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Preparing teachers to work with English learners

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Preparing teachers to work with English learners exploring the potential for transformative learning in an online English as a second language for educators course
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Dewing, Stephanie E
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English language -- Study and teaching -- Foreign speakers ( lcsh )
English language -- Study and teaching -- Foreign speakers ( fast )
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The number of English language learners (ELLs) in the United States school system is growing rapidly. Much of the responsibility for teaching ELLs lies with regular classroom teachers. However, little training is being provided to help them. From a sociocultural perspective and drawing on constructive-developmental theories of adult learning and development, this study explores the potential for transformative learning in a one semester online English as a Second Language for Educators course. It is argued that if a single course is all that is required of teachers, the goal must be "transformative learning," defined as a change in how a person knows rather than just what a person knows. The research questions were: 1) How did teacher candidates experience the online ESL for Educators course, and what roles did their background and prior experiences play? 2) What shifts in thinking took place in their understandings about working with culturally and linguistically diverse learners as a result of their participation in the course? 3) Which course activities, according to the teacher candidates, contributed to transformational shifts in thinking, and what role did the online learning environment play? Drawing from both qualitative and quantitative data, the study describes in depth the experiences of six adult learners (four females and two males ranging in age from late 20's to early 50's), including their backgrounds, prior experiences, teaching context and life circumstances during the time of the study, reported changes in understandings about linguistic diversity based on course participation, and epistemological tendencies (sources of authority, senses of self, ways of knowing). The data revealed evidence of shifts in thinking about the education of ELLs, which often emerged as a result of their participation in the field experiences. However, the results also suggest that this particular learning context was not ideal for fostering development and transformational learning. This study calls into question the reasonableness of expecting a one semester online course such as this to adequately prepare educators to work effectively with ELLs. Issues for course and program revision are explored.
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Includes bibliographical references.
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by Stephanie E. Dewing.

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Full Text
PREPARING TEACHERS TO WORK WITH ENGLISH LEARNERS: EXPLORING
THE POTENTIAL FOR TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING IN AN ONLINE
ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE FOR EDUCATORS COURSE
by
Stephanie E. Dewing
B.A., Teaching of Spanish, University of Illinois, 1998
M.A., Teaching of English to Speakers of Other Languages, University of Illinois, 2003
A thesis submitted to the
Faculty of the Graduate School of the
University of Colorado in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
Educational Leadership and Innovation
2012


This thesis for the Doctor of Philosophy degree by
Stephanie E. Dewing
has been approved for the
Educational Leadership and Innovation
by
Mark A. Clarke, Chair
Alan Davis
Maria A. Thomas-Ruzic
Ruth Brancard
Leslie Grant
Date: April 11, 2012


Dewing, Stephanie, E (Ph.D., Educational Leadership and Innovation)
Preparing Teachers to Work with English Learners: Exploring the Potential for
Transformative Learning in an Online English as a Second Language for Educators
Course
Thesis directed by Professor Mark A. Clarke
ABSTRACT
The number of English language learners (ELLs) in the United States school
system is growing rapidly. Much of the responsibility for teaching ELLs lies with regular
classroom teachers. However, little training is being provided to help them. From a
sociocultural perspective and drawing on constructive-developmental theories of adult
learning and development, this study explores the potential for transformative learning in
a one semester online English as a Second Language for Educators course. It is argued
that if a single course is all that is required of teachers, the goal must be transformative
learning, defined as a change in how a person knows rather than just what a person
knows. The research questions were: 1) How did teacher candidates experience the online
ESL for Educators course, and what roles did their background and prior experiences
play? 2) What shifts in thinking took place in their understandings about working with
culturally and linguistically diverse learners as a result of their participation in the
course? 3) Which course activities, according to the teacher candidates, contributed to
transformational shifts in thinking, and what role did the online learning environment
play? Drawing from both qualitative and quantitative data, the study describes in depth
the experiences of six adult learners (four females and two males ranging in age from late
20s to early 50s), including their backgrounds, prior experiences, teaching context and


life circumstances during the time of the study, reported changes in understandings about
linguistic diversity based on course participation, and epistemological tendencies (sources
of authority, senses of self, ways of knowing). The data revealed evidence of shifts in
thinking about the education of ELLs, which often emerged as a result of their
participation in the field experiences. However, the results also suggest that this particular
learning context was not ideal for fostering development and transformational learning.
This study calls into question the reasonableness of expecting a one semester online
course such as this to adequately prepare educators to work effectively with ELLs. Issues
for course and program revision are explored.
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication.
Approved: Mark A. Clarke
IV


DEDICATION
I dedicate this work to my husband Rob, my three children: Zach, Chloe and
Olivia, and my parents: Steve and Michele. Rob is my best friend and without his
continued support and encouragement, I would not have been able to do this work. Zach,
Chloe, and Olivia inspire me every day to work hard, keep smiling, and enjoy every
precious moment along the way. And finally, I could not have done any of this without
my parents who have shown me the value of education throughout my life and have
supported me in countless ways over the years. Without them, I would not be doing what
I love to do today.
v


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I would like to thank the participants in the study for their time and effort. It is
through their openness and willingness to share their stories with me that I was able to
learn so much. They are the voices and true authors of this piece of work. I would also
like to thank my advisor, Mark Clarke, and my committee members: Alan Davis, Mia
Thomas-Ruzic, Leslie Grant, and Ruth Brancard for the countless hours they spent
reading my drafts, providing me feedback, and helping me shape my identity as an
educational researcher. Their voices, too, are represented in this dissertation. Finally, it is
important to thank the members of the Lab of Learning and Activity, both past and
present, who acknowledged my initial position as a legitimate peripheral participant and
helped guide me slowly, but surely to becoming a fully contributing member of that
community of practice. In my heart, I will always be a member of LoLA.
VI


TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
1. INTRODUCTION..............................................................1
Study Setting.........................................................3
Purpose of the Study..................................................4
Contribution of Study.................................................4
Overview of Chapters..................................................5
2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW...............................6
Learning and Development Goals for Course.............................6
Theoretical Framework.................................................7
Sociocultural Perspectives......................................7
Constructive-developmental Theory...............................8
Ways of Knowing and Transformational Learning...................9
Perrys Scheme of Intellectual Development...............9
Womens ways of knowing.................................10
Drago-Severson and becoming adult learners..............11
Baxter Magolda and self-authorship......................12
The Role of Prior Experiences in Adult Learning and Development.13
Regans Subject-Object Relationship............................14
Identity and Learning in Practice..............................14
Field experiences.......................................17
The Role of Reflection in Adult Learning and Development.......18
Summary of Theoretical Framework and Literature Review...............21
3. METHODS..................................................................23
Purpose of Study.....................................................23
vii


Research Questions.......................................................23
Research Site............................................................24
Online ESL for Educators Course...................................24
Research Participants....................................................25
The Teacher Candidates............................................25
The Instructor....................................................27
The Researcher....................................................28
Data Collection..........................................................29
Questionnaires and Surveys........................................29
Interviews........................................................31
Activity Impact Questionnaires....................................33
Online Discussions, Assignment Write-ups and Reflections..........34
Data Analysis............................................................34
4. SNAPSHOTS: GLIMPSES INTO RESULTS OF DATA....................................38
Finding One..............................................................39
Prior Understandings..............................................39
Prior knowledge............................................39
Prior training.............................................41
Prior experience with other cultures.......................42
Interest versus confidence in teaching ELLs................42
Prior Attitudes and Beliefs.......................................44
Summary of Finding One............................................48
Finding Two..............................................................48
Change in Reported Knowledge of ELL Issues.............48
Change in Reported Level of Interest in Having ELLs in Class......50
viii


Change in Reported Level of Confidence to Teach ELLs..............51
Change in Teaching Practice: Kathy and Patricia...................53
Sharing new knowledge with other educators..................54
New Understandings about the Education of ELLs.....................56
Importance of teaching both content and language............56
Role of native language.....................................56
Change in Attitudes and Beliefs....................................57
Change in LATS scores.......................................57
Change in feelings of empathy...............................59
Change in awareness of local ELL population.................61
Summary of Change..................................................62
Finding Three.............................................................63
Activity Impact Questionnaire......................................63
Field assignments...........................................64
Journals and reflections....................................69
Textbook: Sheltered content instruction.....................70
ESL for Educators Ability to Prepare TCs to Teach ELLs............71
Summary of Course Activity Impact..................................71
Finding Four..............................................................71
Confidence with Online Learning....................................71
Online Participation...............................................74
Discussions of the Online Learning Environment.....................78
Reported Benefits of Online Learning...............................79
Convenience, flexibility and pacing.........................79
Online discussions..........................................79
Reported Challenges of Online Learning.............................80
ix


Pacing and routine..........................................80
Online discussions..........................................81
Reported Limitations of Online Learning............................82
Instructor feedback on discussion posts.....................82
Conclusion of Results.....................................................83
5. PORTRAITS: NARRATIVES OF STUDY PARTICIPANTS...................................86
Sofia.....................................................................87
Background.........................................................87
Teaching Experience................................................89
Beliefs and Understandings about Linguistic Diversity..............90
Reported Changes as a Result of Course Participation...............91
Specific Reactions to Course Activities............................92
Transition between Figured Worlds..................................98
Struggles with Subject-Object Shifts...............................99
Challenging Assumptions and Sense of Self.........................100
Ways of Knowing and Online Learning...............................103
Summary of Sofias Experiences....................................106
Kathy....................................................................107
Background........................................................107
Teaching Experience...............................................109
Beliefs and Understandings about Linguistic Diversity.............110
Reported Changes as a Result of Course Participation..............112
Specific Reactions to Course Activities...........................115
Transition between Figured Worlds and Subject-Object Shifts.......123
Teacher as Source of Authority and Hints of Dualistic Thinking...123


Sense of Self
127
Summary of Kathys Experiences....................................129
Jennifer.................................................................131
Background........................................................131
Teaching Experience...............................................134
Beliefs and Einderstandings about Linguistic Diversity............136
Reported Changes as a Result of Course Participation..............137
Specific Reactions to Course Activities...........................140
Transitions and Quest for Balance.................................148
Sense of Self.....................................................149
Jennifer and Received Knowledge...................................150
Summary of Jennifers Experiences.................................156
Patricia.................................................................157
Background........................................................157
Teaching Experience...............................................159
Beliefs and Understandings about Linguistic Diversity.............161
Reported Changes as a Result of Course Participation..............163
Specific Reactions to Course Activities...........................168
Sense of Self.....................................................175
Patricia and Procedural Knowing...................................175
Summary of Patricias Experiences.................................179
Steven...................................................................179
Background........................................................179
Teaching Experience...............................................181
Beliefs and Understandings about Linguistic Diversity.............182
xi


Reported Changes as a Result of Course Participation..............184
Specific Reactions to Course Activities............................187
The Quest for Answers in a Phase of Self-Exploration..............193
Steven and Subjective Knowledge....................................198
Subjective Knowing and Online Learning.............................202
Transitions, Change in Perspective, and Projecting Forward.........205
Summary of Stevens Experiences....................................207
Erik......................................................................207
Background.........................................................207
Teaching Experience................................................211
Beliefs and Understandings about Linguistic Diversity..............214
Reported Changes as a Result of Course Participation...............216
Specific Reactions to Course Activities............................218
Empathy and Perspective-Taking.....................................225
Sources of Authority and Self-Authorship...........................227
Summary of Eriks Experiences......................................229
Eva.......................................................................231
Background and Teaching Experience.................................231
Course Experiences from the Instructors Perspective...............232
Observations of Change in Teacher Candidates.......................233
Thoughts on Transformational Learning..............................234
Connected Teaching and the Online Learning Environment.............234
Overall Feelings about the ESL for Educators Course................238
Summary of Portraits......................................................238
6. SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION.......................................................241
xii


Summary.................................................................241
Promoting Adult Learning and Development................................244
Transitions......................................................244
Implications..............................................246
Ways of Knowing..................................................247
Implications..............................................251
Experience, Reflection and Meaning-Making........................252
Kegans subject-object continuum..........................252
Implications..............................................254
Appropriate Supports and Challenges that Promote Development.....255
Baxter Magolda and promoting self-authorship..............257
Holding environments as contexts for growth...............258
Supports and challenges for women.........................259
Promoting Development through Online Discussions.................260
Implications for Practice...............................................264
Implications for Course Design...................................264
Analysis of course syllabus...............................264
Informational learning through readings...................265
Importance of context.....................................266
Differentiation...........................................267
Creating a community of connection........................268
The potential for transformative learning.................271
Implemented Changes to Course Design and Next Steps..............273
Implications for Program Design..................................274
Creating a community of connection........................275
Developmental focus throughout............................275
xiii


Development of teacher educators...........276
A sharedjourney............................277
Limitations and Areas for Future Research.............278
Final Thoughts........................................279
REFERENCES.................................................282
APPENDICES.................................................287
APPENDIX A. BACKGROUND QUESTIONNAIRE..................287
APPENDIX B. LANGUAGE ATTITUDES OF TEACHER SURVEY......290
APPENDIX C. KNOWLEDGE OF ELL ISSUES SURVEY............291
APPENDIX D. MID-SEMESTER ACTIVITY IMPACT QUESTIONNAIRE 293
APPENDIX E. END-OF-SEMESTER QUESTIONNAIRE.............295
APPENDIX F. END-SEMESTER ACTIVITY IMPACT QUESTIONNAIRE 297
APPENDIX G. SUBJECT-OBJECT INTERVIEW PROTOCOL.........299
APPENDIX H. PARTICIPANT CONSENT FORM..................303
APPENDIX T ESL FOR EDUCATORS COURSE SYLLABUS..........306
APPENDIX J. GUIDELINES FOR COURSE FIELD ASSIGNMENTS...317
XIV


LIST OF TABLES
Table
3.1 Background Information as Reported by Participants...........................26
4.1 Average (Mean) Responses to Knowledge of ELL Issues Survey by Topic..........40
4.2 Average (Mean) Responses to Knowledge of ELL Issues Survey by Participant.. .41
4.3 LATS Scores at Beginning and End of Semester.................................45
4.4 Average (Mean) Change to Responses on Knowledge of ELL Issues Survey by
Participant..................................................................49
4.5 Average (Mean) Change on Knowledge of ELL Issues Survey by Topic.............50
4.6 Change in LATS Scores from Beginning to End of Semester......................57
4.7 Average (Mean) LATS Scores for Group from Beginning to End of Semester.......58
4.8 Activities that Resulted in the Greatest Reported Impact.....................64
5.1 Sofias Descriptions of Herself.............................................102
5.2 Kathys Descriptions of Herself.............................................128
5.3 Stevens Statements of Self-Exploration.....................................194
5.4 Stevens Statements about Himself...........................................196
5.5 Summary of Portraits........................................................239
xv


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure
4.1 Reported Knowledge of Other Cultures, Interest in Having ELLs in their
Classrooms, and Confidence/Ability to Teach ELLs at Beginning of Semester...43
4.2 Change in Reported Interest in Having ELLs in Classroom: Beginning and End of
Semester.....................................................................51
4.3 Reported Change in Confidence/Ability to Teach ELLs: Beginning and End of
Semester.....................................................................52
4.4 Reported Level of Confidence/Comfort Level with Online Learning: Beginning and
End of Semester..............................................................73
4.5 Online Participation: Number of Weeks Participated...........................75
4.6 Online Participation: Number of Discussion Posts over 16 Weeks...............76
4.7 Average Views per Post (does not include views by researcher)................77
4.8 Average Views of on Time Posts versus Late Posts (does not include views by
researcher)..................................................................78
4.9 Frequency of Interview Statements about Online Learning......................79
XVI


LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
1. ALP Alternative Licensure Program
2. CLD Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learner
3. ELA English Language Acquisition
4. ELD English Language Development
5. ELL English Language Learner
6. ESL English as a Second Language
7. IT Instructional Technology
8. LATS Language Attitudes of Teachers Scale
9. LDE Linguistically Diverse Education
10. SCI Sheltered Content Instruction
11. SIOP Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol
12. TC Teacher Candidate
13. TELP Teacher Education Licensure Program
14. TESOL Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages


CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Andres1 arrived to the United States with his family a few months ago. He lived
his previous nine years in Guadalajara, Mexico. His parents decided to bring him to the
United States for a better life, but so far he does not understand what is so great about this
place. He recently started attending third grade at his new elementary school. Not many
people speak Spanish in his new school and he has only learned a few words in English
from watching television in Mexico. He feels extremely out of place and does not know
what to expect. Every day so far, his teacher has put him in a corner and has given him
paper and crayons. How is he supposed to learn English, or anything for that matter, if he
sits in the corner coloring while the rest of his classmates are engaged in learning
activities? But what can he say? It is as though his teacher has no idea what to do with
him.
Ana completed her teacher education licensure program last year and is in her
first year of teaching at a local elementary school. They talked about differentiating
instruction in her teacher education courses, but she quickly realized that she had no idea
what that would actually entail. There were 25 students in her class: four had special
needs, three were gifted and talented, three were students with limited English
proficiency, and the remaining 15 had varying levels of abilities and background
knowledge. How was she supposed to adequately and effectively teach them all? In
addition, the prescribed curriculum and additional constraints put on her by the school
district were intense and came as a great surprise to her. Ana went into teaching because
1 All names used in this document are pseudonyms
1


she loved kids and wanted to help them learn. She began the year with great enthusiasm
and energy, but that was quickly fading away only to be replaced by exhaustion and
anxiety. She was overwhelmed. And on top of everything, a new kid named Andres just
showed up who does not speak any English at all. Her licensure program did not include
any training on how to work with linguistically diverse students. She has no idea what to
do with him. Until she figures it out, she is going to have him sit in the corner and color
so at least he is doing something.
In order to help Andres, we must first help Ana. With the growing number of
culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) learners in the United States school system, it
is not a matter of if, but when teachers will be faced with how to help them learn.
Between 1980 and 2009, the number of school-age children (ages 5-17) who spoke a
language other than English at home increased from 4.7 to 11.2 million, which is an
increase from 10 to 21 percent of the population in this age range (NCES, 2010). The
children of immigrants constitute around 20% of the K-12 student population, which is
projected to more than double within the next 20 years (AACTE, 2002). In Colorado,
there are more than 100,000 students in grades K-12 who are labeled as English learners
(CDE, 2010). This population has grown by 250% since 1995, while the overall K-12
population in Colorado has grown by only 12%. English learners now comprise 10% of
Colorados K-12 population and the numbers continue to grow (CDE, 2010).
More and more teachers are working with English language learners (ELLs), but
little training is being provided to help them work effectively with that population of
2 Culturally and linguistically diverse learners is used interchangeably with English learners, English
language learners and linguistically diverse learners
2


students (deJong & Harper, 2005). In a report from the National Center for Education
Statistics (2002), only 12.5% of teachers reported having received more than eight hours
of professional development specifically related to English language learners (ELLs). As
a result, in these times of rapidly changing demographics, preparing teachers for diverse
classrooms is more than just a challenge; it is a duty (Milner, 2010).
That duty of providing pre-service teachers with the rigorous preparation
necessary to meet the modern demands of education is the responsibility of teacher
education programs (Darling-Hammond, 2010; Darling-Hammond, Chung, & Frelow,
2002). When it comes to serving ELLs, the most common model is pull-out, which
leaves the majority of the responsibility of educating ELLs to grade-level mainstream
teachers (Karathanos, 2010). As teacher educators, then, it is our responsibility to help
prepare all teachers to work effectively with their ELLs; not just the English language
development (ELD) teachers.
Study Setting
The linguistically diverse education (LDE) program at a mid-size university in the
mountain-west region of the United States has one course that is specifically designed to
do just that. It is called English as a Second Language (ESL) for Educators and is geared
towards pre-service and in-service elementary and secondary teachers. The course is
offered both on campus and online every semester (fall, spring and summer). This study
focused on the online version. ESL for Educators is required at the graduate level and is
an elective at the undergraduate level, which means that not all teacher candidates (TCs)
who earn their teaching credentials from this university will have received training on
3


how to work effectively with linguistically diverse learners. For those that do, however,
the program strives to make the course as effective as possible.
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study was to explore the potential for transformative
learning (a change in not just what a person knows, but how a person knows) in the
online ESL for Educators course over the course of one semester. In addition, I sought to
learn how the six teacher candidates that participated in the study experienced the course
and what changes took place in their thinking about linguistically diverse education as a
result of their participation in the course.
Through the collection of both quantitative (questionnaires and surveys) and
qualitative (open-ended questions on questionnaires, interviews and written reflections)
data, I explored the answers to those questions, paying careful attention to the course
activities that appeared to contribute most to their shifts in thinking. The results of the
study suggest that in fact, each participant made sense of their experiences differently.
The way in which they made sense of those experiences were influenced by their
sociocultural histories, life circumstances, and epistemological tendencies, such as
sources of authority, senses of self and meaning-making systems, or ways of knowing.
Contribution of Study
An in-depth study of this nature offers insights into the effectiveness and
limitations of a single semester, online, teacher education course that prepare educators to
work with English language learners. The results lend themselves to implications for
course design and program design. For example, incorporating a developmental focus


throughout the course and program will better assist teacher educators to meet the teacher
candidates where they are and provide appropriate supports and challenges to help them
get to where they can be (Drago-Severson, 2004).
Overview of Chapters
In Chapter 2 I lay the foundation of the study by introducing my theoretical
framework and literature review, which I approach from a sociocultural perspective. I
describe the constructive-developmental theories of adult learning and development from
which I draw, address concepts of identity, and acknowledge the roles of experience and
reflection. Chapter 3 describes the methods I used in the study, including the research
questions, site and participants, as well as the methods of data collection and analysis. In
Chapter 4 I present the findings and interpretations of the study, aligned with my research
questions, for the six focal participants as a group. Chapter 5 takes an in-depth look at
each participant as well as the instructor, and presents information about their
backgrounds, experiences, beliefs and understandings about linguistic diversity, reported
changes as a result of their course participation, and specific reactions to course activities.
In addition, I discuss evidence of epistemological tendencies, such as sources of
authority, senses of self, and ways of knowing. Finally, in Chapter 6 I present an
overview of the study and discuss the results, offering insights and implications for
course and program design, and offering areas for future research.
5


CHAPTER 2
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW
Learning and Development Goals for Course
To ground this study in theory and related literature, it is important to first provide
a brief introduction to the goals of the course itself. Based on my own experiences of the
course, I have outlined the overarching goals of ESL for Educators, which are to: (a)
increase the teacher candidates level of knowledge about culturally and linguistically
diverse teaching and learning, (b) help teacher candidates gain a sense of efficacy to
effectively work with culturally and linguistically diverse learners, (c) provide
opportunities for TCs to broaden their perspective about the way they know, understand
and make sense of culturally and linguistically diverse education, and (d) make a positive
impact on the ELLs in the TCs current or future classrooms. It is important to note that
these goals are not represented in the syllabus. The course goals and objectives as
outlined in the course syllabus (see Appendix I) are based more on informational
learning. Suggestions for the revision of the course syllabus to reflect the unwritten goals
of the course are discussed in chapter 6.
One of the development goals for ESL for Educators, which is not found in the
syllabus, but is indicated by the course instructor, is to help the teacher candidates take on
new perspectives, specifically the perspectives of the culturally and linguistically diverse
learners in their current and/or future classrooms. The ability to take on anothers
perspective is an indication of a more advanced level of development (Drago-Severson,
2004; Kegan, 1982). For the TCs who do not already demonstrate that developmental
ability, the course is designed to create opportunities for them to get there by challenging
6


and supporting them through field assignments, online discussions, and reflections, which
are all key components of the online course.
Theoretical Framework
I approach this study from a sociocultural perspective (Lantolf, 1993; Vygotsky,
1978; Wenger, 1998) and draw on constructive-developmental theories of adult learning
and development (Baxter-Magolda, 2001; Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger, & Tarule, 1986;
Drago-Severson, 2004; Kegan, 1982, 1994, 2000; Mezirow, 1997, 1990, 2000). In this
paper I define learning in general as change over time through engagement in activity
(Clarke, 2007, p. 22), but I will discuss two types of learning specifically: informational
learning and transformational learning (Kegan, 1982, 1994, 2000; Mezirow, 1997, 1990,
2000). I will use the terms transformational learning and transformative learning
interchangeably. To clarify briefly, informational learning adds to what a person knows
whereas transformational learning changes how a person knows (Drago-Severson, 2004,
p. 19).
Sociocultural Perspectives
To better understand the teacher candidates learning, experiences and practice, it
is important to consider the sociocultural histories of the TCs, the activities in which they
engage, the contexts in which they learn and work, and the previous experiences from
which they draw (Johnson, 1994; Johnson & Golombek, 2003; Lantolf, 1993; Teague,
2010; Vygotsky, 1978). In this study I explored the process involved in the TCs shifts in
thinking and how specific aspects of the course contributed to those shifts in thinking
and/or development of new understandings.
7


Vygotsky (1978) viewed development at two levels: actual development, or what
one can do independently, and potential development, or what one is able to do with
more expert assistance. The difference between these two developmental levels
constitutes the zone of proximal development (ZPD). Basically, children grow into the
intellectual life of those around them (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 88). I view this notion of
growing as applicable to adult learners as well, such as those who participated in this
study. The course attempted to provide guidance within the teacher candidates ZPD by
creating opportunities for them to engage with more knowledgeable perspectives, such as
those provided by the instructor, their readings, their discussions with peers, their
engagement in course activities, and their reflection of those experiences (Ball, 2000;
Teague, 2010).
It is important to note that the TCs were not passive recipients of information, but
rather active participants in the process. By engaging with new ideas and perspectives,
the goal was for the teacher candidates to be better able to challenge pre-existing
assumptions, take on new or broader perspectives, and develop new understandings about
ELLs and the education of ELLs. I approached all data collection and analysis through a
sociocultural lens with those goals in mind.
Constructive-developmental Theory
The theoretical framework for this study was based in part on the foundations of
constructive-developmental theories of adult learning and development. Constructive-
developmental theory draws on the notions of constructivism, the idea that people or
systems constitute or construct reality; and developmentalism, the idea that people or
organic systems evolve through qualitatively different eras of increasing complexity
8


according to regular principles of stability and change (Kegan, 1994, p. 199).
Constructive-developmental theory, then, looks at the transformation over time of how
we construct meaning. Basically, the way we construct our meaning will determine how
we see the world around us and therefore, how we operate within it.
Ways of Knowing and Transformational Learning
At the heart of transformation is a way of knowing (Kegan, 2000). A way of
knowing can also be referred to as an epistemology, a level of development (Drago-
Severson, 2004), or a frame of reference (Mezirow, 1997). A way of knowing refers to
how we view the world around us and how we make sense of our experiences in that
world. As people develop, their ways of knowing adapt, or transform, to align with their
new worldview.
Transformational learning attends to the deliberate efforts and designs that
support changes in the learners form of knowing (Kegan, 2000, p. 48). A key
component of transformative learning is epistemological change (change in how we
make meaning), not just change in behavioral repertoire or quantity of knowledge (E.
W. Taylor, 2008, p. 7). Therefore, since genuinely transformational learning is always to
some extent an epistemological change (Kegan, 2000, p. 48), I looked for evidence of
epistemological change in the data I collected from the study participants.
Perrys Scheme of Intellectual Development. Perry (1970, 1981) conducted
extensive studies over a span of fifteen years of college-aged men at Harvard in an
attempt to learn about their cognitive processes and intellectual development. He sought
to understand how they made sense of their experiences, or in other words, their ways of


knowing. Based on what he learned, Perry proposed that college students pass through
predictable, sequential stages of epistemological development. He posited that the
students move from viewing truth in terms of right and wrong (dualism) to being able
to recognize multiple, conflicting versions of truth, which represent legitimate
alternatives (multiplicity, relativism, commitment).
Perrys scheme of intellectual development was helpful to me in my analysis of
the ways in which people constructed knowledge as well as what they took as their
sources of authority. In some cases, I found evidence of dualistic thinking. However, I
also found evidence of more advanced cognitive development as demonstrated by
participants abilities to take on the multiple perspectives of others.
Womens ways of knowing. As a follow-up to Perrys work, Belenky, Clinchy,
Goldberger, and Tarule (1986) conducted a study with a similar purpose, but instead of
focusing on men, they focused on women. The research team interviewed 135 women of
widely different ages, life circumstances, and backgrounds in an attempt to understand
how they made sense of their experiences. Belenky and colleagues proposed five
epistemological perspectives from which women know and view the world: silent
knowledge, received knowledge, subjective knowledge, procedural knowledge, and/or
constructed knowledge. Briefly, silent knowers exhibit total dependence on external
authority. In essence, they experience themselves as mindless and voiceless. Received
knowers view themselves as capable of receiving and reproducing knowledge from
external authorities but not capable of creating knowledge on their own. Subjective
knowers conceive of truth and knowledge as personal, private, subjectively-known or
intuited. Procedural knowers rely on objective procedures for obtaining and
10


communicating knowledge. Finally, constructed knowers view all knowledge as
contextual and value both subjective and objective strategies for knowing, and see
themselves as creators of knowledge.
Four out of the six participants in this study were women and therefore, the
womens ways of knowing framework outlined by Belenky and her co-researchers (1986)
was useful in helping me better understand the women participants in my study and how
they made sense of their experiences. It is important to note that the proposed ways of
knowing are frameworks for meaning-making that evolve and change; not personality
types that are relatively permanent.
Drago-Severson and becoming adult learners. Drawing from Perrys (1970,
1981), Belenky et al.s (1986) and Kegans (1982, 1994) frameworks for epistemological
development, Drago-Severson (2004) and her research team conducted a study of 41
adult learners enrolled in a 14-month adult basic education course across three different
sites: a community college site, a family literacy site and a workplace site. In her study,
Drago-Severson focused on three of Kegans ways of constructing reality, or ways of
knowing, found to be most prevalent in adulthood: instrumental, socializing, and self-
authoring ways of knowing. Evidence was found to support transformational learning, as
50% of course participants demonstrated a developmental change in their way of
knowing (e.g. from instrumental to socializing; from socializing to self-authoring) after
the 14-month course as determined by the research team.
The research team found it remarkable that half of the study participants
experienced transformational learning, or a qualitative shift in ones understanding of
11


oneself, the world, and the relationship between the two in such a short time (Drago-
Severson, 2004, p. 22). This was a phenomenon that I explored with the participants in
the current study. By examining the ways in which the diverse adult learners enrolled in
the course made sense of their experiences I was able to find evidence of transformational
shifts in thinking among some participants.
Baxter Magolda and self-authorship. Also building on the work of Kegan (1982,
1994) and Belenky et al. (1986), Baxter Magolda (2001) began a longitudinal study of
101 first-year college students to better understand their intellectual development.
However, she realized she had focused too narrowly on intellectual development and
expanded the focus of the study to include participants sense of their identity and their
relationships with others. The study described here focuses on the 39 participants that
remained in the study throughout their twenties.
Baxter Magolda (2001) posited that an important part of becoming the author of
ones life is the transition from external to internal self-definition. She argues that internal
self-definition plays a central role in self-authorship and that managing external influence
rather than being controlled by it is the essence of self-authorship. Making that shift and
becoming the author of ones life, however, is a developmental process. Baxter Magolda
identified four ways of knowing as part of that process: absolute knowing, transitional
knowing, independent knowing, and contextual knowing. Similar to other descriptions of
ways of knowing (Belenky, et al., 1986; Drago-Severson, 2004; Kegan, 1982, 1994;
Perry, 1970, 1981), these levels or stages of development begin with a need to know what
the authorities think (dualistic view of knowledge); then transition to an awareness that
12


authorities do not have all the answers, to an acknowledgement that most knowledge is
uncertain; and finally, to holding the perspective that knowledge is relative to context.
The journey toward self-authorship as outlined by Baxter Magolda (2001)
revealed how three dimensions of development (epistemological, intrapersonal and
interpersonal dimensions) intertwine to contribute to self-authorship. Stemming from
those three dimensions, Baxter Magolda proposed three driving questions for people in
their twenties: How do I know? Who am I? and What relationships do I want with
others? Since half of my study participants were in their twenties, Baxter Magoldas
framework was helpful for me in analyzing the interview data for those three participants.
It is important to note, however, that I also found evidence of similar driving questions
for other participants who were not in their twenties, but due to life circumstances were in
a sense starting over.
The Role of Prior Experiences in Adult Learning and Development
As I looked for evidence of development along the three dimensions of
epistemology, identity, and relationships, I paid close attention to the role of the
participants prior experiences. Prior experiences play a large role in adult learning and
development (Dewey, 1938; Knowles, 1980; Knowles, Holton, & Swanson, 1998;
Mezirow, 1997). Experience is the adult learners living textbook (Lindeman, 1961, p.
10). Adults have acquired a coherent body of experience, or frames of reference, that
define their life world. Similar to ways of knowing, frames of reference are the structures
of assumptions and expectations through which we understand our experiences
(Mezirow, 1997). They frame an individuals points of view and influence their thinking,
beliefs, and ultimately their actions (E. W. Taylor, 2008). Therefore, to better understand
13


teacher learning and development, it is necessary to consider the previous experiences
from which teachers draw (Teague, 2010) and how they make sense of those experiences.
Regans Subject-Object Relationship
Forming the core of an epistemology, or way of knowing, is the subject-object
relationship (Regan, 2000, p. 53). The subject-object relationship is a principle of mental
organization (Regan, 1994; Lahey, Souvaine, Regan, Goodman, & Felix, 1988).
Object refers to those elements of our knowing or organizing that we can reflect on,
handle, look at, be responsible for, relate to each other, take control of, internalize,
assimilate, or otherwise operate upon, (Regan, 1994, p. 32) whereas subject refers to
those elements of our knowing or organizing that we are identified with, tied to, fused
with, or embedded in (Regan, 1994, p. 32). We have object; we are subject. We cannot
be responsible for, in control of, or reflect upon that which is subject (Regan, 1994, p.
32). What we take as subject and what we take as object can change and these shifts from
subject to object (having control over something rather than it having control over us) is
the most powerful way to conceptualize the growth of the mind (Regan, 1994). This
subject-object relationship was a lens through which I viewed and analyzed the data.
Identity and Learning in Practice
Inextricably linked with a persons way of knowing is a persons identity. I define
identity in this study as a learners socially negotiated sense of self in relationship to his
or her environment (Brancard, 2008, p. 36). Identity plays a large role in the process of
learning, epistemological change and practice. In fact, issues of identity are inseparable
from issues of practice (Wenger, 1998). They constitute a way of being in the world.
Building an identity involves negotiating the meanings of our experiences, which results
14


from our membership and participation in social communities (Wenger, 1998). Because
learning transforms who we are and what we can do, it is an experience of identity
(Wenger, 1998, p. 215).
Brancard (2008) provides an in-depth look at the negotiation of identities for 27
college students enrolled in a first-semester community college developmental education
course. In this course they worked to improve their reading and writing of academic
English and explored their goals for the future. Three-quarters of the students in the study
were recent high school graduates and more than half of them were born outside of the
U.S., but many had completed some schooling in the U.S.
Through interviews, classroom observations, and analysis of written data,
Brancard (2008) found evidence of students negotiations of their identities. The students
described changes in the way they saw themselves as college students, as readers, and as
writers. Brancard found strong connections between shifts in students perceptions of
themselves as college students and the activities in which they engaged during their first
year of college. In addition to their engagement in the course activities, the classroom
environment and the community college environment influenced the way they made
sense of their experiences.
Brancards work helped me to frame the current study and highlighted the
importance of identity and how the negotiation of identity is linked with engagement in
activity to facilitate learning, growth and development. The results of Brancards study
support the argument that experiences of identity are not just about acquiring information
and skills, but more importantly about the process of becoming who we are and who we
15


want to be. Information by itself, removed from participation, is not knowledge. What
makes information knowledge, and empowering at that, is the way in which that
information can be integrated within an identity of participation (Wenger, 1998, p. 220).
Learning contexts can offer a place where new ways of knowing can be realized
(Wenger, 1998). With that in mind, the teacher candidates participation in the online
learning community had the potential to be a transformative practice and an ideal
context for developing new understandings (Wenger, 1998, p. 215). Based on the data, I
would infer that the online learning context for this particular group during this particular
semester was a suitable context for the development of new understandings for some
people, but not for others. I will discuss which aspects of the course lent themselves more
to the development of new understandings and for whom in more detail in Chapters 4 and
5.
Learning belongs to the realm of experience and practice. It follows the
negotiation of meaning; it moves on its own terms. It slips through the cracks; it creates
its own cracks. Learning happens, design or no design (Wenger, 1998, p. 225). Learning
gains its significance in the kind of person we become (Wenger, 1998). It changes our
ability to participate, to belong, and to negotiate meaning. This ability is configured
through our participation in social communities and practice and ultimately shapes our
identities (Wenger, 1998). The learning that takes place in the online ESL for Educators
course has the potential to transform the way teacher candidates think about culturally
and linguistically diverse education and learners. By design, the course strives to provide
TCs with opportunities to explore who they are, who they are not, and who they could
become.
16


Field experiences. One way to accomplish that goal was through the field
assignments and the reflections of those experiences. There were three field assignments
built into the course (see Appendix J for more detailed descriptions of assignments). The
first involved watching a panel discussion of ESL directors from four local school
districts. The second was a cultural field experience, and the third was an ESL class
observation and interview of the teacher. The cultural field experience asked the
prospective teachers to push themselves outside of their comfort zones and attend an
event or language class conducted in a language they did not speak. The purpose was to
instill a sense of empathy and give them an opportunity to walk in the shoes of their
ELLs and see the world through their eyes, even if it is just for a moment. An activity
such as this provides the TCs with an opportunity to be able to take on a new or
additional perspective.
One of the reasons for incorporating the cultural field experience into the course
was that research has shown that cross-cultural experiences are necessary if pre-service
teachers are to be able to transform and critically construct meaningful educational
experiences for culturally and linguistically diverse students (Ference & Bell, 2004; Gay,
2002; Giroux, 1988; Nieto, 2000). Since many programs are unable to provide
prospective teachers with a cross-cultural experience outside of the United States,
universities provide short-term cross-cultural experiences for pre-service teachers
(Bradfield-Kreider, 1999; Wiest, 1998; Willard-Holt, 2001). The cultural field
assignment was this programs version of that short-term cross-cultural experience.
In addition to cross-cultural field experiences, many face-to-face classes similar to
ESL for Educators incorporate a language shock (Karathanos, 2010) or language
17


sensitivity (Dong, 2004) exercise into a class session. Typically that involves either an
instructor or a guest lecturer delivering a short presentation in a language that the
majority of the TCs in the class do not speak. In some cases they may ask the TCs to
produce something in the unfamiliar language (e.g. take a test, complete an activity, etc.).
The purpose is similar to the cross-cultural experience: to show the teacher candidates
what it is like to be in a classroom without understanding the language of instruction and
hopefully instill a sense of empathy for their future ELLs.
The current study focused on the online version of the course, making a language
shock activity more difficult. Therefore, the requirement was for each TC enrolled in the
online course to find his or her own local event, activity, or language class to attend. This
type of experience may have actually been more of a shock because the TCs were on
their own and did not have the support of their classroom, classmates or instructor. In
fact, several TCs wrote about feeling out of place, left out, and intimidated by the
experience.
Based on written reflections, this language experience appeared to have an impact
on many of the teacher candidates thinking and ways of knowing, but not on others. I
will report on the impact of this particular course activity, and others, on the study
participants and their thinking about ELLs and the education of ELLs in Chapters four
and five.
The Role of Reflection in Adult Learning and Development
In addition to field assignments, readings, and online discussions, a critical
component of ESL for Educators online was written reflections on their experiences in
18


the field assignments and in the course overall. Reflection is an activity, along with
experience, that contributes to and constitutes change, growth and development.
Reflection is the process by which we make sense of the world in which we live and
experience life. Reflection is fundamental to learning and developing without it, we
would simply be bombarded by random experiences and unable to make sense of any of
them (Merriam & Clark, 2006, p. 39).
We all have our own theories; our own ways of understanding the world. Our
perspectives on learning make a difference in who we are and what we do. Therefore,
reflecting upon our perspectives on learning is crucial. We need to understand what our
assumptions are with respect to the nature of learning itself to better understand that
which informs what we do (Wenger, 1998). The data I collected assisted in the process of
discovering what the TCs assumptions were and how those assumptions played a role in
the TCs ways of making sense of and understanding themselves and the world around
them.
This type of critical reflection is a developmental process that is rooted in
experience (E. W. Taylor, 2008). Critical reflection is the kind of thinking that challenges
notions of prior learning (VanHalen-Faber, 1997). Thoughtful questioning may put to the
test a persons beliefs, expectations or goals. Such reflective experiences at the pre-
service level in teacher education are put in place in order to elicit changes in established
beliefs held by the prospective teachers, which may lead to change in the way they think
about teaching and learning over time.
19


Reflection is a meaning-making process that moves a learner from one experience
to the next with deeper understanding of its relationships with and connections to other
experiences and ideas. Dewey (1938) argues that reflection needs to happen in interaction
with others (in a community), and requires attitudes that value the personal and
intellectual growth of oneself and others (Merriam & Clark, 2006). For this very reason
the online course required participation in online weekly discussions in hopes of
establishing a greater sense of community. Through this learning community the adult
learners were given an opportunity to share their thoughts, feelings and experiences and
reflect upon them with each other. In addition to journal entries and written reflections, it
was during the weekly discussions that instructors could potentially see a lot of
learning take place.
In my analysis I attempted to learn why some of the adult learners enrolled in the
course appeared to see the online discussions as valuable and others did not. The
differing reactions were based on a multitude of factors. For example, the discussion
prompts appeared to influence the potential for in-depth discussion and exploration of a
topic. In addition, a persons level of participation may have influenced what they got out
of the discussions. And finally, a persons way of knowing also appeared to influence
their reactions to the online discussions and the online learning environment in general.
In this study of a particular group of teacher candidates during a particular semester, I did
not find evidence of a true community of learners. I will discuss the implications of the
online environment in further detail in Chapters 4, 5, and 6.
Becoming critically reflective of ones own assumptions is the key to
transforming ones taken-for-granted frame of reference, an indispensable dimension of
20


learning and adapting to change (Mezirow, 1997). ESL for Educators was designed so
that the teacher candidates were required to self-reflect often because self-reflection is
one way to achieve significant personal transformations (Mezirow, 1997). Achieving
significant personal and professional transformations is what the course strives to
accomplish. For detailed descriptions of each individuals experiences and whether or not
they showed evidence of transformational experiences, see Chapter 5.
Summary of Theoretical Framework and Literature Review
In sum, the adult learners enrolled in ESL for Educators, along with the instructor
and researcher, were complex beings with multiple and unique roles, responsibilities,
experiences, beliefs, values, identities, and goals that were constantly changing and
evolving. Diversity came in many different forms: gender, age, culture, background,
socio-cultural histories and experiences, and a more subtle form of diversity: level of
development, or way of knowing (Drago-Severson, 2004). Peoples diverse ways of
knowing shaped the ways in which the participants understood their experiences both in
the course and in life. Everyone made sense of his or her experiences differently;
therefore, it was important to consider the adult learners development as part of the
research study. Knowing who the learners were and where they were coming from, along
with the multiple demands that were placed upon them at the time of the study, was
important because of how those demands influenced the ways in which they experienced
the online ESL for Educators course and their potential for transformational learning
(Kegan, 1994).
21


The conceptual framework and literature review helped to frame my study in an
attempt to understand how the adult learners in the online ESL for Educators course made
sense of their experiences, their understanding of themselves, and their development as
learners and current or future teachers of ELLs over the course of the semester. In
Chapter 3 I describe my research method, which includes the research questions that
guided the study, the research site and participants, and methods of data collection and
analysis.
22


CHAPTER 3
METHODS
Purpose of Study
Based on prior course assessments, the linguistically diverse education (LDE)
program appeared to achieve its goal of facilitating informational learning for the
majority of teacher candidates enrolled in the course. However, it was unclear how often
transformational learning occurred, if at all. Those who had taught the course, myself
included, reported a sense that the potential existed for transformational learning to occur
as a result of participation in the course, but there was no empirical evidence to support
those claims.
The purpose of this study was to explore the potential for transformational
learning, determine what kind of change was reasonable to expect in a group of TCs
during a one semester course, and which course activities contributed most to shifts in
thinking. Taking the individual participants sociocultural histories and contexts into
consideration, I sought to discover how each of the participants experienced the course,
what their beliefs and understandings were about linguistic diversity at the beginning of
the course, any change that took place in their thinking as a result of their course
participation, and which course activities appeared to have the greatest impact on their
thinking, as well as the ability to foster transformational learning.
Research Questions
The research questions which guided this study addressed three main areas:
teacher candidates perceptions of their experience in the online ESL for Educators
course, their beliefs about working with culturally and linguistically diverse learners, and
23


the changes that took place as a result of their participation in the course. The roles of
background, prior experience, teaching context, and the online learning environment
were considered as well. The specific research questions were:
1. How do different teacher candidates experience the online ESL for Educators
course?
a. What roles do the background and prior experiences of the TCs play?
2. What changes, or shifts in thinking, take place in the understandings and/or
beliefs of teacher candidates about working with culturally and linguistically
diverse learners as a result of their participation in the course?
3. Which course activities, educational practices and processes, according to the
TCs, contribute to transformational shifts in thinking?
a. What role does the online learning environment play?
Research Site
Online ESL for Educators Course
The site for this study is the online ESL for Educators course, which is part of a
teacher education program at a mid-sized university. The fall 2011 university enrollment
was 10,183 students with 1,805 enrolled in at least one online course. This ESL for
Educators course is offered every semester both on campus and online. The TCs enrolled
in the online course are graduate students, some of whom are in the post-baccalaureate
strand of the Teacher Education and Licensure Program (TELP: pre-service), and some
of whom are in the Alternative Licensure Program (ALP: in-service, but without teaching
credentials). All of the participants in the study were part of the Alternative Licensure
24


Program, but not all of them were teaching during the semester of the study. This course
is typically taken early in the course sequence, usually in the first or second semester of
the program.
The ESL for Educators course is conducted using Blackboard and meets entirely
online. There are no face-to-face meetings. The option of having a face-to-face meeting is
at the discretion of the instructor. No face-to-face meetings occurred during the semester
of data collection. Online course activities included weekly readings (two books and
several supplemental readings posted on Blackboard), weekly participation in online
threaded discussions (requirements included one response to the discussion prompt and
responses to at least two classmates), three journal entries (one at the beginning, one in
the middle, and one at the end of the course), three field assignments (see Appendix J for
descriptions), one exam, one scholarly research paper, and a final reflection paper.
I have taught the course twice (fall 2010 and spring 2011). The online instructor
taught the course once (summer 2011) prior to the semester of data collection (fall 2011).
I was granted full access to the online course as a Teaching Assistant during the semester
of the study (fall 2011).
Research Participants
The Teacher Candidates
Of the nine teacher candidates enrolled in the course, six agreed to participate in
the study, four females and two males (see table 3.1). Their ages ranged from 26-50,
three in their late 20s, one in his upper 30s, and two in their early 50s. All participants
were enrolled in the Alternative Licensure Program (ALP) during the time of the study in
25


a secondary content area: three in math, one in science, one in social studies, and one
undeclared. All of the participants were from the United States and spoke English as their
first language. However, five of the six had some knowledge of a language other than
English, and three had lived abroad at various points in their lives. Two of the teacher
candidates were teaching, one was substitute teaching, and three were not in schools
during the semester of the study. See table 3.1 for more information about each of the
participants.
Table 3.1 Background Information as Reported by Participants
SOFIA KATHY JENNIFER PATRICIA STEVEN ERIK
Age range 26-30 46-50 46-50 26-30 26-30 36-40
Content Area Math Math Math Science ? Social Studies
Currently teaching/ subbing No Yes: middle school math and drama Yes: subbing secondary math and science Yes: high school science No No
Teaching Experience (1= norice; 5=veteran) 1 3 2 2.5 3 4.5
Other languages and proficiency (1= low; 5=high) Spanish (3) Spanish (2); Korean (1) German (1); Spanish (1) None reported Spanish (3); Thai (3) Japanese (4); Chinese (2); German (1)
Experience with/ Knowledge of other cultures (l=low; 5=high) 3 5 2 3 4 4
Interest in haring ELLs in class (0=not interested; 5=veiy interested) 4 5 3 4 5 5
Confidence/ ability in teaching ELLs (l=low; 5=high) 1 2 1 2 5 5
26


Table 3.1 Contd
SOFIA KATHY JENNIFER PATRICIA STEVEN ERIK
Preparation of other coursework to teach ELLs (0=no preparation; 5=high preparation) 0 0 0 0 2 0
Confidence in online learning (l=not confident; 5=VC IT confident) 4 5 1 5 1 1
In a condensed timeline, the statistics on students enrolled in ESL for Educators
from fall 2007 to spring 2012 reported that 68.4% have been female and 30.8% male.
77.4% reported being White and 21.8% report being Asian, Black, Hispanic, American
Indian, Alaskan Native, Pacific Islander, or unknown. The average age was reported to be
31.025.
The Instructor
Eva, the instructor, was teaching the ESL for Educators course for the second
time during the semester of data collection. The prior semester she taught took place
during the summer session, which was a condensed version of the layout for the 16-week,
full semester version of the course. Eva had been working as a full-time instructor at the
same university in which the study took place for less than a year, but had extensive
experience as an educator prior to joining this university. For a more detailed description
of Eva, her background, teaching experience, and course experiences, see Chapter 5:
Portraits.
27


The Researcher
I am a married mother of three young children in my mid-thirties. I grew up in a
predominantly white, mid-sized suburb of Chicago and lived in the same house, in the
same town until I left for college. Attending the university was my first real exposure to
diversity. I studied abroad in Spain during my sophomore year, which opened my eyes to
the larger world of which I was a small part. Upon earning my B. A. in the teaching of
secondary Spanish, I moved to Quito, Ecuador. I lived there for two years and taught
adult ESL at a local university and ninth grade English and social studies at a private,
bilingual, K-12 school. It was at that point in my life when I realized that I wanted to
work with English language learners.
When I returned to the U.S. from Ecuador, I taught high school Spanish for one
year, but then went back to school to earn my M. A. TESOL (teaching English to speakers
of other languages). While I was working on my M.A., I taught English for the
universitys English language institute. That experience confirmed my interest in working
with English learners.
After I earned my M.A., I decided to move to Colorado, a place I always enjoyed
visiting as a child. I began working at a local university in a brand new ESL teacher
education program. I was one of the first employees of the grant-funded program and was
excited to be a part of it. I have been involved in one way or another with this newly-
named culturally and linguistically diverse education program for the last nine years. I
have seen it change and evolve over the years, similar to my own identity. Through my
work at this university, I continue to learn about our local population of ELLs and
continue to strive to do whatever I can to help them succeed. That is part of the reason I
28


am now involved in teacher training: to try and reach as many teachers as possible in the
hopes of reaching as many students as possible. That is how this study came to be.
Since the ESL for Educators course may be the only course some of our local
mainstream and content area teachers receive, I believe in its importance, I believe in
making it as effective as possible, and I am convinced of its potential. I decided to take a
step back from teaching the course to examine what was going on and how the teachers
enrolled in the course made sense of their course experiences. I wanted to learn which
aspects of the course were working and which ones needed to be improved upon.
This dissertation is just the beginning of what I foresee to be a long career asking
similar questions. Ultimately, my interests lie with the English learners themselves and
helping prepare the teachers to work with them is the first step in that process.
Data Collection
Questionnaires and Surveys
In order to answer the question of how the teacher candidates experienced this
course, it was important to find out who the adult learners were, including their
backgrounds and experiences. Experience is always a starting point of an educational
process (Knowles, et al., 1998, p. 94) and connecting new learning with prior experience
is an important aspect of educating adults (Merriam, 2008). Therefore, I sent out a
background questionnaire to all online TCs prior to the start of class (see Appendix A).
The questionnaire helped me learn more about the teacher candidates learning past,
which is an important part of their present and future learning (Kegan, 2000, p. 58).
29


The background questionnaire inquired about age, gender, prior experiences with
diversity, knowledge of other languages, teaching experience, confidence in working
with culturally and linguistically diverse learners, confidence with the online learning
environment, and so forth. The questionnaire was a combination of Likert-scale questions
and open-ended questions and served as a great way to learn more about who the study
participants were.
Upon completion of the course, I sent a follow-up questionnaire with five
questions on it to see what may have changed in their confidence and interest in working
with ELLs and with the online learning environment. I also asked them to describe their
overall feelings about how well the ESL for Educators course prepared them to work with
ELLs (see Appendix E).
To further help me understand the TCs, their perceived knowledge of
linguistically diverse education, and their attitudes and beliefs about linguistic diversity, I
sent them two additional surveys. The first was the Knowledge of ELL Issues Survey,
which was a ten question Likert-type survey adapted from Teague (2010) (see Appendix
C). This survey asked the TCs to self-assess their level of knowledge about ELL issues
that would be covered throughout the semester. This same survey was administered at the
completion of the course to gauge perceived gains in informational knowledge.
The second survey was the Language Attitudes of Teachers Scale (LATS)
(Byrnes & Kiger, 1994; Byrnes, Kiger, & Manning, 1997), which consisted of 13 attitude
statements concerning language diversity (see Appendix B). The Likert-type responses
were coded l=strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 3=uncertain, 4=agree, 5=strongly agree.
30


Some items were reverse coded (statements two, four and nine). The alpha reliability
coefficient for the scale was reported at .81 by Byrnes, et al. (1997). Byrnes & Kiger
(1994) reported the test-retest reliability coefficient as r = .72, n = 28. Face validity was
established due to the straightforward nature of the statements that addressed linguistic
diversity issues. However, I have questions about the content validity of this instrument.
Based on the results of this survey, I am not convinced that it measured what it was
supposed to measure: linguistic tolerance. Validity concerns will be discussed further in
the results.
Since the TCs developed their belief systems long before starting this course
(Pohan & Aguilar, 2001; Torok & Aguilar, 2000), it was helpful to get a sense of what
their beliefs and understandings about linguistic diversity and their tolerance of linguistic
diversity were upon entering the course. In addition, the LATS survey had the potential to
reveal whether or not the teacher candidates held any biases, prejudices or cultural
misconceptions that the instructor may have chosen to identify, challenge or address
during the semester (Pohan & Aguilar, 2001, p. 160). The LATS survey was
administered again at the completion of the course to help me learn whether or not the
TCs reported changes in their attitudes or beliefs about cultural and linguistic diversity
over the course of the semester.
Interviews
The questionnaires and surveys provided a brief introduction to the participants,
but in order to learn more about them and how they made sense of their experiences, I
arranged an initial interview with each participant. I met with each of them as soon as
possible at the beginning of the semester. During our first meeting, I asked a few open-
31


ended semi-structured questions, basically an extension of their background
questionnaires. Due to scheduling conflicts, three of the interviews were conducted on the
phone. All interviews were recorded and transcribed.
At approximately the mid-way point in the semester, I conducted a second round
of interviews with each participant. During this meeting I inquired about their
experiences in the course up to that point in the semester. I looked for possible shifts in
their thinking and which activities appeared to be making the greatest impact on them so
far. For this round, two of the six interviews were conducted on the phone.
For the third and final interview I conducted an adaptation of the subject-object
interview (Lahey, et al., 1988) to learn about the TCs course experiences overall and
how they made sense of those experiences (see Appendix G for interview protocol).
Using the subject-object interview was an effective way to accomplish this goal. I was
able to conduct five of the six final interviews in person and one on the phone. Following
the subject-object protocol (Lahey, et al., 1988), I provided the five participants I
interviewed in person with ten index cards that contained various prompts: angry,
anxious, successful, standing up for your beliefs, confused, sad, moved, surprised,
change, important to me. They had 15-20 minutes to think and jot down any notes they
would like on the index cards. However, many of them did not use more than about ten
minutes. I sent the one phone interviewee the prompts in a word document via email,
which he had the opportunity to think about before we started our phone conversation.
I assured all participants that they were in complete control of the interview by
giving them the choice about which cards to talk about and which ones not to talk about. I
32


also made it clear that the cards were theirs and I would not read them, which hopefully
put them more at ease. Throughout the interviews, I tried to keep the atmosphere friendly
and comfortable.
Activity Impact Questionnaires
In addition to the background questionnaires and surveys at the beginning and end
of the semester, I created two activity impact questionnaires, adapted from Brancard
(2008). One was administered at the mid-way point in the semester (see Appendix D) and
one at the end of the semester (see Appendix F). Each course activity was listed,
including readings, online links, field assignments, journals, online discussions, and so
forth. The participants were asked to rate each activity and the impact it made on them.
The purpose of the activity impact questionnaires was to help determine which course
activities the participants perceived as most interesting/engaging, most helpful in
preparing them to work with ELLs, most helpful in understanding themselves better
and/or others better, which caused them to think differently about ELLs, and to what
extent.
Attached to each activity impact questionnaire was a related questionnaire to
gauge their reactions to the online discussion topics. Each weeks discussion topic was
listed and participants were asked whether they would keep, change, or get rid of that
topic. There was a column for comments after each activity and online discussion topic
listed.
33


Online Discussions, Assignment Write-ups and Reflections
Throughout the semester I followed the participants online participation via their
contributions to the weekly threaded discussions and their assignment write-ups and
reflections. Included in their assignment write-ups and reflections were: three journal
entries (beginning, middle, and end of semester entries), three field assignment write-
ups/reflections (see Appendix J for descriptions), and a final reflection paper (end of
semester). I incorporated ideas from their write-ups and reflections into the interviews as
appropriate. Doing so helped me learn how the TCs were constructing their course
experience as the semester progressed and helped me determine whether or not there
were particular activities, practices or processes during which transformational learning
occurred.
Data Analysis
I collected and analyzed data throughout the semester of data collection. I began
analyzing data as soon as I got it. For the Likert-type responses to questionnaires and
surveys (Background Questionnaire, Knowledge of ELL issues, LATS, activity impact
questionnaires, and end-of-semester questionnaires), I entered the data into Microsoft
Excel in order to use descriptive statistics in the reporting the results. Doing so provided a
picture of the group of adult learners in the study and the individual participants more
specifically.
As I conducted interviews and conversations, I jotted down notes and reflected on
what I heard as I heard it, a process referred to as memoing (Miles & Huberman, 1994). I
had all interviews transcribed and immediately read the transcriptions as I entered them
34


into a Microsoft Word data table, which I used as a tool for analyzing my qualitative data
(LaPelle, 2004). I used open coding techniques (Corbin & Strauss, 2008) to help me
identify themes and categories that emerged, which I used to create a theme codebook
(LaPelle, 2004). This was a recursive process under constant revision as new themes and
categories emerged.
More specifically, I used three types of categories in my analysis: organizational,
substantive, and theoretical categories (Maxwell, 2005) which helped me identify
information and find evidence to address my research questions. I started with
organizational categories, the broad areas that I had already anticipated (e.g. prior
experiences, online learning environment, course experiences, etc.). These served as
bins for sorting my data for further analysis (Maxwell, 2005, p. 97).
Substantive categories emerged as subcategories of my organizational categories,
which I did not anticipate prior to data analysis (Maxwell, 2005). The substantive
categories could not be anticipated because they were taken from the participants own
words and were descriptive in nature based on the participants perceptions, concepts, or
beliefs (e.g. finding love, personal experience with immigration, fathers influence on
views towards Hispanic students, etc.).
Based on my own interpretations of the participants data, I established
theoretical categories that connected my interpretations of the data with my theoretical
framework (e.g. subject/object stance, others perspective-taking, empathy, sense of self,
sources of authority, etc.). I went back to the interview transcripts and re-read them in
35


their entirety to get the big picture of the TCs experiences and how they were making
sense of them. This was the final step in the analysis and the most revealing.
Throughout the recursive coding process, I employed connecting strategies which
helped me look for relationships among the categories and themes that connected
statements into a coherent whole (Maxwell, 2005). This helped me to better understand
the individual participants in the study as well as begin the process of developing a more
general theory of what was going on in the course. I used the coding and connecting
processes to analyze interview data as well as written data such as journal entries,
assignment write-ups and reflections.
To provide an example of some of the kinds of statements in the data that helped
me learn about the TCs learning in general and potential for transformational learning, I
looked for comments such as: I did not realize, I was surprised, I never thought
about_____in this way before, I learned, I did not know that, and so forth. I
examined the context of the statement and what brought about those particular feelings.
Through analysis I attempted to discover what contributed to shifts in thinking and in
what ways.
Ultimately, I sought to learn how TCs experienced the course, what their
experiences meant to them, what changes took place, if any, in their thinking as a result
of their participation in the course, and what activities or practices contributed to those
changes. While it was beyond the scope of the study to identify where the participants fell
on the subject-object continuum or what their individual stages of development, or ways
of knowing were, I tried to identify certain abilities and limitations associated with their
36


development, tendencies towards certain meaning-making systems, and their senses of
self. By conducting and analyzing the subject-object interviews and other forms of data
mentioned above, I was able to infer certain aspects of the TCs development and
epistemologies. I will discuss the findings in Chapters 4 and 5.
37


CHAPTER 4
SNAPSHOTS: GLIMPSES INTO RESULTS OF DATA
In this chapter I present the aggregate results and findings of the study for the
group. I have organized the results around the major findings, which are aligned with my
research questions. The major findings are summarized as follows:
1. The participants entered the ESL for Educators course with a wide range of
understandings, beliefs and attitudes about linguistic diversity and each of them
had unique experiences of the course, which were influenced by their
backgrounds, prior experiences, and individual circumstances during the semester
of data collection.
2. The participants developed new understandings about the education of ELLs as a
result of their participation in the course.
3. The course activities that appeared to impact the participants thinking the most
were the three field assignments, written reflections, and the readings on sheltered
content instruction.
4. The reported benefits of the online learning environment were convenience,
flexibility, and pacing. The reported challenges and limitations of the online
environment were difficulty finding a routine and staying on track, lack of
connection with classmates and instructor, fear of miscommunication, superficial
and repetitive discussions, and limitations of typing versus verbalizing thoughts.
38


Finding One
The TCs enrolled in the online ESL for Educators entered the course with a
variety of understandings, attitudes and beliefs about linguistic diversity and the
education of ELLs. Because they all had a different starting point for the course as well
as unique individual circumstances, each of them experienced the course in very different
ways. Their experiences were influenced by a multitude of factors such as their
backgrounds, prior experiences, teaching context, and epistemologies (ways of knowing,
sources of authority, senses of self). For more detailed descriptions of the participants
individual backgrounds and experiences, see Chapter 5.
Prior Understandings
Based on the results of the background questionnaire, surveys, and initial
interviews, it was evident that each of the participants entered the course with a wide
range of knowledge, understandings, and beliefs regarding cultural and linguistic
diversity. The TCs levels of reported knowledge as well as their understandings and
beliefs about diversity and ELLs were mediated by their prior experiences.
Prior knowledge. The results of the initial Knowledge of ELL Issues Survey
indicated that as a group the TCs entered the course with very little knowledge of the
ELL issues that would be covered in the course. They self-assessed their knowledge of
ten issues related to the education of ELLs on a scale of one to five, five representing the
most knowledge. The average score for each of the ten items across all six participants
was 2.33, which most closely corresponded to level two (very little knowledge).
However, the averages varied by participant and by topic.
39


As shown in table 4.1, the topics of which the TCs reported having the highest
average knowledge were issues surrounding the debate on bilingual education (3.17),
legal requirements for educating ELLs (2.83), and how second languages are
learned/acquired (2.83). While those three topics resulted in the highest level of perceived
knowledge, they most closely aligned with the descriptor some knowledge on the scale.
The topic of which the TCs reported having the least knowledge was sheltered content
instruction and how to implement it (1. 33), which most closely aligned with no
knowledge.
Table 4.1 Average (Mean) Responses to Knowledge of ELL Issues Survey by Topic
Topic Average Across Participants SD
The local ELL population 2.5 1.05
Local resources/organizations that serve ELLs/families 1.5 .84
Legal requirements for educating ELLs 2.83 1.17
History of bilingual education in the U.S. 2.33 1.03
Bilingual program models 1.5 .84
Issues surrounding the debate on bilingual education 3.17 1.60
How first languages are leamed/acquired 2.33 1.03
How second languages are leamed/acquired 2.83 1.33
Sheltered content instruction and how to implement it 1.33 .52
Effective instructional strategies for ELLs 2 1.10
As shown in table 4.2, average responses for the individual participants varied as
well. The average self-rated knowledge across the ten topics ranged from a low of 1.2
(Sofia) to a high of 3.0 (Erik). Both Sofia and Jennifer rated themselves as having no
knowledge to very little knowledge on most items; while Erik and Steven rated
themselves as having some knowledge of most topics. Kathy and Patricia fell
somewhere in between rating themselves as having very little knowledge overall.
40


These results suggest that most of the topics covered in the course were new to the
majority of the participants.
Table 4.2 Average (Mean) Responses of Knowledge of ELL Issues Survey by
Participant
Participant Average (Mean) Across Responses SD
Sofia 1.2 .42
Kathy 2.3 .82
Jennifer 1.7 .67
Patricia 2.3 .82
Steven 2.9 1.37
Erik 3.0 1.56
It is important to note the gender difference in the response to the knowledge of
ELL issues survey. The two males in the study reported having greater knowledge than
the females did on the topics presented. None of the participants had engaged in formal
study on the topic, but the males indicated that they had at least some knowledge of all
topics while the females reported having less knowledge of the topics overall. The
difference in intellectual confidence between males and females is not uncommon.
Belenky (1986) and colleagues report that women have a tendency to speak more in self-
doubt than men. Sociolinguist Deborah Tannen (1995) agrees by showing that while
women tend to downplay their certainty, men tend to downplay their doubts. This
appeared to be the case in this study.
Prior training. It is important to note that the majority of the participants had no
prior coursework or preparation in teaching ELLs. In fact, five out of the six participants
reported having no prior course work or training that prepared them to work with ELLs
41


and the one person that did report previous training (Steven) indicated that it resulted in
very little preparation.
Prior experience with other cultures. Because the group as a whole had very little
or no prior training in the area of ELL education, the knowledge and understandings that
they did bring with them about ELL issues were directly related to their own personal
backgrounds and experiences. Five of the six participants had spent time abroad at
various points in their lives (all but Patricia) and all six of them had exposure in one form
or another to a language other than English. Two of the participants (Kathy and Erik) had
previously taught ESL abroad. Kathy taught ESL in Korea and traveled extensively
overseas and Erik taught ESL in Japan and also lived in China and Germany. Jennifer
took several trips to Mexico as a child for vacations and as an adult for mission work.
And while she did not specifically teach ESL, she taught swimming lessons in English
during those mission trips. Steven studied abroad in Thailand and planned to travel to
Asia upon the conclusion of the semester. Overall, the TCs reported an average of 3.5 out
of five with respect to their experience with and/or knowledge of other cultures (five
being the greatest amount of experience/knowledge).
Interest versus confidence in teaching ELLs. Possibly due to their own
experiences with diversity, the group overall reported a relatively high level of interest in
having ELLs in their classrooms (4.33 out of five). This suggests that while the TCs
entered the course with varied experience and knowledge of other cultures and diversity,
they generally had a high interest in working with ELLs with the possible exception of
Jennifer who reported a lower level of interest (three out of five) than the rest of the
group.
42


As figure 4.1 illustrates, the TCs reported level of experience with other cultures
as well as their reported level of interest in having ELLs in their classrooms was
significantly higher overall than their reported level of confidence and/or ability to teach
them. This lack of confidence may have been due to their lack of prior training. With the
exception of Steven and Erik who rated their confidence to teach ELLs as high (five out
of five), Sofia, Kathy, Jennifer, and Patricia rated their confidence much lower (ones and
twos out of five). As a group overall they reported an average level of confidence of 2.67
out of five.

Knowledge of other
cultures
Interest in having ELLs
Confidence in teaching
ELLs
Figure 4.1 Reported Knowledge of Other Cultures, Interest in Having ELLs in their
Classrooms, and Confidence/Ability to Teach ELLs at the Beginning of
the Semester
The results again highlight the difference in response by gender. The males report
being extremely confident in their abilities and the women do not. None of the four
women rated their confidence higher than a two out of five; not even Patricia who had
more experience than anyone in working with ELLs. The results of this survey are in line
with the common practice among women of downplaying certainty and the common
practice among men of minimizing doubts (Tannen, 1995).
43


Prior Attitudes and Beliefs
The pre-semester Language Attitudes of Teachers Scale (LATS) (see Appendix
B) and my initial interviews with each participant showed that there was some variation
in attitudes regarding the role of English language instruction and the education of ELLs
in general upon entering the course. It is important to present the results of the survey as
one piece of the puzzle. However, it is important to note that the interview data at times
conflicted with the LATS responses. Therefore, I relied more heavily on interview data
for clarification because I was not convinced that this instrument accurately represented
the teacher candidates attitudes about cultural and linguistic diversity. Appreciation for
diverse cultures was not reflected in this survey.
The responses to the 13 statements on the LATS survey were added up and each
participant was given an overall score. Three items were reverse coded (two, four, and
nine). A higher score suggested less tolerance of linguistic diversity (Byrnes & Kiger,
1994; Byrnes, et al., 1997). The average score for the participants overall was 25.33 (SD
= 8.41).
With respect to the individual participants, Kathys score was the lowest at 13,
which was also the lowest score possible on the survey. This suggested that Kathy was
extremely tolerant of linguistic diversity upon entering the course and the most tolerant
out of the six total participants. The next lowest score was Patricias (20) followed by
Sofia (24), Erik (27), and Jennifer (31). The highest score was Stevens (37) suggesting
that Steven was the least tolerant of linguistic diversity out of the group of participants
(see table 4.3).
44


Table 4.3
LATS Scores at Beginning of Semester
Participant Beginning
Sofia 24
Kathy 13
Jennifer 31
Patricia 20
Steven 37
Erik 27
Responses of strongly disagree and disagree on the LATS survey were
associated with a greater level of tolerance for linguistic diversity. The average response
across all six participants was a 1.95 (SD = .65) which most closely corresponded to
disagree. This would suggest that while there was variation by response and by
participant, as a group overall they were generally tolerant of linguistic diversity upon
entering the course.
The responses to individual statements on the LATS offered additional insights
into some of the specific attitudes toward linguistic diversity held by the participants. For
example, the majority of participants, with the exception of Steven, expressed that they
felt it was important for people in the U.S. to learn a language in addition to English.
Sofia even enrolled in a Spanish class during the same semester she took ESL for
Educators.
Five of the six participants, with the exception of Erik, indicated that they felt
regular classroom teachers should be required to receive pre-service or in-service training
to be prepared to meet the needs of linguistic minorities. Erik reported being uncertain
about that. If they were answering honestly, this would suggest that while the ESL for
45


Educators course was a requirement for the TCs, most felt it was important and
necessary.
All six of the participants expressed that they felt having an English learner in
their class would not be detrimental to the learning of other students. This would suggest
that at the beginning of the course the group overall embraced the idea of having diverse
learners in their classes. Kathys statements reflected that belief.
When you have an ELL student pop up you have to, you have to, its
unconscionable not to support that student... I mean it doesnt matter whether you
believe that someone should be in this country or not, or whatever. That child,
someone put that child in your charge, and you need to do the best for that child.
Steven expressed similar sentiments. Its a demographic of student in which we must
reach. If we do not reach these students here in the United States well our future
generations are only going to be declining. Its just the way it is. However, while
Jennifer indicated on the survey that she did not think having ELLs in her class would be
detrimental to the learning of the others her interview data suggest that she was not quite
sure.
I thought, Okay, well Im going to have to work with these kids you know, to
help them understand this vocabulary you know, these words, so that they can
do whatever they need to do. That would be like taking time away from the rest
of the class.. .Its a little confusing and difficult to sort of mentally ... I mean
youre already managing the idea of you having students who get the material and
students who do not get the material, and students in the middle who are
progressing, and then to add students who sort of speak English, speak English
pretty well, and speak English perfectly its like Whoa! Thats a lot to take
care of.
While the majority of the participants reported feeling as though the rapid
learning of English should not be a priority for ELLs if it meant losing their native
language, half of the participants were uncertain as to whether or not parents of ELLs
46


should be counseled to speak English with their children whenever possible. Half of the
participants also expressed uncertainty about whether or not the learning of English
should take precedence over learning subject matter at school. This may be due to the fact
that most of the TCs had no previous training in ESL education and rated their overall
knowledge of sheltered content instruction as practically nothing.
The interview data offered additional insights into the TCs attitudes about the
importance of learning English. Erik voiced his opinion about the subject.
Youre in America, you should learn to speak English... So, if you expect to
operate efficiently in this country, you need to know English. Youre perfectly
fine speaking Spanish in your home or wherever you want to speak it, but you
need to know English.. .1 lived in Japan, I learned Japanese. I lived in China, I
learned Chinese. I lived in Germany, I learned German. For Germans living in
America, I would expect them to be interested in learning English.
Patricia revealed that at the beginning of the course her understanding was that ELLs
should master English first before anything else. I felt that needed more to
catch up in the language before they could even attempt to understand the academic
material.
Other participants, such as Kathy, expressed less of a sense of urgency about
learning English and more on the importance of embracing other cultures and languages.
We have to accept them for what they believe. We cant force our views on them. We
can explain our views to them, but we cant force them. She continued to say,
I remember I was very frustrated, because a lot of people were saying, This is
America, and they should be speaking English. And Im like Why should they
accommodate themselves to us? Why? We should embrace everything. There
are so many nice things out there, and we try to throw it all away.
47


Sofia also stressed the importance of being accepting of others and not judging them
based on their English language ability.
We can be very insensitive. People arent dumb because they dont speak
English. Theyre not deaf either. Its just frustrating.. .1 feel kind of... someones
got to stick up for these people, because they cant help it. They need to learn,
and yelling at them is not going to make them learn any faster.
Summary of Finding One
Each of the participants entered this course with varying degrees of experience
with other cultures and knowledge of issues surrounding the education of ELLs as well as
differing attitudes about linguistic diversity. Due to their participation in the course and
their individual circumstances, each of the participants experienced the course in very
unique and different ways. The type of change that occurred as a result of the TCs
course participation will be discussed in the next section.
Finding Two
Each of the six participants changed in some way through their experiences of the
ESL for Educators course. While common themes of change emerged across the group of
participants, the specific types of changes varied from person to person. The perceived
gain of knowledge, the reported change in attitudes and beliefs, and the realizations the
participants made about the education of ELLs and about themselves as educators of
ELLs were unique for each individual.
Change in Reported Knowledge of ELL Issues
The results of the post-semester Knowledge of ELL Issues Survey showed a
reported increase in knowledge for all six participants across all survey responses. As
shown in table 4.4, Sofia assessed her level of knowledge of ELL issues at the beginning
48


as basically no knowledge overall, which resulted in the greatest reported gain (+2.6)
aligning most closely with quite a bit of knowledge. Patricia increased as well (+2.1)
followed by Kathy (+1.8), Erik (+1.4), and Jennifer (+1.25). Steven reported the lowest
increase in knowledge responses across all ten items (+.50). Both his pre and post-
semester self-assessment put him at some knowledge overall.
Table 4.4 Average (Mean) Change to Responses on Knowledge of ELL Issues
Survey by Participant
Participant Pre SD Post SD Change
Sofia 1.2 .42 3.8 .42 +2.6
Kathy 2.3 .82 4.1 .74 +1.8
Jennifer 1.7 .67 2.95 .64 +1.25
Patricia 2.3 .82 4.4 .97 +2.1
Steven 2.9 1.37 3.4 .84 +0.50
Erik 3.0 1.56 4.4 .84 +1.4
As shown in table 4.5 the survey topic that showed the greatest perceived increase
in knowledge for the group overall was sheltered content instruction and how to
implement it (+2.42). The TCs indicated at the beginning of the semester that sheltered
instruction was the topic they knew the least about. The average jumped from 1.33 (no
knowledge) to 3.75 (quite a bit of knowledge). On the other end of the spectrum, the
topic that resulted in the least perceived gain in knowledge for the group was how second
languages are learned/acquired (+.92). The group rated themselves as having some
knowledge of second language acquisition coming into the course (2.83) and ended up
at 3.75 (quite a bit of knowledge) as a group overall.
49


Table 4.5 Average (Mean) Change on Knowledge of ELL Issues Survey by Topic
Topic Pre Post Change
The local ELL population 2.5 4.17 +1.67
Local resources/organizations that serve ELLs/families 1.5 3 +1.5
Legal requirements for educating ELLs 2.83 4.33 +1.5
History of bilingual education in the U.S. 2.33 4 +1.67
Bilingual program models 1.5 3.5 +2.0
Issues surrounding the debate on bilingual education 3.17 4.33 +1.16
How first languages are leamed/acquired 2.33 3.92 +1.59
How second languages are leamed/acquired 2.83 3.75 +0.92
Sheltered content instruction and how to implement it 1.33 3.75 +2.42
Effective instructional strategies for ELLs 2 3.67 +1.67
Change in Reported Level of Interest in Having ELLs in Class
Kathy, Steven and Erik, the three participants who originally rated their interest in
having ELLs in their class at a five (the highest level of interest), re-rated their level of
interest at fives, which indicated that they came in to the course with a high interest and
left the course with a high interest in working with linguistically diverse learners.
Therefore, there was no perceived change in interest for half of the participants. As
illustrated in figure 4.2, the other half of the participants did report a change in their level
of interest in working with ELLs. Sofia and Patricia reported an increased level of
interest (both jumping from a four to a five) and one participant, Jennifer, reported a
decrease in interest with working with ELLs (changing from a five to a four). She
explained that her lower interest was due to the fact that she felt unprepared to work with
ELLs.
50


Figure 4.2 Change in Reported Interest in Having ELLs in Classroom: Beginning and
End of the Semester
Change in Reported Level of Confidence to Teach ELLs
When asked about their confidence and/or ability in teaching ELLs, five out of the
six participants reported a change in their level of confidence. Steven was the exception.
Steven came in to the course extremely confident (rating his confidence at a five out of
five) and left the course extremely confident (also at a five), suggesting that his perceived
level of confidence did not change as a result of his participation in the course. Four out
of the six participants reported an increase in their confidence and/or ability to work with
ELLs: Sofia, Kathy, Jennifer, and Patricia (see Figure 4.3). However, one person reported
a decrease in his confidence and/or ability to teach ELLs: Erik. This may be due to the
fact that he realized the limitations of transferring his prior ESL teaching experience
abroad to teaching ELLs in a history class in the U.S.
51


I was in Japan, I was teaching English, and for the Japanese, their English needs
are different than what an ELL kid needs here in the US. I guess I kind of, sort of
had that in the back of my head, but after I did the visit, it really came to
the front.
He mentioned that its not a one size fits all and came to the realization about the
importance of acknowledging that learners needs are different everywhere.
Yeah, you kind of gotta think, Oh, ESL is the same here, its the same there, its
the same everywhere, but its not the same everywhere. The needs are different
from one group of people to another. I think you need to be aware of even the
difference between kids here and adults here.


Sofia Kathy Jennifer Patricia Steven Erik
Beginning of Semester
End of Semester
Figure 4.3 Reported Change in Confidence/ Ability in Teaching ELLs
Patricia discussed her gain in knowledge and confidence as empowering. All of
the awareness has eased, or I dont know if eased is the correct term to use, maybe
empowered. I feel empowered that I know at least a good amount. I have a good toolbox
now that I can start putting into action, I feel like I can do it.
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Jennifer, on the other hand, felt more overwhelmed by the amount of information
presented which contributed to her decrease in confidence and interest in working with
ELLs. My interest is low because I do not feel prepared to instruct ELLs. She also
discussed feelings of nervousness about teaching ELLs.
But then, it was like, Oh my gosh, what did I learn? I dont know what Em...
What was that last thing that we studied last chapter, or last week? It just felt like
there was a new thought every week, and it was like I wasnt getting more
confidence, so I became more nervous about teaching ELLs by the end of the
class than I was in the middle of the class.
Change in Teaching Practice: Kathy and Patricia
Kathy and Patricia were the only two participants who were teaching during the
semester they took the ESL for Educators course. Implications of teaching context on
course design will be discussed in further detail in Chapter 6. In talking about changes
that took place as a result of course participation, it is necessary to include the changes in
practice that took place for both Kathy and Patricia due to what they learned in the
course. Kathy said,
My thinking has totally shifted on how you teach ELLs, and Ive learned a lot of
strategies on how you teach ELLs, and I think I would have, I think without some
of those strategies, I would have done things a little differently, and I dont think I
would have been as successful.
Kathy highlighted evidence of impact on the academic growth of her ELL. So
this week I started using effective ELL strategies, and my scores just jumped... So,
was an F student and now, hes a B student. Not only did she see success in her
ELL based on newly implemented strategies, but she saw success with the rest of the
class as well.
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So I have him with a buddy, Im presenting the words in Spanish and in English,
Im doing a lot of manipulatives. And, so Im doing a lot of things without
talking with him, just showing and demonstrating, and that seems to be getting
along. And the other kids seem to be getting it too from manipulatives.
Manipulatives really work.
Kathy also discussed her feelings on the importance of using native language support.
I have one child who is just barely understands any English, and I try to do
everything in the course in Spanish for him that I can, but I try to tell him it in
English and Spanish... And then I ask him in the journal, can you please try to
journal for me in English and then journal for me in Spanish? Because, I can read
the Spanish, why shouldnt I read it if I can? That would be totally ridiculous not
to use that asset.
Patricia described the changes she made in her teaching practice based on what
she learned in the course.
I have been able to do some things differently. Ive really made an effort to try to
know the kids on a personal level, especially those ELL kids and make sure we
talk about their home life and not in an invading way, but just what do you like to
do when you have free time? kind of thing. Trying to really incorporate them in
the classroom with cooperative learning strategies and making sure they are
interacting with each other and not just within their group but also getting to know
the other kids that are of different background in the classroom. Its not just about
them getting to know other kids, its about other kids getting to know them, too.
So that they can go to class and really feel comfortable in that sense.
Kathy and Patricia also mentioned the role of the parents in their ELLs
education. Kathy in particular developed new understandings about the importance of
understanding the parents. Another big thing is just really, understanding their parents,
and helping them, helping them cope. I mean it can be a big change. We dont know the
reasons why they came to the United States. We dont know what was motivating
them...
Sharing new knowledge with other educators. Both Kathy and Patricia discussed
the importance of taking what they learned in the ESL for Educators course and sharing
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that with other educators in their buildings. Patricia met with her principal and together
they conducted an in-service training for the teachers at her school during that same
semester.
Its actually really cool, because I took Sheltered Content Instruction into the
principal at my school.. .And so I said, What can we do to start implementing the
SIOP model within every classroom? because we have such a high population of
ELL students in our school that I feel like every class should be using sheltered
content instruction. And so, he was extremely receptive to it, and he really
wanted to get something going. And so we put some books together, put a
PowerPoint together, and did a training of that model for all teachers there. It was
really cool. So now, theyre implementing language objectives. We talked about
multi-sensory instruction. So thats been really cool. Thats where a lot of the
learning for me has taken place.
Even though Kathy did not conduct trainings at her school immediately, she saw
it as a role she would be taking on in the future. She discussed becoming an advocate for
learners with exceptional needs and felt that starting with ELLs made good sense.
I want to advocate for my children who have exceptional needs. English
Language Learners have exceptional needs; theres many, many different
exceptional needs and reasons why children have needs. And putting it in the
perspective, starting with the ELLs at a starting point, allowed me to see a lot
more about diversity... and for my ELL students, its a foreign language, and we
have to realize that that foreign language doesnt necessarily mean foreign bom.
It means that the child has some need thats exceptional with regards to language
or social interactions, and we need to be aware of that. Something I am definitely
going to advocate for these children, because they dont have anyone to stand up
for them.. .Im not the ELL coordinator, but I feel like lam... I see that Im going
to be doing that in my school. My principal is brand new, too, so he sees it as a
need, and hes like so glad that I want to take that on, because he saw it as a need
and hasnt had anybody to realize it. We have a fantastic team at my school.
Patricia also saw herself as an advocate for the ELLs in her school. I think they need
somebody thats going to be their advocate right now, because theyre the population that
struggles the most at our school.
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New Understandings about the Education of ELLs
Importance of teaching both content and language. Several participants in the
study indicated that through their participation in the course, they learned the importance
of teaching both content and language objectives. Erik said, The thing I got from this
course is how important it is to teach the subject matter to the child, even if they dont
quite understand the language. Patricia stated,
Comprehensible input was probably -1 mean I think that was one of the huge
ideas for me to get into my head, was that anything that I present to them really
needs to be comprehensible to them, so I need to make sure that I can assess their
levels of content and language knowledge, and then combine those things together
and make sure that I am presenting information in a way that they can understand,
so that was huge.
Role of native language. Sofia came to the realization that the ability a student has
in his or her native language will impact where they are in English.
I think that it gives me a little bit better idea of how, where theyre at in their
native language, really impacts where theyre at in English, because if they dont
have the knowledge in their native language, then how can we expect the same
thing in English, because that would, you know, the words are completely
different, and if you dont understand the concepts, you know, that puts you ... I
think itd be a really tough area to be in...
Patricia came to a similar realization. The content knowledge plays into the
language, because they may have some background knowledge, but they may not be able
to verbalize it in English. And while she acknowledged the importance of teaching both
content and language objectives, the application of it caused her to feel overwhelmed.
Having to cover both content and language in the classroom is something that seems
very overwhelming, and because I havent fully implemented it, I dont know what its
going to be like yet.
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Change in Attitudes and Beliefs
Change inLATS scores. The LATS was designed to measure levels of linguistic
tolerance with higher scores suggesting lower tolerance (Byrnes & Kiger, 1994). See
table 4.6 for changes in TCs scores from the beginning to the end of the semester. The
three participants that changed by more than two points were Patricia (+4), Steven (+4),
and Jennifer (+11). Since their scores were higher, these results would suggest that
Patricia, Steven and Jennifer became less tolerant of linguistic diversity over the course
of the semester. Based on interview data, I am not convinced that they became less
tolerant of culturally and linguistically diverse learners; thus calling into question the
validity of the instrument.
Table 4.6 Change in LATS Scores from Beginning to End of Semester
Participant Beginning End Difference
Sofia 24 23 -1
Kathy 13 15 +2
Jennifer 31 42 +11
Patricia 20 24 +4
Steven 37 41 +4
Erik 27 26 -1
When the scores of the six participants were combined and averaged, they showed
an average gain of 3.17 (SD = 4.45) (see table 4.7). This result would suggest that as a
group overall they became less tolerant of linguistic diversity. Again, the results may be
showing that they became more convinced of the importance of teaching English and the
complex demands placed on teachers to meet the needs of CLD learners rather than that
they became less tolerant.
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Table 4.7 Average (Mean) LATS Scores for the Group at Beginning and End of
Semester
Mean Pre SD Mean Post SD Mean Gain SD
Combined 0=6) 25.33 8.41 28.5 10.75 3.17 4.45
The individual statements on the LATS that resulted in the greatest change were
statements 6 and 11. Statement 6 reads, The rapid learning of English should be a
priority for non-English proficient or limited-English-proficient students even if it means
losing the ability to speak their native language. Sofia, Patricia, Jennifer, and Steven
changed their response to be in more agreement with this statement. Sofia and Patricia
went from strongly disagree to disagree. This indicates the same opinion, but the
strength of it changed. Jennifer went from being uncertain to agreeing with the statement.
And Steven went from disagree to agree. This may indicate less tolerance or it may
show an increased awareness in the importance of teaching English.
For statement 11, At school, the learning of the English language by non- or
limited-English proficient children should take precedence over learning subject matter
Patricia, Jennifer and Erik were originally uncertain about this statement. Patricia and
Erik changed their response to disagree, but Jennifer, on the other hand, changed her
response to agree. Steven was the other person who changed, but he went from
strongly disagree to disagree.
The LATS results suggest that the participants became less tolerant of linguistic
diversity overall (Byrnes & Kiger, 1994; Byrnes, et al., 1997). Another possible
explanation for the change is that those who changed their responses to appear less


tolerant may have became more convinced of the importance of learning English, more
sensitive to teacher demands, and more aware of the need for professional preparation to
meet the needs of their diverse learners. Based on other forms of data, such as interviews
and written reflections, I would not conclude that the participants attitudes towards ELLs
become more negative. This again calls into question the validity of the instrument and
highlights the importance of the triangulation of data, which helps paint a clearer picture
of the phenomena taking place. For example, in talking with Patricia in interviews I
would have predicted that she had become more tolerant and aware of issues surrounding
linguistic diversity, the opposite of what the LATS scores suggested (Byrnes & Kiger,
1994; Byrnes, et al., 1997). She consistently talked about important realizations she had
made during the semester such as becoming an advocate and altering her teaching
practice to better meet the needs of her ELLs.
I think that part of the big revelation for me so far have just been that for these
ELL students I have to be thinking about the whole student and not just the
language, but what else are they experiencing at home thats affecting, what else
are they experiencing in life that could be affecting where they are at right now...
I think thats been the big thing is that its not just the language component, but
there are so many other components that are involved in their ability to retain and
learn information.
Change in feelings of empathy. A few of the participants indicated that they felt a
sense of empathy for ELLs or felt they could relate to ELLs in some way. It is difficult to
ascertain whether or not their feelings of empathy were influenced more by course
participation or other experiences. Sofia, for example, was enrolled in a Spanish class
during the semester she took the ESL for Educators course. She described herself as a
Spanish language learner and talked often about how that experience influenced her
course experiences and her thinking about ELLs. Its just making me think about things
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different, the class and having the Spanish class both I think are probably the two biggest
things that have affected how I think. Because now Im a Spanish Language Learner...
Sofia continued to describe the connections she made between her Spanish class and the
ESL for Educators class and how being a Spanish learner allowed her to better put herself
in the shoes of ELLs.
said that shell be trying to explain something about
grammar, and she just gets this (gestures a blank stare) from some of the students,
and nobody asks questions, because she says, are there any questions? People
dont understand what the assignments are about. I think thats kind of like how
an English learner would feel in a regular class. They dont quite get everything
thats going on, but you dont want to ask a question, because then you look
stupid. And sometimes, you dont know how to form the question even. I think
its kind of neat to be able to take both of these at the same time and see how they
kind of go together.
Erik mentioned that based on his experiences abroad he, too, felt a sense of
empathy for ELLs.
For me, you know, as Eve learned, Eve been a steady in Japan when my Japanese
wasnt very good. Ive lived in Germany, and I didnt speak German. So I think I
have a little more empathy for kids who are in sort of the similar situation here in
the United States, where certainly youre here not by choice, because youre six,
youre seven, eight, nine, or whatever. But youre expected to swim, and
everyone just says, well, kids learn languages fast. And, that doesnt really help
you.
And Steven talked about how he would be able to relate to all types of kids. He
did not specifically mention ELLs, but it was implied in our conversation. Yeah, I can
relate to kids. I can relate to them. You know, gangsters, jocks, musicians, mutes, dudes,
females, gays, whatever, I relate to them. Cause it is what it is; you are who you are.
Finally, Patricia reflected on her former ELLs in a new way and with a greater
sense of empathy based on her new understandings.
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I actually felt sad that as the semester went on and I had increasing awareness for
the needs of these ELL students that I could look back on previous experiences
and identify what I could have done better and what I you know probably should
have been aware of before. But I didnt know, and I could have helped them be
more successful. So, I think thats the first thing that really came to mind,
because I just I look back on these students that I know were struggling, and at the
time I didnt know what I could do, so its -1 guess its bitter sweet.. .1 think what
Ive realized most, what has made me most sad is before I would have said, oh
maybe they have lots going on at home, and their parents arent really invested
in their education, and maybe thats why this is leading to this circumstance. I
think that the increasing awareness allowed me to see every single component that
could be involved. And their lack of success in the classroom so not just
language barriers, not just the affective issues, but everything combined maybe
the family issues, are just one small piece of it. Its my job to assess all of those
issues. And just realizing that I hadnt been, was probably the sad part for me.
Change in awareness of local ELL population. The knowledge of ELL issues
survey topic about knowing the local ELL population at the beginning of the course
resulted in an average between no knowledge and very little knowledge, but jumped
to quite a bit of knowledge at the end of the semester. This is important because the
TCs assumptions were challenged about what the local ELL population consists of.
Several participants admitted that when they heard ESL or ELL they used to
think Spanish-speaking. Jennifer said, In my mind, I always thought of ESLs as being
mainly Spanish-speaking. And Steven agreed by stating, The thought is ESL for
Spanish. The TCs described themselves as being surprised and shocked by the
statistics of our local ELL population, to include both the numbers of ELLs as well as the
number of languages represented. They learned this information largely from the first
field assignment which required them to watch a panel discussion video of local ELL
directors. Patricia said, I gained a lot from the panel, because it was just -1 didnt know
anything about it, and that was my first glimpse into what it was really like. Sofia
agreed,
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I think mostly, the thing that had probably the biggest impact was watching the
video from the panel because it surprised me. I didnt realize that in our town we
had so many English Language Learners. I really didnt... So I just really hadnt
been exposed to it, and I was just really surprised. I just didnt think it was that
big of a need in this city.
Other participants echoed those feelings of surprise. Jennifer admitted, I think
Ive thought a lot about Hispanic and Spanish is the native language and you hear that
and its like wow it could be anybody. There could be any language in your room.
Steven expressed,
It just was very surprising how many different languages are represented in school districts>. Those numbers were surprising. I thought they would have been
a lot smaller. It was astonishing... I just never thought that the problems were that
big, especially , but they are, and theyre everywhere.
And Erik concluded, I guess you think going into it that its all pretty much even. You
dont realize how divided it is, the immigrant population is in the city.
Summary of Change
In conclusion, it was evident that each of the participants gained new
understandings about the education of ELLs and some of them also showed evidence of
change in their attitudes and beliefs due to their participation in the course. Most of the
TCs gained confidence in teaching ELLs based on what they learned and the two who
were teaching at the time were able to directly apply what they learned and with which
they experienced success. However, two of the TCs decreased in their confidence
because of new understandings they developed. In certain cases the participants gained a
greater sense of empathy for ELLs and reflected back on their prior experiences with the
new understandings and knowledge they gained over the course of the semester.
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Finding Three
Based on the results of the pre and post Knowledge of ELL Issues survey, the pre
and post LATS survey, the interviews and reflections, it was evident that certain course
activities impacted the thinking of the TCs more than others. The aspects of the course
that they reported as having the greatest impact on them were the field assignments,
reflection paper, journals, and the Sheltered Content Instruction textbook (Echevarria &
Graves, 2010). Overall, the course contributed to the acquisition of informational
learning, a change in what a person knows, but in few instances led to transformational
learning, a change in how a person knows. I will discuss transformational learning further
in Chapter 6.
Activity Impact Questionnaire
Half-way through the semester the participants were asked to fill out a mid-
semester activity impact questionnaire (see Appendix D). At the end of the semester they
were asked to fill out another course activity impact questionnaire using the same
guidelines as the first (see Appendix F). Participants rated each activity based on how
interesting and/or engaging they felt it was as well as the activitys ability to help prepare
them to work with ELLs, help them to understand themselves better, understand others
better, and whether or not the course challenged them to think differently about ELLs.
The TCs rated the activities on a scale from zero to five, zero being not helpful/engaging
and five being extremely helpful/engaging. I added up the average scores for each
activity and included in table 4.8 the activities that had an average score of four or higher.
Those that had an average score of four or higher, indicating activities the TCs felt had
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the greatest impact on them, were: the three field assignments, the sheltered content
instruction textbook, the journals, and the final reflection paper.
Table 4.8 Activities That Resulted in Greatest Reported Impact
Activity Description Mean rating SD
Field Assignment 1 Local ELL directors panel discussion video 4.54 (mid-term) .43
Field Assignment 2 Cultural experience in unfamiliar language 4.08 (mid-term) .40
Sheltered Content Instruction Text Textbook on sheltered instruction techniques 4.04 (mid-term) .53
Journals Beginning, middle and end of semester reflections 4.08 (end-semester) .33
Field Assignment 3 ESL observation and interview with ESL teacher 4.48 (end-semester) .36
Final reflection paper Reflection of experiences over the course of the semester 4.12 (end-semester) .27
Field assignments. The topic of field assignments emerged as one of the most
common themes throughout the interviews. Other than a few comments that I considered
negative, the vast majority were overwhelmingly positive. Patricia said in reference to the
field assignments, those were all great. I was thinking back on all three. Those were
wonderful! Sofia agreed by stating, All the field assignments were really good.
Field assignment one asked the TCs to watch a video of a panel discussion
between four ESL coordinators from local school districts that took place the previous
semester. As mentioned under finding two, the content of the video appeared to make a
great impact on the thinking of the participants. The realizations they made about the
local ELL population were described as shocking, surprising and eye-opening by
many. Steven described his surprise.
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Something that surprised me was watching that English as a second language
panel directors discussion. It just was very surprising how many different
languages are represented in . Those numbers were
surprising. I thought they would have been a lot smaller. It was astonishing.
Erik attributed a big realization he made about the importance of teaching content
to the information he got from watching the panel discussion.
That was one thing I got from the panel discussion was that it doesnt matter if
you say Im teaching history. It doesnt matter if they learn it in Spanish,
German, or French, or Russian, or whatever, as long as he knows who George
Washington is and why George Washington is important. That is the important
thing. And you know maybe it takes him a little while to figure it out in his native
language, but as long as he gets it at the end, thats all that matters.
Kathy discussed how she wished she had learned the information presented on the
video sooner.
The thing that I learned the most from was the ... field assignment that she had us
watch... the panel. Thats what I learned the most from. I said, Oh, oh, how
stupid, yes. It just went ping and ping and ping. Things have been much better
since I did that... so if I had realized all that stuff ahead of time, I think ELL> would have been better off right now.
Patricia also discussed her feelings about the panel discussion. I gained a lot
from the panel, because it was just -1 didnt know anything about it, and that was my first
glimpse into what it was really like. And Jennifer, too, found the panel informative.
Even the video on hearing all those ESL coordinators.. .that was real learning.
Field assignment two was the cultural field assignment that required students to
attend a cultural event, religious service or language class that was conducted in a
language with which they were not familiar. The majority of the participants attended
religious services conducted in a language other than English and most of them expressed
that it was a positive and eye-opening experience for them. Several of the TCs also
expressed that they were thankful for the opportunity and likely would not have done it
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on their own. Sofias comment sums up the thoughts of herself and others. Im really
glad that I got the opportunity to do that, because I never would have done it on my own,
I dont think. Who would? Why would we put ourselves in that kind of situation? I think
it was really, it was really good.
A common theme that emerged in the assignment reflections as well as in the
interviews was that of the importance of feeling welcome in an unfamiliar situation.
Often it was just one person at the service or event who made the TCs feel more welcome
and hence more comfortable. Patricia described her experience at a Jewish temple and
how one woman approached her and helped her to feel included when she was otherwise
feeling like an outsider. Patricia took that experience and related it to her ELLs.
can end up being completely introverted because of feeling like an outsider>, and that can hinder their growth. So, I think my whole
assessment on that field assignment was just that its extremely important to make
the students feel totally welcome and comfortable and a part of the classroom and
that they matter.
Interestingly, Patricia revealed that she did not have those big revelations right away. It
was not until she began reflecting upon it that it began to click for her.
Well, the temple was really interesting, because after I went, I didnt really have
any huge epiphanies or anything. It wasnt until I started writing about it that I
really knew what was going on. I kind of discovered, through the process, how
important it is for students to feel socially and emotionally comfortable in their
environment and accepted and wanted.
Similarly, Jennifer mentioned the process of writing about the experience as beneficial.
Youre going to a culture... That was a real learning experience, and writing about that
was a good thing to do.
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Another common theme that emerged was that of coming to a realization that
even though we are all different, deep down we are also very much the same. Sofia made
that revelation after her experience at the mosque she attended. For me, its like, Wow!
We are the same. I mean, I knew that, but to actually like feel that, it was really cool.
Steven described an emotional experience he had at Russian Orthodox and Greek
Orthodox churches. This experience helped Steven take on the perspective of what it
might be like for someone to come here from another country and experience a language
barrier.
Well, what I did is I went to a couple of churches. I went to a Russian orthodox
church and a Greek orthodox church. I kind of had some spiritual experiences
more than anything, but a lot of it was transcended by the language barrier. I
wasnt quite understanding what was being said, and what was being done. So, it
was kind of the unspoken language that connected me to the feeling of being in
these churches. I can see how that would transcend to like say a Guatemalan
coming over here and watching a baseball game or baseball stadium not
understanding quite whats going on, but just feeling the vibrations of the park, of
the game, of the people. It could be very powerful; you could have a cultural
experience by just being, tasting, touching, hearing... Thats what I got from
those cultural experiences, that even if you are uncomfortable, or if youre not
aware of a language or a medium of some sort, there are still benefits of an
experience, and thats what I got from that more than anything.
While four of the participants expressed feeling powerful emotions as a result of
their cultural field assignment experience, Erik and Jennifer expressed feelings of
skepticism about its impact. For Erik, he explained that the experience felt superficial to
him since he already lived abroad and lived that experience on his own for several years.
I think I would get more out of additional time in classrooms> than, no offense,
Go observe a service in foreign language. Ive lived in foreign countries. Ive
lived there. I know what its like to be in the middle of nowhere and not really
get it. Ive got that down. Ive got confused in another country down. I get that
at home, when my wife is mad... Yeah, Im living it... Ive got that down, so I
would rather see more class time.
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While Jennifer did not have extensive experience living abroad, she described
skepticism about how this experience could translate into an understanding of the
experiences of ELLs. Based on what she discussed in our interview, it appeared as though
she found the experience valuable on a personal level, but that it did not accurately reflect
the true feelings of what it would be like to be an ELL.
Thats obviously a little more difficult to find an area that you can jump into a
language thats not your language. But then, the problem with that, of course, is
that when you go to those places, generally those people all speak English. It was
good, but you dont get the true feeling of being foreign. Or a couple of you can
speak to each other, and the people around you cant speak with you at all, which
is what you know ESLs are feeling when they walk into a classroom and the
teacher is like I dont understand your language, and the classmates are like, I
dont know what youre saying. ... it was a great experience, but you can feel
how different it is emotionally, youre like, thats nothing like what theyre
going through, but they have a bigger challenge.
The requirement for field assignment three was that each TC was to conduct an
observation of an ESL class as well as an interview with the ESL teacher. For those who
observed high quality instruction the experience was a great learning opportunity. For
Erik, it was the experience that made the greatest impact on him during the semester.
I got a lot out of that. I got more out of that than I did in the rest of the class.... It
also motivates you, too. It really fires you up. Well, for me anyway. When you
see the kids and you see how theyre doing it makes me want to dive in and help,
you know?
Patricia used what she was learning in class about sheltered content instruction
and used it as a tool for analyzing her observation. I gained a lot from that last
observation that I did. I really tried to apply the components of the SIOP model to
analyze that lesson plan, and I got a lot out of it by doing it that way.
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For Jennifer, this experience appeared to be the most positive one for her.
However, she also mentioned that what she learned from her interview made her think
about how much work goes into educating ELLs. That was just, it was amazing to me
how elaborate it is. I was like, Wow, thats a whole lot of work. That was a great eye-
opening experience...I felt that was an extreme learning experience.
Journals and reflections. Three journals were required of all TCs during the
semester: one at the beginning, one at the middle and one at the end of the course. In the
final weeks of the semester the TCs were asked to compile all of their journals into one
final reflection paper that summarized their experience overall. According to the activity
impact questionnaires, the TCs reported that the journals and final reflection paper made
an impact on them. It is interesting to note, though, that the journals did not average out
to a score of 4.0 or higher at the mid-term activity impact questionnaire. It was not until
the end of semester questionnaire that their reported impact increased, which was also the
same time they completed their final reflections.
The topics of journal entries and the final reflection paper did not come up very
often in interviews. Patricia was one of very few who explicitly mentioned her feelings
about journaling and reflecting. She was the one who mentioned that for the second field
assignment her greatest epiphanies came out of the reflection and writing of the reflection
about the experience. She also mentioned that along with the field assignments, she was
getting the most benefit from the journals. Jennifer, too, indicated that writing reflections
of her experiences enhanced her learning. She discussed the final reflection paper in our
final interview. I dont mind the reflection paper because it does help you look back at
what youre doing. She mentioned that her journal allowed her to see that she did in fact
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learn something from the course. Really through a little bit of the reflecting on my
journal, I was like, Oh yeah, thats right, we did learn some of that stuff
Textbook: Sheltered content instruction (Echevarria & Graves, 2010). There were
two textbooks required for the course (Echevarria & Graves, 2010; Lightbown & Spada,
2006) and several articles readings and internet links. When I asked participants about
their reactions to the readings, a common response was that they had a difficult time
keeping all of them straight and therefore could not remember exactly what they had
read. Erik admitted, Honestly, I have trouble sometimes keeping the other class reading
separate from the ESL readings. He was not alone. Jennifer had similar issues. When
youre taking another course... You start blending the... Youre like, wait a minute,
didnt I read that in here?
One of the textbooks (Echevarria & Graves, 2010), resulted in a score of 4.04 at
the mid-semester activity impact questionnaire, which made the list of course activities
that made the greatest reported impact. It is important to note, though, that the score for
that same textbook did not make a score of 4.0 or higher at the end of semester
questionnaire. This would suggest that the overall reactions to the text shifted somewhat
from the middle to the end of the course. However, several students did cite that textbook
as useful. Patricia, for example said, Readings were good. I liked the Sheltered Content
Instruction book probably, because I am so focused on, What can I do in my classroom,
now?... The SCI book, I was like, This has great stuff in it. This is really, really useful
to me. So, I appreciated the SCI book a lot. Steven also had positive comments about
it. I really like that Sheltered Content Instruction textbook. Its really concise with the
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ideas. It gives you general ideas, and then it kind of expounds on them a little further, but
it doesnt do it in a sense that kind of bores you.
ESL for Educators Ability to Prepare TCs to Teach ELLs
In looking at the ESL for Educators course overall with the various course
activities, practices and processes, TCs were asked to rate the courses ability to prepare
them to teach and/or work with ELLs. The results were somewhat split. Jennifer and
Steven indicated that the course prepared them very little or only a little. Sofia and Erik
reported that they felt the course prepared them well, and Kathy and Patricia reported that
they felt the course prepared them very well. Since Kathy and Patricia were the two that
were teaching during the semester they took ESL for Educators, this result highlights
again the importance of having a relevant context to apply what one is learning.
Summary of Course Activity Impact
I would conclude based on the comments from the assignment write-ups and
interviews that the field assignments overall made the greatest perceived impact on the
participants. The topic of field assignments emerged more than any other course activity.
The journals and final reflections along with the sheltered content instruction textbook
(Echevarria & Graves, 2010) also made a greater reported impact on the TCs than other
course activities.
Finding Four
Confidence with Online Learning
Based on the results of the background questionnaire, the participants were split
50/50 in their reported confidence with the online learning environment. At the beginning
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of the semester Jennifer, Steven and Erik rated themselves on the lower end of the
spectrum (ones and twos), indicating they had little confidence or comfort with the online
learning environment; whereas the other three: Sofia, Kathy and Patricia rated themselves
on the higher end of the spectrum (fours and fives), indicating that they were quite
confident and/or comfortable with the online learning environment.
At the end of the semester the TCs completed a follow-up to the background
questionnaire where they re-assessed and reported their level of confidence or comfort
with the online learning environment. Those who reported a high level of confidence at
the beginning (Sofia, Kathy, and Patricia) remained steady in their confidence, remaining
at a four or a five out of five. As figure 4.4 illustrates, the remaining three participants
indicated a change in their level of confidence. Jennifer and Erik reported a slight
increase in their confidence while Steven reported a decrease in his confidence. He went
from a one to a zero (no confidence), which is why there is no visible bar representing his
end of semester report. Steven said, I dont think onlines for me cause Im one of those
people that I want to be around people and have feedback and listen to whats being said,
state my own opinions, things like that. He predicted from the beginning, I dont feel
like its gonna be what Im looking for.
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Figure 4.4 Reported Level of Confidence/Comfort Level with Online Learning:
Beginning and End of Semester
In addition to their level of confidence in online learning, TCs were asked
whether or not they would take ESL for Educators online or on campus if given the
choice to take it again. The results showed them split half and half. Kathy, Jennifer and
Patricia said they would take it again online while Sofia, Steven and Erik expressed a
desire to take it on campus.
For some, online was the only way they could take the class. Jennifer expressed
that this format was more convenient. I wouldnt be able to do a class or at least not as
easily. It would be more of a strain. All my complaints about it its to say I do like it and
Im glad that I have it. Patricia also indicated that this was the only format that would
work for her. The one thing thats great about online classes is that Im able to take a
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class and work. So, I really, really appreciate it for that. I wouldnt be able to do it if it
wasnt that way.
Online Participation
A requirement of the course in addition to the field assignments, readings,
journals, and reflections was participation in online weekly threaded discussions. Each
person was required to post an initial response to the weekly prompt from the instructor
by Thursday evening and then respond to at least two colleagues by Monday evening.
While it was beyond the scope of this study to analyze each individual online discussion
post, I calculated the number of weeks out of 16 that each TC participated in order to get
a sense of each participants level of participation in online discussions (see figure 4.5).
Kathy and Jennifer engaged in the online discussions every week, followed
closely by Eva, the instructor, who only missed one week. Patricia contributed to the
discussions 14 out of the 16 weeks followed by Sofia who participated in 12 out of the 16
discussions. Steven participated in eight of the weekly discussions whereas Erik only
contributed to two of the weekly discussions, the least amount of participation across the
six participants.
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Number of Weeks Participated
Figure 4.5 Online Participation: Number of Weeks Participated
In addition to looking at the number of weeks in which each TC participated, I
calculated the number of total posts each participant contributed, including the number of
on time posts and the number of late posts. As shown in figure 4.6 Eva, the instructor,
contributed the greatest number of posts overall as well as the greatest number of late
posts. 75% of Evas contributions to the weekly discussions were late. Sofia, Kathy and
Patricia submitted only on time posts. Jennifer contributed only one late post and the rest
were on time. Erik contributed a total of only three posts, each of which was late. Steven
contributed a greater number of overall posts than Erik and Sofia, but his late posts
outweighed his on time posts 21 to 12.
The results show that Sofia, Kathy, Patricia, and Jennifer consistently
participated, which could mean that they were more engaged or that they were more
conscientious about fulfilling the requirements and getting the points. Steven and Erik did
75


not actively participate and appeared less engaged. There is no way to know how often
they were reading the discussions, but only how often they contributed to them. Steven
and Erik did not fulfill the requirements of the online discussions as assigned and
therefore, did not earn the points, which negatively impacted their grades. Eva
contributed many posts, but did not engage with the students in a timely manner, which
resulted in a lack of TC benefit. By posting late and denying them her expertise, the
instructor missed opportunities to better reach the TCs in their zones of proximal
development.
Figure 4.6 Online Participation: Number of Discussion Posts Over 16 Weeks (Total
Posts, On Time Posts, and Late Posts)
After I calculated each participants contributions to the weekly threaded
discussions, I looked at the total number of views per post to see how often each post was
being viewed. I averaged the totals for student on time posts, student late posts, instructor
76


on time posts, and instructor late posts. Figure 4.7 illustrates that student posts were being
viewed more often than instructor posts and figure 4.8 shows that on time posts were
being viewed more often than late posts. On average, the number of total views declined
as the semester went on and contributions to the discussions made earlier in any given
week were being viewed more often than posts submitted later in the week or late.

'-Ho0'>0-H ^ ^ .^i .^i .^i .^i 11 ~H 11 ~H ^ ^ ^
D 1) 1) 1) I) D D D
DDDDDDDDDiDDDDDDD
1 Avg views of student
posts
Avg views of instructor
posts
Figure 4.7 Average Views of Posts (does not include views by researcher)
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16
m
>icNcnTt-invor--ooo\'icNm^vivo
M M M M M M M M M ~ ~ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
1 Avg views of on time
posts
Avg views of late posts
Figure 4.8 Average Views of On-Time Posts versus Late Posts (does not include
views by researcher)
Discussions of the Online Learning Environment
The online learning environment emerged as one of the most common themes in
interviews. TCs referenced prior online courses, their current online ESL for Educators
course, and also online courses in general. The nature of the comments was varied, but
the negative comments outweighed the other types of comments as shown in figure 4.9.
This suggests that the experience of online learning for this group of TCs was more
negative than positive. The variation in responses showed that the online learning
environment had many challenges and limitations. However, there were reported benefits
of online learning as well.
78


60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Online in general Prior online course Current online course
Positive
Negative
Neutral
Figure 4.9 Frequency of Interview Statements about Online Learning
Reported Benefits of Online Learning
Convenience, flexibility and pacing. The benefits of the online learning
experience the TCs mentioned most often included convenience (e.g. not having to find a
place to park on campus) and flexibility (e.g. being able to do class work at any time
from any location). Jennifer, for example, also mentioned the ability to pace herself as a
benefit. I mean the benefits of having it online are certainly that you can pace yourself,
you can look at it when you have time to look at it. I do like that... And so certainly its
great for me.
Online discussions. The online discussions received mixed reviews. For some of
the TCs it was a benefit of the course. Kathy, in particular, found them helpful. Ive
learned a lot from the online discussions. I like them, definitely. I think that they are
definitely a positive part of the course.
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Reported Challenges of Online Learning
Pacing and routine. While Jennifer saw the ability to pace herself as a benefit,
others struggled with the pacing aspect of the online environment. Several participants
mentioned that they had a difficult time getting into a routine and keeping up with the
discussions. Steven told me about his struggles with not having anyone to keep him on
track.
This is where I get in trouble in discussion questions, just remembering to do
them by a certain time, which isnt hard at all. Its just online theres not anybody
kicking you in the butt to do this stuff, so its kind of the mentality a little bit to
put things off. So you have to battle that.
Steven attributed part of this difficulty to the online environment. Online inherently
builds in the least of effort. Thats just my opinion.
Sofia expressed similar sentiments and felt that the flexibility of the online
learning environment made it difficult for her to keep up with the work. Its been a little
tough just in general to keep up with the responding to the posts and such.. .when Im
really not feeling like doing anything, I really dont do anything. Erik agreed when he
said, You only look at your course stuff maybe twice, maybe three times a week; for
some people I think its easy to forget.
One explanation the TCs gave about the difficulty of staying on track was a lack
of familiarity with the online learning environment. For most this was their first or one of
their first online courses. As Steven mentioned, thats what is concerning me is Im not
able to find a routine, to be productive, and to learn and to share with the other members
of the classroom. And its probably because Im not used to online classes. Sofia, too,
indicated that she was not yet in a routine. I only started taking online classes in the


summer, so its not like a habit for me yet. Erik also expressed a sense of confusion due
to the fact that he was not used to this type of learning. So its a little confusing, but this
is the first time Ive taken online classes. Im sure once I start getting used to it, it gets a
little bit better.
Online discussions. While Kathy indicated that she found the online discussions
beneficial, the other TCs expressed the opposite. Jennifer, for example, explained, Its
just kind of an odd.. .1 dont always feel like what Im reading is beneficial to my
learning. Patricia described that to her the online discussions seemed like busy work,
were a bit repetitive and not very beneficial.
In the class its been, like I feel like some of the discussions have been kind of
repetitive. You know what I mean? A lot of people will say sort of the same
thing, and so it gets kind of dry and not very challenging. So, I would say that the
discussions have been just, I dont know, I havent obtained a lot from them.
Steven raised the issue of whether or not others were even reading the posts. A
lot of times, Id read through those discussions, and it didnt seem like anybody was
paying attention to what anybody else was saying. It was just people going on and on.
The appearance that people were not paying attention to what others were saying was a
legitimate concern based on the limited number of views per post (see figure 4.7). Sofia
admitted that in fact she was not always taking in what she read. You know, online, Im
not absorbing anything. This is useful in reminding instructors that people learn
differently and not all adult learners can learn effectively through reading. We need to
find ways to address the varied ways of learning and knowing.
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Reported Limitations of Online Learning
The most common limitations of the online environment as reported by the TCs
included lack of personal connection, the inability to distinguish one person from another,
and the limitations of typing thoughts versus verbalizing them. Sofia admitted that she
relies a lot on looking at peoples faces, something on which she could not rely in this
type of environment. And Steven discussed the issue of typing. You know I can say in
10 minutes the amount of things in the same time that I could type, and I just forget all of
the typing. You know I forget all the words when Im typing it kind of thing. While
many of the TCs and the instructor indicated that at times they had a difficult time
keeping everyone and everything they said straight, Evas thoughts are representative of
many. As youre reading through and responding to the different ideas, you dont
always remember exactly who did say what.
Several of the study participants gave ideas for how to address the limitations of
the online environment. Suggestions included finding a way to incorporate voice or video
into the discussions or at least for the introductions. A couple of the TCs mentioned the
idea of using web chats. Others, the instructor included, brought up the idea of
incorporating phone calls and yet others indicated an interest in meeting face-to-face.
However, university regulations state that face-to-face meetings cannot be arranged for
online courses, but must remain optional.
Instructor feedback on discussion posts. Early in the semester, the majority of the
TCs reported being satisfied with the amount of instructor feedback and participation.
Some comments included, responded back to everybody this last week with
really in-depth observations and comments. I think that was extremely helpful. I think
82


its nice to get feedback, especially you know occasionally, on your discussion post,
because you arent sure if youre anywhere close. However, as the semester went on, the
comments shifted slightly. Several TCs discussed that while they understood that the
instructor was busy, the late postings lessened their estimations of effectiveness of the
feedback. The instructor was limited by factors outside of the environment in making
timely feedback. Timely feedback appeared to be an expectation of the teacher candidates
enrolled in the course. One TC said,
I feel like its good if its done within the week of discussion. So like, if its done
after the discussion week is over, its hard for me to go back and you know work
on this weeks discussion and then go back and check the previous weeks
discussion and really think about that when Im trying to focus on this week. So,
as long as the responses are within the week that is being discussed, and Im sure
thats really difficult.
And another stated,
She was like two or three weeks behind at one point, and its really tough to like,
well, to stay motivated and do something when thats the case, and its also tough
to make, to not get behind, because you dont understand something, and then its
like a couple weeks later, she gets back to it, but youre already kind of past that,
and youre trying to focus on that stuff, and its kind of tough. But I know
everybody has their lives, too!
While there were benefits, challenges and limitations of the online learning
environment, Jennifer summed it up with her concluding thought. Its part of the world
today and its one of the changing environments of education... we have to deal with it I
guess. And learn that technology.
Conclusion of Results
The results of the study presented in this chapter offer insights into how this
particular group of teacher candidates experienced the online ESL for Educators course.
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Full Text

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PREPARING TEACHERS TO WORK WITH ENGLISH LEARNERS: EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL FOR TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING IN AN ONLINE ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE FOR EDUCATORS COURSE by Stephanie E. Dewing B.A., Teaching of Spanish, University of Illinois, 1998 M.A., Teachi ng of English to Speakers of Other Languages, University of Illinois, 2003 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Edu cational Leadership and Innovation 2012

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ii This thesis for the Doctor of Philosophy degree by Stephanie E. Dewing has been approved for the Educational Leadership and Innovation by Mark A. Clark e Chair Alan Davis Maria A. Thomas Ruzic Ruth Brancard L eslie Grant Date : April 11, 2012

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iii Dewing, Stephanie, E (Ph.D., Educational Leadership and Innovation) Preparing Teachers to Work with English Learners: Exploring the Potential for Transformative Learning in an Online English as a Second Language for Ed ucators Course Thesis directed by Professor Mark A. Clarke ABSTRACT The number of English language learners (ELLs) in the United States school system is growing rapidly. Much of the responsibility for teaching ELLs lies with regular classroom teachers. However, little training is being provided to help them From a sociocultural perspective and drawing on constructive developmental theories of adult learning and development, t his study explores the potential for transformative learning in a one semester online English as a Second Language for Educators course It is argued that if a single course is all that is required of teachers, a change in how a person knows rather than just what a person knows. The research questions were : 1) How did teacher candidates experience the online ESL for Educators course and w hat roles did the ir background and prior experiences play? 2) What shifts in thinking took place in the ir understandings about working with cult urally and linguistically diverse learners as a result of their participation in the course? 3) Which course activities, according to the teacher candidates, contribute d to transformational shifts in thinking and what role did the online learning environm ent play? Drawing from both qualitative and quantitative data, the study describes in depth the experiences of six adult learners (four females and two males ranging in age from late including their backgrounds, prior experiences, teac hing context and

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iv life circumstances during the time of the study reported change s in understandings about linguistic diversity based on course participation and epistemological tende ncies ( sources of authority, senses of self, ways of knowing) The data revealed evidence of shifts in thinking about the education of ELLs which often emerged as a result of their participation in the field experiences. However, the results also suggest that this particular learning context was not ideal for fostering develo pment and transformational learning. This study calls into question the reasonableness of expecting a one semester online course such as this to adequately prepare educators to work effectively with ELLs. Issues for course and program revision are explored The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication. Approved: Mark A. Clarke

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v DEDICATION I dedicate this work to my husband Rob my three children: Zach, Chloe and Olivia, and my parents: Steve and Michele Rob is my bes t friend and w ithout his continued support and encouragement I would not have been able to do this work. Zach, Chloe and Olivia inspire me every day to work hard, keep smiling, and enjoy every precious moment along the way And f inally, I could not have done any of this without my parents who have shown me the value of education throughout my life and have supported me in countless ways over the years. Without them, I would not be doing what I love to do today.

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vi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank the participants in the study for their time and effort. It is through their openness and willingness to share their stories with me that I was able to learn so much. They are the voices and true authors of this piece of work. I would also like to thank my ad visor, Mark Clarke, and my committee members: Alan Davis, Mia Thomas Ruzic, Leslie Grant, and Ruth Brancard for the countless hours they spent reading my drafts, providing me feedback, and helping me shape my identity as an educational researcher Their vo ices, too, are represented in this dissertation Finally, it is important to thank the members of the Lab of Learning and Activity, both past and present, who acknowledged my initial position as a legitimate peripheral participant and helped guide me slowl y, but surely to becoming a fully contributing member of that community of practice. In my heart, I will always be a member of LoLA.

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vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 1 Study Setting ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 3 Purpose of the Study ................................ ................................ ............................... 4 Contribution of Study ................................ ................................ ............................. 4 Overview of Chapters ................................ ................................ ............................. 5 2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW ............................ 6 Learning and Develo pment Goals for Course ................................ ........................ 6 Theoretical Framework ................................ ................................ ........................... 7 Sociocultural Perspectives ................................ ................................ .......... 7 Constructive developmental Theory ................................ ........................... 8 Ways of Knowing and Transformational Learning ................................ .... 9 Development ................................ .. 9 ................................ ............................ 10 Drago Severson and becoming adult learners ............................. 11 Baxter Magolda and self authorship ................................ ............ 12 The Role of Prior Experiences in Adult Learning and Development ....... 13 Object Relationship ................................ ....................... 14 Identity and Learning in Practice ................................ .............................. 14 Field experiences ................................ ................................ .......... 17 The Role of Reflection in Adult Learning and Development ................... 18 Summary of Theoretical Framework and Literature Review ............................... 21 3. METHODS ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 23 Purpose of Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 23

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viii Research Questions ................................ ................................ ............................... 23 Research Site ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 24 Online ESL for Educators Course ................................ ............................. 24 Research Participants ................................ ................................ ............................ 25 The Teacher Candidates ................................ ................................ ............ 25 The Instructor ................................ ................................ ............................ 27 The Researcher ................................ ................................ .......................... 28 Data Collection ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 29 Questionnaires and Surveys ................................ ................................ ...... 29 Interviews ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 31 Activity Impact Questionnaires ................................ ................................ 33 Online Discussions, Assignment Write ups and Reflections ................... 34 Data Analys is ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 34 4. SNAPSHOTS: GLIMPSES INTO RESULTS OF DATA ................................ ......... 38 Finding One ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 39 Prior Understandings ................................ ................................ ................ 39 Prior knowledge ................................ ................................ ............ 39 Prior training ................................ ................................ ................ 41 Pr ior experience with other cultures ................................ ............ 42 Interest versus confidence in teaching ELLs ................................ 42 Prior Attitudes and Beliefs ................................ ................................ ........ 44 Summary of Finding One ................................ ................................ .......... 48 Finding Two ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 48 Change in Reported Knowledge of ELL Issues ................................ ........ 48 Change in Reported Level of Interest in Having ELLs in Class ............... 50

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ix Change in Reported Level of Confidence to Teach ELLs ........................ 51 Change in Teaching Practice: Kathy and Patricia ................................ ..... 53 Sharing new knowledge with other educators .............................. 54 New Understandings about the Education of ELLs ................................ .. 56 Importance of teaching both content and language ..................... 56 Role of native language ................................ ................................ 56 Change in Attitudes and Beliefs ................................ ............................... 57 Change in LATS scores ................................ ................................ 57 Change in feelings of empathy ................................ ...................... 59 Change in awareness of local ELL population. ............................ 61 Summary of Cha nge ................................ ................................ ................. 62 Finding Three ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 63 Activity Impact Questionnaire ................................ ................................ .. 63 Field a ssignments ................................ ................................ .......... 64 Journals and reflections ................................ ................................ 69 Textbook: Sheltered content instruction ................................ ....... 70 ..................... 71 Summary of Course Activity Impact ................................ ........................ 71 Finding Fou r ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 71 Confidence with Online Learning ................................ ............................. 71 Online Participation ................................ ................................ .................. 74 Discussions of the Online Learning Environment ................................ .... 78 Reported Benefits of Online Learning ................................ ...................... 79 Convenience, flexibility and pacing ................................ .............. 79 Online discussions ................................ ................................ ........ 79 Reported Challenges of Online Learning ................................ ................. 80

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x Pacing and routine ................................ ................................ ........ 80 Online discussions ................................ ................................ ........ 81 Reported Limitations of Online Learning ................................ ................. 82 Instructor feedback on discussion posts ................................ ....... 82 Conclusion of Results ................................ ................................ ........................... 83 5. PORTRAITS: NARRATIVES OF STUDY PARTI CIPANTS ................................ .. 86 Sofia ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 87 Background ................................ ................................ ............................... 87 Teaching Experience ................................ ................................ ................. 89 Beliefs and Understandings about Linguistic Diversity ........................... 90 Reported Changes as a Result of Course Participation ............................. 91 Specific Reactions to Course Activities ................................ .................... 92 Transition between Figured Worlds ................................ .......................... 98 Strugg les with Subject Object Shifts ................................ ........................ 99 Challenging Assumptions and Sense of Self ................................ .......... 100 Ways of Knowing and Online Learning ................................ ................. 103 ................................ ............................ 106 Kathy ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 107 Background ................................ ................................ ............................. 107 Teaching Experience ................................ ................................ ............... 109 Beliefs and Understandings about Linguistic Diversity ......................... 110 Reported Changes as a Result of Course Participation ........................... 112 Specific Reactions to Course Activities ................................ .................. 115 Transition between Fi gured Worlds and Subject Object Shifts ............. 123 Teacher as Source of Authority and Hints of Dualistic Thinking .......... 123

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xi Sense of Self ................................ ................................ ........................... 127 ................................ .......................... 129 Jennifer ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 131 Background ................................ ................................ ............................. 131 Teaching Experience ................................ ................................ ............... 134 Beliefs and Understandings about Linguistic Diversity ......................... 136 Reported Changes as a Result of Course Participation ........................... 137 Specific Reactions to Course Activities ................................ .................. 140 Transition s and Quest for Balance ................................ .......................... 148 Sense of Self ................................ ................................ ........................... 149 Jennifer and Received Knowledge ................................ .......................... 150 ................................ ....................... 156 Patricia ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 157 Background ................................ ................................ ............................. 157 Teaching Experience ................................ ................................ ............... 159 Beliefs and Understandings about Linguistic Diversity ......................... 161 Reported Changes as a Resu lt of Course Participation ........................... 163 Specific Reactions to Course Activities ................................ .................. 168 Sense of Self ................................ ................................ ........................... 175 Patricia and Procedural Knowing ................................ ........................... 175 ................................ ........................ 179 Steven ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 179 Background ................................ ................................ ............................. 179 Teaching Experience ................................ ................................ ............... 181 Beliefs and Understandings about Lingui stic Diversity ......................... 182

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xii Reported Changes as a Result of Course Participation ........................... 184 Specific Reactions to Course Activities ................................ .................. 187 The Quest for Answers in a Phase of Self Exploration .......................... 193 Steven and Subjective Knowledge ................................ .......................... 198 Subjective Knowing and Online Learning ................................ .............. 202 Transitions, Change in Perspective, and Projecting Forward ................. 205 S ................................ ......................... 207 Erik ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 207 Background ................................ ................................ ............................. 207 Teach ing Experience ................................ ................................ ............... 211 Beliefs and Understandings about Linguistic Diversity ......................... 214 Reported Changes as a Result of Course Participatio n ........................... 216 Specific Reactions to Course Activities ................................ .................. 218 Empathy and Perspective Taking ................................ ........................... 225 Sources of Authority and Self Authorship ................................ ............. 227 ................................ ............................. 229 Eva ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 231 Background and Teaching Experience ................................ ................... 231 ........................... 232 Observations of Change in Teacher Candidates ................................ ..... 233 Thoughts on Transformational Learning ................................ ................ 234 Connected Teaching and th e Online Learning Environment .................. 234 Overall Feelings about the ESL for Educators Course ........................... 238 Summary of Portraits ................................ ................................ .......................... 238 6. SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ............ 241

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xiii Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 241 Promoting Adult Learning and Developme nt ................................ ..................... 244 Transitions ................................ ................................ ............................... 244 Implications ................................ ................................ ................. 246 Ways of Knowing ................................ ................................ ................... 247 Implications ................................ ................................ ................. 251 Experience, Reflection and Meaning Making ................................ ........ 252 Kegan object continuum ................................ .............. 252 Implications ................................ ................................ ................. 254 Appropriate Supports and Challenges that Promote Development ........ 255 Baxter Magolda and promoting self authorship ......................... 257 Holding environments as contexts for growth ............................ 258 Supports and challenges for women ................................ ........... 259 Promoting Development through Online Discussions ............................ 260 Implications for P ractice ................................ ................................ ..................... 264 Implications for Course Design ................................ .............................. 264 Analysis of course syllabus ................................ ......................... 264 Informational learning through readings ................................ ... 265 Importance of context ................................ ................................ 266 Differentiation ................................ ................................ ............. 267 Creating a community of connection ................................ .......... 268 The potential for transformative learning ................................ ... 271 Im plemented Changes to Course Design and Next Steps ....................... 273 Implications for Program Design ................................ ............................ 274 Creating a community of connection ................................ .......... 275 Developmental focus throughout ................................ ................ 275

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xiv Development of teacher educators ................................ .............. 276 A shared journey ................................ ................................ ......... 277 Limitations and Areas for Future Research ................................ ........................ 278 Final Thoughts ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 279 REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 282 APPENDICES ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 287 APPENDIX A. BACKGROUND QUESTIONNAIRE ................................ ..... 287 APPENDIX B. LANGUAGE ATTITUDES OF TEACHER SURVEY ........... 290 APPENDIX C. KNOWLEDGE OF ELL ISSUES SURVEY ............................ 291 APPENDIX D. MID SEMESTER ACTIVITY IMPACT QUESTIONNAIRE 293 APPENDIX E. END OF SEMESTER QUESTIONNAIRE .............................. 295 APPENDIX F. E ND SEMESTER ACTIVITY IMPACT QUESTIONNAIRE 297 APPENDIX G. SUBJECT OBJECT INTERVIEW PROTOCOL ..................... 299 APPENDIX H. PARTICIPANT CONSENT FORM ................................ ......... 303 APPENDIX I. ESL FOR EDUCATORS COURSE SYLLABUS ..................... 306 APPENDIX J. GUIDELINES FOR COURSE FIELD ASSIGNMENTS .......... 317

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xv LIST OF TABLES Table 26 40 4.2 Average (Mean) Responses to Knowledge of ELL Issues 4 1 4 5 4.4 Average (Mean) Change to Responses on Knowledge of ELL Issues Survey by 4 9 4.5 Average (Mean) Change 50 5 7 5 8 4.8 Activities that Resulted in the Grea 6 4 10 2 128 19 4 Statement s about Himself .. . 196 23 9

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xvi LIST OF FIGURES Figure 4.1 Reported Knowledge of Other Cultures, Interest in Having ELLs in their Classrooms, and Confidence/Ability to Teac 43 4.2 Change in Reported Interest in Having ELLs in Classroom: Beginning and End of 5 1 4.3 Reported Change in Confidence/Ability to Teach ELLs: Beginning and End of 5 2 4.4 Reported Level of Confidence/Comfort Level with Online Learning: Beginning and 7 3 7 5 7 6 7 7 4.8 Average Views of on Time Posts versus Late Posts (does not include views b y 7 8 7 9

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xvii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 1. ALP Alternative Licensure Program 2. CLD Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learner 3. EL A English Language Acquisition 4. E LD English Language Development 5. ELL English Language Learner 6. ESL English as a Second Language 7. IT Instructional Technology 8. LATS Language Attitudes of Teachers Scale 9. LDE Linguistically Diverse Education 10. SCI Shelter ed Content Instruction 11. SIOP Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol 12. TC Teacher Candidate 13. TELP Teacher Education Licensure Program 14. TESOL Teaching Eng lish to Speakers of Other Langua ges

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Andres 1 arrived to the United S tates with his family a few months ago. He lived his previous nine years in Guadalajara, Mexico. His parents decided to bring him to the United States for a better life, but so far he does not understand what is so great about this place. He recently start ed attending third grade at his new elementary school. Not many people speak Spanish in his new school and he has only learned a few words in English from watching television in Mexico. He feels extremely out of place and does not know what to expect. Ever y day so far, his teacher has put him in a corner and has given him paper and crayons. How is he supposed to learn English, or anything for that matter, if he sits in the corner coloring while the rest of his classmates are engaged in learning activities? But what can he say? It is as though his teacher has no idea what to do with him. Ana completed her teacher education licensure program last year and is in her first year of teaching at a local elementary school. They talked about differentiating instructi on in her teacher education courses, but she quickly realized that she had no idea what that would actually entail. There were 25 students in her class: four had special needs, three were gifted and talented, three were students with limited English profic iency, and the remaining 15 had varying levels of abilities and background knowledge. How was she supposed to adequately and effectively teach them all? In addition, the prescribed curriculum and additional constraints put on her by the school district wer e intense and came as a great surprise to her. Ana went into teaching because 1 All names used in this document are pseudonyms

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2 she loved kids and wanted to help them learn. She began the year with great enthusiasm and energy, but that was quickly fading away only to be replaced by exhaustion and anxiety. She was overwhelmed. And on top of everything, a new kid named Andres just showed up who does not speak any English at all. Her licensure program did not include any training on how to work with linguistically diverse students. She has no idea what to do with him. Until she figures it out, she is going to have him sit in the corner and color so at least he is doing something. In order to help Andres, we must first help Ana. With the growing number of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) 2 learners in the United States school system, it is not a matter of if, but when teachers will be faced with how to help them learn. Between 19 80 and 200 9 the number of school age children (ages 5 17) who spoke a language other than English at home increased from 4.7 to 11.2 million which is an increase from 10 to 21 percent of the population in this age range ( NCES, 2010 ) The children of immigrants constitute around 20% of the K 12 student population, which is projected to more than double within the next 20 years ( AACTE, 2002 ). In Colorado, there are more than 100,000 students in grades K 12 who are labeled as English learners ( CDE, 2010 ). This population has grown by 250% since 1995, while the overall K 12 population in Colorado has grown by only 12%. English lear ners now comprise 10% of 12 population and the numbers continue to grow ( CDE, 2010 ) More and more teachers are working with English language learners (ELLs) but little training is being provided to help them work effectively with that popul ation of 2 Culturally and linguistically diverse learners i s used interchangeably with English learners, English language learners and linguistically diverse learners

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3 students ( deJong & Harper, 2005 ) In a report from the National Center for Education Statistics ( 2002 ) only 12.5% of teachers reported having received more than eight hours of profes sional development specifically related to English language learners ( ELLs ) As a result, i n these times of rapidly changing demographics, preparing teachers for diverse classrooms is more than just a challenge; it is a duty ( Milner, 2010 ) That duty of providing pre service teachers with the rigorous preparation necessary to meet the modern deman ds of education is the responsibility of teacher education programs ( Darling Hammond, 2010 ; Darling Hammond, Chung, & Frelow, 2002 ) When it comes to serving ELLs the m leaves the majority of the responsibility of educating ELLs to grade level mainstream teacher s ( Karathanos, 2010 ) As teacher educators, then, it is our responsibility to help prepare all teachers to work effectively with their ELLs ; not just the Englis h language development (ELD) teachers. Study Setting The linguistically diverse education (LDE) program at a mid size university in the mountain west region of the United States has one course that is specifically designed to do just that. It is called En glish as a Second Language (ESL) for Educators and is geared towards pre service and in service elementary and secondary teachers. The course is offered both on campus and online every semester (fall, spring and summer). This study focus ed on the online ve rsion. ESL for Educators is required at the graduate level and is an elective at the undergraduate level, which means that not all teacher candidates (TCs) who earn their teaching credentials from this university will have received training on

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4 how to work effectively with linguistically diverse learners For those that do, however, the program strives to make the course as effective as possible. Purpose of the Study The general purpose of this study was to explore the potential for transformative learning (a change in not just what a person knows, but how a person knows) in the online ESL for Educators course over the course of one semester In addition, I sought to learn how the six teacher candidates that participated in the study experienced the course a nd what changes took place in their thinking about linguistically diverse education as a result of their participation in the course. Through the collection of both quantitative (questionnaires and surveys) and qualitative (open ended questions on questio nnaires, interviews and written reflections) data I explore d the answers to those questions paying careful attention to the course activities that appeared to contribute most to their shifts in thinking The results of the study suggest that in fact, eac h participant made sense of their experiences differently The way in which they made sense of those experiences were influenced by their sociocultural histories life circumstances, and epistemological tendencies, such as sources of authority, senses of s elf and meaning making systems, or ways of knowing. Contribution of Study An in depth study of this nature offers insights into the effectiveness and limitations of a single semester, online, teacher education course that prepare educators to work with Eng lish language learners. The results lend themselves to implications for course design and program design. For example, incorporating a developmental focus

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5 throughout the course and program will better assist teacher educators to meet the teacher candidates where they are and provide appropriate supports and challenges to help them get to where they can be ( Drago Severson, 2004 ) Overview of Chapters In Chapter 2 I lay the foundation of the study by introducing my theoretical framework and literature review, which I approach from a sociocultural perspec tive I describe the constructive developmental theories of adult learning and development from which I draw, address concepts of identity, and acknowledge the roles of experience and reflection Chapter 3 describes the methods I used in the study, includi ng the research questions, site and participants as well as the methods of data collection and analysis. In Chapter 4 I present the findings and interpretations of the study aligned with my research questions, for the six focal participants as a group C hapter 5 takes an in depth look at each participant as well as the instructor and presents information about their backgrounds, experiences, beliefs and understandings about linguistic diversity, reported changes as a result of their course participation, and specific reactions to course activities In addition, I discuss evidence of epistemological tendencies, such as sources of authority, senses of self, and ways of knowing Finally, in Chapter 6 I present an overview of the study and discuss the results offering insights and implications for course and program design and offering areas for future research.

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6 CHAPTER 2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW Learning and Development Goals for Course To ground this study in theory and related literat ure, it is important to first provide a brief introduction to the goals of the course itself. Based on my own experiences of the course, I have outlined the overarc h ing goals of ESL for Educators which are to: (a) i level of knowledge about culturally and linguistically diverse teaching and learning (b) h elp teacher candidates gain a sense of efficacy to effectively work with culturally and linguistically diverse learners, (c) p rovide opportunities for TCs to broaden their p erspective about the way they know, understand and make sense of culturally and linguistically diverse education and (d) m ake a positive impact on the ELLs in the TCs current or future classrooms It is important to note that these goals are not represent ed in the syllabus. The course goals and objectives as outlined in the course syllabus (see Appendix I) are based more on informational learning. Suggestions for the revision of the course syllabus to reflect the unwritten goals of the course are discussed in chapter 6. One of the development goals for ESL for Educators, which is not found in the syllabus, but is indicated by the course instructor, is to help the teacher candidates take on new perspectives specifically the perspective s of the culturally a nd linguistically diverse learners in their current and/or perspective is an indication of a more advanced level of development ( Drago Severson, 2004 ; Ke gan, 1982 ) For the TCs who do not already demonstrate that developmental ability, the course is designed to create opportunities for them to get there by challenging

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7 and supporting them through field assignments, online discussions, and reflections, whi ch are all key components of the online course. Theoretical Framework I approach this study from a sociocultural perspective ( Lantolf, 1993 ; Vygotsky, 1978 ; Wenger, 1998 ) and draw on constructive developmental theories of adult learning and development ( Baxter Magolda, 2001 ; Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger, & Tarule, 1986 ; Drago Severson, 2004 ; Kegan, 1982 1994 2000 ; Mezirow, 1997 1990 2000 ) In this paper I define learning ( Clarke, 2007, p. 22 ) but I will discuss two types of learning specifically: informational l earning and transformational learning ( Kegan, 1982 1994 2000 ; Mezirow, 1997 1990 2000 ) I will use the terms transformational learning and transformative learning what a person knows whereas transformational learning changes how ( Drago Severson, 2004, p. 19 ) Sociocultural Perspective s and practice, it is important to consider the sociocultural histories of the TCs, the activities in which they engage, the contexts in which they learn and work, and the previous experiences from which they draw ( Johnson, 1994 ; Johnson & Golombek, 2003 ; Lantolf, 1993 ; Teague, 2010 ; Vygotsky, 1978 ) In this study I explored thinking and how specific aspects of the course contribute d to those shifts in thinking and/or de velopment of new understandings.

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8 Vygotsky ( 1978 ) viewed development at two levels: actual development, or what one can do independently, and potential development, or what one is able to do with constitutes the zone of proximal development (ZPD). Basically, children grow into the ( Vygotsky, 1978, p. 88 ) I view this notion of growing as applicable to adult learners as well such as those who participated in this study. The course attempted to provide g uidance within ZPD by creating opp ortunities for them to engage with more knowledgeable perspectives, such as those provided by the instructor, their readings, their discussions with peers, their engagement in course activities, and their reflection of those experiences ( Ball, 2000 ; Teague, 2010 ) It is important to note that t he TCs were not pa ssive recipients of information, but ra ther active participants in the process. By engaging with new ideas and perspectives, the goal was for the teacher candidates to be better able to challenge pre existing assumptions, take on new or broader perspectives and develop new understandings about ELLs and the education of ELLs. I approached all data collection and analysis through a sociocultural lens with those goals in mind Constructive developmental Theory The theoretical framework for this study was based in part on the foundations of constr uctive developmental theories of adult learning and development Constructive developmental theory draws on the notions of constructivism the idea that people or systems constitute or construct reality; and developmentalism the idea that people or orga nic systems evolve through qualitatively different eras of increasing complexity

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9 according to regular principles of stability and change ( Kegan, 1994, p. 199 ) Constructive developmental theory, then, looks at the transformation over time of how we construct meaning. Basically, the way we construct our meaning will determine how we see the world around us and therefore, how we operate within it. Ways of Knowing and Transformational Learning At the heart of transformation is a way of knowing ( Kegan, 2000 ) A way of knowing can also be referred to as an epistemology, a level of development ( Drago Severson, 2004 ) or a frame of reference ( Mezirow, 1997 ) A way of knowing refers to how we view the world around us and how we make sense of our experiences in that world. As people develop, their ways of knowing adapt, or transform, to align with their new worldview. ate efforts and designs that ( Kegan, 2000, p. 48 ) A key ( E. W. Taylor, 2008, p. 7 ) Therefore, s ( Kegan, 2000, p. 48 ) I looked for evidence of epistemological change in the data I collect ed from the study participan ts. Perry ( 1970 1981 ) conducted extensi ve studies over a span of fifteen years of college age d men at Harvard in an attempt to learn about their cognitive processes and intellectual development. He sought to understand how they made sense of their experiences or in other words, their ways of

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10 k nowing. Based on what he learned, Perry proposed that college students pass through predictable, sequential stages of epistemological development. He posited that the (dualism) to being able to alternatives (multiplicity, relativism, commitment) the ways in which people constructed knowl edge as well as what they took as their sources of authority. In some cases, I found evidence of dualistic thinking. However, I also found evidence of more advanced cognitive development as demonstrated by rspectives of others. As a follow Belenky Clinchy, Goldberger, and Tarule ( 1986 ) conducted a study with a similar purpose but instead of focusing on men, they focused on women. The research t eam interviewed 135 women of widely different ages, life circumstances, and backgrounds in an attempt to understand how they made sense of their experiences. Belenky and colleagues proposed five epistemological perspectives from which women know and view t he world : silent knowledge received knowledge subjective knowledge procedural knowledge and/or constructed knowledge Briefly, silent knowers exhibit total dependence on external authority In essence, they experience themselves as mindless and voicele ss Received knowers view themselves as capable of receiv ing and reproduc ing knowledge from external authorities but not capable of creating knowledge on their own Subjective knowers conceive of truth and knowledge as personal, private subjectively known or intuited. Procedural knowers rely on objective procedures for obtaining and

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11 communicating knowledge. Finally, constructed knowers view all knowledge as contextual and value both subjective and objective strategies for knowing, and see themselves as cre ators of knowledge Four out of the six participants in this study were women and therefore, the Belenky and her co researchers ( 1986 ) was useful in helping me better understand the women part icipants in my study and how they made sense of their experiences It is important to note that the proposed ways of knowing are frameworks for meaning making that evolve and change; not personality types that are relatively permanent. Drago Severson and b ecoming adult learners ( 1970 1981 ) ( 1986 ) ( 1982 1994 ) frameworks for epistemological development, Drago Severson ( 2004 ) and her research team conducted a study of 41 adult learners enrolled in a 14 month adult basic education course across three different sites: a community college site, a family literacy site and a workplace site In her study, Drago Severson ways of constructing reality, or ways of knowing, found to be most prevalent in adulthood: instrumental socializing and self authoring ways of knowing. Evidence was found to supp ort transformational learning, as 50% of course participants demonstrated a developmental change in their way of knowing (e.g. from instrumental to socializing; from socializing to self authoring) after the 14 month course as determined by the research tea m. The research team found it remarkable that half of the study participants experienced transformational learning, or

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12 in such a short time ( Drago Severson, 2004, p. 22 ) Thi s was a phenomenon that I explored with the participants in the current study By examining the ways in which the diverse adult lea rners enrolled in the course mad e sense of their experiences I was able to find evidence of transformational shifts in thinki ng among some participants Baxter Magolda and self authorship Also building on the work of Kegan ( 1982 1994 ) and Belenk y et al. ( 1986 ) Baxter Magolda ( 2001 ) began a longitudinal study of 101 first year college students to better understand their intellectual development. However, she realized she had focused too narrowly on intellectual development and relationships with others. The study described here focuses on the 3 9 participants that remained in the study throughout their twenties. Baxter Magolda ( 2001 ) posited that an important part of becoming the author of transition from exter nal to internal self definition She argues that internal self definition plays a central role in self authorship and that managing external influence rather than being controlled by it is the essence of self authorship. Making that shift and b developmental process. Baxter Magolda identif ied four way s of knowing as part of that process : absolute knowing, transitional knowing, independent knowing, and contextual knowing Similar to other descriptions of ways of knowing ( Belenky, et al., 1986 ; Drago Severson, 2004 ; Kegan, 1982 1994 ; Perry, 1970 1981 ) these levels or stages of development begin with a need to know what the authorities think (dualistic view of knowledge) ; then transition to an awareness that

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13 a uthorities do not have all the answers, to an acknowledgement that most knowledge is uncertain; and finally, to holding the perspective that knowledge is relative to context. The journey toward self authorship as outlined by Baxter Magolda ( 2001 ) revealed how three dimensions of d evelopment (epistemological, intrapersonal and interpersonal dimensions) intertwine to contribute to self authorship. Stemming from those three dimensions, Baxter Magolda proposed three driving questions for people in framework was helpful for me in analyzing the interview data for those three participants. It is important to note, however, that I also found evidence of similar driving questions for other participants who were not in their twenties, but due to life circumstances were in The Role of Prior Experiences in Adult Learning and Development As I look ed for evidence of development along the three dimensions of epistemology, identity and relationships, I paid close attention to the role of the prior experiences. Prior experiences play a large role in adult learning and development ( Dewey, 1938 ; Knowles, 1980 ; Knowles, Holton, & Swanson, 1998 ; Mezirow, 1997 ) ( Lindeman, 1961, p. 10 ) Adults have acquired a coherent body of experience, or frames of reference, that define their life world. Similar to ways of knowing, frames of reference are the structures of assumptions and expectations through which we unde rstand our experiences ( Mezirow, 1997 ) beliefs, and ultimately their actions ( E. W. Taylor, 2008 ) Therefore, to better understand

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14 teacher learning and development, it is necessa ry to consider the previous experiences from which teachers draw ( Teague, 2010 ) and how they make sense of those experiences. Subject Object Relationship Forming the core of an epistemology, or way of knowing, is the subject object relationship ( Kegan, 2000, p. 53 ) The subject object relationship is a principle of mental organization ( Kegan, 1994 ; Lahey, Souvaine, Kegan, Goodman, & Felix, 1988 ) handle, look at be responsible for, relate to each other, take control of, internalize, assimilate, or otherwise operate upon ( Kegan, 1994, p. 32 ) w those elements of our knowing or organizing that we are identified with, tied to, fused ( Kegan, 1994, p. 32 ) have object; we are subject. We cannot ( Kegan, 1994, p. 32 ) W hat we take as subject and what we take as object can change a nd these shifts from subject to object (having control over something rather than it having control over us) is the most powerful way to conceptualize the growth of the mind ( Kegan, 1994 ) This subject object relationship was a lens through which I viewed and analyzed the data Identity and Learning in Practice I define ( Brancard, 2008, p. 36 ) Identity plays a large role in the process of learning, epistemological change and practice. In fact, issues of identity are inseparable from issues of practice ( Wenger, 1998 ) They constitute a way of being in the world. Building an identity involves negotiating the meanings of our ex periences, which results

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15 from our membership and participation in social communities ( Wenger, 1998 ) learning transforms who we are and what ( Wenger, 1998, p. 215 ) Brancard ( 2008 ) provides an in depth look at the negotiation of identities for 2 7 college students enrolled in a first semester community col lege developmental education course. In this course they worked to improve their reading and writing of academic English and explored their goals for the future. Three quarters of the students in the study were recent high school graduate s and more than ha lf of them were born outside of the U.S., but many had completed some schooling in the U.S. Through interviews, classroom observations, and analysis of written data, Brancard ( 2008 ) T he students described changes in the way they saw themselves as college students, as readers, and as writers themselves as college students and the activities in which they engaged during their first year of college. In addition to their engagement in the course activities, t he classroom environment and the community college environment influenced the way they made sense of their experiences. helped me to frame the current study and highlighted the importance of identity and how the negotiation of identity is linked with engagement in activity to facilitate learning, growth and development. support the argument that e xperiences of identity are not just about acquiring information and skills, but more importantly about the process of becoming who we are and who we

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16 want to be Information by itself, removed from participation, is not knowledge. What makes information knowledge, and empowering at that, is the way in which that information can be integrated within an identity of parti cipation ( Wenger, 1998, p. 220 ) Learning contexts can offer a place where new ways of knowing can be realized ( Wenger, 1998 ) With that in mind learning community had the potential to be a transformative practice and ( Wenger, 1998, p. 215 ) Based on the data, I would infer that the onli ne learning context for this particular group during this particular semester was a suitable context for the development of new understandings for some people, but not for others I will discuss which aspects of the course lent themselves more to the devel opment of new understandings and for whom in more detail in Chapters 4 and 5. negotiation of meaning; it moves on its own terms. It slips through the cracks; it creates its own crack ( Wenger, 1998, p. 225 ) Learning gains its significance in the kind of person we become ( Wenger, 1998 ) It changes our ability to participate, to belong, and to negotiate meaning. This ability is configured through our participati on in social communities and practice and ultimately shapes our identities ( Wenger, 1998 ) T he learning that takes place in the online ESL for Educat ors course has the potential to transform the way teacher candidates think about culturally and linguistically diverse education and learners. By design, the course strives to provide TCs with opportunities to explore who they are, who they are no t, and wh o they could become.

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17 F ield experiences One way to accomplish that goal was through the field assignments and the reflections of those experiences There were three field assignments built into the course (see Appendix J for more detailed descriptions of assignments) The first involved watching a panel discussion of ESL directors from four local school districts. The second was a cultural field experience, and the third was an ESL class observation and interview of the teacher. The cultural field experien ce asked the prospective teachers to push themselves outside of their comfort zones and attend an event or language class conducted in a language they did not speak. The purpose was to instill a sense of empathy and give them an opportunity to walk in the shoes of their ELLs and see the world through their eyes, even if it is just for a moment. An activity such as this provide s the TCs with an opportunity to be able to take on a new or additional perspective. One of the reasons for incorporating the cultur al field experience into the course was that research has shown that c ross cultural experiences are necessary if pre service teachers are to be able to transform and critically construct meaningful educational experiences for culturally and l inguistically diverse students ( Ference & Bell, 2004 ; Gay, 2002 ; Giroux, 198 8 ; Nieto, 2000 ) Since many programs are unable to provide prospective teachers with a cross cultural experience outside of the United States, universities provide short term cross cultural experiences f or pre service teachers ( Bradfield Kreider, 1999 ; Wiest, 1998 ; Willard Holt, 2001 ) The cultural field assignment was version of that short term cross cultural experience. In addition to cross cultural field experiences, many face to face classes similar to ESL for Educators incorpor ( Karathanos, 2010 )

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18 ( Dong, 2004 ) exercise into a class session. Typically that involves either an instructor or a guest lecturer delivering a short presentation in a language that the majority of the TCs in the class do not speak. In some cases they may ask the TCs to produce something in the unfamiliar language (e.g. take a test, complete an activity, etc.) The purpose is similar to the cross cultural experience : to show the teacher candidates what it is like to be in a classroom without understanding the language of instruction and hopefully instill a sense of empathy for their future ELLs The current study focuse d on the online version of the course, making a lan guage activity more difficult. Therefore, the requirement was for each TC enrolled in the online course to find his or her own local event, activity, or language class to attend. This type of experience may have actually be en se the TCs were on their own and did not have the support of their classroom, classmates or instructor. In experience. Based on written reflections, this language ex perience appear ed to have an impact I will report on the impact of this particular course activity, and others, on the study participants and their thinking about ELLs and the education of ELLs in Chapters four and five The Role of Reflection in Adult Learning and Development In addition to field assignments, readings, and online discussions, a critical component of ESL for Educators online was written reflection s on their experiences in

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19 the field assignments and in the course overall Reflection is an activity, along with experience, that contributes to and constitutes change, growth and development. Reflection is the process by which we make sense of the world in which we live and experience life. Reflection is fundamental to learning and developing without it, we would simply be bombarded by random experiences and unable to make sense of any of ( Merriam & Clark, 2006, p. 39 ) We all have our own theories; our own ways of understanding the world. Our perspectives on learning make a difference in who we are and what we do. Therefore, reflecting upon our perspectives on learning is crucial. We need to understand what our assumptions are with respect to the nature of learning itself to better understand that which informs what we do ( Wenger, 1998 ) The data I collect ed assist ed in the process of were and how tho se assumptions play ed a role in ing sense of and understanding themselves and the world around them This type of critical reflection is a developmental process that is rooted in experience ( E. W. Taylor, 2008 ) Critical reflection is the kind of thinking that challenges notions of prior learning ( VanHalen Faber, 1997 ) Thoughtful quest ioning may put to the service level in teacher education are put in place in order to elicit changes in established beliefs held by the prospective teachers which may l ead to change in the way they think about teaching and learning over time.

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20 R eflection is a meaning making process that moves a learner from one experience to the next with deeper understanding of its relationships with and connections to other experiences and ideas. Dewey ( 1938 ) argues that reflection needs to happen in interaction with others (in a community), and requires attitudes that value the personal and intellectual growth of oneself and others ( Merriam & Clark, 2006 ) For this very reason the on line course require d participation in online weekly discussions in hopes of establishing a greater sense of community. Through this learning community the adult learners were given an opportunity to share their thoughts, feelings and experiences and reflec t upon them with each other. In addition to journal entries and written reflections, it was during the weekly discussions that instructors could potentially learning take place. In my analysis I attempted to learn why some of the adult lear ners enrolled in the course appeared to see the online discussions as valuable and others did not. The differing reactions were based on a multitude of factors. For example, the discussion prompts appeared to influence the potential for in depth discussion and exploration of a their reactions to the online discussions and the online learning environment in general In this study of a particular group of teacher candidates during a particular semester, I did not find evidence of a true community of learners I will discuss the implications of the online environment in further detail i n Chapters 4, 5, and 6 for granted frame of reference, an indispensable dimension of

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21 learning and adapting to change ( Mezirow, 1997 ) ESL for Educators was designed so that the teacher candidates were required to self reflect often because s elf reflection is one way to achieve significant personal tran sformations ( Mezirow, 1997 ) Achieving significant personal and professional transformations is what the course strives to accomplish For detailed descriptions of each individual e xperiences and whether or not they showed evidence of transformational experiences, see Chapter 5 Summary of Theoretical Framework and Literature Review In sum, the adult learners enrolled in ESL for Educators, along with the instructor and researcher, w ere complex beings with multiple and unique roles, responsibilities, experiences, beliefs, values, identities, and goals that were constantly changing and evolving. D iversity came in many different forms: gender, age, culture, background, socio cultural hi stories and experience s and a more subtle form of diversity: level of development, or way of knowing ( Drago Severson, 2004 ) knowing shape d the ways in which the participants underst ood their experiences both in the course and in life. Everyone made sense of his or her experien ces differently ; therefore, it was research study. Knowing who the learners were and where they were coming from, along with the multiple demands that were placed upon them at the time of the study was important because of how those demands influenced the ways in which they experience d the online ESL for Educators course and their potential for transformational learning ( Kegan, 1994 )

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22 The conceptual framework and literature review help ed to frame my study in an attempt to understand how the adult learners in the onl ine ESL for Educators course mad e sense of their experiences their understanding of themselves, and their development as learners and current or future teachers of ELLs over the course of the semester. In Chapter 3 I describe my research method, which includes the research que stions that guided the study, the research site and participants, and methods of data collection and analysis.

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23 CHAPTER 3 METHODS Purpose of Study Based on prior course assessments, the linguistically diverse education ( LDE ) program appear ed to achieve it s goal of facilitating informational learning for the majority of teacher candidates enrolled in the course. However, it was unclear how often transformational learning occur red if at all. Those who had taught the course, myself included, reported a sense that the potential exist ed for transformational learning to o ccur as a result of participation in the course, but there was no empirical evidence to support those claims The purpose of this study was to explore the potential for transformational learnin g, determine what kind of change was reasonable to expect in a group of TCs during a one semester course, and which course activities contributed most to shifts in thinking cons ideration, I sought to discover how each of the participants experienced the course, what their beliefs and understandings were about linguistic diversity at the beginning of the course, any change that took place in their thinking as a result of their cou rse participation, and which course activities appeared to have the greatest impact on their thinking as well as the ability to foster transformational learning Research Q uestions The research questions which guided this study address ed three main areas : course, their beliefs about working with culturally and linguistically diverse learners, and

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24 the changes that took place as a result of their participation in the course. The roles of background, prior experience, teaching context, and the online learning environment were considered as well. The specific research questions were : 1. How do different teacher candidates experience the online ESL for Educators course? a. What roles do the background and prior experiences of the TCs play? 2. What changes, or shifts in thinking, take place in the understandings and/or beliefs of teacher candidates about working with culturally and linguistically diverse learners as a result of their part icipation in the course? 3. Which course activities, educational practices and processes, according to the TCs, contribute to transformational shifts in thinking? a. What role does the online learning environment play? Research S ite Online ESL for Educators Co urse The site for this study is the online ESL for Educators course which is part of a teacher education program at a mid sized university The fall 2011 university enrollment was 10,183 students with 1,805 enrolled in at least one online course. This ES L for Educators course is offered every semester both on campus and online. The TCs enrolled in the online course are graduate students, some of whom are in the post baccalaureate strand of the Teacher Education and Licensure Program (TELP: pre service), a nd some of whom are in the Alternative Licensure Program ( ALP: in service, but without teaching credentials). All of the participants in the study were part of the Alternative Licensure

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25 Program but not all of them were teaching during the semester of the study This course is typically taken early in the course sequence, usually in the first or second semester of the program. The ESL for Educators course is conducted using Blackboard and meets entirely online. There are no face to face meetings The optio n of having a face to face meeting is at the discretion of the instructor. No face to face meetings occurred during the semester of data collection. Online c ourse activities include d weekly readings (two books and several supplemental readings posted on Bl ackboard), weekly participation in online threaded discussions (requirements include d one response to the discussion prompt and responses to at least two classmates), three journal entries (one at the beginning, one in the middle, and one at the end of the course), three field assignments (see Appendix J for descriptions), one exam one scholarly research paper, and a final reflection paper. I have taught the course twice (fall 2010 and spring 2011). The online instructor taught the course once (summer 2011 ) prior to the semester of data collection (fall 2011). I was granted full access to the online course as a Teaching Assistant during the semester of the study (fall 2011 ) Research Participants The Teacher Candidates Of the nine teacher candidates enroll ed in the course, six agreed to participate in the study, four females and two males ( see table 3.1 ) Their ages ranged from 26 50, three in their late one two were enrolled in the Alternat ive Licensure Program (ALP) during the time of the study in

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26 a secondary content area: three in math, one in science, one in social studies, and one undeclared. All of the participants were from the United States and spoke English as their first language. H owever, five of the six had some knowledge of a language other than English and three had lived abroad at various points in their lives Two of the teacher candidates were teaching, one was substitute teaching and three were not in schools during the sem ester of the study See table 3.1 for more information about each of the participants. Table 3.1 Background Information as Reported by P articipants SOFIA KATHY JENNIFER PATRICIA STEVEN ERIK Age range 26 30 46 50 46 50 26 30 26 30 36 40 Content Area Ma th Math Math Science ? Social Studies Currently teaching/ subbing No Yes: middle school math and drama Yes: subbing secondary math and science Yes: high school science No No Teaching Experience (1= novice; 5=veteran) 1 3 2 2.5 3 4.5 Other languages and proficiency (1= low; 5=high) Spanish (3) Spanish (2); Korean (1) German (1); Spanish (1) None reported Spanish (3); Thai (3) Japanese (4); Chinese (2); German (1) Experience with/ Knowledge of other cultures (1=low; 5=high) 3 5 2 3 4 4 Interest in having ELLs in class (0=not interested; 5=very interested) 4 5 3 4 5 5 Confidence/ ability in teaching ELLs (1=low; 5=high) 1 2 1 2 5 5

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27 SOFIA KATHY JENNIFER PATRICIA STEVEN ERIK Preparation of other coursework to teach ELLs (0=no prepara tion; 5=high preparation) 0 0 0 0 2 0 Confidence in online learning (1=not confident; 5=very confident) 4 5 1 5 1 1 In a condensed timeline, the statistics on students enrolled in ESL for Educators from fall 2007 to spring 2012 report ed that 68.4% have been female and 30.8% male. 77.4% report ed being White and 21.8% report being Asian, Black Hispanic, American Indian, Alaskan Native, Pacific Islander, or unknown. The average age was reported to be 31.025. The Instructor Eva, the instructor, was teach ing the ESL for Educators course for the second time during the semester of data collection. The prior semester she taught took place during the summer session, which was a condensed version of the layout for the 16 week, full semester version of the cours e. Eva had been working as a full time instructor at the same university in which the study took place for less than a year, but had extensive experience as an educator prior to joining this university. For a more detailed description of Eva, her backgroun d, teaching experience, and course experiences, see Chapter 5: Portraits.

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28 The Researcher I am a married mother of three young children in my mid thirties I grew up in a predominantly white mid sized suburb of Chicago and lived in the same house, in the same town until I left for college. Attending the university was my first real exposure to diversity. I studied abroad in Spain during my sophomore year, which opened my eyes to the larger world of which I was a small part. Upon earning my B.A. in the teac hing of secondary Spanish, I moved to Quito, Ecuador. I lived there for two years and taught adult ESL at a local university and ninth grade English and social studies at a private bilingual K 12 school. It was at that point in my life when I realized th at I wanted to work with English language learners When I returned to the U.S. from Ecuador, I taught high school Spanish for one year, but then went back to school to earn my M.A. TESOL (teaching English to speakers of other languages) While I was worki ng on my M.A., I taught English for the orking with English learners. After I earned my M.A., I decided to move to Colorado, a place I always enjoyed visiting as a child. I began working at a local university in a brand new ESL teacher education program. I was one of the first employees of the grant funded program and was excited to be a part of it. I have been involved in one way or another with this newly named culturally and linguistically diverse education program for the last nine years. I have seen it change and evolve over the years similar to my own identity Through my work at this university, I continue to learn about our local population of ELLs and continue to st rive to do whatever I can to help them succeed. That is part of the reason I

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29 am now involved in teacher training : to try and reach as many teachers as possible in the hopes of reaching as many students as possible. That is how this study came to be. Since the ESL for Educators course may be the only course some of our local mainstream and content area teachers recei ve, I believe in its importance, I believe in making it as effective as possible and I am convinced of its potential. I decided to take a step back from teaching the course to examine what was going on and how the teachers enrolled in the course made sense of their course experiences. I wanted to learn which aspects of the course were working and which ones needed to be improved upon. This disse rtation is just the beginning of what I foresee to be a long career asking similar questions. Ultimately, my interests lie with the English learners themselves and helping prepare the teachers to work with them is the first step in that process. Data Coll ection Questionnaires and Surveys In order to answer the question of how the teacher candidates experience d this course, it was important to find out who the adult learners were including their background s g point of an educational ( Knowles, et al., 1998, p. 94 ) and connecting new learning wit h prior experience is an important aspect of educating adults ( Merriam, 2008 ) Therefore, I sent out a background questionnaire to all online TCs prior to the start of class (see Appendix A ). The questionnaire helped me which is an important part of their present and futur e learning ( Kegan, 2000, p. 58 ).

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30 The background questionnaire inquire d about age, gender, prior experiences with diversity, knowledge of other languages, teaching experience, confidence in working with cul turally and linguistically diverse learners, confidence with the online learning environment, and so forth. The questionnaire was a combination of Likert scale questions and open ended questions and serve d as a great way to learn more about who the study p articipants were Upon completion of the course, I sent a follow up questionnaire with five questions on it to see what may have changed in their confidence and interest in working with ELLs and with the online learning environment I also asked them to d escribe their overall feelings about how well the ESL for Educators course prepared them to work with ELLs (see Appendix E ). To further help me understand the TCs, their perceived knowledge of linguistically diverse education, and their attitudes and belie fs about linguistic diversity I sent them two additional surveys. The first was the Knowledge of ELL Issues Survey, which was a ten question Likert type survey adapted from Teague ( 2010 ) (see Appendix C ). This survey ask ed the TCs to self assess their level of knowledge about EL L issues that would be covered throughout the semester. This same survey was administered at the completion of the course to gauge perceived gains in informational knowledge. The second survey was the Language Attitudes of Teachers Scale (LATS) ( Byrnes & Kiger, 1994 ; Byrnes, Kiger, & Manning, 1997 ) which consist ed of 13 attitude stateme nts concerning language diversity (see Appendix B ). The Likert type responses were coded 1=strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 3=uncertain, 4=agree, 5=strongly agree.

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31 Some items were reverse coded (statements two, four and nine) The alpha reliability coefficie nt for the scale was reported at .81 by Byrnes, et al. ( 1997 ) Byrnes & Kiger ( 1994 ) reported the test retest reliability coefficient as r = .72, n = 28. Face validity was established due to the straightforward nature of the statements that address ed linguistic diversity issues. However, I hav e questions about the content validity of this instrument. Based on the results of this survey, I am not convinced that it measured what it was supposed to measure: linguistic tolerance. Validity concerns will be discussed further in the results. Since t he TCs developed their belief systems long before starting this course ( Pohan & Aguilar, 2001 ; Torok & Aguilar, 2000 ) it was helpful to get a sense of what their beliefs and understandings about linguistic diversity and their tolerance of linguistic diversity were upon entering the course. In addition the LATS survey had th e potential to reveal whether or not the teacher candidates held any biases, prejudices or cultural misconceptions that the instructor may have chosen to identify, challenge or address during the semester ( Pohan & Aguilar, 2001, p. 160 ) The LATS survey was administ e red again at the completion of the course to help me learn whether or not the TCs repor t ed changes in their attitudes or beliefs about cultural and linguistic diversity over the course of the semester. Interviews The questionnaires and surveys provide d a brief introduction to the participants, but in order to learn more about them and how th ey ma d e sense of their experiences, I arrange d an initial interview with each participant. I met with each of them as soon as possible at the beginning of the semester During our first meeting I asked a few open

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32 ended semi structured questions basically an extension of their background questionnaires Due to scheduling conflicts, three of the interviews were conducted on the phone. All interviews were recorded and transcribed. At approximately the mid way point in the semester, I conducted a second round of interviews with each participant. During this meeting I inquired about their experiences in the course up to that point in the semester I looked for possible shifts in their thinking and which activities appeared to be making the greatest impact on th em so far. For this round, two of the six interviews were conducted on the phone. For the third and final interview I conducted an adaptation of the subject object interview ( Lahey, et al., 1988 ) all and how they made sense of those experiences (see Appendix G for interview protocol ) Using t he subject object interview was an effective way to accomplish this goal I was able to conduct five of the six final interviews in person and one on the phone Following the subject object protocol ( Lahey, et al., 1988 ) I provide d the five participant s I interviewed in person with ten index cards that contain ed various prompts : angry, anxious, successful, standing up for your beliefs, confused, sa d, moved, surprised change, important to me. They had 15 20 minutes to think and jot down any notes they would like on the index cards. However, many of them did not use more than about ten minutes. I sent the one phone interviewee the prompts in a word d ocument via email, which he had the opportunity to think about before we started our phone conversation. I assured all participants that they were in complete control of the interview by giving them the choice about which cards to talk about and which one s not to talk about. I

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33 also made it clear that the cards were theirs and I would not read them, which hopefully put them more at ease. Throughout the interviews, I tried to keep the atmosphere friendly and comfortable. Activity Impact Questionnaires In a ddition to the background questionnaires and surveys at the beginning and end of the semester, I created two activity impact questionnaires, adapted from Brancard ( 2008 ) One was administered at the mid way point in the semester (see Appendix D ) and one at the end of the semester (see Appendix F ). Each course activity was listed, including re adings, online links, field assignments, journals, online discussions, and so forth The participants were asked to rate each activity and the impact it made on them. The purpose of the activity impact questionnaires was to help determine which course acti vities the participants perceived as most interesting/engaging, most helpful in preparing them to work with ELLs, most helpful in understanding themselves better and/or others better, which caused them to think differently about ELLs, and to what extent. Attached to each activity impact questionnaire was a related questionnaire to gauge their reactions to listed and participants were asked whether they would keep, change, or get rid of that top ic. There was a column for comments after each activity and online discussion topic listed.

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34 Online Discussions, Assignment Write ups and Reflections Throughout the semester I follow ed online participation via their contributions to the w eekly threaded discussions and their assignment write ups and reflections. Included in their assignment write ups and reflections were: three journal entries ( beginning, middle, and end of semester entries ), three field assignment write ups/reflections (se e Appendix J for descriptions), and a final reflection paper ( end of semester ). I incorporated ideas from their write ups and reflections into the interviews as appropriate. Doing so helped me learn how the TCs were constructing their course experience as the semester progresse d and helped me determine whether or not there were particular activities, practices or processes during which transformational learning occur red Data A nalysis I collect ed and analyze d data throughout the semester of data collection I beg a n analyzing data as soon as I g o t it. For the Likert type responses to questionnaires and surveys ( Background Questionnaire, Knowledge of ELL issues LATS activity impact questionnaires, and end of semester questionnaires ) I enter ed the data into Microsoft Excel in order to use descriptive statistics in the reporting the results. Doing so provided a picture of the group of adult learners in the study and the individual participants more specifically As I conduct ed interviews and conversations I jotted down notes and reflected on what I hear d as I hear d it, a process referred to as memoing ( Miles & Huberman, 1994 ) I had all interviews transcribed and immediately read the transcription s as I entered them

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35 into a Microsoft Word data table which I used as a tool for analyzing my q ualitative data ( LaPelle, 2004 ) I use d open coding techniques ( Corbin & Strauss, 2008 ) to help me identify themes and categories that emerge d which I used to create a theme codebook ( LaPelle, 2004 ) This was a recursive process under constant revision as new themes and categories emerge d More specifically, I use d three types of categories in my analysis: organizational, substantive, and theoretical categories ( Maxwell, 2005 ) which help ed me identify information and find evidence to address my research questions. I start ed with organizational categories the broad areas that I had already anticipated (e.g. prior experiences, online learning environment, course experiences, et c.). These serve d as ( Maxwell, 2005, p. 97 ) Substantive categories emerge d as subcategories of my organizational categories, which I did not anticipate prior to data analysis ( Maxwell, 200 5 ) The substantive categories could not be anticipated because they were words and were beliefs (e.g. finding love, personal experience with immi views towards Hispanic students, etc.) ed theoretical categories that connect ed my interpretations of the data with my theoretical framework (e.g. subjec t/object stance, taking, empathy, sense of self, sources of authority, etc .) I went back to the interview transcripts and re read them in

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36 sense of t hem. This was the final step in the analysis and the most revealing. Throughout the recursive coding process, I employ ed connecting strategies which help ed me look for relationships among the categories and themes that connect ed statements into a coherent whole ( Maxwell, 2005 ) This help ed me to better understand the individual participants in the study as well as begin the process of developing a more general theory of what was going on in the course I use d the coding and connecting processes t o analyze int erview data as well as writte n data such as journal entries assignment write ups and reflections. To provide an example of some of the kinds of statements in the data that help ed learning in general and potential for transformatio nal learning, I look ed examine d the context of the statement and what brought about those part icular feelings. T hrough analysis I attempted to discover what contributed to shifts in thinking and in what ways. Ultimately, I sought to learn how TCs experience d the course, what their experiences mean t to them, what changes took place, if any, in thei r thinking as a result of the ir participation in the course, and what activities or practices contributed to those changes. While it was beyond the scope of the study to identify where the participants fell on the subject object continuum or what their ind ividual stages of development, or ways of knowing were I tried to identify certain abilities and limitations associated with their

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37 development tendencies towards certain meaning making systems, and their senses of self By conducting and analyzing the su bject object interview s and other forms of data mentioned above, I was able to infer certain aspects of the development and epistemologies I will discuss the findings in Chapter s 4 and 5

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38 CHAPTER 4 SNAPSHOTS: GLIMPSES INTO RESULTS OF DATA In this c hapter I present the aggregate results and findings of the study for the group I have organized the results around the major findings which are aligned with my research questions The major findings are summarized as follows: 1. The participants entered the ESL for Educators course with a wide range of understandings, beliefs and attitudes about linguistic diversity and each of them had unique experiences of the course which were influenced by their backgrounds prior experiences and individual circumstanc es during the semester of data collection 2. The participants developed new understandings about the education of ELLs as a result of their participation in the course 3. The course activities that appeared to impact the most were th e three field assignments, written reflections, and the readings on sheltered content instruction 4. The reported benefits of the online learning environment were convenience, flexibility, and pacing. The reported challenges and limitations of the online env ironment were difficulty finding a routine and staying on track, lack of connection with classmates and instructor, fear of miscommunication, superficial and repetitive discussions, and limitations of typing versus verbalizing thoughts.

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39 Finding One The TC s enrolled in the online ESL for Educators entered the course with a variety of understandings, attitudes and beliefs about linguistic diversity and the education of ELLs. Because they all had a different starting point for the course as well as unique ind ividual circumstances, each of them experience d the course in very different ways Their experiences were influenced by a multitude of factors such as their backgrounds, prior experiences, teaching context, and epistemologies (ways of knowing, sources of a uthority, senses of self) individual backgrounds and experiences see Chapter 5 Prior Understandings Based on the results of the background questionnaire, surveys, and initial interviews, it was evident that each of the participants entered the course with a wide range of knowledge, understandings, and beliefs regarding cultural and linguistic diversity. level s of reported knowledge as well as their understandings and beliefs about diversity and ELLs were mediated by their prior expe riences. Prior knowledge The results of the initial Knowledge of ELL Issues Survey indicated that as a group the TCs entered the course with very little knowledge of the ELL issues that would be covered in the cours e. They self assessed their knowledge of ten issues relat ed to the education of ELLs on a scale of one to five, five representing the most knowledge. The average score for each of the ten items across all six participants was 2.33, which most closely corre spond ed to level two (very little knowledge). However, the averages varied by participant and by topic.

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40 As shown in table 4.1 the topics of which the TCs reported having the highest average knowledge were issues surrounding the debate on bilingual educat ion (3.17), legal requirements for educating ELLs (2.83), and how second languages are learned/acquired (2.83). While those three topics resulted in the highest level of perceived knowledge, they most closely aligned with the descriptor the scale. The topic of which the TCs reported having the least knowledge was sheltered content instruction and how to implement it (1. 33) which most closely aligned knowledge Table 4.1 Average (Mean) Responses to Knowledge of ELL Issues Sur vey by Topic Topic Average Across Participants SD The local ELL population 2.5 1.05 Local resources/organizations that serve ELLs/families 1.5 .84 Legal requirements for educating ELLs 2.83 1.17 History of bilingual education in the U.S. 2.33 1.03 Bi lingual program models 1.5 .84 Issues surrounding the debate on bilingual education 3.17 1.60 How first languages are learned/acquired 2.33 1.03 How second languages are learned/acquired 2.83 1.33 Sheltered content instruction and how to implement it 1 .33 .52 Effective instructional strategies for ELLs 2 1.10 As shown in table 4.2 average responses for the individual participants varied as well The average self rated knowledge across the ten topics ranged from a low of 1.2 (Sofia) to a high of 3.0 (Erik). very somewhere in between rating thems elves as having overall.

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41 These results suggest that most of the topics covered in the course were new to the majority of the participants. Table 4.2 Average (Mean) Responses of Knowledge of ELL Issues Survey by Participant Participa nt Average (Mean) Across Responses SD Sofia 1.2 .42 Kathy 2.3 .82 Jennifer 1.7 .67 Patricia 2.3 .82 Steven 2.9 1.37 Erik 3.0 1.56 It is important to note the gender difference in the response to the knowledge of ELL issues survey. The two males in the study reported having greater knowledge than the females did on the topics presented. None of the participants had engaged in formal study on the topic, but the males indicated that they had at least some knowledge of all topics while the females repo rted having less knowledge of the topics overall. The difference in intellectual confidence between males and females is not uncommon Belenky ( 1986 ) and colleagues report that women have a tendency to speak more in self doubt than men. S ociolinguist Deborah Tannen ( 1995 ) agrees by showing that while women tend to downplay their certainty, men tend to downplay their doubts. This appeared to be the case in this study. Prior training It is important to note that the majority of the participants had no prior coursework or preparation in teaching ELLs. In fact, five out of the six participants reported having no prior course work or training that prepared them to work with ELLs

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42 and the one person that did report previous training (Steven) indicated that it resulted in very little preparation. Prior experience with other cultures Because the group as a whole had very little or no prior training in the area of ELL education, the knowledge and understandings that they did bring with them about ELL issues were directly related to their own personal backgrounds and experiences. Five of the six participants had spent time abroad at various points in their lives (all but Patricia) and all six of them had exposure in one form or another to a language other than English. Two of the participants (Kathy and Erik) had previously taught ESL abroad. Kathy taught ESL in Korea and traveled extensively overseas and Erik taught ESL in Japan and also lived in China and German y. Jennifer took several trips to Mexico as a child for vacations and as an adult for m ission work. And while she did not specifically teach ESL, she taught swimming lessons in English during those m ission trips. Steven studied abroad in Thailand and plann ed to travel to Asia upon the conclusion of the semester. Overall the TCs reported an average of 3.5 out of five with respect to their experience with and/or knowledge of other cultures (five being the greatest amount of experience/knowledge) Interest v ersus confidence in teaching ELLs Possibly due to their own experiences with diversity, the group overall reported a relatively high level of interest in having ELLs in their classrooms (4.33 out of five ). This suggest s that while the TCs entered the cour se with varied experience and knowledge of other cultures and diversity they generally had a high interest in working with ELLs with the possible exception of Jennifer who reported a lower level of interest (three out of five) than the rest of the group

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43 As figure 4.1 illustrates, t reported level of experience with other cultures as well as their reported level of interest in having ELLs in their classrooms was significantly higher overall than their reported level of confiden ce and/or ability to teach them This lack of confidence may have been due to their lack of prior training With the exception of Steven and Erik who rated their confidence to teach ELLs as high (five out of five) Sofia, Kathy, Jennifer, and Patricia rated their confidence mu ch lower (ones and twos out of five) As a group overall they reported an average level of confidence of 2.67 out of five Figure 4.1 Reported Knowledge of Other Cultures, Interest in Having ELLs in their Classrooms, and Confidence/Ability to Teach ELLs at the Beginning of the Semester The results again highlight the difference in response by gender. The males report being extremely confident in their abilities and the women do not. None of the four women rated their confidence higher than a two out of fi ve; not even Patricia who had more experience than anyone in working with ELLs. The results of this survey are in line with the common practice among women of downplaying certainty and the common practice among men of minimizing doubts ( Tannen, 1995 ) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Knowledge of other cultures Interest in having ELLs Confidence in teaching ELLs

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44 Prior Attitudes and Beliefs T he pre semester Language Attitudes of Teachers Scale (LATS) ( see Appendix B ) and my initial interview s with each participant showed that there was some variation in attitudes regarding the role of Englis h language instruction and the education of ELLs in general upon entering the course It is important to present the results of the survey as one piece of the puzzle However, it is important to note that the interview data at times conflicted with the LAT S responses. Therefore, I relied more heavily on interview data for clarification because I was not convinced that this instrument accurately represented diverse cu ltures was not reflected in this survey. The responses to the 13 statements on the LATS survey were added up and each participant was given an overall score. Three items were reverse coded (two, four, and nine). A higher score suggest ed less toleran ce of linguistic diversity ( Byrnes & Kiger, 1994 ; Byrnes, et al., 1997 ) The average score for the parti cipants overall was 25.33 ( SD = 8.41). With respect to the individual participants 13 which was also the lowest score possible on the survey. This suggest ed that Kathy was extremely tolerant of linguistic diversity upon e ntering the course and the most tolerant out of the six total participants. Sofia (24), Erik (27), and Jennifer (31). ( 37 ) suggesting that Steven was the least tolerant of linguistic diversity out of the group of participants ( see table 4.3 ).

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45 Table 4.3 LATS S cores at Beginning of S emester Participant Beginning Sofia 24 Kathy 13 Jennifer 31 Patricia 20 Steven 37 Erik 27 Responses on the LATS survey were associated with a greater level of tolerance for linguistic diversity. The average response across all six participants was a 1.95 ( SD = .65) which most closely correspond ed to variation by response and by participant, as a group overall they were generally tolerant of linguistic diversity upon entering the course. T he responses to individual statements on the LATS offer ed additional insights into some of the specific attitudes toward linguistic diversity held by the participants For example, the majority of participants, with the exception of Steven, expressed that they felt it was important for people in the U S to learn a language in add ition to English. Sofia even enrolled in a Spanish class during the same semester she took ESL for Educators. Five of the six participants, with the exception of Erik indicated that they felt regular classroom teachers should be required to receive pre service or in service training to be p repared to meet the needs of linguistic minorities. Erik reported being uncertain about that. If they were answering honestly, this would suggest that while the ESL for

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46 Educators course was a requirement for the TCs, most felt it was important and necessar y. A ll six of the participants expressed that they felt having an English learner in their class would not be detrimental to the learning of other students. This would suggest that at the beginning of the course the group overall embraced the idea of havi ng diverse learners in their classes. W hen you have an ELL student pop up you have to you have to unconscionable not to support that student believe that someone should be in this country or not, or whatever. That child, someone put that child in your charge, and you need to do the best for that child. reach. If we do not reach these st udents here in the United States well our future Jennifer indicated on the survey that she did not think having ELLs in her class would be detrimental to the learning of t he other s her interview data suggest that she was not quite sure help them understand this vocabulary you know, these words, so that they can do whatever they need to do. Tha t would be like taking time away from the rest of the class a little confusing and difficult to sort of mentally ... I mean students who do not get the material, and stud ents in the middle who are progressing, and then to add students who sort of speak English, speak English pretty well, and speak English perfectly care of. While the majority of the participants reported feeling as though the rapid learning of English should not be a priority for ELLs if it meant losing their native language, half of the participants were uncertain as to whether or not parents of ELLs

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47 should be counseled to speak English with their children whenev er possible. Half of the participants also expressed uncertainty about whether or not the learning of English should take precedence over learning subject matter at school This may be due to the fact that most of the TCs had no previous training in ESL ed ucation and rated their overall knowledge of sheltered content instruction as practically nothing. The interview data offered additional insights into the TCs attitudes about the importance of learning English. Erik voiced his opinion about the subject Y So, if you expect to fine speaking Spanish in your home or wherever you want to speak it, but you need to know English I l ived in Japan, I learned Japanese. I lived in China, I learned Chinese. I lived in Germany, I learned German. For Germans living in America, I would expect them to be interested in learning English. Patricia revealed that at the beginning of the cours e her understanding was that ELLs should master English first I felt that needed more to catch up in the language before they could even attempt to understand the academic material Other participants, such as Kathy expres sed less of a sense of urgency about learning English and more on the importance of embracing other cultures and languages. rce them. There are so many nice things out there, and we try to throw it all away.

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48 Sofia also stressed the importance of being accepting of others and not judging them based on their English language ability. I and yelling at them is not going to make them learn any faster. S ummary of Finding One Each of the participants entered this course with varying degree s of experience with other cultures and knowledge of issues surrounding the education of ELLs as well as differing attitudes about linguistic diversity. Due to their par ticipation in the course and their individual circumstances, each of the participants experienced the course in very unique and different ways. The type of change that occurred as a result of course participation will be discussed in the next sect ion. Fi nding Two Each of the six participants changed in some way through their experiences of the ESL for Educators course. While common themes of change emerged across the group of participants, the specific types of change s varied from person to person T he perceived gain of knowledge, the reported change in attitudes and beliefs, and the realizations the participants made about the education of ELLs and about themselves as educators of ELLs were unique for each individual Change in Reported Knowledge of ELL Issues The results of the post semester Knowledge of ELL Issues Survey showed a reported increase in knowledge for all six participants across all survey responses As shown in table 4.4 Sofia assessed her level of knowledge of ELL issues at the be ginning

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49 as basically which resulted in the greatest reported gain ( +2.6 ) aligning most closely Patricia increased as well (+2.1) followed by Kathy (+1.8), Erik (+1.4), and Jennifer (+1.25) Steven re ported the lowest increase in knowledge responses across all ten items (+.50). Both his pre and post semester self Table 4.4 Average (Mean) Change to Responses on Knowledge of ELL Issues Survey by Participant Participant Pre SD Post SD Change Sofia 1.2 .42 3.8 .42 +2.6 Kathy 2.3 .82 4.1 .74 +1.8 Jennifer 1.7 .67 2.95 .64 +1.25 Patricia 2.3 .82 4.4 .97 +2.1 Steven 2.9 1.37 3.4 .84 +0.50 Erik 3.0 1.56 4.4 .84 +1.4 As shown in table 4.5 t he survey topic t hat showed the greatest perceived increase in knowledge for the group overall was sheltered content instruction and how to implement it (+2.42) The TCs indicated at the beginning of the semester that sheltered instruction was the topic they knew the least about The average jumped from 1.33 ( ) On the other end of the spectrum, the topic that resulted in the least perceived gain in knowledge for the group was how second languages are learned/acquired (+.92 ) The group rated knowledge of second language acquisition coming into the course (2.83) and ended up as a group overall

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50 Table 4.5 Average (Mean) Change on Knowledge of ELL Issues Survey by Topic Topic Pre Post Change The local ELL population 2.5 4.17 +1.67 Local resources/organizations that serve ELLs/families 1.5 3 +1.5 Legal requirements for educating ELLs 2.83 4.33 +1.5 History of bilingual education in the U.S. 2.33 4 +1.67 Bi lingual program models 1.5 3.5 +2.0 Issues surrounding the debate on bilingual education 3.17 4.33 +1.16 How first languages are learned/acquired 2.33 3.92 +1.59 How second languages are learned/acquired 2.83 3.75 +0.92 Sheltered content instruction an d how to implement it 1.33 3.75 +2.42 Effective instructional strategies for ELLs 2 3.67 +1.67 Change in Reported Level of Interest in Having ELLs in Class Kathy, Steven and Erik, the three participants who originally rated their interest in having EL Ls in their class at a five (the highest level of interest), re rated their level of interest at fives, which indicated that they came in to the course with a high interest and left the course with a high interest in working with linguistically diverse lea rners. Therefore, there was no perceived change in interest for half of the participants. As illustrated in figure 4.2 the other half of the participants did report a change in their level of interest in working with ELLs. Sofia and Patricia reported an i ncreased level of interest (both jumping from a four to a five) and one participant, Jennifer, reported a decrease in interest with working with ELLs (changing from a five to a four). She explained that her lower interest was due to the fact that she felt unprepared to work with ELLs.

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51 Figure 4.2 Change in Reported Interest in Having ELLs in Classroom: Beginning and End of the Semester Change in Reported Level of Confidence to Teach ELLs When asked about their confidence and/or ability in teaching ELLs, five out of the six participants reported a change in their level of confidence. Steven was the exception. Steven came in to the course extremely confident (rating his confidence at a five out of five) and left the course extremely confident (also at a fi ve), suggesting that his perceived level of confidence did not change as a result of his participation in the course. Four out of the six participants reported an increase in their confidence and/or ability to work with ELLs : Sofia, Kathy, Jennifer, and Pa tricia ( see Figure 4.3 ). However, one person reported a decrease in his confidence and/or ability to teach ELLs : Erik This may be due to the fact that he realized the limitations of transferring his prior ESL teaching experience abroad to teaching ELLs in a history class in the U.S. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Beginning of Semester End of Semester

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52 I was in Japan, I was teaching English, and for the Japanese, their English needs are different than what an ELL kid needs here in the US. I guess I kind of, sort of had that in the back of my head, but after I did the visit, it really came to the front. came to the realization about the importance of acknowledging that learners needs are different everywhere. from one group of people to another. I think you need to be aware of even the difference between kids here and adults here. Figure 4.3 Report ed Change in Confidence/ Ability in Teaching ELLs Patricia discussed her gain in knowledge and All of empowered. I feel empowered that I know at least a good amount I have a good toolbox now that I can start putting into action, I feel like I can do it 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Sofia Kathy Jennifer Patricia Steven Erik Beginning of Semester End of Semester

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53 Jennifer, on the other hand, felt more overwhelmed by the amount of information presented which contributed to her decrease in confidence and interest in working with ELLs. discussed feelings of nervousness about teaching ELLs. What was t confidence, so I became more nervous about teaching ELLs by the end of the class than I was in the middl e of the class. Change in Teaching Practice : Kathy and Patricia Kathy and Patricia were the only two participants who were teaching during the semester they took the ESL for Educators course. Implications of teaching context on course design will be discus sed in further detail in Chapter 6. I n talking about changes that took place as a result of course participation, it is necessary to include the changes in practice that took place for both Kathy and Patricia due to what they learned in the course. Kathy s aid, strategies on how you teach ELLs, and I think I would have, I think without some I would have been as successful. Kathy highlighted evidence of impact on the academic So this week I started using effective ELL strategies, and my sc So, see success in her ELL based on newly implemented strategies but she saw success with the rest of the class as well.

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54 ot of things without talking with him, just showing and demonstrating, and that seems to be getting along. And the other kids seem to be getting it too from manipulatives. Manipulatives really work. Kathy also discussed her feelings on the importance of using native language support. I have one child who is just barely understands any English, and I try to do everything in the course in Spanish for him that I can, but I try to tell him it in English and Spanish And then I ask him in the journal, can you please try to journal for me in English and then journal for me in Spanish ? Because, I can read to use that asset. Patricia described the changes she made in her teach ing practice based on what she learned in the course. know the kids on a personal level, especially those ELL kids and make sure we talk about their home life and not in the classroom with cooperative learning strategies and making sure they are interacting with each other and not just within the ir group but also getting to know So that they can go to class and really feel comfort able in that sense. education. Kathy in particular developed new understandings about the importance of understanding the parents Another big thing is just really, understanding th eir parents, them... Sharing new knowledge with other educators Both Kathy and Patricia discussed the importance of taking what they learned in the ESL for Educators course and sharing

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55 that with other educators in their buildings Patricia met with her principal and together they conducted an in service training for the teachers at her schoo l during that same semester took Sheltered Content Instruction into the principal at my school And so hat can we do to start implementing the SIOP model within every classroom ? opulation of ELL students in our school that I feel like every class should be using sheltered content instruction. And so, he was extremely receptive to it, and he really wanted to get something going. A nd so we put some books together, put a PowerP oint together, and did a training of that model for all teachers there. It was multi learning for me has taken place Even though Kathy did not conduct trainings at her school immediately, she saw it as a role she would be taking on in the future. She discussed becoming an advocate for learners with exceptional needs and felt that starting with ELLs made good sense. I want to advocate for my children who have exceptional needs. English exceptional needs and reasons why children have needs. And putting it in the perspective, starting with the ELLs at a starting point, allowed me to see a lot have to realize that It means that the child has some n or social interactions, and we need to be aware of that. Something I a m definitely for them feel like I am to be doing that in my school. My principal is brand new, too, so he sees it as a antastic team at my school. I think they need struggles the most at our school.

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56 New U nderstand ings about the E ducation of ELLs Importance of teaching both content and language Several participants in the study indicated that through their participation in the course, they learned the importance of teaching both content and language objectives Eri T he thing I got from this quite understand the language. Patricia stated, Comprehensible input was probably I mean I think that was one of the huge idea s for me to get into my head, was that anything that I present to them really needs to be comprehensible to them, so I need to make sure that I can assess their levels of content and language knowledge, and then combine those things together and make sure that I am presenting information in a way that they can understand, so that was huge. Role of native language Sofia came to the realization that the ability a student has in his or her native language will impact where they are in English. I think that have the knowledge in their native language, then how can we expect the same thing in English, because that would, you know, the words are completely The content know ledge plays into the la nguage because they may have some background knowledge, but they may not be able to verbalize it in English. And while she acknowledged the importance of teaching both content and language objectives, the application of it caused her to feel overwhelmed Having to cover both content and language in the classroom is something that seems going to be like yet.

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57 Change in Attitudes and Beliefs Change in LATS scores The LATS was designed to measure levels of linguistic tolerance with higher scores suggesting lower tolerance ( Byrnes & Kiger, 1994 ) S ee table 4.6 for changes in scores from the beginning to the end of the semester The three participants that changed by more than two points were Patricia (+4), Steven (+4), and Jennifer (+11). Since their scores were higher, t he se results would suggest that Patricia, Steven a nd Jennifer became less tolerant of linguistic diversity over the cours e of the semester Based on interview data, I am not convinced that they became less tolerant of culturally and linguistically diverse learners; thus calling into question the validity of the instrument. Table 4.6 Change in LATS Scores from Beginning to End of Semester Participant Beginning End Difference Sofia 24 23 1 Kathy 13 15 + 2 Jennifer 31 42 + 11 Patricia 20 24 + 4 Steven 37 41 + 4 Erik 27 26 1 When the scores of the six p articipants were combined and averaged, they showed an average gain of 3.17 ( SD = 4.45) ( see table 4.7 ). This result would suggest that as a group overall they became less tolerant of linguistic diversity. Again, the results may be showing that they became more convinced of the importance of teaching English and the complex demands placed on teachers to meet the needs of CLD learners rather than that they became less tolerant.

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58 Table 4.7 Average ( Mean ) LATS Scores for the Group at Beginning and End of Semest er Mean Pre SD Mean Post SD Mean Gain SD Combined ( n =6) 25.33 8.41 28.5 10.75 3.17 4.45 The individual statements on the LATS that resulted in the greatest change were statements 6 and 11 Statement 6 reads, The rapid learning of English should be a p riority for non English proficient or limited English proficient students even if it means losing the ability to speak their native language Sofia, Patricia, Jennifer, and Steven changed their response to be in more agreement with this statement Sofia a nd Patricia strength of it changed. Jennifer went from being uncertain to agreeing with the statement. This may indicate less tolerance or it may show an increased awareness in the importan ce of teaching English F At school, the learning of the English language by non or limited English proficient children should take precedence over learning subject matter P atricia, Jennifer and Erik were originally uncertain about this statement. Patricia and T he LATS results suggest that the participants became less tolerant of linguistic diversity overall ( Byrnes & Kiger, 1 994 ; Byrnes, et al., 1997 ) Another possible explanation for the change is that those who changed their responses to appear less

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59 tolerant may have became more convinced of the importance of learning Eng lish more sensitive to teacher demands, and more aware of the need for professional preparation to meet the needs of their diverse learners Based on other forms of data, such as interviews and written reflections, I would not conclude that the participan attitudes towards ELLs become more negative. This again calls into question the validity of the instrument and highlights the importance of the triangulation of data which helps paint a clearer picture of the phenomena taking place. For example, in ta lking with Patricia in interviews I would have predicted that she had beco me more tolerant and aware of issues surrounding linguistic diversity, the opposite of what the LATS scores suggested ( Byrnes & Kiger, 1994 ; Byrnes, et al., 1997 ) She consistently talked about important realizations she had made during the semester such as becoming an advocate a nd altering her teaching practice to better meet the needs of her ELLs I think that part of the big revelation for me so far have just been that for these ELL students I have to be thinking about the whole student and not just the language, but what else there are so many other compone nts that are involved in their ability to retain and learn information. Change in feelings of empathy A few of the participants indicated that they felt a sense of empathy for ELLs or felt they could relate to ELLs in some way. It is difficult to ascertai n whether or not their feelings of empathy were influenced more by course participation or other experiences. Sofia for example, was enrolled in a Spanish class during the semester she took the ESL for Educators course. She described herself as a and talked often about how that experience influenced her course experiences and her thinking about ELLs

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60 different, the class and having the Spanish class both I think are probably the two biggest Sofia continued to describe the connections she made between her Spanish class and the ESL for Educators class and how being a Spanish learner allowed her to better put h erself in the shoes of ELLs grammar, and she just gets this (gestures a blank stare) from some of the students, and nobody asks questions, because she says are there any questi ons People an English l s tupid. kind of go together. Erik mentioned that based on his experiences abroad he, too, felt a sense of empathy for ELLs. F So I think I have a little more empathy for kids who are in sort of the similar situa tion here in the United States, where certainly you r e here six seven eight nine, you. And Steven talked about how he would be able to relate to all types of kids. He did not specifically mention ELLs, but it was implied in our conversation Yeah, I can relate to kids. I can relate to them. You know, gangsters, jocks, musicians, mute s, dudes, females, gay s, whatever, I relate to them. ; you are who you are Finally, Patricia reflected on her former ELLs in a new way and with a greater sense of empathy based on her new understandings.

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61 I actually felt sad that a s the semester went on and I had increasing awareness for the needs of these ELL students that I could look back on previous experiences and identify what I could have done better and what I you know probably should know, and I could have helped them be because I just I look back on these students that I know were struggling, and at the I guess I think what is circumstance. I think that the increasing awareness allowed me to see every single component that could be involved. And their lack of success in the classroom so not just language barriers, not just the affective issues, but everything combined m aybe the family issues, are Change in awareness of local ELL population. The knowledge of ELL issues survey t opic about knowing the local ELL population at the beginning of the course very little knowledge the sumptions were challenged about what the local ELL population consists of. Several used to think ish n my mind, I always thought of ESLs as being mainly Spanis h speaking he thought is ESL for Spanish. The TCs described themselves as being surprised and shocked by the statistics of our local ELL population, to include both the numbers of ELLs as well as the number of languag es represented. They learned this information largely from the first field assignment which required them to watch a panel discussion video of local ELL I gained a lot from the panel, because it was just anything about it, and that was my first glimpse into what it was really like. Sofia agreed,

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62 I think mostly, the thing that had probably the biggest impact was watching the video from the panel had s big of a need in this city. Other participants echoed those feelings of surprise. Jennifer I think Steven expressed, It just was very surprising how many different l anguages are represented in Those numbers were surprising. I thought they would have been a lot smaller. It was astonishing I just never thought that the problems were that big, especially everywhere. And Erik Summary of Change In conclusion, it was evident that each of the participan ts gained new understandings about the education of ELLs and some of them also showed evidence of change in their attitudes and beliefs due to their participation in the course. Most of the TCs gained confidence in teaching ELLs based on what they learned and the two who were teaching at the time were able to directly apply what they learned and with which they experienced success However, two of the TCs decreased in their confidence because of new understandings they developed In certain cases the partic ipants gained a greater sense of empathy for ELLs and reflect ed back on their prior experiences with the new understandings and knowledge they gained over the course of the semester

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63 Finding Three Based on the results of the pre and post Knowledge of ELL Issues survey, the pre and post LATS survey, the interviews and reflections, it was evident that certain course activities impact ed the thinking of the TCs more than others The aspects of the course that they reported as having the greatest impact on the m were the field assignments, reflection paper, journals, and the Sheltered Content Instruction textbook ( Echevarria & Graves, 2010 ) Overall, the course contributed to the acquisition of informational learning, a change in what a person knows, but in few instances led to transformational learning, a change in how a person knows I will discuss transformational learning further in Chapter 6 Activity Impact Questionnaire Half way through the semester the participants were asked to fill out a mid semes ter activity impact questionnaire ( see Appendix D ). At the end of the semester they were asked to fill out another course activity impact questionnaire using the same guidelines as the first ( see Appendix F ). Participants rated each activity based on how them to work with ELLs, help them to understand themselves better, understand others better, and whether or not the course challenged them to think differently a bout ELLs. The TCs rated the activities on a scale from zero to five, zero being not helpful/engaging and five being extremely helpful/engaging. I added up the average scores for each activity and included in table 4.8 the activities that had an average sc ore of four or higher Those that had an average score of four or higher indicating activities the TCs felt had

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64 the greatest impact on them, were : the three field assignment s the sheltered content instruction textbook, the journals, and the final reflect ion paper. Table 4.8 Activities That Resulted in Greatest Reported Impact Activity Description Mean rating SD Field Assignment 1 Local ELL d irectors p anel d iscussion video 4.54 (mid term) .43 Field Assignment 2 Cultural experience in unfamiliar language 4.08 (mid term) .40 Sheltered Content Instruction Text Textbook on sheltered instruction techniques 4.04 (mid term) .53 Journals Beginning, middle and end of semester reflections 4.08 (end semester) .33 Field Assignment 3 ESL observation and interview with ESL teacher 4.48 (end semester) .36 Final reflection paper Reflection of experiences over the course of the semester 4.12 (end semester) .27 Field assignments The topic of field assignments emerged as one of the most common themes throughout the interviews. Other than a few comments that I considered negative, the vast majority were overwhelmingly positive. Patricia said in reference to the those were all great. I was thinking back on all three. Those were wonderful! ll the field assignments were really good Field a ssignment o ne asked the TCs to watch a video of a panel discussion between four ESL coordinators from local school districts that took place the previous semester. As mentioned under finding two, the content of the video appeared to make a great impact on the thinking of the participants. The realizations they made about the many. Steven described his surprise.

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65 Something that surprised me was watching that English as a second language languages are represented in Those numbers were surprising. I thoug ht they would have been a lot smaller. It was astonishing. Erik attributed a big realization he made about the importance of teaching content to the information he got from watching the panel discussion. T hat was one thing I got from the panel discussion w German, or French, or Russian, or whatever, as long as he knows who George Washington is and why George Washington is important. That is the importa nt thing. And you know maybe it takes him a little while to figure it out in his native Kathy discussed how she wished she had learned the information presented on the video soone r. The thing that I learned the most from was the ... field ass ignment that she had us stupid, yes. It just went ping and ping and ping. Things have bee n much better since I d so if I had realized all that stuff ahead of time, I think would have been better off right now. I gained a lot from the panel, because it was just ng about it, and that was my first glimpse into what it was really like. Even the video on hearing all those ESL coordi nators Field assignment two was the cultural field assignment that required students to attend a cultural event, religious service or language class that was conducted in a language with which they were not familiar. The majority of the participants attended religious services conducted in a language other than Engl ish and most of them expressed that it was a positive and eye opening experience for them. Several of the TCs also expressed that they were thankful for the opportunity and likely would not have done it

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66 herself and others. glad that I got the opportunity to do that, because I never would have done it on my own, it was really, it was really good. A commo n theme that emerged in the assignment reflections as well as in the interviews was that of the importance of feeling welcome in an unfamiliar situation. Often it was just one person at the service or event who made the TCs feel more welcome and hence more comfortable. Patricia described her experience at a Jewish temple and how one woman approached her and helped her to feel included when she was otherwise feeling like an outsider. Patricia took that experience and related it to her ELLs. can end u p being completely introverted because of and that can hinder their growth. So, I think my whole the students feel totally welc ome and comfortable and a part of the classroom and that they matter. Interestingly, Patricia revealed that she did not have those big revelations right away. It was not until she began reflecting upon it that it began to click for her. Well, the temple wa really knew what was going on. I kind of discovered, through the process, how important it is for students to feel socially and emotionally comfortable in their environment and accepted and wanted. Similarly, Jennifer mentioned the process of writing about the experience as beneficial. ng about that was a good thing to do.

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67 Another common theme that emerged was that of coming to a realization that even though we are all different, deep down we are also very much the same. Sofia made that revelation after her experience at the mosque sh Wow! We are the same. I mean, I knew that, but to actually like feel that, it was really cool. Steven described an emotional experience he had at Russian Orthodox and Greek Orthodox churches. This experience helped Steve n take on the perspective of what it might be like for someone to come here from another country and experience a language barrier. Well, what I did is I went to a couple of churches. I went to a Russian orthodox church and a Greek orthodox church. I kin d of had some spiritual experiences more than anything, but a lot of it was transcended by the language barrier. I was kind of the unspoken language that connected me to the feeling of being in these churches. I can see how that would transcend to like say a Guatemalan coming over here and watching a baseball game or baseball stadium not un on, but just feeling the vibrations of the park, of th e game, of the people. It could be very powerful; you could have a cultural aware of a languag e or a medium of some sort, there are still benefits of an While four of the participants expressed feeling powerful emotions as a result of their cultural field assignment experience, Erik and Jennifer expressed feelings of skepticism about its impact. For Erik, he explained that the experience felt superficial to him since he already lived abroad and lived that experience on his own for several years. I think I would get more out of < addi tional time in classrooms> than no offense, d in another country down. I get that at would rather see more class time.

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68 While Jennifer did not have extensive experience living abroad, she described skepticism about how this e xperience could translate into an understanding of the experiences of ELLs. Based on what she discussed in our interview, it appeared as though she found the experience valuable on a personal level, but that it did not accurately reflect the true feelings of what it would be like to be an ELL. that when you go to those places, generally those pe ople all speak English. It was get the true feeling of being foreign. Or a couple of you can is what you know ESLs are feeling when they walk into a cla ssroom and the it was a great experience, but you can feel The requirement for field assignment three was that each TC was to conduct an observation of an ESL class as well as an interview with the ESL teacher For those who observed high quality instruction th e experience was a great learning opportunity For Erik, it was the experience that made the greatest impact on him during the semester. I got a lot out of that. I got more out of that than I did in the rest of the class It also motivates you, too. It really fires you up. Well, for me anyway. When you i t makes me want to dive in and help, you know? Patricia used what she was learning in class about sheltered content instruction and used it as a tool for anal I gained a lot from that last observation that I did. I really tried to apply the components of the SIOP model to analyze that lesson plan, and I got a lot out of it by doing it that way.

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69 For Jennifer this experience appeared t o be the most positive one for her. However, she also mentioned that what she learned from her interview made her think That was just, it was amazing to me how e lot of work. That was a great eye opening experience ... I felt that was an extreme learning experience. Journals and reflections Three journals were required of all TCs during the semester: one at the beginning, one at the middle and one at the end of the course. I n the final weeks of the semester the TCs were asked to compile all of their journals into one final reflection paper that summarized their experience overall. According to the activity impact questionnaires, the TCs reported that the jour nals and final reflection paper made an impact on them. It is interesting to note, though, that the journals did not average out to a score of 4.0 or higher at the mid term activity impact questionnaire. It was not until the end of semester questionnaire t hat their reported impact increased, which was also the same time they completed their final reflections. The topics of journal entries and the final reflection paper did not come up very often in interviews. Patricia was one of very few who explicitly me ntioned her feelings about journaling and reflecting. She was the one who mentioned that for the second field assignment her greatest epiphanies came out of the reflection and writing of the reflection about the experience. She also mentioned that along wi th the field assignments, she was getting the most benefit from the journals. Jennifer, too, indicated that writing refl ections of her experiences enhanced her learning She discussed the final reflection paper in our final interview lection paper because it does help you look back at

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70 eally through a little bit of the reflect ing on my Oh ye Textbook: Sheltered content i nstruction ( Echevarria & Graves, 2010 ) There were two textbooks required for the course ( Echevarria & Graves, 2010 ; Lightbown & Spada, 2006 ) and several articles readings and internet links. When I asked participants about their reactions to the readings, a common response was that they had a difficult time keeping all of them straight and therefore could not remember exactly what they had read. Honestly, I have trouble sometimes keeping the other class reading separate from the ESL readings hen You star wait a minute, One of the textbooks ( Echevarria & Graves, 2010 ) resulted in a score of 4.04 at the mid semester acti vity impact questionnaire, which made the list of course activities that made the greatest reported impact. It is important to note, though, that the score for that same textbook did not make a score of 4.0 or higher at the end of semester questionnaire. T his would suggest that the overall reactions to the text shifted somewhat from the middle to the end of the course. However, several students did cite that textbook Readings were good. I liked the Sheltered Content I nstruction can I do in my classroom, This has great stuff in it. This is really, really useful to me. So, I appreciated the SCI book a lot. nts about I really like that Sheltered Content Instruction

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71 ideas. It gives you general ideas, and then it kind of expounds on them a little further, but ESL In looking at the ESL for Educators course overall with the various course them to teach and/or work with ELLs. The results were somewhat split. Jennifer and Steven indicated that the course prepared them very little or only a little. Sofia and Erik reported that they felt the course prepared them well and Kathy and Patricia reported that they felt the course pre pared them very well. Since Kathy and Patricia were the two that were teaching during the semester they took ESL for Educators, this result highlights again the im portance of having a relevant context to apply what one is learning Summary of Course Activi ty I mpact I would conclude based on the comments from the assignment write ups and interviews that the field assignments overall made the greatest perceived impact on the participants. The topic of field assignments emerged more than any other course activ ity. The journals and final reflections along with the s heltered c ontent i nstruction t extbook ( Echevarria & Graves, 2010 ) also made a greater reported impact on the T Cs than other course activities Finding Four Confidence with Online Learning Based o n the results of the background questionnaire, the participants were split 50/50 in their reported confidence with the online learning environment At the beginning

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72 of the semester Jennifer, Steven and Erik rated themselves on the lower end of the spectrum (ones and twos) indicating they had little confidence or comfort with the online learning environment; whereas the other three : Sofia, Kathy and Patricia rated themselves on the higher end of the spectrum (fours and fives) indicating that they were quit e confident and/or comfortable with the online learning environment. At the end of the semester the TCs completed a follow up to the background questionnaire where they re assessed and reported their level of confidence or comfort with the online learnin g environment. Those who reported a high level of confidence at the beginning (Sofia, Kathy, and Patricia) remained steady in their confidence remaining at a four or a five out of five As figure 4.4 illustrates, the remaining three participants indicated a change in their level of confidence. Jennifer and Erik reported a slight increase in their confidence while Steven reported a decrease in his confidence. He went from a one to a zero (no confidence), which is why there is no visible bar representing his end of semester report. state my own opinions, things like that.

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73 Figure 4.4 Reported Level of Confidence/Comfort Level with Online Learning: Beginning and End of Semester In addition to their level of confidence in online learning, TCs were asked whether or no t they would take ESL for Educators online or on campus if given the choice to take it again. The results showed them split half and half Kathy, Jennifer and Patricia said they would take it again online while Sofia, Steven and Erik expressed a desire to take it on campus. For some, online was the only way they could take the class. Jennifer expressed that this format was easily. It would be more of a strain. All my complaints about it i was the only format that would 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 Sofia Kathy Jennifer Patricia Steven Erik Beginning of Semester End of Semester

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74 class and work. So, I really, really apprecia Online Participation A requirement of the course in addition to the field assignments, readings, journals, and reflections was participation in online weekly threaded discussions. Each person was required to post an initial response to the weekly prompt from the instructor by Thursday evening and then respond to at least two colleagues by Monday evening. While it was beyond the scope of this study to analyze each individual online discu ssion post, I calculated the number of weeks out of 16 that each TC participated in order to get ( see figure 4.5 ). Kathy and Jennifer engaged in the online discussions every week, followed closely by Eva, the instructor, who only missed one week. Patricia contributed to the discussions 14 out of the 16 weeks followed by Sofia who participated in 12 out of the 16 discussions. Steven participated in eight of the weekly discussions whe reas Erik only contributed to two of the weekly discussions the least amount of participation across the six participants

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75 Figure 4.5 Online Participation: Number of Weeks Participated In addition to looking at the number of weeks in which each TC pa rticipated I calculated the number of total posts each participant contributed including the number of on time posts and the number of late posts As shown in figure 4.6 Eva, the instructor, contributed the greatest number of posts overall as well as the greatest number of late Sofia, Kathy and Patricia submitted only on time posts Jennifer contributed only one late post and the rest were on time Erik contributed a total of only thre e posts, each of which was late Steven contributed a greate r number of overall posts than Erik and Sofia, but his late posts outweighed his on time posts 21 to 12. The results show that Sofia, Kathy, Patricia, and Jennifer consistently participated, whic h could mean that they were more engaged or that they were more conscientious about fulfilling the requirements and getting the points. Steven and Erik did 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Number of Weeks Participated Number of Weeks Participated

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76 not actively participate and appeared less engaged. There is no way to know how often they were read ing the discussions, but only how often they contributed to them. Steven and Erik did not fulfill the requirements of the online discussions as assigned and therefore, did not earn the points which negatively impacted their grades Eva contributed many po sts, but did not engage with the students in a timely manner, which resulted in a lack of TC benefit By posting late and denying them her expertise the instructor missed opportunities to better reach the TCs in their zones of proximal development Figu re 4.6 Online Participation: Number of Discussion Posts Over 16 Weeks (Total Posts, On Time Posts, and Late Posts) discussions, I looked at the total number of views per post to s ee how often each post was being viewed. I averaged the totals for student on time posts, student late posts, instructor 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Number of total posts Number of on-time posts Number of late posts

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77 on time posts, and instructor late posts. Figure 4.7 illustrates that student posts were being viewed more often than instructor posts and figure 4.8 shows that on time posts were being viewed more often than late posts. On average, the number of total views declined as the semester went on and contributions to the discussions made earlier in any given week were being viewed more often th an posts submitted later in the week or late. Figure 4.7 Average Views of Posts (does not include views by researcher) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 Week 10 Week 11 Week 12 Week 13 Week 14 Week 15 Week 16 Avg views of student posts Avg views of instructor posts

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78 Figure 4.8 Average Views of On Time Posts versus Late Posts (does not include views by researcher) Discussions of the Online Learni ng Environment The online learning environment emerged as one of the most common themes in interviews. TCs referenced prior online courses, their current online ESL for Educators course, and also online courses in general. The nature of the comments was v aried, but the negative comments outweighed the other types of comments as shown in figure 4.9 This suggests that the experience of online learning for this group of TCs was more negative than positive. The variation in responses showed that the online le arning environment had many challenges and limitations. However, there were reported benefits of online learning as well. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9 Week 10 Week 11 Week 12 Week 13 Week 14 Week 15 Week 16 Avg views of on time posts Avg views of late posts

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79 Figure 4.9 Frequency of Interview Statements about Online Learning Reported Benefits of Online Learning Convenience, flexibility and pacing The benefits of the online learning experience the TCs mentioned most often included convenience (e.g. not having to find a place to park on campus) and flexibility (e.g. being able to do class work at any time from any location). Jennifer, for example, also mentioned the ability to pace herself as a I mean the benefits of having it online are certainly that you can pace yourself, great for me. Online discussions The online discussions received mixed reviews. For some of learned a lot from the online discussions. I like them, definitely. I think that they are definitely a positive part of the course. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Online in general Prior online course Current online course Positive Negative Neutral

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80 Reported Challenges of Online Learning Pacing and routine While Jennifer saw the ability to pace herself as a benefit, others struggled with the pacing aspect of the online environment. Several participants mentioned that they had a difficult time getting into a routine and keeping up with the discussions. Steven told me about his struggles with not having anyone to keep him on track This is where I get in trouble in discussion questions, just remembering to do the mentality a little bit to put things off. So you have to battle that. Steven attributed part of this d nline inherently Sofia expressed similar sentiments and felt that the flexibility of the online learning environment made it difficult for her to keep up with tough just in general to keep up with the responding to the posts and such You only look at your course stuff maybe twice maybe three times a week ; for One explanation the TCs gave a bout the difficulty of staying on track was a lack of familiarity with the online learning environment. For most this was their first or one of their first online courses. As Steven mentioned, able to find a routine, to be productive, and to learn and to share with the other members So fia, too, I only started taking online classes in the

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81 Erik also expressed a sense of confusion due So i it gets a little bit better. Online discussions While Kathy indicated that she found the online discussions beneficial, the other TCs expressed the opposite. learning. Patricia were a bit repetiti ve and not very beneficial. like I feel like some of the discussions have been kind of repetitive. You know what I mean? A lot of people will say sort of the same thing, and so it gets kind of dry and not very challenging. So, I would say that the Steven A ybody was paying attention to what anybody else was saying. It was just people going on and on The appearance that people were not paying attention to what others were saying was a legitimate concern based on the limited number of views per post ( see fi gure 4.7). Sofia admitted that in fact she was not always taking in what not absorbing anything. This is useful in reminding instructors that people learn differently and not all adult learners can learn effectively throug h reading. We need to find ways to address the varied ways of learning and knowing.

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82 Reported Limitations of Online Learning The most common limitations of the online environment as reported by the TCs included lack of personal connection, the inability to distinguish one person from another and the limitations of typ ing thoughts versus verbaliz ing them Sofia admitted that she something on which she could not rely in this type of environment. And Steven discuss You know I can say in 10 minutes the amount of things in the same time that I could type, and I just forget all of many of the TCs and the instru ctor indicated that at times they had a difficult time many. always remember exactly who di d say what. Several of the study participants gave ideas for how to address the limitations of the online environment. Suggestions included finding a way to incorporate voice or video into the discussions or at least for the introductions. A couple of th e TCs mentioned the idea of using web chats. Others, the instructor included, brought up the idea of incorporating phone calls and yet others indicated an interest in meeting face to face. However, university regulations state that face to face meetings ca nnot be arranged for online courses, but must remain optional. Instructor feedback on discussion posts E arly in the semester, the majority of the TCs reported being satisfied with the amount of instructor feedback and participation. Some comments include respond ed back to everybody this last week with really in depth observations and comments. I think that was extremely helpful I think

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83 comments shifted slightly Several TCs discussed that while they understood that the instructor was busy, the late postings lessened their estimations of effectiveness of the feedback The i nstructor was limited by factors outside of the environment in making timely feedback. Timely feedback appeared to be an expectation of the teacher candidates enrolled in the course One TC said, week. So, And another stated, She was like two or three well, to stay motivated and do s everybody has their lives, too! While there were benefits, challenges and limitations of the online learning environment, Jennifer summed it up with her concluding thought. guess. And learn that technology. Conclusion of Results The results of the study presented in this chapter offer insights into how this particular group of teacher candidates experienc ed the online ESL for Educators course.

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84 They entered the course with unique backgrounds and experiences with other cultures and a wide range of understandings, beliefs and attitudes about linguistic diversity. They reported varying degrees of confidence wi th teaching ELLs at the beginning of the course, which was influenced by their prior experiences with diversity. Throughout the semester each of the participants changed in some way as a result of their participation in the course. It was evident that al l six of the TCs developed new understandings about the education of ELLs which impacted their confidence and interest in working with ELLs in the future. The ESL for Educators course appeared to challenge s prior assumptions about the local population of ELLs as well as how to effectively reach that group of students. Two of the participants, Kathy and Patricia, who were teaching ELLs at the time of the study reported evidence of change in their teaching practice which resulted in positive academic growth of their students. The course activities that appeared to make the greatest impact on their learning according to the TCs were the three field assignments cultural experience, and ESL classroom observation and interview) Other activities and practices that they indicated made a positive impact on them were the journals, final reflection paper, and the textbook on sheltered content instruction. Results of the analysis of the online learning environment hig hlighted the challenges and limitations of this particular online course and online learning in general There were few reported benefits of the online learning environment cited by the TCs. Most commonly mentioned were convenience and flexibility. Conveni ence and flexibility do not equate to effective learning or professional preparation, however. The participants

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85 were not all actively contributing to the online discussions and t he instructor was unable to provide timely feedback which appeared to be an e xpectation of the TCs The greatest challenges and limitations reported were: lack of connection, keeping up with the work, finding a routine participating in superficial and repetitive discussions, fear of miscommunication, lack of instructor feedback, a nd limitations of typing versus verbalizing thoughts The negative ways in which the participants reacted to the online environment provided evidence to support the argument that the way the online course was designed was not conducive to transformational learning experiences. We need to find ways to address those challenges and limitations Many people take courses online because their schedules do not allow them to take courses on campus. Therefore, if this is to be their only medium of instruction, it mu st be revised to be more effective at foster ing adult learning and development. Overall, the results of the study reveal that there were positive aspects of the course that contributed to increased knowledge and strategies of ESL education, new understand ings about linguistic diversity and the local ELL population, shifts in thinking about ELLs, shifts in thinking about themselves as educators of ELLs, and evidence of success when applied in practice. However, there were also limitations of the course that led to some of the participants feeling confused, nervous, overwhelmed, and unprepared to teach ELLs. I will discuss the implications of these results on course design in Chapter 6. In Chapter 5 I will present an in depth description of each participant a nd their course experiences.

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86 CHAPTER 5 PORTRAITS : NARRATIVES OF STUDY PARTICIPANTS Chapter 4 present ed the major findings of the research study for the six participants drawing from both the quantitative and qualitative data. With the small sample, how ever, it is not feasible to draw generalizable conclusions from the aggregate data presented. The strength of this study lies in the stories of the individual participants and their experiences throughout their semester in the ESL for Educators course. T he content was the same for everyone, but individuals themselves. In this chapter I will describe in detail each participant, their backgrounds, teaching experience, beliefs and understandings about linguist ic diversity, reported changes as a result of their course participation, and specific reactions to course activities. In addition, I draw heavily on interview data to address instances that may reveal tendencies towards particular epistemologies (ways of knowing), sources of authority, senses of self (identity), transitions, and/or subject/object stances, which will be unique for each individual. The voices of the participants are rich and revealing as well as an integral part of my own experiences of dis covery about how each adult learner experienced this course differently and what that tells us about course design. The in depth descriptions are presented as follows: Sofia, Kathy, Jennifer, Patricia, Steven, Erik, and Eva, the instructor.

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87 Sofia Backgroun d Sofia was a single mom of one young child. We met in person for all three interviews and I found her to be very open, warm, and friendly. During the time of the (ALP) for secondary math education ; however she was considering switching to the teacher education and licensure program (TELP). She earned her B.S. in mechanical engineering in 2003 and recently completed her M.S. (2011) from the same university in mechanical e ngineering with an emphasis in dynamic systems and controls. Sofia professed a love of learning and admitted that she would stay in school forever if someone would pay her to do so. Sofia comes from a multicultural background. Her mother is third genera tion Mexican American and her father is half Japanese and part Native American. Growing up, she heard her mom speaking Spanish and her dad speaking Japanese and Arabic, due to his job in the Air Force, but they spoke to Sofia strictly in English. When Sofi a asked her mom why she did not speak to her in Spanish growing up, her mom told her that there to her lack of familiarity with certain words; and second because she d id not want Sofia or her sister to speak English with Spanish accents. Sofia felt it was unfortunate because she did not feel that she had a good accent when she spoke in Spanish. Sofia was born in Athens, Greece and attended eight different schools from kindergarten through twelfth grade, most of which were suburban and predominantly white. The schools she attended from fifth through seventh grades she described as a bit

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88 more diverse, with a mix of white, Hispanic, Asian, Filipino, and Black students. Sof ia attributed this increase in diversity to the fact that she attended a school off base. Seventh through tenth grades were spent in England, which appeared to make a great impact on Sofia. She enjoyed living there and was amazed by the cultural difference s between the the people in England thought and viewed the world and how her time ther e continues to I think that living there had a lot to do with the way that I see things now Despite her multicultural and multilingual family upbringing, Sofia considered ulation of kids with whom y dad became an officer so we were around mostly other white other hite American because military, she said she did not spend a lot of time with either side of the family growing xican American> culture as much as I would say my bit more of the Japanese c

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89 In addition to living in a variety of places growing up, Sofia mentioned that she had done some additional traveling recently. In her background questionnaire she wrote, I have travelled to Mexico multiple ti mes in the last 5 years, to Baja California, the Yucatan, and the Pacific coast. Most of the time spent was in Baja, and all trips were for a maximum of a week at a time. Teaching Experience As for teaching experience, Sofia rated herself as a novice. Sh e had been working since 2005 as a contract engineer, but had some experience both teaching and tutoring. She taught one university course, an introduction to engineering course, and has tutored students in math and mechanical engineering (both high school and university students). The semester prior to the study she started working as a teaching assistant for an engineering a nalysis course where she graded papers and held supplementary instruction sessi ons for students twice a week. Sofia described her tut oring experiences as fun and When aske d on her background questionnaire about her experience in working with culturally and linguistically diverse learners, Sofia rated her confidence as very low. I have essentially no experience working with diverse learners. Pretty much every st she had no prior training. Lack of training combined with lack of experience likely contributed to her low level of confidence.

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90 Beliefs and Understandings about Linguistic Div ersity While Sofia rated her confidence to teach CLD learners as low, she did rate her interest in working with them much higher (four out of five). She wrote on her background questionnaire, feel like America is a place for people from everywhere to come to seek out better opportunities for themselves and their families. This means that we as teachers need to be able to provide the best learning environment for all students, regardless of thei r country of origin and native language. In addition to her expressed interest in working with ELLs, Sofia also showed a great interest in other languages. She considered herself to have an ease with languages like her father. She took five years of Spanis h in school, one semester of French, and helped a college boyfriend with German, even though she never took a German class herself. During the semester of the study, Sofia enrolled in an additional Spanish class. She admitted that she was also interested i n taking Russian, among other languages, but has not yet done so. her future ELLs may speak. Not only did Sofia show an interest and appreciation for diverse languages, she also argued that every person in the U.S. should be required to take another language. She came into the course feeling that way and left the course at some point, mo

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91 beginning of the semester Language Attitudes of Teachers Scale (LATS) revealed that she was quite tolerant of linguistic diversity. However, on the Knowledge of ELL Issues Survey she reported having very little knowledge of ELL issues. In her initial journal ni lack of training and experience coupled with her perceived lack of knowledge, Sofia communicated at the beginning of the semester that she felt very overwhelmed, nervous a nd intimidated at the thought of teaching ELLs. Some of her feelings changed through her participation in the course, though, as I will discuss in the next section. Reported Changes as a Result of Course Participation Reflecting over the semester, Sofia re ported that while she did not believe her core ideas and thinking changed significantly, she gained confidence as a result of her through this class has helped me feel more comfortable, although I am still a little now. I honestly was a li ttle scared at the beginning of this class, but I feel much more ELLs, she rated herself at a one out of five at the beginning of the course which jumped to a four out of five at the end of the course. perceived gain in content knowledge. She assessed herself at 12 points out of 50 on the

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92 Knowledge of ELL Issues Survey at the beginning of the semester and then 38 points out of 50 at the end of the semester. She appeared relieved to have learned that effective strategies for teaching ELLs can benefit all students. In her final reflection paper she wrote in response to her feelings of bei one saving grace: many of the adaptations and modifications I would use for ELLs would indicated that this might b e the most important thing she learned in the class. students? This makes me so much more comfortable! I was freaking out a little bit at the beginning of the semester because I thought that it was going to be so difficult to add another group that needed special differentiation. But it was quite revealing to find that what we do to help ELLs will benefit other students class. Sofia reported having gained a considerable amount of knowledge and confidence, but asserted that her core thinking had not changed. The results of her LATS survey are consistent with that assertion. She only changed by one point on the LATS from the beginning of the semester to the end. I would conclude that Sofia gained informational knowledge, but did not e xperience transformational shifts in thinking during the semest er I will describe in further detail her responses and reactions to the vario us course activities and educational processes that contributed to her learning and thinking. Specific Reactions to Course Activities During our mid semester and end semester interviews, Sofia talked to me about her engagement in the course activities and her reactions to them. I pull from those

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93 conversations as well as her assignment write ups and reflections to paint a picture of the types of activities that appeared to have the greatest impact on her. Sofia mentioned on multiple occasions that the firs t field assignment, watching the panel discussion of local ESL directors, made the greatest impression on her because the information presented was very new to her. She expressed being surprised due to her prior lack of exposure to ELLs and therefore she f elt that she learned a lot about the ELLs that she may be teaching in the future. In her write up about the panel discussion she students, 2) English proficiency testing ta kes a long time, and 3) the ELL population is At one point in her first field assignment write up and at one point in her mid semester interview she hinted at being interested in possibly considering working as an ESL teacher in the future because of the great need that exists in our community, which she learned about from watching the panel discussion video. In her assignment reflection thought I wanted to teach math or pre engineering, but knowing that there are so many really tough She admitted on several occasions that because she loves to learn so much she is easily

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94 Before embarking on the journey of the seco nd field assignment, the cultural field experience, Sofia described feeling both excited and nervous about attending an Arabic service at a local Islamic mosque. She admitted that she would not have sought out this kind of experience on her own, but she wa s thankful for the opportunity and glad she did it. Well, I think t hat going to the mosque, too, was pretty important. I mean it was culture, well a little bit because of my dad, but I went there and the guy made me feel really comfortable. I mean there were some uncomfortable parts of it, but that taking their shoes off, putting them on, and just li too. When I asked her about what she found most powerful about that experience, she described the religious aspect. I think it was actually the religious part about it, which is kind of weird to me. It same thing. comfort zone, Sofia wrote in her reflection that she felt as though for her, that purpose event and t understand

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95 getting teary ued to write, During my experience in this field assignment, it has become more cemented in my brain that we are all the same. Regardless of from where a person comes, what religion they practice, and what their personal views of the world are, we are all the same. We want to make our livings, have our families, and love our Gods in peace. While her time at the mosque appeared to be a positive one and resulted in a powerful emotional reaction from Sofia, she expressed feeling as though the experience did not help her to understand the experience of ELLs. To conclude her write up/reflection, she wrote, Due to my experience, I feel that I will need to find another means to understand the experience of ELs in our society. I think that a religious service is p robably not the way for me to go. Perhaps I could go to a language class, like a Japanese class or a Russian class. Or I could try to visit areas of town where I am countr y and just try getting around without the language. I think that might be the most comparable experience. However, that would take funding and time that I do not currently possess. But some day, hopefully soon, I will be able to do just that. The third and final field assignment, the ESL class observation and interview, also invoked emotions in Sofia. She commented in our final interview that she was moved by the experience and the manner in which the students interacted with one another in the class she ob served. She talked about how the students seemed like a family and that reminded her of her own family. So when I went on field assignment three I visited the ESL class there and it was really cool. The teacher was just really nice, and she was just so goo d. I felt really comfortable with her. I watched two classes. The first class was the NEP class, and even though we had a couple of girls over here that spoke the same language eak

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96 was kind of funny because they kind of reminded me of my sisters and me, you know, becaus the feeling that I got when I was sitting in the class. In our final interview, Sofia reflected back on that experience at the high school with sadness. I think part of it was going to the high school and just actually seeing kids, but then I get started thinking In her write up of the third field a appeared to increase her confidence, but as I have indicated, her level of confidence fluctuated frequently. When I asked Sofia about the readings for the course her reactions were mixed. Not surprisingly, given her interest in languages, the readings that seemed to stand out to her involved the acquisition and learning of language ( Lightbown & Spada, 2006 ) She was interested mostly because she could relate what she was reading to her own life. Well, it was interesting learning how we acquire English, and language. You thin

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97 you know, trying to figure it out. I think it will help me learn another language, too. You know u nderstand how we actually acquire them. For the readings in general, though, Sofia indicated that she did not remember or retain what she read, possibly because she did not have personal experience or a context to which she could connect that informationa l knowledge. She told me in her final interview, remember that. But other than that, I have to write, and talk, and listen. Reading For Sofia, the three field assignments were the course activities that she reflected upon as having the most emotional and personal impact on her. Those feelings were corroborated by her respons es to the course activity impact questionnaires as well. The readings with which she personally connected sparked an interest in her, and the combination of taking the ESL for Educators course along with the Spanish course caused her to gain a new perspect class, she told me, pr different for my second language learning than it would be for somebody learning English here. I kind of just, it is interesting to think about how things work for them. When p rompted to discuss aspects of the course overall that caused her to think it before, so just getting the expo sure to it. And then taking the Spanish class has

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98 making me think about things different, the ESL class and having the Spanish class both I think are probably the two bigges t things that have affected how I think. What this reveals to me is that through her experiences Sofia was able to gain a new perspective and a sense of empathy for what ELLs might be experiencing. This was one of the driving goals of the course according to Eva, the instructor. She claimed that she hoped that to the extent possible each teacher candidate would leave the course with an increased sense of efficacy and empathy. trying to understand it a little bit better, because I guess maybe it had more of a meaning Based on her interviews and other written data it was ev ident that her experiences went deeper than what might have originally appeared on the surface. Not only was Sofia engaged in the participation of field experiences and other course activities along with her Spanish class, but she was also engaged in a gre at deal of deep personal reflection which proved to influence her course experiences. Transition between Figured Worlds experiencing at the time of the study. It was clear to me that Sofia was struggling with her transition from the figured world of math and engineering to the figured world of education and teaching ( Holland, Jr., Skinner, & Cain, 1998 )

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99 semester she referred to the differences in activitie s, processes and practices between math/engineering and education, such as the time commitment, role of textbooks and especially not front to them to sit on your shelf and to All my engineering courses seemed to require an awful lot more time to write all papers were about were projects that we ups. So, I mean it was a totally different write up than In our final interview it was clear that Sofia continued to struggle with this transition. tough. She describ ed feeling uncomfortable and out of her element with this new figured world of education. emotionally t started the program. Struggles with Subject Object Shifts The difficulty Sofia had with separating herself from the emotional aspects of her experiences revealed to me that shifting betwee n figured worlds led her to struggle with

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100 the shift from subject emotions having control over her, to object having control over her emotions ( Kegan, 1994 ) With a few tears in her eyes, she talked to me about feeling that her emotions were intensified that day, which may have contributed to her trouble making subject not really thinking about it right now, because I had such a stressful day already today. If Challenging Assumptions and Sense of Self changes and experiences she had during her participation in the ESL for Educators course. As part of her quest for understanding her new career path, Sofia challenged some of her previously held assumptions about teaching. One of those assumptions concerned the amount of work and time commitmen t required to be a teacher. In addition to challenging her assumptions about teaching in general, Sofia also challenged her assumptions about what it would entail to teach ELLs. d. ov erwhelming just the amount of thought that has to go into it, and how much

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101 Part of her fear may be explained by the fact that doing a good job was important to her. I am excited, but I wanna ju this idea that teachers are lower than everybod They have 4 year degrees just like everybody else just like all the other year degrees! In her comment above Sofia revealed an additional assumption she held that people tend to view teach ers as lower than other professionals. It is possible that this comment stemmed from her personal transition between the engineering world and the education world. It is possible that she is afraid that when she becomes a teacher she may be seen as less va luable than when she was as a contract engineer. She may be grappling with the fact that in changing careers, her sense of herself as a professional, her professional identity, would change as well. eer choice and her place in this world were in line with the driving questions typical of 20 somethings as posited by Baxter Magolda ( 2001 ) : Who am I? How do I know? What relationships do I want with others? This journey of discovery for Sofia continued throughout the semester of t he study. In her final journal entry she questioned whether or not she still wanted to pursue uisition, so

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102 In her self exploration and shifting sense of self, Sofia often described herself in terms of self doub t, which is a common phenomenon among many women ( Belenky, et al., 1986 ) Pulling from the three interviews, table 5 .1 shows how Sofia described herself to me. Table 5 .1 Interview Expression of self doubt Other expressions of self First interview (beginning of semester) I never really thought of myself as a very creative person. I am kind of a shy person. I always did well in school; it was always really easy. talking. Second interview (middle of semester) world. I just get distracted too easil y. I keep to myself. know if I can. The more I learn, the more I know that I already in here (points to head). Third and final interview (after course ended) like what I put out is that good. My expectations of what I should do are just way too high. I always wait to the last minute on ev erything. under pressure, either. I hate A minuses. If I were a better student I would do it. handle this. enough. and what I know. I tend to work better under pressure. get goi talking. If nobody agrees with me that what I think is so completely crazy. I am a little long winded. com need to learn how to compromise.

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103 the expectations she set for herself, and her way of making sense of her experiences. Her comments showed how she had a tendency to fluctuate based on her moods and emotions. At times she expressed confidence and an internal source of authority whereas other times she expressed insecurity and an external source of authority. This phenomenon will be described lat er in this chapter in reference to her way of knowing. Ways of Knowing and Online Learning When it came to the online learning environment, Sofia did not consider herself a computer person, even though she assessed her confidence in online learning at a fo ur out of five both at the beginning and at the end of the semester. She admitted that she was not very active in the online discussions and told me that while she appreciated not having to go to class and find a place to park, the most difficult part of b eing in an online class was reminding herself to get on the computer and do the work. Keeping up and responding to the discussion posts seemed to be the most challenging aspects of online learning to Sofia. And as shown above, Sofia described that she lear ns best through talking and listening rather than reading and writing. new figured world, but another aspect of her struggles had to do with the disconnect between how Sofia f elt she learned best and the way the online learning environment was then, that there were not many online postings that she remembered. However, there was one that stuck out to her because she was bothered by something one of her classmates

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104 I think that people are al I noticed what I do in the online classes, I act ually talk a lot more about me than I would in person, in a group setting, because I really, I d e I just want to challenge somebody on something. Comments such as these provide insights into the ways in which Sofia thinks and makes sense of her experiences. Ways of knowing are frameworks for meaning making that evolve and change ( Belenky, et al., 1986, p. 155 ) Sofia exhibited several characteristics in common with a connected knower ( Belenky, et al., 1986 ) C onnected knowing is one aspect of procedural knowing or the voice of reason. Co nnected knowers learn through empathy and have difficulty arguing with others because they can see, or at least attempt to see, their points of view. Connected knowers seek to understand rather than judge and often find themselves attached to objects they seek to understand because they genuinely care about them. I felt that Sofia genuinely cared about what she was learning about: ELLs and ESL education. It was important to her to do well for her future ELLs and she often expressed a sense of empathy and at tempts to understand them and what they might be going through. ( Belenky, et al., 1986, p. 129 ) This description seems appropriate for Sofia as she mentioned several times that she often finds herself interested in whatever it is that she is doing or reading at the time, and her

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105 constant fluctuation back and forth between potential career s is largely mood dependent. Connected knowers tend to view the personality of people with whom they knowing works best when members of the group meet over a long period of time and get ( Belenky, et al., 1986, p. 119 ) difficulty wi th the online learning environment and may have impacted her potential to learn effectively under that medium of instruction It is typically more difficult to get a because there are only a few months to interact and there is little opportunity to really get to know each other well. discussion postings made Sofia anxious and nervous. In our final interview she explained, And the thing that mad e me the most anxious or nervous about the whole class was the posting. grees with me? Well, but if nobody crazy. Another explanation Sofia gave for her anxiousness and nervousness about posting had to do with her own perceptions of writing and her sense of herself as a writer. my thoughts and my tough.

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106 These comments also suggest that Sofia may have held differing sources of authority, both internal and external, which may have also been mood d ependent. ( 1994 ) socializing way of knowing, Sofia at times expressed concern for what others thought of her. She did not feel comfortable challenging others and did not want to be seen as wrong ( Drago Severson, 2004 ) However, Sofia also exhibited a sense of internal authority at times, more in line with a self authoring way of knowing ( Drago Severson, 2004 ; Kegan, 1994 ) While she admitted that she did not want others to see her as wrong, she also seemed convinced that even if they did, that did not discount her opinion, meaning that what she had to say would still be valuable. She also admitted that she struggles to meet her own high expectations, rather than the expectations of others. Experiences During the time of the study, Sofia was engaged in self reflection and undergoing a transition that led her to c hallenge some of her previously held assumptions. Through her experiences with course activities as well as her experience as a Spanish language learner helped her develop new understandings about the education of culturally and linguistically diverse lear ners. The field assignments, due to the personal nature and emotional effect they had on Sofia, resulted in the experiences that had the greatest impact on her. At times her perceived increase in knowledge and experience appeared to result in a gain of con fidence and at other times a decrease in confidence. Due to the fact that what Sofia learned was so new to her and because of her transition from the world of math and engineering to the world of education and teaching, Sofia felt outside of her comfort zo ne, which resulted in feelings of uncertainty, nervousness and being

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107 overwhelmed. Overall, I would conclude that Sofia learned about herself and about how to better meet the needs of her future ELLs, but that this semester was not a transformative experien ce for Sofia. Kathy Background Kathy is a self described gregarious New Yorker and divorced mother of two in courses in math as well. In fact, she had completed nine out o f ten courses required for a y told me to prepare for him to die. And school many years later in 2011 she did not remember what she had learned. with everything you learned so I really would have to r e learn it all. And the other on and teaching math at the college or doing research was not really what I wanted. I As a result, Kathy entered the alternative licensure program for secondary math education. She started taking classes for the program in the summer of 2011. Therefore, the semester of the study was her second semester in the program. Kathy was taking a total of 15 uni taking classes and being a mom, she was a full time first year teacher and also ran a local restaurant/bar.

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108 exposure Temple; ne to different faith services. lot about ethnicities. I have a very ethnic palate. I can cook food from most know, interacting with them. And I enjoy that and I enjoy languages. In addition to her culturally diverse upbringing, as an adult Kathy lived and traveled extensively due to her ex the an spent time in China Throughout her travels abroad, Kathy described herself as a person who acquired languages quickly and easily. conversational ability where I could ask directions, I could get money at the bank, I could through her travels she w as able to pick up bits and pieces of many different languages. In addition to acquiring a certain level of conversational language through exposure, Kathy also had an aunt who spoke to her in Spanish gro Kathy took six years of Spanish in school as well. However, even though Kathy ity as a two out of five on the background questionnaire.

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109 two or a one. Teaching Experience Kathy talked to me about the variety of teaching experience she had. religion to middle school students, which is where my experience is with middle school drama. experiences than most people. told me that she was given the choice to teach an elective and drama was what she chose Te aching drama is total time with the that she tutored approximately 75 students over a two year period. I asked her how she ended up teaching English out there and she responded, girl meets me and she asks me if I would teach English to her. And she got me a whole bunch of other students that r eally did pay me. I mean a million won a week, which is about a thousand dollars. So I made about a thousand

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110 dollars a week and had lots of students and I had fun. And I did that all day long. Kathy compared her experience teaching ESL in Korea to her experience teaching math When asked to rate her level of teaching experience overall, Kathy rated herself in between a novice and a veteran (three out of five). And when asked to rate her level of confidence and/or abili ty to teach culturally and linguistically diverse learners, she rated At the start of the semester my kno training to work with ELLs. Beliefs and Understandings about Linguistic Diversity cultures an d languages, it was not surprising that she rated her interest in having ELLs in her classroom very high (five out of five). In addition, her pre semester LATS scores suggested that she was extremely tolerant of linguistic diversity. She expressed in her r esponses to the survey that it was important for people in the US to learn a language in addition to English and that the rapid learning of English for ELLs should not be a priority if it means they will lose ability in their native language. Kathy also in dicated that learning English should not take precedence over learning subject matter.

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111 Kathy argued that she believed math to be its own language and therefore her subject area related well to the course content and goals. In our first interview she said, general. Language acquisition also has a lot to do with knowledge acquisition. They go hand i n hand. And I think having a basic understanding of that is really really important. course, but also of her ideas about language and knowledge acquisition. She also made comments th at allowed me a glimpse into her worldview in favor of diversity and embracing other cultures. and how all we did was want to throw them into a melting pot and have them as been so insensitive as to think that that was okay is beyond me. She described her own experiences in New York and expressed her view that people tend to want everyone to be the sam e, a view with which she does not agree. In fact, she blames a local drug problem on the lack of diversity and pressure to conform. arious New Yorker. And people the same. What was that TV commercial? world! We have a real meth problem her e because we want everyone to b e the She re asserted her views in our second interview. We should embrace everything. There are so many nice things out there and we try to throw it all away. We try to take everything; pick it all gray. I want a pink theirs and make something nice.

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112 In general it was clear that Kathy embraced diversity and felt a sense of urg ency to learn everything she could to help her English learner learn. She appeared open to new ideas and hoped for strategies she could directly apply to hear teaching context. Throughout her participation in course activities along with her own personal e xperiences during the semester of the study, Kathy reported that her thinking about ELLs and teaching ELLs had changed. Reported Changes as a Result of Course Participation Over the course of the semester, Kathy reported an increase in both confidence and knowledge as a result of her participation in the course. She self assessed an increase of 17.5 points out of 50 in her knowledge of ELL issues. In her initial assessment she knowledge on the other half. However, on the end of semester survey her average eported the greatest increase in knowledge was that of sheltered content instruction and how to implement it. Kathy also reported an increased level of confidence from the beginning to the end of the semester. She perceived her level of confidence in the beginning at a two out of five, relatively low, but by the end of the semester her perception of confidence increased to a four out of five. The data suggests that i t is likely that her increased confidence is due in part to her perceived increase in knowl edge but more so due to the fact that she was teaching during the same semester she was taking this course and was able to directly and immediately apply strategies she was learning. And not only that, but

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113 the changes she made to her teaching practice res ulted in academic growth and success in her ELL. This success appeared to make an impact on Kathy and her thinking. I was really touched by the growth that my ELL students, how responsive they were I think this gave my kids back some of their power. I tho ught that was really good. I loved watching them respond. I liked watching them blossom, I liked watching them learn English. t fail in semester LATS suggested that she remained consistent in her positive attitudes toward linguistic diversity. Only one of her answers changed from the beginning t o the end of the semester and that was on whether or not English should be the official language of the United States. Her initial response was up survey. This suggests that her overall tolerance for linguistic diversity remained high. While Kathy reported changes in her informational knowledge and confidence and reported consistent attitudes towards linguistic diversity, it was clear that shifts did andings about ELLs. For example, when she began the semester she was convinced that she had only one ELL. In our first the mid way point of the semester she of the semester she determined that many m ore of her students were in fact ELLs.

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114 ld have missed the e very day. When I started reading their journals, I realized that they were writing as English language learners, and not as Americans. It was interesting. I mean I have any ELL 17 just of my 55 students, which is you know 15%. When I calculated 17 out of 55 students, the resulting percentage was actually about 31% as opposed to 15%. Therefore, Kathy had an even higher percentage of ELLs than she realized at the end. As Kathy indicated in her comment above, she came to the realization that there is (BICS) and their cognitiv e academic language proficiency (CALP) ( Echevarria & Graves, 2010 ) Therefore, if a student can communicate effectively in English one might assume that they are proficient in English. However, upon closer scrutiny one might discover that they may not actually be proficient. At another point in our final interview, Kathy indicated that it was through her participation in the course that she became aware of this distinction and it frustrated her that others had not yet learned about it. I was angered th at my other teachers just expected, because he could keep up a conversation, and that a lot of the other students were excellent conversationalists, They had no clue be have led them to understand that that he could understand content area knowledge, and he could not. That was very my class who were in the same position, and it was a substantial number. And even if English was their primary language, a lot of these kids had problems,

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115 higher level vocabulary in the home, and that made a huge difference. Specific Reactions to Course Activities Kathy mentioned that she learned a great deal from watchi ng the panel discussion, the first field assignment. She indicated, however, that while she learned a lot of useful information and strategies, she would have appreciated greater detail about each strategy presented. Well, they had so many strategies for Sh e admitted that she was surprised by the statistics of the local ELL population, which she learned about from the video. I was very surprised, because statistics were that such a high Asian population up north as opposed to the high Spanish population dow n south, but I mean I guess it makes sense, because a lot of the Spanish are migrant or you know lower income. And the Asians are higher income. But, I still thought it was shocking that there were so many Asians in the American public school system. The a bove comment also revealed some assumptions that Kathy held about what she saw as typical Spanish speakers and typical Asians. Not only did Kathy appear surprised by the ethnic make up of students in local school districts, but also by the differences in services that were provided to them. She wrote in her assignment write for me to effectively teach my ELLs.

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116 When I asked Kathy in our mid semester interview about what she felt had bo ring, but in the end she was glad she watched it. second half was where I found all the in formation. I mean I found lots of interesting facts from the first week, but I think I fell asleep on it, because my daughter found like this (gestures being asleep with mouth wide open) and I was really exhausted and overwhelmed. She indicated that she wo uld have preferred to have had the opportunity to be in the audience during the live discussion. I would have so much to ask them, and I would have been required to go, and I would have heard them a little better, and I would have seen their body language and < Eva > just having a discussion. For the second field assignment, the cultural field experience, K athy had a strong emotional reaction. She attended an Islamic temple for the Friday Yuma service, a weekly Friday congregational service for Muslims. Kathy admitted that she chose this event for several personal reasons. In her reflection of the experience she wrote, I chose this event primarily because I have never had any significant associations with Muslims, individually or in a group. Secondly, when I was considering going to a mosque, I actually felt afraid! I was surprised at myself. I consider myse lf to be very accepting of other cultures and faiths, but Islam brought to mind very negative connotations. (My family has an apartment in the World Financial District in NYC, and we lost many friends during 9/11). I realized that I had misconceptions and prejudices that needed to be dealt with. struggles to be culturally objective and sensitive stemmed from the disparity that she

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117 observed between the treatment of men and women frustrates me that these men come in there dressed like kings and slobs, and the women have to have their face covered up. That really annoys me. But do I need to be culturally men was totally accepted as natural and expected by the entire congregation. As a believe, especially in the United S admitted that while she did not like the fact that women had to remain covered, she Another difference in gender Kathy noted was in how the children behaved at the service. It was difficult for me to allocate my full attention to the service; there were several young boys fooling controlled by their mothers. One little girl, the only one with her father and not was illuminating. I saw how structured they were with the young girls and how permissive with the boys. I was surprised to see the one young girl in the male area with her father, but her behavior was exemplary. While Kathy described her struggles to understand her experience, she also explained h ow they treated her well and she did not feel as though she was treated up, she expanded. The reaction of the man in charge and the congregation as a whole to my presence wa s surprising. I believed they genuinely wanted me to feel welcome and have a good experience. They went out of their way to seem interested in me and to my comfort and understanding of the service. Seeing first hand that Muslims are

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118 caring and interested i n others, and in me in particular, lessened my degree of apprehension. In the future I will be more capable and willing to understand cross cultural barriers of all types because of this experience. I have a better understanding of their faith and realize that mainstream Muslims have ethics similar to my own. This experience really illuminated the concept of cultural pluralism. In an attempt to make sense of her experience overall, Kathy described an internal struggle and concluded that she learned a lot a bout herself as a result. The fact that I consider myself an extremely well rounded person, both open to challenged by this exercise. I have learned more about myself and my ability to relate to people of different cultures through this assignment. In our final interview, Kathy reflected once again on this experience and talked about how it continued to cause her to self reflect. Well, I realized that putting myself in a culturally uniqu e position, a) that was very hard for me, but doing it I realized that I am very intolerant of Muslims. I women, and I feel that the religion is so demeaning for women, and I understand how any woman would do it, but I mean we do things that other people think are odd, too, and we have to realize that. So, that was a lot of self reflection on that. For the third field experience, Kathy completed a variation on the origi nal assignment. Instead of observing an ESL class, she watched three YouTube videos on SIOP (sheltered instruction observation protocol). In our very first interview she told me experience did not come up again in any of the interviews, suggesting it ma y not have had a powerful impact on her or her thinking. Therefore, I can only infer from her assignment write up the ways in which she reacted to this assignment.

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119 In her write up, Kathy admitted that she saw this altered version of the original assignmen t as less effective. I have chosen to meet the first and third objectives by assessing several mini SIOP videos on YouTube. I am choosing this less effective option, because of the lack of availability of any other viable alternative. In order to meet the second objective, I have met with one of the instructors at my school, who has previously instructed ELL classes. It appeared as though Kathy gained useful strategies by watching the videos, but other than that I did not find evidence of a deeper impact. videos are ones that I have or will utilize in my classroom. They will enable all my students, not just my ELLs to understand, verbalize, and utilize the materials and My interpretation of the videos she watched (the panel discussion and SIOP lessons on YouTube) resulted in additional informational learning and new strategies she could apply in her classroom. The second field assi gnment, however, appeared to result in a deeply emotional reaction which caused her to self reflect and challenge some of her previously held assumptions. When I asked Kathy in our mid semester interview if there was anything in the readings that contrib uted to her learning, like Sofia, she talked about the acquisition of first languages ( Lightbown & Spada, 2006 ) and connected that with her own personal experiences as a mother. u the story of my son? Well, I had him with a Korean maid, and I spoke a little bit of Korean, but not a nd she

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120 actually, his first language was Korean. Interestingly, she continued her story and described her experience of being a parent of an English language learner. And he has problems in English to this day. However, when I filled out the program them differently. He could be in a program for English as a second language, because technically it is. For the first four years, he spoke Korean, not English. When I inquired as to whether or not any of the other readings or internet links it was pretty interesting, my ELL that I want to do As for online discussions, at the mid semester interview Kathy expressed that she liked the online discussions and fel discussions. I like them, definitely. I think that they are definitely a positive part of the to talk about a specific discussion that contributed to her learning, she mentioned a topic in which she again made personal connections to her family. kids doing that, too. It Laugh s ) After we shared a few more family stories, I asked her if there was anything else now;

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121 asking While Kathy suggested that she felt the discussions were useful, she also described her disappointment with them and the level of participation in them from others. mean most instruction happens with you. And Eva has talked to me a couple of times on the phone, and the discussion their support. I really do learn it myself. In our final interview, she re get any developed discussion, and that was really disappointing. I was horrified at the revealed some of her thoughts on learning which have implications for the online learning environment were mixed. e felt the cultural field assignment, the online discussions, and the instructor feedback/input made the greatest impact on her, followed closely by the journals, the other two field ass ignments, one of the textbooks ( Lightbown & Spada, 2006 ) and one of the supplemental readings an article on what teacher s need to know about language ( Wong Fillmore & Snow, 2000 ) The research paper, the other textbook ( Echevarria & Graves,

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122 2010 ) and the SIOP links/video were the other activities that Kathy reported as having an average score of four or higher out of five. It is imp ortant to note that one of the experiences that had a powerful impact on Kathy and her thinking during the semester of the study was not part of the course. As part of a project with her school, she delivered food baskets to students in her class who were living in poverty. Kathy reflected on the change in her awareness of what some of held assumptions. They have nothing, Stephanie. They are living in places where they have no heat, my eyes have opened wide. I realize how important it is for a teacher to understa nd her community, and know what her students are going through, and how they go home at night, and what they go home to, and whether they have a meal or not. Those are all really important factors. You have to know the social situation of all your students in order to affectively teach them. You have to. flops. I was wondering why he was wearing flip flops. fore. They are not meeting their basic Kathy summed up her strong emotional and physical reaction to this e xperience of subject to the experience to being object to it. With time she was able to remove herself from those emot ions in order to reflect on it, move forward, and take action. My sense of Kathy was that she was anything to help them.

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123 Transition between Figured Worlds and Subject Object S hifts While she did not delve into the subject as much as Sofia did, it was clear that Kathy, too, was experiencing a transition between the figured worlds of math and education. She discussed aspects of that transition with me in our very first interview Believe it or not, I never wrote a real paper before on the college level before I credit math class would be approximately 20 hours per week of work. A three credit education class is not 20 ly different creatively. While the differences between the two fields were important enough for Kathy to mention, she talked about it in a matter of fact way and did not appear to have any emotional reaction. This revealed to me that she was not subject to the transition, but rather held the experience in object position Teacher as Source of Authority and Hints of Dualistic Thinking During our three interviews, it was evident that Kathy viewed teachers as sources of authority. She approached this topic o n multiple occasions from the perspective of to be made for her student, she stat her own classroom. In turn, she appeared to hold her university instructors as having that same authority over her. She looked to the authorities for answers. I will provide examples of statements representative of this view later in this portrait, but first I will

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124 provide some background as to possible epistemological stances under which Kathy may have been operating. Several comments Kathy made about teachers as sources of authority provided evidence that on some level her meaning making system was dualistic in nature, the view that there is a right and wrong ( Perry, 1970 1981 ) ( 2001 ) absolute knowing wrong answers exist in all areas of k ( Baxter Magolda, 2001, p. 27 ) wrong. Fi re was so much that came up that oh my god if I was the teacher I would have been were instructing the class. In her quest for receiving knowledge from authorities and as evidence of dualistic comment on whether these ideas were right or not? I had a very erroneous idea, and the experiences over the summer.

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125 These are my first four online classes that I took this semester and the discussion so much room for crafting by teachers that was not taken. I felt like we were teaching ourselves and I think that was wrong. I ( 1982 ) instrumental knowing to main tain a what do you have that can help me/what do I have that can help you ( Drago Severson, 2004, p. 23 ) Part of the instrumental meaning making system consists of a focus on concrete consequences, such as getting a good grade, being successful, getting a job and so forth. Instrumental knowers also tend to ( Drago Severson, 2004, p. 24 ) I presented part of this sta tement earlier to describe her reaction to the online discussions. However, it is important to re introduce it here as part of the context of how Kathy was support. I re program and viewing the lack of support from others as a potential barrier to her success was consistent with an instrumental way of knowing. some degree as an instrumental knower had to do with her struggles to take on the perspective of others. We saw evidence of th is in her reactions to her experience at the

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126 mosque. Another example was when Kathy first described her ELL to me and had difficulty understanding the choices his family had made. This child happens to be in seventh grade. Now his brother is in sixth grad e, months and then went back with his dad to Mexico and then his dad finally let his moth er keep him, too. e and not the A similar example was when Kathy talked to me about the mother of that same ed in the reasons behind her lack of interest in learning the language, whi ch may not have been lack of interest at all, but rather lack of time or resources. It is important to note that Kathy appeared to make a shift in meaning making took t he time over the semester to get to know this woman and learned more about her daily schedule and struggles. She shared with me a little about what she learned. speaking clinic up in Denver, which is real getting up to Denver at 9:00, leaving Denver at 5:00, and getting down at 6:30 to pick them up again. I mean th she was not taking English classes. Kathy revealed a shift in her perspective because of her new understandings. In our final interview she claimed, really understanding their parents, and helping them cope. I mean it can be a big change.

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127 that, how our ELL students have big cultural differences, and their customs are culturally different, and being tolerant of understand the perspective of the Muslim women at the service she attended (see Specific Reactions to Course Activities above for more in depth description). Sense of Self The ways in which people make sense of their experiences, their ways of knowing, are due in large part to their sense of self, or identity. It was my interpretation Yorker played a big role in the way she thought and made sense of her ex periences. Over the course of our three interviews, she mentioned being from New York or being a New Yorker seven times. confidence and insecurity. As posited by Belenky, et al. ( 1986 ) many women express self the opposite. In fact, she spoke ver

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128 words with friends and 5 .2 for further statements Kathy used to describe herself. Table 5 .2 Interview Expressions of self One (beginning of semester) I very American. I enjoy languages. I have an ease with languages. gregarious New Yorker. When I write a letter to anybody here I have to dumb my words down. Two (mid semester) I seem to be not as technical as some people. Of course I because I am a middle school teacher. I think I write fairly high level. My friends are always looking up words to keep up with me. I like to help people improve their vocabulary. horrified. I love words. I play words with friends and nobody beats me ever. Three (end of semester) one of my weakest areas. I want to advocate for children who have exceptional needs. work on that. We are definitely high power women. I consider myself very well rounded and very worldly. While Kathy appeared very confident and self assured on one hand, there were instances where she did seek appr oval or praise, which indicated a form of self doubt. This approval seeking phenomenon is common of people operating under a socializing way of knowing ( Drago Severson, 2004 ) As Kegan ( 1994, p. 171 ) asserts, for people

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129 B ased on statemen ts Kathy made and questions she posed, she appeared to see me in some sense as another instructor of the course and sought my approval. In our mid semester interview Kathy described her research paper topic to me and indicated that she wanted me to get the topic approved by Towards the end of that interview we had an interesting exchange which provided additional evidence that Kathy in some ways was seeking approval, praise, or reassurance reminded her that in fact I did not grade her papers and in no way was I evaluating her Experiences Kathy is a complex being who brought with h er a very unique background, set of experiences and understandings about cultural diversity and working with culturally and suggested that she was highly tolerant of linguis tic diversity, which was not surprising given her culturally diverse upbringing in New York City and her extensive travels in the U.S. and abroad. However, she admitted that through her course experiences she

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130 challenged some of her previously held assumpti ons. The most concrete example was her powerful experience at the mosque for her cultural field assignment. She was aware of her intolerance of Muslims due to her perception that they were responsible for the 9/11 attack on New York. And since being from N ew York appeared to be an important aspect more tolerant. The cultural field experience along with her delivery of food baskets to her students living in poverty ap peared to invoke the greatest emotional reaction from Kathy over the course of the semester, both of which led to new understandings and awareness of ELL issues. The other field assignments, online discussions, journals, and some of the readings appeared t effectively instructing her ELLs. As a result, she reported a gain in confidence in her ability to teach ELLs. This is an important finding because Kathy was one of only two participants who were teaching at the time of the study and had a context to which they could apply their new skills and knowledge. nature, there was evidence of transformational shifts in her thinking By challenging prior assumptions and struggling to understand the perspective of others combined with personal reflection on her experiences, Kathy developed new understandings that suggested changes in how she understood her ELLs and herself, which is a t the heart of transformational learning.

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131 Jennifer Background mechanical engineering and was enrolled in the ALP program for secondary math during the semester of the study. T he first time we spoke was on the phone and the other two interviews were in person. During our conversations Jennifer spoke very lovingly of her uring the time of the study, three of her children were away at college Part o doctors were very optimistic that it would be fine, and the cancer just did not want to go away ; a nd impacted many aspects of her life, including her decision to go into teaching, which I will discuss in further detail later on in this section. maternal grandparents came to the United States from Germany through E l lis Island. While their native language was German, they did not speak a lot of German in the home. Jennifer explained, Actually, my grandfather came illegally and then went back and t hen came here and so their native language was German. And my mother was born here in their German heritage right away because Germans were really looked down

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132 In order to learn the language of her ancestors, Jennifer took two y ears of German in high I ith language, Jennifer did not feel confident in her abilities to speak German. My mom would get letters from cousins that stayed in Germany and we would sit down together and translate them and stuff but I never got enough to really use it or to speak to piece together the language. Jennifer cited that her basic knowledge of German had not been overly useful. My German is pretty much completely useless. But you know at the time when Oh it would be so good to speak the language that my people that speak German; at least in America. In addition to her pursuit of learning German, Jennifer a lso took a couple of years of Spanish classes in college. She was first exposed to Spanish growing up in California, however. In addition, she and her family vacationed in Mexico almost every year growing up; then as an adult, Jennifer went on mission trip s to Mexico. And then the Spanish is more having lived in California and having taken mission trips to Mexico. I went to Mexico every year of my life, almost. When I was Ensenada Mexico and stay in a house down there for a week of vacation. And culturally I thought that was a great experience because Ensenada people who were severely legs begging. Jennifer talked about how her experiences in Mexico opened her eyes to a larger world.

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133 I thought it was a really good cultural thing to help me see how blessed I was. And I lived in an ext remely affluent city, but I was in one of the more middle houses, that had maids and cooks and even live in maids and stuff; so I thought I and especially for kids to get to see, because they usually live in a neighborhood off really opens your eyes to how wealthy we are here in As mentione d, Jennifer went back to Mexico as an adult on mission trips. She reflected on those experiences and how she wished she had more of a foundation with the Spanish language. during a summer day camp for kids in Mazatlan, Mexico and I was with
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134 with an extremely diversified introduction to people and then starting in third grade moved to an almost exclusively white public school system. And I know a lo t of people were doing that for lenty of them were doing it for race making on it, but I do drawn bus lines year after year after year. After Jennife r graduated high school in California she got married and attended college. Her husband was from Texas and so they moved there initially. We lived in Texas, lived in Colorado for two years, went back to live in Texas for several years, then we lived here for the last 14 years. But as far as traveling around the world at all. Teaching Experience Afte r her husband passed away, Jennifer did a lot of soul searching to try and figure out what it was that she wanted to do. My husband was a pastor; so for a lot of my life I spent being the support system of that and doing whatever a secretary would do and then he went do I like? I do like to substitut back to engineering is hard and I was never that wild about it when I this alternative teaching program, so I thought, well this is some thing I my kids will be attending school with all of college and you kind of think I full time job and emotionally for yourself but their dad. kinds of driving questions typical of peop le in their twenties ( Baxter Magolda, 2001 ) She was starting a new chapter of her life and trying to figure out who she was and what

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135 decisions, but her kids seemed to be her primary concern. In asking herself what she wanted to do, what she liked to do and what would be best for her family, Jennifer concluded that she enjoyed substitute teaching. Having subbed for 11 years, she started to realize that she enjoyed teaching math and science at the second ary level. When my youngest went to first grade going full day to school I started substitute started realizing how much I enjoyed doing math and science specifically with my doing the math and science and I understood it, could answer the questions, felt More recently Jennifer was given the opportunity to fill a long term substitute teaching position at the same school her children att ended. That experience helped her gain confidence and an appreciation for teaching. I think I got a real taste for really doing the whole lesson and the grading and learning what it would be like if I was actually teaching as opposed to the substitute. It do it? Is it interesting? Do I still like it? e math and want others to learn to love it too. I love to see students grasp new ideas. I love being with students, seeing them learn Jennifer rated her overall teaching experience as a two out of five. That equates to a level just slightly higher than a novice.

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136 Beliefs and Understandings about Linguistic Diversity With respect to working with ELLs, Jennifer rated her confidence/ability at a one out of five, the lowest level possible. Her i nterest in working with ELLs was slightly training or experience in teaching ELLs, I would be interested but concerned that I would ed on this in her initial journal entry. I know very little about English language learners (ELLs). I went to a predominantly white high school and had only one friend who was not born in America. She was Taiwanese and even though she had only been in Amer ica a few years, she spoke English very well. I have not substitute taught in a class with ELLs. I must admit I am very intimidated about teaching ELLs but I am looking forward to learning all I can in this class so I will be better prepared. The above st atement was reflective of the way Jennifer responded to the initial surveys. She rated her knowledge of most items on the knowledge of ELL issues survey topic: issues surrounding the debate on bilingual education. As for tolerant of lingui statements suggested that there were aspects of linguistic diversity about which she did not have a strong opinion. For example, she was uncertain about whether or not parents of ling uistically diverse students should be counseled to speak English with their children, whether or not the rapid learning of English should be a priority for ELLs, even if it meant losing ability in their native language, and whether or not the learning of E nglish should take precedence over learning subject matter. These concepts are typically taught in linguistically diverse teacher education courses and since Jennifer reported that

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137 she had no prior training or experience working with ELLs, it was not surpr ising that she was uncertain about some of these issues. Jennifer LATS responses revealed her biases. She felt people in the U.S. should learn a language in addition to English, that it was not unreasonable to expect a regular classroom teacher to teach a child who does not speak English, and that having an ELL in class would not be a detriment to the learning of other students. Reflective of her journal entry, Jennifer also expressed that she felt that teachers should be required to receive pre service or in service training to be prepared to meet the needs of linguistic minorities. Reported Changes as a Result of Course Participation Over the course of the semester, Jennifer reported that she gained knowledge as a result of her participation in the cou rse. She rated herself at a 17/50 for knowledge of ELL issues at the beginning of the semester, which jumped to 29.5/50 at the end of the the end of the semester, bot at the beginning: the local ELL population and legal requirements for educating ELLs. Her perceived increase in knowledge may have been a factor in her reported increase in confidence to teach ELLs. She reported an increase of two points from the am more aware of wa y

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138 increased from the beginning to the end, she expressed that her level of confidence fluctuated throughout the course. In her final reflection paper Jennifer wrote, As the clas s progressed the amount of information that was presented became overwhelming. There was so much to learn and so many ideas about the best way to instruct ELLs. Practically speaking I was very nervous about teaching ELLs. I felt I was not prepared. Confide nce in my ability to teach ELLs dropped. I was in information overload and I needed to take a step back and remember why I was learning this material. Realizing that I was not expected to be an expert in the instruction of ELLs from taking this one course helped me to gain perspective and not lose faith in my ability to learn how to teach. q uestionnaire, she rated her interest in having ELLs in her classroom at a two out of five, which had actually dropped from the beginning of the semester when she reported her ot feel The results of her LATS survey suggest that Jennifer became less tolerant of linguistic diversity over the course of the semester. While I could infer that she was in a negative frame of mind when she filled out the surv ey, I am skeptical about the results of this survey because several of her responses did not match with her interview and other example, when she may have meant to at the beginning of the semester as to whether or not the rapid learning of English should be a priority for ELLs even if it meant losing ability in thei r native language. At the end of the semester she agreed with that statement. She was also uncertain at the beginning as

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139 to whether or not the learning of English should take precedence over the learning of responses are contrary to what she expressed in her reflection paper, in which she challenged some of her previously held assumptions. I really had no idea. Part of my problem was my lack of understanding of what qualif ies a student as an ELL. I thought all ELLs spoke little or no English. My other misconception was the amount of time it takes for an ELL to be proficient and no longer in an ESL program. I thought that language acquisition took a short period of time. I d o not know why I thought this, perhaps because I could not imagine them surviving school unless they rapidly learned English. I was certainly ignorant. In addition, Jennifer indicated on the LATS that she initially felt that having an ELL in class would no t be detrimental to the learning of others. However, at the end she changed her response to indicate that she felt having an ELL would be detrimental to the learning of others. In our final interview she expressed the opposite, another challenged assumptio n. And I think the end thing would be the fact that there were benefits; that it was just geared to ELLs and would benefit the have to work with these kids, you know, to help them understand this vocabulary you know, these words, so that they can do whatever they need to do. That those models on the sheltered content and the SIOP, showing how they overlap and how they both benefit the general population. Finally, Jennifer indicated a change in her belief about teachers receiving training to instruct ELLs. At the beginning she agreed that teachers shou ld receive training, but at the end she disagreed. This was surprising to me because she often expressed feeling as though she needed more training. In her first field assignment write he reiterated this though in her mid

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140 assignment write his assignment also showed me the importance of In conclusion, because of the multiple discrepancies between the LATS survey and other forms of data, I am hesitant to claim that Jennifer became less tolerant of li nguistic diversity. She may have felt unprepared to teach ELLs upon the conclusion of the course, but may not have become less tolerant of ELLs or linguistic diversity as a result of her participation in the course. Her reflections and interview data sugge st that because of her course participation she was better able to challenge some of her previously held assumptions about linguistic diversity and issues surrounding the instruction of ELLs. I contacted Jennifer in an attempt to clarify this confusion, bu t did not get a response. I am left, therefore, with the need to conclude that the interview data reveal more accurately her attitudes toward cultural and linguistic diversity. It is important to note that the fact that Jennifer expressed these uncertainti es is important. The course activities can be revised to anticipate such confusion and address such concerns for adult learners enrolled in the course. Specific Reactions to Course Activities Jennifer expressed mixed reactions to the first field assignmen t. Overall, though, surprised by the huge diversity between districts. In her write lot larger difference than I expected and I found tha our mid opening. I appreciated

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141 getting it at the beginning of the year, because I would love to see that again, and maybe anded on her reactions in our final interview. On the positive, I found surprising and shocking just knowing the numbers of ELLs on that first interview, where they were talking about the percent in the different districts and how it varied. I knew that wa s the case, but even just knowing the percent was interesting, and then just the fact that I would have ELLs. While saying information presented. In her write discussion panel. I loved hearing the answers to the questions about the change and Based on her descriptions, I inferred that her reaction to the panel discussion video was that it was informative and beneficial, but may have fallen short of her expectations for more structured, detailed information. For the secon d field assignment, Jennifer chose to attend a Spanish church to gain a sense of empathy for what ELLs might be experiencing. In our second interview, shortly after s he had completed the assignment, Jennifer told me about her experience at the Spanish service, along with her time in Mexico, and then reflected on those two experiences in an attempt to better understand what it may be like for ELLs here in the U.S. Yeah ELL that must be just amazing. Both when I went to Mexico and when I went to expected at some point t o regurgitate information that I had learned, written or

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142 be in that exact experience. It was good to sort of get that opportunity to see that and also evaluate it. In her write up, Jennifer descri bed her emotional reactions to the experience in more detail. There are connections that transcend languages but it is difficult to feel connected to a group emotionally, intellectually and relationally when they are speaking a language you do not understa I became bored toward the end because I could not understand the words. I could definitely see how an ELL would get frustrated a nd tune out if the lesson was proceeding faster than their comprehension. I was not frustrated because I knew I Most of the time, I was lost. It really showed me how lost a person who does not speak English could be in America. I can imagine that an ELL would seek out people who speak their native language just so that they can relax for a few The lack of emoti onal connection was perhaps even more daunting than the emotional but not know why and it was awkward to be emotional and not be able to share that emotion. Overall, the experien ce was wonderful. I felt many emotions that I did not expect. Everyone was kind and open but I felt out of place. I know that I did not get to feel what it is truly like for an ELL in an American public school classroom, but I did get a better understandin g for what they must be feeling, how they must feel somewhat disconnected intellectually, emotionally and relationally. The event opened my eyes and helped me understand a new point of view but it also showed me that I prefer to understand those around me. The field assignment has taught me many things. I feel like it gave me a deeper understanding of what it is like for ELLs every day they attend school. I learned how they must feel left out, confused, frustrated and lonely. I knew that my time in a place where everyone understood each other and I did not understand them a better understanding of the intellec tual, emotional and relational separation that ESL students experience.

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143 Based on her detailed descriptions of her reactions to the cultural field assignment, it appeared to have had a positive impact on Jennifer. It was also the one experience from which I could infer an increase in her sense of empathy for ELLs. This is a great source of information for instructors and implies that revising the assignment to give TCs the necessary support to understand the field experiences may better foster adult learning and development. The third field assignment, the interview and observation, also seemed to make a positive impact on Jennifer. She interviewed the ELL coordinator at the school her children attended, and one still attends, and the same school in which she has subbed extensively. In her write made me desire to become an ELL teacher and removed most of my fear of instructing final interview in particular, it was clear that those feelings of interest in being an ELL teacher waned dramatically. opening to get to talk to into what things were like at the schoo l with which she was familiar; Jennifer acknowledged that her learning would continue beyond just the ESL for Educators

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144 Overall, Jennifer reflected on her interview experience more than any other course note, though, that I did not find ev idence that Jennifer conducted the observation that was meant to accompany the interview, which may have resulted in a different experience. In general, Jennifer responded positively to the field assignments. She referred to them often in our interviews an course activity that invoked the greatest emotional response from Jennifer was the research paper, but not in a good way. I was confused on like what the purpose of the research paper was, becaus e since what is t As her comments indicate, Jennifer struggled to see the purpose of the paper, which she read the information, and give me five pages on it and have collected just as much information other than trying to stretch it out to a ten to fifteen page paper and get the practice and the idea that this is a graduate class, but is this really benefitting me to do this research and figure out how to write it in this format, and turn it in to you? It just seemed like busy work, honestly. During our final interview, much of the conversation revolved around her negative feelings toward the research paper. It appeared as though she was subject to the experience at that point in time ( Kegan, 1994 ) Her emotions had control over her and she was very upset, possibly because it was fresh in her mind. She struggled to take a step

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145 back and reflect on the experiences without b eing tied to the emotions of it. She had a difficult time making the shift from subject to object with respect to the experience of writing the research paper. One of her concluding thoughts at the end of our final interview was expressed with utter frustr Aside from the research paper, I asked Jennifer about her reactions to the rea dings and whether there was something that stood out to her as being helpful or challenged her he textbooks. ch weird. Jennifer said she preferred the s heltered c ontent book ( Echevarria & Graves, 2010 ) over the h ow l anguages are l earned book ( Lightbown & Spada, 2006 ) Sheltered Content one was better than the other one. The ot her one was interesting, but it was just, it felt like you were jumping, and of course, you are jumping back from book to book, which of structure and layou t versus content and ideas. However, in her final reflection she expressed an appreciation for the ideas presented in one chapter of the sheltered content text.

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146 I felt like I was not getting enough practical information on how to instruct ELLs. This chang ed when I read chapter three of Sheltered Content Instruction. Here was the information I wanted. Reading about the SIOP model increased my confidence that I could instruct a class and instruct an ELL at the same time with proper planning. It is interesti ng to note that in reference to the SIOP (sheltered instruction observation protocol) ; additional links to SIOP materials were provided in the course shell as part of the required readings, which Jennifer admitted that she did not take the time to read. In our final interview she explained to me, I felt like I could have used in this class, and I did get some, but more practical that and seeing more practical information on how I would apply it. When I asked Jennifer about the online discussions, her reactions were mostly a cla Jennifer admitted to me that she spent much of her time reading and just trying to figure Sometimes it was just so much, and since it was a brand new idea every week, it w as like,

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147 On the activity impact questionnaires, Jennifer did not rate any of the course activities at an average of four or higher. T he activities she scored as the highest were (in order starting with the highest): field assignment two, field assignment one, field assignment three, final reflection paper, SIOP links, and journals. I found it interesting that the SIOP links made the list since she had admitted not spending time on it. It is possible she rated that higher based on the information she read about SIOP in the course text. our intervi ew conversations, I would conclude that the three field assignments and reflections made the greatest positive impact on her. It made sense that she rated the reflection paper and journals towards the top since she talked to me about how the process of ref lecting on her experiences helped her to remember what she learned. Perhaps she included the SIOP because it was that model of instruction that she perceived to give her the most practical ideas, which appeared to be of great importance to Jennifer. The a ctivities that Jennifer rated at the bottom of her list, suggesting very low impact, were the developmental sequence writing samples, which were part of an online discussion, the exam, the research paper, and the text How Languages are Learned ( Lightbown & Spada, 2006 ) Out of those activities, based on our conversations, I would conclude that the research paper resulted in the most negative emotional reaction from Jennifer.

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148 Transitions and Quest for Balance too, was experiencing a transition between the figured worlds of math/engineering and teaching/education. And especially after whatever more than 25 years of not going to school online but also just the intimidation of writing and not being a great writer and in mechanical engineering, I mean I can thin k of two papers I wrote. And they were scientific paper. riting, her background in engineering, and her lack of experience writing papers made the transition difficult and intimidating. Also, it was clear that the fact that it had been more than 25 years since she had been in school and her attempt to achieve ba forth In addition t o referring to the time it had been since she was in school, Jennifer also referred to age in our conversations. For example, she would speculate about her age In an no t

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149 This may indicate that she felt insecure about her age or that she was just speculating as to her position in life versus others in t he class. uncertainty about who she was working with stresses the fact that the class did not create an environment conducive to personal connection. The course needs to be revised to find ways for the adult learners and the instructor to get to know each other to better foster those connections. Sense of Self It was apparent that Jennifer struggled to see the connection between what she learned in the ESL for Educators course and her role as a prospective math teacher. She appeared unable to s ee herself as teacher who would teach math and a teacher who would teach ELLs, which suggested she struggled with that aspect of her professional identity. On more than one occasion Jennifer made it clear that she was not going to be an English relevant to her content area. I want a math paper. I mean there are times when you write things out like that you want to answer something in a full sentence, but that would be i t. And then grammatically correct sentence. Her comments at time s topic was related to English, that was the ESL reflective of the separation between the ESL teacher and the regular classroom teacher was,

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150 teacher, other apply this. Or, if I had ESL certification, then I co uld see applying it, because then I would be a certified teacher, and other teachers would be coming to me talking about it, or I would be going and seeing those individual students, but I ting certification, that I was just supposed to be getting an introduction to it. It was clear in our last interview that Jennifer was still unsure about the relevancy and connection between the content of the course and her secondary math content area. I this? And when would I b e ever grading their questioning? or When would I even I had trouble understanding the need to know that so specifically in what I consider this class to be an important next step to make, but to sort of throw it in there, I was like e are very few times that you write a sentence at all. The fact that Jennifer was unable to see the relevance of the course content and material indicates a shortcoming of the course. The responsibility of learning the course content is shared between the instructor and the learner. The job of the instructor should be to learn the student and adjust the course accordingly to help facilitate learning and development. Revising the course so that the instructor can better get to know the adult learners is cri tical to the success of the course and the program. Jennifer and Received Knowledge In the study conducted by Belenky et al. ( 1986 ) they found that all of the 135 ( p. 204 ) favored the most clear ( Belenky, e t al., 1986, p. 204 ) My

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151 structure, clear cut expectations, and practical knowledge and therefore, was likely operating on some level as a received knower As indicated early on in this portrait of Jennifer and her experiences during the semester of the study, motherhood appeared to be a very important aspect of her identity. Belenky, et al. ( 1986 ) ological ( p. 35 ) Jennifer sought balance in her life between her role as a mother and her roles as student, worker, and educator. Similar to other received knowers, Jennifer expressed a sens e of obligation for about not wanting her kids to lose their mom right after losing their dad. She continued two hours, you know that sort of thing. And I kind of thought I would have a job by now rying to solve moral dilemmas, what Jennifer did ( Belenky, et al., 1986, p. 46 ) ( Belenky, et al., 1986, p. 37 ) As had to ( 1970

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152 1981 ) concept of dualism on lecturing than listening ( Belenky, et al., 1986 ) While Jennifer did seem to focus on listening as a way of learning, I found evidenc e that she was operating in some ways within a dualistic framework ( Perry, 1970 1981 ) ; simil ( 2001 ) absolute ( 1982 ) instrumental way of knowing. In add ition to viewing knowledge as right or wrong, good or bad, people operating under these ways of knowing tend to listen to authorities and of authority. There were sev eral examples in the interview data that supported this claim. Similar examples came from conversations we had about online discuss ions. Jennifer said that one of her struggles with online learning was the fact that she could not figure out exactly where the teacher stood and therefore, was not sure where she should stand. you can analyze your fellow classmat es and analyze your teacher, too. You would look and see which ones she positively reinforces way want your instru Yeah to mold like that, but you can at least be sensitive to it, you know, and knowing a little more about your teacher is not the teacher to comment and write stuff.

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153 Jennifer ment stressed the importance of receiving input from the instructor in online discussions because of the lack of direct instruction. ing direct instruction, yeah let us nice to get feedback, especially you know occasionally, on your discussion post, ey do In refere nce to the developmental sequence writing samples that were presented and discussed as part of a weekly threaded discussion, Jennifer expressed frustration and indicated that she would have preferred getting the answer. She responded, I would rather see t information. I just would have preferred getting mo re of just an answer. happen when. They like clarity. They want to know exactly what they are expected to do ( Belenky, et al., 1986, p. 42 ) statements in her final interview reflected a desire to know what was expected of her in expectation for me, as a teach nice to know what the expectations are. Are the expectations for me to come in and be the unsure of what For adult learners operating under this meaning making system, revisions to the structure of the course would be

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154 helpful. Making clear what is expected and what they are responsible for might make the experience less overwhelming and frustrating for them. doing what was required; not more and sometimes less. This could have stemmed from her tendency towards received knowing. Received knowe ( Belenky, et al., 1986, p. 40 ) Doing simply what was required could have been a result of the fact that Jennifer was str uggling to find balance and keep up with the mental demands of modern life ( Kegan, 1994 ) She could ha ve been afraid of failing. Whatever the reasons, it was a common theme that emerged throughout our conversations and therefore, deserves attention. As noted earlier, Jennifer had a strong negative reaction to the research paper and expressed that she did Similarly, as discussed under her reactions to SIOP, she admitted that sh e was not willing to do the work. Part of her rationale was that she was not teaching at the time, and therefore did not have a context to which she could apply what she was learning. This has implications for the role of the teaching context, but in Jenni

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155 Jennifer also grouped herself with other students and made an assumption that her thinking was in line with what other students thought. now, bec think as students we want the information; we want to think that we go and dig deeper, but practically Jennifer appeared to place the responsibility for her learning on th e authorities rather than on herself. For example, while she admitted she had not read the syllabus ahead of time, she held the instructor responsible for not giving her more of a warning of ve loved to have had a little bit more cue ahead of time, because it just happened that I looked the week ahead I just need to go get a job and skip all this just not tea Based on the data I found several of comments suggestive of a received way of knowing, which is why I explored it in greater detail. The insights I was able to gleam from her interviews hi ghlighted for me the importance of taking adult

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156 Adjusting the presentation of the course to include more explicit expectations and instructions could have resulted in a m ore positive experience for Jennifer. Experiences My experience of Jennifer was that she wanted to do the right thing for herself, her kids, and her instructor. She seemed to be dealing with so much in her personal and professional l ife and at times it was almost too difficult for her to do it all. Having lost her husband to cancer only two years earlier, her four children were her primary concern. Jennifer was undergoing multiple transitions in her life, which caused her to question her identity and seek her place in the world. This ultimately led to the moral dilemma of how going to school and entering a new career would impact her perception of herself as a dedicated mother to her children. This online course did not appear conduci given her tendency toward being a received knower who learns best through listening to others; especially authorities. It was important to Jennifer to better understand her instructor, who she saw as one of her sources of authority. She sought to understand where her instructor stood on controversial issues so as not to clash with her views or philosophy. This proved to be difficult in this particular online course While Jennifer struggled to find balance during this d ifficult time of transition and struggled to see the relevance and applicability of what she learned in the ESL for field assignments.

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157 oaster of emotions, fluctuating confidence, and mixed reactions to the course activities, it is reasonable to assert that she did not have a transformational learning experience. It was clear to me that she challenged some of her previously held assumption s and she was able to reflect on prior experiences with new knowledge and a new perspective However, she was unable to apply what she learned and unable to even comprehend how she would apply her newly gained knowledge if she were teaching. C ombined with the discrepancy of survey results, the uncertainty about whether or not her core attitudes and beliefs changed, and the uncertainty about whether or not how she thought about ELLs and the education of ELLs changed as a result of her participation in the co urse, leads me to conclude that Jennifer left the course with considerable anger and confusion and did not have a transformational experience Patricia Background of the st udy, she was in her third year of teaching high school science at a local charter school while simultaneously taking classes for the ALP program for secondary science. She earned a B.A. in chemistry and biology and pursued teaching as a career because she confidence and self worth into teenagers. Science tends to be very daunting for a lot of kids and showing them that it can be so fun and interesting is very rewardi Patricia grew up in Alaska around a population which she described as predominantly white and Alaskan Indian (Inuit). She really enjoyed growing up there and

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158 greatly appreciated the cultural traditions of the Inuit people, but she was saddened how th e Alaskan natives were often living in poverty and suffered from alcoholism. I absolutely loved it. I thought it was amazing. Just because I went to a great school where they really celebrated that culture because it was such a great portion of the populat ion they were involved with a lot of that kind of connection crafts and different cultural things. And there was cooking involved of native foods from the Inuits and had many teachers that were Alaskan natives; so I felt like it was amazing. However, I would say the only negative part that I experienced was that a lot of the natives kind of like the Americ an Indians would unless they were working for the oil companies. That was the only exception. They were impoverished unless they were working for ARCO or something like that. I asked Patricia about her exposure to the Inuit language. She mentioned that she picked up a little bit through exposure, but more than the language, Patricia appeared to appreciate the culture and cultural traditions. She said that she may even want to go back to Alaska one day to teach. Inuit. I learned a little bit here and there, but mostly that was isolated to the cultural events that we went to. We had a lot of cultural even ts outside of school that involved their tribal traditions. It was fun. I kind of think it would be really neat to go back there and teach in one of the remote regions. I really enjoyed it and I had some great friends that were Inuit and so I really grew a n appreciation for the culture. Patricia moved to Colorado when she was 16. Other than her dream of potentially moving back to Alaska to teach, she indicated that she would likely stay in Colorado probably will stay. I think that be finishing that next year, and so if he gets a job in a different state that might determine

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159 Patricia grew up knowing S panish, but felt that it had slipped away over time. Her father was half Mexican and half Apache Indian and he spoke to Patricia and her brother and sister in Spanish when they were younger. He was raised in a Spanish speaking house, but he was raised in New Mexico and California and everybody in the family, he has six brothers and sisters and they are all fluent in Spanish, and his mother is full blooded Apache Indian and his father was full blooded Mexican, and so they typically spoke Spanish at home. An and I did, but he would speak to us in Spanish probably until my early adolescence when my parents divor ced and he separated from the family. Patricia also studied some Spanish in high school, but she admitted that her focus was not on learning Spanish but rather on science Her basic knowledge of the language, though, helped her to understand some of her Spanish speaking students. At that point I was in high school and I was taking Spanish classes and my focus whole lot about my Spanish classes, unfortunately. I wish I would h ave, but it patt ern of speech and the way the words are organized that sometimes makes anymore. Teaching Experience As I mentioned, Patricia was in her third year of teaching high school science at a local charter school. She described additional teaching related experience on her I also have worked with kids afflicted with Reactive Attach ment Disorder. I have a few years of experience working at treatment centers for at risk

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160 half out of five, slightly higher than a novice. Patricia had quite a bit of experience working with ELLs. She had ELLs in every class, every semester of her three years teaching at her current school; including the a wide variety of cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. The vast majority of ESL students I work with in my classroom are Hispanic; however, I work with the occasional Patricia described feeling anxious and unprepared to teach her ELLs because she had no prior training on how to work with linguistically diverse learners. In our first know what was the appropriate way to effectively teach kids that barely knew the Patricia had more experience working with ELLs in the U.S. school system than any other participant. Eve n though she had experience, due to her lack of training and uncertainty, she rated her confidence to teach them low at two out of five. In our first figure out exactl y what strategies I can start implementing in my classroom that will be

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161 Beliefs and Understandings about Linguistic Diversity Patricia rated her confidence in teaching EL Ls as low. However, she rated her interest in having ELLs in her classroom higher at a four out of five. Based on our conversations, Patricia had some assumptions about CLD learners, some of which she challenged in the ESL for Educators course. Patricia d iscussed what she described as disparities between the Hispanic students and the non Hispanic ELLs. way the rest of the ELLs seem to be ; from a motivation perspective, too. An d efficacy issue for them, I ng ELLs. Some of these perceptions may have been influenced by her experiences with her father. The fact that he left the family when she was in ninth grade appeared to i mpact the way Patricia thought about the Hispanic students, the male students and their fathers in particular. I think that my dad was probably what I feel might be a typical Hispanic male. ause of what my experiences were in my childhood especially. I see a lot of similarities between the way he was and the way that some of my Hispanic students are and Hispanic uninvolved unl th ey them, but my experience has been that they can be a bit self centered and patriarchal to an ext

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162 are reflective of that. She expressed similar obse rvations in her initial journal entry as One of the assumptions that Patricia revealed to me in our first interview was that atch up in the language before they could even attempt to unsure whether or not the learnin g of English for ELLs should take precedence over learning subject matter. However, she responded that the rapid learning of English should not be a priority if it meant losing the ability to speak their native language. To support that sentiment of embrac journal entry Patricia wrote, Allowing the ESL student the opportunity to take pride their own cultural background and language sets the ESL student at ease in the realization that they do n ot have to leave their origins behind; they can embrace a new language while retaining a sense of where they came from and who they are. diversity. Patricia strongly sup ported the idea of the government providing money to fund better programs for ELLs and was strongly in favor of teachers receiving training on how to meet the needs of linguistically diverse learners. In fact, a common theme throughout our conversations an opening to understand

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163 t he huge impact that it can have of just more training. I was actually surprised at the lack Reported Changes as a Result of Course Participation In the beginning of the course Patricia reported having very little to some know ledge on most topics on the Knowledge of ELL issues survey. Two of the statements did not fall under those categories, though. She perceived herself to have and their families. Upon completing the course, her ratings of those two items did not change much. er bit the semeste r. The changes in responses were only by one degree of agreement in each case. For example, on the pre semester survey. So her overall attitudes di d not appear to change; just the level of strength of the agreement or disagreement changed.

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164 the English language by non or limited English proficient children should take English should not take precedence over learning academic content, an assumption which s he challenged as a result of her participation in the course. semester interview she reported I think that part of the big revelation for me so far has just been that for these ELL students I have to be thinking about the whole student and not just the language, experiencing i n life that could be affecting where they are at right now? If they are living at a poverty level, then that primary need will go before anything else. Before they can begin to feel like they can take in information, they need to have their primary needs m the language component, but there are so many other components that are involved in their ability to retain and learn information. She reflected on the disparity she described earlier between the Hispanic students and A great example I have of that is I have one Korean student who came in not with a family you know an American family. On the other hand, I have the student who I was talking about living at poverty level right now. And there is a huge difference in the a mount of growth that I see between the two boys. The Korean student is passing in full sentences now, and he is completing assignments at the same level as other incredible how

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165 there is some gang and drug involvem teach these kids. Her new awareness revolved around the imp ortance at looking at all of the potential factors affecting the child; not just the language component resulted in an emotional reaction from Patricia. As mentioned in the results chapter, in our final interview Patricia reported feeling sad as she reflec ted on previous experiences with ELLs from a new perspective based on her new knowledge. She described a specific experience that caused her to feel sad. Well, I had this female student two years ago, and she was absolutely silent through the whole entire semester if it was lack of motivation, if there was a h her this previous semester in other classes, an that she was like that in. Maybe I could have employed some sort of appreciation for her culture, and her identity, and where she c is feeling welcome in class, because when I hit her with questions about material, one everything that I could have to make her feel welcome first and comfortable in the classroom. was at with her language maybe. When I asked her if there was something specif ic from the course that made her think differently about that experience, she replied, Well, the silent stage in language theory is definitely where that thought started to arise and then affective barriers. Affective issues really put all of that togethe r for I mean I think that was one of the huge ideas for me to get into my head, was that anything that I present to them really needs to be comprehensible to them, so I need to make sure th at I can assess their levels of content and language knowledge, and

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166 then combine those things together and make sure that I am presenting been doing that instead of probably presenting experience, previous background, whatever it was. Not only did Patricia reflect on prior experiences through a new lens and develop new understandings and beliefs about her students, she appeared to have taken on a more global perspective about how the education of her ELLs could potentially impact society a s well. needs of E LL students. They are not ever g oing to have the chance to be in careers that are related to science and technology, because math and science are traditiona lly, it sounds like from the statistics, the hardest subjects for them to gain proficiency in. And so, if they can get to proficiency in these content areas, then that increases our chances of having those guys in those professions later on. And in the cou important as a society. That was the big breakthrough for me is that this is not only important because we have ELL students in our classroom. This is important because it affects our societ Because Patricia was teaching during the time of the study, like Kathy, she was able to take what she was learning in the course and directly apply it to her teaching context. Therefore, not only did she change her beliefs and understandings about linguistic diversity, she also changed her teaching practice. When I asked her in our final interview if she had been able to do things differently in her classroom, she respo nded, to try to know the kids on a personal level, especially those ELL kids and make you l incorporate them in the classroom with cooperative learning strategies and making sure they are interacting with each other and not just within their group but also getting to know the oth er kids that are of different backgrounds in the

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167 kids getting to know them, too; so that they can go to class and really feel comfortable in that sense. Not only was Patricia able to make changes to her teaching practice, but as mentioned in chapter four she was also able to take what she learned and, along with her principal, provide trainings to other teachers in her school about sheltered content that teachers need more training, which she felt more strongly about after going through a lot of th skilled i The process of translating course activities into leadership resulted in a great deal continued to s at work and delving into the book, the actual textbook that we have in this class, and descri section. Over the course of the semester, Patricia reported having gained not only knowledge, but confidence to teach ELLs. Her reported level of confidence increased fr om a two to a four out of five and her reported interest in working with ELLs increased as well from a four to a five out of five. On her mid semester journal entry she wrote,

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168 At the half way point in the semester I have been able to accumulate a variety of tools and knowledge that will allow me to better serve English language some of the challenges that ELL students struggle with because I am able to analyze behaviors and pa tterns and then address the issue by using components of the SIOP model. prepa red her very well to meet the needs of her ELLs. However, she wished there had been more practical application incorporated. The course was very informative and helpful as a foundation for understanding the needs and complexities of ELL students in the ma instream classroom. I only wish I could have practiced more application within assignments to be more comfortable with teaching using sheltered content instruction. Specific Reactions to Course Activities Patricia found the information presented in the ELL directors panel discussion video, the first field assignment, surprising for a couple of reasons. In her write up she become aware of was the complexity of providing services for large populations of ELL In her write up, Patricia mentioned again her thoughts on the need for more have an LDE endorsement, or many hours of some type of ESL training to ensure that they know how to appropriately accommodate the growing population of ESL stude She said

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169 they were starting to require the LDE endorsement to hire teachers, is what it sounded During our mid semester interview she discussed her reactions to the vi deo in terms of the resources that are needed to properly educate ELLs. The first field assignment on the video, I think my take on that was just that there needs to be a huge amount of resources put into ELL programs across the nation to be able to make it something that is effective. It just seems like they had so resources across the board. I think that was the big revelation that I had with that. To conclude her thoughts on the first field assignment, Patricia expressed to me in the panel, because it was just glimpse into what it w activity impact questionnaire as having the greatest impact on her thinking. For the second field assignment, the cultural experience, her reactions were more personal. She described feel T hose feelings caused her to grow in her sense of empathy and understanding for ELLs. In her write up she described her experience. I decided to attend a Jewish Temple to experience a language that is completely foreign to any of my previous experiences. Being exposed to Catholicism and Christianity, I have virtually no knowledge of the Jewish faith or the Hebrew States and elsewhere may feel very lost and frightened in the beginning, as well as night of Yom Kippur was uncomfortable at times, I was set more at east by being able to meet and converse with a woman next to me who was kind enough to only one who is unfamiliar with the language would make me feel less confident and more frightened as would ELL students facing this type of situati on.

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170 There seems to be an underlying theme of responsibility of the Jewish faith to hold on to the exclusivity of their culture and religion. This discussion led me to feel very uncomfortable and out of place. I felt unwanted at the Temple as a result of th is discussion. is immersed in another language/culture they may have to face the questioning of their own identity. My analysis of the experience in the Jewish Temple led me to believe that it is of the utmost importance to make a student feel welcome and wanted. When I asked Patricia about whether or not her experience at the Jewish temple caused her to reflect on some of her previous experiences differently, her response was that i t was that different, and that it was so dependent on having a welcoming that way at that tim e. For field assignment three, the interview and observation, Patricia rated that activity as making the second greatest impact on her, second to the panel discussion ga ined a lot from that last observation that I did. I really tried to apply the components of up and analysis of the ex perience further detail later in this portrait. Patricia responded favorably to the field assignments in general. In addition, she also reacted positively to the read things about the course is all of the increased awareness through the readings and I think

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171 research paper as a g research paper was probably the best learning experience that I had in the class, and that and the type of learner she is in an earlier interview. benefits from. And I think maybe that has to do with just how I am as a learner. When I write, I tend to have little luck if any develop ing things as I write; and so maybe that helps me develop my ideas as opposed to writing on a direct topic in a discussion. With respect to the readings, she indicated that she found them valuable and beneficial to her learning and to her teaching. Both o f the to me are pretty valuable. The theories are what are incredibly enlightening just to me. It really allowed me to look at my students and theory, or hypothesis Some of those ideas were really important for me to look at distracted by all these other things or overwhelmed by all these other things, what can I do to make that easier f or them? Or, how can I get through that so that we conquer what we need to conquer? So, a lot of those things are causes of behavior; they are extremely important I think to learn about, because then you can think about how you can guide your teaching to y ou know directly assess those issues. When I inquired as to whether there was any particular activity that had contributed most to her shifts in thinking, she referred to the sheltered content instruction textbook ( Echevarria & Graves, 2010 ) and again mentioned the importance of the theories she learned about. I think it was when we went over the theories that I first started thinking about all of this stuff. That was where it started, and then we got to the chapter on affective issues. So that was cha pter four, and I would say sheltered instruction, the SIOP chapter was extremely useful, because it was like here we have all of these

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172 theories and chapter three where we talk about the SIOP model and how am I going to assess all of those different possibi lities of what could be happening there, and what could be in play there. So, the SIOP model was cool, because it just gave me all of these ideas for how to individually pick out things that would be good for specific students. In general, Patricia appeare d to appreciate each of the readings, but showed a definite preference for the sheltered content instruction book ( Echevarria & Graves, 2010 ) Not only did she learn a lot from it, but she was also able to apply what she learned from it to her student s and her classroom. And beyond that, she used that book as a resource for the training that she conducted with her principal for her fellow teachers. Another course activity that Patricia and I discussed was the online discussion component of the course. Patricia reported being very comfortable with the online learning environment both at the beginning and the end of the course. However, she did not indicate that the onlin e discussions were beneficial. Patricia had taken other courses online before and des cribed her reaction to online discussions in general in our first interview. So my experience with the online classes is that in the discussions in particular some discussions can be very eye trying to find something to talk about. I think it depends, I actually think how well the courses work out hugely depends on the questions that are asked in the discussion. At the mid way point in the semester she had formed an opinion about the online discussions in th couple of examples and offered her opinion about the type of discussion prompt that would be more conducive to an in depth discussion.

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173 Well I think that within the last couple of weeks, it just seems like a lot of people other way to really talk about it as far as examples. In the classroom, what could you see as examples of it in the classroom? And, how might you assess those or change or adapt to those situations? I just kind of felt like ev erybody talked about the same thing about the student becoming quiet. And, how do you put that back and balance it back. It just seemed like you know everybody was saying the same t one of the I think some of that happens in online classes where they see somebody say You kind of expand on each other, which is great, but it decreases the variety of the responses. Maybe, taking a big topic and offering options within that topic to talk about good; asking you to pick a couple of the strategies that you find that are important choosing a couple of the str ategies that were at the very beginning of the reading you have different things to go off of a nd not just one question that everybody is responding to, you know what I mean? In our final interview Patricia reflected on the online discussions overall and offered suggestions for how they might be improved. The one thing that was difficult for me, too that at times felt like busy work, were the discussions. If I were to change things, if I was in control of the class, I would probably break it down into two week discussions instead of one week discussions, and I would have it a really in depth questio n that they have to do a reading on, or that they have to analyze a bit before answering it, because I kind of felt like I could go on and do it in about 20 minutes thoughtfully, but at times, I ople, to really get into depth question. ne discussions appeared to be influenced by instructor participation. In our first interview not seen that level of instructor participation in her previous online courses.

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174 see respond back to everybody this last week with really in depth observatio would really help everybody. In our mid semester interview, Patricia commented on the feedback she was g etting from the instructor on her papers, which she again found helpful. you know uploading. However, when the topic of feedback came up again late r in that interview, she indicated one or two times she was responding within t he week that the discussion was occurring, and doing things as they are happening, and I The way Patricia rated the course activities on the activity impact questionnaires seemed to be in line with the way she described her reactions in our interviews. Out of the ac tivities that she rated at an average of four or higher out of five, this was the order in which she put them (starting with the activities that she rated the highest): field assignment one (panel discussion), field assignment three (observation/interview) self reflection paper, research paper, sheltered content instruction textbook, journals,

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175 instructor feedback/participation/input, field assignment two, and the how languages are learned textbook. Sense of Self Throughout our three interviews, Patricia r arely talked about herself on a personal level. She responded to the questions posed and offered insights into the type of learner and teacher she was, but did not tend to offer additional personal information. Therefore, it was more difficult to determine se of self had to be inferred from other types of statements. Patricia and Procedural Knowing My overall impression of Patricia was that she was thoughtful, analytical, logical, and pragmatic. Our first two interviews were conducted on the phone and our f inal interview was conducted in person. My reactions to our phone interviews were that they were very straight forward and to the point. When we met in person and had the opportunity to chat on a more personal level, I was able to get a more personal sense of Patricia. I found her to be very friendly, positive, optimistic, and kind spirited. She appeared calm and yet enthusiastic about what she was doing for her students. ( Belenky, et al., 198 6 ) I found several aspects of the procedural way of knowing assignment write ups and reflections. I was particularly struck by the synopsis that are planted

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176 firmly on the ground. They are trying to take control of their lives in a planned, deliberate ( Belenky, et al., 1986, p. 99 ) While I do not claim to understand how she approached her life in general, I felt as though I had a good sense of the ways she approached her teaching, and the above statement accurately reflected my sense of Patricia. ( 1986 ) study, Patricia tended to favor ( p. 88 ) ( 1970 ) concept of critical reasoning. up of the cultural experience in the Jewish Temple She appe ared to take a step back from her experience to reflect on it in a reasoned, analytical and objective way. Taking an objective stance on this and other experiences was a common action for nowledge is more ( Belenky, et al., 1986, p. 98 ) Because of this, my interpretation of Patricia was that she did not struggle to make subject object shifts ( Kegan, 1994 ) at least not in our conversations. In fact, I did not find a single instance where Patricia appeared subject to her e xperiences. There was only one time in my analysis that I hastily indicated a subject stance. It stemmed from this statement in our m not really. I just try to be very thorough with what

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177 applying procedures for obtaining and communicating knowledg ( Belenky, et al., 1986, p. 95 ) While the degree of involvement in that process may vary from person to person, ( Belenky, et al., 1986, p. 95 ) The fact that Patricia acknowledged that she was thorough and detail oriented with a need to plan things in a structured, organized way, was in line with the procedural way of knowing. One example of this was reflected in a statement she made look at at the beginning of the day, where I can see bullet points, and I could just go through those just as a review before I Another process of procedural thinking which Patricia appeared to espouse was ( Belenky, et al., 1986, p. 96 ) While Patricia expressed a sense of anxiousness about changing her lesson plans to meet the needs of her students because of the newness of it all, she appeared to maintain a sense of control. what this Christmas break is about for me, because I have such a large population of ELLs, I am changing a lot of my lesson plans, all of my lesson plans, my daily lesson plans to include strategies that will allow me to address nd nervous about how to structure those lesson plans. I mean I can use the SIOP model as a guide, but we have a template to follow It seemed to help that she had a plan from the very beginning and she stuck with it. In our

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178 o better analyze her students, where they might be coming from, and what factors might be affecting them in school. This phenomenon is common to those who have tendencies m ( Belenky, et al., 1986, p. 98 ) Finally, while my interpreta tion of Patricia is that she identified with both separate and connected aspects of the procedural way of knowing, one of the qualities of care As connected knowers care about the objects they seek to understand ( Belenky, et al., 1986, p. 124 ) It was clear that Patricia cared about her students and it seemed important to her to learn everything she could to help them. This and how she wished she would have known then what she knows now. That way she could have been able to better understand them and help them. The feeli ng of care was also evident when she talked about the training she provided to her colleagues and how she hoped it would help the students and the school. so hopefully

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179 Experiences Due to her active participation in the course and the application of what she learned to her teaching context, I am confident that Patricia changed not only what she knew and thought, but how she thought about ELLs and the education of ELLs. Her course participat ion and her involvement in the community of practice at her school appeared to result in a transformative learning experience for Patricia. She reported gaining both knowledge and confidence, and with tendencies towards procedural knowing, she was able to analyze and reflect on her experiences for the benefit of her students, her school, and herself. Steven Background My impression of Steven was that he was a confident, social, and charismatic d aspirations. He was enrolled in the ALP program, but indicated that he had not chosen a specific content area of concentration. He earned his B.A. in social science and fluctuated in his feelings about I have questions about the future of system. It was clear that the semester of the st Steven. What I learned of his upbringing was that it was not ideal for him. He moved around a lot

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180 as a young child and has lived in Color I came from a pretty rough background. My mom had two kids when she was 19, single..., moving on everywhere. d around a lot, in fact, I cannot remember an tionnaire, Steven expanded on that statement. He wrote, I am an international enthusiast who has travelled and studied the people, cultures, religions, languages of a given group of people. The social aspect of human connection is truly fascinating! Langu ages other than English have never been utilized around me regarding my family although I have Spanish, German, Russian, Ukrainian and English familial language backgrounds. Thai proficiency in both Spanish and Thai at three out of five. His knowledge of Thai came from his experiences in Thailand as part of a study abroad program, which he did as an unde rgraduate. pretty quick and once I went over there I was involved with students, I was just involved in so many different things. I got into playing music out there, started per One observation he made about the Thai culture and education was, g time. That is until a westerner comes over and they get in a class and they try and take over and take the reins To teach English over there you just have to be from an English speaking country.

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181 Upon conclusion of the course, Steven had plans to return to Thailand and spend time in Burma as well. and we have this vision to save the world with me dicine and through education. So yeah I want to get out there and go travel a bit. He described a little more about what he planned to do during his time in Thailand. going to of Muay Thai fighting styl going out there to study a style called Muay Tang Pa, which is a conglomeration of five different Southeast Asian studi es. And its, the whole goal is mental going to be doing, is a lot of meditation, a lot of yoga, and a lot of civil work, you stuff. t his trip Teaching Experience Steven was in a teacher education program as an undergraduate. However, his was doing my undergr program with a history endorsement, and then I went on a study abroad program and my

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182 Steven was not teaching during the semester of the study, but had taught previously. He taught a University Studies course for three years (2008 2010). In our final interview he reflected on his experiences there. When I was working at
teaching those classes I actually felt good, you know, because it was a mental exercise, working with young minds, and having great lesson plans, and teach things, you know things like that. I enjoyed that, and I need to get back to that. On his background questionnaire, Steven indicated that he was a former higher experience at a three out of five, half way between a novice and a vete ran. Beliefs and Understandings about Linguistic Diversity Based on several of his written and oral statements along with the results of his LATS survey, my interpretation of Steven was that his thinking was in line with an English only philosophy. For example, he strongly agreed that to be considered American one should speak English and that the government should require that all government business (including voting) be conducted in English. In his final journal entry he wrote, As English is the dominant, major language of business worldwide, our students MUST have the ability to compete on this simple level. Therefore, I will never be able to support curriculum or educa tional legislation that does not maintain English as the primary, most necessary language of instruction. In his final reflection paper, Steven expressed additional sentiments in line with what I consider to be an English only philosophy.

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183 When speaking of the idea of bilingualism, and more specifically how to that language other than English are useless or inferior, but the mentality that English skills are vital for surviv now come from all over the world in our schools and this should be celebrated and fused into lessons. However, it is more vital to gain mastery of as we must be able to communicate as humans. On the LATS survey, Steven also said that he did not think it was important for people in the U.S. to learn a language in addition to English. While Steven appeared to favor an English only philosophy, he often should be valued and appreciated. In our first interview, Steven said, y best friends are this day and age to be able to communicate between two different cultures. Even appreciation for the other person. Steven also said linguistic diversity. For example, he reported that he did not feel the rapid learning of English should take place if nor did he feel that learning English should take precedence over learning subject matter. He indicated that having ELLs in class would not be detrimental to the learning of others and that it is important for teachers to receive training to be able to better meet the needs of linguistically diverse learners.

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184 In his initial journal entry, Steven admitted that while he acknowledged the importance of teaching ESL, he had not considered what it entail honest, the idea and recognition that ESL is truly important today in terms of national sustainability and global competition was evident, but I never took the time to think about who teaches ESL and how The data suggest, though, that he did not take the course seriously, nor did he find it beneficial or rewarding. Reported Changes as a Result of Course Participati on issues surrou second languages are learning/acquired. The res t fell somewhere in the middle. At the end of th e semester, his overall self assessment of knowledge of ELL issues increased by five points, a modest gain compared to others in the course. As for the results of his LATS, his score increased by four points, suggesting that he became less tolerant of lin guistic diversity over the course of the semester. The statements that resulted in change from the beginning of the semester to the end were in For example, in the begi nning of the semester Steven was uncertain as to whether or not parents of ELLs should be counseled to speak English with their children whenever

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185 possible. At the end of the semester, however, he changed his response to indicate that he felt strongly that parents should be counseled to speak with their children in English. ESL program. Initially, he stated that he would support the government spending additional money to fund bet ter programs for ELLs. At the end, though, he stated he would not support funding for ELL programs. With respect to learning English, Steven indicated on the pre semester survey that the rapid learning of English should not be a priority for ELLs if it me ant losing ability in their native language. In the follow up survey, he expressed that the learning of English should take priority, even if the ELLs would lose ability in their native language. ample, he claimed to remain consistent in his belief that having ELLs would not be detrimental to the learning of others and continued to argue for the importance of teachers receiving training to teach ELLs. However, based on one of his comments in our fi nal interview, it seemed as though he believed having ELLs in class may in fact be detrimental to the learning of others if teachers did not have proper training another inside th to fight, so I need to learn how to punch, so I need to at least know how to throw a the relevancy on why work ing with ELL students is so vital for the success of everyone in the school, because if you have that one student in your class who teacher has to give that energy to that stud hurting, too. So, at least we need a little bit of strategy and be aware that this is gonna happen.

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186 wrote in his final reflection paper, All teachers should be trained in the practice of working with this population of expect ing them to develop techniques and strategies alone. For Sofia, Kathy and Patricia, one of the greatest changes that took place as a result of their participation in the course was an increased level of confidence to work with linguistically diverse learne rs. This was not the case with Steven. He reported entering the course extremely confident in his ability to effectively teach ELLs, even though he had no prior coursework or formal training. He left the course extremely confident as well, suggesting that his course participation did not affect his confidence to work with ELLs. As far as his reported interest in working with ELLs, that, too, remained high at five out of five. Some of his statements corroborated that finding while other statements suggested that Steven was uncertain about whether or not he would want to work with ELLs. For example, in our final interview, he reported having great interest in working with ELLs. Preferably, actually, I would rather work with bilingual students. I would; I woul d prefer to work in an EL L environment, where I could get these target students up to par. I would prefer that, and previous to these classes, taking these classes, I with everybody, but I would pref er to work with international, bilingual students. I would prefer to work with them, because I feel that I would be able to work with kind of went from teach everybody to maybe just teaching ELLs, teaching ELL

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187 and minority populations. I would love to work with them in the United States in the public schools. I would totally want to work with that population. do not feel that I will pursue a career working with ESL students and am seriously questioning whether or statements, it appeared as though Steven was still search ing for a direction, and the course did not change that. Specific Reactions to Course Activities Steven rarely discussed the content of the course or his reactions to the specific activities in which he engaged. The data suggest that he did not do the rea dings and did not participate consistently in discussions. Perhaps in an attempt to minimize his doubts and downplay his lack of confidence, he avoided discussing the course material at length ( Tannen, 1995 ) However, I was able to infer, based on the few comments he made, that the first two field assignments and aspects of the sheltered content instruction text ( Echevarria & Graves, 2010 ) stuck with him the most. The online discussions made a strong impact on Steven, but no t in a positive way. Steven mentioned the first field assignment, the panel discussion, more than any other activity, except for the online discussions. In his write up of the assignment, Steven It was just surprising how many different languages are represented in
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188 him unsure about whether or not it is possible to reach all students, especially ELLs. Just learning some of the things in the ESL class in
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189 the language up. If we (humans) can come to terms that what separates us (humans) from truly understanding each other is LANGUAGE, then we may have some hope for the future. We are not much different in terms of seeking the same goals in life: peace, stability, acceptance and security. Steven only talked about this experience when prompted, but never brought it up on his own. That was also true of the third fie ld assignment, which was never discussed in any of the three interviews. From his write up I learned that he attended an adult ESL class at an English language institute at a local university. He explained that what he took from that experience was the rei nforcement of ideas he already had about what kept recurring: all teaching styles and deliveries have a basic need for teacher charisma critical of the choice of music the instructor used to enhance the lesson. I did not like the idea of everyone simply staring at their papers trying to listen and grasp all the words at one time. I, as a mus ician, was not even familiar with the songs being played to use as practice and I felt this may have not been as effective as if the songs were familiar and likeable. Steven indicated that, because he did not observe a public education classroom, he felt t his experience may not have been what the instructor would have hoped for. conducted an interview or used that experience to speculate on what it might be like for him a s a future educator of ELLs.

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190 As for the readings, the only reading Steven mentioned in our conversations was the sheltered content instruction textbook ( Echevarria & Graves, 2010 ) Based on the activity impact questionnaires, it appeared as though he read that text, at least parts of it, and the other course text ( Lightbown & Spada, 2006 ) but did not do the supplemental impact on him. When it talks about affective issues dealing with students the ten steps or the ten different criteria for dealing with students, making them feel comfortable, those are ten great ideas. Those are ten fabulous thoughts and practices for an instructor. If you could do that on a daily basis, and you could stay awa re of those things, As I mentioned, the only other course activity that we talked about was the online discussions. I will discuss the greater context of the online learning environment later in this section, but f threaded discussions. As discussed in the results section, Steven found it difficult to keep up with the discussions since there was nobody forcing him to do them. He also said that he in person is much different than in words. You know I can say in ten minutes the amount of things in the same time that I could type, and I just forget all the words when I therefore questioned whether or not people would view his.

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191 We see these posts for the discussions, and do we really take the time to read them; you know Power Points fall behind the wagon a little bit. On the mid semester activity impact questionnaire, for the activities Steven rated, he put fives for almost everything, suggesting that each activity in which he engaged had a positive impact on him and was helpful in preparing him to work with ELLs. Based on our con versations, though, I was skeptical about those ratings. A close examination of the questionnaire was revealing He put a four for the journals under the category supplemental articles were not rated, suggesting to me that he did not read them. The rest of the categories he rated as fives. For the end of semester activity impact questionnaire th ere was slightly more variety in his responses. He did not rate the supplemental internet links, indicating that he did not view them. He put threes across each category for the two textbooks and the exam, and he put zeros across the board for the online d iscussions. The majority of the remaining activities were rated at fives with a few exceptions. He rated the journals at a that same category, he assigned a one for fie ld assignment three. He rated most of the categories for instructor participation/feedback/input at fives with the exception of that same category (helpful in preparing me to work with ELLs), which he rated at a three.

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192 In conclusion, based on the lack of v ariety across activity impact ratings, I relied more heavily on interview data and reflections to provide a better interpretation of which activities appeared to have the greatest impact on Steven. My conclusion was that the first field assignment (panel d iscussion) appeared to make the greatest impact based on the fact that he brought it up on several occasions without prompting. In addition, the ideas presented on that video stuck with him; likely because he seemed to find the information new, shocking, a nd useful. Steven reported that t he second field experience, in which he attended the two orthodox churches, resulted in a more emotional and spiritual impact The experiences led him to a new realization, or confirmation of an existing one, that people a re very much the same. The data suggest that t he third field assignment, the observation, did not appear to make much of an impact on Steven Other than the one chapter Steven mentioned about the readings, I was not convinced that the readings or any of t he other course activities made a lasting impression on Steven or challenged his beliefs about ELLs or the education of ELLs. Because I was unsure, I asked Steven in our final interview what, if anything, caused him to think point during the semester Eva, the instructor, reached out to him by phone, which appeared to mak e an impression on Steven. pers ppreciated that she would actually take the time out of the day to

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193 that well, and you doing that research, and you allowing me to talk about my very surprising to me, almost in a beating aroun d the bush way, the entire perspective of what teaching is, has been delivered. You need to be there and communicate with your students. I was very surprised that it happened this way, but it happened. In summary while it was not engagement in an assigned activity that may have made a difference, I can infer that his interaction w ith the instructor and with me led to a shift in his thinking about what is important in education. This also highlights the importance of communication between instructor and lea rners and the need to find ways to create those connections in an online course. The Quest for Answers in a Phase of Self Exploration Similar to other people in their twenties, Steven asked himself three driving questions: Who am I? How do I know? What ki nd of relationships do I want with others? ( Baxter Magolda, 2001 ) of the study was that his primary focus was on finding answers to those questions. The course provided an opportunity for him to accomplish that. I firs t discovery by reading his background journey to discover balance, holistically building from the three pillars of mind, body and stacked

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194 I was not surprised, then, in our interviews that much of our conversations revolved around Steven and his quest for answers. I have pulled the statements from the interview data and have presented them in table 5.3 Table 5 3 Statements of Self Exploration Activity Statements representative of self exploration First interview teacher, but I ha pret Do I just want to get in the classroom? Do I want to start working right away? Do I want to keep going to school and doing it that way kind of taking a little time off before I get t a thousand questions going on in my head about, am I doing the right things right now making the right decisions? My thing is I kind of want to for a career, but I jumbled a little bit. o law school for of what do I want to do 100% exactly. what couple thousand dollars on these two classes just to see do I really want to keep going? Do I just want to try to get my license another w Where do I really want to spend my energies and years trying to accomplish or do? somewhere at some point.

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195 Activity S tatements representative of self exploration Second interview follow this career path. I absolutely, positively want to teach; I want to get into the teaching field. It the proper setting for me to learn. really just trying to ask myself these serious questions, and but it kind of is a reason. I do want to continue this program. Do I want to continue online? Do I want to go on campus? Third journal entry I do not feel that I will pursue a career working with ESL students and am seriously questioning whether or not I will continue to pursue the teaching profession. This class has potentially opened a door in which I felt was compelling b ut is of vital importance to the future students of the U.S., that is educational law. Final self reflection paper The exploration of educational legislation has sparked an internal interest. It cannot be stated whether or not I will work directly with English language learners in the public school setting. Third interview really changed in my goals there. Do I want to be a teacher? Yes. Do I want to go in this direction? Maybe not. questions. I thought I But at least I know that. I want to go to law school, so I need to pursue that a little more. I do want to teach, absolutely. Based on the repetitive theme of those statements, it was clear that Steven fluctuated between wanti ng to be a teacher and being unsure whether or not that was

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196 something he wanted to pursue. He also expressed fluctuating interest in earning a becoming a police officer, and p ursuing educational legislation. On the background interest in becoming a state senator one day. Table 5.3 to do in life. The data reveal search for identity, or sense of self, which would connect with the driving question of Who am I? In stark contrast to Patricia, for whom I only found three personal statements, for Steven I found more than 60 Thi s was not surprising given the fact that he openly admitted he was focused on himself and finding answers to some of his big questions. The majority of our conversations centered on that goal. The of self are presented in table 5.4 Table 5.4 Statements a bout Hims elf Activity/ Interview I statements Background Questionnaire I am an international enthusiast. I am a martial artist. I am a musician, classically trained on the trombone. I h I can entertain people! I am a realist. I am an idealist. First interview (on phone) I definitely am one of those people that is very helpful and very useful in terms of having feedback. I was never the best student in the first place. I want to be one that helps solve these problems. said, state my own opinions, things like that.

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197 Activity/ Interview I statements First interview (on phone) interested in that. e to do them all. I can do and handle a lot of things. totally the y in and the yang process for me. Second interview (on phone) way I express myself in person is much different than in words. It has to do with me as a visual, kinesthetic kind of person. You know I need to be active. I need to be ody language, things like that. social to face. I need to learn. engaged, totally the opposite of that. Third interview (on phone) enough. say, you know. on. trying to figure myself out. deficiencies and shortcomings that I have, and this is a whole part of the education process. I can relate to kids. I would prefer to work with international, bilingual students because I feel that I would be able to work with them better, and they would be able to work with somebody like me better. ntertainer. I like to see faces. uy.

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198 Let us turn now to the third driving question of the twenties: What kind of relationships do I want to have with others? In our final interview, Steven confessed that much of his thinking shi He explained how they met. She moved in next door to where my dad lives, and I stay to watch his house on the weekends while he works, take care of his dog and stuff like everything that she wants to do coincides with what I want to do. y entire goal of finding and meeting someone seems to be fitting with her. Steven made it sound as though his dreams were finally coming true. Ha ving someone around to love and to share with has always been a dream. Playing music, being a bit successful, and having a future of happiness has always been a dream. Bein g able to train martial arts wise has always been a dream, and Steven and Subjective Knowledge Belenky and colleagues ( 1986 ) proposed that the five epistemological perspectives they presented a found this to be the case with Steven who exhibited characteristics of a subjective knower. The term Perry ( 1981 ) used for subjectivism wa s multiplicity. In most cases the terms are interchangeable and the emphasis for people operating under this meaning making system is on personal experience ( Belenky, et al., 1986 ) There were some distinctions made between young men a nd young women who exhibited characteristics of this epistemological perspective. For the male multiplists oudly what you believe and feel ( Belenky,

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199 et al., 1986, p. 6 4 ) The male students tend to take on multiplicity with vigor, whereas the female students usually approach it much more cautiously. In addition, men tend to be more outspoken and at times confron tational in an attempt to persuade others into their point of view W omen on the other hand, tend to be less outspoken, non confrontational, and less concerned with persuading others to believe what they believe I found Steven to be outspoken and a person who expressed himself loudly so that he could be heard. In It has to do with me as a visual, kinesthetic kind of person. You know I need to be active. I need to be loud. S ubjective knowing is part l y defined as the quest for self, which fit well with my impression of Steven The predominant mode of learning for this way of knowing is inward listening and watching. Steven admitted that he was in self discovery mode and uncertain about what life had in store for him. Subjective knowers seem to have the will to launch themselves into the world They tend to be wanderers and world travelers. They are often a ssertive and self absorbed throw themselves into life, take risks, and try out new selves as their contexts change (change in schooling, travel to foreign co untries, work a variety of jobs, etc. ) ( Belenky, et al., 1986 ) The fact that Steven took off to Thailand upon conclusion of the study was in line with something a subjective knower might do Subjective knowers are of ten like youths in fairy tales (usually male) who set out from the family homestead to make their way in the world, discovering themselves in the process Minimal forethought and reason go into ( Belenky, et al., 1986, p. 77 )

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200 Part of the reason for is that subjective knowers tend to harbor unspoken desires to be free from the prescriptions of others They dream of escape and release and have an impulse to live a carefre e and unrestrained life which can lead to a silent alienation from the educational process, knowing somehow that their conformity is a lie and does not reveal the inner truth or potential that they have come to value ( Belenky, et al., 1986, pp. 66 67 ) I got a sense of this from Steven throughout our interviews. He predicted from the beginning that he would not do well in the course. He did not respond well to the online learning environment because it appe ared to conflict expressed a desire to experience the course thr ough the senses. He s I need to be touching he I like to have hands on. This is common among subjective knowers who tend to trust l ess in written words and text books in favor of learning through direct sensory experience or personal involvement with objects of study ( Belenky, et al., 1986, p. 74 ) Most subjective knowers are forward looking, positive, and open to new experiences which I found to be the case with Steven. Belenky and her rese arch team ( Belenky, et al., 1986, p. 83 ) seemed propelled by an inner fire, communicating to us a feeling of exhilaration and optimism as they plunged ahead toward with medicine and through education without having given much though t to what that would entail. When looking towards the future, he aspired to work a variety of jobs (teacher lawyer, polic e officer, legislative reformer ) that appeared to lead

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201 him down an uncertain path He spoke with confidence; yet remained unclear about what he wanted to do in life. I want to do so many things and Steven described for me an experience about his participation in an Occupy protest close to where he lived The way he described the experience and appeared to make sense of it was in line with subjec tivist knowers who often, w hen faced with controversy, become strictly prag matic refer back to the centrality of their personal experience, whether they are talking about right choic es for themselves or for others ( Belenky, et al., 1986, p. 70 ) This is the story he told me during it protest. I was getting uncontrollable. It was ridiculous, and all I did was, I had one simple sign that said lf assaulting me ; calling me names. A couple of old ladies came up to me and got into my face I t was just unbelievable. It was unbelievable! I had no idea what was going on, and it was kind of . I got scholarships from school I t was becau just I was being very polite to people, and then as soon as the word got out that I It was just an entire was going to stand my ground, but it was just incredible how people claimed to be so one way, you know peaceful, and trying to be progressive toward cha nging government and helping everybody out, and then somebody comes along who civility just; it just ceases to exist. going to be like that. If I did, I would have taken somebody with me to record it. This happened, I think mid

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202 sign that says self reliance? W that negative feedback tol self real quick. Take Steven was uncertain about what path he wa nted to pursue in life and at the same time appeared extremely confident in himself as a person. One aspect of the shift towards subjectivism, or multiplicity, is a shift in orientation to authority from external to internal ( Belenky, et al., 1986 ; Perr y, 1981 ) This evolution is common among many people in their twenties ( Baxter Magolda, 2001 ) They become their own authorities as an adaptive move to self protect, self assert, and self define ( Belenky, et al., 1986, p. 54 ) I found ev idence of this in S himself in general ( see table 5.4 ) Perry ( 1981, p. 85 ) argued that at this position pinion is related to nothing whatsoever evidence, reason, expert judgment, context, principle, or purpose except to t ethic of multiplists, or subjective knowers, seems to be that they should hear people out, but are under n o obligation to accept or even consider ( Belenky, et al., 1986, p. 66 ) This appeared to be the case with Steven. He listened intently, but I did not find evidence that he seriously conside red the ideas presented in the course, by the instructor, or by me. Subjective Knowing and Online Learning It was evident that by the end of the semester Steven was strongly opposed to the online learning environment. In the beginning of the semester, he mentioned being unsure

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203 online environment. It appeared as though Steven was putt ing the responsibility and the blame for his lack of participation on the fact that the course was online. Perhaps this can be further explained by the idea that the online learning environment may have conflicted with his subjective way of knowing. As an example, Steven strongly believed in the importance of human connection and personal He expanded by saying, ia for those young people that want to listen to me. tra qualities that people can offer inside a classes. As a teacher, I believe one of the most necessary traits is t asshole in the world; and While reflecting on his own experiences with past teachers he became more aware The to connect And if you can find one thing to connect with, with a student, whether it be home life, school, music, sports, whatever important. I think Steven appeared to believe that connections could come in many forms. Verbal communication was one It was not surprising, then, that the most important experience in the ESL for Educators course for Steven was his communicati on with the instructor e, and I want to move

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204 just one side good or one side bad; it has to be a reflecti That statement provides further evidence of a subjective way of knowing. He provided an example of this line of thinking when he described the superficiality of online discussions and the experiences of a friend of his, wh o Steven concluded was not learning; nor was perspective, the classes because he does his discussion questions and all, but when he talks to me you what. Steven spoke not only of online cl asses, but the role of technology in general, in what he perceived to be a negative impact on social experience altogether. I think technology, in general, is totally dwindling social experience. You know meeting face to kind of the way I feel. In addition, Steven spoke of his belie f in the power of debate and the ability to related his views on that to his views on education in general.

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205 If someone can debate what they are thinking, and they can express their higher educati because I know nothing the importanc e he placed on connection, communication and human experience appeared to conflict with the online course. Perhaps part of the issue was that Steven viewed the online setting as a barrier to his quest for self development, he was more concerned about his own development rather than the benefit of others in this particular course experience. Transiti ons, Change in Perspective, and Projecting Forward changing my perspective, because like I need to take things so much easier, and I need to to do a thousand things at once, which I have change when we grow and learn and Through this process of self exploration, Steven learned a lot about himself and what was important to him. try to figure out all of these things, I mean life been very difficult, but happiness is there for everybody, and it involves helping

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206 r a while, and I need to maintain that, and I need to bring it back, and I need to cultivate it. I need to stick some enriching water on my soul and let it grow. Steven acknowledged that he needed to slow down, which is one of the reasons he looked forward to going back to Thailand, and to reconnect with the Southeast Asian philosophies, which appeared to influence his perspective on the world. by day, breath by you ent, for the next moment, for the next moment, going back to Southeast Asia, to connect with this, and just breathe. I need to Steven appeared to conceive of lif e as a process. He discussed the role of his new relationship and the next steps for him in that process. I have to get a lot better in myself, in so many different ways, spiritually, mentally, physically, and I believe in the next few months, I will be a ble to take, girl has helped me understand and evaluate myself like crazy. Steven seemed to take comfort in knowing that everything was working out as he felt it was supposed to and indicated that the ESL for Educators course was part of that. happening. These classes were absolutely, 100% unequivocally, part of that. Even if it seems lik Before I had a chance to thank Steven for his time and participation in this study, he thanked me for my role in his quest for self discovery. He said to me as we were wrapping up the interview, Change is the only thing that is constant. So, I want to thank you for being a part

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207 an ear to listen, and that means a lot. Pe rsonal exploration, just having someone to While the content of the course may not have impacted Steven greatly, his participation in the course did appea r to impact his thinking in a personal way. This semester of soul searching seemed to help him come to a few conclusions but did not appear to help him answer all of his burning questions about what he wants to do and what is important to him in life. I while participating in this class in a variety of ways, almost every way I could helped me realize w know, my goals in life and what I want to do with myself, and you know I see myself get more motivated, and focused on a couple of things, which I feel I need to give my energy, and I think tha t this class ha s definitely helped me see that. I would conclude that while this course led to a modest amount of informational learning for Steven; that was not what this semester was about for him. It was evident that he underwent a process of self expl oration and development, some of which was impacted by his course experiences. In our last interview he left me with this final So, I tell you what, this ESL class has done a lot more than you guys will probably ever know. Erik Background Erik is a in my experience of him, was very intelligent and had a quirky sense of humor. He work ed in instructional t echnology on voice recognition software during the time of the study and was enrolled in

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208 the ALP program for secondary history It is important to note that Erik started the program and the course late and therefore, I only conducted two interviews with him instead of three. tr child. Among other places, he spent four years in Germany with his family (from a ge two Some of his memories included learning how to swim in Germany, seeing his first snowfall, and seeing mountains for the first time He shared a story with me about the day he walked away from his German school while his kindergarten class was out for recess. kno looking for me ; the MPs were looking for me. It was really just straight how you go to the base You go down the road to this German school, so I just walked back And they grabbed me, and I lking down the road. grandfather was German and therefore, Erik said that he was encouraged to study German in high school. He told me he could understand simple conversations, was about the extent of his ability to speak German.

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209 Erik described living in many places as a child and one of those places was the as having its own culture. He shared a story about an experience he had in fi rst grade in Virginia. are you a Y the h an idea to go home and ask my mom. But I could tell these kids what sta te I was weird, the South is different. When I was in high school I did this thing called citize won second in the state of Colorado. And so first and second place winners went to Washin gton, D.C. for the national competition, so we spent a week in Washington D.C., and there were two or three kids from every state. So we went to the Lincoln Memorial, and this kid from Mississippi walked up to Lincoln and know that was even 1990 of prejudice that goes towards Southern W that; sort of a chip on the Erik and his family lived and traveled extensively throughout the U.S. and abroad when he was a child. Unfortunately, though, w hen Erik was 16, his father passed away Shortly thereafter he decided to join the Army. do something. I knew I was going to go to college at some point down the road, So, I joined the Army. I figured you know After the Army Erik went to college where he earned his B.A. in Asian Studies with a minor in Japanese. He studied abroad in Japan for one year and described that as a native At his university he was offered a scholarship to return to Japan upon graduating

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21 0 So they offered all the your air I wound up, I was sort of like a five year student because I spent a year in Japan, but it seemed like a good opportunity. Erik took the opportunity and returned to Japan to teach English for three years. I will describe more about his teaching experience in the next section. After his three years in Japan, Erik moved to China and lived there for two years. When I asked Erik why he decided to move to China, he explained that u nfortunately, after his time in the military he started having issues with his heart and due to his particular condition, the government determined that he was disabled. Japan x amount of dollars every month for the rest of your life. I was like awesome, so then I was 32, no 31 and I w as ending my 3 years in Japan. What am I going to do now? So I just took off and went to China for two years just wandered around. And then I met my wife, and we g ot married so then I had to come back and become a productive member of society. We have a guaranteed income, and you only get to do that once. I t was in China that he met his wife, who was Japanese. He explained that they Because he lived in China for two years, he felt his Chinese was count d his Chinese as slightly better than his German. In addition to his time in Germany, Japan and China, Erik also travelled around Europe for a few months in college and visited England Wales, Ireland, France, Spain, and Holland. While in Japan, he travelled to Thailand, Cambodia, India, Turkey, Egypt,

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211 Jordan, and South Korea. At one point Erik said that he Teaching Experience While Erik was studying abroad in Japan, he was given his first English tutoring job. He described his experience. While I was studying at a Japanese university just north of Tokyo, I had a part time job teaching English to two eight year old boys, the chi ldren of visiting professors from Kenya and Tanzania. The families spoke English at home but one of the fathers wanted them to get a more structured education on English Ireland. So I wa s an American teaching two boys from Africa English in Japan using Irish textbooks. It was a good experience. One of the surprising things about it though was listening to the boys talk about the taunts they received at school, and they were black in an al l Japanese school. Growing up in the United States, The main source of his English teaching experience, however, came when he went back to Japan after he graduated college. He taught in a small town of about 5,000 He spoke extensively about the education system in Japan and how it differed from the education system in the U.S. For example, he said, In Japan, you have to pay a lot of ed ucation fees. Children are expected to go to I ; so basically, your kid goes Saturday or maybe he goes after school for two hours every day to learn all the stuff he should be learning in school. Japanese teachers are surp .. ds get arrested, ing on

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212 Erik described how each town had an English teacher H e felt that part of the reason each little town had an English t eacher was to teach the kids English, but the other part of the reason was for the money the town received to have an English teacher. He described how it worked. So, your town gets say a lock of say 100,000 dollars. 40,000 of that is for your salary and m aybe another 10,000 for benefits or whatever, your health insurance comes out of your salary. Well, the town keeps the rest of the money. So, every the town is getting 50,0 00 dollars to have this teacher, beyond the salary or an excuse to redistribute money to the countryside. Erik described that he chose a rural town to teach in because it was a way to push himself out of his comfort zone to better his Japanese He shared with me in our first interview, I just wanted to be o ut in the middle of nowhere. You sink or swim. Either my door and make frowny faces and point at m While he was in Japan, Erik taught preschool, elementary school middle school high school and adults In a typical week I would go to the middle school twice a week, the high school twice a week and the elementary scho ols once a week. Once a week in the evening I would teach an adult English conversation class for about two hours. Once or twice a month I would also visit the preschool. He mentioned again some of the differences he observed between Japanese and U.S. educ ation systems. The big difference between Japanese middle schools versus American middle

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213 teacher goes. Math teacher comes, math teacher goes. History teacher comes, history te acher goes. To me the most interesting thing about the school, and it starts at the elementary school level, is that the kids run the school. So in the elementary schools and these little schools, you would have lunch, and so the fifth and sixth graders wo uld make sure the first and second graders were doing wha t they were supposed to do; and the third and fourth graders were doing what expect you to work as a group. So I tho ught that was really interesting. Erik also asserted When I asked him how he fit into y. It mar r was too, and they have a lot more respect for teachers. It was I was treated a little better. school students who were going to study abroad in Colorado for a farm stay, which was eve rything from standard conversation practice, to table manners, to going over When I asked Erik how he decided to pursue teaching high school history in the U.S., he said that f inances were not a concern for him and therefore he decided to go into teaching purely because that is what he wanted Also I feel an obligation to give somet A contributing factor to his

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214 decision to go into teaching was an important conversation Erik had with his grandfather before he passed away. And one of the things we had talked hat would you like to d o? Do something you want to do, and day is a chore. So, when he passed away, that really sort of came back to me. Due to his experience teachin g abroad, Erik rated his overall teaching experience at 4.5 out of five. you know since I graduated high school English teaching experience in Japan appeared to giv e him a sense of confidence at the beginning of the semester He rated his confidence to teach ELLs at the beginning of the course at a five out of five. Beliefs and Understandings about Linguistic Diversity er the course with a relatively high tolerance of linguistic diversity in classroom settings. This was not surprising given that to be considered American, one should speak English. However, he wrote a side note on the survey that he would support government funding for ELL programs that parents should not be counseled to speak Englis h with their children, and that it is extremely important for people in the U.S. to learn a language in addition to English. Erik expressed that the rapid learning of English should not be a priority if it meant losing the ability in and that having ELLs in class would not be detrimental to the learning of the other students.

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215 There were two items on the survey in which Erik indicated being uncertain. He was not sure whether or not regular classroom teachers should be required to recei ve pre service or in service training to be prepared to meet the needs of ELLs, or whether or not the learning of English should take precedence over learning subject matter. Because of his own personal experiences in foreign countries, he said that the or instruction. Just throwing them into the deep end of the pool and expecting th em to he started the course with an ability to empathize with ELLs because of his own experience as a second language learner. I think I have a little more empathy f or kids who are in sort of the similar situation here in the United States, where certainly you r e here not by choice, because six seven eight nine, help you. He further indicated an ability to empathize, or in his words sympathize, with ELLs on his background questionnaire. I have a great deal of sympathy for people trying to operate in a language that they are students ELLs are an amazing opportunity to realize that there is more to the world than what they see on T.V. or the internet. The above statement was supported by his indication that he would be very interested in having ELLs in his classroom. He rated his level of interest at a five out of five.

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216 Reported Changes as a Result of Course Participation Erik as sessed his level of knowledge of ELL issues at the beginning of the course of the ten topic s His overall reported level of and the course. Therefore, Erik perceived an increase in informational knowledge. Th e results of his LATS scores did not change much from the beginning to the end of the semester. He remained uncertain as to whether or not teachers should receive training to work with ELLs, but did change his response about whether or not the learning of English should take precedence over learning subject matter. At first he was uncertain, but at the end he decided that learning English should not take precedence over learning content. This was o ne of the important concepts that Erik gained as a result of his participation in the course. Th e thing I got from this course is how important it is to his words, r French, or Russian, or whatever, as long as he knows who George Washington is and why George Washington is important. That is the important thing. And you know maybe it takes him a little while to figure it out in his native language, but as long as he with that eventually... confidence to teach them decreased. This is likely due to a shift in his thinking, which

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217 occurred as a result of his course participation. H e wrote about it in his final reflection paper. So for me, coming out of this class my biggest change in thinking has involved understanding that what ESL learners need and want her e in America is quite different than what ESL learners in other countries might be looking for. I think I had, a good understanding of the practical side of ESL education. Unfo rtunately, transferable to education here in the United States. In our final interview, Erik expanded on that new understanding by describing some of the differences he observed betw een the two educational systems. In Japan, kids they take a test when they go from m id d le school to high school, from high school to college, then college to business, so they are always testing. In English, they are studying sort of either business Englis h or written English, you start studying for the SATs in seventh grade, and all of your classwork is designed to get you to pass the SATs over and over again; so you can move up to the next rung in the ladder, so you can study for the SATs some more, so you can take the SATs ti cize it, as much as I would or would not want to. But here in th kids have a need and desire to speak English When I was a kid I lived in Germany. I ys speak to the German kids. So you want to play with your friends and have fun, but that language barrier is there. So, for a child coming to the U.S., Reading and writing, like a second grader. I want to know what SpongeBob is talking about. So, the reading and writing not so muc animals. Being able to communicate with the group is step one of being a social emester, is that realization of the kids. Another new understanding that Erik developed as part of the course was an beyond motivation or parental support. He explaine d in our final interview.

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218 Even small things can make a difference in how your school performs, or how your teachers have been to college. Most people who go to college are from you know fairly middle class s minority and poor in the educational system, because the people that sort of grew up in that environment understand sort of this is what these people are dealing your house, or whatever reason. It was evident that Erik develo ped new understandings based on information he acquired as a result of his participation in the course. In the next section I will discuss the specific activities that contributed to the development of those new understandings. Specific Reactions to Course Activities the level of information the panelists had and the disparity in ELL numbers was through watching the panel discussion that Erik first began to realize the importance of teaching both content and language to ELLs. He also felt the panel highlighted the importance of parental and community involvement to the academi c success of ELLs. In his write up of the activity, Erik mentioned that he felt as though the education of ELLs is going to become even more important as time goes on and he indicated that he was supportive of the idea of local school districts requiring ESL endorsements.

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219 The final and possibly the most important point the panel made was the ESL education is going to become mo re important as time goes on. Non native English speakers are the fastest growing segment of the student population, and there is every indication that this will continue into the foreseeable future. Federal regulations require forty hours of ESL education and in some Colorado school districts an ESL endorsement is required. Personally I think this is the way to go, going that extra mile may cause some inconveniences, but the final goal is worth it. Erik also expressed a feeling of anger when he spoke abou t the distribution of funds for each of the local school districts which he learned about in the video school districts. needs a lot more money, versus And you know, these guys have the need, but the way our funding system is s underfunded schools that are overwhelmed with these special needs kids, and I services they deserve the kids who need the least, with the most, and the kids that need the most, they have the least. For the cultu ral field experience, field assignment two, Erik chose to attend a connections between that understanding could be helpful when dealing with people coming from Eastern Europe and the former While Erik found the experience itself enjoyable, he described being unsure about the value of the activity H e did not feel as though it helped him gain a greater understanding of EL Ls. On the activity impact questionnaire, he commented.

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220 non understand the point. Many Americans ne ver leave their home country, so getting have a better idea. Erik revealed in his interv iew that this assignment did not do much for him since he ha d lived abroad and had experienced being a second language learner in a foreign country on numerous occasions, and therefore, the cultural activity felt superficial to him. Also, since his wife is Japanese, he told me that he live d that experience daily at home as well. In stark contrast to his reactions towards the second field experience, Erik found the third field experience extremely useful. He spent an entire day observing several one on o ne tutoring sessions and in class visits at a local elementary school. He wrote in his write non k discussed some of his major take aways from the assignment in the conclusion of his write up. In conclusion I have to say that I learned a little bit more than I was expecting to. From the first field exercise I knew that parents had an important role to play in and how big a role their culture influences them. I also had not quite realized just how many different and valid approaches there are teaching ELLs. On the other ha nd, is in a fairly wealthy area, with good parental representative of the educational experience of all ELLs in the state. said that he got more out of that activity than he got out of anything else in the course. On the

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221 Erik did not mention the readings much in our interv iews. He admitted that he struggled to keep the readings for the ESL for Educators course separate from the readings he was doing for another course. When I asked him if anything in the readings estly, I have trouble While he did not discuss the class readings much in our interviews, he did comment on the textbooks and one of the articl es on the mid semester activity impact questionnaire. For the H ow Languages are Learned text ( Lightbown & Spada, 2006 ) he wrote, Having taught English to non native speakers before I sort of come to this experience from a different angle. The thing I really like about the book is the Chapter 6 (six proposals for classroom teaching) because I had seen all of the described teaching methods in action but had never read a formal analysis of them. For the Sheltered Content Instruction t ext ( Echevarria & Graves, 2010 ) he wrote, Unlike any of the other participants, Erik also commented on som e of the supplemental readings. He admitted that there were some he did not read, but commented on one that he did. It was an article about bilingual education in the United States ( Ovando, 2003 ) O vando does a good job creating a historical narrative of the arc of language education in this country. Overall, though the article was essentially propaganda

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222 for one particular point of view. Ovando confounds bilingual education with ESL education, using the two interchangeably when in fact they are very different. His language affirming path of two way bilingual education, in which language minority children and children from monoli ngual English homes learn side by side in multilingual classrooms, becoming bilingual and cross culturally competent together. The other is the predominant path of the 1980s and 1990s: rgument is great if you are a speaker of whatever language is chosen to be 2 nd such as since in this system they now have to learn two languages with. Presen balanced approach would be better. In addition, Erik commented on the developmental sequence writing sample activity that took place as part of a weekly threaded discussion. He wrote on th e existed. New things are always good. The fact that it is so obviously useful makes it so much more important. It would be nice if there was a class activity/exercise that lets us challenging him to think differently about ELLs. In our final interview, Erik commented extensively on his research paper. He conducted a great deal of research tha t began with the purpose of fulfilling the assignment, but then continued out of genuine, personal interest. He found quite a few statistics about the ELL population that resulted in reactions from Erik ranging from shock to confusion to anger to sadness. As an example, h e expressed frustration when he described what he learned about the drop out and graduation rates of ELLs and the effect of those on society. than the populatio grow up as people who are prison inmates and have substandard jobs, where the

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223 number of minimum wage jobs is growing. So, by not educating them, we are impoverishing ourselves. Erik indicated tha t while he learned a lot from his personal research endeavors he felt that the research paper activity itself could have been structure d differently. school paper for like English Cha n nel, too jump up and do a marathon. Granted it was double spaced, which I think double charts, and then you do from. Some people may have just finished their senior year of high school or college are you getting, what sources are you using? Well, go start finding those now. before you write the pape r, because your grade is based on the final paper, so With respect to the journals, Erik rated them somewhere in between no t helpful and extre mely helpful He commented on the mid semester activity impact questionnaire, experiences and consider how much, or how little you bring to the table as far as teaching EL No other comments were made about journals or reflections. With respect to the online learning environment, even though Erik work ed in IT, he rated his confidence at the beginning of the semester as a one out of five suggesting that he was not very c onfident or comfortable with online learning Yeah, It seems kind of difficult sometimes to figure out

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224 up of the online ou only look at your course stuff maybe twice, maybe three times a week, for participation in online discussions. He only contribut ed three posts throughout the entire se mester. On the mid semester activity impact questionnaire, he rated the online discussions are learning in depth and critically. I also have to confess my contribution s have been of semester activity impact questionnaire, however, his ratings of online discussions dropped to threes and fours out of five and did not add any additional comments. Erik also indicated on his final questionnaire that his co nfidence and comfort level with online learning went up slightly from a one to a two, but said that if given the choice, he would take this course face to face because he thinks he would get more out of it. Overall, based on our conversations and on Eri I would conclude that the class visit and panel discussion video had the greatest impact on thinking He also indicated that the developmental sequence writing samples activity challenged his thinking. While Eri k rated the exam very high on the questionnaire he did not comment on its impact. He rated the two textbooks ( Echevarria & Graves, 2010 ; Lightbown & Spada, 2006 ) and the research paper as most helpful in preparing him to work with ELLs and challenging him to think differently about the education of ELLs.

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225 Empathy and Perspective Taking Two common themes that emer reflections were those of empathy and perspective taking. Erik seemed to possess the understanding of some of the difficulties these students face and have a better insight into Several examples have already been cited It rspective taking often appeared informed backed up by knowledge, facts, information, and experience He also expressed emotion when he tried to understand what others were thinking, feeling, or experiencing For example, he described feeling sad that ELLs did not appear to have the same opportunities that others did He then related that sadness to time he spent in an orphanage in China and connected those emotions to his school visit for the course. China, a friend of mine, Time Magazine He works for a charity in China; he was working with orphanages there. They were for policy, police station, or wherever, and they have a cleft palate, or they have some sort of a for three days was cleft palates. They would do like 80 kids and then fly back. So, we went t boy, he had been burned, and his family just left him out in a field to die, and somebody else found him. And there are kids there with minimal disabilities, physical disabilities. Th ere was a girl there, she had a clubfoot, and their families them, you just have to accept that, but it just makes you feel really bad inside. So, at < the school visit>, I was thinking about those kids. There were a couple of kids that were pretty disruptive. One kid who

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226 uite sure what to do with them. He had him? He seemed perfectly nice when I met him, but he gets angry he gets on guess they brought him over when he was six. So, whatever was going on for six are in bad person. Erik told me about another time he felt b ad for leaving a child behind My wife is Japan and so I went, and they had a preschool attached to the school. And so I went and hokey pokey for three hours. But it was like Alabama hot there was a little girl, and I had a lot of Japanese friends in college do this, they would do this. Her parents had sent her back to Japan from the U.S. to spend time with her grandparents, but she spoke no Japanese. And so, they let her stay with me through all three classes. And when I left, she started crying. I felt bad, I was like the first person in like a month that she could talk to. One example of Erik taking on an informed perspective of others was in his and how their history may have contributed to a sense of guilt he believ ed they felt sending our teachers to America for four years or however long, instead of bringing these little kids would come up to m these kids to people that they wo u ld not normally meet. Yeah, there was a lot population that the Emperor was a God, and it was their duty to die for the adamantly against anything, any sort of indoctrination. They felt it was sort of their they were partly culpable as educators, because they had taken part of this, and you know provided all these soldiers. I think something like 2 million so l diers

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227 died in WWII, and you know most of them came from little towns big cities, too. But these teachers, you send half your one room schoolh ouse to war and only half n t of guilt that goes with it, and so education They would play the National Anthem. I worked at the board of education, but I was seate d with the teachers. The board of education would stand, students would stand, parents would stand, teachers would stay seated. Because as just sort of, nobody tells you this before you get there. Another example of Erik taking on the perspective of others related again to the differences between the Japanese and U.S. education systems. Erik took on the rents that they had to ent capacity for empathy and perspective taking of others offered insights into his way of knowing. I will discuss what I felt was a tendency towards a self authoring way of knowing in the next section. Sources of Authority and Self Authorship M y experien ces of Erik resonated most closely with a self authoring way of knowing ( Baxter Magolda, 2001 ; Drago Severson, 2004 ; Kegan, 1982 ) One of the features of a self authoring meaning making system is the concern with consequences for when Erik discussed feeling as though he should give something back to society, it appeared as though this productive member of society, or a more productive member of appeared to be true when he mentioned choosing a remote town in Japan in order to force

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228 made that choice based on his own internal authority and n He wanted to improve his Japanese and he found what he considered the most effective way to accomplish that goal for himself Self ( Drago Severson, 2004, p. 27 ) I fou nd evidence of this meaning making leaving the orphanage in Russia, he was able to take a step back from his emotions reflect on them, and talk about them. Similarly he descri bed feeling bad for leaving that one little girl in Japan who looked to him for native language support. These reactions appeared in line with his internal structu re of beliefs and values In fact, when looking for instances of subject object shifts, I did appear to be subject to any of the experiences he talked about, which led me to believe that he was able to reflect on his emotions and experiences and in general, take them as object I mentioned earlier in this portrait that Erik appeared able to empathize and take on the perspectives of others in an informed way, an ability which seems to be in line with a self authoring way of knowing. Self understanding how the past, pres ( D rago Severson, 2004, p. 27 ) Erik demonstrated an understanding on several occasions of how the past, present and future related. For example, he described their past history with WWII, how that led to a sense of guilt on behalf of the teachers which influenced their actions at events such as graduation ceremonies.

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229 Erik also discussed the inter relatedness of his own past, present and future. For example, he discussed his reasons for joining the Army, w hich ultimately led to heart problems, which resulted in hi s earning disability pay, which influenced his decision to teach, which led him to the ALP program, and will likely influence his future career and life path. ibility are the most important concerns of ( Drago Severson, 2004, p. 28 ) I found this to be the case with Erik. He admitted that he did not have to work. However, because of his sense of responsibility, he wanted to work He set to achieve a standard he set for himself, which was to be a contributing and productive member of society. Erik spent about a quarter of his life outside of the U.S. beginning as a child when he and his family moved around a lot due to h first memories as a child are of his time in Germany. He lived and traveled extensively throughout the U.S. growing up. Unfortunately, his father passed away when Erik was 16 and shortly thereafter h e decided to join the Army After the army he went to college and studied abroad in Japan for a year. After he graduated he returned to Japan to teach English for three years. Due to the fact that the Army originally misdiagnosed his heart condition, Erik learned that he wa s going to receive disability pay for life. At that point he decided to move to China, where he met his wife, who was Japanese. Because finances were not a concern for Erik, he chose to go into teaching because of his love of history and a desire to be a p roductive member of society.

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230 Erik appeared able to take on an informed perspective of others and make decisions based on his own internal source of authority. Therefore, I inferred that Erik was operating on some level under a self authoring meaning makin g system. That way of thinking appeared to shape his life decisions and his course experiences. Overall, I believe this course served as an informative rather than transformative experience for Erik He reported having gained a great deal of knowledge and developed new understandings about the education of ELLs. The panel discussion video and the ESL classroom visit appeared to be the course activities that had the greatest impact on Erik. He reported that t he biggest change in his thinking over the course of the semester was the realization that his experiences teaching ESL in Japan were not transferable to teaching high school history to ELLs in the U.S. That realization led him to decrease in his perceived level of confidence to teach ELLs. In conclusion the content knowledge Erik gained as a result of his participation in course activities led to new realizations about the education of ELLs. At the same time his fundamental thinking, attitudes and beliefs about linguistic diversity did not appear to ch ange as a result of his course participation. I did not find evidence of a change in how he thought, which would suggest that transformation did not occur for Erik during this semester long course. U nfortunately, Erik did not receive a passing grade for t he course to count towards the ALP program Therefore, if he continues in the ALP program he will likely need to repeat the course

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231 Eva Background and Teaching Experience My impression of Eva is that she is an energetic, enthusiastic, and hard working te acher She is also a married mother of two young children. She grew up in Virginia where she earned her B.A. in Spanish from Virginia Tech She left Virginia and headed for North Carolina where she taught high school Spanish, English, and ESL. After that she moved to Texas where she taught refugees in a newcomer program in a middle school. This experience had a great impact on Eva. These children taught me, humbled me, and inspired me every day. They came from Kosovo, Sudan, Iraq, Somalia, Liberia, Nigeri a, Mexico, Nicaragua, Bosnia, being forced to flee their homes would break the strongest man or woman. Yet, roes and the reason I do what I do. When her husband joined the U.S. Air Force, they moved to Florida where she was an ESL endorsement instructor for a local school district. She also taught ESL at the community college, elementary Spanish, and several cla sses for a homeschooling group. During her time in Florida Eva earned her M.A. in Education Leadership, Curriculum and Instruction from the University of West Florida local sc hool district in Georgia whose ELL population was not making AYP (Adequate Yearly Progress). Because of her expertise and her strong drive to advocate for ELLs, the district hired her to assist them in making some changes. S he was able to help the school d istrict reorganize its entire program by implementing an endorsement program, revising

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232 and instituting better policies, and providing professional development and assistance to all staff. The following year the school district was able to meet its AYP goal s. After Eva left Georgia, she and her family moved to North Dakota where she earned her Ph.D. in Teaching and Learning from the University of North Dakota Her dissertation and research interest s revolve around collaboration between mainstream and ELL te achers. Eva taught courses in the Department of Teaching and Learning while in North Dakota, and she continue d to teach online classes for her alma mater and was a full time instructor during the time of the study She taught for the department of Curricul um and Instruction and taught both online and face to face courses in Linguistically Diverse Education. Eva discussed with me her views on teaching and learning in general and about her experiences in th e ESL for Educators course more specifically. Eva believe s learning happens when people are open to new understandings and new ideas. She sounded hopeful that this type of learning would occur in the TCs over the course of the semester. She explained what she felt was most important for the TCs learn from her and from the course. I think for me, the value of understanding the English Language Learners as people and how they add, not only diversity, but understanding and acceptance of others is very importa nt I valuing them as people, as well. It was important to me to inspire them and for them to learn more about the population, the ELL population, and to develop a sense of empathy, and also a sense of efficacy.

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233 It came across as very important to Eva to have her passion for ELLs come through to the teacher candidates in her class. I talk about my experiences, and I think my passion for ELLs kind of comes through, so whatever I can do to add stories, just to kind of try to put them in the shoes of the ELLs or to demonstrate success, so that they know it can be done. So, anything that I could do, I tried. Observations of Change in Teacher Candidates With respect to the change that Eva observed in th e TCs, she said that she felt the TCs that changed the most were the ones who were teaching at the time they took the course. So, I did see some of them coming without that sense of efficacy, not knowing what to do, especially if they were in a classroom and they had ELLs. They were the ones that I felt like I did see the most change, because it was directly applicable. So, just even the discussions, thro ughout the semester, changed. From at first talking about complain t s abou into the joys of what was. That was pretty powerful. moved and touched by the teachers that did show a change from fearing ELLs to advocating for them. I really And while Eva was excited to see positive change in some of the TCs, she was also frustrated by the fact that some of them did not put forth the effort she felt necessary to get out of the course what she wanted them to get out of the course. It frustrated her because she wanted the stude nts to learn and to be successful. And when you want your students to be successful, and when things are important to you that I already mentioned at the beginning ; then you know that they need to do the requirements, in order to meet the objectives, in or der to develop that sense

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234 She found herself not only getting frustrated at times, but expressed a sense of sadness as well when she felt she could not reach the TCs. t impact change, that made me sad. I really have such a passion for difficult, becau really sad. Thoughts on Transformational Learning Eva discussed her thoughts about whether or not she felt she saw evidence of transformational learning on the part of the adult learners enrolled in the course. You know, I saw growth and learning, not necessarily transformational, because not everybody comes to you without an understanding, and without empathy, a nd without efficacy. Some already have some of that, and so, there not as much. Eva expressed a belief that greater change could have been possible had greater What would make me sad are the ones who come have been greater change if they would have Connected Teaching and the Online Learning Environment Eva appeared to identify with a connected form of teachi ng ( Belenky, et al., 1986 ) Connected teaching is ( 1971 ) of traditio as making deposits of as stor ing the deposits of

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235 ( Belenky, et al., 1986, p. 218 ) ( Belenky, et al., 1986, p. 218 ) This type Steven which will be described in more detail later in this section. Eva and Steven had differing opinions which were debated at first in one of the weekly discussions, but later in a phone call initiated by Eva. Her response to that interaction I can only give the experiences, the ideas, the discussions, set up an environment where he can change his beliefs, but I This comment is representative of a connected class room environment, which establishes ( Belenky, et al., 1986, p. 221 ) without ch allenges Eva discussed ho w the online environment made it more difficult to meet the goals she set for herself and for the course. .. .It is difficult, because interpreting it the same that way you are trying to write it, so I think my passion came through, and I think that some of them picked up on that. It hopefully inspired them. Lack of nonverbal communication in the online environment was also dif ficult for Eva. In referencing the particular instance of disagreement between her and one of the TCs, as mentioned above, Eva said, to face, because they can see your facial expressions and your ideas and express what you really want to say, but say it and k

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236 So, that was pretty tough. As a follow up to the disagreement mentioned above, Eva highlighted the importance for her S peaking of Steven, she said, But he would stand up for his beliefs, and I respect that. But determining, for me, how to then stand up for my beliefs, which I believe are based on experience in e in education, in this field ; e specially if their ideas and beliefs might be held as even racist, just very anti ELL. And how to do that in a very respectful way but also challenge his views and make, see if I could make a path for a different point of v iew and that maybe he could take it in and consider it. So, I wanted to stand up for my beliefs, thinking but understanding that only he can change. can only kind of give the experiences, the ideas, the discussions, set up an him. The nature of the difficulty of resolving such conflicts in an online environment challeng in the online class. An additional challenge of the online environment for Eva was the fact that it was difficult at times to remember exactly which person said what The difficulty of an exploration of thinking, where knowledge is co constructed and evolves based on the input of others. There were a few TCs, however, who stood out for various reasons A remember exactly who did say what. There are several students that stand out in my mind, more than others, and I think a lot of it has to do with the pa ssion they unde

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237 out, is if they bring passion, if they did have opposing views, of course, that ends up standing out. One of the ways that helped Eva connect better with some of her students was p hone calls. She did not call of the TCs as part of her instructional practice, but rather if a problem arose, she called them. The TCs with whom she spoke on the phone stood out in her mind as well which helped her better determine the contributions they made to the class. I remember conversations, probably because we had phone conversations. realization led her to believe that adding in phone conversations as part of the course along with other technological adaptations to some of the assignments ( e.g. adding voice to introductory PowerPoint presentations, incorporating more videos, etc.) in order to add some human contact to the internet. Similar to the TCs who mentioned that keeping up with online discussions was a challenge, so did Eva. The s emester of the study was an extremely busy semester for Eva, and Because it was online, there were so many competing demands it got pushed to the side. commitments led her to do most o f the work for the online course at night. Unfortunately, though, that cut into her personal commitments. every time that they took my three hour chunk for a meeting, then that was three hours that I had to do at night, which cut into family time, and my own children. Sometimes, I felt like if they e mailed me, ; so why a m I not online? A lot of times, this was a night time class that I would teach, at night. So, then, once it started cutting into family time, it was after I got everybody to bed, so then other class gets.

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238 The benefits, challenges, and limitations of the online environment appe ared to be shared between the TCs and the instructor. At times the environment conflicted with a their experiences and also contributed to the qualitatively different experi ences of each of the participants, including the instructor. Overall Feelings about the ESL for Educators Course While Eva felt that the course resulted in both positive and negative outcomes, she reported being committed to making the ESL for Educators c ourse the best it could be and vowed to continue to strive to reach all of her students. She felt proud that she had some students say they were inspired to teach ELLs after taking this course also saw areas for improvement. She left me with these overall reflections about the course. O verall I found it to be very good. I think that from semester to semester, it feel about the success of it. If we were going to look a better, that efficacy and empathy were there, 90% of the students then had when they joined the class, left with a better understanding of how t o meet the needs of room for improvement. Summary of Portraits Table 5. 5 presents a summary of the participants It highlights key aspects of their background and experiences a nd life circumstances. The table also includes tendencies of the TCs towards particular epistemological stances to include whether internal or external sources of authority predominate, whether they take a subject or object stance on their

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239 experiences, cha racteristics of their ways of knowing, and course changes that would support their type of learning. Table 5. 5 Summary of Individual Portraits Part. (grade) Background/ Experiences Life circumstances Epistemological Tendencies Course Revisions to Support L earning Source of authority Subject object stances Ways of knowing Sofia (A) Mother: 3 rd generation Mexican American; Father : half Japanese /part Native American; born in Athens, lived in England, moved around a lot due to military ; l ived in mostly suburban/ predominantly white areas; little experience with diverse learners Female; late mom of 1 young child; working as a contract engineer ; not teaching; transitioning between engineering and education ; was taking Spanish cl ass at time of study; unsure about future career Internal Some difficulty with subject object shifts Procedural ( c onnected ) knowing and socializing knowing Face to face meetings, voice and/or visual images opportunity to engage in dialogue in small groups first opportunity to explore personal goals and values (autobiography), additional class observations, opportunities for practical application of course content Kathy (A) Grew up in white/culturally diverse suburb of Long Island, New York; traveled and lived throughout U.S. and abroad due to ex military; lived and taught ESL in Korea for 2 years; knowledge of Spanish and Korean Female; early mother of two children; teaching middle school math and drama; ran local bar/res taurant; transitioning between math and education External; viewed teacher as source of authority More often in object position D ualism, instrumental and socializing knowing Provide additional opportunities to explore multiple perspectives and viewpoints, incorporate more practical application, additional materials that address affective issues, provide opportunities for leadership role (being responsible for a weekly discussion)

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240 Part. (grade) Background/ Experiences Life circumstances Epistemological Tendencies Course Revisions to Support Learning Source of Auth ority Subj ect obj ect stance Ways of knowing Patricia (A) Grew up in Alaska (white and Inuit) in Spanish speaking home; father: half Mexican, half Apache Indian; father lef t family when Patricia was in 9 th grade; moved to Colorado at experience teaching ELLs high school science Female; late mother of 1 young child; 3 rd year high school science teacher at local charter school; conducted SIOP training at school Internal Object ; no apparent struggles with S O shifts P rocedural knower Practical application projects, opportunities to analyze and critique ideas and goals, clear instructions and guidelines for assignments, opportunities to share le adership experience (SIOP trainings at school) Steven (B ) Moved around a lot as a child, rough background, lived in Colorado since age 12; studied abroad in Thailand; knowledge of Spanish and Thai; experience in administration and teaching in higher educ ation in phase of self exploration; aspires to be a teacher, lawyer, police officer, and senator; met someone who changed his life Internal Subject Subjective knower Face to face meetings, web chats, opportunities for dialogue to clarify p ersonal values and goals (autobiography), more class observations, more hands on experiences, opportunities for application of course content Erik (C) Born in Germany, moved around a lot as job in military; father passed away when Er ik was 16; joined Army as paratrooper, studied abroad in Japan; returned to Japan to teach ESL for 3 years; lived in China for 2 years after that; was deemed disabled by military due to heart condition; financially secure; has knowledge of German, Japanese and Chinese married to Japanese woman; no children Internal Object ; no sign of difficulty with S O shifts S elf authorship (empathy and perspective taking in particular) Alternate assignment to replace cultural field experience, additional class observations, more guidance and structure on research paper, encourage participation in online discussions as way to share his experiences and perspectives further, opportunities for application of course content

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241 CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION Summary This study examined the potential for transformative learning in a one semester online ESL for Educators course. Six adult learners enrolled in the course agr eed to participate in the study: four females and two males ranging in ag They were all enrolled in the alternative licensure program in a secondary content area and this course was required as part of their program Two of the participants Kathy and Patricia, were teaching at the time of the st udy and the remaining four were not. I approached this study from a sociocultural perspective and drew on constructive developmental theories of adult learning and development in my analysis of the data. The research questions that guided this study were : 1. How did the six teacher candidates experience the online ESL for Educators course? a. What roles did their background s and prior experiences play? 2. What changes, or shifts in thinking, took place in the understandings and/or beliefs of teacher candidates abo ut working with culturally and linguistically diverse learners as a result of their participation in the course? 3. Which course activities, educational practices and processes, according to the TCs, contribute d to transformational shifts in thinking? a. What role did the online learning environment play?

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242 Through questionnaires, surveys, written reflections, and interviews, I was able to linguistic diversity, and ways of kn owing. I observe d reactions to the course activities and report ed on them in chapters 4 and 5 Overall, the three field experiences observation and interview) app eared to have the greatest influence on their thinking with respect to working with English language learners. In my theoretical analysis of the data, I was also able to learn about some of the ways the se adult learners made sense of their experiences and how those features of particular meaning making systems may have influenced their course experiences In addition, I found evidence that the participants developed new understandings about linguistic diversity and the education of ELLs as a result of thei r participation in the course There were several factors that appeared to influence course experiences First, their backgrounds and prior experiences formed their pre existing assumptions about culturally and linguistically diver se learners and gave them a starting point for the course. Second, their teaching experience and teaching context appeared to influence their sense of urgency or feelings of relevanc e toward the course material. For example, Kathy and Patricia, t he two par ticipants that were teaching at the time of the study indicated that the course content was important and relevant to their lives at that time. They were able to apply what they learned to their classroom practice and experienced positive outcomes. Third, qualitatively different ways of knowing and sources of authority influenced their satisfaction and/or frustration with

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243 the structure of the course the course activities and the online learning environment ife circumstances, more than age, appeared to influence their experiences of the course. Several of the adult learners were in a period of transition and the ESL for Educators course played different roles in each of their transitions. Based on my collect ion and analysis of the multiple forms of qualitative and quantitative data, I co nclude that the online ESL for E ducators course provided opportunities for learning However there was minimal evidence to support the claim that the course overall was an id eal context for transformative learning experiences. Several of the participants developed new understandings and experienced shifts in their thinking, and some even experienced transformational shifts in thinking both personal and professional However, the results imply that modifications in course and program design would result in a context more conducive for transformational learning. In this final chapter I discuss the implications of the findings I address the role of transitions and ways of kno wing; highlight the important elements of experience, reflection and meaning making in adult learning and development, and describe supports and challenges that have been found to promote development. I pay particular attention to the online learning envir onment when I present implications for promoting development through discussion. B ased on the data and results of the study, I include suggestions for the revision of course activities and program design address the limitations of the study and provide a reas in need of further research. Finally, I conclude this chapter and this dissertation with final thoughts on my own learning and development throughout this process as the researcher.

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244 Promoting Adult Learning and Development D evelopment do es not stop i n adolescence but rather continue s throughout adult ( Kegan & Lahey, 2009, p. 323 ) engagement with lea rning ( K. Taylor, Marienau, & Fiddler, 2000 ) learning often grow out of their larger life issues which I found to be the case with the six adult learners who participated in this study. Transitions All of the participants in the study w ere experiencing some sort of transition in their life: a change in relationships, routines, roles, assumptions, or beliefs Transitions can take many forms. They can be anticipated (expected to occur), unanticipated (unexpected), nonevent (expected to occ ur, but did not occur), or sleeper transitions (occurs gradually, perhaps goes unnoticed for a while, but culminates in a change) ( Merriam, 2005 ) The link between each type is first, their complexity, and second, their potential for learning and development. In a study conducted by Aslanian and Brickell ( 1980 ) 83% of adult learners could identify some transition in their lives, either past, present or future, as a r eason for engaging in formal study I found this to be true for the majority of the participants in the study. Sofia and Steven for example, were in a period of self discovery and trying to figure out which direction they wanted to go with their career s a nd their lives Enrolling in the ALP program was one way to find answers.

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245 To a certain extent, Jennifer and Erik were on similar paths of self discovery, but for different reasons. Jennifer experienced an unanticipated transition when she lost her husband She had always been his support system and had to learn how to adjust to a new set of roles, responsibilities, and relationships. She had to decide what she wanted to do and how to balance a career with her important role as a mother to four children who a culmination of several life events : losing his father at age 16 talking about life and careers with his grandfather before he passed away, returning to the U.S. after living abroad for several years, unexpectedly being given life long financial security, and figuring out what he really wanted to do in life. Going back to school was the first step in that process. reasons for going back to school and joining the ALP program. However, once they got there, a new set of transitions emerged. For example, Sofia, Kathy, and Jennifer each said that they were struggling with the transition from the world of math, science and engineering into the world of education. This is a form of sleeper transition There was not a life event that suddenly changed their worlds. T hey were gradually realizing that their routines, among other things, were altered, which led to some level of discomfort for each of them. That discomfort, however, lent itself to a greater potential for learning. Not all transitions become learning exper needs to be discomforting, disquieting, or puzzling enough for us not to reject or ignore ( Merriam, 2005 )

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246 Sofia, Kathy and Jennifer all mentioned their struggle s between the two worlds which suggested that each of them recognized the transition and was re flecting on it, crucial step s in the process of learning. They were becoming aware of the differences and trying to make sense of them in order to adapt to the new roles and expectations. It is important to note, though, that while the transition appears t o be similar on the surface for these three participants, the way each of them made sense of the transitional experience differed. Therefore, we can infer that the learning that accompanied the transition was also different for each person (Merriam, 2005, p. 8). Implications Our lives are shaped by the life events that occur within a particular sociocultural and historical context that we encounter as we live our daily lives and attend to our unique roles, responsibilities, and relationships ( Merriam, 2005 ) These life events can be anticipated or unanticipated and have the potential to lead to transformational learning. For learnin g to become developmental or transformational, we must attend to the way we make meaning of our experiences; and as educators, we must attend to the ways in which the learners in our classes make meaning of their experiences. Being sensitive to the fact th at many of our adult learners are in transition is an important first step. In addition, t ransitions present opportunities for promoting development which can help educators to design course activities to promote that development ( Kegan, 1994 ; M ezirow, 2000 ) In the case of this study, I was able to determine certain transitions the participants were experiencing through my role as the researcher. It is important to understand the role of transitions in adult learning and development, and I le arned that the way the ESL for Educators course was designed did not provide appropriate support

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247 for those transitions This requires attention. The course and instructor need to find ways to learn about, acknowledge and support transitions in the adult le The background questionnaire that each individual is asked to complete at the beginning of the semester is an important first step in that process. However, further adaptations need to be made if the instructor s are going to be able to learn about the unique transitions of the adult learners become sensitive to them, attend to them, and use them as sources of learning to promote development. Further suggestions for such modifications will be discussed later in this chapter. Ways of Knowing Determining a serve as a springboard to learning and development. Development is a qualitative change, or transformation, in a way of knowing ( Kegan, 2000 ; Mezirow, 2000 ) Development a social context of environmental prompts as people act on the world and it, it turn, acts on them. However, how adults experience this interaction is influenced by ( K. Taylor et al., 2000, p. 11 ) construct knowledge in qualitatively different ways, which is dependent upon their way of knowing ( Drago Severson, 2004 ) Using data collected through a variety of activities I was able to infer certain characteristics often associated with particular meaning making systems (see table 5.5 for a brief summary of participant s )

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248 For example, Sofia and Patricia both exhibited features of a procedural way of knowing ( Belenky, et al., 1986 ) However, even within the procedural way of knowing, there are multiple and unique aspects that can differ greatly from one person to the next. Both Sofia and Patricia revealed to me that they deeply cared about what they were trying to learn and do and showed a sense of empathy for the people they were trying to help, aspects associated with connected procedural knowers ( Belenky, et al., 1986 ) However, one major difference between the way that Sofia and Patricia seemed to make sense o f their experiences was that Patricia appeared much more focused on the pragmatic, procedural aspect of learning. This was likely due to the fact that Patricia was teaching during the time of the study and Sofia was not, which has its own implications for course design that I will discuss in a later section of this chapter. A critical element of authority. On the path of development, people often begin by seeing authorities ( individuals to whom they often turn for validation such as parents, employers, researchers, teachers, etc. ) as holder s the authorities determine what is right and what is wrong. Further along on the developmental path people begi n to realize that knowledge is uncertain and that the authorities do not hold all the answers. Finally, those operating on a more complex level of development become aware that all knowledge is relative to context. Understanding authority can help educators design appropriate supports and challenges for them. As an example, Jennifer and Kathy both demonstrated dualistic thinking at various points in the interviews They expressed a belief in right or wrong and indicated

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249 that they viewed the instructor as a source of authority. Their statements suggested a need to know what was expected of them and reflected an expectation that the instructor lead practical skills and knowledge. Taylor and her colleagues ( 2000 ) They suggest that the possibility exists that adults who are already overwhelmed with responsibility for work, family, and now learning, may be perfectly happy to turn over responsibility to someone else for a while. They likely want mutual respect, but maybe not mutual authority. Both Kathy and Jennifer exhibited signs of being overwhelmed in their personal lives and therefore, this explanation may be applicable to the two of them. While thinking may have been similar at certain times, their reactions to the course activities and their experiences of the course were different. Kathy said that the course provided her with the practical skills and knowledge she needed and prepared her well to meet the needs of her linguistically diverse learners. However, Jennifer described being disappointed and discouraged by the course and did not feel as though she got the practical knowledg e she sought. There are two implications of the differing reactions from Kathy and Jennifer. First, like Patricia, Kathy was teaching during the semester of the study and had a context to which she could apply what she was learning. Jennifer was not teach ing and therefore did not have a context to which she could apply what she was learning. The results of the study highlight the importance of t eaching context which deserves attention when considering course design The other implication is that while both Kathy and Jennifer

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250 exhibited features of dualism in their thinking, they were likely operating under different meaning different ways of knowing can help explain how it is that the same curriculum, classroom structures, ac tivities, assignments, and/or teaching behaviors can leave some learners feeling stimulated and well supported while ( Drago Severson, 2004, p. 160 ) This was certainly the case for Kathy and Jennifer. Cutting across gender lines, Steven exhibited characteristics most in common with a subjective knower ( Belenky, et al., 1986 ) He was on a quest for self discovery and loudly asserted himself in an effort to self protect and self define. He wanted to gain life experience in a hands on way and trusted in personal experience more than in written words. Erik on the other hand, appeared to orient more towards a self authoring way of knowing. King and Baxter Magolda ( 2004, p. 303 ) define self authorship as follow s: Self authorship is the capacity to internally define a coherent belief system and identity that coordinates engagement in mutual relations with the larger world. This internal foundation yields the capacity to actively listen to multiple perspectives, critically interpret those perspectives in light of relevant evidence and the internal foundation, and make judgments accordingly Drago Severson ( Drago Severson, 2004 ) marks the attainment of a self authored way of knowing, which can retain its integrit y in authoring way of knowing has the capacity to reflect on and consider the expectations of others as separate from his own. Erik appeared to be the author and authority of his own life He held expectations of himself that he strove to attain. He was able to reflect on his experiences objectively

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251 empathize with others, and take on multiple perspectives simultaneously. Erik was concerned not only with how his actions would affect him personally, but the large r world around him as well Implications The way the ESL for Educators course was designed may have been more appropriate for learners who have one way of knowing while inadvertently neglecting others ( Drago Severson, 2004 ) As an example, impartin g knowledge to learners ( 1971 ) frustrating to learners who have self authoring ways of knowing ; whereas it may feel satisfying and supportive to those who make sense of their experience with an instrumental way of knowing ( Drago Severson, 2004 ) However, the reverse is also true. Courses that are less structured, more constructivist in nature and do not fall into th e may appeal to self authoring knowers while leaving the instrumental knowers feeling frustrated. One way to address the issue of course design as being geared more towards learners operating with particular ways of knowing i s for educators to be mindful of the unique ways of knowing with which each adult learner approaches the course ( Drago Severson, 2004 ) Changes to the ESL for Educators course must take place in order to gain s of knowing Based on what I learned, I argue f or the imp ortance of trying to understand the unique ways the adult learners make meaning ; and I agree with leading researchers in the field that providing the appropriate supports and challenges for each individual and his or her unique meaning making system is cru cial for development and transformational learning ( Baxter Magolda, 2001 ; Belenky, et al., 1986 ; Drago Severson, 2004 ; Kegan, 2000 ; Kegan & Lahey, 2009 ;

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252 Mezirow, 2000 ; K. Taylor, et al., 2000 ) Multiple perspectives on how to provide appropriate supports and challenges will be described in more detail later in this chapter. Experience, Reflection and M eaning Making Three essential aspects of adult learning theory are experience, reflection and meaning making. As Dewey ( 1938 ) observed, all g enuine learning comes through perception associated with meaningful learning and development it is necessary also to ( K. Taylor, et al., 2000, p. 27 ) Critically reflecting on an experience can lead to meaning making, which is to make sense of that experience ( Mezirow, 1990 ) Experience, reflection and meaning making were all critical elements in describing the unique experiences of the six adult learners who participated in this study. They each entered the course with a variety of experiences, and they reacted to the course activities differently, based on how they experienced them and made sense of them. Reflection was built into the course design by requiring that the learners reflect on each of each of the three field assignments and on their experiences overall through journal entries and a final reflection paper. In addition, participation in the study for six of the nine adult learners enrolled in the course provide d additional opportunities for reflection. Through the questionnaires, surveys, written reflections, and interviews, I was able to construct hypotheses about how they ma de meaning of their experiences object continuum One way to better un derstand those meaning making systems is through the lens of the subject object continuum ( Kegan, 1982 1994 )

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253 If a person is subject to an experience, she is fully in the experience, living it, and feeling the emotion of it. When a person is able to move to the object position, she can examine it, reflect on it and make sense of the experience for lens, I carefully observed what the participants said about their experiences and could infer whether a person was subject or object to particul ar experiences. For example, I found that Sofia had difficulty making th e shift from subject to object when she talked about feeling overwhelmed about teaching and everything going on in her life. She was subject to the experience of being a single mom of a toddler who was working, going to school and trying to figure out who she was and what her place was in th is world all at the same time. She could not reflect on it without becoming emotional. Jennifer also showed signs of being subject to the experien ce of writing the research paper. H er emotions of the experience seemed to overshadow her reactions towards other course activities. She was unable to separate herself from that experience and gain perspective on it. It was as though that experience had ho ld of her, a sign of being subject to it. Several other participants, on the other hand, appeared much more able to objectively reflect on their experiences, examine them and talk about them calmly. Patricia and Erik, for example, appeared to have full co ntrol of their emotions and could reflect on emotional experiences without experiencing the emotion. As an example, both Patricia and Erik described feeling sad without showing sadness. This suggested to me that they were object to move the experiences of sadness to the object position They

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254 were not feeling the emotion of it; they were in full control of those emotions, even when they discussed them. Implications Being aware of how an adult learner orients to an experience can aid an educator in providi ng the appropriate supports and challenges that foster learning and development. For example, specific guidelines and examples would support learners such as Jennifer and Erik, in the process of writing the research paper so it would not be such an overwh elming and intimidating experience. challenging when the environment also provides adequate guidance toward meeting those ( K. Taylor, et al., 2000, p. 333 ) The adequate guidance may have been lack ing in this case. Additional supports could have included help ing her choose an appropriate topic and helping her break the paper up in to smaller, more manageable chunks by setting up step by step instructions with specific due dates along the way These additional supports would be helpful for all of the adult learners, but more important for Jennifer and adult learners like her who found the activity of writing the research paper to be overwhelming and intimidating. T o provide additional supports suc h as helping Jennifer with the research paper, the instructor would need to make herself aware of the ways in which she made sense of that experience. For that to be possible, data would be required I know that while she shar ed her struggles and frustrations with me as the researcher, she did not share those same frustrations with her instructor The instructor did not inquire about it either ( King & Baxter Magolda, 2004, p. 305 ) and therefore some of the responsibility lies with the educator and the way she design s the course and some of the responsibility lies with the learner and the way she helps the

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255 instructor learn about her wa y of knowing. The acknowledgement of that partnership by both members is important in promoting development in learning contexts. Appropriate Supports and Challenges that Promote Development Teaching with developmental intentions can foster transformatio nal learning. However, using a developmental approach to course design and instruction can be unpredictable ( K. Taylor, et al., 2000 ) Brookfield ( 1989, p. 240 ) expanded on this notion of unpredictability. When we begin to ask people to identify assumptions underlying their habitual ways of thinking and learning, we do not know exactly how they are going to respond. When we ask them to consider alternatives, we do not know which of these will be considered seriously and which will be rejected out of hand. When people are presented with co unter examples that contradict their commonly held spontaneity are important and unavoidable. Because of this unpredictability of teaching with developmental intentions, it is impo rtant to know who the learners are and where they are with respect to their learning and their life. This will help educators better provide the two factors essential to developmental growth: support and challenge ( Baxter Magolda, 2001 ; Belenky, et al., 1986 ; Drago Severson, 2004 ; Kegan & Lahey, 2009 ; K. Taylor, et al., 2000 ) Taylor and her colleagues ( 2000, p. 326 ) offer broad definitions of support and challenge Support in its broadest sense is confirmation of the learner and his or her current efforts. It includes, for example, positive feedback of all kinds, clear and explicit communications and directions, affirmation of what the learner already knows, ved needs. Challenge in its broadest sense, is encouragement to stretch beyond what is currently familiar and comfortable in order to achieve some new level of competence. It focuses on what remains to be done, rather than what is already accomplished. It may involve ambiguities, with

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256 the intention that the learner take a more active role in decision making. Educators may also, after appropriate consideration, challenge adults by not responding to cert ain of their expressed desires. By using a developmenta l approach to education, educators must consider that the potential for growth may be matched by a potential for disorientation ( K. Taylor, et al., 2000 ) Support, while essential, is not enough by itself. Challenge must be present as ded, and encouraged past the point that feels ( K. Taylor, et al., 2000, p. 333 ) The most effective way to support development, though, is the combination of and the right balance between support and challenge. The ESL for Edu cators course provided several opportunities for the adult learners to challenge themselves For example, a sking students to seek out a cultural activity or event conducted in an unfamiliar language certainly pushed many learners outside of their comfort z one s which was one of the purposes of the assignment. However, there may not have been enough support in place to accompany the challenge The TCs were given the opportunity to reflect on the experience, which is a key element in development, but because it was an online environment, they never had the opportunity to share those experiences through dialogue with a group of colleagues, which may have held the potential for further learning and growth. The adult learners were essentially alone with that exp erience G iven the fact that developmental challenges such as these ( K. Taylor, et al., 2000 ) providing additional sources of support would be helpful We cannot underestimate the magnitude of the extent of this challenge and of the transformation that

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257 learners undergo in experiencing new ways of looking at the world around them, and of experiencing a new sense of self. Baxter Magolda and promoting self authorship To address the magnitude of such experiences, several researchers offe r suggestions for how to provide supports and challenges that foster development and the potential for transformative learning For example, Baxter Magolda ( 2001 ) suggests three principles for educational practice. First, she stresses the importance of acity to know Second, she advocates for Third, she highlights the need to define learning as mutually constructing meaning These three principles stem from the longitudinal work Baxter Magolda ( 2001 ) did with young adults in their know? Who am I? What kinds of relationships do I want with others? After identifying development: epistemological, intr apersonal and interpersonal. Based on those three dimensions, Baxter Magolda argues that there are three core assumptions that promote self authorship, which are: 1) knowledge is complex and socially constructed (epistemological development); 2) self is ce ntral to knowledge construction (intrapersonal development); and 3) authority and expertise are shared in mutual construction of knowledge among peers (interpersonal development). Several of the participants in the study were asking themselves questions s imilar to the ones posed by Baxter Magolda ( 2001 ) Sofia and Steven, who were in their twenties, made statements that indicated they were searching for answers about who they

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258 were, how they knew, and what kinds of relationships they wanted with others. Jennifer was asking similar questions, as was Erik to a certain degree, but they were not in their ( 2001 ) framework helpful in understanding not only the s, but the adult learners at any age who happen ed to be undergoing a certain transition in their life. Many adult learners enrolled in education programs are in transition ( Aslanian & Brickell, 1980 ; Merriam, 2005 ) ; whic h as mentioned, was the case for many of the adult learners who participated in this study. T herefore, it is helpful to know the kinds of questions they may be asking themselves which along with the three core assumptions and principles that promote devel opment, hold implications for course design H olding environments as contexts for growth Kegan ( 1982 1994 ) describes the importance of a holding environment as a context for growth and development which is necessary for transformational learning to occ ur In essence, a holding environment is a place where learners who are making sense of their experiences are held safe while they test their assumptions about the world. Kegan argues that we must create: a holding environment that provides both welcoming acknowledgement to exactly evolution. A s such, a holding environment is tricky, a transitional culture, an evolutionary bridge, a context for crossing over ( Kegan, 1994, p. 43 ) Drago Severson ( 2004 ) describes the three functions that good holding environments serve, according to Kegan. First, a g ood holding environment ( Drago Severson, 2004, p. 35 ) This means that the environment acknowledges who the person is and how the person is currently making meaning and does not urgently

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259 anticipate change. The holding environment is not meant to confine, but rath er to support understandings to more complex ways of knowing; hence promoting growth. Third, a provides continuity, stability, and availability to that person. be difficult, especi ally in a one semester course like ESL for Educators However, the other two features can be included, which align with the essential elements of promoting growth and development: support and challenge. Supports and challenges for women Belenky et al. ( 1986 ) in their study of 135 women found that women have unique ways of knowing. They acknowledge, however that certain aspects of the ways of knowing they present cut across gender lines. In their es Belenky and her colleagues observed ways to help women in their growth and development. They argue that in order to help women develop their own authentic voices educators separation, understanding and acceptance over assessment, and collaboration over ( Belenky, et al., 1986, p. 229 ) They also suggest that educators respect the to ev olve their own patterns of work based on the problems they are working on. In addition, Belenky et al. highlight the importance of allowing time for this development to occur. Taylor and her colleagues ( 2000 )

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260 time than brief trai ning courses or individual class sessions can offer and perhaps even ( p. 334 ) Promoting Development through Online Discussion s Discussion and dialogue appear to be important facilitator s of adult learning and development. However, facilitating classroom discussions to promote development is each comment or question, we may without realizing it subtly reinforce the notion that ( K. Taylor, et al., 2000 ) This challenge is also present when facilitating discussion in online settings : f inding the right balance between being present and showing the learn ers that you are paying attention to what they are saying; yet not monopolizing the conversation or giving off the impression that you are the sole source of knowledge Brookfield ( 1989, p. 237 ) described why he opts not to circulate among small groups of learners eng aged in discussion in his classroom. He found that his presence interrupted the flow of dialogue by either intimidating the learners who would suddenly fall silent as he approached the group, or by encouraging bursts of anxious animation from those who we re striving to be seen as good students. While he avoided interrupting group discussions, he made a point to actively offer himself as a resource to be called upon as needed. can be challenging for onl ine instructors. The online instructor may not be called on when needed if the learners are afraid or unwilling to explicitly ask for guidance or assistance in the online

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261 environment. However, creating small er groups for online discussion may provide a mor e comfortable environment for the learners to explor e ideas, shar e experiences and challenge assumptions For some learners, discussion is a major, if not the major source of learning ( K. Taylor, et al., 2000, p. 303 ) In academic settings, learne rs can be rich sources of learning for one another by bringing multiple perspectives to the conversations and a variety of e xamples that go beyond the texts or individual instructors. Unfortunately, m any of the participants in the study indicated that they did not benefit much from the online discussions as they were set up in the ESL for Educators course. One reason for that was the number of posts they were expected to view and respond to, which became overwhelming for many, the instructor included. Small er groups may address this issue for the learners by allowing them to go more in depth with fewer people Another reason they may have felt the discussions were not beneficial to their learning was based on the structure of the discussions. They only laste d one week each. Several participants indicated that one week was not enough time to thoroughly explore a topic. Therefore, they found themselves scrambling to read and post and then it was time to move on to the next topic. Quality discussions take time. ( K. Taylor, et al., 2000, p. 302 ) A possible way to address this in the online setting is to expand the threaded discussions to span acr oss two or more weeks. This would allow more time to explore a topic in greater detail and hopefully provide additional opportunities for growth and learning Another possibility is to leave the discussions open and encourage TCs to return to them througho ut the semester.

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262 Changing the time span will only be useful, though, if the topics themselves lend themselves to rich exploration and discussion It takes considerable skill and sensitivity to encourage learners to openly examine their values and beliefs ( K. Taylor, et al., 2 000 ) ; possibly even more so in an online environment when all responses are written and may Several participants indicated that the topics did not facilitate their learning or challenge their thinking. Brookfield ( 1989 ) describes the challenge of posing questions at the right l evel of difficulty. If they are too easy, learners will not fully engage. If they are too hard, learners may become discouraged. In addition, i f the questions are too global and abstract, we run the risk of learners giving formulaic or conventional respons es which was one complaint of the online learners in this study Several of them described the responses to discussion questions as and/or at the right level of difficulty to encourag e learners to explore the topic and engage in the discussion. Another factor in the success of any discussion online included, is awareness and understanding of how to appropriately engage in the conversations. For know in advance the criteria for a quality discussion so they ( K. Taylor, et al., 2000, p. 303 ) expe rience in an online learning context. The appropriate guidance for weekly threaded discussions may have been one aspect of the ESL for Educators course during the semester of the study that was lacking. They received five points for each weekly discussion To earn those five points, they were required to respond to the question prompt and reply to at least two of their

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263 classmates during the week. There were no additional criteria set for what was expected of them as contributing members to the conversation ; nor was there any indication of what a quality post might look like. Eva increased the amount of points to ten and provided a more detailed rubric with clear expectations for accomplishing the goal of a quality discussion. A final aspect of the online d iscussions that is important to address is that of online instructor participation and feedback. As indicated, Eva struggled at times to find the appropriate balance between responding too often and not often enough. The online learners admitted that if s he posted after the week of the discussion, they did not go back and read her comments calling into question whether or not her feedback was beneficial to their learning were poste d after the week of the discussion, were not being viewed by all of the students. These results offer implications for the structure of the online discussions as well as the role of the instructor in providing feedback. First, if the discussions last two weeks, instead of one, as discussed earlier, that may allow for more processing time for both the learners and the instructor. Participation and feedback on the part of the instructor would more likely fall within the time frame dedicated to that particula r discussion. In addition, finding alternate ways to provide feedback may help reach more of the learners. For example, the instructor may choose to create a summary of important points from the discussions and post it in several places: the threaded discu ssion, a course announcement, and an email. This is one of the changes that Eva implemented to the course the semester following the study.

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264 Implications for Practice The results of this study highlight the need for the structure of the course and the prog rams in which it resides to be critically examined. Given the pressing need for teachers to work effectively with English language learners, this study calls into question the reasonableness of expecting teachers to gain the necessary knowledge, skills and techniques in a single semester online course. The issues raised by the study provide a framework however, for examining the professional preparation of teachers who work with ELLs and offer insights into the revision of activities and practices that ma y suggest ways to create environments more conducive to transformative learning experiences Implications for Course Design And in depth study of this nature revealed b oth the strengths and weaknesses of the ESL for Educators course. As teacher educators our job is to prepare our future teachers to work with their diverse learners Helping them acquire the knowledge and skills necessary is an important aspect of that pre paration. However, this study underscores the importance of going beyond informational learning to include opportunities for adult learners to transform their frames of reference to a deeper, more reflective understanding of themselves and the students wit h whom they will work. Analysis of course syllabus One of the first aspects of the course in need of revision is the syllabus (see appendix I for complete syllabus). The course goals and objectives are all geared towards informational knowledge. According to the course instructors and the program coordinator, the unwritten goals for the teacher candidates

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265 enrolled in the course appear to go deeper than simply knowing the theories associated with language acquisition, lesson adaptations and assessment of EL Ls. As Eva mentioned, from her perspective two main goals of the course were facilitating a sense of efficacy and empathy for ELLs. Em pathy and other developmental goals are not represented on the course syllabus. T here are specific standards as outlined b y the state that must be included. However, instructors need to re word, revise, or add goals and objectives that have a more developmental focus. If in fact that is to be a goal and focus llabus and course activities designed appropriately to meet those goals Informational learning through readings Each of the six participants reported a gain in informational knowledge of ELL issues and topics. Some of the readings appeared to contribute to that knowledge base, but most commonly cited was the text on sheltered content instruction ( Echevarria & Graves, 2010 ) Few readings appeared to do participants in dicated that they could not remember the readings or they could not keep them straight from other courses. A critical analysis and review of the readings is in order Based on the those that invoked emotion ha d a tendency to lead to greater shifts in thinking and perspective. Therefore, I would suggest looking for materials that have the ability to impact emotions, increasing what Richard Amato ( 2010 ) cher education F or example, incorporating books, articles or videos that tell a story may result in a greater feeling of connection and instill a greater sense of empathy for ELLs. In addition, due to the perceived lack of a community

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266 in the online environment, using mate rials that create feelings of human emotion and connection may as well as provide additional opportunities for learning and development. Importance of context Having a context to which the TCs could apply the new knowledge and skills acquired appeared to be an influential factor in the way the participants experienced the course. Kathy and Patricia were the only two teaching during the semester of the study and they found the course beneficial in he lping them work with their ELLs. Research shows that adults learn best when the content they are learning is of clear and current importance to them ( Knowles, 1980 ; Knowles, et al., 1998 ) Kathy and Patricia had a current and relevant context to which they could apply what they were learning in the ESL for Educators course. Jennifer, on the other hand, struggled to see the relevance of what she was learning and therefore reported that she did not get much out of the course. She did not see the relevance part l y because sh e did not have a context to which she could apply the knowledge and skills. And in fact, she admitted that she did not complete some of the readings and activities because she did not see a need to do so at that point in time since she did not have her own classroom. One implication here is that since context appears to be an important factor in the learning of the adults enrolled in the course, it would be helpful to find a way to provide a context for those who are not currently teaching. It is possible that the learners could tutor ELLs or could find a classroom in which they could assist the teacher working with ELLs. To account for varying schedules, evening classes taught to adults could be an

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267 option as well. Also, the course could possibly find local English learners in the area and provide a free English class taught by the TCs. This could be beneficial to both the TCs and the ELLs. Exploring the possibilities of incorporating a context could help bridge that gap and provide an opportunity for more a dult learners to experience that clear and current importance, which would likely enhance their learning. Differentiation Differentiation is a buzz word in K 12 education right now. The term is generally used to refer to the altering of or modification o f course activities to better meet the needs of diverse learners. However, it is rarely used in contexts of higher education In a personal communication, S. Stein said to Drago activities need to be structured that can effectively addr ess the multiple needs/expectations of adults at multiple developmental as well as skill levels to most ( Drago Severson, 2004, p. 160 ) The ESL for Educators course incorporated several activities that by nature were differentiated: jo urnals, reflections and discussions. However, one thing I learned from the study was the need to differentiate course activities A contradiction exists between the course content, which encourages the teacher candidates to differentiate, and the conduct o f the course, which does not differentiate. For example, the cultural field experience is designed for adult learners who have not had much exposure to diverse cultures or languages or who may not have traveled outside of the state or the country. However for Erik, who spent more than a quarter of his life outside of the U.S. and lived that experience already, the cultural field assignment appeared superficial and did not challenge him to think differently about ELLs or the education of ELLs. So for learn ers who, like Erik, have extensive experience abroad, an alternate assignment would likely

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268 be better at promoting learning and development, and potentially lead to more opportunities for transformational learning. Another example of an aspect of the ESL fo r Educators course that may benefit from differentiation would be the final research paper. For example, Jennifer in particular struggled with all aspects of the research paper. She did not see the relevance or the purpose in doing it and struggled with th e format. Others, such as Erik, indicated that they understood the importance and purpose of the research paper, but felt that structure could have been improved. Patricia though, found the experience of writing the research paper one of the most valuable in the course for her. This highlights the fact that each person experiences the same activity in qualitatively different ways likely influenced by their individual ways of knowing One way to address that issue is to provide options. For example, the re search paper could remain an option for a final project for those who learn best in that way. For others, though, who may learn better in different ways, a hands on, practical application project may be added as an additional option. And for those who pref er more personal contact and connections, maybe incorporating interviews or devising a type of action plan might be helpful. The possibilities are numerous, but the point remains the same: to support learning and development, we need to begin with the lear mindful of their unique ways of knowing to provide appropriate supports and challenges to take the learners where they are and help them get to where they can be. Creating a community of connection Based on the interview data, it w as clear that the majority of the reactions were negative. Many of the TCs indicated that they

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269 would have learned more in a face to face classroom. My interpretation is that they did not feel part of a community of learners or practice ( Wenger, 1998 ) which Drago Severson ( 2004 ) refers to as a community of connection The adult learners appeared to feel somewhat alone in their experiences and craved more personal human contact and connection. The bi g question is, then, how can one create a community of connection in an online learning environment? Drago Severson ( 2004 ) claims there are ways to build a community of connection that includes elements of a cohort design without having structured, formal cohorts. However, the design features of a coho rt design need to be woven into class and program structures, such as sharing a common purpose and meeting for longer periods of time. I will discuss this further when I talk about implications for program design later in this chapter. What can be done in the course itself, though, is provide opportunities for the learners to talk with each other, learn from each other, and reflect on experiences. Opportunities exist for the TCs enrolled in the course to converse in the weekly online discussio ns. However, the way it was set up was not working. Face to face meetings cannot be required in fully online courses, per the rules and regulations of the university, but the instructor can arrange for optional face to face meetings. That way, those who fe el they need that personal connection could have the opportunity to meet and talk with the ir classmates. For example, s everal participants explained that they rely on whom they are conversing online.

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270 Another option for providing opportunities for learners to talk with each other is through phone conversations or Skype Speaking on the phone would not provide a face, but would provide a voice, a sense of a personality, and more of a personal connection. Skype could provide all of the above plus a face. P hone calls or Skype calls could come in a variety of forms. First, the instructor could call her students at the beginning of the semester to introduce herself and welcom e them to the course and ask if they have any questions. This may break the ice and bridge that distance that online learners have a tendency to feel from their instructor and classmates. Speaking on the phone or computer via Skype with their instructor ma y lead them to feel more comfortable asking for help and guidance along the way, which would help the instructor provide the appropriate supports and challenges to foster their learning and development. Another form that calls can take is from student to s tudent. Maybe the instructor could set up a sort of phone /Skype tree where the TCs have to talk to two of their classmates and conduct a mini interview to get to know them. A s is often done in face to face classrooms to break the ice, they could report som ething interesting they learned about their classmate during the interview The difference would be that the reporting would come in the form of an online threaded discussion Other options to help promote a community of connection through personal contac t and communication could come through the use of technology. For example, incorporating voice into their introductory Power Point presentations would be an additional way students could connect. Instead of just viewing words on the page and looking at a f ew pictures, the vocal component could provide an additional dimension and allow learners a glimpse into personality.

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271 Finding additional ways to incorporate voice into online discussions could also be helpful for those who prefer to speak rat her than write their thoughts. This would also add an additional dimension of vocal intonation and intention, which is often lost in the online environment. Nonverbal communication would still be missing unless a video component was included, but this woul d be a step in the direction of creating that community of connection. The potential for transformative learning and providing opportunities for critical reflection and meaning making can lead to growth and developme nt. When educators create learning context s that for and provide spaces, or holding environments, in which adults can engage in reflection and discussion of those assumptions, t hey are providing opportunities for transformational learning to occur. To foster real change and development, educators must take a developmental ( Kegan & Lahey, 2009 ) As a result of the course design and experience several of the participants were able to examine their own assumptions and some of them were able to reflect on them and even change them. For example, Erik came to the realization through his participation in the course that his experience teaching ESL in Japan did not directly transfer to teaching ELLs in a content area classroom in the U.S. The classroom visit he conducted as part of the third field experience and his reflections on that experience along with his prior experience s led to that shift in thinking.

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272 Another example was when Patricia described feeling sad when she reflected on how she approached ELLs in her previous classes. She had assumed certain things about those students and was able to challenge those assumptions through her course expe riences and reflections. She changed the way she made sense of those experiences, a sign of a transformational shift in thinking. In addition, through our conversations, she was able to reflect on her assumptions about the Hispanic males with whom she came in contact. She discovered that she may have been assuming they were a particular way given her history with her Hispanic father, who left the family when Patricia was in ninth Yet another examp le was when Kathy was able to challenge her previously held assumption that those who spoke fluent English were in fact fluent in all aspect s of English. Based on what she learned in the ESL for Educators course, she incorporated a journaling component to her middle school math class and discovered that many of her students even though she had not realized it, were ELLs. For the majority of the semester Kathy believed she had only one ELL in her class and she focused on helping him but it turned out she had many more and realized that the strategies she learned about and implemented were helping many The three field assignments and the reflections of those assignments appeared to be the greatest contributors to th e potential for transformational learning overall. discussed in the individual portraits in chapter 5.

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273 In conclusion, the way the online ESL for Educators course was designed was no t an ideal context for transformation al learning, but transformational shifts in thinking did occur in several participants as a result of their course participation. Incorporating the revisions suggested may lead to a greater potential for the adult learn ers to have a transformative experience. I t will be difficult to determine which modifications result in greater learning and development, though, because a new group of learners in a new semester will bring with them their own unique sociocultural histori es, experiences, ways of knowing, and life circumstances, which will all influence whether or not the potential will exist for transformative learning for them Implemented Changes to Course Design and Next Steps Shortly after the conclusion of the study Eva began instructing the ESL for Educators course again with a new group of TCs. She talked to me about some of the changes she implemented based on some of the results from this study. First, Eva reported that she noticed a pattern of frequently asked questions from the TCs. For wiki with frequently asked questions and her respons es to them. She also used the wiki as a place to add resources that might be helpful to them in their content areas. Eva strove to highlight the importance of learning how to effectively work with ELLs. Based on the mostly negative reactions to the weekly discussions, Eva altered some of the discussion topics in an attempt to foster more in depth responses and conversations. She also began posting feedback within the weekly discussions, as she did during the semester of the study, but incorporated as well an announcement on the

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274 Blackboard course shell, which was also sent as an email to the TCs. Based on the fact that her posts were not being viewed as often as she would have liked, she found different ways to communicate with the TCs in an effort to challe nge their thinking and help to better prepare them to work with ELLs. Based on the fact that several of the study participants suggested that they would have appreciated a more practical application activity, Eva removed the formal research paper and repl aced it with a more hands on, practical final project. The write up for the new project read on the syllabus, Using the framework from Chapter 8 ( Echevarria & Graves, 2010 ) consider the needs of one of the learners profiled in this chapter. (Or, you may select an ELL or ELLs you know.) Select a lesson plan from a curriculum guide or a teacher made plan. Describe how you would adapt the plan and implement the lesson. Justify and support your rationale for the decisions you would make referring to what work collaboratively at your schools, partners and/or teams are encouraged to work together for this project. Specific guidelines will be posted on Blackboard. Due to the genera lly positive response to the field assignments, Eva left those the same. She also arranged to video the course shell on Blackboard. Those were the major changes that Eva made to the course based on the results of this study. The process of action research will continue and additional changes may be implemented down the road based on what she learns. Implications for Program Design This study indicates that a critical analysis of t he program of which ESL for Educators is a part would be beneficial to the creation and development of experiences

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275 conducive to transformative shifts in thinking. The online learning environment in particular can appear decontextualized and therefore, finding ways to create a co mmunity and development. In addition, finding ways for the teacher candidates to collaborate may also unlock the potential for them to acquire additional skills and k nowledge to better meet the needs of their English language learners. This section describes suggestions for how to start that process of analysis and revision. Creating a community of connection Creating a community of connection is important in support ing adult learners in academic, emotional and cognitive ways ( Drago Severson, 2004 ) Online teacher education programs, such as the ALP program in which the adult learners in the study were enrolled, need to find ways to establish communities of connection. Due to university policies, online courses can not require face to face meetings. Therefore, o ne possibility is to change the format of the online courses to a hybrid format, where the majority of the interactions take place online, but with face to face meetings schedule regularly throughout the semes ter (once a week, once every other week, etc.) That way, there is the convenience of the online environment with the human contact and connection of face to face interactions. Developmental focus throughout Implementing a developmental focus in the ESL for Educators course is essential However, teaching with developmental intentions in one course is not enough. C time, longer than one semester in most cases. For the teacher education program to fac ilitate transformative learning experiences, e ach of the courses need to focus on

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276 developing adult learners and providing them opportunities to reflect and explore who they are and who they want to become (See Clarke ( 2007 ) for example) One suggestion is to invite learners to write thei r autobiographies as a way to support and promote development ( Drago Severson, 2004 ) This should be incorporated into the very first course the TCs take as part of their curriculum and then strewn throughout each of the courses. Externalizing their experiences by writing about them provides an opportun ity for the adult learners to take a step back and reflect on their experiences and on their assumptions. If this autobiography format is incorporated throughout the course sequence in the program, adult learners will be able to continue their journey of r eflection and revise their autobiographies accordingly. Development of teacher educators The majority of the instructors of the courses in the teacher education program at this particular university are adjunct instructors, meaning they are not full time employees of the university. This can lead to a disjointed program design. Not only do the TCs enrolled in the online courses not know each other, but often the online instructors do not know each other either. The lack of connection and communication may cause some instructors to feel isolated. Eva was an exception since she was a full time instructor at the university during the semester of the study. Due to the high percentage of adjunct instructor s and frequency of instructor turn over, there is room for improvement of continuity and consistency. C ourses often undergo minimal revision from one semester to the next. I would recommend that the teacher education program not only work on creating a community of connection among the teacher candidates, but of the teacher educators as well.

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277 One way to do so would be to incorporate periodic meetings, even as infrequently as once a semester. That way, the instructors could get to know each other and provide opportunities to collaborate on course and program d esign. Also, providing training on how to design courses with a developmental focus would be helpful if that is one of the goals of the program. It would be important to make teacher educators aware that they e opportunities for them to grow, learn and develop on their own ( K. Taylor, et al., 2000 ) And since development grows out of ongoing interaction among people, creating contexts in which dialogue and discussion are an integral part of the curriculum would be helpful for bo th teacher candidates and teacher educators. A shared journey As adult educators we are also adult learners and we need to recognize that ( K. Taylor, et al., 2000 ) Engaging in critical self reflection about our own existing assumptions, values and perspectives can promp t and promote our own development. This is a partnership between teacher educators and teacher candidates, all of whom are developing adult learners ( Baxter Magolda & King, 2004 ) It is a shared ur best and greatest influence may ( K. Taylor, et al., 2000, p. 335 ) In the words of Kegan and Lahey ( 2009, p. 323 ) your own development and the stor ies of those around you

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278 Limitations and Areas for Future Research This study had limitations. The small sample size permitted in depth analysis of the six participant s and allowed for richer interpretations of the data. A simila r study conducted with a greater number of participants would be beneficial. Another limitation of the study was its short duration The study focused on a single university class that took place during a single semester. In sixteen weeks I was able to inf er characteristics of certain meaning making systems, but one semester was not long enough to find evidence of changes in the way the participants constructed the meaning of their experiences. A longitudinal study would address that limitation. For example following a particular cohort of TCs throughout the duration of their licensure program would provide more opportunities to observe change s in their ways of knowing A third limitation of the study was that I was unable to observe the teacher candidates in practice. Even though only two of the six focal participants were teaching during the semester of the study, observing their practice and the ways in which they responded to and educated their ELLs would have provided additional insights into the abilit y of the ESL for Educators course to meet its goal of making a positive impact on ELLs Future studies that involve observation of practice and the impact on student learning are necessary to make that connection between teacher learning and practice. A fi nal limitation of the study was that some of the TCs viewed me to a certain degree as another instructor. They were each aware that I had taught the course in the past and that I was connected to it in some way. Due to my positionality, e ven though I did e verything I could to assure them that I was in no way responsible for evaluating

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279 them, some of them may have been reluctant to share their true feelings or reactions to the course with me. My knowledge of and experience with the ESL for Educators course ma y have altered the results of the study as well as my interpretation of the results. Conducting a similar study in a different course or university or having someone else who is less familiar with the course research similar questions posed in this study may address some of those biases. I plan to keep in touch with the six adult learners who participated in this study if they are willing to keep in touch with me. I would like to conduct my own longitudinal study to see if I can find evidence of changes in their ways of thinking and knowing and to see if the ESL for Educators course has an impact on their teaching Additional time with them will hopefully add to my understanding of who they are, how they know, and the types of supports and challenges that will assist them on their path of growth, learning and development. Final Thoughts An important result of this study not reported elsewhere is the growth, learning and development that happened in me as a result of my engagement in this study as the res earcher. In an attempt to understand the participants, I began to examine myself and my own ways of making meaning out of my experiences. I have asked myself some difficult questions about my own assumptions and ability to reflect on my experiences and mak e sense of them. Throughout my seven years of participation in this Ph.D. program I have observed shifts in my ways of knowing, which I did not realize existed until I began writing this dissertation.

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280 I vividly remember that I began this process seven yea rs ago with an external sense of authority. I actually thought someone had made a mistake by admitting me into the program! I was surrounded by members of academia who spoke a language with which I was unfamiliar. Much like the TCs in their cultural field experience, I was out of my comfort zone. I felt out of place and uncomfortable. It was as if I was waiting for someone to provide me with a manual for how to be a doctoral student, but that manual never came. Starting the program was a time of transition for me. I admit that part of my thinking was dualistic in nature. While I acknowledged that knowledge was uncertain and relative to context, I also viewed the professors as sources of authority I expected them to tell me what they expected of me I crave d for them to tell me how I should learn and be a doc student As an example, I was the student who wanted to know how many pages I should write and what elements I should include in a given paper. I did not possess the ability at that time to see myself a s a source of authority. I did not acknowledge that I had something to offer and was an active, contributing member of knowledge construction in that particular context Over the years I started to become aware that I, too, had something to offer based on my own diverse experiences and unique way of making sense of those experiences. Also, I started to realize that not only was I able to understand the language of those around me, but I was beginning to speak it. I was slowly becoming a contributing member of this community of practice.

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281 I t was not until somewhere around my dissertation proposal hearing that I really began to see myself as my own source of authority. I shifted my thinking at that point. I started to see my professors more as colleagues than assessors and evaluators of my knowledge and work. That was an exciting feeling! I am now finishing my dissertation and in a few short months will be able to officially join the members of academia. This chapter of my life will run over into a new chapter Throughout the rest of my life I know I will continue to develop, learn and grow. And because of this experience, I will be more aware of how I am doing it.

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282 REFERENCES American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Committee on Multicultural E ducation. (2002). call to action. Available online at: http://www.aacte.org/Programs/Multicultural/culturallinguistic.pdf Aslanian, C. B., & Brickell, H. M. (1980). Americ ans in transition: Life changes as reasons for adult learning New York: College Board Publication. Ball, A. F. (2000). Teachers' developing philosophies on literacy and their use in urban schools: A Vygotskian perspective on internal activity and teacher change. In C. D. Lee & P. Smagorinsky (Eds.), Vygotskian perspectives on literacy research: Constructing meaning through collaborative inquiry (pp. 226 255). New York: Cambridge University Press. Baxter Magolda, M. (2001). Making their own way: Narratives for transforming higher education to promote self development Sterling, Virginia: Stylus Publishing. Baxter Magolda, M., & King, P. M. (Eds.). (2004). Learning partnerships: Theory and models of practice to educate for self authorship Sterling, Virginia: Stylus. Belenky, M. F., Clinchy, B. M., Goldberger, N. R., & Tarule, J. M. (1986). Women's ways of knowing: The development of self, voice, and mind New York: Basic Books. Bradfield Kreider, P. (1999). Mediated cultural immersion and antiracism: An oppor tunity for monocultural preservice teachers to begin the dialogue. Multicultural Perspectives, 1 (2), 29 32. Brancard, R. (2008). Negotiating Identities: Voices of Students in a Community College Developmental Education Program. Ph.D. Dissertation, Univers ity of Colorado Denver, Denver. Brookfield, S. D. (1989). Developing critical thinkers: Challenging adults to explore alternative ways of thinking and acting San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Byrnes, D. H., & Kiger, G. (1994). Language attitudes of teachers scale (Lats). Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54 227 231. Byrnes, D. H., Kiger, G., & Manning, M. L. (1997). Teachers' attitudes about language diversity. Teaching and Teacher Education, 13 (6), 637 644. Clarke, M. A. (2007). Common ground, contested territory: Examining the roles of English language teachers in troubled times Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

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283 Colorado Department of Education. (2010). Guidebook on Designing, Delivering and Evaluating Services for English learners Den ver, CO: Office of Language, Culture and Equity. Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. Darling Hammond, L. (2010). Th e flat world and education: How America's commitment to equity will determine our future New York: Teacher's College Press. Darling Hammond, L., Chung, R., & Frelow, F. (2002). Variation in teacher preparation: How well do different pathways prepare teach ers to teach? Journal of Teacher Education, 53 (4), 30. deJong, E., & Harper, C. (2005). Preparing mainstream teachers for English language learners: Is being a good teacher good enough? Teacher Education Quarterly 24. Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and ed ucation New York: Macmillan. Dong, Y. R. (2004). Preparing secondary subject area teachers to teach linguistically and culturally diverse students. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 77 (5), 202 208. Drago Severson, E. (2004). Becoming adult learners: Principles and practices for effective development New York: Teachers College Press. Echevarria, J., & Graves, A. (2010). Sheltered content instruction: Teaching English language learners with diverse abilities (4th ed .). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Ference, R. A., & Bell, S. (2004). A cross cultural immersion in the U.S.: Changing preservice teacher attitudes toward Latino ESOL students. Equity and Excellence in Education, 37 343 350. Freire, P. (1971). Pedagogy of the oppressed New York: Seaview. Gay, G. (2002). Preparing for culturally responsive teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 53 (2), 106 116. Giroux, H. (1988). Teachers as intellectuals: Toward a critical pedagogy of learning South Hadley, MA: Bergin & Garv ey. Holland, D., Jr., W. L., Skinner, D., & Cain, C. (1998). Identity and agency in cultural worlds Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Johnson, K. E. (1994). The emerging beliefs and instructional practices of preservice English as a seco nd language teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 10 (4), 439 452.

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284 Johnson, K. E., & Golombek, P. R. (2003). "Seeing" teacher learning. TESOL Quarterly, 37 (4), 729 737. Karathanos, K. A. (2010). Teaching English language learner students in US mainstr eam schools: intersections of language, pedagogy, and power. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 14 (1), 49 65. Kegan, R. (1982). The evolving self: Problems and processes in human development Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Kegan, R. ( 1994). In over our heads: The mental demands of modern life Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Kegan, R. (2000). What "form" transforms? A constructive developmental approach to transformative learning. In J. M. a. Associates (Ed.), Learning as transfor mation: Critical perspectives on a theory in progress San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Kegan, R., & Lahey, L. (2009). Immunity to change: How to overcome it and unlock the potential in yourself and your organization Boston: Harvard Business Press. King, P. M. & Baxter Magolda, M. (2004). Creating learning partnerships in higher education: Modeling the shape, shaping the model. In M. Baxter Magolda & P. M. King (Eds.), Learning partnerships: Theory and models of practice to educate for self authorship (pp. 303 332). Sterling, Virginia: Stylus. Knowles, M. S. (1980). The modern practice of adult education: From pedagogy to andragogy Chicago: Association Press. Knowles, M. S., Holton, E. F. I., & Swanson, R. A. (1998). The adult learner (5 ed.). Houston: Butterw orth Heinemann. Lahey, L., Souvaine, E., Kegan, R., Goodman, R., & Felix, S. (1988). A guide to the subject object interview: Its administration and interpretation [Unpublished manuscript]. Lantolf, J. P. (1993). Sociocultural theory and the second langua ge classroom: The lesson of strategic interaction. In J. E. Alatis (Ed.), Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 1993. Strategic interaction and language acquisition: Theory, practice, and research (pp. 220 233). Washington, DC: Geo rgetown University Press. LaPelle, N. (2004). Simplifying qualitative data analysis using general purpose software tools. Field Methods, 16 (1), 85 108. Lightbown, P. M., & Spada, N. (2006). How languages are learned (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Pr ess. Lindeman, E. (1961). The meaning of adult education Montreal: Harvest House.

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285 Maxwell, J. A. (2005). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Merriam, S. B. (2005). How adult life transition s foster learning and development. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education (108), 3 13. Merriam, S. B. (2008). Adult learning for the twenty first century. In S. B. Merriam (Ed.), Third Update on Adult Learning Theory (Vol. 119, pp. 93 98). San F rancisco: Jossey Bass. Merriam, S. B., & Clark, M. C. (2006). Learning and development: The connection in adulthood. In C. Hoare (Ed.), Handbook of Adult Development and Learning (pp. 27 51). New York: Oxford University Press. Mezirow, J. (1997). Transform ative learning: Theory into practice. In P. Cranton (Ed.), Transformative Learning in Action: Insights from Practice (Vol. 74, pp. 5 12). San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Mezirow, J. (Ed.). (1990). Fostering critical reflection in adulthood: A guide to transfor mative and emancipatory learning San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Mezirow, J. (Ed.). (2000). Learning as transformation: Critical perspectives on a theory in progress San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysi s: An expanded sourcebook (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Milner, H. R. I. (Ed.). (2010). Culture, curriculum and identity in education New York: Palgrave Macmillan. National Center for Education Statistics. (2011). The condition of educa tion 2011 Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. (retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=96 ) National Center for Education Statistics. (2002). Schools and staffin g survey, 1999 2000. Overview of the data for public, private, public charter, and Bureau of Indian Affairs elementary and secondary schools. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Nieto, S. (2000). Affirming diversity (3rd ed.). New York: Longman. Ovando, C. J. (2003). Bilingual education in the United States: Historical development and current issues. Bilingual Research Journal, 27 (1), 1 24. Perry, W. G. (1970). Forms of intellectual development a nd ethical development in the college years New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

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286 Perry, W. G. (1981). Cognitive and ethical growth: The making of meaning. In A. Chickering (Ed.), The modern American college (pp. 76 116). San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Pohan, C. A., & Aguilar, T. E. (2001). Measuring educators' beliefs about diversity in personal and professional contexts. American Educational Research Journal, 38 (1), 159 182. Richard Amato, P. (2010). Making it happen: From interactive to participatory langua ge teaching -Evolving theory and practice (4th ed.). White Plains, NY: Pearson Longman. Tannen, D. (1995). The power of talk: Who gets heard and why. Harvard Business Review, 73 (5), 138 148. Taylor, E. W. (2008). Transformative learning theory. In S. B. Merriam (Ed.), Third Update on Adult Learning Theory (Vol. 119, pp. 5 16). San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Taylor, K., Marienau, C., & Fiddler, M. (2000). Developing adult learners: Strategies for teachers and trainers San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Teague, B. L. (2010). Preparing Effective Teachers of English Language Learners: The Impact of a Cross Cultural Field Experience. Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation, Vanderbilt, Nashville. Torok, C. E., & Aguilar, T. E. (2000). Changes in preservice teachers' knowl edge and beliefs about language issues. Equity and Excellence in Education, 33 (2), 24 31. VanHalen Faber, C. (1997). Encouraging critical reflection in preservice teacher education: A narrative of a personal learning journey. In P. Cranton (Ed.), Transfor mative Learning in Action: Insights from Practice (Vol. 74, pp. 51 60). San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Wenger, E. (1998). Communi ties of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity New York: Cambridge University Press. Wiest, L. R. (1998). Using immersion experiences to shake up preservice teachers' views about cultural differences. Journal of Teacher Education, 49 (5), 358 365. Will ard Holt, C. (2001). The impact for short term international cultural experience for preservice teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17 (4), 505 517. Wong Fillmore, L., & Snow, C. (2000). What teachers need to know about language: Center for Applied L inguistics.

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287 APPENDICES APPENDIX A. BACKGROUND QUESTIONNAIRE TED 5800, Fall 2011 Name (Last, First): ________________________ Phone #:______________ Preferred E mail address: ___________________________ ______ _________ Current degree program/majo r : TELP / ALP; Elementary/Secondary; Co ntent area: Where you are in the program (1 st year, final year?): ___________________ Previous degrees/education attained: ___________________ _____________ Why do you want to teach?: Gender: Male / Female Native la nguage/background: _______________ Age: 20 25 / 26 30 / 31 35 / 36 40 / 41 45 / 46 50 / 51 or older (school/subject/grade level): Other daily responsibilities (work, family, volunteering, other cou rses, etc.): Briefly describe where you grew up (city/suburb?, culturally diverse/ predominantly white?, etc.) Teaching experience (grade level, number of years, place, responsibilities): How would you characterize your teaching experience? Novice Veter an 1 2 3 4 5 If your career background is something other than teaching, please describe: 2. What languages do you know other than English? What is your level of confidence/proficiency in them? Language: Language: Low High Low High 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

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288 Describe your experience(s) with other languages (learned from family members, took a foreign language in school, can understand your Grandmother, but c language, etc.): 3. How would you rate your experiences with/knowledge of other cultures? Low High 1 2 3 4 5 Describe your experiences (Family ba ckground? Lived abroad? Traveled abroad? Where? When? For how long? What cultures?): 4. How would you rate your level of confidence/ability in teaching culturally and/or linguistically diverse learners? Low High 1 2 3 4 5 Describe your experience(s ) in working with divers e learners: 5. How would you rate your interest in having ELLs in your classroom? Not at all interested Very interested 0 1 2 3 4 5 6. How would you rate previous coursework you have taken in preparing you to teach/work wi th English language learners? No preparation Highly prepared 0 1 2 3 4 5 List prior coursework you have taken related to diversity and/or working with English language learners (ELLs): List any other type of formal training you hav e received with regard to working with ELLs (in service, conference, workshop, etc.): 7. I am taking this course because: 8. I am taking this course ONLINE because :

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289 Rate your confidence/comfort level with online learning Not confident/comfortable Very confident/comfortable 1 2 3 4 5 Comments:

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290 APPENDIX B. LANGUAGE ATTITUDES OF TEACHER SURVEY Language Attitudes of Teachers Scale ( Byrnes, et al., 1997 ) Instructions : Please indicate your level of agreement with the following statements. 1 = strongly disagree 2 = disagree 3 = uncertain 4 = agree 5 = strongly agree 1. To be considered American, one sho uld speak English. 1 2 3 4 5 2. I would support the government supporting additional money to fund better programs for linguistic minority students in public schools. 1 2 3 4 5 3. Parents of non or limited English proficient should be counseled to speak English with their children whenever possible. 1 2 3 4 5 4. It is important that people in the US learn a language in addition to English. 1 2 3 4 5 5. It is unreasonable to expect a regular classroom teacher to teach a child who does not sp eak English. 1 2 3 4 5 6. The rapid learning of English should be a priority for non limited proficient or limited En glish proficient even if it means losing the ability to speak their native langua ge. 1 2 3 4 5 7. Local and state governments should require that all government business (including voting) be conducted o nly in Eng lish. 1 2 3 4 5 8. Having a non or limited English proficient student in the class in detrimental to the learning of the ot her students. 1 2 3 4 5 9. Regular classroom teachers should be required to receive pre servic e or in service training to be prepared to meet the needs of li nguistic minorities. 1 2 3 4 5 10. Most non and limited English proficient children are not motivated to learn English. 1 2 3 4 5 11. At school, the learning of the English language by non or limited English proficient children should take precedence over learni ng subject matter. 1 2 3 4 5 12. English should be the official language of t he United States. 1 2 3 4 5 13. Non and limited English proficient students often use unjustified claims of discrimination as an excuse for not doing well in schoo l. 1 2 3 4 5

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291 APPENDIX C. KNOWLEDGE OF ELL ISSUES SURVEY KNOWLEDGE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNER (ELL ) ISSUES SURVEY (adapted from Teague, 2010) Instructions : On a scale from 1 to 5, please indicate your self assessed current knowledge of the following topics. Please circle only one number for each item. 1 = No knowledge 2 = Very little knowledge 3 = Some knowledge 4 = Quite a bit of knowledge 5 = Extensive knowledge 1. The local ELL population (who are our ELLs?) 1 2 3 4 5 2. Local resources/organizations that serve ELLs/families 1 2 3 4 5 3. Legal requirements for educating ELLs (i.e. legis lative and judicia l milestones) 1 2 3 4 5 4. History of bilingual education in the U.S. 1 2 3 4 5 5. Bilingual program models 1 2 3 4 5 6. Issues surrounding the debate on bilingual education 1 2 3 4 5 7. How first languages are learned/acquired 1 2 3 4 5

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292 8. How second languages are learned/acquired 1 2 3 4 5 9. Sheltered content instruction and how to implement it 1 2 3 4 5 10. Effective ins tructional strategies for ELLs 1 2 3 4 5

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293 APPENDIX D. MID SEMESTER ACTIVITY IMPACT QUESTIONNAIRE ESL for Educators (TED 5800) Activity Impact Questionnaire We are just over half way through the course. Please rate the course activities you have participated in so far. Circle the number that best matches your feelings about how helpful each activity is to you with respect to the following catego ries. Use the below scale to help you answer the questions. 0 n/a or did not participate in activity 1 --------------------------------5 Not helpful at all extremely helpful Activity Interesting/ Engaging Helpful in preparin g me to work with ELLs Helpful in understanding myself better Helpful in understanding others better Challengin g me to think differently about ELLs Comments Journals 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 ELL Guidebook 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 FA1: ELL Directors Panel Video 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 SIOP links/video 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 FA2: Cultural/Language field assign ment 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Developmental sequence writing samples 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Book: How Languages are Learned (so far) 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Book: Sheltered Content Instruction (so far) 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Ovando Article (Bilingual Education in the US) 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 What Teachers Need to Kno w About Language article (Wong, Fillmore & Snow) 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Online Discussions (in general) 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Additional comments:

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294 Below is a list of the weekl y threaded discussion topics. Please indicate whether you would keep them, change them, or get rid of them. Any comments you can provide to help me understand the reason behind your answer would be extremely helpful! Week / Discussion topic Keep/ Change/ Get rid of it Comments Week 2 : Historical and legal influence (discussing important court cases) Week 3 : Program options (imagining you are a parent of an Week 4 : First language development (stages of language samples and discussing) Week 5 : Second language acquisition (examples of theories from readings and experience about language acquisition) Week 6 : Sheltered instruction (provide examples and discuss how you would adjust instruction for ELLs) Week 7 : Factors influencing language (discussion of power imbalance) Additional comments:

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295 APPENDIX E. END OF SEMESTER QUESTIONNAIRE Post course Surveys (TED 5800 Online, Fall 2011) Instructions: Please fill out the following surveys as completely and hon estly as possible. Return to Stephanie Dewing ( sdewing2@uccs.edu ) at your earliest convenience, but please no later than Monday, December 19 th Thank you! Name : _____________________________________________ 1. How would you rate your level of confidence/ability in teaching culturally and/or linguistically diverse learners upon completion of the ESL for Educators course? Low High 0 1 2 3 4 5 If you feel that your level of confidence/ability in t eaching ELLs has changed, please describe as specifically as you can about what contributed to that change : 2. How would you rate your interest in having English language learners (ELLs) in your classroom? Not at all interested Very interes ted 0 1 2 3 4 5 If you feel your level of interest in having ELLs in your classroom has changed due to your participation in the course, please explain as specifically as possible what contributed to that change : 3. How would you rate this course in its ability to prepare you to teach/work with English language learners? Did not prepare me at all Prepared me very well 0 1 2 3 4 5 Please explain : 4. Rate your confidence/comfort level with online learning Not confident/comfortable Very confident/comfortable 0 1 2 3 4 5

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296 If you feel your confidence/comfort level with online learning has changed as a result of your participation in this course, please explain : 5. If I were to take this course again, I would take it: _____ onlin e _____ on campus Please explain the reason(s) for your choice :

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297 APPENDIX F. END SEMESTER ACTIVITY IMPACT QUESTIONNAIRE ESL for Educators (TED 5800) End of semester Activity Impa ct Questionnaire (2 pages) Congratulations! You have just completed ESL for Educators. Please rate the course activities you have participated in from the middle of the semester to the end. Circle the number that best matches your feelings about how helpfu l each activity is to you with respect to the following categories. Use the below scale to help you answer the questions. 0 ----------------------------------------------------5 Not helpful at all extremely helpful Activity Inter esting/ Engaging Helpful in preparing me to work with ELLs Helpful in understanding myself better Helpful in understanding others better Challenging me to think differently about ELLs Comments Journals 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Field Assignment 3: ESL classroom observation/ interview 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Literacy Project 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Link to TPR/TPRS 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Link to Colorin Colorado (informal assessment) 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Exam 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Self assessment/ Final Reflect ion paper 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Research Paper 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Book: How Languages are Learned 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Book: Shelte red Content Instruction 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Online Discussions (in general) 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Instructor participation/ feedback/ input 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Additional comments:

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298 Below is a list of the weekly threaded discussion topics from week 8 until the end of the course. Please indicate whether you would keep them, change them, or get rid of them. Any comments you can provid e to help me understand the reason behind your answer would be extremely helpful! Week / Discussion topic Keep/ Change/ Get rid of it Comments Week 8 : Learner language (developmental writing sequences) Week 9 : Strategies and adaptations for teaching ELLs Week 10 : Linking theory to practice Week 11 : Approaches to ELL instruction Week 12 : Literacy for ELLs Week 13 : TPR & TPRS Week 14: Assessment considerations Week 15: Discussion of research findings from your papers Week 16 : Revisiting of ideas from surveys Additional comments:

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299 APPENDIX G SUBJECT OBJECT INTERVIEW PROTOCOL Online ESL for Educators Course Study Interview Protocol Adapted from Brancard ( 2008 ) Prepare before the interview: For face to face interviews, 10 index cards, each with one of the following prompts written on it: anger, anxious/nervo us, success, standing up for your beliefs, sad, confused, moved/touched, surprised/shocked, change, important to me For phone interviews, a document with a 2x5 table, each cell with one of the prompts written in the top left corner (same prompts as above) Digital recorder Pen for interviewee Pen and notepad for myself Explanation of interview to participant: interview is to learn how you think about your learning experiences over the past semester in the online ESL for Educators course. I want to understand how you understand your own experiences. You have control of what you want to talk about. You tion is Reflection time with cards/prompts For face to face interviews, o to look at and write on. You can take them with you and kee p them or throw them away after the interview. The purpose of the cards is to give you a chance to think about and jot down ideas about what you might want to talk about in the interview. Look at the cards and think of times when you have felt these emotio ns related to your experiences in the previous about 15 20 minutes looking at the cards and writing notes to yourself rite on all the cards, just the ones that make you think of an idea or an

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300 interviewer takes time to introduce each c example, if you want to think about the success card, think back to a time over the last semester when you felt success and make some notes on the card about that experience of success. As another example, with the change ca rd, think back on your past experiences over the last several o Allow 15 20 minutes for participants to make notes on the cards. For phone interviews o Send the word document to the participants the night before or the day of the phone interview via email. In the document is a 2x5 table, each cell containing one of the prompts. Include the following written instructions to the participant. I'm attaching a paper that I'd like you to print out if you can. On it are 10 prompts. The purpose of these prompts is to give you a chance to think about and jot down ideas about what you might want to talk about in the interview. Look at the prompts and think of time s when you have felt these emotions related to your experiences in the ESL for Educators course this past semester. Write notes to yourself about the experiences you might want to talk about. You don't need to write on all the prompts, just on the ones tha t make you think of an idea or an experience you'd like to talk about. We won't have time to talk about all the cards. You'll decide which ones you want to talk about. For example, if you want to think about the success prompt, think back to a time in this past semester in the ESL for Educators course that you felt success and make some notes on the card about that experience of success. As another example, with the change prompt, think about how you've changed over the last several months. Are there ways y ou've changed that come to mind? Make some notes on the card. These are just examples. You are in complete control of which prompts you want to talk about. Initiating the interview: the experiences ll me about a time when

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301 you felt _____ in a situation related to your experiences over the past semester in the During the interview: Try balancing two roles that of active, sympathetic listener and that of active inquir er. The interview manual describes ways of indicating active listening and ways of questioning that elicit clearer articulation of ideas from the participants. As an active listener, let the interviewee know that you understand and empathize. Examples of ways of indicating sympathetic listening: As an inquirer, use question intended to lead the interviewee to articulate the extent to which he/she is able to examine and reflect on his/her experience and the extent to which he/she sees himself/herself in control of and responsible for his/her decisions as students or learners. Examples of ways of leading the participant to a clearer articulation: Ask what might have changed t he way the interviewee felt in that situation. Ask what would b When you and the participant have exhausted the ideas on one card, ask the student choose a second card to talk about. Ending the interview: The interview end s when the time is up, talk about a card has been exhausted, or the student does not want to talk anymore. Explain that you will transcribe the interview and

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302 understand better the perspectives of the adult learners in the course. Thank the participant for his/her time. References Brancard, R. (2008). Negotiating Identities: Voices of Students in a Community College Developmental Education Program. Ph.D. Dissertation, Uni versity of Colorado Denver, Denver. Lahey, L., Souvaine, E., Kegan, R., Goodman, R., & Felix, S. (1988). A guide to the subject object interview: Its administration and interpretation Unpublished manuscript.

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303 APPENDIX H PARTICIPANT CONSENT FORM Study Title : Online ESL for Educators Course Principal Investigator : Stephanie Dewing COMIRB No : 11 1185 Version Date : October 19, 2011 Version No : 2 You are being asked to be in a research study. This form provides you with information about the study. A member of the research team will describe this study to you and answer all of your questions. Please read the information below and ask questions about Why is this study being don e? This study plans to learn more about how the adult learners enrolled in the online ESL for Educators course experience the course in different ways. You are being asked to be in this research study because you are an adult learner enrolled in the course and can help me learn more about which aspects of the course contribute to your learning and in what ways. Through your regular coursework and interviews, I hope to learn more about how this course contributes to both informational learning (increased kno wledge and skills) and transformational learning (changes in the way one thinks or understands). Up to 10 people will participate in this study. What happens if I join this study? If you join the study, you will be asked to fill out a background questionna ire at the beginning of the course and complete two short surveys at the beginning and at the end of the course. You will also be asked to participate in an interview after the completion of the course. The interview will last approximately one hour and wi ll be digitally recorded and transcribed. In addition, I will contact you four times for mini interviews at the beginning of the course and after each of the three major field assignments. These mini interviews should last approximately 15 minutes and will also be recorded and transcribed. Your name will not be used in the recordings or in the write up of the research. Your participation in this study will last approximately five months (just beyond the course end date) and will require about 2 hours of you r time outside of regular course activities.

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304 What are the possible discomforts or risks? Discomforts you may experience while in this study include the possibility that discussing your learning or prior experiences may bring up uncomfortable feelings. Oth er possible risks include the very unlikely possibility that confidentiality about your participation is compromised. What are the possible benefits of the study? This study is designed for the researcher to learn more about how adult learners enrolled in the ESL for Educators course experience the course in different ways and which aspects of the course contribute most to your learning (both informational and transformational learning). What I learn from this study may inform teacher education programs abo ut best practices for preparing future teachers to work with culturally and linguistically diverse learners. By improving linguistically diverse teacher education programs, the potential exists to make a positive impact on the culturally and linguistically diverse students themselves. In reflecting on how you learn, not only do you have the potential to contribute to improved teacher education programs and CLD students, but you may also find satisfaction in learning more about yourself through the process. Will I be paid for being in the study? Will I have to pay for anything? You will not be paid to be in the study. It will not cost you anything to be in the study. Is my participation voluntary? Taking part in this study is voluntary. You have the right t o choose not to take part in this study. If you choose to take part, you have the right to stop at any time. If you refuse or decide to withdraw later, you will not lose any benefits or rights to which you are entitled. Who do I call if I have question s? The researcher carrying out this study is Stephanie Dewing. You may ask any questions you have now. If you have questions later, you may call Stephanie Dewing at 719 633 3472. You may have questions about your rights as someone in this study. You can call Stephanie Dewing with questions. You can also call the Multiple Institutional Review Board (IRB). You can call them at 303 724 1055. Who will see my research information? We will do everything we can to keep your records a secret. It cannot be gu aranteed.

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305 Both the records that identify you and the consent form signed by you may be looked at by others. Federal agencies that monitor human subject research Human Subject Research Committee The group doing the study The group paying for the study Re gulatory officials from the institution where the research is being conducted who want to make sure the research is safe The results from the research may be shared at a meeting. The results from the research may be in published articles. Your name will be kept private when information is presented. Audio recordings of interviews, interview transcriptions, and course documents will be interviews and documents and the lis t of code names will be kept separately in a locked will be kept for three ye ars and then destroyed. You will be given the opportunity to receive any and all publications that involve your participation if you would like to see them. Agreement to be in this study I have read this paper about the study or it was read to me. I under stand the possible risks and benefits of this study. I know that being in this study is voluntary. I choose to be in this study: I will get a copy of this consent form. Signature: Date: Print Name: Consent form explained by: Date: Print Name: Investigator: Date:

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306 APPENDIX I. ESL FOR EDUCATORS COURSE SYLLABUS TED 5800: ESL for Educators *University and Instructor information were removed Required Textbooks: Echevarria, J., & Graves, A. (2010). 4 th Ed. Sheltere d Content Instruction. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Lightbown, P., & Spada, N. (2006). 3 rd Ed. How Languages are Learned Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Course Format: This online course consists of readings, assignments, and online discussions. Co urse Overview: This is a theory, methods, and materials course that provides a comprehensive survey of ESL, bilingual and multicultural education programs and effective materials and teaching methods for language minority students. The course emphasizes in dividual and collaborative learning to develop knowledge and understanding of the various models, philosophies and theoretical underpinnings of bilingual/ESL education and instruction. Also included are an overview of the history of and legislation relate d to bilingual/ESL education and discussion of the culture of ESL classrooms, instructional strategies, appropriate materials and important considerations for teaching the LEP student. Students will have opportunities to explore theoretical concepts of so cio cultural perspectives of language interaction and literacy instruction and learning. They will also have opportunities to integrate technology into their individual and collaborative enterprises in the course. Course Goals: As a result of participat ing fully in the experiences of this course, students will: 1. demonstrate foundational knowledge about student language and literacy development in reading, writing, speaking, viewing and listening. (Standards Addressed: LDE: 1, 2; CDE: 1, 4, 6; TESOL : 1, 2; INTASC: 1, 2) 2. demonstrate working knowledge of instructional materials and strategies proven by research to be effective for the teaching of language and literacy. Standards Addressed: LDE: 3; CDE: 5, 6, 7; TESOL: 1, 3; INTASC: 4, 5, 6, 7 ; NETS: 1, 2, 3) 3. demonstrate a basic knowledge of the role of assessment in the instruction of English Language Learners. Standards Addressed: (LDE 4; CDE: 3; TESOL: 4; INTASC: 3, 8; NETS: 4)

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307 4. understand how to create a positive classroom environ ment in which students are motivated to engage in language and literacy activities. Standards Addressed: LDE: 3, 5; CDE: 5, 6; TESOL: 3; INTASC: 1, 2, 9, 10; NETS 5, 6) Course Objectives: Students will learn/be able to: 1) describe various learning theor ies and how they shape classroom instruction and learning today (LDE: 1a, 2c, 3a; CDE: 4.1, 5.1, 6.1, 6.2, 6.4; TESOL: 1, 3 INTASC: 1, 4, 7; NETS: 1i, 2iv, 3ii) 2) describe various models of ESL instruction programs that integrate theory, practice, and asse ssment (LDE: 1a, 2c, 3a, 3b, 4a; CDE: 3.2, 5.1, 6.1, 6.2; TESOL: 1, 3, 4 INTASC: 1, 4, 7, 8; NETS: 2i, 3i, 4i) 3) identify the processes and theories that support current views about how children acquire language and literacy (LDE: 1a, 2a, 3a; CDE: 4.3, 5.1 5.4, 6.2; TESOL: 1 INTASC: 1, 2) 4) discuss the general stages of language and literacy development children experience, and effective strategies that would promote their language and literacy acquisition (LDE: 1a, 2c, 3b, 3e; CDE: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 3.1 5.1, 6.1, 6.2; TESOL: 1, 3 INTASC: 1, 2, 3, 4, 7; NETS 3i) 5) development are related with their increased use of conventional English in multiple contexts in school (LDE: 1c, 2c, 3a, 3b; CDE: 5.1, 6.1, 6.2; TESOL: 1 INTASC: 2, 5; NETS: 3i, 3ii, 3iv) 6) describe important theories for effective systems and strategies for the instruction and organization of classroom environments, methods, and materials that combined, will promote st udent learning and language acquisition (LDE: 1a, 2c, 3c; CDE: 3.1, 3.6, 5.1, 5.5; TESOL: 1, 3; INTASC: 4, 5, 9; NETS 2i, 3i, 5i, 5ii) 7) describe the role of family as a factor for involvement in student literacy acquisition and development (LDE: 1b, 5a, 5c, 5d; CDE: 5.8, 5.9; TESOL: 2; INTASC: 10) 8) recognize and appreciate the importance of alternative methods and materials for English Language Learners (LDE: 2c, 3b; CDE: 3.1, 3.6, 5.3, 6.1, 6.2; TESOL: 3; INTASC: 2, 3, 4, 5; NETS: 3i, 6i, 6ii, 6iv) 9) id entify and discuss effective strategies for setting up and maintaining a positive (LDE: 2c, 3c; CDE: 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 6.1, 6.2; TESOL: 3; INTASC: 1, 2; NETS: 3i, 6i, 6ii, 6iv ) 10) identify and demonstrate a variety of resources, including the Internet and e mail, the community and the school, as critical factors that support and promote the engagement of students in their language and literacy development (LDE: 3d, 5b, 5f; CDE: 5.6, 7.1; TESOL: 3; INTASC: 6, 10; NETS: 2i, 2ii, 2iii, 3i, 3ii, 5iii) Reasonable accommodations will be made for students who have a documented disability that interferes with completion of this course. It is your responsibility to requ est any accommodation before assignments are due Please contact the Disability Services Office the first week of classes located in Main Hall #105 or call 719 255 3354, or let me know if you have any questions or need assistance.

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308 Course Requirements: 1. Navigating the course website: It is very important for everyone to become familiar with how the course website operates and how the particular features function. The more you engage in the opportunities presented, the easier it will be for you to navig ate this course. 2. Preparation: Your preparation should include a careful, critical reading of assigned materials so that you each bring your questions and insights to the class discussions. Your membership in this class through your reading, your writ ing and your sharing is valued and essential. Completion of required readings and assignments, and participation in the online discussions and activities is expected, and is indicative of your professional attitude and behavior. There is no substitute for actual quality interaction with your peers. The process of interacting involves reflection to challenge your personal beliefs, and listening to the perspectives of others. Moreover, it requires that you ask questions to clarify your thinking, building fr om a positive attitude or mindset. It is very simple to build discussions on what is wrong with an approach, a method or a perspective to research processes; that is, be negative or take a negative approach. It is more difficult, and the mark of a true pro fessional, to build a discussion based on constructive criticism of teaching and interacting with learners whose first language is other than English. This is a graduate level course. As a graduate student, you are expected to demonstrate thinking and work that is in concert with graduate school expectations. All of your assignments will carry an expectation of graduate level thinking, understanding, and scholarship. 3. Course Materials and Assignments: This syllabus is your guide to the course, the contract with your instructor and your set of rules for the course. Master the contents of this syllabus during the first week and use it as a reference before you turn in any work. If you have any questions, please ask your instructor. These assignments are designed to assist you in preparing for active participation in the learning activities, to use writing as a tool for learning, and to develop skills that will be needed to communicate in writing with individuals in the school setting. The course assig nments cannot be successfully completed without a thorough study of the assigned readings. If you follow the syllabus, you shouldn't become lost. SOME ADVICE: Keep up with the readings and the various assignments. If you fall behind, you most likely will find yourself overwhelmed and frustrated. If you are behind in your assignments for any reason, please discuss it with me before it becomes a chronic situation. Note that there are deadlines throughout the syllabus that indicate what you must have complete d and by what date. 4. Evaluation Process:

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309 There will be a number of evaluations as a usual part of this course. Furthermore, your performance with the various assignments will indicate your level of understanding of the concepts and the methods, and of your degree of preparedness to effectively engage students in language and literacy acquisition processes. Your final reflection of your learning is an important component of this course. 5. Academic Honesty As a member of the CU Colorado Springs academ ic community, please adhere to the following guidelines: (a) reference all work; (b) do not use projects from previous courses; and (c) do not plagiarize. Please review the CU Colorado Springs Course Bulletin ( http://ww w.uccs.edu ) for additional information regarding academic honesty. 6. Technology Competencies It is expected that candidates begin our program with basic computing skills that include using Microsoft Word to write papers, accessing online research databases and corresponding by email. Knowledge of the use of technology supported multimedia, such as PowerPoint and other audio/video resources is a plus; those who do not already have a working knowledge of their use will develop it over the course of their pr ogram. Communications will be in our course or email. All students must obtain a UCCS email address and check it regularly (at least every day) so as not to miss announcements. An idea: if your UCCS address is not your primary one, have emails from it rerouted to the one you check daily. 7. BLACKBOARD Competencies All faculty members in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction are required to use Blackboard to manage their courses. This includes the syllabus, course schedule, and assignment crite ria (if not detailed in the syllabus). Students need to become familiar with document sharing, assignment upload, and the grade book. 8. Online Participation and Discussion Like the instructor, students are expected to be thoroughly prepared for course activities, meaning all assigned reading has been completed and questions on the reading have been raised in our course; concepts, definitions, examples, and procedures presented in the text and previous classes are understood well enough to be discussed; individual or group assignments have been prepared; and the student is ready to engage in online course activities. Class participation is vital for acquiring the knowledge necessary to meet the course objectives. Additionally, students' presence and pa rticipation contribute to an interchange of ideas and experiences that benefit everyone. The instructor reserves the right to reduce a student's grade for consistent lack of participation. 9. Ethical Conduct The responsibility for ethical conduct, acade mic honesty and integrity rests with each individual member of the UCCS community. The Student Codes and Academic Policies (which may be found at http://www.uccs.edu/~dos/studentconduct/inde x.html ) are

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310 followed in this class. In general, academic dishonesty includes, but is not limited to, cheating on assignments or examinations, plagiarism (which means misrepresenting as your own any work done by another), misuse of academic materials, or interfering with program. 10. Diversity Statement The faculty of the College of Education is committed to preparing students to recognize, appreciate, and support div ersity in all forms including ethnic, cultural, religious, gender, economic, physical, and intellectual while striving to provide fair and equitable treatment and consideration for all. Any student who believes that he/she has not been treated fairly or equitably for any reason should bring it to the attention of the instructor. 11. Special Assistance Reasonable accommodations will be made for students who have a documented disability, which interferes with completion of this course. It is your resp onsibility to request any accommodations before assignments are due. Please contact Disability Services (255 3354) or the instructor if you have questions. 12. Military Students Military students who have the potential to participate in military activit ies including training and deployment should consult with faculty prior to registration for any course, but no later than the end of the first week of classes. At this time, the student should provide the instructor with a schedule of planned absences, pre ferably signed by the student's commander, in order to allow the instructor to evaluate and advise the student on the possible impact of the absences. In this course, the instructor will consider absences due to participation in verified military activit ies to be excused absences, on par with those due to other unavoidable circumstances such as illness. If, however, it appears that military obligations will prevent adequate attendance or performance in the course, the instructor may advise the student to register for the course at another time, when she/he is more likely to be successful. 13. Appeals In any academic issue, including attendance decisions, students may exercise their right to appeal. Should the faculty member and student be unable to ag ree on appropriate accommodation under this policy, either party shall have the right to request mediation as outlined in the grievance policies of the College of Education and the UCCS Student Standards. 14. Assignments, more specifically: It is importa nt for teachers, who are responsible for teaching ELLs to read and write, to be able to write well themselves. You will be role models for your students, and they and their families will expect all communications from you to be accurate. You are expected to demonstrate a high level of proficiency in all oral and written work. Therefore, all of

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311 your assignments should reflect the high standard of excellence in literacy expected of teachers and other educators. All written assignments must be typewritten/ word processed When turning in assignments, please include a cover page with the title, the course and section number, and your name The general assignments are listed below. A. Introduction. course using a threaded discussion forum. The bios will help everyone to get acquainted as well as become accustomed to the functions and operations of the course learning management system (CLMS). I look forward to meeting all of you and working with you this semester. B. Weekly Discussion Forums Your reading, thinking, and experiences with research are valued and essential. Regular contributions to the discussions are critical. In a course of this sort in a regular classroom, there is a great deal of discussion based on the readings and experiences of the class participants. In light of our online format, we will foster the same sort of discussion using the discussion forum each week. Please post your initial response by Thursday evenings and respond to posts by Sunday evenings. (5 points each x 15 weeks) C. Field Assignments. There are three field assignments to be done outside of class that help you to link the ideas and the discussions in the class to the community, public schools, and classrooms. Field Assignment #1 : Find out about how ELL chi ldren are served at a local school (Video recording provided.) Field Assignment #2 : Attend an activity or event that is different from your own past cultural experiences (for example, participate in an ESL family night at a local school, attend a religiou s service of a faith that you are not familiar with (perhaps in a different language), take part in Cinco de Mayo celebration, etc.) Field Assignment #3 : Observe a class or tutoring session with an ESL teacher or paraprofessional D. Exam. This will be an online exam that will cover material through the first 12 weeks of the course. E. Final Paper. A scholarly paper will demonstrate your advanced knowledge and understanding of language and literacy acquisition theories, and of the methods and materials appropriate of effective pedagogy. There are many appropriate topic ideas. The most important thing to keep in mind is that the topic should be narrowed appropriately to reflect a clear thesis. Here are some possible topics:

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312 The pros of bilingual educa tion The pros of an inclusion program TPR(S) any other area) Legislation affe Teaching from a multicultural perspective Dialects of English How Native American students can succeed in school Parent/family involvement F. Self evaluation/ reflection A self assessment and evaluation of your learning in this course that starts with your understandings of ELLs and ESL processes the first day and culminates in taking stock of your growth by the end of the semester. For this class, in Week 1, you will write your initial ideas about language learners and lan guage learning. Midway through the course, you will complete a journal entry about your learning. At the end of the course, you again will write about what you have learned. These journals will culminate in a short paper reflecting on your experience in the class. See specific guidelines posted. Graduate Credit : For graduate credit, you are expected to demonstrate thinking and work that is in concert with graduate school expectations. All of your assignments will carry a graduate level of expectati on for scholarship. Grades : Grades will be based on your projects, on your timely completion of the written assignments, and on your participation in the discussions and the activities. The mechanics of writing including spelling, punctuation, and gram mar WILL affect your grade. Before you submit anything as a final draft, be sure that it is a final copy. That is, be sure to proofread, spell check, edit, check for logic and readability, grammar, etc. The Publication Manual of the American Psychologica l Association must be used to guide your mechanics. (It is sold in the bookstore, and is available in the library.) Reading your work out loud before you do your final draft is a good way to edit it. You may also make appointments at the Writing Center f or help. Concise prose, clarity of ideas and creative synthesis of the concepts will be expected. All work must be typed, double spaced and on time. Late assignments will be penalized 10% for each day past due. No papers will be accepted after scored pa pers are returned in class. Each assignment will be awarded points based on criteria that fit the nature of the task. Grade points for this course are weighted as follows: Grading Assignments and Points: Introduction (Who I Am PowerPoint) 25 Discus sions (5 pts. X 15 weeks) 75

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313 Three Field Based Assignments (3 X 50 pts each) 150 Exam 150 Final Paper 150 Self Evaluation/Reflection Journals and Paper 50 TOTAL 600 points Grades will be computed as follows: A = 94% to 10 0% A = 90% to 93% Please note that students who earn a grade of C or less must B+ = 87% to 89% repeat the course. B = 84% to 86% B = 80% to 83%

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314 T Ed 58 0 0 Online Class Schedule Please Note: This schedule is subjec t to change with sufficient notice. Week Date Topics Required Readings/ Viewings Assignments & Activities Assessments 1 8/22 Introductions Who are our ELLs? Legal considerations for serving ELLs 1) ESL acronyms explained 2) Legal requirements 3) CDE Introductions: Who I Am PowerPoint & Background Questionnaire Initial Journal Surveys Post Introductions in Discussion Area Journal entry 2 8/29 Historical Background Sociological and Cultural Considerations 1) Shelte red Content Instruction (SCI) Ch. 1, 2 2) Ovando, C. (2003). 3) Colorado Department of Culture and Equity Unit: ELL Guidebook section 1.3 (pp. 19 22). Links found in weekly units. Participate in discus sion Participate in discussion 3 9/5 ELD Programs 1)Colorado Department of Culture and Equity Unit: ELL Guidebook (Appendix H). Links found in weekly course readings. Participate in discussion Carry out Field Assignment #1 Parti cipate in discussion Field Assignment #1 due 4 9/12 Language Development HLL Ch. 1 Participate in discussion Participate in discussion 5 9/19 Second Language Acquisition 1) HLL Ch. 2 2) Wong Fillmore & Snow to Know about Participate in discussion Participate in discussion

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315 L Link found in weekly units. 3) Colorado Department of Culture and Equity Unit: ELL Guidebook section 1.2 (pp. 14 18. Links found in weekly units. 6 9/26 Introduction to S heltered Content Instruction 1) SCI Ch. 3 2) Link to SIOP website 3) Short YouTube video on SIOP View YouTube video Participate in discussion Participate in discussion 7 10/3 Factors Influencing Second Language Development 1) SCI Ch. 4 2) HLL Ch. 3 Participa te in discussion of Field Assignment 2 Carry out Field Assignment #2 Participate in discussion Field Assignment 2 due 8 10/10 Learner Language 1) HLL Ch. 4 2) Read through Language Samples for Discussion Participate in discussion of Language Samples Mi d semester Journal Participate in discussion Journal entry 9 10/17 Learning Strategies and Curricular Adaptations 1) SCI Ch. 5, 6, 7 2) Second Language Acquisition Stages and Strategies Participate in discussion Participate in discussion 10 10/24 Linking T heory to Classroom Observations Review SCI Ch. 2 HLL Ch. 5 Participate in discussion Carry out Field Assignment #3 Participate in discussion Field Assignment #3 due 11 10/31 Approaches to ELL Instruction HLL Ch. 6 Participate in discussion Participate in discussion 12 11/7 Literacy Acquisition for ELLs Read link to Pikes Peak Literacy Strategies Project Participate in discussion Take Exam Participate in discussion Exam 13 11/14 Literacy Acquisition for ELLs: Focus on TPRS Click and read links for: 1) TP R Participate in discussion Participate in discussion

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316 2) TPRS 11/21 11/25 Thanksgiving No class! 14 11/28 Assessment considerations for ELLs SCI Ch. 8 Link to Colorin Colorado website on assessment for ELLs Participate in discussion Final Journal en try Participate in discussion Journal entry due 15 12/5 Research findings No readings. Participate in discussion Post Final Paper Participate in discussion Final Paper due 16 12/12 Course conclusion / Final reflections No readings Participate in d iscussion Post Final Reflection Surveys revisited Participate in discussion Self Assessment/ Reflection due

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317 APPENDIX J GUIDELINES FOR COURSE FIELD ASSIGNMENTS TED 5800 Field Assignment Guidelines Field Assignment #1 Guidelines Field Assignment #1 has three main purposes: 1. to increase your awareness of pedagogical considerations in educating ELLs 2. to increase awareness about how ELLs are being served in your community 3. to anchor theoretical considerations to student learning. Steps to c omplete Field Assignment #1: 1. Download the ESL Directors Panel Discussion from Week 2 on Blackboard. Expect this to take at least 30 mins to download and a few hours to complete the viewing and write up. 2. Take notes during your viewing. Also, you may wish to create additional questions that either I can answer, or I can submit the questions to the directors. 3. Type and post a narrative (1 2 pages) describing your reaction to the panel discussion. As in all your written work, this assignment must be typed and carefully edited for grammar, punctuation, and mechanics. After listening to the panel discussion on how our local school districts assess and attend to the needs of our ELLs, please do the following: Provide a brief summary of at least two or three main points that you took away from the discussion and discuss how this information will impact you as an educator. Give your personal reaction to the discussion. What did you find surprising? What information was most useful to you? Considering the readings, what we are learning in class, your personal experiences, and the panel discussion, do you have comments, questions or concerns related to the panel discussion and/or how ELLs are served in Colorado or elsewhere? Field Assignment #2 Guidel ines Field Assignment #2 has three main purposes: 1. to facilitate positive awareness of cultural and/or linguistic diversity 2. to increase community interaction and community building through experiencing, e xploring and supporting cultural and linguist ic diversity 3. to increase awareness of issues faced by linguistic and/or cultural minorities Field Assignment #2 Description : Attend an activity or event that is different from your own past cultural experiences and conducted in a language with whic h you are not familiar. For example, attend a religious service in a different language (several Jewish Temples, a Russian Orthodox Church, and

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318 etc. Or you may participat e in at least one complete lesson learning a new language (preferably one which is written in a non roman alphabet). The course must be taught in a language with which you are not familiar. (If you took 4 years of high school Spanish, please do NOT attend a Spanish lesson). This experience most closely relates to the experiences of ELLs. Considerations for completing Field Assignment #2: 1. Select an event or language program Select something completely new and different. It may push you outside of your comfort zone, but for the purpose of this assignment, that is what we want! This is an opportunity to experience on a very small scale what your ELLs experience on a daily basis. 2. Contact an institution ahead of time Many places might have schedules, dress requirements, fees, activities, etc. which you might consider in making your choice of what you would like to attend. Calling ahead to answer questions, clarify logistics and make contact can ease the process for you, especially if you are consideri ng language learning. Attending a celebratory event has a good number of components that transcend specific cultures and thus make attendance or participation a little more familiar. f the experience. Focus on the relevancy of language, cultural components of communication, both linguistic and gestural, as well as competencies or understandings that seem necessary for successful participation. You might make a list of questions before hand to help you keep in mind what you will write about later and what things to pay attention to and take notes on while you attend this event or lesson. To get you started, here are some questions you may choose to ask: How did I come to choose this event or language lesson? What are my gut reactions at different instances in this experience? How easy or challenging was it for me to attend this event and to participate? Is this a regular event or a special occasion? Are other language learners beginning at the same level as I am? Are others affiliated with this language or institution or culture in a more familiar or habitual way? What are the expectations I place on myself to attend or participate? What are the expectations of me from the ot her people present? What confused me? What frightened me? What did I enjoy? What made me have to think about something I normally take for granted?

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319 What made you curious? What seemed impossible to ever understand? What elements transcended language or culture? 4. Be cordial with those you interact with As much as possible during this assignment, suspend judgment while in contact wit h those who speak this language or live within this culture. You are attending as an observer and a learner You may experience many negative or positive emotions, and I recommend just keeping track of these and process them as you write up your analysis of this experience. 5. Submit your assignment according to the guidelines provided Take detailed notes during your interactions and observations. You may also ask permission to record the event, lesson or conversation. Then, submit a 3 4 page analysis of your impressions, feelings, questions, concerns, challenges, successes and learning. Refer to the following rubric to calibrate yourself to the grading and assigned points. As in all your written work, this assignment must be typed, double spaced, an d carefully support of ideas, personal voice and variety of word choice, and mechanics. Please include a cover page with the title of the assignment, the course and sect ion number, the date, and your name. Reference correctly any works you cite according to APA formatting conventions. Field Assignment #3 Guidelines Field Assignment #3 has three main purposes: 1. to increase your awareness of pedagogical considerations in educating ELLs 2. to increase awareness about how ELLs are being served in your community 3. to anchor theoretical considerations to actual student learning. Steps to complete Field Assignment #3: 1. Select the school or educational program Selec t the school or program in which you are currently working, or in which you plan to work. Decide on which school and classroom to observe. This may require a bit of informal research on your part, and might be in the same school or district in which you completed Field Assignment #1. Contact me if you are having trouble finding a class to observe. 2. Contact the ESL coordinator or classroom teacher There may be one ELL classroom at a school, or there may be a variety of classes offered to ELLs at a particular school. Set up a convenient time for you to watch one or several classes where ELLs are served. It may prove interesting to watch an ELL only class, and to watch an immersion class with ELLs. Keep a record of what is offered at a school and w hat you chose to observe. **Whenever possible, try to observe a teacher with at least 3 years of experience.

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320 3. Set up a time to meet with the ESL professional Most ESL professionals will welcome you to observe their class or program. Please remember t hey are busy professionals. Please be respectful and mindful of their schedules. Be sure to schedule a time to observe based on their schedule and meet them at their school or office. ** Also, schedule a time before or after your observation to talk w ith the teacher. This is an opportunity to clarify any questions you may have about the class itself (i.e. class composition, pedagogical considerations, or teaching methodologies being used) or about the teacher. Be sure to limit the conversation to no mo time is extremely valuable. Include what you learned from this meeting in your write up. 4. Observing Classes with ELLs Remember, a primary goal of this assignment is to observe actual practices and challenges in the classroom when teaching ELLs. Create questions and conversation starters with this goal in mind. To get you started, here are some considerations for recording an observation: Make a diagram of the desks, tables, boards, and screens relevant to the stud ents and lesson delivery Record or map out where students are seated and where the teacher is located throughout the lesson. Record the students with codes for gender or other demographics you wish to consider, such as first language distribution pattern s. Make notes of what is presented on the walls. Make notes of any lesson objectives identified for the students. Record patterns of questioning with tally marks next to each student as they are invited to speak or as they request to speak. List group ing structures used. Keep a time record in the margin for when the teacher switches activity or pacing. Keep a record of texts, graphics, maps, diagrams, media, etc. that aided in lesson delivery or in practice and application. Feel free to use the SIOP protocol to guide you in things you might consider as you watch the lesson. Keep an open mind to what you see. You are there to record. 5. Follow up with a thank you letter or email This is self establish good working relationships. 6. Submit your assignment according to the guidelines provided Take notes during your observation and any conversations relate d to the observation. You may also ask permission to record the class. Write a substantial narrative (3 4 pages) according to the following guidelines. As in all your written work, this assignment must be typed, double spaced, and carefully edited for g rammar, punctuation,

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321 and mechanics. Please include a cover page with the title of the assignment, the course and section n umber, the date, and your name.