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Mentoring and the appointment of Latino administrators to the superintendency

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Title:
Mentoring and the appointment of Latino administrators to the superintendency
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Dávila, Frank S
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240 leaves : ; 28 cm

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Subjects / Keywords:
School superintendents -- Colorado ( lcsh )
School superintendents -- Texas ( lcsh )
Minority school administrators -- Colorado ( lcsh )
Minority school administrators -- Texas ( lcsh )
Mentoring in education ( lcsh )
Mentoring in education ( fast )
Minority school administrators ( fast )
School superintendents ( fast )
Colorado ( fast )
Texas ( fast )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 236-240).
Statement of Responsibility:
by Frank S. Dávila.

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ocm40463414
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LD1190.E3 1997d .D38 ( lcc )

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University of Colorado Denver

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Full Text
I
MENTORING AND THE APPOINTMENT OF
LATINO ADMINISTRATORS TO THE
SUPERINTENDENCY
by
Frank S. Davila
B.S.. University of North Texas, 1968
M.Ed., University of North Texas, 1975
A thesis submitted to the
University of Colorado at Denver
in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
Educational Leadership and Innovation
I
1997


1997 by Frank S. Davila
All rights reserved.


This thesis for the Doctor of Philosophy
degree by
Frank S. Davila
has been approved
by
Ron Cabrera
y /f?7
Date /


I
Davila, Frank S. (Ph.D.. Educational Leadership and Innovation)
Mentoring and the Appointment of Latino Administrators to the Superintendency
Thesis directed by Professor Michael Martin.
ABSTRACT
This study examined the relationship between mentoring and the appointment
of Latino administrators to the superintendency. A concern for underrepresentation of
Latino superintendents in Colorado and Texas led to six research questions designed
to determine ways to help Latino administrators attain the superintendency.
The six research questions focused on mentoring, the work environment,
leadership, culture, personal background, and professional preparation. A new theme,
"overcoming adversity," emerged as a result of a factor analysis. Data for the
investigation were gathered from Latino superintendents in Colorado and Texas.
These superintendents were asked to complete a five-part questionnaire related
to the six research questions. The first section of the survey pertained to demographic
and educational information about the superintendents and their parents. Section two
dealt with factors influencing appointment to the superintendency. Section three
sought a description of mentoring relationships. Section four focused on mentoring
support opportunities. Section five consisted of responses to open-ended questions.
IV


The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze
the data. Correlation coefficients were computed to examine the relationship between
six thematic clusters and five background characteristics of the superintendents. The
thematic clusters reflected the six research questions. The background characteristics
included the age of the superintendent upon attaining the first administrative position,
the age when first appointed to the superintendency, the number of administrative
promotions, the number of years in education, and the difference in years between the
first administrative appointment and the superintendency.
Quantitative and qualitative analysis focused on responses to the surveys, the
open-ended questions and the personal interviews. The overall results from the
survey indicated that over seventy percent of the Latino administrators were mentored
but only forty percent rated the mentoring experience as "great." Through the
interviews, these superintendents credited their parents as a major supporter in their
preparation towards an appointment to the superintendency.
This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidate's thesis. I
recommend its publication.
Michael Martin. Ed.D.


I
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I extend my gratitude to individuals who contributed to the completion of this
task. Dr. Michael Martin, committee chairperson, helped me sustain my focus on the
problem and on the research process. Dr. Rodney Muth, provided me with expertise
in the technical orchestration of the dissertation. Dr. Wayne Carle gave me a sense of
mentoring from the district perspective. Dr. Ron Cabrera provided encouragement
and counsel in the development of the study. Dr. Nadyne Guzman provided clarity to
the study and Dr. Rene Galindo assisted in articulating the conclusions of this study.
I am indebted to the Latino superintendents in Colorado and Texas for their
candid responses to the survey and to the personal interviews. Their willingness to
share and to provide conceptual input helped greatly in the completion of this study.
Dr. Guillermo Duron helped greatly in analyzing the data. I also thank Mr.
Jose Tomas Maes, retired superintendent, who mentored me more than he realized.
I hold in high regard my father, Francisco Sanchez Davila, for mentoring me
in the area of leadership, values, and work ethics and to my mother, Felicitas, for
exhibiting love and support at an early age. To my daughters, Jennifer and Christine.
I extend my gratitude for their love and encouragement in this endeavor.
To Dr. JoAnn Canales, I express my love, appreciation, and admiration for her
encouragement and skills in opening doors of opportunity for me. Her efforts and
role modeling in the professional arena provided me with the stamina to continue.
vi


CONTENTS
Tables
Page
xi
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION..................................................... 1
Background Information........................................... 2
Problem Statement................................................ 6
Theory/Research Base............................................. 8
Research Questions.............................................. 16
Methodological Design........................................... 16
In-Depth Interviews.......................................... 18
In-Depth Interview Questions................................. 19
Face-to-Face Interviews...................................... 20
Interviewing Timeline........................................ 20
Analyzing Responses.......................................... 21
Triangulation................................................ 22
Research Parameters.......................................... 23
Research Instrument............................................. 24
Interview Protocol.............................................. 25
Limitations of the Study........................................ 25
Significance of the Study....................................... 26
II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Introduction.................................................... 28
Definitions of Mentoring........................................ 28
Mentoring Roles................................................. 31
Mentoring Phases................................................ 34
Strategies Designed to Attract a Mentor......................... 37
Relationship Between Mentoring and Superintendency.............. 39
Mentoring Themes................................................ 39
Work Environment................................................ 41


Leadership...................................................... 44
Culture......................................................... 47
Family.......................................................... 49
Language........................................................ 50
Personal Background........................................... 51
Gender and Ethnicity............................................ 54
Professional Preparation........................................ 57
Overcoming Adversity............................................ 58
Summary......................................................... 60
III. METHODOLOGY
Introduction.................................................... 61
Research Questions.............................................. 61
Development of Questionnaire.................................... 62
Description of Three Data Collection Instruments................ 64
Components of Questionnaire..................................... 65
Connecting the Research Questions to the Questionnaire.......... 68
Data Gathering Process.......................................... 75
Sources of Evidence.......................................... 75
Data Collection.............................................. 76
Analysis of Data................................................ 77
Analysis of Descriptive Data................................. 78
Analysis of Quantitative Data................................ 78
Means and Standard Deviations................................ 79
Factor Analysis.............................................. 79
Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient............... 80
Analysis of Qualitative Data.................................. 81
Open-Ended Questions....................................... 81
Interviews................................................... 82
Summary......................................................... 83
IV. RESULTS OF THE STUDY
Introduction.................................................... 85
Process Used to Present Findings by Research Question........... 85
Study Sample and Collection of Data............................. 87
Survey Instrument............................................... 88
The Use of Likert-Scale Ratings and Descriptors................. 89
Research Questions.............................................. 90


Research Question One: Mentoring................................. 91
Descriptive Analysis Related to Research Question One.......... 92
Means and Standard Deviations Related to Research
Question One: Mentoring........................................ 92
Factor Analysis Related to Research Question One: Mentoring.... 95
Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient................... 99
Superintendent's Background Characteristics and
Thematic Clusters.............................................. 99
Background Characteristics of the Superintendents............. 100
Thematic Factors.............................................. 102
Analysis of Qualitative Data Related to Research Question
One: Responses to Open-Ended Questions........................ 103
Analysis of Qualitative Data Related to Research Question
One: Responses to Personal Interviews......................... 106
Themes and Patterns Related to Research Question
One: Mentoring................................................ 110
Findings Related to Research Question One: Mentoring............ 112
Research Question Two: Work Environment........................ 114
Descriptive Analysis Related to Research Question Two........... 114
Means and Standard Deviations Related to Research
Two: Work Environment......................................... 115
Factor Analysis Related to Research Question Two: Work
Environment................................................... 117
Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient.................. 119
Analysis of Qualitative Data Related to Research
Question Two: Responses to Open-Ended Questions............... 119
Analysis of Qualitative Data Related to Research
Question Two: Responses to Personal Interviews................ 121
Findings Related to Research Question Two: Work
Environment................................................... 125
Research Question Three: Leadership............................. 126
Descriptive Analysis Related to Research Question
Three: Leadership............................................. 127
Means and Standard Deviations Related to Research
One: Leadership............................................... 128
Factor Analysis Related to Research Question
Three: Leadership............................................. 130
Pearson Product Moment Correlation as it Relates to
Research Question Three: Leadership............................. 130
1
IX


Analysis of Qualitative Data Related to Leadership:
Responses to Open-Ended Questions............................ 130
Analysis of Qualitative Data Related to Leadership:
Responses to Personal Interviews............................. 132
Findings Related to Research Question Three: Leadership........ 135
Research Question Four: Culture................................. 136
Descriptive Analysis Related to Research Question
Four: Culture................................................ 137
Means and Standard Deviations Related to Research
Question Four: Culture....................................... 137
Factor Analysis Related to Research Question Four: Culture..... 139
Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient as
it Relates to Research Question Four: Culture............... 139
Analysis of Qualitative Data Related to Culture:
Responses to Open-Ended Questions............................ 141
Analysis of Qualitative Data Related to Culture:
Responses to Personal Interviews............................. 142
Findings Related to Research Question Four: Culture............ 144
Research Question Five: Personal Background..................... 145
Descriptive Analysis Related to Research Question
Five: Personal Background.................................... 146
Means and Standard Deviations Related to Research
Question Five: Personal Background........................... 146
Factor Analysis Related to Research Question
Five: Personal Background.................................... 148
Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient Related
to Research Question Five: Personal Background.............. 150
Analysis of Qualitative Data Related to Personal Background:
Responses to Open-Ended Questions............................ 150
Analysis of Qualitative Data Related to Personal Background:
Responses to Personal Interviews............................. 153
Findings Related to Research Question Five: Personal
Background................................................... 155
Research Question Six: Professional Preparation................. 156
Descriptive Analysis Related to Research Question Six:
Professional Preparation..................................... 157
Means and Standard Deviations Related to Research Question
Six: Professional Preparation................................ 158
Factor Analysis Related to Research Question Six:
Professional Preparation..................................... 158
x


Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient
Related to Professional Preparation.............................. 160
Analysis of Qualitative Data Related to Professional
Preparation: Responses to Open-Ended Questions.................. 162
Analysis of Qualitative Data Related to Professional
Preparation: Responses to Personal Interviews................... 163
Findings Related to Research Question Six:
Professional Preparation......................................... 165
Overcoming Adversities.............................................. 166
Factor Analysis Related to Overcoming Adversities................... 169
Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient
Related to Overcoming Adversities................................ 171
Findings Related to Overcoming Adversities.......................... 171
Summary of Chapter Four............................................ 172
V. SUMMARY OF THE STUDY, INTERPRETATIONS,
CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Introduction.................................................. 174
Nature of the Problem........................................ 174
Research Questions........................................... 174
Research Question One: Mentoring............................. 176
Interpretation of Findings Related to Research Question
One: Mentoring............................................. 176
Conclusions Related to Research Question One: Mentoring....... 178
Recommendations Related to Research Question One:
Mentoring................................................... 170
Research Question Two: Work Environment...................... 181
Interpretation of Findings Related to Research Question
Two: Work Environment....................................... 181
Conclusions Related to Research Question Two:
Work Environment........................................... 183
Recommendations Related to Research Question Two:
Work Environment........................................... 184
Research Question Three: Leadership........................... 186
Interpretation of Findings Related to Research Question
Three: Leadership.......................................... 186
Conclusions Related to Research Question
Three: Leadership........................................... 189


Recommendations Related to Research Question
Three: Leadership.......................................... 190
Research Question Four: Culture................................ 192
Interpretation of Findings Related to Research Question
Four: Culture.............................................. 192
Conclusions Related to Research Question Four:
Culture.................................................... 194
Recommendations Related to Research Question
Four: Culture.............................................. 194
Research Question Five: Personal Background.................... 195
Interpretation of Findings Related to Research Question
Five: Personal Background.................................. 196
Conclusions Related to Research Question Five:
Personal Background........................................ 197
Recommendations Related to Research Question Five:
Personal Background........................................ 198
Research Question Six: Professional Preparation................ 198
Interpretation of Findings Related to Research Question
Six: Professional Preparation.............................. 199
Conclusions Related to Research Question Six:
Professional Preparation................................... 200
Recommendations Related to Research Question
Six: Professional Preparation.............................. 201
Overcoming Adversities......................................... 202
Summary........................................................ 204


APPENDIX
A. HUMAN RESEARCH COMMITTEE PROTOCOL.............206
B. LETTER REQUESTING PARTICIPATION IN STUDY......208
C. QUESTIONNAIRE.................................210
D. PERSONAL INTERVIEW QUESTIONS..................220
E. PEARSON PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATION
COEFFICIENT................................... 222
F. FACTOR ANALYSIS OF SURVEY ITEMS...............229
REFERENCES............................................ 236
Xtll



TABLES
I
Table Page
1.1 Distribution of Latino Superintendents in Colorado and
Texas: 1995-1996........................................................ 5
1.2 Distribution of Latino Student Population in Colorado
and Texas: 1995-1996 ................................................... 5
1.3 Distribution of Latino Principals in Colorado and
Texas: 1995-1996........................................................ 5
. 1 Connecting the Research Questions to the Research
and the Survey Instrument.............................................. 69
4.1 Superintendent Population and Percentage Response by State............ 87
4.2 Superintendent Population and Percentage Response by Gender........... 88
4.3 Likert-Scale Ratings and Descriptions................................. 90
4.4 Prior or Current Involvement in a Mentoring Relationship.............. 92
4.5 Means and Standard Deviations Related to Mentoring................... 93
4.6 Results of Factor Analysis............................................ 97
4.7 Factor Analysis of Survey Items Related to Mentoring.................. 98
4.8 Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient
Related to Mentoring...................................................100
4.9 Superintendent Assignment by Type of School District................. 115
4.10 Means and Standard Deviations Related to Work Environment........... 116
XIV


4.11 Factor Analysis of Survey Items Related to Work Environment........... 118
4.12 Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient Related to
Work Environment....................................................... 119
4.13 Means and Standard Deviations Related to Leadership................... 129
4.14 Means and Standard Deviations Related to Culture...................... 138
4.15 Factor Analysis of Survey Items Related to Culture.................... 140
4.16 Pearson Product Moment Correlation Related to Culture................. 141
4.17 Highest Educational Level Attained by
Superintendents and Parents............................................ 146
4.18 Means and Standard Deviations Related to Personal Background.......... 147
4.19 Factor Analysis of Survey Items Related to Personal Background........ 149
4.20 Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient Related to
Personal Background.................................................... 150
4.21 Superintendent Background Information: Mean Data in Years............ 157
4.22 Means and Standard Deviations Related to
Professional Preparation............................................... 159
4.23 Factor Analysis of Survey Items Related to Professional Preparation... 161
4.24 Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient
Related to Professional Preparation.................................... 162
4.25 Factor Analysis of Survey Items Related to Overcoming Adversities..... 170
4.26 Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient
Related to Overcoming Adversities...................................... 171
xv


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
The word "mentor" comes from the mythological story of Mentor in Homer's
Odyssey. When King Odysseus left to fight in the Trojan War, Mentor was entrusted
with Odysseus' household and, in particular, was charged with the responsibility to
serve as a teacher and overseer of King Odysseus' only son. Telemachus (Shea, 1992.
p. 3). In this context, mentoring is defined as a relationship between a younger adult
or protege, and an older, more experienced adult who provides guidance, support, and
insight to help the protege succeed in her or his career path (Cox, 1994. p. 198).
Shea (1992. p. 8) expanded on the definition of mentoring drawing on the
length of the interventions and the degree of formality of the relationship. These
mentoring relationships included a highly structured and short-term version, a highly
structured and long-term experience, an informal and short-term relationship, and an
informal and long-term process.
At one extreme, formal mentoring relationships involve a structured process
designed to place a protege on a fast-track career path. At the other extreme, the
informal version suggests that the mentor is readily available to the protege.
Irrespective of the formality of the relationship, the protege has access to resources
that will enhance the opportunity to become an effective leader (Zey. 1991, p. 13).
l


Background Information
According to Zey (1991), mentoring programs had been growing in numbers,
particularly since the late 1980's. Evidence of on-going mentoring programs included
The International Mentoring Association which studies the effectiveness and the type
of mentoring programs with input from the business and education community.
Another one was the American Society of Training and Development with its focus
on human resource development and mentoring (p. x). Both of these programs had
their beginning in the previous decade.
Until the first part of the 1970's, mentoring was not commonly recognized as a
formalized process with the exception of a few companies such as AT&T (Kram &
Bragar. 1992, p. 225). During the early 1980's, formal mentoring programs came into
existence for a variety of reasons. Some of these included the intense reliance on
technology and in foreign companies to supply hardware and software to companies
in the United States.
The competitiveness in the market compelled United States corporations to
modify the orientation process for new recruits and to include a formal process as part
of the recruit's career development. Mentors were assigned to these recruits as part of
that orientation process.
In the late 1980's and the 1990's, other events occurred that gave added
emphasis to mentoring programs. One was the increased number of entrepreneurs


who left established corporate jobs and now threatened the survival of the original
organization. Some of these individuals began to seek mentors who could help them
develop ideas and serve as partners in a mentor-protege role (Zey. 1991. p. xix).
Another event that is still occurring is the large number of corporate mergers.
These mergers called for innovative ways to blend workers from different corporate
styles. One approach was to institute formal mentoring programs to help bring the
different business cultures to a common goal. Another layer of concern during this
period in time was the need to balance the numbers in the professional ranks with
respect to ethnicity. The 1980's had been proclaimed by businesses and politicians as
the decade of the Hispanics with the expectations that the rapid increase in the Latino
population would bring more Latino professionals into leadership positions. One area
of consistent Latino growth has been in the increased numbers of public school
students.
Despite the growth patterns in the educational field, some groups of educators
find themselves underrepresented in higher levels of leadership in public schools.
One such group is the Latino public school administrator. Table 1.1 illustrates the
low percentage rate of Latino superintendents in Colorado and Texas when compared
to the overall distribution of Latino students in the respective states as shown in Table
1.2. The study attempted to determine if the low number of Latino superintendents
was attributed to lack of access, sponsorship, or mentoring by other educators in a


position to mentor and support the Latino administrators. Rosen suggests that a lack
of non-traditional role models contributes to leadership biases (1996, p. 16).
Table 1.3 illustrates the pool of Latino principals available for central office
leadership positions and possibly a superintendency role. When compared to the
Latino student population, the underrepresentation of principals in Colorado and
Texas coupled with the small percentages of Latino superintendents in these tw o
states provided a strong rationale for studying the mentoring process and how it
affected the chances for Latino administrators to attain the superintendency.
Despite the small percentage of Latino superintendents in Colorado and
Texas, this study sought to determine the relationship between mentoring and
appointment of these Latino administrators to the superintendency. Further, the study
identified and ranked related factors that placed the Latino administrator on a more
successful or faster career track as they proceeded through the administrative ranks.
Zey (1991. p. 69) maintained that a career without a mentor has a negative impact on
an individual's career growth and in some cases has kept managers, directors, and
other leaders from reaching their life's career ambition.
In his comparison of mentored and non-mentored groups, Zey (1991) looked
at various benefits that favored the mentored groups. These benefits included access
to a manager or vice-president who served as a mentor, better recognition of the
organizational structure, suggestions on how to reach an upper level administrative
4


Table l.I
Distribution of Latino Superintendents in Colorado & Texas: 1995-1996
State # School Districts # Latino Sup'ts. % Latino Sup'ts. % Latino Students % Points Undrrep
Colorado 176 8 4.5 18.4 -13.9*
Texas 1.058 57 5.4 36.1 -30.7*
* % Latino Superintendents % Latino Students
Source: Colorado Department of Education
Texas Education Agency
Table 1.2
Distribution of Latino Student Population in Colorado & Texas: 1995-1996
State # School Districts # Student Pop. # Latino Student Pop. % Latino Students % White Students
Colorado 176 656.279 120,678 18.4 72.5
Texas 1.058 3.670.196 1.323,467 36.1 47.1
Source: Colorado Department of Education Texas Education Agencx
Table 1.3 Distribution of Latino Principals in Colorado & Texas: 1995- 1996
State # Principals in State # Latino Principals % Latino Principals % Latino Students % Points Undrrep
Colorado 1,390 102 7.3 18.4 -11.1*
Texas 7,030 869 12.4 36.1 -23.7*
* % Latino Superintendents % Latino Students
Source: Colorado Department of Education
Texas Education Agency
5


position, closer commitment to the organization, increased job satisfaction, clearer
career goals, and a higher degree of optimism (p. 71).
McCauley (Kouzes & Pozner, 1987. p. 286) added that mentors established
opportune networks and steered administrators in the right path thus providing an
invaluable service in the mentor's professional careers. He further stated that, in the
workplace, the mentoring role was as significant as the role of peers and bosses.
This significant mentoring role is substantiated through a survey of 1.200
professionals from several companies in the United States. Two-thirds of these
leaders disclosed that they had established a mentoring relationship with a mentor
(Cox. 1994. p. 199).
This high percentage appeared to indicate that mentoring is an important
element for career success. For public school administrators, and in particular Latino
administrators, establishing a productive mentoring relationship has shown to be
helpful in reaching the superintendency.
Problem Statement
The road to the superintendency is difficult and not always successful.
Despite the 2.5 years in average tenure of superintendents in urban districts and 4.7 in
non-urban settings (Glass, 1992, p. 47), a large number of educational leaders
continue to strive to achieve this high level of leadership in the public school arena.
6


Some administrators have been successful, while others have been unable to find the
ingredients for success. In this study, success for administrators was defined as
receiving an appointment to the superintendency.
This study examined the relationship between mentoring and the appointment
of Latino administrators to the superintendency. If Latino public school leaders are
to compete successfully for superintendency positions, it would be advantageous to
find ways that would help them in this effort and to determine which strategies, if any,
can be identified to give the Latino administrator insights on balancing the advantages
and disadvantages of mentoring related to the superintendency.
To this end. data collection activities included a survey and follow-up
interviews with selected Latino superintendents. The survey and the interviews
examined the perceptions of the superintendents to determine which factors
contributed to their success.
The selection of the survey items and questions used for the questionnaire and
the face-to-face and telephone interviews, were drawn from Zey's (1991) survey and
interviews of business professionals, from Cabrera's (1990) dissertation work on
mentoring and public school administrators and from Esquibels (1992) survey of
Chicano administrators in higher education. The combination of these three sources
provided a broad array of suggestions and guidelines on how to prepare a
questionnaire.
7


Theorv/Research Base
Given the changing environment in the public school leadership arena, old
mistakes need not be recycled. The leader must learn how to be self-nurturing and
how to seek support from outside sources to become a superintendent. The concept
of mentoring suggested that two or more individuals would be working together to
help the protege go beyond her or his previous limits of performance (Mink, Owen. &
Mink. 1993, p. 40). Mink. Owen, and Mink further stated that a mentor influences
the protege's career, family, and work ethics as well (p. 23).
Although Kram (1988) mentioned that some workers indicated they have
reached their professional goals without mentoring (p. 200 ), changes mandated by the
Colorado State Legislature in House Bill 1005 in 1994, necessitate that a mentor be
provided for the educators first year as an administrator and continue for a one to a
three year period as part of the new licensure regulations. The state set aside four
purposes as part of this induction program. These were an orientation phase, a
socialization and transition phase to help the new administrator leam about the new
job. a technical support process to help in learning the new skills for the job, and
continuous assessment to help in advising the protege.
Because this process is still in the initial stages and because of the importance
of the reciprocal process that must be in place between the mentor and the protege
(Kram, 1988), the work of human resource theorists such as Bolman and Deal (1991)
8


was an appropriate part of this study. These human resource theorists focused on
bringing different people together to improve the skills and talents of everyone in both
formal and informal settings (Bolman & Deal. 1991, p. 9). Bolman and Deal believed
that leaders who are capable of using multiple frames in analyzing a problem within
the organization saw and understood how an organization functioned and how they
were part of its evolving process (p. 450).
These multiple leadership frames included the political, cultural, structural,
psychic prison, symbolic, or a combination of these. The political frame takes into
account the situation and responds to the concern from a political perspective. In the
cultural frame, the needs of the individuals and the multiple contributions brought to
the organization are studied to see if the organizational culture is in tune with the
workers.
The structural point of view is one that focuses on how effective and efficient
the organization is progressing. The focus is on restructuring the organization to
produce growth (Bolman & Deal, 1991, pp. 450-455). The psychic prison takes into
account the fears and concerns of the workers before asking them to make changes
and the symbolic lens uses rituals, accepted customs and traditions to reinforce the
goals of the organization (Morgan, 1986, p. 365).
The process involved in applying these different frames in making decisions is
one where the leader determines if the situation should be studied and approached
I
|
I
9


from a political or cultural or some other perspective. By responding to an issue that
has to do with school culture with comments, observations, or questions that are
closer related to politics or school structure, the leader may communicate a wrong
message to the interest group (p. 451). Gardner's (1993, p. xxiv) view is similar to
Bolman and Deals (1991) presentation of multiple frames. He states that todays
leaders must be adept at communicating with a variety of interest groups and in
different settings concerning multiple topics.
Given the variety of individuals in leadership positions, several factors merit
consideration in establishing a mentoring relationship. Among these factors are
gender, race, political pressures, dependency, investment of time, prior experiences,
commitment to the process, risk-taking, and personal benefit. Each factor and the
related issues are discussed below.
On some occasions, the match between a mentor and protege and the
professional relationship established between these two may contribute to some
stereotypes that still play a part in the career opportunities of individuals, especially
along gender and color lines. It is more comfortable for individuals in leadership
positions to select and assist proteges aspiring to leadership positions who share
similar characteristics.
Morgan (1986) contends that female and male stereotypes depicting men as
logical and strategic and women as intuitive and spontaneous have denied positions
10


and mentors to women because the administrative culture tends to be dominated by
male images of leaders in administration (p. 179).
According to Jacobi (1991), the literature is divided on the impact of
mentoring along gender and ethnic lines (p. 511). In the management field, women
seem to have more mentors, on the average, than men. Jacobi also mentioned that
women seem to experience a higher degree of difficulty in establishing a mentoring
relationship (p. 511). An analysis of the responses to the personal interviews and to
the questionnaire will reveal information to support or expand the significance of
gender and ethnicity with respect to mentoring.
When the opportunity arises to provide cross-race mentoring relationships,
Cox (1994. p. 202) stated that it is difficult to find mentors and proteges at the same
level of understanding of racioethnic expectations. He further stated that when the
cultural distance between a dominant and minority culture is significant, the burden to
assimilate fell on the protege who sought to enhance her or his career path. This
burden could be a detriment to a successful mentoring relationship (p. 175).
Esquibel (1992) offers a similar view of access to leadership roles by Latinos.
He observed that Latinos gained leadership positions through unconventional avenues
such as political involvement or contacts, pressure from the Latino groups on public
schools, high concentration of Latinos in the community, and through affirmative
action plans (p. 2).
1
11


In some instances, when people of color or females were given positions
within the organization, a patriarchal leadership style comes into play by those in
power positions (Morgan. 1986. p. 211). By providing a paternal or protective role,
key organizational leaders set the stage for dependency rather than genuine mentoring.
This patriarchal style of mentoring operates through informal networking and
included establishing a network based on common interests, shared values, and
philosophical alliances. Some examples of patriarchal bonding include spending time
bowling, hunting, golfing, or engaging in similar activities. In these types of
activities, the leader initiated efforts that became a supportive network for the protege.
For some proteges, this fatherly style of mentoring can be a safe and nurturing
environment. Other proteges resented this type of patriarchal support system and
declined the opportunity to engage in a mentoring relationship.
Other views of mentoring were presented by Nanus (1992), Zey (1991), and
Kouzes and Posner (1987). Nanus (1992) suggested that the quantity of time a leader
can serve as a mentor is limited; the norm is to work with large groups of leaders
rather than with one. His study suggested that leaders do not have enough time to
establish a long-term mentoring relationship (p. 150).
A mentor who is committed to the mentoring process will set aside time and
find the energy to train the protege. Once the mentoring process has begun, the
mentor needs to be prepared for some potential risks and constraints in the mentoring
12


relationship. These constraints included the amount of time and energy spent, the
exposure of self and one's own reputation, the potential incompetence of a protege,
and a protege's premature resignation (Zey, 1991, pp. 90-92). While working with a
protege, the mentor risks exposing personal weaknesses or failures and thus
compromising personal integrity. The reputation of the mentor is also damaged if the
protege is identified with a perceived negative interest group. Additionally, if the
protege struggles on the job or is perceived as incompetent, this may reflect
negatively on the leadership of the mentor. An advantage to the protege is that
effective leaders do not give up on people, because in so doing, they must accept
criticism of their judgment and of themselves (Kouzes & Posner, 1987. p. 243).
The mentor, however, also benefits from the mentoring relationship. The
protege helps implement successful projects and thus advance the career of the
mentor. The protege also offers new insights to complement the leadership role of the
mentor. And by explaining the necessary skills to the protege, the mentor can review
current job roles and modify some perceptions of the daily job routine to everyone's
advantage (Zey. 1991, pp. 78-79).
The mentoring relationships described above have multiple labels. At the core
of the process, despite the assigned label, was the premise that individuals facilitated
their career path and increased their performance within an organization (Gordon,
1993, p. 84). These mentoring approaches were characterized as sponsorship,
13


coaching, protection, exposure, role modeling, or friendship (Gordon, 1993, p. 84).
These are summarized below.
Sponsorship Opening doors or setting up network for upward
Protection mobility Acting as a buffer in difficult situations
Exposure Setting up opportunities to demonstrate competence
Coaching Providing feedback to help one grow and improve
Encouraging Providing encouragement as positive reinforcement
Role Modeling Demonstrating values, attitudes, and skills to help the protege become more competent and confident
Counseling Setting aside time to speak with protege on matters of confidentiality or those that are potentially disruptive
Friendship Developing mutual concern and intimacy beyond the work area
Socialization Blending with district culture and leaders
These approaches to mentoring suggested that, during different times in our
professional careers, a leader assumes the role of either mentor or protege. In a
contrasting research study cited by Kouzes and Posner (1987, p. 291), the findings
indicated that early childhood influences and leadership opportunities provided by the
parents were a more solid predictor of leadership success than mentoring intervention
14


strategies. Information from this study leads us to suspect that leadership traits and
characteristics are present at an early age for some individuals.
A further implication is that some mentors have an easier task in working with
a protege based on the leadership characteristics that the protege has previously
acquired from professional and family experiences. The background of the protege
revealed that leadership opportunities were experienced via scouting programs,
activities as a university student, military assignments, or classroom teacher
leadership positions as a committee chair or organizational officer. The interview
questions were structured to determine if these leadership experiences served to
facilitate the mentoring process for Latino superintendents.
The interviewing process was designed to determine which of the above
mentoring approaches were referenced during different situations or events and
whether the superintendent was the mentor or the protege. .Another source of
information involved the actual mentoring experiences of the superintendents and the
extent to which they implemented the knowledge gained such as coaching or
facilitating a decision on a sensitive issue.
The superintendents also reflected greater enthusiasm about a particular piece
of work when the "boss" offered some kind words about the activity performed.
These kind words of encouragement may be interpreted as a validation of productive
efforts which potentially promotes professional growth.
15


Research Questions
To gain a better understanding of how leaders supported and encouraged
Latino administrators to the superintendency and to provide focus to the study. I
selected the research questions listed below. These research questions were useful in
helping define the type of relationship experienced by the mentor and the protege and
in determining the extent mentoring impacted appointment to the superintendencv.
1. What patterns or themes indicated that mentoring helped Latino public school
administrators receive appointments to the superintendency?
2. What impact did the work environment have on the appointment of Latino
administrators to the superintendency?
3. What effect did leadership have on the appointment to the superintendencv?
4. What is the impact of culture on appointment to the superintendencv?
5. What impact does personal background have on the appointment to the
superintendencv?
6. To what degree was professional preparation a factor in the appointment to the
superintendency?
Methodological Design
The methodological approach used in this study was a two-part research
design. First, a questionnaire (Appendix C) was mailed to all Latino superintendents
16


in Colorado and Texas. A listing of these Latino superintendents was obtained from
the 1995-96 school directory from Colorado and Texas.
The questionnaire was generated from three sources. One source was
Esquibel's (1992) study of characteristics that led to promotions for Latino
professionals in institutions of higher education. The second source was Cabrera's
(1990. pp. 248-253) dissertation study of the relationship of mentoring to
organizational culture, work environment, and career advancement of public school
administrators. The third source was Zey's survey of business managers on mentoring
support systems (1991. pp. 221-226).
After reviewing the various questionnaire models, the first step in the research
design process was to develop a questionnaire that provided the information needed to
answer the research questions selected for this study and that addressed the research
problem: mentoring and appointment of Latino administrators to the
superintendency.
The second part of the research design involved in-depth interviews of
selected superintendents. Criteria for selection of superintendents to interview
included geographic location, size of the district, age, and gender, among other factors
that surfaced after the initial analysis of the data. To assure that these factors
provided a cross section of the Latino superintendent population, a random selection
process was not used. This is a delimitation of the study.
i
17


In-Depth Interviews
Twelve Latino superintendents in Colorado and Texas were selected to
participate in the in-depth interviews. Six of them were interviewed in their natural
work environment. The other six were interviewed through the telephone. These
twelve participants responded to ten (Appendix D) interview questions that were
formulated after the initial survey questionnaire phase. The information gained from
these Latino superintendents interviewed through the telephone or in writing was
incorporated in the overall analysis of the study. The interviews were audio recorded.
Those participating in the in-depth interview were contacted through a mailed
survey, then by telephone, to secure active and willing participation and to establish
the initial interview. The superintendents who agreed to participate were sent a
packet of materials containing background information on the proposed study along
with information about myself, a timeline, and my overall expectations regarding the
format and the content of the interviews. This background information clarified the
nature of the study, gave legitimacy to the study and secured commitment for the
interview. This information also served to introduce myself to the superintendents.
The steps mentioned above were part of the interview protocol developed after
reviewing the responses to the initial questionnaire. A representative sample was
selected for the interviews. A new set of questions were prepared to guide all of the
in-depth interviews and to help the interviewer sustain an active interaction with the
18


interviewee. These steps and questions added consistency to the interviewing process
by guiding the interviewing process so that all participants had similar opportunities
in responding to the interview questions.
In-Depth Interview Questions
The in-depth interview questions centered on major topics that asked
superintendents to describe their mentoring relationships from a career and historical
point of view, the perceived functions or expectations of a productive mentoring
relationship, the success or failure of the mentoring process, the role gender and
ethnicity played in the mentoring relationship (Esquibel, 1992), and the importance of
family and the work environment in being appointed to the superintendency.
Leadership was another are that was reviewed with the superintendents through the
survey.
It was anticipated that the interviewee would deviate from the mentorship
focus (Zey. 1991, pp. 221-226) and therefore the set of questions prepared in advance
helped maintain the focus on topics related to mentoring during the interviewing
process. Furthermore, the in-depth interview gave the twelve superintendents an
opportunity to reflect on their career experiences, on their job responsibilities, and the
role, if any, that mentoring played in that personal growth process (Marshall &
Rossman. 1989, p. 48).
19


Through these interviews, additional variables such as school district size or
the ethnic composition of the staff and the general population were discussed to
determine how these related to mentoring opportunities and selection of mentors and
proteges. The inclusion of school district size such as urban, suburban, rural or inner
city helped in studying patterns of mentoring opportunities and experience. The size
of the school district was obtained from the respective state department of education.
Face-to-Face Interviews
The superintendents were interviewed in their natural work environment. The
interviewing process incorporated some features of a case study. Case studies are
ideal for gathering comprehensive information about programs, processes,
institutions, and events (Krathwohl, 1993. p. 347). The interview questions sought to
gather data related to programs, events, and the presence of mentoring as reported by
the superintendents.
Interviewing Timeline
The estimated time for conducting all of the interviews was a semester and a
half. The length of the superintendent interviews varied based on my time and work
schedule. A minimum of one-half day was devoted to the overall interviewing
process for each of the twelve superintendents. The date and time selected was
20


determined by the superintendent and the researcher. This process provided
interviews that added substance to the research. Follow-up interviews were carried
out with two superintendents to clarify the data collected. All of the superintendents
contacted readily agreed to be interviewed.
Analyzing Responses
The survey and interviews sought to find patterns in the various mentoring and
leadership styles used under different situations. This involved a qualitative research
approach. The interview questions asked the superintendents if their mentor operated
under a particular leadership frame and if that style of leadership was adopted by the
protege. This information helped in describing the mentoring style that was provided
by the mentors and the long-term impact of the mentoring style on the protege.
Similarities between the leadership styles of the mentor and the protege were
reviewed to see if mentors sought proteges who shared similar leadership styles and if
proteges chose to model their mentors.
Additionally, the interviews sought answers on how and why certain
professional and personal events take place (Yin, 1994. p. 6) in the lives of Latino
superintendents. This process described real-life activities relating to mentoring (p.
13) and contributed to research results which may be helpful to Latino administrators
seeking the superintendency.
21


Because individuals exposed to extensive mentoring have reported that they
received more promotions, increased salaries, and increased job satisfaction (Gordon,
1993, p. 84), mentoring may be important not only for Latino administrators but for
all employees. The interviews provided information to determine if mentoring helped
the Latino administrator obtain professional appointments or selection to a
superintendency job.
The results of the personal interviews revealed that mentoring was a dominant
and positive factor in getting the job at an earlier age. The survey, the open-ended
and the personal interviews that were part of this study helped to establish the
importance of mentoring in the Latino administrators appointment to the
superintendency.
The data generated from the interviews was analyzed to search for patterns
and themes related to mentoring support systems (Jaeger. 1988. p. 259). This analysis
included listing similar responses from the superintendents, categorizing the
responses based on themes, identifying which responses addressed specific research
questions set aside for the study and then drawing conclusions from these data.
Tri angulation
This study employed a process of triangulation using data gathered on
mentoring relationships based on research from Zey (1991) and Kouzes and Posner
22


(1993). Although triangulation is primarily used in ethnographic studies, it was used
in this study as one way of providing reliability to the idea of applying a set of
findings to another context (Marshall & Rossman, 1989, p. 146). Yin (1994, pp. 91-
94) describes this process as gaining multiple sources of evidence to determine if
evidence from different sources corroborate each other. In this research, the multiple
sources included structured interviews, open-ended interviews, observations, and
demographic data. The structured interviews were the responses to the questionnaire.
Research Parameters
In conducting the study, four research parameters were used to ensure that the
results of the study would be meaningful (Yin. 1994, pp. 32-38). The first parameter,
construct validity, included the use of multiple sources and a well-constructed chain
of evidence to support it. These multiple sources were the responses to the survey
items, to the open-ended questions and to the personal interviews. The evidence
included the results of a factor and correlation analysis by research question of each of
the items in the survey, the development of themes and patterns, and a summary' of
data collected.
The second parameter, internal validity, was addressed by confirming that the
information given was truthful and accurate. The follow-up interviews allowed an
opportunity to review the match between the responses to the survey items in the


questionnaire with those from the interviews. Responses that were different were
noted and reported (Yin. 1994. p.35).
The third parameter was external validity. External validity was gained by
generating and employing multiple data gathering designs which in mm provided the
investigator the opportunity to generalize the results found to another group. The use
of research questions and theoretical applications (Table 3.1) helped in guiding the
study and in strengthening the external validity (Marshall & Rossman. 1989, p. 146).
According to Yin (1994), external conditions may produce different results in
subsequent studies (p. 50).
The fourth parameter, reliability, was demonstrated through documentation of
the questionnaire results, the taped interviews, and the observations. It is expected
that other researchers could repeat the same research design and reach similar
interpretations (Yin, 1994, pp. 32-38).
Research Instrument
A correlational research process was used to determine if and to what degree a
relationship existed between two or more variables. This research approach was
quantitative in nature. The degree of the relationship was expressed as a correlation
coefficient (Gay, 1976. p. 142). In this particular study, a relationship between the
thematic factors related to the research questions and the superintendents background
24


I
characteristics was computed. The results of these correlation coefficients, using the
Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, are presented on Table 4.1. The
Pearson product-moment correlation is frequently used to gauge the strength of the
relationships between two or more variables (p. 188).
Interview Protocol
Confidentiality was observed at all times. A disclaimer and permission form
was completed and signed by both parties defining the parameters of the study and
subsequent release of information (Appendix A). Institutional guidelines were sought
and approval granted regarding research dealing with human subjects. My primary
responsibility as the researcher, during the interview phase, was to focus on the
interview questions and the application of interview procedures to gain quality
responses. Furthermore, by sending the superintendents information in advance, the
level of expectation of the interviewing process was raised. The reminders served to
underscore the respect for their time constraints.
Limitations of the Study
There are two limitations to this study. One is that the telephone interviews
produced less information and were limiting in that the interviewing process was
frequently interrupted and the duration was shorter than the face-to-face interview.
I
25


The second limitation was that validity and reliability information was based on
previous researcher's surveys rather than conducting a pilot study. It is believed that
adding a qualitative dimension to the study will assist in overcoming this limitation.
Significance of the Study
The primary focus of the study was to examine the relationship between
mentoring and the appointment of Latino administrators to the superintendency. The
study provided research findings relating to the Latino superintendents' perceptions of
mentoring relationships.
The information from the studies will assist Latino educators in becoming
aware and taking advantage of opportunities to enhance their career advancement
towards the superintendency. Studying the mentoring possibilities offers another
support system for young Latino administrators who striving towards the
superintendencv.
The findings from the interviews of twelve Latino public school
superintendents were analyzed to determine the relationship mentoring had on the
appointment of the Latino superintendent. It was an expectation that results of the
interviews would help to strengthen corroboration and application of the findings
between the present Latino superintendents and the current Latino administrators
seeking a superintendency.
26


Given the large population growth of the Spanish-speaking community (Table
1.2), providing a larger pool of Latino administrators will continue to be a need.
Lopez's (1996) study of Hispanic public school administrators in Texas underscored
the need to increase the number of Latino administrators to better match the large
percentage of Latino students (p. 55).
27


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Introduction
Chapter two will review the multiple definitions and understandings of
mentoring, the various roles mentors played in the mentoring process, the phases of
mentoring, the role mentoring displayed in the corporate world and in the educational
leadership arena and the relationship and impact mentoring has on career success
based on the research questions selected for the study.
Definitions of Mentoring
The following definitions and understandings of mentoring underscored the
broad views of mentoring. These multiple definitions focused on the Latino public
school superintendents' understanding of mentoring and the significance it played in
their career. The definitions also provided the commonalties and patterns expressed
by the various researchers as they reviewed the concept of mentoring.
The first set of these researchers described mentoring as a nurturing and
supportive process. The second set of researchers defined mentoring from a more
traditional point of view. A third view that is expressed is one that is more personal
28


!
in nature, going beyond the formal and traditional structures.
Anderson and Shannon (1988) defined mentoring as a nurturing process in
which an experienced or more skilled individual served as a role model, teacher,
sponsor, encourager, counselor, and friend to another person who is less skilled. The
purpose of this relationship is to enhance the inexperienced person's professional and
personal growth (p. 40). Bass (1985) described a mentor as a trusted counselor who
guided the growth process of a younger or less experienced collegue (p. 90).
ICram (1988) described the mentoring process as a relationship between the
protege and superiors, peers, subordinates, friends, and family members in a
supportive way during periods of transition and ongoing career development phases
(p. 1). Playco (1990) highlighted the collegial support but cautioned against
dependency (p. 29).
Bennis (1994) definition of a mentor is a teacher who discovered skills the
protege did not know existed and then demanded more than she or he thought they
could give. The mentor could be a parent, a senior associate or a friend (p. 91).
In a more traditional sense, Ehrich (1995) presented the mentoring process as
a training relationship between a person in a specific career status who by mutual
consent took an interest in the career development of a protege (p. 70). He further
stated that mentoring should become a systemic part of the organization and
management (p. 71). Jacobi (1991) supported this style of traditional mentoring by
l
29


defining mentoring as a process by which individuals of superior rank, special
achievements and prestige, provided instruction to facilitate the intellectual and career
growth of assigned proteges (p. 507).
Zey (1991) also described mentoring from a traditional viewpoint. He viewed
the mentor as an overseer of proteges with the responsibility of developing the skills
of the junior associates through teaching, counseling, psychological support, and at
times protecting, promoting, or sponsoring the proteges (p.7).
From a personal point of view. Hendricks (1996) described a mentor as a
person who walks alongside other people on the team and provides hands-on
instruction and support to jointly complete projects (p. 127). Similarly, Hofsess
(1990) felt that the mentor is a trusted colleague trained in teaching and learning
processes and in conferencing skills with the intent of developing trusting
relationships (21).
Rosen (1996) expanded on the idea of relationships. He felt that successful
individuals are inspired by different people at various points in their career
development. This personal inspiration may come from a father or mother, or from
teachers, ministers, coaches or superiors (p. 177).
These multiple understandings of mentoring were explored with the Latino
superintendents through the survey, as they described the mentoring they experienced
in their appointment to the superintendencv.
30


Mentoring Roles
In describing the characteristics of a mentor-protege relationship, Playco
believed that both participants must value each other and that the mentoring
relationship should be a two-way. interactive activity (1990, p. 30). This mentoring
relationship can take different formats based on the styles or role of the mentor. Bova
and Phillips (1994) described several types of mentors based on the role they perform.
One was the traditional mentor who is usually an older boss or supervisor that served
as a protector and a parent figure. Other styles were the supportive boss, the
organization sponsor, the professional career mentor, the patron and the invisible
godparent (p. 17).
Krams (1988) list of mentoring roles included sponsorship, coaching,
protection, exposure, and challenging work under the rubric of career function (pp.
22-39). She listed role modeling, counseling, acceptance, confirmation, and
friendship under the label of psychological functions.
These two sets of mentoring styles are prescribed for early career stages.
Kram (1988) encouraged these individuals to seek a mentor who can facilitate their
movement through the organizational maze (p. 16). She further stated that mentoring
is even more crucial in a multicultural climate where factors not related to
professional competence or job performance inhibited the individual's career progress
(P- 21).
31


i
I
I
I
! In an another study, Schein (1978) presented eight possible mentor roles.
! These roles included confidant, teacher, sponsor, role model, developer of talent,
i
opener of doors, protector, and successful leader (p. 18-21). Mentoring is further
highlighted by Rosen in one of his case studies which revealed how one individual
experienced different mentoring roles throughout his various job experiences (1996,
p. 177-186).
Kram (1988) emphasized that both mentor and protege must consider the
mentoring experience as a reciprocal process and each should esteem the other (p.
31). Examining the type and amount of mentoring received is another way to see if
Latino administrators believed mentoring helped them reach the superintendency.
Bell (1996) described five roles that the mentor can assume during one's
career. Depending on the role selected, the mentoring relationship can be a learning
process or one of despair. The first role he described is the wizard. The wizard is
described as a guru who promoted a mentored-centered approach to the mentoring
relationship (p. 22). The second role is called the comic. This mentor saw her or his
life as that of providing humor and a good climate but offered little substantive
mentoring support (p. 23).
The third type of mentoring role described is the motivator. This type of
mentor relied on inspirational talks and encouragement rather than on providing
mentoring opportunities (p. 23). The fourth mentoring role described by Bell is that
32


of the sergeant who displayed an attitude that proteges are novices and needed to be
told how to perform and when to perform (p. 24).
The fifth mentoring role is the partner. In this role, the mentor provided
interactive support and facilitated opportunities that entailed reciprocity in the
mentoring relationship. This was also described as on-going mutual support role
(p. 24).
Given the various opportunities administrators had in creating a professional
learning environment, three approaches can be described. Some successful
administrators chose an inductive approach through which they learned from the
experiences they faced daily (Kouzes & Posner, 1987. p. 286). This style of learning
was perhaps the approach they had used throughout their careers. Others selected the
second approach of seeking feedback from peers or bosses and thus were more
comfortable establishing a network or a support system.
Other administrators selected a third approach wherein mentors provided
guidance that helped them develop a successful career. In this study, the
superintendents were asked to describe under which of the three approaches they were
mentored. Additionally, they were asked to what degree they modeled their personal
leadership style and how they were influenced by their mentors. Kouzes & Posner
advised that one observe and study individuals who have already mastered those skills
one is seeking to emulate (1993, p. 86).
33


Mentoring Phases
The role mentors displayed in a relationship with their protege was described
in various phases. Zey (1991) proposed that the protege's primary reason for
participating in a mentoring relationship was to enhance their career track (p. 8). In
supporting this rationale, he categorized into four levels the various roles that helped
in the development of the protege. The first one depicted the mentor as a teacher and
thus investing primarily, time. The protege was protected from organizational
pressures that were overwhelming (p. 8).
The second level involved personal support and counseling. In addition to
time, the mentor was now' providing the emotion necessary to help the protege work
through interpersonal situations. The mentor also counseled the protege regarding
career aspirations in light of personal sacrifices (p. 8). Level three involved a public
display of support of the protege by the mentor. The mentor risked her or his
reputation by marketing the protege as a viable future leader of the organization (p. 8).
The final phase was the sponsorship level. At this juncture, the protege was
recommended for a specific position or for a promotion. The risk factor for both
mentor and protege is high at this level (p. 8).
In another study, Kram (1988) provided four predictable phases of a
mentoring relationship. She summarized these based on interviews with eighteen
pairs of managers in work related relationships involving a range of mentoring
34


activities (p. 48). The phases included an initiation phase, a cultivation phase, a
separation phase, and a redefinition phase. The phases are described in such a way so
that mentor and protege were able to ascertain the transition points.
The initiation phase was a period of time ranging from six months to a year.
During that time, expectations became concrete and mentors provided coaching,
challenging work, and visibility (p. 51). The second phase was the cultivation phase.
This ranged from a period of two to five years. In this phase, both mentors and
proteges created opportunities for meaningful and more frequent options. The
emotional bond and intimacy between the two was deepened (pp. 53-56).
During the third phase, the separation phase, the protege desired a mentoring a
more autonomous mentoring relationship. The job circumstances due to promotions
and re-assignments caused a natural break in the relationship. This phase took six
months to two years (pp. 56-60). The final phase, redefinition, involved an indefinite
period of time after the end of the mentoring relationship. During this phase, it was
hoped that negative feelings about the mentoring relationship will have diminished
and peer status achieved (pp. 61-63).
Another view of mentoring stages was presented by Walker, Choy and Tin
(1993). They surveyed sixty public school principals engaged in a mentoring
relationship to determine how the mentor-protege relationship was formed and to
determine the benefits of these relationships (pp. 35-36). Part of their findings
35


indicated that the mentoring relationship evolved through five stages: formal,
cautious, sharing, open, and beyond (p. 40).
The formal stage was characterized by interpersonal descriptors such as guest,
friendship, apprehension, distance, formality, strangeness and by a small amount of
trust. Activities during this stage focused on routine tasks and testing professional
boundaries.
The second stage, cautious, increased the work related activities to include
sharing opinions and providing more leeway in tasks assigned by the mentor. The
interpersonal descriptors included explanations, discussions, and personal disclosures.
The third stage, the sharing stage, evoked descriptors such as establishing
trust, socializing, and confidence. The work activities entailed requests for opinions,
open exchanges about tasks, and respect for shared opinions. The fourth stage,
openness, engaged in activities that recognized reciprocity, professional discussions,
as a peer, and a willingness to openly share. The descriptors included friendship,
freedom, informality, and trust. The last stage, beyond, was one where both parties
agreed to sustain a working and mutually supportive relationship beyond the
mentoring process.
Walker, Choy. and Tin (1993) made several observations about the mentoring
stages. One was that not all proteges felt they were progressing through the various
stages at a comfortable pace. Other proteges disclosed that they never transitioned
36


from the formal stage. Still others felt that they were not matched well with their
mentor (p. 40).
In situations where a good match existed, both parties said they benefited from
the experience (Bass. 1985). Bass listed several benefits for both the protege and the
mentor. The benefits for the mentor included direct assistance provided by the
protege, improved professional image of the mentor role, increased options for the
mentor, added personnel who conducted studies for the organization, more self
awareness in the role as a mentor, and feedback on the mentor's skills in the
mentoring process (p. 93).
The benefits for the protege included developing skills in problem solving,
gaining first hand experience through new assignments, increasing the variety of
opportunities available as a protege, improving skills in long and short term planning,
observing and comparing different leadership styles, and learning both positive and
negative practices all of these experiences. These benefits were found primarily in
the formal mentoring process although informal mentoring arrangements can also
provide these experiences.
Strategies Designed to Attract a Mentor
Zey (1991) listed eight strategies potential proteges employed if they wanted
to gain the attention and a formal connection with a mentor (pp. 175-182). The first
37


one was that of having and showing competence for the job. Mentors mentioned that
individuals who performed well in completing an assignment earned positive
attention (p. 175). Seeking opportunities to gain visibility in their job performance
and in the daily work efforts gave the potential protege another chance to gain the
attention of a mentor (p. 176).
Aligned with the visibility factor was the assignment of key projects (p. 176)
and an eagerness to learn in a cooperative fashion (p. 178). A fifth strategy was that
of taking advantage of all job related opportunities to make a memorable and positive
connection with a potential mentor. This could be in a formal or informal setting (p.
178).
.Another strategy' to gain attention was one of helping the mentor accomplish a
particular goal. This indicates to the mentor the advantageous relationship that could
be developed. Additionally, the sensitivity demonstrated by the protege helped the
mentor determine if the protege had an understanding of the time constraints of the
mentor, (p. 179).
The last two strategies were inter-related. One was that of taking the initiative
in seeking a mentor rather than waiting for one to be appointed (p. 180) and the last
one was being accessible to organizational needs beyond normal business hours (p.
181). Superintendents who experienced mentoring were asked if these strategies were
applicable.
38


Relationship Between Mentoring and Superintendency
To help guide the study surrounding the relationship between mentoring and
the appointment of Latino administrators to the superintendency, six research
questions were explored. These six research questions were the focus of the
questionnaire. The responses to the survey by Latino superintendents helped to
determine which of these research questions were strong indicators in helping the
Latino administrators attain the superintendency.
Mentoring Themes
The first research question looked at mentoring themes that helped the Latino
administrators attain the superintendency. Bell (1985, p. 26) identified one of these
patterns as the ability of the mentor to properly manage the mentoring relationship
through a partnership arrangement. The emphasis in this process was to insure that
the protege was an active learner.
Bell presented six qualities of a productive mentoring partnership. One was a
balance that is grounded in mutual respect and interdependence and not on the
dominance of the mentor. He further differentiated between the power seeking
mentor and one who was authentic and open (p. 26). The second quality of the
partnership was truth. The mentoring partnership should be based on honesty and
integrity and on candid communication (p. 27).
39


The third quality was trust. In this environment, the partnership encouraged
risk taking and a solid base of support (p. 27). The fourth quality was abundance. A
healthy mentoring partnership does not take each other for granted and seeks avenues
to share and reciprocate (p. 27). The fifth quality was based on passion. The mentor
exuded a passion for learning and celebrated the successes of the protege (p. 28). The
final quality was courage. A willingness to excel through efforts that were bold and
not always secure was encouraged by the mentor. One of the expectations was that
the protege's best efforts were exposed.
Another mentoring theme described by Rosen (1996) was that of the fertile
soil metaphor (p. 182). He advised that when a relationship began to spoil, one must
pull up roots and find new and fresh soil that will provide the nutrients necessary for a
successful relationship and for continued growth Kram's (1988) analysis was that
when individual needs and organizational circumstances changed, a once thriving
mentoring relationship became cumbersome and exhausting (p. 12).
The human resource theme presented by Bolman and Deal (1991) focused on
organizations that were employee centered rather than job centered (p. 168), on the fit
between the individual and the organization, and on making improvements related to
climate, management style, and leadership that would benefit the employee (p. 179).
As an employee of an organization, the Latino superintendent was asked to
look at her or his work experiences and determine if there existed a human resource
40


environment that promoted and encouraged mentoring. These experiences were
described as either formal or informal in nature.
Work Environment
The second research question focused on the work environment and its impact
on helping the Latino administrator attain the superintendency. Bass (1985) believed
that an organization plays a key role in establishing a climate where proteges are
satisfied with their work and are eager to find mentors who in turn are willing and
able to mentor (p. 91).
Even if there were members in the organization willing to establish mentoring
programs, Fullan (1991) asserted that successful programs were rarely achieved by
accident. He concluded that the work environment must be part of the whole
organizational structure supporting mentoring and that this process was an evolving
one (p. 307). Some of the drawbacks in creating a supportive work environment was
an inadequate training program for mentors and a program that was developed
without in-depth planning (p. 308).
Kram (1988) looked at the work environment from the point of view of
establishing a balance between work and other individual concerns such as family,
self, and career. She felt these concerns detracted from being an effective leader. She
suggested that organizations should establish mentoring relationships between peers
41


and superiors to explore the effect the work environment had on the career of the
young leader seeking advancements (p. 37).
fCram considered the mentoring process as part of the organization's
educational and training plan designed to establish principles that created mentoring
opportunities (p. 172-173). The first of the six principles she presented included that
of defining learning objectives that targeted a specific population. The second one
was the idea of emphasizing attitudes toward mentoring and expected behaviors that
nurtured a mentoring relationship.
A third principle was one of providing opportunities in practicing
interpersonal skills involving listening, communication, conflict resolution, and
coaching. A fourth principle encouraged constructive feedback related to specific
strategies to create a learning environment. The fifth principle looked at new models
of mentoring and coaching and the last principle sought to apply new information to
the mentoring process (pp. 172-173).
She distinguished between limited and optimistic structures for leadership
opportunities. In the limited perception, individuals were concerned with their own
survival and promotions as opposed to an optimistic work environment where a
positive climate existed that encouraged a mentoring network (pp. 16-17). She
believed that conditions in the work environment could be modified to encourage
rather than to inhibit mentoring relationships (p. 20).
42


She also looked at the structure of the organization, the reward system, the
promotion guidelines, and the goals of the organization to determine if these items
contributed to a work environment was that influenced a supportive mentoring
program (p. 19). She contended that some organizations did not emphasize the
importance nor rewarded potential mentors who expended additional time and energy
to help less experienced associates.
Kram offered four changes that focused on existing organizational structures
related to employee's behavior and expectations. The first strategy was that of
modifying the reward system. This had an impact on individual behavior at different
career stages. The second structure that needed to be modified was that related to the
way performance was evaluated. A third one was re-designing the work to facilitate a
more fluid mentoring process. The last one was that of establishing a formal
mentoring program (pp. 1174-176).
Ehrich (1995) supported Kram's formal mentoring design by calling for
institutionalized mentoring programs. By making mentoring a systemic policy within
the organization, the work environment was one where mentorship training,
expectations to mentor and be mentored, job assignments, and opportunities to
advance, fostered core beliefs that were advantageous to proteges ( p. 71). This
underscored Kram's (1985) belief that unless challenging work assignments were
provided to young leaders, their opportunity to learn and advance was limited (p. 31).
43


The questions related to work environment asked the Latino superintendents to gauge
its impact in attaining the superintendency.
Leadership
The third research question studied the relationship between leadership and
appointment to the superintendency of Latino administrators. This question was
reviewed from the perspective of leadership as a political influence, as a cultural
support system, as a structural dimension, and as a symbolic feature of the
organization. The political climate was also studied.
From a political perspective, the relationship between leadership and its
impact on appointment to the superintendency was viewed from Bum's (1978)
distinction between transformational and transactional leadership. Transformational
leadership was described by Bums as serving a common good, meeting the needs of
the followers, and elevating the followers to a higher moral level (p. 20).
Transactional leadership was described as one where leaders provided support,
attention, and favors to other individuals within the organization but for the most part,
only if those individuals had reciprocated (p. 20). If the leadership in the district
followed a design that was transformational, the political climate became one of
protecting personal turf, seeking a survival mode, and in general, rejecting the chance
to engage in a mentoring relationship. The emerging leaders lost the opportunity to
44


receive the kind of support that opened doors that could have enhanced the
opportunity to advance their professional careers.
Bryson and Crosby (1992) further connected the leader with the people with
whom they work. They assert that leadership must become a personal leadership that
appreciates the rich diversity as well as the commonalties of the people (p. 33).
Sergiovanni (1996) described three types of leadership theories that gave a
different understanding of how a good political climate can enhance the mentoring
process (pp. 9-15). The first one, the Pyramid Theory, is a hierarchical system that
values standardization of products, control, and uniformity. It was described as a
bureaucratic process (p. 10). The second one is the Railroad Theory. Instead of
standardizing the product, it seeks to standardize the process and provide direct steps
that lead to the predictable goal. It emphasized complying with the rules rather than
solving problems (p. 11).
The third theory is the High Performance Theory. This usually took the form
of shared decision making. It sought to encourage individuals to focus on specific
outcomes and yet allowed them to decide they should reach the desired outcome
(p. 12). In the political arena, the High Performance Theory focused on the leader and
her or his relationship to others. This type of climate fostered mentoring relationships
within the organization by providing meaning and significance to the organization
(p. 14).
45


At times, the creation of mentoring relationships were not based on
professional matches but rather on personal decisions. Healy and Welchert (1990)
cautioned that at times proteges were selected when they were not ready. The
selection was based on elitism and personal decisions (p. 20). This political process
denied the opportunity to those who were ready but did not have the necessary
legacies or networks to become a protege.
From the structural process, Kram (1988) talked about changing the existing
structural system of the organization to introduce and incorporate new directions that
would modify the reward system, the work environment, and the performance
expectations of the individuals and establishing formal mentoring programs (pp. 173-
176). The latter one insured that junior and senior employees increased their
opportunities to find each other and that they change their attitudes about the
importance of building relationships. A formal mentoring relationship set aside goals
and practices for junior and senior leaders to help the emerging leaders develop skills
for career growth (p. 183). Kram cautioned that a formal mentoring program does not
guarantee a successful mentoring relationship and that an action plan and continual
diagnosis of existing mentoring relationships needs to be in place (p. 187).
The aspect of symbolism in the area of leadership was presented in the
mottoes and belief statements that the organization thought was important and
representative of them. Rosen (1996) stated that workers within an organization
46


became disillusioned if the symbols or visions were not congruent with the
organizational structure. In contrast, he felt that if these symbols were interwoven
into the daily workings of the organization, then the people would find the work
meaningful (p. 44) and thus would be able to identify with the leadership structure
within the organization.
In their review of organizations. Bolman and Deal (1991) believed that one of
the most important mental frames between an employee and an organization is the
symbolic frame (p. 450). The symbolic frame is comprised of rituals, rites of passage,
beliefs, patterns, traditions, and values that the organization promotes and expects its
members to accept. A positive relationship between the individual and the
organization reflects a higher level of trust and a closer working relationship. The
superintendents were asked how symbolic features within their organization affected
their appointment to the superintendency.
Culture
The fourth research question focused on how shared values, rites, rituals and
culture set a working environment that affected mentoring. Kram (1988) explained
that the way an organization defined the attitudes and behaviors that were to be
valued had a bearing on whether mentoring was valued (p. 164). Some organizations
were not open or inclusive with regards to cultural diversity. Similarly, organizations
47


that valued results and activities rather than people did not set a priority to mentor
emerging leaders on a long-term basis (p. 165).
Mentoring and its relationship to shared values was also studied by looking at
the interactions between the mentor and the protege and the mentoring role they
established. The mentor and the protege had the choice to stay within the confines of
the organizational shared values or they could seize an opportunity to venture into a
new arena that would hopefully be a valued part of the organization (Healy &
Welchert, 1990. p. 20). In choosing to venture from the norm, the mentoring
relationship had established its own identity and because of its success, had enriched
the organization.
Kouzes and Posner (1993) addressed the issue of validating the identity of the
constituents. They urged leaders to be sensitive to the aspirations, needs, joys and
pains of the followers and to invite them to share their cultural background. By
keeping the constituent's interest in mind and sharing cultural experiences, the
organizational trust level could be increased (p. 89).
Cultural background and experiences Latino superintendents brought to the
schools needed to be recognized and used to the advantage of the school, especially if
the district was seeking role models for their students. Sergiovanni (1996) made the
point that schools needed to understand the connection between culture and theory if
we were to improve the schools. He distinguished between what schools believed and
48


what they articulated stating that theories had created the schools now in existence
(p.3). In this study, the Latino superintendents was asked to describe the school's
sensitivity towards cultural diversity and its impact on career growth.
Family
With regards to family and career. Kram (1988) summarized the impact family-
had on careers by describing work and family conflicts during the individual's early,
middle and late career stages (pp. 72-73). In the early career stage, the career person
sought to establish a satisfying personal and family life, specifically trying to balance
commitments at work and at home. If an imbalance arose between the work place
and home, the individual's job performance and family life both suffered.
Covey (1994) presented two ways of thinking about time. The first was one
from the point of view of management. That one originated from the Greek word
chronos and focuses on chronological time. The other view was one related to the
quality and value of time (p. 27).
The middle career stage was characterized by Kram (1988) as a stage where
the career person sought to make up for the time spent away from home while
establishing a career (p. 73). With children having grown or on the verge of leaving
to start life on their own, a personal evaluation about one's positive or negative
contributions to parenting turned into a resentment with work.
49


I
During the late career stage, the individual loses his job identity and his leisure
time increases. The family structure has changed dramatically with children married
and seeking to establish their own careers. For those who have planned well, new
opportunities gave renewed meaning to life (p. 101).
Implications related to mentoring are that mentors who have experienced the
different stages in their personal career were available to counsel proteges who were
entering different career stages. Latino superintendents in this study were asked to
indicate job related and time management conflicts between the home and the work
place and if they were mentored in providing a good balance between their work and
home life prior to attaining the superintendency.
Language
One of the elements that brought diversity to the workplace was the use of a
language other than English. Rosen (1996) described a city manager of a large
predominantly Spanish speaking city and the uniqueness that the individual gave to
the job. He also addressed the effectiveness of leaders able to realize that people have
different needs and that these needs and talents ought to be addressed (p. 229).
The concept of the melting pot, where people with diverse backgrounds were
asked to abandon their uniqueness was still a problem in some work places.
According to Kram (1988), the organization's basic attitudes about cultural
50


dimensions was a detriment to establishing a productive mentoring program if
diversity was not valued (p. 165). Latino administrators involved in this study were
asked to what degree a second language improved or hindered their career status and
if they felt a discomfort in speaking both English and Spanish in the work place.
Personal Background
The background characteristics that the leaders bring to the work place is
influenced by their personal traits, ideas, habits, prejudices, and work ethics, among
others. These personal characteristics play a role in the leader's career development as
mentoring relationships are developed. The personal relationship between the mentor
and the protege was one concern that impacted the job-related performance as the
protege began to experience change.
Mink. Owen, and Mink (1993) identified several stages of concern with
respect to feelings and perceptions that occurred over time as individuals coped with
new jobs and situations. One of these stages was the personal stage. In this personal
stage, a person initially experienced discomfort and a lack of confidence. In the
second stage, the person focused on the task as they became more familiar with the
expectations. Eventually, with the assistance of a mentor, the person mastered the
change in completing the first stage, (pp. 27-28).
Kouzes and Posner (1993) expanded on this view of personal development by
suggesting that individuals discover their personal leadership characteristics. They
51


listed ten steps that can lead the individual in gaining confidence in themselves.
These include:
1. Writing and telling one's personal stories. One method of gathering this data is to
maintain a journal describing one's life story, personal thoughts, and unique
opportunities experienced (p. 81).
2. Discovering personal life themes. The discovery element in this step is to help the
leader explore events and actions in the past that currently add substance to leadership
areas and either enhance or hinder personal advancement (p. 82).
3. Assessing one's values. The important aspect in this step is to determine if
personal values held were chosen freely or if they have been borrowed from another
source (p. 83).
4. Auditing ones ability to succeed. This involves knowing the competencies
required for the job and then formulating a plan to master the abilities needed for the
task (p. 83).
5. Making a personal growth plan. The responsibility to develop a personal growth
plan rests with the individual and not with managers or human resource officers. The
plan should include specific goals and activities (p. 84).
6. Evaluating personal experiences. The authors suggests that all projects, regardless
of size and complexity, need to be reviewed with the idea of learning something new
from the experience (p. 85).
52


7. Observing masters as role models. Looking for job-related assignments that
provide specific opportunities to watch masters at work helps in developing ones
personal job skills (p. 86).
8. Seeking competitive experiences. Charting positive, productive and challenging
personal growth experiences lead to mastering experiences (86).
9. Asking for support. Taking responsibility to ask for help increases teamwork, self-
confidence, and performance (p. 87).
10. Summing up one's statement of personal purpose. The final step was to clarify,
the vision, purpose and personal mission one was pursuing (p. 87).
These multiple steps are instrumental in gaining personal knowledge, with
assistance from mentors, by responding to issues, listening to problems, evaluating
one's progress, and recognizing the importance of learning opportunities (p. 193).
Senge (1990) supports that belief by stating that personal mastery must be a discipline
and that by focusing on what one truly desires, a personal vision will be created (p.
149).
Covey (1994) emphasizes the need to seek self-awareness that involves
honesty, free of any illusions or excuses. He felt that this self-awareness allows the
person to attain personal integrity in working towards a personal mission (p. 145).
Furthermore, this positive step will tend to enhance the opportunity of establishing a
mentoring relationship.
53


Gender and Ethnicity
Another aspect of personal background was that related to gender and ethnicity.
Kram (1988) provided a good rationale for studying the impact gender and ethnicity
play in mentoring relationships in the work place. She states that gender and ethnic
roles that are stereotypical in nature tended to limit the behavioral relationship
between the mentor and the protege. She mentioned that it also reduced the
effectiveness and competence of the working relationship. Most of these were more
likely to occur in cross-gender relationships (p. 109). She described four sets of
stereotypical roles that both men and women brought to the work place. These roles
were natural ones and evolved as a result of years of socialization of how men and
women were expected to behave.
One stereotypical role was that of the father and the pet. In this mentoring
role, the older executive protected, shielded, and advised the younger female protege.
It was also described as a father-daughter relationship (p. 109). Another male-female
stereotypical role was one described as the chivalrous knight and the helpless maiden.
The man believed he was stronger and that the female was his subordinate. Some
females accepted this role and manipulated the male by pretending to be inept to gain
acceptance and job security (p. 110).
A third role was one where the female was the nurturant mother. The male as
the tough warrior, felt more at ease seeking emotional support from a female than
54


from peers who possibly determined that he was a weak individual (p. 110). The
fourth role was the macho and seductress role where sexual and flirtatious elements
were communicated by the male (p. Ill). Kram (1988) believed that some
organizations were not equipped to foster cross gender mentoring relationships and
that individuals were too often allowed to assume traditional roles (p. 111).
These traditional perspectives also impacted ethnic diversity in the workplace.
With respect to ethnicity. Bums (1978) offered a different point of view in his
detailed description of Ghandi and his struggle to overcome his ethnic origins once he
became the accepted leader (pp. 53-55). This suggested that some individuals may
bring negative feelings and emotions to the workplace and that these needed to be
refined and personally confronted to create a healthy outlook to the mentoring
process. Rosen (1996) mentioned that although no one desired to be stereotyped,
everyone did want the freedom and support to express who they were. This
expression can be seen in the older, more experienced worker who wanted his
background and personal experiences validated, in the people of color who wanted to
be valued as equals but also as unique and different, and in women who wanted equal
treatment and opportunities (p. 230).
In his study of a female executives, Rosen (1996) presented characteristics of
male and female leaders. He stated that most organizations reflected male values. He
said that many of these philosophies came from the sports arena and that they tended
55


to be transactional for the most part. Another characteristic of male leadership was
the hierarchical structure of the organization which tended to lend itself to one-way
communication and strong boundaries thus weeding out weak performers (p. 220). In
contrast, female leaders tended to develop a web culture to enhance teamwork and a
win-win situation that focused on process and in creating multiple commitments and
an open communication (p. 221).
The best leader was one who was able to blend the positive elements of both
the female and male cultures as well as the unique talents and perspectives of the
different ethnic individuals in the organization. The organization and the leaders
needed to recognize that one approach or program did not meet the needs of all the
people in the workplace. The Latino superintendents were asked if their unique
characteristics, gender or ethnicity, was a factor in having received or being denied
mentoring support in their quest for the superintendency.
Simons. Vasquez. and Harris (1993) emphasized that gender and ethnic roles
and expectations needed to be clarified at the outset, especially in a mentoring
relationship. They felt that mentoring should enhance the transition phase from
home, background, beliefs, and education into the work place (p. 163). They also
mentioned that the organization needed to acknowledge that men and women can
bring anger and pain to the workplace in addition to special skills and talents that
could help the organization (p. 183).
56


These authors also suggested that the organization examine its existing culture
and then take steps to align the culture with the make up of the organization. Some of
the steps suggested include assessing what forms of diversity are represented in the
wrok place and what was required to make it a productive and healthy work
environment.
Another step involved assessing the organization's deep culture which
included looking at success rates for mentoring all individuals. The next step
involved the identification of individuals with diverse backgrounds to help re-align
the organization to fit the present work force (p. 153). The Latino superintendents
were asked what steps, if any. were taken by the organization to provide additional
support for them with regard to gender and ethnic needs.
Professional Preparation
The importance of being prepared for the superintendency was paramount but
access to mentors who helped in attaining this position was equally important. Rosen
(1996) underscored the need to understand the importance of responding to people
and their needs. He stated that executives needed to be approachable and that
colleagues in need ought to have access to their expertise and support. He cautioned
leaders about having a calendar so full that quality time was not available to those in
need(p. 193).
57


Kouzes and Posner (1993) discussed the issue of balancing work and home.
They claimed some individuals with high personal or organizational goals did not
invest the necessary amount of work to reach the goal. The result was
disappointment. However, when an individual matched the desired results with the
amount of w ork, preparation, and skill development, an equilibrium was attained that
helped in attaining the desired goal.
Zey (1991) listed ten categories that mentors considered in determining
whether an individual was a viable and acceptable protege. The first one was
intelligence. The second one was ambition. The third was one of demonstrating a
desire and an ability to accept power and to take risks. The fourth one was being able
to perform the mentor's job. The others included loyalty and commitment, shared
perceptions with respect to the job and the organization, understanding of how the
organization functions, a positive attitude, and the ability to work with peers
(pp. 182 187).
Overcoming Adversity
Another source of strength for leaders was their capability to overcome
adversity. In his view of leadership and values, Bums (1978) supports the concept
that values were forged and hardened by conflict (p. 35). Bryson and Crosby (1992)
insisted that leaders, as individuals and as team members, needed to learn from defeat
58


I
I
| and from difficult situations (p. 39). Kouzes and Posner (1987) described this
| resiliency as the hardiness factor with the focus on surviving the stress of change (p.
i
| 65). They cited the family background as the most important contributor to fostering
| a hardy attitude (p. 67).
This connection between family concerns and resiliency was explored with the
superintendents through personal interviews. Kouzes and Posner (1993) reaffirmed a
statement from their previous writings by adding that the ability to avoid stressful
situations is an important process. They recommended that one should interpret
j
psychological or physical stress as indicators of diminished ability (p. 78).
These two authors also mentioned three ways that companies were able to
develop an atmosphere that promoted psychological hardiness. One was to build a
solid base of commitment that emphasized positive rewards. The second one was to
instill a sense of control by assigning tasks that were within the skill level of the
individuals. The last one was to develop an attitude of seeking challenges (p. 68).
One challenge offered by Bryson and Crosby (1992) was that of adapting to
organizational and environmental changes by strengthening the link between the
individual and the organization (p. 42).
The superintendents were asked to what degree they felt that reliance on their
personal strength helped them attain the superintendency. An appropriate analogy
used by Covey (1990) was that of the compass. He encouraged people to find their
I
I 59
i


true north by calibrating their principles and their career goals to their personal
aspiration (p. 96).
Summary
Mentors performed many roles in their relationship with their proteges. Some
of these roles were that of teacher, supporter, role model, counselor and friend, among
others. Given these multiple roles and functions, the definitions were numerous, and
yet they possess a common thread. This commonality, within the mentoring
relationship, was one of mutual trust blended with support.
Gherkin (1988) cited some well known mentor-protege relationships. These
relationships exemplified the significance of mentoring throughout history. Some of
these mentoring relationships included Mentor and Telemachus, the son of Ulysses.
Socrates and Plato, Aristotle and Alexander the Great, Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung,
Anne Sullivan and Helen Keller, and Ruth Benedict and Margaret Mead (p. 43). Bell
(1996) also described the mentoring relationship between Yoda, the Jedi warrior in
the Stars Wars series, and Luke Skywalker as a healthy one. The Latino
superintendents were asked if their mentors were a powerful force in their
appointment to the superintendency.
60


CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY
Introduction
Qualitative and quantitative research methodology was employed in this study.
Pertinent research data were gathered to substantiate the quantitative data and to
provide depth in addressing the research questions. To this end, chapter three
provides an explanation about the research process, the target population, the
representative sample, the survey questions, the face-to-face interviews, and the
method by which the collected data were to be analyzed.
Suggestions related to quantitative and qualitative research methodology
derived from Gorsuch (1974), Jaeger (1988). Kram (1988), Krathwohl (1993). Gay
(1976) and Yin (1994) were used during the course of this study to help in the
understanding, collecting, processing, and analyzing of the data.
Research Questions
The research questions were generated from the study of the literature and
from the need to examine the relationship between mentoring and the appointment of
Latino administrators to the superintendency. The items in the questionnaire
61


(Appendix C) were designed to answer the six research questions listed below.
1. What patterns or themes indicated that mentoring helped Latino public school
administrators receive appointments to the superintendency?
2. What impact did the work environment have on the appointment of Latino
administrators to the superintendency?
3. What effect did leadership have on the appointment to the superintendency?
4. What was the impact of culture on appointment to the superintendency?
5. What impact did personal background have on appointment to the
superintendency?
6. To what degree was professional preparation a factor in the appointment to the
superintendency?
Development of Questionnaire
After developing the research questions, a first step in the research process
was to develop and test the survey instrument prior to distributing it to the Latino
superintendents. The instrument was developed after reviewing three different
questionnaires. One source was a study by Esquibel (1992) of characteristics that led
to promotions for Latino professionals in institutions of higher education. A second
source was from Cabrera's (1990) study of the relationship of mentoring to
organizational culture, work environment, and career advancement of public school
administrators (pp. 248-253). The third source was Zey's (1991) survey of business
62


managers on mentoring support systems (pp. 221-226). The focus of these survey
was public school, higher education, and the business community.
Reliability and validity of the survey was considered as follows: according to
Yin (1994), the primary purpose of reliability is to see if a test measures consistency
and also to minimize errors and biases in a study (p. 36). The validity of a study is to
determine if a test measures what it is intended to measure. Establishing a connection
between the research of Esquibel (1992), Zey (1991), Cabrera (1990), and the
research questions posed in this study adds a more powerful research focus to the
overall design of this study.
The questionnaire developed for this study was based on the previously
established validity and reliability information as it related to mentoring and to Latino
superintendents. In using Esquibel's survey as a reference tool, background
characteristics of the superintendents were developed. These survey items were
incorporated into section one of the questionnaire. Zey's survey of business managers
helped in designing the Likert-scale process and in developing the style of the survey
items. Cabrera's study provided concepts in developing the research questions and the
related survey items.
The preliminary instrument was tested with public school principals and
superintendents in the state of Colorado. Their input serv ed to provide clarity, focus,
and format suggestions that were incorporated into the final survey instrument.
63


The second step was to distribute the instrument to all Latino superintendents
in Colorado and Texas. The third step was a follow-up interview with twelve of these
superintendents. Six of the superintendents were interviewed over the telephone and
six in a face-to-face interview. Selection of the twelve interviewees was based on
gender, age, work experience, school size, and geographic location. There was no
difference in the type of responses given regardless of the superintendents' home state
residence.
The fourth step in the research process was to analyze the data collected
through the questionnaire and the interviews using a combination of quantitative and
qualitative research models. Responses to the questionnaire and the interviews were a
part of the overall analysis addressing the research questions (Kram, 1988, p. 230).
Description of Three Data Collection Instruments
Although questionnaires are considered quick, economical, and easy to score
and summarize, they may have a low percentage return and may be incomplete
(Krathwohl, 1993, p. 228). Jaeger (1988) cautions that mail surveys must be simple
and self explanatory (p. 313). Given these parameters, this questionnaire reflected the
research questions that needed to be answered. It generated sufficient data that were
analyzed and processed following the established framework that gave meaning to
mentoring and the appointment of Latino administrators to the superintendency.
64


The survey instrument consisted of five sections (Appendix C). Sections one
through four comprised the bulk of the initial survey instrument mailed to Latino
superintendents in Colorado and Texas. Section five, consisting of five open-ended
questions, was also part of the initial mailed questionnaire. Ten interview questions
(Appendix D) were developed based on the responses to the initial questionnaire.
These interview questions were used with those superintendents selected for the
telephone and face-to-face interviews. These interview questions were prepared after
the superintendents responded to the questionnaire. The purpose for developing these
interview questions after the responses were reviewed, was to better understand the
survey instrument and to seek in-depth responses from the superintendents to the
research questions by designing pertinent questions to be used with the personal
interviews.
Components of Questionnaire
Section one of the survey prompted responses about the superintendent's
professional and personal background. The first set of background questions,
numbering one through fourteen, were used to analyze the appointment to the
superintendency based on age, gender, prior experience, and educational preparation.
These survey items are related to research questions one, five, and six, pertaining to
mentoring, personal background, and professional preparation.
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Questions fifteen through eighteen in section one requested information on the
highest educational level attained by superintendents and their parents and also on the
English and Spanish language proficiency of the superintendent's parents. These
items focused on research questions four, five, and six, pertaining to culture, personal
background, and professional preparation.
Question nineteen in section one sought input on the description of the school
district setting and question twenty asked if they had been involved in a mentoring
program. Responses to this question related to the research questions one and two
pertaining to mentoring and the work environment.
Section two focused on specific factors influencing appointment to the
superintendents current position. This section contained twenty-five items. A Likert-
scale was used to reflect the degree of influence the different survey items provided
towards appointment to the superintendency. Preparation for the job was the initial
factor with others related to networking, political pressures, administrative
experience, equity, and mentoring support. The research questions addressed were
one, three, four, and six. These pertained to mentoring, leadership, culture, and
professional preparation.
Section three sought responses about mentoring relationships as experienced
by the respondent with respect to appointment to the superintendency. The questions
ranged from the type of mentoring received and gender bias to values shared between
66


the mentor and the protege. The responses were analyzed to determine if mentoring
was a strong indicator in advancing the Latino administrators career towards the
superintendency. This section contained twenty-six items and addressed research
questions one, two. three, and four pertaining to mentoring, work environment,
leadership, and culture.
Section four prompted the respondents to describe the style of mentoring they
had received. Seven different styles were listed as presented by Gordon (1993, p. 84).
A brief descriptor was provided for each one to diminish the chance of alternate
interpretations for each of the characteristics. The responses indicated if the
respondent selected one or more of these as a contributing mentoring style that
influenced their career.
The results were analyzed to see if patterns were noted that favored a
particular mentoring style. Responses to this section addressed research questions
one. two, and three pertaining to mentoring, work environment, and leadership.
There were twenty-three questions in this section.
Section five contained five open-ended questions about mentoring. The
questions included items such as the length of the mentoring process, the benefit
received, and any problems that arose in the mentoring process. All comments were
reviewed to compare the responses and to look at patterns that addressed the various
research questions.
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Connecting the Research Questions to the Questionnaire
Table 3.1 illustrates how the individual survey items are related to the research
questions and to organizational themes and models developed through various
research efforts. The connection between the research questions, the researchers, and
the various research models with each of the survey items in the questionnaire,
provided a research base which guided this study. This is an important feature of this
study, particularly since its focus is on the research questions. That connection is
illustrated in Table 3.1.
The first column in Table 3.1 are key phrases that represent the research
questions related to this study. Column two is a listing of researchers who have made
a contribution to one or more of the research questions. The researcher's references to
specific research questions are presented in chapter two of this study.
The third column lists several theoretical models, metaphors, and mental
frames related to the different research questions. These models, metaphors, and
frames support the research questions and the survey items by providing a foundation
that explains the selection and the importance of the research questions and the survey
items.
The theoretical models, metaphors, or mental frames related to the research
question on mentoring include the human resource theory, the theory of human
motivation, the organismic metaphor, the fertile soil metaphor, the partnership model,
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Table 3.1
METHODOLOGY Connecting the Research Questions to the Research and the Survey Instrument

Research Questions Researchers Organizational Theory /Mctaphors/Models/Framcs Sec. Item
1. Mentoring Anderson & Shannon, 1 luman Resource Theory: Bolman & Deal 1 20
Patterns and Bass, Bell, Bennis, Theory oT 1 luman Motivation: Maslow 2 5,6
Themes Cabrera, Walker, Choy & (ShaTritz & Ott) 3 2,4,6,11,12
Tin, Ehrick, Eullan, Organismic Metaphor: Morgan 4 4,5,9,10,18
Hendricks, Hofsess, Jacobi, Padilla, Playco, Rosen, Walker, Zey Fertile Soil Metaphor: Rosen Managing the Partnership: Bell Psychosocial Functions: Kram 5 1
2. Work Bass, Bennis, Bova & Mintzbergs Structural Model: Shafritz& 1 11, 19
Environment Phillips, Choy & tin, Ott 2 3,4,22
Ehrick, Eullan, HoTsess, The Organization as a Theater: Bolman & 3 1,3,13
Kram, Mink, Owen, & Deal 4 UL14
Mink, Playco, Senge, Walker, Zey The Brain Metaphor: Morgan 5 2
3. Leadership Anderson & Shannon, Leadership as Causation: Bums 1 3
Bass, Bennis, Bova & Transactional/TransTormational: Bums 2 7,8,9,18,19,21
Phillips, Darcsh & Leader-Constituent Interaction: John 3 5,7,9,14,23
Playco, Eullan, Gehrke, Gardner 4 6,8,12,17,19
Jacobi, K0u7.es & Posner, Padilla, Rosen, Zey Leadership & Power: ShaTritz & Ott The Political Metaphor: Morgan Elux & Transformation: Morgan 5 3


Table 3.1 (cont.)
METHODOLOGY Connecting the Research Questions to the Research and the Survey Instrument

Research Questions Researchers Organizational Theory /Mctaphors/Models/Framcs Sec. Item
4. Culture & Bennis, Bova & Phillips, Psychic Prison Metaphor: Morgan 1
Ethnicity Daresh & Playco, Human Resource Theory: Bolman & Deal 2 11,14,23,24
Esquibel, Fullan, Clehrke, Culture Metaphor: Morgan 3 8,10,15,24,25
Jacobi, Kram, Nanus, Organizational Culture: Schein 4 7,20
Padilla, Playco 5 5
5. Family, Bolman & Deal, Kram, Human Resource Theory: Bolman & Deal 1 1,2,12,14,15,
Spanish-English Zey Culture Metaphor: Morgan 16,17,18
Proficiency & Organizational Culture: Schein 2 13,20
Personal 3 16,22,26,
Background 4 5 13,15,16,21 5
6. Personal & Bova & Phillips, Chahin, Human Resource Theory: Bolman & Deal 1 4,5,6,7,8,9,10
Professional Ehrick, Jacobi, Kram, Psychic Prison Metaphor: Morgan 2 1,2,10,12,15,
Preparation Padilla, Playco, Organizational Culture: Shafritz & Ott 16,17
Shakeshaft, Zey 3 A 17,18,19,20,2 1
5 1 2,3,22,23 4


and the psychosocial functions. Bolman and Deal's (1991) human resource theory
places emphasis on the interdependence between people and organizations. The focus
is on developing a better match between the skills, needs, and values of the individual
and the organizational roles and relationships they must display (p. 9). Maslows
theory of human motivation is comprised of five components which include
physiological needs, safety needs, love, self esteem, and self-actualization (Shaffitz &
Ott. 1992. pp. 159-173).
The organismic metaphor described by Morgan (1986) has as its basis the
biological relationships between molecules, cells, complex organisms, species, and
ecology. Morgan offers a parallel between this set of biological relationships and the
set of relationships experienced by individuals, groups, organizations, populations
(species), and social ecology. This metaphor is further described as one of survival
(p. 40). Through his metaphor of the fertile soil, Rosen (1996) admonishes leaders
that when the mentoring relationship is no longer challenging, creative, or grwoing.
that replanting oneself in fresh soil with new nutrients will keep the growth alive
(p. 182).
Bell (1996) singles out the strength of partnerships in creating a balance in the
mentoring relationships (p. 26). In her review of mentoring relationships, Kxam
(1988) lists four psychosocial functions. These include role modeling, acceptance and
confirmation, counseling, and friendship (p. 23). She defines these functions as those
71


aspects of a mentoring relationship that enhances the sense of identity, competence,
and effectiveness.
The models related to the research question on the work environment include
Mintzbergs structural model, the organization as a theater, and the brain metaphor.
Mintzberg's structural model as presented by Shafritz and Ott (1992), underscores five
basic components of an organization. These five parts are the operating core
comprised of the teachers, the strategic apex comprised of the superintendent, the
middle line or the directors, the technostructure who include the analysts and
planners, and the support staff comprised of janitors, payroll personnel, among others
(pp. 243-254).
Another model related to the research question on the work environment
presented by Bolman and Deal (1991) is the organization as a theater. Their message
is that all management efforts within an organization such as meetings, planning, and
evaluation serve as scripts and stage markings that produce avenues for forums and
self-expression (pp. 280-289). The brain metaphor described by Morgan (1986) looks
at the organization as an information-processing system that transmits information
throughout the system. This description resembles the function of the brain as it
transmits information through electronic impulses (p. 79).
The organizational theories related to the research question on leadership
include leadership as causation, transactional/transformational leadership, leader-
72


constituent interaction, leadership and power, the political metaphor, and flux and
transformation. Bums (1978) describes leadership and causation from five different
perspectives. These are the historical causation, the social causation, power, and
political leadership. His premise is to distinguish between actions that are controlled
by natural events such as natural disasters and climate and those that are controlled by
humans with respect to power and leadership (pp. 433-443).
Bums (1978) describes the leadership-followership relationship from two
perspectives. One is the transactional relationship where individuals exchange things
of value due to the recognition of power, influence, and perceived resources of the
other person.
Transformational relationship occurs when individuals support each other to
reach a higher level of motivation and morality' (pp. 20-21). Gardners (1990) view of
leadership and constituents is similar to Bum's transformational leadership. Gardner
emphasizes that leadership is conferred by followers and that good leadership is a
reflection of good constituents (p. 24).
In their description of leadership and power. Shafritz and Ott (1992) contend
that power is a structural and permanent feature of an organization and that it is used
to influence decisions (pp. 397-399). Morgan (1986) supports this view by describing
the organization as a political system that uses structure, rules, and regulations to
control decisions, knowledge, and information (pp. 141-171).
73


A different view of leadership is provided by Morgan (1986) in the metaphor
described as flux and transformation. He explains that systems need to be viewed as
an integrated whole comprised of many parts. He refers to the interplay of the various
parts within the system as a state of flux that is continuously transforming the system
(pp. 233-240).
The organizational theories and metaphors related to the research question on
culture are the psychic prison metaphor, the culture metaphor, the human resource
theory previously described and the organizational culture. The psychic prison and
the culture metaphor are both described by Morgan (1986). The psychic prison
describes individuals as being trapped in an organizational prison that could result in
deprivation of inner desires and thoughts. The organization itself could be caught in a
psychic prison by clinging to a vision that is no longer relevant (pp. 199-231).
Morgans (1986) cultural metaphor describes organizations as mini-societies
that can influence the thinking and the behavior of individuals. The culture can also
produce elements of prejudices that are projected against certain groups, events, or
actions within the larger culture (pp. 111-140). Schein's (1985) definition of
organizational culture looks at the organizations language, norms, values, philosophy,
rules and climate (p. 492). He mentions that organizational culture is complex and
difficult to understand. According to Schein, culture encompasses basic assumptions
and beliefs shared by members of an organization (pp. 1-3).
74


The organizational theories, metaphors, and models related to the research
question on personal background are the human resource, the culture metaphor, and
the organizational culture. All three have been previously presented.
The last two columns in Table 3.1 indicate how the different sections in the
questionnaire and the specific survey items corresponded to the research questions
identified in the first column. Some of the sections in the questionnaire contained
more items than other sections but none of the items were duplicated.
The sequence of the survey items in the various sections were mixed so that
one section contained survey items relating to different research questions. This
mixed arrangement of the survey items was done to encourage the respondent to look
at each item individually rather than as a cluster of concepts. For example, survey
items related to gender issues can be found in both section two and three of the
questionnaire.
Data Gathering Process
Sources of Evidence
The research study relied on three sources of evidence. One was based on
Likert-scale responses to survey items from a mailed questionnaire. The second one
was based on responses to five open-ended questions on the same questionnaire. The
third source focused on six telephone and six face-to-face interviews. The
75


questionnaire invited all Latino superintendents in Colorado and Texas to respond to
the initial survey instrument. The list of superintendents was obtained from the
respective state education agency. The interview group was selected from the larger
group and divided into two groups of six. The selection process was designed to look
for representation and was based on gender, age. work experience, school size, and
geographic location.
These three distinct data collection methods helped in providing multiple
independent data thus strengthening the quality of the analysis through triangulation
(Yin, 1994. pp. 90-93). The evidence from the three data sources mentioned above
were used to develop and present the results of the study as they related to the
research questions.
Data Collection
The collection of the research data was obtained in the manner described
below. A survey instrument comprised of five sections was prepared. All of the
survey items addressed the six research questions that had been identified for this
study. This questionnaire was distributed to all Latino superintendents in Colorado
and Texas. The list of these Latino superintendents was obtained from the respective
departments of education in Colorado and Texas. A letter of introduction (Appendix
B) with pre-addressed and stamped envelopes was prepared for the superintendents
76


with the survey instrument as an attachment (Appendix C). After a three week
period, those who had not returned the surveys were called and reminded to complete
the survey. All returned surveys were compiled and coded and later summarized and
analyzed. A return rate of 60 percent or higher was considered acceptable.
Another phase of the data gathering process involved the selection of twelve
superintendents who were asked to participate in an in-depth interview session based
on previously described criteria. These twelve superintendents were selected from
those who responded to the initial survey. Six of these were interviewed face-to-face
and the other six were interviewed over the telephone. Appendix D lists the ten
questions and the procedures used in the interviewing process.
The interviews served three purposes. One was to check the accuracy of the
data submitted through the completed questionnaire. Another purpose was to confirm
that the questions were understood and that the responses corresponded to the correct
survey item. The third purpose was to allow the researcher the opportunity to delve
deeper into certain issues that had been introduced by the superintendents through the
questionnaire.
Analysis of Data
Jaeger (1988) suggests three steps related to sound survey practices. The first
step should answer the question of why the data is being collected. The second step
77


should place emphasis on the importance of how the data ought to be collected.
Finally, he suggests that the researcher should know what to do with the data once it
is collected (p. 324).
Krathwohl (1993) emphasizes that contextual clues are crucial in helping
outline subsequent steps on how to analyze the data (p. 356). These three steps along
with Krathwohl"s suggestions on contextual clues, helped in setting a purpose and a
process in collecting and analyzing the data for this study.
Analysis of Descriptive Data
Descriptive analysis is one method of explaining different attributes of a set of
numbers such as number of years as a superintendent or the age range of the
superintendents. These summaries were obtained from responses to section one of
the questionnaire and are represented throughout the study using measures of central
tendency (Krathwohl. 1993. p. 194). The use of mean scores and percentiles serve to
describe the data through tables.
Analysis of Quantitative Data
The statistical tool employed in analyzing the quantitative data was the
Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). This was used in computing the
different quantitative measures to help answer the research questions.
78


Means and Standard Deviations
Means and standard deviations of each of the survey items, by research
question, was computed using the SPSS. The purpose was to determine the strength
of the survey items based on responses to the survey items using a Likert-scale rating
of one to five with one indicating no influence, two indicating little influence, three
indicating some influence, four indicating great influence, and five indicating very
great influence. A mean average of the individual mean scores of each of the survey
items was computed by research question.
Factor Analysis
Factor analysis is a statistical procedure to determine the interrelationships
among a set of variables. The variables that are most highly correlated with each
other are clustered in homogeneous groups called factors. In this study, each
individual survey item was factor analyzed. The survey items were the variables and
the factors were generalizations of different clusters or themes. The degree of the
relationship between each variable and each factor was calculated and referred to as a
factor loading (Gorsuch, 1974, p. 2). One reason for computing a factor analysis of
the survey items was to determine the interrelationships among variables in order to
better answer the research questions. Another reason was to determine if other factors
identified through the research questions were evident.
79


Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient
The Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was used to compute
correlation coefficients and to assist in answering the research questions. The
correlation between two variables is represented by a number between a +1.00 and a -
1.00. Either extreme is considered a perfect correlation. A correlation that is less
than a positive or a negative one is less than perfect ( Krathwohl, 1993, p. 176).
This method was used to determine the relationship between the research
questions and selected background characteristics of the superintendents. The
background characteristics of the superintendents were derived from section one of
the questionnaire and are relevant to research question four, personal background and
research question five, professional preparation. The superintendent's background
characteristics included the following:
1. The age when first appointed to an administrative position.
2. The age when first appointed to the superintendency.
3. The total number of administrative promotions.
4. The total years in education prior to first administrative appointment.
5. The years between first administrative and superintendency appointment.
The purpose for selecting these five background characteristics was to
determine if the survey items pertaining to a particular research question, for example
mentoring, facilitated the appointment to the superintendency at an early age.
80


I
Analysis of Qualitative Data
The purpose of the three types of qualitative analysis was to determine if there
were general themes or patterns that helped answer the research questions. The
general themes and patterns were generated by collecting, coding, and grouping the
responses to the questionnaire items, to the open-ended questions, and to the
interviews. The identified themes or patterns that emerged helped to answer each
research question.
Open-Ended Questions
Five open-ended questions comprised section five of the questionnaire. These
five questions were:
1. When did you first come in contact with a mentor and how did you realize you
were involved in a mentoring relationship?
2. How would you describe your work environment as it relates to your appointment
to the superintendency?
3. In what way do you attribute your leadership style to your mentor?
4. How would you describe your experiences related to gender and ethnicity as it
relates to mentoring?
5. In terms of time, energy, and other factors, how would you describe the
relationship between your family/home life and the superintendency?
81


Interviews
Two sets of interviews were conducted for this study. One was a face-to-face
interview and the other was a telephone interview. The questions for both types of
interviews were formulated after the completed questionnaires had been returned.
The reason for waiting until this time to formulate the interview questions was to see
which survey items or open-ended questions needed additional prodding and
clarification. The ten interview questions for both sets of interviews was the same.
The interview questions are listed below:
1. What were some qualities or attributes that attracted you to your mentor?
2. Describe an outstanding benefit received due to this mentoring experience.
3. How long did this mentoring relationship last?
4. Describe any current mentoring relationships.
5. Are you following similar/different mentoring styles as your mentor?
6. Describe how a particular individual helped you reach the superintendency.
7. How would you describe the significance of being a bilingual superintendent?
8. Describe values attained from a family member.
9. Did you ever outgrow your mentor and the experiences she or he was providing?
10. What other issues about mentoring do you think are important?
The interviews of the twelve Latino superintendents was conducted on a
scheduled basis. The interviews were arranged through an initial telephone call to the
82


superintendent's secretary to set a date, time, and place to conduct the interview.
During the interviews, emphasis was placed on establishing a comfortable
interviewing environment and setting aside sufficient time to avoid interruptions. The
interview questions were purposely structured so that all questions w'ere asked in the
same manner to all participating superintendents.
According to Krathwohl (1993). the strengths of a face-to-face interview allow
for deeper and richer responses, ensures that individuals understand the questions and
that they follow directions. He further stated that this type of interview is flexible,
adaptable, and provides meaning to non-verbal cues (p. 229). The telephone
interview were limited in the areas mentioned above.
Summary
Chapter three provided a description of the methodological process used in
understanding and reporting the data collected. The methodology involved a
description of the sample, the preparation and administration of a survey instrument,
the process in gathering, coding, and analyzing the data collected. This chapter also
described the various components of the survey instrument and the process in
selecting the superintendents for the telephone and the face-to-face interviews.
The research methodology described in chapter three was considered the
necessary link between the knowledge base surrounding mentoring and the
83


appointment to the superintendency and the findings generated through the data
gathering process that will be described in chapter four.
84


CHAPTER rv
RESULTS OF THE STUDY
Introduction
Chapter three provided an overview of the sample, a description of the survey
instrument, the steps involved in the data collection, the connection between the
survey items and related theories, and an explanation of how the data were to be
analyzed. This chapter presents the findings, by research question, based on analysis
of the data collected.
Process Used to Present Findings bv Research Questions
The results of the data collected were presented in the following sequence and
manner, by research question:
1. Descriptive information of the population. This information was generated by
data collected from the superintendents' responses to section one of the survey. It
provides an overview of the Latino superintendents related background information.
2. Analysis of Quantitative Data. These data were analyzed using the Statistical
Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) based on the responses to sections two
through four of the survey. These data included means and standard deviations and a
85


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