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A Pikes Peak partnership

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Title:
A Pikes Peak partnership the Penroses, the Tutts, and El Pomar Foundation
Creator:
Norman, Cathleen Marie
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
225 leaves : ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Businessmen -- Biography -- Colorado -- Colorado Springs ( lcsh )
Industrialists -- Biography -- Colorado -- Colorado Springs ( lcsh )
Philanthropists -- Biography -- Colorado -- Colorado Springs ( lcsh )
Businessmen ( fast )
Industrialists ( fast )
Philanthropists ( fast )
Biography -- Colorado Springs (Colo.) ( lcsh )
Colorado -- Colorado Springs ( fast )
Genre:
Biography. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Biography ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 195-225).
General Note:
Department of History
Statement of Responsibility:
by Cathleen Marie Norman.

Record Information

Source Institution:
|University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
|Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
47848275 ( OCLC )
ocm47848275
Classification:
LD1190.L57 2001m .N67 ( lcc )

Full Text
A PIKES PEAK PARTNERSHIP -
THE PENROSES, THE TUTTS,
AND EL POMAR FOUNDATION
B.A., University of Colorado at Denver, 1993
A thesis submitted to the
University of Colorado at Denver
in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Arts
History
by
Cathleen Marie Norman
2001


This thesis for the Master of Arts
degree by
Cathleen Marie Norman
has been approved
by
Dr. Mark Foster
4 301 C 1
Date


Norman, Cathleen Marie (M.A., History)
A Pikes Peak Partnership The Penroses, the Tutts, and El Pomar Foundation
Thesis directed by Dr. Thomas J. Noel
ABSTRACT
The history of Spencer Penrose and El Pomar Foundation encompasses many
important aspects of Colorados past, including mining, ore processing, railroading,
agriculture, hospitality and tourism, and recreation. After acquiring a fortune in mining,
Penrose diversified into various business arenas. Today, he is best known as the builder of
the Broadmoor Hotel, a premier resort hotel in Colorado Springs. A Pikes Peak Partnership
relates the life story of Penrose and creation of his enduring legacy, El Pomar Foundation.
Spencer Penrose and his business partner Charles L. Tutt were two Philadelphia
bluebloods who struck it rich in Colorado gold. The partners earned legendary stature in
the Cripple Creek gold rush when they sold their C.O.D. mine in 1895 for $300,000. With
these proceeds, Tutt and Penrose began the Colorado-Philadelphia Mill at Colorado City
and acquired other mills. In 1906, they sold the mill trust to finance the lucrative Utah
Copper Company southwest of Salt Lake City.
Profits from Utah Copper funded Penroses efforts to develop the Pikes Peak region
into a world class tourist destination. His marriage to Julie Lewis McMillan in 1906
enhanced his taste for culture and his vision of himself as benefactor of the Pikes Peak
m
region.


Penrose built the Broadmoor Hotel, Pikes Peak Auto Highway, Will Rogers Shrine,
and numerous other Colorado Springs landmarks. He was joined in various business
endeavors by several leading Colorado businessmen and assisted by Charles L. Tutt, Jr.
Spencer and Julie Penrose created El Pomar Foundation in 1937. When Spencer died two
years later, he left his estate to the foundation. By 2001, El Pomar had awarded more than
$220 million in grants to promote education, culture, health, sports, and recreation in
Colorado.
This thesis drew on the previously untapped private papers of Spencer and Julie
Penrose at the El Pomar Center in Colorado Springs. Research materials included family
papers and photographs provided by R. Thayer Tutt, Jr., along with many other primary and
secondary sources. This historian also drew upon her knowledge and experience, acquired
as a resident of the Pikes Peak region from 1963 to 1978.
This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidates thesis. I recommend its
publication.
IV


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This thesis was made possible by:
Professor Noel's suggestion for this thesis topic
and his guidance throughout the project;
the support and assistance of R. Thayer Tutt, Jr.,
Beverly Mason, and El Pomar Foundation;
the support of my family, Ronald Norman,
Brandon Huffman, and Jolene Huffman Hammer;
and the early encouragement of my parents,
Dale and Sally Thompson.


CONTENTS
OF
APTER
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
PIKES PEAK THE GOLDEN SETTING........................1
PHILADELPHIAN FOREBEARS................................9
CRIPPLE CREEK YEARS...................................27
UTAH COPPER COMPANY BUILDING A MINING EMPIRE........42
THE NEW BUILDER OF COLORADO SPRINGS...................59
PROMOTING THE BROADMOOR...............................76
THE PENROSE LIFESTYLE.................................95
SUGAR AND WATER......................................Ill
THE PENROSE LEGACY...................................131
JULIE VILLIERS LEWIS MCMILLAN PENROSE................143
CONTINUING THE LEGACY................................155
End of an Era: Divestiture of the Broadmoor Hotel.165
The El Pomar Trustees.............................169
12. EL POMAR TODAY AND TOMORROW.....................................176
Education.................................................177
Economic Development......................................180
Amateur Sports and Recreation.............................184
Arts and Humanities.......................................186
Health Care and Human Service.............................187
Youth................................................... 189
New Directions............................................191
13 CONCLUSION
193
BIBLIOGRAPHY,
194


CHAPTER ONE
PIKES PEAK THE GOLDEN SETTING
Pikes Peak rises abruptly from the eastern plains, its great granite pinnacle a beacon
for Colorados earliest inhabitants as well as modern-day visitors. The massive peak
captivated both tourists and local residents as an attraction and as a beloved landmark.
Formed one billion years ago, Pikes Peak is Americas best known mountain.
The earliest Coloradans, prehistoric Indians, inhabited the Pikes Peak region for
thousands of years before European settlers arrived. The Ute tribe inhabited Colorados
highlands, the pine- and aspen-clad slopes of Pikes Peak, while the plains-dwelling Cheyenne
and Arapaho camped in the foothills and on the prairies below. An ancient trail preceded
present-day Ute Pass as a corridor between the lowlands and South Park where Utes,
Cheyenne, and Arapaho hunted buffalo. These early inhabitants also bathed in the mineral
springs at the eastern base of Pikes Peak, awestruck by the weirdly-shaped, red rocks that
Anglo-American settlers later named Garden of the Gods.
As the first Europeans to explore the region, the Spanish marveled at the 14,110-foot-
high peak and christened it El Capitan. The Spanish claimed El Capitan and the entire
Arkansas River Basin as their territory. The Spanish explorer Don Francisco Vasquez del
Coronado ventured north from present-day New Mexico in 1540 searching for the rumored
Seven Cities of gold. While Coronados party of nearly 1,300 people entered western
Kansas, there is no record that they sighted the Rocky Mountains.1 Juan Bautista de Anza
ventured into the Pikes Peak region in the 1700s, chasing a band of Comanche Indians. Anza
and his troops battled the Comanche near Wetmore in what is now Fremont County, and
1


perhaps camped near the present site of Cripple Creek on the west side of the peak.
Greenhorn, the prominent peak south of Pikes Peak, commemorates the Spanish defeat of
Chief Green Horn (Cuemo Verde) and his Commanche raiders.
French and Spanish trappers and traders penetrated the mountains during the 1600s,
1700s, and early 1800s when Colorado was first a territorial possession of Spain, then,
briefly, France. These rugged mountain men followed the waterways in search of beaver, and
established a series of fur-trading posts along the Arkansas River. A French trapper
christened Fountain CreekFountaine qui Bouille, translated as boiling creek which
flows through Ute Pass and southeastward into the Arkansas River.
With the 1803 Louisiana Purchase, President Thomas Jefferson acquired from
Napoleon modern-day Colorado north of the Arkansas and east of the Continental Divide.
This $15 million bargain inspired Jefferson to send Lewis and Clark to explore the northern
part of the purchase. The President asked Lt. Zebulon M. Pike to explore the southern part
with an expedition up the Arkansas River. Pike came west in 1806 seeking the headwaters of
the Arkansas and Red Rivers which defined the new Spanish-American border. That fall,
Pike entered Colorado following the Arkansas River, and spied the mountain that would later
bear his name.
At first sight, Pike thought the peak a small blue cloud on the western horizon.
Drawing nearer, he set out with a small party to investigate the massive, sprawling
promontory. Sub-zero weather and soldiers outfitted only in light overalls and wearing no
stockings prevented his aim of scaling it. The summit of the Grand Peak, of which was
entirely bare of vegetation and covered with snow, now appeared at the distance of 15 or 16
miles from us, and as high again as what we had ascended, Pike wrote in his journal on
2


November 27, 1806 after struggling through a blizzard to the top of Cheyenne Mountain.
[It] would have taken a whole days march to arrive at its base, when I believe no human
being could have ascended its pinnacle.2 The mountain was later named for Pike, but his
belief that it would never be scaled by human beings was proven wrong. Millions of
motorists, thousands of hikers, and even runners have relished the view from atop Pikes Peak.
Other explorers came west to survey and catalogue America's vast new Louisiana
Purchase. Expedition parties led by Stephen Long in 1820 and by John C. Fremont in 1844
camped at the foot of the mountain. Dr. Edwin James, a botanist, geologist, and surgeon
traveling with the Long party, climbed to the top of the peak, where he collected specimens
of alpine flora.3 James is believed to be the first Anglo-American to scale the mountain. For
a time the mount was called James Peak, before being renamed for Pike. One of Colorados
first tourists, George Ruxton, the English author-adventurer, camped at present-day Manitou
Springs in 1846 and described a primitive wilderness inhabited by a few shaggy fur trappers
and warring Ute and Arapaho tribes.
When a gold strike at Sutters mill triggered the gold rush to California in 1849,
Pikes Peak and the whole Rocky Mountain range were regarded as an impediment to
reaching the Sierra Nevada goldfields. Gold rush trails went north through Wyoming or
south through New Mexico. A decade later Colorados Rockies became a goal rather than an
obstacle.
All across America, the words Pikes Peak rang in peoples ears in 1858 and 1859.
Gold had been discovered near the confluence of Cherry Creek and the Platte River, in
todays downtown Denver. Wild exaggerations of the gold find came on the heels of a
national depression, and thousands of hopeful folks crossed the plains seeking quick riches.
3


Although the gold excitement was 70 miles north of the famous mountain, Pikes Peak
became synonymous with the gold rush. Westward-bound settlers painted Pikes Peak or
Bust on their wagons. Some 17 guidebooks were published on the so-called Pikes Peak
Gold Region, and sold like hotcakes in Missouri River jumping-off points such as
Independence, St. Charles, Council Bluffs, Leavenworth, and Kansas City. New Gold
Mines of West Kansas and other guidebooks informed readers about provisions, equipment,
how to stake a claim, and other helpful advice. Glowing, golden guidebooks spurred the
business of merchants outfitting prospectors with items like Pikes Peak hats, Pikes Peak
guns, Pikes Peak boots, and Pikes Peak shovels.4
Gold seekers streamed into the frontier towns of Auraria and Denver City. A small
settlement called Colorado City also sprang up near the base of Pikes Peak. Early settlers
built a wagon road up Ute Pass to reach the mining camps of Fairplay, Breckenridge, and
Leadville. Colorado Citys hopes of becoming the main supply center and the territorial ,
capital were dashed when the road built from Denver provided easier access to the high-
country mining districts, and when argonauts found a mother lode at what quickly became the
Central City mining district The Civil War slowed the influx of gold seekers and pioneers
from the east. Nevertheless, settlers trickled into Western Kansas Territory, crossing the
Great Plains ocean from mid-western states in prairie schooners. Upon arrival, they built
homes, settled down, and set about establishing the hallmarks of civilization: saloons and
local governments, then churches and schools.
General William Jackson Palmer and his English friend Dr. William Bell recognized
that health as well as wealth would attract folks to Colorados salubrious climate and mineral
water spas. In 1870, Palmer founded Colorado Springs, its name alluding to the mineral
4


springs ten miles away at present-day Manitou Springs. The arrival of Palmers Denver &
Rio Grande railroad in 1871 helped make Colorado Springs a tourist destination. The new-
minted citys majestic beauty and arid mountain air attracted wealthy travelers and genteel
invalids, who brought with them a more cultured outlook than had the gold-grubbing
prospectors. The city quietly prospered in the shadow of Pikes Peak. Cattle ranching, sheep
raising, and farming grew into important activities. In the mid-1880s the Colorado Midland
Railway was built from Colorado Springs to the mining towns of Leadville and Aspen, and
the railroads owners also constructed the Colorado Springs Opera House, modeled after the
Madison Square Theater in New York City.5
During Colorado Springs first twenty years, nobody suspected that a six-square-mile
gold field lie in an extinct volcano crater on the west side of Pikes Peak. The gold deposits
were located years after the gold strikes at Central City, Idaho Springs, and Breckenridge.
Cripple Creek was the last great gold rush in the Rocky Mountain West. It revived
Colorados economy, which was reeling from the 1893 Silver Crash that had closed the
states silver mines and devastated Georgetown, Leadville, Aspen, and silver towns in the
San Juan Mountains. It also focused national attention on the Pikes Peak region.
Of the golden millions extracted from the Cripple Creek district, little of the wealth
stayed in Cripple Creek, Victor, and a dozen satellite settlements. Cripple Creek gold instead
built large and beautiful homes in Colorado Springs and Denver. The Pikes Peak regions
economy soared with the fortunes dug out of Cripple Creek. In 1897 there were 420 mining
offices in Colorado Springs and nearly 50 millionaires lived in the North End
neighborhood.6 Wood Avenue, nicknamed, Millionaires Row was lined with enormous
homes.
5


The last great gold rush in the Rocky Mountain West, the Cripple Creek boom
differed from earlier Colorado mining rushes. The mining district reflected the rapid
urbanization occurring in many rural locations throughout the country at the turn of the
century. The widespread development of railroad transportation and advances in
communication technology were connecting many remote communities with urban centers.
The Cripple Creek district soon had urban amenities of any established city: electricity,
indoor plumbing, telephones, and streetcar and railroad transportation. Advances in
photography and publishing also allowed the extensive promotion of the Cripple Creek gold
rush that captured national attention. The district also differed in the level of capitalization
that occurred almost immediately. Gold extraction required intensive funding to sink shafts,
purchase mining equipment, finance ore transportation and milling, and to make payroll for
miners. This financing came from selling gold mining stock to affluent investors in the East
and abroad.
Twenty-five years after it began, the Cripple Creek rush fizzled. The richest ore
deposits had been exhausted. The burgeoning district, whose population had approached
40,000 people, dwindled into a ghost of its former self. The men who had made millions had
long ago left the district, and only a handful held onto their riches. Among the few who used
Cripple Creek District profits to create even greater fortunes were Spencer Penrose and
Charles L. Tutt. These two Philadelphia blue bloods had ventured west seeking adventures
and profits. Tutt arrived in Colorado Springs in 1884, and tried his hand at cattle ranching
before going into real estate sales. Penrose, meanwhile, came to Colorado in 1891, after
unsuccessful business dealings in New Mexico.
6


Penrose and Tutt prospered in the Cripple Creek District, first in land sales, then in
ore processing. They sold their C.O.D. gold mine for $300,000, used the proceeds to build
gold smelters and mills, and then dominated the Cripple Creek ore extraction industry for
over a decade. Penrose and Tutt sold their operations before the districts drastic decline
began. They invested proceeds from sale of their gold milling operation in copper mining at
Bingham Canyon, Utah. Charles Tutt sold his interest in this copper enterprise, but the
success of the Utah Copper Company made Spencer Penrose one of the richest men in
Colorado. His copper millions built the fabulous Broadmoor Hotel, Colorados finest resort,
and enabled Penrose to develop network of tourist attractions, from a cog railway to a zoo.
At his death Spencer Penrose blessed his adopted city with a lasting legacy by creating the El
Pomar Foundation, which would continue to shower the Pikes Peak region with his millions.
Cripple Creek gold mining impacted the Colorado Springs economy for decades, and
El Pomar has nourished the region with over $210 million in grants since its creation in 1937.
But the magnificent natural setting proved to be the regions greatest asset. Today tourism
continues as one of the citys chief industries. Nearly six million people annually visit over
50 local attractions, generating some 14,000 jobs and $800 million in annual revenue.7
Tourism also reflects the type of clean industry that Palmer, Penrose, and other city leaders
have tried to attract to the city. Other major local industries include military, space
technology, computers and electronics, and printing and publishing.
Pikes Peak symbolizes a certain quality of life to local residents. It is a steady,
inspiring presence visible from anywhere in the city. Likewise, the legacy left by Spencer
Penrose, his El Pomar Foundation, permeates the city and affects the quality of life. Since its
inception in 1937, the foundation has touched the lives of Colorado Springs and Colorado
7


residents in many ways, especially in the areas of education, health, recreation, and arts.
Penroses bequest has funded and sustained a multitude of causes and projects. The story of
Spencer Penrose and his partner Charles L. Tutt, Sr. remains inextricably intertwined with
that of Colorado Springs, Cripple Creek, and the great Pikes Peak region. It is a fantastic tale
never before fully told.
8


CHAPTER TWO
PHILADELPHIAN FOREBEARS
The Pikes Peak partnership of Charles L. Tutt, Sr. and Spencer Penrose had its roots
in Philadelphia. The two men grew up in the same Philadelphia neighborhood. Tutt and
Penrose were bom at the close of the Civil War, sons of two Philadelphia physicians.
Spencer was bom into an aristocratic family whose lineage included the blue-blooded Biddles
and Waynes. His three older brothers, Boies, Charles, and Richard, each graduated from
Harvard with honors and achieved distinction in his respective field politics, medicine,
and geology. Charles Tutt, on the other hand, was an only son, also from a family of notable
ancestry. His father died while Tutt was still a baby, leaving him a less fortuitous childhood.
Young Tutt went to work at age 17, and his ambitions took him out west where his
connections with the Penrose brothers led to great success in gold and copper mining.
The Penroses traced their American origins to Bartholomew Penrose who arrived in
1698 at Philadelphia, the city platted by William Penn between the Delaware and Schuylkill
rivers. Penrose was a Bristol ship-builder of Cornish lineage descended from a Duke of
Norfolk. He was invited by Penn to establish a shipyard on the Schuylkill River. The family
ran the shipyard for nearly 150 years, and also operated the Penrose Ferry Bridge built in
1777. The Penrose family produced many influential Philadelphians. Spencers grandfather
Charles Bingham Penrose, remembered most for his beautiful wife Lydia, served in the
Pennsylvania Senate from 1833 to 1841, and later became a solicitor for the U. S. Treasury
Department. Spencers uncle, Judge Clement Biddle Penrose, presided over the Orphans
Court of Philadelphia County for more than 30 years.1
9


Spencer and his brothers also drew inspiration from their cousin, General William
Henry Penrose, whose long military career took him out west. General Penrose told tales of
Civil War battles and of fighting Indians at frontier forts in Kansas and Colorado. He also
had rubbed shoulders with legendary westerners: Kit Carson died at General Penroses
residence at Fort Lyon, Colorado; and William Buffalo Bill Cody had served as Penroses
guide during the winter campaign of 1867 68.2
Spencers father, Richard Alexander Fullerton Penrose, was one of Philadelphias
finest physicians. After graduating from University of Pennsylvania in 1849, he practiced at
the Pennsylvania Hospital and Philadelphia Hospital. Dr. Penrose helped found Childrens
Hospital in 1854.3 From 1863 through 1889 he held the professorship of obstetrics and
diseases of women and children at the University of Pennsylvania, where he was known as a
dignified and graceful teacher whose wit and humor tickled his students.4 Dr. Penrose valued
education highly, as did his wife, Sarah Hannah Boies Penrose, who prided herself on being
directly descended from two members of Harvards first graduating class in 1642.5 Sarah,
described as a woman of rare culture and refinement, of unusual intelligence and
phenomenal and magnificent beauty, was admired for both her intellect and her striking
appearance.6
The Penrose children consisted of seven sons bom in a ten-year period. The first
child, Boies Penrose, died in infancy. Then followed: Boies Penrose bom November 1, 1860;
Charles Bingham Penrose, bom February 1, 1862; Richard Alexander Fullerton Penrose, Jr.,
bom December 17,1863; Spencer Penrose, bom November 2, 1865; Francis Boies Penrose,
bom August 2,1867; and Philip Thomas Penrose, bom March 10, 1869.7
10


The Penrose brothers grew up in a narrow, three-story, brick townhouse at 1331
Spruce Street, described as a comfortable house of small dimensions, few ornaments and no
pretensions.8 The family home, which was tom down in 1934 and replaced by a parking
garage, reflected the Penroses simple lifestyle. The doctor was an advocate of a healthy diet,
exercise, and education. Mrs. Penrose refrained from the frivolous demands of Philadelphia
society. She belonged to the Saturday Evening Club, whose strict rules against extravagance
and display required that its members absolutely abandoned the use of jewels.9
The brothers grew into strapping, handsome, lads tall, dark-haired, and dark-eyed.
They amused themselves with fishing off the bridges and piers, swimming across the
Delaware River, rowing on the Schuylkill, and ice skating on the rivers in winter. They rode
the street car to Fairmont Park to see the Centennial Exposition where 230,000 people
thronged opening day, May 10, 1876.10 Like many upper class Philadelphia families, the
bustling household included two or three Irish maids who helped clean the house and care for
the boys.11 Once into puberty, family lore has it, the lusty Penrose boys threw down money
on the dining room table, betting which one of them could bed the new maid first.12
Sarah Penrose blessed her sons with her raven hair, classic features, and dark,
expressive eyebrows. She also instilled in her sons a dedication to academic excellence and
professional success. Sarah was determined that her boys attend Harvard and distinguish
themselves there. To this end, she abandoned entirely society and devoted herself
exclusively to the education of her children.13 They were taught at home by a private tutor,
then enrolled in the Episcopal Academy to prepare for college. When the two eldest sons,
Boies and Charles, entered Harvard, Sarah accompanied them to Boston and established them
in a house on Gerry Street under the watchful eye of their maiden aunt, Sarah Beck.
11


The Penrose parents encouraged their sons academic achievement at Harvard. The
doctor hired a private tutor them and personally critiqued their essays. He edited their term
papers, and sent them long letters regarding schoolwork, athletics, study habits, hygiene, and
poise:
I am glad your work is so interesting and so easy for you. I highly
approve of your French memorizing and your German studies... Read up
for your theme, if you can, before writing it and if possible let me have it at
least a week before you have to hand it in. Cultivate all your instructors and
professors. It certainly will secure for you better marks, as well as present
and future good will... Go on with your gymnastics, but never forget my
direction Nose at angle 45 degrees, head up, shoulders back, chest out,
stomach in, and look right down to the bottom of a fellows eyes. Even
though you never intend to be a soldier you may possess a military
bearing.14
Dr. Penrose also provided his sons a list of rules that included: When invited out to dinner or
tea be careful about dress, etc. If offered wine or cigars, quietly decline, by saying you never
smoke or use wine, and, at all times, give the same answer, no matter where or by whom
offered... Form at first no intimaciesafterwards, only with quiet, hard working students.
Avoid all swell fellows. And, by all means, join no secret society or club until the
sophomore or Junior year.15
Sarah Penrose, too, counseled her sons in academic, health, and spiritual matters.
Her boys had grown into hard youths who did not lack motherly advice. Your Father thinks
that you ought to take some pains to get your marks in Geometry changed, she wrote
Richard. He says to go yourself to Briggs and ask him politely to look over your paper
again; tell him that you feel sure you did all that was given you. I want you to get a good
12


grade... Be sure to change your pantaloons when you get wet. I think it is cold enough now
for you to put on your winter flannels. ..Iam glad to find you go regularly to Church with
Cousin Sarah and I feel sure that you will pass through your college course without one
censure mark. Good night to you all my darling boys. SHBP.16 This maternal counsel
ceased when Sarah Penrose died of pneumonia March 30, 1881, two months before Boies and
Charles graduated.17
Their parents guidance had driven the Penrose brothers to extraordinary academic
performance, but not all the boys were willing scholars. When Boies failed his graduating
exam, his father wrote him a livid letter that goaded Boies to study, retake the exam, and
graduate second in the class of 1881. His brother Charles graduated first in the class.18
Charles and Richard were more apt scholars. Charles showed such a genius for physics that
his professor wrote Dr. Penrose recommending that his son devote himself to physics rather
than to medicine.19 Instead, Charles pursued both, and received his Ph.D. in physics from
Harvard in 1884, simultaneously graduating with an M.D. from the University of
Pennsylvania. The third Penrose brother, Richard, graduated Summa Cum Laude from
Harvard in 1884 with highest honors in chemistry. He returned to Harvard for his Ph.D. in
natural history, and graduated in 1886.
Hard put to follow these stellar examples, Spencer graduated from Harvard by the
skin of his teeth. He was tutored regularly, and at first did well. Richard pursued his Ph.D. at
Harvard while Spencer was an undergraduate, reported to their father: Speck is getting along
all right and I guess he will pass his Christmas examinations without much trouble, though I
dont think he could do much without Howell... Howell comes every afternoon and spends
an hour or more going over the next days lesson with him. He dont [sic] have much trouble
13


in learning anything, and even seems to like his Greek.20 Despite these early signs of
promise, Spencer barely graduated. His only his accolades were a Bowdoin Prize
Dissertation, Ruskin and his Place Among English Writers,21 and a reputation for drinking
a gallon of beer in 37 seconds. Distracted by boating, boxing, drinking, and carousing, Spec
nevertheless left Harvard with an eloquent command of the English language that later served
him in business correspondence and in the board room. During his college years, he also
gained an appreciation for classical art and architecture later reflected in his El Pomar home
and the Broadmoor Hotel. The most lasting Harvard legacy, ironically, was an eye injury.
While rowing at Harvard, Spencer strained his retina, an affliction that bothered him for
years, until he finally had the eye surgically removed in Paris in the 1920s.
In addition to an excellent education, Harvard offered the Penrose brothers athletic
opportunities. The husky, muscular young men especially relished boxing and rowing.
Richard wrote their father: We were going to take our boxing lessons from the regular man
at the gymnasium but we have just heard of a niger [sic] prize fighter who lives in Cambridge
and who, for 25 cents a lesson, will teach you how to slug a fellow, including tripping up,
smashing in a mans head, etc. etc., and I guess we will go to him.22 All the Penrose boys
were oarsman, and belonged to Philadelphias prestigious University Barge Club. Richard
achieved acclaim rowing on Harvard University crew in 1884,1885, and 1886. Dear
Penny, his classmate Arthur P. Butler wrote, Now that the college year is over and the races
rowed, hard luck that we couldnt have beaten Yale, wasnt it?23
This love of sport was a common bond between the brothers, who went on the first of
many western hunting trips in 1884. They photographed each of these outings, pictures that
show grinning, grizzled men squatting by the campfire, posing beside stacks of antlers and
14


animal skins, or plunging naked into a lake or river. Thel 884 excursion began at Yancys
near Jackson Hole, and they camped in Wyoming and Montana. They lived for awhile in a
log cabin they built themselves, where they hunted and panned for gold. Richard collected so
many mineral specimens that the brothers heaped the rocks into a great pile and christened it
Mount Penrose. Richard later recalled: These trips were designed and carried out for the
pure delight of the chase, and in these early days we never took guides, cooks, packers, or
any other employees. We acted as our own guides, because we knew the country as well as
anyone else... These was no tenderfoot element in these expeditions, for each man had a
knowledge of woodcraft, camp life and hunting; each was a woodsman devoted to the call of
the forests and its denizens.24 The brothers camped in teepees, swam in the nude, and ate
rustic dishes like moose nose. They returned east sunburned and grizzled, with trophies
galore that they hung in the Penrose house on Spruce Street. Camping out west also helped
Charles regain his health. He spent the summer of 1892 in Wyoming to cure a lung infection
developed after swimming for five hours to win a fifteen-mile race from Philadelphia to
Chesterton.25 Two years later, he returned to Wyoming with his bride, New York
millionairess Katherine Drexel, and the newlyweds camped for three months in teepees.26
Boies and Charles returned to their homes and careers back east, but Richard and
Spencer succumbed to the lure of the West. For nearly two decades Richard surveyed
mineral deposits in Arkansas, Texas, Colorado, Utah, and Nevada, followed by geological
expeditions around the world. Not until the 1920s did he settle permanently in Philadelphia
again. Spencer, on the other hand, remained in Colorado the rest of his life. After profiting
immensely from Colorado gold mining and Utah copper, he settled in Colorado Springs,
where he built the Broadmoor resort hotel as the Wests swankiest playground. Yet, his
15


success out west remained inextricably woven with the East, through eastern financing of his
many business ventures, and through his partnership with fellow Philadelphian Charles
Learning Tutt.
Like the Penrose brothers, Charles L. Tutt, senior partner of Tutt & Penrose, was
Philadelphia bom and bred. He was descended from an old Virginia family. His forebear
Richard Tutt left England before 1700 to become a large landholder in the Virginia tidewater
region. In 1751 Colonel Richard Tutt, justice of Spotsylvania County, Virginia, presided
over the trial of two women charged with robbing George Washington of his clothes while he
was washing in the Rappahonnock River. C. L. Tutts grandfather, Charles Pendleton Tutt,
was a Navy agent and intimate friend of President Andrew Jackson. He died in 1832, one
month before his only son, Charles Pendleton Tutt, Jr. was bom at Santa Rosa Island in
Pensacola, Florida. Charles P. Tutt, Jr. graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in
1856, seven years after Dr. R. A. F. Penrose.27 Dr. Tutt practiced at Blackley Hospital in
Philadelphia and married the only daughter of Jeremiah Fisher Learning, a Philadelphia
financier. The young couple set up housekeeping at 906 Walnut Street, a few blocks from the
Penrose family at 1331 Spruce.28 Working as a physician at the Saterlee Hospital, one of
Philadelphias largest Civil War facilities, Dr. Tutt contracted typhoid and died May 11,
1866, leaving his wife Josephine, daughter Rebeccah, and infant son Charles.29
The early death of his father contributed to Charles L. Tutts decision to go west.
Young Charles lacked the paternal mentoring from which the Penrose brothers had benefited.
He had grown up living with his mother and sister at his grandfathers home on 922 Spruce.
He was sent to Uiy Boarding School and then studied briefly at Ferris Institute. At age 17, he
went to work as a clerk for Peter Wright Co. in Philadelphia for $2.30 a week. Two years
16


later Tutt accepted an office position at the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. He moved to
Colorado in 1884, seeking his fortune and hoping to restore his health rheumatic fever had
weakened his heart during childhood. Tutt and his future brother-in-law Dr. Jesse
Williamson started a cattle ranch, Thayden, 18 miles northeast of Colorado Springs in the
Black Forest.30 After a two-year engagement, he married Josephine Thayer, on December 29,
1885 at Christ Church in Philadelphia. Supposedly, he sold two cows to pay for his train
ticket home for the wedding.31. His father-in-law was Judge Martin Russell Thayer, an
eminent Philadelphia jurist and U.S. Congressman from 1863 to 1867.32
The cattle operation was not long lived. Tutts partner, Dr. Williamson, married
Josephines sister Sophia and moved back east to set up practice in Delaware. When the
blizzards of the late 1880s wreaked havoc on Thayden and other Colorado cattle ranches.
Charles turned to real estate sales.33 Tutt opened the Colorado Springs real estate firm of
Tutt, McDaniel, & Co. with a branch office in Pueblo. His family settled into a house at 611
N. Weber Street in Colorado Springs, large enough to accommodate his growing family:
Sophia Watmough Tutt, bom Jan. 2,1887; Charles Learning Tutt, Jr. Jan. 9, 1889; and
William Thayer Tutt March 22,1893. Their third child, Russell Thayer Tutt, bom Christmas
Day, 1891 had died in infancy.
Tutts real estate business thrived. In 1891 he opened another branch office
southwest of Colorado Springs in a burgeoning young gold mining camp called Cripple
Creek. Tutt had been one of the first men to enter the Cripple Creek district and on Dec. 29,
1891 had staked claim on the C.O.D. mine. One of the districts best known lodes, the
C.O.D. would indeed deliver cash to Tutt. The most significant factor of his business
success, however was Spencer Penrose, Tutts childhood friend, who arrived in Colorado
17


Springs in 1891. Tutt offered his Philadelphian friend a share in his land office for $500.34
He also sold Penrose a partial interest in the C. O. D. mine. Thus began the fifteen-year-long
partnership that would encompass the Colorado-Philadelphia Smelter near Colorado Springs,
a half-dozen mills that processed Cripple Creek gold ore, and the worlds largest copper mine
in Bingham Canyon, Utah. This Cripple Creek real estate and mining firm, begun as Tutt &
Penrose, evolved into the multi-million-dollar Utah Copper mining and milling empire that
bankrolled a fabulous lifestyle for Spencer Penrose and his wife Julie, and also financed a
tourism network in Colorado Springs with the Broadmoor Hotel as its crown jewel. Built up
with the help of Charles Tutts son and grandsons, and various business partners, Penroses
holdings became the assets of the El Pomar Foundation in the late 1930s. The business
relationship that began in a log-cabin land sales office in the 1890s Cripple Creek mining
district evolved into a relationship that spanned generations. Since the 1916 building of the
Broadmoor Hotel, the son, grandsons, and great-grandson of Charles L. Tutt, Sr. have served
as managers and administrators of the Penrose businesses and, for the past 60 years, the El
Pomar Foundation.
While Tutt and Penrose enjoyed financial success in the Cripple Creek gold fields,
they were by no means the first Philadelphians to make their fortune in Colorado or leave
their mark on Colorado Springs. Many others successful businessmen hailed from the city of
brotherly love railroad- and city-builder William Jackson Palmer, Colorado Springs
lawyer Henry McAllister, and the Guggenheim brothers who profited in Leadville silver, and
then dominated the states ore smelting industry. Most of the Philadelphians who came west
to seek their fortunes, retained a sense of eastern culture and class. At that time, Philadelphia
was the center of East Coast culture and patriotic history. In 1723, 17-year-old Benjamin
18


Franklin had moved to the city, and helped establish the country's first fire volunteer
department, first subscription library, first hospital, and first medical school.35 Philadelphia
served temporarily as the nations first capital: U.S. legislators met there during the late
1700s until completion of the Capitol building in Washington, D. C. Until the late 1800s, it
was Americas largest city, and also boasted the countrys first zoo, begun in 1874.
Nineteenth-century Philadelphia was a teeming metropolis, its colonial relics near the
Delaware River waterfront nearly hidden by Victorian buildings. The wide open spaces of
the West beckoned to young men like the Charles Tutt and the Penrose brothers, raised on the
narrow, colonial streets lined with tall, shuttered, brick townhouses. Enduring Philadelphias
smothering summers and damp, bone-chilling winters also created an appreciation for
Colorados climate. Penroses love of good food, good drink, and good fellowship was
rooted in Philadelphian tradition. I have never observed such a wealth of taverns and
drinking establishments as are in Philadelphia, Thomas Jefferson had observed in 1790.
There is hardly a street without several and hardly a man here who does not fancy one his
second home.36 The Fishing Company of the State of Schuylkill, famed for its robust Fish
House Punch, had been the countrys first gentlemens association when formed in 1732.37
Philadelphia was also the birthplace of delicacies like the soft pretzel, ice cream cone,
cinnamon bun, and scrapple, a pork product.38
After graduating from Harvard in 1886, Spencer spumed a job offer of clerking at a
Boston bank. Instead, he went West to seek his fortune 2,000 miles from Harvard and from
Spruce Street. He visited his brother Richard, who had been hired by the state of Texas to
survey mineral deposits. Richard suggested that Spencer enter a business partnership with
Robert T. Hill, geology professor at the University of Texas, who was planning a cement
19


plant in Dallas. Spencer, instead, ventured into New Mexico and started a mercantile
business in Las Cruces with several thousand dollars provided by his father. First as Edelsten
& Penrose, then as Mesilla Valley Fruit and Produce Co., Spencer tried his hand at selling
fruits, vegetables, hay, grain, coal, lime, agricultural implements and stoves.39 These
businesses did not succeed and neither did his attempts at cultivating fruit trees, raising cattle,
selling real estate, and mining silver.
Richard called Las Cruces a wretched hole when he wrote Dr. Penrose:
Speck has got a commission business which will grow in time, I do not
see how it can ever be a very big thing. Of course living in a new country such
as New Mexico is, he has a chance to see opportunities, but this is a very
uncertain thing to count on especially when opportunities can be seen as
well in better countries.. I cannot see how Las Cruces would ever be a great
center for anything but fruit and produce of the surrounding farms... I should
advise Speck to hold his lands at Cruces until he can get a good price for them,
as they will undoubtedly sometime be far more valuable than now, and I
should also advise him not to stay there himself but to start up in a better
place.40
Spencer sold his interests in New Mexico for $2,000 in 1890, and toured the Rocky
Mountains looking for other opportunities. He bought gold claims in Utah. I think he is on
the track of a big thing, Richard reported to their father. He deserves to succeed as he is
working hard and is a man of nerve. I wish I could be in Utah with him.41 This investment
did not pan out: Spencers mining claims became worthless when President Benjamin
Harrison vetoed a federal bill that would have opened the Ute Reservation to mining. A
family story is that when Dr. Penrose sent Boies and Charles to Colorado to investigate
Spencers dubious business interests, they were shocked to find him peddling apples.42
20


Spencer arrived in Colorado Springs in early 1892 with $500. His brother Richard had
written him that there was a gold rush going on in a place called Cripple Creek.
Spencer Penrose made his home out west, where he created his fortune from mining
Colorado gold and Utah copper. Yet he never severed ties with Philadelphia. His tastes
remained those of an aristocrat clothes fitted by a Chestnut Hill tailor, boots made in New
York, membership in a dozen East Coast clubs, and delicacies like oysters and scrapple
shipped west by rail. But most important were his eastern social connections, which provided
funding for various Tutt and Penrose enterprises. Start-up capital for Specs mining and
milling companies came from R. A. F. Penrose, Sr., Spencers brothers, cousin Christine
Biddle, and Aunt Lydia Penrose, as well as Spruce Street neighbors and doctors at the
University of Pennsylvania. Friends and family sank their cash into Spencers ventures and
reaped rewards.
Even though Spencers stock dividends fattened their bank accounts, the Penrose
family never fully accepted his abandoning the East Coast. Boies and Charles enjoyed
playing out west camping, hunting, and fishing. But it seemed in slightly bad taste to live
in the West and or even to make millions of dollars of money out there. The family regarded
Spencer and Richard as curiosities, and called them the jungle brothers." Not until Richard
moved back to 1331 Spruce Street in the 1920s to channel his energy into several
Philadelphia institutions, did he truly redeem himself. It appears that Spencers brothers
never visited his luxurious Broadmoor hotel. Nonetheless, Spencer lavished them with
gushing details in his bi-weekly letters home. The Penrose men instead visited at the old
Penrose home on Spruce Street, at Cooking Club monthly dinners, or during annual trips to
the Sandbridge, North Carolina hunting club to which they all belonged.
21


His brothers investments had bankrolled Spencers mining ventures, but their
success and fame aided Spencer as well. Their interests and influences also affected many
facets of his business dealings and personal life. Each of the four Penrose brothers excelled
in his own arena politics, medicine, geology, and business. A New York newspaper in
1921 called them four of the most dynamic doers of the country.43 For decades, the oldest
brother, Boies, was the undisputed boss of Philadelphia politics; for a quarter century he was
a national figure.44
Boies held public office from 1884 until his death in 1921. His first office was state
senator. Elected three years after graduating Harvard, he was the youngest man to enter the
Pennsylvania senate. He was elected to the U. S. Senate in 1896, where he quickly became
known as a backer of liquor interests, steel, oil, and railroads.45 Boies critics accused him of
manipulating votes, granting political favors, bribery, and fixing juries. His niece admits:
Uncle Boies had a bouncer at the polls. If you didnt vote Republican, theyd throw you
out.46 If these tales of political corruption were true, his excesses were not financially
motivated. Rumors of mythical millions proved abysmally false: Boies estate amounted to
$610,341, much of it in stock from Spencers Utah Copper Company.47
Boies Penrose was bom, lived in, and buried from the house at 1331 Spruce. During
legislative sessions he rented a hotel room at the Wardman Park in Washington D. C. He
never owned an alarm clock. He woke when he pleased, and rode to his office, chauffeured
in his fire-engine red motor car. Boies was an intellectual, a voracious reader who collected
first edition travel books and manuscripts.48 His idiosyncrasies included a hatred for germs
and a phobia about being touched. At 64 and 200 pounds the largest of the Penrose
brothers, Boies had refused to play football at Harvard, shuddering at the thought of coming
22


into physical contact with the other sweaty youths. Legends abounded about Boies Penroses
laziness, his vices, and his enormous bulk. His motto was I do as I please, and he openly
drank, swore, and whored. Parties aboard his yacht Betty, folks whispered, were
Bacchanalian brawls these soirees were more likely congregations of the political
powerhouses of the day. His sentiments towards women remain a mystery. He never took a
wife, claiming that he was married to politics. Yet, lascivious living lost him his 1892 bid for
mayor of Philadelphia. His lifes greatest disappointment was when he withdrew his mayoral
candidacy upon the Philadelphia Inquirers threat to print photographs of him leaving a well-
known house of prostitution at daybreak.49 His enormous appetite was legendary. To win a
$1,000 bet, he once ate 50 iced oysters, and downed with a quart of bourbon. His rival was
taken to the hospital. Ive probably made a damned hog of myself, he told onlookers, but
somebody had to do something. Boeis weight eventually reached 300 pounds, earning him
the nickname Big Grizzly and requiring furniture custom-made to accommodate his girth.
Charles Bingham, the second Penrose brother, was a brilliant scholar and dedicated
physician, whose love of surgery bordered on mania. He had graduated in 1884 with a
Ph.D. in physics from Harvard and an M. D. from University of Pennsylvania. He entered
private practice in Philadelphia and in 1888 helped found the Gynecean Hospital for women.
During the 1890s he taught gynecology at the University of Pennsylvania. Not until age 30
did he marry New York millionairess Katherine Drexel on November 17,1892. Although he
was a life-long Philadelphian, the West still exerted a strong influence on Charles.
Nicknamed Tal, he was regarded as a good-hearted, good-natured manly man who hunted
big game50 This rugged masculinity appealed to Charles fiancee Katherine Drexel, but his
exploits out west raised the eyebrows of Old Philadelphia. He was jailed in Cheyenne in the
23


early 1890s, for his role as a surgeon in Wyomings Johnson County cattle wars. He had
sewn up bullet wounds for the gun-toting cattle ranchers, and narrowly escaped trial for
aiding and abetting murderers. While fishing and hunting in Montana in 1896, he was
attacked by a female bear whose cub he had just killed. The bear badly mauled Charles
wrist and forearm, ending his surgical career. Boies saved his brothers life by packing
Charles several miles to the nearest railhead, then taking him by train to the Mayo Clinic.51
After this accident Charles turned to teaching, writing, and philanthropy. He taught
gynecology and obstetrics at the University of Pennsylvania. He published A Text-Book of
Diseases of Women in 1897, and issued revised versions almost annually. He became
president of the Philadelphia Zoo from 1910 to 1925, pioneering medical care for sick
animals and building the Penrose Laboratory. Supposedly, Charles zoological interest
inspired Spencer to start the Cheyenne Mountain Zoo to one-up his older brother.52 Charles
other volunteer efforts reflected his interest in animals, science, and nature. He served on the
Philadelphia Fairmont Park Commission and the board of the Philadelphia Academy of
Natural Sciences. He also helped organize the state health department and was president of
the Pennsylvania Board of Game Commissioners.53 He lived with Katherine and their two
children Boies Penrose IV and Sarah at 1722 Spruce Street on the fashionable
Rittenhouse Square. He also maintained a small private practice, with an office on the
ground floor of the family home at 1331 Spruce.
Like his older brothers, Richard Alexander Fullerton Penrose, Jr. was a brilliant
scholar who distinguished himself at Harvard. Perhaps his Cornish blood contributed to his
fascination with mining. There were dozens of Cornish miners in early Rocky Mountains
mining towns, proving the adage: Wherever there is a hole in the earth, you will find a
24


Comishman at the bottom of it.54 Richard graduated from Harvard with a Ph.D. in natural
sciences in 1886, then conducted geological surveys throughout the West, first for the U. S.
government, then for private firms. Richards geological advice underlay the success of Tutt
& Penrose. He evaluated Spencers mining properties, bought Spencers stock, and sat on his
brothers boards. His 1895 report of the Cripple Creek Mining District of Colorado boosted
his brothers C. O. D. gold mine.
Richard had his own gold mine, the Commonwealth Mining & Milling Company at
Pearce, Arizona. He founded the mine in 1895 and served as company president from 1896
to 1903. In the 1890s he was also boosted for Arizona Territorial Governor, with letters of
support from notable residents. Not receiving this appointment, he turned to teaching. He
was a professor at the University of Chicago from 1893 to 1911, and also lectured at Stanford
Universityin the 1890s. For 20 years he conducted geological surveys around the world, and
served on corporate boards, including Spencers Utah Copper/Kennecott Copper Company.
Like Charles, Richard became deeply involved in Philadelphia philanthropy. He was founder
and first president (1920-1921) of the Society of Economic Geologists and trustee of the
University of Pennsylvania (1911-1927). He also served as president of the Philadelphia
Academy of Natural Sciences (1922 1926), Fairmont Park Commissioner (1927 31), and
trustee of the Philadelphia Free Public Library.55 Throughout his life Richard wrote almost
daily, to his brothers, father, and colleagues. These letters, models of eloquence, style, wit,
and gentility, were collected and published in 1952 as the Life and Letters of R. A. F.
Penrose, Jr. Richard died on July 31, 1931 of chronic nephritis and arteriosclerosis at age 67.
His will specified that his $9 million estate be divided between the Geological Society of
America, now headquartered in Boulder, Colorado and the Philosophical Society of America
25


in Philadelphia. The latter, founded by Benjamin Franklin in 1743 to promote learning and
knowledge has had an illustrious membership embellished by Americas founding fathers, 13
U. S. presidents, bankers, railroad presidents, and University of Pennsylvania faculty and
doctors.56
Challenged by the achievements of his three older brothers, Spencer sought his
fortune out west. The investments of Boies, Charles, and Richard played a significant role in
financing his numerous enterprises. Neither did Spencer hesitate to use Boies political
influence or Richards geological genius to further his business endeavors. But it was his
partnership with Charley Tutt that launched Spencers business empire. As the firm of Tutt
& Penrose, the two men combined business savvy, a flair for promotion, and bit of luck to
realize huge profits in real estate sales, railroading, ore milling, and mining. The partnership
begun in the Cripple Creek district led to Penroses involvement in the Utah Copper
Company at Bingham Canyon, Utah, which made him far wealthier than Cripple Creek gold
ever could. As one of Colorados most affluent men, Penrose became a near-legendary
figure, whose flamboyant personality, extravagant lifestyle, and business triumphs remain
unmatched in the pages of Colorado history. He still shapes that history, for his estate created
the El Pomar Foundation, to make a lasting, positive impression on Colorado Springs, the
Pikes Peak region, and the state of Colorado.
26


CHAPTER THREE
CRIPPLE CREEK YEARS
By 1890 most people believed that all the gold worth mining in Colorado had already
been found. The Cripple Creek boom, Colorados last and greatest gold rush, burst onto the
scene 33 years after the first flakes had been panned in Cherry Creek. The composition of the
districts gold deposits imbedded in volcanic rock formations had eluded early
prospectors and geologists. The gold-rich portion of the Cripple Creek District covers about
ten square miles, located in the crater of an extinct volcano, called a caldera. Prehistoric
volcanic eruptions had forced gold-bearing lava through fissures in the earths surface, and
left veins imbedded in rock after millennia of erosion had removed the volcano.1
Before the areas settlement, the high country was a camping ground for the Ute
tribe, who built bonfires atop Mount Pisgah to signal to tribes on the plains below. The
Fremont expedition passed nearby in 1844, following Currant Creek up from the Arkansas
River valley. Thirty years later, the Hayden survey party also traversed the area. Early
prospectors had sunk a shaft in 1874 and bored a tunnel in 1879, but none had tapped the
areas vast store of gold.2 Argonauts arrived again in 1884, when a railroad agent salted a
gold mine 13 miles west of Mount Pisgah on the H. B. Grosse Ranch.3 This Mount Pisgah
Hoax" brought prospectors, but they failed to uncover the golden treasure in the Cripple
Creek volcanic caldera. It instead raised severe skepticism about mineral deposits on the
west side of Pikes Peak. Not till 1890 did a persistent cowboy-prospector named Bob
Womack find the gold deposit that he and others had been searching forrich of. Womack
finally convinced Colorado Springs investors that was gold underlay the high-country cow
27


pasture. By late 1892 there were 2,000 people scattered over the district like a pack of
hounds hunting a fox.4!
The Cripple Creek Mining District was a brawling, sprawling free-for-all in 1892. It
spread from the smooth grassy hills into the surrounding pine- and aspen-clad ridges and
peaks. The Cripple Creek gold strike grabbed national headlines, bringing risk takers of all
kinds swarming into the district. The mining camp was populated mainly by hardy men
camping out in canvas tents or lodging in thrown-together cabins and boarding houses. Food
was expensive yet poor. Water was scarce, whiskey plentiful. The slew of saloons, however,
was far outnumbered by the lawyers, stockbrokers, and land offices listed in the 1894 Cripple
Creek Business and Mining Directory.
The boom had turned the gold camp into three thriving cities and a dozen villages by
1900. Thousands of miners left unemployed by the devastating Silver Panic of 1893 poured
into the district and propelled its fantastic growth. As one local newspaper put it: the silver
miner has turned his back on the scene where, slain by hired assassins, his darling industry
lies cold in death.5 The burgeoning mining activity was also fueled by huge amounts of
capital raised through mining stock. Cripple Creek mining required major infusions of cash
to sink underground shaft, buy equipment, make payroll, and fund ore transportation and
processing. Often buying and selling stock were more profitable than the actual mining of
gold. In the first year of trading on the Cripple Creek stock exchange, over 60 million shares
worth $4 million were sold.6 The Colorado Springs Mining Stock Exchange alone traded
$7,573,629 in 1897, $10,253,146 in 1898, and $34,446,956 in 1899. By 1899, $11,570,077
in dividends had been paid to holders of Cripple Creek stock.7
28


Into the fray came Charley Tutt and Spencer Penrose, two upper-crust Philadelphians
hoping to strike it rich. Tutt, owner of the Tutt & Company land sales firm, had just opened a
branch office in the new-found gold fields when his friend Spencer Penrose arrived in
Colorado Springs. After Penroses failed attempts at silver mining in Las Cruces and gold
mining in Utah, his brother Richard had advised him to investigate the newly-discovered
Cripple Creek district. Charles Tutt had dabbled in mining too, buying stock in mining
companies in Leadville, Boulder County, and Lake County while still living in Philadelphia.
None of these paid off. When Penrose arrived in Colorado Springs in late 1891, Tutt offered
him a partnership in Tutt & Company for S500 and asked him to manage affairs in the new
branch office in Cripple Creek. Tutt also sold Penrose a half interest in his C.O.D. mine,
launching the partnership of Tutt & Penrose.
Their company flourished. Each man had tried and failed in other businesses with
other partners. What were the keys to the Cripple Creek success of Tutt & Penrose? Tutt and
Penrose combined their previous business experience and a flair for promotion. Technical
expertise came from Spencers geologist brother Richard, who frequently visited the district
and later sat on the boards of several Tutt & Penrose companies. To this they added a
willingness to take risks and another crucial ingredient Penroses access to old
Philadelphia money. Eastern capital was essential to their ventures and to many other
Colorado mining and milling operations.8 As Penrose and Tutt incorporated their
successively larger companies, money flowed from the bank accounts, inheritances, and trust
funds of Spencers brothers, aunts, uncles, cousins, and neighbors eager to buy glittering
mining stocks stamped with a gilded seal. The notoriety of the Greatest Gold Camp on the
Face of the Earth made trading Cripple Creek mining stock a national craze.
29


From the start Tutt & Penrose employed aggressive promotional skills, skills that
Penrose applied to all his later businesses. They advertised their businesses as in as many
ways as possible. The names of Tutt & Penrose appeared everywhere. The Cripple Creek
and Colorado Springs directories listed them under Mines and Stocks, Mining and Stock
Brokers, and Real Estate and Mines. A full-page advertisement in the Cripple Creek
directory offered their services as Financial Brokers. They appeared in the local press on
many occasions. For example, the Cripple Creek Sunday Herald touted: the representative
and reliable firm of Tutt & Penrose: These gentlemen came to Cripple Creek in 1891 and
by their perseverance and business integrity have established for themselves a reputation for
reliable, conservative yet aggressive business dealing which brings them a well deserved
success and a position among the foremost firms of the state of Colorado... Messrs. Tutt &
Penrose are an example of what a firm of sagacious and persevering men can do in this great
and only gold camp of the state of Colorado.9
Tutt and Penrose promoted lands sales and mining and milling activities outside
Colorado as well. A front-page Philadelphia Morning Times article trumpeted:
Philadelphians Start a Boom The Town of Gillett, In Colorado, a Wonder. Spencer
Penrose and Charles Tutt Promote a New Town, Which in Two Months Gains One Thousand
Inhabitants and a Railroad. Philadelphians read about how Presto! A town appeared, with
stamp and saw-mills, gambling houses, hotels, stables, and its suburbs pitted like small-pox
with the prospectors pick and shovel... In the present stage of Gilletts existence
everything goes, and so far, although only two months old, about a dozen shooting affairs
have happened and about six murders. In the array of 150 houses and dugouts about half are
saloons and gambling palaces.10 The article and the picture of Tutt and Penrose standing
30


beside their real estate tent office stirred up Philadelphians interest. It also helped open
pocketbooks when the two men went east to raise funds for their mining and milling
enterprises. Gillett, nicknamed Bachelortown, became the districts sporting center. Here
Tutt and Penrose built a race track that complemented the taverns and gambling halls. Gillett
was also site of an infamous bullfight, which took place in August 1895. This event drew
thousands of people and raised the ire of the Humane Society, who protested Colorados first
and last bullfight.
Such publicity only boosted Tutt & Penroses sale of real estate and mining stock.
The diversified gentlemen had gotten a hold in the district by selling lots in the Hayden
placer, which became the east end of the city of Cripple Creek. They also built speculative
homes and commercial buildings stylish dwellings like those still standing at 400 East
Eaton and 208 North Fourth Street in Cripple Creek. The partners erected stout brick
structures like the Tutt Building at 335 Bennett and the now-demolished Tutt & Penrose
Building, Penrose, Tutt, & Penrose Building, New Penrose Building, and Paul-Wilson
Building.11 They also were landlords for businesses in the Myers Avenue red light district
such as the Topic Theater, called a variety den and skin game dive by the Cripple Creek
Morning Journal which demanded that: The Topic Theater should be removed with the rest
of the filth... The incoming administration owes that much to decency. Will it pay the
debt?12
Tutt and Penrose got their start in the mining camp selling real estate, but quickly
expanded into mining stock. By 1896 there were four stock exchanges operating in the
district the Metropolitan, Gold Mining, Cripple Creek, and Victor exchanges. Nearly 100
brokers bought and sold mining stock. Tutt and Penrose were among the most active traders.
31


Stock sales gave the partners insight into the financing and capitalization, knowledge that
soon led them to create their ore milling and transportation enterprises.
However, it was selling the C.O.D. mine that was pivotal in the partners success,
because the sale proceeds funded their next business venture. Tutt, one of the first to enter
the gold camp, had filed claim to the C.O.D. on December 30, 1891.13 This C.O.D. made the
front page of The Philadelphia Inquirer on April 29, 1894, when Tutt and Penrose were
trying to sell the property:
In December 1891 Mr. Charles Tutt teamed it over the dangerous Cheyenne
route to make a review of the young mining town. At Cripple Creek he met a
friend, and with him started over the mountains called hills. At noon they had
reached the Poverty Gulch district and just opposite the Gold King claim. They
brushed away the several inches of snow, and hauling up a log, sat down to regale
the inner man. Tutt suggested they put up a stake at this point, and inscribe their
location upon it, so it was done. Then after their pipes were lighted, Tutt, half in
jest, half as bluff, said to his friend Old man, Ill give or take $50 for my
interest in this C.O.D. location. The bluff didnt work, for Tutts friend was hard
up; accordingly he said, Ill go you, and sell my interest for $50.
When they sold the C.O.D. to a French mining syndicate in 1895 for the record price of
$300,000, the proceeds helped launch other Tutt & Penrose enterprises.14
Accumulating one of the Wests largest mining fortunes required business acumen,
plentiful financial backing, and luck. Tutt & Penrose had all three. It was Spencers good
fortune to be the brother of Richard Penrose, a geologist hired by the United States
Geological Survey (U.S.G.S.) to survey the district in 1895. Together with Whitman Cross,
Penrose evaluated each mine in the district, and published these findings in Geology and
Mining Industries of the Cripple Creek District, Colorado. If favorable, this report would
32


help raise outside capital to operate and expand Cripple Creek mines. A local newspaper
observed: [P]eople of Cripple Creek and many others interested eagerly await that reliable
information, which will, no doubt, shed light into the darksome nooks, dispel that baleful
gloom and take away reproach of the Cripple Creek mine owners who possess treasure
without being able to give a scientific account of the rock and earth... ,15
Spencer Penrose and Charley Tutt eagerly awaited the report too. Their anticipation
was rewarded by the surveys assessment of their C.O.D. mine, touted as remarkable in
many respects. Penrose and Crosss three-page description and five illustrations of the
C.O.D. mine outshone the paragraph or two given to most others in the district.16 Tutt &
Penrose received a further boost in the reports introduction: "To Messrs. Tutt & Penrose,
mining brokers, especial thanks are due for a great deal of assistance, which was made
possible by their extensive knowledge of the district and their willingness to give all aid
possible, often at the expense of much time and labor."17 Richards enthusiastic report of the
C.O.D. could have been influenced his involvement in several Tutt & Penrose enterprises, but
Cross described his fellow geologist as one of the simplest, most straightforward and
thoroughly trustworthy men I have ever met... Penrose had high ideals of conduct and never
violated them for personal gain, I am sure.18 Nevertheless, Penrose and Crosss glowing
assessment of the C.O.D. was surely a factor in its highly-profitable sale.
In April 1895, Tutt & Penrose sold the C.O.D. for $300,000 to a French syndicate.
The C.O.D. contained a rich deposit, but operations were thwarted by underground water.19
Sale of one of the first mines sold for a good price in the Cripple Creek district was not
accidental.20 Despite Richard Penroses rosy report of the C.O.D., Tutt & Penrose left
nothing to chance. They hired a photographer to shoot the exterior and interior of the mine,
33


as well as their Cripple Creek Ore Sampler and Tutt & Penrose land office. The picture of
the C.O.D. illustrated an 1894 article in the Philadelphia Inquirer about the Cripple Creek
mining district.
Tutt and Penrose began their ore milling empire by selling the C.O.D. mine for a
fabulous price, but it was not their only Cripple Creek gold mine. Penrose invested heavily in
the Granite, Ajax, and Gold Coin, three of the districts top-producing mines owned by his
associate Albert E. Carlton. He held onto this stock for decades. Penrose and Tutt also held
stock in many lesser mines: the Alcyone, Annie, Common-Wealth, Hanover, Trip Taw and
others. For decades afterwards, Penrose leased these claims to independent prospectors in
exchange for tax payment.21
Tutt and Penrose recognized that the largest profits were in milling gold rather than
mining it. They branched out into ore processing by opening their Cripple Creek Sampling
and Ore Company in June 1895. Located near the Florence & Cripple Creek depot, the
sampler earned enthusiastic praise: Two months ago this enterprise was first put on foot, and
to-day the machinery is about ready to be put in motion. Those who have examined the new
structure and machinery pronounce them first-class in every particular... Every citizen of
Cripple Creek must feel a pride in the enterprise and energy of the men who have built in our
midst one of the very best samplers in the district.22 One of several sampling works in the
district, the Cripple Creek Sampler bought ore from small mine owners and paid a price per
ton depending on the gold content as determined by the assay results. Tutt and Penroses
advertised We Pay All there is in Your Ore Less a REASONABLE CHARGE.
The partners expanded their ore processing operations. They ensured success by
partnering with experienced mill man Charles Mather MacNeill. MacNeill was a competent
34


mill man who had managed the Lawrence Gold Extraction Company in Victor until that plant
burned down in December, 1895. This partnership had long-range repercussions
MacNeill played a leading role in the in the gold and copper mining enterprises that later
made Penrose a wealthy tycoon. MacNeill, the son of a doctor, was bom November 25, 1871
near Chicago, and moved to Colorado at age 14. Asa young man he worked a cashier at a
smelting company in Aspen where he learned about processing ores.23 After working at
Leadville and Aspen smelters, he arrived in the Cripple Creek district in 1892 to manage the
Lawrence Gold Extraction plant near Victor. When that plant burned to the ground in
December 1895, he became a partner of Tutt and Penrose in building the largest gold
reduction plant in the country the Philadelphia-Colorado Reduction plant at Colorado
City, west of Colorado Springs.
Proceeds from the C.O.D. sale and financial backing from Winfield S. Stratton,
Irving Howbert, and Philadelphia investors, financed Tutt, Penrose, and MacNeills gigantic
plant.24 Opened in the fall of 1896, the reduction plant had a capacity for processing 200 tons
of ore per day.25 By 1899 it was processing over $3 million a year in ore.26 Tutt, Penrose,
and MacNeills expanded the Colorado-Philadelphia plant into a mining and milling empire.
By 1900, the Big Three had acquired nearly every mill and smelter that processed Cripple
Creek gold, operating them as the United States Reduction and Refining Company
(U.S.R.&R.). The Penrose-Tutt-MacNeill mill trust owned plants at Colorado City,
Canon City, and Florence. The U.S.R.&R. was capitalized with $10,000,000 put up by Tutt,
Penrose, MacNeill, Penrose relatives, and other Philadelphia investors.27 The company
opened an office at 54 Wall Street in New York City, manned by Charles MacNeill, who
traveled back and forth between Colorado and New York in his private railcar the Mather.
35


By 1900, all three men were among the 28 millionaires who had gotten rich in the
Cripple Creek district.28 Within ten years, the Tutt & Penrose firm had grown into a
conglomerate that owned an interconnected set of companies from mining to milling to
smelting to railroading. With a thoroughness that characterized Penroses later business
dealings, Penrose, Tutt, and MacNeill gained a monopoly on the districts railroads. They
bought a majority share of stock in both the Colorado Midland Terminal and the Florence &
Cripple Creek Railroad, over which they shipped Cripple Creek ore to their string of mills
and smelters lying below. Winfield Scott Stratton and other large mine owners built the
Colorado Springs to Cripple Creek Shortline railroad in 1901 to circumvent this monopoly.
But Tutt, Penrose, and MacNeill bought that line too. Along with Albert E. Carlton, they
owned a majority of stock in the Colorado Midland Terminal Railway, a holding company
that soon controlled all three lines into the district. From 1920 to 1949, when the tracks were
removed, it operated the only railroad into Cripple Creek. Penrose owned $200,000 of stock
and became chairman of the board in 1917. Although they sold their U.S.R.&R. plant in
1906 to the Guggenheim brothers, they held onto the Cripple Creek railroads for years.29 For
several years the U.S.R.&R. maintained its stranglehold on processing Cripple Creek gold
and dictated the cost of ore refining. They dominated the ore extraction market until 1906,
when they sold their milling empire to the powerful Guggenheim family. It was their
dominance that brought about the Cripple Creek Labor War of 1903 1904:
The immense mining, milling, and transportation enterprise of Penrose, Tutt, and
MacNeill was achieved only through the muscle of thousands of miners and mill workers.
With this workforce came the pervasive power of the labor unions. In 1903, the U.S.R.&R.
became embroiled in a labor dispute at the Colorado City smelter, a dispute that triggered an
36


18-month-long Cripple Creek strike and turned the district into a battlefield.30 When the
powerful Western Federation of Miners attempted to organize workers at the U.S.R.&R.-
owned Standard Mill in Colorado City, Charles MacNeill hired a Pinkerton agent to infiltrate
his work force. MacNeill then fired any employee reported to have joined the union.31 The
W.F.M. Mill and Smeltermens Union No. 125 walked out on February 14, 1903.32
The smelter workers demanded $3.00 pay for an eight-hour workday, wages that had
been won by Cripple Creek miners ten years earlier during the districts strike of 1894. The
smeltermen, however, earned as little as $2.00 per shift.33 And unlike their hardrock
brethren, they could not supplement their pay by high-grading pocketing gold ore while on
the job. The strike escalated on August 10,1903 after W.F.M. president William Big Bill
Haywood met with a committee of Cripple Creek miners. The labor union struck at every
mine in the district that shipped ore to the U.S.R.&R. plants. The order called out 90% of the
miners employed 3,500 miners at fifty mines34 Siding with the Mine Owners and Mill
Owners Associations, Governor James Peabody sent the state militia to Cripple Creek to
crush the strike. The result was a year-long struggle between the striking miners and mine
and mill owners. When the Cripple Creek labor war was over, scores of men had died,
thousands of miners had been violently denied their civil rights, and some 225 workers had
been illegally deported from Colorado.35
The extent of Penrose and Tutts involvement is not clear. They had actively enlisted
in Company K during the Cripple Creeks 1894 labor dispute, an event publicized in the
Philadelphia Sunday Times with a colorful article and sketches of Camp Boynton at
Gillett.36 Their participation in the 1903 ~ 1904 strike was less public, however. Along with
MacNeill, Tutt and Penrose were members of the Cripple Creek Mine Owners Association
37


that battled the union in the 18-month-long strike. They probably contributed heavily
towards funding the strike-breaking efforts. While Penrose and MacNeill were recruited by
Adjutant General Sherman Bell, who headed the state militia sent into the district to end to
the strike,37 long-time Penrose associates MacNeill and Clarence C. Hamlin were the ones
who dealt ruthlessly with the striking miners. Possibly Penrose and Tutts involvement in
the 1903-1904 labor war was not as extensive because their energies were engaged in then-
new enterprise, the Utah Copper Mine. Yet, their anti-union attitudes reflected those of
nearly all U.S. capitalists. I guess by the time you get this the Cripple Creek war will be a
thing of the past, the Union so badly licked that forever, and a day, they will lay low, Tutt
wrote to Penrose. It must have been some sport up there, and you and I missed seeing a
little Hell for once in Cripple Creek.38
Cripple Creeks long, bloody labor dispute was only one of many strikes across the
country. At that time, unions proliferated in the mining districts throughout the West. At
this auspicious time, when the technical difficulties have been largely subdued, an economic
complication presents itself in the appearance of the destructive and unreasonable miners
union, observed the Mining and Scientific Press.39 The 120-day-long Cripple Creek strike of
1894 was regarded as the longest and bitterest of all American labor disputes up to that
time, with $3 million in lost wages and costs of maintaining the mine owners armies.40
Yet, that same year more than 1,400 industrial strikes were called in the nation, involving
nearly 500,000 workers.41 The Cripple Creek district had over 25 labor unions, including the
Barbers Union, No. 92; Cooks and Waiters Union, No. 24; Miners Union No. 40;
Musicians Protective Association, No. 4; and Tailors Union No. 280.42
38


The influence of the 1903 1904 strike on the district endured for decades. From
that day forward, the Miners Protective Association, composed of the powerful mine owners,
required that men applying for work at the mines declare past or present union affiliations.
Then they refused to hire anyone who had ever belonged to a union. This control of miners
salaries lasted into the 1930s, when Penrose helped instigate a 10% to 20% wage reduction
scale for every mine worker, from engineers to firemen, carpenters to machinists, hoistmen to
muleskinners.43 He revealed that his hatred of unions had not diminished 25 years later when
he heard rumblings about union organization among the workers at this Broadmoor Hotel:
As soon as you give in to a union, you are gone, he told a business associate. I have been
fighting the unions since 1891 and at Cripple Creek we had a strike that lasted ten years,
simply because the mine owners kept compromising with the unions. Finally the mine
owners took a stand and beat them.44
Despite union disputes, raising capital, their differing personalities, and other
challenges the partnership of Tutt and Penrose endured. It evolved from a crude Cripple
Creek office with a desk in front, a bed in back with a curtain across the middle,45 to one
of Colorados most powerful corporations controlling seven different plants processing
Cripple Creek ore. For each of the successively larger companies, the executive directors
were the same. Older, more sober Charles Tutt was president. Spencer Penrose was
secretary-treasurer, signing his harsh, angular signature to all stocks sold and to all business
correspondence. As Charles MacNeill, gained a larger role in Tutt and Penrose enterprises,
progressing from general manager to vice-president, friction arose between the two original
partners.
39


By 1904, the partnership of Tutt and Penrose was strained. Tutt began investing in
his own copper mine in Oregon, possibly influenced by his dislike for Charles MacNeills
domineering and hard-drinking personality. The situation is simply this, Tutt wrote to
Penrose in August 1904. Under Tutt, Penrose and MacNeill we worked well together, but
when it came to MacNeill, Penrose, and Tutt, the conditions changed. And I finding that
my ideas were always ignored and seldom listened to just realized that all I had to do was
to go down the line, as you two dictated. Tutt advised Penrose to find a strong man... a
man who Mac would fear to antagonize to take over as president of U.S.R.&R.4647 Tutt
admitted that, as Penrose had complained, he had not been able to devote the sufficient time
to managing the mill trust. Indeed Tutt was developing a copper mine, the Queen of Bronze
at Takilma, Oregon. Only with reluctance did he join the development of the copper property
at Bingham Canyon, Utah in 1903, although he conceded I feel sure that the Utah deal will
be a winner.48 However, he sold his share of stocks as soon as possible to finance his own
copper mine and his Takilma Smelting Company. Penrose regarded the Takilma mine the
the poorest business proposition I have ever seen, one floundering from wretched
management.49 The days of the Tutt and Penrose partnership were near an end.
The success of Tutt and Penrose partnership had been possible because of the
complementary roles and personalities of its two partners. Charles L. Tutt, two years older
than Penrose, was the more sober associate, married and already with a family underway
when he started his business in the Cripple Creek district. Penrose, on the other hand, was
still a bon vivant with a reputation for drinking hard and engaging in barroom brawls where
he applied the pugilistic skills learned while boxing at Harvard. Their partnership had
flourished with Penroses promotional skills, shrewd business sense, and understanding of the
40


technicalities of profitable mining and ore processing. But his lascivious living had annoyed
Tutt. I had tried to use my influence to stop your drinking to excess, and have generally
succeeded, the elder partner pointed out.50
By 1904, Penrose, Tutt, and MacNeill had realized tremendous profits from their
decade-long involvement in the Cripple Creek Mining District. They had bought the Granite,
Gold Coin, and Ajax Mines, three of the districts biggest producers, in 1903. Each was a
millionaire several times over, but neither wanted to stop there. They turned their energies
and funds towards other opportunities, in particular copper mining. Their interest in mining
led them individually or as partners to invest in gold mines in Alaska and Baja, California,
and investigate various mines in Arizona, New Mexico, and Nevada. Tutt was developing his
copper mine at Takilma, Oregon. However, the spectacular success that produced millions to
build the Broadmoor Hotel and make Penrose the second wealthiest man in the state was
achieved not through gold but through copper. In 1903, the partners applied the expertise
they had gained in processing Cripple Creek gold to a copper mine at Bingham Canyon,
Utah, the state where Penrose had lucklessly prospected for gold in 1890.
41


CHAPTER FOUR
UTAH COPPER COMPANY
Spencer Penrose got his start in Cripple Creek gold, but accumulated his vast fortune
in copper mining. He was a key figure in developing the Utah Copper Company, an
operation that not only pioneered open-pit mining technology in the west but also created a
colossal hole that today is one of two man-made structures visible from outer space; the other
is the Great Wall of China. Most important to Coloradans, Penroses copper investments
yielded stock dividends that bankrolled his high-flying lifestyle, funded construction of the
Broadmoor Hotel, and established the El Pomar Foundation.
Tutt, Penrose, and MacNeill had profited by processing Cripple Creek ore. But a
decade after the boom began, they realized that the Worlds Greatest Gold Camp was losing
its glimmer.1 The richest gold deposits were depleted, and ore shipments to the seven United
States Reduction & Refining (USR&R) mills at Colorado City, Canon City, and Florence
were declining. With an impending labor strike and stock earnings down, it looked like the
USR&R profitability was waning. Tutt had already begun developing a copper mine in
Oregon when the three partners heard about an opportunity in Utah.
This proposal came from Daniel C. Jackling, a metallurgist at the USR&R plant in
Canon City. Jackling in 1899 had investigated a large copper deposit at Bingham Canyon, a
property partially owned by Cripple Creek investor Joseph DeLamar Utah. Jackling found a
huge body of low-grade copper that he believed could be profitably mined. DeLamar was
less optimistic, turning instead to Montana copper mining. Jackling, meanwhile, went to
Colorado where he was hired at the USR&R facility. The Utah copper deposit had remained
42


Colorado where he was hired at the USR&R facility. The Utah copper deposit had remained
undeveloped until 1903, when Jackling told MacNeill, Penrose, and Tutt that he believed the
low-grade deposit could be profitably mined by processing the ore in the unheard-of volume
of 2,000 tons per day.
The Bingham Canyon mine is thirty miles southwest of Salt Lake City, located in
Utahs oldest and most productive mining district. The West Mountain Mining District was
formed in 1863 and during its first ten years, miners panned and sluiced $1.5 million in placer
gold from the districts streams and creeks.2 In the 1890s, Bingham Canyon gold production
averaged 9,000 ounces per year.3 After the gold and silver deposits were exhausted, miners
and investors investigated the districts copper deposits, but found only low-grade. In these
porphyry deposits specks of copper scattered throughout the igneous rock like raisins in a
cake, rather than rich veins or lodes4 Jacklings 1899 exploration had revealed a 12-
million-ton porphyry deposit comprised of two percent copper. Doubting that this low-grade
ore could be mined at a profit, DeLamar sold most of his ownership to Colonel Enos A. Wall,
retaining a one-quarter, interest in the property. Jackling returned to Colorado and went to
work at Tutt and Penroses USR&R smelter in Canon City, but he couldnt forget the large
copper deposit. He told his new employers about the Bingham Canyon copper mine,
insisting that the property could be profitably mined.
During spring 1903, MacNeill, Penrose, and Tutt considered Jacklings proposition
and the financial challenges that it posed. First, Jackling told them, they must obtain a
majority interest in the property at a cost of $540,000. Colonel Wall owned a 75 percent
interest and DeLamar a 25 interest in the 19 claims that covered 2,000 acres.5. Second, they
needed to build a 300-ton experimental mill to test Jacklings innovative ore processing
43


techniques. Findings from this pilot mill then would dictate the design and construction of a
concentrator and smelter, gigantic plants to accommodate the huge volume of ore that
Jackling proposed. They also must expand the Bingham-Garfield line the Copper Belt
Railroad so that ore could be hauled in huge quantities from the mine to the concentrator
at Magna and smelter at Garfield.
Penrose turned to his brother, R. A. F. Penrose, Jr., at that time a professor in
economic geology of at the University of Chicago. MacNeill, Tutt, and the two Penrose
brothers went to see the Bingham Canyon property for themselves, June 1, 1903. Jacklings
large-scale milling proposal, they concluded, could yield tremendous profits. Industry
experts were not so optimistic, however, claiming that it would be impossible to mine and
treat ores carrying 3 per cent or less of copper at a profit under exiting conditions in Utah.6
Jackling not only proved these critics wrong, he gained industry acclaim as the pioneer of
open-pit mining.
The Utah Copper Company incorporated June 4,1903, issuing 500,000 shares of
stock at $1 each.7 MacNeill and the two Penrose brothers each purchased 79,250 shares, and
Tutt bought 33,243 shares. The USR&R bought 96,000 shares, in exchange for equipment
shipped from the Colorado City mill to Bingham Canyon, and most of the remaining stock
was sold to Philadelphia investors, including Boies Penrose, Charles B. Penrose and R. A. F.
Penrose, Sr.8 With this capital, the partners made a down payment on the mine to Colonel
Wall and built the experimental mill. Little was left for operating expensespayroll,
supplies, services, and taxes.9 The partners knew once the experimental mill proved
successful, they would need to raise operating capital and funds to construct the concentrator
and smelter.
44


Not a financial partner himself, Jackling contributed his genius for metallurgy and his
tenacious insistence that money could be made in Bingham Canyon copper. Although Mr.
Jackling had always believed in the property, he never became a very large stockholder, as he
was not at that time very strong financially, Penrose later recalled.10 Jacklings mining
expertise, Penroses ability to raise cash, and MacNeills ruthless managerial skills proved to
be a crucial combination. Jackling had gained his mining and milling proficiency at the
Missouri School of Mines and while working in the mining industry in Colorado and Utah.
Unlike the privileged Philadelphians, he came from humble, middle-American roots. Bom at
Hudson, Missouri on August 14, 1869, Jackling was orphaned while an infant and raised by
his aunt.11 He dropped out of eighth grade to work as a teamster, but at age 19 his interest in
engineering was stirred by observing surveyors at work on his uncles farm. He entered the
Missouri School of Mines at Rolla in 1889, and graduated with a bachelor of science degree
in metallurgy in 1892.12 He taught at the Missouri School of Mines for ay ear, and briefly
worked at a Kansas City smelter before word of the Cripple Creek gold rush reached him.
Jackling arrived in the district in late 1893 with $3 in his pocket.13 He had walked 20
miles from the rail station at Divide to save the $2.00 stagecoach fare.14 He first worked
underground as a miner, then as a fire assayer at the Lawrence Gold Extraction plant near
Victor. This company was owned by Joseph DeLamar and managed by Charles MacNeill.
Here Jackling learned how to treat low grade ores and also came into contact with influential
men of the mining district, including Penrose and Tutt. When the Lawrence plant burned in
1895, DeLamar sent Jackling to Utah to investigate the Bingham Canyon property.15
MacNeill went to work for Tutt and Penrose at their Colorado-Philadelphia smelter. While
DeLamar had been unimpressed by the low-grade deposit, Jackling believed that the
45


Bingham Canyon mine could be mined at a profit. When he went to work three years later at
the USR&R plant in Canon City, he tried to convince MacNeill, Penrose, and Tutt that the
property was worth investigating.
The pilot mill was completed at Copperton and began treating ore in February 1904.16
Two months later it was producing 15 tons daily of 30-percent copper concentrates daily with
a potential capacity of 1,000 tons per day.17 Now capital was needed to expand operations
and to build the mammoth-sized concentrator and smelter. To raise these funds, Penrose and
MacNeill re-organized Utah Copper by re-incorporating the company in New Jersey on April
29, 1904. They issued 450,000 shares of stock at $10 per share and $750,000 in 7 percent
bonds.18 Captain Wall received 20 percent of these bonds and 20 percent of the stock. These
funds also reimbursed stockholders for expenditures on the Copperton pilot mill and
developing and equipping the mines. Additional capitalization was needed to erect the 6,000-
tons-per-day concentrator at Magna that opened August 1907 and $8 million smelter plant at
Garfield, the worlds largest smelter when it opened in 1909.19
Funding for these facilities came from another Philadelphia source. Utah Copper had
attracted the attention of the powerful Guggenheim family, owners of the American Smelting
and Refining Company (ASARCO).20 The wealthy family had made a fortune in lace
manufacturing, then turned their interests towards Western mining. They invested in
Leadville silver mining and milling, and by 1887 their Leadville mines had produced nine
million ounces of silver.21 The Guggenheims expanded their Colorado operations, and at the
tum-of-the-century their facility at Pueblo dominated the smelting industry. They expanded
their monopoly by purchasing the USR&R company from Tutt, Penrose, and MacNeill in
1906.22 The Guggenheims conducted a seven-month exploration of the Utah Copper deposit,
46


producing 3,500 assays and estimates of 40 million tons of low-grade copper ore.23 These
findings spurred them to buy 232,000 shares of Utah Copper stock at $20 apiece and issue
$3,000,000 of six percent convertible bonds.24 In exchange, Utah Copper awarded ASARCO
a $6-per-ton, 20-year smelting contract.25
Jackling, meanwhile, was attracting industry attention with his quarry-style mining
and steam-shovel mucking techniques. He and mining engineer Robert Gemmell had
traveled to the Mesabi iron mines of Minnesota to observe steam shovel technology there,
then employed this method at the Utah Copper mine. After removing the seventy-foot
overburden, they blasted into the sheer face of the copper deposit. The chunks of copper ore
were then loaded into railroad cars using steam shovels.26 Mining and Scientific Press called
these methods as unique as the mines [whose] impressive feature is their colossal scale.27
Success of the Utah Copper Company seemed within reach, but the low price of the
copper left the operation Vulnerable to market fluctuations. Unlike gold, copper sold for just
pennies per pound so that a price change of only a few cents had a tremendous impact on
mining profits. The price of the red metal had dropped to 13 cents a pound during the
financial panic 1907. Despite this low price, Utah Copper paid shareholder dividends in
1909. Later that year, Utah Copper doubled its operations by absorbing Boston Consolidated
Copper. Adjacent to the Utah Copper property, the Boston mine was controlled by
cantankerous Colonel Wall whose forty-year mining career had encompassed Colorado,
Montana, Idaho and Utah. Wall objected to this brutal conquest of Boston Copper, but to
no avail.28
Wall held a 20 percent interest in Utah Copper, and felt that this entitled him to
hands-on involvement in company management. Wall and Jackling battled over Jacklings
47


management decisions. Finally, Penrose and Jackling pressured Wall into resigning from the
board and bought the Colonels Utah Copper stock. Col. Wall resigned from the Board of
Directors in 1908, owing to many misunderstandings with the Board of Directors, Penrose
later related. Col. Wall was a very impractical man, and I doubt very much if there would
have been a Utah Copper Company if he had been made Manager of the Company and had a
control of its affairs from the very start, as he desired. On account of his great
disappointment at not being made manager, he took out his spite against Mr. Jackling, as you
may well know, in his journal oiMines and Methods."29 Wall never forgave this takeover and
remained a harsh critic of Utah Copper for years, for years using to Mines and Methods
skewer Utah Copper and Jackling.
Profitability, meanwhile, depended on an increasing demand for copper. Copper in
various forms had been used through the ages for everything from cooking pots to coins,
from decorative cast-copper statues to lightning rods. As an important alloy it combined with
tin to make bronze and with zinc to form brass.30 The malleable metal could be battered into
shapes, rolled into thin sheets, or drawn into wire. But it was coppers conductive properties
that created a variety of new uses in the twentieth century. Emerging technologies, Richard
Penrose had told his brother Spencer, would increase demand for copper electrical wire,
telegraph and telephone cable, batteries, and, automobile manufacturing.
Once the big plant and the ASARCO smelter began operation in 1909, Utah Coppers
seemed secure. But the start-up years had been nerve-wracking for MacNeill, Penrose, and
Tutt. Especially skeptical was Tutt, who pursued his own copper mining and smelting
interests at Takilma, Oregon. He sold his Utah Copper stock to Penrose just a year after the
company had been formed, and invested the proceeds in his Bronze Queen copper mine and
48


Takilma Smelting Company. By this time the Tutt and Penrose partnership unraveled, with
Tutt particularly uncomfortable with MacNeills domineering role at USR&R and Utah
Copper. Tutt instead poured hundreds of thousands of dollars into his Oregon companies,
investments that yielded no returns. Although the Takilma mine contained copper ores far
richer than the Utah Copper low-grade, that venture failed due to insufficient capital and the
lack of a competent general manager. Tutts experience with that mine was so painful he
later asked family members to destroy the business records from Takilma.31 Nevertheless,
Tutt could not resist the mining bug. He also dabbled in gold mining in Baja, California and
in 1908 leased a mine in the White Pine Mining District in Gunnison County, Colorado.32
Tutt had given up most of his mining ventures so that he could savor his waning
years. His heart condition was worsening and his physician urged him to rest. Tutt and his
wife Josephine bought a home on Coronado Island at San Diego, and they enrolled their sons,
Charles, Jr. and Thayer, at Thacher, a private school near Ojai, California. Tutt also acquired
an island retreat in Puget Sound and sailed his beloved yacht Anemone up and down the
coast. He taught his sons to sail, and he and his son Thayer took second place in the first
Pacific Yacht Race between San Francisco and Honolulu in 1907. Making their home at
1205 North Cascade in Colorado Springs a summer place, Charles and Josephine traveled the
West by rail, collecting an impressive array of artifacts and Native American handicrafts.33
Charles Tutt, Sr. finally succumbed to the heart ailment that had sent him West in
1884 seeking a health cure. He died at the Waldorf Hotel in New York City on January 21,
1909 at age 45. He left an estate of $860,000, the bulk of which went to his widow
Josephine, with trust funds established for Charles, Thayer, and Rebecca.34 Despite their
business differences, Tutt had named Penrose as a guardian to his children. Charles, Jr. later
49


wrote to Spec: I cannot tell you how much Thayer and I appreciate all that you have done
for us, by acting as Executor, Trustee, and Guardian. We appreciate it a lot, and hope that in
some small way we will sometime, be able to return all that you have done for us.35
Josephine Tutt remained on the West Coast where she built a new house on Coronado
Island. Charles, Jr. with his wife Eleanor Armit Tutt and their two young children moved into
the family home on North Cascade in Colorado Springs, and went to work as Penroses
business assistant. Unlike the partnership of Tutt & Penrose, the relationship of Penrose with
Tutts son was that of employer and employee. Penrose groomed Tutt as a business
administrator, and Charles Tutt, Jr. remained a subordinate rather than partner. Young Tutt
sought Penroses advice in business affairs.
You many not know it, he wrote Penrose in 1914, but recently Mr. Connell asked
me if I would be willing to go to the Board of Directors of the Trust Company, and after
considering the matter for a day or two I concluded that... I would accept, and was elected a
Director at their annual meeting two or three days ago... My main reason ... is that it might
eventually lead to something which would occupy my time and attention, and would gain in a
small way, possibly, a knowledge of the banking business. I dislike very much to trouble you
with this matter, especially while you are on a vacation, but would very much appreciate any
advice you give me concerning it...
Penrose helped young Tutt through his personal connections. Penrose wrote his
brother, United States Senator Boies Penrose in 1914: Charles L. Tutt, the son of my old
partner Charley Tutt, is anxious to get some government job that will take him abroad. Mr.
Tutt is in fine condition, and is 29 years of age. He made application for one of the Officers
Training Camps late spring, but was turned down on account of his eyesight and hearing. He
50


then made application to the Navy, but was turned down on account of his eyesight, although
he is one of the best shots in the country.4136
During the 1920s and 1930s, Penrose would be in need of an able assistant such as
Tutt. By 1910, Penroses copper stock was reaping over $1 million per year. These earnings
afforded him a fabulous lifestyle and bankrolled scores of private, public, and philanthropic
projects in the Pikes Peak region. The enduring success of Utah Copper also made him a
respected figure in the mining world. He held his seat on the companys board of directors
until his death in 1939, with Charles L. Tutt, Jr. succeeding him on the board.
While the Utah Copper operation was profitable it was also problematic. The
company was beset by labor problems. To keep costs low, Utah Copper and its associated
ASARCO smelter hired cheap laborEuropean immigrants. These were refugees from
political strife in Greece and Slavic countries who worked for less than $1.75 per eight-hour
day. On May 1, 1912. 800 workers walked off the job at the ASARCO smelter into protest
the low wages.37 This soon precipitated a strike among the miners at the Utah Copper mine.
Although instigated in part by the Western Federation of Miners, the striking workers also
were protesting the exploitative practices of Leonidas G. Skliris. Known as the Czar of the
Greeks, Skliris supplied immigrant workers to the Bingham Canyon mines, mills, and
smelters at enormous profit to himself.
After five months, the strike was broken. The company had hired 1500 non-union
workers who kept the mine and mill going at half of the pre-strike capacity.38 To break the
strike and drive the WFM out of Bingham Canyon, Utah Copper president Charles MacNeill
applied the same heavy-handed techniques that had succeeded in the Cripple Creek district in
1903 and 1904. Utah Copper employees got their first taste of MacNeills tactics in June
51


1904, when he fired 200 miners who ignored managements posted bulletins and failed to
come to work on Miners Union Day.39
Utah Copper miners and ASARCO smelter workers complained not only about low
wages, but also poor living conditions. Bingham Canyon was a string of camps and
settlements that formed a six-mile-long company town where nearly every resident depended
financially on the operations at the Utah Copper mine or ASARCO smelter. These
companies had built a number of boarding houses and small homes for employees, but the
lowest-paid workers had to camp out in tents and shacks made of wood and metal scraps.
The Bingham Canyon towns were called a six-mile-long sewer. Many homes lacked
indoor plumbing. One journalist described Utah Copper as a modem inferno, a veritable
slaughter pen where the workers are slaughtered and maimed wholesale, and described
miners cabins as dark, windowless, and floorless.40 The company did little to correct these
problems. Not until the 1940s did the mining company build a modem corporate town of
Copperton for their workers scores of modem houses that employed copper in all ways
possible.41 By then the corporations plans had demolished the camps and mining towns that
had lined Bingham Canyon.
Utah Copper prospered despite labor disputes, and its success spurred the MacNeill-
Penrose group to develop other copper properties. MacNeill, Penrose, and Jackling directed
their energies and money to developing porphyry copper deposits in Arizona, New Mexico,
and Nevada, where Jacklings large-volume mining techniques yielded impressive results.
The Arizona mine was at Ray, 80 miles southeast of Tucson in the Mineral Creek Mining
District. Ray Consolidated Copper Co. was incorporated in May 1907, capitalized with
$6,000,000 in shares of $ 10 par value. Capitalization was increased to $ 16,000,000 by
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1912.42 Most directors of Ray Consolidated had been involved in the Cripple Creek district
Sherwood Aldrich, Spencer Penrose, Charles MacNeill, D. C. Jackling, Charles Hayden,
and Eugene Shove.43 Jackling developed an immense ore body, 2.5 miles long, up to a half
mile wide, and 100 to 3500 feet thick.44 By 1912, the ASARCO smelter at nearby Hayden
was processing 8,000 tons of Ray ore per day.45 During its first 20 years, the Ray mine
produced nearly 50 million tons of ore.46 By 1956, 107 million tons of ore had been
processed, yielding 2.5 billion pounds of copper.47
Jackling next developed the Chino mine, a porphyry copper deposit near Santa Rita,
New Mexico, 100 miles from Las Cruces where Spencer had begun his business career in
1889. The Chino mine was first worked by Spaniards in the early 1800s. They transported
the ore 1200 miles by pack-mule to Mexico City where it was used to mint copper coins.
This mine closed in 1837 when a party of fur trappers invited the Apache Indians to a feast
there, then mowed down their guests with a cannon.48 The Chino Copper Company re-
opened the mine in 1909 using Jacklings pit-mining techniques. In May 1910, estimated
reserves were 19 million tons of 2.59 per cent copper ore. A 3,000-ton-per-day plant was
built to produce 35 to 40 million pounds of copper annually. The Chino mine produced 36
million pounds of copper in 1912, its first year of operation. Net income was nearly $1
million.49 Ore oxidation problems in the early 1920s necessitated rebuilding the concentrator
and investing $1.5 million in new plant.50 Again, most of the directors for the Chino mine
were also directors of Ray mine: MacNeill, Jackling, Penrose, Hayden, and Aldrich, and A.
Chester Beatty.
The MacNeill-Penrose groups fourth porphyry copper property was in southeastern
Nevada, and consisted of both an open-pit mine and an underground operation. Nevada
53


Consolidated was incorporated for $5,000,000 in 1914. Jackling soon became director of
operations. Ore was transported 80 miles to the ASARCO mill at McGill, Nevada. Like the
other porphyry mines, the Nevada operation proved lucrative. The company distributed over
$45 million to shareholder dividends before it merged with Ray and Chino in 1926.51 Like
the Utah Copper, Ray, and Chino mines, Penrose was a majority stock holder, and smelting
was done by ASARCO.
The relation between Penroses four copper properties and the Guggenheim family
enterprises expanded in 1915 when the Guggenheims formed Kennecott Copper. Named for
a copper property near Kennecott Creek in Alaska, Kennecott became a holding company for
all of the Guggenheim-affiliated properties worldwide.52 Kennecott acquired a 25 percent
interest in Utah Copper in 1916. Kennecott absorbed the MacNeill-Penrose groups other
porphyry companies in seven years later. With this last acquisition, Utah Coppers named
was changed to Kennecott Copper Company. Jackling and Penrose remained as corporate
directors. During the next several decades these four properties remained among the nations
leading copper producers. Their combined estimated reserves were 23 million tons of
metallic copper in 1975.53 The Bingham Canyon mine was purchased by Rio Tinto Zinc
(RTZ) Corporation in 1989.
Jacklings expertise earned him a position of long-lasting influence at the copper
mines that he helped develop. He sat on the Utah Copper/Kennecott Copper board until his
death in 1956, for many years serving as president. Until the late 1930s, Jackling was chief
operating officer of all Kennecott copper properties. After his 70th birthday, Simon
Guggenheim urged Jackling to relinquish his decision-making authority. Jackling refused.54
Penrose defended the Copper Prince: We all know he was the original founder of the
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development of Utah Copper... When Mr. Jackling and some of us originally took hold of
the Utah properties many mining people did not believe that Mr. Jackling would be able to
develop and place the property on a paying basis. They claimed the ore were too low to ever
show any profit.. .55
Bingham Canyons phenomenal success earned Jackling the respect of his colleagues
as well as legendary stature in the mining industry. The father of open pit mining received
the William Lawrence Sanders gold medal for mining achievement, lauded for making Utah
one of the greatest copper-producing regions in the world through the development of low
grade ores.56 The Mining and Metallurgical Society in 1926 honored Jackling with a gold
medal: No one else combined the imagination and vision to see the economies of large-scale
operations with the personality and capacity to enlist the millions of dollars necessary to
finance the project. Jackling had these, and he had the creative and organizing ability and the
energy to carry out this ambitious program. He became the pioneer in the exploitation of
low-grade copper ores.57 He was elected as president of the American Institute of Mining
and Metallurgical Engineering in 1938. Today a heroic-sized bronze sculpture of Jackling
stands in the Utah State Capitol. Kennecott Copper commissioned artist Dr. Arvard
Fairbanks to create the $35,000 sculpture dedicated on August 14, 1954, Jacklings 85th
birthday.58 When the copper baron died the he left $100,000 to Brigham Young University,
$100,000 to the University of Missouri, and $25,000 each to eight other universities.59 His
business papers are now in the at the Stanford University archives in California.
Jacklings mining profits afforded him a comfortable lifestyle, and his personal
exploits were as notorious as his business successes. He set up his mistress, Helen Blaze, as a
madame with her own business on Commercial Street, Salt Lake Citys red-light district.
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Showering her with handsome horses, a carriage, and a stable, Jackling also escorted Miss
Blaze to the Salt Lake Theater where her expensive gowns and flaming red hair attracted the
attention of all.60 Jackling traveled the country in his private railroad car, Cyprus, visiting the
western copper mines and attending Utah Copper/ Kennecott Corporation board meetings on
Wall Street. When he went to his class re-unions at the Missouri School of Mines, he arrived
in a five- or six-car train that he parked on a siding near the school and held an open house,
treating students and alumni to unlimited food, drinks, and even women.
In 1915 Jackling left his palatial home at 731 East Temple, Salt Lake City, and
moved to San Francisco, where he rented the penthouse suite at the Mark Hopkins Hotel near
Union Square. With his second wife, Virginia, he later purchased an elegant house at
Woodland, California. He also bought a $500,000 yacht, and christened that Cyprus too, then
sailed north to investigate mining operations near Juneau, Alaska.61 He also entertained
aboard the craft. The largest yacht on the Pacific coast, the Cyprus had 10 bedrooms, each
with a bath, and required a crew of 40 to 50 to sail it.62
Penrose and Jackling stayed in regular contact, seeing each other at board meetings in
New York or visiting in San Francisco or Colorado Springs. Jackling served as a director for
one of Penroses companies, the U. S. Sugar & Land Company that cultivated sugar beets in
east Kansas. As was his custom with all his business associates, Penrose each year sent
Jackling passes to his Pikes Peak Auto Highway and Midland Terminal railroads, and at
Christmas shipped him a box of fine cigars.63 Penrose also took glee in presenting Jackling
with prized bottles from the massive liquor collection secreted at the Broadmoor Hotel and at
his plush home in Colorado Springs. Two weeks after Penroses death in December 1939, a
demi-john of Penroses treasured Hannisville Rye arrived at Jacklings home.
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Compared to Jacklings long and prosperous life, Charles MacNeill was less
fortunate. Involved with Penrose and Tutt since 1895, MacNeill had been general manager,
then vice-president at USR&R and Utah Copper. He stayed actively involved in mining
operations, keeping Penrose informed in long letters. He also manned the Wall Street offices
of the Colorado-Philadelphia Co., USR&R, and Utah Copper. MacNeill had invested
$350,000 in the lavish Broadmoor Hotel at Colorado Springs that Penrose opened in 1918.64
He lived in a suite on the sixth floor and frequented the Broadmoor Hotel stock exchange that
once was located where the Tavern pub-restaurant is today. With Penrose, MacNeill had
invested in Cripple Creeks best-producing mines and received substantial earnings from his
Utah Copper stock. But he did not keep this wealth.65 MacNeill lost his fortune on Wall
Street before dying on March 18, 1923. Some attributed his financial losses and early death
to his heavy drinking and the erratic behavior that it caused. His widow Marion, a Rhode
Island socialite, later married Spencer Willing and traveled extensively in Europe, but for
years maintained investments in some Penrose companies.
Like MacNeill, Penrose was admired in the mining world, chiefly for his ability to
raise capital. Although he became involved in myriad business interests, such as the
Broadmoor, he remained a life-long member of the American Institute of Mining Engineers.
He was repeatedly invited by Colorado School of Mines President Victor C. Alderson to
attend the annual American Mining Congress. Alderson also sought Penroses input on
mining policies and issues, such as the oil shale industry: We are very anxious to have your
cooperation with others whose judgment will be of greatest assistance in forming this policy,
beseeched Alderson.66 Penrose declined these and other invitations. Instead he diverted his
interests, imagination, and investments to new ventures in transportation, hospitality, and
57


agriculture. Penrose had spent nearly 20 years accumulating his wealth. Now he turned to
enjoying it. Unlike many tycoons who only excelled at making money, Penrose turned to the
exquisite pleasures and rewards of spending his fortune.
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CHAPTER FIVE
THE NEW BUILDER OF COLORADO SPRINGS
After his stunning success with Utah Copper, Spencer Penrose turned his ambition,
money, and nerve towards transforming Colorado Springs. Utah Copper earnings and his
1906 marriage to Julie Villiers Lewis McMillan broadened his vision. He saw the city as a
rejuvenated tourist resort, a change he knew would be ushered in by the automobile. He also
knew that Colorado Springs had been founded as a tourist colony and until the early 1900s
had attracted British tourists, affluent eastern investors, and health-seekers of all types. But
by 1910, the penicillin cure had nearly extinguished the citys tuberculosis treatment
industry.1 And Cripple Creeks steady decline had punctured the local economy as well.
Enticing a new class of visitors by developing and marketing the regions many scenic
attractions became his mission.
In his vision for Colorado Springs, Penrose followed the example of the man who
had molded the city. General William Jackson Palmer, a fellow Philadelphian, founded the
Colorado Springs Town Company and built the Denver & Rio Grande into the Rocky
Mountain Wests most extensive railroad. Bom in Delaware in 1836, Palmer grew up in
Philadelphias Germantown neighborhood. He learned the railroad business as secretary to
the president of the Pennsylvania Railroad. He toured the transportation centers of England,
to leam industrial technologies, visit the countrys landmarks, and cultivate British investors.
The Civil War in 1861 sidetracked Palmers dream of building a railroad out West. Despite
his Quaker upbringing, he enlisted in the war, where he was promoted to general for his
heroism in leading the 1,200 men of the Fifteenth Pennsylvania Volunteer Calvary.
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Afterwards, Palmer arrived in the Pikes Peak region and founded Colorado Springs
as the first major stop on his railroad line. Backed by eastern and English investors, he
bought 10,000 acres near the confluence of Monument and Fountain Creeks.2 The Colorado
Springs Town Company platted a gracious, temperate community featuring refined residents,
attractive homes, and shady cottonwoods. Palmers new bride, Queen Mellen Palmer,
nourished the fledgling city by establishing its first school and performing operetta recitals.
Palmer bolstered the city as a tourist destination by building his posh Antlers Hotel
in 1883. His English partners, Drs. William Bell and Samuel Solly, designed the five-story,
brick-and-shingle inn in exuberant Queen Anne style, resplendent with towers, turrets, and
bay windows. They named the 75-room hotel for Bells trophy collection, harvested from his
heavily-wooded estate north of Woodland Park and displayed in the lobby. Visitors drank in
the grandeur of Pikes Peak from the west terrace. Other amenities included a barber shop,
Turkish spa, childrens playroom, gaslights, and four-room bridal suite.3 The owners
advertised the Antlers as one of the finest hotels in the country, conveniently located between
the D&RG depot and the citys chief intersection, Pikes Peak and Cascade Avenues. But this
track-side site caused a fire that consumed the Antlers in 1898. A cigar-smoking hobo
supposedly had sparked a blaze that exploded a boxcar of dynamite and torched the grand
hotel.
Palmer opened his rebuilt Antlers Hotel in 1901, an Italian Renaissance masterpiece
designed by Denver architects Ernest Phillip Varian and Frederick J. Sterner. The 230-room
lodging was constructed of silver-gray brick and roofed in red tile for a cost of $600,000.
Wrought iron balconies, a broad central staircase of Italian marble, and a spacious grand
ballroom completed the elegant inn. Touted as the best hotel in the west, the Antlers
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quickly regained its role as the center of Colorado Springs society. Leading socialite Mrs.
Joel A. Hayes and mining tycoon Vemer Z. Reed entertained extravagantly. Charles
MacNeill rented a year-round suite. Spencer Penrose also was a frequent patron. Legend has
it that Penrose built the Broadmoor Hotel out of spite, after he was thrown out of the hotel for
riding his saddle horse up the front stairs and into the bar.4
Penrose, meanwhile, had to contend with Palmers image as Colorado Springs chief
builder, an image cemented by the new Antlers Hotel and Palmers Tudor-style stone castle at
Glen Eyrie. Palmers generosity had made him the citys chief benefactor. He built his
empire through iron-fisted control over the D&RG and the towns that sprang up along its
tracks, but he was also a philanthropist. To Colorado College he donated more than
$500,000, including land for the original campus, funds for its first structure, Palmer Hall,
now Cutler Hall, and $100,000 for the 1901 Palmer Science Building.5 He founded Antlers
Park, the 753-acre Palmer Park, and the two-mile-long Monument Park, and gave land to the
Colorado Springs Public Library, Cragmor Sanatorium, and Colorado School for the Deaf
and Blind. Palmer and Dr. Bell also gave 10,000 acres at Manitou Park north of Woodland
Park as a forestry laboratory for Colorado College.6
Palmer was not the citys only benefactor. The Colorado Springs Opera House was a
gift from Irving Howbert, Joseph F. Humphrey, and Benjamin Crowell. The now-demolished
edifice was built in 1881 with profits from the Robert E. Lee mine in Leadville.7 Dr. William
Bell, Henry McAllister, and William S. Jackson helped Palmer found Colorado College and
gave generously to its construction. James J. Hagerman, builder of the Colorado Midland
Railroad, served as a college trustee and funded two campus buildings.8 Winfield Scott
Stratton spent his Cripple Creek millions developing the citys inter-urban line, building the
61


five-story Miners Exchange, and buying land for the new county courthouse and city post
office. Funds from Strattons $6.3 million estate built and operated the Myron Stratton Home
for Infirm and Elderly after the mining millionaire died in 1902.9 Yet, Palmer had been the
citys longest and the strongest supporter. When he died on March 13, 1909, Colorado
Springs memorialized the General with a bronze statue at Platte Avenue showing him astride
his beloved black horse Senor. Palmers passing left a void that Spencer Penrose decided to
fill.10
Penroses itch to improve Colorado Springs grew from his desire to out-shine Palmer,
but it also was inspired by his 1906 marriage to Julie Villiers Lewis McMillan. A petite,
blonde widow bom of a wealthy Detroit family, Julie helped Penrose see how he could leave
his mark on the city by the peak. Building the highway up Pikes Peak and the world-class
Broadmoor Hotel made Spencer Penrose a nationally-known businessman and also helped the
faltering Colorado Springs economy. Her love of the arts, generosity, and empathy for others
less fortunate than herself influenced the Penroses establishing the El Pomar Foundation.
Julie Penrose also helped her husband enjoy the finer things in life fine art, gourmet
cuisine, and international travel. She acquired her zest for life and love of luxury at an early
age. Bom in 1870, Julie was the daughter of Alexander Lewis, long-time mayor of Detroit, and
Elizabeth Ingersoll of the New York Ingersolls. Her great-grandfather, legendary Frenchman
Louis Villiers, had helped settle Detroit in the early 1800s. Julie Lewis grew up in a household
overflowing with French culture, style, and language, and a bevy of brothers and sisters. The
Lewis clan, in age order, were: Ida, Edgar, Josie, Hattie, Harry, Julie, Marian, and Ingersoll
(Inky). Josie, Hattie, and Marian married, respectively, Clarence Carpenter, Cameron Currie,
and W. Howie Muir; Inky died as a young man.
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After a year at a Boston finishing school, Julie made her Grand Tour of Europe at age
17. Despite introductions to dukes and dutchesses, and counts and countesses, she returned
home and married the boy next door. On June 18,1890 Julie wed James McMillan, a Yale
lawyer whose father was U. S. Senator James McMillan.11 The Lewis and McMillan families
both resided in Detroits exclusive Gross Pointe neighborhood. Jim and Julie McMillan had
two children, Gladys and Jimmie, but their content family life was ruined when James
contracted tuberculosis while serving in the Spanish-American War in Cuba. The McMillans in
1902 moved to Colorado Springs to nurse James back to health. They bought an elegant home
at 30 West Dale, but Colorados climate cure failed James McMillan. He died in 1902, the
same year that twelve-year-old son Jimmie died of appendicitis. These tragic losses diminished
Julies joie de vivre, temporarily.
When Julie wearied of widowhood, she cast her gaze on Colorado Springs tall,
handsome, and wealthiest bachelor, Spencer Penrose. She had met the stand-offish
Philadelphian at a party at the Cheyenne Country Club where his mining prowess had set
everyone to whispering. Julie began by inviting Penrose to dinners at her home on West Dale.
These feminine advances bewildered Penrose, who had planned on remaining a lifelong
bachelor like his brothers Richard and Boise. But Julie persisted. She began insisting that
Penrose accompany her to Colorado Springs social affairs. And she sent her butler over with
sumptuous dishes and her maid to tidy up his room. After two years, Julie escalated their
courtship on a trans-Atlantic crossing.
Fate, it appears, had thrown them together. Julie and a lady friend were enroute to
Brussels to enroll Julies 14-year-old daughter Gladys in a private school, and Spencer was on
his way tour Europe with his brother Richard. The two met aboard the ship, as it steamed away
63


from the dock in New York City. Penrose offered to drive Julie and her female companion
through the south of France in his touring car. Richard wrote their father, described Julie as a
very good looking and very agreeable woman of about thirty five years old, a blond of medium
size. She has one child, a girl of 14 years old. She comes originally from Detroit, Michigan,
and Speck says that she is of one of the best families there. He says he has known her well for
several years. Richard voiced his approval of the match: Speck seems very much devoted to
her and she equally so to him... Speck is peculiarly situated. He cant read much on account
of his eye and... is not interested in any particular subject that would lead him to seek
amusement from literary or scientific sources. He is, therefore, peculiarly dependent on social
intercourse. As he himself said to me the other day, he cannot sit down at eight oclock in the
evening and read until bed time, nor can he go on forever drinking rum at clubs. Therefore he
seems to think his only refuge is to get married... I cannot help feeling that Speck would be
very much better off if happily married than in his present condition.12
Spencer and Julie were married in London on April 28,1906.13 Then, they toured
Spain and France, enjoying the best restaurants and finest hotels. Speck and his wife are
here and seem to be very happy, Richard to Dr. Penrose. They are staying at the Hotel
Princess, where they have very good apartments... They are starting today on a several
weeks trip to Tours and Vichy, in France, on their automobile. They asked me to go with
them, but I thought that perhaps people on a honeymoon were more happy alone, so I am not
going.14 Their continental vacation set the pace for their marriage Spencer and Julie
would return again and again to Europe.
Marriage to Julie was truly a turning point for Penrose. By 1906 his copper
investments had made him a man of significant wealth. Now he could enjoy lifes comforts
64


and pleasures traveling extensively, buying four canary-yellow Lozier cars that cost
$5,000 apiece, shopping for artwork and antique furniture, entertaining in the gracious home
at West Dale. He indulged Julie with shopping sprees for furs, jewelry, and French frocks.
And he alternated trips abroad with expanding into new areas of business. He bought a cattle
ranch at Turkey Creek. He launched the Pikes Peak Automobile Company. Marriage to Julie
also helped Spencer see himself in a new light; a sophisticated, cultured, convivial host
with a discriminating palate. As they explored Europes best hotels, Penrose envisioned his
own resort hotel. His visits to scenic resort towns convinced him that Colorado Springs could
be transformed into a world class tourist spa.
His dream of building a magnificent inn led him to the scenic Broadmoor area near
the foothills on the southwestern outskirts of Colorado Springs. In 1916 Penrose bought El
Pomar, a rambling residence at 1661 Mesa Avenue. The Spanish villa had been built by
Grace Goodyear Depew in 1910 after she divorced her first husband. Grace moved to
Colorado Springs from Buffalo, New York and hired prominent Philadelphia architect
Horace Trumbauer to design the $200,000 house.15 The result was a one-story, U-shaped
mansion facing south. The Spanish-style courtyard garden that captured sunny southerly
exposure and majestic views, white stuccoed walls, and red-tiled roof gave the villa a
Mediterranean flair. The apple trees that surrounded this country estate gave the place its
name, El Pomar, Spanish for orchard. Grace moved in with her new husband, Ashton Potter,
and the Potters plunged into Colorado Springs society. Ashton played polo and poker at the
Cheyenne Mountain Country Club and joined Penroses culinary clan, the Cooking Club.
The Potters became close friends of Spencer and Julie, and the two couples toured the Orient
together. However, the Potters marital bliss was short-lived. They fell to bickering and
65


Ashton moved into the chauffeurs cottage. Ashton died the summer of 1913, Grace a year
later. Their beautiful estate went up for sale.16
The Penroses paid $75,000 for El Pomar in 1916.17 The price included the wine
cellar stocked with 400 bottles, featuring 100 quarts of Pol Roger, 14 quarts of 1875 Apple
Jack, and 18 quarts of absinthe.18 Spencer and Julie immediately hired Westing, Evans, &
Egmore of Philadelphia to refurbish the interior. In the main hall they laid Belgian black and
Vermont Corona marble floor tile to match the dining room. Wood mantels, cornices,
paneling, and mouldings were shipped from Philadelphia by rail.19 Acanthus-topped
pilasters, Italian carved marble mantelpieces, and chandeliers gleamed with classical
elegance. Spencer hired a local craftsman to outfit the library in ornately carved
woodworking: built-in shelving, rich paneling, and a fireplace featuring bare-busted ships
figureheads. The bookcase hid a secret passageway to the subterranean wine cellar. Julie
ordered a giant Aeolian pipe organ for the main hall. She hired local designer Grace Johnson
to re-upholster furniture and hang new draperies. Julie and Spencer finally had a place to
display hundreds of antiques and artworks gathered on their trips abroad.20 Julie shopped for
paintings by Renaissance masters and local artists.
The Penroses hired Americas most prominent landscape architecture firm, the
Olmsted Brothers of Brookline, Mass, to design the grounds.21 El Pomars south-facing
courtyard embraced a centerpiece fountain with terraces leading up to the bath house-
pavilion. Gardens designed by the Olmstead Brothers were carefully planted by the
Penroses gardener, A. F. Hoffman. The Penroses consulted further with the Olmstead
Brothers when they planted two dozen apple trees on the property. The exquisite original
landscaping survives today, thanks to a thorough restoration of El Pomar in 1992.
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While Penrose was busy re-decorating, furnishing, and landscaping, he was also
hatching a whole series of new projects. He was a man who rarely did one thing at a time.
He had barely unpacked at El Pomar when he announced plans for a world-famous resort
nearby on the eastern edge of Broadmoor Lake. Having mastered the gold and copper mining
industries, he now aimed to become the countrys most famous, if not best, hotelier. And he
had millions of dollars to do so. His Broadmoor dream would attract national and
international guests and help revive Colorado Springs sagging economy. It would be his
masterpiece, his crowning glory.
It is almost difficult to say which came first the transportation companies or the
hotel. Penrose had created the Pikes Peak Automobile Company in 1912. Its fleet of 20
Pierce Arrows whisked visitors on a dozen different tours of the areas scenic landmarks.
Other Colorado Springs auto touring companies also were doing a brisk business, and arrivals
to the city were greeted by flocks of drivers waiting at the train station. The city promoted
itself as The City of Sunshine, The Finest All-Year Playground, Health Resort and
Residence City in the Land, The Scenic Roof Garden of the World, and The Motorists
Mecca At the Junction of the Pikes Peak Ocean-to-Ocean and the Colorado to Gulf
Highways.22 As Colorado became beribboned with roads and highways, Penrose began to
fancy building a highway to the top of Pikes Peak.
His idea was bom when W. W. Brown and J. S. Bradley drove their Buick Bearcat to
the summit on July 18, 1913, jouncing along the old wagon road dating to the 1880s.23
Penrose decided to build a paved toll road, which would whisk visitors to the summit for
$2.00 to $2.50 per passenger, and, according to his calculations, take in $37,000 its first
year.24 He knew that Pikes Peak was irresistible to many visitors. Its fame had spread as the
67


inspiration for America the Beautiful, penned in 1893 by Katherine Lee Bates, an
Wellesley College English teacher summering at Colorado College.25 People could scale the
peak by rail when the Manitou Springs and Pikes Peak Railway, built by Jerome Wheeler,
David Moffat, Major John Hulburt, and mattress tycoon Zalmon Simmons, began running in
1891.26 Folks also could rent burros in Manitou Springs or hike to the summit on foot. Why
not also scale the peak by automobile?
Penrose leased the wagon road from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, then
incorporated his Pikes Peak Auto Highway company and sold stock to all his friends.
Penrose, Bert Carlton and W. A. Otis each bought $20,500 worth. Charles MacNeill invested
$10,500 and Eugene Shove $5,000.27 Construction began in the summer of 1915. The road
opened one year later on August 1, 1916, on schedule but over budget. Its $283,000 cost far
exceeded original estimates, but this failed to dampen Penroses enthusiasm.28
The Worlds Highest Highway debuted with an incredible publicity stunt that put
Penroses name and face on the front pages of newspapers coast to coast the Pikes Peak
Hill Climb. The syndicated articles published in 650 newspapers coast to coast described
sleek automobiles roaring up the peak.29 Noted Colorado Springs sportsman was offering
the richest trophy ever offered for an automobile contest, the towering Penrose Cup
custom-made by Philadelphia silversmiths Bailey, Banks and Biddle.30 Eastern readers were
captivated by flowing prose: The Great Spirit, which, according to Indian legend, hovers
over the snow-capped summit of Pikes Peak probably will gasp with wonder in August of
this year when hill climbing will be revived as a major automobile sport on the scenic motor
highway which leads to the top of the highest pinnacle of the Rocky Mountains.31
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The Race to the Clouds had been inspired by Penroses own infatuation with the
automobile. Penrose owned four canary-yellow Lozier cars and usually took his favorite with
him when he crossed the Atlantic. He belonged to several automobile clubs, including the
Colorado Good Roads Commission. And he often visited Detroit, which was emerging as the
nations auto capital. Penroses interest in engines and horsepower was piqued by
discussions with his in-laws in Detroits affluent Grosse Pointe suburb or conversations at
Detroits Yondetoga Club of which he was a member. As with many endeavors he combined
pure pleasure with the opportunity to make money.
And as he did with all his ventures, Penrose milked the highway and the race for
maximum publicity. He invited business associates, politicians, relatives, and friends as
Comissaire Sportifs. Among them were directors of railroads and mining companies,
neighbors, and Cooking Club members. Each year Penrose mailed hundreds of free passes to
the Highway, the Hill Climb, the Midland Railroad, and his other attractions. These business
magnates, partners, associates, and relatives would, presumably, rent rooms at the
Broadmoor.32 After the hotel opened in 1918, he scheduled important conventions or
conferences to coincide with the Pikes Peak Hill Climb. He staged a liberty bond stunt in
1919, sending a World War I tank up the peak. He published nationwide photos of child
actress Shirley Temple making mid-summer snowballs at the summit.33 Visitors sent novelty
telegrams to friends and family from atop Americas Most Famous Peak. His idea to install a
giant searchlight atop the peak never saw fruition. Penrose perhaps heeded this advice from
Frederick Bonfils, publisher of The Denver Post. Under no consideration should you place,
at your own expense, that great light at the top of Pikes Peak. Colorado Springs and
Manitou would derive infinitely more from it than you and they should place that light there
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and pay for it. It should be a great beacon to attract tourists and especially automobile
tourists, to your city but that would not help Spencer Penrose nor his exquisite Broadmoor
Hotel.34
The Pikes Peak Highway became the cornerstone of the transportation network, the
Scenic Companies that Penrose developed as a sideline to the Broadmoor Hotel. He
expanded his Pikes Peak Automobile Company and put many smaller competitors out of
business. In 1915 Penrose bought the Manitou Incline Railway that climbed 2,500 feet and
offered a fleet of burros to visitors wishing to venture further. He paid $65,000 for the
funicular, built to haul pipe to the water plant on Mount Manitou then converted to passenger
service in 1907.35 Fierce competition developed between Penroses highway and the Cog
Railway, each vying for visitors. Owners of the two companies even put a fence up at the
summit to keep their customers from patronizing the each other. In 1925 Penrose gained a
near monopoly on the Pikes Peak transportation industry by buying the Manitou Springs and
Pikes Peak Railroad. He paid just $50,000 for the line his cut-throat business tactics had
nearly driven the company out of business. Then he spent a half million dollars to rejuvenate
the faltering line.36
The Scenic Companies served as marketing devices complementing Penroses
grandest project his Broadmoor Hotel. In May 1916 he incorporated the Broadmoor Hotel
and Land Company, and sold stock to Charles MacNeill, Bert Carlton, Charles Tutt, Jr., and
other associates. Legends still linger about what prompted Penrose to build the Broadmoor.
In The Big Spenders Lucius Beebe tells the tale of how Spencer was rebuked by Antlers
management for riding his horse into the bar and built the Broadmoor for spite.37 Penrose
told some people that he and Charles MacNeill built the hotel so they could hire their friend,
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William Dunning who had been fired as hotel manager at the Antlers. People pointed to the
little A in BROADMOOR as proof of these stories; the typographical quirk was an intentional
insult of the Antlers, they said. Actually, the word BROADMOOR could be trademarked,
while Broadmoor could not: it been in use since the early 1800s.
Another motivation was pure pleasure after savoring at the worlds finest hotels,
Penrose wanted one of his own. Penrose first considered buying and expanding the Antlers
Hotel, on the market as part of Palmers estate. He wrote Dr. William Bell early in 1916,
offering $87,500, a price suggested by Charles MacNeill. Bell rejected the offer, reminding
Penrose that it had cost $744,000 to build and furnish the Antlers. Penrose spumed Bells
counter-offer of $200,000: I beg to say my associates and myself did everything possible to
acquire the Antlers Hotel, in order that Colorado Springs might have a first-class, up-to-date
hotel in the future, but, as little attention was paid to our endeavors, we have given up that
entirely, and have now plans for building the best hotel in Colorado at Broadmoor.38
Building the best hotel in Colorado would stretch his business talents and create an
impressive showcase when he entertained friends, relatives, and business associates.
People wondered what Penrose was up to, building a resort at Broadmoor. Twenty-
five years earlier a Prussian nobleman named Count James Pourtales had tried the same thing.
The sunny scenic area was first a ranch where com was cultivated for broom-making. Then
someone put in a toll road for sight-seers wishing to view Cheyenne Canyons waterfalls and
strangely-shaped rocks.39 William J. Willcoxs Broadmoor Dairy Farm and the Dixon Fruit
Farm enjoyed limited success. Willcox sold his farm to Count Pourtales, who thought the
panoramic real estate had potential as a resort. The Count formed the Cheyenne Lake, Land
and Improvement company, and dug a lake to reflect the crisp mountain vistas. He divided
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the land into large residential lots and helped organize Cheyenne Mountain Countiy Club.
The second country club in the nation when it opened July 4, 1891, the club offered polo,
tennis, shooting, cricket, archery, bowling, and golf. Its chief attraction possibly was legal
liquor, as it was located just outside of the city limits of Colorado Springs, a dry town. The
club gained immediate popularity as a watering hole and playground for the citys socialites,
but failed to stimulate land sales as the Count had hoped.
So Count Pourtales built another attraction next to Broadmoor Lake an elegant
casino, patterned after the Imperial Palace at Potsdam, Germany.40 This casino languished, but
when the Broadmoor Casino burned in 1897, the Count replaced it with a less fancy version.
That business failed too. Disgusted, Pourtales sold his real estate and invested instead in the
Commonwealth Mine, an Arizona copper property coincidentally owned by Spencers brother
Richard. The Counts abundant earnings in this venture enabled him to retire at Glumbowitz,
his family estate in Prussia. He sold his Broadmoor real estate and the rebuilt casino to the
Myron Stratton Home.41
Penrose launched his new project with the same enthusiasm he applied to his other
ventures. He bought the Broadmoor casino, lake and 450 surrounding acres of from the
Stratton Estate land for $90,000.42 He incorporated the Broadmoor Hotel and Land Company
and sold $1 million in stock to A. E. Carlton, W. A. Otis, Chas. L. Tutt, Jr., and other friends
and associates. Penrose and MacNeill each invested $300,000. Then he concentrated on the
hotels design. He hired Frederick J. Sterner, Palmers architect, to produce a preliminary
design. He rejected Sterners $1.15 million Italian Renaissance Revival style proposal as old-
fashioned and much too expensive. He paid Sterner $20,000, then fired him.43 Penrose
solicited designs from several firms, including Kirkland Cutter of Salt Lake City and
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William. E. Fisher & Arthur A. Fisher of Denver.44 Most submissions emulated Venice with
heavy massing, scores of arched windows covered in striped awnings, a tower or two, and
gondoliers floating on the Broadmoor lagoon. Spencers selected the design of the New
York firm of Warren and Wetmore. It was also the lowest-cost proposal, $600,000.45 More
attractive than this bargain price were the firms credentials. Whitney Warren and Charles
Wetmore had designed the New York Yacht Club and the 1913 New York City Grand
Central Station. The firm had earned its stellar reputation as the architects of the
Vanderbilts by designing several deluxe New York City hotels the Biltmore, Ritz-
Carlton, Vanderbilt, Belmont, and Commodore.
Warren and Wetmores design took advantage of the spacious site far roomier New
York Citys cramped avenues. The nine-story central portion was accentuated by a
picturesque tower and flanked by four-story wings that could be closed off in winter. Its
staggered massing resembled the clustered red-tile roofs of an Italian village and blended
with the foothills setting, echoing the mountains rising behind. Its 350 guest rooms far
outnumber the Antlers. The lake-side site also evinced an essence of the Mediterranean.46
The multi-colored fresco at the roofline and above the balcony exuded an exotic quality. It
was applied by Paul S. Deneville using a graffito process that used plastic lay baked on with
intense heat.47 An arched colonnade welcomed guests into a lobby rich with paintings and
artistic carving.
The war-time shortage of workers and of steel did not daunt Penrose, who was
determined to finish the hotel in thirteen months. He broke ground in April 1917 and bet the
builders each $1,000 that the Broadmoor Hotel would open its doors by May 15, 1918.48 The
ensuing months were filled with frantic communications between Penrose and the architects,
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contractor, interior designers, and landscaping firm. Charles Tutt, Jr. oversaw construction
details and traveled to New York to meet with Warren and Whitney. William Dunning
organized the hotel departments and ordered stocks and supplies. Story by story, the grand
building rose, consuming concrete and steel in gargantuan quantities. Some stone came from
a quarry on Penroses Turkey Creek Ranch south of the city. Construction costs exceeded $2
million, and furniture and interior decorating cost another $1 million. May 15, 1918 came
and went. The architect and contractor lost their bets. Penrose later sued the contractor,
James Stewart of Salt Lake City, for his late project schedule and cost over-runs. Despite
myriad design modifications and construction changes, the most expensive being switching to
entirely fire-proof building materials, the Broadmoor opened just two months later than
Penrose planned.
The hotel was unveiled on June 29,1918 with a gala grand opening. The paint had
barely dried when invited guests, neighbors, and curious local residents crowded into the
hotel. They found lobby, halls, restaurants, and guest rooms exquisitely decorated and
furnished, reflecting Julies passion for European decor and art. Penrose had hired an army
of Italian artisans to paint frescoes and ceilings reminiscent of the artwork of Italian
cathedrals. Westing, Evans, & Egmoredecorators of the Philadelphia Ritz-Carlton had
orchestrated the miles of custom-dyed carpeting and wall coverings, hundreds of chairs,
tables, beds, and bureaus, and thousands of monogrammed linens and pieces of china and
silver. Julies affection for the Orient was evident in the Palm Court, with bamboo furniture
imported from Hong Kong. Her passion for opera inspired the small theater on the first floor.
In the dining rooms vest-pocket stage a hotel orchestra serenaded diners. The swan, Julies
personal trademark, was painted near the elevator and above the fireplace in the center
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terrace, and several graceful, white birds floated on Broadmoor Lake. Charlie and Marion
MacNeill and Bert and Ethel Carlton designed their own private suites.49 MacNeill caused a
crisis by installing a wood floor in his suite. Penrose, insisting on an entirely fire-proof inn,
had the flooring removed.
On the ground floor, a barber shop, brokerage office, drug and cigar store, lace and
notions store, boudoir shop, photography studio, and doctors office catered to guests wants
and needs. The Olmsted Brothers firm designed an exquisite setting for the hotel; the circular
entry drive curved around a large Italian Renaissance style stone fountain. Hundreds of
evergreen trees and abundant flower gardens greeted guests as they entered the drive from
Lake Boulevard. The lake was stocked with 10,000 trout, and Donald Ross, the world-
renowned golf course architect, designed the Broadmoor greens from 135 acres of
underbrush, scrub oak, and rolling terrain.50
The glorious new hotel was all that Spencer and Julie had hoped. Building it had
been a consuming passion for nearly two years. Marketing and operating it would be
Penroses lifelong vocation. The business of the hotel is going ahead quite steadily,
Penrose told Charles Westing a month after the Broadmoor opened. Last Sunday they had
over 247 people, and it is still holding its own. Everyone is enthusiastic about the hotel, and
especially about the quality of the menu, and they tell me it is the best American plan menu
they have ever seen. The business is even better than I expected it would be.51
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CHAPTER SIX
PROMOTING THE BROADMOOR
Spencer and Julie poured their burgeoning fortune into building and promoting the
Broadmoor, but it was more than a reflection of their personalities and personal tastes. It was
the nucleus of Penroses many interlocking companies and a venue for his many hobbies.
But the Broadmoor hotel had a broader impact. It became the focal point for social and
athletic activities, not only locally but also at the regional, national, and international levels.
Penrose had built the hotel as a playground for the wealthy, for travelers accustomed to the
grand hotels of Europe. During the next two decades he expanded it into a network of
recreation and tourism-related companies. He added polo grounds, a rodeo stadium, an ice
arena, and a second golf course to keep his guests entertained and to attract people and
attention to the city. The Broadmoor Ice Arena and Golf Course hosted hundreds of state,
national, and international athletic events, foreshadowing Colorado Springs unofficial role
today as amateur sports capital of the world.
The Broadmoor gained world renown thanks to Penroses marketing genius. He
targeted affluent eastern travelers who could not travel abroad because of the war.
Advertisements in Vogue, Vanity Fair, Spur, Golf Illustrated, Western Architect, and Town &
Country compared the worlds most famous hostelry to a graceful Italian villa. An ad in
Chicagos Fashion Art Magazine promoted the Broadmoor as the Hotel for the Elite...
situated in the natural playground of America, the Broadmoor attracts the type of people one
meets at the Riviera, Monte Carlo, Switzerland or Cairo. He also appealed to mid-westem
Americans seeking solace from scorching hot summer and looking for fun, inviting readers of
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the New Orleans Times Picayune, St. Louis Post Dispatch, and San Antonio Express to visit
Americas Greatest Scenic Resort... Noted rendezvous for Polo Players... Headquarters
for everything that is entertaining.. A glossy Life advertisement touted the hotel, as
Recreations Shrine Amid the Rockies. Auto tourists exploring the newly-completed Pikes
Peak Ocean to Ocean Highway through Colorado Springs saw the Broadmoor pictured in the
Automobile Blue Book. Penroses advertising manager mailed the bright red hotel booklet to
residents of the Broadmoor neighborhood, to hotels in surrounding states, and to country
clubs in Kansas City, Des Moines, Omaha, and Oklahoma City. Penrose himself left
Broadmoor booklets and photographs on every ocean liner that he traveled on and in every
first-class lodging that he visited around the world.
His marketing strategies went beyond newsprint. Laura Gilpins misty photographs
highlighted the hotel in a touring slide show of the Pikes Peak region. Colorado Springs and
Denver society editresses were invited to the hotel for a St. Patricks Day ball. Three
dozen Denver Press Club members visited for guided tours and a dip in the pool. Prospective
brides, their names gleaned from society columns of mid-westem newspapers, received a
booklet and a letter telling them: The Broadmoor would be an ideal place for a honeymoon
trip... should you and your fiancee select [it] for your bridal trip, we are certain that the
memories of your stay will never be forgotten.1
To carve a niche in the countrys lodging industry, Spencer staged a hotel men
carnival. Two years after the hotel opened, he invited 45 of the countrys leading hotel men
to the Broadmoor, for a free, week-long visit. Riding to the Rockies in Charles MacNeills
private car the Mather and other Pullman car palaces, the Broadmoor Pilgrims were plied
with free-flowing drink and gourmet tidbits. At Broadmoor, Spencer regaled them with a
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dinner at the Cooking Club, hotel cuisine, dances, and drinking. The hotel men visited the
regions scenic attractions, toured a Cripple Creek gold mine, watched the Western
Championship polo games, and played in the Penrose Cup golf tournament. They also
cheered on Pikes Peak Hill Climb racers vying for the Penrose Cup and watched aeroplanes
racing from Denver to the Pikes Peak summit.2 Charles E. Gehring, editor of Hotel Review
and Thomas Green, president of the American Hotel Association cabled Penrose afterwards:
[The Broadmoor Pilgrims] send you their renewed appreciation and gratitude for the
incomparable entertainment you so magnanimously bestowed upon them while enroute and at
the excellent Broadmoor Hotel. Pleasurable memories of this now historic event will ever
abide with us and add lustre to the name of our beloved host and friend Spencer Penrose.3
The following year, the Pilgrims presented Penrose with a $2,000 silver replica of the
Broadmoor at a New York City banquet in his honor.4 This confirmed the long shadow that
Spencer cast back East. Rather than compete with his older brothers the Senator, Doctor,
and ProfessorSpeck had chosen the business world. He succeeded fabulously in doing so,
as shown by this 1921 article by a syndicated New York columnist:
Spencer Penrose, sometimes of New York and most of the time of
Colorado Springs, is making his annual pilgrimage to the east shortly.
Everybody in Colorado knows Penrose and almost everybody in New York.
He is a jack of many trades and master of them all.
Just to go the rounds of his clubs would keep the ordinary man busy, but
Penrose finds time on the side to be a mining engineer, a founder and director
of Utah Copper Co.; a pioneer in the Cripple Creek mining district; president of
the Colorado, Midland Terminal Co.; vice president and director of a dozen
other railroads and corporations.
When he comes to New York he is at home in the University, Union
League, Rocky Mountain, Down Town, Bankers, Republican and quite a
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number of other clubs of lesser importance. He belongs to more clubs than that
in Philadelphia, where he was bom; several in Detroit, Denver, Paris, and
London.
His chief hobby is the Hotel Broadmoor, of Colorado Springs, which in
the past two years has suddenly jumped into popularity with eastern summer
and winter crowds. It is regarded by many as the finest hotel in America and
Penrose also finds time to run it and whoop up the social life of the city...
Each year he superintends the big round-up, which brings all the top-
notchers in the cowboy and cowgirl world it preserves the halo of the old
west when two-gun men rode the range and Colorado was a state of trails and
hell-roaring mining camps.
Penrose is a tenderfoot by birth, but his mining engineering profession
sent him to the west, where he fell in love with the climate, the people and the
life in the great outdoors.
The Broadmoor is a sort of a tribute to his love for Colorado. It is
situated on a lake and is a city within itself operating its own water system,
lighting, etc.
And when Penrose comes to town he goes about his clubs with his
pockets filled with literature telling of the town that nestles upon the bosom of
old Pikes Peak itself. He lures many tired business men away from their
deep cushioned chairs to the boundless west, where they ride bucking horses,
play golf, take a coach over the mountains and forget that there is such a thing
as prohibition.
He has a personal acquaintance in New York that includes all the
financiers and politicians. After most men leave New York it happens that in a
few years they are forgotten the whirligig of time erases friendships quickly
here.
Yet by sheer force of his personality, Penrose, although only an
occasional visitor, is known widely as any chronic settler in Manhattan.
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His favorite poem is Arthur Chapmans Out Where the West Begins.
He will recite it any time or any place. And before you know it this unofficial
Colorado puffer will have you believing that while New York is a cozy little
city and all that, yet there is only one real spot in America and that spot is
Colorado Springs.5
From the start, the Broadmoor was a playground for the rich and famous. A great
many well-known people seem to be coming to The Broadmoor, Penrose told his close
friend Thomas Green, president of the American Hotel Association They are greatly pleased
and are great boosters for The Broadmoor.6 Among the first to arrive was celebrated artist
Maxfield Parrish, hired to paint the bewitching Broadmoor portrait that conveniently
transported Pikes Peak to the east side of the hotel.7 Penrose convinced New York
millionaire John D. Rockefeller, Jr. to pose on horseback for the red Broadmoor, booklet.
Mrs. Rockefeller and daughter Abbey were photographed in a touring car, and Standard Oil
president A. C. Bedford on the Broadmoor green. Edna Ferber, author of best selling novels
Showboat (1926) and Giant (1952), was pictured standing in the Italian fountain. The writer,
who came for two weeks and stayed for two months, pronounced the inn the most wonderful
place of all.8
Spencers greatest publicity coup, however, was enticing world heavy-weight boxing
champion Jack Dempsey to train at the Broadmoor for his 1926 title defense match against
Gene Tunney. Dempsey, a former Victor miner whose fists had earned him international
fame, practiced for a week at the golf club. He performed in boxing exhibitions in the hotel
ballroom and was honored at a Cooking Club dinner. Milking the event for maximum
publicity, Spencer had the Manassa Mauler photographed in a range of panoramic poses:
riding a horse, fishing for trout in Broadmoor Lake, retreating to the Honeymoon Lodge atop
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Cheyenne Mountain. Finally, the weary boxer fled to White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia
to complete his training.9
A friendship bloomed between the two men. You hit the nail on the head when you
said I am exceedingly busy. ..Iam but never too busy to write to a pal... Jack wrote
Spencer the summer of 1927. I shall have two seats by Monday and want you to come
along as my guests. Do not give me any excuses about it because heres your check back
again and I wont have it any other way... Best wishes from Estelle and myself to you and
Mrs. Penrose, I am, As ever, your pal, Jack.10 Three years later, Spencer invested $50,000 in
the Playa de Ensenada hotel and casino that Dempsey was developing in Ensenada in Baja
California. He and Julie visited the Pacific resort town and even hired an architect to draw
blueprints for a bungalow that was never built. Ensenadas charm soured due to a funding
shortage and mobster A1 Capones alleged ties to Dempseys $2 million resort.11 Penrose
refused Dempseys plea for a $15,000 loan. It is too bad that your crowd is in such a mess,
Penrose told him. I hope, for the good of everyone, that some arrangement may be made so
as to save something out of the wreck.12 Their friendship waned. Dempseys manager sent
a polite refusal when Penrose asked Jack to referee a 1938 boxing match at the new Will
Rogers Stadium.
The Broadmoor attracted celebrities and affluent vacationers, but conventions and
conferences were also vital to the hotels financial success.13 The first gathering was the
American Institute of Mining Engineers of which Penrose was a long-time memberjust
three months after the hotel opened.14 The Broadmoor hosted bankers, oilmen, insurance and
brokers. Rotarians, fraternities, and sororities came to play at the Broadmoor. The National
Garden Council, Colorado State Medical Society, Western Fruit Jobbers Association, Tent
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and Awning Manufacturers, American Institute of Steel Construction, Colorado Bar
Association, and National Girl Scout Council all convened at the Broadmoor in its early years
To attract both businessmen and vacationers to his hotel, Penrose concocted a
smorgasbord of sports and other diversions. He revived the high society sport of polo. A
dozen teams converged for tournaments on the three polo fields at Broadmoor. Thundering
hooves raising dust against a mountain backdrop, the click of the mallet and the ball, polite
patters of applause all mingled to create an unforgettable tableau. Players came from
Denver and Wichita Country Clubs; military teams from Fort Riley, Kansas; Fort Sheridan,
Wyoming; and Fort Wise, Texas. Homegrown contestants represented the Broadmoor, Pikes
Peak, and Cheyenne Mountain Country Club. Oklahoma oilman Ernest Marland brought his
two Ponca City teams, filling the hotels entire Southlake Wing. Anyone lacking a mount
could rent a polo pony from the Broadmoor stables for $7.50 per game. The polo season also
prompted, according to splashy society page spreads in the local press, smart polo teas,
dinners, luncheons, and dances at the Cheyenne Mountain Country club, Broadmoor hotel
and Night club, and the J. R. Bradley ranch south of town..15 Penrose himself rarely missed
a game, clad in the riding outfit that became his personal trademark knee-boots, jodhpurs,
and tailored coat all custom-ordered from Philadelphia.
Polo-playing at the Broadmoor was aided by the fine stock of riding horses in the
Colorado Springs area. Colorado Springs was regional headquarters for the Remount
Association, which established a network of breeding stallions across the county, available to
farmers and ranchers wishing to improve the quality of their horse stock. Penroses friend
Henry Leonard, who owned a ranch north of the city at Pine Valley, helped coordinate the
effort. The Remount races, held at the Broadmoor, tested the different breeds of horses
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against each other to determine which was the fastest and strongest across long distances.
Penrose personally financed these competitions and he presented the Broadmoor Cup to the
winner.16.
Three polo fields, stables with 100 horses, and 75 miles of riding trails made the
Broadmoor neighborhood the center of Colorado Springs horsey set. The annual Colorado
Horse and Colt Show took place at the Broadmoor Westlake field.17 The Broadmoor and the
Colorado Springs Horse Clubs also practiced there. Local residents, hotel guests, and
Penrose himself rode the network of trails on the lower flanks of Cheyenne Mountain. In
1929, he built the Broadmoor Riding Academy west of Broadmoor Lake, after studying
similar facilities in Detroit and Brooklyn.18 Touted as Colorados largest indoor arena, it
housed indoor polo, horse shows, and gymkhanas. It was also the scene of professional
boxing matches arranged by Spencer, and dog shows and flower shows loved by Julie.19 Ten
years later Penrose converted the academy into an indoor ice rink that did even more to
transform Colorado Springs into the Rocky Mountain center for amateur athletes.
Golf was another sport that Penrose used to publicize his hotel, marketing the
Broadmoor as a golfers paradise. A salary of $15,000 lured golf champion James Barnes
of Philadelphia to the the highest championship golf course in the world.20 Long Jim had
scarcely unpacked his bags at Colorado Springs when Penrose sent him across the country, to
play in a series matches raising some $1 million for the national Red Cross campaign.
Representing the soon-to-open Broadmoor Hotel, Barnes played the countrys top golfists
on courses in Washington, D. C., Baltimore, Chicago, Louisville, and elsewhere. The
Broadmoor match on July 4 featured four of the best golfers in the country. Long Jim
teamed up with National Amateur and Open champion Charles Chick Evans against Jock
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Hutchinson and Warren Wood. The event raised $10,000 for the Red Cross, and established
the Broadmoor links in the world of golf.21
The $500,000 Broadmoor course, sculpted from 135 acres of brushwood, scrub oak,
and rocky prairie, gained legendary status.22 The Philadelphia Inquirer announced:
They certainly lived up to that old dictum spare no expense when it came
to building the new Broadmoor course at Colorado Springs, where our own Jim
Bames now disports himself at brief intervals between playing Red Cross
exhibition matches. According to a certain man who insists he is one of the
founders, a committee got Donald Ross, the noted links architect, out to Colorado
Springs and showed him the site for the proposed new course.
Ross took one look, says this man, and then, turning to Spencer Penrose, a
brother of Senator Penrose, principal backer of the project, remarked: Entirely
too small. Wont do at all.
How much more land do we need? asked Spencer Penrose.
About 80 acres, calmly replied Ross.
The other members of the committee nearly fainted, for be it known land at
Colorado Springs is worth much real money, but Spencer Penrose never batted
an eye. We will buy it, was his prompt response and buy it he did, the very
next morning.23
Since its opening day, the Broadmoor course has been a major attraction. The Mens
Invitational Golf tournament was an annual event from 1921 until 1994. The Broadmoor
hosted six Trans-Mississippi Golf Tournaments, and in 1935 was site of the Western Amateur
tournament.24 Golfing legend Jack Nicklaus won his first major tournament on the
Broadmoor green, the 1959 U. S. Mens Amateur championship. The Broadmoor links has
been the setting for the World Senior Golf Tournament since 1960, and the Olympic Golf
Classic during the 1980s and 1990s. The course stands out in the world of womens golf as
well. The first Broadmoor Womens Invitational was held here in 1942, and renowned
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Colorado athlete Babe Dedrikson Zaharias won the invitational three times during the 1940s.
Today the tournament is one of the countrys top womens amateur competitions, with many
Invitational winners going on to play professionally. Three women members of the
Broadmoor club are Colorado Golf Hall of Famers: Judy Bell who became in the 1990s the
U. S. Golf Associations first female president; Barbara Mclntire, three-time winner of the
invitational and winner of numerous amateur titles, and Phyllis Tish Pruce, the 1991 U. S.
Senior Womens Amateur champion. In 1995 the Broadmoor hosted the fiftieth U. S.
Womens Open.25
The picturesque foothills setting and famous ambiance made the Broadmoor course a
favorite with celebrity golfers from Jackie Gleason and Bing Cosby to Arnold Palmer and
Gerald Ford. Donald Rosss sporty 18-hole green has expanded into three of the finest
championship golf courses in the world. The West Course was designed by Robert Trent
Jones, Sr., and the Mountain Course by Ed Sealy of the Arnold Palmer Group.
Auto racing... polo... golf... Penrose strove to captivate the American public. He
launched a new era of sports at the Broadmoor by converting the Riding Academy into an ice
arena in 1937. Eleven-year-old skater Sonja Henie had captured the worlds attention at the
World Olympics in Chamonix, France with her short skirts, light-colored skates, and stunning
spins and jumps. Henie also captured the World Champion title ten times in a row from 1927
to 1936. After seeing Sonja Henies professional revue on a visit to Chicago, the Penroses
converted the riding academy into the Broadmoor Ice Palace, the largest enclosed ice arena
west of the Mississippi when built. The $200,000 rink opened January 1,1938 with a gala ice
show and carnival that drew a huge crowd.
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Figure skating was just in its infancy, remembers Patricia Bates Croke a local girl
who the Gazette Telegraph called another Sonja and little whiz of the silver blades. I
think I was the only child who skated on the opening night of the arena. I had learned to
skate on hockey skates on Broadmoor Lake. Dad had to go to Denver to buy me white
skates, because there werent any for sale in Colorado Springs. Mr. Penrose used to come
down and watch us practice skating in the arena.26 Built by Milton J. Strong and decorated
with deer, sheep, elk, and buffalo trophy heads, the arena grew into one of the countrys year-
round ice skating centers. It was second in the country, after Lake Placid, to offer summer
skating. Athletes came from around the country to rent patches of ice at the Broadmoor
and practice their jumps and spins.
The Broadmoor Skating Club, begun as the Pikes Peak Skating Club, produced
dozens of award-winning skaters. The first major competition held at the Broadmoor was the
1941 Pacific Coast Championships. Since then, the U. S. Figure Skating National
Championships have been skated six times on Broadmoor ice, and the World Figure Skating
Championships five times. These events outgrew the Ice Palace, renamed Broadmoor World
Arena in 1961, but the rink hosted the World Junior Figure Skating Championships in 1985,
1990, and 1994.27
The Broadmoor Skating Club has produced three Olympic, thirty-five World, two
World Junior, and sixty United States champions.28 The three Olympic Gold Medalists are:
Peggy Gale Fleming, 1968; David Jenkins, 1960; and Hayes Alan Jenkins, 1956. Olympic
and world titlist club members include Peggy Gale Fleming, David Jenkins, Hayes Alan
Jenkins, Peter and Karol Kennedy, Coleen OConnor and Jim Millns, Edi Scholdan, Cathy
Casey, Jill Trenary, and Tim Wood. The club has also been home to noteworthy coaches,
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including Carlo Fassi who began in 1961.29 The Broadmoor skaters helped groom Colorado
Springs image as a center for amateur athletes, contributing to the citys gaining the United
States Olympic Training Center in 1977. The club and its supporters also were instrumental
in bringing the World Figure Skating Museum and Hall of Fame to 20 First Street at
Broadmoor. The U. S. Figure Skating Association is headquartered in the same facility.
Along with figure skating the arena hosted regulation hockey, as well as local
entertainment and recreation. Home ice for Colorado College hockey for four decades, it also
hosted the NCAA ice hockey championship playoffs from 1948 to 1957. The Colorado
College Tigers took the NCAA title in 1950 and 1957. The World and European Ice Hockey
Championships were played there in 1962. During the 1970s the Broadmoor ice hosted the
World Cup Hockey games between the U. S. and U.S.S.R.30 Local skater also flocked to the
ice for carnivals, balls, and dazzling ice revues. Out-of-town visitors came for Denver Day,
Pueblo Day, Fremont County Day, and Cripple Creek and Victor Day advertised in regional
newspapers.31 The facility also housed conference exhibitions, graduation ceremonies, and
sporting events such as the 1988 U. S. Boxing Championship.32
The Broadmoor Hotel and El Pomar Foundation continued supporting the arena and
skating club long after Spencer Penroses death. Hotel president William Thayer Tutt helped
raise funds for Arena expansions in 1958 and 1968. He was also a major organizer of the
arenas national and international hockey competitions.33 El Pomar, meanwhile, helped fund
the expansion of the Skating Museum and contributed $10,000 to the 1994 World Junior
Championships. After the beloved but aging Arena was replaced in 1996 by the seven-story
West Towers annex, El Pomar ensured Colorado Springs skating tradition would continue
by donating $29 million for a new facility.34 Our club and our training program were
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without ice, recalls Carolyn Kruse, a long-time director of the Broadmoor Skating Club.
Everyone was scrambling for ice after the Broadmoor World Arena was gone. We would
not be here in this form and doing as well as we are doing, if El Pomar had not stepped
forward to help fund this project.35 The $55.3 million Colorado Springs World Arena,
which seats 9,500 people, opened in early 1998 on 53 acres near Interstate 25 and Circle
Drive and features twin ice rinks.36
Besides polo, horseback riding, golf, and skating, there were less vigorous past-times
for Broadmoor guests. After fishing in well-stocked Broadmoor Lake, guests delighted in
having their catch cooked by the Broadmoor chef and served to them on the West Terrace.
They strolled through the Broadmoor greenhouse to see the specially-bred Penrose carnation.
The Broadmoor offered cultured amusement too. A small orchestra clad in red hunting
tuxedos lent a touch of class to the dining room and performed in the small hotel theater. The
hotel hired only the finest musicians, such as Guest Conductor Edouard Deru, Violinist to
the King and Queen of Belgium. Igor Stravisnsky, Vladimir Horowitz, and Serge
Rachmanioff also performed at the Broadmoor.37 The little theater featured the Fountain
Valley School boys chorus, drama by local young thespians, and popular films.
The Broadmoors genteel past-times did not include gambling. Shortly after opening
the hotel, Penrose had invited Vaso Chucovich, once the operator of Denvers notorious
Navarre Hotel, to run a gaming room at the Broadmoor. Chucovich declined: I appreciate,
very much, the confidence in me which is implied by this suggestion, but a number of years ago
I terminated my connections with this business, and I do not care to resume them.. .38 Thus
ended the Broadmoors gaming prospects. Guests amused themselves instead by playing whist
or bridge, or visiting the poker room at the nearby Cheyenne Mountain Country Club.
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Penrose popularized his hotel with local residents, inviting Colorado Springs society
to dine in the hotel restaurants, dance in the ballroom, swim in the pool, and sun themselves
on the Broadmoor beach. Neighbors strolled around the lake and sipped complimentary
coffee served on the west terrace. Millionaires summering in palatial houses in the
Broadmoor neighborhood mingled with the local social elite at the hotel and at the Cheyenne
Mountain Country Club. The Broadmoor became the citys social center and Julie Penrose
its dowager queen.
The cream of society attended the inns annual seasonal opening, often staged to
benefit a local charity. In June 1933 guests partook in an eleven oclock festival on the
esplanade, twelve oclock grand opening of the Night Club, four oclock in the morning
sunrise breakfast, five oclock preview of the bathing beach and opening of the swimming
pool, for a $3.00 cost. Proceeds went to the Junior League. All-Night Party at Broadmoor
a Huge Success, reported the local newspaper afterwards. Members of the social elite of
Colorado Springs, Pueblo, and Denver gathered to celebrate the event... Mrs. Spencer
Penrose wore a distinctly Parisenne creation of black cire satin with tulip red slippers.39
Spencer and Julie thrived on this whirl of social activity, and tried their utmost to
ensure that everyone had a good time. The hotel printed a weekly schedule offering sun-rise
horseback riding, picnics atop Cheyenne Mountain, dancing at the nightclub, and tea on the
west terrace. Dinner dances and carnivals raised funds for the Junior League, Colorado
College sororities, and the Broadmoor Art Academy. The Broadmoor was also a favorite for
weddings, high school proms, and other local affairs, all reported by the society columnists.
Sports and recreation at the Broadmoor drew guests galore from royalty and
political powerhouses to entertainers, musicians, and movie stars. Bing Crosby, Victor
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Borge, Liberace, Jack Benny, Bob Hope, and Burl Ives all entertained at the hotel. Mickey
Rooney was always a fantastic person, recalls longtime Broadmoor employee Russel
Freymuth.40 It seemed like all the teen-age girls were following him around and squealing.
Hed take them into the soda fountain and hed buy them all sodas. Child actress Shirley
Temple was photographed shaking hands with Spencer and making snowballs atop Pikes
Peak. Clark Gable, stationed at Pueblo during World War II, dropped in.
Jimmy Stewart and Gloria Hatrick honeymooned here in 1949. Edgar Bergen and his
daughter Candice visited the Broadmoor, as did Carol Charming and Marlene Dietrich.
When Marlene was here everything had to be white, remembers Freymuth, who worked his
way up from busboy to vice president and retired at age 62. The carpet, the curtains, the
bedspread all had to be snow-white. We happened to have one suite that was decorated pretty
much how she wanted. She performed at the International Center for us. It was a good show,
with singing and dancing and supporting actors and musicians.41
Other musical guests have included Nat King Cole, Maureen McGovern, Marilyn
McCoo, Amy Grant, Reba McIntyre, and members of the rock group Jefferson Airplane.
Jane Fonda, Ted Turner, Joan Rivers, Mark Harmon, Willard Scott, Rich Little, and Jonathan
Winters have been guests. Sports greats Joe Di Maggio, Rick Goose Gossage, Sugar Ray
Leonard, Roger Staubach, and Chris Evert have stayed at the Broadmoor. Among the hotels
political visitors were U. S. Senator John F. Kennedy before his presidency, vice-president
Richard Nixon, President George Bush, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, and
General Colin Powell. The hotel has been the site of diplomatic events, including the 1979
NORAD summit and a 1994 meeting with Margaret Thatcher and other world leaders.
Portraits of many famous faces hang outside the Starz lounge in the Broadmoor West Tower.
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The Broadmoors fame and popularity has fulfilled Spencer Penroses vision of
Colorado Springs a tourism Mecca with the hotel at its center. It earned him a national
reputation as a flamboyant hotel man and bon vivant extraordinaire. Being the host of
Colorados grandest hotel also gave Penrose an outlet for his showmanship. Once stand-
offish, he basked in the limelight with Julies guidance to keep him within the bounds of
good taste. Showy events like the annual rodeo and Pikes Peak Hill Climb enticed visitors to
the region. And each year Penrose unveiled a new attraction Polo Park field with its
Moorish-style grandstand, the Broadmoor Beach, the Broadmoor Riding Academy.
In 1925 he blasted a toll road up Cheyenne Mountain. Nicknamed the Worlds
Wonder Trip, Zigzag Road, and Ladder-To-The-Sky it was patterned after a serpentine
road near Nice, France.42 Some local residents objects Spencer branding his, but thousands of
tourists paid a $1.00 toll to drive to the top. At the summit they visited the Cheyenne
Mountain Lodge designed by Charles S. Thomas and Thomas A. McLaren, a Pueblo Revival
style structure with adobe-like exterior and protruding wooden vigas. The rustic inn, a
favorite with honeymooners, was decorated with Native American handicrafts and rugs, and
mounted buffalo, elk, and wild steer trophies. Spencer promoted his new road in several
ways. He staged a fabulous dedication complete with an Indian foot race to the top, run by
five Hopis and five Zunis.43 The Broadmoors small zoo, relocated from the hotel grounds to
the highway entrance, also lured tourists up the mountain. One scheme failedlobbying
the U. S. government to have Zebulon Pikes remains buried atop Cheyenne Mountain, where
Penrose insisted that General Pike located one of the most famous mountains of America,
now called Pikes Peak.44 When this proposition was spumed, Spencer planned his own
burial ground on Cheyenne Mountain. Constructed mid-way up the mountain in the 1930s,
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the Will Rogers Shrine of the Sun served as the Penrose mausoleum and a memorial to the
popular cowboy humorist.45
The Penroses escaped to warmer climes each winter. During these long and frequent
absences Charles Charley Tutt, Jr., the son of Spencers Cripple Creek mining and milling
partner, grew into Specs right hand man. Bom in 1889, Charley Jr. looked to Mr. Penrose
for advice and guidance after his father Charles Tutt, Sr. died in 1909. When Spencers
marriage to Julie failed to produce children to help run his expanding empire, he delegated
business responsibilities to his Cripple Creek partners son. Charles Tutt, Sr. had lost much
of the family fortune in his unfortunate copper mining investments at Takilma, Oregon.
Charley Jr. lacked the resources to become Penroses financial partner like Charles MacNeill
and Albert E. Carlton. So the Penrose-Tutt relationship remained that of employer-employee
as Charley, Jr. gradually grew into the role of Penroses business manager.
Tutts responsibilities expanded steadily. He was an original Broadmoor director,
and monitored numerous building projects for Penrose hotel improvements, dams and
irrigation construction, the Cheyenne Mountain Highway and Lodge. From the start he was
involved in managing the hotel, sending lengthy weekly reports to the traveling Penroses:
Dear Mr. Penrose,
It always seems that as soon as you leave town, we have nothing but
trouble. I hate to bother you when you are away and getting this rest, with
these troubles, but believe that you ought to know the conditions of things...
The street car company raised fares from five to six cents making the cost
twelve cents to Broadmoor, instead of ten cents... On Saturday, all men
employed on the golf links threatened trouble... I suggested to pay them
$2.85 for a 9 hour day.... The moving picture theater is starving to death.
Everyone complains about the rotten pictures.46
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By the 1920s, Tutt was vice-president of the Granite Gold Mining, Colorado Midland
Railway, Manitou Mineral Water, and Beaver Park Land companies, as well as the half-
dozen scenic companies. He was a director of the Broadmoor Hotel and Land Company,
Broadmoor Golf Club, and Broadmoor Polo Club. Tutt was director of the El Pomar
Investment Company that Penrose formed in 1924 to consolidate his many business holdings.
And when Penrose formed the El Pomar Foundation in 1937, two years before his death,
Charley Tutt was put on that board too.
By the 1930s, Charley Jr. was himself approaching middle age and his sons William
Thayer and Russell were becoming involved in administering the vast Penrose business
empire.47 At age 21 William Thayer was sending letters to Mr. Penrose, as his father had at
that same age:
Dear Mr. Penrose,
You will find enclosed my report for Feb. 24th Mar. 2nd inclusive and
map of cut off in sewer line. It is awfully hard to explain to you about this cut
off so I drew this little sketch as a kind of illustration. . Milt Strong has been
on the jump trying to find from different concerns the possibility of clearing up
the Rosemont water... Early this morning there was a fire in the Penrose-Tutt
house that did quite a little damage. The total amount is not yet estimated.
Last Saturday we had a dandy golf match. Dad and Mr. McIntyre
against Mr. Wiley Blair and myself. They had us five points the first nine and
we beat them eleven points the second nine. We were playing two points a
hole. Low ball and total. It was quite exciting.48
With business details in the Tutts capable hands, Spencer and Julie could indulge in
the international lifestyle that they loved so well. They traveled abroad from late autumn
through spring, returning in time to prepare for the Broadmoors busy summer season.
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Earnings from copper stock, their many companies, and numerous investments enabled the
Penroses to do what they loved best travel the globe spending their money on first-class
transportation, five-star hotels, gourmet cuisine, exquisite liquor, French perfume and
lingerie, Oriental vases and statuary, and objets dart of all kinds for their beloved
Broadmoor.
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