Amache Colorado, Granada Relocation Center

Material Information

Amache Colorado, Granada Relocation Center
Alternate Title:
Granada Relocation Center
Place of Publication:
Amache, Colorado
Granada Relocation Center
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
24 page mimeograph booklet 8 x 7 inches stapled on left side


Subjects / Keywords:


General Note:
Henry F. Halliday Collection carton 1 folder 5

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Source Institution:
|Auraria Library
Holding Location:
|Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text




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he-Granada- Relocation Center'iSr
named after Anache, beautiful daugh-
ter of 0chi-nee (meaning one-eyed),
chief of the Cheyenne Indian tribe which
roamed these wind-swept, prairies and pitch-
ed their tepees ajnangst the cottonwoods
along the Arkansas River. V,
It was in I863 that
for whojn the county is
John Yf. Ft#werws
named wooed an'cl
married'v^ache and becaiTie heir to almost
two-third "o^-d-he land along the Arkansas^
River from Larfratr toJLas Animas. Special- >
izing in.'' cattle \r alsitu;,
was said to be worth a million and half
Attache*s daughter-in-lavr,Iirs. John W.
Prowers Jr., a gracious, silver haired
lady, is still living in Lamar, Colorado.

The year 1942 v/itnessed an event unprece-
dented in the long epic of America.
Immediately after Japans attack on Pearl
Harbor and the subsequent declaration of vrar,
irresistible machinery went into operation start-
ing a chain of events which finally culminated
in the complete removal of all Japanese, both
citizens and aliens alike from the west coast.
The first inkling of things to come was a
letter to. the President on February 13, 1942,
from the Pacific Coast congressional delegation
recommending the removal from strategic areas
all persons of Japanese ancestry.
On February 19, by Executive order, the pres-
ident authorized the military commander to pres-
cribe certain areas from which any or all per-
sons may be excluded. Under this authorization
Lieutenant General J-. L. DeWitt, commander of
the Y/estern Defense Command, on march 2, issued
a proclamation designating military areas in the
state of Yifashington, Oregon, California and Ariz-
ona from which the Japanese, both aliens and
citizens were to be evacuated.
On Larch ]4, the Y/artime Civil Control admini-
stration was established to supervise the vast
evacuation program. It was through this office
that the Japanese disposed of their properties,
received their instructions and were ushered
into the various assembly centers prior to their

exodus further inland.
The executive order (9102) issued on March
IB created the War Relocation Authority, a non-
military agency which is at present working on
a long-range program of permanently relocating
the evacuees. There are ten of these projects
located in California, Arizona, Utah, Idaho,
Wyoming, Colorado, and Arkansas.
The Granada Relocation Center was officially
opened on August 27, 1942, with the arrival of
the first contingent from the Merced Assembly
Center. Subsequently on September 19, groups
from the Santa Anita Assembly Center began to
arrive, completing the projects occupation on
September 30. James G. Lindley is director of
the Granada project.
With these few words of introduction, it is
hoped that this pamphlet may, to some degree, en-
lighten the public on the many activities with-
in the project and the operation of the War Re-
location Authority, particularly, that, of the
Granada Relocation Center.
Documentation Section
Reports Office
Amache, Colorado
April $, 1943

This is Amache Colorado. It is one Gf the
most unusual cities, in the State. It literally
sprang up overnight on a desolate prairie 'where
a short time ago only sagebrush, cactus and Rus-
sian thistles survived the winter snow and the
hot summer sun. The only creatures which seemed
to feel at home here were the jackrabbits, rat-
tlesnakes and turtles.
The locale of this project is the original
hunting ground of the Cheyenne Indians and is
steeped in legends and historic lores of many
famous characters of the early pioneer days.
Some of the better known figures are Kit Carso}
Buffalo Bill Cody, Zebulon Montgomery Pike,
Black. Kettle, chief of the Cheyenne Indian tribe
and many others whose story-book adventures are
well known to all.
Under this setting,we find the strange dra-
ma of the Japanese in a relocation center un-
folding day by day. The teeming thousands who
were literally uprooted from their native homes
and transplanted to this novel environment work,
play, attend schools and carry on activities of
everyday living not totally different from those
of an average American community. People become
married, give birth, and die just as they have
been normally doing.
The city itself is located within the south-
ern boundary of the mile-square enclosure over-
looking the rich bottom land of the Arkansas
River. This location is bordered on the west

by a cemetery, dump pile, and sewer farm and on
the east by a rolling prairie that stretches a-
way into .the state of Kansas. The northern lim-
it is occupied by rows of warehouses, appointed
personnel living quarters, administration build-
ings and by the Military Police compound. Iso-
lated in the northeastern corner is the centers
up-to-date hospital, gleaming white against the
dusty background with its thr-ee black smoke
stacks reaching into the empty sky.
The'one distinguishing landmark, visible ten
miles away, is the project's water tank whose
orange and white checkered wall rises seventy-
two feet above the highest point of the center
The evacuee residential section is divided
into thirty blocks each having its- own communi-
ty mess hall, laundry, toilet and shower room.
In addition, there is a recreation hall in
each block and a block office to which residents
go for registering complaints or receiving in-
Every one of these blocks is composed of
twelve identical barrack 120 by 20 ft., each of
which is divided into six apartments. Every
family with seven persons or less is assigned
to one of these rooms and allowed to make it as
homelike as possible.

The people of this project make an interes-
ting study. There are 7,620 inhabitants of whom
two-thirds (5,497) are American citizens. The
non-citizens (2,123) came to America in the ea1-
ly 1900*s as laborers and merchants. Of the
total, almost half ar e from rural districts while
the other half are from urban areas.
From the Santa Anita Assembly Center, repre-
senting the urban people of Los Angeles area,
came merchants, doctors, lawyers, scientists,
jewelerq optometrist, gardeners, landscape art-
ists, hotel and restaurant operators, salesmen
and clerks. Their activities in the business
field embraced practicily every phase of Ameri-
can life.
The preponderance of rural people came from
the 1'erced Assembly Center, representing the
vast farming sections of California*s central
valleys and the San Francisco Bay area. They
are the hardy pioneer stock who through years
cf hardship and toil developed California's agri-
culture to the peak of its productivity and ef-
Furthermore the evacuees represent a heter-
ogeneous cross section of people that may be
found in any community of a comparable size.
It has its quota of artisans and layman, archi-
tects, and craftsmen, musicians, and opera sing-
ers. There are rich men, poor men, the healthy
and the sick. There are college professors and
college students, truck drivers and common la-

borers. All these and more constitute the pop-
lation of Amache.
The central executive and legislative body
,of-this center is the community council composed
of one representative from each of the twenty-
nine blocks. They are elected by popular vote,
from their respective blocks by residents who
are 18 years of age or over. The twenty -nine
blocks are again divided into five districts
and a councilman residing in each of this sec-
tion is chosen as a member of the councils ex-
ecutive committee.
The community council is charged with the
prescription of ordinances, regulations, and
laws governing community life within the center.
A judicial commission of a.ght members appointed
by the community council is composed of three
members of the administrative personnel and five
center residents who hear and try cases center-
ing around violation of local regulations.
An arbitration commission composed of 15
members appointed by the community council from
among the evacuee residents arbitrates civil
disputes within the center.

The education department, comprising elemen-
tary, junior and senior high schools, occupies
the whole of 8-H block. Pre-school classes and
kindergartens are conducted in the various rec-
reation halls scattered throughout the project
and are staffed by fourteen evacuee teachers.
The educational program is conducted in cooper-
ation with the Colorado State Department of Ed-
ucation and offers curriculums not unlike those
of any comparable institution outside the cent er.
These include industrial arts, science, math-
ematics, English, history, and physical educa-
tion. The school enrollment as of April 1, 1943
is as follows* nursery, 152; kindergarten, 95;
elementary, 681; junior high,. 433; senior high,
On the regular staff are ,50 Caucasian teach-
ers, 4 principals and a superintendent. Augmen-
ting this staff are eleven accredited evacuee
instructors, thirty-se\ren assistant teachers and
twenty-eight specialists. The new high school
building, upon completion, will accommodate 600
students. There will be 24 classrooms, combi-
nation gymnasium-auditorium, science laboratory,
library and offices.
Special adult classes are held nightly to
teach typing, shorthand, English, dressmaking,
drafting, handicraft and fine arts.

The religion of Attache is predominantly Pro-
testant with representatives from the following
denominational groups: Methodist, Baptist, Pres-
byterian, Holiness and Seventh-Day-Adventists,
Their total membership approximates 2,000 with
15 ordained ministers who take turn conducting
services each Sunday in both English and Japanese,
The elder members meet at 10 A.:r. in 7H and 10H
recreation halls simultaneously with the young
Christian groups who meet in Terry Hall, one of
the public meeting places located in the school
The next largest group are those of the
Buddhist faith. They number about 600 and con-
duct their' services in a typical oriental pat-
tern, However, English services are also con-
ducted for the nisei. The Sunday school is held
each week at 9 A.I', at 7G and 12G recreation
buildings. The elder group holds their worship
service on Saturday afternoons at 2 P.F.
Another group are the Catholics who hold
their mass on Saturday mornings, officiated by
a Father who resides in a neighboring communiy
and visits the center every week for this pur-
The Granada Pioneer is a local bi-weekly

newspaper delivered free to each unit of every
barrack on Wednesday and Saturday evenings. It
is mimeographed and has a total circulation of
3,000. About 400 complimentary copies are mail-
ed to various other individuals, libraries and
relocation centers*
This department is staffed by twenty-six
evacuees who edit and publish news and comments
in English with translations in Japanese. The
printing is done by the mimeograph section of
the newspaper office. '
Other publications appearing at regular in-
tervals are the- Granada Christian Church News;
Reveille*, a Boy Scout paper; Amache Facts, It
and Junior Pioneer, three school papers.
The local consumer's cooperative known as
the Amache Consumers Enterprises Inc., with a
total captilization of $25,000, is one of the
largest organization of this kind in the State.
It was incorporated in January 25, 1943, and is
a member of the National Cooperative Inc., Chi-
cago, Illinois. Its 2,387 members among the
residents of this project own 4,975 shares and
have under their management clothing store, va-
riety store, shoe store, shoe-repair diop,clean-
ing and pressing agency, barber shop, beauty
parlor, canteen, watch repairing, and optometry
supplies; The gross sales from all its activi-
ties amounts to more than $40,000 per month.

The responsibility of supervising this or-
ganization is vested in the nine board of direc-
tors who are elected annually by the stockhold-
Different forms of recreation and creative
pastimes are offered to the evacuees through
the existence of clubs and-organizations creat-
ed by the people themselves. For the elder men,
there are ^oh, shogi (Japanese chess), woodcarv-
ing, reading, and poem-writing clubs while for
the vromen, there are flovfer-iuaking, dressmaking,
knitting, weaving, and.crocheting circles.
The younger people, under the recreation
department, hold talent shows, movies., dances,
ping-pong tournaments, wrestling, song-fests,
folk dances, and basketball games. The latter
are played at the Granada High School gymnasium
located two miles from trie center where champion-
ship teams of the surrounding vicinity competed
often Yfith the local players,.
Other informal groups are made up from those
who have common interests in such subjects as
radio, bridge, painting, writing, literature,
model-building, and music. The musically talent-
ed people have formed several dance bands'which
perform at various social functions.
Other well-known organizations which are
taking part in national programs are the.Doy

Scouts, Girl Scouts,United Service Organization,
Christian Young People, Catholic Young Feople,
American Legion, American Red Cross, YMCA, YWCa
and its affiliated clubs.
An important group which-deserves special
mention is the Amache Coordinating Council crea-
ted inNovember, 194-2. .It is composed of repre-
sentatives from all the important agencies,
which include in addition to those mentioned
above, the police, social welfare, newspaper,
and documentation departments. Its principal
purpose is to suggest plans for making a better
community and better citizens.
Typical living quarters of the evacuees are
rows of rectangular army-style barracks, 120 x
20', divided into six compartments of which two
each are entered by a common door. These rooms
vary in size from 16 x 20 to 24 x 20' and
are assigned according tothe size of the family
which ranges from two to seven individuals. A-
side from a semi -completed closet, coal stove,
folding cots, mattresses and quilts, no other
article'Was provided. All other necessary fur-
niture was made by the evacuees themselves from
scrap lumber found on the construction site.
The interior walls and ceilings are lined with
insulation board while the floors are merely a
layer of bricks laid on loose dirt.
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The functional activity of the block is cen-
tered around the mess hall where the evacuees
go not only to eat their three meals a day but
hold their talent dhows, block meetings, movies
and dances. This building is a standard'struc-
ture 100 x ^0' having a seating capacity of 200
to 250 people. 'The kitchen part of each mess
hall is equipped with an up-to-date refrigerator,
two galvanized sinks, y/ater heater, steam ster-
ilizer, and three coal ranges. The kitchen per-
sonnel is composed entirely of evacuees.
The meals are served cafeteria style, each
individual lining up at the fVounter to receive
his plate and then sitting down at a long wood-
en table* Coffee is served in the mornings,
while tea, water or milk is provided at other
meals. The menus are prepared by the ¥RA. mess
division and adhere strictly to the ration regu-
lations governing any institution outside the
center. .
. There are two administration buildings, the
north and south, which *face the main thorough-
fare not far from the entrance gate. It is
through these buildings that the various, adminis-
strative functions of the project are carried
out. In the north hall are found the offices of
the pro ject director, assistant project director,


procurement, cost-accounting, finance, auditing,
and senior administrator. The telephone switch-
board is also located here. The south building
houses the offices of chief of police, personnel,
public works, education, project attorney, hous-
ing, and timekeeper.
The- community service department and the
reception hall which supervise the social wel-
fare activities" of the center are located in a
barrack-size building across the street from
the fire department. The Pioneer Building in
the western portion of the administration area
houses the newspaper office for which the build-
ing is named, the documentation section and the
reports office.
The duties of the office service section
which include such functions as filing records,
sending- and receiving teletype messages,.sort-
ing mail, and project mimeographing are carried
on in a similar structure found-in back of the
main administration buildings.
The important work of -handling the evacuees
leave clearance papers-and placing them in con-
tact with- suitable employers on the outside is
conducted in'" the leave and' employment offices
located immediately north of the administration
Lying adjacent to- the entrance gate is a
frame building which houses the supply and trans-
portation division and the project farm divi-
sion. The living quarters of the appointed per-
sonnel are located between 4-th and 5th streets
southwest of the fire department.

Socialized medicine, novel to physicians
and evacuees alike, is being practiced to main-
tain the health of Amache residents. The seven-
teen -winged hospital, built identical to an
Army-post unit, has approximately 150 beds and
is staffed by a chief medical officer, who is a
member of the appointed personnel, and five eva-
cuee doctors. A Caucasian registered nurse
supervises the work .of a evacuee registered
nurse, three student nurses, and 21 nurse-aides.
However,, they constitute only a small fraction
of the total of 219 hospital, employees.
The hospital is comparable to any first
class institution of similar size, possessing
complete equipment to care for almost any kind
of aiJmenW
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'.Among the many divisions of the medical u-
nits are the- out-patient clinic, pharmacy", op-
tometry, laboratory,'X-ray department, all lo-
cated in the out-patient building,.and the den-
tal clinic. The out-patient clinic is the bus-
iest section of the unit. Approximately 800
patients are treated here in one week alone.
The surgery 'ward is a special unit for minor
and major .operation.
The dental clinic, staffed by. seven evacuee
dentists, treats 125 patients daily. However,
due to the shortage of critical materials, ser-
vice is limited to emergency cases.

The Amache Post Office occupies a structure
100 by 4-0 feet located between the administra-
tion building and the fire station. It is a re-
gular branch of the Lamar Post Office managed
by five Caucasian personnel who are regular
civil service employees of the United States
Post Office Department. They are assisted by
an evacuee postmaster, four senior clerks and
t'To filing' clerks. Approximately 2,500 to 3*000
letters and *400 packages are routed'through this
office. Fifteen evacuee mail carriers make one
delivery per day to the residents.
The fire .department is'located on the main
street between the residential and administra-
tion areas. It houses tvxo modern Ford trucks
equipped with a triple combination pumper capa-
ble of throwing 500 gallons of water per minute.
This equipment is manned twenty-four hours a
day by three shifts of pLatoons comprising eight
to ten men each. The responsibility for the
training and operation of these units are vest-
ed in a Caucasian fire-protection officer, his
assistant, and an evacuee fire chief. Living
accommodations are provided for the firemen v/ho
are on night duty.
In ad.ition to these members, are-volunteer
and auxiliary firemen from each block who re-

ceive periodic training in fire combat.
A fire is reported through emergency tele-
phones located throughout the center.
The important duty of preserving lav; and
order within the center lies £n the hands of
the Amache police department. This force, head-
ed by an internal security officer who is a mem-
ber of the WRA staff, consists of 60 evacuee
men properly trained in police tactics. Their
efficiency is attested bylhe fact that no seri-
ous crime has occured within thecenter to data
The Amache police department is mod-eled after
a similar organization on the outside with the
following officers: evacuee chief-of-police, 3
captains, 3 desk sergeant, 3 field sergeants,
one release sergeant, one transportation ser-
geant, and 48 patrolmen.
The patrolmen are assigned beats in 8-hour
shifts. The police headquarter and barrack are
located in block 8-F, while the 'office of the
chief security officer is located in the south
administration building.
The function of the military police must
not be confused with that of the local force
since the former is restricted to the patrolling
of areas outside the center and has no juris-
diction within it.

A community the size of Amache requires a
large number of people to perform various public
tasks, without which the inhabitants would suf-
fer many hardships and oftentimes be exposed to
dangers. However, unlike an ordinary town of
similar size, the Granada project dees not have
private enterprises and utilities and hence must
resort to other means for providing the every-
day needs of its residents.
This problem is being adequately met in this
center by the existence of a work corp composed
of evacuees who have offered their services to
the community for a nominal pay of twelve, six-
teen and nineteen dollars, advanced by the
There is a total of 3,476 evacuees employed
in approximately 25 different departments, each
supervised by Caucasians who are termed the
appointed personnel. Sections under the depart-
ments are usually headed by evacuees who have
had previous experience in the particular work.
As an example, the numerous functions of
the public-works division, which employs 56
people, may be cited. Its responsibilities in-
clude the planning and beautification of the
center, maintenances of sewage, plumbing, power
and sanitation, construction of roads and houses
and the control of soil erosion.

The water for the project is supplied by
four wells approximately 80G feet deep. They
are equipped with pumps driven by forty-horse-
power electric motor which discharge 350 gallons
per minute into a 200,000 gallon storage tank.
Here it is chlorinated to safeguard against pol-
lution. From the tank two 750 gallon.per minute
centrifugal pumps driven by forty -horsepower
motors force the into an elevated 25,000
gallon tank seventy -two feet high built on the
southern boundary of the project. Gasoline-
driven standby pumps are installed at well No.
3 and the storage tank to take care of any emer-
gency arising out of power failure.
The large amount of water utilized by the
evacuees for normal living purposes can be real-
ized when it is noted that the 25,000 -gallon
tank cannot be kept full for more than thirty
minutes if the supply is shut off from the main
storage tank.
Electric power is supplied by the Lamar
Branch of the Rural Electrification Administra-
tion. Approximately 23A,000 kilowatt hours are
consumed per month in the center.
Fourteen standard warehouse AO by 100 feet
occupy the northwest corner on the project site.


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They are utilized for storing mess-division sup-
plies, furnitures, motor-pool equipment, commu-
nity-enterprise- stocks, public-service supplies,
and many other miscellaneous items.
In this area also are located two, 20 x 100
feet walk-in refrigeration plants, a meat house
and a carpenter shop.
ifYRh. FiulM
The main industry of the Granada Relocation
Center is agriculture. Its prime objective is
to produce enough vegetables and meat so that
it will, to a great extent, become self sustain-
The actual land under the farm section em-
braces 4 ,"095 acres known as the X Y Ranch and
5,688 acres known as the Keen Ranch formerly
operated by the American Crystal Sugar Company.
Of this acreage, almost .6,000 is under irriga-
tion. The water is supplied by the Lamar Canal
and the Manvel Ditch of which 40% and 6res-
pectively of the capital stock is held by the
WRA. The water rights of the X Y Ditch is en-
tirely owned by the WRA.
Equipment used in farming includes a number
of large track-type tractors and twenty Fords.
There is also a completely equipped blacksmith-
shop for general repair, electric and gas weld-
ing, forge work, drilling and cutting.

The present phn calls for 500 acres of veg-
etables some of "which are: onions, beans, corn,
potatoes, carroty lettuce, tomatoes, cauliflow-
er, cabbage, canteloupe, arid watermelons. Other
seedings include 800 acre of alfalfa, with sev-
eral hundred acres in corn, grain, and sprgum.
Another important farm program is livestock
production# At present there are 1,000 chickens
and 525 hogs which will be increased to 20,000
and 1,000 respectively. The hogs are fattened
on garbage accumulated within the center. Fur-
ther plans in this department call for a poss-
ible start in beef production.

The .b ng-range program of rehabilitating the
evacuees into the main stream of normal Ameri-
can life is taking shape and qualified persons,
both citiznes and aliens, are being encouraged
to resettle in those areas not under military
restriction. However, preparatory to leaving
the center they must undergo a thorough inves-
tigation by the FBI and other intelligence a-
gencies into their educational, political and
environmental background. Only upon the govern-
ment !s satisfaction that the evacuees are loyal,
are they'granted indefinite-leave--clearance so
that they may accept jobs offered through .Rit
employment offices. Up to April 1, 1913, nearly
800 persons have left the- center on temporary-
leaves while 110 became^ established in more or
less permanent occupations on the outside.
The tempo of relocation has been accelerated
with the Armys acceptance of nisei into the
.armed forces of the United States. One hundred
and twenty-four American -Japanese have volun-
teered for the new combat unit while 19 volun-
teered at an earlier date for specialized ser^-
Another phase of the relocation program is
the placing of approximately 90 studentsin col-
leges and universities throughout the middle
west and the eastern state's., and thus enabled
them to continue their education through their
own effort. This was made possible through the
cooperation of the National Japanese American
Studept Relocation Council itfiich was organized

for this purpose
All of these developments are steps forward
toward a day when all loyal individual are
again accepted into the Airierican society and
permitted to share the common lot of a common
man. To this end, the War Relocation Authority
has dedicated its wholehearted effort.

a few facts at a glance
Granada Relocation Center, James G. Lindley,
project director.
Location, southeastern Colorado, Prowers County.
Population, 7,620, tenth largest in the State.
Elevation, 3,592 feet.
Amache--------------.---------------640 _
Koen Ranch------------------------5,688
X Y Ranch-------------------------4,095
Granada Relocation Project------10,423
Climate, Generally.dry
Average rainfall-------------15.75 inches .
Average snowfall-------------23*40 inches.
Average low temperature------31*1 degree F.
Average high temperature-----77.8 degree F.
Average for the whole year---54.4 -degree F.
Principle Industry, agriculture.
Average length of growing season, 166 days.
Number of evacuees working, 3,207
Number of administrative personnel, 156
Nearest towns, Granada 1^*miles, Holly 10 miles
Hospital, 150-bed capacity.

Public library, 4,54-5 books.
Internal security, 52 evacuee police.
High school, 24 rooms',' 600 students capacity.
Vfater Supply, four 'Tells, total pumping capac
ity 1,400 gal. per. min. Two storage tanks
200,000 and 25,000 gallons.
Two large refrigeration plants.
Community Enterprise:
Dry Goods Store
Variety Store
Shoe Store
Barber Shop
Beauty Parlor
Shoe Repair Shop
Watch Repair Shop
newspaper, Granada Pioneer, circulation 3,000
published bi-weekly.