Amache Colorado

Material Information

Amache Colorado
Alternate Title:
Granada Relocation Center
Place of Publication:
Amache, Colorado
Granada Relocation Center
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
33 page mimeograph booklet 8 x 11 inches stapled on left side with silkscreen cover


Subjects / Keywords:


General Note:
Henry F. Halliday Collection carton 1 folder 20

Record Information

Source Institution:
|Auraria Library
Holding Location:
|Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text



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' ^ 1 Page
Foreword 1
Map of Granada Relocation Center/ . 3
Map of WRA Granada Project 4
General Description of the Center 5
The People 6
Religion . 7
Illustration y ; 9
Community Government / 10
Block Administration 10
Community Activities _ 11
Fire Department k 12
Water and Tomer \ V 13
Hospital 15
Education 17
Silk Screen Shop 19
Community Enterprises 20
Administration 21-
Police Department 22
Post Office 22
Housing 23
Center Employment 23
Warehouses 24
Publications 24
Mess.Division 25
Y'JRA Farm ^ 27
Relocation 30
Facts o-f Amache 32

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', \ .. A I! A G H -
The' Granada- Relocation G.ehter
'named after Am&che, beautiful ''daughter
of. Ocbi-nee '(moaning one-eyed )v hiof of
the a Cheyenne Andiahtribe which reamed'
these *w indhsweph prairies and'pitched their
tepees't hmbngstpthe cottonwoods along the
/Arkansas River#- v , t t.
It. was in 1863 that John W. Prowers
for J whom' the.County' is named ,;vwooed; and
married Amache -and became heir' to .almost
two-third of the land along the Arkansas
River from Lamar to Las Mims# .-Special-!
, izing in .cattle raising, he became fabu*-
lously wealthy and at. the time.of hi& death
was ; said to be worth a million-,arid /.half
AraaChe9 s daughte r~in-law, Mrs*-' John
.Â¥ Growers Jr*> a gracious, silver-haired
lady, -is still living in LamarColorado#(

The year 1942 Witnessed an event unprecedented
in the long epic of America*
Immediately after Japan* s attach on Pearl
Harbor and the subsequent declaration of far, ir-
resistible machinery, want into operation starting
a chain of events which finally culminated in the
complete removal of all Japanese* both citizens
and aliens alike from the west coast*
The first inkling of things to come was a
'letter to the 'President on -February 13., 1942* from
the Pacific Coast congressional delegation recom-
mending the removal from, strategic are..$ all per*
sons-of .Japanese ancestry*
On February 19,, by Executive order, the pfes-
ident - autbstfitf&dl the military, commander, to pres-
cribe certain areas from which any ,or.all persons
may' be5 "&kpluded*. -..Under this authorization Lieu-
tenant (ieneral J* L* DeWitt, commander of the Wes-
tern Defense rOommnd, on., iirch 2, issued a procla-
mation de.signating'militrry areas in the; state Of
Washington, Oregon,. California and/rizona from
which the Japanese, both aliens and'citizens were
to be evacuated*,;..:
On March 14,the Wartime Civil Controlf/dmini-
stration. was, .established to supervise the vast
evacuation program* It .was through this office
that the-' Japanese disposed1 of their properties,,
received their instructions and were ushered into
the various assembly centers prior- to their' exodus
further inland*
An executive order (.9102) issued on nlarch
18 created the War .Relocation Authority, a non-
military agency which is Lit present working on a
long-range program,of permanently relocating the

evacuees. There are ten, of these projects, two
each in California, Arizona and Arkansas, one each
in Utah, Idaho, Wyoming and Colorado.
The Granada Relocation Center was officially
opened on August 27, 1942, with the arrival of the
first contingent from northern California, mostly
consisting of Sutter county, Yolo county, Stanis-
laus county, Merced county and part of Sacramento
county, around the Delta Region. Subsequently on
September 19, groups from southwest of Los Angeles
county arrived, completing the projects occupa-
tion on September 30.
With these few word# of introduction, it is
hoped that this pamphlet may, to some degree, en-
lighten the public on the many activities within
the project and attempt to symbolize the earnest
operation of the War Relocation Authority, in per-
manently resettling the evaeuees into normal Ameri-
can communities as rapidly as possible.
Documentation Section
Reports Office
Amache, Colorado
Henry Kuaaba
James G. Lindley
Project Director
Joe McClelland
Reports Officer

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This is Amache, Colorado* It is one of the
most unusual cities in the State. It literally
sprang up overnight on a desolate prairie inhere
a short time' ago only sagebrush, cactus and Rus-
sian thistles survived the winter snow and the
hot summer sun. The only creatures which seemed
to feel at home here were the jackrabbits, rat-
tlesnakes and turtles
The locale of .this project is the original
hunting ground of the Cheyenne Indians and is
steeped in legends and historic lores of many famous
characters of the early pioneer days. Some.of the
better known figures are Kit Carson, Buffalo Bill
Cody, Z-ebulon Montgomery Pike, Black Kettle, chief
of the Cheyenne Indian tribe and many others whose
story-book, adventures are well known to all*
Under this setting, we find the strange drama
of the Japanese in a relocation center unfolding
day by day. The teeming thousands who were lit-
erally uprooted from their native homes and trans-
planted to this novel environment work, play, at-
tend schools and carry on activities of everyday
living not totally different from those of an
average American community. People become married,
give birth,and die just .as they have been normally
The city itself is located within the south-
ern boundary of the mile-square.enclose overlooking
the rich bottom land of the Arkansas River. This
location is bordered on the west by a cemetery,
dump pile, and sewer farm and on the east by a
rolling prairie that stretches away into the state
of Kansa-s. The northern limyt is occupied by rows
of warehouses,appointed-personnel living quarters,
administration buildings and by the Military Police
compound. Isolated in the northern corner is the

center Ts up-to-date- hospital,gleaming-white against
the ..dusty background with its three black smoke
stacks reaching into the empty sky.
The one distinguishing landmark,'visible ten
miles away, is the projects- water tank whose
orange and white checkered wall rises seventy-two
feet above the highest point of the center ground.
The evacuee residential section is divided
into twenty-nine blocks each having its own com-
munity mess hall, laundry,.toilet and shower room.
In addition, there is a recreation hall in
each block.Some of these halls are used as churches,
or other emergency purposes. There is also an in-
formation office in each block, some of which are
located at the north or south end of the laundry,
to which the residents go for information and to
contact the. Block Manager.
Every one of these blocks is composed of
twelve identical barracks 120 by 20 ft., each of
which is dividedinto six one-room apartments
Every, family with seven persons or less is assign-
ed to one of .these rooms and allowed to make it as
homelike as possible.
The people .of this project make an interest-
ing study. There are 6,550 inhabitants ,of whom
one-half are American citizens. A year ago two-
thirds of the residents were citizens, but many
have left Amaehe for more suitable American cities
or farms. The non citizens came to America in the
early 1900s as laborers and.merchants Of the
total almost half are from rural districts while
the other half-are from urban areas.
' From southwest of California, representing

the urban'people-of Los Angeles area came merchants,
doctors lawyers,scientists, jewelers, optometrist,
gardeners, landscape artists, hotel and restaurant
operators, salesmen and clerks* Their activities
in the business field embraced practically every
phase of American life* :
The" preponderance of rural people came from
northern California, representing the' vast farming
sections of California*s central valleys and the
San Francisco Bay area* They are the hardy pioneer
stock who through years of hardship and toil de-
veloped California's agriculture to the peak of
its productivity and efficiency.
Too often the Japanese are pictured .merely
a§ domestic servants* Actually only 15 per cent
of 'the evacuees had been engaged in this occupa-
tion. Ten per^ cent of the evacuees were engaged
in professional and managerial jobs, 13 per cent
in clerical and sales jobs, 40 per cent in agri-
cultural,. 16 per cent in semi-skilled work and 6
per cent in unskilled work.
The proportion of nisei (U.S. citizens) who
have graduated from high schools and colleges in
this country is strikingly larger than the pro-
portion of the general population in the U.S. Con-
sequently, a larger number of nisei are qualified
to fill skilled,.technical and professional jobs.
All these and more constitute the population of
The organization of religious activity within
the Amache center is unique. In spite of the fact
that residents have come from scattered.sections
of the coast and from all denominations, there are
only two large churchesthe Christian Union Church
and the Buddhist church.


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The Christian church is made up of Protestant
denomination--mainly Methodist, Baptist, Presby-
terian, and -Christian#- Their ... total'v membership
approximates 2,000 with ten ordained ministers who
take turn conducting services each Sunday in both
English and-Jo panose# Sunday school 'is-held each
week for children and for.young Christian groups,:
who meet in Terry Hall, one .of the public mooting.,
places located in the school district. The older,
members meet in 7H and 1011 recreation halls#
The next largest hre those of the Bud-
dhist faith# Their total membership approximates
800 with two prapsts who conduct services each
Sunday in two different ;places, at7G and 12G rec-
reation buildings #. .The Sunday school for children
and the-young Buddhist'Association,meets separate-
ly from the elder4, group which olds its worships
service dbn Sunday1' afternoons-# Services for the
elders are held in a typical oriental pattern phut
English services are conducted for nisei. \*
Other groups are hr Nichirens and the Cath-
olics o The diohiroh 1 is a branch of the puddhist
faith, that holds services each Sunday# The- Cath-
olics hold their mass services on Saturday mornings,
officiated by a Father -"who 'resides "in a neighboring
community and visits the c enter-o'very.-week for-this
purpose# e.
In addition-another new religious organization
is 3eicho-No-Iye which holds services every Sunday,
afternoon. Seicho-No-Iye believes- in nTruth of
Life #u " /;
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The Holliness church and the Seventh Day Ad-
ventists also hold, regular 'sorviceshof their own#
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The central executive and. legislative body.- of.
this center is the community council composed of
one representative from each of the twenty-nine
"blocks# They are, elected by popular vote, from
their respective blocks by residents who are 18
* years of age or over# The twenty-nine blocks are
.again divided- into, five-districts and a council-
man residing in each of this section is chosen as
a member of the council1s executive committee#
; The corroarlty council is charged with the
prescription of ordinances, regulations, and laws
governing communitjg life within the center# A
^ judicial commission of eight members appointed bv
the community council is composed of three members
,, ,of the. administrative : personnel and five center
residents who hear and try cases centering around
violation of, local regulations#
Each block has a block manager nominated by
residents find appointed by the project director..
The manager handles all matters pertaining to ad-
ministration. The block manager .-has no ftstatic,!
duties to perform but the fallowing general instruc-
tion guides his daily routine, such as: handling
the requests on housing, heating and. household sup-
pliesj; assisting the family in case of death'in
% making all needed arrangements; relaying announce-
ments and instructions from administrative sources,
and also to advise the. personnel director on employ-
ment^,. ; : r - -
Ip each block a personnel director maintains
and supervises the population and occupational re-
cords file# His weekly report contains the nec-
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essary information to simplify labor recruiting,
to assure proper feed distribution, to keep closer
check on individuals leaving and entering this
center, and to record vital statistics*
Various forms of recreation and creative pas-
time are1 offered the evacuees through cliibs and
organizations created by the people themselves.
For the elder ^men, there are goh, shogi' (Japanese
chess), wood carving,- reading, mah jong, and poem-
writing clubs As; for the v/omen, there are flower-
making, dress-making, knitting,, weaving and crochet-
ing circles.
The younger people, under the supervision of
the recreation department, hold talent shows,,
.movies, dances, ping-pong tournament, wrestling,
song-fests, folk dances, softball, baseball, foot-
ball, badminton, and basketball games. The latter
two are played at the Amache High School gymnasium.
The field where football' and baseball is held is
located at the 10F lot# Several outside games in
baseball, football and basketball had been played,
sponsored by the-recreation department. The Amache
High School has their own school intramural league
and has had a number of successful outside high
school games.
Movies are scheduled to change twice a week,
and are alternately perfdrmed at the various block
mess halls each night# Many informal groups are
made up from those who have common interests in
such subjects as radio, bridge, painting, writing,
literature, model building and music* Musically
talented people have formed several dance bands
which have performed at various social functions.
Among the well-known organizations which are

cooperating in'national programs is the Amache Blue
Star MotherTs Club* This club was organized by all
the mothers whose sons are serving in the United
States Armed Forces. Their purpose is to entertain
soldiers on furlough, help to sell War Bonds and
stamps, and"' to aid the American Red Cross. .The
Boy Scouts of America and .its membership of 350
scouts and leaders is', .divided into seven scout
troops and is composed of several WRA Scout Leaders
and District "Committeemen, There* are about 100
members in the Qub Pack# N They. aid the center in
community-wide service,'
Other organizations "of, importance and value
is the United Service Organization, the Christian
Young People, the Catholic young people, the Young
Buddhist" Association, the American Legion, the
American Red Cross, YMCA, YWCA, the WomenTs Federa-
tion, High school activities, and other affiliated
clubs .
!!Hospitality House,u a block recreation hall,is
used by various organizations* it is des-
ignated as the office of the YWCA,the Women1 s Fed-
eration, and the Blue Star MotherTs Club,
Terry Hall and theHigh.School auditorium is
used for all community-wide meetings, dances, tal-
ent shows, etc.
The Amache Fire Department is located on the
main street between the residential and adminis-
tration areas of the Granada Project, The fire
department is modeled after any modern city fire
department, consisting of a personnel of: One-
Caucasian Fire Protection Officer; one Assistant
Fire Protection Officer; an evacuee fire chief;
three assistant chiefs; six captains and three

platoons of fifteen firemen each forking in twenty-
four hour shifts, with living accommodations ; pro-
vided for the firemen who are on night duty* In
connection with the fire department, a fire pre-
vention bureau was organized consisting of five
members* This bureau functions in cooperation with
the fire department in eliminating fire hazards
and the prevention of fires* In addition to these,
members, there are volunteer and auxiliary firemen
from each block who receive periodic instruction
in the combat of fires* The responsibility for
the training and operation of these units are vest-
ed in the Fire Protection Officer,his assistant,4
and the evacuee fire chief*
Within the fire station are housed two modern
Ford trucks equipped with a triple combination
pumper capable of throwing 500 gallons of water
per minute, together with minor equipment which
goes to make an up-to-date fire department for the
project* 1
Since the inauguration of the Amache Fire
Department in August 1942, It has compiled a very
enviable recordcomparable to any city the size
of Amache* A total of 89 fire alarms of all types
have been answered* Included are barracks, mess
halls, laundry rooms, grass and open fires* The
total fire loss for all fires up to December 31, t
1943 was $720*00*
The water for the project is supplied by four
wells approximately 800 feet deep* They are equip-
ped with pumps driven by two forty-horsepower and
by two fifty-horsepower electric motor which dis-
charge 150 and 250 gallons respectivelyper minute
into a 200,000 gallon storage tank* Here it is
chlorinated to safeguard against polution* From
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the storage tank two 500-gallon-per-minute centri-
fugal pumps driven by one forty and one fifty-horse-
power electric'motors force the, water into an
elevated. 25,000 gallon tank seventy-two feet high
built on the southern ^boundary, of the project#
Gasoline-driven, standby pumps are installed at
well No*:3 at the booster station,for the storage
tank to take care of any emergencj/ arising out of
power failure#
The large amount of water utilized by the
evacuees for normal living purposes can be real-
ized when it. is, noted that the 25,000-gallon tank
cannot be kept full for more than thirty-minutes
if the supply is shut off from the main storage
* Electric, power is supplied by the Lamar Br a no h
of the Rural Electrification Administration, Ap-
proximately 234,d00 kilowatt hours are consumed
per* month in the center.

War Relocation Authority furnishes adequate
medical and surgical service to the evacuees in
this center-without charge# This, center has been
fortunate in -being able to do practically all of
this work without referring to otherjagencies, ex-
cept in special cases, ,
The seventeen-winged hospital,built identical
to an Army-post unit,.*has approximately 150 beds
and is staffed by a chief medical, officer, who. is
a member of the appointed personnel, and five eva-
cuee doctors*
Nursing service for the center consists .of a
WRA Chief Nurse and seven Registered Nurses* The
center supplies two evacuee nurses* There are
thirty evacuee nurse?s aides covering the wards,
operating room, and the Out-Patient Clinic T.h e
total personnel on the hospital consists of 219
employees at the present time. There is a WRA
Social Medical Worker attached to the hospital,
who operates under the Chief Medical Officer* Pub-
lic Health Nursing consists of .a WRA Public Health
Nurse with a staff of ten evacuee:nutrition aides;
their duties being the instruction care and feeding
of babies in this center# Besides these, duties,
they also have an', adequate program in maternal
health and communicable diseases.
A WRA Dietician is attached to the hospital
and her services are not only available to the
hospital mess and diets in the wards, but she is
available in a consultant capacity to the twenty-
nine other mess halls in the center. .
The Sanitary Department- is also under the di-
rection of the Chief Medical Officer and consists
of a 7ffiA sanitary engineer and four, sanitary in-
spectors who are at all times actively engaged in


the maintenance of high sanitary condition within
the center and on the farms*
The hospital is comparable .to any first class
institution of similar sise, possessing complete
equipment to car for almost any kind of ailment*
'Among the many divisions of the medical units
are the Out-patient clinic, pharmacy, optometry,,
laboratory, X-Ray department,and the dental clinic,
all located in the Out-patient Building* The out-
patient 'clinic is the busiest section of the unit,
Approximately 800 patients are treated here in one
week alone, The surgery ward .is a special unit
for minor and major operations*
The dental clinic, staffed, by five evacuee
dentists, treats 125 patients daily* However,, due
to the shortage of critical materials, service is
limited to emergency cases.
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The Education Sectidn operates a program which
extends through the nursery schools, kindergarten,
elementary school, junior high school, high school
and adult school* The enrollments in these schools
in January,1944, were as follows: nursery schools-
199, elementary school and kindergarten 8 0 2,
junior 'high school 433,'- 549, adult
school 1,043. .
. The courses of study cover a wide range of
activities including industrial arts, fine arts,
language, -social science, mathematics, science,
physical education and vocational education# The
high school is accredited by 'the University of
Colorado whioh, in this state, is the agent of the
North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary
The school staff is composed of three princi-
pals, the superintendent, 51 IRA teachers and 44
evacuee assistant teachers MIA teachers are em-
ployed under regular Civil Service procedures and
The educational program is conducted in co-
operation with the Colorado State Department of
Education. Qeheral supervision is also exercised
by a Board ,of Consultants appointed by the Project
Director with the approval of the State Superin-
tendent of Public- Instruction., An Advisory School
Board composed .of .evacuees also assists* in the
direction-, of the. schools* ' j
, ' Classes/ except for tne high school, meet in
barrack^typewbuildings which have been remodeled
for, use. The' high school is housed in an
adequate, new temporary struoture. having"24 class-
rooms-, gymna s i urn- a ud 11 o r.i um, library, agricultural
shops,homemaking rooms, and offices* .A school farm

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of 650 acres provides excellent opportunities for
training iia vocational agriculture. Adult activ-
ities inc lad ing s owing, f 1 ower-tnaking and Eng 1 ish
are the' most popular classes, meet either after-
noon or evening, in the high school building and
in special rooms of the SB school block.



The Amache Silk Screen Shop, at the request
of the US Navy, ms officially organized on June
1, 1943* Apache can well boast of-this Silk Screen
Project, for this is the one and only such shop in
all the relocation centers. Its success is ac-
credited to the Y(Rk supervisor and the evacuee
personnel of forty-five members.
' The program conducted in cooperation with the
Navy, fulfills, monthly, contracts for thousands
of training-aid posters* Though the WRA furnishes
adequate training materials and'all needed labor,
the Navy provides all necessary materials for the
There are three different processes in the
art of. silk screen--!he film, tusche and the pho-
tographic, methods|
The film'method, widely used for commercial
purposes, is taken the first course of train-
ing. This process takes "up the delicate task of
cutting elaborate designs and letterings on a
lacquered film.
The technique of drawing the picture onto the
silk screen with a black wax known as tusche,H
used for fine art work, is then taken up as a
secondary training course*
A photographic process Is included in advanced
Productions of the shop, including US Navy
posters and center work with up-rto-date equipment,
are rated as professional jobs. Many evacuees,
after completion of thei-r training at_the local
shop, have relocated and obtained employment in
sillc-screen shops outside.


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Die local consumer Vs cooperative known as'the
d *' Amache Consumer's Enterprise Incorporated, owned
and operated by. tile residents of this project,
With a tdbnj capitalization of .$£5,000-,/is one of
* * the largest orgcnisation of /this kind" in the State
It was incorporat'd on January 25, 1943, and is a
.''member of the National Cooperative. Incorporation
** ; of Chicago, ; Illinois # Vince the charter member-
ship' drive-- in February,,-o, 5,000 shares at y5.00
each were sold, and nearly 1,000^ more share's ; have
bee n p urchased by botln e vt and old me mb e r s' since
that time From the 2,650 members of .the Consumer
* Enterprise Incorporated, -a board of d. tree tors and
various committees are elected to act as the
Voiced of the members#
During its first fiscal year which ended on
August 31, 19^3^ the Co-ops volume of-business
* * reached $362,188 #58,which equals more than 430,000
per month* *Net savings, including a co-op whole-
sale patronage refund or rebate, reached nearly
442,000* , y . '
.During the months. of November and December,
1943, the various stores and shops of the Amache
Consumer Enterpr is as ) Inc. i, moved into the new co-op
U-shaped building which, is a .combination of three
barrack type building, 40* x 1001 # The co-op
building includes a clothing store, varietystore,
shoe store, shoe-repair s.-op, /cleaning" ana pres-
sing agency,, barber and beauty parlor, .canteen,
jewelry and watch-repair shop, newspaper depart-
ment* radio repair ~ shop-and optometry supplies#
This building was built by the WRA and is rented
to the Consumer Enterprise#
The responsibility of supervising this organ-
isation is vested in a board of directors of nine
members who are elected annually by the stockholders

There are several administration buildings
not far from the entrance gat'e, It is through
these buildings that the' various administrative
functions of the project are carried out*- Here
afe the'offices of the project director, assistant
project director, procurementr c os t-account ingr
finance, auditing, senior administrator, telephone
switchboard, chief of police, personnel,, public
works, education, project., attorney,and timekeeper *
* 'The community service department includes
hous ing' and social welfare activities of the center.
The Pioneer Building in-the western portion of the
administration area houses the newspaper office
for which the building is named,the reports office
including the documentation section,* and the com-
munity analystTs office* '
The duties of the office-services section
include such functions as filing records. Sending
and receiving teletype messages, sorting and rout-
ing all mail, and project mimeographing#
The important* work of handling evacueesr leave
clearance papers and placing them in contact with
suitable employers on the outside is conducted in
the leave and employment offices.
Near the entrance gate are offices of the
supply andtransportation division and the project
.farm section*
Infront of the fire department is the garage
.and motor poolvdivision which handles all the
vehicles and matter of transportations
The living quarters of .the appointed personnel
are located between 4th and 5th streets southwest
of the fire department*

The important duty of preserving Thw and
order within the center lies in the hands of the
.Amache police department. .This force, headed by
the thred internal security officers who are the
members of the WRA staff, consists of 30 evacuee
men properly trained in police tactics. Their
efficiency is attested by the fact that no serious
crime has occurred within the center to date. Only
84 minor cases .were reported for the year of 1943.
The Amache police department is modeled after
a similar organization on the outside with the
following officers; 1 evacuee chief-of-police, 3
captains, 2 desk sergeants2 field sergeants, 3
detectives,one^ r-elease sergeant,one transportation
sergeant, and:17 patrolmen. ^
The patrolmen are assigned beats in 8 hour
shifts. The police headquarter and barrack are
located in block 9F, while the office of the chief
security officer is located in the south:, adminis-
tration building.
The f unction of the military police at the
center is restricted to the patrolling of the ware-
house areas at night and guarding at the main gate.
The /mache Post Office occupies a structure
1001 by 40? located/ between the administration
building and the /fire station. It is a regular
branch of the Lamar Post Office managed by five
Caucasian personnel who are regular civil service
employees of the United States Post Office Depart-
ment. They are assisted by an evacuee postmaster
and five clerks, handling^approximately*3,000 to

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3,500 letters, and 400 to 500 packages each nonth*
Six evacuees deliver the letters and packages to
the block office everyday in the afternoon, at the
same time collecting the outgoing letters f^om a
mail box The block managers are responsible for
the distribution'of mail to their respective block
During its first fiscal year, 1943, the post-
office^ volume of business reached approximately
$36,000, which'includes registered mail, insured
mail, money orders issued and money orders paid
Typical living quarters of the evacuees are
rows of rectangular army^style barracks, 120* x
20* divided into six compartments of /which two
each are entered by a single common door. These
rooms vary in size from 16T x 20J to 24* x 20* and
are assigned according to the size of the family
which range from two to seven individuals. Aside
from a semi-completed closet, coal stove, folding
cots, mattresses and quilts, no other articles
were provided. All other necessary furniture was
made by the evacuees themselves from scrap lumber
found on the construction site* The interior walls
and ceilings are lined with insulation board while
the floors are merely a layer of bricks laid on
loose dirt.
A community the size of Amache requires a
large number of people to perform various public .
tasks, without which the inhabitants would suffer
many hardships and often times be exposed to dan-
gers. However, unlike an ordinary town of similar a

si^e* the Granada project does not have private
enterprises and utilities and hence must resort
to other means for providing, the everyday needs of
its residents*
This problem Is being adequately met in this
center by the existence of a work ccrp composed
of evacuees who have offered .their services to
the community for a nominal wage of sixteen and
nineteen dollars,-per month paid by the government*
There is a total of 2,663 evacuees employed
in approximately 25 different departments, each
supervised by WRA staff members who are termed the
appointed' personnel* Sections under the depart-
ments are usually headed by evacuees who have had
previous' experience in the particular work*-
Fourteen standard warehouses 40 by 100 feet
occupy the northwest corner on the project site*
They are utilized'for storing mess-division supplies,
furniture, motor-pool equipment, p ublic -s ervice
supplies, and many other miscellaneous items.
In this area also are located two, 20 x 100
feet walk-in refrigeration .plants, a meat house
and a carpenter shop. In addition a 30 x 90 feet
root cellar had. been buijlt to keep the. farm sur-
plus"- products, located on the west end. of this
warehouse area.
The Granada Pioneer is a local semi-weeklynews-
paper delivered free to each unit of every barrack
on Yfednesday and Saturday afternoons It is mimeo-
- 24

graphed and has a total circulation of 3,500.About
400 oompliirtentary copies are mailed to various
other individuals,libraries and relocation centers.

This department is staffed by twanty-two
evacuees who edit and publish nows and. comments .in-.
English with translations in Japanese,*
The functional activity of the block Is cen-
tered around the mes-s hall whore the ovasuees go
not only to eat their three meals each day, but to
hold thoir talent shows, block'meetings,-movies,
wedding parties, and dances* This,'.building is of
a standard structure,100* by 401., having a seating
capacity of 200 and 300 people* The kitchen of
each mess hall is equipped with an up-to-date re-
frigerator, four galvanized sinks, water heater,
steam sterilizer, and three coal ranges* The
kitchen personnel is composed, entirely -of evacuees
one chef, two first cooks and a number of kitchen
r In addition,' a workers mess ds operated for
the benefit of the evacuee workers in the admini-
stration area-* This moss hall provides meals to
an average of 450 to 500 daily except on Saturday
and Sunday* Also,the night.'Workers such as police-
men, firemen, etc*, avoraging to a number of 40 to
50 are fed--%n this-workers* moss -hall* ,
A vfRA staff mess has approximately 10Q appoint-x
ed-porsoqne! patrons*
All the food prepared for thve meals served
including that produced on the project farm, is
based on a total meal cost of 45 cents per person
a day*The meals arc served in cafeteria style with
each individual lining up at the counter to receive

his plate and then sitting down, at a long wooden
table lined with cups,- spoons ,, forks r and salt
and pepper* Coffee is served in the morning,while
tea or water is served at other meals* Milk is
served only to children and to individuals holding
doctorf.s permits. Some blocks have adjusted them-
selves to new arrangements by having family-unit
tables* The menus are prepared by the WRA, mess
division and adhere strictly to the ration regula-
tion governing any institution outside the center#
The mess operation is the largest division
handled by evacuee workers* There are only three
Caucasian supervisors*. The mess division unit
composed of a* staff of one senior steward, staff
members of five supervisors, nine cost-accounting
clerks and fifteenworkers- performing duties in
the commissary warehouse. These' people are charged
with the responsibility of making necessary arrange-
ments' for distributing foojl to each of the twenty-
nine mess* halls, worker1 s messand staff mess.
Meat is raised and slaughtered at the project
farm and kept in the neat house, which has modern
butcher-shop equipment* This department1^ staff
consists of one head 'butcher, five butchers and
seven butcher helpers* *

The main industry cf the Granada vRel.o-c ation
.Center', is agriculture. Its prime objective is to
produce enough .vegetables and meat so that it will,
to a great extent, bedome self-sustaining.'
The actual land under the farm section em-
-braces 4,095 acres known as-, the' XY Ranch and 5,688
acres known as the Koen Ranch formerly operated by
the American Crystal Sugar Compamv Of this acreage,
almost 6,000 is under- irrigation. .The water is
supplied by the Lamar Dana1 and the'Manvel Ditch
of which 40/o and 67% respectively of the capital
stock is held by' the WRA. '
The farm-boasts a completely equipped black-
smith-shop for general,. 'repair, electric and oas
welding, *f org-e\work., drilling and cutting.
. .The enormous outputof 3,838,699 pounds of
vegetables and 55,000 bushels of field crops were
harvested on the Granada Relocation project farm
in 1943,' valued-at $190,000. 'This value fille-d
more than the product ion quota set by the YfRA of-
fice in Washington. The cost of product ion'last
year was less than $50,000.
Other noteworthy accomplishments were that
many crops not grown extensively in the 'nearby
areas were produced in large quantities. These in-
clude potatoes with production as high as 200 sacks
per acre, head lettuce, celery, spinach,lima beans
and onions. The habucha, an .annual tea plant na-
tive of Asia but*.grown, commercially'in California.,
was grown for- the first time in Colorado. Mung
beans are also new to Colorado. These beans, used
for bean sprouts^produced heavily on the WRA farm.
Daikon, a Japanese-winter radish-, and Chinese cab-
bage, unusual crops:,, were successfuly produced
last' year.. '

. %
P Other vegetables grown on the .project 'farm';
were squash, radishes, 'Chinese mustard cabbage^
tablequeen squashy tomatoes, lettuce, green pep-
'll pers, turnips, garlic, beets, cucumbers,broccoli,
pumpkins, cashaws, green onions, snap beans, can*~
B taloupes, watermelons, Swiss chard, peas, carrots,
sweet corn, and pinto beans. Other crops included
alfalfa, grain, and sorgum.
The growing of vegetables was especially em
, phasized in order to supply the center with as much
food as. .possible* :
Surpluses produced have been sent to other re-
location centers. However, a canning plant is now
in operation at the center and considerable amounts
9 of vegetables will- be preserved for use during the
winter months. ^ '
Hone of the crops produced on .the project'
farms were sold 'commercially. One, carload of
v ,spinach was given to the Army quartermaster Corps'
. for Army use.
Another important farm program is livestock,
production. 4t present there are approximately
600 head of cattle in XT Ranch feed lots and pas-
ture. An additional 100 head are fed by the vo-'
cational agriculture' students
There, are 3664 chickensand 915 hogs,' which. increased to 25,000 and 1,000 respectively
soon. The liog project, is "progressing well and are
r fattened on-garbage acc-Umdlated within the cents r.
v Special merit goes to the vocational agriculture
* boys who havb formed a-chapter of the Future -Farmers
0 of Americao Fortyof these high school -students
had full charge of farming 500 acres' of land and
1 produced 400 tons of alfalfa hay, 10,000 bushels
r of corn, 800 tons of cornfodder and rnilo, 200,000
lbs* of potatoes, 20,000 lbs. of dry beans, 18,000

ft -
ears of sweet corn and 25,000 lbs of tomatoes .They
are nowfeeding 100 head of cattle and are establish-
ing a hog-breeding project, "


The long-range program of rehabilitating evacuees once again into the s/tream of normal
.American life is. taking shape and qualified personsf
both citizens and aliens, are being encouraged to
resettle in those areas not under military restric-
tion* However, preparatory to leaving the center,
they must undergo a thorough investigation and
check 'with records of the FBI and other intelli-
gence agencies-(a§ .to their educational, political
and environmental background* Only upon the Gov-
ernments satisfaction that the evacuee is loyal,
is he or.she granted leave clearance to go outside
and accept employment* According to its policy
of encouraging resettlement, of the evacuees, the
WRA has established relocation field offices in
various parts of the United States to explore em-
ployment possibilities, to assist local civilian
agencies, committees on resettlement, and to for-
ward" job. offers directly to the project directors
in the centers*
Since the latter part of 1942 up to January
31, 1944, nearly 3,000 persons left the center on
seasonal leave, as farm laborers while others left
as.; students for colleges and universities through-
. .out the middle west and the eastern states % thus,
. enabling, them to continue their education through
their own effort* -. This was made, possible, through
the cooperation of the National Japanese American
Student Relocation Council which was organized for
this purpose, On January 31, 1944, 1*687 persons
were out- on .Indefinite leaves,' more or less in
permanent occupations*
The tempo of relocation has been accelerated
by the armys acceptance of nisei into the armed
forces:of the United States* One hundred and twen-
ty-four American' Japanese volunteered at an- earlier
date for specialized service*

- 30


All of these developments are steps- forward
toward a day when all loyal individuals will again **
be accepted into the American society and permitted #
to share the freedom and liberties as an American %
citizen* To this end, -the War Relocation Authority
has dedicated-its whole-hearted effort* * -1 %



Granada Relocation Center, James G* Lind'ley,'
Project director
Location, southeastern Colorado, Prowers County,*
Population, 6,550, tenth .largest in 'the State*
Number of" evacuees" working, -2663
Number of administrative personnel, 156
Number of Volunteers for U*S* Army,. 160
Nearest towns, Granada 1-|- milesHolly 10 miles,
Lamar 17 miles
Hospital, 150^bed capacity*
Vital Statistics, Birth 199 up* to January 31, 1944
Death, 47 up to January 31, 1944 * '
High School, 24 rooms, 600-student capacity*.
Internal Security, three WRA officers, 30 evacuee
Water Supply, four wells, total pumping capacity
1000 gal, per*, min*, Two storage tanks, 200,00 0
and 25,000 gallons*
Climate, Generally dry
Average rainfall (annual)
Ave ra g e s nowfa11
Average low temperature
Average high temperature
Average for the whole year
Elevation, 3,592 feet*.
15*75 inches
15*75 Inches
23*40 inches
31*1 degree F.
77*8 degree F.
54*4 degree'F*

Community Enterprises:
Dry Goods Store , ' "
/ Variety Store
Shoe Store ' *
Barber Shop -
Beaut y Pari or
Shoe Repair Shop
Watch. Repair Shop . ' *
Cleaning and Pressing Agency
Radio Repair Shop
Optometry k
Newspaper Department
Silk Screen Shop, prints ..Navy posters. *
Koen Ranch'---------- ---------'&, 688
X Y Ranch--------->.....----.-----..---4', 095
Granada Relocation Project--10,423
Principle Industry, agriculture*
Average length of growing season, 166*days.
Newspaper, Granada Pioneer, circulation 3,500,
published bi-weekly,'
Cover designed and printed through the courtesy of
Silk Screen Shop,
Drawing by Tom Yabu. * . 1
0 '

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