Citation
Intergenerational facility

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Title:
Intergenerational facility
Creator:
Norouzi, Neda
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xvii, 91 leaves : illustrations ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Intergenerational relations ( lcsh )
Older people -- Housing ( lcsh )
Architecture and society ( lcsh )
Domestic architecture for older people ( lcsh )
Architecture and society ( fast )
Domestic architecture for older people ( fast )
Intergenerational relations ( fast )
Older people -- Housing ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 85-87).
General Note:
College of Architecture and Planning
Statement of Responsibility:
by Neda Narouzi.

Record Information

Source Institution:
|University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
|Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
757824106 ( OCLC )
ocn757824106
Classification:
LD1193.A72 2011m N67 ( lcc )

Full Text
INTERGENERATIONAL FACILITY
by
Neda Norouzi
M.Arch Candidate, University of Colorado, Denver 2008
A thesis submitted to the
University of Colorado Denver
in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Masters of Architecture
2011


This thesis of Master* of Architecture
Degree by
Neda Norouzl
Has been approved
By
Willem Kt Vanvliet
5iol\
Date


ABSTRACT
This thesis endeavors to study the benefits of intergenerational programs in
the United States and analyze the need of designing a facility dedicated to
this program. Using my research findings, I propose to create a new set of
design strategies for an intergenerational facility.
This thesis will be organized in two parts. In the first part of the thesis, I
will investigate the shortage of generational interactions in the United States.
In the second part of this thesis, I will propose a design solution by building
upon existing examples of facilities across the United States, in which the
intergenerational programs have been incorporated. This work is intended to
encourage the contact of these three generations by designing an
intergenerational facility. I will also document how this design proposal will
take steps toward solving the intergenerational problem. The particular spatial
and social context of intergenerational facilities will be researched for their
integrative potential with respect to architectural conditions. Ultimately, the
two parts of the research will be synthesized into a more effective set of
design techniques that will consist of one facility with the attempt of bridging
the separation of the generations. This will inform and help coordinate an
intensive contextual analysis of the intergenerational programs in United
States.


This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidates thesis. I
recommend its publication.
Signed




I dedicate this thesis to the memory of my great-grandmother (Madar).


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to express my appreciation to my advisor, Professor Ranko Ruzic,
for all your support and guidance throughout the time I was working on my
thesis; my committee members: special thanks to Professor Joseph Juhasz, it
has been an honor to work with you, thank you for all you taught me;
Professor Willem Kt Van Vliet, thank you for helping me finding the right
topic for my research. I also like to thank my friends: Mary Fran, because of
you I was able to extend my research farther and gain more knowledge, thank
you. Solmaz, thank you for all your help and kindness. My gratitude also
goes to my dear friend Nima YasourAzareh for your endless unconditional
support. Thank you.


"What do we live for, if it is not to make life less difficult for each other?"
George Eliot


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Figures.........................................................xi
Tables..........................................................xv
CHAPTER 1
1. INTRODUCTION..................................................1
The Purpose of the Research.............................3
Research Methodology....................................5
CHAPTER 2
2. LITERATURE REVIEW.............................................6
Definitions of Generation...............................6
Definition of Family and How Its Changing..............7
Who Are Children and What Are Their Needs...............9
Who Are Young Adults and What Are Their Needs..........11
The Role of Elder Persons in a family..................12
The Role of Elder Persons in Society...................13
What Do Elder Persons Need?............................15
Defining Intergenerational Program.....................15
Why intergenerational facilities are needed in the United States?
.......................................................15
The Benefits of Intergenerational Facilities...........17
viii


Benefits for Children.................................19
Benefits for Young Adults.............................20
Benefits for the Elderly..............................21
Relevance to the Architecture Discipline..............23
CHAPTER 3
3. CASE STUDIES................................................24
Hesston Child Development Center......................24
Strengths.............................................29
Weaknesses............................................30
Sankofa House.........................................31
Strengths.............................................34
Weaknesses............................................34
Result of the Case Studies............................35
CHAPTER 4
4. DESIGN
What to Design in the Future...............................36
Site Selection and Analysis.................................38
Relationship to Grade.......................................39
Relationship of Indoor and Outdoor Spaces...................39
IX


Orientation
39
Pedestrian Access......................................40
Vehicular Access and Parking...........................40
Facility Size..........................................40
Space Requirements.....................................40
CHAPTER 5
5. IMPLEMENTATION (SCHEMATIC DESIGN)
Design Decision Making...............................44
Design Process.......................................45
Spatial Analysis.....................................45
Study of Form and Concept............................50
Form Studies.........................................54
CHAPTER 6
6. ILLUSTRATIVE ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPT
Site Analysis......................................59
Exterior Renderings................................69
Interior Renderings................................73
Presentation Boards................................78
7. CONCLUSIONS.............................................84
8. BIBLIOGRAPHY............................................85
X


9. POSTSCRIPT..........................................88
Other questions to consider....................90
XI


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Aghazadeh Houses floor plan...............................7
Figure 2: Aghazadeh House..............................................8
Figure 3: Collecting Leaves and Flowers..............................18
Figure 4: Playing Cards sharpens memory skills.......................18
Figure 5: older adults watching the children play ...................25
Figure 6: Childrens Playground.......................................25
Figure 7: Childrens Playground.......................................25
Figure 8: Children watching their grand friends......................26
Figure 9: Drawing a Picture...........................................26
Figure 10: Grandma Ruth is helping Grace write a story...............26
Figure 11: Playing in the Infant Room.................................27
Figure 12: Building Blocks with Three Years Olds......................27
Figure 13: Sharing Toys with Grandma..................................27
Figure 14: Baking Cupcakes............................................28
Figure 15: Making Peanut Butter.......................................28
Figure 16: Grandpa is making pottery for preschoolers................28
Figure 17: Performing a play together................................28
Figure 18.............................................................29
Figure19: Visiting grandparents in the lounge.........................29
xii


Figure 20: Sankofa House...................................................31
Figure 21: Exterior view of the light core..................................31
Figure 22: Entry Lobby......................................................32
Figure 23: Multi-purpose room...............................................32
Figure 24: Eight Urban wind turbines on the rooftop.........................32
Figure 25: two habitable vegetative roofs...................................33
Figure 26....................................................................33
Figure 27 .................................................................33
Figure 28....................................................................33
Figure 29: Spatial studies..................................................45
Figure 30: Space configuration..............................................46
Figure 31: Form studies.....................................................46
Figure 32: Space configuration..............................................47
Figure 33: Space configuration..............................................47
Figure 34: Space configuration..............................................47
Figure 35....................................................................47
Figure 36....................................................................47
Figure 37: Form studies.....................................................48
Figure 38: Form and space configuration.....................................48
Figure 39: Form and circulation study.......................................49
xiii


Figure 40..............................................................49
Figure 41: Main entrance...............................................49
Figure 42: Three point space...........................................51
Figure 43..............................................................51
Figure 44: Line is the trace of a moving point.........................51
Figure 45: Main lines from the site....................................51
Figure 46..............................................................51
Figure 47: Combination of lines........................................52
Figure 48..............................................................52
Figure 49: Site........................................................52
Figure 50: Outcome.....................................................52
Figure 51..............................................................53
Figure 52..............................................................53
Figure 53: Shared-space................................................53
Figure 54: Final outcome...............................................53
Figure 55..............................................................54
Figure 56..............................................................54
Figure 57..............................................................55
Figure 58..............................................................55
Figure 59..............................................................56
XIV


56
Figure 60:
Figure 61: Ground level diagram........................................57
Figure 62: First level diagram..........................................57
Figure 63: Second level diagram........................................58
Figure 64...............................................................58
Figure 65: Site before planning.........................................59
Figure 66: Site plan....................................................59
Figure 67: Road plan....................................................60
Figure 68: Sidewalk plan................................................60
Figure 69: Green space..................................................60
Figure 70: Ground floor.................................................61
Figure 71: First floor..................................................64
Figure 72: Second floor.................................................65
Figure 73: Structure....................................................66
Figure 74: Designed site................................................67
Figure 75: Birds eye view..............................................68
Figure 76: West wing, older adults units...............................69
Figure 77: Main entrance................................................70
Figure 78...............................................................71
Figure 79: Roof.........................................................72
XV


Figure 80: Gathering space in the older adults corridor..................73
Figure 81: Gathering space in the older adults corridor..................74
Figure 82: Interior hallway...............................................75
Figure 83: Interior hallway looking toward the gathering space............76
Figure 84: Gathering space................................................76
XVI


LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Space configuration...........................................42
Table 2: Space needed..................................................43
XVII


CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
I grew up in Iran where family members of different generations -- great-
grandparents, grandparents, parents and children -- lived together in one
building and everyone took care of each other. However, this wasnt true
about my family. Both my parents had moved to Tehran from different cities
and after they got married, they just decided to stay in the capital city.
Therefore, the only family that we had in Tehran was my moms grandparents
who, at that point, have lived in Tehran for more than 30 years. I grew up
knowing them as my own grandparents; they visited us frequently and I loved
spending time at their small two-bedroom apartment. They spoiled me and
taught me how to love unconditionally.
I became a teenager and moved to the United States when I was
eighteen and started working at a Child Development Center as preschool
teacher. Some of the children spent 8-10 hours a day at the center and I felt
blessed that I could watch them grow and give them all the love that I had
received as a child. I worked with children for ten years before I decided to go
back to school and pursue my dream of becoming an architect.
In 2008, my great-grandmother, who I called Madar, turned 100 years
old. It was becoming harder for her to use the stairs in their apartment. She
didnt want to architecturally modify her house or go to a nursing home. Nor
did she want to stay with my mom or any other family members. She would
say, This is my home, and I like to be here; if I leave then the kids will come
to visit and I wont be here to see them. We all loved her very much and we
wanted to respect her wishes, but it was really hard for my 90-year old great-
grandfather to take care of both of them. In search of finding the best living
situation for my loving Madar, I got introduced to intergenerational facilities.
l


Madar was always happier when she was around children. She enjoyed
singing for them and it seemed like her hearing would improve around kids as
well because she would have conversations with them. I only hoped that I
could build an intergenerational facility in Tehran when she was still alive.
Madar passed away in 2010 but her loving memory will always be in my
heart. I am designing this facility for all the grandparents who are away from
their children and all the children who spend long hours in the child
development centers.
I am proposing to design buildings that are made to meet different
needs and have multiple uses that support a reconnection between
generations. This development will maximize the use of the buildings
sources, time, energy and knowledge of the persons working there. We have
heard about the coming crisis related to the unparalleled aging of the US
population (UN/DESA 2007). Instead of being viewed as a problem, the aging
of the population can be an opportunity for designers and society members to
rethink the concept of aging and the role of our older adults, and children,
both of whom have been relatively invisible in our society as of late. This will
also reflect on our human and natural resources. I advocate an all-out
campaign to strengthen intergenerational bonds within families and
communities. In family life, this means nurturing opportunities to involve all
family members in activities such as storytelling and folklore, crafts, song,
play and travel. And in the community, this means increasing
intergenerational programs. Designing and building infrastructure specific for
intergenerational activities is one of the first steps toward this goal.
2


THE PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH
Over the past 30 years, the young and the older adults have begun to live and
play in increasingly different worlds. This separation between the generations
has been linked to the increase in negative stereotypes toward the aging
(Kaplan, Talking about Work Across Generations 2008). At the same time,
younger people, who are in need of adult guidance and relationships, often
find little opportunity for meaningful exchanges with older adults. Family
structures are changing; the dramatic increase in life expectancy and lowered
fertility in the United States has resulted in people living longer and in more
complex family structures (James S. Jackson, Toni C. Antonucci, Simon
Biggs 2007).
American families are experiencing a filial change where the younger
generation is no longer taking care of the elders (McKenzie 2007). The
boomer population is aging while younger people are having fewer, if any,
children. As a result, there is less family care and support for older adults at
an age when they need it most. There is also less emotional support for
younger generations who live away from their families. Older people often
suffer from loneliness, boredom, and feelings of helplessness. Greater
geographical mobility, increased racial and ethnic diversity, new patterns of
immigration and identity reformulation, as well as changing work and family
roles are important factors that also affect families (McKenzie 2007).
Therefore, there is growing support for the view that in order to
strengthen our families and our communities, we need to cherish
opportunities for people to come together across generational lines and
become more invested in each others lives. Over the past decade, there has
been more focus on intergenerational programs; different programs have
been designed to support different generations engagement and participation
3


with the community. It is important to understand the changing nature of
intergenerational family structures, functioning, and roles in individual well-
being and to address basic factors related to intergenerational support
systems to cope with the challenges facing individuals in all generational
positions (both in their families and in communities) in the United States.
The specific objectives of the project are to:
Identify a definition of generation and family;
Identify a definition of children, young and older adults and their needs
and role in todays American society;
Identify a definition of intergenerational programs and relevant
associated concepts, briefly exploring each element;
Identify benefits of intergenerational programs to both the individuals
involved and the broader community;
To design an intergenerational facility with the focus on the shared
space between the generations.
In short, this research explores intergenerational programs designed to
increase engagement between generations in the community and analyzes
existing facilities that are implementing intergenerational programs. In the
end, it will demonstrate that existing research can be used to formulate
design guidelines for building these facilities and further more the design
section of this thesis will demonstrate of how these guidelines can be applied.
4


RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The research methods for data collection are pre-structured insofar as it
roughly follows the outline listed in the abstract and preliminary research
portions of this proposal. The thesis will be handled as two interactive parts.
The first part:
addresses the absence of generational interactions in the country,
describes the definition of generation, older persons, young adults and
children;
talks about their needs from each other
analyzes the benefits of the intergenerational programs.
The second part of the thesis:
references the facilities in which the intergenerational program has
been incorporated
addresses the intergenerational programs need for a specific facility.
Ultimately the two parts will be superimposed. This synthesis leads to
responses that are incorporated into the design.
5


CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
Definitions of Generation
Generation is the same age cohort that lives through the same significant
events, especially during adolescence or young adulthood (Mannheim 2002).
In other words, a generation is shaped not only by the era but also by pivotal
events, such as World War II or the civil rights movement or the attack of the
World Trade Center. These events symbolize shared reference points and
common experiences.
Up until the 19th Century, familial generation, the average time
between a mother's first offspring and her daughter's first offspring, was the
only definition of generation that was known. As the 19th century wore on, the
society got divided into different categories of people based on age and
cultural generations, cohorts of people who were born in the same date range
and share similar cultural experience, were added to the list of generations.
The process of modernization and industrialization altered the publics
mentality of understanding of time and society. One important contributing
factor to this matter was the change in the economic structure of society.
Because of the rapid social and economic change, young men particularly
were less beholden to their fathers and family authority than they had been
before then. Greater social and economic mobility allowed them to flout their
authority to a much greater extent than had traditionally been possible.
Additionally, the skills and wisdom of fathers were often less valuable than
they had been due to technological and social change. Another important
factor was the breakdown of traditional social and regional identifications. The
spread of nationalism and many of the factors that created it encouraged a
broader sense of belonging, beyond local affiliations. People thought of
6


themselves increasingly as part of a society, and this encouraged
identification with groups beyond the local (Wohl 1979). During this time, the
period of time between childhood and adulthood usually spent at university or
in military service, was also increased for many people entering white collar
jobs (Wohl 1979). I believe it was around this period of time when the
meaning of family changed and people started to get less attached to their
families and more attached to their jobs and society.
Family is defined as the basic unit in society traditionally consisting of two
parents rearing their children; or a group of persons of common ancestry
(Merriam Webster n.d.). Traditionally, families took care of each other;
younger adults cared for the older adults. I spent my childhood in Iran, where
traditional houses were built to allow this style of family living; houses usually
had a big courtyard with rooms surrounding it, and each family member had
lived in a room, as children got older and married they would get more rooms
and stay in the same house with their families. This way everyone would take
care of each other.
Definition of Family and How Its Changing
Figure 1: Aghazedeh Houses floor plan, Abarkooh
7


Figure 2: Aghazedeh House
In time, people needed more privacy and time away from each other;
in order to keep the tradition, families started living in separate houses but in
the same neighborhood so they can be close to each other in times of need.
In the last four decades, more changes have resulted in the virtual
disappearance of the extended family and dramatic decrease in the amount
of significant interactions between generations. America has become more
mobile, widening the geographic and emotional separation between children
and senior adults, creating a societal health problem: disconnectedness.
Family members of different generations, great-grandparents, grandparents,
parents and children, are not living together anymore.
Traditional familial tasks (caring for the children and elderly) are now
delegated to institutions outside the home; children centers and nursing
homes. Therefore, we need to find effective ways to bring the young and the
older adult together so they can become more invested in each other's lives.
In the process, they can tell their stories, share their experiences, and provide
and receive care and support.
8


Who Are Children and What Are Their Needs?
A person between birth and full growth is defined as a child (Merriam
Webster n.d.). In this thesis I focus on the first five years of their lives. As a
preschool teacher, I learned that what children learn in the first few years of
their lives is the most important learning experience. Nearly 90% of childrens
brains develop during the first five years of their lives. In todays society, child
care is becoming a fact of life for many American families. As increasing
numbers of women enter and remain in the work force after pregnancy, and
more are single parents, more families are relying on non-maternal care for
their infants and children. Since most of these mothers return to work in their
child's first three to five months of life, more than one million children under
the age of five in the United States spend much of their early lives in a variety
of child care situations (Townsend 2002).
The philosophy of Dr. Maria Montessori is that within each preschool
child is the seed of unlimited potential, which will guide the child into
adulthood (Standing 1957). Therefore, we can say early childcare education
is the foundation of everything that follows. The question is "Are we properly
preparing our children for the life that lies ahead?" (UnkownOrigin n.d.) to be
competent, confident, compassionate and a capable individual learner.
Children are educated at their own rate of development.
Child Development should be focused on continually stimulating the
child through an enriched environment with activities, materials, and
extensions that promote experimentation at every developmental level. The
goal is to treat each student as an individual. This philosophy is in direct
opposition to a traditional daycare setting with the ratio of 6-15 children per
teacher, but in an intergenerational facility with grand- friends can pay one-
on-one attention to children and their needs. Children learn by making
9


connections. The meaning of true love and understanding gets created by the
response they get to their demands. Children learn to trust or mistrust, to feel
safe or be afraid, to feel loved or unloved based on the way others will treat
them. The help of grand-friends in an intergenerational facility will allow the
opportunity of respecting and responding to each child on individual basis
which will produce self-discipline and a lifelong love of learning.
Children have basic human needs in addition to requirements unique
to their particular situation. Childrens basic needs include food, shelter and
physical safety but just as important is their emotional security. Due to
development of their minds, they need support in developing and learning
important and useful skills. They need to learn the rules of society, to be able
to communicate their ideas and desire, to persuade and change minds.
Children grow to become functioning adults- many abilities that are
useful in developing careers can be very much an exploratory activity as
children discover their talents and the things that motivate them. Children also
need to learn to be happy with themselves and to cope with the difficulties
and traumas of life. They thus need to learn self-confidence and emotional
maturity (Judith MacCallum, David Palmer, Peter Wright, Wendy Cumming-
Potvin, Michelle Brooker, Cameron Tero, Peter Wright 2010). It is a profound
responsibility of parents and caregivers to provide for these needs.
10


Who Are Young Adults and What Are Their Needs?
Anyone between the ages of 18-23 is considered a young adult. However this
program is focused to take care of the young adults who spent their entire
youth being bounced from one foster home to another. These young people
often leave the foster care system with few resources and very little support.
Young people transitioning out of the foster care system are significantly
affected by the instability that accompanies long periods of out-of-home
placement during childhood and adolescence. The experiences of these
youth place them at a higher risk for unemployment, poor educational
outcomes, health issues, early parenthood, long-term dependency on public
assistance, increased rates of incarceration, and homelessness (Hall n.d.).
Many young people live with their parents during the time of economic
downturns when jobs are scarce, and housing is expensive. Unfortunately,
foster youth do not always have the option of turning to their families for
support. Every child deserves a family, someone to turn to as she/he grows
into adulthood and the need doesnt end at the age of 18.
Alone, these young people are confronting the harsh reality of the gap
between the wages they earn and the cost of housing. In an effort to assist
youth in their transitions to adulthood, the intergenerational facility will create
a place where they can call home. Young people who are aging out of foster
care need the safety net that permanent supportive housing provides.
Housing, healthcare, employment and most importantly the need of getting
prepared for being in the society, get a job, and support themselves are the
basic needs of this group. The intergenerational populations inherent
diversity of age, enhanced by the requisite diversity of race, ethnicity,
education, income, life experience, and perspective will help the young adults
develop self-esteem resulting in independence and a sense of purpose.
ll


The Role of Elder Persons in Family
Respect your grandparents, love them and help them if they need you to is
what my mother used to tell me and my brother when we were younger. Both
sets of my grandparents lived out of state so we only saw them on holidays.
During every Norouz1 when schools were out for thirteen days, my parents,,
my brother Nima (who is three years younger than me), my great
grandparents, and I would travel by train and went to Mashhad where my
grandparents lived. Those days are the highlight of my childhood. The whole
family gathered together at my grandparents house, all my cousins, aunts
and uncles. We celebrated the New Year and enjoyed life together. My
grandma cooked traditional yummy food and baked special Norouz cookies
and if we would ask to help, she would say, Just go have fun; I enjoy doing
work for all of you. She taught me how to serve others without asking for
anything in return. She was kind and patient.
My cousins, Nima and I climbed up the big sour cherry trees in the
yard, ate fresh cherries and played in the small pool. As we got older, the
amount of aeidi2 that we got from our grandparents went up. We usually
played cards or Jenga3 as a family and the loser would buy everyone Kabab
which would also encourage all of us going out together. My grandfather used
to say it doesnt matter how old you are, if you lose you have buy Kabab for
everyone, and if one of the kids would end up buying it, he would give us
1 Norouz widely referred to as the Persian New Year marks the first day of spring and the
beginning of the year in Iranian calendar. It is celebrated on the day of the astronomical
vernal equinox, which usually occurs on March 21 or the previous/following day depending on
where it is observed.
2 Traditionally elders give money to younger adults and children for Norouz. This money is
called Aeidi
3 Jenga is a game of physical and mental skill. During the game, players take turns to remove a block
from a tower of wooden blocks (1X3) and balance it on top, creating a taller and increasingly
unstable structure as the game progresses.
12


more money after the fact. He taught us responsibility and the joy of sharing
with others and paying it forward.
All this happiness was created by my grandparents and, because of
them, my family came together at least once a year. Even though we lived
apart, our relationships was close and as studies have shown long-distance
grandchildren can still feel satisfied and have emotionally close relations with
their grandparents (Alan C. Taylor, Mihaela Robila, Hae Seung Lee 2005).
Since my grandfather passed away, and some of us have moved outside of
the country, its been harder to get together and celebrate Norouz every year,
but the existing emotional closeness remains within the family and we always
talk about our childhood memories and how fortunate we were for having
them in our lives.
The Role of Elder Persons in Society
An elder person is someone with a lot of life experience and wisdom with
increase knowledge by virtue of their years of living. In many earlier cultures
elders were considered essential to the continuity and identity of the
community. In these cultures elders performed deliberative representative
and judicial functions and were admitted to that governing body purely on the
basis of age (Campbell 1994). Establishing and fostering positive, effective
communication with the elderly will provide the foundation for a better life. In
Japanese culture, elders were the primary perpetuators of religious affairs
and they made offerings and attended the private devotions and communal
prayer on behalf of their family (Palmer 1975).
Unfortunately during the Industrial Age, the role of older adults became
distorted and American culture lost sight of how important this generation is.
In the United States, age-segregation and age-related stereotypes could be
limiting childrens exposure to cultural diversity. The focus of this Age turned
13


to productivity and, therefore, if a person wasnt productive- in terms of
producing material goods- she/he wasnt valuable. Knowledge learned from
science and technology took the place of knowledge gained from experience.
People of this period lost interest in their history, ancestors and as a result
their own identity (Frances Cox, Ndung'u Mberia 1977) and became more
focused on themselves which led to individualism and less value for the
elders of the family. These events created an atmosphere where older adults
got separated from other generations and there was no place for them to
share their stories, experiences, visions and dreams with the younger people.
This has continued to our age and time where even today our elderly dont
always receive the care and respect they deserve.
Older adults are an important and growing segment of our society with
wisdom to share and valuable life lessons to teach; therefore, they should be
honored for their historical significance. They should be seen as connection to
the past. Their very presence creates a connection between generations past,
present and future. They establish an awareness of the culture and
rootedness that is so necessary for the health and growth of our community
(Best 2001).
Older adults have an important role in the society even if they dont
have any grandchildren of their own, or if they are separated by geographical
distances. A friend of mine tells a story of his childhood about an elder
neighbor, Mr. Yaghoubi, who would knock on every door in the neighborhood
every Norouz and ask everyone to come out, wash and clean the street
together; he then would asked everyone to bring a flower pot from their house
and form a line in the middle of the street and leave it there during the
holidays. So for thirteen days of Norouzi holiday, the street would become
walkable and today, more than thirty years later, Mr. Yaghoubis memory is
14


being celebrated in our thoughts. The older adults have the power of making
the past becoming alive and giving a broader view to our lives. They need to
be loved and praised.
Defining Intergenerational Programs
Intergenerational programs are social vehicles that create purposeful and
ongoing exchange of resources and learning among older and younger
generations" (Matthew Kaplan, Nancy Z. Henkin, Atsuko Kusano 2002).
Another definition describes intergenerational program s as interventions that
aim to increase cooperation, interaction or exchange between any two
generations (Duugar 1993). Therefore intergenerational programming offers
an opportunity for generations to come together and to celebrate the
uniqueness of one another by sharing their talent and resources allowing their
unique personal knowledge, experiences and expectations to shape their
interactions.
Why intergenerational facilities are needed in the United States?
Being able to teach and to make a difference in young people's lives will help
the elderly feel part of society again. Also encouraging young people to
become involved with voluntary community service projects will enable them
to better understand other people, become familiar with new service
opportunities, and will open up new career options to them. As the result of
increased self-esteem, any young volunteers make better decisions in life and
feel greatly enriched by giving of themselves (van Vliet 2009). Children will
be use the older adults wisdom, learn how to solve problems and respect
others.
There is a need for intergenerational facilities in the country. Aging is
everyones business (Jekins 2010). Everyone will get older, and due to
15


modernism we use more industrial material and less hand crafted, therefore
houses are more modules and less need specific for the users. Industrial
modularity is cheaper and easier to build; the sense of space has changed
and there is no space in new houses for grandparents to live with their
children and grandchildren. Also due to globalization, children are moving to
different states, countries and continents in search of a different and possibly
better life. Intergenerational facilities will allow the society to use resources
that are available through the tremendously underutilized economical and
social knowledge of elders, and the unrecognized children and youth services
through volunteer activities.
16


The Benefits of Intergenerational Facilities
Intergenerational facilities can provide leadership and resource support for
organizations interested in developing intergenerational programs and
activities that enrich people's lives and help address vital social and
community issues. Intergenerational approaches will help strengthen
weakened social safety nets, promote economic sustainability, and improve
social integration in cities (Hellen Kim, Klein Kim, Robby Rpdrigues 2009).
An intergenerational program creates a sense of family, strengthen the
community, and will make the skills and experience of different generations
available to one another. It brings a sense of shared purpose and values; it
serves as a foundation for caring relationships among all members of its
community, including staff. It provides children experiences with other
children and adults of varying ages under the supervision of trained
personnel.
Intergeneration philosophy allows all ages use their senses to explore,
create, discover or re-discover new things about themselves or nature.
Seniors can help kids with homework or conduct more formal tutoring
sessions, read aloud to young children or help older ones to read, play cards
or board games, help them with computers or gather a group to go outside for
soccer or basketball. A simple activity like collecting leaves and flowers will
create different learning opportunities such as: interacting and communicating
(verbal/non-verbal), enhancing self-esteem and pride in accomplishment,
staying on task and completing an activity, working as a team and
cooperating, be generative, nurturing, helpful and caring, learn new terms and
skills.
17


These facilities will result in more efficient use of the physical building
and funding sources (Wiliam van Vliet, Selena Paulsen 2008). They will
save money by sharing staff, space, and other operational costs. The senior
staff can train the young adults who live in the facility, to work with children or
the elder persons. This will give the young adults education, work
responsibility, and a great place to live and an experience f to love and be
loved. It will create an easier transition out of the foster homes into the real
world.
Figure 3: Collecting leaves and flowers Figure 4: Playing cards sharpens memory skills
in children and elderly alike
Intergenerational facilities will enhance quality of life for all participants,
provide needed services to the community, increase cost saving and
opportunities to share resources, attract additional funding and positive public
relations and most importantly improve attitudes about different age groups.
18


Benefits for Children: Older adults could serve as positive influences in the
lives of children by taking on roles such as caregiver, playmate, adviser,
mentor, and friend (Shalhevet Attar Schwartz,Jo Pei Tan ,Ann Buchanana
,Eirini Flouri and Julia Griggs 2009). Studies have proven that preschool
children involved in intergenerational programs had higher personal/ social
developmental scores by about a year, and higher school attendance and
performance in later school years than children involved in non-
intergenerational programs.
Being involved with intergenerational programs enhances the
childrens communication skill, promotes their self-esteem and develops their
problem-solving abilities. Also interaction with older adults will develop the
childrens positive attitude toward sense of purpose and community service.
Children who regularly participate with older adults in a shared site program
at a nursing home have enhanced perceptions of older adults and persons
with disabilities and nursing homes in general. The vast majority of parents
surveyed believe the intergenerational program is beneficial for their children
(Metlife Foundation 2008).
Josh is a member of his middle school Intergenerational Project run by
a group called the Hesston Area Seniors, Inc. Josh says the very first time
that he got involved with the elderly, he had the stereotypical image that many
children have of an older person: that theyre slow, sick and -well, stinky.
Instead he discovered that taking part in these sessions not only beats the
alternative of watching TV and waiting for his dad to get home from work, but
the older people are pretty cool after all. These guys are fun, they really
help you" Josh says (Holland 2000).
19


Benefits for Young Adults: The transition to adulthood is an intimidating
prospect for all teens but for young adults in foster care it means more than
just branching out on their own. It means the end of programs, case workers,
and foster homes that were tasked with providing for their basic needs. Older
adults in an intergenerational facility can provide guidance, wisdom and
support the young adults during the transition to adulthood (Metlife
Foundation 2008).
Foster youth are the group of children who have been separated from
their families to be protected from harm. When these kids turn 18, they need
to move out, find a job, and go to college by themselves and without the
support of their parents or anybody else to help them establish happy and
productive lives. An intergenerational program can be a resource for these
young adults to fall back on; to have their own apartment to live in, to go to
school or be involved in the training programs. They will be able to work at the
intergenerational facility they are living in, and to also take advantage of
counseling, therapy and other available services at the facility. They would
gain the ability to develop financial skills, manage their finances and
accumulate savings for the future.
They would have the opportunity to establish a relationship with older
adults, children and their families as well as with other employees working at
the facility. They can be the center of attention when they needed and learn
how to give undivided attention to others. Experiencing the goodness of all
ages living together, sharing big events and small moments would lead to
laughter, surprises, reminiscing and learning from one another and a greater
perspective of life in the real world for the young adults.
20


Benefits for the Elderly: For older adults, regular interaction with
children results in an atmosphere that is more family/home-like and
promotes social enrichment and a renewed interest in others. The majority of
older adults participating in intergenerational programs indicate that they feel
happy, interested, loved, younger and needed (Metlife Foundation 2008).
Making the older adults feel needed has a powerful impact on depression,
physical health, and well-being (Sullivan 2002).
Staying involved, having a chance to give back to their community and
helping others contributes to the maintenance of good health, and can
diminish the effect of psychological and physical diseases and disorders.
(Aging Initiative 2010) Older adults with dementia or other cognitive
impairments experience more positive affect during interactions with children
than they do during non-intergenerational activities. An Alzheimer's care
provider shared, My residents mostly sit in their wheelchairs moaning and
groaning until they hear the sweet little voices of Children. Then...they speak
up; I see the smiles, brighter eyes, and even a resident who can do books on
tapes with the kids.
Being engaged in intergenerational activities would enhance the older
adults self-esteem, improve their life satisfaction; it would also help them
remain productive, useful, and contributing members of society. They
increase interaction with children and youth and engage more with one
another to prevent isolation in later years. They learn new innovations and
technologies from their younger counterparts.
Helen Matthews is a senior adult who shares local history and cultural
arts with children in a local elementary school in Hawaii. Helen says that she
finds inspiration and a sense of power from her work with children. This is
something she can do, within her realm of influence, to make a difference in
21


young people's lives (Kaplan, Out of Audience And Onto The Playing Field:
Preventing School Violence 2001). Judy Douglass, Generations Mentor at
Denver Urban Gardens Connecting Generations, says:
During the school year, Im privileged to read to groups of children in the library, to
practice simple words with kindergarteners, and do some lattice multiplication with
the fourth graders. The kids all love unconditional attention from someone who is not
a teacher or parent; I so love their unconditional love in return. During the spring and
summer we share special times in the garden. We all benefit from Judy Elliotts
gardening lessons but also marvel as children mature, explore, and find calmness.
22


Relevance to the Architecture Discipline
One of the critical issues in the intergenerational studies field is the lack of
attention to how the physical environment plays a role in promoting
intergenerational engagement. Today, architecture mostly responds to one
need in regards to these demographics. Architects design schools or senior
citizens facilities; however the combination of these programs is revolutionary.
Intergenerational facilities will result in more efficient use of physical facility and
funding sources. This will allow local government and school districts to respond
more flexibly to demographic shifts, obviating the need for demolition and
construction of specialized facilities designed narrowly to accommodate a single age
group. (van Vliet 2009)
I am proposing to design buildings that are made to meet different
needs and have multiple uses that support a reconnection between children,
young adults and Older Adults. By focusing on the needs and desires of
theses generations architects will have the opportunity to design specific
spaces that would respond to the clients needs, rather that adjusting the
needs to fit the space. Instead of connecting two separate buildings of a
senior citizen home and a daycare center, we will design and build them
together with the addition of all the share space they need. This will allow the
older adults to have their privacy and live in their own space, yet have the
opportunity to be with the children as often as they desire. It will also make it
easier for the children to visit their grand-friends in the older adults section or
for all of them to get together in the shared spaces.
23


CHAPTER 3
CASE STUDIES
Hesston Child Development Center
Hesston Intergenerational Child Development Center located at 441 Neufeld
Dr., Hesston, KS 67062-8101, is a new building that was designed and built
connected to the Assisted Living area of Schowalter Villa.
For over 14 years Hesston Child Care Center (HCCC) and Schowalter
Villa have valued highly the interactions that happen when children from the
child care are able to interact with residents from the retirement center. At first
it was very limited as it was necessary to bus children to the Villa. Only one or
two groups of older children were taken on a monthly basis. But both
organizations realized the benefits to both populations. In 2001, when it
became necessary for Hesston Child Care to find a new permanent home, it
was only natural that the administrators and boards of both organizations
looked at the possibility of building a facility for the child care that not only
was close to the retirement center but that was purposely designed to
facilitate many levels of interaction between children and elderly.
The result after four years of planning and much community
involvement was the Hesston Intergenerational Child Development Center
(HCCC). The two facilities are connected through a corridor named Main
Street that includes a gift shop, a bank, a small meeting room and a stop for
Ice Cream Shop. Judy Friesen, HCCCs director said that the children call the
elderly grandma and grandpa. This will create trust and love between the
two groups. The design of the HCCC, though it wasnt flawless, has created a
great connection between the existing building of Schowalter Villa and the
new extension of the HCCC. Different observation and interaction areas were
24


planned to allow the elderly interact with children as much as they like. These
areas include:
One-way observation windows into the Infant room and the youngest
Toddler room, accessed from the child care lobby.
Large interactive observation windows at the end of Main Street,
looking into the multi-purpose room where there are generally groups
of children playing.
Figure 5: Older adults watching the children play in the
Multi-Purpose room
Outdoor playgrounds that can be observed from some of the resident
rooms, and from common sidewalks
Figure 6: Older adults are able to sit in
their rooms and watch the
children play in the playground


Children can look out of their classroom windows and see their
Grandma and Grandpa friends walking by.
Figure 8: Children watching their grand-friends
through the classroom window
Judy mentioned that HCCC also facilitated schedule interactions
between the children and the elder persons, including: weekly visits of a small
group of children of each classroom to do activities with their particular
residents at the Villa. They do art projects together, play games, sing music
and often bake. I observed one of these daily visits where the children draw a
picture that told the story then the grandparents helped them by writing the
stories.
26


There are eight seniors who come on a regular basis each week and
help in the classroom as teacher aides. The infants take daily strolls down the
halls of the Villa in their Bye-Bye Buggy, and the Toddlers play puzzles with
their grandparents.
Figure 11: Playing in the Infant room
On occasion residents are brought to the childrens rooms to visit. And
children visit residents in their rooms.
Figure 12: Building Blocks with Figure 13: Sharing Toys with Grandma
Three vears nlds
27


Many special events are planned to include children, college students
from Hesston College and residents from Schowalter Villa. They include
Parades, Festival of Creativity three days of planned activities such as
baking, storytelling, music, and other interesting experiences. Christmas
celebrations; a Mardi Gras Parade, Petting zoo, and picnics. 4
Figure 14: Baking Cupcakes Figure 15:
Making Peanut Butter
4 Images 14-17 are from: http://www.hesstonchildcare.org/page4.php
28


Figure 19: visiting Grandparents in the lounge
Strengths
HCCCs passionate employee, and parents in addition to the long term
relationship theyve had with the Villa helps creating a loving friendly
environment for the children and grandparents to live, learn and play. The
center also collaborates with Hesston Community College. Student volunteers
bring in the new energy and faces to the group. The class curriculum involves
students connecting with residents in Assisted Living and Health Care. Many
enjoy one-on-one visits where they can spend time sharing and enjoying each
others company. Hesston College also encourages residents to attend their
many cultural, educational, and recreational opportunities. An Arboretum that
is part of the seamless campus community with grassy meadows that
surround a lake, hundreds of varieties of native and adaptable wildflowers,
scrubs and trees creates a beautiful backdrop for relaxation and meditation.
There is also a half mile circle trail with benches provided for residents and
children to enjoy new discoveries in all four seasons.
29


Weaknesses
HCCC and the Villa are two buildings that were designed and built in two
different times. And even-though in the design of the HCCC, the architect did
a great job of creating shared spaces and the Main Street, the building still
lacks the innovative connections between the programs and reads as two
different building connected together by a hallway, called Main Street. In-
order for intergenerational activities to take place, one group always has to
travel to the other side of the main street, which will lower the chance of the
elderly who choose not to participate in the activities. When I interviewed the
grandparents, some of them complained about the children being loud in the
shared space. These spaces were originally designed for the Villas residents
to get together to talk, watch TV or just relax outside of their rooms. But the
daily activities with the children now limits the quiet time for the grandparents.
30


Sankofa House
Located at 4041 West Roosevelt Road, Chicago, IL 60624-3970, Sankofa
House is a new 58-unit, 5-story apartment building for young adults and
kinship families. It is a project completed by Interfaith Housing who builds
affordable housing for underserved populations. Sankofa House consists of a
combination of two-, three- and four-bedroom units for the kinship families
and one bedroom starter apartments for young adults ageing out of foster
care. Kinship families are growing nationally, and according to the Illinois
Department of Aging, over 200,000 children under the age of 18 are living
with their grandparents whose average income is around $15,000 to $25,000.
One of the major goals of this project is to support underserved families and
keep them intact.
Sankofa House earned the top-tier three-star certification through the
Department of Housings Green Residential Program. The most outstanding
sustainable feature of the building is the light-core that begins at the ground
floor entry lobby and is organized vertically through the building.
Figure 21: Exterior view of
Light core
31


The entry lobby at the ground level was designed where vision for security in
two directions was required; floor to ceiling glass at both sides provides a
welcoming space where the electric power light are barely needed.
Figure 22: Entry Lobby Figure 23: Multi-purpose room
Sankofa Houses other sustainable features include wind turbine, vegetative
roof gardens, fixed sun shades on the southern windows, an eco-friendly
elevator, low flow plumbing fixtures, a tri-sorter chute, built-in recycling bins
and recycled limestone flooring.
32


Figure 25: Two habitable vegetative roof
gardens located in each wing,
and accessible from the fifth
floor corridor
Figure 27: A tri-sorter chute encourages recycling and requires
residents to select waste or two types of recycling
and diverts waste to the appropriate bin at the
ground floor
Figure 26: Sun shades
33


Strengths
Snakofa Houses sustainable features were great. The residential units are
design with the needs of the community in mind. During my interview with
some of the grandparents, they said that the residential units are beautiful
and they love living there. They not only take care of their grandchildren but
also support each other in their community. A grandmother said the recycling
system in the house has made it very easy for me and my three grandsons to
recycle and help the environment, this makes us feel good. Susan King, the
architect of the building said It was important that the design support the
community within the building through the shared spaces, but we needed to
promote independence for the young adults as well. Therefore we took
advantage of the site (King 2010). Sankofa House is on a corner site with
two street facades. The kinship apartments are placed along the more
residential street and the starter apartments are situated along the bustling
Roosevelt Road. The light-filled shared space is designed on each floor as
multipurpose rooms.
Weaknesses
Snakofa Houses residential units design doesn't show the consideration of
the age and scale of children and ability of the grandparents. For example the
counter-tops and built-in furniture are not age appropriate for grandparents
comfort.
Even-though the architect spent time and energy designing and
placing the sustainable features into the building, the details on how to make
them usable for the residents have been ignored. The green roof is beautiful
but the lack of safety makes it impossible for the grandparents or the children
to be on the roof using the gardens without supervision. And since there is not
34


enough staff working at Sankofa House the roof garden is not being used and
behind the lock doors.
The shared- spaces are bare and empty and since they are stack
above one another on each floor and placed as a divider between the two
sets of the kinship apartments and the starter apartment, it feels like as they
were designed to create separation between the residents not connection.
Result of the Case Studies
The above examples are two of the best centers that I visited, however it
seems that Hesston Intergenerational Child Care Center is more attentive to
the intergeneration activities and Sankofa House is more focused on
sustainable design elements and not so much on how to design the space so
it would best serve the client. These two along with many other
intergenerational programs are proof of the immediate need for a set of
design requirements and the fact that just like any other program it is best to
design a building that is specific to this program rather than design the
program to fit an existing building.
35


CHAPTER 4
DESIGN
What to Design in the Future?
One of the main issues in intergenerational studies is the lack of attention to
the role of the physical environment in the intergenerational engagement.
Some guiding principles for developing effective intergenerational facilities
include: activities that meet real community needs, partnerships that extend
the service capacity of community organizations, and that create decision-
making opportunities for all participants (Matthew Kaplan, Jawaid haider, Uriel
Chen, Dyke Turner 2007). The design needs to be focused on an
intergenerational setting where the physical environment accommodates the
physical and psychological needs of people across the age and ability ranges
which will create an environment that is appropriate for different generation
users, and beneficial to intergenerational interaction.
The challenge in intergenerational design is that the space must
accommodate a variety of ages. The solution is the creative use of color,
natural light, home-like elements and finishes; and the incorporation of scale
that is appropriate and inviting for different ages. This place must truly have
the feel and function of home by providing residents with the proper balance
of privacy and community, by incorporating effective safety and security
measures and by promoting their independence and pride. Home-like
elements and finishes such as wood moldings and casework, carpet, window
treatments, and furniture which will allow individuals to take ownership and
feel comfortable in the space. Flexibility in the design can encourage activity
and allow for changes.
36


General or non-assigned areas should be created to promote contact
and communication. Safety factors of an intergenerational center, such as a
central entrance that can be monitored and visibility to all areas of the center
is a critical concern in the design (Kim Modrynski, Cynthia Ethington n.d.).
The outcome should be a place
that older adults want to move into;
a dynamic, highly functioning environment for people to age in;
one that provides activity, interest, excitement and connection to each
other and outward with those in the surrounding community.
The design should pay attention to
program integration and interaction,
community connection, and contextual and contemporary building
design.
Program integration should allow for an environment that
promotes health and wellness in smooth transitions between levels of
care as residents become less mobile,
promotes independence for the young adults by having a separate
section of the building for their apartments.
Residential units need to be designed with size of children and ability
of the elder persons in mind. Sustainable and affordable building design
through the use of cost effective, low maintenance, energy efficient futures
are important as well.5
There are eight phases that comprise this project:
5 Please see page 45- 90 for implemented design outcomes
37


1. site selection and analysis,
2. relationship to grade,
3. relationship of indoor and outdoor spaces,
4. orientation,
5. pedestrian access,
6. vehicular access and parking,
7. facility size,
8. space requirements
Site Selection and Analysis
Downtown areas in North America have become an area for people with
double income and no kids. As a volunteer with senior citizen facilities, I have
noticed that these buildings are generally placed on the edge of the cities or
in the suburbs. From an architecture and urban planning standpoint, placing
these facilities in the newly re-emerging center city provides an opportunity for
the suburbanized aged persons and children to be part of the society again.
In the site selection and analysis phase, it is necessary to make sure
that the site is located in an urban neighborhood that includes amenities for
the residents to use. These include retail and a grocery store, health and
wellness programs, community centers, schools, libraries, museums, green
space, planned transportation hub and educational and volunteer
opportunities. Additionally, the neighborhood includes other types of housing.
Walkability and visit ability are also important features of the neighborhood.
Intergenerational facilities should be located in proximity to compatible,
safe and environmentally appropriate land uses and away from noisy, dirty or
38


noxious areas. Residential developments and community facilities are the
most desirable sites, although sites in mixed-use and commercial
developments can also be considered. Building an intergenerational facility in
the downtown area will create convenience for those living in, working at or
visiting the facility.
Relationship to Grade
In intergeneration facilities the safety and security of the outdoor areas as well
as indoor areas should be addressed.
If the facility is located above grade the emergency exits must be clearly
provided. These concerns increase with height above grade. Locations below
grade are unacceptable due to requirements for natural light and outdoor
areas.
Relationship of Indoor and Outdoor Spaces
Each level should include outdoor space specific for children and older adults.
The outdoor spaces should be contiguous with the indoor space and the two
areas should be planned together. Ramps for wheeled equipment should be
provided when a level change exists. A strong visual connection should exist
between the indoor and outdoor activity areas.
Orientation
The availability of natural light is important to the creation of sustainable and
desirable intergenerational spaces. The facility should be oriented so that
outdoor areas have both shade and sunlight. Indoor and outdoor spaces
should allow for inter-related indoor and outdoor activities and free
movement. The facility should be oriented to facilitate the surveillance of
outdoor areas from the primary indoor area.
39


Pedestrian Access
Intergenerational facilities should be close to public transit. If the facility is
located within a mixed use or commercial development, access from the
street or drop-off area should be as direct and simple as possible. Pedestrian
access should be safe, secure and accessible to the disabled. This also
facilitates access by strollers and bikes.
Vehicular Access and Parking
Safe vehicular access should be provided for the intergenerational facility.
Adequate short-term drop-off parking for visitors and staff parking should be
provided on the building site. Drop-off parking should be located as close as
possible to the main entry.
Facility Size
The size of an intergenerational facility depends on the number of the
residents and varies from one center to another. However the Child
Development Center and the Skilled Nursing sections of the building would
have specific state requirements that need to be met.
Space requirements
The spaces should incorporate intergenerational spaces, community spaces,
and senior housing, children spaces and young adult housing in one dynamic
project. How and where all of these program elements come together is the
critical part of this facility.
The housing for older adults should be divided into three elements of
the Skilled Nursing, Assisted Living and Independent Living. Skilled Nursing is
for the residents who need consistent care and attention. Care in Assisted
Living is focused on helping the resident with activities of daily living, including
40


such things as eating, dressing and taking medication. Independent Living
houses for active seniors who do not require care but would like to age in
place so that they can live independently as long as possible. When they
require care, they will move into Assisted Living.
Skilled Nursing is the highest level of care and for residents who are
unable to care for themselves and it is preferred to keep this section on the
ground floor with the most visual outdoor access. A resident can move into
any level of care, but often progress from Independent to Assisted Living and
finally to Skilled Nursing. The Skilled Nursing should be designed in small
scale non-institutional settings. These small scale houses should look and
function as a typical home.
Meals should be provided for the resident therefore a commercial
kitchen and a restaurant that would serve food is needed.
The Young adults could be provided with studios or large one bedroom
apartments based on their needs. A separate entrance to this section of the
building would allow the young adults their privacy when they need it. There
will also need to have access to a library, gathering space and entertainment.
The Child development Center could provide services for ages six
weeks to five years. The design of this section should promote spaces that
are child-oriented, developmentally appropriate, beautiful, environmentally
sensitive, health promoting and functional. Children who attend a child
development center, spend an average of nine hours per day at the center
and childrens needs in many respects corresponds with their ages. There are
usually five broad age groups of Infants (birth-12 months), Toddlers (12-24
months), Tows (24-36 month), Pre-school (36-48 month) and Pre-K (48-60
months). Each age group needs a separate classroom and separate outdoor
41




play ground. There is also a need for an interior playground and at least one
multi-purpose room.
The following diagrams and chart will provide details of space
requirements in each section of an intergenerational facility.
Space Configuration
Architecture happens between Dynamic and Static.
Table 1: Space configuration
42


CHAPTER 5
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DESIGN GUIDELINES
Design Decision Making
In-order to follow the guidelines that I mentioned earlier in my proposal, the
central entrance is designed so everyone has to enter the shred-space that is
monitored at all times and due to its three story high ceiling, it has the most
visibility from different parts of the building. The child development center and
young adults corridor are accessible from the main entrance; however, they
have independent entrances as well.
With the intention of creating a dynamic, highly functioning
environment for people to age in I used different colors for different sections
of the older adult corridor as a way-finding element, all the units designed for
the older adult have a sliding door to a balcony so they can enjoy natural light
and fresh air as they need it. The use of wood, carpet and furniture in the
units and it the corridor was to create a home like environment that the older
adults would want to live in.
The indoor and outdoor play grounds and gardens, bird garden, movie
theater, game hall, multiple libraries and workshops, coffee shop, restaurant,
stores, dining halls, gathering and therapy spaces, pool, Jacuzzi and fitness
room are designed within the facility to provide activity, interest, excitement
and connection between the residents and to invite people in from the
surrounding community.
It is important to promotes health and wellness in smooth transitions
between levels of care as the older adults become less mobile, therefore, the
skilled nursing was placed on the first floor because they need the most visual
44


connection to the outdoor area and the independent living program that is
designed for people with most mobility is placed in the third floor.
The detailed design component is an opportunity to learn how to design for
these specific populations and how to connect the generations through space.
I started my sketches by having the three generation in mind. My main
goal was to create spaces that would connect the generation while allowing
them to have their own privacy. The following drawings are illustration of my
thought process.
Design Process
Spatial Analysis
Figure 29: spatial studies
45


Figure 31: Form studies
\
*
Figure 30: Space configuration
46


Figure 34: Space orgonization
47


Figure 37: Form studies
Figure 38: Form and Space configration
48


Figure 40
Figure 41: Main entrances
49


Study of Form and Concept
My main goal is designing spaces that would celebrate the privacy needs of
each demographic while supporting the reconnection between children,
young adults and older adults.
In attempt of bridging the separation of the generation, I research
connection, and imagined these demographics as two separated points in
space; moving these points toward each other will leave a trace behind that is
called a line. In order to strengthen our families and our communities, we
need to cherish opportunities for people to come together across
GENERATIONAL LINES. These generational lines come together and create
the shared space allowing the generations to celebrate the uniqueness of one
another by sharing their talent and resources allowing their unique personal
knowledge, experiences and expectations to shape their interactions
The direction of the lines in this project was influenced by its site,
direction of the roads and the square footage needed in each area. This
approach creates connectivity to the surrounding area and allows the building
to belong to its site. The following diagrams and drawings illustrate the
process of this design and show how the building became what it is.
50


Imagine a point in space with no breath, length or width; with no dimensions.

*

Figure 42: Three point in space
Each point could be considered to be one of the generations we are providing
services to in this thesis. Now imagine this point moving slowly toward
another point. It will leave a trace; this trace is called a line. We need to
cherish opportunities for people to come together across generational lines.
Figure 44: line is the trace of a moving point Figure 43
Figure 46
Figure 45: main lines from the site
51




<^*\s Vv
-s> >
s\'s\v.
Figure 48

Figure 49: Site
A.
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Figure 47: combination of lines
52


53


Form Studies
Figure 56
54


Figure 57
Figure 58
55


59


Figure 62: First level diagram
57


58


CHAPTER 6
ILLUSTRATIVE ARCHITECTURAL CONCEPT
Site analysis
Figure 66: Site Plan
59


Figure 68: Sidewalk plan
Figure 69: Green Space
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The ground floor of the facility is consists of a fitness room: for the use of
both Younger and Older adults. There is a one way window open to the
Childrens indoor playground that will allow the older adults watching the
children play without having to interact with them, child development center,
gathering space in the older adults section are designed to create a break in
the residential hallways; so the residents can use these spaces to get
61


together, talk, play chess, backgammon or just relax. These breaks allow
each residential section to be a different color, which will be used as a way-
finding element. Pool and Jacuzzi space will be used for water therapy for
both children and adults. Multiple small libraries, and one larger library where
the residents can spend their time reading books, newspaper articles and
magazines while discussing important issues. A restaurant that serves the
residents meals and creates a family like environment for older adults and
children to converse and enjoy life over a meal; it will also provide
opportunities for the residents and their families to get together. A workshop
for the older adults to enjoy doing activities such as making sculptures,
knitting, sewing, carpentry which they can enjoy creating in the workshops. A wegetable
garden to provide moderate exercise and fresh air, plus the oxygen given off
by plants can be stimulating. Planting seeds or transplanting seedlings
strengthens fine motor skills for both children and older adults. Activities such
as digging and raking involve gross motor skills. Gardening provides
opportunities to grow fresh fruits, vegetables, and flowers, which can be
money-saving, and often empowering to individuals. Stores are designed so
the residents can work in the stores and sale the products they have
produced in the workshops or in the garden. Others can also shop and enjoy
spending time with their relatives and friends. A bird garden that is a
communal space used by both children and adults. Studies have shown that
older adults with pets tend to have a better physical and mental health. The
location of the bird garden in this facility allows it to be used as a conversation
piece and promote social interaction. A theater that is specifically designed to
accommodate wheelchair seating. The theater seats are placed on a rail and
can be moved to create the space needed for a wheelchair. This would allow
the older adults who need to be in their wheelchair enjoy watching the movie
while sitting along-side of other viewers. A coffee shop that is close to the
62


entrance and in the shared-space to allow the non-residents, such as the
parents who are dropping off their children at the child development center,
stop by for their morning coffee, and also for the residence to be able to work
and play while interacting with other residents as well as the non-residents.
63


The first level of this facility is consists of therapy spaces, that are designed
based on the therapeutic needs of the all residents. Services such as
physical therapy, occupational therapy, art therapy, music therapy, speech
therapy, water therapy and group therapy can be provided in this area, child
development center, dining hall, game hall, gathering space, workshop,
and a large library.
64


The second floor of the facility includes gathering space, therapy space and
an accessible rooftop.
65


Figure 73: Structure
The structure of the building is vertical shear concrete cores with secondary
wood structural framing and secondary shear walls. The dark lines and points
of this drawing represent the concrete bearing walls and columns. The
building will also have structural concrete floor slabs in order to maximize the
clear spans.
66


Figure 74: Designed site
67


68


Exterior Renderings
Figure 76 : West wing, older adults units
69


Figure 77: Main entrance
70


71


Figure 79: Roof
72


Interior Renderings
Figure 80: Gathering space in the older adults corridor
73


Figure 81: Gathering space in the older adults corridor
74


75


Figure 83: Interior hallway looking toward the gathering space
76


77


My nuin goal in designing spaces that wtxjJd celebrate the privacy needs of each detTvyraphu
while supporting ihr reconnection between children, voting adults and older aduti.v
In aitempt of bridging the separation of the generation. 1 research connection, and imagined these
demographies as two separated points in space; moving these points toward each other wiU leave a
trace behind that is line. In i>rdcr to strengthen our families and our communities, we need to
cherish opportunities for people to come together across GENERATIONAL LISES. I hose gen-
erational lino come together and create the dured space where the generations come togrtlwr and
celebrate the unujucnrss of one another In- during their talent and resources allowing their imiqor
penonal knowledge. experiences and expectations to shape their interactions
The direction of the lines m this project was influenced by us site, direction of the roads and the
square hxxage needed in each area. This appriuch creates cvnnecnvuy to the surrounding area
I
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Neda Norouzi | May,10,2011
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INTERGENARTIONAL FACILITY


Neda Norouzi | May^lO^Oll




I Neda Norouzt | May, 10,2011