physically embodied embedded and enact ive process that entails distinct yet interrelated sub processes (modes) of creativity. I develop the Multi Modal Process Model of Creative Practice to describe five creative modes (problem finding, intuitive immersion, explicit reflection, adaptive rumina tion, and evaluation) and the relationships between them. Using this model, I illustrate how the creative practitioner uses features of the physical environment as a resource to engender, sustain, inhibit or curtail the different creative modes. I also dem onstrate how the Creative Practice Model serves to organize the seemingly varied and idiosyncratic behaviors in which people may engage during the creative process. Finally, I discuss how the model reveals that creative people are autonomous agents who can be empowered by their environments. Introduction Review In Chapter IV I illustrated how existing creative stage models are not appropriate for informing a new theoretical framework describing the person environment relationship during creativity. The sta ge models describe creativity either as a purely cognitive process, or only socially (not physically) situated. They fail t o account for 1) the physically situated processes in

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144 which people engage during creativity, 2) the environmental conditions under wh ich the different creative stages are supported, and 3) how the different creative stages interact in an iterative creative process. The review of the creative cognition theories reveals incongruence between the mental processes typically associated with c ertain creative stages and physically situated theories of creativity and design based on observations of wh at creative practitioners do in the world. I suggested that two of these physically situated theories, Csikszentmihalyi's ( 1990) theory of creative f low and Schšn's (1983) reflective p ractice together may provide the nucleus for a new multi modal process model of creativity. Thesis In this chapter I present a proposal for the Multi Modal Process Model of Creative Practice which extends the two modes of creativity described in Csikszentmihalyi's (1990) flow theory and Schšn's (1983) r eflective p ractice theory to illustrate the full creative process from problem finding to evaluation. This new model describes the physically situated nature of creativity through five interrelated modes that entail embodied, embedded and enactive cogn itive activities I begin by examining how the flow and reflective practice theories compare to the theories of situated cognition (and related theories in ecological psychology by UexkŸll (2010) and Gibson (1977) ). This examination reveals how flow and reflective practice systematically describe embodied, embedded, and enactive activities as instrumental to creative processes. Together they describe two intertwined creative modes of intuitive immersi on and explicit reflection but they are inadequate for explaining the full creative process. In particular they fail to account for what happens when explicit reflection breaks down. I then propose a third mode, the semi explicit mode of adaptive rumination which serves to repair a breakdown in explicit reflection. This forms the third component in a new breakdown and repair process model of creativity. Finally, I complete the Creative Practice Model by including the modes of problem finding and e valuation In conclusion I illustrate how by examining creativity as an interrelated series of modes it becomes apparent that there are necessary environmental pre conditions

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145 required to engender, sustain and inhibit them This begins to lay out the argum ent for how f eatures of the designed environment are in strumental to creative practice. Significance Environmental design professionals need a theory upon which to base their design strategies for settings intended to support creativity. The Multi Modal Pr ocess Model of Creative Practice provides the next step toward that end by illustrating how creativity is a physically situated process. Process models describe a sequence of events and the relationships between them (Suter, 2006, p. 346) They are important for visualizing relationships and communicating this information to others (Suter, 2006, p. 346) The Creative Practice mo del plays a necessary part in surfacing examples of how features of the designed environment are instrumental to the different modes of creativity and conveying this information both to environmental design professionals and creativity researchers. Ultim ately the model completes the first step toward a new theoretical framework to bridge the environmental design and creativity literatures. Creative Practice Central to the argument presented in this chapter is the idea that the creative person is an expe rienced practitioner who initiates actions in the world in service to a creative goal, intention, or concern. This concept is pervasive in the work of UexkŸll (2010) and Gibson (1977) introduced in C hapter III, and is foundational to the principles of embodied, embedded, and enactive cognition (Robbins & Aydede, 2009) This chapter also takes the position accepted among creativity researchers, that creativity involves ordinary cognitive processes (T. B. Ward & Kolomyts, 2010) Variations in creativity may be attributed to individual differences in the ways that people implement these processes, their mental ca pacities, and acquired knowledge and skills (T. B. Ward & Kolomyts, 2010) Creativity thus appears to be a practice the result of accumulated knowledge and situated experiences that are crafted and refi ned over time. In the following sections I will use first person anecdotes about creativity to illustrate how creative

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146 practitioners engage in five different modes of creative cognition. Many of the illustrative examples come from the memorable stories of extraordinarily creative practitioners. These anecdotes often capture our imagination because we can personally relate to them. I capitalize on the familiarity the reader may have with some of these famous stories to focus attention on how they serve to ex plain key components of the Creative Practice Model. Situated Creative Practices: Flow and Reflection in Action There is a significant body of literature about the first (problem finding) and last (evaluation) stages of the creative process. When the desig n of the physical environment is considered, it is generally with respect to these two stages. 40 What happens between problem finding and evaluation where investigation, e xploration, and ideation occur is less clearly defined As discussed in Chapter IV, although there is no single theory of creativity that is sufficient for examining the interactions between people and their environment, Csikszentmihalyi's (1990) flow theory does describe how the phy sical environment sustains intuitive immersion during the generative phase of creativity. Csikszentmihalyi describes flow as the ability of a person to 1) initiate actions in service to a clear goal, and 2) to immediately perceive information from the envi ronment about the results of those actions. The flow state is thus sustained t hrough interactions between creative practitioners and their environments. Schšn's (1983) theory of reflective practice illustrates how the physical env ironment engenders a comple mentary mode of creativity, a process of explicit and situated reflection which he calls reflection in action. Schšn describes how unexpected feedback from the environment during intuitive immersion will cause a breakdown in imme rsion, triggering the explicit process of reflection. The physical environment is thus instrumental to both of these cognitive modes. 40 Refer to Chapter II for an overview of the environmental design literature as it relates to creativity, and the focus of environmental design strategies on socially situated problem finding and evaluation processes.

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147 Breakdown and Repair During Creative Ideation Particularly interesting about Schšn 's theory is that it examines closely th e relationship between two different modes of creative thinking and their roles in the incremental process of creative ideation. This is largely missing from the creative process literature where stage models primarily describe creativity as series of step s, and the experimental methods commonly used in relation to the creative cognition theories that examine cognitive processes in isolation (Kozbelt et al., 2010) When people are creative they often describe cycles of p roductivity and frustration, and ideation appears to occur as a series of incremental insights (Gruber, 1981a) Creative processes seem to break down periodically. Schšn 's theory elegantly describes how two such processes one that is intuitive and one that is explicit function together in a breakdown and repair relationship that leads to the generation of insights about a creative problem. This perspective on the interrelatedness of different creative modes may more clearly repre sent the realities of creative practice where ideation is typically a protracted process (Gruber, 1981a; Johnson, 2010; Simonto n, 1997) than are evident in current creative stage models. Immersion: The Flow of Intuitive Investigation You stop thinking, you just look at the piece of foam and you try to make it beautiful, you cut. Sometimes you slice something, and then ano ther thing, and ou u u p p p something is there. And you think: Oh, t hat's interesting;' it's there. (Yaneva, 2009, p. 57) Common phrases such as being "in the groove," "in the zone," "in the game" or "present in the moment" all describe how people feel when investigating a creative idea (Csikszentmihal yi, 1990; Schšn, 1983) This quote from Olga Aleksakova an architect at The Office for Metropolitan Architecture, describes her own immersive pro cess of intuitive investigation (Yaneva, 2009) The process begins when she stops "thi nking" and is focused only on making the piece of foam beautiful through the intertwining of action and perception. It ends when she is surprised by the

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148 outcomes of her actions, causing her to reflect on the "interesting aspects of the design. 41 Csikszent mihalyi (1996, pp. 110 113) refers to this as flow" and Schšn (1983, pp. 49 54) as "intuitive performance" or "knowing in action." Both describe a state of total immersion in creative investigation where understanding is gained through unselfconscious participation and direct experience in a crea tive situation For clarity I refer to this mode of creativity as intuitive immersion or simply immersion in its abbreviated form. Common features of creative immersion include: overcoming barriers to initiate onset of the process; maintaining undivided a ttention to the task at hand; initiating action s in anticipation of satisfying clear intentions or goals; perceiving immediate feedback from exploratory actions or strategies; and feeling a sense of personal enjoyment while engaged in the experience (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996, pp. 110 113) The improvisational jazz performer anticipating each new note as he hears the last one played (Schšn, 1983, pp. 55 56) the painter responding to the texture of the paint and the colors of pigment on a canvas as she positions the brush to make t he next stroke (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996, p. 208) and the scientist working through the structure of DNA by manipulating and reconfiguring a physical model of machined p arts (Watson, 1968, pp. 193 197) are some examples of immersive investigation. In all of these cases there is fluid intertwining of action and perception and understanding comes from first hand experience in a physical context As discussed in Chapter IV, intuitive immersion is a form of situated action where each new action is in response to the current set of circumstances. I mmersion may thus be charact erized as an a ctivity involving continual reciprocal causation where the creative person is 41 I have selected here some examples th at I felt would generalize to a larger audience and so have focused around processes that involve typical creative activities like writing, drawing, and model construction. However anecdotes about immersion can be found across domains. In a quote by choreo grapher Mary Wigman (1952) she describes how feedback from both the music and other dancers help sustain her intuitive creative process. "Working with a group my effort is to seek out a common feeling. I present the main idea, each one improvisesI must find some common denominator from these different emanations of personality. Thus, on the rock of basic feeling, I slowly build each structure." (p. 76).

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149 simultaneously affecting a situation and being affected by it (A. Clark, 2008a, p. 24) 42 In their seminal work Rumelhart et al. (1986) argue that people regularly do three things: 1) imagine the results of their actions thereby generating expectations, 2) manipulate the physical environment as a way to think through complex problems, and 3) perceive patterns in the environment ; thereby enabling the transfer of knowledge gained from past experiences to a new situation. All of these activities are key to immersive investigation. The process is initiated and sustained by a state of congruence between expectations and the perceived results of one's actions (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996, pp. 118 120) When congru ence exists, creative people are able to solely attend to the situation at hand, they perceive but do not attend to the tools in their hands or the items in their workspaces (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996, p. 112) Sustaining Immersion Three conditions sustain intuitive immersion: 1) focused attention on the creative task, 2) an appropriate match between skill level and the difficulty of the task at hand, and 3) congruenc e between expectations and the outcomes of actions during the creative task (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990, pp. 54 58; Schšn, 1983, p. 56) The designed environment may provide the resources to s upport these three conditions. First, it can help people sustain attention on the task at hand by helping them avoid distractions (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996, p. 120) Feat ures of the designed environment protect creative practitioners from interruptions by outside influences, such as noise or undesired social interactions. Furniture, materials, and tools may also help people attend to the creative task when they do not re quire attention in order to make them functional or comfortable. Second, resources in the designed environment can make difficult tasks easier by enhancing creative practitioners' abilities such as through tool use. Familiar tools may become part of the b ody schema to enhance intuitive performance (Carlson, Alvarez, Wu, & Verstraten, 2010) Hutchins (1995, p. 172) refers to this as cognitive bricolage and Clark (2008a, p. 63) calls 42 The psychologist Carl Jung (1952) illustrate s this process through his explanation of the relationship between Goethe and his work writing Faust in the following quote: The work in process becomes the poet's fate and determines his psychic development. It is not Goethe who creates Faust but Faust which creates Goethe ." (p. 230).

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150 it bootstrapping both describe how people use tools to assemble functional cognitive systems in order to accomplish a challenging task. Third, designed enviro nments may provide the means for people to change the way they perceive affordances of a creative situation. Nakamura and Csikszentmihalyi (2002) state a person's experience (i.e. whether or not they feel they are in flow) depe nds upon their subjectively perceived challenges and experiences. Because their experiences are shaped by what people attend to, features of the designed environment may help creative practitioners to perceive hidden or potential affordances (A. Clark, 2008a, pp. 64 66; Kirsh, 1995b) Ultimately creative practitioners may use their environments as creative thinking spaces by becoming particularly adept at exploiting environmental features to help them focus attention, handle difficult task s, and perceive opportunities in a creative idea or product all in service to sustaining immersive investigation of a creative idea or product. Focusing attention on the creative task. Focused attention may be sustained w hen environmental resources become part of a person's cognitive system by acting as transparent equipment a term coined by Martin Heidegger (A. Clark, 2008a, p. 10) Artifacts of the environment are considered t ransparent when they are perceived but not attended to. For example, I perceive my hand reaching for a doorknob, and I perceive a pen in my hand, but I typically do not pay attention to these things unless the pen in my hand is preventing me from opening the door. If they do not attract my attention when I open the door or jot my thoughts down on a page the doorknob and the pen ar e for me transparent equipment Creative people often describe strong preferences for particular tools and materials with which they prefer to work (Fig, 2009; Kipling, 1937) 43 They can be very particular, sometimes even seeming superstitious, about the roles they believe such items play in creative performance. Rudyard Kipling famously desc ribed the key to his creativity as the brush and the ink he used. 43 Csikszentmihalyi (1996) quotes Barry Commoner discussing how his favorite fountain pen allows his ideas to flow, whereas a ballpoint pen does not offer the same experience for him (p. 119).

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151 "Take a well ground Indian Ink as much as suffices and a camel hair brush proportionate to the inter spaces of your lines. In an auspicious hour, read your final draft and consider faithful ly every paragraph, sentence and word, blacking out where requisite...The magic lies in the Brush and the Ink. For the Pen, when it is writing, can only scratch; and bottled ink is not to compare with the ground Chinese stick. Experto crede." (Kipling, 1937, p. 208) The brush and ink are Kipling's favorite tools. He uses them regularly (they are customary) and he has developed substantial expertise in their use (they are familiar) and so do not distract him from his writing. Tools, as transparent equipment, must be familiar, customary and comfortable so that their use becomes intuitive for the creative practitioner (Schšn, 1983, p. 52) Kipling recognizes that the pen and ink are part of his creative process, and affect the way he perceives his writing. There is evidence to suggest that external objects may become part of the body's schema through customary use (Carlson et al., 2010) This concept can be traced back to the work of William James (1890) in his discussion of "the empirical self or me" and is instrumental to modern theories of situated cognition, such as the work of Clark (1999, 2008a) and No‘ (2009) 44 People have long felt that tools become an extension of themselves, serving to organize their creative experiences (Pallasmaa, 2010; Sennett, 2008) and modern science is beginning to explain how this might be the case. Thus tools may "craft" intuitive experiences during creativity (Senn ett, 2008, p. 213) It is important to note however, that tool s only sustain intuitive immersion so long as they remain transparent to the creator A tool that fails to perform will demand attention, thereby inhibiting immersion (Pallasmaa, 2010; Sennett, 2008) When the tool is transparent e quipment the user sees through the tool to the task at hand (A. Clark, 2008a, p. 10) 44 R efer to Chapter III for a more detailed discussion of this concept.

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152 Matching skill and task difficulty. Intuitive immersion occurs in an optimal zone where there is balance between skill level and task difficulty (Nakamura & Csikszentmihalyi, 2002) 45 If the task is too challenging for the creati ve practitioner's skill level, anxiety is experienced instead of immersion. If a task is too easy, creative people may lose focus due to boredom, thus making intuitive immersion difficult to sustain. Since creative problems are typically challenging, creat ive practitioners often resort to cognitive bootstrapping to sustain immersion by exploiting environmental resources wh en a task becomes too difficult Tool usage is a typical example of this. When employed, a tool becomes a cognitive artifact a man made object that affects human performance (Norman, 1991) It structures the experiences of the creative person who uses it (Norman, 1993; Pallasmaa, 2010; Sennett, 2008) Tools, as cognitive artifacts, function to mediate the actions between the person and the thing being created. They may buffer against, amplify, or filter particular types of experiences while cre ating. Tools both scaffold creative abilities and change the way the user experiences the creative situation (Sennett, 2008, pp. 194 213) For example in architectural design education there is frequently a tension between professors who emphasize hand sketching and drawing over those who advocate for the use of computers and particular software packages (Sennett, 2008, pp. 39 45) Proponents of hand drawing may suggest that imaginative thoughts flow more directly when one puts pencil to paper. The pencil allows a student to be more tentative about ideas, minimizing commitment to them. The computer, they argue, filters out the tactile, intuitive experiences of drawing, and is a barrier to tentative sketching so easily achieved on paper. The computer advocates may a r gue that specialized software can reduce t he barriers created by limited drawing skills, amplifying the ability of a student to document and refine their imaginative thoughts in three dimensions. Although this is a very simplified version of a fierce pedag ogical 45 This concept is similar in principle to the theory developed by J. McVicker Hunt (1961) called optimal match Hunt felt that learning occurred when there is an optimal fit between learner and environment. If the environment is too challenging the learner will feel anxious and if it is not challenging enough the learner will be bored.

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153 debate, architectural educators oft en have very strong opinions about the tools students should used based upon their perceptions of how they affect students' creative experiences. 46 Perceiving congruence between actions and outcomes. While it is important for tools and other environmental resources to remain tra nsparent, the creative idea must in some way be externalized to sustain intuitive immersion because people must be able to perceive feedback from their actions (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996, pp. 118 120) Architect Alvar Aalto describes how sketching plays an important role in sustaining this creative mode for him. "I forget the whole maze of problems for a while, as so on as the feel of the assignment and the innumerable demands it involves have sunk into my subconscious. I then move on to a method of working that is very much like abstract art. I simply draw by instinct, not architectural synthesis, but what are sometim es quite childlike compositions, and in this way, on an abstract basis, the main idea generally takes shape, a kind of universal substance that helps me to bring the numerous contradictory components into harmony." (Aalto, 1997, p. 108) The process of externalization is intertwined with the way the creative practitioner thinks intuitively about the creative situation. For Aalto, drawing seems to help him intuitively reconcile the complex and contradictory requirements of an architectural design. Cross (2006, p. 37) describes the role of sketching in design as method to 1) "handle different levels of abstraction simultaneo usly," 2) "enable identification and recall of relevant knowledge," 3) "assist problem structuring through solution attempts," and 4) "promote the recognition of emergent features and properties" of the design idea. Externalization is a way of thinking abo ut a creative idea, where actions and perceptions merge (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996, pp. 118 120) Feedback from an externalized idea su stains focus by helping people to perceive new opportunities in the creative situation (Schšn, 1983, pp. 163 164) John Berger (2005, p. 3) describes how feedback deepens immersion in a creative process in his book Berger On Drawing : 46 See Sennett (2008, pp. 37 45) Cross (2006, pp. 34 38) an d GŠnshirt (2007, pp. 113 123) for further discussion about this debate between hand drawing and computational representation in architecture and the design fields and see Cook (2008) for further discussion on the role of drawing in architectural design.

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154 Each confirmation or denial brings you closer to the object, until finally you a re, as it were, inside it: the contours you have drawn no longer marking the edge of what you have seen, but the edge of what you have become. Poet Amy Lowell describes the importance of externalization and feedback in her creative process. "I seldom comp ose in my head. The first thing I do when I am conscious of the coming of a poem is to seek paper and pencil" (p.112 ). Feedback from the externalized idea helps the creative person know how they are doing, and perceptions of progress made feeds motivation to maintain attention on the creative task (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996, pp. 115 116) The term feedback may suggest that a person is an i mpassive receiver of information, howev er this is not the case. As discussed in Chapter III, people are active agents, explorers of their environment who habitually scan the world for inform ation that is relevant to them in service to the task at hand (Reed, 1996, pp. 18 19) As No‘ (No‘, 2004, p. 2) aptly describes it, there is "a ction in per ception." This concept of enaction describes how people create their own experiences by acting in the world. For example, people's perceptions differ when viewing an artifact from a new angle, touching or manipulating an artifact, or taking it to a new set ting. Their perceptions are informed by what they do, how they do it, and what they anticipate doing (No‘, 2004) During immersive investigation, the way that an idea is externalized and experienced will affect the type of information that a person is able to perceive in the creative situation Environmental conditions that sustain immersion. Creative immersion is b e st supported by environmental conditions that do not distract the creative practitioner's attention away from the task at hand As suggested earlier, it maybe useful to extend the concept of t ransparent equipment from tools to all the features of the designed environment that enable the creative practitioner to sustain focus on the task at hand. These environmental features become part of the creative practitioner's cognitive system during immersive investigation when they function without drawing attention away from the t ask For example, if I am immersed in a creative activity while inside my office with the door shut, I pay

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155 no attention to the door. Yet the door becomes part of my cognitive system during intuitive immersion. When someone touches the door and it swings open because it failed to latch the organization of my cognitive system disintegrates intuitive immersion breaks down, and my relationship to the door changes. I notice that it failed to provide a barrier to interruption. T he physical set tings where cr eativity happens the spaces where creative people do their work must function as transparent equipment in the creative practitioner's creative cognitive system in order for the immersive system to remain intact They are places that provide the necessa ry resources to support the creative process, but do not draw attention from the task at hand. A room may function in the immersive cognitive system as a filter, buffer, or barrier to particular expe riences. A window may filter out sound while allowing lig ht and view. A door provides a buffer from surprise intrusions on one's privacy. Walls and roofs provide a barrier to cold, wind, and rain. We only attend to these aspects of place when the y fail to perform as we expect : the window breaks, the doorknob fai ls to latch, or the roof leaks. During immersion the setting functions as part of the cognitive system only by remaining transparent to the creative practitioner Engendering Immersion Conditions in the designed environment may serve as a stimulus to eng ender intuitive investigation (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996, pp. 354 357) The sustained and focused attention required for immersion takes significant effort (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990, pp. 30 33, 54) Pe ople often feel that they need to overcome psychological barrier s in order to begin the process (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996, pp. 344 346) They commonly develop a ritualistic or habitual process of mental preparation that is triggered by features in the environment (Csiksz entmihalyi, 1990, pp. 354 357) The tower view from his writing table seems to have served this purpose for Kant, as he is reported to have become distraught when his neighbor's tree obscured his view and insisted that it be cut down (Wasianski, 1902) For Proust, who purportedly suffere d from allergies and asthma, his cork lined room may have provided the ideal conditions to engender intuitive

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156 investigation (Fuss, 2004) Friedrich Schiller is said to have use d the smell of rotten apples to spur his creativity (Spender, 1985, p. 114) At first impression, these stories may seem like the type of idiosyncratic behavior historically associated with eminently creative people, but views, rooms, objects, may play an important role as a stimulus to beginning the process of immersive investigation. The aesth etic qualities of a setting may also play a role in intuitive investigation, either as a stim ulus to focusing attention or as a means to help sustain attention by making the process more enjoyable. People commonly claim to draw inspiration from beautiful settings during creativity (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996, pp. 133 139; McCoy & Evans, 2002) They also perceive certain architectural features to be more conduci ve to creative immersion As discussed in Chapter II, people feel that complex visual detail, views of nature, daylighting, and natural materials are important for a creative workplace (Ceylan et al., 2008; McCoy & Evans, 2002) Documented positive effects of natural views and daylighting on attention suggest that these environmental features may support intuitive immersion where focused attention is instrum ental for sustaining the creative mode although the relationship between these features and creativity remains unexamined. 47 There is emerging research, however, that suggests some environmental conditions, such as ambient noise, may increase creative pro ductivity even though people do not perceive them as beneficial to their creative process (Mehta et al., 2012) Clearly the challenge of identifying such features lies in the fact that people do not directly attend to them during intuitive immersion. Csikszentmihalyi (1990) describes flow as an autoletic experience meaning that the process i s itself enjoyable for people (p. 67). Athough people may not pay attention to particular features of thei r environment when they are immersed in intuitive investigation, the p laces that creative practitioners find enjoyable may help engender and sustain an autoletic experience In this case, qualtiites of the environment may fall 47 One study, by Shibata and Suzuki (2004) compared creative productivity in three rooms (with a plant, with a magazine rack and with no decoration). They found that participants used features of the room as environmental cues to help them come up with creative ideas.

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157 under Murray's (1938) definition of alpha press as it is commonly understood that people perceive more than they attend to (No‘, 2004) When Immersion Breaks Down The process of intuitive investigation breaks down when there is a mismatch between ability and task (either from boredom or from frustration) or from an unexpected situation (e.g. a surprise, interruption, or distraction caused by an unexpected outcome or event) (Schšn, 1983, p. 56) When breakdown results from incongruence between expectations and the outcome of actions, the creative person typically engages in a different type of cognitive activity : explicit reflection Schšn (1983) refers to this process as "reflection in action" with "action present" designated as the time frame in which changes can affect the creative product (p. 62) Creative people frequently alternate between these modes of immersion and detachment throughout the creative process (Schšn, 1983, pp. 49 69) The renowned dancer and choreographer Twyla Tharp describes alternating between the two processes as "the yin and yang of my work life: Dive in. Step back. Dive in. Step back ( emphasis in original ) (Tharp & Reiter, 2003, p. 41) During reflection people do not disengage from creative exploration, rather they try to take a more critical perspective on the creative process and product than was the case during intuitive investigation. The relationship between immersion an d reflection is shown in Figure V.1.

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158 Figure V. 1 The Nucleus of the Creative Practice Model The relationsh ip between Intuitive Immersion and Explicit Reflection is a breakdown and repair processes Reflection: Making the Intuitive Explicit "To express is to drive. And when you want to give something presence, you have to consult nature. And there is where Design comes in. And if you think of Brick, for instance, and you say to Brick, "What do you want Brick?" And Brick says to you "I like an Arch." And if you say to Brick "Look, arches are expensive, and I can use a con crete linte l over you. What do you think of that?" "Brick?" Brick says: " I like an Arch"" Louis Kahn, Architect

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159 This famous quote by the architect Louis Kahn illustrates a process of reflection during creativity. He seems to be having an imaginary conversation with a brick, the material of an architectural design. He is questioning how the brick should be expressed through the construction of the bu ilding exterior whether it should sit on a concrete lintel above an opening in the building envelope (e.g. a door or window) or if the bricks themselves should form an arch to support additional brick rows above the opening. He allows the brick to "talk back" to him by expressing what it "wants." This imaginary conversation, a form of critical deliberation, appears to help him perceive the affordances of the brick in relation to his intentions for the design of a building. Schšn (1992) describes reflection as a conversation with materials of the situation" (p. 175). The conversation metaphor illustrates the shift from intuitive immersion to an explicit process of deliberation that the creative person takes with respect to the creative problem. Externalizing a creative idea, process, or product allows the creative practitioner to perceive affordances in the creative situation (e.g. the tools, materials, processes, and product of ideation. ) The materials "talk back" to the cr eator as he or she scans the situation for information (i.e. feedback) relevant to the task at hand (Schšn, 1983, p. 79) By Schšn's (1983) account, reflection encompasses both surfacing the assumptions underlying a person's actions (i.e. the problem frame) and interpreting ( or critiquin g) the situation produced by those actions (p. 61) The person then uses strategies to perceive opportunities to bring expectations and outcomes back into congruence, such as 1) changing the conditions of the situation to match goals and intentions (i.e. to fit the frame) 2) changing goals or intentions to be congru ent with the situation (i.e. reframing the creative problem) or 3) changing the way the situation is experienced to find congruence where it was not previously perceived (i.e. uncover hidden or potential affordances) (Schšn, 1983, pp. 128 133) This new understanding is then used to guide future intuitive investigation. The goal of explicit reflection is to bring back into congruence t he creative situation with the goals and intentions of the creative practitioner in order to "keep inquiry moving" on the

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160 creative problem (Schšn, 1983, p. 136) This mode repairs the breakdown that occurred during immersive investigation so that the practitioner may resume intuitive immersive work on the creative problem. Thus reflection is both deliberative and generative. 48 It is an experimental mode of creativity that is intertwined with the process of intuitive investigation. According to Schšn (1985) it "consists in actions that function in three ways, to test new understandings (What's going on here?'), to explore new phenomena (What else looks odd he re?'), and to affirm or negate the moves by which the practitioner tries to change things for the better (How can we get this under control?')" (pp. 25 26). Reflection is a form of subjective judgment that ultimately depends upon the ability of the creati ve practitioner to perceive hidden and potential affordances in a creative situation. Direct Feedback and the Rhetoric of T ools and M aterials During reflection creative practitioners perceive feedback through the use of different tools and materials. This feedback may be direct which Schšn (1983) describes as the materials of the situation talking back (pp. 78 79), or indirect, a process he describes as seeing as (pp. 139 140). During direct feedback, t he tools and materials seem to "push back," guiding form according to the affordances and constraints of the structural properties and material qualities they possess (Schšn, 1992) For example, painter s may find that the consistency of a type of paint does not lend itself to the particular technique s t he y intend to use. They may then reflect on their intentions with re spect to the affordances that they perceive in the paint. They may choose to change the conditions of the situation to match personal goals (by altering the paint) or change personal goals to match the situation (by altering the painting technique to work with the properties of the paint medium.) People also use tools and materials to externalize their creative ideas in different ways with the intention of uncovering hidden or potential affordances in a creative idea or product. Diagramming, drawing, and model building are a f ew commonly used ways people use to change 48 Refer to Chapter IV for a more detailed discussion regarding the roles of valuation and evaluation in the c reative process.

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161 their perceptions of a creative situation (S. Allen, 2009; GŠnshirt, 2007; Pallasmaa, 2010) Diagrams are a visual method of abstracting and compressing infor mation (Garcia, 2010, p. 18) They may be used to understand or analyze relationships (e.g. temporal, spatial, or organizational) or as a method for generating a form through conceptual repre sentation, capturing the relationship between the creator and the object of creation (S. Allen, 2009, pp. 41 69; Eisenman, 2010) Although diagrams generally focus more on describing structural relationships than meaning making (S. Allen, 2009, p. 50) their abstracted nature may facilitate deeper understanding about a creative problem or idea through metaphor and conceptual combinations (Kazmi erczak, 2003) In architecture orthographic projection, montage/collage, and perspectival drawing s are all used to obtain information about different spatial relationships in a building design (S. Allen, 2009, pp. 3 40; Robin Evans, 2000) Models are also used in environmental design as well as a number of other disciplines, including mathematics and science. M odels are a form of abstraction l ike diagrams and drawings, however they may help people better understand three dimension al relationships. The model was instrumental, for example, in helping Crick and Watson discover the structure of DNA (Watson, 1968) Just as tools organize the creative imagination, so too do the materials used to externalize a creativ e idea. The rhetoric of these objects influences how the creative practitioner perceives affordances in the situation. Indirect F eedback: Us ing Things to Think W ith When feedback from a creative situation is not direct people resort to different strategies to perceive affordances in a situation. Schšn (1983, pp. 182 187) describes two ways that people use a process of seeing as: by seeing on e case as another previously experienced case (e.g. this church is like one I've designed before) or by comparing their experiences in one situation with their experiences in a different, unrelated situation t hrough use of analogy (e.g.

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162 the structure of t his church's roof is like a crab shell. 49 ) Analogy involves transferring the cognitive structure from one context where it is well established to a new context where it had never been used (Welling, 2007) People employ these two met hods of "seeing as" to focus on particular aspects of the creative situation, filtering out any detail that may obscure or confuse their ability to perceive feedback, or affordances in the situation Feedback From O thers Social interactions may also help the creative practitioner perceived affordances in the creative situation. Feedback may come from informal discussions, critiques by experts, or observations of users (such as during prototyping or preliminary testing of a creative idea.) Schšn (1983) describes mentor/mentee relationships in architecture and psychotherapy to illustrate the reflective process. Mentors, as expert critics, have a larger repertoire of experiences that may allow them to surface affordances or constraint s of a situation more easily. Reflective communities domain specific groups of people who form a collective intelligence around particular types of creative problem s may help the creative practitioner overcome "the limitations of the individual human min d" (Fischer, 2005b) Informal conversations with peers, colleagues, or professionals from other disciplines can also provide indirect feedback on a creative situation. Charles Darwin credited his exposure to Thomas Malthus' theor y about population growth with allowing him to perceive the affordances in his developing theory about the origin of species and natural selection (Johnson, 201 0, pp. 78 82) 50 Users can provide a form of feedback to creative practitioners that differs from the speculation about outcomes inherent in other forms of social reflection (McCall, 2013) In this case the creative practitioner perceives new affordances by 49 According to the architect Le Corbusier, his design for the roof of No tre Dame du Haut was inspired by a crab shell he had picked up on the beach and that happened to be laying on his drawing board next to the building sketches (as publ ished in Le Corbusier, Texts and Sketches for Ronchamp ) (Groat & Wang, 2002, p. 102) 50 Johnson uses this story to illustrate his concept of the "slow hunch" in creativity. Grub er (Gruber, 1981b) emphasizes this concept through an analysis of Darwin's notebooks in his book Darwin on Man: A Psychological Study of Scientific Creativity originally published in 1974.

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163 observing use during prototyping activities (e.g. direct feedback from the creative situation) or questioning users about their experiences (e.g. indir ect feedback from the situation.) Reflection and I magination The strategies described thus far that people use to perceive feedback from a creative situation all address the situation as presented assuming all the real world constr aints of its particular context. Schšn (1983) restricts his discussion of reflective practices to this area. Yet people also use their imagination to change the way they experience a situation. Creative people temporari ly augment reality by imagining a lternating between suspended and grounded rationality (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996, pp. 63 64) During periods of suspended rationality, they us e their imaginations to employ methods of empathic identification and mimcry (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990, pp. 73&148) Empathic identification is illustrated in Louis Kahn's quoted imaginary conversation with a brick He is empathically identifying with the brick in order to percei ve heretofore hidden affordances. As discussed in Chapter IV, suspended rationality is a valuative strategy, a form of appreciative cri tique that allows the creative practitioner to appraise certain features of an idea without subjecting it to all the real world requirements it might eventually need to meet (Mark A. Runco & Chand, 1994) This allows the creative idea to develop resilience before undergoing rigorous evaluation, which might cause it to be abandoned prematurely. Mimicry is a term used to describe the type of game play that occurs where fictional contexts have real world rule s (Caillois & Barash, 2001, p. 19) Creative people may suspend certain aspects of reality (such as gravity) in order to imagine new experiences. Imagination may facili tate novel combinations by allowing conceptual play. Unlike analogy, novel combination s require new conceptual s tructures or schema s a skill thought to distinguish highly creative people from t he general creative population (Welling, 2007) Imagination may also help creative people experience the situation from a new point of view allowing them to conceptually distance themselves from the situation

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164 Sustaining Reflection: Externalization and R eframing. Explicit reflection is sustained through methods, tools, and setti ngs that allow the creative practitioner to perceive new affordances in a situation. The p erception of affordances depends on the possession and exercise of knowledge as well as an ability to acquire information in the environment that could be relevant to the task at hand. As described previously, creative people may use tools and methods to externalize a creative idea in different ways to help them perceive new information about the situat ion. They may also alter settings to change the context of a creative situation or to change the way they experience the situation by using features of their environments as things to think with. In her autobiography, choreographer Twyla Tharp describes ho w she constantly uses the world around her as a resource to think about her choreography. Everything that happens in my day is transactional between the external world and my internal world. Everything is raw material. Everything is relevant. Everything i s usable. Everything feeds my creativity. But without proper preparation, I cannot see it, retain it, use it (Tharp & Reiter, 2003, p. 10) The relationship between the crea tor and the creation is transactional (Schšn, 1983, pp. 150 151) Creative practitioners shape their own creative situations, but these situation s also shape the creator s experiences and the affordances they are able to perceive. Creative people make changes both to the way they externalize their creative ideas and to their settings in order to help them perceive new affordances (i.e. different feedback.) Even minor physical adjustments may help change the way they experience a creative situation, such as by changing the lighting levels on a model or pinning a drawing up on the wall so they can step away from it. Some changes in the setting may i nvite social interactions, helping to sustain reflection through conversation about the creative idea and through feedback from use of a creative product (McCall, 2013) Changes in the environment can help the practitioner perceive new affordances based on underlying assumptions about the situation or they can help the practitioner revise assumptions (i.e. reframe them) in order to perceive previously hidden affordances (Schšn, 1983, pp. 165 166)

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165 T he environment is often a rich resource for analogy which may also sustain reflection by helping the practitioner reframe assumptions about the creative situation. The a rchitect John Utzon used experiences in his environment to help him think about his design for the Sydney Opera House (Peltason & Ong Yan, 2010, p p. 91 97) He watched large ships being built with ribs in the shipyard outside his office building. He considered how the fruit of an orange is organized in sections. He imagined how space inside a building was like music. All of this information he ac quired from the environment changed the way he perceived the design for the award winning building and influenced its form, organization, and structure Accounts like these from Tharp and Utzon suggest that creative practitioners develop expertise at using their environments as resources to sustain reflection. Engendering Reflection: Breakdowns, Critiques, and Feedback From U se Explicit reflection is triggered by a breakdown in the process of intuitive immersion. This breakdown is often caused by a perceive d mismatch between expectations and outcomes (Schšn, 1983, p. 305) The feedback from the situation whether positive or negative, surprises the creator (Schšn, 1983, p. 56) Surprise then engenders reflection on the creative situation. Surprise does not arise only from a breakdown in expectations, however. Any e nvironmental conditions that inte rrupt the creative practitioner during intuitive immersion may engender reflection For example, when the lead breaks in the pencil a creative practitioner has been using, or someone enters a room unannounced, it also causes a breakdown in immersion whic h may give the practitioner occasion to reflect on the creative situation. Reflection is not entirely dependent upon a breakdown in immersion. Other environmental conditions may engender the process. Creative practitioners may use unfamiliar tools as a wa y of reflecting on a creative problem. Social interactions can also engender reflection such as when a critic surfaces underlying assumptions about a creative situation of which the creative practitioner was unaware (Fischer, 2005b ) or a user interacts with a creative product in unanticipated ways (McCall, 2013) Reflection may thus be engendered by changes in

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166 environmental conditions that consequently change the way a creative situation is experienced by the creator. When Reflection Breaks D own Explicit reflection ends when a person achieves congruence between goals or intentions and the perceived affordances of the situation at hand (Schšn, 1983, p. 68) The process is therefore inhibited by conditions where people have difficulty perceiving the information necessary to help them conceive new strategies to bring expectations and outcomes back into congruence Schšn (1983, p. 305) describes three ways this occurs. First, when intentions towards the creative situation are imprecise, it becomes impossible to test the outcomes against intentions. Second, when understanding of the problem is incomplete or inconsistent, such as due to lack of expertise, the outcome may seem simultaneously congruent and incongruent with expectations. Third, when explicit intentions run contrary to intuitive intentions, the outcom e may be congruent with one set of intentions and incongruent with the other. It is also possible that reflection may be inhibited when creative practitioners are not able to obtain adequate sensorimotor information from the si tuation such as when they d o not have the resources they need to externalize and test the idea in different ways. If the creative practitioner fails to establish congruence between the situation and his or her goals reflection breaks down. Although Schšn does not discuss the break down in reflection, creative people often describe periods where they feel they have hit a roadblock They may stop explicitly reflecting on the creative problem while outcomes and expectations remain incongruent. Although it is possible that a person may give up as a result of a breakdown in explicit reflection, more often they let the problem simmer in the back of the mind, ruminating or mulling over the situation as they leave its context to pursue other activities. This suggests that there is a third mo de of creativity that is not accounted for in the theories presented by Csikszentmihalyi (1990) and Schšn (1983) which I refer to as semi explicit (adaptive) rumination

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167 Semi Explicit (Adaptive) Rumina tion The following morning I felt marvelously alive when I woke. On my way to the Whim I slowly walked toward the Clare Bridge, staring up at the gothic pinnacles of the King's College Chapel that stood out sharply against the spring sky. I briefly stopped and looked over at the perfect Georgian features of the recently cleaned Gibbs Building, thinking that much of our success was due to the long uneventful periods when we walked among the colleges or unobtrusively read the new books that came into Heffer's Bookstore. James D. Watson (1968, p. 199) on discovering the structure of DNA There are many anecdotes about how people appear to have some of their most creative ideas when they are not actively working on a creative problem. In this quote by James Watson (1968) he attributes the time spent walking on campus and browsing the bookstore as instrumental to his and Francis Crick's efforts to identify the structure of DNA. This is som etimes referred to as the bed bath bus phenomenon (Dart, 1989) because ideation often seems to happen in these types of interstitial spaces during periods of suspended work on a creative problem. 51 Termed "incubation" in the creative proc ess literature, findings from empirical studies on the phenomenon are inconclusive about what cognitive processes actually occur during this period. 52 The main debate in the literature concerns whether the role of the sub conscious is passive (e.g. responsi ble for forgetting problematic issues that cause unproductive fixation) or active (e.g. involved in forming new conceptual combinations) (T. B. Ward & Saunders, 2003) Studies suggest that incubation may b e a way to address creative fixation a common problem where people fixate on unproductive lines of inquiry that limit their ability to make progress on a creative problem (Sio & Rudowicz, 2007; S. M. Smith & Dodds, 1999; S. M. Smith, 1995; T. B. Ward & Saunders, 2003) In contrast with the creative incubation perspective, there is some emerging research in psychology that suggests the process of rumination, typically associated with a negative psychological fixation on a problem, may actually be beneficial when people use it "adaptively" to work on very complex problems (Ciarocco, Vohs, & Baumeister, 2010; Cohen & Ferrari, 2010; Verhaeghen, Joorman, & Khan, 2005) Finally, anecdotes by creative people 51 This phenomenon was introduced in Chapte r II, along with some examples about the types of interstitial places where people feel they have their most creative ideas. 52 Refer to Chapter III for a more detailed review of the incubation literature.

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168 describe this process as more active and self directed than the incubation literature might suggest. In the following sections I will briefly explain the concepts of creative fixation and adaptive rumination, and illustrate how this third creative mode is not the passive, sub conscious, purely mental process often described in the creative incubation literature. Repairing Creative Fixation: The Potential Role of Defocused Attention One reason that explicit reflection may break d own is due to the well recognized problem of fixation. 53 Creative fixation is a counterproductive blind adherence to a plan, set of concepts, or target solution that limits the output of novel and useful ideas. Although causes of fixation vary, it is gener ally understood that contextual cues and extensive domain knowledge can both contribute to fixation in creative problem solving (S. M. Smith, 1995; Wiley, 1998) Creative practitioners appear to resort to strategies that distract them from fixating on a creative problem. As mentioned in Chapter I I, many creative practitioners find going for a walk particularly beneficial for promoting creative breakthroughs. Elsbach and Hargadon (2006) recommend that workplaces incorporate time for "mindless work" to enhance organizati onal creativity. They define mindless work as tasks involving low cognitive load and low performance pressure. Creative practitioners seem to divide their attention between unrelated and undemanding activities and work on the creative problem. In other wo rds, they appear to benefit from defocusing attention during periods of creative fixation. Investigation into the role of defocused attention in creativity began with the work of Mendelsohn (1976) who proposed that more highly creative people are characterized by a greater tendency toward defocused attention than less creative people. This work informed the hypothesis that defocused attention is a stable state in highly creative people (Eysenck, 1995; Mendelsohn, 1976) An alternative hypothesis, and one that is ga ining support in the literature, is that creative people are particularly adept at varying 53 This concept is also commonly referred to as design fixation

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169 their attention throughout the creative process (Ansburg & Hill, 2003; Martindale, 1999; Rawlings, 1985; Vartanian, Martindale, & Kwiatkowski, 2007) The term "incubation" implies a passive period of development; however there is both empirical and anecdotal evidence to suggest that creative prac titioners are much more intentional about exploiting this mode to increase creative productivity (Altamirano, Miyake, & Whitmer, 2010; Ciaroc co et al., 2010; Cohen & Ferrari, 2010; Dietrich, 2007) The incubation literature also suggests that cognitive work is primarily sub conscious. Empirical and anecdotal evidence suggest that this is sometimes the case, but frequently creative practitione rs appear to be semi aware of the process (Buttimer, 1983; Dart, 1989; Sio & Rudowicz, 2007; Tšrnqvist, 2004) They often describe "mulling over" ideas in the back of their head w hile working on an unrelated activity (such as taking a shower) (Dart, 1989) a type of reflective pondering generally described as rumination. Adaptive Rumination and Creative Problems Research from psychology strongly suggests a relationship between a particular type of rumination and creativity (Ciarocco et al., 2010; Cohen & Ferrari, 2010) Rumination has historically been associated in psychology with mental inflexibility that often leaves peopl e stuck in an unproductive and depressive mindset (Altamirano et al., 2010; J. M. Smith & Alloy, 2009) There is a stream of research in this literature, however, that suggests rumination can also be a beneficial process that plays an important role in crea tive processes (Cohen & Ferrari, 2010; McGee, 2012; Verhaeghen et al., 2005) This research typica lly falls under the goal progress model of rumination, which suggests that it involves a repetitive thought process that is triggered by goal disparity (such as a breakdown in reflection) (Martin, Tesser, & McIntosh, 1993) This model does not link rumination directly to depression, but rather suggests that the process can lead to either beneficial outcomes (e.g. goal attainment) or negative outcomes (e.g. fixation on failure and depression) (J. M. Smith & Alloy, 2009) Empirical findings based on this model have shifted the focus of rumination research away from focusing exclusively on depression, towards

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170 understanding it as a multi faceted process (J. M. Smith & Alloy, 2009) To distinguish this new multi faceted conception of rumination from the historical association of the term with psychological depression, researchers sometime refer to the positiv e form of the process as adaptive rumination and the neutral form as self reflective rumination For the purpose of this dissertation, I will limit the discussion of rumination to the adaptive form, based on the goal progress model of rumination developed by Martin et al (1993) This fairly recent development in rumination research has some significant implications for better understanding the mechanisms behind the period of creativity often referred to as incubation as well a s the relationships between it and other modes of creativity. Adaptive rumination involves repetitive thinking about a problem or idea that may occur "in the background" while people engage in unrelated activities. It sometimes involves intrusive thoughts that "surface" and interrupt the unrelated activities (J. M. Smith & Alloy, 2009) Empirical investigation into the relationship between adaptive rumination and creativity reveals two key findings. First, rum ination is important for maintaining goal directed work on a difficult problem (J. M. Smith & Alloy, 2009) People who have a tendency to ruminate are able to maintain task goals despite distractions (Altamirano et al., 2010) Rumination is most beneficial if it is action oriented and focused on maintaining goals, as opposed to fixating on failures (Ciarocco et al., 2010) Seco nd, rumination appears to be particularly useful when a creative person is at an impasse on a creative problem. When it occurs during periods of indecision, adaptive rumination has been found to significantly increase creativity (Cohen & Ferrari, 2010) This process appears to be a way of working through very complex problems (which creative problems, by their very nature, are) (J. M. Smith & Alloy, 2009) Ultimately, the literature suggests that highly creative people are very good ruminators, and that rumination may help them persevere through the complexity of working with creative problems (Cohen & Ferrari, 2010; McGee, 2012; J. M. Smith & Alloy, 2009; Verhaeghen et al., 2005)

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171 Enactive Cognition and Semi Explicit (Adaptive) Rumination The role of action oriented thinking in adaptive rumination suggests that this term is a more appropriate than incubation (which suggests a passive process) for the third mode of creativity in the Creative Practice model D uring the ruminative mode people become actively engaged in behaviors that are not directly related to the creative idea. At the same time (as the rumination research suggests) they are engaged in action oriented, goal directed thoughts about the creative problem. They intuitively (both sub consciously and semi explicitly) work on the creative situation as op posed to ex plicitly pursuing it letting their thoughts meander while engaged in activities such as taking a walk, biking, or swimming (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996) During the ruminative mode they 1) forget unproductive lines of inquiry, 2) become sensitive to more productive ideas through repetitive thought, and 3) generate novel conceptual combinations or analogies in response to contextual cues by holding action oriented, goal directed thoughts in their head. In the following s ections, I will describe how the mode of semi explicit (adaptive) rumination may be engendered, sustained, or inhibited. Engender Rumination Rumination is triggered by a breakdown in explicit reflection. This breakdown leaves the creative practitioner in an unresolved state of indecision about the creative problem, where the present state of the creative situation does not align with the creator's goals and intentions. Rumination is also engendered by enviornmental conditions that cause a person to stop ex ploration and engage in ano ther activity. This mode is parti cularly productive if work is suspended at a moment of indecision such as during explicit reflection In a study conducted by Cohen & Ferrari (2010) the creativit y of 85 adults was predicted by rumination, with higher levels of indecision significantly increasing the positive effects of rumination. There is some evidence that environmental cues encountered immediately before or during rumination also may benefit or hinder the creative process, s uggesting that incubation may be affected both by the environmental conditions under which it takes place and also by conditions recently experienced

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172 prior to it onset (Hutchins, 2009; Sio & Ormerod, 2009) Hutchins (2009) suggests that prior enacted multimodal experiences (such as those from exploratory activities) combine with new experiences, leading to creative insight. (The story of Archimedes and his discovery of displacement while drawing a bath is an example of this theory.) It is possible that environmental conditions during rumination may lengthen periods of creative indecision by distracting attenti on from the task at hand and provide sensorimotor information that is implicitly combined with existin g cognitive structures leading to the powerful "aha moment" often associated with insight. Sustain ing Rumination Rumination is sustained by action oriented goals about a problem, maintaining indecision about how to meet those goals, and work on mundane (or low cognitive load) tasks. People have reported the highest levels of creativity as a result of rumination when walking, driving, or swimming semiautomatic activities that involve some physical exertion and take only a small amount of attention ( Csiksze ntmihalyi, 1996) Perh aps most importantly, these conditions are sufficiently pleasurable that they distract people's attention from explicitly attending to the creative situation. Inhibit ing Rumination Environmental conditions that are too demanding of a person's attention may inhibit rum ination. H igh cognitive load tasks and high stress environments have been found to negatively impact and, in some cases, completely curtail creative rumination (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; Dijksterhuis & Meurs, 2006; Elsbach & Hargadon, 2006; Sio & Ormerod, 2009) Conversely, although periods of sleep or dreaming are sometimes associated with creative insight empirical investigations suggest that these activities generally do not sustain productive rumination or positively impact creative productivity (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; Dijksterhuis & Meurs, 2006; Sio & Ormerod, 2009) This type of rest does not appear particularly beneficial for creativity, although it is probably not detrim ental. B eing too busy however, inhibits a person s

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173 ability to ruminate by reducing the time they spend in periods of indecision and rumination and generally leads to a decrease in overall creativity (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; Elsbach & Hargadon, 2006) Summary of Relationships Between Three Creative Modes The modes of immersion, reflection, and rumination provide the core of a new physically situated process model of creativity. This model reveals how creativity entails breakdown and repair processes between d ifferent modes of creativity. Breakdowns serve to shift the way creative practitioners think about a difficult problem, yielding better creative insight and improved creativity. It appears that creative practitioners develop expertise at moving between dif ferent modes of creativity, thus helping them to avoid the problem of creative fixation. The relationships between these three mod es are illustrated in Figure V .2 Figure V. 2 Three Creative Modes: Immersion, Reflection, and Rumination Schšn failed to account for the breakdown of explicit reflection in his theory of reflective practice. I have extended his theory to describe another "repair" mode of creativity: Adaptive Rumination

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174 Three Creative Modes and Environmental Conditions The discussion thus far about the immersive, reflective, and ruminative modes of creativity suggests that each involves a particular type of attentional process with respect to the creative situ ation, and each is engendered, sustained, and inhibited by different environmental conditions. Intuitive immersion is engendered and sustained by conditions that help the creative practitioner focus and maintain attention on the task at hand. Explicit refl ection, on the other hand, is sustained and engendered by conditions that allow the creative practitioner to uncover hidden and potential affordances in a creative situation. This process requires a broader attentional net, as creative practitioners seek p hysical and social affordances in the environment to extend their cognitive abilities. Thus, although the two modes are closely intertwined, they require very different environmental conditions to support them. Rumination, a mode instrumental for dealing w ith the complexity of creative problems, is sustained by yet another set of environmental conditions. With Table V.1 I have illustrated how the different modes of intuitive immersion, explicit reflection and semi explicit (adaptive) rumination necessarily require different environmental conditions to support them. These environmental conditions provide physical, social, and cognitive affordances that people may actualize to engender and sustain the various creative modes. Creative practitioners, when engage d in a particular mode of creativity, may exploit these physical, social, and cognitive affordances available in the designed environment to extend their creative abilities In this way the designed environment may be instrumental for extending a person's creative abilities and improving creative productivity.

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175 Table V. 1 Three Creative Modes and Environmental Conditions. Features of the designed environment provide physical, social, and cognitive affordances that help the creative practitioner engender, sustain, or inhibit different modes of creativity.

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176 Completing the Creative Practice Model To complete the Multi Modal Process Model of Creative Practice, I will briefly describe in the following sections how the first (p roblem finding) and last (evaluation) modes of creativity relate to the immersive, reflective, and ruminative modes. The comple ted model is shown in Figure V.3 at the end of this section. Problem finding People generally pursue creative problems that are p resented or discovered (Csikszentmihalyi & Getzels, 1970) Presented problems are those that either exist within a creative practitioner's discipline (such as how to cure cancer) or are adopted from another discipline. Sternberg's (2006a) investment theory of creativity describes how creative people may be particularly accomplished at adopting more obscure or unpopular problems (i.e. "buying low"). Creative people also discover new problems to pursue, often as a result of surprising observations that ignite curiosity. Creativity historically has been associated more strongly with discovered problems (R. J. Sternberg, 1999) an d exceptional creativity has often resulted from problems that were not clearly specified in advance (Sawyer, 2012) Shekerjian's (1990) investigation into what inspired the creativity of MacArthur Award w inners reveals that creative people often have a particular set of values or concerns that frame the types of problems they pursue over a lifetime. In other words, their ability to perceive problem finding affordances in their environments are influenced n ot only by their domain knowledge, but also by personal values and intentions that developed from prior experiences. A particularly striking example of this is the story of Andy McGuire, a MacArthur Fellow, trauma prevention specialist, and advocate for he althcare issues. McGuire was severely burned as a child when his pajamas caught fire from his family's kitchen stove (Shekerjian, 1990, pp. 12 13) As an adult he was working as a machinist when he learned, through an announcement in his local newspaper, about a group that was being formed to lobby for new legislation to require all sleepwear be flame resistant. He attributes that newspaper article as t he start of his career in

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177 advocacy and filmmaking (Shekerjian, 1990, p. 13) Stories like McGuire's illustrate how environmental conditions may provide the catalyst for the problem f inding mode of creativity. 54 Engendering problem finding. Problem finding is triggered by an environmental catalyst a situation that impels the creative person to act on prior goals, concerns, or intentions. This catalyst might be the result of a conversation with another person or an observation of a process or event. Sometimes the catalyst occurs during another mode of creativity, where an unexpected outcome engenders problem finding. Isaac Asimov is commonly credited for saying the most excitin g phrase to hear in science, the one that heralds new discoveries, is not, "Eureka!" ("I found it!") but rather, "Hmm... that's funny..." Creative practitioners have the domain knowledge and expertise necessary to perceive a creative problem finding oppor tunity that others may miss (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; Hayes, 1989; Jay & Perkins, 1997) Sustaining probl em finding. The problem finding mode involves a variety of processes including: observation; analysis; knowledge acquisition; problem identification, construction, definition, and framing; and identifying goals, objectives and intentions (Bransford & Stein, 1984; Gordon, 1961; Isaksen et al., 2000; M. D. Mumford et al., 1991; Osborn, 1953; Van Gundy, 1987; Wallas, 1926) The mode is sustained by conditions tha t allow the creative practitioner the freedom, support, and resources to seek out new experiences that might develop into a creative problem to pursue. Amabile (1996, 1998) has spent much of her career examining how the social workplace environment can support or inhibit creativity. Several o f the workplace conditions she identifies also help to sustain the problem finding mode. The first condition is freedom, which concerns giving creative practitioners autonomy over their creative processes. The second condition is 54 There are many similar anecdotes by creative people. Richard Feynman's story of how winning the Nobel Prize began with the environmental catalyst provided by a wobbling plate is described in Chapter VI.

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178 social support and encoura gement, which can give the creative practitioner the motivation to sustain the problem finding process. The third condition is resources. Amabile suggests that sufficient (but not limitless) time and money are important for supporting creativity. More than sufficient resources, however, do not improve creativity, but insufficient resource s will inhibit it (Amabile, 1998) Curtailing and inhibiting problem finding. Problem finding ends when the creative practitioner has defined or fra med the problem and established goals and intentions towards solving it. The mode is inhibited by conditions that put pressures on creative practitioners that may cause loss of motivation or impel them to spend their time and effort in other areas. Problem finding can also be inhibited by lack of access to knowledge or experiences that allow the creative practitioner the opportunity to identify a creative problem to pursue. Evaluation As discussed in C hapter IV, the creativity literature about the elaborati on stage describes processes that occur throughout the creative process. For the purpose of this new physically situated Creative Practice model, I define the evaluation mode to include the processes of implementation, feedback from users and critics, and intrapersonal and interpersonal evaluation of this feedback. Creative products and ideas are often developed with a particular implementation setting or context in mind. For example, David Byrne (2012) illustrates how music has evolved over time according to the type of venue for which it was intended. He describes how African percussion music fits the acoustics of the outdoor setting where it is performed. The reverberations created by the cave like spaces of the gothic cathedr al are the perfect accompaniment to Bach's compositions for the pipe organ. Symphonies work well in places like Carnegie Hall, but rock and roll music, composed for the vinyl album or compact disk, often does not translate effectively to such grand setting s. Creative ideas and products are not

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179 "creative" until they are implemented in their intended context and receive social consensus that they are both original and appropriate (Amabile & Pillemer, 2012) Engend ering evaluation. Evaluation is engendered when the creative practitioner implements the creative idea or product in its intended setting or context and is able to obtain feedback from implementation. The process of evaluation involves not only the creator but also users and other stakeholders from within and outside the creative practitioner's field. For example, the evaluation mode for a playwright may be engendered on opening night when the audience views the performance and professional critics arrive to make their assessments of the production. The playwright may observe and evaluate the performance, the audience members' reactions to it, and perhaps even ask patrons and colleagues for their opinions about the production. Later this feedback may be syn thesized and compiled with the published feedback from professional critics. Sustaining evaluation. Evaluation is sustained by continuous feedback from users and critics about the creative product or idea. The creative practitioner may work to sustain eval uation by publicizing or "selling" the creative idea (R. J. Sternberg, 2006a, 2006b) Sternberg (2006a) emphasizes the fact that creative ideas do not sell themselves. He argues that creative practitioners must have the skills to persuade others that their ideas or pro ducts are valuable. He also suggests that creative practitioners should tailor their efforts by selling their idea to particular audiences. Studies suggest that evaluators of similar age and background to the creator tend to evaluate a product or idea more favorably (Lubart & Sternberg, 1995; R. J. Sternberg, 2006a) Thus marketing a creative product or idea to cohorts may help to sustain beneficial evaluations. Curtailing and inhibiting evaluation. Evaluation ends when consensual assessment by the field has be en reached and the idea or product has been deemed creative or not. The problem with consensual agreement, however,

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180 is that it may not be reached until after the creator's lifetime. Evaluation may also end when the creative practitioner is surprised by fee dback from implementation. This surprise may engender another mode of creativity, such as rumination or problem finding. Surprise may be negative, in which case the creative practitioner may try to re work or revise the creative idea or product (if possibl e.) Positive surprise might engender a new creative problem to pursue, which is framed by the successful experiences of the previous creative process. Evaluation is inhibited by a lack of feedback on a creative product or idea, or the inability to success fully implement it in its intended setting or context. For example, if a composer writes a symphony for Carnegie Hall, but is only able to perform it in an outdoor amphitheater, the feedback from implementation may not be sufficient to sustain evaluation b ecause the acoustic qualities of the intended setting versus the implementation setting are quite different. Suppose that the performance in the outdoor amphitheater is also poorly publicized. Then the creative practitioner also has a lack of feedback from users (the audience) and critics. In this case, implementation limitations inhibit the creative practitioner's ability to evaluate the creative product; and it may be nearly impossible to obtain social consensus regarding the creativity of the idea or pro duct due to poor dissemination of the product.

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181 Figure V. 3 The Multi Modal Process Model of Creative Practice The five modes of creativity are shown as an iterative series of breakdown and repair processes. Unexpected outcomes during Evaluation, the last mode of creativity, can trigger a breakdown that engenders the Problem finding mode. Evaluation can also lead to insight on another creative problem, as is illustrated by Richard Feynman's story in Chapter VI. Proposit ions About the Person Environment Relationship During Creativity Throughout this chapter I have described different modes of creativity and illustrated how they are interrelated through the Multi Modal Process Model of Creative Practice. I also explained h ow these modes describe processes of embodied, embedded, and enactive cognition. The view of creativity that I propose here is one that is physically situated, where features of the designed environment are instrumental to the different modes of creative c ognition. I suggest that my Creative Practice model reveals three propositions about the person environment

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182 relationship during creativity. First, c reative practitioners a re autonomous agents in their environments who exploit, leverage, manipulate and alte r features of the designed environment to enhance their creative ability and productivity. Second, e nvironmental features serve different roles in engendering, sustaining, and inhibiting/curtailing the five modes of creativity. Third, c hanges in environmen tal features and changes in a person's mode of creative cognition both alter the affordances of the person environment relationship, thus affecting a person's opportunities for action in the creative situation. These three propositions will be the focus of the next chapter, where I present the new Creativity in Context Theoretical Framework to describe the person environment relationship during creativity.

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183 CHAPTER VI THE CREATIVITY IN CONTEXT THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK DESCRIBING THE PERSON ENVIRONMENT RELATIONSHIP DURING CREATIVITY Highlights This chapter is a discussi on of how the Multi Modal Process M odel of Creative Practice proposed in Chapter V can be used to illustrate the relationship between the creative practitioner and the designed environment during creativity. I will introduce in this chapter a theoretical framework, based on the process model, that describes the physically situated nature of creativity. This Creativity in Context Theoretical Framework links the cognitive modes des cribed in the Creative Practice model to categories of environmental features that play a role in engendering, sustaining, or inhibiting them. The framework illustrates how: 1) the creative person acts on and exploits features of the designed environment i n pursuit of creative productivity; 2) environmental features serve different roles in sustaining, engendering, or inhibiting the five cognitive modes of creativity, and 3) changes in environmental features or cognitive modes affect a person's perceived op portunities for action by changing the affordances of a creative situation. The intention behind the framework is to provide both a lens for scholarly discourse around the concept of creativity as a physically situated process and a structure to empiricall y ground environmental design strategies.

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184 Introduction Review In Chapter V I proposed that a Multi M oda l P rocess M odel of Creative Practice describe s how features of the designed environment are instrumental to the creative process. The Creative Practice model extends Schšn's (1983) work on reflective practice and Csikszentmihalyi's (1990) theory of creative flow to include five situated modes of creative cognition: problem finding, intuitive immersion explicit reflection, adaptive rumination, and evaluation. It also illustrates how the creative practitioner uses the physical environment as a resource to engender, sustain, inhibit or curtail these different creative modes. At the end of the chapter I ex plained how this model serves to organize the seemingly varied and idiosyncratic behaviors in which people may engage during the creative process. In Chapter VI I will position the Creative Practice model within a theoretical framework 55 to describe the rol e of the designed environment in creativity. Where the previous chapter considered the creati ve process primarily through a cognitive lens, this chapter will focus on the environmental design perspective. Thesis The Creativity in Context Theoretical Framew ork provides a structure for understanding key factors and relationships that are relevant for environmental designers as they endeavor to plan and construct settings to support creative practitioners. The framework is informed by three theoretical proposi tions that emerged from the Creative Practice model. These propositions describe how people orchestrate their own creative process by exploiting features of the designed environment to help them transition between creative modes of thinking and surface new opportunities for action in a creative situation. The framework illustrates these propositions in terms of three variables: 1) the modes of creativity in which a person engages, 2) the features 55 The terms theoretical framework and analytical framework are often used interchangeably in the literature. They both illustrate causal relationships. The analytic framework is sometimes distinguished by its specificity to a particular study.

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185 of the person's environment, and 3) the affordances (or oppor tunities for action) that develop through the instrumental relationship between the person and features of the environment. This framework organizes issues of concern to environmental designers such as what people do during the creative process and how t he designed environment supports those activities into a structure that may help them design and evaluate environments intended to support creative productivity. Significance The purpose of a theoretical framework is to link together concepts, processes, and classifications in order to understand "a sequence of events or constructs and how they relate" (Suter, 2006, p. 344) The Creativity in Context Theoretical Framework is intended to ser ve as a structure both for scholarly discussion around the concept of creativity as a physically situated process and to inform environmental design practices. It provides a resource to support basic creativity research in real world set tings and authentic situations by linking the modes of creative cognition to features of the designed environment. It also describes the nature of the person environment relationship during creativity, thus addressing a significant debate in the environmental design literatu re. As discussed in Chapter III, different opinions about the nature of the person environment relationship have informed a range of environmental design approaches. This theoretical framework illustrates that two of these approaches (deterministic and fr ee will) are not empirically supported. By addressing this debate, the framework offers a structure to empirically ground environmental design strategies. It also provides a means to organize future, multi disciplinary research around the relationship betw een people and their environments during creativity. The Designed Environment in Creativity: Three Theoretical Propositions From the Creative Practice model I constructed t hree theoretical propositions about the relationship between the creative person and his or her environment during creativity. In this

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186 section I will briefly describe each proposition and its implications for the design of settings to promote creativity. This will set the context for the next section, where I will introduce the Creativity in Context framework. Implications for practice will be discussed in greater depth in the following chapter. Proposition 1. Creative people are active agents in their environments who exploit, leverage, manipulate and alter features of the designed environment to enhance their creative ability and productivity. This first proposition describes the creative person as an experienced practitioner who strategically utilizes tools, materials, and settings to support and extend creative performance. As discussed in Chapter V, creative people are adept at using their environment as a resource to improve their creative abilities and manage their creative processes. They amplify psychomotor skills by employing artifacts as tools. They extend cognitive abilities when using aspects of their environment as things to think with. They manipulate settings (or move between settings) to e ngender, sustain, or inhibit different creative modes in an effort to maximize produ ctivity. Environments that allow them to maximize their potential to exploit design features in pursuit of a creative problem or concern thus support creative practitioners Proposition 2. Environmental features serve different roles in engendering, sustaining, and inhibiting/curtailing five modes of creativity: problem finding, immersion reflection, rumination, and evaluation. The second proposition describes the roles that certain features of the designed environment play in the creative process. In the previous chapter I illustrated how places may

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187 function as behavior se ttings when people use them to engender modes of creativity, events serve to trigger or curtail mode s of creativity, and processes sustain or inhibit them. People use objects to organize, amplify, and extend their creative abilities. T he attributes of an object and its relationship to the creative person are often instrumental to the person's ability to perceive creative opportunities in a situation These environmental features suggest that a part whole structure may be useful for guiding environmental design strategies. A t axonomy of part w hole r elationships of environmental f eatures The second proposi tion implies that a classification structure is needed to represent environmental features present at each scale of the designed environment from tools to cities. In the following section I will illustrate how c ategorizing these environmental design fea tures as places, events, processes, objects, attributes, and relationships will lead to greater understanding about the roles they play in creativity by providing the structure for systematic methods of empirical investigation. Places involve events and pr ocesses; events and processes involve objects and people; and attributes and relationships describe places, events, processes, and objects. This part whole classification 56 describes these features in terms of nested units of analysis, from the smallest (at tributes) to the largest ( place s) The taxonomy facilitates a multiscalar examination of person environment relationships during creativity, effectively linking Gibson's affordance theory to Barker's theory of behavior settings with the intention of using each theory to strengthen the other. 57 Multiscalar design s trategies The part whole classification of environmental features facilitates a multiscalar approach to design. Identification of common relationships and principles may occur equally across all scales of the designed environment (i.e. from tools to cities,) or predominantly at particular 56 The classif ication structure is described in greater detail with respect to the theoretical model later in this chapter. 57 See Chapter III for a discussion of Heft's (2001) recommendation that integrating these two theories will advance env ironmental psychology research and theory.

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188 scales (e.g. product design.) This suggests that environm ental designers may need to think beyond disciplinary bounds to determine 1) what aspect(s) of the creative process they wish to address with a design intervention, 2) what environmental features will best predict the intended outcome of the design interve ntion, and 3) what is the most effective scale of the designed environment for the intervention. Proposition 3. Changes in environmental features and changes in a person's mode of creative cognition both alter the affordances of the person environment rel ationship, thus affecting a person's opportunities for action in the creative situation. The relationship between a creative person and his or her environment changes in two fundamental ways: by changing features of the person's environment (through re or ientation, re location or manipulation) or by changes in the person's mode of creative cognition. In the first case, because people partially constitute their own environment, the actions they take during creativity simultaneously change their environment. This occurs when 1) people move from one environment to another, 2) they alter the physical objects (or the relationship between physical objects) in an environment such as by adding, rem oving, relocating or reorienting furniture to reconfigu re a room's l ayout, and 3) they engage in particular actions (i.e. events and processes) within an environment. In the second case, when people alter their mode of thinking about a creative problem, their goals and intentions with respect to the creative situation als o change. Their intentions include both explicit goals and intrinsic values about the creative problem within a particular context. For example, creative intentions during a reflective mode will include some form of judgment or evaluation of an externalize d creative idea (e.g. paper, diagram, model, etc.) and may welcome the involvement of others to elicit critique or other forms of feedback about the creative idea During a ruminative mode, intentions are quite different because they will generally

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189 involve distracting oneself from a creative problem (e.g. by going for a bicycle ride) In this mode the creative person may value the freedom to not interact with others or to intensely focus on the creative problem. When a person's intentions vary with the mode of creative cognition, the affordances of the situation also change. Thus the opportunities for action provided by a single environment (such as an office or studio) may be quite different during reflection and rumination. A Physically Situated Framework for Creativity The Creativity in Context T heoretical Framework (Figure VI .1 ) graphically depicts creativity as the physically situated process described in the theoretical propositions. The framework draws heavily from Gibson's ( 1977) Theory of Affordances (introduced in Chapter II,) to illustrate the relationships between the creative person, the designed environment, and the affordances (action possibilities) of the creative situation. Figure VI 1 The Creativity in Context Theoretical Framework This framework illustrates how the creative person acts on his or her environment during creativity and is, in turn, affected by the changed nature of the affordances formed as a result of those actions. These three things the creative person, the designed environment, and the

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190 affordances of the creative situation are each characterized by a variable 58 : creative mode, environmental feature, and type of affordance. The transactional person environment relationship describes how each of these variables is at times either independent (i.e. causes a change in another variable) or dependent (i.e. is affected by a change in another variable.) Relationships between independent and dependent variables are described by the direction of the arrows in the framework diagram, with independent variables pointing to (i.e. acting on) dependent variables. Three primary relationships, listed in no particular order are: 1) The creative p erson, while engaged in a creative mode (independent variable,) perceives and acts on the designed environment (dependent variable.) The person's actions depend on (and are mediated by) the creative mode. 2) The person engaged in a creative mode (independ ent variable) and features of the designed environment (independent variable) together constitute the affordances (dependent variable) of the creative situation. A change in the designed environment (such as initiated by a person acting on features of the environment) will change the nature of the sensory effects from the designed environment that can be perceived by the person. A change in the person's creative mode will cause the person to have different intentions or abilities toward s the creative situa tion. These intentions include goals aimed at developing a creative idea as well as environmental requirements instrumental to the task at hand. Changes in creative mode and changes in environmental conditions will both affect the affordances of that situa tion. 3) The affordances (independent variable) of the situation are intention directed action possibilities latent in the situation that, when enacted (i.e. perceived and actualized,) 58 A variable is a quality of something that changes over time or in different situations.

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191 affect the person's creative mode (dependent variable) by engendering, sustaining, or inhibiting it. Each variable (creative mode, environmental feature, and affordance) has several different values that change throughout the creative process. There are five creative modes, six categories of environmental features, and five different types of affordance. The identification of these three variables and sixteen values may help to explain why it has been so challenging to understand the role of the designed environment in creativity or to predict whether a particular environm ent may promote creativity. There are so many factors affecting the person environment relationship that without a framework to identify and organize the significant factors, it is nearly impossible to explain not to mention attempt to pre dict causal r elationships. It is how these values are defined, however, that makes this theoretical framework particularly useful for informing research and practice into the role of the designed environment in creativity. The Creative Person The creative person is gr aphically depicted in this framework by two concentric circles: an inner circle comprised of the person's cognitive abilities, affective states and physical skills, and an outer circle representing the person's mode of creativity. These concentric circles illustrate how the creative mode mediates a person's interactions with the environment. Each creative mode is formed according to the cognitive, affective, and physical aspects of the person. These aspects change over the course of the creative process: kn owledge is constructed; skills are practiced or learned; and emotions (e.g. frustration, elation, etc.) vary throughout the creative process. These cognitive, affective, and physical changes may be very difficult to quantify. However, since these changes a re caused by activities that occur during the different modes of creativity, they correspond with changes in creative modes. For this reason, change in creative mode will serve as a proxy for other changes in the creative person.

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192 The variable for the creat ive person in this framework is therefore defined as creative mode type. The intention here is not to disembody cognition, but instead to illustrate how embodied cognition is influenced by the mode of thinking about a creative problem. As described in Chap ter V, the intentions, perceptions, and actions of creative pe ople change according to whether they are problem find ing, immersed reflecting, ruminating, or evaluating. In the Creativity in Context framework, the arrows pointing away from the creative per son describe how the creative modes mediate both actions on the environment and intentions toward the creative situation. The arrow pointing toward the creative person describes how the creative mode mediates the way affordances are perceived. By isolating the creative mode as a variable of interest that has five values (one for each mode,) we can better understand how (and why) the creative person notices and exploits features of the designed environment to engender, sustain, or inhibit the different modes The Designed Environment The designed environment refers to the range of artifacts and settings created by product designers, interior designers, architects, landscape architects, urban designers, and city planners from tools to cities. In this way, t he model encompasses natural settings (such as those produced by landscape architects) as well as manufactured settings. Settings that exist without design interventions such as forests, prairies, shorelines, etc. may also be appropriate for the framew ork, but are outside the focus of this dissertation. (Although views of natural settings are within the scope, since these may be created through environmental design features.) The framework categorizes features of the environment as places, events, proce sses, place scale objects, attributes, and relationships. The environment is described in terms of its features, defined as follows: Place : a geographic position, or setting, defined by real or implied physical, social, and cognitive boundaries. A geograp hic position becomes a place when a person gives

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193 meaning to it typically based on the events and processes that occur there (such as office, studio, cafÂŽ, etc.) Places can also have emotional or historical significance (e.g. the studio where Andrew Wyeth painted or the cit y where Leonardo da Vinci lived ) Places may serve as behavior settings to engender certain activities and/or creative modes, as evident in stories of the way Proust felt about his cork lined room and Kant felt about his tower view. 59 Ev ent : a spatial temporal occurrence that invokes a change of state in a place. Events involve processes, place scale objects and/or people and may be nearly instantaneous (such as shutting a door) or temporally extended (such as a brainstorming session.) Du ring creativity events may engender or curtail different modes For example, the event of putting my favorite pen to paper may engender immersion whereas the event of someone unexpectedly entering my office will almost certainly curtail immersion Proce ss: a series of actions, operations, or changes that involve place scale objects and/or people. Processes may sustain or inhibit modes of creativity. For example, the process of model making sustains immersion but the process of examining the model under different lighti ng conditions inhibits immersion (but sustains reflection.) Place scale (p.s.) Object: a thing bound by the scale of the place where it is located that can be perceived by the senses Place scale objects may be animate (to include all liv ing t hings such as plants or animals ) inanimate (to include both man mad e and natural physical objects ) or cognitive artif acts (such as musical notations ) Places, processes, and events all involve p.s. objects. A tool is one type of p.s. object that may extend a person's creative abilities by functioning as transparent equipment during the creative process. A familiar and comfortable p.s. object can also engender or sustain 59 See Chapters I and V for discussion of these two anecdotes.

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194 modes of creativity such as immersion and rumination. Samuel Johnson is said to have kept an orange peel and a purring cat nearby as he wrote (Boswell, 1907) The cat and the orange peel are both p.s. objects that may have helped Johnson to sustain creative immersion during his writing Materials are p.s. objects that may extend creative cognition by becoming things to think with. These objects alone typically do not engender, sustain, or inhibit modes of creativity, but are instead an integral part of an event or process. For example, drawing (process) with my favorite pen (p.s. object) engenders immersion. Even in the case of Kant's tower view, the p.s. object (tower) is significant for engendering immersion, but does not trigger the mode until Kant looks at it (event.) Attribute: a p art or aspect of a place, event, process, or p.s. object. For example, the color and texture of obsidian ink are attributes that Kipling felt were significance for reflection on his writing. Attributes may be an integral aspect of something (such as edge, or texture) or a "part of" something that is removable such as knob which is part of a door (p.s. object) or desk which is part of an office (place.) Relationship : the way two features of the physical environment are connected such as event event relationships that are causal, correlational or dependent, or object object relationships that are binary (e.g. bigger than, heavier than, etc.) "Part of" is a type of rela tionship that may also be an attribute. In this framework an affordance is also a particular type of relationship between a creative person and an environmental feature that has instrumental value for the person. Affordance An affordance, as defined in Cha pter II, is an instrumental relationship between people and features of their environment that provide s action opportunities for people with respect to

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195 their intentions (Gibson, 1977) Affordances may be hidden, perceived, actualized, false or potential 60 They may affect both a person's perceptions about a creative problem and actions taken in pursuit of that problem. The Creativity in Context framework illustrates how affordances change with different modes of creative cognition and d ifferent features of the environment. For example, a feature may be perceived as desirable and that affordance actualized by a person in one mode of creativity, whereas the same feature may remain hidden ( or perceived but not actualized ) during a different mode. A key principle of this framework is that people change modes of creativity and features of the environment in an effort to uncover hidden affordances and perceive potentia l affordances that may lead to non obvious, or creative solutions to a probl em. They do this both by using affordances to maximize creative productivity (to engender, sustain and inhibit creative modes) and by making changes to their environments that help them perceive and actualize new opportunities to further their work on a cr eative problem. As previously introduced in Chapters II and further discussed in Chapter V, there are two general ways that people experience the affordances of the designed environment: as transparent equipment (when employed tacitly) or cognitive artif act (when employed explicitly ) As cognitive artifacts, people use objects in the designed environment as things to think with in order to extend their creative abilities. In this case, it is what they explicitly attend to that is important for their cre ativity and the affordances of these things become explicit. As transparent equipment, however, effective tools and settings by their very nature do not draw the creative person's attentions away from the task at hand. This does not mean that people do not perceive the affordances of these things, only that they may not be able to make their perceptions explicit. People may recognize that an environment affords fostering certain modes of cr eativity (e.g. good at supporting immersion ), but may not be able to correctly identify the design features that make it effective. They may fixate on one or two features (e.g. Kant and his tower view or 60 Refer to Chapter s II and V for more detailed discussion s o f the types of affordance and a proposal for a new class of potential affordances based on the roles they play in creativity.

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196 Kipling and obsidian ink) that have become explicit or have drawn their attention at one time and these fixations can appear idiosyncratic. This suggests that some of what people do not attend to during the creative process may be as important (or potentially more important) than what they do attend to. Putting the Creative Modes in Context In this section I will use the Creativity in Context framework to illustrate Richard Feynman's famous anecdote about the event that eventually led him to win the Nobel Prize in Physics. This case will demonstrate how the framework may help to surface features of the designed environmen t that are instrumental to the creative process. The anecdote is also used as a point of discussion about how these environmental features engender, sustain, or inhibit particular modes of creativity. This will serve as a preliminary discussion about impli cations the framework has for environmental design strategies and methods. Problem Finding and Feynman's Wobbling Plate In his autobiographical book, physicist Richard Feynman (1997, pp. 171 174) recounts the day he was eating in a cafeteria on the Cornell University campus when someone threw a plate in the air. Feynman noticed the complex spin and wobble motion of the plate and decided to come up with an equation for it. He credits this incident as the beginning of a process that led to his calculation of electron orbits, and eventually the Noble Prize. I will draw parallels from sections of his story and relationships illustrated in the Creativity in Context framework. A breakdown in r eflection The Feynman anecdote is primarily an example of an event that triggers a creative mode. He sets up the story by describing his mindset prior to the event. He begins by explaining how he was in a state of br eakdown. Reflection had failed to help him make progress on his research in physics. He was convinced that he was burned out and would never come up with any more creative ideas.

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197 But when it came time to do some research, I couldn't get to workI simply co uldn't get started on any problem: I remember writing one or two sentences about some problem in gamma rays and then I couldn't go any further. I was convinced that from the war and everything else (the death of my wife) I had simply burned myself out (p. 171 ) Suspension of the problem leads to new i ntentions Feynman eventually decides to stop responding to the pressure to come up with new ideas in physics, which he felt was "impossible to live up to" (p. 172.) About this time, the head of the laboratory at Cornell, Bob Wilson, reassured him that the university was very happy with his teaching and told him not to worry about his research. Feynman described how this conversation "released [him] from the feeling of guilt" (p. 173.) This conversation helped him emerge from his state of breakdown when he suspends work on his research. Instead of reflecting on his research he begins to actively (i.e. explicitly) ruminate about his relationship wit h p hysics. Then I had another thought: Physics disgusts me a li ttle bit now, but I used to enjoy doing physics. Why did I enjoy it? I used to play with itSo I got this new attitude. I've got this nice position at the university teaching classes which I rather enjoy[and] I'm going to play with physics whenever I wan t to, without worrying a bout any importance whatsoever (p. 172 ) An event engenders problem f inding Once he had established his intention to "play with physics," (which, as an accomplished scientist and academician, he had the opportunity to do) Feynman describes the event itself. Within a week I was in the cafeteria and some guy, fooling around, throws a plate in the air. As the plate went up in the air I saw it wobble, and I noticed the red medallion of Cornell on the plate going around It was pretty obvious to me that the medallion went a round faster than the wobbling (p. 173 ) It is important to note that Feynman changed his environment during what appears to be a period of passive (i.e. tacit) rumination. He did not enter the cafete ria with the goal of finding a physics problem there to pursue. Rather, he appeared to be ruminating about his id ea to play

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198 with physics. With the idea in the back of his mind when he entered the cafeteria, he became an observer of the seemingly irrelevant happenings in the cafeteria. It was because he was in the ruminative mode that he was able to perceive the affordance of the wobbling plate situation. The event of the flying object (plate) drew his attention and he perceived its attributes of spin and wobble because of the visual cues from the movement of the Cornell medallion. These visual sensory effects, combined with Feynman's intentions and abiliti es allowed him to perceive the affordances (i.e. opportunities for action) the event provided for his intention to "play with physics." Once he perceived that the flying plate provided an opportunity to play with physics, his rumination mode was curtailed and he began problem finding as he identified the motion of the rotating plate as a new physics problem to pursue. He eventually created a new equation to explain the motion. I had nothing to do, so I start figuring out the motion of the rotating plate. I discovered that when the angle is very slight, the medallion rotates twice as fast as the wobble rate two to one. 61 It came out of a complicated equation! (p. 174) The event of the flying plate engendered Feynman's problem finding mode and the discovery of his creative problem: how to devise a formula to predict the ratio of wobble to spin. His initial interest in the wobbling plate was based on his belief that it was not important to furthering his research or the field of physics. He pursued the problem of the wobbling plate because it was fun (and perhaps because it kept him from fixating on serving the progress of physics although he does not state this directly.) Feynman's anecdote is illustrated by the Creativity in Context Framework as follows: 61 Feynman famously reversed the spin and wobble ratio in this account. It is two wobbles to one rotation of the plate.

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199 Figure VI 2 Illustration of Richard Feynman's Problem finding Process Richard Feynman describes how, during a period of rumination about his "serious" research, the event of a plate flying through the air engendered a probl em find ing opportunity to "play" with physics, which eve ntually le d to a breakthrough in his "serious" research. Rumination leads to a breakthrough. Feynman des cribed how the discovery of the wobbling plate problem got him out of breakdown mode and ultimately furthered his physics research, leading to his award of the Nobel Prize. Rumination the suspension of his serious physics research to work on a seemingly unrelated task to play with physics led to a breakthrough in his research. . I went on to work out equations for wobbles. Then I thought about how the electron orbits start to move in relativity. Then there's the Dirac equation in electrodynamics. And then quantum electrodynamics. And before I knew it (it was a very short time) I was "playi ng" working, really with the same old problem that I loved so much It was like uncorking a bottle: Everything flowed out effortlessly...There was no importance to what I was doing, but ultimately there was. The diagrams and the whole business that I g ot the Nobel Prize for came from piddling around with the wobbling plate (p. 174 ) Although he had not been explicitly thinking about his physics research, he perceived an opportunity to work on a seemingly unrelated problem that led to a breakthrough in his (serious) research. Stories like this one may appear serendipitous, but the phenomenon is actually relatively common. Creative people often relate how they thought they were working on different problems only to discover later that they were related. G ruber coined the term network of enterprises to describe this phenomenon. He describes how creative people excel at concurrently working on seemingly disparate problems, yet exploit relations between them to further their

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200 creative work (Kozbelt et al., 2010) The process of passive rumination allows the creative practitioner to explicitly suspend work on a difficult problem when productivity wanes, while intuitively continuing to make progress on it through work on other problems or tasks. Environmental Features That S upported Feynman's P rob lem F inding In Feynman's anecdote there were several different environmental features that ultimately worked together to engender problem finding. Of most obvious significance is the event that occurred when a person threw a plate in the air. The event involved place scale objects: the plate and the person that threw it ("a guy.") The attributes of the plate are critically important to this anecdote. If a guy had thrown a pure white plate in the air, the event would likely not have engendered problem finding. That part icular plate had on it the Cornell medallion, which allowed Feynman to see the ratio of wobble to spin. Additionally, Feynman's relationship to the object was such that he could easily observe its motion. Thus event, object, attribute, and relationship wer e all features of the designed environment that played a role in this story. Another aspect of the story is the place where this event occurred. Feynman was in the cafeteria a setting often densely populated and generally considered by design profession als as a place of high activity and social engagement. This seems to have provided a stimulating environment in which Feynman could observe "real world" phenomenon from an outsider perspective. This particular cafeteria was located on a university campus. Feynman alluded to the culture of the university in his introduction to the story he had a lot of freedom to pursue his interests, including great flexibility in where, when, and how he conducted his creative work. Leading up to the anecdote, Feynman t alked about the social pressures he was experiencing over having to come up with good ideas to pursue. He expressed how he loved the combination of teaching and research because if he was low on good research ideas, he still had work teaching and new ide as sometimes came from revisiting topic s that he knew well from preparing his lectures. Shortly before he experienced the cafeteria event, Feynman decided that he was burnt out on his physics research. The conversation with Bob Wilson, the head of the

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201 Co rnell lab who reassured Feynman that he was happy with his teaching, released him from the pressures of pursuing his research. Feynman's story encapsulates many of the socio physical factors that comprise a creative problem finding environment. He worked in a place (the university) that provided him an appropriate setting to conduct his work (his laboratory) and also provided a rich, flexible and varied environment which he experienced while he taught classes and moved about the campus for other purposes, such as eating lunch in the cafeteria. The socio cultural env ironment fostered by Bob Wilson helped Feynman to alleviate some of his self induced pressure to perform. This, in turn, gave Feynman a new mindset about how to approach his research to consid er it play. All of these aspects of place physical, socio cultural, and cognitive combined to form the problem finding environment, or context, for Feynman's anecdote. This new problem finding environment also seems to have grown in size due to the all eviation of social and cognitive constraints. As he broadened his idea about how to approach his creative work (as play) he consequently increased the size of his attentional net. Any setting could now become a resource for phys ics problems to pursue. This enabled him to exploit the university cafeteria as a problem finding environment. Anecdotes like Feynman's may capture our imagination because, at first glance, they seem like the happy accident of good fortune. But, as Louis Pasteur famously quoted Dans les champs de l'observation le hasard ne favorise que les esprits prÂŽparÂŽs ." (Where observation is concerned, chance favors only the prepared mind.) Feynman was looking at his environment with new eyes. He was open to opportunities that might allow him to play with physics. Creative people may talk about being lucky, but few leave serendipity to chance. They become experts at perceiving the opportunities afforded by their resource rich e nvironments. Conclusion: Implications for Practice The Creativity in Context framework clearly illustrates how features of the physical environment were in fact instrumental to Feynman's creative process. Rumination was supported

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202 by the socio cultural freedom to play with physics and the physical freedom to walk about on th e university campus. Problem finding was supported by the opportunities he had to observe everyday physics phenomena in the dense and diverse spaces afforded by the university setting. His perception of the event of the plate flying through the air and the attributes of the spinning plate engendered the discovery of a new problem to pursue. This suggests that although the role of the designed environment in creativity is a difficult issue to examine, the Creativity in Context Theoretical Framework does prov ide a structure that organizes empirical investigation. I propose this framework as an alternative to Csikszentmihalyi's (1996, p. 135) claim that empirical investigation into the r ole of the physical environment in creativity is likely impossible.

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203 CHAPTER VII RICH ENVIRONMENTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE EMPOWERING THE CREATIVE PRACTITIONER THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN METHODS AND PRINCIPLES Highlights This chapter is a discus sion of the practical implications of the Multi Modal Process Model of Creative Practice and the Creativity in Context Theoretical Framework. I introduce t he Rich Environments Design Principles and Methods as a foundational set of guidelines, based on the Creative Practice model and Creativity in Context framework, to assist environmental designers and users as they plan and evaluate settings to support creativity. The Rich Environments Design Principles provide a type of critiquing system to help environme ntal designers use the best available empirical evidence to inform their designs. The Rich Environments Design Methods suggest planning and post occupancy evaluation strategies that support an evidence based approach to environmental design. Together the M ulti Modal Process Model of Creative Practice, the Creativity in Context Theoretical Framework, and the Rich Environments Design Principles and Methods provide a preliminary structure to guide the development of future empirical and design based research a nd theory around the role of the designed environment in creativity. Introduction Review In Chapter s V and VI I presented the Multi Modal Process Model of Creative Practice and the Creativity in Context Theoretical Framework to describe the person environment relationship during creativity. The purpose of the Creative Practice Model was to demonstrate

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204 how creativity is a physically situated process and features of the designed environment are instrumental to the different modes of creativity. I proposed the Creativity in Context framework as a structure to organize empirical investigation around the role of the designed environment in creative processes. The framework is also a response to Csikszentmihalyi's (1996, p. 135) claim that such empirical investigation is likely impossible. I explained how the theoretical framework illustrates three different propositions about the designed environment. First, c reative practiti oners exploit, leverage, manipulate and alter features of the designed environment to improve creative ability and productivity. Second, they use e nvironmental features to help engender, sustain, inhib it and curtail different modes of creativity. Third, th e affordances of creative situation are affected by changes in a person's mode of creative cognition and changes in the designed environmental The Creativity in Context framework also organizes features of the designed environment in a multiscalar taxonom y that is intended to be useful for informing environmental design processes and strategies for settings to support creativity. Thesis In this chapter I discuss some of the implications of the Creative Practice model and Creativity in Context framework for the design of settings intended to support creativity. I will do this through the introduction of the Rich Environments Design Methods and Principles. 62 I describe how R ich Environment s are settings that empower creative practitioner s to exploit the rich v ariety of affordances the settings offer in order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of their creative efforts. Rich Environments empower the practitioner to sustain productive modes of creativity and transition between modes as productivity wanes They are settings that balance a predictable structure providing the necessary environmental preconditions to engender and sustain a user's creative modes with opportunities for users to manipulate or change 62 The term "enriched environments" is used in the neuroscience literature to describe complex environments associated with increased neural plasticity and neurogenesis in adult rats. This has spawned a growing sector of research examining implications for human brain health, particularly in aging adults. My definition is dist inct from the neuroscience term; however future research may suggest whether there is a potential for synergistic overlap between the se two sectors.

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205 environments to elicit new modes or unanticipa ted (and potentially serendipitous) situations. This balance of structure and responsivity distinguishes Rich Environments from some of the strategies discussed in the review of creative environments presented in Chapter II. Significance The purpose of th is chapter is to illustrate how the Creativity in Context Theoretical Framework provides a basis for the construction of explanations and predictions about how features of the de signed environment support people's creative work. The framework has practical implications for evidence based environmental design strategies to support creativity. The Center for Health Design defines evidence based design as a method for basing environmental design decisions on the best available research evidence with the goal of improving outcomes and of continuing to monitor the success or failure for subsequent decision making" (Ulrich, Zimring, Joseph, Quan, & Choudhary, 2004) The Rich Environments Design Methods and Principles will illustrate how the Creativity in Context framework may be used as a foundation upon which to build a body of knowledge around the role of the designed environment in creative processes. The Rich Environm ents Design Principles are intended to serve as a preliminary structure to guide environmental design strategies. The Rich Environments Design Methods suggest how environmental designers can contribute valuable data from real world situations to inform and continue to develop the framework into a full theory about the role of the designed environment in creativity. As such, the Creativity in Context framework provides a structure from which environmental design strategies can be empirically grounded tested and refined Rich Environments Environmental design is a creative endeavor and thus (like all creative endeavors) the final product cannot be fully anticipated at the onset of the creative process. Unlike some other forms of creativity, however, environ mental designers cannot truly perceive the outcomes of their

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206 creative actions until the final creative product is implemented (i.e. constructed and inhabited) at which point it is generally too late to make changes. Rittel and Webber (1973) once wrote, "the planner has no right to be wrong." The same could be said for the other environmental design professions. Environmental designers are responsible for the outcomes of their actions; and the stakes are often high. They may use significant resources (time, materials, money, etc.) to plan and construct a project, the consequences of which may significantly impact users and stakeholders. Their creative processes are conversations with the materials that simulate the creative situa tion: sketches, measured drawings, cardboard models, and digital images. Thus they rely on heuristics and prior experiences to help them make the best design decisions they can (Schšn, 1983) I present the Rich Environm ents Design Principles and Methods as a resource to help environmental designers make empirically based predictions about how their designs may impact users. The guidelines proposed here are intended as a system from which they can critique planning strate gies and post occupancy evaluation processes. These guidelines are also "living documents" to not only inform environmental designs, but to also be revised and developed in response to the outcomes of design based research. In the following sections I wil l outline some recommendations for methods and principles to guide the design of Rich Environments to support creativity. First, I begin by proposing general design principles that illustrate how environmental features may support the cognitive and social processes of creativity throughout each of the five creative modes. I will also explain how these principles differ from the design strategi es reviewed in Chapter II. The design principles for Rich Environments described here should be considered a prelimi nary list (or "starter kit") from which researchers and environmental design professionals may build a more developed body of knowledge. Second, I will explain how design interventions to support the different creative modes are multi scalar in nature. Thi s suggests that each of the environmental design disciplines must have an awareness of how design interventions at their particular environmental scale (e.g. product, interior architecture, landscape, region or city) fit within the context of the other d esign professions. Third, I discuss how Rich Environments must support both domain specific

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207 and individualized creative practices and recommend some methods to gather this information during the planning process. These methods are introduced in light of th e fact that creative people may not explicitly know what environmental features could best support their practice. Finally, I describe how ultimately the success of a place intended to support creativity will hinge on its responsivity its ability to adap t to the changing nature of individual and collective creative practices over time. The transactional relationship between person and environment suggests that a variety of environmental features and settings may be required to fully support the entire cre ative process. Creativity happens over time and space, and not necessarily in a single room or even a single building. Environmental designers must consider the physical features needed to support multiple modes of creativity, both solitary and social acti vities, and design interventions at multiple scales from tools to cities. Strategies for the design of settings to support creativity may include 1) tailoring spaces to support particular modes of creativity 2) creating spaces that empower people to alt er features of their environments, and 3) allowing people the flexibility to work amongst a variety of different settings. I will refer to such settings as Rich Environments They are appropriate for the activities they support, informed by the best empiri cal evidence and user input, and encourage variation and flexibility to both empower and enrich the experiences of the creative practitioner. Rich Environments provide structure and support for the entire creative process (from problem finding to evaluati on) and thus must consider the different preconditions necessary for engendering and sustaining each mode of creativity. This next section will discuss the implications for general design principles that apply to each creative mode. As illustrated in Chapt er V, there appear to be five distinct modes that are involved in creativity. These five modes also seem to be common to all creative prac titioners. The differences between people's creative practices appear to arise from the domain specific activities in which they engage during these modes and the personalized (and sometimes seemingly idiosyncratic) ways in which they exploit features of the designed environment to engender, sustain, or inhibit modes. I suggest

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208 that along with these individual differences, there are also some common and necessary environmental preconditions that design professionals should consider when devising settings to support creativity. A graphical summary of the Rich Environments Design Princ iples is provided at the end of this section, in Table VII .1. Design Principles for Problem F inding Problem finding is supported by a combination of cognitive (Hayes, 1989; Jay & Perkins, 1997) socio cultural (Amabile, 1996; Csikszentmihalyi, 1996) and physical preconditions that form an environment which enables dis covery and adoption of creative problems. A creative person must have adequate preparation in a particular domain and an identified area of concern in order to recognize a problem finding opportunity (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; Hayes, 1989; Jay & Perkins, 1997) In Feynman's case, he had acquired significant knowledge of physics and recently developed a concern f or opportunities to "play" with it (Feynman & Leighton, 1997, p. 172) The socio cultural environment may support or inhibit creativity by its impact on a person's motivation, freedom, and organizational pressures (Amabile et al., 1996; Csikszentmihalyi, 1996, pp. 36 50; Feldman et al., 1994b) This was also illustrated in Feynman's anecdote as he described the socio cultural freedom to broaden his research focus by looking for opportuniti es to play with physics (Feynman & Leighton, 1997, p. 172) This socio cultural freedom arose through the combination of his decision to "give up" on his research a nd the assurance from Bob Wilson that his job would not be in jeopardy if he did so (Feynman & Leighton, 1997, p. 173) It appears Feynman was then able to expand h is focus of attention to include creative opportunities that might otherwise have been beyond the periphery of his area of concern. Together cognitive and socio cultural conditions form a socio psychological environment providing the necessary precondition s to allow the creative practitioner the freedom to discover new problems. The physical environment supports problem finding by providing affordances that can arouse curiosity and enable problem discovery. Cornell University provided opportunities for Feyn man through its diversity of settings within the university campus where he could observe

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209 everyday physics phenomena (Feynman & Leighton, 1997, p. 173) His experti se in physics and his intention to "play" with it, when combined with the socio cultural freedom explore new opportunities, appeared to help him perceive affordances in the event of a plate flying across the cafeteria In Feynman's (1997, pp. 172 173) anecdote he describes how the socio cultural environment helped him to cast a wide attentional net to seek problem finding aff ordances in his environment (i.e. opportunities to play with physics) when Bob Wilson reduced his pressure to produce "important" research. Feynman's physics expertise and intentions to "play" with physics also likely helped him filter out sensory informa tion from his environment that did not match his concerns The socio physical environment supports creative practitioners by enabling them to perceive problem finding affordances, allowing them freedom to explore their interests and concerns in a variety o f resource abundant settings. As illustrated in Feynman's anecdote problem finding frequently happens at the intersection of preparation, concern, and socio physical opportunity. Problem Finding Places : Serendipitous Settings Environmental design strategi es to support problem finding traditionally emphasize social density and diversity (Florida, 2002a; Johnson, 2010; Landry, 2000) As illustrated in Chapter II, this strategy is manifest in the links/nodes design pattern, and generally is found at larger scales of the designed environment: city planning policies, urban design strategies, and architectural designs for larger buildings or complexes (Florida, 2012; Landry, 2000; Lazzeretti, Boix, & Capone, 2008; O'Connor, 2004) These are places that attract and connect people in order to set the stage for serendipitous events. Richard Feynman's problem finding anecdote as illustrated in Chapter VI, both provides support for this design strategy and highlights its limitations. The links/nodes pattern suggests that creative environments sh ould be designed to promote nodes (or areas) of social density, with links to connect diverse nodes (Florida, 2 002a; Landry, 2000; Stolarick & Florida, 2006) The Cornell cafeteria described in Feynman's story

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210 would likely qualify in this pattern as a node of social density. U niversity campus setting s often facilitate easy connectivity between different nodes, s uch as departments, dormitories, and other support functions (libraries, dining halls, etc.) (P. V. Turner, 1984) The assumption behind the links/nodes pattern is that it will foster social interaction people will inter act by talking to each other and sharing ideas (Drake, 2003; Florida, 2003; O'Connor, 2004) T his concept of facilitating problem finding through social inte raction (i.e. talking) is common in the creativity and environmental design literatur e (Florida, 2012; Johnson, 20 10; R. J. Sternberg, 2006b) What is particularly interesting about the Feynman example, however, is that it illustrates a different type of interaction. One that is indirect. Feynman was an outside observer of the plate tossing event. Had he been dire ctly involved in social inter action during this event, it is questionable whether he would have perceived the spin to wobble ratio of the plate as an opportunity to play with physics. While it is likely that some problem finding modes are engendered throug h conversations with other people, there are many anecdotes where this is not the case 63 In these situations problem finding is triggered through observation of an event or process which peaks the creative practitioners curiosity. This suggests that socia lly dense and diverse environments are likely not sufficient for supporting problem finding modes, but may be combined with environments that are physically dense and diverse as well to create settings rich with environmental affordances. To more effect ively design for the different types of conditions that support problem finding, the links/nodes design strategy should be reconsidered. It may be extended to include physical density and diversity by adopting the concepts of "tight" and "loose" spaces dev eloped by Franck and Stevens (2007) Tight space offers only specific types of programmed use, may include physical and social constraints or particular restrictions to limit (or prohibit) other uses, and is generally static (Franck & Stevens, 2007, pp. 16 28) Loose space offers opportunities for 63 See for example Cech's (2010) account of his discovery of the enzyme properties of RNA, the story of Sir Isaac Newton's observation of a falling apple as the inspiration for his universal theory of gravity (J. L. Epstein, 1979) or Alexan der Flemings discovery of penicillin in a moldy petri dish (Bennett & Chung, 2001, p. 168)

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211 different activities to occur simultaneously and enables activities not originally intended by the design of the space. Loose spaces must be easily accessible, allow for freedom of choice, and include objects that may be appropriated for different uses (Franck & Stevens, 2007, p. 2) Althou gh Franck and Stevens apply the concept of loose space primarily to the domain of public setting s ( such as streets, sidewalks, and plazas, ) the principle may be useful for supporting problem finding at other scales of the designed environment as well. Loose spaces may occur both at linkages and at nodes ( such as the Cornell cafeteria). They are settings that place fewer restrictions on people's behavior, allowing for a wider range of opportunities, events, an d processes than tightly programmed settings (Franck & Stevens, 2007) Problem finding is supported by settings that enable serendipity and discovery These settings may be formed through design strategies that comb ine accessibility and variety: of links and nodes, of density and diversity, and of tight and loose spaces. They may be places of social density, which attract people to them, or places of experimentation where unexpected events may take place. Places that support problem finding provide the structure to enable social interactions and unanticipated situations that may occur at the edges of domains or the periphery of the creative practitioner's attentional field. Problem Finding Events and Processes : Attractor/Reactor Spaces Event and processes support the adoption of existing problems or the discovery of new creative problems through social interactions and serendipitous situations (Burke, 2007; Mark A. Runco, 2007a, pp. 390 396) Burke (2007) introduces the concept of the "trigger effect" in creativity to explain how a single event can trigger a chain reaction of creative problem finding opportunities. He describes how an accidental materia l failure led Thomas Newcomen to discover the powerful force of steam. This led to his invention of the Newcomen Steam Engine, which, in turn, triggered a creative "reaction" where a series of new products and processes ignited the industrial revolution. B urke's work emphasizes the connectedness of creative discoveries, where one event can generate a ripple effect of new problem finding opportunities across domains.

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212 Serendipitous events and processes engender the discovery of new creative problems (Mark A. Runco, 2007a, pp. 235 236, 390 396) but how does one design for serendipity? By adding the concept of loose space to the links/nodes design strategy, I suggest we may begin to form a structure for environments to support the types of events and processes that lead to discovery of creative problems. Loose spaces not only support a wide variet y of events and activities, but they become loose through the events and processes that take place within them (Franck & Stevens, 2007) While this may appear to be a circular relationship, in reality it is anothe r example of the intertwined relationship between the physical and the social in the formation of environme nts to support creativity. P hysical setting s that support serendipity allow possibilities for diverse and sometimes disorderly events and processes T he space however, is not "loose" until people appropriate it (Franck & Stevens, 2007) thus both the social cultural and the physical environment must allow appropriation of space. Loose spaces are typically not u n programmed (Franck & Stevens, 2007) They are designed for particular uses, but do not place high constraints on unanticipated activities that might also occur within them (Fra nck & Stevens, 2007) In other words, loose spaces empower people to initiate unplan ned for events and processes (triggers) and offer settings where people can encounter unexpected situations that might spark problem finding opportunities (reactions). Problem Finding (Place scale) Objects : Loose Parts Loose spaces need loose parts objects that may be usurped in unplanned for events and processes (Nicholson, 1971) The concept of "loose parts" is attributed to Simon Nicholso n's (1971) theory of the same name. According to Nicholson, "in any environment, both the degree of inventiveness and creativity, and the possibility of discovery, are directly proportional to the number and kind of variables in it" (1971, p. 30) He based his theory on research with children in settings such as natural and designed outdoor play areas, discovery learning classrooms, and science museums where they had access to many moveable and r e configurable objects. Loose parts are place scale objects that can be moved, transported, disassembled, combined, and

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213 reconfigured in multiple ways (Nicholson, 1971) The plate in Feynman's story was a "loose part an object i n the cafeteria that was appropriated in the unplanned for event of throwing it across the room. 64 Loose parts are instrumental for people ( both creative practitioners and other actors in the environment) to choreograph events and processes that may enable the discovery of creative problems. They provide increased opportunities for variety in the activities that might occur in a setting (Nicholson, 1971) Problem Finding Rel ationships : Participant/Observer The relationship between the creative practitioner and the events and processes that support problem finding fall into two general categories: observer and participant Feynman's (1997) anecdote is about his role as an observer of an event (p. 173) He is not directly involved in the plate throwing activity and this appears to help him see the situation from the context of physics, his domain of interest. Were he directly involved in the event he might, for example, have seen the situation from the persp ective of someone trying to catch or avoid the flying plate. Because he was n ot an active participant in the event, he had freedom (and time) to perceive the problem finding affordances of the situation Active participation can also lead to problem find ing. The chemist Tom Cech (2010) discovered a scientific problem that led to the Nobel Prize through his active participation in experiments that were driven by simple curiosity ab out how does RNA splicing occur ." Cech begins his story by describing how this experimentation was particularly significant for him because he did it "with my own hands." He set out to uncover the protein that was causing catalyzation in his experiments on a single celled pond organism only to realize (after numerous experiments over the course of a year) that it was the RNA itself that was the catalyst. Prior to his discovery, scientist s believed that only proteins could act as catalysts (Cech, 2010; "HHMI," 2012) The unexpected outcomes of his experiments (i.e. breakdowns) caused a shift in the way 64 The event was "unplanned for" in terms of the architectural design of the s etting, as a cafeteria is not typically designed for plate throwing. I do not refer here to the intentions of the person who threw the plate, since this cannot be known from the available information.

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214 Cech thought about the problem of the catalyst (Cech, 2010) 65 Cech's story illust rates how situated deliberation can lead to problem finding (McCall, 2013) It was through a breakdown in reflection that Cech discovered the problem of the catalyst in his experiments. Creative practices involve exploration, and unexpected events can sometimes yield new and exciting problems to purs ue. Problem Finding Attributes : Apertures and Thresholds The attributes of places, ev ents, processes and objects support problem finding by facilitating different relationships between creative practitioner s and the events or processes that may lead to pr oblem adoption or discovery Many of the attributes that support creative problem finding have already been introduced in the previous sections. Some of these a ttributes include density, diversity, and connectivity to support problem discovery or adoption through socia l interaction. L oose spaces also support opportunities for serendipity. Attributes for p lace scale object s that support problem finding include movability, transportability, and re configurability. There are also attributes such as apertures and thresholds, that may mediate relationships between the creative practitioner and the events and processes that engender or sustain problem finding. Apertures are openings that negotiate the type and level of engagement between the creative practitione r and an event or processes D oors and windows are common apertures in buildings For example, a door may be open to foster visual and auditory engagement between a creative person and others in an adjacent space. Or the door may be ajar to provide only an auditory relationship, or closed to muffle or distort the interactions between a person and the event s that occur on the other side of the door Thresholds are transitions between settings. Windows, doorways, hallways, changes in flooring materials, and e ven the implied division between areas of high and low lighting levels may form thresholds between people and events or 65 Cech's anecdote describes what Thomas S. Kuhn (1996, p. 6) refers to as a "scientific revolution." Kuhn describes how scientific "anomalies" (outcomes that do not align with professional expectations) can create paradigm shifts within a fie ld of practice.

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215 processes. The nature of the threshold affects the context of the se relationship s. For example, a creative person m ay be a participant i n an event or process when there is no threshold separating them. As a participant observer, the creative practitioner might stand in an open doorway, alternating between watching as an observer and contributing to the conversation as a participant. Finally, a participant might watch an event from behind a window or door in order to sustain observation. In Feynman's story, he found a creative problem by observing the event of the flying plate (Feynman & Leighton, 1997, pp. 173 174) Even in a public cafeteria, the features of the room can create thresholds that support different relationships between creative practitioners and the events and processes that may enable problem finding. For example, sitting at a table where an event occurs supports participation in that event, whereas sitting at a different table supports observation of the event. Although we do not know the specif ics of the room configuration, we may assume that Feynman observed the plate flying event from a distance (or he might be been bu sy ducking instead of observing.) Y et he was close enough for it to capture his interest and allow him to perceive the attribut es of the plate. In this case some combination of the features and attributes of the place, where he was positioned in the room with respect to the event, along with the distance between him and the event, formed a threshold that enabled him to be an obser ver and not a participant in the situation. Settings support problem finding through social interaction and serendipitous situations by attracting and connecting people, and enabling them to observe or participate in unplanned activities. Design Principles for Intuitive Immersion While problem finding is engendered by a creative practitioner's interactions with other people and unexpected situations, the immersion mode is inhibited by surprising situations (Csiksze ntmihalyi, 1996, p. 120; Schšn, 1983, p. 56) Immersion is engendered when the creative practitioner sustains focused attention solely on the creative task at hand (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996, pp. 58, 111 112) This is one of the most difficult modes to engender

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216 and sustain and the most sensiti ve to environmental conditions (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990, p. 54) Immersion requires certain preconditions, and foremost among these is disengagement from both explicit social engagement and situations with potentially unpredictable outcomes (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996, pp. 111 123) Even after sustained focus is attained, the improvisatory relationship established between the creative practitioner and the creative product remains fragile. T he slightest interruption or unanticipated event may cause a breakdown in immersion (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996, p. 120; Schšn, 1983, p. 54) Immersion requir es significant mental preparation and effort (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990, p. 54) which the socio physical environment may either support by protecting creative practitioners from interruptions and distractions or hinder by leaving practitioners vulnerable to outside forces that interfere with their work. Immersion Places: Inspirational Settings Settings that support intuitive immersion are often inspirational for creative prac titioners (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996, pp. 133 139, 354 357) They make it easier for people to immerse themselves in creative investigation with a product or idea (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996, pp. 354 357) During the immersion m ode, people generally prefer predictable and comfortable settings (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996, p. 139) Empirical evidence suggests that people not only prefer views of nat ure and natural lighting during immersion (Ceylan et al., 2008; McCoy & Evans, 2002) but that daylighting (Bou bekri et al., 1991; Choi, 2012; Heschong et al., n.d.; Leather et al., 1998; Wang & Boubekri, 2010, 2011) and viewing plants (Bringslimark et al., 2009; Dijkstra et al., 2008; Raanaas et al., 2011) also help them sustain attention. Artifacts in the setting, and often the setting itself, are used as a stimulus to help the creat ive practitioner find and sustain the focus needed for intuitive immersion (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996, p. 356) An inspirational setting may be a designated space (such a s a studio or office) or a discovered place (such as a f avorite cafŽ, park, or niche at home,) so long as the affordances of the place fit the person's need to engage in creative activities without interruption. A cafŽ may be very appropriate for a writer who is able to carry along the tools needed, whereas a scientist may

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217 prefer a laboratory setting that contains the specialized equipment necessary for creative productivity. Marcel Proust famously remained house bound during much of his creative career, wo rking in a cork lined room an inner sanctum where he had a high degree of control over social interactions as well as sounds and smells that might interfere with his ability to focus on his writing (Fuss, 2004) Whether cafŽ, laboratory, home office, or studio, places that support immersion provide a high degree of user control and contain the tools and materials needed to sustain a creative task. Places that support intuitive immersion allow the creative practitioner to control or limit intrusions. During immersion creative people must maintain a narrow focus on the task at hand (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990, p. 58) Unanticipated interruptions typically disrupt attention and curtail the immersion mode (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996, p. 120; Schšn, 1983, pp. 54, 60) Painter Andrew Wyeth's studio, located in the pa storal Pennsylvania countryside, has large windows to capture the northern light, palette and brushes ready at hand, notes to himself scrawled on the woodwork and a sign prominently displayed on the front door stating "I AM WORKING SO PLEASE DO NOT DIST URB. I do not sign autographs One example of the need for creative people to prevent unanticipated events during immersion is Coleridge's (1816, pp. 50 57) famous account of an interruption when he was writing the poem titled Kubla Kha n In his introduction to the poem, Coleridge describes how he composed between 200 and 300 lines of the poem while in a drug induced sleep. Upon waking he immersed himse lf in writing the poem, only to be interrupted by "a person on business from Por lock, and detained by him above an hour" (Coleridge, 1816, p. 52) When he returned to his writing, he wa s only able to remember "some eight or ten scattered lines and images." For Coleridge, the intuitive flow of creative thought had been irreparably disrupted "like the images on the surface of a stream into which a stone has been cast, but, alas! without th e after restoration of the latter" (Coleridge, 1816, p. 53) S ettings that support immersion provide more user control over interruptions than problem finding spaces, but they are still adaptable to accommodate changes in creative work habits To sustain immersion, however, t he creative practitioner must be the one to orchestrate

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218 all adaptations because unanticipated events curtail the mode (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990, pp. 59 62) Many creative practitioners develop a routine in their environment to help them engender and sustain creative immersion (e.g. cleaning up work surfa ces, or setting out favorite tools or meaningful artifacts ) (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996, pp. 351 358; Fig, 2009) When they feel creativity waning they may change routines, alter features of their workspace, or even move to a new setting to help engender and sustain immersion (Fig, 2009) Three key principles therefore emerge from settings that support immersion First, they provide opportunities for users to personalize their spaces. Second, they enable users to change (alter) a space or options to change (move) spaces to engender immersion and 3) they help users to control distractions and, in particular, to moderate social interactions. Immersion Events and P rocesses: Improvisation Spaces There are s everal common events and processes in which people engage during immersion Because immersion requires sustained attention on the task at hand, people must first disengage from direct social interactions that would prevent them from focusing on the creativ e task (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990, pp. 58 59) This event may be as simple as closing an office door to prevent unexpected interruptions or pu tting on headphones to signal to other people that they do not wish to be disturbed. Next, creative practitioners must overcome physical distr actions or barriers to sustain attention on the creative task at hand (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996, pp. 120 121) As mentioned in the previous section, s ome people use rituals to help them mentally prepare for this period of sustained focus easing the ir transition into the immersion mode (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996, pp. 351 358) A ritual may be an event (such as turning on the radio) or a process ( such as making a cup of tea or coffee. ) In his biography, Stephen King is quoted as describing how environmental conditions play a role in his rituals to engender immersion. There are certain things I do if I sit down to write, I have a gla ss of water or a cup of tea. There's a certain time I sit down, from 8:00 to 8:30, somewhere within that half hour every morning, I have my vitamin pill and my music, sit in the same seat, and the papers are all arranged in the same places. The

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219 cumulative purpose of doing these things the same way every day seems to be a way of saying to the mind, y ou're going to be dreaming soon (Rogak, 2010) Finally, creative practitioners externalize an idea in different ways (e.g. making, composi ng, writing, diagramming, etc .) in order to obtain immediate feedback in response to their intentions (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990, pp. 54 58) The creative practitioner tightly orchestrates all of the events and processes that occur during creative immersion because predictability and control help sustain the mode an d unanticipated situations curtail it (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990, pp. 59 62; Schšn, 1983, p. 56) Immersion ( Place scale ) Objects: Instrumentation Instrumental to supporting immersion are the tools and materials used during exte rnalization of the creative idea or product (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Schšn, 1983) When they are ready at hand, predictable, and customary they help the creative practitioner sustain attention on the task at hand (Sennett, 2008) They are the prop s that set the stage for the creative performance between practitioner and the creative product. Familiar tools do not demand people's attention, allowing them instead to focus on the products of their creative effort. They also extend the practitioners' c reative abilities by allowing them to externalize an idea in different ways (GŠnshirt, 2007) F urniture and other artifacts not directly used during the externalization process also support creative immersion when they are part of the inspirational atmosphere of the setting (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990) T heir comfort, aesthetic qualities, or personal significance may help the creative practitioner engender immersion. Some cr eative people like to be surrounded by favorite books, or prefer to have nearby a mug given to them as a gift from their child, or hang on the wall an inspirational image whether that be a family portrait, favorite saying, or a photograph of a majestic l andscape. These artifacts help to set the ambiance of the setting, but do not draw attention from the creative task at hand during immersion They form the background conditions that help people sustain focus on their creative work.

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220 Immersion Relationship s: Transparent Equipment Relationships significant to the immersion mode primarily occur between the creative practitioner and the objects located in the creative setting. These relationships generally take two forms. 66 In the first type of relationship ob jects function as transparent equipment to the practitioners, providing the necessary environmental conditions to allow them to focus solely on the creative situation (Sennett, 2008) They include the tools used to ex ternalize a creative idea as well as the furniture, fixtures, and other artifacts that make up the creative settings. The se place scale objects function because they do not draw attention from the task at hand. If the pencil breaks or the light bulb burns out, the equipment is no longer transparent to the practitioner and disrupts creative immersion All the objects in settings that support immersion except the externalized product of the creative idea function as transparent equipment, allowing the practitioner to focus solely on the improvisational relationship with the creative product. The second type of relationship is between the creative p ractitioner and the externalized creative idea (product) such as a diagram, drawing, model, text, recording, etc. Unlike other objects in an immersion setting, which function as transparent equipment, the creative product helps to sustain the creative prac titioner's attention to it (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990) It supports idea generation by providing immediate feedback in response to the creative practitioner's actions (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990) The creative product is something that people use to think intuitively about their ideas (Schšn, 1983) Objects in the setting that are not transparent to the creative practitioner attract attention. If these are not the objects of the creative situation (e.g. a squeaky chair or drafty room) then the creative practitioner cannot maintain undivided attention to the task at hand, and immersion breaks down. 66 See Chapter III for a more detailed explanation of embodied and embedded cognition and Chapter V further discussion of the role of tools and externalized creative ideas (products) in creative cognition.

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221 Immersion Attributes: Buffers The at tributes of places and place scale objects that support immersion share many common features. They are available (ready at hand,) predictable, customary, comfortable, pleasant, and, to some extent, inspirational to the creative practitioner (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990, 1996; Schšn, 1983; Sennett, 2008) The immersion state can be challenging to both achieve and maintain, and these attributes help the creative person to engage with the task at hand and mainta in a sustained focus (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990, 19 96) S ettings and objects that support immersion serve to protect or buffer the creative pr actitioner from interruptions or intrusions. Virginia Woolf famously wrote "a woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction" (Woolf, 2001, p. 6) Although we now understand the creative process to be more complex than visions of a creative genius locked alone in a roo m, Woolf captures this important aspect of creative immersion p erhaps too often overlooked in workplace and educational settings where the focus is often on favoring social interactions over solitary processes. 67 Design Principles for Explicit Reflection Reflection is the process of critiquing the creative product or i dea and involves both solitary and social processes (Rittel & Webber, 1984; Schšn, 1983) 68 As previously discussed in Chapter V, reflectio n is a form of deliberation used during the creative process to both improve creative ideas and generate new ones (Schšn, 1983) The mode is characterized by the externalization of the creative idea in order to investigate its merit and garner a new perspective on the creative situation (Schšn, 1983) Its purpose is to make explicit the intuitive assumptions that informed the work of the creative practitioner during immersion and critique the externalized creative idea or product in light of these assu mptions (Schšn, 1983) Settings, tools, and 67 See Chapter II for additional dis cussion regarding the tendency of environmental designers to emphasize strategies fostering social interactions in settings intended to support creativity. 68 Refer to Chapter V for additional discussion about how reflection is a valuative process that invo lves surfacing assumptions, raising and deliberating questions, and uncovering hidden affordances.

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222 materials are all used by the creative practitioner to help perceive new affordances in the creative situation (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; GŠnshirt, 2007; Kipling, 1937; Schšn, 198 3; Suchman, 2007) Reflection Places: Deliberation Settings The externalization of the creative idea is fundamental to the reflective process and s ettings that support reflection provide resources to help the creative practitioner externalize and appr ai se an idea in a variety of ways (Schšn, 1983) They may scaffold opportunities for unanticipated situations and social interactions that might provide new and different insights about the creative idea or product The externalization of a creative idea stimulates exploration of it through forms of solitary and social valuation (Schšn, 1983) Settings that support both intrapersonal and interpersonal reflection provide a variety of w ays for a creative idea to be externalized and invite social interactions around the appraisal of creative products. They are places that are readily accessible, adapt to user's changing needs, and provide a variety of resources to facilitate the presentat ion and critique of creative ideas. "Flexible" settings, such as the innovation labs described in Chapter II, typically claim to support the types of evaluative and collaborative processes that occur during reflection (Lewis & Moultrie, 2005; Magadley & Birdi, 2009) 69 However these spaces rarely provide the appropriate level of structure, flexibility, and resources necessary to optimally support the creative practitioner (Lewis & Moultrie, 2005; Magadley & Birdi, 2009) Flexible spaces in reality, are often either "in fle xible" or "un programmed" and thus rely on users to make them functional. 70 This may p ut undo burden on creative practitioners, and require them to divert attention away from the creative situation in order to make a setting functional. In response to the shortcoming of these types of spaces, I propose the concept of provocation settings 69 The term "flexible" is often used in conjunction with the creativity literature, but it is rarely defined. Sometimes it refers to the ability to reconfigur e a space, such as through moveable furniture systems. It is often used as a "catch all" phrase to support under designed designed spaces where the resources provided are insufficient to support the "possible" activities that might occur within. See Chapte r II for further description of these types of settings. 70 Un programmed spaces are not designed for any particular intended purpose, and thus are frequently underutilized because either people do not know how to use them, or it takes too much effort on the user's part to make them functional. See Chapter II for further explanation.

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223 Provocation settings are places that provoke exploration, are programmed to support anticipated user needs (planned to support user's needs for presentati on and critique), and adaptable (reconfigurable by user s to support infrequent or unanticipated events and processes). Provocation settings that support critical reflection are more structured than problem finding settings but less structured than settings designed to support immersion They are places that help a person t o focus on the task at hand and also provide resources to assist the creative practitioner in perceiving the creative situation from different perspective s, helping them uncover hidden and potential affordances through their own valuative explorations and social critique S ettings that support reflection are available reconfigurable, and provide a variety of resources to help change the relationship between creative practitioner and the cr eative idea or product. The architectural design studio is one setting that embodies some of these principles and it was this very setting that proved instrumental in informing Schšn's (1983, 1985) theory of reflective practice. In the design studio practitioners use a variety of tools, mate rials, and strategies to gain different perspectives on their design (Cross, 2006; GŠnshirt, 2007; Sennett, 2008) 71 Architects use a suite of different drawing types and methods to help them perceive different affordances, including rough sketches and hard line drawings that present different views of a design (such as plans, sections, elevations, obliques, exploded a xonometrics, perspectives, etc. ) (S. All en, 2009; Robin Evans, 2000) They may use different media to render these drawings such as fat markers, mechanical pencils, and digital software (Cross, 2006; GŠnshirt, 2007; Sennett, 2008) They also use different drawing (rendering) techniques to explore things like volume, light and shadow, and spatial relationships (S. Allen, 2009) Even models provide different information according to their form and construction, including conceptual, sectional, digital, building information modeling (BIM), and energy analyses (Elser, Cachola Schmal, & Deutsches Architekturmuseum, 2012; Sennett, 2008) The many ways of externalizing the creative idea allow not only the practitioner to perceive different affordances, 71 See Chapter V for a more detailed explanation of how different ways of externalizing ideas changes a person's abilities to perceive affordances in the creative situation.

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224 but also invite critiques from other people, and even from computational methods. Studio settings support reflection by providing spaces for individual work as well as one on one and group critique. They also provide manual and computational tools, materials, equipment, and furniture to sup port multiple modes of inquiry through externalization of a creative idea. Because the modes of immersion and reflection are so intertwined, it is inevitable that they will often occur in the same space (Schšn, 1983) Such is the ca se in the design studio, where practitioners often need physical proximity to other designers in order to foster collaboration, while still maintaining personalized workspaces and practices to also allow them to focus on solitary processes (and indicate to coworkers that they do not wish to be disturbed.) Thus features of a single setting may allow adaptations to support both immersion and reflection. Even the simplest design interventions that enable a person to open/close doors and windows to allow/preven t unanticipated interactions can support both of these modes of creativity. Reflection Events and Processes: Evocation Spaces Reflection is often engendered by an unanticipated event (Schšn, 1983) The event may be th e creative practitioner's perception of a surprising new affordance or constraint in the creative situation or it may occur through social interactions with other people (Schšn, 1983) Other people can help the practiti oner perceive new affordances or constraints by critiquing the creative idea or product and by using the product in a way that the practitioner had not expected (McCall, 2013) Reflection is sustained so long as the creative practition er is able to perceive new affordances or constraints in the situation (Schšn, 1983) Practitioners may change their perceptions of the creative situation, such as by using different tools, materials, vantage points, or moving to a new context, in order to susta in reflection (GŠnshirt, 2007; Schšn, 1983) They may also change the way the situation is experienced by seeking out other people to provide critique or feedback from use (Fischer, 2005b; McCall, 2013) The creative practitioner may modulate the environmental conditions of the reflective space to sustain reflection This is done through adjustments and adaptations in the socio

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225 physical environment as well as through changes in the practitioner's own conceptions of reflective space by narrowin g and widening the attentional net In the design studio, students wear headphones (even when not listening to music) as a sign to others that they prefer not to be bothered during solitary reflection. Other times, they may set models or drawings out on th eir desk where others can see them, as either part of an implicit or explicit invitation for peer critique. They may pin a drawing up on a wall, standing away from it to try and perceive new affordances. This also invites other to attend to the artifact, p otentially eliciting feedback such as "I like that technique you used" or maybe you could try pushing this element over." For a more formal appraisal, the student will ask the instructor to participate in a desk critique. This is typically an interpersona l valuative process where the student and instructor work together exploring the design and trying different strategies to improve it. A more formal appraisal comes in the form of a pin up or formal critique, where students rehearse an argument for their d esigns and advocate their ideas to a jury of instructors and professionals. This form of social deliberation can be both valuative (focusing on the merits of the design) and evaluative (where jurors look for weaknesses in the designs and students defend th eir decisions). The goal of a modulative setting is to sustain reflection by helping the creative practitioner perceive affordances (or potential affordances) in a creative product or idea I t supports reflection by empowering the creative practitioner to modulate the events and processes that occur in the space. Reflection (Place scale) Objects: Things to Think With Place scale objects support reflection by extending people's creative abilities through use of familiar tools, helping them increase flexible thinking through unfamiliar tools and materials, and facilitating useful analogies as things to help them think about the creative idea (GŠnshirt, 2007; Pallasmaa, 2010; Turkle, 2007) People use "things to think with" during both intrapersonal and interpersonal reflection. I will use the metaphor of the "cabinet" and the "stage" to briefly describe this conce pt. The "cabinet" provides the personally useful things like tools, materials, and interesting objects (both physical and digital) to help the creative practitioner think in new

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226 ways about the creative idea. The "stage" provides the means to communicate th ese ideas to other people, to provoke interpersonal reflection. Creative practitioners use a variety of tools and mediums of communication to uncover hidden affordances, perceive potential affordances, and identify false affordances and constraints Pract itioners sometimes have preferred tools and materials that they feel help them in this process, such as Rudyard Kipling's preference for a camel hair brush and obsidian ink (Kipling, 1937) But they also use unfamiliar tools and new mediums of externalization to help them perceive the creative situation differently by becoming a "novice" in the creative situation such as when musicians use an unfamiliar instrument or artists experiment with a new medium to spur their creativity (Sawyer, 2012, p. 9) 72 As discussed in Chapter V, although expertise is a precondition for creativity, it comes at a cost, sometimes resulting in rigid thinking that can hinder creativity (R. Epstein, 1990; Frensch & Sternberg, 1989; Martinsen, 1995; R. J. Sternberg, 1997; W. M. Williams & Lang, 1999) Place scale objects help creative practitioners communicate the creative idea in different ways, allowing them t o perceive different affordances in the situation. Creative practitioners also exploit other, sometimes seemingly unrelated, objects in the environment to use as things to help them think about the creative idea. As described in Chapter V, architect John U tzon used an orange to think about the sectional organization of the Sydney Opera house and the rib like structures he observed in the shipyard outside his office helped him design the building s form (Peltason & Ong Yan, 2010) The focus of attention is a bit broader during reflection than immersion and may vary from narrower to wider as creative practitioners seek resources to aid reflection. Settings to support reflection benefit from having a variety of versatile, complex, and unfamiliar "evocative" objects that can be usurped by the creative practitioner to extend and improve reflective processes. These include different tools and materials for externalizing and communic ating creative ideas, as well as other types of personally 72 See Chapter IV for the cost of expertise and Chapter V for additional detail in how the musician Pansch and artist Arp used this strategy.

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227 interesting or inspirational objects that might help the creative practitioner think about the creative idea in new ways. Reflection Relationships: Cognitive Artifacts Reflection is maintained by t he changing relationship between the creative practitioner and the product of the externalized creative idea such as drawings, diagrams, models, etc How this relationship is changed will vary by creative domain and by personal preference, but there are s ome common strategies. Physically changing the vantage point between creative practitioner and creative product sometimes reveals new affordances Some examples of this include stepping back from a painting to view it from across the room, moving an archit ectural model to eye level to a lter the perception of scale, or changing the color of graphics in a diagram to better understand the relationship between elements. In this relationship, the creative product is an artifact of the practitioner's thoughts, id eas, and processes. Changing the relationship between creator and creation helps the creator to reflect on the thinking that went into it. Whereas many of the objects involved during the immersion mo de function as "invisible" equipment ( except the creativ e product ) during reflection place scale objects are most commonly leveraged as things to think with (cognitive artifacts.) Even tools and materials may become visible to practitioners as they consider the roles that they play in supporting reflection. Tools may be altered, used in unintended ways, or replaced in an effort to perceive new affordances in the creative situation. Other objects in the environment may be usurped to aid reflection, whether they are used as things to think with respective of th e creative situation, or cannibalized in serv ic e to externalization of the creative idea. Reflection Attributes: Variables Reflection is supported by places (and objects within them ) that are available, adaptable, re configurable, modulative (allow variabl e levels of con trol,) and resource rich. These are all attributes that facilitate responsivity. Responsivity is the ability of a system to adapt to changes

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228 fro m external forces. Resource rich environments those with many loose parts that can be appropria ted by the creative practitioner can improve responsivity in a reflective environment. The more variables the re are in a setting, the more it can adapt and change to meet the needs of the creative practitioner. The creative practitioner may modulate feat ures of a responsive setting to support social collaborations through critique and feedback from use provide opportunities for unpredictable situations and social in teractions, or externalize and communicate creative ideas in different ways to help percei ve new affordances in the situation Design Principles for Semi explicit Rumination Adaptive r umination is characterized by suspension of work on a creative problem, typically during a period of indecision, where the creative practitioner may mull ideas over in t he back of the mind either sub consciously or semi explicitly (Cohen & Ferrari, 2010) Places that support rumination are often (although not always) distinctly different from the places where creative practi tioners work. They are environments that engage the practitioner in an activity or task unrelated to the creative pr oblem (or at least seemingly so ) (Dijksterhuis & Meurs, 2006; Sio & Ormerod, 2009) These settings may help to improve creative productivity by sup porting tacit or sub conscious work on a creative problem (Dodds et al., 2012) Rumination Places: Restorative Settings Rumination is supported by settings that repair fixation on a creative problem by helping the creative practitioner defocus attention on it (Altamirano et al., 2010; Ciarocco et al., 2010; Cohen & Ferrari, 2010) Places that provide oppor tunities for enjoyable, low cognitive loa d, sensorimotor experiences may help distract the creative practitioner from an unproductive line of creative reasoning (Dijksterhuis & Meurs, 2006; Sio & Ormerod, 2009) Empirical evidence suggests physical activity (Ben Soussan et al., 2013; Blanchette et al., 2005; Cavallera et al., 2011) and access to natural settings (Berman et al., 2008; Herzog et al., 2003; Kaplan, 1995; Van Den Berg et al., 2007) improves productive rumination Settings with mod erate ambient

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229 noise also help repair creative fixation (Mehta et al., 2012) Rumination is supported by settings that are cognitively restorative for people by facilitating diffuse attention (Hernandez & Preston, 2013; Mehta et al., 201 2) 73 Places that support rumination may empower people to work sub consciously or tacitly on the creative problem Environmental cues may also facilitate novel combinations and mental connections that may lead to breakthroughs (Sio & Ormerod, 2009) The plaza at the Salk Institute 74 is one designed setting that is associated with rumination and illustrates some features of a place that may support this process. First, it is a tr ansitional space. The plaza connects two laboratory buildings, and so people must walk through it to move between the different work settings on the Salk campus. Second, the setting provides a rich multisensory experience through its materials, textures, a nd views and sounds of nature which may help people defocus attention and begin to ruminate. Third, the setting invites movement. The expansive plaza provides only a few opportunities to sit. Finally, the space provides a way for people to capture creati ve ideas. Many creative practitioners relate the fragility of ideas that emerge during rumination (Ghiselin, 1954) As discussed in Chapter II, the architect Louis Kahn intended the plaza space to be contemplative and anticipated that the scientists who used it might need somewhere to jot down a thought or idea that occurred during rumination. He provided chalkboard covers to the equipment chases at the perimeter of the plaza where people could use them to capture a creative insigh t that might pop into their heads during rumination. Rumination Events and Processes: Interstitial Spaces Rumination is supported by events and processes that help the creative practitioner disengage from work on the creative product or idea as we ll as fr om direct social interactions 73 Physical activity, access to nature, and ambient noise have all been found beneficial for rumination; but productive r umination may occur in other types of settings as well. In Chapter VI I described how Feynman was able to repair creative fixation during his "serious" research by distracting himself with an opportunity to "play" with physics. 74 See Chapter II for a more detailed discussion about how the design of the Salk Institute was intended to foster contemplative thought and creativity. It was inspired by Jonas Salk's belief that the time he spent among the cloistered courtyards of a monastery in Assisi, Italy led to his discovery of the polio vaccine.

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230 (e.g. holding a conversation with someone). Processes that entail working on enjoyable mundane tasks or engaging in semi automatic processes that involve both sensory and motor activity may help to sustain rumination (Dijksterhuis & Meu rs, 2006; Sio & Ormerod, 2009) A common theme among stories about rumination is that creative practitioners sometimes develop habits of walking in natural settings to help to engender and sustain the process, as described in this quote by Housman. I would go out for a walk of two or three hours. As I went along, thinking of nothing in particular, only looking at things around me, with sudden and unaccountable emotion, sometimes a line or two of a verse, sometimes a whole stanza at once, accompanied, n ot preceded, by a vague notion of the poem which they were destined to form part of Then there would usually be a lull of an hour or so, then perhaps the spring would bubble up againWhen I got home I wrote them down, leaving gaps, and hoping that further inspiration might be forthcoming another day. Sometimes it was, if I took my walks in a receptive and expectant frame of mind A. E. Housman (Ghiselin, 19 54, pp. 90 91) Unlike the other modes of creativity, which can be triggered by an event, rumination appears to be more often engendered by a process. R esearch suggests that physical activity may increase ruminative productivity, so processes like wal king, jogging, biking, swimming, gardening, etc. may be more useful to practitioners than passive activities such as sitting and thinking (Dijksterhuis & Meurs, 2006; Sio & Ormerod, 2009) C ontact with nature also appears to positively affect the cognitive proce sses associated with rumination (Atchley, Strayer, & Atchley, 2012; Van Den Berg et al., 2007) although most studies of the phenomenon take place in laboratory settings, instead of the types of places commonly described by creative people. Some people find riding in a car, bus, or train beneficial, as well (Buttimer, 1983; Ghiselin, 1954; Tšrnqvist, 2004) Researchers have speculated that the sensory stimulation from sights, sounds, smells, an d motion of a vehicle may aid the process (Ghiselin, 1954; Tšrnqvist, 2004) It appears that r umina tion may be supported in the interst itial spaces between places where the mind is not completely focused on any one thing and may hold multiple, sometimes competing, and of ten incomplete, thoughts. These may be majestic and contemplative places like cloisters of the monasteries in Assisi, Italy sa id to have inspired Jonas Salk, or the plaza of the Salk Institute

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231 where Salk directed Louis Kahn to capture some of those same q ualities (S. W. Leslie, 2008, 2010) Just as effectiv e, however, may be the more modest settings of the interstitial spaces between places, such the tree lined walks between university campus buildings or the bicycle path that leads from home to work. Rumination (Place scale) O bjects: Diversions Place scal e objects appear to be less important to rumination than events and processes, however they can play a role in low cognitive load activities. Johannes Brahms is quoted as saying "the best songs came into my head while brushing my shoes before dawn" (Erb, 1913, p. 9) For some people repetitive motion through interactions with place scale objects may help to engender or sustain rumination. The regular and pred ictable rhythm of riding a bike or shining shoe s may help the creative practitioner sustain rumination (Tšrnqvist, 2004) perhaps by supporting the defocused attention believed instrumental for the process (Ansburg & Hill, 2003; Martindale, 1999; Rawlings, 1985; Vartanian et al., 2007) Rumination Relationships: Intersections The primary relationship during rumination is between the creative practitioner and the processes that interfere with non productive fixation on a creative problem. The intersection of the non related activity with ruminative thought can sometimes lead to breakthrough by allowing the cr eative practitioner to perceive affordances in the creati ve situation through abstraction of the problem (D. Ward et al., 2011) Philo Farnsworth was plowing a field when he came up with the idea to project moving images line by line which led to the inventi on of the telev ision (Thomas, 2004) J.K. Rowling was riding on a train when she conceived the Harry Potter character (Compson, 2003, p. 28) George de Mestral came up with the insp iration for Velcro as he picked burrs off of his dog afte r a walk in the woods (Hargroves & Smith, 2006) Sometimes the ideas th at occur during rumination bear no obvious relationship to features of environment i n

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232 which they occurred, but there are many anecdotes where the ruminative setting itself sparked inspiration or analogy that led to breakthrough on a creative problem. Rumination Attributes: Sensorimotor Experiences The attributes of places processes, and objects that support rumination might best be described as sensorimotor. The places people go, the things that they do, and the items with which they interact during creative rumination appear to both stimulate the senses and engage the body in repetitive and mundane tasks Such semi automatic activities place low cognitive demands on the creative practitioner but they also are enjoyable for the creative practitioner. Brahms may have liked to shine shoes (Erb, 1913, p. 9) but Samuel Johnson preferred to pet his cat, Hodge (Boswell, 1907, p. 1004) and E.A. Housman found long walks both enjoyable and productive for creative rum ination (Ghiselin, 1954) Design Principles for Evaluation Evaluation is largely a socio cultural process and the settings that support evaluation range from physical places to technological sites (R. J. Sternberg, 2006b) In some cases the creative practitioner may never occupy the evaluative setting directly. Creative performances may take place around the globe. Scientific discoveries are typically replicated in private laboratory spaces. Socio technical environments have no physical location and creators may not even be members of the virtual communities who use, filter, rate, and curate their ideas and products. Evaluation Places: Curatorial Settings Evaluation is supported by the place s of implementation for which a creative idea or product was intended. Such places are often socio cultural settings that include critics, users, and curators of the creative product or idea. The physical settings for evaluation traditionally include places like the jazz club, concert hall, theater, opera house, cinema, art gallery, or conference hall. Evaluation is supported by settings that provide broad exposure for a creative product or idea and invite critique from experts and users (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; R. J. Sternberg, 2006b)

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233 The division between physical space and technological space may be blur red in some settings C reative ideas and products may be widely and rapidly disseminated through radio, video, television, e journals, e books, web conferencing, etc. and evaluation can happen anytime, anywhere. Even when the physical products of creativ ity cannot be distributed or tested electronically (e.g. a new automobile design,) professional and user critiques may still be compiled in socio technical environments (e.g. Caranddriver.com, Motortrend.com, Edmunds.com, etc). E valuation is generally supp ort ed by social density and connectivity, whether through physical spaces or technological sites (or both ) (Fischer, 2005b; R. J. Sternberg, 2006b; Stolarick & Florida, 2006) Evaluation Events and Processes: Implementation Spaces For the creative practitioner, evaluation is engendered and sustained through feedback from implementation and use (McCall, 2013) The definition of use, however, varies between domains. For the performing arts, use is the audience o r critics' experience of the performance. In the scientific domains, use may include replication of an experimen tal protocol or application of a new theory. Evaluation in industrial design occurs through production and in architectural design evaluation typically consists of scholarly critique, historical analysis, and the occupants experiences Evaluation happens over time and space and feedback may be incremental (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; R. J. Sternberg, 2006b) Although evaluation appears to be the end of the creative process, this feedback may engender new work on the creative idea in order to improve it, or even lead to the discovery of a new creative problem to pursue (McCall, 2013) Evaluative settings, therefore, may play an overlooked role in the generation of creativity. Evaluation ( Place scale ) Objects: Ventures In most cases the place scale ob ject that supports evaluation is the creative prod uct itself. I n some cases however, this is not possible and instead a model is used during the evaluation process (Watson, 1968) Models are frequently used in many disciplines includi ng

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234 mathematics, the sciences, and environmental design (Elser et al., 2012; Watson, 1968) As mentioned previously, a famous example of model use in science is the work on the structure of DNA by Crick and Watson (Watson, 1968) In the field of architecture, models often serve for evaluation of a building design by clients, users, and the design team due to the expense and permanence of constructing a building. Som e architectural projects are un built works and the model becomes the object of final critiques by experts in t he field and in some cases it is treated as a complete work of art in and of itself (Elser et al., 2012, pp. 11 21) In any case, when the extern alized creative idea is disseminated for critique it becomes a venture something at risk of rejection or failure The process of putting a creative idea out into the world for appraisal is a risky undertaking and the outcome of the evaluation process is uncertain (R. J. Sternberg, 2006b) Evaluation Relationships: Feedback The primary relationships during evaluation occur around feedback from critique or use (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; McCall, 2013; Schšn, 1983) F eedback may come in two forms: primary, when the creative practitioner observes the feedback firsthand and secondary, when feedback comes to him in terms of verbal or written critiques form users and experts (professional critics) (McCall, 2013) In the case of primary feedback, the creative practitioner directly perceives feedback fr om implementation (McCall, 2013) Evaluation may be engendered by an event (such as when a someone uses a product in a way other than how the practitioner intended it) and may be sustained by a process (such as observing a live perform ance and the audie nce's reactions to it ) (McCall, 2013; Schšn, 1983) Secondary feedback is generally obtained through a social relationship between practitioners and critics, who may be novices (e.g. users) or experts (e.g. professional critics or other experts in the field in which the practitioner practices ) (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; Fischer, 2005b; McCall, 2013; R. J. Sternberg, 2006b)

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235 Evaluation Attributes: Networks and Filters Evaluation is supported by social connectivity (Florida, 2012; R. J. Sternberg, 2006b; Sto larick & Florida, 2006) Creative products and ideas are disseminated across networks (both physical and technological); and dissemination processes are affected by social density, diversity, and connectivity of these networks (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996; Feldman et al., 1994a; Florida, 2012; R. J. Sternberg, 2006b; Stolarick & Florida, 2006) As discussed earlier in this chapter (and in Chapter II), the links/nodes design pattern is intended to support social connectivity. Something not typically addressed in environmental design literature, however, is how attributes of these physical config urations serve as filters by controlling who can access creative products and ideas, and when where, and how they can access them. Technological environments have their own filters, but by and large, socio technical spaces have weaker filters and thus p romote more egalitarian access than physical space. The role of technology and its interrelationship with the built environment has been largely overlooked in the environmental design literature. Some emerging work at the intersection of technology and a rchitectural design, sometimes referred to as interactive design or 4d space, is being conducted at the smaller scales of product, interior, and architectural design (Bullivant, 2007; Fox & Kemp, 2009) This research, however, does not specifically examine how interactive spaces might suppo rt creative processes.

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236 Table VII 1 Summary of Rich Environments Design Principles.

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237 Rich Environments Empower Creative People in Five Ways The design principles described here illustrate how rich environments empower cre ative practitioners. There are a five general ways of empowering them that are worth highlighting. Some help to explain why the environmental design strategies reviewed in Chapter II have produced unanticipated results. Others reveal issues that are rarely considered in the design of settings to support creativity. These concepts summarized here distinguish "optimal" rich environments from "everyday" workplace settings. 1. Rich Environments Help Creative People Move Between Creative Modes Environmental conditions that support one mode of creativity will inhibit another. The review of environmental design strategies in Chapter II revealed that many settings intended to support creativity focus on promoting social interactions. The few empirical studies th at examined the effect of such design strategies found that social interactions did increase, but creative productivity was negatively impacted. Often times these settings promote one creative mode (such as problem finding) to the detriment of others (like intuitive immersion). Not only is each creative mode an instrumental part of the creative process, but movement between modes helps creative practitioners work through the complexity of creative problems. Breakdowns are important to creativity. Creativity is supported when features of the designed environment empower the creative practitioner to curtail an unproductive mode of creativity in order to engender another. Conversely, when people do not have the ability to sustain different modes of creativity, c reative productivity may be negatively impacted. If a setting is designed to sustain on ly some modes of creativity or stimulate only certain kinds of breakdowns (such as unanticipated social interactions) then creative practitioners may not be able to sustain other modes (like immersion and rumination) long enough to be very productive.

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238 2. Rich Environments Amplify Creative People's Creative Abilities Creative practitioners rely on features of their environments to help them uncover hidden and potenti al affordances in a creative situa tion. Although the white, empty art studio may be a figural representation of a creative space as a "blank slate" where anything might happen, in reality the places where artists work are often sensory rich and full of too ls, materials, and other inspirational objects (Fig, 2009) Creative people need things to think with (A. Clark, 2008a) Settings inhibit creativity when they do not provide sufficient resources to help people ext ernalize their ideas (Amabile, 1998) Those that focus only on digital resources (like the teleconferencing and video projection technologies in the innovation labs described in Chapter II) also miss opportunities to more effectively support creativity by providing a variety of sensory rich tools, materials, and objects to engender problem finding, sustain immersion, trigger reflection, and promote evaluation. 3. Rich Environments Help Creative People Orchestrate Creative Experiences C reativity happens in both structured and unstructured spaces and activities. The process is supported by varied degrees of user control with intuitive immersion typically sustained by the most highly structured and controlled environments and problem f inding often engendered by the least restrained settings. Even the most structured creative environments, however, still empower creative practitioners to customize or adapt them to their changing needs. Unstructured spaces and activiti es are more often ov erlooked than structured, although this appears to be changing (at least within certain industries.) Some organizations in the technology sector support unstructured activities through workplace practices where they require employees to find and pursue the ir own creative problems for a percentage of their work week (Johnson, 2010, pp. 91 95) This strategy to support creativity however, is typically conducted within the regular structure of the workplace setting. A few companies do include workplace spaces for unstructured social and physical activities (such as the building atrium and campus grounds at Pixar described in Chapter II) (Isaacson, 2011, pp. 430 431) There is a lack of literature,

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239 however, concerning the effects of providing creative practitioners freedom to work wherever or whenever they li ke. I suggest that some creative modes (such as problem finding) may benefit from greater access to unstructured spaces and activities than can be provided in work settings. This is an area of empirical investigation that warrants further attention, partic ularly with the advent of new technologies that support any time, any where work, learning, and collaboration. 4. Rich Environments Inspire and Restore Creative Productivity The environmental features that people do not specifically attend to during creativity may play a significant role in creative productivity. This is true, for example, with tools used during immersion. They shape the creative practitioner's creative experiences, but only function if they do not dr aw attention (Sennett, 2008) However, there are other features of the designed environment that also appear to exert what Murray (1938) describes as objective pressure, environmental influences that direc tly are perceived through direct sensory stimulation although not directly attended to. During creativity people claim they draw creative inspirations from majestic landscapes (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996) and prefer to work in rooms with natural materials and daylighting (Ceylan et al., 2008; McCoy & Evans, 2002) Research suggests that it may not be simply the aesthetics of these features that explain their wide appeal. Time spent in natural settings (Berman et al., 2008; Hartig et al., 2003) views of plants (Bringslimark et al., 2009; Dijkstra et al., 2008; Raanaas et al., 2011) na tural lighting (Boubekri et al., 1991; Leather et al., 1998; Wang & Boubekri, 2010, 2011) and ambient noise (Mehta et al., 2012) have all been found t o improve cognitive processes associated with creativity. These features appear to be particularly beneficial during the intuitive processes of immersion and rumination. There is some debate in the literature about what effect these environmental features have on creative processes (such as arousal, attention restoration, or processing disfluency). What they have in common is that they help the creative practitioner focus on a productive line of creative thinking.

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240 5. Rich Environments Promote Creativity in Action Creativity is neither sedentary activity nor a purely mental process ( as it is often described in the creativity literature. ) It involves interactions with objects, people, and places in the world (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990, 1996) People engage with the tools and materials of the creative situ ation during immersion. They use things to think with during intrapersonal and interpersonal reflection. They may walk, bike, jog, or swim to sustain rumination. Rich Environments can help "nudge" people into action by providing a wide variety of affordanc es The types of affordances, and how they are actualized, may cause beneficial "breakdowns" in some modes of creativity while triggering others. Thinking and acting are intertwined; therefore the types of activities afforded by a particular environment wi ll influence the modes of creative thinking that may occur within it. Design Methods for Rich Environments User Centered Design: Performance and Phenomenology The discussion in this chapter illustrates how features of the designed environment support diffe ren t modes of creativity both by what people perceive and attend to and by what they only directly perceive. This suggests that environmental design approaches should focus on how a setting supports both human performance (i.e. functional concerns) and phenomenological experiences (i.e. aesthetic concerns). In a performance driven approach, the environmental designer focuses first on identifying the activities that will occur in a setting, and then develops a design to support those activities. This diff ers from morphological or prescriptive approaches premised on the replication of forms or design patterns to elicit particular creative behaviors. Performance driven approaches largely consider what Murray (1938) referred to as perceived environmental pressures (beta press.) The phenomenological approach, in contrast, focuses on objective environmental pressures (alpha press) those directly perceived and not attended to. Introduced in Chapter III, this design approach, as advoc ated by Pallasmaa (2005) emphasizes

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241 multi sensory environmental design (which has historically strongly privileged sight over the other senses). 75 It also considers the role of movement and activity in perception. As Pallasmaa (2000) explains, "A building is encountered; it is approached, confronted, related to one's body, moved through, utilized as a condition for other things. Architecture directs, scales, and frames actions, perceptions, and thoug hts (p. 8). The design principles presented here are intended as an empirically based system to guide design decisions. They are intentionally general, because s ettings must ultimately support the specific individualized pr actices of creative individuals. E nvironmental designers should understand differences between groups of people working in various creative domains, as well as differences among individuals working within the same creative domain. Generally, r elationships between creative practitioners a nd features of their environments (e.g. events, processes, and objects) serve to engender, sustain, or inhibit creative modes by providing action opportunities for the creative person. Specifically, however, c reative activities are not the same for all peo ple across domains Although the type of feature (such as object) may engender a particular mode (immersion), the attributes of the object will often differ. Simply put, attributes that engender immersion for an artist (e.g. "paint ability") will differ fr om those that engender immersion for a musician (e.g. "strum ability.) Although this difference seems obvious at the scale of the object, it may become less so at the scale of the city. Environmental designers must consider how to support the unique, domai n specific activities and processes that are particular to each individual project. The Rich Environments Design Principles provide the skeletal structure for informing the design of settings to support creativity. To identify the programmatic requirements particular to each project, the environmental designer must develop understanding about the particular performance requirements unique to each case. 75 There are variations in the phenomenological design literature. For the purposes of this dissertation I will refer exclusively to Pallasmaa's approach, since it aligns with the enactive cognition perspective.

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242 Multiscalar Design Strategies Each mode of the creative process is supported by different features of the designed environment and these features occur at different environmental design scales, ranging from product design to city planning. As a rule of thumb, the optimum environmental scale of a design intervention often corresponds to the size of the creati ve practitioner's field of attention during the mode. Thus immersion, with the narrowest field of attention may be best served by design interventions at the smaller environmental scales, such as product, interior, and architectural design. During reflecti on, the attentional net widens a bit to perhaps include the urban design scale to foster wider social interaction and more opportunities for feedback from use. Rumination, which often occurs in interstitial spaces, may be best enabled by interventions at t he architectural, landscape, and urban design scale. Problem finding and evaluation both require the widest field of attention, and thus interventions at the urban design and city planning scales may be more impactful than those at smaller environmental sc ales. 76 This rule of thumb, however, operates best at the level of general design principles. Each environmental design project will have its own set of domain and individually specific creative practices to support. As illustrated in the preceding section all categories of environmental features play a role in each mode; thus all environmental scales have something to contribute to each mode. For example, because the immersion mode requires a narrow attentional net in order to maintain focused attention to the task at hand, the primary environmental scale is focused around the tools and material (products) and the attributes of personal workspaces (interiors.) The immersion state, therefore, may be of primary concern to product designers, interior designers architects, and, in some circumstances, landscape architects (e.g. to design natural settings that can be viewed from workspaces). Conversely, the problem finding mode often requires the widest field of attention, thus interventions to support this mode may focus more on urban design and city planning policies. This does not mean, however, that design interventions to 76 Refer to Chapter II for a review of the creative city literature and debates around the impact of city planning policies on creative productivity.

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243 promote problem finding at the smaller product, interior, or architectural scales are insignificant. These design interventions tend to bec ome more domain specific at the smaller scales, so general design principles are less applicable. For example, new scientific problems are frequently discovered in the laboratory such as when an experiment produces unexpected results or a theory fails to predict an observed outcome. In these domain specific cases, the laboratory becomes a problem finding setting and the particular tools, materials, and attributes of the setting particular to that domain may enable or sustain the mode for the scientist. Pa rticipatory Practices The general design principles presented in this chapter are intended to guide the design of settings to support creativity, but they are not sufficient for informing the design of particular settings. There are numerous domain and use r specific activities and needs that must be addressed through environmental design interventions. Participatory design practices are a means of identifying creative processes and practices that should be supported by an environmental design, such as a new building design or interior renovation. Participatory design is a method of gaining user and stakeholder input on a project during the pre design o r pre planning stages (Zeisel, 2006) Typical methods include surveys, focus groups, a nd individual interviews (Zeisel, 2006) Creative practitioners may be unable to make exp licit the more intuitive or sub conscious aspects of their creative processes the types of processes that are generally most sensitive to enviro nmental conditions. With this in mind, the environmental designer can look to participatory methods that may help surface intuitive behaviors Multiple methods of data collection may include d irect observations, trace observations (when the researcher exam ines an empty setting for evidence of use), image elicitation (when researchers elicit user responses to photos or drawings) and cognitive mapping exercises (when participants draw detailed maps of their spac es from memory ) (Zeisel, 200 6) 77 Experience sampling method, developed by 77 This list is intended to serve as a starting point for a suite of useful research methods, by beginning with tho se that are currently more commonly used in practice. There are many new digital technologies that show promise for future research and practice.

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244 Csikszentmihalyi (1987) to study intuitive processes, is a method where participants wear beepers and are periodically "beeped" to answer questions about what they are doing in that moment. It is useful for environmental design professionals wh o are involved in the pre des ign and pre planning phases to become educated in qualitative and quantitative research methods in order to better anticipate a range of events and processes that will occur in the spaces they design. Participatory processes ar e limited, however, by time, expense, and the power people have to imagine settings be yond their range of experiences. The Rich Environments Design P rinciples may then be used to help creative practitioners reflect upon their own creative processes and ide ntify strategies to use their environments more effectively. User Responsive Design Even the most carefully planned environmental design interventions cannot predict all the events and processes that may occur once they are in use. The expertise of the env ironmental designer to anticipate variation and change in creative activities over time can be improved with the design of adaptable settings that allow for customiza tion of, and alteration to, original design intentions as users' needs change. This for m o f user responsive design can improve the probability of success for settings intended to promote creativity by allowing creative practitioners to modify designs in the face of particulars. User responsive environments find the balance between customized an d customizable design. These settings neither dictate how users must perform within them nor demand user participation in order to make them functional. They provide structure, but also allow for improvisation between creative practitioners and their envir onments. Ultimately the balance between fixed and adaptable features may be informed by examining creative people in their setting in order to identify what types of flexibility really matter to them. Environmental designs may empower users by enabling th em to customize, manipulate, and reconfigure places and obj ects to suit their needs. U nanticipated events and proce ss can occur due to the inability for creative practitioners to surface all of the information necessary to

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245 support their creative processes. Other unplanned events will likely be the result of changes in individual and group processes. As discussed throughout this dissertation, creative prac titioners use strategies to alte r their processes and their environmental conditions when productivity w anes. Unanticipated situations may also arise in response to the changing nature of creative products which may require new tools, materials, and processes Adaptations allow opportunities for environmental designers to learn more about how best to desig n for creative practitioners. Post occupancy evaluations may help environmental designers understand how best to design for responsivity and adaptations so users are not burdened with under designed or constrained environments. It may be even more benefi cial for environmental designers to learn from design interventions that do not function well than those that support creativity well. T he thin gs that inhibit creativity demand particular attention, because creative practitioners are quite proficient at ma king features of the designed environment work for them as long as they are able to perceive and actualize the affordances provided. Empowering the Creative Practitioner Through Rich Environments The concept of Rich Environments is a response to the exi sting strategies used to design environments intended to support creativity, as illustrated in the Chapter II literature review. Informed by both the Multi Modal Process Model of Creative Practice as well as the Creativity in Context Framework, it situates existing and new design principles and methods to support creativity within the context of the modes of creative practic e. It takes as its central tene t the goal of designing environments to enable creative practit ioners. It acknowledges that cognitive, s ocial, and physical processes are intertwined in the person environment relationship. They cannot be untangled, nor should they be. T he physical environment is an instrumental component of the creative process. Only through understanding the person environment relationship with respect to each of the cognit ive modes of creativity can design professionals develop the environmental strat egies necessary to support them.

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246 CHAPTER VIII SUMMATION, FUTURE RESEARCH, AND CONCLUSION Summation I set o ut in this dissertation to investigate the role of the designed environment in creativity. Responding to the growing interest in designing settings to support creativity, I hoped to develop a theoretical framework, grounded in creativity theory, to guide t he design and evaluation of these settings. As I embarked on this process I soon discovered that there was no existing creativity theory suitable for such a framework. Creativity researchers either ignore the physical context of creativity or suggest it is not a productive line of inquiry. Teresa Amabile (1998) whose work has focused on the social context of creativity, asserts that the physical features of a workplace are of little importance to creativity. Mihaly Csikszentmiha lyi (1996, p. 135) suggests that physical context is important for creativity, but asserts that it is probably impossible to examine empirically. With little foundation upon which to base my research, I began to investigate what role (if any) the designed environment played in creativity. This investigative process was driven by a thorough review and evaluation of the creativity, cognitive science, and environmental psychology lite ratures along with an analysis of environmental design strategies, first person accounts by creative practitioners, and my own creative experience s as an architect and environmental design educator. Subsequently I constructed my own theory of the creati ve process. My Creative Practice model describes creativity as a combination of five physically situated and interrelated modes of creative cognition. This model rebuts Amabile's assertion that physical context is not important to creativity. Next, I devel oped a theoretical framework to connect creative processes to the designed environment. The Creativity in Context framework provides a structure to organize empirical examination of the relationship between the designed environment and creativity

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247 which r ebuts Csikszentmihalyi's suggestion that this relationship is impossible to examine empirically. With the Creative Practice model and Creativity in Context framework as a new foundation, I was then able to develop the Rich Environments Design Principle s an d Methods. These provide a preliminary structure to assist environmental design practitioners as they plan and evaluate settings intended to support creativity. The following sections provide a more detailed summary of this process and highlight the signif icance of my contributions to the fields of creativity and environmental design. Why the Gap Between Theory and Practice? In the early chapters of this dissertation I demonstrated that a gap exists between the creativity and environmental design literatur es. Despite the numerous examples of buildings designed to foster creativity among users there is little evidence that such strategies are based on more than folk knowledge or substantiated by post occupancy analysis. Additionally, the creativity literatu re focuses almost exclusively on purely mental processes or the socio cultural environment, largely ignoring the physical context of creativity. I suggest that this gap between research and practice is fundamental to understanding why 1) environmental desi gn strategies have failed to effectively predict how settings support creativity, and 2) creativity research has largely ignored the role of the physical environment in creative process. In other words, it is a "chicken and egg" problem. Creativity researc hers suggest that the physical environment is not a productive line of inquiry because environmental design strategies have failed to consistently demonstrate its effect on creative productivity (Amabile, 1998; Csikszentmihalyi, 1996, p. 135) Yet wit hout an empirically grounded theory upon which to base design decisions, environmental designers are left to devise their own normative theories based on anecdotes and folk knowledge which yield inconsistent results.

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248 Embodied and Embedded Cognition Form a Bridge Next I suggested that the cognitive science literature in the area of situated cognition might serve as a first step toward bridging the gap between the environmental design and creativity literatures. A review of the situated cognition literature suggests that the physical environment must be instrumental to creative processes, however it does not determine human behavior. The designed environment mediates cognitive processes as well as social interactions, making it necessary (although not sufficient) for creativity. I propose that Gibson's (1977) affordance theory provides a common theoretical grounding for both the creativity and environmental design literature. I further extend work on Gibson's original theory by Chemero (2003) and Heft (2001, 2007) with the concept of pot ential affordances Potential affordances are action opportunities in the environment that require additional creative work on the part of the perceiver in order to actualize them. A New Physically Situated Creativity Model I then proposed the Multi Modal Process Model of Creative Practice as a physically situated model of creativity that is grounded in affordance theory. I used Csikszentmihalyi's (1990) theory of creative flow and Schšn's (1983) reflec tive practice theory as the nucleus for this new process model. Building from the two modes described in these theories, my model describes creativity as five interrelated modes: problem finding, intuitive immersion, explicit reflection, semi explicit rumi nation, and evaluation. My Creative Practice model provides several new contributions to the creativity literature. First, it describes the role of the physical environment in creative processes. This is something all but Csikszentmihalyi's flow theory fai l to do. Second, it illustrates how creativity is an iterative and spiraling process of interrelated modes. Existing models describe creativity as a sequential series of stages with no explanation for the relationship between stages or how the process is iterative. Third, it reveals that breakdowns are a positive and crucial component of the creative process. Breakdowns help the creative practitioner move between different modes of thinking about the creative problem. Finally, the

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2 49 Creative Practice Model demonstrates how the physical environment is instrumental to the breakdown and repair processes during creativity. A New Theoretical Framework to Link Theory and Practice With the introduction of the Creativity in Context Theoretical Framework I proposed a solution concerning how to consider the person environment relationship during creativity. This new framework bridges the creativity, cognitive science, and environmental design literatures and provides five unique contributions. First, it incorporates t he Creative Practice Model to illustrate how the relationship between people and their environment is mediated by their mode of creative cognition. Second, it employs a Taxonomy of Environmental Design Features that I developed to evaluate all scales of th e designed environment from tools to cities. I propose that this taxonomy is necessary to connect the disparate literatures in the environmental design disciplines and essential for understanding how design strategies can effectively support creativity a cross the many scales of the designed environment. Third, the framework illustrates how the perception of affordances (and potential affordances, in particular) is instrumental to creativity. Fourth, the Creativity in Context Framework shows how the creati ve practitioner exploits features of the designed environment to move more efficiently between modes, thereby increasing creative productivity. Finally, the framework rebuts Csikszentmihalyi's (1996, p. 135) claim that it is impossible to empirically examine how the physical environment might increase creativity by providing a structure to organize such future empirical investigations. Ultimately the Creative Practice model and the C reativity in Context framework contribute to the creativity literature because they describe testable hypotheses. New Design Principles and Methods to Assist Environmental Designers In conclusion, I introduced the concept of Rich Environments to describe the practical implications for the Creative Practice Model and Creativity in Context Framework. I proposed a two fold strategy to assist environmental designers as they plan creativity settings: the Rich

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250 Environments Design Principles based on the Creative Practice Model and the Rich Environments Design Methods based on the Creativity in Context Framework. The design methods include 1) strategies that focus on supporting human performance (performative design), 2) participatory practic es to empower users with settings that support their full range of intuitive, explicit, solitary, and social creative processes (user centered design), and 3) recommendations for designs that accommodate change due to unanticipated user needs and the evolu tion of creative processes over time (responsive design.) The Rich Environments Design Principles are intended as a preliminary critiquing system both to guide environmental designers as they work with users during the planning stages of a project and as a structure against which to evaluate existing settings. The guidelines are based on four general principles. First, each of the five creative modes is best supported by different environmental preconditions. Second, the environmental conditions that suppo rt one mode may inhibit another. Third, the relationships between some modes are closely intertwined (e.g. immersion and reflection) and best supported by environments that enable transition between modes. Finally, people change environments to help them m ove between modes and increase their creative productivity. These principles reveal how common environmental design strategies intended to support creativity frequently bias one mode of creativity over the others sometimes creating conditions that are in hibitory to certain modes and thus negatively impacting creative productivity. These principles also help to explain why some design strategies fail such as Louis Kahn's strategy for separating the scientists' offices from their laboratories to foster so cial interactions at the Salk Institute. The guidelines describe how creativity is supported by places that are serendipitous for problem finding, inspirational during immersion, evocative to trigger reflection, restorative during rumination, and exhibitio nary during implementation and evaluation. Only rarely, however, does the typical workplace setting provide these different environments. Together the Creative Practice Model, Creativity in Context Framework, and Rich Environments Guidelines form a startin g point, a preliminary organizational system, for future

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251 research on the role of the physical environment in creative processes. These are not intended to be static or prescriptive design codes. It is through design based research and experimentation that these guidelines and methods may best be questioned and refined. For example, some of the most renowned buildings were based on design strategies that contradicted what users said they wanted (Hughes, 2008; Kahn, 2003; S. W. Leslie, 2008) In some cases these strategies were enormously successful from both critic and user perspective, but in others architecturally acclaimed stru ctures have alienated their occupants. Without an informed position and theoretical grounding from which to make decisions, designers' actions are arbitrary and outcomes a result of chance or misunderstood factors Future Research: Radically Rethinking Th e Places Where We Work, Learn, and Live Horst Rittel famously described environmental design problems as "wicked problems" (Rittel & Webber, 1973) He suggested that environmental designers have "no right to be wrong" with the design decisions they make because the economic, social, and environmental impact of their decisions are significant. In this dissertation I have revealed that, in too many cases, environmental designers have been wrong about how to design settin gs to support creative work. They have employed design strategies intended to coerce social interactions without full understanding of the impact on creative productivity or the nature of the person environment relationship during creativity. Radically ret hinking how to design for creativity means settings must empower creative practitioners, not attempt to control their behaviors. Environmental design problems are inherently creative problems meaning there is no single optimal solution (Rittel & Webber, 1973; Simon, 1996, pp. 27 30) T he role of environmental design is not to simply problem solve by applying research from the scientific domains to design solutions. Instead creativity is required to question current design methods and strategies through active experimentation from an empirically informed position. In the following sections I briefly propose how the Creative Practice Model, Creativity in Context Framework, and Rich Environments Guidelines might provide this empirical grounding. They

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252 create the structure from which environmental designers can radically r e envision the ways we empower creative practitioners in the places they work, learn, and live. The Future Creative Workplace As I mentioned in Chapter VII, workplace design has tended toward strategies that "shove" instead of "nudge" people towards partic ular behaviors such as forcing social interactions in hopes of spurring collaboration and creativity. Even flexible workplace policies, like those that promote free time to pursue personally interesting projects, are often contradicted by physical settin gs that are inherently inflexible. Open office plans may implicitly communicate to creative practitioners that organizations value hours logged at the desk and evidence of social collaborations. This might leave employees with the impression that they need to remain at their desks or converse with colleagues even if it negatively impacts their creative productivity. Future workplace designs may emphasize physical freedom and choice by providing access to the variety of settings that support different modes of creativity. Going a step further, workplaces might also be designed to "nudge" people, reminding them how they can improve productivity through different creative behaviors. Design strategies could be as simple as visual cues that are noticed when atten tion strays from the task at hand reminding the creative practitioner that other resources and environments are available to engender different modes of creative thinking. A bit stronger nudge might be provided by technological developments where produc tivity is augmented electronically. When it wanes, the creative practitioner might be given a gentle reminder, such as "I see you've been working on that same problem for a while now. How about a nice walk in the garden? The weather is warm and sunny outs ide!" Or "Perhaps you would enjoy a cup of coffee from the cafÂŽ? I see that your colleagues Joe and Melinda are there right now." Ultimately, however, the workplace of the future may in fact not be "a" work place at all, but a loose network of places wher e people within an organization regulate their own work environments based on balancing personal and organizational creative goals and processes.

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253 The Future of Educational Settings to Support Creativity The future university campus, a place long associate d with creativity and innovation, may begin to blur the division between workplace and learning space. Recent economic and technological developments threaten the survival of "bricks and mortar" institutions due to rising tuition, dwindling government fund ing, and competition from open source Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). Many have called for the academy to rethink the large lecture course delivery model in light of growing alternatives for free, any time, any place learning provided by MOOCs. Yet wh at does this mean for creativity? This dissertation reveals that place does matter for creativity; thus there is likely a viable future for bricks and mortar institutions. (Although it may require radically re envisioning what the future of learning will l ook like on university campuses.) The diversity of physical spaces and social opportunities they offer leave universities uniquely positioned to play a role in re conceptualizing the workplace described in the preceding section. Large lecture halls might b ecome the site for public screenings. A virtual smorgasbord of open online courses, curated by local faculty, can provoke social interaction and discussion for salon style events following the screening. The blurring of divisions between the academy and in dustry may not only spur knowledge sharing and collaboration, but might also alleviate some resource pressures. Underutilized campus spaces could be leveraged by organizations as they structure a network of employee workplaces. In turn, resources generated from screenings and rental fees could be used to offset student tuition and fund the re conceptualization of the university classroom as it evolves from the lecture format to a more faculty intensive studio and discussion model that better supports crea tivity. The Future (New) Urban Neighborhood The neighborhood of the future may provide the fabric that links working, learning, and living spaces to support creativity. New Urbanism is a movement that promotes walkable neighborhoods and a variety of housi ng and workplace options all with the intention of fostering a sense of community (Ellis, 2002) Interestingly, many of the design principles outlined

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254 in the charter produced by the Congress for the New Urbanism (CNU) (2001) also support creativity. For example, the New Urbanism movement is credited with pioneering the live work housing that has become popular with the creative class (Ellis, 2002) However, it has also been largely criti cized for its trend toward nostalgic architectural styles and traditional town planning, ignoring the social and economic realities of the urban condition, and a reliance on ideology over theory (Ellis, 2002; Fainstein, 2000) I suggest that with a theoretical grounding in creativity, New Urbanism might be re conceptualized to address some of its shortcomings. It can provide a coherent vision for urban planning strategies that empower creative practitioners by providing them the resources they need to exploit their environments in service to creativ e productivity. Conclusion: Towards an Ecological Psychology of Creativity In the 1970's Teresa Amabile noticed that creativity research focused almost exclusively on the psychometric dimensions of creativity and set out with her dissertation to spearhea d a new field of research: the social psychology of creativity (Amabile & Pillemer, 2012) Unbeknownst to her at the time, a few other researchers were coming to a similar realization and together they produced a shift in the field, which now considers creativity a socially situated process. Although the social context of creativity has garnered much attention, the physical context of creativity has been neglected. The small body of emerging research I introduced in Chapter II does suggest, however, that interest in this area may be growing. I argue that the time is right for yet another shift in t he field of creativity research: one that understands creativity as a process physically embedded in the world. It is my hope that this dissertation might contribute in some way to this transformation towards an ecological psychology of creativity.

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