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Assessment of concrete masonry units containing aggregate replacements of waste glass and rubber tire particles

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Assessment of concrete masonry units containing aggregate replacements of waste glass and rubber tire particles
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Isler, Jerry W
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Concrete masonry ( lcsh )
Glass waste ( lcsh )
Crumb rubber ( lcsh )
Concrete masonry ( fast )
Crumb rubber ( fast )
Glass waste ( fast )
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Sustainable construction has become an interest in the engineering community and several standards have been developed to assess the environmental impact of new construction projects. Research has shown that it is possible to use recycled materials to replace some of the traditional mixture components in concrete products and produce a more sustainable building material. Two materials that are currently recycled and have the possibility of use in concrete applications are waste glass and rubber tire particles. Because concrete masonry units are an important and widely used building material it is of interest to determine if the recycled materials can be used to make a concrete block with similar properties as those made with stone aggregate. This paper examines the use of waste glass and rubber tire particles as a fine aggregate replacement for the mixture design of concrete masonry units. Typically masonry units are made in an automated manufacturing process that is different from other concrete production. The process consists of filling molds with plastic cementitious material and consolidating the material by rigorous vibration and direct pressure. The units are then quickly removed from the molds and transferred to the curing section of the production facility. Testing of trial mixtures can be done by evaluating small batch trials at a production block manufacturing facility, but often this is impractical and expensive. The concrete masonry units in this research were evaluated in the laboratory under conditions meant to replicate an automated manufacturing process. Concrete masonry units made with fine aggregate replacement consisting of waste glass and rubber tire particles were evaluated and compared to current engineering standards. Properties such as unit weight, compressive strength and absorption were evaluated. The visual and aesthetic characteristics of the block and any potential benefits or problems were reviewed.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
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by Jerry W. Isler.

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Full Text
ASSESSMENT OF CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS CONTAINING AGGREGATE
REPLACEMENTS OF WASTE GLASS AND RUBBER TIRE PARTICLES
by
Jerry W. Isler
B.S., University of Colorado Denver, 1984
A thesis submitted to the
University of Colorado Denver in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Science
Civil Engineering
2012


This thesis for the Master of Science degree by
Jerry W. Isler
has been approved by
Dr. Frederick Rutz, Advisor
Dr. Kevin Rens
Dr. Rui Liu
Date: 4-13-2012


Isler, Jerry W. (M.S., Civil Engineering)
Assessment of Concrete Masonry Units Containing Aggregate Replacements of Waste
Glass and Rubber Tire Particles
Thesis directed by Assistant Professor Dr. Frederick Rutz
ABSTRACT
Sustainable construction has become an interest in the engineering community and
several standards have been developed to assess the environmental impact of new
construction projects. Research has shown that it is possible to use recycled materials to
replace some of the traditional mixture components in concrete products and produce a
more sustainable building material. Two materials that are currently recycled and have the
possibility of use in concrete applications are waste glass and rubber tire particles.
Because concrete masonry units are an important and widely used building material it is of
interest to determine if the recycled materials can be used to make a concrete block with
similar properties as those made with stone aggregate.
This paper examines the use of waste glass and rubber tire particles as a fine aggregate
replacement for the mixture design of concrete masonry units. Typically masonry units are
made in an automated manufacturing process that is different from other concrete
production. The process consists of filling molds with plastic cementitious material and
consolidating the material by rigorous vibration and direct pressure. The units are then
quickly removed from the molds and transferred to the curing section of the production
facility. Testing of trial mixtures can be done by evaluating small batch trials at a


production block manufacturing facility, but often this is impractical and expensive. The
concrete masonry units in this research were evaluated in the laboratory under conditions
meant to replicate an automated manufacturing process.
Concrete masonry units made with fine aggregate replacement consisting of waste glass
and rubber tire particles were evaluated and compared to current engineering standards.
Properties such as unit weight, compressive strength and absorption were evaluated. The
visual and aesthetic characteristics of the block and any potential benefits or problems
were reviewed.
This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidates thesis. I recommend its
publication.
Approved: Dr. Frederick Rutz


ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The research for this thesis was performed in the concrete testing laboratory at the
University of Colorado at Denver. Because an unfunded research project can be a
challenge to undertake, the author would like to thank the following companies for
generously donating materials used in this project and encouraging research in a more
sustainable future: Rocky Mountain Bottling Company for donating the waste glass
material and Academy Sports Turf for supplying the rubber tire particles.
Id like to thank my advisors, Dr. Stephan Durham and Dr. Frederick Rutz for their
assistance during the preparation of this thesis. I also would like to thank all the members
of my committee for their participation and insights into this project.
Finally, I wish to thank my parents, Dick and Jean Isler, and other family members for their
kindness in supporting this thesis. All of their contributions, whether large or small, were
greatly appreciated and will not be forgotten.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Figures...........................................................................vii
Tables ...........................................................................viii
Chapter
1. Introduction................................................................1
2. Literature Review...........................................................3
2.1 Concrete Masonry Construction...............................................3
2.2 Sustainable Concrete Masonry Practices......................................3
2.3 Waste Glass Recycling.......................................................5
2.4 Concrete Masonry Units Made With Waste Glass................................6
2.5 Concrete Made With Waste Glass..............................................7
2.6 Fresh Concrete Properties of Concrete Made With Waste Glass............7
2.6.1 Unit Weight.................................................................7
2.6.2 Slump ......................................................................7
2.6.3 Air Content ................................................................8
2.7 Hardened Concrete Properties of Concrete Made With Waste Glass..............8
2.7.1 Compressive Strength........................................................8
2.7.2 Tensile and Flexural Strength...............................................9
2.7.3 Alkali-Silica Reaction.....................................................10
2.7.4 Freeze-Thaw Durability.....................................................11
2.8 Waste Tire Recycling.......................................................12
2.9 Concrete Masonry Units Made With Rubber Tire Particles.....................14
2.10 Concrete Made With Rubber Tire Particles...................................15
2.11 Fresh Concrete Properties of Concrete Made With Rubber Tire Particles......16
2.11.1 Unit Weight................................................................16
2.11.2 Slump .....................................................................16
2.11.3 Air Content ...............................................................17
2.12 Hardened Concrete Properties of Concrete Made With Rubber Tire Particles ...17
2.12.1 Compressive Strength.......................................................17
2.12.2 Flexural Strength..........................................................19
2.12.3 Freeze-Thaw Durability.....................................................19
2.12.4 Thermal Properties.........................................................19
2.12.5 Potential Health Hazards...................................................20
3. Problem Statement..........................................................22
4. Experimental Plan..........................................................24
4.1 Laboratory Plan and Goals..................................................24
4.2 Testing Concrete Masonry Mixtures in the Laboratory........................25
4.3 Designing Concrete Masonry Unit Mixtures...................................27
4.4 Materials .................................................................28
4.5 Phase 1 Determining Control Mixture Proportions and Calibrating
Laboratory Equipment.......................................................28
4.6 Phase 2 Examination of Aggregate Replacement in CMU Mixtures.............29
v


4.7 Concrete Properties......................................................29
4.8 Viability As A Construction Material.....................................30
5. Results .................................................................32
5.1 Phase 1 Determining Mixture Proportions and Calibrating
Laboratory Equipment....................................................32
5.2 Materials ...............................................................32
5.3 Gradation Test...........................................................35
5.4 Dry Rodded Unit Weight...................................................37
5.5 Control Mixture Proportions..............................................37
5.6 Compaction...............................................................42
5.7 Phase 1 Results..........................................................46
5.8 Phase 2 Effect of Aggregate Replacement with Recycled Materials........52
6. Conclusions..............................................................69
6.1 Conclusions and Recommendations..........................................69
6.2 Recommendations for Future Studies.......................................71
Appendix
A Information on Materials Used in Mixture Designs.................74
A. 1 Materials Used in Research...............................................74
B Results Data.............................................................80
B. 1 Phase 1 Results Data.....................................................80
B.2 Phase 2 Results Data.....................................................87
References ............................................................96
VI


FIGURES
Figure
2.1 U.S. Scrap Tire Disposition 2003........................................14
5.1 Waste Glass.............................................................33
5.2 Trash in Waste Glass....................................................34
5.3 Crumb Rubber............................................................34
5.4 Gradation of Fine Aggregates............................................36
5.5 Gradation of Coarse Aggregates..........................................37
5.6 Water to Cement Ratio at Which Mixture Will Ball........................40
5.7 Squeeze Test............................................................41
5.8 Drop Hammer Compaction Equipment........................................43
5.9 Collar for Mold.........................................................44
5.10 7 Day Compressive Strength vs. Unit Weight..............................46
5.11 Cubes Removed from Mold Immediately After Compaction....................47
5.12 Cube Produced Top View................................................48
5.13 7 Day and 28 Day Absorption.............................................49
5.14 Unit Weight of Trail Mixtures...........................................50
5.15 Compressive Strength vs. Water to Cement Ratio Trial Mixtures.........51
5.16 Compressive Strength vs. Percent Cement Trial Mixtures................52
5.17 1 Day Unit Weight vs. Percent Fine Aggregate Replacement................55
5.18 7 Day Unit Weight vs. Percent Fine Aggregate Replacement................56
5.19 Absorption vs. Percent Fine Aggregate Replacement.......................57
5.20 7 Day Strength vs. Percent Fine Aggregate Replacement...................58
5.21 7 Day Strength Decrease vs. Percent Fine Aggregate Replacement..........59
5.22 28 Day Strength vs. Percent Fine Aggregate Replacement..................60
5.23 28 Day Strength Decrease vs. Percent Fine Aggregate Replacement.........61
5.24 7 and 28 Day Strength Curves for Waste Glass Mixtures...................64
5.25 7 and 28 Day Strength Curves for Rubber Tire Particles Mixtures.........65
5.26 Photo of CMU Cube with Waste Glass Top View...........................67
5.27 Photo of CMU Cube with Rubber Tire Particles Bottom View..............68
5.28 Photo of CMU Cube with Rubber Tire Particles Side View................68
A.1 Potential Alkali Reactivity Testing.....................................78
A. 2 Fine Aggregate Gradation and Soundness Testing..........................79
B. 1 Trendline 7 Day Compressive Strength vs. Unit Weight..................82
B.2 Trendline 7 Day and 28 Day Absorption.................................83
B.3 Trendline Unit Weight of Trial Mixtures...............................84
B.4 Trendline Compressive Strength vs. Water to Cement Ratio Trial Mixtures.86
B.5 Trendline Compressive Strength vs. Percent Cement Trial Mixtures....87
B.6 Trendline 1 Day Unit Weight vs. Percent Aggregate Replacement.........89
B.7 Trendline 7 Day Unit Weight vs. Percent Aggregate Replacement.........90
B.8 Trendline Absorption vs. Percent Aggregate Replacement................92
B.9 Trendline 7 Day Compressive Strength vs. Percent Aggregate Replacement....93
B.10 Trendline 28 Day Compressive Strength vs. Percent Aggregate Replacement...95
vii


TABLES
Table
2.1 Chemical composition of waste glass.........................................5
2.2 Typical composition of manufactured tires by weight........................13
5.1 Gradation test of fine aggregates..........................................35
5.2 Gradation test of coarse aggregates........................................36
5.3 Unit weight of aggregates..................................................37
5.4 Mixture proportions of trial control mixtures..............................41
5.5 Moisture content of aggregates.............................................42
5.6 Mixture proportions of control mixture.....................................52
5.7 Proportions of mixtures containing waste glass............................53
5.8 Proportions of mixtures containing crumb rubber............................53
A.1 Concrete masonry mixture design materials..................................74
A. 2 Chemical composition of cement.............................................75
B. 1 Data for 7 day compressive strength vs. unit weight........................80
B.2 Data for 7 day and 28 day absorption.......................................82
B.3 Data for unit weight of trial mixtures.....................................84
B.4 Data for compressive strength vs. water to cement ratio trial mixtures...85
B.5 Data for compressive strength vs. percent cement trial mixtures..........86
B.6 Data for 1 day unit weight waste glass replacement.........................87
B.7 Data for 1 day unit weight crumb rubber replacement........................88
B.8 Data for 7 day unit weight.................................................89
B.9 Data for absorption strength vs. percent aggregate replacement.............91
B.10 Data for 7 day compressive strength vs. percent aggregate replacement......92
B.11 Data for 28 day compressive strength vs. percent aggregate replacement.....94
viii


1. Introduction
Currently there is a growing awareness that humanity may be living in an unsustainable
manner with respect to its usage of natural resources. Although the supply of natural
resources is finite, the demand for raw materials has increased greatly in recent years.
The growing demand for natural resources is thought to be the result of a number of
causalities such as technological improvements that have made more products available to
society, rising affluence levels in the developing world and the overall increase in the global
population. Another concern about the use of natural resources is the potential generation
of C02 emissions and their harmful effect on the environment. These concerns have led to
a re-evaluation of how natural resources are used and call for the implementation of more
sustainable practices that preserve resources and allow them to endure for the future.
In response to these concerns, the engineering community has begun to develop programs
and standards that address sustainable construction practices. The U.S. Green Building
Council has developed the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)
program that provides guidelines to certify that proposed construction projects use
resources that meet metrics for more sustainable construction (U S Green Building Council
2011). The International Standards Organization has developed a number of standards to
be used in environmental assessment methods (ISO 2012). Recently the Portland Cement
Association (PCA 2009) has proposed several amendments to the International Building
Code (International Code Council 2009) that consider sustainability. The amendments
differentiate between a high performance building that uses sustainable construction
practices and code requirements based upon minimum standards. Sustainability is an
1


important emerging topic in the field of engineering. Buildings and construction activities
worldwide consume 3 billion tons of raw materials or 40% of the total global use (Roodman
and Lenssen 1995). Therefore the design and construction of buildings is an important
area to examine in order to provide a more sustainable environment. One of the most
frequently used materials in building construction is the concrete masonry unit because of
its versatility and durability. Concrete blocks are made from cast concrete that is a mixture
of various batch materials including fine and coarse aggregates, cement and water.
Research on concrete mixtures has shown that it is possible to replace some of the
traditional batch ingredients with other materials such as those collected from recycling
processes. This feature of concrete mixtures presents a unique opportunity to use
materials that otherwise might be placed in a landfill.
Recycling involves the collecting and reprocessing of scrap materials into new, similar
materials. If a material cannot be reprocessed into its original form, often new uses for the
material are developed. Typically items that are collected for recycling include paper,
plastics, glass, metals, tires, motor oil and many other items. Two materials that present
possibilities for use in concrete block as an aggregate replacement are waste glass and
rubber tire particles. Waste glass has similar characteristic to the fine and coarse
aggregates traditionally used in concrete block while rubber tire particles are similar to
polypropylene fibers used in concrete to control minor cracking. Because sustainability is
an important topic in engineering and the mixture design of concrete block allows for the
possible use of recycled materials, this thesis will examine the potential for waste glass
and rubber tire particles to be used as an aggregate replacement in the mixture design of
concrete masonry units.
2


2.
Literature Review
2.1 Concrete Masonry Construction
Concrete masonry is a widely used building material provided on a number of projects
such as industrial buildings, schools, hospitals, and residential buildings. It is an appealing
building material because of its aesthetic appearance, versatility, durability and fire
resistance capabilities. Concrete masonry units are rectangular blocks made of cast
concrete with hollow cores. They are produced in an automated manufacturing process
that consists of batching mixture materials, placing the materials in a mold assembly and
then transferring the units to a curing operation. Units are made with different textures and
widths to meet job conditions, but have common lengths and heights to standardize
construction practices. Concrete masonry wall assemblies are constructed by joining
individual concrete blocks together with mortar joints. In architectural applications concrete
masonry units can be used as veneer or partition walls. Structural applications consist of
loadbearing members where reinforcing steel can be placed in the hollow cores of the
block and grouted in place to give the member its required strength.
2.2 Sustainable Concrete Masonry Practices
The Merriam-Webster on-line dictionary defines sustainability as a method of harvesting
or using a resource so that the resource is not depleted or permanently damaged
(Merriam-Webster 2010). Although there are many ways to define and measure
sustainability, one of the most widely used methods for determining sustainability of
building construction is the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)
3


program provided by the U.S. Green Building Council. LEED is defined as an
internationally recognized green building certification system, providing third-party
verification that a building or community was designed and built using strategies aimed at
improving performance across all metrics that matter most: energy savings, water
efficiency, C02 emissions reduction, improved indoor environmental quality and
stewardship of resources and sensitivity to their impacts (U S Green Building Council
2011). The LEED program has developed several categories to define sustainable
construction practices including: sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy and
atmosphere, materials and resources, indoor environmental quality, location and linkages,
awareness and education and innovation in design.
The concrete masonry industry has attempted to understand how masonry practices can
be more sustainable and promote known sustainable uses. Concrete masonry units are an
energy efficient material with a high thermal mass that store heat or cold for release at later
times. This storage capability allows the masonry to release energy when demand is not
during peak conditions saving energy and operating costs for the building. Other
sustainable masonry practices include examining the life-cycle cost and durability of
masonry walls. One example of this is the on-going research to reduce moisture infiltration
and provide proper drainage in masonry walls since moisture accumulation tends to reduce
the longevity of a wall assembly. Construction practices that utilize new types of
waterproofing or improved flashing techniques are currently being investigated. Finally,
sustainable masonry practices include re-examining the materials used in concrete
masonry. Materials that use less energy and eliminate the need for processing new raw
materials are favored over other materials. New sustainable materials being considered
include the use of new types of cements, fly ash, waste glass and other materials.
4


2.3 Waste Glass Recycling
The use of glass dates back for thousands of years and today covers a wide variety of
products. Typical uses of glass include container glass such as bottles and jars, flat glass
from which windows are made, specialized glass used in televisions and computer
screens, insulation made from fiberglass and other applications. Glass is made of sand,
calcium carbonate and limestone which are commonly found in nature. Shao et al. in their
study of the use of waste glass in concrete give the chemical composition of soda lime
glass and fly ash as shown in Table 2.1 (Shao et al. 2000).
Table 2.1 Chemical composition of waste glass
Chemical Composition Soda-lime glass
Si02 72.8
AI2O3 1.4
Fe203 -
Si02 + Al203 +Fe203 74.2
CaO 4.9
MgO 3.4
so3 -
K20 0.3
Na20 16.3
p2o5 -
Ti02 -
b2o3 1.0
Although glass can be melted down and reformed into new containers, several difficulties
with this process remain. Glass containers come in various colors and reuse of glass cullet
involves separation of the waste stream into various colors. Production plants that make
glass tend to be large centers located in a limited amount of locations throughout the
county. Energy must be used to transport the waste glass from the collection source over
5


a long distance to the production plant. These difficulties have led to the search for
alternative applications of recycled glass such as using crushed glass in civil engineering
projects.
2.4 Concrete Masonry Units Made With Waste Glass
Research into the use of waste glass in concrete masonry units is very limited. Meyer et
al. examined the use of waste glass in four different mixture designs of concrete masonry
units (Meyer et al. 2001). The batch mixtures were made at a local block manufacturing
facility. The first mixture was a control mixture with no waste glass. The second mixture
contained 10% fine aggregate replacement of waste glass that passed a #30 sieve. In the
third mixture 10% of the cement was replaced with finely ground glass powder that passed
a #400 sieve. Finally the fourth mixture contained 10% fine aggregate replacement waste
glass that passed a #30 sieve and 10% cement replacement of finely ground glass powder
passing a #400 sieve. A limit of the study was that only 10% of the aggregate was
replaced because of concerns about a possible alkali-silica reaction.
The research showed that the use of waste glass did not affect the strength of the units
significantly. There was a 8.9% strength reduction in the mixture with the 10% fine
aggregate replacement for the 28 day strength test. The alkali-silica reaction was found
not to be a problem and could be controlled. Future testing of the fire resistance of this
new product was recommended, but the researchers thought that this would not be an
issue since the aggregate the waste glass replaced had a similar composition. One
interesting result of the study was that the addition of waste glass increased the output of
the machinery used to produce the masonry by 6% which could result in a cost savings for
the block supplier.
6


2.5 Concrete Made With Waste Glass
Although the research on the use of waste glass in concrete masonry is limited, there is a
greater body of work on its use in concrete. A summary of this research is contained
below.
2.6 Fresh Concrete Properties of Concrete Made With Waste Glass
2.6.1 Unit Weight
The unit weights of concrete mixtures that contain waste glass as an aggregate
replacement tend to be slightly less than normal concrete mixtures. This has been
confirmed by a number of studies. Ismail and Al-Hashmi used waste glass as a fine
aggregate replacement in their study of various concrete mixtures. The fresh density of
mixtures containing 10%, 15% and 20% waste glass had a decrease in the unit weight of
the mixtures of 1.28%, 1.96% and 2.26% respectively. Their research used waste glass
that had a specific gravity of 2.19 and fine aggregate with a specific gravity of 2.57. The
difference in unit weight was attributed to the lower specific gravity of the waste glass
which was 14.8% lower than the fine aggregated used in the research (Ismail and Al-
Hashmi 2009).
2.6.2 Slump
The use of waste glass as an aggregate replacement tends to reduce the slump of a
concrete mixture. As the amount of waste glass increases, the slump accordingly
decreases and the mixture becomes less workable. When waste glass was used as a
coarse aggregate replacement, Topcu and Canbaz found that the slump of their concrete
7


mixture was 9.5 cm when no waste glass was used and 8 cm when 60% replacement was
used (Topcu and Canbaz 2004). Park et al. found a more significant decrease in their
study that used waste glass as a fine aggregate replacement. A mixture with no waste
glass had a slump of 13 cm whereas a mixture with 70% replacement had a slump of 8 cm.
The decrease in slump was thought to be because the waste glass had a very angular
shape. The waste glass particles used in this study were slightly larger than the sand
particles which may have affected the results. Still, Park et al. concluded that the decrease
did not severely affect the workability of the mixture and this potential problem could be
overcome with the use of admixtures (Park et al. 2004).
2.6.3 Air Content
Studies have found that the addition of waste glass to concrete mixtures results in higher
air contents. Park et al. found that mixtures with 30%, 50% and 70 % of fine aggregate
replacement with waste glass had an increase in air content of 12.2-21.6%, 23.71-30.4%
and 30.6-41.4% respectively. The increase in air content may be the result of the irregular
shape of the glass and its large surface area that trapped air when compared to traditional
aggregates (Park et al. 2004). The study done by Topcu and Canbaz similarly concluded
that the addition of waste glass decreased the air content of a concrete mixture (Topcu and
Canbaz 2004).
2.7 Hardened Concrete Properties of Concrete Made With Waste Glass
2.7.1 Compressive Strength
The use of waste glass in concrete tends to decrease the compressive strength of a
mixture. As the amount of waste glass increases, the compressive strength decreases
8


accordingly. Topcu and Canbaz studied the use of waste glass in concrete that had a size
between 4 and 16 mm. The mixtures studied contained two sizes of coarse aggregates as
well as fine aggregate or sand. The waste glass was used to replace a portion of the
smaller sized coarse aggregate. They found that mixtures with 15%, 30%, 45% and 60%
waste glass replacement rates decreased the compressive strength of the mixture by 8%,
15%, 31% and 49% respectively when tested after 28 days (Topcu and Canbaz 2004). A
study by Park et al. that replaced fine aggregate with waste glass showed a similar pattern
but less of a decrease in strength. In the study waste glass with a size less than 5 mm was
used. Mixtures with 30%, 50% and 70% showed a decrease in compressive strength of
0.6%, 9.8% and 13.6% respectively when tested after 28 days. In order to offset the
decrease in strength, a polymer was added to some mixtures containing waste glass and
was found to increase strength (Park et al. 2004).
Finely ground glass powder has been found to exhibit pozzolanic characteristics and
increase the strength of concrete. Shao et al. performed a study that compared mixtures
utilizing glass powder, fly ash and silica fume as replacement for cement. The
replacement rate was 30% for each mineral additive considered and the results were
compared to a control mixture. The study concluded that ground glass powder having a
size finer than 38-pm or passing a #400 sieve exhibited pozzolanic behavior in accordance
with (ASTM C 618 1998) and compared favorably to the fly ash mixtures. The mixture with
the glass powder had a higher early and later strength than the fly ash mixture (Shao et al.
2000).
2.7.2 Tensile and Flexural Strength
9


Topcu and Canbaz found that the tensile strength of concrete decreased as the amount of
waste glass increased in a mixture. The tensile strength decreased 37 % for a coarse
aggregate replacement of 60% waste glass (Topcu and Canbaz 2004). As mentioned
above, the waste glass replacement rate for the study was for the smaller coarse
aggregate used only not the total coarse aggregate used in the mixture. Park et al.
reported that waste glass resulted in a decrease of 5% in tensile strength for a 30% fine
aggregate replacement (Park et al. 2004). The flexural strength tests from Topcu and
Canbazs research demonstrated inconsistent results, but generally the flexural strength
decreased as the amount of added waste glass increased (Topcu and Canbaz 2004).
Park et al. showed that the flexural strength decreased by 3.2% with a replacement rate of
30% and 11.3% with a replacement rate of 50% (Park et al. 2004).
2.7.3 Alkali-Silica Reaction
Early research into concrete made with waste glass found that the concrete expanded and
cracked. Several studies have reported that the expansion of mixtures made with waste
glass as an aggregate are the result of an alkali-silica reaction (ASR). ASR is a reaction in
which concrete mixtures containing certain rocks used as an aggregate react with alkalis in
cement paste to form an expansive gel that cracks the concrete (Shi 2009).
In typical concrete production ASR can occur in mixtures made with certain siliceous rocks
and minerals such as opaline chert, strained quartz and acidic volcanic glass according to
the guidelines of ACI Committee 116 (Meyer et al. 2001). The formation of ASR gel takes
years to develop and it is difficult to predict when it will occur. Waste glass contains a high
amount of silica and studies have reported this to be the cause for the generation of ASR
10


in mixtures containing waste glass. Still there is much unknown about why mixtures made
with waste glass exhibit effects similar to ASR and how to mitigate its effect.
Research into limiting the potential for an alkali-silica reaction caused by waste glass have
employed traditional mitigation techniques for concrete aggregates that exhibit the potential
for ASR. These include using low alkaline cement, limiting the amount of material with
potential for an alkali-silica reaction and adding very fine siliceous materials such as fly
ash, silica fume or metakaolin (Lee et al. 2007).
As mentioned above waste glass ground into a fine powder has been found to exhibit
pozzolanic properties. Several research studies have indicated that the use of finely
ground glass powder reduces the effect of ASR. Shao et al. performed a study that
examined mixtures with glass powder and compared them to a control mixture. The
mixtures with glass powder reduced the expansion of a sample to half of that of the control
mixture when tested in accordance with (ASTM C 1260 1994) and were well within
acceptable limits (Shao et al. 2000). It is theorized that the higher surface area of the fine
glass powder may favor a rapid pozzolanic rate over a slower ASR rate during hydration of
the cement products.
2.7.4 Freeze-Thaw Durability
Research into the freeze-thaw durability of concrete by Polley et al. indicates that the
durability of mixtures containing an optimized amount of waste glass are acceptable
though slightly poorer than normal concrete mixtures with a low water to cement ratio
(Polley et al. 1998). Testing of concrete samples to determine their durability stiffness was
11


done per (ASTM C 666 1997). Generally, mixtures with fine aggregate replacement
performed better than mixtures that contained coarse and fine aggregate replacement. In
the study several mixtures containing various amounts of waste glass were made and
compared to a control mixture. Results of the study showed that the control mixtures
demonstrated a stiffness drop of 4-7% within 10 cycles followed by little reduction of
stiffness throughout the rest of the test. Mixtures with fine aggregate replacement of waste
glass showed a drop of 5.5 % after 10 cycles followed by a drop of 2% after 600 cycles for
mixtures with 20% replacement. Field testing of sidewalk pavement using waste glass was
observed during three winters in Wisconsin. The test sections showed excellent resistance
to freeze-thaw action. A small portion of the cement paste eroded from the top surface
during the test, but the glass aggregate was well embedded in the concrete (Polley et al.
1998).
2.8 Waste Tire Recycling
In 2007 the Rubber Manufacturers Association reported that 89.3% of scrap tires were
used in various manners. The total volume of waste tires used in the United States was
4105.8 thousand tons of tires. This represents a 13.5% increase in the amount of tires
used in 2005. Stockpiles of existing waste tires have been reduced by 87% since 1990,
but 128 million tires are still held across the country (Rubber Manufacturers Association,
Scrap Tire Markets 2009).
Tires are made of natural and synthetic rubber and often contain steel or fiber cords. The
material properties of rubber tires are shown in Table 2.2
12


As discussed in Section 4, the focus of this thesis will be on fine aggregate replacement in
concrete masonry units. Rubber tire particles are available in a number of different sizes
and shapes, but crumb rubber most closely resembles the fine aggregate of sand.
Siddique and Naik in their overview of concrete containing scrap tire rubber state that
crumb rubber consists of particles ranging in size from a No. 4 sieve to less than a No. 200
sieve (Siddique and Naik 2004).
Table 2.2 Typical composition of manufactured tires by weight
(Rubber Manufacturers Association, Scrap Tire Characteristics 2012)
Composition (wt.%) Passenger Tire Truck Tire
Natural rubber 14 27
Synthetic rubber 27 14
Carbon black 28 28
Steel 14-15 14-15
Fabric, filler, accelerators and antiozonants, etc. 16-17 16-17
A number of uses for scrap tires have been developed and are shown in Figure 2.1.
Siddique and Naik state that while many uses of tires are technically feasible, not all of
them are economically attractive (Siddique and Naik 2004).
13


Rubber, 9.7
Figure 2.1 U.S. Scrap Tire Disposition 2003
(Rubber Manufacturers Association, Toward a Cleaner Environment 2004)
2.9 Concrete Masonry Units Made With Rubber Tire Particles
A review of the literature on the use of rubber tire particles in concrete masonry units
(CMU) reveals that there has been very little research on its usage. Richard Frankowski
has a United States patent for CMU made with crumb rubber (Frankowski 1995). In the
patent, the CMU contained 100 parts of portland cement, 100 to 700 parts lightweight
aggregate, 1 to 30 parts crumb rubber, 10 to 30 parts water and some admixtures. The
14


proportions in the mixture were determined by weight. The patent claims that the CMU
made with crumb rubber had an improved crack resistance, heat conductivity resistance,
noise reduction, and shock wave absorption capability when compared to typical
lightweight units. The patent goes on to claim that the addition of crumb rubber to CMU
will result in greater mildew resistance because of porosity reduction, the units will be
lighter, the permeability of the units will be reduced and there will be less susceptibility to
handling damage during installation when compared to typical units. The compressive
strength of the CMU made with crumb rubber was less than a typical unit.
Cairns et al. studied the use of recycled tires in concrete masonry. Their research
examined replacement rates of 10%, 25% and 50% and compared these mixtures to a
control mixture that had a water to cement ratio of 0.87. The control mixture consisted of
two sizes of coarse aggregate, 6 mm and 10 mm. The rubber chips replaced only the
largest size of coarse aggregate used in the control mixture. They found that the
compressive strength of the units tested after 28 days decreased as the amount of rubber
increased. For replacement rates of 10%, the strength actually increased by 22%, but for
replacement of 25% and 50% the compressive strength decreased by 23%, and 41%
respectively. Cairns also examined the use of rubber chips coated with cement paste and
found that this slightly improved the compressive strength of the mixtures (Cairns et al.
2004).
2.10 Concrete Made With Rubber Tire Particles
15


Although there has been very little research on the use of rubber tire particles in concrete
block, more research on its usage in concrete has been performed. A review of the
literature on its usage in concrete is contained below.
2.11 Fresh Concrete Properties of Concrete Made With Rubber Tire Particles
2.11.1 Unit Weight
The specific gravity of rubber tire particles is much less than that of typical normal weight
aggregates used in concrete. Sukontasukkul in his study of crumb rubber used in precast
panels stated that the average bulk specific gravity of the crumb rubber was 0.96
compared to that of 2.43 for fine aggregate and 2.68 for coarse aggregate used in his
research. This difference in the specific gravity causes mixtures with crumb rubber to have
a lower unit weight than normal mixtures. Another factor that decreases the unit weight of
mixtures with rubber tire particles is that they tend to have higher air contents
(Sukontasukkul 2009). Khatib and Bayomy found that the unit weight decreases as the
amount of rubber added increases. A mixture with no rubber particles weighed 2.4 kg/m3
while a mixture with 50% replacement of total aggregate volume weighed 1.8 kg/m3 (Khatib
and Bayomy 1999).
2.11.2 Slump
In examining the workability of concrete mixtures with rubber tire particles, Khatib and
Bayomy found that the slump of the concrete decreased as the amount of rubber particles
increased. They investigated three categories of mixtures with different amounts of rubber
tire particle replacement rates. The first category was made with crumb rubber to replace
16


a portion of the fine aggregate. The second category contained rubber chips to replace a
portion of the coarse aggregate and the third was a combination of crumb rubber and chips
to replace both fine and coarse aggregates. Their findings showed that when rubber
particles were used to replace 40% of the total aggregate volume content, the slump for
the mixtures with rubber chips was near zero and the mixture could not be worked by hand
mixing. The mixture with only crumb rubber was much more workable than the other two
mixtures (Khatib and Bayomy 1999).
2.11.3 Air Content
Several studies have found that the addition of rubber tire particles to concrete results in
higher air content. Khatib and Bayomy found that as the amount of rubber tire particles
increase the air content of the mixture increased (Khatib and Bayomy 1999). Conclusions
of the study have been confirmed by Fedroff et al. who found higher air contents in
mixtures containing crumb rubber than the control mixtures even without the use of an air-
entraining admixture. The researchers thought that the higher rubber contents may be due
entrapped air on the surface of the rubber particles due to their texture and non-polar
nature (Federoff et al. 1996).
2.12 Hardened Concrete Properties of Concrete Made With Rubber Tire Particles
2.12.1 Compressive Strength
Ghaly and Cahill studied the effect of rubber tire particles on the compressive strength of
concrete mixtures. In their study mixtures with water to cement ratios of 0.47, 0.54 and
0.61 were studied. The research program consisted of preparing 180 concrete cubes that
were 2 in. x 2 in. x 2 in. Crumb rubber was used to replace the fine aggregate of the
17


mixture. Replacement rates were a percentage of the total volume mixture. For example a
replacement rate of 5% represents 5%of the total volume mixture, not just a percentage of
the fine aggregate. Strength testing was performed at 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. They
found that the strength of a mixture with rubber tire particles was less than that of
conventional mixture and that the strength decreased as the amount of rubber particles
used increased. The results of their study for a water to cement ratio of 0.54 and
replacement rates of 5%, 10% and 15% showed a decrease in strength of 21.7%, 48% and
59.7% when measured at 28 days (Ghaly and Cahill 2005). The loss in strength from
using rubber tire particles in concrete mixtures has been confirmed by several other
studies such as the one performed by Khatib and Bayomy. In their research, a control
mixture with a design strength of 5000 psi was use d. Crumb rubber was used to replace
the fine aggregate in the mixture designs and replacement rates were by total aggregate
volume. For replacement rates of 5%, 10% and 15 %, the study found a corresponding
reduction in strength of approximately 26.3%, 36.8% and 42.1% when compared to the
control mixture. In this study failure of the specimens was a ductile failure that had large
amounts of strain before final fracture (Khatib and Bayomy 1999).
Because concrete with rubber tire particles exhibit compressive strengths that are lower
than normal mixtures, there have been a number of studies done to determine if the low
strength of these mixtures can be improved. One area of investigation has been to
examine the pretreatment of rubber particles prior to batch mixing. Techniques such as
washing, etching and coating the rubber with different materials have yielded various
results. Biel and Lee reported that the type of cement used in concrete containing rubber
tire particles affected its strength. Their research showed that using magnesium
oxychloride cement greatly increased the strength of a mixture containing rubber tire
18


particles (Biel and Lee 1996). Zhu and Zhang studied the use of crumb rubber in stucco
coatings and mortar. A unique feature of their study was the use of latex to improve the
strength of the stucco (Zhu and Zhang 2002).
2.12.2 Flexural Strength
Research on the flexural strength of concrete containing rubber tire particles followed the
same pattern as the results on compressive strength. Mixtures with rubber tire particle
replacements had flexural strengths that were lower than conventional concrete. Khatib
and Bayomy did report that the initial rate of reduction was greater when compared to the
results for compressive strength (Khatib and Bayomy 1999).
2.12.3 Freeze-Thaw Durability
Federoff et al. investigated the freeze-thaw durability of concrete that contained rubber tire
particles in accordance with (ASTM C 666 1997). The results showed that as the amount
of rubber particles increased the durability of the concrete mixture decreased. Only the
mixtures with 10% and 15% replacement had durability factors higher than 60% when
tested in accordance with (ASTM C 666 1997). Mixtures with higher amounts did not meet
the 60% durability factor which is generally considered as a standard for acceptable
performance of concrete subject to freeze-thaw action. The addition of an air entraining
admixture did not significantly improve the durability of the mixtures (Federoff et al. 1996).
2.12.4 Thermal Properties
Because a number of studies have shown that the use of crumb rubber tends to reduce the
compressive, tensile and flexural strength of concrete mixtures, studies have been
19


performed to investigate specific properties that might be enhanced by the addition of
crumb rubber. Sukontasukkul examined the thermal properties of crumb rubber used in
concrete precast wall panels. In the study a number of different mixtures containing
different sizes of crumb rubber were used and compared to a control mixture. Mixtures
containing 10%, 20% and 30% of crumb rubber with a water to cement ratio of 0.47 were
made with each type of crumb rubber (Sukontasukkul 2009).
The thermal conductivity of the mixtures was measured in accordance with (ASTM C 177
1997). The results showed that the thermal conductivity, k of the mixtures containing
crumb rubber were lower by about 20-50% than the control mixture. The study stated that
the thermal conductivity of a material is inversely proportional to its density. As noted
above, the density of crumb rubber is much less than aggregates used in concrete.
Therefore, the addition of crumb rubber greatly improves the thermal properties of concrete
mixture (Sukontasukkul 2009).
2.12.5 Potential Health Hazards
Although recycling of waste tire material meets beneficial goals such as conserving natural
resources and preserving landfill space, the potential health hazards associated with its
usage should be considered. (ASTM D 6270 2008) provides the standard practice for the
usage of scrap tires in civil engineering applications and discusses acceptable limits for
metals and organics of leachate from tires. Studies using waste tire material above and
below the water table have been performed. In one study Humphrey conducted a field
study to evaluate the water quality effects of tire shreds placed below the water table.
Three sites were used in the study where tire shreds were buried in a trench below the
20


water table were studied. Monitoring wells up and down gradient of the trench as well as in
the trench were installed to take water quality samples. The results indicated that the tire
shreds had a negligible off-site effect on water quality (Humphrey 2001).
One use of waste tires is in the production of artificial turf for athletic fields and surfaces for
playgrounds. A recent study by the EPA evaluated air samples and metal samples in the
field turf (EPA 2009). The report concluded that there were no known health concerns but
there are gaps in the knowledge about the product. One difficulty in evaluating the health
hazardous of turf fields is that the chemical composition of crumb rubber can vary among
suppliers. The report recommended that future research be performed with a larger scope.
21


3.
Problem Statement
The interest in sustainable construction practices has led to a number of initiatives and
incentives to promote strategies that use resources wisely. This has resulted in the re-
evaluation of traditional construction practices and the use of recycled materials in some
cases. Concrete masonry units are an important building material that is used on a variety
of projects. Since advances in technical knowledge are important to providing a
sustainable environment, this thesis will examine the use of concrete masonry units and
determine if recycled aggregates can be used in the mixture design of the units.
The reuse and disposal of solid waste has been a challenging problem in building a
sustainable environment. Two materials that have received a lot of attention in recycling
efforts have been waste glass and scrap rubber tire particles. Over the years a number of
uses for these two items have been created and an industry has been developed to
support these uses. Waste glass recycling typically involves the remolding of old glass into
new containers such as bottles and jars. Crumb rubber is a by-product of recycling old
tires and is currently being used successfully in the construction of asphalt pavement,
playground surfaces and sports turf. This thesis will evaluate if the use of waste glass and
scrap rubber tire particles can be expanded to serve as an aggregate replacement in the
construction of concrete masonry units. Because there has been limited research in this
area, it is the hope that the research will create new interest in the use of recycled
materials in masonry block.
22


The focus of the research will be to examine the effect of the aggregate replacement in the
mixture design used to produce concrete masonry blocks. Common properties of the
concrete masonry units used by designers and required by engineering standards will be
investigated. Most masonry units are made in an automated manufacturing process.
Although it is difficult to replicate this process in the laboratory, the research will attempt to
reproduce the conditions present in masonry manufacturing.
A goal of the research is to investigate whether or not the use of waste glass and rubber
tire particles will produce units that will meet minimum industry standards. It also
investigates if there is any improvement or drawbacks in the performance of some
properties of the concrete masonry units resulting from its usage. Finally, the
constructability of units made from waste glass and rubber tire particles is examined.
23


4. Experimental Plan
4.1 Laboratory Plan and Goals
The objective of this research is to investigate the use of waste glass and rubber tire
particles as an aggregate replacement in concrete masonry units. The research was
defined by the following goals.
1. Because the visual aesthetic appearance of masonry is an important criterion in
determining its usage on construction projects, the use of recycled aggregates to
replace coarse aggregates will not be considered in this research. Concrete
pavement mixtures containing large pieces of recycled aggregate have been found
to have exposed recycled aggregate after placement in the field. In order to
correct this problem, the finishing crew had to embed or poke the aggregate
down into the concrete. Large pieces of exposed aggregate are not acceptable in
the manufacturing of concrete masonry units. Therefore, for this study, the usage
of recycled aggregates was limited to replacement of fine aggregates only.
2. In the construction industry, concrete masonry units are specified to meet the
requirements of (ASTM C 90 2003). Therefore the research investigated meeting
the requirements of this standard. If the units did not meet this standard, their
potential as a construction material would be limited.
3. Another focus is sustainable concrete masonry practices. The recycled materials
of waste glass and rubber tire particles were used to determine if their use is a
viable option for the construction of concrete masonry.
24


4. Replacement rates of the waste glass and rubber tire particles was examined and
compared to a control mixture.
4.2 Testing Concrete Masonry Mixtures in the Laboratory
Typically cast concrete is produced as a plastic mixture, placed in a form, consolidated by
various vibration techniques and cured until it has gained enough strength to be removed
from the formwork. The production of concrete masonry units is an automated
manufacturing process that is very different from most other methods of concrete
production. The production consists of batch mixing materials that are then transferred to
a mold assembly. Filling of the molds is accomplished by keeping extra material in the top
of the mold assembly to ensure complete filling of the mold. The mixture is then
consolidated by external vibration and direct pressure. The units are quickly removed from
the mold and shipped to the curing operation. This cycle is repeated several times a
minute. Typically a zero slump mixture is used that does not deform so that the concrete
block can be quickly removed from the mold assembly and transferred to other areas of the
production plant. The water content of a concrete block mixture is defined more by the
amount of water that allows the units to progress though the production machinery than by
strength requirements (Berg and Neal 1997).
Currently, there is not a standard method of testing concrete masonry mixtures in the
laboratory. Testing of trial mixtures ofCMU units typically involves production of small
batches on assembly line machinery. Often this is impractical and difficult to perform.
Berg and Neal studied methods to evaluate concrete masonry unit mixtures in the
laboratory (Berg and Neal 1997). The focus of their research was to replicate the unique
25


properties of production machinery using equipment available in most concrete
laboratories. In their research, test samples consisted of 2-in by 2-in cubes instead of full-
size concrete masonry units. The concrete mixtures were placed in the molds and then
compacted. Concrete masonry units made by automated machinery do not meter the
amount of material placed in the molds, but rather have a unique filling technique for
transferring batched material to the mold assembly as described above. In order to
duplicate this filling method, Berg and Neal determined the amount of material required to
fill the mold based upon the anticipated required compaction and then weighed the
material in a separate container. Half of the mixture was placed in the mold and
consolidate followed by the remaining volume of material which was then compacted.
The compaction of common concrete masonry machinery is probably the most difficult item
to duplicate in the laboratory. Berg and Neal modified a Pine Instrument Company Model
PMC-4 compactor, designed for compacting asphaltic samples for the Marshall method of
mix design, to create a drop hammer for compacting the samples. The weight of the
hammer, the number of drops and the height of the drop could be adjusted to achieve
different levels of compaction for the concrete mixtures. The unit weight and texture of the
specimens made in the laboratory were then correlated with full scale units produced on a
suppliers production equipment to determine the required compaction effort. The
specimens in Berg and Neals research were removed from the molds after 2 hours.
Because numerous mixtures were needed to determine a control mixture and the effect of
various replacement rates of waste glass and rubber tire particles, smaller mixtures that
produce 2-in by 2-in cubes were be used. Filling of the molds, compaction of the mixture
and removal of the units from the molds resembled the work done by Berg and Neal.
26


4.3 Designing Concrete Masonry Unit Mixtures
As mentioned above, the design of concrete mixtures for use in the production of concrete
block is different than traditional concrete mixture design. ACI 211.3R-02, Appendix 5,
Guide for Selecting Proportions for No-Slump Concrete, contains recommendations for
the design of mixtures used in the manufacturing of concrete masonry units. Portland
cement should conform to (ASTM C 150 2005). Type III and lll-A cements are often used
to achieve early strength gain to facilitate the manufacturing process. Supplementary
cementitious materials consisting of blast-furnace slag and fly ash can be used. The ACI
guide recommends that the cement content of the mixture be calculated as a percent of the
total mass of the aggregates (ACI 2009).
Coarse aggregate is defined as material passing a 3/8 inch sieve and remaining on a No. 4
sieve whereas fine aggregate consists of natural sand that passes a No. 4 sieve. Normal
weight aggregates will be used in the research. The proportions of aggregates
recommended to achieve an optimal fineness modulus can be determined from equation
4.1. ACI recommends a fineness modulus of 3.7 for normal weight aggregates.
FA%
FMCA FAdcomb
(FMca FMfa)x\ 00
Equation 4.1
FA% = Percentage of Fine Aggregate
FMca = Fineness Modulus of coarse aggregates
FMfa = Fineness Modulus of fine aggregates
27


FMcomb = Recommended Combined Fineness Modulus
The amount of water used is determined during batch mixing so that the mixture will ball.
ACI 211 states that the ball will have sufficient cohesion to hold its shape when squeezed
but will not exhibit any free moisture. (ACI 2009). Unlike other methods used to determine
mixture proportions, the method of determining proportions for a concrete block involves
trial and error. Test batches must be reviewed to evaluate the blocks molded strength to
determine if it can be transported through the limits of the manufacturing process. Also the
compressive strength, surface texture and visual appearance of the trial batch should be
reviewed during mixture testing.
4.4 Materials
The materials used in the concrete masonry mixtures consisted of Type l/ll portland
cement that conforms to (ASTM C 150 2005). The coarse aggregates were prepackaged
materials and the fine aggregates were sand from a local concrete supplier. All of the
aggregates conformed to (ASTM C 33 2003). The recycled aggregates included crumb
rubber and waste glass provided by a local supplier. Water used in all the mixtures was
potable drinking water. Additional information on the materials used in the mixtures is
included in Appendix A.
4.5 Phase 1 Determining Control Mixture Proportions and Calibrating Laboratory
Equipment
The use of a control mixture is important for establishing a standard by which to judge the
effects of using recycled materials in concrete masonry units. The ideal control mixture
would be an established mixture used by a local block manufacturer that has a large body
28


of test data performed on it. In talking with several concrete block producers, each supplier
was reluctant to release their mixture designs out of concern of aiding a potential business
competitor. Thus, this information was not available. The recommendations of ACI 211
recognize that designing concrete masonry mixtures is a trial and error process (ACI
2009). Therefore, the phase 1 work evaluated several control mixtures to determine if the
mixtures meet the strength, visual appearance and other requirements of (ASTM C 90
2003). Based upon the test results of the mixtures, one control mixture was established for
use on the remainder of the research.
Since producing concrete block in the laboratory is different than producing units thru an
automated manufacturing process, the performance of the laboratory equipment and
calibration of the compaction effort for the molds needed to be evaluated in this phase of
the work. Fresh and hardened concrete properties for the control mixtures were recorded
and analyzed.
4.6 Phase 2 Examination of Aggregate Replacement in CMU Mixtures
Once a control mixture had been established and the laboratory equipment calibrated,
mixtures with various amounts of recycled aggregate were made. Rubber tire particles and
waste glass were used to replace the fine aggregate content of the established control
mixture. Replacement rates of 10%, 20%, and 30% were investigated for the waste glass
and scrap tire particles. Tests on fresh and hardened concrete properties were performed
per Section 4.7. The effect of the replacement rate on various engineering properties was
examined.
4.7 Concrete Properties
29


The testing of cubes produced for the research followed the requirements found in (ASTM
C 90 2003) and (ASTM C 140 2003). Concrete block produced in an automated
manufacturing facility is often cured with steam at elevated temperatures for varying
lengths of time. Because this is difficult to replicate in the laboratory, water curing of the
units was performed. The following tests on samples of the mixtures were performed
during Phase 1 and 2 unless noted otherwise.
1. The finish and appearance of the cubes were reviewed to determine if they
conform to item 7 of (ASTM C 90 2003). The standard requires units to be sound
and free of cracks or other defects. The color and texture of the block were
reviewed to determine if it is possible to use the cubes in an exposed condition
where the aesthetic appearance is an important criterion.
2. The weight of each unit was determined and recorded.
3. The water absorption of the units was examined to determine of they conform to
Table 3 of (ASTM C 90 2003).
4. The compressive strength of the units was reviewed and compared to the
requirements of Table 3 of (ASTM C 90 2003). The testing machine used for the
tests conformed to (ASTM E 4 1996). ASTM does not stipulate a time frame for
testing units after they have been produced. Therefore, compression testing was
performed after 7 and 28 days for the trail samples. Strength tests were performed
to better understand how quickly the concrete block would gain strength and to
facilitate the work flow of the research.
4.8 Viability As A Construction Material
30


In order for waste glass and rubber tire particles to be used as an aggregate replacement
in concrete masonry units, the units must meet current engineering standards.
Nevertheless, this alone will not ensure their usage on normal construction projects.
Additional items such as the ease of usage of the waste glass and rubber tire particles in
constructing the concrete block need to be considered. During the course of the research
difficulties with the use of the recycled materials were observed. This information was not
be a definitive study of the applicability of the units, but rather done to give one some
judgment as to whether or not their usage is reasonable.
31


5.
Results
5.1 Phase 1 Determining Control Mixture Proportions and Calibrating Laboratory
Equipment
Phase 1 of the research involved assembling the materials to be used in the research and
determining their physical properties. The laboratory equipment used was calibrated and
tested for the research. Special devices such as a drop hammer to compact the trial
mixtures were constructed for the work. Finally, a control mixture was developed with
which to judge the results of other work against.
5.2 Materials
Materials used in the research were obtained from local suppliers and consisted of cement,
pea gravel, sand, waste glass and rubber tire particles. The cement conformed to (ASTM
C 150 2005) Type l-ll. Per ACI 211.3, in CMU production, generally material passing the
3/8 in. sieve and remaining on the No. 4 sieve is considered as a coarse aggregate (ACI
2009). Therefore, pea gravel was used as a coarse aggregate for the mixture designs.
The fine aggregate used consisted of sand that conformed to (ASTM C 33 2003).
Information on the chemical composition, soundness test on aggregates and other test
data furnished by the suppliers of the materials are contained in Appendix A.
Waste glass was used as a fine aggregate replacement and was supplied by a local bottle
manufacturer. It consisted of recycled glass of all colors that was crushed by the supplier.
The crushed glass was used by the bottling manufacturer to make new containers and was
32


used in this research to replace the sand in the mixture design. A photo of the waste glass
is shown in Figure 5.1.
Figure 5.1 Waste Glass
The waste glass contained some trash items such as bottle caps, screws, batteries and
other objectionable items. Because a 3/8 sieve was the largest sieve size that the coarse
aggregate used in the research was retained on, the glass was run through a 3/8 sieve to
remove the larger trash items. This removed a majority of the objectionable items, but not
all of them. Passing the material through a finer sieve may have removed more trash
particles, but it would have begun to remove large pieces of waste glass material. A
picture of the trash items found in the waste glass is shown in Figure 5.2.
33


Figure 5.2 Trash in Waste Glass
Crumb Rubber was also used as an aggregate replacement. The rubber was supplied by
a sports turf supplier. A photo of the crumb rubber is shown in Figure 5.3.
Figure 5.3 Crumb Rubber
34


5.3 Gradation Test
Gradation tests were performed on the fine and coarse aggregates, waste glass and
rubber tire particles used in accordance with (ASTM C 136 2005). During the test, care
was taken to dry the materials to prevent clumping and the samples were divided into parts
as recommended by the ASTM standard to prevent pan overloading. The sand for the
mixtures conformed to the gradation requirements of (ASTM C 33 2003). As noted above,
trash items in the waste glass were removed by passing the material through a 3/8 sieve.
This was done prior to performing the gradation test. The waste glass compared favorably
to the gradation of the sand. The results of the gradation test for the fine aggregate are
summarized in Table 5.1 and Figure 5.4.
Table 5.1 Gradation test of fine aggregates
Sieve Size Percent Passing
ASTM Requirements Sand Waste Glass Crumb Rubber
3/8 100 100 100 100
No. 4 95-100 100 99 100
No. 8 80-100 98 96 99
No. 16 50-85 78 78 76
No. 30 25-60 48 56 16
No. 50 5-30 18 28 0
No. 100 0-10 4 9 0
No. 200 0-3 0.9 2 0
Fineness Modulus 2.3-3.1 2.55 2.36 3.09
35


Gradation Comparison of Fine Aggregates
CT)
i
.Q
O)
c
'co
c/>
CO
Cl
4i
c
a>
o
a)
CL
0.1
10
Sand
Grain Diameter (mm)
-Waste Glass -
Crumb Rubber
Figure 5.4 Gradation of Fine Aggregates
Pea gravel was used for the coarse aggregate in the mixture. The gradation of the
material conformed to a number size 8 in accordance with (ASTM C 33 2003). The results
of the gradation test are summarized in Table 5.2 and Figure 5.5
Table 5.2 Gradation test of coarse aggregates
Sieve Size Percent Passing
ASTM Size No. 8 Pea Gravel
1/2 100 100
3/8 85-100 97
No. 4 10-30 30
No. 8 0-10 3
No. 16 0-5 1
Fineness Modulus 5.69
36


Pea Gravel Gradation Test
.c
O)
.Q
O)
c
'05
CO
03
Q_
41
c
(1)
o
(D
CL
0.1 1 10 100
Grain Diameter (mm)
Figure 5.5 Gradation of Coarse Aggregates
5.4 Dry Rodded Unit Weight
The dry rodded unit weight of the materials was determined in accordance with (ASTM C
29 1997). Samples were dried to a constant mass weight and then weighed in a calibrated
measure. Results are shown in Table 5.3.
Table 5.3 Unit weight of aggregates
Unit Weight Pea Gravel pcf Sand pcf Waste Glass pcf Crumb Rubber pcf
Dry Rodded 101.1 103.6 84.8 29.4
5.5 Control Mixture Proportions
Once the properties of the individual mixture materials were determined, a control mixture
was developed. Because a control mixture could not be provided by a local manufacturer,
37


it was determined in accordance with ACI 211.3R. Most concrete mixtures are determined
by the absolute volume method, but ACI 211.3R recommends a method that relies on trial
and error. First the percentage of fine and coarse aggregates was determined from the
recommendations of ACI 2113R per Equation 5.1
FA%
FMCA FAdcomb
(FMca FMfa)x\ 00
Equation 5.1
FA% = Percentage of Fine Aggregate
FMca = 5.69 (See Table 5.2)
Fineness Modulus of coarse aggregates
FMfa = 2.55 (See Table 5.1)
Fineness Modulus of fine aggregates
FMcomb = 3.70
Recommended Combined Fineness Modulus
The percentage of fine aggregate, FA% was determined to be 63.2% and the percentage
of coarse aggregate, CA% was 36.8%.
Next the volume of the trial mixture was selected. The weight of the fine and coarse
aggregates was determined as the product of the mixture volume, the dry rodded unit
weight of the aggregate and the percentage of the aggregate determined from equation
4.1. The cement factor was assumed as a percentage of the aggregates. Because a test
history and information on a trial mixture were unavailable, four mixtures with cement
factors of 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% were investigated and the properties of the mixtures
38


reviewed. The cement content was the product of the cement factor and the combined
weight of the fine and coarse aggregates. In the work that follows, the terms cement factor
and percent cement should be considered interchangeable unless noted otherwise.
Sample calculations of a mixture from ACI 211.3R are included below:
Material Properties
FA% = 61%
CA% = 39%
FA density (dry-rodded) = 95 pcf
CA density (dry-rodded) = 76 pcf
Mixture Proportions
Mixture Volume = 78 cubic ft
Mass of FA = 78 cubic ft (0.39) (76 pcf) = 2312 lb
Mass of CA = 78 cubic ft (0.61) (95 pcf) = 4520 lb
Total Mass of Aggregates = 6832 lb
Cement factor: assume 10% by mas of aggregate
Cement content = 6832 (0.1) = 683 lb
In accordance with ACI 211.3R Appendix 5, the water content of CMU mixtures should be
adjusted until the mixture will ball in the hand. This is defined as having enough cohesion
to hold its shape when squeezed while not exhibiting any free moisture (ACI 2009).
Therefore, trial mixtures with the four cement factors mentioned above were examined to
determine the amount of water required for the mixture to ball. The procedure for this
consisted of mixing the dry components in a counter top mixer for 2 minutes followed by
39


adding water and additional mixing for 4 minutes. The mixture was then hand squeezed to
see if balling had occurred. Next water was added in increments of a w/c ratio of 0.1 and
the mixture remixed for a total of 3 minutes. After each addition of water, a squeeze test
was performed and the condition of the mixture noted. Care was taken to start the mixture
test with a w/c ratio that would not ball and then add water until the mixture was beyond the
point of balling. The results of the test are summarized in Figures 5.6 and 5.7. Results are
approximate and the test is a subjective test, but it defined a point at which to evaluate the
various mixtures.
o
4I
CO
a:
c
0
E
0
O
0
jS
0.8
0.3
0.2 -
0 10 15 20 25 30
Percent Cement (%)
Figure 5.6 Water to Cement Ratio at Which Mixture Will Ball
40


Figure 5.7 Squeeze Test
After the water content for the mixture design was determined, trial mixture batches with
the mixture proportions shown in Table 5.4 were used to determine the control mixture.
Table 5.4 Mixture proportions of trial control mixtures
Properties 10% Cement 15% Cement 20% Cement 25% Cement
Sand (lb) 2.618 2.618 2.618 2.618
Pea Gravel (lb) 1.489 1.489 1.489 1.489
Cement (lb) 0.411 0.616 0.821 1.027
Water (lb) 0.288 0.370 0.411 0.411
Water to Cement Ratio 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4
Mixture Volume ftJ 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04
Mixing of trial control mixtures was done with a small counter type mixer until it appeared
that components were adequately mixed by visual inspection. The dry components were
mixed for 2 minutes and the mixture was agitated for 4 minutes after the water was added
Mixtures were placed in cube molds conforming to (ASTM C 109 2002) and the sides of
the molds were coated with a thin layer of form release agent to break the bond between


the mold and concrete mixture. The molds were then placed in a moisture and
temperature controlled room for one day before being removed from the molds. The cubes
were then weighed and cured by placing them in a saturated lime water storage tank.
The moisture content of the aggregates of the control mixtures was checked in accordance
with (ASTM C 566 1997) and is shown in Table 5.5.
Table 5.5 Moisture content of aggregates
Aggregate Moisture Content
Sand 0.16%
Pea Gravel 0.17%
Crumb Rubber 0.45%
Waste Glass 0.05%
5.6 Compaction
In CMU production, a concrete mixture is placed in molds and consolidated by external
pressure and vibration. In their paper A Procedure for Testing Concrete Masonry Unit
(CMU) Mixes by Eric Berg and John Neal, the authors state that there is no accepted
method of duplicating the manufacturing process of CMU in the laboratory. Specifically the
vibration compaction method of a production CMU machine is the most difficult part of the
process to recreate in the laboratory (Berg and Neal 1997).
Several compaction methods were investigated to achieve the desired compaction and unit
weight. The first method of compaction used was tamping of the mixture in the molds in
accordance with (ASTM C 109 2002). A layer of material 1 inch deep or approximately
one half of the mold depth was placed in all of the cells of the mold. The material was
tamped a total of 32 times consisting of 8 strokes in four rounds with each round at right
42


angles to the previous round. When one cell of the mold was compacted, the next cell was
filled and compacted in a similar fashion until all of the cells were completed. After
completion of compaction of the first layer, additional material was placed and the top layer
compacted. This method by itself was found to be insufficient to compact the cubes, so a
hammer drop was added. The hammer drop consisted of a various weights dropped at
different measured heights. This allowed the compaction effort to be quantified and
duplicated. A collar or dam was added to the molds to allow for overfilling of the mold
similar to what happens in the manufacturing of CMU units. The drop hammer and collar
are shown in Figure 5.8 and 5.9.
Figure 5.8 Drop Hammer Compaction Equipment
43


Figure 5.9 Collar for Mold
Originally the tamping was done in two layers and the hammer drop was applied to the top
of a filled mold similar to a CMU machine overfilling its mold and applying pressure for
consolidation. Even under this second method of compaction, voids and areas with low
consolidation areas were noticed in the cubes produced, particularly in the middle of the
cube. Therefore the method of tamping per (ASTM C 109 2002) was replaced with rodding
of the mixture. A % inch diameter rod was used that allowed one layer to be pushed into
another layer providing interlayer mixing and consolidation. The molds were filled to a
depth of about 1 inch and then consolidated by rodding and using the hammer drop. The
cube was then overfilled and again consolidated by rodding and using the hammer drop.
Applying the hammer drop to two layers of the mold allowed the area in the middle of the
cube to be well compacted. The rodding pattern used consisted of 18 strokes or 9 strokes
in 2 rounds with each round at right angles to the other. The weight and drop of the
hammer drop was adjusted to achieve the desired compaction.
44


As the compaction methods were reviewed and the compaction effort calibrated, a study of
the unit weight of the 2-in. x 2-in. cubes versus their 7 day compressive strength was
performed. A mixture with a cement factor of 10% was used and the unit weight of the
cubes were recorded when they were removed from the mold prior to water curing. At this
point the cubes still had a significant amount of moisture which would result in a unit weight
slightly greater than their final condition. Mixture proportions, mixing methods, sample
production and curing for the samples were as noted above. The results of the study are
shown in Figure 5.10. At unit weights lower than about 125 pcf, the strength of the
samples appear to be greatly affected by the amount of compaction effort used.
In their research, A Procedure for Testing Concrete Masonry Unit (CMU) Mixes, Berg and
Neal produced units that matched to a local CMU producers unit weight of 133.5 pcf (Berg
and Neal 1997). James Amrhein in Reinforced Masonry Engineering Handbook lists the
unit weight of normal weight masonry as 135 pcf (Amrhein 1983). Therefore, based upon
this literature review and the limited study performed in the laboratory, it seems reasonable
to calibrate the compaction effort to produce test samples with a unit weight of
approximately 135 pcf. This unit weight target was used to calibrate the compaction effort
for the research.
45


7 Day Strength vs. Unit Weight
Figure 5.10 7 Day Compressive Strength vs. Unit Weight
5.7 Phase 1 Results
After the mixture proportions were calculated and the compaction effort determined, four
trial mixtures were produced and their properties evaluated. The mixing of the samples,
compaction and curing were as noted above in Section 5.5. The same compaction effort
was used for all of the trial mixtures. The reported values are the average of results from
three cube samples unless noted otherwise. The figures produced simply connect data
points and do not attempt any curve fitting of the data. The results of each individual
specimen are contained in Appendix B. Plots of the scattered data and the development of
trendlines are also contained in Appendix B.
During the research, the samples remained in their molds for 1 day before they were
removed. After compaction, the cubes had enough green strength to be removed from
46


their molds and retain their shape, but care had to be exercised in moving the samples
about the lab. Figure 5.11 shows cubes removed immediately from their mold after
compaction.
Figure 5.11 Cubes Removed from Mold Immediately After Compaction
In accordance with (ASTM C 90 2003), the finish and appearance of the masonry units
shall be sound and free of cracks or other defects. The cubes produced did not have any
cracks or other surface defects. The visual appearance resembled typical masonry units.
Atypical cube is shown in Figure 5.12.
47


:-y- &£m&k
. *^ tr < ; r*-.v
*>'. i'a. - J V. *. ,* ... '> \.v,' A*-w
"=n- *;. '*U*5?$v.j
^V. .V'N;:' >' Mv*V
fc-. ' : >i; r ivv*>. iJ; V
Figure5.12 Cube Produced Top View
Table 2 of (ASTM C 90 2003) sets the amount of absorption for normal weight CMU at a
maximum value of 13 pcf. Absorption was calculated in accordance with the following
formula given in (ASTM C 140 2003).
Absorption (pcf) = (Ws-Wd/Ws-Wj)x 62.4 Equation 5.1
Ws= saturated weight of unit
Wd = dry weight of unit
Wj = weight of the unit immersed in water
All of the trial mixtures tested met the criteria set forth in Table 2. Results of the absorption
test are shown in Figure 5.13. In general as the cement content of the mixture increased,
a more dense mixture was produced and the absorption of the unit decreased. The
48


absorption was determined after curing for 7 days. Because it was thought that the
mixtures with a cement factor of 15% and 20 % might be used as a control mixture
additional testing at 28 days was performed. There was very little difference between the 7
and 28 day absorption values recorded.
7 -Day Absorption 28 -Day Absorption
160
140
120
100 i=
O)
80 'c
o
Q_
60 fc
_Q
40 <
20
0
Figure 5.13 7 Day and 28 Day Absorption
The weight of the cubes for the four trial mixtures was recorded after curing for 7 days and
then being placed in a moisture and temperature controlled room for 3 days. This allowed
the samples to reach a moisture content at which they might be used. The results are
shown in Figure 5.14. In general, the unit weight of the mixtures increased as the cement
factor or percent of cement used increased. This is to be expected given the high specific
49


gravity of cement when compared to the other mixture components. The 28 day unit
weight was determined for the mixtures with a 15% and 20 % cement factor and their
weight was virtually the same as that recorded after 7 days.
Unit Weight vs. Percent Cement
5
C.
=>
140
135
* 130
125
120
10 15 20
Percent Cement (%)
25
2222 2172 CO c
2122 c 'Bi
2072 2: CD
2022 1
1972 1922 C =)
30
Figure 5.14 Unit Weight of Trial Mixtures
The compressive strength of the trial mixtures was examined. (ASTM C 90 2003) requires
a minimum strength of 1900 psi for concrete block, but specified no time frame at which the
strength is required. Typically in masonry production, long curing times are not common.
Two studies were performed to evaluate the strength of the masonry. The first developed
a family of curves based upon different water to cement ratios for a certain cement factor.
The 7 day strength results are shown in Figure 5.15. In general it showed that lower water
to cement ratios resulted in greater strengths.
50


Strength vs. Water to Cement Ratio
Hi
Q_
O)
c
0
w
CD
>
CO
CO
CD
k_
Q.
E
o
O
- 20.0
- 15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
Water to Cement Ratio
10% Cement A 15% Cement 9 20% Cement
Figure 5.15 Compressive Strength vs. Water to Cement Ratio Trial Mixtures
A second set of curves was developed based upon the water to cement ratio only at which
the mixtures would ball for a certain cement factor. This is shown in Figure 5.16. The 7
day strengths of the mixtures for a cement factor of 10%, 15% and 20% were reviewed.
51
Compressive Strength (MPa)


7 Day Strength
u>
Q_
O)
c
a>
CO
a>
>
in
C/>
a)
a.
E
o
O
25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
0 5 10 15 20 25
Percent Cement (%)
Figure 5.16 Compressive Strength vs. Percent Cement Trial Mixtures
Based upon the data from the phase 1 work, the trial mixture with a cement factor of 15%
was selected as a control mixture for the remaining work. A summary of the properties of
the control mixture is shown in Tables 5.6.
Table 5.6 Mixture proportions of control mixture
Properties Control Mixture
Sand (lb) 2.618
Pea Gravel (lb) 1.489
Cement (lb) 0.616
Cement Factor 15%
Water (lb) 0.370
Water to Cement Ratio 0.6
Mixture Volume cf 0.04
5.8 Phase 2 Effect of Aggregate Replacement with Recycled Materials
The control mixture from the Phase 1 work was used a standard to evaluate the effect of
replacing the fine aggregate with waste glass and rubber tire particles in the mixture
52
Compressive Strength (MPa)


design. Replacement rates of 10%, 20% and 30% were examined. In these mixtures, a
certain percentage of fine aggregate by weight was removed from the control mixture and
replaced with an equal volume of recycled materials. A. mixture designated 10% Waste
Glass or 10% Crumb Rubber indicates that 10% of the weight of the fine aggregate or sand
was removed from the mixture and replaced by an equal volume of waste glass or rubber
tire particles. The mixture proportions for mixtures made with waste glass and rubber tire
particles are shown in Tables 5.7 and 5.8.
Table 5.7 Proportions of mixtures containing waste glass
Properties 10% Waste Glass 20% Waste Glass 30% Waste Glass
Sand (lb) 2.3562 2.0944 1.8326
Waste Glass (lb) 0.2143 0.4286 0.6429
Pea Gravel (lb) 1.4890 1.4890 1.4890
Cement (lb) 0.6161 0.6161 0.6161
Water (lb) 0.3696 0.3696 0.3696
Water to Cement Ratio 0.6 0.6 0.6
Mixture Volume cf 0.04 0.04 0.04
Table 5.8 Proportions of mixtures containing crumb rubber
Properties 10% Crumb Rubber 20% Crumb Rubber 30% Crumb Rubber
Sand (lb) 2.3562 2.0944 1.8326
Crumb Rubber (lb) 0.0743 0.1486 0.2229
Pea Gravel (lb) 1.4890 1.4890 1.4890
Cement (lb) 0.6161 0.6161 0.6161
Water (lb) 0.3696 0.3696 0.3696
Water to Cement Ratio 0.6 0.6 0.6
Mixture Volume cf 0.04 0.04 0.04
Mixing was done in a similar fashion to that of the Phase 1 work where the dry components
were mixed for 2 minutes. Then water was added to the mixture and all of the components
53


were mixed again for 4 minutes. After completion of mixing, the material was placed in
cube molds conforming to (ASTM C 109 2002) and compacted. In reviewing the data on
the control mixture the phase 1 work, it was determined that the unit weight of the
specimens was slightly lower than the established goal of 135 pcf, so additional
compaction of the mixtures was provided in the phase 2 work. The compaction
methodology was the same as the work done in phase 1 and consisted of rodding and the
use of a drop hammer. The distance the weight fell and the number of drops used for the
drop hammer was increased slightly in phase 2 to produce a denser specimen. The same
compaction effort was used for all mixtures evaluated.
A thin layer of form release agent was used to break the bond between the mold and
concrete mixture. After filling of the molds, the specimens were placed in a moisture and
temperature controlled room for one day. The cubes were then removed from their mold,
weighed and cured by placing them in a saturated lime water storage tank. The reported
values are the average of results from three cube samples unless noted otherwise. The
figures produced simply connect data points and do not attempt any curve fitting of the
data. The results of each individual specimen are contained in Appendix B. Plots of the
scattered data and the development of trendlines are also contained in Appendix B.
During mixing of the specimens, the mixtures with recycled materials didnt appear to be
noticeably more difficult to compact or mix than the control mixture. Gloves were required
when working with the waste glass during mixing and filling of the molds to prevent being
cut by the glass. Because concrete block is produced in an automated process, concerns
about cuts to humans during the production of the block may not be a significant issue.
54


The surface texture of the block in its finished condition is discussed at the end of this
section.
When the cubes were removed from their molds after 1 day, their weight was recorded
before they were immersed in water for curing. At this point the cubes still had a significant
amount of moisture that would be greater than that of the final condition and had not cured.
The recorded weights were the average of 6 cube samples and were useful in determining
the effect on the unit weight of the recycled materials and are shown in Figure 5.17.
1 Day Unit Weight
145.0
2302
138.49
2252
140.0
129.29 2052
125.0
2002
0
10
20
30
Percent Fine Aggregate Replacement (%)
A- Waste Glass Rubber Tire Particles
Figure 5.17 1 Day Unit Weight vs. Percent Fine Aggregate Replacement
55


A separate study of the weight of the cubes was performed after they had been cured for 7
days and then placed in a moisture and temperature controlled room for 3 days. This
allowed the specimens to reach a moisture content similar to that which they might be
used. The results are shown in Figure 5.18.
7 Day Unit Weight
A- Waste Glass Rubber Tire Particles
Figure 5.18 7 Day Unit Weight vs. Percent Fine Aggregate Replacement
2302
2252
2202
2152
2102
2052
2002
05
05
c
=)
The results from the 1 and 7 day unit weights show that as the amount of fine aggregate
replacement increased the unit weight decreased. The mixtures made with rubber tire
particles decreased at a greater rate than mixtures made with waste glass. This is to be
expected given that the dry rodded unit weight of the crumb rubber was only 28% of that
the sand and unit weight of the waste glass was 82% of the sand used in the mixtures.
56


The average of the 1 and 7 day unit weight studies showed that the unit weight of mixtures
with waste glass replacement rates of 10%, 20% and 30% decreased 0.8%, 0.9% and
3.4% respectively when compared to the control mixture. The mixtures containing rubber
tire particles had a unit weight that decreased 3.8%, 5.1 % and 7.0% for the same
replacement rates.
The absorption of the mixes was tested in accordance with (ASTM C 140 2003) and the
results are shown in Figure 5.19. The absorption was tested on samples cured for a total
of 7 days. The mixtures made with waste glass did not vary significantly from that of the
control mixture whereas the mixtures made from rubber tire particles showed a slight
increase as the replacement rate of rubber tire particles increased. The higher absorption
rates for mixtures made with large replacement rates of rubber tire particles may indicate
that the durability of these mixtures may be slightly less than that of the control mixture.
Absorption vs. Percent Fine Aggregate Replacement
0 10 20 30
Percent Fine Aggregate Replacement
Control Mixture DWaste Glass Rubber Tire Particles
Figure 5.19 Absorption vs. Percent Fine Aggregate Replacement
57


The compressive strength of the mixtures with recycled materials was examined and the
results of the 7 day strengths are shown in Figure 5.20. (ASTM C 90 2003) has no time
requirement for determining the strength of concrete masonry units and only stipulates that
they meet a minimum strength requirement of 1900 psi. Therefore, the strength of the
units both at 7 and 28 days was reviewed. In general the compressive strength of the
mixture decreased as the percent of aggregate replacement increased. The decrease in
the rubber tire particle was greater than that of the waste glass.
7 Day Strength
'tn
a.
u>
c
a>
co
a)
>
CD
Q_
E
o
O
2600
2400
2200
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
17.5
15.5
13.5
11.5
9.5
7.5
5.5
CD
CL
53)
c
CD
i
4t
CO
a>
>
to
CO
CD
L-
a.
E
o
O
Percent of Fine Aggregate Replacement (%)
Waste Glass
Rubber Tire Particles
Figure 5.20 7 Day Strength vs. Percent Fine Aggregate Replacement
58


As recycled aggregate is added to a mixture, the strength of the mixture becomes less than
that of the control mixture. Therefore one could say the use of recycled aggregate causes
a strength reduction in the mixture when compared to the control mixture.
A plot of the strength reduction for each mixture compared to the control mixture is shown
in Figure 5.21. This information is helpful in understanding the effect of the recycled
aggregates and in comparing the results to other studies.
7 Day Strength Decrease From Control Mixture
Percent of Fine Aggregate Replacement (%)
10 20 30
-70.0
Waste Glass Rubber Tire Particles
Figure 5.21 7 Day Strength Decrease vs. Percent Fine Aggregate Replacement
The 28 Day compressive strength of the mixtures with recycled materials was examined
and the results are shown in Figure 5.22. The trend of the results showed a similar pattern
to that of the 7 day strength results.
59


28 Day Strength
CO
Q_
05
c
CD
s_
4
CO
a>
>
w
to
cl)
>*.
Q.
E
o
O
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
Percent of Fine Aggregate Replacement (%)
Waste Glass
Rubber Tire Particles
Figure 5.22 28 Day Strength vs. Percent Fine Aggregate Replacement
A plot of the strength reduction when compared to the control mixture for each percentage
of recycled aggregate is shown in Figure 5.23.
60
Compressive Strength (MPa)


28 Day Strength Decrease From Control Mixture
Percent of Fine Aggregate Replacement (%)
10 20 30
Waste Glass Rubber Tire Particles
Figure 5.23 28 Day Strength Decrease vs. Percent Fine Aggregate Replacement
The results showed that for replacement rates of 10%, 20% and 30% of waste glass, a
strength decrease of 25%, 29.9% and 32.2% respectively occurred when tested after 28
days of curing. Comparing the results of this study to work done in other research may be
helpful in understanding the effects of the recycled aggregates, but it can be difficult for a
number of reasons. The materials used, mixture proportions, replacement rates and focus
of the research can vary greatly among studies making comparison difficult.
In Section 2.4, it was noted that Meyer et al. did a study on the use of waste glass in
concrete block. In this study, the amount of replacement of waste glass was limited to 10%
of the fine aggregate because of concerns with alkali-silica reaction. Meyer et al. found
that masonry lost about 8.9% of its strength for a replacement rate of 10% when tested
after 28 days. This is higher than the results of this study, but it should be noted that the
61


water to cement ratio used in the mixture of the study done by Meyer et al. was very
different using a ratio of 0.17 instead of the 0.6 ratio used in this study (Meyer et al. 2001).
There have been a number of studies using waste glass in concrete. In comparing the
results to work done in other studies the trend of the data matches that found in other
research. As the amount of waste glass increased, the strength decreased. As noted in
Section 2.7.1, Topcu and Canbaz studied coarse aggregate replacement rates of 15%,
30%, 45% and 60% and found a strength decrease of 8%, 15% 31% and 49% (Topcu and
Canbaz 2004). It should be noted that the replacement rates represent total aggregate
replacement not just fine aggregate replacement. Park et al. in their study examined fine
aggregate replacement rates of 30%, 50% and 70%, finding a strength decrease of 0.6%,
9.8 and 13.6% respectively (Park et al. 2004). The results of this study show similar
strength reductions to the work of Topcu and Canbaz, but were greater than the research
of Park et al. Still comparing concrete block production to much higher strength concrete
studies should be done with caution.
The results showed that for replacement rates of 10%, 20% and 30% of crumb rubber
resulted in a greater strength decrease of 30.7%, 40.3% and 65.1 % respectively when
tested after 28 days of curing. As noted in Section 2.9, there have been very limited
studies in using rubber tire particles in concrete block. Cairns et al. did a study where
coarse aggregate was replaced with rubber tire particles. The study showed that for
replacement rates of 10%, 25% and 50%, strength reductions of 22%, 23% and 41%
occurred. It should be noted that the proportions of fine and coarse aggregate in the study
done by Cairns was very much different than that used in this study (Cairns et al. 2004).
62


Studies using crumb rubber in concrete have demonstrated that as the amount of crumb
rubber increased the strength of the mixture decreased dramatically. The results of this
study showed a similar trend. As noted in Section 2.12.1, a study by Ghaly and Cahill with
replacement rates of 5%, 10% and 15% of the total volume of the mixture saw strength
reductions of 21.7%, 48% and 59.7% respectively for a mixture with a water to cement
ratio of 0.54 when tested after 28 days of curing (Ghaly and Cahill 2005).
In summary, comparing the results to other studies shows similar strength reduction
trends. The value of the strength reduction are similar, but it appears that the reduction
may be slightly higher for mixtures of concrete block, possibly due to the low paste content
of zero slump mixture design.
The 7 and 28 Day compressive strength of the mixtures with recycled materials was plotted
and the results are shown in Figure 5.24 and 5.25.
63


Waste Glass Strength Curves
3500
Percent of Fine Aggregate Replacement (%)
7 Day Strength 28 Day Strength
Figure 5.24 7 and 28 Day Strength Curves for Waste Glass Mixtures
64
Compressive Strength (MPa)


Rubber Tire Particle Strength Curves
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
CD
CL
05
c
CD
4t
CO
CD
>
CO
c/>
CD
i_
CL
E
o
O
Percent of Fine Aggregate Replacement (%)
7 Day Strength * 28 Day Strength
Figure 5.25 7 and 28 Day Strength Curves for Rubber Tire Particle Mixtures
Although it is difficult to see a definitive trend in the data of the two curves, the results may
suggest that there is less of a difference in the strength of the 7 and 28 day samples at
higher replacement rates.
(ASTM C 90 2003) requires that the finish and appearance of the concrete masonry units
be sound and free of cracks or other defects that might interfere with the proper placement
of the units or impair their strength. Minor cracks and chips due to customary handling are
not grounds for rejection. Five percent of shipments containing chips not larger than 1 inch
in any direction or cracks not wider than 0.02 inch and not longer than 25% of the nominal
65


height of the unit are permitted. The specimens produced in the laboratory met this criteria
and were free of cracks and chips.
(ASTM C 90 2003) stipulates that units used in exposed wall construction shall not show
chips, cracks or other imperfections when viewed from a distance of 20 feet under diffused
lighting. The masonry produced in the research also met this requirement.
The units produced from waste glass had a finish that had a few exposed glass particles,
but the majority of the particles were embedded in the paste matrix. The dispersal of the
glass particles was uniform on all surfaces of the cube produced. The waste glass used in
the research consisted of various colors of glass including brown, green and clear glass.
The exposed particles consisting of green glass were visually the most notable. Units
produced with colored glass might have the potential to produce a very aesthetically
pleasing surface using know techniques in the field of architectural concrete. A block
manufacture could experiment with different glass colors and finishing techniques to
produce a range of appealing block patterns and finishes.
One concern with the exposed glass particles on the surface of the specimens is whether
or not they might produce a sharp surface that could be a hazard to the public. Passing
ones fingers over the surface resulted in no abrasions or cuts to the hand. A photo of the
cube produced is shown in Figure 5.26.
66


~-w a rv'v
'l: --O'.'' V. ;, \y-" '
'-y*'. -v-v
\^v.yo
a: \* -
ft r'V'-w, **
V'- - v*
w a-"-.. - *.-v '
Figure 5.26 Photo of CMU Cube with Waste Glass Top View
The units produced with rubber tire particles as an aggregate replacement had no exposed
particles on the surface of the specimen except for the bottom surface. The bottom
surface in the cube mold may be the hardest to compact during filling of the mold resulting
in the exposed aggregate. This may be resolved by other compaction methods not used in
the research such as vibration. Photos of the finished cubes are shown in Figures 5.27
and 5.28.
67


Figure 5.27 Photo of CMU Cube with Rubber Tire Particles Bottom View
Figure 5.28 Photo of CMU Cube with Rubber Tire Particles Side View
68


6.
Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Research
6.1 Conclusions
The usage of recycled waste glass and rubber tire particles in concrete block presents a
number of possibilities in engineering applications. The results of this study indicate that
as the amount of recycled material in the mixtures increased, the unit weight decreased.
The mixtures containing waste glass with replacements rates of 10%, 20% and 30 % had a
unit weight that decreased 0.8%, 0.9% and 3.4% respectively when compared to the
control mixture. The mixtures made with crumb rubber showed a more dramatic decrease
of 3.8%, 5.1 % and 7.0% for the same replacement rates.
This decrease in the unit weight of the concrete block might result in reduced construction
costs on projects since the units would be lighter to lift and install. Cost savings on wall
thicknesses and foundation sizes might also occur due to reduced foundation and seismic
loads from the lighter CMU units. This decrease in the weight of this building material
could even be more significant if lightweight aggregates were used instead of conventional
aggregates.
The results of the absorption testing indicate that the use of waste glass and crumb rubber
does not significantly affect the durability of the concrete block. Although the absorption
rate of the samples made with rubber tire particles increased slightly as the rate of
replacement increased, all of the specimens were well within the acceptable limits of
(ASTM C 90 2003).
69


The strength of the masonry decreased as the amount of waste glass used in the mixture
increased. The 28 day strength of mixtures with 10%, 20% and 30% waste glass
replacement rates decreased the compressive strength by 25%, 29.9%, and 32.2%
respectively.
Similarly the strength of the masonry decreased as the amount of crumb rubber increased.
The 28 day strength of mixtures with 10%, 20% and 30% waste glass replacement rates
decreased the compressive strength of the mixture by 30.7%, 40.3%, and 65.1%
respectively. The strength reduction for concrete block made with waste glass and crumb
rubber appear to be slightly higher than comparable concrete mixtures. This may be due
to the lack cement paste in the zero slump mixture design found in automated block
production.
Although the usage of recycled materials affected the strength of the CMU in a negative
manner, at low replacement rates the concrete block produced may be adequate for
general masonry construction. At higher replacement rates, their usage might be limited to
walls that see smaller structural loads such as interior partition walls.
As the replacement rate was increased there was less of a difference between the 7 and
28 day strength of the samples. This information might be helpful to block suppliers in
determining production and delivery schedules for block made with recycled aggregates.
In reviewing the texture and finish of the CMU samples, the usage of recycled materials did
not appear to significantly affect the visual appearance or finish of the samples produced.
70


The units produced from waste glass had a finish that had a few exposed glass particles
where as the samples made from crumb rubber had no visual exposed particles except on
the bottom which might be eliminated by better consolidation.
The samples met the criteria of (ASTM C 90 2003) for visual appearance and texture for
exposed applications. They were free of cracks, chips and other defects.
A few pieces of glass aggregate were visible on the surface of the samples, but the glass
did not appear to pose a hazard that might cut a person and its presence was small.
Units produced with colored glass might have the potential to produce a very aesthetically
pleasing surface using techniques in the field of architectural concrete. This would require
separation of recycled glass into different colors, but a block manufacture could experiment
with different glass colors and finishing techniques to produce a range of appealing block
patterns and finishes.
There were a number of trash items found in the waste glass as shown in Figure 5.2 such
as batteries, syringes and other items which might present a health hazard if they are not
removed from the waste glass. It is recommended that steps be taken to remove all of the
metal items and consider washing of the waste glass prior to usage in any concrete block
applications.
6.2 Recommendations for Future Study
As discussed in section 2.7.3, concrete made with waste glass in some cases has been
found by several studies to exhibit the undesirable properties of an alkali-silica reaction
(Meyer et al. 2001). Concrete masonry units are a unique subset of concrete production.
71


Due to the manufacturing production parameters required to produce concrete block, CMU
mixtures have a zero slump requirement. Therefore, CMU mixtures typically have less
cement paste than other concrete mixtures. It is not known what effect this reduced
amount of cement paste in CMU mixtures has on alkali-silica reaction. Additional research
into the effect of ASR needs to be undertaken for this unique concrete product.
The fire protection capabilities of masonry units made with waste glass and rubber tire
particles are not well understood at this time. Since one of the goals of research is to
enable products to be used in the widest possible application, the fire rating of the concrete
blocks needs to be determined. Building officials will be reluctant to allow usage of the
building material without documentation of their ability to resist fire damage.
In addition to the engineering properties reviewed in this paper, other properties need to be
examined. It is not known if units made with waste glass or rubber tire particles will have
similar or reduced mortar bond strengths when compared to conventional units. Prism
testing of units made of waste glass and crumb rubber should be considered. Some
masonry applications allow for unreinforced walls to be used. Because no reinforcement is
used in this application, the tensile strength of the unit must be known for a proper
engineering design. Often masonry is used in shear wall construction to provide lateral
stability of structural elements. Research into the tensile and shear capacity of units made
with waste glass and crumb rubber would be helpful in addressing these required
engineering properties.
The energy efficiency of a building material can greatly influence the economic viability and
sustainability of a project. In masonry construction, two thermal properties are often
considered, thermal mass or the ability of a material to store heat and a materials R value
72


or its ability to resist heat transfer. It would be interesting to know if the masonry units
made with rubber might be beneficial in providing an energy efficient building material.
Even a slight gain in energy efficiency might result in significant savings in energy costs
over the life of a building.
Regardless of the density of a concrete masonry unit, movement control recommendations
are applicable. Control of cracking and movement is important to the structural integrity
and aesthetic of a building. (ASTM C 90 2003) requires for acceptable CMU units, the
linear shrinkage strain shall not exceed 0.065% at the time of delivery. The shrinkage
testing of the concrete block was not performed in this research, but should be done in
future work.
Moisture infiltration through a completed masonry wall is a concern for occupied building
applications. Walls that allow for excessive moisture penetration can lead to a number of
unpleasant problems. Although the research above indicated that the absorption of block
made from waste glass or crumb rubber did not vary significantly from that of the control
mixture, evaluating the water penetration and leakage of a masonry wall made with waste
glass or crumb rubber should be performed.
73


APPENDIX A: Information on Materials Used in Mixture Designs
A.1 Materials Used in Research
The following is information on the materials used in the research. The standards and
source of materials are shown in Table A.1.
Table A.1 Concrete masonry mixture design materials
Material Standard Source
Cement ASTM C 150 Type l/ll Ashgrove Cement
Sand ASTM C 33 Bestway Concrete
Pea Gravel ASTM C 33 Home Depot
Waste Glass Rocky Mountain Bottling Company
Crumb Rubber Academy Sports Turf
Water Potable Tap Water
74


The chemical composition of the cement used in the research is shown in Table A.2.
Table A.2 Chemical composition of cement
Date and Time of Analysis
Type of Analysis
Number of Repeats
Cassette Number
Type l-ll
7/16/2009
Concentration Analysis
1
43
Run Average
Si 13.54
Ai 4.78
Fe 3.93
Ca 63.55
Mg 1.37
S 3.85
Na 0.243
K 0.897
c. 0.098
L550 1.00
L350 2.50
Total 99.99
NaEQ 0.83
c3s 56.02
C2S 13.20
c3a 7.01
c4af 10.15
AF 1.43
C02 1.5
lsco2 35.00
LINSTN 4.3
Di 0.00
Potential alkali reactivity testing of the sand used in the research is shown in Figure A.1
and a gradation test is shown in Figure A.2
75


845 Navajo Street Denver, CO 80204
SPTGi/MSTS TO TUPP/HONGINDOSTOY Phone: 303975"59 Fax: 303 975.9969 Email:office@westest.net
February 26, 2010
Bestway Concrete
315 Frontier Court
Milliken, CO 80543
Attention: Mr. Dan Bentz
Subject: Laboratory Test Results
Brighton Pit
ASTM C 1260 Potential Alkali Reactivity of Aggregates
ASTM C 33 Fine Aggregate
ASTM C 33 Coarse Aggregate
WesTest Project No. 269510
Gentlemen:
Enclosed as Figures 1 and 2 are the results of potential alkali reactivity testing (mortar bar
method}, performed on aggregate sampled from the abovc-rcferenced source on February 1,
2010. The aggregate was prepared and tested in general accordance with ASTM Procedures.
ASTM C 1260 defines the potential of an aggregate for deleterious expansion as follows:
Test Expansion Classification
Potential for Deleterious ASR
<0.10%
0.10% to 0.20%
> 0.20%
Innocuous
Inconclusive
Deleterious
Low
Not Predictable
High
Based on the test results of 0.07% and 0.06% expansion at 14 days in solution, 16 days after
casting, the potential for deleterious alkali-silica behavior of this aggregate in concrete is
considered low.
If you have any questions on the data presented, please contact us at your convenience.
Sincerely,
WesTest
Elliot Boyd
Reviewed by:
WesTest
Eric R. West, P.E.
xs
76


UfWsr
SpwiAiisTSTom Fame f/antsmr
845 Navajo Street
Denver, CO 80204
303.975.9959
LABORATORY TEST REPORT
POTENTIAL ALKALI REACTIVITY OF AGGREGATES
(MORTAR-BAR METHOD)
ASTM C 1250
CLIENT: Bestway Concrete
PROJECT NO.: 269510
REPORT DATE:
SAMPLE ID:
February 26, 2010
Fine Aggregate
AGGREGATE:
SOURCE: Brighton Pit
SIZE: ASTM C 33 Fine Aggregate
COMMENTS: Aggregate graded as per Seclion 7.2, Table 1
CEMENT:
SOURCE: Holcim
TYPE: l/IIGU
AUTOCLAVE EXPANSION: 0.02%
ALKALIS CONTENT (as Na equivalent): 0.75%
COMMENTS: Cement data provided by Holcim
MIX WATER:
0.47 w/c ratio
EFFECTIVE GAUGE LENGTH = 250 mm
2/11/10 2/12/10 2/15/10 2/19/10 2/22/10 2/26/10
Initial Zero 3 Days 7 Days 10 Days 14 Days
Specimen Comparator Reading Comparalor Reading Comparator Reading Length Change Comparalor Reading Length Change Comparator Reading Length Change Comparator Reading Length Change
A -0.232 -0.068 -0.050 0.01% 0.000 0.03% 0.044 0.04% 0.096 0.07%
B -0.368 0.286 0.308 0.01 % 0.380 0.04% 0.418 0.05% 0.462 0.07%
C -0.334 -0.170 -0.146 0.01% -0.088 0.03% -0.050 0.05% -0.006 0.07%
AVERAGE 0.016 0.037 0.01% 0.097 0.03% 0.137 0.05% 0.184 0.07%
0.60% UJ MORTAR BAR EXPANSION
i i 1 j :
< X U 0.40% tj z 0.30% LU O 0.20% 2 S 0.10% <

i


0.00% j. ;
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
DAYS IN SOLUTION
FIGURE 1
77


Sncmmsiom Pams tmasm
845 Navajo Stieet
Denver, CO 80204
303 975.9959
LABORATORY TEST REPORT
POTENTIAL ALKALI REACTIVITY OF AGGREGATES
(MORTAR-BAR METHOD)
ASTM C 1260
CLIENT: Bestway Concrete
PROJECT NO.: 269510
REPORT DATE:
SAMPLE ID:
February 26, 2010
Coarse Aggregate
AGGREGATE:
SOURCE: Brighton Pit
SIZE: ASTM C 33 Size No. 57/67 Coarse Aggregate
COMMENTS: Aggregate graded as per Section 7.2, Table 1
CEMENT:
SOURCE: Holcim
TYPE: l/IIGU
AUTOCLAVE EXPANSION: 0.02%
ALKALIS CONTENT (as Na equivalent): 0.75%
COMMENTS: Cement data provided by Holcim
MIX WATER:
0.47 w/c ratio
EFFECTIVE GAUGE LENGTH = 250 mm
2/11/10 2/12/10 2/15/10 2/19/10 2/22/10 2/26/10
Initial Zero 3 Days 7 Days 10 Days 14 Days
Specimen Comparator Reading Comparator Reading Comparator Reading Length Change Comparator Reading Length Change Comparator Reading Length Change Comparator Reading Length Change
A -0.434 -0.280 -0.270 0.00% -0.218 0.02% -0.160 0.05% -0.128 0.06%
B -1.172 -1.020 -1.016 0.00% -0.962 0.02% -0.900 0.05% -0.876 0.06%
C -0.260 -0.104 -0.092 0.00% -0.042 0.02% 0.022 0.05% 0.056 0.06%
AVERAGE -0.468 -0.459 0.00% -0.407 0.02% -0.346 0.05% -0.316 0.06%
MORTAR BAR EXPANSION
Ul § 0.50% < X

h- 0
UJ _J o 0.20% s £ 0.10% < i

, -#
0.00%
o ; 4 6 8 10 12 14
DAYS IN SOLUTION
FIGURE 2
Figure A.1 Potential Alkali Reactivity Testing
78


LABORATORY TEST REPORT
Snwtsnnm Pms hmw
845 Navajo Street
Denver, CO 80204
303.975.9959. Fax 303.975.9969
MATERIAL
DESCRIPTION____________
DATE
SAMPLED________________
SAMPLE
LOCATION_______________
CLIENT: Bestway Concrete WesTest PROJECT NO.: 269510
SOURCE: Brighton Plant REPORT DATE: March 2,2010
SAMPLED BY: Client
PROJECT: Brighton Plant Aggregate Testing
ASTM C 33 Fine Aggregate
February 1,2010
Stockpile
Aggregate Physical Property and Quality Tests (ASTM C 33, AASHTO M 6 Specifications)
ASTM C117 & C136, AASHTO T11 & T 27 ASTM C 128. AASHTO T 84 ASTM C 88. AASHTO T104, Sodium Sulfate Soundness. 5 Cycles
Bulk Specific Gravity = 2.61, Bulk Specific Gravity (SSOI 2.63. Apparent Specific Gravity = 2.66. GRADING WEIGHT BEFORE TEST. PERCENT PASSING AFTER TEST
SIEVE SIZE % Passing ASTM C33 Spec AASHTO M 6 Spec. Absorption = 0.7% SIEVE SIZE OF ORIGINAL WEIGHTED PERCENT LOSS
r ASTM D 2419, AASHTO T176 SAMPLE
3/4" Sand Equivalent Value = 8* Minus #100 4
1/2* Specification- 60 Mm. (COOT) #50 to #100 4
3/8* 100 100 100 ASTM C142, AASHTO T112, Clay Lumps & # 30 to # 50 40 100.0 0.3 0.1
n * 100 95*100 95-100 Fnabte Particles #16 to #30 30 100.0 0.1 0.0
tt 8 98 80-100 80-100 FINE AGG = 0.0%. Specification 3.0% Max. #8 to #16 20 100.0 0.1 0.0
#16 78 50-B5 50-85 ASTM C123, AASHTO T113. Lightweight Particles # 4 to # 6 2 100.0 0.0 0.0
#30 48 25-60 25-60 in Aggregate 3/8* to #4 0 0.0 0.0
#50 18 5-30 10-30 SAMPLE LIQUID TYPE/ SPECIFIC GRAVITY LIGHTWEIGHT SPEC. TOTAL 100 FINE AGG. TOTAL 100% 0
#100 4 0-10 2-10 WT. PARTICLES SPECIFICATION: 10 Max.
#200 0.9 0-3 0-2 ZnCtp/2.0 0.0% 0.5% Max. ASTM C 40, AASHTO T 21. Organic Impurities
Fineness Modulus 255 2.3-31 23-3.1 214.6 Mtj/2.4 0.0% 3.0% Max. Less than organic rtate no i Specification. Organic Plate No. 3 or Less
COMMENTS
TABLE 1
Figure A.2 Fine Aggregate Gradation and Soundness Testing
79


APPENDIX B: Results Data
B.1 Phase 1 Results Data
The reported values in Section 5 of the research are the average of results from three cube
samples unless noted otherwise. The figures produced in Section 5 connect data points
and do not attempt any curve fitting of the data. Appendix B contains tables with the actual
results data of each test specimen tested during the study. Graphs of the results are
included with data scatter and the best linear curve fitting of the data. The inclusion of this
information in this appendix is intended to give one a feel of how the results are presented
in this paper, the scope of the testing performed and the variability of the results.
The information shown in Table B.1 and Figure B.1 is the data associated with the
compaction study described in Section 5.6.
Table B.1 Data for 7 day compressive strength vs. unit weight
Study Sample No. Unit Weight (lb/ft3) Strength (psi)
Compaction Study 1 Cube 1 106.9 97.5
Cube 2 110.6 102.5
Cube 3 108.5 150
Average 108.7 116.7
Standard Deviation 1.9 29.0
Coefficient of Variability 0.0171 0.2484
80


Compaction Study 2 Cube 1 116.1 297.5
Cube 2 117.3 310
Cube 3 118.2 372.5
Average 117.2 326.7
Standard Deviation 1.1 40.2
Coefficient of Variability 0.0090 0.1230
Compaction Study 3 Cube 1 129 647.5
Cube 2 126.1 622.5
Average 127.6 635.0
Standard Deviation 2.1 17.7
Coefficient of Variability 0.0161 0.0278
Compaction Study 4 Cube 1 129.8 525
Cube 2 128.8 637.5
Cube 3 129.9 772.5
Average 129.5 645
Standard Deviation 0.6 124
Coefficient of Variability 0.0047 0.1921
Compaction Study 5 Cube 1 128.4 510
Cube 2 132.3 840
Cube 3 129.4 610
Average 130.0 653
Standard Deviation 2.0 169
Coefficient of Variability 0.0156 0.2590
81


7 Day Strength vs. Unit Weight
1 Day Unit Weight (lb/ft3)
Figure B.1 Trendline 7 Day Compressive Strength vs. Unit Weight
The information shown in Table B.2 and Figure B.2 is the data associated with the
absorption testing of the trial mixtures and was used to produce Figure 5.13.
Table B.2 Data for 7 day and 28 day absorption
Mixture Cube 1 (lb/ft3) Cube 2 (lb/ft3) Cube 3 (lb/ft3) Average (lb/ft3) Standard Deviation (lb/ft3) Coefficient of Variability
7 Day 10% Cement 8.73 8.33 9.60 8.90 0.65 0.073
7 Day 15% Cement 6.57 6.22 6.74 6.51 0.27 0.041
7 Day 20% Cement 7.51 7.24 7.33 7.36 0.14 0.019
7 Day 25% Cement 7.34 7.00 7.00 7.12 0.20 0.028
82


28 Day 15% Cement 7.42 7.59 7.60 7.54 0.10 0.013
28 Day 20% Cement 7.76 7.59 7.42 7.59 0.17 0.022
Absoprtion
CO
ip
c
o
o
m
JD
<
Figure B.2
156.1
146.1
136.1
126.1
116.1
106.1
96.1
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Percent Cement (%)
a 7 Day 28 Day--------7 Day --------28 Day
Trendline 7 Day and 28 Day Absorption
The information shown in Table B.3 and Figure B.3 is the data associated with determining
the unit weight of the trial mixtures and was used to produce Figure 5.14.
83
Absorption (kg/m3)


Table B.3 Data for unit weight of trial mixtures
Mixture Cube 1 (lb/ft3) Cube 2 (lb/ft3) Cube 3 (lb/ft3) Average (lb/ft3) Standard Deviation (lb/ft3) Coefficient of Variability
10% Cement 125.60 125.17 124.63 125.13 0.49 0.0039
15% Cement 130.14 130.80 129.30 130.08 0.75 0.0058
20% Cement 132.80 134.60 133.8 133.73 0.9 0.0067
25% Cement 138.13 139.10 136.62 137.95 1.25 0.0091
Unit Weight vs. Percent Cement
Figure B.3 Trendline Unit Weight of Trial Mixtures
The information shown in Table B.4 and Figure B.4 are the results of strength testing of
various mixtures with different water to cement ratios and was used to produce Figure
5.15.
84
Unit Weight (kg/m3)


Table B.4 Data for compressive strength vs. water to cement ratio trial mixtures
Mixture Cube 1 (psi) Cube 2 (psi) Cube 3 (psi) Average (psi) Standard Deviation (psi) Coefficient of Variability
10% Cement Water to Cement Ratio = 0.8 640 665 693 666 26 0.039
10% Cement Water to Cement Ratio = 0.7 510 840 610 653 169 0.259
15% Cement Water to Cement Ratio = 0.7 1723 1435 1240 1466 243 0.166
15% Cement Water to Cement Ratio = 0.6 1433 1815 2103 1783 336 0.188
20% Cement Water to Cement Ratio = 0.6 2748 2310 2288 2448 259 0.106
20% Cement Water to Cement Ratio = 0.5 2460 2968 4070 3166 823 0.260
85


Strength vs Water to Cement Ratio

Q.
O)
c
0)
-t*
CO
CD
>
CO
CO
Cl)
i_
Q.
E
o
O
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0

0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7
Water to Cement Ratio
30
25
20
15
10
0.75 0.8
10% Cement
20% Cement
15% Cement
a 15% Cement
----10% Cement
- 20% Cement
ns
0.
£
os
c
Cl)
CO
a)
>
cn
cn
cl)
k_
Q.
E
o
O
Figure B.4 Trendline Compressive Strength vs. Water to Cement Ratio Trial Mixtures
The information shown in Table B.5 and Figure B.5 are the results of strength testing of
several trial mixtures and was used to produce Figure 5.16.
Table B.5 Data for compressive strength vs. percent cement trial mixtures
Mixture Cube 1 (psi) Cube 2 (psi) Cube 3 (psi) Average (psi) Standard Deviation (psi) Coefficient of Variability
10% Cement 745 753 815 771 38 0.050
15% Cement 2100 2390 1850 2113 270 0.128
20% Cement 3323 4215 3813 3783 447 0.118
86


4000
7 Day Strength
U)
Q_
£
CT>
c
CD
w
0)
>
'w
C/5
id
i_
a.
E
o
O
3500
3000
2500
2000
- 25.0
-- 20.0
15.0
10.0
- 5.0
0.0
10
15
20
25
30
Percent Cement (%)
Figure B.5 Trendline Compressive Strength vs. Percent Cement Trial Mixtures
B.2 Phase 2 Results Data
The following is the data results for the phase 2 work. Graphs of the results are included
with data scatter and the best linear curve fitting of the data unless noted otherwise.
The information shown in Table B.5 and Table B.6 are the results of the1 day unit weight of
the control mixture and various mixtures with aggregate replacement and was used to
produce Figure 5.17. Figure B.6 shows the data scatter and trendline of these results.
Table B.6 Data for 1 day unit weight waste glass replacement
Mixture Control Mixture 10% Waste Glass 20% Waste Glass 30% Waste Glass
Cube 1 (lb/ft3) 138.78 137.27 138.89 138.67
87
Compressive Strength (MPa)


Cube 2 (lb/ft3) 140.62 139.86 138.89 138.89
Cube 3 (lb/ft3) 138.24 139.86 137.92 137.59
Cube 4 (lb/ft3) 138.78 138.89 136.4 135.43
Cube 5 (lb/ft3) 141.59 138.46 137.81 134.78
Cube 6 (lb/ft3) 139.54 136.62 137.05 134.46
Average (lb/ft3 135.70 138.49 137.83 136.64
Standard Deviation (lb/ft3) 1.28 1.33 0.99 1.92
Coefficient of Variability 0.0092 0.0096 0.0072 0.0146
Table B.7 Data for 1 day unit weight crumb rubber replacement
Mixture Control Mixture 10% Crumb Rubber 20% Crumb Rubber 30% Crumb Rubber
Cube 1 (lb/ft3) 138.78 132.52 136.19 131.11
Cube 2 (lb/ft3) 140.62 134.46 134.68 129.49
Cube 3 (lb/ft3) 138.24 134.57 133.81 131.65
Cube 4 (lb/ft3) 138.78 138.86 130.25 128.20
Cube 5 (lb/ft3) 141.59 138.24 133.06 128.52
Cube 6 (lb/ft3) 139.54 138.56 133.16 126.79
Average (lb/ft3) 135.70 135.70 133.52 129.29
Standard Deviation (lb/ft3) 1.28 2.68 1.98 1.84
Coefficient of Variability 0.0092 0.0173 0.0148 0.0142
88


1 Day Unit Weight
25
c
D
2,302
2,252
2,202
2,152
2,102
2,052
2,002
Percent of Fine Aggregate Replacement (%)
* Waste Glass Crumb Rubber
-----Waste Glass ------Crumb Rubber
Figure B.6 Trendline 1 Day Unit Weight vs. Percent Aggregate Replacement
The information shown in Table B.8 and Figure B.7 are the results of the 7 day unit weight
of the control mixture and various mixtures with aggregate replacement. These results
were used in Figure 5.18.
Table B.8 Data for 7 day unit weight
Mixture Cube 1 (lb/ft3) Cube 2 (lb/ft3) Cube 3 (lb/ft3) Average (lb/ft3) Standard Deviation (lb/ft3) Coefficient of Variability
Control Mixture 137.6* 137.7* 137.9 137.7 0.15 0.0011
10% Waste Glass 134.2 136.2 139.1 136.5 2.46 0.0180
20% Waste Glass 136.7* 137.2* 136.7* 136.9 0.29 0.0021
89
Unit Weight (kg/m3)


30% Waste Glass 131.6* 130.9* 131.3* 131.3 0.35 0.0027
10% Crumb Rubber 130.4 130.5 132.3 131.0 1.07 0.0082
20% Crumb Rubber 131.0 128.8 129.1 129.6 1.19 0.0092
30% Crumb Rubber 125.0 129.9 130.7 128.5 3.09 0.0240
Asterisk denotes average result of two sample
7 Day Unit Weight
2302
2252
2202
2152
2102
2052
2002
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Percent of Fine Aggregate Replacement (%)
* Waste Glass Crumb Rubber
-----Waste Glass -------Crumb Rubber
Figure B.7 Trendline 7 Day Unit Weight vs. Percent Aggregate Replacement
90
Unit Weight (kg/m3)


The information shown in Table B.9 and Figure B.8 are the results of the absorption tests
on the control mixture and various mixtures with aggregate replacement and was used to
produce Figure 5.19.
Table B.9 Data for absorption vs. percent fine aggregate replacement
Mixture Cube 1 (lb/ft3) Cube 2 (lb/ft3) Cube 3 (lb/ft3) Average (lb/ft3) Standard Deviation (lb/ft3) Coefficient of Variability
Control Mixture 6.74 7.08 7.00 6.94 0.18 0.0256
10% Waste Glass 7.25 7.17 6.83 7.08 0.22 0.0315
20% Waste Glass 7.25 7.34 7.34 7.31 0.05 0.0071
30% Waste Glass 7.08 7.42 7.25 7.25 0.17 0.0234
10% Crumb Rubber 7.17 7.08 6.66 6.97 0.27 0.0391
20% Crumb Rubber 7.00 7.51 7.51 7.34 0.29 0.0401
30% Crumb Rubber 8.33 7.84 7.59 7.92 0.38 0.0475
91


Full Text

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ASSESSMENTOFCONCRETEMASONRYUNITSCONTAININGAGGREGATE REPLACEMENTSOFWASTEGLASSANDRUBBERTIREPARTICLES by JerryW.Isler B.S.,UniversityofColoradoDenver,1984 Athesissubmittedtothe UniversityofColoradoDenverinpartialfulfillment oftherequirementsforthedegreeof MasterofScience CivilEngineering 2012

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ThisthesisfortheMasterofSciencedegreeby JerryW.Isler hasbeenapprovedby Dr.FrederickRutz,Advisor Dr.KevinRens Dr.RuiLiu Date:4-13-2012

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Isler,JerryW.(M.S.,CivilEngineering) AssessmentofConcreteMasonryUnitsContainingAggregateReplacementsofWaste GlassandRubberTireParticles ThesisdirectedbyAssistantProfessorDr.FrederickRutz ABSTRACT Sustainableconstructionhasbecomeaninterestintheengineeringcommunityand severalstandardshavebeendevelopedtoassesstheenvironmentalimpactofnew constructionprojects.Researchhasshownthatitispossibletouserecycledmaterialsto replacesomeofthetraditionalmixturecomponentsinconcreteproductsandproducea moresustainablebuildingmaterial.Twomaterialsthatarecurrentlyrecycledandhavethe possibilityofuseinconcreteapplicationsarewasteglassandrubbertireparticles. Becauseconcretemasonryunitsareanimportantandwidelyusedbuildingmaterialitisof interesttodetermineiftherecycledmaterialscanbeusedtomakeaconcreteblockwith similarpropertiesasthosemadewithstoneaggregate. Thispaperexaminestheuseofwasteglassandrubbertireparticlesasafineaggregate replacementforthemixturedesignofconcretemasonryunits.Typicallymasonryunitsare madeinanautomatedmanufacturingprocessthatisdifferentfromotherconcrete production.Theprocessconsistsoffillingmoldswithplasticcementitiousmaterialand consolidatingthematerialbyrigorousvibrationanddirectpressure.Theunitsarethen quicklyremovedfromthemoldsandtransferredtothecuringsectionoftheproduction facility.Testingoftrialmixturescanbedonebyevaluatingsmallbatchtrialsata

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productionblockmanufacturingfacility,butoftenthisisimpracticalandexpensive.The concretemasonryunitsinthisresearchwereevaluatedinthelaboratoryunderconditions meanttoreplicateanautomatedmanufacturingprocess. Concretemasonryunitsmadewithfineaggregatereplacementconsistingofwasteglass andrubbertireparticleswereevaluatedandcomparedtocurrentengineeringstandards. Propertiessuchasunitweight,compressivestrengthandabsorptionwereevaluated.The visualandaestheticcharacteristicsoftheblockandanypotentialbenefitsorproblems werereviewed. Thisabstractaccuratelyrepresentsthecontentofthecandidatesthesis.Irecommendits publication. Approved:Dr.FrederickRutz

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT Theresearchforthisthesiswasperformedintheconcretetestinglaboratoryatthe UniversityofColoradoatDenver.Becauseanunfundedresearchprojectcanbea challengetoundertake,theauthorwouldliketothankthefollowingcompaniesfor generouslydonatingmaterialsusedinthisprojectandencouragingresearchinamore sustainablefuture:RockyMountainBottlingCompanyfordonatingthewasteglass materialandAcademySportsTurfforsupplyingtherubbertireparticles. Idliketothankmyadvisors,Dr.StephanDurhamandDr.FrederickRutzfortheir assistanceduringthepreparationofthisthesis.Ialsowouldliketothankallthemembers ofmycommitteefortheirparticipationandinsightsintothisproject. Finally,Iwishtothankmyparents,DickandJeanIsler,andotherfamilymembersfortheir kindnessinsupportingthisthesis.Alloftheircontributions,whetherlargeorsmall,were greatlyappreciatedandwillnotbeforgotten.

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v TABLEOFCONTENTS Figures.........................................................................................................................vii Tables........................................................................................................................viii Chapter 1.Introduction........................................................................................................1 2.LiteratureReview................................................................................................3 2.1ConcreteMasonryConstruction..........................................................................3 2.2SustainableConcreteMasonryPractices............................................................3 2.3WasteGlassRecycling.......................................................................................5 2.4ConcreteMasonryUnitsMadeWithWasteGlass...............................................6 2.5ConcreteMadeWithWasteGlass......................................................................7 2.6FreshConcretePropertiesofConcreteMadeWithWasteGlass.........................7 2.6.1UnitWeight........................................................................................................7 2.6.2Slump........................................................................................................7 2.6.3AirContent........................................................................................................8 2.7HardenedConcretePropertiesofConcreteMadeWithWasteGlass..................8 2.7.1CompressiveStrength........................................................................................8 2.7.2TensileandFlexuralStrength.............................................................................9 2.7.3Alkali-SilicaReaction........................................................................................10 2.7.4FreezeThawDurability....................................................................................11 2.8WasteTireRecycling........................................................................................12 2.9ConcreteMasonryUnitsMadeWithRubberTireParticles................................14 2.10ConcreteMadeWithRubberTireParticles.......................................................15 2.11FreshConcretePropertiesofConcreteMadeWithRubberTireParticles..........16 2.11.1UnitWeight......................................................................................................16 2.11.2Slump......................................................................................................16 2.11.3AirContent......................................................................................................17 2.12HardenedConcretePropertiesofConcreteMadeWithRubberTireParticles...17 2.12.1CompressiveStrength......................................................................................17 2.12.2FlexuralStrength..............................................................................................19 2.12.3FreezeThawDurability....................................................................................19 2.12.4ThermalProperties...........................................................................................19 2.12.5PotentialHealthHazards..................................................................................20 3.ProblemStatement...........................................................................................22 4.ExperimentalPlan............................................................................................24 4.1LaboratoryPlanandGoals...............................................................................24 4.2TestingConcreteMasonryMixturesintheLaboratory.......................................25 4.3DesigningConcreteMasonryUnitMixtures.......................................................27 4.4Materials......................................................................................................28 4.5Phase1DeterminingControlMixtureProportionsandCalibrating LaboratoryEquipment......................................................................................28 4.6Phase2ExaminationofAggregateReplacementinCMUMixtures................29

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vi 4.7ConcreteProperties..........................................................................................29 4.8ViabilityAsAConstructionMaterial...................................................................30 5.Results......................................................................................................32 5.1Phase1DeterminingMixtureProportionsandCalibrating LaboratoryEquipment......................................................................................32 5.2Materials......................................................................................................32 5.3GradationTest..................................................................................................35 5.4DryRoddedUnitWeight...................................................................................37 5.5ControlMixtureProportions..............................................................................37 5.6Compaction......................................................................................................42 5.7Phase1Results...............................................................................................46 5.8Phase2EffectofAggregateReplacementwithRecycledMaterials...............52 6.Conclusions......................................................................................................69 6.1ConclusionsandRecommendations.................................................................69 6.2RecommendationsforFutureStudies...............................................................71 Appendix AInformationonMaterialsUsedinMixtureDesigns.............................................74 A.1MaterialsUsedinResearch..............................................................................74 BResultsData.....................................................................................................80 B.1Phase1ResultsData.......................................................................................80 B.2Phase2ResultsData.......................................................................................87 References......................................................................................................96

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vii FIGURES Figure 2.1U.S.ScrapTireDisposition2003.........................................................................14 5.1WasteGlass........................................................................................................33 5.2TrashinWasteGlass..........................................................................................34 5.3CrumbRubber.....................................................................................................34 5.4GradationofFineAggregates..............................................................................36 5.5GradationofCoarseAggregates..........................................................................37 5.6WatertoCementRatioatWhichMixtureWillBall................................................40 5.7SqueezeTest......................................................................................................41 5.8DropHammerCompactionEquipment.................................................................43 5.9CollarforMold.....................................................................................................44 5.107DayCompressiveStrengthvs.UnitWeight.......................................................46 5.11CubesRemovedfromMoldImmediatelyAfterCompaction..................................47 5.12CubeProducedTopView.................................................................................48 5.137Dayand28DayAbsorption..............................................................................49 5.14UnitWeightofTrailMixtures................................................................................50 5.15CompressiveStrengthvs.WatertoCementRatioTrialMixtures.......................51 5.16CompressiveStrengthvs.PercentCementTrialMixtures.................................52 5.171DayUnitWeightvs.PercentFineAggregateReplacement...............................55 5.187DayUnitWeightvs.PercentFineAggregateReplacement...............................56 5.19Absorptionvs.PercentFineAggregateReplacement...........................................57 5.207DayStrengthvs.PercentFineAggregateReplacement....................................58 5.217DayStrengthDecreasevs.PercentFineAggregateReplacement....................59 5.2228DayStrengthvs.PercentFineAggregateReplacement..................................60 5.2328DayStrengthDecreasevs.PercentFineAggregateReplacement..................61 5.247and28DayStrengthCurvesforWasteGlassMixtures.....................................64 5.257and28DayStrengthCurvesforRubberTireParticlesMixtures........................65 5.26PhotoofCMUCubewithWasteGlassTopView..............................................67 5.27PhotoofCMUCubewithRubberTireParticlesBottomView............................68 5.28PhotoofCMUCubewithRubberTireParticlesSideView................................68 A.1PotentialAlkaliReactivityTesting........................................................................78 A.2FineAggregateGradationandSoundnessTesting..............................................79 B.1Trendline-7DayCompressiveStrengthvs.UnitWeight.....................................82 B.2Trendline-7Dayand28DayAbsorption.............................................................83 B.3Trendline-UnitWeightofTrialMixtures..............................................................84 B.4Trendline-CompressiveStrengthvs.WatertoCementRatio-TrialMixtures......86 B.5Trendline-CompressiveStrengthvs.PercentCement-TrialMixtures................87 B.6Trendline-1DayUnitWeightvs.PercentAggregateReplacement.....................89 B.7Trendline-7DayUnitWeightvs.PercentAggregateReplacement.....................90 B.8Trendline-Absorptionvs.PercentAggregateReplacement.................................92 B.9Trendline-7DayCompressiveStrengthvs.PercentAggregateReplacement.....93 B.10Trendline-28DayCompressiveStrengthvs.PercentAggregateReplacement...95

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viii TABLES Table 2.1Chemicalcompositionofwasteglass.....................................................................5 2.2Typicalcompositionofmanufacturedtiresbyweight............................................13 5.1Gradationtestoffineaggregates.........................................................................35 5.2Gradationtestofcoarseaggregates....................................................................36 5.3Unitweightofaggregates....................................................................................37 5.4Mixtureproportionsoftrialcontrolmixtures..........................................................41 5.5Moisturecontentofaggregates............................................................................42 5.6Mixtureproportionsofcontrolmixture..................................................................52 5.7Proportionsofmixturescontainingwasteglass....................................................53 5.8Proportionsofmixturescontainingcrumbrubber.................................................53 A.1Concretemasonrymixturedesignmaterials.........................................................74 A.2Chemicalcompositionofcement.........................................................................75 B.1Datafor7daycompressivestrengthvs.unitweight.............................................80 B.2Datafor7dayand28dayabsorption..................................................................82 B.3Dataforunitweightoftrialmixtures.....................................................................84 B.4Dataforcompressivestrengthvs.watertocementratio-trialmixtures................85 B.5Dataforcompressivestrengthvs.percentcement-trialmixtures........................86 B.6Datafor1dayunitweightwasteglassreplacement.............................................87 B.7Datafor1dayunitweightcrumbrubberreplacement..........................................88 B.8Datafor7dayunitweight....................................................................................89 B.9Dataforabsorptionstrengthvs.percentaggregatereplacement..........................91 B.10Datafor7daycompressivestrengthvs.percentaggregatereplacement.............92 B.11Datafor28daycompressivestrengthvs.percentaggregatereplacement...........94

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1 1.Introduction Currentlythereisagrowingawarenessthathumanitymaybelivinginanunsustainable mannerwithrespecttoitsusageofnaturalresources.Althoughthesupplyofnatural resourcesisfinite,thedemandforrawmaterialshasincreasedgreatlyinrecentyears. Thegrowingdemandfornaturalresourcesisthoughttobetheresultofanumberof causalitiessuchastechnologicalimprovementsthathavemademoreproductsavailableto society,risingaffluencelevelsinthedevelopingworldandtheoverallincreaseintheglobal population.Anotherconcernabouttheuseofnaturalresourcesisthepotentialgeneration ofCO 2 emissionsandtheirharmfuleffectontheenvironment.Theseconcernshaveledto are-evaluationofhownaturalresourcesareusedandcallfortheimplementationofmore sustainablepracticesthatpreserveresourcesandallowthemtoendureforthefuture. Inresponsetotheseconcerns,theengineeringcommunityhasbeguntodevelopprograms andstandardsthataddresssustainableconstructionpractices.TheU.S.GreenBuilding CouncilhasdevelopedtheLeadershipinEnergyandEnvironmentalDesign(LEED) programthatprovidesguidelinestocertifythatproposedconstructionprojectsuse resourcesthatmeetmetricsformoresustainableconstruction(USGreenBuildingCouncil 2011).TheInternationalStandardsOrganizationhasdevelopedanumberofstandardsto beusedinenvironmentalassessmentmethods(ISO2012).RecentlythePortlandCement Association(PCA2009)hasproposedseveralamendmentstotheInternationalBuilding Code(InternationalCodeCouncil2009)thatconsidersustainability.Theamendments differentiatebetweenahighperformancebuildingthatusessustainableconstruction practicesandcoderequirementsbaseduponminimumstandards.Sustainabilityisan

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2 importantemergingtopicinthefieldofengineering.Buildingsandconstructionactivities worldwideconsume3billiontonsofrawmaterialsor40%ofthetotalglobaluse(Roodman andLenssen1995).Thereforethedesignandconstructionofbuildingsisanimportant areatoexamineinordertoprovideamoresustainableenvironment.Oneofthemost frequentlyusedmaterialsinbuildingconstructionistheconcretemasonryunitbecauseof itsversatilityanddurability.Concreteblocksaremadefromcastconcretethatisamixture ofvariousbatchmaterialsincludingfineandcoarseaggregates,cementandwater. Researchonconcretemixtureshasshownthatitispossibletoreplacesomeofthe traditionalbatchingredientswithothermaterialssuchasthosecollectedfromrecycling processes.Thisfeatureofconcretemixturespresentsauniqueopportunitytouse materialsthatotherwisemightbeplacedinalandfill. Recyclinginvolvesthecollectingandreprocessingofscrapmaterialsintonew,similar materials.Ifamaterialcannotbereprocessedintoitsoriginalform,oftennewusesforthe materialaredeveloped.Typicallyitemsthatarecollectedforrecyclingincludepaper, plastics,glass,metals,tires,motoroilandmanyotheritems.Twomaterialsthatpresent possibilitiesforuseinconcreteblockasanaggregatereplacementarewasteglassand rubbertireparticles.Wasteglasshassimilarcharacteristictothefineandcoarse aggregatestraditionallyusedinconcreteblockwhilerubbertireparticlesaresimilarto polypropylenefibersusedinconcretetocontrolminorcracking.Becausesustainabilityis animportanttopicinengineeringandthemixturedesignofconcreteblockallowsforthe possibleuseofrecycledmaterials,thisthesiswillexaminethepotentialforwasteglass andrubbertireparticlestobeusedasanaggregatereplacementinthemixturedesignof concretemasonryunits.

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3 2.LiteratureReview 2.1ConcreteMasonryConstruction Concretemasonryisawidelyusedbuildingmaterialprovidedonanumberofprojects suchasindustrialbuildings,schools,hospitals,andresidentialbuildings.Itisanappealing buildingmaterialbecauseofitsaestheticappearance,versatility,durabilityandfire resistancecapabilities.Concretemasonryunitsarerectangularblocksmadeofcast concretewithhollowcores.Theyareproducedinanautomatedmanufacturingprocess thatconsistsofbatchingmixturematerials,placingthematerialsinamoldassemblyand thentransferringtheunitstoacuringoperation.Unitsaremadewithdifferenttexturesand widthstomeetjobconditions,buthavecommonlengthsandheightstostandardize constructionpractices.Concretemasonrywallassembliesareconstructedbyjoining individualconcreteblockstogetherwithmortarjoints.Inarchitecturalapplicationsconcrete masonryunitscanbeusedasveneerorpartitionwalls.Structuralapplicationsconsistof loadbearingmemberswherereinforcingsteelcanbeplacedinthehollowcoresofthe blockandgroutedinplacetogivethememberitsrequiredstrength. 2.2SustainableConcreteMasonryPractices TheMerriam-Websteron-linedictionarydefinessustainabilityasamethodofharvesting orusingaresourcesothattheresourceisnotdepletedorpermanentlydamaged (Merriam-Webster2010).Althoughtherearemanywaystodefineandmeasure sustainability,oneofthemostwidelyusedmethodsfordeterminingsustainabilityof buildingconstructionistheLeadershipinEnergyandEnvironmentalDesign(LEED)

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4 programprovidedbytheU.S.GreenBuildingCouncil.LEEDisdefinedasan internationallyrecognizedgreenbuildingcertificationsystem,providingthird-party verificationthatabuildingorcommunitywasdesignedandbuiltusingstrategiesaimedat improvingperformanceacrossallmetricsthatmattermost:energysavings,water efficiency,CO 2 emissionsreduction,improvedindoorenvironmentalqualityand stewardshipofresourcesandsensitivitytotheirimpacts(USGreenBuildingCouncil 2011).TheLEEDprogramhasdevelopedseveralcategoriestodefinesustainable constructionpracticesincluding:sustainablesites,waterefficiency,energyand atmosphere,materialsandresources,indoorenvironmentalquality,locationandlinkages, awarenessandeducationandinnovationindesign. Theconcretemasonryindustryhasattemptedtounderstandhowmasonrypracticescan bemoresustainableandpromoteknownsustainableuses.Concretemasonryunitsarean energyefficientmaterialwithahighthermalmassthatstoreheatorcoldforreleaseatlater times.Thisstoragecapabilityallowsthemasonrytoreleaseenergywhendemandisnot duringpeakconditionssavingenergyandoperatingcostsforthebuilding.Other sustainablemasonrypracticesincludeexaminingthelife-cyclecostanddurabilityof masonrywalls.Oneexampleofthisistheon-goingresearchtoreducemoistureinfiltration andprovideproperdrainageinmasonrywallssincemoistureaccumulationtendstoreduce thelongevityofawallassembly.Constructionpracticesthatutilizenewtypesof waterproofingorimprovedflashingtechniquesarecurrentlybeinginvestigated.Finally, sustainablemasonrypracticesincludere-examiningthematerialsusedinconcrete masonry.Materialsthatuselessenergyandeliminatetheneedforprocessingnewraw materialsarefavoredoverothermaterials.Newsustainablematerialsbeingconsidered includetheuseofnewtypesofcements,flyash,wasteglassandothermaterials.

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5 2.3WasteGlassRecycling Theuseofglassdatesbackforthousandsofyearsandtodaycoversawidevarietyof products.Typicalusesofglassincludecontainerglasssuchasbottlesandjars,flatglass fromwhichwindowsaremade,specializedglassusedintelevisionsandcomputer screens,insulationmadefromfiberglassandotherapplications.Glassismadeofsand, calciumcarbonateandlimestonewhicharecommonlyfoundinnature.Shaoetal.intheir studyoftheuseofwasteglassinconcretegivethechemicalcompositionofsodalime glassandflyashasshowninTable2.1(Shaoetal.2000). Table2.1 Chemicalcompositionofwasteglass ChemicalCompositionSoda-lime glass SiO 2 72.8 Al 2 O 3 1.4 Fe 2 O 3 SiO 2 +Al 2 O 3 +Fe 2 O 3 74.2 CaO4.9 MgO3.4 SO 3 K 2 O0.3 Na 2 O16.3 P 2 O 5 TiO 2 B 2 O 3 1.0 Althoughglasscanbemelteddownandreformedintonewcontainers,severaldifficulties withthisprocessremain.Glasscontainerscomeinvariouscolorsandreuseofglasscullet involvesseparationofthewastestreamintovariouscolors.Productionplantsthatmake glasstendtobelargecenterslocatedinalimitedamountoflocationsthroughoutthe county.Energymustbeusedtotransportthewasteglassfromthecollectionsourceover

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6 alongdistancetotheproductionplant.Thesedifficultieshaveledtothesearchfor alternativeapplicationsofrecycledglasssuchasusingcrushedglassincivilengineering projects. 2.4ConcreteMasonryUnitsMadeWithWasteGlass Researchintotheuseofwasteglassinconcretemasonryunitsisverylimited.Meyeret al.examinedtheuseofwasteglassinfourdifferentmixturedesignsofconcretemasonry units(Meyeretal.2001).Thebatchmixturesweremadeatalocalblockmanufacturing facility.Thefirstmixturewasacontrolmixturewithnowasteglass.Thesecondmixture contained10%fineaggregatereplacementofwasteglassthatpasseda#30sieve.Inthe thirdmixture10%ofthecementwasreplacedwithfinelygroundglasspowderthatpassed a#400sieve.Finallythefourthmixturecontained10%fineaggregatereplacementwaste glassthatpasseda#30sieveand10%cementreplacementoffinelygroundglasspowder passinga#400sieve.Alimitofthestudywasthatonly10%oftheaggregatewas replacedbecauseofconcernsaboutapossiblealkali-silicareaction. Theresearchshowedthattheuseofwasteglassdidnotaffectthestrengthoftheunits significantly.Therewasa8.9%strengthreductioninthemixturewiththe10%fine aggregatereplacementforthe28daystrengthtest.Thealkali-silicareactionwasfound nottobeaproblemandcouldbecontrolled.Futuretestingofthefireresistanceofthis newproductwasrecommended,buttheresearchersthoughtthatthiswouldnotbean issuesincetheaggregatethewasteglassreplacedhadasimilarcomposition.One interestingresultofthestudywasthattheadditionofwasteglassincreasedtheoutputof themachineryusedtoproducethemasonryby6%whichcouldresultinacostsavingsfor theblocksupplier.

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7 2.5ConcreteMadeWithWasteGlass Althoughtheresearchontheuseofwasteglassinconcretemasonryislimited,thereisa greaterbodyofworkonitsuseinconcrete.Asummaryofthisresearchiscontained below. 2.6FreshConcretePropertiesofConcreteMadeWithWasteGlass 2.6.1UnitWeight Theunitweightsofconcretemixturesthatcontainwasteglassasanaggregate replacementtendtobeslightlylessthannormalconcretemixtures.Thishasbeen confirmedbyanumberofstudies.IsmailandAl-Hashmiusedwasteglassasafine aggregatereplacementintheirstudyofvariousconcretemixtures.Thefreshdensityof mixturescontaining10%,15%and20%wasteglasshadadecreaseintheunitweightof themixturesof1.28%,1.96%and2.26%respectively.Theirresearchusedwasteglass thathadaspecificgravityof2.19andfineaggregatewithaspecificgravityof2.57.The differenceinunitweightwasattributedtothelowerspecificgravityofthewasteglass whichwas14.8%lowerthanthefineaggregatedusedintheresearch(IsmailandAlHashmi2009). 2.6.2Slump Theuseofwasteglassasanaggregatereplacementtendstoreducetheslumpofa concretemixture.Astheamountofwasteglassincreases,theslumpaccordingly decreasesandthemixturebecomeslessworkable.Whenwasteglasswasusedasa coarseaggregatereplacement,TopcuandCanbazfoundthattheslumpoftheirconcrete

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8 mixturewas9.5cmwhennowasteglasswasusedand8cmwhen60%replacementwas used(TopcuandCanbaz2004).Parketal.foundamoresignificantdecreaseintheir studythatusedwasteglassasafineaggregatereplacement.Amixturewithnowaste glasshadaslumpof13cmwhereasamixturewith70%replacementhadaslumpof8cm. Thedecreaseinslumpwasthoughttobebecausethewasteglasshadaveryangular shape.Thewasteglassparticlesusedinthisstudywereslightlylargerthanthesand particleswhichmayhaveaffectedtheresults.Still,Parketal.concludedthatthedecrease didnotseverelyaffecttheworkabilityofthemixtureandthispotentialproblemcouldbe overcomewiththeuseofadmixtures(Parketal.2004). 2.6.3AirContent Studieshavefoundthattheadditionofwasteglasstoconcretemixturesresultsinhigher aircontents.Parketal.foundthatmixtureswith30%,50%and70%offineaggregate replacementwithwasteglasshadanincreaseinaircontentof12.2-21.6%,23.71-30.4% and30.6-41.4%respectively.Theincreaseinaircontentmaybetheresultoftheirregular shapeoftheglassanditslargesurfaceareathattrappedairwhencomparedtotraditional aggregates(Parketal.2004).ThestudydonebyTopcuandCanbazsimilarlyconcluded thattheadditionofwasteglassdecreasedtheaircontentofaconcretemixture(Topcuand Canbaz2004). 2.7HardenedConcretePropertiesofConcreteMadeWithWasteGlass 2.7.1CompressiveStrength Theuseofwasteglassinconcretetendstodecreasethecompressivestrengthofa mixture.Astheamountofwasteglassincreases,thecompressivestrengthdecreases

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9 accordingly.TopcuandCanbazstudiedtheuseofwasteglassinconcretethathadasize between4and16mm.Themixturesstudiedcontainedtwosizesofcoarseaggregatesas wellasfineaggregateorsand.Thewasteglasswasusedtoreplaceaportionofthe smallersizedcoarseaggregate.Theyfoundthatmixtureswith15%,30%,45%and60% wasteglassreplacementratesdecreasedthecompressivestrengthofthemixtureby8%, 15%,31%and49%respectivelywhentestedafter28days(TopcuandCanbaz2004).A studybyParketal.thatreplacedfineaggregatewithwasteglassshowedasimilarpattern butlessofadecreaseinstrength.Inthestudywasteglasswithasizelessthan5mmwas used.Mixtureswith30%,50%and70%showedadecreaseincompressivestrengthof 0.6%,9.8%and13.6%respectivelywhentestedafter28days.Inordertooffsetthe decreaseinstrength,apolymerwasaddedtosomemixturescontainingwasteglassand wasfoundtoincreasestrength(Parketal.2004). Finelygroundglasspowderhasbeenfoundtoexhibitpozzolaniccharacteristicsand increasethestrengthofconcrete.Shaoetal.performedastudythatcomparedmixtures utilizingglasspowder,flyashandsilicafumeasreplacementforcement.The replacementratewas30%foreachmineraladditiveconsideredandtheresultswere comparedtoacontrolmixture.Thestudyconcludedthatgroundglasspowderhavinga sizefinerthan38-morpassinga#400sieveexhibitedpozzolanicbehaviorinaccordance with(ASTMC6181998)andcomparedfavorablytotheflyashmixtures.Themixturewith theglasspowderhadahigherearlyandlaterstrengththantheflyashmixture(Shaoetal. 2000). 2.7.2TensileandFlexuralStrength

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10 TopcuandCanbazfoundthatthetensilestrengthofconcretedecreasedastheamountof wasteglassincreasedinamixture.Thetensilestrengthdecreased37%foracoarse aggregatereplacementof60%wasteglass(TopcuandCanbaz2004).Asmentioned above,thewasteglassreplacementrateforthestudywasforthesmallercoarse aggregateusedonlynotthetotalcoarseaggregateusedinthemixture.Parketal. reportedthatwasteglassresultedinadecreaseof5%intensilestrengthfora30%fine aggregatereplacement(Parketal.2004).TheflexuralstrengthtestsfromTopcuand Canbazsresearchdemonstratedinconsistentresults,butgenerallytheflexuralstrength decreasedastheamountofaddedwasteglassincreased(TopcuandCanbaz2004). Parketal.showedthattheflexuralstrengthdecreasedby3.2%withareplacementrateof 30%and11.3%withareplacementrateof50%(Parketal.2004). 2.7.3Alkali-SilicaReaction Earlyresearchintoconcretemadewithwasteglassfoundthattheconcreteexpandedand cracked.Severalstudieshavereportedthattheexpansionofmixturesmadewithwaste glassasanaggregatearetheresultofanalkali-silicareaction(ASR).ASRisareactionin whichconcretemixturescontainingcertainrocksusedasanaggregatereactwithalkalisin cementpastetoformanexpansivegelthatcrackstheconcrete(Shi2009). IntypicalconcreteproductionASRcanoccurinmixturesmadewithcertainsiliceousrocks andmineralssuchasopalinechert,strainedquartzandacidicvolcanicglassaccordingto theguidelinesofACICommittee116(Meyeretal.2001).TheformationofASRgeltakes yearstodevelopanditisdifficulttopredictwhenitwilloccur.Wasteglasscontainsahigh amountofsilicaandstudieshavereportedthistobethecauseforthegenerationofASR

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11 inmixturescontainingwasteglass.Stillthereismuchunknownaboutwhymixturesmade withwasteglassexhibiteffectssimilartoASRandhowtomitigateitseffect. Researchintolimitingthepotentialforanalkali-silicareactioncausedbywasteglasshave employedtraditionalmitigationtechniquesforconcreteaggregatesthatexhibitthepotential forASR.Theseincludeusinglowalkalinecement,limitingtheamountofmaterialwith potentialforanalkali-silicareactionandaddingveryfinesiliceousmaterialssuchasfly ash,silicafumeormetakaolin(Leeetal.2007). Asmentionedabovewasteglassgroundintoafinepowderhasbeenfoundtoexhibit pozzolanicproperties.Severalresearchstudieshaveindicatedthattheuseoffinely groundglasspowderreducestheeffectofASR.Shaoetal.performedastudythat examinedmixtureswithglasspowderandcomparedthemtoacontrolmixture.The mixtureswithglasspowderreducedtheexpansionofasampletohalfofthatofthecontrol mixturewhentestedinaccordancewith(ASTMC12601994)andwerewellwithin acceptablelimits(Shaoetal.2000).Itistheorizedthatthehighersurfaceareaofthefine glasspowdermayfavorarapidpozzolanicrateoveraslowerASRrateduringhydrationof thecementproducts. 2.7.4Freeze-ThawDurability Researchintothefreeze-thawdurabilityofconcretebyPolleyetal.indicatesthatthe durabilityofmixturescontaininganoptimizedamountofwasteglassareacceptable thoughslightlypoorerthannormalconcretemixtureswithalowwatertocementratio (Polleyetal.1998).Testingofconcretesamplestodeterminetheirdurabilitystiffnesswas

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12 doneper(ASTMC6661997).Generally,mixtureswithfineaggregatereplacement performedbetterthanmixturesthatcontainedcoarseandfineaggregatereplacement.In thestudyseveralmixturescontainingvariousamountsofwasteglassweremadeand comparedtoacontrolmixture.Resultsofthestudyshowedthatthecontrolmixtures demonstratedastiffnessdropof4-7%within10cyclesfollowedbylittlereductionof stiffnessthroughouttherestofthetest.Mixtureswithfineaggregatereplacementofwaste glassshowedadropof5.5%after10cyclesfollowedbyadropof2%after600cyclesfor mixtureswith20%replacement.Fieldtestingofsidewalkpavementusingwasteglasswas observedduringthreewintersinWisconsin.Thetestsectionsshowedexcellentresistance tofreeze-thawaction.Asmallportionofthecementpasteerodedfromthetopsurface duringthetest,buttheglassaggregatewaswellembeddedintheconcrete(Polleyetal. 1998). 2.8WasteTireRecycling In2007theRubberManufacturersAssociationreportedthat89.3%ofscraptireswere usedinvariousmanners.ThetotalvolumeofwastetiresusedintheUnitedStateswas 4105.8thousandtonsoftires.Thisrepresentsa13.5%increaseintheamountoftires usedin2005.Stockpilesofexistingwastetireshavebeenreducedby87%since1990, but128milliontiresarestillheldacrossthecountry(RubberManufacturersAssociation, ScrapTireMarkets2009). Tiresaremadeofnaturalandsyntheticrubberandoftencontainsteelorfibercords.The materialpropertiesofrubbertiresareshowninTable2.2

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13 AsdiscussedinSection4,thefocusofthisthesiswillbeonfineaggregatereplacementin concretemasonryunits.Rubbertireparticlesareavailableinanumberofdifferentsizes andshapes,butcrumbrubbermostcloselyresemblesthefineaggregateofsand. SiddiqueandNaikintheiroverviewofconcretecontainingscraptirerubberstatethat crumbrubberconsistsofparticlesranginginsizefromaNo.4sievetolessthanaNo.200 sieve(SiddiqueandNaik2004). Table2.2 Typicalcompositionofmanufacturedtiresbyweight (RubberManufacturersAssociation,ScrapTireCharacteristics2012) Composition(wt.%)Passenger Tire TruckTire Naturalrubber1427 Syntheticrubber2714 Carbonblack2828 Steel14-1514-15 Fabric,filler,acceleratorsand antiozonants,etc. 16-1716-17 AnumberofusesforscraptireshavebeendevelopedandareshowninFigure2.1. SiddiqueandNaikstatethatwhilemanyusesoftiresaretechnicallyfeasible,notallof themareeconomicallyattractive(SiddiqueandNaik2004).

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14 Figure2.1 U.S.ScrapTireDisposition2003 (RubberManufacturersAssociation,TowardaCleanerEnvironment2004) 2.9ConcreteMasonryUnitsMadeWithRubberTireParticles Areviewoftheliteratureontheuseofrubbertireparticlesinconcretemasonryunits (CMU)revealsthattherehasbeenverylittleresearchonitsusage.RichardFrankowski hasaUnitedStatespatentforCMUmadewithcrumbrubber(Frankowski1995).Inthe patent,theCMUcontained100partsofportlandcement,100to700partslightweight aggregate,1to30partscrumbrubber,10to30partswaterandsomeadmixtures.The

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15 proportionsinthemixtureweredeterminedbyweight.ThepatentclaimsthattheCMU madewithcrumbrubberhadanimprovedcrackresistance,heatconductivityresistance, noisereduction,andshockwaveabsorptioncapabilitywhencomparedtotypical lightweightunits.ThepatentgoesontoclaimthattheadditionofcrumbrubbertoCMU willresultingreatermildewresistancebecauseofporosityreduction,theunitswillbe lighter,thepermeabilityoftheunitswillbereducedandtherewillbelesssusceptibilityto handlingdamageduringinstallationwhencomparedtotypicalunits.Thecompressive strengthoftheCMUmadewithcrumbrubberwaslessthanatypicalunit. Cairnsetal.studiedtheuseofrecycledtiresinconcretemasonry.Theirresearch examinedreplacementratesof10%,25%and50%andcomparedthesemixturestoa controlmixturethathadawatertocementratioof0.87.Thecontrolmixtureconsistedof twosizesofcoarseaggregate,6mmand10mm.Therubberchipsreplacedonlythe largestsizeofcoarseaggregateusedinthecontrolmixture.Theyfoundthatthe compressivestrengthoftheunitstestedafter28daysdecreasedastheamountofrubber increased.Forreplacementratesof10%,thestrengthactuallyincreasedby22%,butfor replacementof25%and50%thecompressivestrengthdecreasedby23%,and41% respectively.Cairnsalsoexaminedtheuseofrubberchipscoatedwithcementpasteand foundthatthisslightlyimprovedthecompressivestrengthofthemixtures(Cairnsetal. 2004). 2.10ConcreteMadeWithRubberTireParticles

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16 Althoughtherehasbeenverylittleresearchontheuseofrubbertireparticlesinconcrete block,moreresearchonitsusageinconcretehasbeenperformed.Areviewofthe literatureonitsusageinconcreteiscontainedbelow. 2.11FreshConcretePropertiesofConcreteMadeWithRubberTireParticles 2.11.1UnitWeight Thespecificgravityofrubbertireparticlesismuchlessthanthatoftypicalnormalweight aggregatesusedinconcrete.Sukontasukkulinhisstudyofcrumbrubberusedinprecast panelsstatedthattheaveragebulkspecificgravityofthecrumbrubberwas0.96 comparedtothatof2.43forfineaggregateand2.68forcoarseaggregateusedinhis research.Thisdifferenceinthespecificgravitycausesmixtureswithcrumbrubbertohave alowerunitweightthannormalmixtures.Anotherfactorthatdecreasestheunitweightof mixtureswithrubbertireparticlesisthattheytendtohavehigheraircontents (Sukontasukkul2009).KhatibandBayomyfoundthattheunitweightdecreasesasthe amountofrubberaddedincreases.Amixturewithnorubberparticlesweighed2.4kg/m 3 whileamixturewith50%replacementoftotalaggregatevolumeweighed1.8kg/m 3 (Khatib andBayomy1999). 2.11.2Slump Inexaminingtheworkabilityofconcretemixtureswithrubbertireparticles,Khatiband Bayomyfoundthattheslumpoftheconcretedecreasedastheamountofrubberparticles increased.Theyinvestigatedthreecategoriesofmixtureswithdifferentamountsofrubber tireparticlereplacementrates.Thefirstcategorywasmadewithcrumbrubbertoreplace

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17 aportionofthefineaggregate.Thesecondcategorycontainedrubberchipstoreplacea portionofthecoarseaggregateandthethirdwasacombinationofcrumbrubberandchips toreplacebothfineandcoarseaggregates.Theirfindingsshowedthatwhenrubber particleswereusedtoreplace40%ofthetotalaggregatevolumecontent,theslumpfor themixtureswithrubberchipswasnearzeroandthemixturecouldnotbeworkedbyhand mixing.Themixturewithonlycrumbrubberwasmuchmoreworkablethantheothertwo mixtures(KhatibandBayomy1999). 2.11.3AirContent Severalstudieshavefoundthattheadditionofrubbertireparticlestoconcreteresultsin higheraircontent.KhatibandBayomyfoundthatastheamountofrubbertireparticles increasetheaircontentofthemixtureincreased(KhatibandBayomy1999).Conclusions ofthestudyhavebeenconfirmedbyFedroffetal.whofoundhigheraircontentsin mixturescontainingcrumbrubberthanthecontrolmixturesevenwithouttheuseofanairentrainingadmixture.Theresearchersthoughtthatthehigherrubbercontentsmaybedue entrappedaironthesurfaceoftherubberparticlesduetotheirtextureandnon-polar nature(Federoffetal.1996). 2.12HardenedConcretePropertiesofConcreteMadeWithRubberTireParticles 2.12.1CompressiveStrength GhalyandCahillstudiedtheeffectofrubbertireparticlesonthecompressivestrengthof concretemixtures.Intheirstudymixtureswithwatertocementratiosof0.47,0.54and 0.61werestudied.Theresearchprogramconsistedofpreparing180concretecubesthat were2in.x2in.x2in.Crumbrubberwasusedtoreplacethefineaggregateofthe

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18 mixture.Replacementrateswereapercentageofthetotalvolumemixture.Forexamplea replacementrateof5%represents5%ofthetotalvolumemixture,notjustapercentageof thefineaggregate.Strengthtestingwasperformedat1,7,14,21and28days.They foundthatthestrengthofamixturewithrubbertireparticleswaslessthanthatof conventionalmixtureandthatthestrengthdecreasedastheamountofrubberparticles usedincreased.Theresultsoftheirstudyforawatertocementratioof0.54and replacementratesof5%,10%and15%showedadecreaseinstrengthof21.7%,48%and 59.7%whenmeasuredat28days(GhalyandCahill2005).Thelossinstrengthfrom usingrubbertireparticlesinconcretemixtureshasbeenconfirmedbyseveralother studiessuchastheoneperformedbyKhatibandBayomy.Intheirresearch,acontrol mixturewithadesignstrengthof5000psiwasused.Crumbrubberwasusedtoreplace thefineaggregateinthemixturedesignsandreplacementrateswerebytotalaggregate volume.Forreplacementratesof5%,10%and15%,thestudyfoundacorresponding reductioninstrengthofapproximately26.3%,36.8%and42.1%whencomparedtothe controlmixture.Inthisstudyfailureofthespecimenswasaductilefailurethathadlarge amountsofstrainbeforefinalfracture(KhatibandBayomy1999). Becauseconcretewithrubbertireparticlesexhibitcompressivestrengthsthatarelower thannormalmixtures,therehavebeenanumberofstudiesdonetodetermineifthelow strengthofthesemixturescanbeimproved.Oneareaofinvestigationhasbeento examinethepretreatmentofrubberparticlespriortobatchmixing.Techniquessuchas washing,etchingandcoatingtherubberwithdifferentmaterialshaveyieldedvarious results.BielandLeereportedthatthetypeofcementusedinconcretecontainingrubber tireparticlesaffecteditsstrength.Theirresearchshowedthatusingmagnesium oxychloridecementgreatlyincreasedthestrengthofamixturecontainingrubbertire

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19 particles(BielandLee1996).ZhuandZhangstudiedtheuseofcrumbrubberinstucco coatingsandmortar.Auniquefeatureoftheirstudywastheuseoflatextoimprovethe strengthofthestucco(ZhuandZhang2002). 2.12.2FlexuralStrength Researchontheflexuralstrengthofconcretecontainingrubbertireparticlesfollowedthe samepatternastheresultsoncompressivestrength.Mixtureswithrubbertireparticle replacementshadflexuralstrengthsthatwerelowerthanconventionalconcrete.Khatib andBayomydidreportthattheinitialrateofreductionwasgreaterwhencomparedtothe resultsforcompressivestrength(KhatibandBayomy1999). 2.12.3Freeze-ThawDurability Federoffetal.investigatedthefreeze-thawdurabilityofconcretethatcontainedrubbertire particlesinaccordancewith(ASTMC6661997).Theresultsshowedthatastheamount ofrubberparticlesincreasedthedurabilityoftheconcretemixturedecreased.Onlythe mixtureswith10%and15%replacementhaddurabilityfactorshigherthan60%when testedinaccordancewith(ASTMC6661997).Mixtureswithhigheramountsdidnotmeet the60%durabilityfactorwhichisgenerallyconsideredasastandardforacceptable performanceofconcretesubjecttofreeze-thawaction.Theadditionofanairentraining admixturedidnotsignificantlyimprovethedurabilityofthemixtures(Federoffetal.1996). 2.12.4ThermalProperties Becauseanumberofstudieshaveshownthattheuseofcrumbrubbertendstoreducethe compressive,tensileandflexuralstrengthofconcretemixtures,studieshavebeen

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20 performedtoinvestigatespecificpropertiesthatmightbeenhancedbytheadditionof crumbrubber.Sukontasukkulexaminedthethermalpropertiesofcrumbrubberusedin concreteprecastwallpanels.Inthestudyanumberofdifferentmixturescontaining differentsizesofcrumbrubberwereusedandcomparedtoacontrolmixture.Mixtures containing10%,20%and30%ofcrumbrubberwithawatertocementratioof0.47were madewitheachtypeofcrumbrubber(Sukontasukkul2009). Thethermalconductivityofthemixtureswasmeasuredinaccordancewith(ASTMC177 1997).Theresultsshowedthatthethermalconductivity,kofthemixturescontaining crumbrubberwerelowerbyabout20-50%thanthecontrolmixture.Thestudystatedthat thethermalconductivityofamaterialisinverselyproportionaltoitsdensity.Asnoted above,thedensityofcrumbrubberismuchlessthanaggregatesusedinconcrete. Therefore,theadditionofcrumbrubbergreatlyimprovesthethermalpropertiesofconcrete mixture(Sukontasukkul2009). 2.12.5PotentialHealthHazards Althoughrecyclingofwastetirematerialmeetsbeneficialgoalssuchasconservingnatural resourcesandpreservinglandfillspace,thepotentialhealthhazardsassociatedwithits usageshouldbeconsidered.(ASTMD62702008)providesthestandardpracticeforthe usageofscraptiresincivilengineeringapplicationsanddiscussesacceptablelimitsfor metalsandorganicsofleachatefromtires.Studiesusingwastetirematerialaboveand belowthewatertablehavebeenperformed.InonestudyHumphreyconductedafield studytoevaluatethewaterqualityeffectsoftireshredsplacedbelowthewatertable. Threesiteswereusedinthestudywheretireshredswereburiedinatrenchbelowthe

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21 watertablewerestudied.Monitoringwellsupanddowngradientofthetrenchaswellasin thetrenchwereinstalledtotakewaterqualitysamples.Theresultsindicatedthatthetire shredshadanegligibleoff-siteeffectonwaterquality (Humphrey2001). Oneuseofwastetiresisintheproductionofartificialturfforathleticfieldsandsurfacesfor playgrounds.ArecentstudybytheEPAevaluatedairsamplesandmetalsamplesinthe fieldturf (EPA2009).Thereportconcludedthattherewerenoknownhealthconcernsbut therearegapsintheknowledgeabouttheproduct.Onedifficultyinevaluatingthehealth hazardousofturffieldsisthatthechemicalcompositionofcrumbrubbercanvaryamong suppliers.Thereportrecommendedthatfutureresearchbeperformedwithalargerscope.

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22 3.ProblemStatement Theinterestinsustainableconstructionpracticeshasledtoanumberofinitiativesand incentivestopromotestrategiesthatuseresourceswisely.Thishasresultedinthereevaluationoftraditionalconstructionpracticesandtheuseofrecycledmaterialsinsome cases.Concretemasonryunitsareanimportantbuildingmaterialthatisusedonavariety ofprojects.Sinceadvancesintechnicalknowledgeareimportanttoprovidinga sustainableenvironment,thisthesiswillexaminetheuseofconcretemasonryunitsand determineifrecycledaggregatescanbeusedinthemixturedesignoftheunits. Thereuseanddisposalofsolidwastehasbeenachallengingprobleminbuildinga sustainableenvironment.Twomaterialsthathavereceivedalotofattentioninrecycling effortshavebeenwasteglassandscraprubbertireparticles.Overtheyearsanumberof usesforthesetwoitemshavebeencreatedandanindustryhasbeendevelopedto supporttheseuses.Wasteglassrecyclingtypicallyinvolvestheremoldingofoldglassinto newcontainerssuchasbottlesandjars.Crumbrubberisaby-productofrecyclingold tiresandiscurrentlybeingusedsuccessfullyintheconstructionofasphaltpavement, playgroundsurfacesandsportsturf.Thisthesiswillevaluateiftheuseofwasteglassand scraprubbertireparticlescanbeexpandedtoserveasanaggregatereplacementinthe constructionofconcretemasonryunits.Becausetherehasbeenlimitedresearchinthis area,itisthehopethattheresearchwillcreatenewinterestintheuseofrecycled materialsinmasonryblock.

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23 Thefocusoftheresearchwillbetoexaminetheeffectoftheaggregatereplacementinthe mixturedesignusedtoproduceconcretemasonryblocks.Commonpropertiesofthe concretemasonryunitsusedbydesignersandrequiredbyengineeringstandardswillbe investigated.Mostmasonryunitsaremadeinanautomatedmanufacturingprocess. Althoughitisdifficulttoreplicatethisprocessinthelaboratory,theresearchwillattemptto reproducetheconditionspresentinmasonrymanufacturing. Agoaloftheresearchistoinvestigatewhetherornottheuseofwasteglassandrubber tireparticleswillproduceunitsthatwillmeetminimumindustrystandards.Italso investigatesifthereisanyimprovementordrawbacksintheperformanceofsome propertiesoftheconcretemasonryunitsresultingfromitsusage.Finally,the constructabilityofunitsmadefromwasteglassandrubbertireparticlesisexamined.

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24 4.ExperimentalPlan 4.1LaboratoryPlanandGoals Theobjectiveofthisresearchistoinvestigatetheuseofwasteglassandrubbertire particlesasanaggregatereplacementinconcretemasonryunits.Theresearchwas definedbythefollowinggoals. 1.Becausethevisualaestheticappearanceofmasonryisanimportantcriterionin determiningitsusageonconstructionprojects,theuseofrecycledaggregatesto replacecoarseaggregateswillnotbeconsideredinthisresearch.Concrete pavementmixturescontaininglargepiecesofrecycledaggregatehavebeenfound tohaveexposedrecycledaggregateafterplacementinthefield.Inorderto correctthisproblem,thefinishingcrewhadtoembedorpoketheaggregate downintotheconcrete.Largepiecesofexposedaggregatearenotacceptablein themanufacturingofconcretemasonryunits.Therefore,forthisstudy,theusage ofrecycledaggregateswaslimitedtoreplacementoffineaggregatesonly. 2.Intheconstructionindustry,concretemasonryunitsarespecifiedtomeetthe requirementsof(ASTMC902003).Thereforetheresearchinvestigatedmeeting therequirementsofthisstandard.Iftheunitsdidnotmeetthisstandard,their potentialasaconstructionmaterialwouldbelimited. 3.Anotherfocusissustainableconcretemasonrypractices.Therecycledmaterials ofwasteglassandrubbertireparticleswereusedtodetermineiftheiruseisa viableoptionfortheconstructionofconcretemasonry.

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25 4.Replacementratesofthewasteglassandrubbertireparticleswasexaminedand comparedtoacontrolmixture. 4.2TestingConcreteMasonryMixturesintheLaboratory Typicallycastconcreteisproducedasaplasticmixture,placedinaform,consolidatedby variousvibrationtechniquesandcureduntilithasgainedenoughstrengthtoberemoved fromtheformwork.Theproductionofconcretemasonryunitsisanautomated manufacturingprocessthatisverydifferentfrommostothermethodsofconcrete production.Theproductionconsistsofbatchmixingmaterialsthatarethentransferredto amoldassembly.Fillingofthemoldsisaccomplishedbykeepingextramaterialinthetop ofthemoldassemblytoensurecompletefillingofthemold.Themixtureisthen consolidatedbyexternalvibrationanddirectpressure.Theunitsarequicklyremovedfrom themoldandshippedtothecuringoperation.Thiscycleisrepeatedseveraltimesa minute.Typicallyazeroslumpmixtureisusedthatdoesnotdeformsothattheconcrete blockcanbequicklyremovedfromthemoldassemblyandtransferredtootherareasofthe productionplant.Thewatercontentofaconcreteblockmixtureisdefinedmorebythe amountofwaterthatallowstheunitstoprogressthoughtheproductionmachinerythanby strengthrequirements(BergandNeal1997). Currently,thereisnotastandardmethodoftestingconcretemasonrymixturesinthe laboratory.TestingoftrialmixturesofCMUunitstypicallyinvolvesproductionofsmall batchesonassemblylinemachinery.Oftenthisisimpracticalanddifficulttoperform. BergandNealstudiedmethodstoevaluateconcretemasonryunitmixturesinthe laboratory(BergandNeal1997).Thefocusoftheirresearchwastoreplicatetheunique

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26 propertiesofproductionmachineryusingequipmentavailableinmostconcrete laboratories.Intheirresearch,testsamplesconsistedof2-inby2-incubesinsteadoffullsizeconcretemasonryunits.Theconcretemixtureswereplacedinthemoldsandthen compacted.Concretemasonryunitsmadebyautomatedmachinerydonotmeterthe amountofmaterialplacedinthemolds,butratherhaveauniquefillingtechniquefor transferringbatchedmaterialtothemoldassemblyasdescribedabove.Inorderto duplicatethisfillingmethod,BergandNealdeterminedtheamountofmaterialrequiredto fillthemoldbasedupontheanticipatedrequiredcompactionandthenweighedthe materialinaseparatecontainer.Halfofthemixturewasplacedinthemoldand consolidatefollowedbytheremainingvolumeofmaterialwhichwasthencompacted. Thecompactionofcommonconcretemasonrymachineryisprobablythemostdifficultitem toduplicateinthelaboratory.BergandNealmodifiedaPineInstrumentCompanyModel PMC-4compactor,designedforcompactingasphalticsamplesfortheMarshallmethodof mixdesign,tocreateadrophammerforcompactingthesamples.Theweightofthe hammer,thenumberofdropsandtheheightofthedropcouldbeadjustedtoachieve differentlevelsofcompactionfortheconcretemixtures.Theunitweightandtextureofthe specimensmadeinthelaboratorywerethencorrelatedwithfullscaleunitsproducedona suppliersproductionequipmenttodeterminetherequiredcompactioneffort.The specimensinBergandNealsresearchwereremovedfromthemoldsafter2hours. Becausenumerousmixtureswereneededtodetermineacontrolmixtureandtheeffectof variousreplacementratesofwasteglassandrubbertireparticles,smallermixturesthat produce2-inby2-incubeswerebeused.Fillingofthemolds,compactionofthemixture andremovaloftheunitsfromthemoldsresembledtheworkdonebyBergandNeal.

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27 4.3DesigningConcreteMasonryUnitMixtures Asmentionedabove,thedesignofconcretemixturesforuseintheproductionofconcrete blockisdifferentthantraditionalconcretemixturedesign.ACI211.3R-02,Appendix5, GuideforSelectingProportionsforNo-SlumpConcrete,containsrecommendationsfor thedesignofmixturesusedinthemanufacturingofconcretemasonryunits.Portland cementshouldconformto(ASTMC1502005).TypeIIIandIII-Acementsareoftenused toachieveearlystrengthgaintofacilitatethemanufacturingprocess.Supplementary cementitiousmaterialsconsistingofblast-furnaceslagandflyashcanbeused.TheACI guiderecommendsthatthecementcontentofthemixturebecalculatedasapercentofthe totalmassoftheaggregates(ACI2009). Coarseaggregateisdefinedasmaterialpassinga3/8inchsieveandremainingonaNo.4 sievewhereasfineaggregateconsistsofnaturalsandthatpassesaNo.4sieve.Normal weightaggregateswillbeusedintheresearch.Theproportionsofaggregates recommendedtoachieveanoptimalfinenessmoduluscanbedeterminedfromequation 4.1.ACIrecommendsafinenessmodulusof3.7fornormalweightaggregates. 100)( % xFMFM FMFM FA FACA combCA Equation4.1 FA%=PercentageofFineAggregate FM CA =FinenessModulusofcoarseaggregates FM FA =FinenessModulusoffineaggregates

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28 FM COMB =RecommendedCombinedFinenessModulus Theamountofwaterusedisdeterminedduringbatchmixingsothatthemixturewillball. ACI211statesthattheballwillhavesufficientcohesiontoholditsshapewhensqueezed butwillnotexhibitanyfreemoisture.(ACI2009).Unlikeothermethodsusedtodetermine mixtureproportions,themethodofdeterminingproportionsforaconcreteblockinvolves trialanderror.Testbatchesmustbereviewedtoevaluatetheblocksmoldedstrengthto determineifitcanbetransportedthroughthelimitsofthemanufacturingprocess.Alsothe compressivestrength,surfacetextureandvisualappearanceofthetrialbatchshouldbe reviewedduringmixturetesting. 4.4Materials ThematerialsusedintheconcretemasonrymixturesconsistedofTypeI/IIportland cementthatconformsto(ASTMC1502005).Thecoarseaggregateswereprepackaged materialsandthefineaggregatesweresandfromalocalconcretesupplier.Allofthe aggregatesconformedto(ASTMC332003).Therecycledaggregatesincludedcrumb rubberandwasteglassprovidedbyalocalsupplier.Waterusedinallthemixtureswas potabledrinkingwater.Additionalinformationonthematerialsusedinthemixturesis includedinAppendixA. 4.5Phase1DeterminingControlMixtureProportionsandCalibratingLaboratory Equipment Theuseofacontrolmixtureisimportantforestablishingastandardbywhichtojudgethe effectsofusingrecycledmaterialsinconcretemasonryunits.Theidealcontrolmixture wouldbeanestablishedmixtureusedbyalocalblockmanufacturerthathasalargebody

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29 oftestdataperformedonit.Intalkingwithseveralconcreteblockproducers,eachsupplier wasreluctanttoreleasetheirmixturedesignsoutofconcernofaidingapotentialbusiness competitor.Thus,thisinformationwasnotavailable.TherecommendationsofACI211 recognizethatdesigningconcretemasonrymixturesisatrialanderrorprocess(ACI 2009).Therefore,thephase1workevaluatedseveralcontrolmixturestodetermineifthe mixturesmeetthestrength,visualappearanceandotherrequirementsof(ASTMC90 2003).Baseduponthetestresultsofthemixtures,onecontrolmixturewasestablishedfor useontheremainderoftheresearch. Sinceproducingconcreteblockinthelaboratoryisdifferentthanproducingunitsthruan automatedmanufacturingprocess,theperformanceofthelaboratoryequipmentand calibrationofthecompactioneffortforthemoldsneededtobeevaluatedinthisphaseof thework.Freshandhardenedconcretepropertiesforthecontrolmixtureswererecorded andanalyzed. 4.6Phase2ExaminationofAggregateReplacementinCMUMixtures Onceacontrolmixturehadbeenestablishedandthelaboratoryequipmentcalibrated, mixtureswithvariousamountsofrecycledaggregateweremade.Rubbertireparticlesand wasteglasswereusedtoreplacethefineaggregatecontentoftheestablishedcontrol mixture.Replacementratesof10%,20%,and30%wereinvestigatedforthewasteglass andscraptireparticles.Testsonfreshandhardenedconcretepropertieswereperformed perSection4.7.Theeffectofthereplacementrateonvariousengineeringpropertieswas examined. 4.7ConcreteProperties

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30 Thetestingofcubesproducedfortheresearchfollowedtherequirementsfoundin(ASTM C902003)and(ASTMC1402003).Concreteblockproducedinanautomated manufacturingfacilityisoftencuredwithsteamatelevatedtemperaturesforvarying lengthsoftime.Becausethisisdifficulttoreplicateinthelaboratory,watercuringofthe unitswasperformed.Thefollowingtestsonsamplesofthemixtureswereperformed duringPhase1and2unlessnotedotherwise. 1.Thefinishandappearanceofthecubeswerereviewedtodetermineifthey conformtoitem7of(ASTMC902003).Thestandardrequiresunitstobesound andfreeofcracksorotherdefects.Thecolorandtextureoftheblockwere reviewedtodetermineifitispossibletousethecubesinanexposedcondition wheretheaestheticappearanceisanimportantcriterion. 2.Theweightofeachunitwasdeterminedandrecorded. 3.Thewaterabsorptionoftheunitswasexaminedtodetermineoftheyconformto Table3of(ASTMC902003). 4.Thecompressivestrengthoftheunitswasreviewedandcomparedtothe requirementsofTable3of(ASTMC902003).Thetestingmachineusedforthe testsconformedto(ASTME41996).ASTMdoesnotstipulateatimeframefor testingunitsaftertheyhavebeenproduced.Therefore,compressiontestingwas performedafter7and28daysforthetrailsamples.Strengthtestswereperformed tobetterunderstandhowquicklytheconcreteblockwouldgainstrengthandto facilitatetheworkflowoftheresearch. 4.8ViabilityAsAConstructionMaterial

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31 Inorderforwasteglassandrubbertireparticlestobeusedasanaggregatereplacement inconcretemasonryunits,theunitsmustmeetcurrentengineeringstandards. Nevertheless,thisalonewillnotensuretheirusageonnormalconstructionprojects. Additionalitemssuchastheeaseofusageofthewasteglassandrubbertireparticlesin constructingtheconcreteblockneedtobeconsidered.Duringthecourseoftheresearch difficultieswiththeuseoftherecycledmaterialswereobserved.Thisinformationwasnot beadefinitivestudyoftheapplicabilityoftheunits,butratherdonetogiveonesome judgmentastowhetherornottheirusageisreasonable.

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32 5.Results 5.1Phase1DeterminingControlMixtureProportionsandCalibratingLaboratory Equipment Phase1oftheresearchinvolvedassemblingthematerialstobeusedintheresearchand determiningtheirphysicalproperties.Thelaboratoryequipmentusedwascalibratedand testedfortheresearch.Specialdevicessuchasadrophammertocompactthetrial mixtureswereconstructedforthework.Finally,acontrolmixturewasdevelopedwith whichtojudgetheresultsofotherworkagainst. 5.2Materials Materialsusedintheresearchwereobtainedfromlocalsuppliersandconsistedofcement, peagravel,sand,wasteglassandrubbertireparticles.Thecementconformedto(ASTM C1502005)TypeI-II.PerACI211.3,inCMUproduction,generallymaterialpassingthe 3/8in.sieveandremainingontheNo.4sieveisconsideredasacoarseaggregate(ACI 2009).Therefore,peagravelwasusedasacoarseaggregateforthemixturedesigns. Thefineaggregateusedconsistedofsandthatconformedto(ASTMC332003). Informationonthechemicalcomposition,soundnesstestonaggregatesandothertest datafurnishedbythesuppliersofthematerialsarecontainedinAppendixA. Wasteglasswasusedasafineaggregatereplacementandwassuppliedbyalocalbottle manufacturer.Itconsistedofrecycledglassofallcolorsthatwascrushedbythesupplier. Thecrushedglasswasusedbythebottlingmanufacturertomakenewcontainersandwas

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33 usedinthisresearchtoreplacethesandinthemixturedesign.Aphotoofthewasteglass isshowninFigure5.1. Figure5.1 WasteGlass Thewasteglasscontainedsometrashitemssuchasbottlecaps,screws,batteriesand otherobjectionableitems.Becausea3/8sievewasthelargestsievesizethatthecoarse aggregateusedintheresearchwasretainedon,theglasswasrunthrougha3/8sieveto removethelargertrashitems.Thisremovedamajorityoftheobjectionableitems,butnot allofthem.Passingthematerialthroughafinersievemayhaveremovedmoretrash particles,butitwouldhavebeguntoremovelargepiecesofwasteglassmaterial.A pictureofthetrashitemsfoundinthewasteglassisshowninFigure5.2.

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34 Figure5.2 TrashinWasteGlass CrumbRubberwasalsousedasanaggregatereplacement.Therubberwassuppliedby asportsturfsupplier.AphotoofthecrumbrubberisshowninFigure5.3. Figure5.3 CrumbRubber

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35 5.3GradationTest Gradationtestswereperformedonthefineandcoarseaggregates,wasteglassand rubbertireparticlesusedinaccordancewith(ASTMC1362005).Duringthetest,care wastakentodrythematerialstopreventclumpingandthesamplesweredividedintoparts asrecommendedbytheASTMstandardtopreventpanoverloading.Thesandforthe mixturesconformedtothegradationrequirementsof(ASTMC332003).Asnotedabove, trashitemsinthewasteglasswereremovedbypassingthematerialthrougha3/8sieve. Thiswasdonepriortoperformingthegradationtest.Thewasteglasscomparedfavorably tothegradationofthesand.Theresultsofthegradationtestforthefineaggregateare summarizedinTable5.1andFigure5.4. Table5.1 Gradationtestoffineaggregates SieveSize PercentPassing ASTM Requirements Sand WasteGlass Crumb Rubber 3/8100100100100 No.4 95 100 100 99 100 No.880-100989699 No.1650-85787876 No.3025-60485616 No.505-3018280 No.1000-10490 No.2000-30.920 FinenessModulus2.3-3.12.552.363.09

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36 Figure5.4 GradationofFineAggregates Peagravelwasusedforthecoarseaggregateinthemixture.Thegradationofthe materialconformedtoanumbersize8inaccordancewith(ASTMC332003).Theresults ofthegradationtestaresummarizedinTable5.2andFigure5.5 Table5.2 Gradationtestofcoarseaggregates SieveSize PercentPassing ASTMSizeNo.8 PeaGravel 1/2100100 3/885-10097 No.410-3030 No.80-103 No.160-51 Fineness Modulus 5.69

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37 Figure5.5 GradationofCoarseAggregates 5.4DryRoddedUnitWeight Thedryroddedunitweightofthematerialswasdeterminedinaccordancewith(ASTMC 291997).Samplesweredriedtoaconstantmassweightandthenweighedinacalibrated measure.ResultsareshowninTable5.3. Table5.3 Unitweightofaggregates UnitWeight PeaGravel pcf Sand pcf WasteGlass pcf CrumbRubber pcf DryRodded101.1103.684.829.4 5.5ControlMixtureProportions Oncethepropertiesoftheindividualmixturematerialsweredetermined,acontrolmixture wasdeveloped.Becauseacontrolmixturecouldnotbeprovidedbyalocalmanufacturer,

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38 itwasdeterminedinaccordancewithACI211.3R.Mostconcretemixturesaredetermined bytheabsolutevolumemethod,butACI211.3Rrecommendsamethodthatreliesontrial anderror.Firstthepercentageoffineandcoarseaggregateswasdeterminedfromthe recommendationsofACI2113RperEquation5.1 100)( % xFMFM FMFM FA FACA combCA Equation5.1 FA%=PercentageofFineAggregate FM CA =5.69(SeeTable5.2) FinenessModulusofcoarseaggregates FM FA =2.55(SeeTable5.1) FinenessModulusoffineaggregates FM COMB =3.70 RecommendedCombinedFinenessModulus Thepercentageoffineaggregate,FA%wasdeterminedtobe63.2%andthepercentage ofcoarseaggregate,CA%was36.8%. Nextthevolumeofthetrialmixturewasselected.Theweightofthefineandcoarse aggregateswasdeterminedastheproductofthemixturevolume,thedryroddedunit weightoftheaggregateandthepercentageoftheaggregatedeterminedfromequation 4.1.Thecementfactorwasassumedasapercentageoftheaggregates.Becauseatest historyandinformationonatrialmixturewereunavailable,fourmixtureswithcement factorsof10%,15%,20%and25%wereinvestigatedandthepropertiesofthemixtures

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39 reviewed.Thecementcontentwastheproductofthecementfactorandthecombined weightofthefineandcoarseaggregates.Intheworkthatfollows,thetermscementfactor andpercentcementshouldbeconsideredinterchangeableunlessnotedotherwise. SamplecalculationsofamixturefromACI211.3Rareincludedbelow: MaterialProperties FA%=61% CA%=39% FAdensity(dry-rodded)=95pcf CAdensity(dry-rodded)=76pcf MixtureProportions MixtureVolume=78cubicft MassofFA=78cubicft(0.39)(76pcf)=2312lb MassofCA=78cubicft(0.61)(95pcf)=4520lb TotalMassofAggregates=6832lb Cementfactor:assume10%bymasofaggregate Cementcontent=6832(0.1)=683lb InaccordancewithACI211.3RAppendix5,thewatercontentofCMUmixturesshouldbe adjusteduntilthemixturewillballinthehand.Thisisdefinedashavingenoughcohesion toholditsshapewhensqueezedwhilenotexhibitinganyfreemoisture(ACI2009). Therefore,trialmixtureswiththefourcementfactorsmentionedabovewereexaminedto determinetheamountofwaterrequiredforthemixturetoball.Theprocedureforthis consistedofmixingthedrycomponentsinacountertopmixerfor2minutesfollowedby

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40 addingwaterandadditionalmixingfor4minutes.Themixturewasthenhandsqueezedto seeifballinghadoccurred.Nextwaterwasaddedinincrementsofaw/cratioof0.1and themixtureremixedforatotalof3minutes.Aftereachadditionofwater,asqueezetest wasperformedandtheconditionofthemixturenoted.Carewastakentostartthemixture testwithaw/cratiothatwouldnotballandthenaddwateruntilthemixturewasbeyondthe pointofballing.TheresultsofthetestaresummarizedinFigures5.6and5.7.Resultsare approximateandthetestisasubjectivetest,butitdefinedapointatwhichtoevaluatethe variousmixtures. Figure5.6 WatertoCementRatioatWhichMixtureWillBall

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41 Figure5.7 SqueezeTest Afterthewatercontentforthemixturedesignwasdetermined,trialmixturebatcheswith themixtureproportionsshowninTable5.4wereusedtodeterminethecontrolmixture. Table5.4 Mixtureproportionsoftrialcontrolmixtures Properties 10%C ement 15%Cement 20%Cement 25%Cement Sand(lb)2.6182.6182.6182.618 PeaGravel(lb)1.4891.4891.4891.489 Cement(lb) 0.411 0.616 0.821 1.027 Water(lb)0.2880.3700.4110.411 WatertoCementRatio0.70.60.50.4 MixtureVolume f t 3 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 Mixingoftrialcontrolmixtureswasdonewithasmallcountertypemixeruntilitappeared thatcomponentswereadequatelymixedbyvisualinspection.Thedrycomponentswere mixedfor2minutesandthemixturewasagitatedfor4minutesafterthewaterwasadded. Mixtureswereplacedincubemoldsconformingto(ASTMC1092002)andthesidesof themoldswerecoatedwithathinlayerofformreleaseagenttobreakthebondbetween

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42 themoldandconcretemixture.Themoldswerethenplacedinamoistureand temperaturecontrolledroomforonedaybeforebeingremovedfromthemolds.Thecubes werethenweighedandcuredbyplacingtheminasaturatedlimewaterstoragetank. Themoisturecontentoftheaggregatesofthecontrolmixtureswascheckedinaccordance with(ASTMC5661997)andisshowninTable5.5. Table5.5 Moisturecontentofaggregates Aggregate MoistureContent Sand0.16% PeaGravel0.17% CrumbRubber0.45% WasteGlass0.05% 5.6Compaction InCMUproduction,aconcretemixtureisplacedinmoldsandconsolidatedbyexternal pressureandvibration.IntheirpaperAProcedureforTestingConcreteMasonryUnit (CMU)MixesbyEricBergandJohnNeal,theauthorsstatethatthereisnoaccepted methodofduplicatingthemanufacturingprocessofCMUinthelaboratory.Specificallythe vibrationcompactionmethodofaproductionCMUmachineisthemostdifficultpartofthe processtorecreateinthelaboratory(BergandNeal1997). Severalcompactionmethodswereinvestigatedtoachievethedesiredcompactionandunit weight.Thefirstmethodofcompactionusedwastampingofthemixtureinthemoldsin accordancewith(ASTMC1092002).Alayerofmaterial1inchdeeporapproximately onehalfofthemolddepthwasplacedinallofthecellsofthemold.Thematerialwas tampedatotalof32timesconsistingof8strokesinfourroundswitheachroundatright

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43 anglestothepreviousround.Whenonecellofthemoldwascompacted,thenextcellwas filledandcompactedinasimilarfashionuntilallofthecellswerecompleted.After completionofcompactionofthefirstlayer,additionalmaterialwasplacedandthetoplayer compacted.Thismethodbyitselfwasfoundtobeinsufficienttocompactthecubes,soa hammerdropwasadded.Thehammerdropconsistedofavariousweightsdroppedat differentmeasuredheights.Thisallowedthecompactionefforttobequantifiedand duplicated.Acollarordamwasaddedtothemoldstoallowforoverfillingofthemold similartowhathappensinthemanufacturingofCMUunits.Thedrophammerandcollar areshowninFigure5.8and5.9. Figure5.8 DropHammerCompactionEquipment

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44 Figure5.9 CollarforMold Originallythetampingwasdoneintwolayersandthehammerdropwasappliedtothetop ofafilledmoldsimilartoaCMUmachineoverfillingitsmoldandapplyingpressurefor consolidation.Evenunderthissecondmethodofcompaction,voidsandareaswithlow consolidationareaswerenoticedinthecubesproduced,particularlyinthemiddleofthe cube.Thereforethemethodoftampingper(ASTMC1092002)wasreplacedwithrodding ofthemixture.Ainchdiameterrodwasusedthatallowedonelayertobepushedinto anotherlayerprovidinginterlayermixingandconsolidation.Themoldswerefilledtoa depthofabout1inchandthenconsolidatedbyroddingandusingthehammerdrop.The cubewasthenoverfilledandagainconsolidatedbyroddingandusingthehammerdrop. Applyingthehammerdroptotwolayersofthemoldallowedtheareainthemiddleofthe cubetobewellcompacted.Theroddingpatternusedconsistedof18strokesor9strokes in2roundswitheachroundatrightanglestotheother.Theweightanddropofthe hammerdropwasadjustedtoachievethedesiredcompaction.

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45 Asthecompactionmethodswerereviewedandthecompactioneffortcalibrated,astudyof theunitweightofthe2-in.x2-in.cubesversustheir7daycompressivestrengthwas performed.Amixturewithacementfactorof10%wasusedandtheunitweightofthe cubeswererecordedwhentheywereremovedfromthemoldpriortowatercuring.Atthis pointthecubesstillhadasignificantamountofmoisturewhichwouldresultinaunitweight slightlygreaterthantheirfinalcondition.Mixtureproportions,mixingmethods,sample productionandcuringforthesampleswereasnotedabove.Theresultsofthestudyare showninFigure5.10.Atunitweightslowerthanabout125pcf,thestrengthofthe samplesappeartobegreatlyaffectedbytheamountofcompactioneffortused. Intheirresearch,AProcedureforTestingConcreteMasonryUnit(CMU)Mixes,Bergand NealproducedunitsthatmatchedtoalocalCMUproducersunitweightof133.5pcf(Berg andNeal1997).JamesAmrheininReinforcedMasonryEngineeringHandbookliststhe unitweightofnormalweightmasonryas135pcf(Amrhein1983).Therefore,basedupon thisliteraturereviewandthelimitedstudyperformedinthelaboratory,itseemsreasonable tocalibratethecompactionefforttoproducetestsampleswithaunitweightof approximately135pcf.Thisunitweighttargetwasusedtocalibratethecompactioneffort fortheresearch.

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46 Figure5.10 7DayCompressiveStrengthvs.UnitWeight 5.7Phase1Results Afterthemixtureproportionswerecalculatedandthecompactioneffortdetermined,four trialmixtureswereproducedandtheirpropertiesevaluated.Themixingofthesamples, compactionandcuringwereasnotedaboveinSection5.5.Thesamecompactioneffort wasusedforallofthetrialmixtures.Thereportedvaluesaretheaverageofresultsfrom threecubesamplesunlessnotedotherwise.Thefiguresproducedsimplyconnectdata pointsanddonotattemptanycurvefittingofthedata.Theresultsofeachindividual specimenarecontainedinAppendixB.Plotsofthescattereddataandthedevelopmentof trendlinesarealsocontainedinAppendixB. Duringtheresearch,thesamplesremainedintheirmoldsfor1daybeforetheywere removed.Aftercompaction,thecubeshadenoughgreenstrengthtoberemovedfrom

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47 theirmoldsandretaintheirshape,butcarehadtobeexercisedinmovingthesamples aboutthelab.Figure5.11showscubesremovedimmediatelyfromtheirmoldafter compaction. Figure5.11 CubesRemovedfromMoldImmediatelyAfterCompaction Inaccordancewith(ASTMC902003),thefinishandappearanceofthemasonryunits shallbesoundandfreeofcracksorotherdefects.Thecubesproduceddidnothaveany cracksorothersurfacedefects.Thevisualappearanceresembledtypicalmasonryunits. AtypicalcubeisshowninFigure5.12.

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48 Figure5.12 CubeProducedTopView Table2of(ASTMC902003)setstheamountofabsorptionfornormalweightCMUata maximumvalueof13pcf.Absorptionwascalculatedinaccordancewiththefollowing formulagivenin(ASTMC1402003). Absorption(pcf)=(W s -W d /W s -W i )x62.4Equation5.1 W s =saturatedweightofunit W d =dryweightofunit W i =weightoftheunitimmersedinwater AllofthetrialmixturestestedmetthecriteriasetforthinTable2.Resultsoftheabsorption testareshowninFigure5.13.Ingeneralasthecementcontentofthemixtureincreased, amoredensemixturewasproducedandtheabsorptionoftheunitdecreased.The

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49 absorptionwasdeterminedaftercuringfor7days.Becauseitwasthoughtthatthe mixtureswithacementfactorof15%and20%mightbeusedasacontrolmixture additionaltestingat28dayswasperformed.Therewasverylittledifferencebetweenthe7 and28dayabsorptionvaluesrecorded. Figure5.13 7Dayand28DayAbsorption Theweightofthecubesforthefourtrialmixtureswasrecordedaftercuringfor7daysand thenbeingplacedinamoistureandtemperaturecontrolledroomfor3days.Thisallowed thesamplestoreachamoisturecontentatwhichtheymightbeused.Theresultsare showninFigure5.14.Ingeneral,theunitweightofthemixturesincreasedasthecement factororpercentofcementusedincreased.Thisistobeexpectedgiventhehighspecific

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50 gravityofcementwhencomparedtotheothermixturecomponents.The28dayunit weightwasdeterminedforthemixtureswitha15%and20%cementfactorandtheir weightwasvirtuallythesameasthatrecordedafter7days. Figure5.14 UnitWeightofTrialMixtures Thecompressivestrengthofthetrialmixtureswasexamined.(ASTMC902003)requires aminimumstrengthof1900psiforconcreteblock,butspecifiednotimeframeatwhichthe strengthisrequired.Typicallyinmasonryproduction,longcuringtimesarenotcommon. Twostudieswereperformedtoevaluatethestrengthofthemasonry.Thefirstdeveloped afamilyofcurvesbasedupondifferentwatertocementratiosforacertaincementfactor. The7daystrengthresultsareshowninFigure5.15.Ingeneralitshowedthatlowerwater tocementratiosresultedingreaterstrengths.

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51 Figure5.15 CompressiveStrengthvs.WatertoCementRatioTrialMixtures Asecondsetofcurveswasdevelopedbaseduponthewatertocementratioonlyatwhich themixtureswouldballforacertaincementfactor.ThisisshowninFigure5.16.The7 daystrengthsofthemixturesforacementfactorof10%,15%and20%werereviewed.

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52 Figure5.16 CompressiveStrengthvs.PercentCementTrialMixtures Baseduponthedatafromthephase1work,thetrialmixturewithacementfactorof15% wasselectedasacontrolmixturefortheremainingwork.Asummaryofthepropertiesof thecontrolmixtureisshowninTables5.6. Table5.6 Mixtureproportionsofcontrolmixture Properties ControlMixture Sand(lb)2.618 PeaGravel(lb)1.489 Cement(lb)0.616 CementFactor15% Water(lb)0.370 WatertoCementRatio0.6 MixtureVolumecf0.04 5.8Phase2EffectofAggregateReplacementwithRecycledMaterials ThecontrolmixturefromthePhase1workwasusedastandardtoevaluatetheeffectof replacingthefineaggregatewithwasteglassandrubbertireparticlesinthemixture

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53 design.Replacementratesof10%,20%and30%wereexamined.Inthesemixtures,a certainpercentageoffineaggregatebyweightwasremovedfromthecontrolmixtureand replacedwithanequalvolumeofrecycledmaterials.A.mixturedesignated10%Waste Glassor10%CrumbRubberindicatesthat10%oftheweightofthefineaggregateorsand wasremovedfromthemixtureandreplacedbyanequalvolumeofwasteglassorrubber tireparticles.Themixtureproportionsformixturesmadewithwasteglassandrubbertire particlesareshowninTables5.7and5.8. Table5.7 Proportionsofmixturescontainingwasteglass Properties 10%Waste Glass 20%Waste Glass 30%Waste Glass Sand(lb)2.35622.09441.8326 WasteGlass(lb)0.21430.42860.6429 PeaGravel(lb)1.48901.48901.4890 Cement(lb)0.61610.61610.6161 Water(lb)0.36960.36960.3696 WatertoCement Ratio 0.60.60.6 MixtureVolumecf0.040.040.04 Table5.8 Proportionsofmixturescontainingcrumbrubber Properties 10%Crumb Rubber 20%Crumb Rubber 30%Crumb Rubber Sand(lb)2.35622.09441.8326 CrumbRubber(lb)0.07430.14860.2229 PeaGravel(lb)1.48901.48901.4890 Cement(lb)0.61610.61610.6161 Water(lb)0.36960.36960.3696 WatertoCement Ratio 0.60.60.6 MixtureVolumecf0.040.040.04 MixingwasdoneinasimilarfashiontothatofthePhase1workwherethedrycomponents weremixedfor2minutes.Thenwaterwasaddedtothemixtureandallofthecomponents

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54 weremixedagainfor4minutes.Aftercompletionofmixing,thematerialwasplacedin cubemoldsconformingto(ASTMC1092002)andcompacted.Inreviewingthedataon thecontrolmixturethephase1work,itwasdeterminedthattheunitweightofthe specimenswasslightlylowerthantheestablishedgoalof135pcf,soadditional compactionofthemixtureswasprovidedinthephase2work.Thecompaction methodologywasthesameastheworkdoneinphase1andconsistedofroddingandthe useofadrophammer.Thedistancetheweightfellandthenumberofdropsusedforthe drophammerwasincreasedslightlyinphase2toproduceadenserspecimen.Thesame compactioneffortwasusedforallmixturesevaluated. Athinlayerofformreleaseagentwasusedtobreakthebondbetweenthemoldand concretemixture.Afterfillingofthemolds,thespecimenswereplacedinamoistureand temperaturecontrolledroomforoneday.Thecubeswerethenremovedfromtheirmold, weighedandcuredbyplacingtheminasaturatedlimewaterstoragetank.Thereported valuesaretheaverageofresultsfromthreecubesamplesunlessnotedotherwise.The figuresproducedsimplyconnectdatapointsanddonotattemptanycurvefittingofthe data.TheresultsofeachindividualspecimenarecontainedinAppendixB.Plotsofthe scattereddataandthedevelopmentoftrendlinesarealsocontainedinAppendixB. Duringmixingofthespecimens,themixtureswithrecycledmaterialsdidntappeartobe noticeablymoredifficulttocompactormixthanthecontrolmixture.Gloveswererequired whenworkingwiththewasteglassduringmixingandfillingofthemoldstopreventbeing cutbytheglass.Becauseconcreteblockisproducedinanautomatedprocess,concerns aboutcutstohumansduringtheproductionoftheblockmaynotbeasignificantissue.

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55 Thesurfacetextureoftheblockinitsfinishedconditionisdiscussedattheendofthis section. Whenthecubeswereremovedfromtheirmoldsafter1day,theirweightwasrecorded beforetheywereimmersedinwaterforcuring.Atthispointthecubesstillhadasignificant amountofmoisturethatwouldbegreaterthanthatofthefinalconditionandhadnotcured. Therecordedweightsweretheaverageof6cubesamplesandwereusefulindetermining theeffectontheunitweightoftherecycledmaterialsandareshowninFigure5.17. Figure5.17 1DayUnitWeightvs.PercentFineAggregateReplacement

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56 Aseparatestudyoftheweightofthecubeswasperformedaftertheyhadbeencuredfor7 daysandthenplacedinamoistureandtemperaturecontrolledroomfor3days.This allowedthespecimenstoreachamoisturecontentsimilartothatwhichtheymightbe used.TheresultsareshowninFigure5.18. Figure5.18 7DayUnitWeightvs.PercentFineAggregateReplacement Theresultsfromthe1and7dayunitweightsshowthatastheamountoffineaggregate replacementincreasedtheunitweightdecreased.Themixturesmadewithrubbertire particlesdecreasedatagreaterratethanmixturesmadewithwasteglass.Thisistobe expectedgiventhatthedryroddedunitweightofthecrumbrubberwasonly28%ofthat thesandandunitweightofthewasteglasswas82%ofthesandusedinthemixtures.

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57 Theaverageofthe1and7dayunitweightstudiesshowedthattheunitweightofmixtures withwasteglassreplacementratesof10%,20%and30%decreased0.8%,0.9%and 3.4%respectivelywhencomparedtothecontrolmixture.Themixturescontainingrubber tireparticleshadaunitweightthatdecreased3.8%,5.1%and7.0%forthesame replacementrates. Theabsorptionofthemixeswastestedinaccordancewith(ASTMC1402003)andthe resultsareshowninFigure5.19.Theabsorptionwastestedonsamplescuredforatotal of7days.Themixturesmadewithwasteglassdidnotvarysignificantlyfromthatofthe controlmixturewhereasthemixturesmadefromrubbertireparticlesshowedaslight increaseasthereplacementrateofrubbertireparticlesincreased.Thehigherabsorption ratesformixturesmadewithlargereplacementratesofrubbertireparticlesmayindicate thatthedurabilityofthesemixturesmaybeslightlylessthanthatofthecontrolmixture. Figure5.19 Absorptionvs.PercentFineAggregateReplacement

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58 Thecompressivestrengthofthemixtureswithrecycledmaterialswasexaminedandthe resultsofthe7daystrengthsareshowninFigure5.20.(ASTMC902003)hasnotime requirementfordeterminingthestrengthofconcretemasonryunitsandonlystipulatesthat theymeetaminimumstrengthrequirementof1900psi.Therefore,thestrengthofthe unitsbothat7and28dayswasreviewed.Ingeneralthecompressivestrengthofthe mixturedecreasedasthepercentofaggregatereplacementincreased.Thedecreasein therubbertireparticlewasgreaterthanthatofthewasteglass. Figure5.20 7DayStrengthvs.PercentFineAggregateReplacement

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59 Asrecycledaggregateisaddedtoamixture,thestrengthofthemixturebecomeslessthan thatofthecontrolmixture.Thereforeonecouldsaytheuseofrecycledaggregatecauses astrengthreductioninthemixturewhencomparedtothecontrolmixture. Aplotofthestrengthreductionforeachmixturecomparedtothecontrolmixtureisshown inFigure5.21.Thisinformationishelpfulinunderstandingtheeffectoftherecycled aggregatesandincomparingtheresultstootherstudies. Figure5.21 7DayStrengthDecreasevs.PercentFineAggregateReplacement The28Daycompressivestrengthofthemixtureswithrecycledmaterialswasexamined andtheresultsareshowninFigure5.22.Thetrendoftheresultsshowedasimilarpattern tothatofthe7daystrengthresults.

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60 Figure5.22 28DayStrengthvs.PercentFineAggregateReplacement Aplotofthestrengthreductionwhencomparedtothecontrolmixtureforeachpercentage ofrecycledaggregateisshowninFigure5.23.

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61 Figure5.23 28DayStrengthDecreasevs.PercentFineAggregateReplacement Theresultsshowedthatforreplacementratesof10%,20%and30%ofwasteglass,a strengthdecreaseof25%,29.9%and32.2%respectivelyoccurredwhentestedafter28 daysofcuring.Comparingtheresultsofthisstudytoworkdoneinotherresearchmaybe helpfulinunderstandingtheeffectsoftherecycledaggregates,butitcanbedifficultfora numberofreasons.Thematerialsused,mixtureproportions,replacementratesandfocus oftheresearchcanvarygreatlyamongstudiesmakingcomparisondifficult. InSection2.4,itwasnotedthatMeyeretal.didastudyontheuseofwasteglassin concreteblock.Inthisstudy,theamountofreplacementofwasteglasswaslimitedto10% ofthefineaggregatebecauseofconcernswithalkali-silicareaction.Meyeretal.found thatmasonrylostabout8.9%ofitsstrengthforareplacementrateof10%whentested after28days.Thisishigherthantheresultsofthisstudy,butitshouldbenotedthatthe

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62 watertocementratiousedinthemixtureofthestudydonebyMeyeretal.wasvery differentusingaratioof0.17insteadofthe0.6ratiousedinthisstudy(Meyeretal.2001). Therehavebeenanumberofstudiesusingwasteglassinconcrete.Incomparingthe resultstoworkdoneinotherstudiesthetrendofthedatamatchesthatfoundinother research.Astheamountofwasteglassincreased,thestrengthdecreased.Asnotedin Section2.7.1,TopcuandCanbazstudiedcoarseaggregatereplacementratesof15%, 30%,45%and60%andfoundastrengthdecreaseof8%,15%31%and49%(Topcuand Canbaz2004).Itshouldbenotedthatthereplacementratesrepresenttotalaggregate replacementnotjustfineaggregatereplacement.Parketal.intheirstudyexaminedfine aggregatereplacementratesof30%,50%and70%,findingastrengthdecreaseof0.6%, 9.8and13.6%respectively(Parketal.2004).Theresultsofthisstudyshowsimilar strengthreductionstotheworkofTopcuandCanbaz,butweregreaterthantheresearch ofParketal.Stillcomparingconcreteblockproductiontomuchhigherstrengthconcrete studiesshouldbedonewithcaution. Theresultsshowedthatforreplacementratesof10%,20%and30%ofcrumbrubber resultedinagreaterstrengthdecreaseof30.7%,40.3%and65.1%respectivelywhen testedafter28daysofcuring.AsnotedinSection2.9,therehavebeenverylimited studiesinusingrubbertireparticlesinconcreteblock.Cairnsetal.didastudywhere coarseaggregatewasreplacedwithrubbertireparticles.Thestudyshowedthatfor replacementratesof10%,25%and50%,strengthreductionsof22%,23%and41% occurred.Itshouldbenotedthattheproportionsoffineandcoarseaggregateinthestudy donebyCairnswasverymuchdifferentthanthatusedinthisstudy(Cairnsetal.2004).

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63 Studiesusingcrumbrubberinconcretehavedemonstratedthatastheamountofcrumb rubberincreasedthestrengthofthemixturedecreaseddramatically.Theresultsofthis studyshowedasimilartrend.AsnotedinSection2.12.1,astudybyGhalyandCahillwith replacementratesof5%,10%and15%ofthetotalvolumeofthemixturesawstrength reductionsof21.7%,48%and59.7%respectivelyforamixturewithawatertocement ratioof0.54whentestedafter28daysofcuring(GhalyandCahill2005). Insummary,comparingtheresultstootherstudiesshowssimilarstrengthreduction trends.Thevalueofthestrengthreductionaresimilar,butitappearsthatthereduction maybeslightlyhigherformixturesofconcreteblock,possiblyduetothelowpastecontent ofzeroslumpmixturedesign. The7and28Daycompressivestrengthofthemixtureswithrecycledmaterialswasplotted andtheresultsareshowninFigure5.24and5.25.

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64 Figure5.24 7and28DayStrengthCurvesforWasteGlassMixtures

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65 Figure5.25 7and28DayStrengthCurvesforRubberTireParticleMixtures Althoughitisdifficulttoseeadefinitivetrendinthedataofthetwocurves,theresultsmay suggestthatthereislessofadifferenceinthestrengthofthe7and28daysamplesat higherreplacementrates. (ASTMC902003)requiresthatthefinishandappearanceoftheconcretemasonryunits besoundandfreeofcracksorotherdefectsthatmightinterferewiththeproperplacement oftheunitsorimpairtheirstrength.Minorcracksandchipsduetocustomaryhandlingare notgroundsforrejection.Fivepercentofshipmentscontainingchipsnotlargerthan1inch inanydirectionorcracksnotwiderthan0.02inchandnotlongerthan25%ofthenominal

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66 heightoftheunitarepermitted.Thespecimensproducedinthelaboratorymetthiscriteria andwerefreeofcracksandchips. (ASTMC902003)stipulatesthatunitsusedinexposedwallconstructionshallnotshow chips,cracksorotherimperfectionswhenviewedfromadistanceof20feetunderdiffused lighting.Themasonryproducedintheresearchalsometthisrequirement. Theunitsproducedfromwasteglasshadafinishthathadafewexposedglassparticles, butthemajorityoftheparticleswereembeddedinthepastematrix.Thedispersalofthe glassparticleswasuniformonallsurfacesofthecubeproduced.Thewasteglassusedin theresearchconsistedofvariouscolorsofglassincludingbrown,greenandclearglass. Theexposedparticlesconsistingofgreenglasswerevisuallythemostnotable.Units producedwithcoloredglassmighthavethepotentialtoproduceaveryaesthetically pleasingsurfaceusingknowtechniquesinthefieldofarchitecturalconcrete.Ablock manufacturecouldexperimentwithdifferentglasscolorsandfinishingtechniquesto producearangeofappealingblockpatternsandfinishes. Oneconcernwiththeexposedglassparticlesonthesurfaceofthespecimensiswhether ornottheymightproduceasharpsurfacethatcouldbeahazardtothepublic.Passing onesfingersoverthesurfaceresultedinnoabrasionsorcutstothehand.Aphotoofthe cubeproducedisshowninFigure5.26.

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67 Figure5.26 PhotoofCMUCubewithWasteGlassTopView Theunitsproducedwithrubbertireparticlesasanaggregatereplacementhadnoexposed particlesonthesurfaceofthespecimenexceptforthebottomsurface.Thebottom surfaceinthecubemoldmaybethehardesttocompactduringfillingofthemoldresulting intheexposedaggregate.Thismayberesolvedbyothercompactionmethodsnotusedin theresearchsuchasvibration.PhotosofthefinishedcubesareshowninFigures5.27 and5.28.

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68 Figure5.27 PhotoofCMUCubewithRubberTireParticlesBottomView Figure5.28 PhotoofCMUCubewithRubberTireParticlesSideView

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69 6.ConclusionsandRecommendationsforFutureResearch 6.1Conclusions Theusageofrecycledwasteglassandrubbertireparticlesinconcreteblockpresentsa numberofpossibilitiesinengineeringapplications.Theresultsofthisstudyindicatethat astheamountofrecycledmaterialinthemixturesincreased,theunitweightdecreased. Themixturescontainingwasteglasswithreplacementsratesof10%,20%and30%hada unitweightthatdecreased0.8%,0.9%and3.4%respectivelywhencomparedtothe controlmixture.Themixturesmadewithcrumbrubbershowedamoredramaticdecrease of3.8%,5.1%and7.0%forthesamereplacementrates. Thisdecreaseintheunitweightoftheconcreteblockmightresultinreducedconstruction costsonprojectssincetheunitswouldbelightertoliftandinstall.Costsavingsonwall thicknessesandfoundationsizesmightalsooccurduetoreducedfoundationandseismic loadsfromthelighterCMUunits.Thisdecreaseintheweightofthisbuildingmaterial couldevenbemoresignificantiflightweightaggregateswereusedinsteadofconventional aggregates. Theresultsoftheabsorptiontestingindicatethattheuseofwasteglassandcrumbrubber doesnotsignificantlyaffectthedurabilityoftheconcreteblock.Althoughtheabsorption rateofthesamplesmadewithrubbertireparticlesincreasedslightlyastherateof replacementincreased,allofthespecimenswerewellwithintheacceptablelimitsof (ASTMC902003).

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70 Thestrengthofthemasonrydecreasedastheamountofwasteglassusedinthemixture increased.The28daystrengthofmixtureswith10%,20%and30%wasteglass replacementratesdecreasedthecompressivestrengthby25%,29.9%,and32.2% respectively. Similarlythestrengthofthemasonrydecreasedastheamountofcrumbrubberincreased. The28daystrengthofmixtureswith10%,20%and30%wasteglassreplacementrates decreasedthecompressivestrengthofthemixtureby30.7%,40.3%,and65.1% respectively.Thestrengthreductionforconcreteblockmadewithwasteglassandcrumb rubberappeartobeslightlyhigherthancomparableconcretemixtures.Thismaybedue tothelackcementpasteinthezeroslumpmixturedesignfoundinautomatedblock production. AlthoughtheusageofrecycledmaterialsaffectedthestrengthoftheCMUinanegative manner,atlowreplacementratestheconcreteblockproducedmaybeadequatefor generalmasonryconstruction.Athigherreplacementrates,theirusagemightbelimitedto wallsthatseesmallerstructuralloadssuchasinteriorpartitionwalls. Asthereplacementratewasincreasedtherewaslessofadifferencebetweenthe7and 28daystrengthofthesamples.Thisinformationmightbehelpfultoblocksuppliersin determiningproductionanddeliveryschedulesforblockmadewithrecycledaggregates. InreviewingthetextureandfinishoftheCMUsamples,theusageofrecycledmaterialsdid notappeartosignificantlyaffectthevisualappearanceorfinishofthesamplesproduced.

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71 Theunitsproducedfromwasteglasshadafinishthathadafewexposedglassparticles whereasthesamplesmadefromcrumbrubberhadnovisualexposedparticlesexcepton thebottomwhichmightbeeliminatedbybetterconsolidation. Thesamplesmetthecriteriaof(ASTMC902003)forvisualappearanceandtexturefor exposedapplications.Theywerefreeofcracks,chipsandotherdefects. Afewpiecesofglassaggregatewerevisibleonthesurfaceofthesamples,buttheglass didnotappeartoposeahazardthatmightcutapersonanditspresencewassmall. Unitsproducedwithcoloredglassmighthavethepotentialtoproduceaveryaesthetically pleasingsurfaceusingtechniquesinthefieldofarchitecturalconcrete.Thiswouldrequire separationofrecycledglassintodifferentcolors,butablockmanufacturecouldexperiment withdifferentglasscolorsandfinishingtechniquestoproducearangeofappealingblock patternsandfinishes. TherewereanumberoftrashitemsfoundinthewasteglassasshowninFigure5.2such asbatteries,syringesandotheritemswhichmightpresentahealthhazardiftheyarenot removedfromthewasteglass.Itisrecommendedthatstepsbetakentoremoveallofthe metalitemsandconsiderwashingofthewasteglasspriortousageinanyconcreteblock applications. 6.2RecommendationsforFutureStudy Asdiscussedinsection2.7.3,concretemadewithwasteglassinsomecaseshasbeen foundbyseveralstudiestoexhibittheundesirablepropertiesofanalkali-silicareaction (Meyeretal.2001).Concretemasonryunitsareauniquesubsetofconcreteproduction.

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72 Duetothemanufacturingproductionparametersrequiredtoproduceconcreteblock,CMU mixtureshaveazeroslumprequirement.Therefore,CMUmixturestypicallyhaveless cementpastethanotherconcretemixtures.Itisnotknownwhateffectthisreduced amountofcementpasteinCMUmixtureshasonalkali-silicareaction.Additionalresearch intotheeffectofASRneedstobeundertakenforthisuniqueconcreteproduct. Thefireprotectioncapabilitiesofmasonryunitsmadewithwasteglassandrubbertire particlesarenotwellunderstoodatthistime.Sinceoneofthegoalsofresearchisto enableproductstobeusedinthewidestpossibleapplication,thefireratingoftheconcrete blocksneedstobedetermined.Buildingofficialswillbereluctanttoallowusageofthe buildingmaterialwithoutdocumentationoftheirabilitytoresistfiredamage. Inadditiontotheengineeringpropertiesreviewedinthispaper,otherpropertiesneedtobe examined.Itisnotknownifunitsmadewithwasteglassorrubbertireparticleswillhave similarorreducedmortarbondstrengthswhencomparedtoconventionalunits.Prism testingofunitsmadeofwasteglassandcrumbrubbershouldbeconsidered.Some masonryapplicationsallowforunreinforcedwallstobeused.Becausenoreinforcementis usedinthisapplication,thetensilestrengthoftheunitmustbeknownforaproper engineeringdesign.Oftenmasonryisusedinshearwallconstructiontoprovidelateral stabilityofstructuralelements.Researchintothetensileandshearcapacityofunitsmade withwasteglassandcrumbrubberwouldbehelpfulinaddressingtheserequired engineeringproperties. Theenergyefficiencyofabuildingmaterialcangreatlyinfluencetheeconomicviabilityand sustainabilityofaproject.Inmasonryconstruction,twothermalpropertiesareoften considered,thermalmassortheabilityofamaterialtostoreheatandamaterialsRvalue

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73 oritsabilitytoresistheattransfer.Itwouldbeinterestingtoknowifthemasonryunits madewithrubbermightbebeneficialinprovidinganenergyefficientbuildingmaterial. Evenaslightgaininenergyefficiencymightresultinsignificantsavingsinenergycosts overthelifeofabuilding. Regardlessofthedensityofaconcretemasonryunit,movementcontrolrecommendations areapplicable.Controlofcrackingandmovementisimportanttothestructuralintegrity andaestheticofabuilding.(ASTMC902003)requiresforacceptableCMUunits,the linearshrinkagestrainshallnotexceed0.065%atthetimeofdelivery.Theshrinkage testingoftheconcreteblockwasnotperformedinthisresearch,butshouldbedonein futurework. Moistureinfiltrationthroughacompletedmasonrywallisaconcernforoccupiedbuilding applications.Wallsthatallowforexcessivemoisturepenetrationcanleadtoanumberof unpleasantproblems.Althoughtheresearchaboveindicatedthattheabsorptionofblock madefromwasteglassorcrumbrubberdidnotvarysignificantlyfromthatofthecontrol mixture,evaluatingthewaterpenetrationandleakageofamasonrywallmadewithwaste glassorcrumbrubbershouldbeperformed.

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74 APPENDIXA:InformationonMaterialsUsedinMixtureDesigns A.1MaterialsUsedinResearch Thefollowingisinformationonthematerialsusedintheresearch.Thestandardsand sourceofmaterialsareshowninTableA.1. TableA.1 Concretemasonrymixturedesignmaterials Material Standard Source CementASTMC150TypeI/IIAshgroveCement SandASTMC33BestwayConcrete PeaGravelASTMC33HomeDepot WasteGlassRockyMountain BottlingCompany CrumbRubberAcademySportsTurf WaterPotableTapWater

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75 ThechemicalcompositionofthecementusedintheresearchisshowninTableA.2. TableA.2 Chemicalcompositionofcement DateandTimeofAnalysis7/16/2009 TypeofAnalysisConcentrationAnalysis NumberofRepeats1 CassetteNumber43 TypeI-II RunAverage S 1 13.54 A 1 4.78 Fe3.93 C a 63 5 5 Mg1.37 S3.85 Na0.243 K0.897 C 1 0.098 L5501.00 L3502.50 Total99.99 NaEQ0.83 C 3 S56.02 C 2 S 13.20 C 3 A7.01 C 4 AF10.15 AF1.43 CO 2 1.5 LSCO 2 35.00 LINSTN4.3 D 1 0.00 PotentialalkalireactivitytestingofthesandusedintheresearchisshowninFigureA.1 andagradationtestisshowninFigureA.2

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76

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77

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78 FigureA.1 PotentialAlkaliReactivityTesting

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79 FigureA.2 FineAggregateGradationandSoundnessTesting

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80 APPENDIXB:ResultsData B.1Phase1ResultsData ThereportedvaluesinSection5oftheresearcharetheaverageofresultsfromthreecube samplesunlessnotedotherwise.ThefiguresproducedinSection5connectdatapoints anddonotattemptanycurvefittingofthedata.AppendixBcontainstableswiththeactual resultsdataofeachtestspecimentestedduringthestudy.Graphsoftheresultsare includedwithdatascatterandthebestlinearcurvefittingofthedata.Theinclusionofthis informationinthisappendixisintendedtogiveoneafeelofhowtheresultsarepresented inthispaper,thescopeofthetestingperformedandthevariabilityoftheresults. TheinformationshowninTableB.1andFigureB.1isthedataassociatedwiththe compactionstudydescribedinSection5.6. TableB.1 Datafor7daycompressivestrengthvs.unitweight Study SampleNo. Unit Weight (lb/ft 3 ) Strength (psi) Compaction Study1 Cube1106.997.5 Cube2110.6102.5 Cube3108.5150 Average108.7116.7 Standard Deviation 1.929.0 Coefficientof Variability 0.01710.2484

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81 Compaction Study2 Cube1116.1297.5 Cube2117.3310 Cube3118.2372.5 Average117.2326.7 Standard Deviation 1.140.2 Coefficientof Variability 0.00900.1230 Compaction Study3 Cube1129647.5 Cube2126.1622.5 Average127.6635.0 Standard Deviation 2.117.7 Coefficientof Variability 0.01610.0278 Compaction Study4 Cube1129.8525 Cube2128.8637.5 Cube3129.9772.5 Average129.5645 Standard Deviation 0.6124 Coefficientof Variability 0.00470.1921 Compaction Study5 Cube1128.4510 Cube2132.3840 Cube3129.4610 Average130.0653 Standard Deviation 2.0169 Coefficientof Variability 0.01560.2590

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82 FigureB.1 Trendline7DayCompressiveStrengthvs.UnitWeight TheinformationshowninTableB.2andFigureB.2isthedataassociatedwiththe absorptiontestingofthetrialmixturesandwasusedtoproduceFigure5.13. TableB.2 Datafor7dayand28dayabsorption Mixture Cube 1 (lb/ft 3 ) Cube 2 (lb/ft 3 ) Cube 3 (lb/ft 3 ) Average (lb/ft 3 ) Standard Deviation (lb/ft 3 ) Coefficient of Variability 7Day10% Cement 8.738.339.608.900.650.073 7Day15% Cement 6.576.226.746.510.270.041 7Da y20% Cement 7.517.247.337.360.140.019 7Day25% Cement 7.347.007.007.120.200.028

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83 28Day 15% Cement 7.427.597.607.540.100.013 28Day 20% Cement 7.767.597.427.590.170.022 FigureB.2 Trendline7Dayand28DayAbsorption TheinformationshowninTableB.3andFigureB.3isthedataassociatedwithdetermining theunitweightofthetrialmixturesandwasusedtoproduceFigure5.14.

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84 TableB.3 Dataforunitweightoftrialmixtures Mixture Cube 1 (lb/ft 3 ) Cube 2 (lb/ft 3 ) Cube 3 (lb/ft 3 ) Average (lb/ft 3 ) Standard Deviation (lb/ft 3 ) Coefficient of Variability 10% Cement 125.60125.17124.63125.130.490.0039 15% Cement 130.14130.80129.30130.080.750.0058 20% Cement 132.80134.60133.8133.730.90.0067 25% Cement 138.13139.10136.62137.951.250.0091 FigureB.3 Trendline-UnitWeightofTrialMixtures TheinformationshowninTableB.4andFigureB.4aretheresultsofstrengthtestingof variousmixtureswithdifferentwatertocementratiosandwasusedtoproduceFigure 5.15.

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85 TableB.4 Dataforcompressivestrengthvs.watertocementratiotrialmixtures Mixture Cube 1 (psi) Cube 2 (psi) Cube 3 (psi) Average (psi) Standard Deviation (psi) Coefficient of Variability 10% Cement Waterto Cement Ratio=0.8 640665693666260.039 10% Cement Waterto Cement Ratio=0.7 5108406106531690.259 15% Cement Waterto Cement Ratio=0.7 17231435124014662430.166 15% Cement Waterto Cement Ratio=0.6 14331815210317833360.188 20% Cement Waterto Cement Ratio=0.6 27482310228824482590.106 20% Cement Waterto Cement Ratio=0.5 24602968407031668230.260

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86 FigureB.4 Trendline-CompressiveStrengthvs.WatertoCementRatioTrialMixtures TheinformationshowninTableB.5andFigureB.5aretheresultsofstrengthtestingof severaltrialmixturesandwasusedtoproduceFigure5.16. TableB.5 Dataforcompressivestrengthvs.percentcementtrialmixtures Mixture Cube 1 (psi) Cube 2 (psi) Cube 3 (psi) Average (psi) Standard Deviation (psi) Coefficient of Variability 10% Cement 745753815771380.050 15% Cement 21002390185021132700.128 20% Cement 33234215381337834470.118

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87 FigureB.5 Trendline-CompressiveStrengthvs.PercentCementTrialMixtures B.2Phase2ResultsData Thefollowingisthedataresultsforthephase2work.Graphsoftheresultsareincluded withdatascatterandthebestlinearcurvefittingofthedataunlessnotedotherwise. TheinformationshowninTableB.5andTableB.6aretheresultsofthe1dayunitweightof thecontrolmixtureandvariousmixtureswithaggregatereplacementandwasusedto produceFigure5.17.FigureB.6showsthedatascatterandtrendlineoftheseresults. TableB.6 Datafor1dayunitweightwasteglassreplacement Mixture Control Mixture 10% Waste Glass 20% Waste Glass 30% Waste Glass Cube1(lb/ft 3 ) 138.78137.27138.89138.67

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88 Cube2(lb/ft 3 ) 140.62139.86138.89138.89 Cube3(lb/ft 3 ) 138.24139.86137.92137.59 Cube4(lb/ft 3 ) 138.78138.89136.4135.43 Cube5(lb/ft 3 ) 141.59138.46137.81134.78 Cube6(lb/ft 3 ) 139.54136.62137.05134.46 Average(lb/ft 3 135.70138.49137.83136.64 St andard Deviation(lb/ft 3 ) 1.281.330.991.92 Coefficientof Variability 0.00920.00960.00720.0146 TableB.7 Datafor1dayunitweightcrumbrubberreplacement Mixture Control Mixture 10% Crumb Rubber 20% Crumb Rubber 30% Crumb Rubber Cube1(lb/ft 3 ) 138.78132.52136.19131.11 Cube2(lb/ft 3 ) 140.62134.46134.68129.49 Cube3(lb/ft 3 ) 138.24134.57133.81131.65 Cube4(lb/ft 3 ) 138.78138.86130.25128.20 Cube5(lb/ft 3 ) 141.59138.24133.06128.52 Cube6(lb/ft 3 ) 139.54138.56133.16126.79 Average(lb/ft 3 ) 135.70135.70133.52129.29 Standard Deviation(lb/ft 3 ) 1.282.681.981.84 Coefficientof Variability 0.00920.01730.01480.0142

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89 FigureB.6 Trendline1DayUnitWeightvs.PercentAggregateReplacement TheinformationshowninTableB.8andFigureB.7aretheresultsofthe7dayunitweight ofthecontrolmixtureandvariousmixtureswithaggregatereplacement.Theseresults wereusedinFigure5.18. TableB.8 Datafor7dayunitweight Mixture Cube 1 (lb/ft 3 ) Cube 2 (lb/ft 3 ) Cube 3 (lb/ft 3 ) Average (lb/ft 3 ) Standard Deviation (lb/ft 3 ) Coefficient of Variability Control Mixture 137.6*137.7*137.9137.70.150.0011 10%Waste Glass 134.2136.2139.1136.52.460.0180 20%Waste Glass 136.7*137.2*136.7*136.90.290.0021

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90 30%Waste Glass 131.6*130.9*131.3*131.30.350.0027 10% Crumb Rubber 130.4130.5132.3131.01.070.0082 20% Crumb Rubber 131.0128.8129.1129.61.190.0092 30% Crumb Rubber 125.0129.9130.7128.53.090.0240 Asteriskdenotesaverageresultoftwosample FigureB.7 Trendline7DayUnitWeightvs.PercentAggregateReplacement

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91 TheinformationshowninTableB.9andFigureB.8aretheresultsoftheabsorptiontests onthecontrolmixtureandvariousmixtureswithaggregatereplacementandwasusedto produceFigure5.19. TableB.9 Dataforabsorptionvs.percentfineaggregatereplacement Mixture Cube 1 (lb/ft 3 ) Cube 2 (lb/ft 3 ) Cube 3 (lb/ft 3 ) Average (lb/ft 3 ) Standard Deviation (lb/ft 3 ) Coefficient of Variability Control Mixture 6.747.087.006.940.180.0256 10%Waste Glass 7.257.176.837.080.220.0315 20%Waste Glass 7.257.347.347.310.050.0071 30%Waste Glass 7.087.427.257.250.170.0234 10% Crumb Rubber 7.177.086.666.970.270.0391 20% Crumb Rubber 7.007.517.517.340.290.0401 30% Crumb Rubber 8.337.847.597.920.380.0475

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92 FigureB.8 TrendlineAbsorptionvs.PercentAggregateReplacement TheinformationshowninTableB.10andFigureB.9aretheresultsofthe7daystrength testsonthecontrolmixtureandvariousmixtureswithaggregatereplacementandwas usedtoproduceFigure5.20. TableB.10 Datafor7daystrengthvs.percentaggregatereplacement Mixture Cube1 (psi) Cube2 (psi) Cube3 (psi) Average (psi) Standard Deviation (psi) Coefficient of Variability Control Mixture 21702465243323561620.069 10%Waste Glass 2405225522182293990.043

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93 20%Waste Glass 1973190519181932360.019 30%W aste Glass 17001975225519772780.140 10% Crumb Rubber 13451470170515071830.121 20% Crumb Rubber 11351353162813722470.180 30% Crumb Rubber 785918770824810.099 FigureB.9 Trendline-7DayCompressiveStrengthvs.PercentAggregateReplacement

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94 TheinformationshowninTableB.11andFigureB.10aretheresultsofthe28daystrength testsonthecontrolmixtureandvariousmixtureswithaggregatereplacementandwas usedtoproduceFigure5.21. TableB.11 Datafor28daystrengthvs.percentaggregatereplacement Mixture Cube1 (psi) Cube2 (psi) Cube3 (psi) Average (psi) Standard Deviation (psi) Coefficient of Variability Control Mixture 27683320288029892920.098 10%Waste Glass 22632535193022433030.135 20%Waste Glass 19832063223820951300.062 30%Waste Glass 19232735212822624220.187 10% Crumb Rubber 19982280193520711840.089 20% Crumb Rubber 18431723136816452470.150 30% Crumb Rubber 113010139901044750.072

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95 FigureB.10 Trendline-28DayCompressiveStrengthvs.PercentAggregate Replacement

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