HOW TO USE
"Do You Know Yourself and Others?
'--------------------A Series of Informal Tests -------------------'
By Gordon N. Mackenzie and Floyd L. Ruch
How this series of informal tests should be used in different schools
naturally depends upon local situations. However, the suggestions
contained in this leaflet show some of the ways in which the tests will help
high-school boys and girls in their consideration of personal and personal-
These tests cover eight important units generally studied in courses
dealing with problems of social living. The questions in each test are
based on material in People Are Important.1 However, the use of the text-
book is not a prerequisite. The authors of People Are Important prepared
the tests to furnish teachers a device to arouse students interest in such
topics as how to get along with people, how to spend their leisure time
wisely, how to select their life work.
For the most satisfactory results, teachers are urged to use the tests in
a variety of ways. For instance, the tests can serve as: (1) A springboard
for discussion; (2) An objective check of the opinions and attitudes of the
group and of each individual within the group; (3) A means of checking
how students opinions and attitudes change after they have made a study
of a problem; (4) An aid for individual guidance and counseling. Each
of these uses, of course, depends upon securing frank and honest answers
to the questions, and frankness, to a great extent, depends upon how the
tests are administered and scored. Accordingly, before discussing each of
these uses, let us consider:
How to Administer and Score the Tests
The one thing to keep in mind in administering and scoring the tests is
to make it possible for each student to keep his own responses secret. This
is essential if you expect frank answers on future tests. One good way to
guarantee secrecy is to number the backs of the tests before they are
passed out. Then the teacher can explain to the class that these identifica-
tion numbers will prevent any but themselves from recognizing their
papers. Ask each student to keep a record of the number of his paper so
that he will be sure to remember it. A teacher might ask the class to ex-
press their opinions on this method and suggest modificationsif she
thinks such a procedure would be more reassuring to the students. The
important thing is to get the group to realize that they are taking the tests
to get information about themselves for themselves, that their own answers
should be honest in order not to distort the picture, that they can give
honest responses without anyone else knowing how they answered.
The scoring for these tests is simple. To provide a basis for interpreting
individual scores, the tests call for a tabulation of all the students answers
on each question. This can be done by collecting the papers and having
iBy Floyd L. Ruch. Gordon N. Mackenzie, and Margaret McClean. Scott. Foresman and
one member of the class call off the answer each pupil gave on each ques-
tion to another member who marks them on a blank test. When all re-
sponses are tallied, the papers are handed back by calling off the numbers
on the backs of the tests. Then the teacher reads the response most fre-
quently given by the group on each question. For example, if tabulation
shows that 7 members answered Yes to Question 1 in Test I, 12 an-
swered No, and 1 answered Doubtful, the reader would have the
class enter N in the blank marked Class Response opposite Question 1.
Another device which teachers may find helpful in dramatizing the
normality of individual differences is the pictograph box score shown
below. By having each student chart his own score in one color and the
class score in another, the student gets a concrete picture of how his
answers compare with the most frequent responses of his classmates.
Sometimes good friends will like to compare their answers in a pictograph.
This is an excellent basis of comparison and should not be discouraged.
Y s. / \ /
N X v_ \ Ay V / Â£ _/
D s A _/* \ /
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 e 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Pictograph Score of Test I. (Dotted line indicates class score; unbroken line, pupil's score.)
Note: In making pictograph box scores of tests which include questions
with several parts (e.g., Test II, questions 15, 18, and 19) allow a box for
each part of the question.
Students should be able to answer Yes to at least three fourths of the
questions in Tests IV and V. This kind of rating is possible on these tests
because of their subject matter.
How to Use the Tests
Teachers will find that interest can be aroused by a students taking
the tests, by his interpreting the results, and by his re-taking the tests at
a later date. The following discussion of ways to use the tests is intended
only to be suggestive. As teachers work with these materials, they will
devise many other ways to utilize them.
A Springboard for Discussion
These tests were planned to remove, so far as possible, many of the
initial deterrents to high-school youngsters discussing personal and per-
sonal-social problems. Many students are embarrassed and afraid to say
what they think on such issues as whether or not they get along with their
parents, feel at ease in mixed groups, worry about their clothes. Tests
make it easier for all students to participate in a survey of personal prob-
lems. Furthermore, by affording each youngster a chance to think of the
various aspects of a problem in relation to himself, the tests focus his
attention upon the problem in a way that is likely to result in his want-
ing to improve himself. Unlike discussions in which the more self-assertive
[ Do You Know Yourself and Others?
> By Floyd L. Ruch and Gordon N. Mackenzie1
Because a democracy depends upon the actions of all the individuals within
it, the human-relations efficiency of each person is important. It is essen-
tial, then, that each of us discover how much we know about how to get
along with ourselves and with each other.
The following tests are planned to help you discover whether or not you
know yourself and others sufficiently well to play your part in our democracy
in war and in peace. Failure in human relations may be due to a lack of
knowledge about people, a lack of skill in associating with them, or a lack
of desire to get along with others. These tests can help measure your knowl-
edge and skill. They can help you determine the kind of assistance you need
in learning how to get along with people. If you really desire to improve your
ability in the area of human relations, many aids are available.
Each test consists of a series of questions to be answered by marking the
first column at the right. Use Y if your answer is Yes, N if your answer
is No, and D if you are doubtful or uncertain. Do not be surprised if you
do not know the answers to some of these questions. Be honest with yourself
so that you will have a fair measure of your knowledge and skill. (Leave the
second column at the right blank until you receive further instructions.)
1F]oyd L. Ruch, Associate Professor of Psychology, University of Southern California; Gordon
N. Mackenzie, Associate Professor of Education, University of Wisconsin, and former Prin-
cipal, Wisconsin High School.
TEST I HOW DO YOU DIFFER FROM OTHERS?
It is the differences in people that make life interesting. This would be a
dull place if all people were alike. While we prize differences, we do not
want people who cannot get along with one another. The following questions
will help you analyze how you differ from others.
1. Do you ever wish that you had been bom someone else?
2. Have you inherited some characteristics which you feel
will be obstacles in your life?
3. Have you formed some habits which you feel will be
obstacles in your life?
4. Do you believe that the friends with whom you asso-
ciate and the things you do will influence the kind of
person you will become?
5. Do you ever feel that people who are very different
from you and your friends are a little odd?
6. Do you find that you are frequently bored and have
nothing to do?
7. Do you wish you had more friends?
8. Do you enjoy parties? ----- ---------
9. Do you like to tinker with a car or a radio, or with
gadgets around the house? ----- --------
10. (For boys) Do you like being with girls? ----- --------
(For girls) Do you like being with boys? ------ -------
11. Do you try to make a favorable impression on others
by offering to help them? ----- --------
12. Do you worry about your clothes? ----- --------
13. Do you enjoy school activities? --------------
14. Would you get a thrill out of being elected president of
some school organization? ----- --------
15. Do you often feel you are better than your classmates?--------------------
16. Do you dislike volunteering in class discussions? --------------
17. Are you apt to criticize people before knowing much
about them? ----- --------
18. Would you rather be the worlds greatest scientist than
the worlds most wealthy person? ----- --------
19. Do you know whether you are an introvert or an
20. Do you have some talent which few others in your class
have? ----- --------
To determine how you differ from others, compare your answers with those
of your class. Put the most common answer of all students in your class in
the second column, that is, if most students in the class checked Yes for the
first question, put Y in the second column opposite Question 1. If most stu-
dents checked No, put N in this column. If most checked Doubtful, put
D. Do this for all questions. When you have recorded the most frequent
answer to each question, go back and compare them with your answers.
What are the points on which you differ from the most frequent class re-
sponse? You are probably not the only one differing.
If you would like to explore further the question of how individuals differ
and how you can get along better with people, read Unit 1 of People Are
Important? (For help on deciding whether you are an introvert or an ex-
trovert, read p. 136 ff. of People Are Important.)
2By Floyd L. Ruch, Gordon Mackenzie, Margaret McClean. Scott, Foresman and Company.
All tests in this series are based on materials discussed in People Are Important.
Copyright, 1943, by Scott, Foresman and Company
TEST II WHAT MAKES YOU ACT THE WAY YOU DO ?
All of us find that we like some things and dislike othersthat we are
annoyed under some conditions and happy under others. Did you ever in-
vestigate to find out just what it is that causes you to act as you do? Why
not take inventory? How good is your self-control? How well can you control
your feelings? Answer the following items and then check up on yourself.
1. Do you like to have someone compliment you on your
successes in school or your out-of-school activities?
2. Are you anxious to make a lot of money?
3. Do you work for grades?
4. Do you generally want the same things your friends
5. Do you know the things which are most likely to cause
you to do your best? (For example, competition, money,
the opinion of friends, etc.)
6. Do you have difficulty in making up your mind?
7. Do you sometimes feel upset and unhappy without
8. Do you ever do things to attract the attention of others?
9. Do you ever do things with a feeling of spite that really
makes you unhappy?
10. Do you usually do only those things which you can do
well and ignore those at which you are less successful?
11. Are you able to carry out your plans and accomplish on
time those things which you set out to do?
12. Do you feel a little jealous when someone comments
on the success of one of your acquaintances?
13. Do you build yourself up by tearing others down in any
of the following ways: saying that others are narrow-
minded; making fun of those who are successful at
things you do not enjoy; sneering at the bookworms?
14. Do you find it hard to praise others?
15. In your day dreams do you ever imagine any of the
(a) you are famous
(b) you are a star in an athletic contest
(c) you are talking before a group which is ap-
(d) people are very amused at a story you have
(e) you are rich
(f) you have been elected to an important office ----- -------
(g) you have won some honor or award ----- -------
(h) some girl or boy is very friendly to you ------- -----
(i) you have told somebody where to get off . ---------
16. Do you often feel sorry for yourself? ----- -------
17. Do you ever find yourself making some of the Alibi
Ike excuses such as: my hand slipped; I dont like it
anyway; Im too tall? ----- -------
18. Are you afraid of the following:
(a) older people ----- -------
(b) some fellow students ----- -------
(c) loud noises ----- -------
(d) high places ----- -------
(e) mice ----- -------
(f) snakes ----------
(g) speaking to large crowds ----- -------
(h) large social gatherings ----- -------
(i) high winds ----- -------
19. Do you become angry under the following conditions:
(a) when people keep you waiting ----- ..
(b) when people want to carry out their own sug-
gestions rather than yours ----- --------
(c) when you fall down in a public place ----- -------
(d) when people act superior ----- -------
(e) when someone bawls you out ----- -------
(f) when someone plays a joke on you ----- -------
20. Do you feel happy when you have completed a long or
difficult job? ----- -------
21. Do you know how to overcome a feeling of fear,
jealousy, anger, grief, discouragement, or gloom? -----
22. Do you usually laugh off your troubles? ----- -------
23. Do you worry about difficulties you are likely to have? ----- -------
24. Have you ever set out to overcome a bad habitsuch as
losing your temper? ----- -------
25. Do you ever try to get your way by pouting or sulking? ------ -------
Compare your score with those of others in your group just as you did for
Test I. You may wish to find out what is back of these questions; what it is
that makes us act as we do; how we can change our manner of response.
Youll find helpful suggestions in Units 2 and 3 in People Are Important.
Copyright, 1943, by Scott, Foresman and Company
TEST III HOW STRAIGHT CAN YOU THINK?
There has always been a great need for people who can think straight-
people who can go directly to the heart of a problem and arrive at an answer
promptly. How good are you at solving problems? How effective are you in
doing the things which will help you solve problems? Try the following
questions and see.
1. When you face a problem, do you systematically set
out to solve it rather than spend your time worrying
about what to do?
2. Do you know the steps you might well take to help
you solve a problem?
3. While you are trying to solve a problem, do your
thoughts wander? For instance, do you catch yourself
thinking about some embarrassing moment, a good time
you had at a party, or something you plan to do in the
4. Have you ever done creative thinking; discovered some
new relationship; found a new answer to a problem;
or worked out a new way for doing something?
5. Do you enjoy studying new words and trying to add
them to your vocabulary?
6. Do you often use a dictionary?
7. Do you overwork some words such as beautiful, inter-
esting, swell, grand, good, bad, glad, sorry, hate, mad,
say, think, thing, pretty?
8. Do you read material not assigned in class?
9. When you are in doubt as to what to do, can you define
briefly and clearly the real problem that is bothering
10. Do you ever use the following sources of help in solv-
ing a problem:
(a) the library card catalogue
(b) reference books
(c) periodical indexes
11. Have you used the public library within the last month?
12. In reading or listening can you discover statements
which are unreliable due to the authors prejudice, lack
of data, or lack of knowledge? ----- -------
13. Can you recognize in a speech or article tricks used by
prejudiced thinkers such as:
(a) Suggesting great learning through the use of
technical terms or high-sounding two-bit
words ----- -------
(b) Suggesting great authority because of achieve-
ment in a field other than the one on which the
person is writing or talking ----- -------
(c) Suggesting that everyone is doing itget on the
bandwagon ----- -------
(d) Discrediting or glorifying by calling names.
(Radical, reactionary, leader, benefactor) ----- -------
(e) Identifying a cause or person with the right side.
(Saying that he is for honesty, truth, liberty,
justice, Americanism, or democracy) ----- -------
14. Are you inclined to believe what you want to believe,
or what you hope will be tfue? (Believing that you
will be rich some day) ----- -------
15. Do you always have a good reason for what you do
rather than make excuses or justify your actions? ----- -------
16. Do you study in a place which is free from distraction
and disturbance? ------- -----
17. Do you plan your days activities according to those of
the school? ------------
18. Can you read at least 25 pages of serious history or
English material in one hour and have a clear under-
standing of what you have read? ----- -------
19. Do you read what several authorities say on a subject
before you reach a conclusion? -------------
20. Do you often feel you know the meaning of a word you
are unable to define to someone else? ----- -------
Record the class score as you have done on the other tests. How do you
compare with others in your class? To find out more about straight thinking,
problem solving, and the needed tools, read People Are Important, Units
4 and 5.
Copyright, 1943, by Scott, Foresmon ond Company
TEST IV HAVE YOU THOUGHT ABOUT A JOB ?
Sooner or later all of us have to face a decision as to how we shall make a
living. Have you thought about this question as much as you should? Are
you aware of some of the major considerations in deciding on a life work?
Check yourself on the following test.
1. Have you ever made a careful inventory of your job
2. Have you taken any standardized tests which might
help you analyze your interests or your abilities?
3. Are you familiar with the qualifications needed by those
who would be successful in the occupation (s) in which
you are interested?
4. Do you know how and where you can find out whether
or not you are qualified for various occupations?
5. Do you know if you have the special abilities required
for the occupation (s) in which you are interested?
6. Have you made a study of the way in which various
occupations influence a persons free or leisure time?
7. Do you know the probable salary level and possibili-
ties for promotion in the work you are considering?
8. Have you considered jobs which might contribute to
the nations war effort?
9. Have you considered ways in which your contribution
to the war effort might aid you in making a satisfactory
occupational adjustment in the postwar period?
10. Have you considered building a business of your own?
11. Granted that you can make more money as a factory
worker, would you prefer this occupation to a white-
12. Have you observed for any length of time people at
work in the field (s) you think of entering?
13. Have you been able to arrange to try out the occu-
pation (s) you are considering?
14. Do you know how best to prepare yourself for the posi-
tion (s) you now think you might enter?
15. Are you aware of some of the most common causes for
people being dissatisfied with their jobs? ------ -------
16. Are persons who are happy in their work usually happy
in life? --------------
17. Do you know how many people are employed in your
community in the occupation (s) which interest you? --------- -------
18. Do you know the proportion of Americas workers em-
ployed in occupational field (s) in which you are inter-
ested? ------ -------
19. Do you know whether the outlook for employment in
the occupation (s) of interest to you is good, fair, or
poor? ------ -------
20. Do you know what you now have, or will likely have in
the future, which would make an employer want to
hire you? -------- -----
21. Can you give a good sales talk to an employer about
22. Do you know how to discover job opportunities? ----------
23. Do you know how to inform yourself about a prospec-
tive employer and job before making application? '----- -------
24. Is salary your yardstick of vocational success? ------ -------
25. Do you feel that the kind of work a person does gives
him a right to feel socially superior to persons in other
occupations, e.g., do professional people have a right
to consider themselves above tradesmen? ------ -------
You will want to compare your answers with your classmates as you have
on the other tests. To check yourself still further, and to be sure that your
Yes answers were really based on an understanding of each question, read
People Are Important, Unit 6, and discuss these problems with your teachers
and with individuals in the field (s) you think you would like to enter.
Copyright, 1943, by Scott, Foresman and Company
TEST V DO YOU ENJOY YOUR LEISURE?
Being able to play and really to enjoy it is a very important achievement.
While it may seem odd, there are many young people and adults who are not
able to use their leisure time wisely. Either these people did not learn to do
so as children, or they did not learn to participate in the right kinds of ac-
tivities in the course of growing up. Are you on the right track?
1. Have you a number of challenging hobbies which pro-
2. Have you made any new friends in the past six months?
3. Do you participate in outdoor sports at least once a
4. Do you know the recreational activities which are going
on in your community this week?
5. Can you talk with persons, other than your immediate
friends, for ten minutes on subjects which do not in-
volve such topics as the weather?
6. Do you enjoy two or more hours of reading each week?
7. Do you participate regularly in any social activities?
8. Do you belong to any organization or club in which
primary attention is given to the hobbies and interests
9. Do you dabble in many recreational activities instead
of concentrating on a few?
10. Do you have many recreational skills?
11. Do you have one or more interests in each of the fol-
(b) reading or other individual activities
(c) social activities
(d) organizations or clubs
12. If you go to movies, do you select them carefully?
13. Do you carefully choose the radio programs to which
14. Do you find that you always have something to do?
15. Do you know how to select a desirable hobby for your-
16. Have you selected at least one hobby which youll still
be able to enjoy whether you are 30, 40 or 50 years
17. Do you enjoy your recreational activities more if you
finish your work first?
18. When you have the opportunity, do you visit an art
museum, a natural history museum, or an industrial
arts and sciences museum?
19. Do you believe that the proper attitude toward recrea-
tion helps a person to have a happy, vital outlook on
20. Do you believe that persons who know how to play can
work harder than those who dont?
Compare your answers with your classmates. If you would like to get some
good ideas on this subject, read Unit 7 in People Are Important and discuss
it carefully with your classmates.
Copyright, 1943, by Scott, Foretman and Company
TEST VI HAVE YOU GROWN UP?
Your answer is undoubtedly yes, but possibly you are still bothered by the
fact that everyone else doesnt recognize it. Try the following questions.
Find out where you are along the path from childhood to adulthood.
1. Do you think you are either too large or too small for
2. Do your parents seem overconcerned with the way you
spend your spare time, how you spend your money,
whom you select for your friends, what you think, or
what vocation you will select?
3. Do your parents prevent you from doing things which
you think a student your age should do?
4. Are you open and frank with your parents in regard to
your friends, social activities, financial affairs, and
5. Have you found it hard to work out an understanding
with your parents on most problems which have arisen?
6. Do your parents give you less attention and help than
you would like to have?
7. Are you without a skill or ability which you can sell
and thus provide a good living for yourself?
8. Do the restrictions which parents place on their chil-
dren indicate that they do not understand them?
9. Do you know the characteristics of the various stages
through which one passes from birth to maturity?
10. Do you know the important characteristics of a person
who has attained physical maturity?
11. Are you aware that boys and girls mature at different
12. Are you aware that normally some boys and girls will
mature more rapidly than others of their sex?
13. Do you know what changes take place in boys and girls
during the period of puberty?
14. Would it be desirable if all American boys and girls had
to contribute to the support of their families?
15. Do you think most high-school students have proved
their ability to act in a mature, responsible, and intelli-
gent manner? ------
16. Do you often find yourself thinking about the good times
you used to have severed years ago? -------- -----
17. Do you like one of your parents better than the other? -------- -
18. Do you feel popularity is mainly dependent upon how
much money you have to spend? ------ -------
19. Do you think that the wife should be nearly three years
younger than the husband? ------ -------
20. (For boys) Do you know how to ask a girl for a date? --------- -------
(For girls) Do you know how to get a boy to ask you
for a date? ------ j
To give you a basis for comparing your answers with your classmates, record
the most frequent class score, as you did in the other tests. Do you find any
indication that you, or others in your group, have not grown up? Do you
need help on some of the problems covered in these questions? To explore
these questions farther, read of the experiences of others reported in Unit 8
in People Are Important.
Copyright, 1943, by Scott, Foresman and Company
TEST VII HOW DO YOU GET ALONG WITH THE OPPOSITE SEX?
Whether or not you are interested in members of the opposite sex at the
moment, you need to know how to get along with them. How do you com-
pare with others in this important area of human relations?
1. Are you concerned about impressions you make on
members of the opposite sex? ----- -------
2. Do you feel at ease when you are with members of the
opposite sex? ----- -------
3. Do you enjoy associating with members of the opposite
sex? ----- -------
4. Do you find it easy to carry on a conversation with
members of the opposite sex? ----- -------
5. Do you enjoy dancing or mixed parties? ----- -------
6. Do you enjoy being with a group of your own sex
much more than being in a mixed group? ----- -------
7. (For boys) Are you a woman hater? ----- -------
(For girls) Are you a man hater? ----- -------
8. Do you think boys and girls should share the cost of
dates? ----- -------
9. Is it necessary to have chaperons for parties? ----- -------
10. Does marriage have a place in your plans for the
future? ----- -------
11. Have you considered what you should be able to con-
tribute toward happiness in marriage? . ---------
12. Have you considered the qualities in a mate which are
likely to make for happiness in marriage? -------------
13. Can you list a few of the important things on which
you and your intended mate should agree? ----- -------
14. Have you considered some of the disadvantages of an
early marriage? ----- -------
15. Do you believe high-school students who go steady
have as good a chance of finding desirable mates as
they might if they went with several individuals? ----- -------
On this test you will especially want to compare yourself with others. To do
so, record the most frequent class answer opposite each question as you
did in the other tests. How adept are you, and others in your group, in being
at ease and maintaining successful relations in a world in which there are
both men and women? Would you like to have some help in improving your
human relations in this area? Youll find some concrete suggestions in Unit 9
in People Are Important.
Copyright, 1943, by Scott, Forosmon and Company
TEST VIII HOW WELL DO YOU GET ALONG WITH OTHERS?
In a democracy we recognize that people are important. We respect each
individual for what he is and may become. Whether we study about human
emotions, the art of straight thinking, vocations, or recreation, our goal is an
individual who can take his place in the worldwho can lead or follow as
the occasion may demand. How effective are you in face-to-face relations
with your fellow men? Check yourself on the following test and find out.
1. Do you like most people whom you know?
2. Do other people like you?
3. Do you refrain from telling people how they should do
4. Do you have a tendency to talk or brag about yourself?
5. Are you a poor loser in a game?
6. Do you interrupt other people when they are talking?
7. Do you have a know-it-all manner in talking with
8. Do you look annoyed while others are talking?
9. Are you inquisitive about personal affairs of others?
10. Do you have a good sense of humor?
11. Are you loyal to others?
12. Can you forget yourself in talking with others?
13. Do you feel that you know how to win and keep
14. Do you know what makes a good leader?
15. Do you know what makes a good follower?
16. Could you list three or four things you could do to aid
17. Do you enjoy being alone?
18. Do you like to be the life of the party?
Yes - - *
19. Do you argue whenever you can? ------ -------
20. Can you disagree and debate with someone without
losing your temper? ------ -------
21. Do you speak distinctly? ------ -------
22. Do you act natural in the presence of strangers? ------ -------
23. Do you dislike being different from your friends? ------ -------
24. Can you stand criticism? ------ -------
25. When you criticize destructively, do you offer a con-
structive suggestion? ----- --------
There is no exact score which everyone should get on this test. Individual
differences can, naturally, be expected. How important do you think the
ability to get along with others is in relation to success in your vocation, your
play, your part in democracy? Check yourself against your classmates. Dis-
cuss your findings and decide what you can do to improve in this respect.
Read Unit 10 in People Are Important for some ideas on getting along with
Scott, Foresman and Company
Publishers of People Are Important by Ruch, Mackenzie, McClean
CHICAGO ATLANTA DALLAS NEW YORK
Copyright, 1943, by Scott, Foresman and Company
members of the group pick up the conversational ball and play the leading
role in surveying a problem, the tests give each boy and girl an equal
opportunity for 100 per cent participation. Because they have had their
interest aroused, they are far more likely to participate in the discussion
of what the results show, how to investigate the problem farther, and,
eventually, what they can do to increase their own social efficiency.
Some of the tests may be used to introduce units of work because they
provide a quick way of getting to the heart of a problem. For example,
the first test seeks to establish the idea that individuals differ in many
ways. The tests show boys and girls how true this is of their own group.
This brings the point home much more readilyand impressivelythan
discussion alone would.
An Objective Check of the Opinions and Attitudes of Students
An essential qualification for getting along with others is the ability to
figure out how the other fellow thinks or feels about a given situation.
Point out to your class that their answers to the tests afford them a won-
derful opportunity to learn more about the opinions and attitudes of the
members of their group. To spotlight the importance this information can
play in their dealings with others, have them analyze their actions in a
situation in which they knew the attitude of the person or persons with
whom they were dealing. Then ask them to take a situation in which
they did not know the attitude of the group with whom they were asso-
After they have seen that the other persons opinion or attitude condi-
tions the response in a situation, you might ask them to imagine they are
going to speak to their class on the subject of Selecting Your Vocation.
In order to make an interesting and informative speech, they must be able
to gauge how much the group knows on the various aspects of selecting
a life work. Ask them to take Test IV and mark the test as they think the
majority of the class will respond. After they have done this, check the
results against the actual class responses to show them how accurateor
inaccuratetheir judgment of their own group is.
A Check on How Students Attitudes Change after Studying a Problem
To show boys and girls the importance of knowing themselves and
others, use one or more of the tests to demonstrate that their answers
before they study a problem differ from their answers after they study
it. This is an excellent way to use Tests III and VII. (To do this, either
the teacher or the pupils should keep the original tests so that they can
be used for comparison later.)
An Aid for Individual Guidance and Counseling
Some teachers will decide that it will be better not to use the tests for
this purposesince some boys and girls will be less likely to give frank
answers if they feel the teacher is going to use the tests to find out what
makes them tick. After all the tests have been given, however, a teacher
might suggest to her class that she would be glad to talk over with in-
dividual students any of the tests that they would like to discuss with her.
How to Follow Up the Tests
It must be kept in mind that these tests were designed as interest-
arousing devices. To count on them to do more than this is unwise. They
are no substitute for thorough discussion of the problems they raise, for
adequate investigation by reading and consulting authorities, for putting
into practice the knowledge gained through these sources.
For help on these matters the authors of Do You Know Yourself and
Others? refer students to the sections of People Are Important upon
which the tests are based. There, students will find thorough discussions
of the questions raised in the tests, scores of actual case studies of typical
boys and girls, and activities which will help them develop their skill in
getting along with others. For example, let us suppose that the teacher
decides to use Test II, What Makes You Act the Way You Do? to intro-
duce a unit on Emotions. After the students have taken the test and
discussed the results, they will find answers to many of their questions in
Things That Make You Goand Stop (pp. 17-47) and Controlling
Your Emotions (pp. 48-76). Theyll also find that People Are Important
provides many exercises to help them make their learning functional.
Teachers will find examples of these exercises as follows:
TEST II WHAT MAKES YOU ACT THE WAY YOU DO?
Causes of emotional expression in others and ways of coping
with them. p. 71.
Causes for my emotional behavior and recommendations for
action, p. 73.
TEST III HOW STRAIGHT CAN YOU THINK?
Identification of the steps in problem solving, p. 85.
Test, How Well Can You Think? p. 89.
Solving a class problem, pp. 105, 118, 119.
Analysis of a prejudiced statement, p. 114.
TEST VIII CAN YOU GET ALONG WITH OTHERS?
What determines whether or not you like a person? pp. 243-
Construction of a rating scale, pp. 246-248.
Developing your ability to converse, pp. 255-256.
What can you do to aid democracy? pp. 275-276.
These suggestions are presented to help teachers understand the pur-
pose of these tests. Used properly, they may well become an integral part
of many valuable emits and constitute the kind of teaching help that makes
it easier for both teachers and pupils to explore these important areas of
personal and social problems in such a way that every boy and girl can
attain maximum results in social efficiency.
Scott, F o r e s m a n and Company
CHICAGO ATLANTA DALLAS NEW YORK
1834-2-43 (Printed in U.S.A.)