Music industry studies curriculum

Material Information

Music industry studies curriculum
Krause, Douglas William
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
vi, 93 leaves : illustrations ; 29 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Music trade -- Study and teaching (Higher) ( lcsh )
Curriculum planning ( lcsh )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (leaves 89-90).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Humanities.
General Note:
Department of Humanities and Social Sciences
Statement of Responsibility:
by Douglas William Krause.

Record Information

Source Institution:
|University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
|Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
37887065 ( OCLC )
LD1190.L58 1997m .K73 ( lcc )

Full Text
Douglas William Krause
B.S., University of Colorado at Denver, 1991
M.A., University of Denver, 1995
A thesis submitted to the
University of Colorado at Denver
in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Humanities

This thesis for the Master of Humanities
degree by
Douglas William Krause
has been approved
ICuJr d
Kent Casper

Krause, Douglas W. (M.H.)
Music Industry Studies Curriculum
Thesis directed by Professor Frank Jermance
Potential for employment and careers in the music industry
is as great as it has ever been. There is an increasing interest in
and need for educational programs that focus on studies in this
area. Few of the available programs target the non-traditional
type of student. Presented here is a proposed curriculum that
would provide the student who is not a traditional music or
business student with a viable education in music industry
The type of student being targeted by this curriculum is
often a musician, though not one who is prepared for the stringent
musical requirement of more traditional music industry degrees.
The premise from which this curriculum is derived is that this
type of student desires and should receive some musical training
and education in order to be the best prepared for a career in the
music industry.
The particular requirements of this curriculum expose the
need for the development of some new courses in addition to the
incorporation of courses that presently exist at most music
institutions. This program is a realistic degree option at
institutions that already have traditional music programs in place.
Nevertheless, music schools must address the issue of new
curriculum and faculty requirements if they wish to be
competitive in this market of music industry studies.
This area is growing, and it is important for educational
institutions to be sensitive to the issues presented here. Their

willingness to entertain possibilities of change will assure the
choices that students need to acquire the kind of education
necessary for success in the industry. At the same time,
educational institutions will secure their financial success with
their flexibility and forward thinking.
This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidate's
thesis. I recommend its publication.

1. INTRODUCTION................................1
2. THE DEGREE POSSIBILITIES.....................2
4. THE CURRICULUM...............................2 0
Music Courses..............................2 1
Music Business Courses.....................3 0
Business Courses...........................4 6
General Core and College of Liberal Arts...4 7
5. FACULTY REQUIREMENTS.........................4 8
6. CONCLUSIONS..................................5 0
APPENDIX.............................................5 2
2. COURSE DESCRIPTIONS..........................5 4
PROGRAMS......................................7 9
5. SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE PAGE....................8 7

6. SAMPLE QUERY CARD..........................8 8
REFERENCES.........................................8 9

The purpose of this study is to develop a new music in-
dustry based curriculum that fills an apparent void that exists
between programs which are based on traditional music studies
and programs that are primarily business oriented. There is a
need for such a program to accommodate students who have
difficulty with or feel uncomfortable with programs at the ex-
tremes of the spectrum, yet there is limited information or
previous research on this subject. This study is supported pri-
marily by research that includes a survey and analysis of existing
music business degree programs. This was accomplished through
direct contact with the directors of several of the leading pro-
grams and examination of materials from these programs and
others (see Appendix 3).
Of course, the concerns of the industry are also relevant to
this study. The industry is primarily looking for bright, trainable
people. It is important that they have good communications skills,
legal knowledge of the business, and an understanding of technol-
ogy and its implications. Creativity is an important element to the
industry as well. The indication that one gets is that the music
industry professional of the future must have multiple skills and
experience. The only way for the university to provide experience
is to implement an aggressive internship program, and most pro-
fessionals consider this to be the most important element. This
thesis will address the concerns mentioned above and present a
curriculum for the study of music business that will prepare the
student to deal with the challenges of a career in the music industry.

The first question that must be asked when faced with the
challenge of creating a degree program for music business is,
"What degree shall it be?" If the desire is to have it fall into the
category of music, which is the goal of this study, then there are
several choices that must be made. One could design a profes-
sional degree such as a Bachelor of Music degree or one could opt
for a liberal arts degree with a music major such as a Bachelor of
Arts or Bachelor of Science degree. Any music school that is
accredited by the National Association of Schools of Music (NASM)
and wishes to offer an accredited degree must adhere to their
guidelines for any such degree, and these can pose some inter-
esting problems for the person developing the curriculum.
The NASM requirements for professional degrees in music,
or Bachelor of Music degrees, are heavily weighted toward tradi-
tional music studies and performance requirements, although
these requirements are at times vague and represented in the
handbook only by generalized percentages and indistinct goal
statements. NASM offers suggested requirements in a number of
areas for the pursuit of professional degrees, but music business is
not specifically listed as an area that it recognizes. It does recog-
nize certain combined degrees in music and business such as the
Bachelor of Music or Bachelor of Arts in Music with elective
studies in Business and the Bachelor of Business Administration or

Bachelor of Science in Economics with elective studies in Music.1
These degrees do not address the subject of music business
specifically but, instead, attempt to combine traditional studies in
the areas of music and business to serve that purpose. This
approach of combining traditional music and business study is
inadequate in that each of these areas is traditionally ill-equipped
to provide specifically relevant courses for the study of music
So, assuming that an educational institution wishes to have
the approval of NASM for its music industry degree, it is left with
only the music degrees that NASM recognizes as templates for the
design of new curricula. In the past, any music school that was
accredited by NASM had to adhere to NASM guidelines for all
degrees that it offered because it was not possible for an accred-
ited music school to administer a degree that did not fulfill
accreditation standards. In 1996, there was speculation that
NASM relaxed that requirement and will now allow an accredited
school to offer a degree path that is not accredited along with
their accredited degrees.3 If this is true, it raises some interesting
INational Association of Schools of Music Handbook, pg. 158.
2General business and music courses can be helpful to the music business student and
are necessary to some extent, but traditional programs in each area have not been
known to offer the subject-specific courses needed to complete the student's
understanding of the music industry. Only a curriculum with these particular
questions in mind can begin to fulfill the requirements and meet the expectations of
the music business student.
3The Music Department of the University of Colorado at Denver, a long-time, NASM-
accredited institution, is presently in the process of developing and implementing a
program in music industry studies for the "non-performing, music student" (expected
to begin in the Fall of 1997). It will offer a Bachelor of Science in Music degree that is
not expected to meet the accreditation requirements of NASM. This degree will be
offered in conjunction with the more traditional B.S. in Music that is accredited and
has been in place for many years. On the other hand, contact with NASM in a phone
interview on April 8, 1997 revealed no change in the policy from what was in place

possibilities for the curriculum designer as well as some difficult
questions. Some schools will undoubtedly feel that they best serve
their student population by offering only accredited degrees, but
there will surely be some schools that will find the new option to
be better for them.4 Before any decision can be made, the
possibilities of offering an accredited degree must be examined.
The place to begin assessing the possibilities of offering an
accredited degree is with the Bachelor of Music or professional
degree. This is the only professional degree that NASM recognizes,
and as stated before, it recognizes at present no specific Bachelor
of Music Business professional degree. Assuming that NASM could
be persuaded by the curriculum designer to endorse such a
program major under the B.M., and some accredited schools are
offering B.M.'s in this area with various business and management
majors,5 the question remains whether this degree can accom-
modate the real needs of the student of music business who is
prior to 1996. There is no expectation of a change in attitude in the near future. It has
been difficult to determine where UCD received their information, but they are certain
of it to the extent that they are committing resources to the implementation of this
new, non-accreditable degree.
4Several music schools offering music-based, music industry degrees are not NASM
accredited at present. These include the music schools of the following institutions:
Albany State College-B.A., Berklee College of Music-B.M., Elizabeth City State
University-B.S., Elmhurst College-B.S. and B.M., Five Towns College-B.M., Middle
Tennessee State University-B.S., New York University-B.M., Northeastern University-
B.S., and the University of New Haven-B.A. as shown in the 1996 study by the author
referred to in Appendix 3 and Greenblatt, Harmon. Resource Supplement: Preview of
the MEIEA Guide to Music Business Programs. NARAS Journal Vol. 6, No. 1: 117-153.
5Some of these music schools include those from the following institutions: Georgia
State University; Hartt School, the University of Hartford; James Madison University;
Loyola University (offers B.A. as well); Mansfield University; the University of
Massachusetts at Lowell; the University of Memphis; the University of Miami; the
University of Southern Mississippi; the University of the Pacific Conservatory; the
University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh; and William Paterson College of New Jersey
(Appendix 3 and Greenblatt).

being targeted by this study. To answer this, we must look at the
accreditation requirements and identify the target student.
NASM has several philosophical goals for any student
pursuing a Bachelor of Music degree, but I am most concerned
with the actual distribution of hours, which is a partial reflection
of that philosophy. Generally, NASM finds that, "For all Bachelor of
Music degrees except those in music education, music therapy,
and certain combined curricula, regardless of the specific
distribution, normally at least 65% of a typical 120-124 semester
hour degree program is in music courses."6 These hours consist
primarily of studies in traditional music history, performance, and
music theory. This leaves little room for many of the courses that
are needed to provide the student with the industry background
necessary to receive a complete education in music business or
the courses necessary for a sufficient understanding of business in
general. With all the emphasis being put on music, the business
aspect cannot help being overlooked.
Also, a professional music degree such as the one mentioned
above expects a high level of musical accomplishment from the
student, not just upon completion of the program, but as a re-
quirement for acceptance to the program.
"While admission to a program leading to the degree
will be subject to broad institutional admission
policies, emphasis should be on evidence that the
candidate possesses exceptional talent, the potential to
, develop high-level musicianship, artistic sensibilities,
and above all, a strong sense of commitment. Students
should be evaluated and screened for continuation
periodically throughout the degree program."7
6National Association of Schools of Music Handbook, pg. 74.

The goal of this degree is to produce professional musicians that
"must exhibit not only technical competence, but also a broad
knowledge of music and music literature, the ability to integrate
musical knowledge and skills, sensitivity in musical style, and an
insight into the role of music in intellectual and cultural life."8
These are admirable traits and, in many cases, would be useful to
the music business professional, but this level of specificity in
music seems exclusive to an understanding of business and the
popular music industry.9 It also excludes some students who are
not prepared for the rigorous pursuit of music required by this
type of program. Even if they do become involved in a profes-
sional degree program, they may have difficulty completing it
successfully, although they may be adept at, and capable of,
subsequent careers in the music industry. There may very well be
a place for this kind of degree, but it is too exclusive for my
purposes. A professional music degree is not necessary for the
successful study of music business and the subsequent use of the
degree for job placement in the industry.10
At this point, I must refer to my own experience. Personal
observation and investigation must be considered valid forms of
8Ibid., pgs. 73-74
9The type of courses that are deemed important by the professional degree emphasize
the history and practice of art music. They do not take into consideration the rise of
popular music forms in this century and music commerce or music as a commodity.
There is also no place in these courses for the study of general business practices. The
emphasis upon the study of traditional music leaves little room in the curriculum for
supplementary study of these other considerations that are important to the music
industry student.
lODavid Jurman, Senior Director and A&R, Dance Music, Columbia Records,
interviewed by author, 4 April 1997, MEIEA Conference, University of Colorado at
Denver. In this interview, Jurman stated that traditional music degrees have no greater
influence on the hiring practices of music industry employers than any other type of
degree, i.e. sociology, communications, etc.

reference.11 Years of dealing with other professionals in the music
industry has made me aware of certain strengths and weaknesses
that most successful and not-so-successful professionals possess.
Many strengths are the intangibles that cannot be taught, such as:
intuition, tenacity, confidence, courage, etc. Others can be learned.
One can acquire a keen business sense, an understanding of the
operation of the industry, or the knowledge and tools to channel
creative energy to name a few. Although every music course
required by the professional music degree might somehow be
useful to music business professionals, not many of the courses
are essential to their success. I have known as many successful
professionals that have no formal music training as those with
such training. It is also true that the industry can boast many
very successful non-musician, music business professionals.
One of the most glaring weaknesses among music business
professionals is, ironically, a lack of musical background. Although
this may seem a contradiction to the previous paragraph, I am not
speaking of the type of background represented by the profes-
sional music degree. Some amount of musical experience and
education can only help the music business professional, but the
relevancy to the professional in the music industry of music of the
Middle Ages, the chromaticism of Wagner, and four-part, chorale-
style harmony seems suspect. These three randomly chosen ex-
lilt is important to note for the sake of my argument that I have been a professional in
the music industry for over twenty years and have worked with other professionals on
many levels and in many capacities. During much of this time, I have also been
involved in continuing education. I have a Bachelor of Science in Music degree from the
University of Colorado at Denver and a Master of Arts in Music Degree from the
University of Denver. During the last twenty-five years, I have attended five
institutions of higher learning, primarily in pursuit of traditional music study, so I
am familiar with both academia and the professional music industry. I am as qualified
as anyone to make observations of the music business professional, the music student,
and the settings in which they function.

amples represent material which is almost always presented in a
traditional music education program. Knowledge of these things is
not detrimental by any means, but is it essential? It is true that
these historical developments in music can be shown to have had
an influence on the popular music of today. Musical techniques of
the Middle Ages influenced early twentieth century art composers
who in turn influenced popular music of then and now. Wagnerian
chromaticism and romantic excess is alive and well in today's film
music, and the basic techniques of four-part harmony are evi-
denced in the work of any vocal group be it the Mills Brothers, the
Eagles or Take Six.
Of course, performers such as those mentioned above may
be unaware of the connection of their music to traditional tech-
niques because not many popular performers are traditionally
trained. The concept is what is important to them, and they most
often discover that on their own through experimentation. It is
certainly easier for such performers when someone shows them
important concepts and they can avoid the trial and error process,
but a complex and time-consuming presentation of the intricacies
can often complicate a basic understanding of the concept. Ob-
servation of many students whose background is primarily an
amateur involvement with popular music has shown that many
want to know why this chord sounds "right" or that melody is
effective, but they want to know immediately without a lot of
elaboration. Too much information often overwhelms them, clouds
the message that is pertinent to them, and severely tries their
Young musicians interested in popular music are inherently
impatient. Any attempt at providing them with an educational
background must take this into consideration as well. In the past,
our society has often taken the stance in higher education, and not
just in the arts, that there is no quick and easy way to learn cer-

tain concepts. If one wants to know why a chord sounds "right,"
then one must learn all about chords from the beginning. The
precept has been that a little knowledge is a dangerous thing to
the individual and society as a whole. Individuals who refused to
conform to the plan and embarked upon careers in music without
formal training were looked down upon by academia. That has not
stopped the "amateurs" from trying. They realized that certain
chords sounded "right" because their ears told them so, and
through practice they became familiar with chord relationships
although they may not have known any of the specific reasons
why harmony works the way it does.
Although the amount of musical background required for
success in the music business, even as a performer, is often less
than that expected of a student involved in a traditional music
education, more knowledge always optimizes one's chances of
success. It must be remembered that performing musicians,
whether they be "trained" or "amateur," must be proficient on
their instruments to the degree expected of them by the style of
music in which they are involved. "Amateurs" often approach the
business of music in the same manner that they approach the
music itself. Through trial and error, mistakes and heartbreak,
they learn how the music business operates. An educational back-
ground of the business of music can only improve the chances of
success or, at least, allow for a lessening of the heartbreak.
The previous paragraphs say much about the kind of stu-
dent being targeted here. Many musicians who are students of
music business do not want to pursue conservatory degrees.
Sometimes these people do not have the background or the
technical musical ability that the average music student possesses
upon entering college. This does not mean that these students
cannot be successful in the music business. Although it is my
belief that a certain amount of musical training is beneficial and

even necessary for the music business student, many programs
demand more than can be accomplished by the non-musician or
amateur musician. In any case, there are many music business
programs around the country that offer emphasis on traditional
music training. Any musician with a strong musical background
can find a number of programs that may suit his/her needs for a
traditionally-based, music business degree.12 There are also
programs that offer a business-oriented education for the non-
musician who desires no musical training at all.13 It is my
intention to find a way to offer a music degree in music business
to the amateur or non-traditional musician who lacks a traditional
background in music and may not wish to acquire one.
It might be possible to satisfy this goal with one of the other
NASM accredited degrees. NASM does provide guidelines for
Bachelor of Science and Bachelor of Arts degrees with a major in
music. These are not professional degrees in the eyes of NASM
and academia, but outside of that circle, no one cares.14 The
"professional" aspect of a degree is most important to those in
education and those involved in the professional performance of
art music. In the music business field, the most important thing is
background gained through experience and education. No degree
12Examples of NASM accredited schools offering highly traditional-oriented degrees
(40 hours or more of traditional music required) in music business are the Hartt
School, University of Hartford; Indiana State University; James Madison University;
Mansfield University; the University of Colorado at Denver; U-Mass at Lowell; the
University of Miami; the University of Nebraska at Kearney; the University of
Southern Mississippi; the University of the Pacific Conservatory; the University of
Wisconsin at Oshkosh; and William Paterson College. The distribution of hours can be
found in Appendix 4. Non-NASM accredited schools that require 40 or more music
hours include: Berklee College of Music, Elmhurst College, and Five Towns College.
13The most important ones of these is Belmont University which offers two degree
tracks in music business, Management and Marketing.
14David Jurman, interviewed by author, 4 April 1997, MEIEA Conference, University
of Colorado at Denver.

can replace experience, but any well-designed degree can provide
the educational background that might give a student an edge in
the job market. After all, that is the primary purpose of higher
education. The question is whether an accredited music school can
provide a complete, yet not traditional-music biased, degree
program that satisfies NASM.
The Bachelor of Science degree with a major in music allows
for 55% to 70% of the hours to be general studies. Musicianship
studies and the combined areas of performance and music elec-
tives account for the remaining 30-45%.15 Institutions that are
chartered to offer only Bachelor of Science and Bachelor of Arts
degrees are allowed to align their programs more closely to that of
the professional degree; in other words, they can require more
music hours from their students.16 The Bachelor of Arts degree
has much the same distribution of hours that is expected of the
B.S. It seems possible that one of these degrees could provide the
template around which a music business program could effec-
tively be designed while retaining NASM accreditation.
An important consideration is the propensity of NASM to
expect curriculum to include traditional music studies in music
history, theory, and performance. There is still some uncertainty
as to what courses will qualify in these areas or, more appro-
priately, what will not, and each situation is assessed by the
Commission as it is encountered.17 This poses a difficult problem
15National Association of Schools of Music Handbook, pg. 71-72.
16lb i d.
17NASM as an association is responsible for seeing that procedures are followed as
they are presented in the NASM Handbook. There is a Commission that reviews the
material collected from the applying music school and recommends accreditation or
not. Music schools must perform a self-study during which time they may, if they
wish, receive the advice of a consultant sent by NASM. Visitors from NASM arrive on
campus after the self-study has been completed and reviewed. They return home with a

for the curriculum designer who is trying to second guess NASM.
For example, will a course "The History of Rock 'n' Roll" be able to
replace Music History 101, or will students still be required to sit
through lectures on Gregorian chant and madrigals of the
fourteenth century. The relevance of these subjects to future
music business professionals is certainly questionable. The
problem is that one does not know what NASM's response will be
until the curriculum is presented and it responds. Much work
could be for naught.
Let us suppose that while designing our curriculum, we have
concluded that there are several courses we would like to include
because they are more specific to the music business student's
needs. It might be determined that classes such as "The History of
Rock 'n' Roll" and Contemporary Songwriting better prepare he
student for working in the music industry than traditional music
history and theory classes. If we assume that NASM will not
accept the suggested replacement of Music History 101 with "The
History of Rock 'n' Roll" or the replacement of Music Theory III
with Contemporary Songwriting, then what do we do with these
two courses that we deem to be important to our curriculum?
Within the confines of the B.S. and B.A. degrees we might be able
to put them into general studies, but we must be careful. If we
have to do this with very many music business classes, we may
run the risk of biasing our broad-based liberal education. We also
may not be able to reconcile some of our courses with the liberal
arts requirements of the university and regional accreditation
organizations. It must not be forgotten that the goals of liberal
education "... are usually achieved by studies in English
composition and literature; foreign languages; history, social
visitor's report, and a copy of their results are sent to the institution. The institution
can respond to these comments after which the Commission makes its decision.

studies, and philosophy; visual and performing arts; natural
science and mathematics."18 That is quite an array of subjects to
cover within a framework of slightly more than 120 hours. It
would certainly be easier if the NASM guidelines were not a
Many non-accredited schools offer degree programs in
music business and they can answer these questions without the
restrictions of the NASM guidelines. Oddly enough, some require
more traditional music or have a greater liberal arts diversity
than some schools that have gained NASM accreditation.19 Even
outside of the circle of NASM influence, music schools are biased
toward traditional studies in music. Some students have little or
no choice but to settle for a trade school education rather than a
college degree if they wish to avoid the stringent traditional music
requirements. If the curriculum proposed by this thesis is going to
provide a choice for the non-traditional musician, music business
student, then adhering to the NASM requirements is too re-
stricting and exclusive. The choice then is to design a degree in
music with a music business emphasis that is not concerned with
NASM accreditation, that provides some musical training and
background, and that offers the type of courses that will give the
student every opportunity to be successful in the music industry.
This approach presumes that the music industry is not concerned
with NASM's accreditation of a degree as a prerequisite for ac-
ceptance of the knowledge it represents. It was with these consid-
erations in mind that this curriculum, and the non-accredited
Bachelor of Science degree in Music that it represents, was
designed (see Appendix 1). By not being concerned with NASM
18Ibid., pg. 71.
19Five Towns College requires 60 hours of music study which is nearly equal to the
greatest amount required by any of the NASM accredited schools. Elmhurst College
requires 65 general studies hours which is the most of any school surveyed.

accreditation requirements, it is possible to include courses that
are pertinent to the education of a music business student who is
a non-traditional musician.

The term "non-traditional musician" deserves some at-
tention and explanation. Originally, the term "non-professional
musician" was considered to describe this type of music student.
Although "non-traditional" is possibly a more complete term,
"non-professional" also partially describes the type of student
being discussed here, particularly relative to the traditional music
student. It is certainly true that most college freshmen are far
from being professional musicians, but the rigorous demands of a
traditional music school education assume that the potential is
there for them to achieve professional status. The audition re-
quirements alone expect a certain level of proficiency even before
the student embarks upon a college education. It is undoubtedly
the goal of traditional programs that the student be given every
opportunity to realize a professional career as a musician upon
completion of his/her studies. The unfortunate truth is that only a
few find satisfactory work as performing professionals, and only a
slightly larger group finds jobs as teachers.20 A large number of
graduates find related work or end up in careers that are com-
20During the panel discussion "Music Careers in Performance and Composition" at the
MEIEA Conference April 4, 1997, Dr. Scott Fredrickson, the president of MEIEA and
head of the music business department at the University of Massachusetts at Lowell,
made the statement that there were too many "fraudulent performance programs"
which are responsible for producing many graduates who have little or no hope of
being able to find professional positions as performers.

pletely unrelated to their music studies. When the term non-
traditional is used in this thesis, it is to distinguish those students
from the ones in these traditional programs who may or may not
become professional musicians but exhibit the talent, inclination,
and ability to have the potential to become professionals as the
term is applied by traditional music educators.
The non-traditional musician mentioned above is the
student who may or may not have much musical background but,
more importantly, does not have the interest in a traditional
music education. They may have aspirations of becoming success-
ful performers which, if realized, would certainly qualify them as
"professional." Many one-time amateurs have found tremendous
success as performers in the popular music genres. They gain
their professional status through experience and accomplishment
regardless of their educational background, although that back-
ground may have aided them in their career. The educated
professional musician on the other hand may not be a practicing
professional even though a document earned through education
may indicate that he is capable of being one. The term
"professional" can certainly have different meanings in different
Some music students desire to become "non-musician, music
industry professionals." These students are definitely part of the
non-traditional group being targeted by this thesis. Although
many music industry professionals have performed at one time or
another, there are many who have not but are in the business
because of a love of music. There are many non-musician students
who also want to become music industry professionals for the
same reason. Some choose to enter programs that are business
oriented and require no music education,21 but there those that
21The degree program at Belmont is a good example.

want to learn more about music, though they do not want to be
required to become performers. This proposed degree will suit
them well because traditional music degrees invariably have a
performance requirement of all students. It may be helpful in
distinguishing between the different categories of music student
by examining the purpose of the degrees that each might pursue.
The Bachelor of Music is called a professional degree,22 and
the Bachelor of Science in Music and Bachelor of Arts in Music are
often designed along the lines of the B.M. It is the purpose of
these degrees to produce educated professionals in music, and this
is particularly emphasized when the school offering the degree is
accredited by NASM. The degree that is being proposed here is
one that does not intend to produce professional musicians in the
above sense of the word, although many graduates might find
success as such. The purpose of this degree is to produce grad-
uates capable of becoming professionals in the music industry. It
is intended to offer an alternative to the non-traditional music
student who desires a music-oriented degree (one that provides at
least some musical background) but does not have the background
or interest to pursue a musically-demanding, traditional,
professional music degree. It is hoped that this degree will fill a
void that has existed between the professional level music de-
grees in music business that require extensive traditional music
study and the professional level business degrees that require no
music study whatsoever. There have not been many options in the
past for the student who falls in the middle. This degree track is
designed to give that student a more efficacious choice.
Another important aspect of this degree is one that is
relevant to the music school accredited by NASM. If it is true, and
there are conflicting reports, that there has been a relaxation of
22Nationa1 Association of Schools of Music Handbook, pg. 67.

NASM requirements that now allows an accredited school to offer
a degree path that is not accredited along with one or more that
are, the music school can reach a larger potential student
population that may have been excluded before. The school can do
this without jeopardizing any of the degrees presently being
offered or losing any of the traditional student population. This is
important from a revenue standpoint because these non-
traditional students are students who may have otherwise been
lost to trade schools or art institutes. With such a degree in place,
the school often could serve both traditional and non-traditional
students in the same classroom. There is a potential here that
should be considered carefully and it will be addressed as the
curriculum is presented.
If NASM policy changes are merely rumors or if a music
school wants all of the degrees that it offers to meet accreditation
guidelines, this degree may not be an option. It is still possible,
though, that the flavor of this degree curriculum could be met to
some extent in one of the NASM accredited degrees (B.A. or B.S.).
More traditional music study might be required in these cases
than is indicated in this present curriculum, but by addressing the
same philosophical intent, a compromise might be reached. It may
also be possible to design this curriculum to be administered by a
department other than music as long as the music requirement
was met. Some educators23 and music industry professionals24 are
advocating a greater interdisciplinary education for music busi-
ness students which would require the cooperation of several
23The University of North Alabama, Newton "Jay" Collins, PhD, Director, is one
24David Jurman, Columbia Records, Lorenz Rychner, Recording Magazine, and Ron
Sobel VP, ASCAP, Los Angeles, panel discussion "Careers in the 21st Century," MEIEA
Conference, 4 April 1997.

university departments. This situation presently exists in some
areas of study and may be the future of music industry study.
At this time in music business education, there is little
consistency among programs. There is also little consistency
among educators and what they deem to be an important ap-
proach to the study of the music industry. The student has several
choices of the type of degree to pursue, yet there are still possi-
bilities that have not been suggested. There is a need for a pro-
gram like the one presented here even though it may only be
viable for non-accredited music schools. The validity of this
degree and how it will serve the student will become evident
through an examination of the curriculum.

Whether a student has a great deal of musical background,
some musical background, or no musical background, some under-
standing of music is valuable to the professional in the music
industry.25 It is hard to imagine any business professional
working with a product of which he has limited understanding.
There is no reason it should be different in the music industry. If
one looks closely at this proposed degree, as we will in the
succeeding pages, one will also see that these music courses vary
to some degree from the traditional type of music core. The
included courses (Appendix 2) are intended to provide a basic
understanding of musical theory, give the student hands-on
creative experience, and show the student the historical context of
the music of our times. This is accomplished through the use of
some courses from the traditional area and some new courses
designed with the target student in mind. Many of these new
courses could be worthwhile to the traditional student as well if
they are included as electives or alternative core courses for
students in the traditional area.
25Lorenz Rychner, Recording Magazine, panel discussion "Careers in the 21st
Century," MEIEA Conference, 4 April 1997.

Music Courses
As stated before, it is the contention of this author that for
an education to provide a complete preparation for a career in the
music industry, some musical background must be required. It is
important for the student to have an understanding of the struc-
ture, function, and processes of music. There will be situations
during the career of the music business professional when she will
be required to communicate musical concepts to performing
musicians.26 An understanding of musical concepts will help
facilitate this process. This will be accomplished through
participation in music theory studies. Most traditional schools
examine their incoming freshmen for placement in music theory
classes. Since this proposed degree presupposes limited or no
musical background on the part of the student, all students will be
required to take Fundamentals of Music. This is the same basic
course traditional students would take if they tested at a level
that showed a lack of preparedness for Theory I. Of course, the
incoming music business student who has sufficient musical back-
ground may test out of such a course. This course will present to
the student the very basic concepts and language of music. The
student will acquire the knowledge that will enable him/her to
continue with Theory I.
The first semester of Music Theory is an introductory course
dealing with the basic concepts of harmony, chord progression,
melody, rhythm, etc. The study of these ideas provides the
26Some situations where this might occur are A&R representatives dealing with bands,
producers in the studio, managers working with writers and artists, etc.

students with enough knowledge of musical structure to better
understand the product with which they will be working as pro-
fessionals in the music business without expecting too much of
them. It will also prepare them for the Songwriting course which
will follow. Music Theory usually follows a historical context of the
development of Western music. On the surface, this may seem
irrelevant to the study of contemporary popular music, but the
development of the theoretical ideas of tonal music have a greater
immediate relevancy to popular music today than they might
appear to have to contemporary art music. Popular music func-
tions under the basic guidelines of tonal music where art music
today has often expanded the rules of harmony beyond tonality.
An understanding of harmonic function of tonal music can be
helpful to the student in not only the creation of satisfying and
coherent compositions, but also in the recognition of why and how
a composition is successful. The ear can be a wonderful guide to
solutions of harmonic progression, but a knowledge that provides
logical choices is much preferable to stumbling in the dark and
relying on instinct alone.27
Included with Music Theory I is an Ear Training aspect.
Although the primary purpose of this study is for traditional
students to hone their aural skills, the first semester should
progresses at a level and pace that should not be beyond the
capability of the non-professional musician. Ear training is a
difficult skill for many traditional music students who have
27The most obvious benefit gained from education as opposed to relying upon instinct
alone is time. With understanding comes logic, and decision making based on logic
saves time over trial and error based on instinct alone. I know this from personal
experience. As a musician who wrote much music for several years before receiving
any theoretical training, I am aware of how the study of theory opened my eyes and
ears to a world of musical logic that justified my past compositional decisions and
facilitated the ones that followed.

extensive musical backgrounds and exhibit wonderful ability as
performers. It is expected that some students will have trouble
with ear training, but it should not be excluded simply because it
may be a challenge. Ear training is a valuable tool for helping the
student to become a better listener. Successful completion of such
a course can instill greater confidence in one's ability to com-
prehend music.
For a practical application of the concepts learned in Theory
I, the student will be required to participate in a songwriting
class. This class will provide hands-on experience with the cre-
ation of songs. There is no better way to gain an understanding of
what constitutes a potentially successful song than to attempt to
create one. The song is the primary commodity of the music busi-
ness, yet many professionals have a limited understanding of it.
Through critical analysis of basic song forms and songs that have
gained commercial success, the student will see how the profes-
sional songwriter solves the problems encountered when writing a
song. By attempting to do the same and facing the critical analysis
of his/her classmates, the student will gain an appreciation of and
sensitivity to the process of songwriting. For some students this
class will help them refine a talent that they already exercise, but
for others this will be the first opportunity for them to explore
their creativity.
An understanding of the creative process is invaluable to
the music business professional, as it is to anyone in any business.
The creation of a song is merely the beginning of the creative
work that must be completed for the song to achieve commercial
success. By participating in the process of songwriting, the stu-
dents are fostering a creativity that can inspire other creative
pursuits such as public relations, advertising, promotion, mar-
keting, and many other areas in which they may find themselves.
An understanding of the creative process of songwriting will be

helpful to realizing creative ways to exploit songs in the
A historical understanding of the development of Western
music can provide an important perspective of modern popular
music genres. The music business student does not need a detailed
analysis of music history but should be aware of the evolution of
musical ideas and forms in a historical context. The best way to
accomplish this is through a single semester course much like the
Introduction to Music course that is a general studies core re-
quirement for all liberal arts students. Most music schools offer at
least one section of Introduction to Music that is designed for
music majors rather than general studies students and presents
music history with a little more attention to technical musical
concepts than the general studies sections of the course. The
suggested course, Overview of Music History, is this type of
course, and it will present a chronological history of significant
developments in Western music without too much specific detail
that will not be useful to the music business student and that will
most likely be forgotten anyway, or at least remain unused.
As with the Theory I class, Overview of Music History
presents much material that is relevant to the music business
student although, it may not appear so at first. The historical
development of Western music over the past 1500 years has
definite implications upon the eventual appearance of popular
music forms in this century. The relationship of popular music to
art music is significant to an awareness of popular music's
function in society. A new perspective of music in our times is
provided by a realization that art music of the past often func-
tioned as the popular music of its day as well. The great art music
composers of the past were often celebrities much in the same

vein as the "rock" and "country" music celebrities of today.28 It is
important to attempt to understand how some forms of music
could gain such popularity with the general public and cause such
a sense of separation from the genre we presently call art music.
The insight gained may be beneficial to the future music business
person in helping them to infer what music will enjoy the greatest
commercial success with the music consumer.
The previous course will prepare the student for the follow-
up history course that is more specific to the students' needs.
Popular Music in the Twentieth Century will examine the rise in
popularity of musical genres outside of the art music genre. The
course will look at music from jazz to country and will investigate
the influence of technology on popular music forms. The influence
of folk and art music on the popular forms will also be explored.
The goal of this course will be to come to an understanding of the
evolution of these forms into the popular music of today. This is a
course that most likely will have to be developed specifically for
this program. It would be well worth the effort because it could
be a course that many traditional music students might want to
take as a music history elective. Traditional students could gain an
insight into what has become the dominant musical scene in our
28This is particularly true in the nineteenth century when composer/performers such
as the great violinist Paganini and the pianist Franz Lizst were filling auditoriums all
across Europe. Their performances included showy visual effects much like popular
performers of today, and they were often besieged by adoring fans as they traveled
from one performance to another.
29The growth and development of jazz would have to be an important consideration of
the Popular Music in the Twentieth Century course. Jazz has influenced almost every
popular form in existence today. Many popular genres are direct outgrowths of jazz
styles, and it is essential that the music business student be aware of these
relationships. This brings to mind a type of music student that has not been mentioned
until now, and that is the jazz studies student. Jazz students and popular music
students have a definite kinship since jazz and popular music share many of the same

Just as there is a need today for multicultural studies in the
liberal arts core, there is a need for the music business student to
have an understanding of music from around the world. As with
art music of this century, much of today's popular music in the
West is being influenced by the music of cultures and societies
from all over the world. Some of this music is achieving com-
mercial success in its original form because of the growing interest
in ethnic music. The most common way in which these musics
reach the popular music audience of the West is through the
incorporation of some of these styles into popular songs of the
West, a technique known as World Beat. Many popular artists
have allowed their music to be influenced in this way and to great
commercial success, such as the "Graceland" album released by
Paul Simon in the mid-1980's with the collaboration of the South
African musical group Ladysmith Black Mombazo. The World
Music class is designed to investigate the music and instruments
of different, non-Western cultures of the world. These classes are
not new, and many universities currently offer them.
This exposure to new musics will hopefully open the eyes of
the music business student to new possibilities for potential mar-
keting in this country and in countries around the world. As we
musical roots. Popular Music in the Twentieth Century might serve the jazz studies
student as well as the music business student.
Jazz students usually fall into the category of "traditional music students"
because the requirements they must fulfill are similar to those imposed upon the
student of art music. A course like Popular Music of the Twentieth Century should be
not only interesting but should be very beneficial to the jazz student. Besides
performing jazz, many jazz players supplement their performing incomes by playing
other popular music genres more often than by performing art music. For this reason,
it might be worth considering Popular Music in the Twentieth Century as a substitute
for the traditional course in twentieth century music history. The study of art music
composers of the twentieth century is a worthwhile pursuit for any serious musician
regardless of their performance interest, but the jazz student may get more useful and
pertinent information from this course than from the traditional course.

witness the growth of the "global village" and the potential com-
munication provided by the Internet, it has become important for
people in the West to be sensitive to the music and cultures of
other societies. No longer can we in the Western world expect
other countries to look to us for the next big trend in popular
music. They are rediscovering their own cultural heritages and
identities and are no longer enamored with everything the West
presents to them in the way of popular music forms. In particular,
the United States does not hold that position of political and artis-
tic influence that it once had. The Western music industry must
continue to come up with new ideas for promoting music world
wide and tapping into the popular music markets of countries
outside of the West.
There is a correlation between the understanding of per-
formance and success in the music industry.30 Music business
students are better prepared for their careers in the music
industry if they have at least an introductory background in,
understanding of, and technical ability on a musical instrument.
This, of course, assumes that the student in this program is the
non-traditional musician who has been targeted in this thesis to
this point. Any student who is not a musician already, or who
desires no musical background as a part of their study, has other
degree options as has been mentioned before. The non-traditional
musician, music business student will most likely already have
some experience with an instrument, often guitar, keyboard, or
voice. For this reason, the student will be given the option of two
semesters of a Keyboard or Guitar class.31 These classes are
designed as an introduction to the use of a musical instrument as
30Quincy Jones and George Martin are but two examples.
31David Stone, producer for Jones Digital Century, emphasizes keyboard and guitar
study as the basis for his "Music Fundamentals" series that he produced because they
are the instruments with which the most people have experience.

a theoretical or compositional tool. Another important benefit is
the understanding of musical performance that is gained by the
student. These classes will not demand the level of proficiency
required of traditional music students, but they will require the
student to experience performing in front of their peers.32
The rationale for the study of an instrument and the pro-
cesses of performance is that we are primarily dealing with
students who are musicians, albeit non-traditional musicians. As
musicians in pursuit of enlightenment and understanding of music
as art as well as commerce, it is logical that they must have some
knowledge of music as it is applied to an instrument. The require-
ment here is only a minimum of what has been expected of this
type of student in the past. The stringent applied music and
ensemble requirements of traditional degrees in this area have
been inhibiting to the student pursuing those types of degrees, as
has been suggested earlier in this thesis, but to expect no expo-
sure on the student's part to an instrument is counter to the goal
of providing a music-based education for them. Familiarity with
an instrument is essential to being a well-rounded musician at
any level of proficiency. The knowledge gained has benefits may
not be apparent initially but may surface in situations that the
student might encounter during his/her career pursuits. Also, the
experience of learning an instrument, even at a basic level of
instruction, might encourage the student toward career pursuits in
areas of the music industry not considered before.33
32This degree does not allow for a required ensemble participation in the traditional
sense on the part of the student. The limited performing experience that this class
provides will prepare the students for instances in their professional lives when they
must communicate ideas to performing musicians. They will be better able to
understand the position of the musicians in a performance situation. One example of
this is the producer/studio musician situation.
33The student who has been inspired by the experience of studying an instrument,
particularly if they are self-taught and have played for some time, may wish to

Some may wonder why there is no ensemble requirement.
There may be several answers to this question. One reason is that
all too often these students are not proficient enough to be
valuable members of a college level ensemble. Schools offering
traditional degrees in music business have had to face this
problem. If this type of student is required to participate in an
ensemble, their presence is often detrimental to the ensemble's
success. This is unfair to the traditional students who are part of
the group and to the non-traditional student who must suffer the
stress of attempting to keep up with those around him/her who
are much better performers. It is frustrating for the instructors
who are pressured to include as many of the non-traditional
students as possible even at the expense of the quality of the
ensemble they direct. Moreover, the music school is left with the
decision of what to do with those students who can not pass even
the relaxed audition requirement. All too often they are placed in
some general choir which can never hope to excel as a performing
group therefore wasting time and tuition money simply to fulfill
the requirement.
Although an ensemble requirement in the traditional sense
is beyond the expectation of this curriculum, there is a value to
the ensemble experience for the music business student. The
drawbacks of a traditional ensemble requirement outweigh the
benefits as noted above, but some understanding of the dynamics
of performance is important to the music industry professional
who must deal with performing musicians. This experience is
addressed to some degree in the requirements of the Keyboard
and Guitar classes listed in the proposed curriculum.
continue applied instruction at a higher level. The experience might also lead to a
career in instrument repair, construction, or music retail.

The collection of music courses discussed above should
provide an amount of musical background sufficient to prepare
the music business student for work in a field where music is the
commodity. An attempt has been made to keep the major portion
of this area of study relevant to the work in which the student
will be involved. The question may be asked, "Why any music
requirement at all?" to which the reply is as before, there are
programs that cater to the non-musician and programs that are
designed for the traditional musician, but there are no programs
specifically for the non-traditional musician, or amateur musician,
who desires some musical background. It is not only their desires
that are important. It is the assertion of this thesis that some
music be recommended for a complete preparation for a career in
the music industry. That is the primary purpose of this program
and the musical requirements stated above seem sufficient to
satisfy that goal without being excessively biased toward tradi-
tional music studies.
Music Business Courses
The music business courses are the most relevant for
preparing the students for their future careers. Although they are
primarily concerned with business aspects of the industry, these
courses are not without musical significance. Some schools have
fulfilled NASM music credit requirements with music business
courses by receiving NASM's recognition of these courses as music
credits.34 Because some of these courses emphasize the subject of
music nearly equally to the business aspect, the involvement in
34The University of Colorado at Denver for example as reported in an interview with
Professor Frank Jermance in the Spring of 1996.

the music courses discussed above can only be of help to the
student's success in these music business courses.
For a program to be truly successful at providing an edu-
cation that is appropriate for the achievement of the student in
the marketplace, it must be ever sensitive to the changes in
technology, business practice, corporate structure, etc. Therefore,
it must be realized that any curriculum is effectively a frozen
moment in time, or a time capsule. It is only representative of the
moment of its creation and may quickly become irrelevant and
outdated. Music business education is not a static field because the
music business never stands still, it is ever changing. It is easy to
see how music business programs that are designed within the
structure of a traditional music program might be allowed to
stagnate in this way. Traditional music study does not require the
same attention to change or updating that music business pro-
grams and the courses within them do. After all, Beethoven's
music has not changed in the nearly 170 years since he died, and
functional harmony is still studied in much the same manner as it
was by Debussy in the late nineteenth century before he forged
his own path. If one approaches music business curriculum with
the belief that everything can be set in stone once and for all, then
the student will receive a deficient education and will graduate
unprepared for the real world. The following choice of courses is
considered to be pertinent at the time of this writing, but it is
important to realize that something significant could happen
tomorrow that would require a revamping of this curriculum to
keep it current with the student's needs.
The introductory music business courses, Music Business I
and II, provide an overview of the business of music. Every pro-
gram has some similar kind of course that gives the student a
preliminary exposure to the music industry. This is accomplished,
beginning in Music Business I, by following the progression of the

industry's commodity, the song, from its creation to its culmi-
nation as a "hit." Along the way, the student learns about the
structure and operation of the publishing company and the record
company; the distribution process; and contractual arrangements
involving writers, artists, and the companies among other aspects.
All of these concepts will be studied in later courses in more
detail, but the introductory courses will make the student more
aware of and less intimidated by the subjects when they are
encountered in the future. In Music Business II, more general
business considerations are investigated as they relate to the
music industry, such as; taxes, business entities, the raising of
capital, labor organizations, etc.
The value of these courses as electives to the traditional
music student must not be overlooked. Many students who are
pursuing a traditional degree will find that the only way to ply
their craft of music for a living will be in the popular music field
as arrangers, studio musicians, composers, etc. It may not have
been their original intent, but it is often the way things turn out.
To have an understanding beforehand of how the business oper-
ates could save them a lot of headache and frustration when they
enter the market. It is also a way for them to become aware of
sideline careers they might consider investigating while they are
pursuing their primary goal in the traditional area. It is no secret
that many symphony musicians do side work playing casuals and
working on sessions. There are few musicians who can make a
living without wearing many hats.
As important as an understanding of music could be to the
music business student, he/she will be equally well served by a
knowledge of music technology.35 This degree is not a
35Lorenz Rychner, panel discussion "Careers in the 21st Century," MEIEA Conference,
university of Colorado at Denver, 4 April 1997.

technological degree and many schools that might want to
institute a program such as this may not have the capability to
offer advanced music technology classes. Musical recording
equipment is expensive, particularly that which is current with
the present state of technology. The Music Technology Survey
class is designed to introduce the student to concepts of music
technology with very limited or no "hands-on" experience. As the
course title implies, this is a survey of the technology in use at the
present without the practical application. The basic concepts of the
recording process can be explained and presented through the use
of relatively inexpensive, portable, multi-track, analog machines.
It is not the intention of this program or this course to make
recording engineers out of the students, but an awareness of the
recording process is important to a better understanding of a
significant part of the commercial music industry.
By studying and becoming aware of technologies that are in
common use in the industry, even without practical experience
with those technologies, the student can gain much valuable in-
formation that can be of great use in their subsequent careers.
The Music Technology course would culminate in a field trip to a
recording studio to see the recent technology in operation. This
experience could be the most beneficial of the entire course and
requires only a small expense on the part of the school. There are
studios in every region of the country that operate with the latest
technology and it would be relatively simple to organize such a
trip from practically any college or university in the country. This
course certainly could be successful even at a school where there
was no music technology program or any capability in that area
An aspect of technology that more likely might be used by
the students in their future careers is the computer. Not only is
the computer an indispensable tool of business today, it has

become an important tool in the creation of music as well. Many
recording techniques utilize computers, and computers now are
capable of producing publishing quality scores and manuscripts. It
is important for the student to be able to operate a computer and
to be familiar with computer programs for both music and busi-
ness. Music and the Computer is a course that is intended to
introduce the student to the operation of the computer. Although
many students will possess this knowledge upon entering the
class, it cannot be assumed that everyone has had the prior op-
portunity, either through high school or in the home, to work with
computers. Therefore, the course must begin with the basics.
Another important consideration is the computer format
that will be emphasized. Generally, Macintosh has had the edge in
the music program area, and the DOS format is used almost exclu-
sively by business. Fortunately, with the Windows technology, the
two are not as incompatible as they once were, but there are still
significant differences in the way each operates. To best serve the
student, both formats should be presented. Since the emphasis of
the course is on the application of music to computer technology,
Macintosh should receive the greater attention with a very basic
introduction being given to DOS operating systems. If educators
become concerned about the practicality of teaching such a course,
they should rest easy because every institution of higher learning
has a computer lab capability commensurate with their enroll-
ment. Computers are a fact of life in the academic world, and the
only problem with organizing such a course will be logistical. In
the instance where there is only one computer format available,
the modest investment in a few PC's or Mac's can fill the void. In
any case, the student must have this knowledge and this degree
must accommodate the presentation of these ideas.
Computer technology is also a concept that is important to
the traditional student as well as the music business student. A

knowledge of music copying programs is particularly meaningful
to composers. Since the advent of such programs, it has become
increasingly difficult to get musicians to perform handwritten
copies of compositions. They have always complained in the past
about the legibility of parts, but now they have become spoiled by
computer printed parts to the degree that many practically refuse
to consider a performance unless the score is printed in this
manner. Publishers appreciate receiving compositions that are
already copied this way. There is also a market for the copying of
compositions using the computer, and it could be a source of
income for the person who has become proficient using one of
these music copying programs.36 Many publishing companies now
operate with in-house computers doing their typesetting, and
traditional printing methods are becoming a thing of the past.37
These are just some reasons why Music and the Computer could
benefit the traditional music student as much as the non-
traditional music student.
Musicians and any self-employed people will find that com-
puter literacy will greatly ease their lives. There are programs
that can help facilitate any aspect of personal and business record
keeping. People today are involved in more activities than in the
past, and computers can give them the extra time they need. It
was mentioned before that musicians are often involved in side
work to supplement their primary careers. The option of effec-
tively using a computer can greatly facilitate the organization and
record keeping for a person with multiple incomes and a hectic
36The author is the owner and operator of a music copying service, The Full Measure,
that provides such a service to composers and arrangers from California to Maine as
well as doing the music copying for journals such as the American Music Research
Center Journal, the College Music Society Journal, and the NATS Journal.
37The Voice of the Rockies publishing company in Boulder, Colorado is but one
example of the use of this technology.

schedule. The most interesting aspect of computers is that there is
a program that can satisfy any conceivable need. Once a person
has acquired the basic knowledge, one can learn any necessary
program as the need arises. It is not essential to know everything
the computer and the various programs can accomplish, it is only
important to be aware of the potential and utilize what functions
are available when needed. Most college degree programs, in-
cluding those in liberal arts, have some minimum computer re-
quirement, with the exception of some traditional music and other
arts programs. It is this author's opinion that no one should be
awarded a college degree today without exhibiting a basic profi-
ciency in computer technology.38
As with any business, the music industry is replete with
legal considerations. The song is the commodity over which many
a legal battle has been waged, and the stakes can be extremely
high. It is essential that music business students understand the
legal situations in which they may find themselves once they
become professionals. That is the purpose of the Legal Issues in
the Music Industry course. Although some attention will be given
to record company contracts (this subject will be focused on in
greater detail in a subsequent course), the main area of study will
revolve around the publishing company and copyright law. The
publisher is the liaison between the creation of the song and the
dissemination of it to the consumer, and his/her relationship with
the songwriter and the record company will be examined. This
course will present the function of the publisher as the one who
acquires the song from the writer and then licenses it to the
recording company and performing artist. At every step in this
process there are legal considerations of which the parties in-
38A basic proficiency would include, at the minimum, a knowledge of word processing,
spreadsheets, data base manipulation, and internet access.

volved must be aware. Of course, the nuances of copyright law are
evident at every juncture and the student must have an under-
standing of what is provided for in the law.
It has often been said that the song is the most important
component of the music business without which artists and record
companies could not exist. The student must be aware of the im-
portance of the song and how it can be protected and exploited.
They must also be aware of how they might find themselves in
situations where they are responsible for breaking the law. This
course can not presume to present every detailed aspect of the
law or the function of the publishing company, but it will provide
the kind of information that will lead the student in the right
direction. The examination of the publishing company will also
give the student a look at all of the different jobs or positions
involved in the operation of the company. Many people have
found entry-level positions, or even careers, of which they were
unaware before being exposed to the inner workings of the pub-
lishing company.
Music Management is the course that primarily examines
the record company, its function, and legal issues surrounding it.
The relationship of the record company to the artist is of principal
interest here as well as the role of radio and its relationship to the
record company and artist. As the title of the course indicates, the
information imparted will be of particular interest to those with
aspirations of becoming artists or managers. It is also in courses
like this that the student is made aware of several more possible
career opportunities in the music business. There are many job
areas within the structure of the record company that require
specific skills and interest but of which little is commonly known.
Too often the student comes into the study of music business with
a very narrow view of the type of job opportunities that exist. As
with publishing companies, we usually only hear of the most

visible positions in a record company such as artist, A&R repre-
sentative, or executive positions, and seldom do people realize
how many employees it actually takes to keep such a company
operating. There are also many jobs that are not directly a part of
the record company but are associated with it such as jobs in
distribution. Not only might the student become aware of an
entry-level position that may open the door to a future career in
one of the more visible areas, he/she might discover a career
opportunity in an area that he/she never considered or knew of
Although the record company is the focal point of the com-
mercial music industry, there are other areas of the business on
which Music Management will touch, some of which will be
covered in greater detail in subsequent courses. Television and
movies and their relationship to music are discussed in a later
course as well as in this one, but this is the course that will devote
the most attention to music in advertising. Jingle writing and the
use of music in advertising generate a large amount of money for
composers, songwriters, and publishers. The subject is important,
but its scope does not justify an entire semester of study. There-
fore, two or three weeks of this course will be allotted for this
subject and the remainder of the time will be spent on the record
company, artist, and manager issues.
The Production of Music deals with the creative side of the
recording of music or the actual creation of the recorded music.
Through historical background and the analysis of various record-
ings, the student will gain an understanding of the process of
musical production. There are many ways in which this knowl-
edge can be valuable to the student whether he/she expects to
become a producer of recordings or not. One consideration will be
how certain aspects of the production have enhanced a recording's
potential for commercial success. The song may be the key, but

the recording is the door to financial reward. As important as the
artist's performance may be, the representation of that perfor-
mance is probably of equal significance. People in many positions
within the music business structure must at least be able to visu-
alize a final production of a song and must be able to distinguish
between recording productions with potential for commercial
success and those that just do not "have it."
The historic perspective of the course is relevant to an un-
derstanding of how technology and popular social trends have
affected music production in the past. It is also an examination of
production techniques that may find validity again in the future.
By looking at the past, one can often anticipate the future. It also
provides a look at the problems of technology that recording
engineers and producers of the past had to overcome and how
their attempts at dealing with these problems have left us with a
legacy of unique and original recordings. The producer must be
part technician, part arranger, and sometimes part baby-sitter.
The examination of past productions can give insight into how a
producer arranges a recording or works with an arranger to get
the sound that he/she wants and how he/she communicates with
the engineer and the artist and session musicians to get from
them just what is needed to make the recording a commercial
If there are the facilities present at the music school, then
the students might be given the project of producing a song. This
could be accomplished in cooperation with music technology
students if there is such a program at the school. If not, the pro-
ject is not essential. There might also be the possibility of a field
trip such as the one for music technology where the students can
have the opportunity to observe the production process first-

No curriculum would be complete today without a course
that presents advanced application of the computer. Information
and Communications Systems Management investigates advanced
musical applications, desktop publishing, and multi-media appli-
cations, among others. All of these computer tools have notable
consequence in the music industry today. Possibly more im-
portant, though, is the development of music business on the
Internet. Internet applications have invaded every aspect of
American business and the music industry is no exception. It is
essential for people in business today to have a knowledge of
Internet access, web sites and web pages, and that they be able to
create their own web sites. Therefore, this extension of the Music
and the Computer course is extremely pertinent and meaningful
for the music business student in that it presents these concepts
of the Internet and requires the student to become proficient at
accessing this tool.
After obtaining instruction on how to create one's own web
page and navigate the web, the students will be able to utilize this
tool to instigate their own ideas for the promotion of music. New
technologies will be discussed as well that have implication for the
recording industry. Before taking this class, the student already
will have seen in other classes ways that the Internet has changed
the music industry and potential changes that are pending based
on soon-to-be available technologies. In this course, a section will
be devoted to more specific investigation of some of these ex-
pected technological changes; for one example, the possibility of
downloading CD quality recordings from a web site rather than
going to the store to purchase the CD. The technology for this
exists now and soon will be an affordable option for everyone who

has a computer, a modem, and a digital recording device.39 It is
important to have enough awareness of these kinds of changes so
that one can be able to anticipate what might happen next and be
prepared to capitalize on it.
Two of the biggest income-producing markets for music
today are television and the movies. Devoting one course specif-
ically to the study of this area is the minimum that should be
done in any music business program. The trend in recent years in
both markets is to incorporate more and more popular songs into
their productions. Many songs have become "hits" from the ex-
posure they received in a movie or on a television show. Tele-
vision and the video industry are expanding constantly, and new
technology is making a wider variety of programs available to an
ever-growing public. New programming ideas constantly are being
developed for television. The common thread is that all program-
ming uses music in some form. Advertising will also be addressed
in this class but not to the extent that it will be in Music Man-
A certain portion of this class will be devoted to a study of
the film and television composer. Film scoring is something that
many musicians find intriguing and alluring. It can be a very
lucrative job for a composer, and it can also drive a composer to
an early grave. Some time will be spent examining the aspects,
procedures, and hierarchy of composing music for film or tele-
vision. This overview will once again reveal a number of different
job positions that are involved in the production of movies and
television and have a musical connection and of which the student
may have been unaware before. A very important point is an
39Adam Pemberton, "Predictions Are Always Tricky When They Involve the Future,"
CD-ROM Professional. January 1994, 12.
William Livingstone and Bob Ankosko, "Recordable CD Flap," Stereo Review. January
1994, 6.

examination of the kind of work a composer might find in a local
market outside of the big entertainment areas of New York or Los
Angeles. This is an important factor of every area of study within
this music business program because only a few people move to
and find success in the big music and entertainment centers. Most
apply their education to careers in local areas and other urban
centers across the country.
When discussing the World Music course previously, it was
pointed out how the popular music of different non-Western
societies is gaining popularity in the West and around the world.
To be able to become involved in this world market, one must
know something about the music industry in all parts of the
world. Different countries have different laws, though the coun-
tries of the West (North America and Europe) have codified and
made consistent many of their laws related to the music in-
dustry.40 Protocol certainly differs from one country or society to
another. American business people may have to face a certain
amount of resistance that may not have existed a couple of
decades ago. The political image of the United States has been
tarnished by unwelcome American intervention in the political
affairs of other countries. Also, American business does not hold
the position of respect it once had due to the tremendous success
in America and around the world of businesses from other
countries, particularly Japan.41 World Music Business will attempt
to examine and analyze the situation of music business around the
world and make the students aware of the challenges and oppor-
tunities that await them.
40Harry G. Henn, 1989 Supplement to Copyright Law: A Practitioner's Guide. Summary
of the Berne Convention Implementation Act of 1988 (Practising Law Institute, 1989).
41Dwyer, Paula, Margaret Dawson and Dexter Roberts, "The New Music Biz," Business
Week. 15 January 1996, 48-51.

The Music Business Seminar will provide a discussion forum
for advanced concepts of business in the music industry. More
importantly, however, it is through this class that the student will
accomplish a senior project based on his/her particular interest.
This project can take a number of forms, but whatever the sub-
ject, it will require the student to research, investigate, and come
to some conclusion about some aspect of the industry. Often this
involves direct contact with music business professionals which is
invaluable for the student to gain an up-to-date, personal per-
spective of the workings of the business. The subject will most
often be chosen at this point in the student's education based on
the type of career that the student thinks he/she would like to
pursue and may go hand-in-hand with his/her internship.
Although the student is working on an independent project
during the period of this course, the class meetings will be very
important as well. Through group discussion of pertinent topics,
the students will explore new ideas about trends and develop-
ments in the music industry. Business is not without its philo-
sophical characteristics, and this seminar is the place for the
students to exercise their intellects in a philosophical forum. It is
the responsibility of the instructor to mediate and instigate
creative and provocative discussion.
It is not always easy to establish an effective intern pro-
gram, but it certainly can be done. Practically every school
offering a music business program at the present has an intern-
ship program in place.42 This part of the student's education
42The following schools require internships as part of their music industry studies:
Albany State College; Appalachian State University; Elizabeth City State University;
Elmhurst College; Five Towns College; Georgia State University, School of Music; Hartt
School, University of Hartford; Indiana State University; James Madison University;
Loyola University, College of Music; Mankato State University; Mansfield University;
New York University, Department of Music; University of Colorado at Denver;

cannot be overemphasized. Most professional music business
organizations are willing to entertain the idea of interns if for
nothing more than the free help that they provide. Even if one's
responsibilities are no greater than being a "gofer," the
opportunity to be near the action is incalculable. By being in the
midst of a working music business situation on a daily basis for
several weeks, the student can gain more practical insight than
years of classroom experience can provide. The classroom
prepares the way, and the internship brings a certain reality to it
all. There is no substitute for actual experience. Internships are
also a wonderful way for the student to make contacts that may
help lead them to career opportunities in the future.43
Many internships can be fulfilled effectively in the music
school's local area, but some students' situations may require an
internship in a major music center or some other city. This is
certainly a possibility although logistics must be accounted for.
Once a contact has been made with a company in a major center, it
is usually not too difficult to maintain, providing that the interns
being sent to the company are consistently adequate. The most
serious concern to the internship program will be the competition
for positions from other music business programs. Programs in
major music centers will unquestionably have an advantage over
University of Nebraska at Kearney; University of New Haven; University of Southern
California; University of Spouthern Mississippi; University of Wisconsin Oshkosh;
Western Illinois University; and William Paterson College of New Jersey. Schools that
have optional intern programs include: Belmont University, Berklee College of Music,
Middle Tennessee State University, Northeastern University, University of
Massachusetts at Lowell, University of Memphis, and University of the Pacific
Harmon Greenblatt, Resource Supplement: Preview of the MEIEA Guide to Music
Business Programs, NARAS Journal Vol. 6, No. 1: 117-153.
43David Jurman, Ron Sobel, and Lorenz Rychner, panel discussion "Careers in the 21st
Century," MEIEA Conference, 4 April 1997.

programs that are a distance away, but it is worth the effort to
provide every possibility for the student if that is the type of
internship that would best serve them. It is also possible to send
interns to major music centers from smaller communities through
summer internships.
Unfortunately, the amount of information that must be
included in this program for it to be a complete survey of the
music industry and its business operations leaves little room for
elective studies. Every course included here is deemed to be
essential and even then there are some compromises to be con-
sidered. There are minimum liberal arts requirements that must
be fulfilled and a fundamental business section of courses that
will be discussed presently, and these have used up many of the
credit hours of the degree. If any more hours were included in the
degree, it would become very difficult for the student to finish it
in four years. The author believes that it is at the upper limit of
hours that can effectively be included; therefore, there is only
room for three credit hours of electives. In an ideal world, one
would wish that the student could have more freedom to partic-
ipate in more and varied classes of their own choosing. It must be
remembered, though, that this is a specifically directed program
with a very specific goal in mind. It is not an interdisciplinary or
independent study oriented program of which there are several
from which the student could choose if he/she so wished.
The student may use the few hours of electives for any
music business-oriented course they desire. The most common use
of these hours might be to take a module course related to the
student's primary area of interest and that is only offered once or
on rare occasions. Of course, independent research or study is
always a possibility as well. It would be hoped that these hours,
which might represent no more than one additional class, will, if

well chosen, round out the student's educational experience in the
music business area.
Business Courses
Music is big business and must be treated as such. A basic
understanding of business principles is essential to success in the
music industry.44 There are five business courses recommended
for this music business program including Introduction to
Business, Economics, Marketing, Accounting, and Finance. These
account for fifteen hours of the total credit hour requirement and
represent an introduction to basic concepts of business that will
be helpful to the music business student. The titles of these
courses should be self explanatory, and any college or university
that has even the smallest of business programs should be able to
offer these courses. The problem that might be faced by the music
school is that of prerequisites. Although these are intended to be
the most introductory of courses, they sometimes require a
prerequisite before one can enroll in them. In this case, courses of
equal value may need to be developed within the music
Inter-departmental development of these courses need not
be looked upon as a detriment. There could be benefits to de-
veloping the courses in this way. A general Marketing course
administered by the business department could become a Music
Marketing or Retail Music Marketing course when administered
by the music department. Economics could become Economics of
the Music Industry. There surely are possibilities for viewing this
44David Jurman, Ron Sobel, and Lorenz Rychner, panel discussion "Careers in the 21st
Century," MEIEA Conference, 4 April 1997.

as positive, but there is another consideration that must be ad-
dressed. For these courses to fulfill the function that the original
business courses assume, they would need to be taught by a
person with the proper credentials, either an M.B.A. or the proper
graduate level certification.
General Core and College of Liberal Arts
and Sciences Requirement
Even though this program is designed heedless of NASM
accreditation, it still must conform to regional accreditation for
liberal arts degrees. The forty-seven hours set aside and many of
the specific course requirements are representative of the liberal
arts and sciences requirements for such degrees all across the
United States.45 It is not within the scope of this thesis to analyze
these requirements specifically. They are generally the same for
all liberal arts degrees, including the traditional music degrees
and the music business degree.
It is important to note, however, the significant percentage
of hours involved by the general requirements. This is one of the
difficulties faced when attempting to design the music, music
business, and business sections of the program yet maintain a
level of total hours where graduation is attainable within four
years. As mentioned before, it is the area of electives that gets cut
short. It is hoped that the required hours of the degree offer
enough diversity to make the shortage of elective hours seem
45Refer to Appendix 4.

An examination of this curriculum raises questions about
who will teach many of these classes. Some of them would
certainly require a knowledge that most traditionally-based,
tenure-track professors will not possess. Initially, many of these
courses could be taught by music business professionals brought
in because of their particular expertise. Some professionals and
educators believe that only professionals with hands-on
experience are qualified to teach some subjects.46 Many
universities require that even adjunct and honorarium professors
have at least a Master's degree, and this may make it difficult to
locate professionals who qualify. Also, some schools are far from
viable music centers which limits the number of industry
professionals who are available to teach.
There is a need for a new breed of educators in this field.
Ideally, they would have music industry experience and a
graduate level education in areas of music, music business, and
communications47, social science, or business. These are many of
the same requirements recommended for the music business
student. For these teachers to be attractive to universities, they
should possess the music background that would allow them to
teach traditional music classes as well as music business classes.
46Lorenz Rychner and Ron Sobel, panel discussion "Careers in the 21st Century,"
MEIEA Conference, 4 April 1997.
47David Jurman, interviewed by author, 4 April 1997, MEIEA Conference, University
of Colorado at Denver.

By wearing several hats, they could effectively replace the "old
school" professors as they retire. It is important for universities to
address the problem of tenured professors who have outlived
their usefulness by not keeping up with the times. Since the
system protects them from being replaced even when their
effectiveness is in question, institutions must be prepared to
replace them with professors that will hopefully be viable entities
well into the future.
The new professors must take the step toward preparing
themselves for fulfilling the role indicated above. Of course,
practical experience in the music industry is important. There are
multi-disciplinary graduate degrees being offered that might
provide at least part of the education that is necessary. Most
likely the future professor will need to hold several degrees in
both traditional music and music industry studies. Combinations
of degrees in communications, business, music, etc. may be
necessary for the teacher of the future.

The need is evident for liberal arts, music business degrees
designed for the non-traditional music business student. Interest
is growing in music business education and many of those in-
terested fall into the category of non-traditional musicians. There
is a viable population of potential students that is presently not
pursuing college degrees because of the inhibiting nature of
traditionally-based music business degrees. The degree program
proposed in this thesis provides the pertinent kind of education
necessary to the student with a meaningful amount of music
study yet without being overbearingly biased toward inhibitive,
traditional music studies.
Many of the courses proposed for this program, that may
not presently be in place and that may need to be developed
specifically, have been shown to possess benefits for the tradi-
tional student as well as the non-traditional, music business
student. Cost effectiveness is certainly important to the college or
university considering instituting such a program, but the im-
portant concern is expanding the offerings for the student and
providing the most complete education possible. If such courses
can enhance the effectiveness of the traditional student's ed-
ucation as well as that of the music business student, then the
benefit is doubled.
The integrity of this degree as a liberal arts and sciences
degree is maintained by the adherence to the general liberal arts
requirements. These studies, which would be required of any

liberal arts student, give the student the liberal education so
desired by those pursuing college level study.
The primary significance of this program as an alternative at
institutions that already offer traditional music programs must be
emphasized. It can open the door to a new kind of student that
was formally excluded, thus providing a new income source for
the institution. More important; however, it can be incorporated
rather easily by drawing many of the courses from the estab-
lished curriculum and with the possibility of the new courses
serving more than just the music business student. It also can be
offered in conjunction with a degree track that has greater em-
phasis on traditional music studies with many courses serving
both degrees. Considering the state of music business education
and its bias toward either traditional music degrees or business-
only degrees, this degree is a viable and well-needed alternative
that fills a present void in the educational system. Both music
schools and music business students would be well served if this
degree were an option for them.

Fundamentals of Music 3
Music Theory/Ear Training I 4
Songwriting I 3
Overview of Music History 3
Popular Music in the Twentieth Century 3
World Music 3
Keyboard I or Guitar I 2
Keyboard II or Guitar II 2
Music Electives 3
T otal 26
Music Business I & II 6
Music Technology Survey 3
Music and the Computer 3
Legal Issues in the Music Industry 3
Music Management 3
Production of Music 3
Information and Communications Systems Management 3
Television and Movie Music 3
World Music Business 3
Music Business Seminar 2
Music Business Internship 4
Music Business Electives 3
T otal 39

Introduction to Business (Bus. 1000) 3
Economics 3
Marketing 3
Accounting 3
Finance 3
Total 15
English Comp./Lit. 6
Speech/Communications 3
Mathematics 3
Natural and Physical Science 11
Behavioral Science 6
Social Science 6
Humanities 6
Arts 3
Multicultural Diversity 3
Total 47

Fundamentals of Music
All students entering the Music Business program will be required
to show a basic understanding of musical concepts. This course is
designed to take the student from the beginning and familiarize
them with the language of music. Students may test out of this
Music Theory/Ear Training
This course is an introduction to the theory of music and to the
development of aural skills. It is the same introductory course
that is required of all music majors. The student will learn
concepts of traditional harmony and be exposed to techniques
designed to develop ear training and sight singing abilities.
Songwriting I
The first of two songwriting courses, this course is required of
Music Business majors. The subsequent course may be taken as an
elective. In this course, the student will analyze songwriting form
and structure by examining songs from the last fifty years. The
student will attempt to create his/her own songs, and the songs
will be put onto tape for critical assessment by the student's
instructor and peers.
Overview of Music History
This course is the same as an Intro to Music or Music Appreciation
course for general requirement. The student will be given an
overview of the history of Western music from the Middle Ages to

the present. The student will enroll in the section that is set aside
for music majors.
Popular Music of the Twentieth Century
As a history requirement, this course will examine, in a historical
context, the development of popular music in this century.
Significant changes and events in the music industry will be
analyzed for their affect on the industry today. This is the course
that will focus on the genres of "Rock" and "Country" music among
World Music
The purpose of this course is to look at the music of various
cultures around the world. The influence of these musical cultures
upon music of the West, particularly popular music forms, will
also be examined.
Keyboard I or Guitar I
All students will be required to gain a minimal amount of
proficiency on the keyboard or guitar. The use of an instrument as
a music theory tool will be emphasized.
Keyboard II or Guitar II
A continuation of Keyboard I.
Music Electives
The 3 hours of music electives can be used by the student in a
number of ways. The most common usage might be as a member
of an ensemble or for performance instruction providing that the
student can pass placement auditions. These credits could also be
used for a second Songwriting class, further theory instruction,
Music Business I & II
These courses are designed as an introduction and overview of the
music industry today. From an introductory standpoint, all aspects

of the industry will be examined from the song to recording
Music Technology Survey
The survey of music technologies in use today will be
accomplished without the need for hands on technical
involvement. This is a course for future business people not
recording technologists. It will involve at least one visit to a
recording facility to witness in action some of technologies
discussed in class.
Music and the Computer
This course is an introduction to musical applications on the
personal computer. It will also include an introduction to general
computer usage. The student will receive an overview of the
possibilities for which a computer can be used in music and music
Legal Issues in the Music Industry
Following the completion of Music Business I and II, this course
will provide a more complete and in-depth look at legal issues in
music business including the function of a publisher, publishing
contracts, copyright law, etc.
Music Management
The Music Management course will examine recording companies
and contracts, discuss the various jobs and careers found in and
around a record company, and look at the various steps that the
artist must climb on the way to a successful recording release.
Personal and business relationships into which the artist may
have to enter will be discussed as well.
Production of Music
This course is designed to present to the student concepts of the
production of music. Students will analyze the work of several
famous artists and producers as well as the historical background
of recorded music.

Information and Communications Systems Management
In this course, the student will learn about musical business
applications of the computer and the Internet. Students will
design their own web pages and consider how they might use the
Internet for the promotion of music. They will also be shown a
variety of programs that might be useful to the music business
professional such as desk top publishing, graphics, and multi-
Television and Movie Music
The television and movie industries are examined in this course
with particular interest as to how music plays a role in them. The
implications of cable TV, digital television, the video movie
industry, etc. as well as the mainstream of both industries will be
addressed. The role of music in commercials will also be discussed.
World Music Business
The purpose of this course is to investigate the music business
around the world. Attention will be paid to how American music
is promoted around the world and how music from other
countries is marketed in the United States. Legal issues that one
might face will be discussed as well.
Music Business Seminar
This seminar is an upper division course that is a combination of
class meetings and independent study, and it is designed to
address advanced concepts of business in the music industry.
Students will be required to participate in seminar style
discussions of pertinent topics. They will also be responsible for a
senior project that will be generated during this course.
Music Business Internship
Four credit hours of internship will allow the student the
opportunity to work in a professional setting related to their area
of emphasis. The first-hand experience is invaluable for a
complete understanding of how the business operates.

Music Business Elective
Three credit hours will be available for the student to choose a
music business course that helps to complete their particular area
of interest. Some possible courses might be modules of Music
Marketing, Music Journalism, Music Retailing/Wholesale or other
specialized courses. These courses will be offered in a four or five
week module for only 1 credit hour per course.
The fifteen credit hours of business courses consist of introductory
courses in areas that will complement the music business
student's understanding of business. These courses should provide
a broad introduction to business and stimulate the student's
thoughts as to how these business procedures apply to the music
These requirements were chosen to provide the student with a
broad-based, liberal arts education. Courses from all of the liberal
arts and sciences areas are included, and the student will acquire
skills and understanding in a wide range of areas. These
requirements are representative of university core requirements
and college of liberal arts and sciences distributed core
requirements for regionally accredited and government
sanctioned institutions. Students must choose the majority of their
courses from approved core lists.

Comparative Analysis of Music Business Programs in the
United States
The primary objective of this project is a comparative anal-
ysis of music business and music industry degree programs in
colleges and universities across the United States. There were
originally several specific expectations to be realized by this re-
search, but many of these have changed during the course of the
research. In some instances, the necessary information was not
available, or it was beyond the scope of this paper and the time
frame allowed for research to gather the specific statistics. There-
fore, the objective that will be realized in this paper is the com-
parative analysis of the curricula of various programs along with a
discussion of the effectiveness of the administrating departments,
including the question of accreditation by organizations such as
the National Association of Schools of Music.
The research method was primarily telephone interview.
Thirty-six educational institutions were contacted by cover letter
and provided with a return postcard. Those that responded were
then contacted by telephone, and many of those also provided this
researcher with copies of curriculum. It became apparent at an
early stage that it would be extremely difficult to compare four
year degree programs, two year degree programs, and trade
school certificate programs, so the focus of the research was
placed on four year degree programs.
The information that was gathered from the telephone in-
terviews was very helpful in providing an overall picture of the

situation at each of the participating institutions and within each
program. Much of this information is unscientific in that it was
offered by various interviewees as estimates without the support
of statistical evidence. I have included some of this information to
provide a more complete picture but have been particularly care-
ful to indicate its unscientific nature. Several questions have been
raised during the research process that were not considered be-
fore, and some deserve to be addressed to the extent that they
can be with the available information.
A non-funded research project such as this one can en-
counter particular difficulties in acquiring information. To answer
some of the questions that originally prompted this research
would require personal visits to each of the institutions involved
and access to statistical information that was unavailable to this
researcher. Some schools did not participate, and even information
that was promised was not always received. Information gathered
from the telephone interviews must be accepted at face value
based on the credibility of the interviewees. Due to the unsub-
stantiated nature of some of the estimates made by the inter-
viewees at the insistence of the researcher, it would be unethical
to hold any of them to specific statements made without statistical
evidence at hand.
There was enough participation in this project to get a rea-
sonable cross-section of the programs for analysis. Thirty insti-
tutions, of the original thirty-six, representing 33 programs that
offer four-year degrees in Music Business/Music Industry studies
were contacted by mail. Of these, twenty-six responded to the
inquiry by either returning the postcard, telephoning directly, or
sending materials, some of which, unfortunately, were not par-
ticularly helpful to this study. Nineteen out of twenty-four of
these institutions were successfully contacted on the telephone
and interviewed, and eighteen promised to send printed ma-

terials. Of these eighteen, fourteen complied and sent the request-
ed materials. Printed materials were acquired from four other
institutions through different sources and from two institutions
based on the initial postcard inquiry. One institutions director was
contacted and interviewed in person and provided printed ma-
terials as well. In total, twenty-three program curricula from
twenty-one institutions were studied, and twenty interviews were
conducted from which material was taken for this study.
An initial objective of this project was to discover something
about the demographics of students in music business programs
around the United States. Another objective was to attempt to
gain an understanding of faculty demographics. This subject was
broached in the telephone interviews, but most interviewees did
not have the statistical data at hand when responding and were
required to estimate their answers. This project was not designed
to ask the subjects to provide detailed statistical evidence which is
something that will have to be left for another study. However,
this information is interesting in the context of this paper, and
although it must be labeled as unscientific data at this time, it
seems valid to include it.
With regard to the faculty, most institutions employ one or
two full time faculty who are engaged in teaching music business
courses. One is usually the director of the program. These people
have achieved the minimum of a Master degree, and many have
Doctorate or Ph.D. degrees. Any other courses are usually taught
by adjuncts. The trend has been to seek people for these adjunct
positions based on experience rather than educational achieve-
ment. It is common to find people with no more than a Bachelor
degree teaching courses in which they have a great amount of
professional experience. Some institutions employ individuals for
this type of position that have not achieved any college degree.

One question that was asked about student demographics
was the age of the students involved in the programs. Nineteen
interviewees provided an estimate for twenty programs. The
average age reported was 21 years. The oldest average estimate
was 25 to 26 years in one program, and the lowest estimated
average was 19.5 years or what might be considered to be the
traditional student age. There were twelve programs that indi-
cated that their students were predominantly the traditional age
with only a few older students present in their populations. Of
course, the median age would be somewhat higher. Several
programs reported that they have students enrolled in their
programs that are in the 30-40 age bracket. It is not at all uncom-
mon to find students in the late 20s age bracket involved in these
types of programs.
At the time of this writing, Harmon Greenblatt has just re-
cently released the MEIEA Guide to Music Business Programs.* In
his study, he looks at the age of freshmen in various programs.
Twenty-six of the institutions that provided information on this
subject to Mr. Greenblatt correspond to schools that were initially
contacted by the researcher of this paper. On the average, they
reported that 79% of their freshman population falls into the 18-
22 year age range. The greatest number reported in this category
was 100%, and this was the case for eight of the 26 institutions.
One school reported a minimum of zero. There was an average
among the schools of 16% freshmen in the 23-28 year category
with the greatest figure again being 100%. This was reported by
the one institution that also reported that none of their freshmen
fall into the 18-22 year old category. The average for the over 28
*Harmon Greenblatt, Resource Supplement: Preview of the MEIEA Guide to Music
Business Programs, NARAS Journal Vol. 6, No. 1: 117-153.

year category was 5% with the greatest amount being 20%, which
was reported by two institutions.
From Mr. Greenblatts figures, it appears that a substantial
number of students who enter these programs as freshmen are
close to the traditional college student age. It is still not a spe-
cific indicator of this, though, because the category is quite large.
A 22 year-old freshman is certainly not a typically traditional
student. It does give us the indication that students are closer to
the traditional age than to an extremely non-traditional age. It
must also be remembered that although the overall percentage of
freshmen in the 18-22 age bracket was 79%, the reported figures
range from 0% to 100%. As with many statistics, these programs
show a wide variance which is dependent upon the particular
circumstances of each institution.
This statistic may cause one to think that this age trend is
reflective of the entire student population involved in these pro-
grams. It seems to be somewhat consistent with the average age
of 21 years that was gathered from the telephone interviews.
However, Mr. Greenblatts statistic does not account for students
that transfer into these programs. The interviewees imply that the
transfer figure is considerable. Seventeen of the programs that
were interviewed indicate an average of 39% of their students are
transfer students. The greatest among these was 85%, and the
smallest was 15%. The transfer students do account for many of
the older students that are found in the population, but overall
they do not seem to affect the average age of the students. The
original average of 21 years does, after all, include them as well.
What we can conclude is that the transfer students are
roughly the same age when they are freshmen as the freshmen
that enter the program directly. Another more important impli-
cation that can be deduced from this is that many students do not
discover or decide upon this course of study until they have al-

ready been in school for a while. Possibly as much as 40% of the
student population has entered into the study of music business
after studying something else. The average age of 21 years, being
slightly higher than the representative traditional age of 19.5
years, suggests that many students do not enroll in these pro-
grams directly out of high school. They may wait a year or two
before continuing their education. To make this supposition based
on the 21 year average age is not inconsistent with Mr.
Greenblatts findings for 79% of the freshmen falling into the 18-
22 year category, particularly when one considers the 21% that
are freshmen over the age of 22.
Another question of student demographics concerns the
ratio of female to male involved in the study of music business.
This statistic, which is also unscientific in that the interviewees
estimated their answers, show s no particular tendency. According
to the 19 reporting programs, 54% of their student populations are
male. One program claimed a 75% male population and three
claimed a 60% female population. The relative equal interest of
males and females in music business programs is not surprising.
In fact, one interviewee offered a reason for the larger female
population in his program as well as the increasing number of
females entering the music business work force. Many of the
entry-level positions in the business require some amount of
clerical skill. Women tend to acquire these skills, or deem it im-
portant to acquire these skills, more often that do males. This
makes them better prospects for finding a job, and their increased
success encourages more females.
The question of minority interest was a little more provoca-
tive. The term minority applies to all non-white students and is
applied in a very unscientific manner. The question of specific
ethnic orientation must be left for another project where the exact
figures can be obtained. An overall average of 13% minority par-

ticipation was estimated by the interviewed representatives from
19 institutions. The largest percentage, 50%, was reported by a
public institution that is located in a southern urban area. Five
programs reported virtually no minority participation. Two of
these are private institutions and, along with other private in-
stitutions that showed a limited minority involvement, com-
plained of the very nature of their institutions as being inhibitive
to the inclusion of minority students. Of course, cost is a problem
with private schools, but often the entrance requirements are also
a hindrance to minority students. The other three programs that
reported no minority participation are public schools that are
located in northern, rural areas that do not have a large number
of minority residents. The complaint was often heard that it is dif-
ficult to interest minority students even when the questions of
cost and entrance requirements can be answered. Many insti-
tutions that offer a technical degree program as well as a music
business program indicated that there are more minority students
becoming involved in the recording and technology programs than
in the business programs. This trend is also reflected in the busi-
ness itself.
It appears that these programs are successful in graduating
most of their students. Not all of the programs desired to partic-
ipate in the question of graduation rate without the availability of
specific statistics, but eleven programs offered estimates of their
graduation rates. The average rate of graduation among these 11
programs was 84%. Five programs reported a graduation rate of
90% or greater with the greatest being 92%. The smallest esti-
mated percentage was 75%. Probably a more significant statistic
would be the number of graduates who find positions in the music
business, but that question will have to wait for future research.
By taking a look at this data, one can gain a general under-
standing of the type of student that is involved in the study of

music business. The average student is predominantly white, 21
years old, and can be male or female. Does this average really
indicate the broad cross-section represented in the student pop-
ulation of these programs? Not really. There remain too many
intangibles that are important to the dynamics of any given
student population, but this brief study does give us some idea of
what type of student is interested in a career in the music busi-
ness and what type of student believes that they can better
achieve this goal through higher education. The next question is,
what are they studying?
According to the research, the students are spending quite a
bit of time studying music. The average number of music
semester hours required in 22 different programs is 44. These are
hours of traditional music studies including theory, music history,
performance or applied music, ensemble, etc. These hours rep-
resent 33% of the total average of required hours for graduation.*
This figure does not include music business hours which are most
often, but not always, considered music hours. The total average
of music business hours is 24, which is 18% of the average of the
total hours. Considering that approximately 15% of the music
business hours are not credited as music hours, the more repre-
sentative average figure of music business hours that are so
credited would be 20. This amount is 15% of the total required
hours, and when combined with the percent of traditional music
hours, results in an average of 48% music hours in the twenty-two
programs that were sampled.
The programs have been placed into three categories; those
administered by music departments that are accredited by the
National Association of Schools of Music (NASM), those admin-
*One institution was not included because it operates under a quarter hour system,
but its music hours represent 27% of the total quarter hour requirement, and its
music business hours represent 18%.

istered by music departments that are not accredited by NASM,
and those administered by departments other than music. Only
one sampled school offering two programs in music business has a
department other than music administering those programs.* The
School of Business is the administering body for those programs at
that institution. As concerns the other programs, the number of
music hours in many cases is not significantly different, but there
are a few instances in which there is a considerable disparity.
The National Association of Schools of Music has require-
ments by which they assess music school for the purpose of
accreditation. Their requirements allow some leeway, and in each
situation the school is individually evaluated based on recom-
mendations set forth in the NASM handbook. The question has
been raised as to whether the amount of music required by NASM
of music schools offering degrees in music business is necessary or
appropriate. To consider this question, we will examine the NASM
requirements and the programs that have achieved accreditation
by this organization.
The 1995-1996, NASM handbook defines Music Business as
usually in the for-profit sector, music business connotes manage-
ment and support services in music-relate d industries necessary
for the production and delivery of music.t The definition of Busi-
ness Administration or Management is given as:
. . indicates a responsibility for leadership, direction,
and decisions over an entire enterprise or component
part of an enterprise. Business administration or
management skills imply overall strategic planning, the
setting of objectives, and marshaling of resources to meet
objectives. Examples of business administration or
*Any music department that is accredited by NASM must acquire the approval of that
institution for all programs that it administers. NASM offers accreditation to music
schools, not to individual programs.
t National Association of Schools of Music Handbook, pg. 157.

management careers in Music/Business, as defined above,
are: publisher, record producer, and agent.*
These definitions are consistent with our idea of what these terms
The degree that NASM recognizes as the professional degree
in Music is a Bachelor of Music.
NASM recognizes that the Bachelor of Arts degree and
the Bachelor of Science degree may provide professional
preparation in music; however, NASM does not regard the
Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees as
professional degrees in music. The professional degree in
music is the Bachelor of Music degree.!
NASM still provides standards for accreditation for schools of-
fering liberal arts degrees with a major in music, and some schools
that are NASM accredited have chosen this route for their music
business/industry programs. Fourteen of the schools that were
investigated during this study are accredited by NASM. Of these,
three offer Bachelor of Science degrees for their music business
majors. The remaining 11 schools offer Bachelor of Music degrees.
The NASM guidelines for Bachelor of Music degree programs in
music business are fairly specific, but the guidelines for liberal
arts degrees are rather general and apply to all emphases within a
major in music.
NASM requires that studies in music must comprise at least
50% of the total program, and students are expected to meet the
competencies common to all professional baccalaureate degrees in
music as outlined in the NASM Handbook Combination pro-
grams, such as those in Music, Business, and Arts Administration,
must also have at least 50% of the course work in music. This
music study must include: performance (applied and ensemble),
flbid., pg. 159.
tlbid., pg. 157.

aural skills and analysis, composition and improvisation, repertory
and history, and technology.* The eleven institutions that were
surveyed and that offer Bachelor of Music degrees in music busi-
ness/industry studies have an average of 53 required hours in the
traditional music area which includes performance, theory, histo-
ry, etc. This figure represents 39% or more of the average total
number of required hours (135 semester hours). The average
number of music business hours that are required is 22. These are
almost exclusively credited as music hours and represent more
than 16% of the total average.
When we add these two percentages together we arrive at a
total music hours percentage of 55%, which is above the minimum
required by NASM for Bachelor of Music degrees. The greatest
number of traditional music hours recorded is 67 hours which
represents nearly 46% of that institutions total hours for their
music business program. They require 19 hours of music business.
This amount, 13% of the total curriculum, brings their music hour
total to 59%, which is above the average. They have chosen to con-
centrate on traditional studies over music business studies. The
smallest figure for traditional music hours is 34 hours out of a
total of 145-146 hours. This represents only 23.5% of the total for
this institutions program. The number of music business hours
required is 31, which is 21.4% of the total curriculum. This does
not quite add up to the 50% minimum although the figures were
double-checked. This institution has chosen to provide an equal
requirement of traditional music study and music business study.
As can be seen from this example, there is a large amount of
room for designing Bachelor of Music degree programs that will
meet the guidelines of NASM. We have examined the programs
that require the greatest and smallest number of traditional music
*Ibid., pgs. 157-58.

hours. It is also important to look at the programs that require the
greatest and smallest number of music business hours. The great-
est number of music business hours required is 31, by the same
institution mentioned above that requires the smallest number of
traditional music hours. The smallest number of music business
hours is 15 hours. This represents 11% of the total curriculum
(136 hours). They require 52 hours of traditional music which is
38.25% of the total hours. Once again, when combined, these
figures are slightly less than the 50% minimum requirement of
NASM, yet they are apparently close enough. The figures provide
no real consistency among NASM accredited institutions that offer
Bachelor of Music degrees in music business/industry studies.
There are three NASM accredited schools that do not offer
the Bachelor of Music degree. The general NASM requirements for
liberal arts degrees apply to these institutions remembering that
NASM does not acknowledge Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of
Science degrees in Music as professional degrees in Music. NASM
expects degrees of this nature to provide a broad coverage of
music rather than heavy concentration on any single segment.
Studies develop musicianship, capabilities in the use of principles
and procedures that lead to an intellectual grasp of the art, and
the ability to perform.* In this framework, general studies
usually occupy 55% to 70%, musicianship studies occupy 20% to
25%, and performance studies occupy 10% to 20% of the total
curriculum.! After presenting these guidelines and pronouncing
the Bachelor of Music degree as the only recognized professional
music degree, NASM makes the following statement:
Institutions chartered at the undergraduate level to
offer only the Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science
degree may, within these degree titles, offer curricula
*Ibid., pg. 70.
flbid., pgs. 71-72.

with objectives consistent with those for professional
undergraduate degrees. In this case, standards indicated
elsewhere for Bachelor of Music and Bachelor of Music
Education degrees are applicable.*
There is no statement made indicating that schools that decide to
construct their Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees
according to the professional degree guidelines will be regarded
any differently by NASM than those that choose not to. These
liberal arts degrees are not recognized as professional music de-
grees by NASM no matter how they are constructed.
From the examination of the three schools that offer liberal
arts degrees rather than Bachelor of Music degrees, it seems that
they have chosen to emulate the professional degree guidelines
for their programs. All three schools offer Bachelor of Science
degrees, and all of them place strong emphasis on traditional
music study. The average number of traditional music hours
between the three schools is 44 hours, with all of them requiring
more than 40 hours. These figures are still the smallest of the
fourteen NASM schools other than the one institution that re-
quires only 34 traditional music hours. The average of 44 hours
represents 35% of the total curricula of these programs, which is
an average of 127 hours. The average number of music business
hours is 18 hours with a minimum of 8 hours being required and
a maximum of 26. The average percentage of music business
hours is 14% which, when combined with the traditional music
hours, very nearly approaches the 50% minimum requirement for
professional degrees.
There is some disparity among these programs, though. One
program requires a total of 72 combined music hours out of 128,
which results in 56% of the total curriculum. This is consistent
with the requirements for professional degree programs. Another
*Ibid., pg. 72.
7 1

program that requires only eight music business hours has a com-
bined total of 49 music hours out of 124 total hours. This is a
music-hour percentage of 40%. The third program has a combined
music percentage of 50%.
There are two observations of special interest that can be
made from the previous data. One is the particular emphasis that
these three programs place upon traditional music studies for
degrees that are not recognized by NASM as professional music
degrees. The other is that NASM does not distinguish in its recog-
nition between programs that choose to emulate the professional
guidelines and those that do not.
In the way of comparison, we must examine the seven in-
stitutions that were included in this study and that offer degrees
in music business/industry studies but are not accredited by
NASM. It must be stated that some interviewees mentioned that
their institutions were seeking NASM accreditation, and some also
expressed the opinion that NASM accreditation would be of no
great value to their institutions and they had no interest in
seeking accreditation. Most of these institutions are accredited by
organizations other than NASM. These schools offer a variety of
degrees and programs including Bachelor of Music, Bachelor of
Arts, and Bachelor of Science degrees, and some of them have
curricula that meet the guidelines set forth by NASM.
The average figures of only six of the schools will be ex-
amined because one of the schools operates on a quarter hour
system that makes average comparisons difficult. The average
number of traditional music hours required by these programs is
40, with a maximum number of 60 hours and a minimum of 26.
This figure is more than 31% of the average total of 127 hours.
The average number of music business hours is 27 hours which is
more than 21% of the total. When combined, it appears that these
institutions, on the average, exhibit requirements that are con-

sistent with the NASM guidelines. Of the six programs included in
the average, four require combined traditional music and music
business hours that amount to more than 50% of their total cur-
riculum. The other schools, including the one that operates on a
quarter-hour system, all have music hour totals above 45%.
It appears that music schools place a strong emphasis upon
the music portion of their programs whether or not they are
under the scrutiny of NASM. There are some schools that charge
departments other than music with the responsibility of admin-
istering music business programs, and they seem to be successful
at attracting and graduating students. Unfortunately, only one
such institution chose to provide materials on their curriculum to
this study. Therefore, knowledge of these types of programs is
speculative and unsubstantiated. Although the programs admin-
istered by music departments are by far the most common, we
can safely say that there are effective programs being adminis-
tered by other departments, usually business departments. We
just cannot say anything too specific about them at this time. The
one non-music school that responded with materials requires no
traditional music of their degree candidates for either one of the
two degrees they offer. The business department administers the
programs, and the degrees offered are Bachelor of Business
Administration degrees. Knowing that options like these exist
raises a question about the appropriate amount of music that
should be required of music business/industry majors.
Before we continue to discuss this question and other ques-
tions related to music curriculum within music business programs,
we should look at the data related to traditional business hours.
Traditional business hours are those hours that are not music
business related and are offered by a department other than
music such as business. The average number of traditional busi-
ness hours among the original 22 programs (pg. 7) that we have

been examining is 23 hours. This is 17% of the total curricula for
these programs. The NASM accredited schools also have an aver-
age of 23 required business hours which is also 17% of their
average total hour requirement. A drop-off occurs in the music-
administered degree programs that are not NASM accredited.
They require an average of 15 hours of traditional business or
12% of the total curricula. The one example we have of a program
that is administered by a business school requires 49 hours of
business, which is 38% of their total curriculum, but they do not
have any music requirement. If the business school is removed
from the averages, the average number of business hours re-
quired by music schools becomes 21 or 16% of the total curricula.
An interesting relationship to investigate is the ratio of
business hours to music hours. When the averages of all music
schools are compared, traditional music hours compare to tradi-
tional business hours in a ration of 2.3 to 1. Among the schools
that are not NASM accredited, traditional music hours that are
required compare to traditional business hours 2.6 to 1, and
among NASM-accredited schools the ratio is 2.3 to 1. If the music
business hours are combined with the traditional business hours,
the ratio of music to business hours drops to 1 to 1 for all of the
schools, .95 to 1 for non-accredited schools, and 1.2 to 1 for
NASM-accredited schools. It is interesting to note that even with
the music business hours included with the traditional business
hours, the ratio to traditional music hours remains very close to
1:1. In the case of the NASM-accredited schools and programs,
traditional music hours outnumber business and music business
hours combined.
Although there is a significant variance among the different
programs that have been examined, these average figures and
average comparative ratios can tell us much about the trends in
music business/industry programs that are administered by

music schools. Among both NASM-accredited and non-accredited
schools, the trend is toward extensive traditional music studies.
During the course of the interviews for this project, many inter-
viewees expressed the opinion that a growing number of their
students are coming into music business programs with a limited
or nonexistent music background. There are options, as have been
mentioned previously, that require little or no music, but they are
in a small minority. There are many jobs in the music business
that do not require an extensive knowledge of music. Many pro-
grams and the trend in general may be inhibiting the opportunity
for a number of less musically prepared students to participate.
For the institutions that wish to provide a professional
degree (Bachelor of Music) and retain their accreditation by
NASM, there is little choice. They must continue to comply with
the guidelines set forth by NASM, and there is a real need for this
type of education. Many musicians can find excellent careers in
the music business where their extensive knowledge of music is
not only beneficial but essential. A certain amount of musical
knowledge is beneficial in any position where people are making
decisions about music, but not everyone in the music business is
responsible for making such decisions. However, if that knowledge
is not present, it could seriously limit the possibilities for the
prospective employee.
The types of music requirements that appear to be the most
in question are those that demand instrumental aptitude, ensem-
ble participation, extensive theory and aural skills, and extensive
knowledge of history and literature. All NASM-accredited Bach-
elor of Music degrees provide examples of this approach, and they
offer a degree to the student who wishes to be considered a pro-
fessional musician. The student fulfills the same requirements as
any student of music whether they are a performance major or a
theory major. What of the n on-musician music business student?

Some programs are addressing this situation with less of a
traditional music requirement. There is even a small amount of
inconsistency in the Bachelor of Music programs with NASM ac-
creditation as some schools place an emphasis on music business
hours over traditional music hours, but they still show a trend
toward importance on the music requirements named above. One
surprising discovery that came from this investigation was that
the programs that are not accredited by NASM show this same
trend. Although their requirements may not be as stringent in this
area as they are for the schools with accreditation, there is still a
significant emphasis being placed on the type of music require-
ments listed above. One option is the business-oriented music
business program, but it often requires no traditional music at all;
no music may be more detrimental than an overly stringent mu-
sical requirement.
The schools without NASM accreditation can design their
programs to provide enough music to give the student a viable
background and concentrate on music business and traditional
business hours. Some are moving in this direction because of the
lack of restrictions that NASM guidelines place on accredited
schools. There may be an option for schools that desire NASM
accreditation but wish to relax the music requirement. As men-
tioned before, the schools that offer the professional degree have
little choice if they wish to be affiliated with NASM. The require-
ments, though, for liberal arts degree are not as stringent as has
been documented above. The benefits of designing a program that
emulates the professional degree seem uncertain. NASM will not
acknowledge such programs as a professional degree, and there is
no distinction made by NASM as to the difference between it and
a degree that fulfills only the minimum requirement for music

It appears to this writer that a music business program can
be designed within the framework of a liberal arts degree (Bach-
elor of Arts or Bachelor of Science) with a music major that will
meet the guidelines of NASM for such degrees and limit the
amount of music that is required. According to the figures re-
ferred to before, such a program could be established at an ac-
credited school with a minimum requirement of 30% music study
(20% musicianship and 10% performance and music electives). The
accreditation would not specify or assign any ranking to the school
that indicates anything other than acceptance, and it would pro-
vide a minimum music study background that could be extremely
beneficial to the future music business professional.
One possible problem that may be encountered when trying
to create a curriculum that would be accessible to the non-
musician is that NASM indicates a level of musicianship that might
prove to still be beyond the reach of many students.* However,
there is a certain ambiguity to the language in the handbook that
may leave room for creative interpretation. Of course, any ap-
proval of accreditation comes only after scrutiny by NASM, and
their interpretation may be less creative. Any student who cannot
function with a limited requirement for musicianship should
probably not participate in a liberal arts music degree anyway, in
which case, a non-music, music business degree would be the best
choice for them. It appears that having no musical background,
though, is as limiting as too much musical emphasis.
Within the list of institutions from which this data has been
compiled, one can find a great disparity in approaches and
philosophies. This is what might be expected in any sampling of
this kind. The surprising realization is the high level of consis-
tency between the majority of these programs. There is certainly
*Ibid., pg. 71.

more consistency than was expected, and this may be surprising
to many of the interviewees who expressed a similar opinion to
this researcher. Yet, for every category that shows a consistency
for the majority of the sampled institutions, the extremes usually
exhibit a great disparity. Complete consistency would be unfavor-
able because we need variety to accommodate the vast array of
individuals in this world. It is time, however, to consider ques-
tions of music requirement as well as the amount of business
requirement for programs such as these. We have concentrated on
the music requirement question in this paper, but the question of
business requirement begs attention as well. Only through coop-
eration between institutions involved in the endeavor of teaching
music business can we assure that all students can have the op-
portunity to participate in the study of music business and that
the education they receive will be helpful, useful, and relevant.

A B | C | D
1 Institutions Belmont University Belmont University i Berklee Colleqe of Music
2 Deqree BBA-MB Manaqement BBA-MB Marketinq iBM-Mus Bus/Mus Mnqmt
3 Music Theorv/E.T. 1 8
4 Music Lit./Historv 4
5 Performance i 8
6 Ensemble i i 4
7 Musicianship i : 3
8 Como/Sonqwritinq/Arr. L IP.
9 Electives
1 0 1 1 Total Music 0 Oi 47
Mus Bus Gen. Overview 3 3 i
1 2 Music Pub./Copvriaht 6 6!
1 3 Mus Bus Leaal 3 2
1 4 Manaqement 3 3|
1 5 Production/Record Promo 3 3!
1 6 Internship 6 6 2
1 7 Technoloqv 3 3 4
1 8 Marketinq 3i
1 9 Concert Promotion
2 0 Other 3| 3. 10
2 1 Total Music Business 3 01 30i 18
2 2 Accountinq 6 i 6 i 4
2 3 Economics 6- 6. 3
2 4 Marketinq 3 i 3i 3
2 5 Manaqement 8; 8; 2
2 6 Tech noloqv/Com outers 3j 3|
2 7 Business Law 3i 3!
2 8 Communications 6i 6 2
2 9 Other 11 i 11!
3 0 Total Business 4 6; 46 14
3 1 General Requirements 55: 52. 41
3 2 Total Hours 131 128| 120
Distribution of Hours in Music Business Programs

1 Institutions Elizabeth Citv State University; Elmhurst College Five Towns Colleae
2 Dearee BS-Music Industry BM,BS-Music Business BM-Music Business
3 Music Theorv/E.T. 1 2 16 20
4 Music Lit./Historv 5 6 1 2
5 Performance 5 12 12
6 Ensemble 2 8 4
7 Musicianship 4 8
8 Comn/Sonqwritinq/Arr. 2 4
9 Electives
1 0 Total Music 30 42 60
1 1 Mus Bus Gen. Overview 6 3
1 2 Music Pub./Copvriqht ! 3
1 3 Mus Bus Leqal 4 6
1 4 Manaqement 3
1 5 Production/Record Promo 3 4 3
1 6 Internship 6 2
1 7 Technoloqv 8 !
1 8 Marketinq 3 4 3
1 9 Concert Promotion 3
2 0 Other 9 4
2 1 Total Music Business 35 18 24
2 2 Accountinq 3 4
2 3 Economics 3i i
2 4 Marketinq 6 4
2 5 Manaqement 61 j
2 6 Technoloqv/Computers 3
2 7 Business Law 3! i
2 8 Communications
2 9 Other
3 0 Total Business 24 8 0
3 1 General Requirements 38 65 44
3 2 Total Hours 127 133 128

A H | i I J
1 Institutions Hartt School, Univ. of Hartford; Indiana State University ; James Madison University
2 Deqree BM-Music Manaqement IBS-Business Admin. i BM-Music Industry
3 Music Theorv/E.T. 161 1 2: 20
4 Music Lit./History 1 2! 8l 6
5 Performance 14! 6! 1 0
6 Ensemble 7; 4; 8
7 Musicianship 11.5; 4!
8 Comp/Sonqwritinq/Arr. 21
9 Electives 5 :
1 0 Total Music 60.5; 41! 44
1 1 Mus Bus Gen. Overview 3! 2! 3
1 2 Music Pub./CoDvriqht
1 3 Mus Bus Leqal i 3
1 4 Manaqement 1 8!
1 5 Production/Record Promo 3i i
1 6 Internship 6l 6! 6
1 7 Technoloqv i i 6
1 8 Marketinq
1 9 Concert Promotion
2 0 Other 10
2 1 Total Music Business 30; 8 i 28
2 2 Accountinq el 6; 6
2 3 Economics 6! 9! 3
2 4 Marketinq 3; 6; 3
2 5 Manaqement 6! 3
2 6 Technoloqv/Computers 1 3l
2 7 Business Law ; 3
2 8 Communications 3! 3!
2 9 Other 6! 6!
3 0 Total Business 24! 39! 18
3 1 General Requirements 25! 36! 50
3 2 Total Hours 139.5! 124; 140

A K | L M
1 Institutions Mansfield University i New York University i Northeastern University
2 Deqree BM-Business emphasis iBM-Music Business |BS-Music Ind., 1/4 hrs.
3 Music Theorv/E.T. 12! 8! 24
4 Music Lit./History 12i 8 20
5 Performance 14i
6 Ensemble 71 4
7 Musicianship 3: 2i
8 Comp/Songwritinq/Arr.
9 Electives 4! 8!
1 0 Total Music 52l 26
1 1 Mus Bus Gen. Overview 00 CVJ CO
1 2 Music Pub./Coovriqht 4! 4
1 3 Mus Bus Leqal i 4
1 4 Management i i 4
1 5 Production/Record Promo i 2! 4
1 6 Internship 1 2i 9!
1 7 Technoloqv 7! 4
1 8 Marketinq i 6 i
1 9 Concert Promotion 31
2 0 Other 9! 4
2 1 Total Music Business 15! 42!
2 2 Accounting CVJ CO
2 3 Economics i 6 8
2 4 Marketinq 6 i 4!
2 5 Management 3; 8
2 6 Technoloqv/Com outers 3!
2 7 Business Law 3!
2 8 Communications 3i
2 9 Other 6 i 3i 12
3 0 Total Business 2 7 i 25l
3 1 General Requirements 42j 40! 64
3 2 Total Hours 136! 133! 64

1 Institutions Univ. of Colo, at Denver i U-Mass at Lowell | University of Memphis
2 Deqree BSM-Music Manaqement ;BM-Music Business IBM Com Mus-Mus Bus
3 Music Theorv/E.T. 1 5! 21: 14
4 Music Lit./History 9 i 61 6
5 Performance 8 i 14i 10
6 Ensemble 4 i 14!
7 Musicianship 4; 6! 4
8 Comp/Sonqwritinq/Arr. 3! [
9 Electives 3 i 3 i
1 0 Total Music 4 61 64! 34
1 1 Mus Bus Gen. Overview 6! 6 i
1 2 Music Pub./Copvriqht 3!
1 3 Mus Bus Leqal i 6
1 4 Manaqement 3! 3
1 5 Production/Record Promo 3! 6
1 6 Internship 4 i 9!
1 7 Technoloqv 7! 6! 6
1 8 Marketinq 61
1 9 Concert Promotion
2 0 Other 3: 10
2 1 Total Music Business 2 6! 30! 31
2 2 Accountinq 3! 9 i 9
2 3 Economics 9! 6
2 4 Marketinq 3! !
2 5 Manaqement i 6
2 6 Technoloqv/Computers
2 7 Business Law 3i 3
2 8 Communications 6! 9
2 9 Other 3! i
3 0 Total Business 9: 27! 33
3 1 General Requirements 47: 20! 48
3 2 Total Hours 1281 141! 146

1 Institutions University of Miami Univ. of Nebraska at Kearnev University of New Haven
2 Degree BM-Mus Bus/Ent Ind BS-Music Business BA-Music Industry
3 Music Theorv/E.T. 12 12 9
4 Music Lit./History 6 6
5 Performance 18 6 3
6 Ensemble 6 6
7 Musicianship 12 7 9
8 ComD/Songwritinq/Arr. 3! 1
9 Electives 8 13
1 0 Total Music 57 45 34
1 1 Mus Bus Gen. Overview 3 4 3
1 2 Music Pub./Cogvright 3!
1 3 Mus Bus Legal 3
1 4 Management 3
1 5 Production/Record Promo 3 3
1 6 Internship 3 12 6
1 7 Technology 3 3 9
1 8 Marketing
1 9 Concert Promotion
2 0 Other 3 i 1
2 1 Total Music Business 21 1 9 24
2 2 Accounting 12 3 6
2 3 Economics 6! i
2 4 Marketing 12 9 3
2 5 Management 3 3
2 6 Technoloqv/Com outers i i 3.
2 7 Business Law 3 i I
2 8 Communications 6! i
2 9 Other 3 4 6
3 0 Total Business 42 1 9 21
3 1 General Requirements 15 45 43
3 2 Total Hours 135 128 122

A T U | V
1 Institutions Univ. of Southern Mississippi Univ. of the Pacific Conserv. I Univ. of Wisconsin Oshkosh
2 Dearee BM-Music Industry BM-Music Mnqmt./Bus. BM-Music Bus./Merch.
3 Music Theory/E.T. 24 16: 14
4 Music Lit./History 9 9 8
5 Performance 17 12! 8
6 Ensemble 7 10;
7 MusicianshiD 4 4i 4
8 Comp/Sonqwritina/Arr. 21
9 Electives 6 3i 21
1 0 Total Music 67 56! 55
1 1 Mus Bus Gen. Overview 7 8! 3
1 2 Music Pub./Copvriqht
1 3 Mus Bus Leqal 41
1 4 Manaqement
1 5 Production/Record Promo
1 6 Internship 6 2!
1 7 Technoloqv i 3! 3
1 8 Marketinq 6 3
1 9 Concert Promotion
2 0 Other 3 12
2 1 Total Music Business 1 9 20! 21
2 2 Accountinq 8 3
2 3 Economics 4 6
2 4 Marketinq 6 4! 3
2 5 Manaqement 3 4!
2 6 Technoloav/ComDuters
2 7 Business Law
2 8 Communications 3
2 9 Other 6 3! 3
3 0 Total Business 18 23! 15
3 1 General Requirements 43 29! 37
3 2 Total Hours 147 128| 128

A W | X
1 Institutions William Paterson Colleqe i William Paterson Colleqe
2 Dearee BM-Music Mnqmt, Class i BM-Music Mnqmt, Jazz
3 Music Theory/E.T. 16! 18
4 Music Lit./Historv 6 i 6
5 Performance 14l 14
6 Ensemble 7\ 7
7 Musicianship 7\ 11
8 Comp/Sonawritina/Arr.
9 Electives 6 i 3
1 0 1 1 Total Music 56! 59
Mus Bus Gen. Overview 6! 6
1 2 Music Pub./Copvriqht
1 3 Mus Bus Leaal 3! 3
1 4 Manaqement 8: 7
1 5 Production/Record Promo
1 6 Internship
1 7 Technoloqv 3i 3
1 8 Marketinq 3! 3
1 9 Concert Promotion
2 0 Other
2 1 2 2 Total Music Business 23! 22
Accountinq 3! 3
2 3 Economics 3! 3
2 4 Marketinq 3: 3
2 5 Manaqement 3j 3
2 6 Technoloqv/Computers
2 7 Business Law 3! 3
2 8 Communications
2 9 Other
3 0 Total Business 15! 15
3 1 General Requirements 37! 37
3 2 Total Hours 131! 133

Sample Questionnaire Page
Institution________________________ Contact____________________________
1. Is a Music Business emphasis degree/certificate still offered? [ ]Yes [ ]No
What is it called?
Is it: [ ]Technical [ ]Semi-Technical [ ]Non-Technical
2. No. of full-time faculty____
Degrees Emphasis Industry Experience/Background
No. of part-time faculty____
Degrees Emphasis Industry Experience/Background
3. Student Demographics
Ratio of Male/Female in program________________________________________
Minority interest in program___________________________________________
4. No. of hours required:__Music ___________Performance _____Theory
___Lit/History _____Ensemble ________Other
Music Bus. Hrs. Required__________
Any unusual circumstances with program and accreditation?____
5. May I have a copy of your program curriculum? Yes______No
6. Other comments or questions:_______________________________

Sample Query Card
Thank you for filling this out and allowing me to take a little of
your time.
Name _______________________________
Phone Number ( )____-_________ext.___
Best Time To Call _____________________________
Day of the Week _______________________
Date ________/------/_______

Brabec, Jeffrey and Todd Brabec. Music. Money, and Success: The
Insider's Guide to the Music Industry. New York: Macmillan
Publishing Company, 1994.
Colnot, Cliff. "Updating the Ivory Tower." Unpublished
presentation by the author in 1995 (?). Colnot/Fryer Music,
Inc., DePaul University.
Davies, Ivor K. Objectives in Curriculum Design. Berkshire,
England: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1976.
Dwyer, Paula, Margaret Dawson and Dexter Roberts. "The New
Music Biz." Business Week. 15 January 1996, 48-51.
Feldman, Amy. "Somebody's Eating My Lunch." Forbes. 4
December 1995, 166-67.
Field, Shelly. Career Opportunities in the Music Industry. New
York: Fact on File Publications, 1986.
Greenblatt, Harmon, Resource Supplement: Preview of the MEIEA
Guide to Music Business Programs. NARAS Journal Vol. 6,
No. 1: 117-153.
Henn, Harry G. 1989 Supplement to Copyright Law: A
Practitioner's Guide. New York: Practising Law Institute,

Herbert, Wray. "Recording Sound Sales: The Music Industry Rocks
and Rolls to the Newest Financial Rhythms." U.S. News and
World Report. 25 September 1995, 67-70.
Holland, Bill. "Growing Copyright Biz Makes Up 4% of U.S. GDP,
Study Shows." Billboard. 29 March 1997, 6.
Jurman, David, Senior Director, Dance Music, Columbia Records.
Interviewed by author, 4 April 1997, MEIEA Conference,
University of Colorado at Denver.
Kemp, Jerrold E. Instructional Design: A Plan for Unit and Course
Development. Belmont, California: Fearon Publishers, 1971.
Livingstone, William and Bob Ankosko. "Recordable CD Flap."
Stereo Review. v59 nl January 1994, 6.
Melton, Reginald F. Instructional Models for Course Design and
Development. Englwood Cliffs, New Jersey: Educational
Technology Publications, 1982.
National Association of Schools of Music. Handbook : 1995-96.
Pemberton, Adam. "Predictions Are Always Tricky When They
Involve the Future." CD-ROM Professional. v7 nl January
1994, 12.
Rupley, Sebastian. "Digital Bucks? Stop Here." PC Magazine. 28 May
1996, 54.
Seidel, Jennifer Conrad. "Back 2 School." Electronic Musician.
September 1996, 28.

MEIEA Conference, University of Colorado at Denver, 4 April 1997.
Original Contact List
Albany State College, Music Department, Pete Terrell
American River College, Music Department, Eric Chun
Appalachian State University, Music Department, John A. Charillo
Belmont University, Business Department, Robert Mulloy
Berklee College of Music, Music Department, Don Gorder
Elizabeth City State University, Music Department, Vince Corozine
Elmhurst College, Music Department, Tim Hays
Five Towns College, Music and Business, Dr. Edwin Schulthies
Georgia State University School of Music, Lynn Schenbeck
Hartt School, University of Hartford, Music Department, Harmon
Indiana State University, Music Department, James F. Slutz
James Madison University, Music Department, Dona Gilliam
Loyola University College of Music, Music Department, Joseph
Mankato State University, Music Department, Bill Lecklider
Mansfield University, Music Department, Konrad Owens
Middle Tennessee State University, Mass Communications, Richard
New York University, Department of Music, Linda Beasley
Northeastern University, Music Department, Dr. Bruce Ronkin
Syracuse University; Radio, TV, Film Department; David Ruben
University of Mass, at Lowell, Music Department, Scott Fredrickson
University of Memphis, Music Department, Larry Lipman
University of Miami, School of Music, Ken Pohlmann
University of Nebraska at Kearney, Music Department, Dr. James F.

University of New Haven, Music Department, Michael Kaloyanides
University of North Alabama, James Simpson
University of Southern California, School of Music, Richard
University of Southern Miss., Music Department, Dr. Norbert
University of the Pacific Conservatory, H.R. Etlinger
University of Wisconsin Oshkosh, Music Department, Wally
Western Illinois University, Music Department, Claudia McCain
William Paterson College of NJ, Music Department, Stephen
John Charlillo, Appalachian State University
Robert Mulloy, Belmont University
Don Gorder, Berklee College of Music
Tim Hays, Elmhurst College
Dr. Edwin Schultheis, Five Towns College
Dr. Lyn Schenbeck, Georgia State University School of Music
Harmon Greenblatt, Hartt School, University of Hartford
Konrad Owens, Mansfield University
Linda Beasley, New York University, School of Music
Bruce Ronkin, Northeastern University
Scott Fredrickson, University of Massachusetts at Lowell
Larry Lipman, University of Memphis
Dr. James F. Payne, University of Nebraska at Kearney
Guillermo Mager, University of New Haven
Dr. Newton J. Collins, University of North Alabama
Richard Mcllvery, University of Southern California
Dr. Norbert Carnovale, University of Southern Mississippi
H. Richard Etlinger, University of the Pacific Conservatory

Stephen Marcone, William Paterson College of New Jersey
Institutions Providing Curricula
Belmont University
Berklee College of Music
Elizabeth City State University
Elmhurst College
Five Towns College
Hartt School, University of Hartford
Indiana State University
James Madison University
Mansfield University
New York University
Northeastern University
University of Colorado at Denver
University of Massachusetts at Lowell
University of Memphis
University of Miami
University of Nebraska at Kearney
University of New Haven
University of Southern Mississippi
University of the Pacific Conservatory
University of Wisconsin Oshkosh
William Paterson College