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Mpeg-4 video authentication using file structure and metadata

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Title:
Mpeg-4 video authentication using file structure and metadata
Creator:
Hall, J. Randolph ( author )
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 electronic file (78 pages) : ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
MPEG (Video coding standard) ( lcsh )
Video compression -- Standards ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Review:
The goal of this thesis is to research the file structure of MPEG-4 video files, the contents of the multiple data containers within each file, and the possibilities and limitations of using this information to authenticate a MPEG-4 file. This thesis will impact the forensic science community by showing a method of analysis to examine the meaningful components of a MPEG-4 recording and parse them in order to identify the features of a recording that are consistent with an original recording from the device that created it.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.S.) - University of Colorado Denver
Bibliography:
Included bibliographic references
System Details:
System requirements: Adobe Reader.
General Note:
College of Arts and Media
Statement of Responsibility:
by J. Randolph Hall.

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Source Institution:
|University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
|Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
945380798 ( OCLC )
ocn945380798
Classification:
LD1193.A70 2015m H35 ( lcc )

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Full Text
MPEG-4 VIDEO AUTHENTICATION
USING FILE STRUCTURE AND METADATA
by
J. RANDOLPH HALL
B.F.A., Ithaca College, 2002
A thesis submitted to the
Faculty of the Graduate School of the
University of Colorado in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Masters of Science
Recording Arts
2015


This thesis for the Master of Science
degree by
J. Randolph Hall
has been approved for the
Recording Arts Program
by
Catalin Grigoras, Chair
Jeff M. Smith
Jason R. Lewis
Date: November 12, 2015


Hall, J. Randolph (M.S., Recording Arts)
MPEG-4 Video Authentication Using File Structure and Metadata
Thesis directed by Professor Catalin Grigoras
ABSTRACT
The goal of this thesis is to research the file structure of MPEG-4 video files, the
contents of the multiple data containers within each file, and the possibilities and
limitations of using this information to authenticate a MPEG-4 file. This thesis will
impact the forensic science community by showing a method of analysis to
examine the meaningful components of a MPEG-4 recording and parse them in
order to identify the features of a recording that are consistent with an original
recording from the device that created it.
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication.
Approved: Catalin Grigoras


TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION.............................................1
II. MOTION PICTURE EXPERTS GROUP (MPEG)......................3
MPEG-4 Overview...........................................4
III. THE COLLECTION...........................................6
IV. ANALYSIS.................................................9
The File Type Box........................................10
The Movie Box............................................11
The Movie Header Box.....................................12
The Free Box.............................................14
The Movie Data Box.......................................15
Tools for Analysis.......................................16
AtomicParsley.......................................16
Medialnfo...........................................19
V. ANALYSIS OF CAMERA FILES................................21
VI. ANALYSIS OF EDITED FILES................................47
ffmpeg...................................................47
Adobe Premiere...........................................51
IV


Apple Quicktime
55
youtube-dl...........................................59
VII. CONCLUSION...........................................64
REFERENCES................................................68
v


LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE
1 MPEG-4 Box Structure...........................................9
2 MPEG-4 Box Size...............................................10
3 MPEG-4 Box Type...............................................10
4 MPEG-4 Box Contents...........................................11
5 Movie Box Size................................................11
6 Movie Box Type................................................11
7 MPEG-4 Nested Box Size........................................12
8 Movie Header Box Size.........................................12
9 Movie Header Box Type.........................................13
10 MPEG-4 Creation Timestamp.....................................13
11 MPEG-4 Modification Timestamp.................................13
12 Movie Header Box Time Scale...................................14
13 Movie Header Box File Duration................................14
14 Free Box Size and Type........................................14
15 Free Box Contents.............................................15
16 Movie Data Box Size...........................................15
17 Movie Data Box Type...........................................15
18 Movie Data Box Contents.......................................16
19 AtomicParsley Example Output..................................17
20 LG G3 Structure...............................................19
21 LG G3 Medialnfo Output........................................20
VI


22 List of Devices Analyzed for this Paper.........................21
23 Comparison of Two LG G3 Samples to
Validate Structure..............................................22
24 Comparison of Two LG G3 Samples to
Validate Medialnfo Properties...................................23
25 Comparison of two LG G3 Structures in
Different Recording Modes
(Full Resolution vs. Slow Motion)...............................24
26 Comparison of two LG G3 File Properties
in Different Recording Modes
(Full Resolution vs. Slow Motion)...............................25
27 Comparison of LG G3 and Moto X (2013) Structure.................27
28 Comparison of Moto X and Samsung S5 Structure...................28
29 Comparison of Samsung S3, S4 Zoom, and S5 Structure.............29
30 Medialnfo Comparison of Samsung S3 and Samsung S5...............30
31 Comparison of stbl Boxes in Samsung S3 (top) and S5 (bottom).32
32 Medialnfo Comparison of Samsung S5 Between Recording Modes.....33
33 Comparison of HTC One M7 and HTC One M8 Structure...............34
34 Medialnfo Comparison of HTC One M7 and HTC One M8...............35
35 Comparison of Panasonic Lumix DMC-TS5
and Panasonic Lumix DMC-CM1 Structure...........................36
36 GoPro Hero 3 Structure..........................................37
37 Parsing GoPro FIRM Box..........................................38
38 Parsing GoPro LENS Box..........................................38
39 Parsing GoPro CAME Box..........................................38
40 Comparison of two different GoPro User Data Boxes (udta)......38
41 GoPro Hero 3 Medialnfo Analysis.................................38
vii


42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
Samsung ST200F Structure and Medialnfo Analysis
Samsung ST200F UUID Flexadecimal Analysis.....
Sony Cybershot DSC-QX10 Structure.............
Comparison of Samsung ST200F and
Sony Cybershot DSC-QX10 UUID..................
Medialnfo Comparison of Samsung ST200F
and Sony Cybershot DSC-QX10...................
Comparison of Canon IXUS 265 and
Panasonic Lumix DMC-TZ57 Structure............
Medialnfo Comparison of Canon IXUS 265
and Panasonic Lumix DMC-TZ57..................
Comparison of Original GoPro Flero 3 and
ffmpeg Encoded File Structure..................
Medialnfo Comparison of Original GoPro Flero 3 and
ffmpeg Encoded File............................
Comparison of Original LG G3 and
ffmpeg Encoded File Structure..................
Medialnfo Comparison of Original LG G3 and
ffmpeg Encoded File............................
Comparison of GoPro Hero 3 Original and
Adobe Premiere Encoded File Structure..........
Medialnfo Comparison of Original GoPro Hero 3
and Adobe Premiere Encoded File................
Comparison of Original LG G3 and
Adobe Premiere Encoded File Structure..........
Medialnfo Comparison of Original LG G3 and
Adobe Premiere Encoded File....................
Comparison of GoPro Hero 3 Original and
Apple QuickTime Encoded File Structure .
VIII


58 Medialnfo Comparison of GoPro Hero 3 Original and
Apple QuickTime Encoded File..................................57
59 Comparison of LG G3 Original and
Apple QuickTime Encoded File Structure........................58
60 Medialnfo Comparison of LG G3 Original and
Apple QuickTime Encoded File..................................59
61 Comparison of Original GoPro Hero 3 and
YouTube Encoded File Structure................................60
62 Medialnfo Comparison of Original GoPro Hero 3 and
YouTube Encoded File..........................................61
63 Comparison of LG G3 Original and
YouTube Encoded File Structure................................62
64 Medialnfo Comparison of LG G3 Original and
YouTube Encoded File..........................................63
IX


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
The focus of this thesis is to demonstrate a framework of how to
authenticate a MP4 video recording based on an analysis of its inherent file
structure. MP4 video files are represented by the MPEG-4 Standard and defined
in ISO/IEC 14496. The MPEG-4 standard and ISO/IEC 14496 have undergone a
number of amendments and additions since its introduction in 1999. The
structure of these files is based on the Apple QuickTime container format first
published by Apple Computer, Inc. in 2001. The extensible architecture of this
file structure has allowed changes to be made within the format over time, while
allowing it to remain a viable and useful file format fifteen years after its
introduction. In its current form, MP4 files are a popular container of H.264-
encoded video, are natively supported in the HTML5 becoming a new standard
of web-based video, and represent the majority of video created by consumer
cameras and mobile devices.
At its root, the extensible nature of this file format is what allows a given
MP4 file to be authenticated as being consistent with the device that was claimed
to have created it. In the research for this thesis, a database of sixty-six video
recordings was created containing exemplar recordings from a variety of
cameras and mobile devices. These recordings were transferred from their
respective devices in a forensically sound manner, making sure to preserve the
original file structure. By parsing the structure of these files, identifying
characteristics can be recognized in their structure as defined by the Apple
1


QuickTime container format. Due to the inherent design of the file format, there
are very few requirements of what containers must be present and how they are
configured in any given file. Due to the variety in this structure of containers,
identifying characteristics become apparent when comparing the files between
manufacturers and models. In addition to the sometimes self-identifying
metadata contained within the files, the structure, itself, can be used to
authenticate a file as being consistent with the device or to further identify which
software was used to handle the file based on how the structure of containers
has been modified. Just as physical devices record files in a specific structure of
containers, software based manipulation will rearrange the structure of the files
they create providing the same basis for identification. The effects of this
software interaction vary but no software analyzed for this paper made any
attempt to recreate the container structure of the original file.
The National Center for Media Forensics has published proposed
frameworks for digital audio authentication^] and digital image authentication.[2]
Conspicuously absent is a framework for the authentication of digital video.
There are a number of studies focusing on the authentication of digital video and
none of them are more comprehensive than Forensic analysis of video file
formats, Gloe, et al.[3] This study provides an great deal of detail on specific
video file formats, digital cameras, mobile phones, and video editing software,
however it stops short of the analysis of MPEG-4 video files based on their file
structure. I propose the present study of MPEG-4 file structure format in order to
form the basis of a framework for the authentication of digital video.
2


CHAPTER II
MOTION PICTURE EXPERTS GROUP (MPEG)
The Motion Picture Experts Group (MPEG) was established in 1988 by the
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International
Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). MPEG-1 was their first standard released in
1993 and was defined in ISO/IEC 11172[4]. This first MPEG standard defined a
method of encoding moving pictures and audio that would allow playback at the
bit rate of a compact disc and at the transmission rate of a T1 line of 1.5 Mbps.
MPEG-1 was used primarily in the CD-i video format, Video CD (VCD) format,
and in satellite and cable television transmission. The most notable and lasting
legacy of the MPEG-1 standard is without question the MPEG-1 Audio Layer III
(MP3) audio compression format which remains relevant today.
MPEG-2, defined in ISO/IEC 13818[5], was released in 1996 and made
considerable improvements on the MPEG-1 standard. Most notable was the
support for a higher transmission bit rate that allowed high definition interlaced
video and multi-channel audio streams. MPEG-2 is used in DVDs, cable
television, satellite television, and over-the-air broadcast television. Its hardware
is backwards compatible by design so any player capable of playing MPEG-2
encoded data is also capable of playing MPEG-1 data.
MPEG-3, not to be confused with MPEG-1 Layer 3 or MPEG-2 Layer 3,
was a standard that never really was. After realizing that the goal of delivering
high bit rate streams necessary to provide full 1080p video would be possible
3


with the existing MPEG-2 standard, MPEG-3 was incorporated into MPEG-2 and
the standard was shelved.
MPEG-4 OVERVIEW
The MPEG-4 standard has undergone a number of changes since its
introduction in 1999. MPEG-4 Part 1, MPEG-4 Part 2, and MPEG-4 Part 3 were
the first standards that outlined the file format which was to contain audio and
video signals. These standards are defined in ISO/IEC 14496-1 [6], ISO/IEC
14496-2[7], and ISO/IEC 14496-3[8]. This structure is based on the Apple
QuickTime container format first published in 2001 by Apple, Inc. [9].
A significant amendment to this standard was made in 2003 when MPEG-
4 Part 14 was introduced and described in ISO/IEC 14496-14[10]. MPEG-4 Part
14 defined the MP4 file format as it is used today and while there have been
many further amendments to the MPEG-4 standard the file structure at its base
has remained the same.
MPEG-4 Part 10 defined in ISO/IEC 14496-10[11] introduced
H.264/Advanced Video Coding (AVC) in 2003. The storage format for this
encoded data was created with MPEG-4 Part 15, defined in ISO/IEC 14496-
15[12], released in 2004. H.264 is the video compression standard of the Blu-
Ray Disc format. It has also been adopted for online streaming video through
services like YouTube, Vimeo, and Apples iTunes Store. It is used for HDTV
over-the-air transmissions, cable, satellite television transmissions, and is the
dominant codec used by security system DVRs and digital CCTV systems.
4


MPEG-4 Part 12 described in ISO/IEC 14492-12[13] defined the ISO base
media file format that is at the root of the analysis in this paper. This definition
provides the structure for a container file format to store video files locally or
transmit them across a network. The structure and contents of these containers
is extensible and all registered extensions of the ISO base media file format are
maintained by an official registration authority[14]. This provision for the
registration of these extensions has existed since MPEG-4 Part 1 was initially
released.
5


CHAPTER III
THE COLLECTION
In creating a database of video files for this thesis, it was important to
create a framework by which files could be collected without any opportunities for
their structure to be altered when transmitting them from their respective devices.
An initial test was performed using a LG G3 mobile phone. In testing the LG G3,
a sample video was created and stored on its internal memory. This file was
then transferred off of the device using Android File Transfer over a USB
connection. The file was then copied to the G3s removable micro SD storage
card, sent as an attachment to an email, and synced to another computer using
Dropbox. After all of the files had been collected hash values were generated
and when compared they all showed matching MD5, SHA-1, and SHA-256
values. In the case of the LG G3 Android device, no transcoding had occurred
when transferring a file from the device through any of these techniques.
It should be noted that Dropbox will change the name of the file if using
their Camera Upload feature but the structure and contents of the file were not
changed. The intra-variability among these methods of retrieving files from their
respective devices was zero.
Just because the LG G3 was successful in moving video files off of the
device without transcoding them or altering their structure is by no means an
endorsement that all other devices will behave in the same fashion. The files not
collected personally were created and transmitted using a clear set of guidelines
established in order to preserve the originality of the files. When it was not
6


possible to perform such an exhaustive test or when access to the device was
not possible, the properties of the files were examined to determine if they had
been transcoded in some way to alter their format from the published
specifications of their respective device. Consumer cameras and their
removable media posed no unexpected challenges in collection. The Android
devices, represented in this database, all transmitted files without any
modifications using any of the techniques mentioned. While the collection and
study of Apple QuickTime files is outside the scope of this paper, it should be
noted that the Apple devices examined for the sake of comparison would by
default transcode their video files to a much lower quality when attached to an
email message. The original files could be retrieved from the device using
Dropbox but no further testing was performed on these devices.
In collecting these files, it was worth considering how the average user
would share their videos or how these files would most likely and most easily
moved off a mobile device with no availability of external storage. Once
configured, the ease of Dropbox synchronization is undeniably simple however
the two most obvious and ubiquitous choices were moving files via email and
MMS messages. As previously observed, an emailed video would retain its
original structure on the Android devices examined. In the case of transmitting
via MMS message, the Android device transcodes the original file due to size
limitations. Once the methods of collecting the video data were validated the
most common means of collecting the videos from their respective devices was
via email attachments.
7


When collecting video samples for the database of files to be examined, it
was important to create multiple samples from each device. Modern mobile
devices have the capabilities to record video at a wide range of resolutions and
frame rates; it was important to collect the data from these devices using each of
their possible recording modes. It was also important to collect multiple samples
of each possible mode so that any variability within a single given device could
be identified and investigated further. This behavior was not observed in any of
the devices examined.
8


CHAPTER IV
ANALYSIS
In order to manually parse a MP4 file, it is important to understand the
container-based nature of the file itself. The structure of these files is based
entirely on the Apple QuickTime File Format Specification[15]. Apple refers to
this fact openly in the documentation of their QuickTime standard and states
clearly that the primary difference between QuickTime and MPEG-4, An atom,
as described in this document, is functionally identical to a box, as described in
the ISO specifications for MPEG-4 and Motion JPEG-2000. An atom that
includes version and flags fields is functionally identical to a full box as defined in
those specifications. Conversely, the ISO/IEC 14496-12:2005(E) publication
points out that in the first publication of their specification a box was referred to
as an atom. For the purposes of this paper, we will refer to these containers as
boxes as in ISO/IEC 14496-12:2005(E). These boxes act as individual
containers or as containers of additional containers nested inside one another.
box
box size
box type
( box |
box size
box type
box
box size
box type
box contents
Figure 1. MPEG-4 Box Structure
Each of these boxes begins with an unsigned 32-bit or 64-bit integer in big
endian format that defines the size of the box itself. The vast majority of boxes
9


use the 32-bit integer but there are examples of 64-bit sizes in the data surveyed
for this paper: a box that is simply so large that it requires a 64-bit integer to
represent its size[13], and a series of Universally Unique Identifiers. If the size of
the box is 0x00 then the contents of the box extend to the end of the file.[13]
For the purposes of parsing the MPEG-4 boxes all byte size values will be
described in hexadecimal values using the prefix Ox where 0x00=0 bytes,
0x10=16 bytes, 0x20=32 bytes, etc.
The File Type Box
In this example file, the first four bytes represent the size of the box: 0x18
bytes. This measurement includes the bytes used to represent the size of the
box itself.
Offset
00000000
00000010
00000020
01234567 8 9ABCDEF
00 00 00 18
|66 74 79 70
69 73 6F 6D 6D 70 34 32
00 00 00 6C 6D 76 68 64
6D 70 34 32 00 00 00 00 ^ftypmp42
00 00 0D A8 6D 6F 6F 76 isommp42 "moov
00 00 00 00 D1 AA 82 A0 Imvhd FfS|
Figure 2. MPEG-4 Box Size
The next four bytes define the type of box. In this example, the first box of
the file is ftyp, a File Type Box. The ISO specification requires this box to exist
as early as possible in the file. In the files examined for this paper, it was always
the first box in each sample. There can be only one ftyp box per file and it must
exist in order for the file to meet the ISO specification. The ftyp box must also
exist at the top level of the file. The File Type Box allows a given file to define
compatibility with multiple standards if applicable. In this case, the box contents
contains mp42, isom, and a second mp42.
10


Of fset
00000000
00000010
00000020
00000030
01234567 8 9 A B C D E F
llIlMlIllIll:hh 74 79 70 I6D 70 34 32 00 00 00 00 ^ftflmp42
69 73 6F 6D 6D 70 34 32 00 00 0D A8 6D 6F 6F 76 isommp42 ioov
00 00 00 6C 6D 76 68 64 00 00 00 00 D1 AA 82 AO lmvhd FMI
D1 AA 82 A0 00 00 03 E8 00 00 13 AB 00 01 00 00 DM e
Figure 3. MPEG-4 Box Type
In this example, the first mp42 used as a major brand identifier, referring
to the use of the Microsoft MPEG-4 codec. The 0x00 at offsets OxOC through
OxOF act as a placeholder for any identifiers that would be used to define the
minor version of the major brand of this file, isom and the second mp42
identify what are referred to as the compatible brands of this File Type Box. In
this example, the standards identified in the ftyp box are complimentary. In the
event where the audio or video were to not follow the ISO standard, the file types
would be defined so that a decoder would correctly handle the data for decoding
and playback.
Offset
00000000
00000010
00000020
00000030
01234567 8 9ABCDEF
00 00 00 6C 6D 76 68 64 00 00 00 00 D1 AA 82 A0
D1 AA 82 A0 00 00 03 E8 00 00 13 AB 00 01 00 00
If tt
lmvhd
Ffa | e
Figure 4. MPEG-4 Box Contents
moov
flM

The Movie Box
The next four bytes of our file contain the box size for our next box:
0x0 DA8.
Offset
00000000
00000010
00000020
00000030
01234567 89ABCDEF
100 00 00 18 66 74 79 70 6D 70 34 32 00 00 00 00l
6F 6F 76
00 00 00 6C 6D 76 68 64 00 00 00 00 D1 AA 82 A0
D1 AA 82 A0 00 00 03 E8 00 00 13 AB 00 01 00 00
lmvhd Ff3 |
ffi I e
Figure 5. Movie Box Size
The four bytes following that define the box: moov.
11



00000030
00000050
00000010
00000000
Oft3Sf
DT ?? 85 90 00 00 03 E8 00 00 13 VB 00 01 00 00
oo oo oo ec pd le es ei oo oo oo oo di vv 85 vo
iMJMcWiIiMiUiI1*7:11pD pr PE I
aii ?
TWApq a5 I
0I534SP1 88VBCDEE
Figure 6. Movie Box Type
moov identifies this box as a Movie Box. The Movie Box contains the
metadata of the file represented in additional boxes. In this example, the moov
box contains 3496 bytes, it is significantly larger than the ftyp box and contains
all of the identifying information describing the contents of the video file. The
structure and contents of these metadata boxes are at the root of building a
framework to authenticate the file, moov is a top-level box that must exist and
there can be only one box in order for the file to meet the ISO specification.
There are forty-two nested boxes inside this moov box but the one of most
forensic interest is mvhd, the Movie Header box.
The Movie Header Box
In the research for this paper, the variability in the positioning of the
MPEG-4 boxes provided a method to identify a file based on the order and
organization of the data containers themselves.
Offset
00000000
00000010
00000020
00000030
01234567 89ABCDEF
00 00 00 18 66 74 79 70 6D 70 34 32 00 00 00 00
f tvpmp42
isomrap42
00 00 00 6C 6D 76 68 64
Dl AA 82 A0 00 00 03 E8
00 00 00 00 Dl AA 82 A0
00 00 13 AB 00 01 00 00
Ffa
lmvhd
I e
col
ffs |
Figure 7. MPEG-4 Nested Box Size
To begin parsing the moov box which is 0x0DA8 bytes, there are no
immediate contents in this box; instead there is a four byte string identifying the
size of another box.
12


f typmp42
Offset
00000000
00000010
00000020
00000030
0123456? 8 9ABCDEF
00 00 00 18 66 74 79 70
69 73 6F 6D 6D 70 34 32
00 00 00 6C
|6D 76 68 64
D1 AA 82 AO 00 00 03 E8
6D 70 34 32 00 00 00 0
00 00 00 00 D1 AA 82 AO
00 00 13 AB 00 01 00 00
isommp42
mvhd
e
Fin
Figure 8. Movie Header Box Size
Measuring 0x6C bytes in length this is the first example of a nested box:
mvhd.
Offset 0123456? 89ABCDEF
00000000
00000010
00000020
00000030
00 00 00 18 66 74 79 70 6D 70 34 32 00 00 00 00 f typmp42
69 73 6F 6D 6D 70 34 32 isommp42
00 00 00 6C
_____________16D 76 68 64
D1 AA 82 A0 00 00 03 E8
]00 00 00 00 D1 AA 82 A0
00 00 13 AB 00 01 00 00
Ha I

Figure 9. Movie Header Box Type
The Movie Header Box defines the characteristics of the media data
contained within the file and contains a number of useful pieces of information;
in this example: creation time, modification time, time scale, and duration. At an
offset of OxOC from the start of the mvhd box is the creation time of the example
file presented in a 32-bit integer in big endian that represents the number of
seconds since midnight, January 1, 1904 in UTC time. This was the same timing
scheme used for the Mac OSs Hierarchical File System up through OS 9 and
was also the timestamp format of the Palm OS but now this epoch time system is
really only used as the encoded time in MPEG-4 and QuickTime files.
Offset 01234567 89ABCDEF
00000000
00000010
00000020
00000030
00 00 00 18 66 74 79 70 6D 70 34 32 00 00 00 00|
69 73 6F 6D 6D 70 3T~32
00 00 00 6C Mimf^^BliIiMifiMmBliMDlAA82A0|
D1 AA 82 A0 00 00 03 E8 00 00 13 AB 00 01 00 00
f tvpmp42
isommp42
iim

Figure 10. MPEG-4 Creation Timestamp
The modification time of the file is contained in the same time format as
the creation time in four bytes at the offset of 0x10 from the beginning of the
mvhd box. In the case of this example file, it is identical to the creation time of
the file.
13


Offset 01234567 89ABCDEF
00000000
00000010
00000020
00000030
00 00 00 18 66 74 79 70
69 73 6F 6D 6D 70 34 32
[UiIiMi6D 76 68 64"
ID1 AA 82 AO
6D 70 34 32 00 00 00 00 ttyp mp4 2
isommp42
]00 00 00 00 D1 AA 82 AO ^Bkvhl f?s |
00 00 13 AB 00 01 00 00 OtTl e
Figure 11. MPEG-4 Modification Timestamp
The following four bytes at offset 0x14 contain the time scale of the file
presented as an integer that represents the number of time units that pass in one
second. In this case, a value of 0x3E8 represents a time scale 1/1000th of a
second, or one millisecond.
Offset 01234567 89ABCDEF
00000000
00000010
00000020
00000030
00 00 00 18 66 74 79 70
69 73 6F 6D 6D 70 34 32

00 00 00 6C 16D 76 68 64
D1 AA 82 A0
00 00 03 E8
6D 70 34 32 00 00 00 OOl
]00 00 00 00 D1 AA 82 A0
100 00 13 AB 00 01 00 00
f tvDmo42
isommD42
FIM
Figure 12. Movie Header Box Time Scale
At an offset of 0x18 from the start of the mvhd box are four bytes that
represent the duration of the file. In this example: 0x13AB or 5035 milliseconds.
The example file has a duration of 5.035 seconds.
Offset 01234567 89ABCDEF
00000000
00000010
00000020
00000030
6D 70 34 32 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 18 66 74 79 70
69 73 6F 6D 6D 70 34 32
00 00 00 6C
|6D 76 68 ^T~|00 00 00 00 D1 AA 82 A0
D1 AA 82 A0 00 00 03 E8 liliWWtilOO 01 00 00
f tVDmp42
isommp42
IkvhJ
Hs I
Ffi I
Figure 13. Movie Header Box File Duration
The Free Box
3496 bytes from the starting point of our moov box at 0x0DA8 starts our
next top-level box at offset OxODCO. The size of this box is 0x62060.
Offset 01234567 8 9ABCDEF
00000DC0 liIiMiMJiMilIb6 72 65 65 100 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ^fjiSs
00000DD0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00000DE0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
Figure 14. Free Box Size and Type
The free box is defined by the ISO standard as being irrelevant and that its
contents may be ignored[13]. In this example, the contents of the free box is
filled entirely with zeroes. Throughout the files examined for this paper, there
14


were other examples of free boxes as well as skip boxes whose contents and
function are identical to the free box.
Offset 01234567 8 9ABCDEF
00000DC0
00000DD0
00000DE0
00000DF0
00000E00
00000E10
00000E20
00000E30
Figure 15. Free Box Contents
The Movie Data Box
401,504 bytes from the start of the free box is our next top-level box
measuring 0x1146A6C bytes. This is the final top level box in this example file
and while the ISO standard would allow its size to be represented by 0x00
because its contents fill the remainder of the file, the manufacturer has chosen to
define the size of the box nonetheless. In the files examined for this paper no
Movie Data Box was defined as a size of 0x00.
Offset 01234567
00062E20
00062E30
00062E40
00062E50
8 9ABCDEF
21 10 05 20 A4 IB FF CO ffirndat!
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
101 14 6A 6C
00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00
|6D 64 61 74
00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00
Figure 16. Movie Data Box Size
H yA
The final top-level box in this example file is mdat. The Media Data Box
contains the media data of the file, in this case the compressed audio and video
stream. A file may have multiple mdat boxes containing multiple data streams
or no mdat box whatsoever if the file in question is acting only as a pointer to
media data in other files.
Offset 01234567 89ABCDEF
00062E20 [ilHBlMbD 64 61 74 121 10 05 20 A4 IB FF CO EF'dall m yA
00062E30 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00062E40 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00062E50 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
Figure 17. Movie Data Box Type
15


In this example, there is a single media data box containing a single media
data stream. This was the case for all of the files examined for this paper.
Offset 0123456? 89ABCDEF
00062E20
00062E30
00062E40
00062E50
00062E60
00062E70
00062E80
00062E90
01 14 6A 6C 'illfBM 10 05 20 A4 IB FF CO
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
Figure 18. Movie Data Box Contents
Tools for Analysis
Parsing the file structure of MPEG-4 files manually is a necessary means
of understanding the box structure of a file, however, to examine a larger
collection of video files, it was necessary to incorporate a number of software
tools for analysis. There are a number of software tools readily available online
for a variety of operating systems but two in particular were invaluable for
analyzing this collection of video files. Each one focused the example file in a
different way and both are freely available. The methods for using these tools
should be validated in order to insure that they are reporting correct information
and can be considered a forensically sound tool. It is important to note that in the
research for this paper there were many instances where one tool could
authenticate a file as being original to its device but by utilizing both tools many
points of comparison can be identified to authenticate a given file.
AtomicParsley was used to determine container structure of the files.
Medialnfo was used to interpret the contents of these containers. For the
hexadecimal analysis a variety of hexadecimal editors were used including
Wlnhex, 010 Editor, and the native Unix command hexdump to carve individual
16


boxes based on the sizes and offsets returned by AtomicParsley in order to
validate the method.
AtomicParsley
AtomicParsley is a piece of software released under the terms of the GNU
General Public License and available online at
https://bitbucket.org/wez/atomicparsley/. Originally developed by puckjock and
currently maintained by Wez Furlong and Oleg Oshmyan, AtomicParsley will
parse the box structure of a MPEG-4 file and output it to an easily readable
format displaying the size and structure of the boxes.
Atoa ftyp G 0 of size: 24, ends G 24
Atoa aoov G 24 of si2e: 3496, ends G 3526
Atoa avhd 9 32 of size: 168, ends G 146
Atoa udta G 146 of size: 84, ends G 224
Atoa auth {eng] G 148 of Size: 19, ends G 167
Atoa adze G 167 of size: 26, ends G 167 -
Atoa adzm G 167 of size: 17, ends G 764 -
Atoa adze G 764 of size: 26, ends G 724 -
Atoa trak G 724 of size: 1869, ends G 7693
Atoa tkhd G 732 of size: 92, ends G 324
Atoa india G 324 of size: 1769, ends G 2693
Atom mdhd G 332 of size: 32, ends G 364
Atoa Mir G 364 of size: 44, ends G 468
Atoa minf G 468 of size: 1685, ends G 2693
Atom vnhd G 416 of size: 26, ends G 436
Atoa dinf G 436 of size: 36, ends G 472
Atoa dref G 444 of size: 28, ends G 472
Atoa stbl G 472 of size: 1621, ends G 2693
Atoa stsd G 488 of size: 157, ends G 637
Atom avcl G 496 of size: 141, ends G 637
Atoa avcC G 582 of size: 39, ends G 621
Atoa pasp Q 621 of size: 16, ends G 637
Atoa stts G 637 of size: 744, ends G 1381
Atoa stss G 1381 of size: 36, ends G 1417
Atoa stsz G 1417 of size: 588, ends G 2685
Atoa stsc G 2895 of size: 52, ends G 2657
Atoa stco G 2957 of size: 36, ends G 2693
Atoa trak G 2993 of size: 1427, ends G 3528
Atoa tkhd G 2191 of size: 92, ends G 2193
Atoa mdia G 2193 of size: 1327, ends G 3528
Atoa mdhd G 2261 of size: 32, ends G 2233
Atoa hdlr G 2233 of size: 44, ends G 2277
Atoa minf G 2277 of size: 1243, ends G 3528
Atoa sahd G 22B5 of size: 16, ends G 2361
Atoa dinf G 2381 of size: 36, ends G 2337
Atoa dref G 2369 of size: 28, ends G 2337
Atoa stjbl G 2337 of size: 1183, ends G 3526
Atoa stsd G 2345 of size: 91, ends G 2436
Atoa mp4a G 2361 of size: 75, ends G 2436
Atoa esds G 2397 of size: 39, ends G 2436
Atoa stts G 2436 of size: 32, ends G 2466
Atoa stsz G 2468 of size: 964, ends G 3432
Atoa stsc G 3432 of size: 52, ends G 3484
Atoa stco G 3484 of size: 36, ends G 3526
Atoa free G 3528 of size: 481584, ends G 465624
Atoa adat G 465924 of Size: 1B1151B6, ends G 16528264
- denotes an unknown atom
Total size: 18526264 bytes; 45 atoms total. AtomicParsley version: 9.9.6 (utf8)
Media data: 18115186 bytes; 465924 bytes all other atoas (2.187% atoa overhead).
Total free atoa space: 491584 bytes; 2.168% waste. Padding available: 6 bytes.
Figure 19. AtomicParsley Example Output
In this example, the structure of our example file can quickly be identified
and the nested structure of the boxes becomes clear. Manually parsing the file
and comparing the results can validate the output of AtomicParsley. The size of
17


each individual box is not important for the purpose of authentication. When
recording multiple videos with the same device, variability in the size of boxes
was observed, even when video files were created to be as similar as possible by
matching settings and duration. However, there were no observed instances of a
variability in the structure of boxes when creating multiple files using matching
settings on a given device. This consistency in structure allows the examiner to
create a framework to authenticate MPEG-4 video files.
It is important to note that Atomic Parsley reports boxes that are not part
of its database of valid box types with a and defines them as unknown atoms.
These unknown atoms can be considered an excellent piece of identifying
information due to the extensible nature of the MP4 standard. In the research for
this paper, a number of unregistered boxes were identified, some of which
contained a wealth of identifying data. The MP4 Registration Authority maintains
the standards for codecs[16], file types[14], and box types[17]. By design, an
unknown box will not prevent a file from being opened. By design, if an unknown
box type is encountered, it will simply be ignored by the playback software.
By using the output of AtomicParsley, it is possible to create a table
representative of the box structure of the example file. This will allow a visual
inspection of the file structure and allow the examiner to communicate about the
nature of the structure. In the case of our example, ftyp, moov, free, and
mdat are all in the 1st or top tier of the file. The moov box is the only box in our
file with nested containers: mvhd, udta, and two trak boxes containing the
video and audio streams individually. The total number of boxes can quickly be
18


identified, in this example file there are 46 total boxes. The depth of the boxes
can also be described. In this example file, there is a depth of 8 boxes. The
moov box contains trak, which contains mdia, which contains minf, which
contains stbl, which contains stsd, which contains avcT, which contains avcC
and pasp. Rather than using such lengthy sentences to describe the structure
of these containers, the creation of a table to visualize the file structure is
invaluable when performing comparisons.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 ftyp
2 moov
3 mvhd
4 udta
5 auth
6 adze
7 adzm
8 adze
9 trak
10 tkhd
11 mdia
12 mdhd
13 hdlr
14 minf
15' vmhd
16 dinf '
17 dref
18 stbl i
19 stsd
20 avc1
21 avcC
22 pasp
23 stts
24 stss
25 stsz
26 stsc
27 stco
28 trak
29 tkhd
30 mdia
31 mdhd
32 hdlr
33 minf
34 smhd
35 dinf
36 dref
37 stbl
38 stsd
39 mp4a
40 esds
41 stts
42 stsz
43 stsc
44 stco
45 free
46 mdat
Figure 20. LG G3 Structure
19


Medialnfo
Another valuable tool in the analysis of MPEG-4 video files is Medialnfo.
Released as Open Source software under the BSD license, Medialnfo is
available online at https://mediaarea.net/en/Medialnfo. For the purpose of the
examinations in this paper, the CLI (Command Line Interface) version was used.
Medialnfo provides a comprehensive output of the properties of a video file.
Medialnfo makes no attempt to examine the structure of an input file but it excels
at quickly parsing out the contents of these containers and presenting the
properties of the video container, audio container, and the file itself. As a tool,
Medialnfo was most useful when used to compare files from the same
manufacturer that otherwise shared an identical MPEG-4 box structure.
After using Medialnfo to analyze the collection of files it became clear that
as a tool it yielded certain inconsistencies when examining the properties of a file
which will be described on page 23. It is imperative to understand that Medialnfo
should not be relied on as the sole tool when working to authenticate a file due to
these inconsistencies. A forensic examiner must understand the limitations of
Medialnfo as a tool and not base any meaningful conclusions on its otherwise
inconsistent results.
20


General
Complete naae : 3849x2169-LG-G3-2t15-96-29 B2.3B.24-JH.ap4
Fonat 2 MPEG-4
Fonat profile : Base Media / Version 2
Codec ID : ap42
File size : 17.7 HiB
Duration : 5s 35as
Overall bit rate : 29.4 Mbps
Perfonaer : LGE
Encoded date : UTC 2815-B6-2B 92:38:24
Tagged date : UTC 2915-96-29 92:38:24
Video
ID : 1
Foraat : A VC
Foraat/Info : Advanced Video Codec
Fonat profile 2 HighGLS.l
Foraat settings, CA8AC : Yes
Foraat settings, ReFranes 2 1 fraae
Foraat settings, GOP 2 K=l, N=39
Codec ID 2 avcl
Codec ID/Info 2 Advanced Video Coding
Duration 2 4s B22a$
Bit rate 2 29.9 Mbps
Width : 3 849 pixels
Height 2 2 169 pixels
Display aspect ratio 2 16:9
Fraae rate aode 2 Variable
Fraae rate 2 29.451 fps
MlnieuB fraae rata 2 29.221 fps
Maxima fraae rate 2 29.793 fps
Color space : YUV
Chroaa subsaapling 2 4:2:9
Bit depth : 8 bits
Scan type : Progressive
8its/(Pixel*Frane) : 9.122
Streaa size 2 17.2 HIB (97%)
Title : Videottandle
Language : English
Encoded date : UTC 2915-96-29 92:38:24
Tagged date 2 UTC 2915-96-29 92:38:24
dhd_Ouration 2 4822
Audio
ID 2 2
Foraat : AAC
Foraat/Info : Advanced Audio Codec
Foraat profile 2 LC
Codec ID 2 49
Duration : 5s 35as
Source duration 2 5s 44as
Source_Duration_FirstFrBe 2 9as
Bit rate eode : Constant
Bit rate : 156 Kbps
Noeinal bit rate 2 96.9 Kbps
Channel(s) 2 2 channels
Channel positions : Front: L R
Saapling rate : 48.9 KHz
Coapresslon eode 2 Lossy
Streaa size : 95.9 KiB (1%)
Source streaa size : 95.9 KiB (1%)
Title : SoundHandle
Language : English
Encoded date : UTC 2915-96-29 92:38:24
Tagged date 2 UTC 2915-96-29 92:38:24
dhdjhiration 2 5935
Figure 21. LG G3 Medialnfo Output
21


CHAPTER V
ANALYSIS OF CAMERA FILES
When beginning to examine the structure of the files for this paper, the
extensible nature of the MPEG-4 standard became readily apparent. There are
similarities in the box structure between devices and in some cases the structure
is identical when comparing the structure of devices from the same
manufacturer. In these cases, it is important to examine the file properties using
Medialnfo as the contents of the boxes can hold important pieces of information
that will aid in helping to authenticate the file to the device on which it was
created. The following devices were examined for this paper:
Make Model
Canon ELPH 340/IXUS 265
Go Pro Hero 3
Google Nexus 5
HTC One M7
HTC One M8
LG G3 (Android OS 5.0)
Motorola Moto X (2013) (Android OS 4.4.4)
Nokia E72
Nokia Lumia 1020
Nokia Lumia 1050
Nokia Lumia 800
Nokia Pureview 808
Panasonic Lumix DMC-CM1
Panasonic Lumix DMC-TZ57
Samsung Galaxy K
Samsung Galaxy S3 (Android OS 4.3)
Samsung Galaxy S3 Mini
Samsung Galaxy S4 Zoom
Samsung Galazy S5 (Android OS 4.4.2)
Samsung i927
Samsung NX500
Samsung ST200F
Sony A7
Sony Cybershot DSC-QX10
Sony Xperia Z1
2. List of Devices Analyzed for th
Figure 22.
To begin, two video clips were created using the LG G3 in its full
resolution mode. In order to validate the method of using AtomicParsley as a
22


tool and the LG G3s ability to produce repeatable results in file structure, both
files were analyzed and compared.
Figure 23. Comparison of two LG G3 Samp es to Validate Structure
The two video clips show a matching structure of MPEG-4 box containers
and it is now necessary to validate the method of using our second software tool
Medialnfo. For this validation, the properties of the same two video files were
compared.
23


Figure 24. Comparison of two LG G3 Samples to Validate Medialnfo Properties
When comparing the two files, Medialnfo reported a property in one file
that it didnt in the other: Source Duration. A series of additional test videos were
created originally thinking that the presence of the Source Duration property
might correlate to the duration of the video itself, in other words, a short video
would not store that property but a longer video would. In testing, no correlation
could be found to explain the presence or absence of this property reporting in
Medialnfo. However, the box structure analysis with AtomicParsley did remain
consistent throughout testing. In this case, the presence or absence of the
Source Duration property has no effect on the authentication of the LG G3 video
clips being examined but it is important to make note of any inconsistencies
when examining files.
The Source Duration property was attached to both the audio and video
tracks so the Track Box (trak) and Media Header Box (mdia) for each stream
24


were parsed manually and each contained duration information. This is an
excellent demonstration of the importance that should be placed on parsing
manually when any inconsistencies are observed, in order to better understand
the output of the tools being used for analysis and to better understand the
structure of the files in question before making a meaningful decision based on
the results of analysis.
To continue validating the LG G3, one of the full resolution video clips was
compared to a lower resolution, slow motion recording mode available on the
device. The structure of these two files were then parsed and compared.
n 1 _ 2 _ _ 3 _ _ 4 _ _ 5 _ _ 6_ rn 1 L_2_ 3 4 Is rri _ 8 _ _ 9 _
3 Iftyp 1 1 1 flVD Lr
2! Imoovi 'moov
if - -1 mvhd ? [mvhd
4 Judta J r 1 Ldta "
_ 5 33 auth __ 1 m m [ suth
" b] adzG m m I adze I
m 1 adzm m m =fl
1 1 ^ 8
U 1 1 Irak E [trait
[10 !ZZl tfehd m ee tfz ikhd
11 mdia mdia
tzj mdhd_ mdhd 1
13' Ihdlr EE hdlr |
1*| iminf r 1 mint
13 vmhd t 1 Ivfflhd
Til dinf__ m ee idmf 1 1
1/1 dref m ie 1 Edrefl
j Bfel H EE slbl 1
stsd IE 1 stsd
20l avc1 avd
21 favcC^^^^^BTTj avcC
22 pasp
23 stls | ^^^_23J ,5tts
24 slss jstss
25 stsz [stszl
26 StSD
27J Blco stco
28' Irak trak
; tkhd ^^^^^^29 tkhd
3ol mdia mdia
31~! mdhd" mdhd
32! hdlr hdir-
331 mirtf mint
34j smhd smhd
33 dinf ^ anf
36! dref (dref_
37j sibl Istbl
38^ 1 stsd stsd"
39, mp4a mp4a
4ol ^ds^^^^HTo 85d5
4l| | Bits" stts
42* stsz stsz
43! StSQ St5C
44 stco Sco'
45'free frBe | 1 1 ' 1
4Bfmdal md,t 1 l_J
>arison of two LG G3 File Struc tures in 1 Di
Modes (Full Resolution vs. Slow Motion)
The box structure using the two different modes on the LG G3 remained
consistent. For the sake of further validation, the files were compared using
Media Info.
25


Figure 26. Comparison of two LG G3 File Properties in Different Recording
Modes (Full Resolution vs. Slow Motion)
The results reported by Medialnfo confirmed the different properties of the
two files but again reported some properties in one file and not in the other. In
this case, the Media Fleader Box (mdhd) duration was not reported in the lower
resolution file. Again, this information exists in both files but Medialnfo failed to
report it for the second file. Further analysis of files using Medialnfo revealed
that the absence or presence in reporting Source Duration or Media Header Box
(mdhd) duration occurred throughout the analysis for this paper. Multiple tests
of multiple files were performed and in some cases the same file was examined
multiple times. Medialnfo never returned a different result when examining the
same file multiple times but there were simply some files that it would report
these properties on and others that it would not.
After establishing that the LG G3 creates files with consistent structure, a
comparison was made with the Motorola Moto X 2013. The Motorola Moto X
26


2013 would only record in one mode; the device was validated against itself to
confirm that it made consistently structured recordings.
By visualizing the structure of these two files, it is possible to quickly
compare them in order to determine if they have a matching structure of boxes or
if they are different in some way. In the case of the LG G3 and the Motorola
Moto X 2013, the file structures are very similar but the LG G3 includes a User
Data (udta) box which contains a number of boxes that are unique to the LG
device: auth, adze, adzm, and adze. The ISO/IEC 14496-12:2005(E)
standard only defines a copyright notice to be contained inside a User Data Box
(udta) but it is an extensible container which can be used as the manufacturer
sees fit as in the case of the LG G3. Were it not for this udta box and its
contents, the structure of the two files is otherwise identical and it would be
necessary to parse out the identifying properties of the files themselves.
I 1 _ 2 _ _ 3 _ __ 4 _ _ 5 _ __ 6 _ 7 1 1_ I 2 3 4 5 [b 8 9
hi ftyp ftyp
hi mao'/ h i |
ll 1 mvhd m m 1 mvhd
r *1 udta 4. trak
1 auth m m tkhd
' 6 adze h m mdia
3 1 adzrn m m mdhd 1
8 adze hdlr |
9] trak r 1 si minf
"iQ tkhd _ 1 IvTnhd
33 mdia I [dinf | 1
iij 1 mdhd | | | dref]
13' hdl~ | [stbl I
minf _ l l
[ 1a vmhd | | 3 avd
116! dinf _ M 1 avcC
17l dref | 1 1 1 Rasp
8, stbl 2 J Z^K I 1 IsttsJ
19| stsd R? ZZ is
20; _] ayp1 1 Istsz
|2T ,stsc I
|22 isteo
\2£\ sttH 1 trak 1
U* fstss ?4 tkhd
25 1 [st5Z I mdia
26 StSG mdhd
27] "stco hdlr
2a; trak minf
tkbd smhd
30]^h mdia | ETSl^H ghf
31] 1 iTTidhd_ El dref
L32I a ndlr m i 1 rfstoU
[33! minf B i stsd"
smhd ^H34 mp4a
35 dinf i85d5
36 dref stts
37j stbl ZZ^^^^B37. stsz
3a; stsd St5C
mp4a Sco_
40 f esds ^^^^^V40 free
41I stts r a i mdat
42 stsz
43" [stsc J
[44| | | | [stCQ \ |
[45I free I \ \
h mdat \ | 1 ^ 1
Figure 27. Comparison of LG G3 and Moto X (2013) Structure
27


When comparing the Motorola Moto X and the Samsung S5, the structure
is clearly unique between the two devices. Most notably, the Samsung S5
places the moov box after the mdat box but Samsung also inserts a User Data
(udta) box containing three additional boxes: SDLN, smrd, and smta. The
placement of the Movie Data Box (mdat) before the Movie Box (moov) is
notable because ISO/IEC 14496-12:2005(E) specifically recommends placing the
descriptive information of a MPEG-4 file before the data itself. This
recommendation is to facilitate the streaming of the video. In this case, the video
from the Moto X could be streamed because the file type header and descriptive
data for the video content itself would be received then the playback would begin
streaming the audio and video data contained in the mdat box. The file created
by the Samsung Galaxy S5 could not be streamed because in order for playback
to occur, the entire file would need to be loaded in order to receive the
descriptive content in the moov box to then be able to interpret the data
contained in the mdat box.
28


Figure 28. Comparison of Moto X and Samsung S5 Structure
When comparing file structure across Samsung devices, they are
expectedly similar. The Galaxy S3 and Galaxy S5 have identical structures while
the S4 Zoom has a structure that differs only slightly from the S3 and S5 in its
User Data Box (udta).
29


1 1 2 1 3 4 5 6 7 8
ftyp mdat moov

mvhd |

udta , ~|sDLN

smrd
Ismta
trak I
itkhd
mdia
mdhd
hdlr
mint
vmhd
dint
dref
stbl |
stsd
1 avc1
avcd
|stts
: StSS
(stsz
stsc
stco
trak tkhd

mdia
mdhd
hdlr
mint
smhd
dint
dref
stbl |
stsd
1 mp4a
esdsl
(stts
stsz
Istsc
.stco
rr- 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 3 4 5 6 I 7 I 8
1 ftyp ^^^B 1 ftyp l
I 2|mdat ^^^B 2 mdat
3 moov p4| ^^^B 3 moov l
mvhd ^^^B 4 mvhd
I 5 | 6? udta ^^^B 5 udta l
smrd xyz ^^^B 6 SDLN
7 ^^^B 7 smrd smta l
8| smta ^^^B 8
I 9 plot trak ^^^B 9 trak l
tkhd ^^^B10 tkhd
11 mdia ^^^B11 mdia l
12| mdhd ^^^B12 mdhd
13 hdlr ^^^B 13 hdlr l
u] mint ^^^B 14 mint
15 vmhd ^^^B 15 vmhd l
16, dint ^^^B 16 dint
17 dref ^^^B 17 dref l
18| stbl ^^^B 18 stbl
19 stsd ^^^B 19 stsd avc1 l
2o| avc1 ^^^B 20
21 avcC^^^^B 21 avcC
22| stts ^^^B 22 stts
23 stss ^^^B 23 stss l
24] stsz ^^^B 24 stsz
25 stsc ^^^B 25 stsc l
26, stco ^^^B 26 stco
27 p28? trak ^^^B 27 trak l
tkhd ^^^B 28 tkhd
29 mdia ^^^B 29 mdia l
3o| mdhd ^^^B 30 mdhd
31 hdlr ^^^B 31 hdlr l
32| mint ^^^B 32 mint
33 smhd ^^^B 33 smhd l
34] dint ^^^B 34 dint
35 dref ^^^B 35 dref l
36, stbl ^^^B 36 stbl
37 stsd ^^^B 37 stsd mp4al
38| mp4a ^^^B 38
39 esds^^^^^B~39 esds
4o| stts ^^^B 40 stts
41 stsz ^^^^41 stsz
42| stsc ^^^B 42 stsc
Ls stco stco
Figure 29. Comparison o
S5 S
ructure
Samsung S3, S4 Zoom, and
Presented with two files of identical box structure, the next step in
authenticating these files should be to examine their properties in order to make
further attempt to authenticate them to a known device. Using Medialnfo, the
properties of these two files can be examined and compared to quickly identify
any characteristics that would differentiate the two files. In the case of these two
files being examined, Medialnfo reports that the resolution of the two files is
different.
30


Figure 30. Medialnfo Comparison of Samsung S3 and Samsung S5
When examining the individual files, it is important to understand where
Medialnfo is deriving this information. ISO/IEC 14496-12:2005(E) requires that
the horizontal and vertical resolution of a file be defined in the Sample
Description Box (stsd) which is contained in the Sample Table Box (stbl), which
is ultimately contained in the Track Box (trak) for the video stream of the
respective files. In the Samsung Galaxy S3 and Samsung Galaxy S5, this data
is represented in two unsigned 16-bit integers beginning at an offset of 0x31 from
the beginning of the Sample Table Box (stbl). The first two bytes represent the
horizontal resolution (in green) and the second two bytes represent the vertical
resolution (in blue).
31


Offset
0193CCF0
0193CD00
0193CD10
0193CD20
0193CD30
0193CD40
0193CD50
0193CD60
0193CD70
0193CD80
0193CD90
Offset
07495170
07495180
07495190
074951A0
074951B0
0749S1C0
074951D0
074951E0
074951F0
07495200
01234567
72 6C 20 00 00 00 01 00
8 9 A B C
00 12 05 73 74
TBTSPaiTfi" x
:1 I'fi Mi as iJa
Jj,
g XB 'll
'ufm m u:
D E F
62 6C EE
: TOKK
'-r^o?
5EBPB3E=BOBcrR
IP .Sn S* Sv, Mis-: '.'i-:1, V7 T
TXX £U
lit: Ml S3 til
~l 7"r'
20 20 2
01 64 0(
1 SO 03 9F 951
nr
00 00 00 00 00 00 01 5A
]00 00 0A E0 73
00 00 00 01 00
74 74 73
00 0B B5
01234567 89ABCDEF
oo oo id li 73 74 62 6C ?;. -TTS71
2: x x; -3....
:$i .. i r: //: . x; x X X . ifiF!
BL
of oo wair
bi
gpl.
VPWF
illE
4 D4 01 00 0
:r 00 00 11 E0 73 74 74 73 00 00 00
stbl|
Figure 31. Comparison of stbl Boxes in Samsung S3 (top) and S5 (bottom)
The maximum resolution that the Galaxy S3 can record is 1920x1080
where the maximum video resolution of the Galaxy S5 is 3840x2160. Therefore,
in this example, while the box structure of the two files is identical, an analysis of
the contents of the Sample Description Box (stsd) can be examined to
determine more specific properties of the video files in order to authenticate
them. This is a valid means of authenticating a video whose MPEG-4 box
structure is identical to determine if it is the correct resolution for the device in
question. This specific technique has a limitation if a device capable of recording
in a lower resolution than its maximum resolution is compared against a second
device recording at the same resolution. In the study for this paper, when a
Samsung Galaxy S3 recording at its maximum resolution of 1920x1080 is
compared against a Samsung Galaxy S5 recording at a lower than maximum
resolution of 1920x1080, the files appear identical both in structure and in
32


metadata. Medialnfo confirms the resolutions of both files as being identical and
other than small variances in the frame rate, which should not be considered a
viable means of differentiating the files in this case, there is no meaningful data
to exclude these two files from being a match as the same device.
This result was not unexpected or surprising. The Samsung devices show
a great number of similarities in their file structure and metadata including the
contents of their User Data Box (udta). In this example, both devices report the
same video format profile. In both Samsung files, the video format profile is
reported as High@L4. Looking back at the Medialnfo output of a Samsung
Galaxy S5 video recorded at 3840x2160, the video format profile is reported as
High@L5.T. This is a second way to differentiate between the Samsung Galaxy
S3 and Galaxy S5 recording at their maximum resolutions. These descriptors do
not appear to be standardized in any way and appear to define the quality of
encoding on the device.[18]
33


While Samsung maintains a constant structure of video format profiles
across the Samsung Galaxy S3 and Galaxy S5, this is a matter left up to the
manufacturer and is in no way defined by ISO/IEC 14496-12:2005(E). When
applying the same technique of analysis to a different set of identically structured
files from a different manufacturer, the results are different. The HTC One M7
and the HTC One M8 create files of identical MPEG-4 box structure.
2 1 2 ftVP 3 4 5 1 8
monvi
2 Imvhd
4 ludta i
i hlGb
E trak
71 tkhd
b! [ mdiB
9 mdhd
1D hdlr
11 minf
12 .vmhd
13 .dinf
14 1=i dref
15 "stbi
16 stsd
17 3vg1
16 avcC
19 oaso
2D 21 stts

22
22 StSG 1
24 ra54
21 trak
2S' tkhd i
27
23 mdhd
29- hdlr
3D minf
31 I smhd
32 Idinf i
33 34 dref
slbl
35 stsd
36 mo4a
37
36 stts
39I 5tS7
4D| StSG
41 ca 64
42 fras
42 mdal 1
Figure 33. Comparison of HTC One M7 and HTC One M8 Structure
While the file structures are identical when analyzed with Medialnfo, their
metadata begins to reveal differences. Both files are recorded in identical
resolution but the File Type Box (ftyp) reveals that the M7 identifies its file with a
file type of mp42 representing the ISO/IEC 14496-14 standard while the M8
identifies with the file type isom representing an ISO Base Media file. This
should be an immediate cause for the two files to be viewed as originating from
different devices but HTC uses a different video format profile in the two devices.
34


The HTC One M7 reports a video format profile of Baseline @L4 and the HTC
One M8 reports a video format profile of High@L4.
MPEG-4
Baas MediB/rVersk)n2
mp42"
I4T1M1B
5a 504ms
21.5 Mbps
UTC 201504-28 00:54
UTC 2015-04-2B'00:54
TC:OnpM7-HD-MC-1 .mp4
at settings. GOP M=1. N=31
Sc urea duration
Bit rate S20.1 Mbps I
Width
!1 080 pixels
Display aspet -t rate 11 6:09 .5)0"
ode Wanabla :29.970fcs
Minimum fra erate :25.561 fos
Maximum fra narate i30.303tcs

Chroma subs
(8 brts

mal *0.323
Stream size r 13.2 MiB (94%1
Source strea c size 113.2 MiB
Title 'Video Hand la
Erralish
lUTC 2015-04-28 00^403
T agged date rUTC 201504-28 00:54:03
mdhd_Durat n 5500
Audio ID 2
Format AAC
Formadlnfo i Advanced Audio Codec
File size 48.7 MiB
Duration 20s 203ms
Overall bit rate 20.2 MBds
Encoded date JTC 2014-04-03 08:02:33
Tagged date JTC 2014-04-03 08:02:33
Virtan
ID 1
Format AVC
Format/lnfo Advanced Video Codec
Format orofite HichL4
Format settings. CABAC Yes
iFonret setbnoe. ReFramss 1 frame
IFormat settrnos GOP M=1.N=60
CodecID avet
Codec ID/Info Advanced Video Codino
iDuration 20s 195ms
I Bit rata 19.7 Mbps
Width 1 920 oixeis
IlHeiaht
I DisDlav asoect ratio 16:09
IpmrvrQ rata mnHo Variable
(Frame rate 30.354 fos
I Minimum frame rata 30.313fps
30.395 fos
(Color soace YUV
I Chroma subsamollna 4:0200
I Bit death 3 bits
IScentvee
Bits/fPixarFremel 3313
IStraam size 47.5 MiB (97%1
Irme VideoHBndle
LanduattB Ehcfish
lEnGoded dste JTC 2014-04-D3 08-Q233
ITBoaed datB UTC 2014-04-03 08:02:33




Audio
IID 2
iFormat AAC
iFormat/Infd
IFormat orofite LC
Codec ID 40
IDuration 20s 203ms
ISourae duration 20s 209ms
iBit rate mode Constant
Bit rata 192 Kbps
iNorrvnal bit rate 96 0 Kbps
IChBnneKsI 2 channels
1 Channel positions Front LR
ISamolino rate 48.0 KHz
1 Compression mods Lossy
1 Stream size 470 KiB i 1 %)
1 Source stream size 4?QKiBfm
hitle SoundHandle
iLanquacte Erralish
1 Encoded date UTC 2014 04-03 08-0233
haaoed dr*rn UTC 2014-04-03 08:0233
[mdhd Duration 20203
Figure 34. Medialnfo Comparison of HTC One M7 and HTC One M8
Not all devices of identical manufacturer create files of identical structure
requiring further analysis. In the case of the two Panasonic Lumix devices
analyzed, the structure is enough to differentiate between the two files.
35


1 1 2 3 4 5 6 I 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

2 |
3 mvhd 3 mvhd
4 trak udta
5 tkhd @xvz
6 edts 6 trak
7 el st tkhd
8 mdia 8 mdia
9 mdhd 9 mrthrt
10 hdtr ^^10 hdlr
11 minf mihf
12 Ivmhd ^^12 vmhd
13 dinf dinf
14 dref dref
15 stbl ^^15 stbl
16 stsd ^^l6 stsd
17 . avc1 ^^Hl? avd
18 I nvnf: 18 avec
19 coir 19 paso
20 SttB ?n KttK
21 stsc l St5S
22 5t5Z 77 stsz
23 stco ^^^^73 stsc
24 St55 ^^24 sfotj
25 teak I ^^25 trBk
26 tkhd tkhd
27 edts I I ^^27 mdia
28 elst I I 78 mdhd
29 mdia hdlr
30 mdhd I I minf
31 hdlr | I ^^31 smhd
32 minf ^^^^37 dinf
33 'smhd I dref
34 | dinf I stbl
35 drsf ^^35 stsd
36 sfbl ' 36
37 stsd I esds
38 !mo4a 38 5tt5
39 stsz
40 5tS5 stsc
41 stsc ^41 stco
42 stsz free
43 ston ^^43 mdat
44 Udta ^^^^44
45 PANA
46 free ^^^^146
47 mdat
Figure 35. Comparison of Panasonic Lumix DMC-TS5
and Panasonic Lumix DMC-CM1 Structure
Different devices record different amounts of metadata about the device
itself. The devices analyzed so far contain no meaningful amount of metadata
about the recording device itself and at best can only be identified by their file
structure and metadata. In the case of the GoPro Hero 3, there is a staggering
amount of forensically relevant metadata contained within the file structure of
every video created on a given device.
36


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

moov
mvhd
udta
FIRM
LENS
CAME
SETT
AMBA
10 free
11 Irak
12 fehd
13 tref
14 tmcd
15 edts
16 elst
17 mdifl
18 mdhd
19 hdlr
20 mlnf
21 vmhd
22 dinf
23 dref
24 stbl
25 stsd
26 avc1
27 coir
28 stts
29 ctts
30 stsc
31 stsz
32 5tCO
33 stss
34 Prttp
35 trak
36 tkhd
37 tref
38 tmcd
39 mdia
40 mdhd
41 hdlr
42 minf
43 smhd
44 dinf
45 dref
46 stbl
47 sted
48
49 esds
50 stts
51 stsc
52 ktBZ
53 stco
54 trak
55 tkhd
56 mdia
57 mdhd
58 hdlr
59 minf
60 pmhd
61 hdlr
62 dinf
63 dref
64 stbl
65 stsd
66 tmcd
67 KftH
68 stsc
69 RtK7
70 stco
71 free
72 mdal
Figure 36. GoPro Hero 3 Structure
Examining the structure of a sample Go Pro Hero 3 file reveals an
extensive structure of MPEG-4 Boxes including three instances of a Track Box
(trak) instead of the two that have been observed in other files. The GoPro also
includes a number of manufacturer-specific boxes contained in the User Data
Box (udta). Of increasing interest are the containers FIRM, LENS, and
CAME. While FIRM and LENS both contain useful metadata, CAME simply
records the serial number of the device. This is an extraordinary piece of data
unique to the GoPro devices examined for this paper.
37


Offset
00000090
000000A0
000000B0
ooooooco
01234567
00 00 00 04 00 00 01 80
46 49 52 4D1
00 00 00 38 4C 45 4E 53
30 33 30 30 31 33 30 32
8 9 A
75 64 74
B C D E F
61 lilWIM.MlI
4C 57 31 33 30 38 32 31
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
ludta
FIRB
8LENSLW130821
03001302
Figure 37. Parsing GoPro FIRM Box
Offset
000000B0
OOOOOOCO
000000D0
000000E0
000000F0
00000100
Offset
000000E0
000000F0
00000100
00000110
In order to demonstrate the unique nature of the CAME box, the User
Data Box (udta) of two different model Go Pro devices were compared to show
the unique nature of the CAME box and its ability to identify the model and serial
number of each device.
00 00 00 38 I

48 33 42 2B 42 30 38 31
00 00 00 10 53 45 54 54
|00 00 00 18 43 41 4D 45
33 33 39 38 43 32 31 00
03 E0 00 10 00 00 A1 84
CAME
H3B+B0813398C21
SETT a iI
Figure 38. Parsing GoPro LENS Box
2 3
567 89ABCDEF
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 10 53 45 54 54
00 00 00 80 41 4D 42 41
03 E0 00 10 00 00 A1 84
00 10 00 09 01 01 OF 00
CAME
H3B+B0813398C21
SETT a iI
IAMBA
Figure 39. Parsing GoPro CAME Box
Of fset 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
00000090 00 00 00 04 00 00 01 80 75 64 74 61 00 00 00 14 ludta
000000A0 46 49 52 4D 48 44 33 2E 31 30 2E 30 32 2E 30 30 FIRMHD3.10.02.00
000000B0 00 00 00 38 4C 45 4E 53 4C 57 31 34 30 37 31 30 8LENSLW140710
OOOOOOCO 30 39 30 30 31 30 38 38 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 09001088
0O0000D0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
OOOOOOEO 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 18 43 41 4D 45 CAME
0O0000F0 48 33 53 2B 41 30 37 31 34 41 45 36 34 35 39 00 H3S+A0714AE6459
Of fset 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
00000090 00 00 00 04 00 00 01 80 75 64 74 61 00 00 00 14 ludta
000000A0 46 49 52 4D 48 44 33 2E 31 31 2E 30 32 2E 30 30 FIRMHD3.il.02.00
000000B0 00 00 00 38 4C 45 4E 53 4C 57 31 33 30 38 32 31 8LENSLW130821
OOOOOOCO 30 33 30 30 31 33 30 32 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 03001302
000000D0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
OOOOOOEO 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 18 43 41 4D 45 CAME
000000F0 48 33 42 2B 42 30 38 31 33 33 39 38 43 32 31 00 H3B+B0813398C21
Figure 40. Comparison of two different GoPro User Data Boxes (udta)
38


Analyzing the example GoPro file with Medialnfo reveals a number of self-
identifying properties referring to the GoPro by name as well as more information
about the third Track Box (trak). This box contains a QuickTime time code track
which is unique to the GoPro among the devices examined for this paper.
General
Comolete name 1920x1080-GOPRO-HERO3-GOPR1683-BL.MP4
Format MPEG-4
Format profile JVT
Codec ID avc1
File size 22.5 MiB
Duration 7s 174ms
Overall bit rate 26.3 Mbps
Encoded date UTC 2015-04-26 17:57:07
Taqqed date UTC 2015-04-26 17:57:07
AMBA HHH

Video
ID 1
Format AVC
Format/lnfo Advanced Video Codec
Format profile Main@.L4.2
Format settinos, CABAC Yes
Format settings, ReFrames 1 frame
Format settinqs, GOP M=1, N=8
Codec ID avc1
Codec ID/Info Advanced Video Coding
Duration 7s 174ms
Bit rate mode Constant
Bit rate 25.0 Mbps
Width 1 920 pixels
Height 1 080 pixels
Display aspect ratio 16:09
Frame rate mode Constant
Frame rate 59.940 fos
Color apace YUV
Chroma subsamplino 4:02:00
Bit depth 8 bits
Scan type Progressive
Bits/(Pixel*Frame) 0.201
Stream size 21.2 MiB (94%)
Title GoPro AVC
Language English
Encoded date UTC 2015-04-26 17:57:07
Taqqed date UTC 2015-04-26 17:57:07
Color ranqe Full
Color primaries BT.709
Transfer characteristics BT.709
Matrix coefficients BT.709

Audio
ID 2
Format AAC
Format/lnfo Advanced Audio Codec
Format profile LC
Codec ID 40
Duration Bit rate mode 7s 168ms
Constant
Bit rate 128 Kbps
Channel(s) 2 channels
Channel positions Front: L R
Samplinq rate 48.0 KHz
Compression mode Lossy
Stream size 112 KiB (0%)
Title GoPro AAC
Language English
Encoded date UTC 2015-04-26 17:57:07
Tagaed date UTC 2015-04-26 17:57:07

Other
ID 3
Type Time code
Format QuickTime TC
Duration 7s 174ms
Time code of first frame Time code, striped 17:56:02:26
Yes
Language English
Encoded date UTC 2015-04-26 17:57:07
Tagged date UTC 2015-04-26 17:57:07
Figure 41. GoPro Hero 3 Medialnfo Ana
ysis
39


In addition to the identifying serial numbers contained in the metadata of
the GoPro recordings, if an owner has entered their name in the camera menu
this information will also be displayed in the User Data Box (udta). In the
research for this paper there were no tools that will parse out the User Data Box
(udta) box of a GoPro recording. This remarkably valuable information can only
be found by parsing the file manually using a hex editor.
When using AtomicParsley to analyze the Samsung ST200F, a number of
UUIDs are returned as part of the file structure: 50524f46-21d2-4fce-bb88-
695cfac9c740 contained in the top level of the file, and two instances of
55534d54-21d2-4fce-bb88-695cfac9c740 occurring once in each of the two Trak
Boxes (trak). Atomic Parsley returns the UUID as a box identified with the prefix
uuid= and returns the formatted UUID as part of its standard output. In order to
analyze the UUIDs present in the video from the Samsung ST200F, the output of
Medialnfo was examined to specifically establish a baseline of the encoding date
and time. Since a UUID could possibly represent time and a MAC address[19], it
would be an important development if the embedded data contained meaningful
data regarding the time and date of the recording and possibly a unique
identifying number of the recording device itself.
40


1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 Hyp ^^^^^^Hrnmnlete name 1280x720-samsuna st200f 01.mp4
2 uuid=50524f46-21d2-4fce-bb88-695cfac9c740 MPEG-4
3 free ^^^^^^^iFnrmat nrofila Sony PSP
4 mdat MSNV
moov 25.4 MiB
6 mvhd ^^^^^niiratinn 25s 200ms
7 trak ^^^^^^Hoverall hit rate 8 446 Kbps
8 tkhd ^^^^^^HFnr.nrlerl date UTC 2012-06-01 17.13.01 UTC 2012-06-01 17.13.01
9 edts ^^^^^^HTanned date
10 elst
11 mdia ^^^Hvideo
12 mdhd 1
13 hdlr ^^^^^^HFnrmat AVC
14 minf ^^^^^^HFnrmat/Info Advanced Video Codec
15 vmhd ^^^^^^HFnrmat nrnfile MainfL4
16 dinf ^^^^^^^^ormat settinas CABAC Yes
17 dref ^^^^^^HFormat settinas ReFrames 1 frame
18 stbl I ^^^^^^^^HFormat settinas, GOP M=1, N=8
19 stsd ^^^^ender. avc1
20 avd 1 nfo Advanced Video Codina
21 avr.C ^^^^^^HOnratinn 25s 200ms
22 stts ^^^^^^^^^^Ritrate 8 310 Kbps
23 24 efts 1 280 pixels
stsc 720 pixels
25 stsz ^aspect ratin 16.09
26 stco I Frame rate mode Constant
27 stss Frame rate 30.000 fps
28 uuid=55534d54-21d2-4fce-bb88-695cfac9c740 snace YUV
29 trak ^^^^^^Hchmma subsamolina 4,02:00
30 tkhd deoth 8 bits
31 edts Progressive
32 elst ^^^^^^^^^Bits/fPixel'Framel 0,301
33 mdia ^^^^^stream 25.0 MiB (98%t
34 mdhd ^^^^^^HFnr.nded date UTC 2012-06-01 17.13.01
35 hdlr a fined date UTC 2012-06-01 17.13.01
36 minf
37 smhd
38 dinf I ^ 2
39 dref rmat AAC
40 stbl ^^^^^^^^HFormat/l nfo Advanced Audio Codec
41 stsd ^^^^^^HFnrmat nrofile LC
42 mo4a 40
43 lesds ^^^^^^Hriuration 25s 194ms
44 stts ^^^^^^HRit rate mode Constant
45 stsc rate 128 Kbps
46 stsz ^^^^ohanneKsl 1 channel
47 stco Channel oositions Front. C
48 uuid=55534d54-21d2-4fce-bb88-695cfac9c740 ^^^^^^samolina rate 44,1 KHz
49 udta ^^^^^^^Csmoression mode Lossy
50 vndr ^^^^^stream 394 KiB (2%1
51 SDLN ^^^^^^^Oncoded date UTC 2012-06-01 17,13.01
52 aaaed date UTC 2012-06-01 17.13.01
Figure 42. Samsung ST200F Structure and Medialnfo Analysis
No meaningful connection was discovered between the UUID data
returned by AtomicParsley and the embedded timestamps contained within the
MPEG-4 structure of the file, it is worth examining the UUID box that
AtomicParsley is identifying in this sample file. The AtomicParsley output can be
verified with a hexadecimal analysis of the file. In this case, the box structure of
the UUID box is correctly formatted with 0x04 bytes representing the box size of
0x94 bytes, a box name of uuid, followed by the content of the box. In this
example, the hexadecimal 0x50524F4621D24FCEBB88695CFAC9C740 is the
string being interpreted as the UUID by AtomicParsley. Other meaningful pieces
of this box include mp4a at offset 0x60 and avcT at offset 0x8C but neither
offer any insight into the meaning of the UUID included in this file.
41


Offset 01234567 89ABCDEF
00000000
00000010
00000020
00000030
00000040
00000050
00000060
00000070
00000080
00000090
000000A0
OOOOOOBO
ooooooco
4D 53 4E 56 01 29 00 46
69 73 6F 6D
00 00 00 94
00 00 00 1C 66 74 79 70
4D 53 4E 56 6D 70 34 32
175 75 69 ~64~
FA C9 C7 40 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 03 00 00 00 14
46 50 52 46 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 2C 41 50 52 46 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 02
56 50 52 46 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 61 76 63 31
00 IE 00 00 00 IE 00 00 05 00 02 DO 00 01 00 01
00 00 00 08 66 72 65 65 01 95 9B 76 6D 64 61 74
00 00 FC B4 25 88 84 00 A7 FE 76 02 D8 A3 7E 12
f typMSHV ) F
H5NVmp42isom^M
uuidHmB
free llvmdat
u'%\I Sfv 0£~
Figure 43. Samsung ST200F UUID Hexadecimal Analysis
The Sony Cybershot DSC-QX10, another camera examined for this paper,
included a series of UUIDs. The DSC-QX10 contained three UUIDs as part of
its file structure, just as the Samsung ST200F did, but the UUIDs arent just in
the same positions in the structure of the file the UUIDs are identical to those
contained in the Samsung ST200F file.
1 4 ,7 8
1 ftyp ,
2 uuid=50524f46-21d2-4fce-bb88-695cfac9c740 3 mdat "
4 moov
5 mvhd
6 trak
7 tkhd
I-: edts
el st
10 mdia
11 I mdhd
12 hdlr
13 mint
I 14 vmhd
15 dinf
16 dref
17 stbl
I 18 stsd;
19 I avc1 ]
20 I I avcC
21 stts '
22' ctts
23 stsc
24 stsz
25 stco
26' stss
27 uuid=55534d54-21d2-4fce-bb88-695cfac9c740
28 trak
29 tkhd
30 edts
31 el st
32 mdia
| 33 mdhd
34 hdlr
35 mint
36 i smhd
37 dinf
| 38 dref
39 stbl L
40 _____________________________|__________________________________________________________| stsd
41 1 lmD4a 1
43 1 stts | ,
44 | | stsc 1
45, I stsz 1
146 47 uuid-55534d 54-21 d2-4fce-bb88-695cfac9c740 Figure 44. Sony Cybershot DSC-QX1C )S Istco 1 1 tructure
42


A comparison of the two sample files from the Samsung ST200F and
Sony Cybershot DSC-QX10 shows that the hexadecimal structure of what is
being interpreted as the UUID at the top level of the file, along with the rest of the
contents of that box, is identical.
Offset 01234567 8 9ABCDEF
00000000
00000010
00000020
00000030
00000040
00000050
00000060
00000070
00000080
00000090
000000A0
00000050
ooooooco
Offset
00 00 00 1C 66 74 79 70 4D 53 4E 56 01 29 00 46 ftypMSNV ) F
4D 53 4E 56 6D 70 34 32 69 73 6F 6D MUMiTiMWI MSNVmp42isom^H
00 00 00 08 66 72 65 65 01 95 9B 76 6D 64 61 74 free llvindat
00 00 FC B4 25 88 84 00 A7 FE 76 02 D8 A3 7E 12 u'%11 §t>v 0£~
01234567 8 9ABCDEF
00000000
00000010
00000020
00000030
00000040
00000050
00000060
00000070
00000080
00000090
000000A0
000000B0
00 00 00 1C 66 74 79 70 4D 53 4E 56 01 5A 00 70 ftypMSNV 2 p
4D 53 4E 56 6D 70 34 32 69 73 6F 6D MiBiMUiKH MSNVmp42isomH
02 24 A8 38 6D 64 61 74 00 00 00 02 09 10 00 00 $ '8mdat
Figure 45. Comparison of Samsung ST200F and
Sony Cybershot DSC-QX10 UUID
A comparison of the two sample files in Medialnfo reveals that both files
that share a common series of UUIDs also share a Codec ID of MSNV. This
codec is defined by the MPEG-4 Registration Authority as being for the Sony
PlayStation Portable. Further analysis is necessary to confirm the theory that
these UUIDs are placed in the file structure in order to support the Sony
PlayStation Portable but, in the files collected for this paper, these were the only
two devices that created files in this format. It should be noted that regardless of
the UUIDs present, these two files can still be differentiated between one
another based on their respective file structures and the presence or absence of
43


the free box which exists in files created by the Samsung ST200F but not in the
Sony Cybershot DSC-QX10.
General
Complete name 1280x720-samsung st200f 01.mp4
Formal MPEG-4
Formal profile Sony PSP
Codec ID MSNV
File size 25,4 MiB
Duration 25s 200ms
Overall bit rate 8 446 Kbps
Encoded date UTC 2012-06-01 17:13:01
Tagged date UTC 2012-06-01 17:13:01


Video
ID 1
Format AVC
Format/lnfo Advanced Video Codec
Formal profile MainL4
Formal settings, CABAC Yes
Format settings, ReFrames 1 frame
Format settings, GOP M=1, N=8
Codec ID avc1
Codec ID/Info Advanced Video Codinq
Duration 25s 200ms
Bit rate 8 310 Kbps
Width 1 280 pixels
Height 720 pixels
Display aspect ratio 16:09
Frame rate mode Constant
Frame rate 30.000 fps
Color space YUV
Chroma subsampling 4:02:00
Bit depth 8 bits
Scan type Progressive
BitsyfPLxel'Frame) 0.301
Stream size 25,0 MiB (98%)
Encoded date UTC 2012-06-01 17:13:01
Tagged date UTC 2012-06-01 17:13:01


Audio
ID 2
Formal AAC
Format/lnfo Advanced Audio Codec
Formal profile LC
Codec ID 40
Duration 25s 194ms
Bit rate mode Constant
Bit rate 128 Kbps
Channel(s) 1 channel
Channel positions Front: C
Sampling rate 44.1 KHz
Compression mode Lossy
Stream size 394 KiB (2%1
Encoded date UTC 2012-06-01 17:13:01
Tagged date UTC 2012-06-01 17:13:01
iGenerai
iComplete name 1440x1080-sonv cybershot dsc qx10 01 mp4
iFormat MPEG-4
iFormat profile Sony PSP
IcodecID MSNV
File size 34.3 MiB
iDuration 23s 524ms
lOverall bit rate mode Variable
lOverall bit rate 12.2 Mbps
lEncoded date UTC2013-01-01 01:40:13
Tagged date UTC2013-01-01 01:40:36

Video
ID 1
IFormat AVC
Format/lnfo Advanced Video Codec
IFormat profile Main@L4
IFormat settings, CABAC Yes
IFormat settings, ReFrames 2 frames
IcodecID avc1
Icodec ID/Info Advanced Video Coding
IDuration 23s 524ms
I Bit rate mode Variable
Bit rate 12.1 Mbps
iMaximum bit rate 16.0 Mbps
Width 1 440 pixels
Heioht 1 080 pixels
I Display aspect ratio 16:09
iFrame rate mode Constant
iFrame rate 29.970 fps
|Color space YUV
iChroma subsampling 4:02:00
Bit depth 8 bits
Scan type Progressive
Brts/(Pixel'Frame) 0.26
[stream size 33.9 MiB (99%)
[Encoded date UTC 2013-01-01 01:40:13
iTagged date UTC 2013-01-01 01:40:36
Audio
ID 2
[Format AAC
|Format/lnfo Advanced Audio Codec
[Format profile LC
[codec ID 40
[Duration 23s 509ms
|Bit rate mode Constant
Bit rate 128 Kbps
lChannel(s) 2 channels
Ichannel positions Front: L R
ISampling rate 48.0 KHz
I Compression mode Lossy
iStream size 366 KiB (1%)
lEncoded date UTC 2013-01-01 01:40:13
ITagged date UTC 2013-01-01 01:40:36
jarison of Samsung ST200
and Sony Cybershot DSC-QX10
The Samsung ST200F and Sony Cybershot are not the only devices with
UUIDs examined for this paper. Two other devices contained UUIDs: Canon
IXUS 265 and the Panasonic Lumix DMC-TZ57. A comparison of their file
structures reveals that they are distinguishable from one another based on their
MPEG-4 box structures and they contain UUIDs which are unique to each
respective device.
44


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8^ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 ftjrp ftVP
2 moov 2 mdat
3 uuid=85c0b687-820f-11e0-8111 -f4ce462b6a48 moov
4 udta 4 mvhd
5 manu trak
6 modi tkhd
7 urat edts
8 free elst
9 mvhd 9 mdia
10 trak mdhd
11 tkhd ^T hdlr
12 edts minf
13 elst vmhd
14 mdia dinf
15 mdhd dref
16 hdlr stbl
17 minf stsd
18 vmhd acv1
19 dinf avcC
20 dref coir
211 stbl stts
22! stsd stsc
23 avc1 stsz
24 cdT*^^^^^F24 stco
25 stts ^5 stss
26 stss trak
27 stsc ^^^^127 tkhd
28 stsz edts
29 St CO elst
30 trak ^^^^30 mdia
31 tkhd mdhd
32 edts hdlr
33 elst Iminf
34 mdia ^^^^134 smhd
35 mdhd dinf
36 hdlr dref
37 minf ^^^^137 stbl
38 smhd .stsd
39 inf ^^^^139 mo4a
40 dref ^^^^40 esds
41 stbl stts
42 stsd stsc
43 imp4a stsz
44 I esds 44 stco
45 stts udta
46 stsc PANA
47 stsz ^^^^147 I CAT
48 St CO uuid=be7acfcb-97a9-42e8-9c71-999491 e3afac
49 free ^^^^149
50 mdat ^^^^50
Figure 47. Comparison of Canon IXUS 265 and
Panasonic Lumix DMC-TZ57 Structure
Unfortunately, neither of these UUIDs contained a timestamp that
matched the embedded timestamps in the MPEG-4 standard. Medialnfo returns
data which helps to support the differentiation between the two files but adds no
support for the correlation between the properties of the files, as it did with Sony
PlayStation Portable formatting in the cases of the Samsung ST200F and the
Sony Cybershot DSC-QX10. When comparing these two files it is important to
note that while their file structures showed clear differences between the two files
their reports from Medialnfo were remarkably similar.
45


General
Complete name 1920x1080-canon ixus 265 hs 01 .mp4
Format MPEG-4
Format profile Base Media / Version 2 I
Codec ID mp42
File size 76.0 MiB
Duration 20s 387ms
Overall bit rate 31.3 Mbps
Encoded date UTC 2014-05-07 11:02:46
Taaaed date UTC 2014-05-07 11:02:46


Video
ID 1
Format AVC
Format/lnfo Advanced Video Codec
Format profile Baseline@L4.1
Format settinqs, CABAC No
Format settinqs, ReFrames 1 frame I
Format settinqs, GOP M=1. N=15
Codec ID Codec ID/Info avc1
Advanced Video Codlnq
Duration 20s 387ms
Bit rate 30.4 Mbps
Width 1 920 pixels
Heiqht 1 080 pixels
Display aspect ratio 16:09
Frame rate mode Constant I
Frame rate 29.970 fps
Color space YUV
Chroma subsampling Bit depth 4:02:00 8 bits
Scan type Proqressive
Bits/(Pixel*Frame1 0.49
Stream size 74.0 MiB f97%1
Lanquaqe Enqlish
Encoded date UTC 2014-05-07 11:02:46
Taqqed date UTC 2014-05-07 11:02:46
Color ranqe Full
Color primaries BT.709
Transfer characteristics BT.709
Matrix coefficients BT.709


ID 2
Format AAC
Format/lnfo Advanced Audio Codec
Format profile LC
Codec ID 40
Duration 20s 373ms
Bit rate mode Constant
Bit rate 128 Kbps
Channel(s) 2 channels I
Channel positions Front: L R
Samolina rate 48.0 KHz
Compression mode Lossy
Stream size 318 KiB f0%)
Lanquaqe Enqlish
Encoded date UTC 2014-05-07 11:02:46
Taqqed date UTC 2014-05-07 11:02:46



iComplete name 1920x1080-Panasonic-Lumix-DMC-TZ57 01 .mp4
I Format MPEG-4
Format profile Base Media / Version 2
Codec ID mp42
File size 41.3 MiB
Duration 16s 800ms
I Overall bit rate 20.6 Mbps
Encoded date UTC 2015-03-10 11:29:35
iTaqqed date UTC 2015-03-10 11:29:35
PANA DMC-TZ57

Video
ID 1
[Format AVC
Format/lnfo Advanced Video Codec
Format profile High@L4
Format settinqs, CABAC No
I Format settings. ReFrames 1 frame
[Format settinqs. GOP M=1, N=15
Muxinq mode Container profile=Baseline@.4.0
Codec ID avc1
Codec ID/Info Advanced Video Coding
Duration 16s 800ms
Bit rate 20.5 Mbps
Width 1 920 pixels
Heiqht 1 080 pixels
Display aspect ratio 16:09
I Frame rate mode Constant
[Frame rate 25.000 fps
Color space YUV
I Chroma subsamplinq 4:02:00
[Bit depth 8 bits
[Scan type Proqressive
Bits//Pixel*Frame1 0.395
Stream size 41.0 MiB (99%)
1 Lanquaqe Enqlish
1 Encoded date UTC 2015-03-10 11:29:35
ITaqqed date UTC 2015-03-10 11:29:35
Color primaries BT.709
Transfer characteristics BT.709
Matrix coefficients BT.709

10 2
Format AAC
Format/lnfo Advanced Audio Codec
Format profile LC
Codec ID 40
[Duration 16s 800ms
Source duration 16s 725ms
Bit rate mode Constant
1 Nominal bit rate 128 Kbps
Channelfs) 2 channels
IChannel positions Front: L R
Samplino rate 48.0 KHz
Compression mode Lossy
1 Source stream size 261 KiB<1%}
1 Lanquaqe Enqlish
1 Encoded date UTC 2015-03-10 11:29:35
Tagged date UTC 2015-03-10 11:29:35
mdhd Duration 16800
Figure 48. Medialnfo Comparison of Canon IXUS 265
and Panasonic Lumix DMC-TZ57
46


CHAPTER VI
ANALYSIS OF EDITED FILES
The files examined for this paper that contain the most forensically
relevant data are by far those created by the GoPro devices. Being able to
identify which make and model of camera a file was created on is one thing but
having the recorded evidence of a serial number of the device in question is
invaluable. Whether the file being examined came from a GoPro device or from
another device that records no meaningful user data, the structure of a file is
changed when it is re-encoded. For the purposes of this testing, no edits were
made to the contents of the video itself. Sample files from a GoPro and the LG
G3 were simply re-encoded using commonly available software tools, being
careful to match software settings to export in the MPEG-4 format for each video
editing tool. These resulting files were then analyzed using AtomicParsley and
Medialnfo to demonstrate the results of this re-encoding.
ffmpeg
The first tool tested was ffmpeg, a piece of software released under the
GNU General Public License. It is a powerful audio and video encoder and
decoder at the base of many video editing software tools. For the purpose of
testing ffmpeg, v2.6.2 was used to read the video format of the original file and
create a re-encoded copy of the file using the -c:v copy flag for processing.
This flag instructs ffmpeg to not re-encode the video when processing and
creates an exact copy of the existing video stream. Comparing the output of an
47


original GoPro video file and a file re-encoded using ffmpeg, shows a clear
change in the MPEG-4 structure.
1 1 2 3 4 5 , 6 7 8 9
ftyp
2 moov
3 mvhd
4 udta
5 FIRM
\l 8 LENS
CAME
SETT
9 amba!
10 free
11 trak
12 tkhd
13 14 15 16 tref
tmcd
edts
elst |
17 mdia I I
18 mdhd
19 hdlr
20 minf |
21 22 23 24 vmhd
dinf
dref
stbl
25 I stsd
26 avcl
27 coir
28 I stts
29 30 31 32 ctts
stsc
stsz
stco
33 I stss
34 I sdto
35 trak
36 tkhd
37 38 39 40 tref
tmcd
mdia
mdhd
41 hdlr
42 minf
43 smhd
44 dinf
45 46 47 48 stbl dref

stsd
mp4a
49 I esds
50 I stts
51 i stsc
52 I stsz
53 54 55 56 stco
trak
tkhd
mdia
57 mdhd
58 hdlr
59 r minf gmhd
60
61 62 63 64 hdlr
dinf
dref
stbl
65 I stsd
66 tmcd
67 | stts
68 1 stsc
69 free mdat stsz
70 71 72 stco


1 2 3_l 4 5 6 8 9
1 ftyp
2 free
3 mdat
4 moov
5 mvhd
6 trak
7 tkhd
8 ,edts
9 I | elst
10 mdia
11 'mdhd
12 hdlr
13 minf
14 vmhd
13 dinf
16 dref
17 stbl
18 stsd
19 avcl
20 avcC
21 stts
22 stss
23 stsc
24 stsz
25 stco
26 trak
27 tkhd
28 ;edts
29 elst
30 mdia
31 mdhd hdlr
32
33 inf
34 smhd
35 dinf
36 I dref
37 stbl
38 stsd
39 mp4a
40 esds
41 stts
42 stsc
43 stsz
44 stco
45 udta
46 meta I
47 hdlr |
48 ilst
49 too
50 - data
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
Figure 49. Comparison of Original GoPro Hero 3 and
ffmpeg Encoded File Structure
The changes to the structure of the ffmpeg encoded file are distinct and
unmistakable. All of the forensically significant user data present in the original
GoPro file has been stripped away and when the re-encoded file is further
48


analyzed with Medialnfo, many other changes to the properties of the edited file
can be observed. The format profile and codec have changed from JVT (Joint
Video Team) and avcT to Base Media and isom. ffmpeg also zeroes out the
embedded timestamps which are reported as the epoch time of January 1, 1904.
Among the other changes to the properties of the re-encoded file, another
notable addition is the string Lavf56.25.101 Medialnfo reports as the Writing
Application and is contained in the User Data Box (udta) located at the end of
the re-encoded file. The string corresponds with the libavformat library called by
ffmpeg therefore it would be possible to further determine which version of
ffmpeg was used for encoding.
49



Complete name 1920x1 D80-GOPRO-HERO3-GOPR1682-BL.mD4
Form at MPEG-4
Format profile JVT
CadecID avc1 I
File size 2D.3 MiB
Duration 6s 440ms I
Overall bit rate 26.5 MbDS I
Encoded date UTC 2015-04-26 17:56:56
Tagged date UTC 2015-04-26 17:56:56
AMBA


Video
ID 1
Form at Form at/lnfo AVC
Advanced Video Codec I
Format orofile MainL4.2
Format settings. CABAC Yes I
Format settings. ReFrames 1 frame
Format settings, GOP M=1.N=8
Codec ID avc1 I
Codec ID/Infa AdvancedVideoCodina I
Duration 6s 440ms I
Bit rate made Constant I
Bit rate 25.0 Mbps
Width 1 920 pixels
Haight 1 BBO pixels
Display aspect ratio 16:09
Frame rate mode Constant I
Frame rate 59.940 fos
Color space YUV
Chroma subsamollna 4:02:00
Bit daoth 8 bits
Scan tvoe Progressive I
Bit s/fPixel 'Framed 0.201
Stream size 19.1 MiB ($4%)
Title GoPro AVC
Lanauaaa English I
Encoded date UTC 2015-04-26 17:56:56
Tagged date UTC 2015-04-26 17:56:56
Color ranae Full
Color orimanes BT.709
Transfer characteristics BT.709
Matrix coefficients BT.709


ID 2
Form at AAC
Form at/lnfo Advanced Audio CodeG I
Format orofile LC
Codec ID 4D
Duration 6s421ms I
Bit rate mode Constant I
Bit rate 128 Kbps
Channelfsi 2 channels I
Channel bosifions Front: L R I
Samolina rate 48.0 KHz
Compression mode Lossy I
Stream size 1D0 KiB fO'Ji'i
Title GoPro AAC I
LanauaoB English
Encoded date UTC 2015-04-26 17:56:56 I
Tagged date UTC 2015-04-26 17:56:56

Other
ID 3
Tyob Time code 1
Form at QuickTime TC
Duration 6s 440ms 1
Time code of first frame 17:55:51:27
Time code, striped Yes I
Language English I
Encoded date UTC 2015-04-26 17:56:56
Tagged date UTC 2015-04-26 17:56:56

iComolete name gopro ffmpeg.mp4
iFormat MPEG-4
lEormat profile Base Media
ICodec ID
Fife size 21.3 MiB
iDuration 7s 202ms
[Overall bit rate mode Constant
loverall bit rate 24.8 Mbps
[Encoded date UTC 1904-01-01 00:00:D0
Tagged date UTC 1904-D1-D1 00:DD;00
Iwritng application Lavf56.25.101

Ivirian
ID 1
[Format AVC
iFormat/l nfo Advanced Video Gadec
[Format profile MamL4.2
IFormat settings. CABAC Yes
IFormat settings. ReFrames 1 frame
IFormat settings. GOP M=1, N=8
ICodec ID avd
ICodec ID/Info Advanced Video Coding
[Duration 7s 174ms
iBit rate mode Constant
Bit rate 25.0 Mbps
Width 1 920 pixels
[Height 1 M0 pixels
DisQlav aspect ratio 16:09
Frame rate mode Constant
[Frame rate 59.940 fes
IColor space YUV
[Chroma subsamplina 4:02:00
Bit depth 8 bits
ISGan tvaa Pfoaressive
iBits/fPixel'Frame'l 0.201
IStream size 21.2 MiBfgg^)
Language
lEncoded date UTC 1904-01-01 00:00:00 UTC 1904-01-01 00:00:D0
iTaaaed date
IColor range Full
IColor onmaries BT.7D9
iTransfer characteristics BT.7D9
iMatrix coefficients BT.709



ID 2
IFormat AAC
IFormat/l nfo Advanced Audio Codec
IFormat orofile LC
ICodec ID 40
Duration 7s 202ms
[Duration LastFrame -9ms
IBit rate mode Constant
Bit rate 128 Kbps
Channelfsi 2 channels
IChannel positions Front L R
ISamolina rate 48.0 KHz
Icomorsssion mode Lossy
IStream size 113 KiB (1%)
Lanauaos English
lEnGoded date UTC 1904-01-01 00:00:D0 UTC 1904-01-01 00:QD:00
iTaggad date











Figure 50. Medialnfo Comparison of Original GoPro Hero 3 and
ffmpeg Encoded File
When comparing an original file from the LG G3 to the same file that was
re-encoded using ffmpeg, the file structure is again distinctly different from the
original. The encoding structure of ffmpeg is also consistent with the re-encoding
of the GoPro file.
50


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 2 3 ftyp
moov
mvhd
4 udta
5 auth
6 adze
7 adzm
8 adze
9 trak
10 tkhd
11 12 13 14 15 mdia
mdhd
hdlr
minf
vmhd
16 dinf
17 dref
18 stbl
19 stsd avcl
20
21 avcCl
22 pasp |
23 24 25 26 27 stts stss

stsz
stsc
stco
28 trak
29 tkhd
30 mdia
31 mdhd
32 hdlr
33 minf
34 smhd
35 dinf dref
36 37 38
stbl
stsd
39 mp4a esds
40
41 stts
42 stsz
43 stsc
44 stco
45 free
46 mdat




rri 2 3 4 5 6 8 9
1 ftyp
2 jfree
3 mdat
I 4|moov
Li mvhd
6 trak
7 tkhd
8 edts
9 elst
10 mdia
11! mdhd
12| hdlr
13> minf
14| vmhd
15' dinf
I i6i dref
17 stbl
18| stsd
I 19 avcl
20 avcC
21 stts
22| stss
23 stsc
pail stsz
25] stco
261 trak
27 tkhd
28 edts
29 T elst
30 'mdia
31 mdhd
32| hdlr
33j inf
34| smhd
35 dinf
36| i dref
37 stbl
I 381 stsd
39. mp4a
40i esds
[Tit stts
42i stsc
43' stsz
44 stco
4^ udta
46 meta
47f hdlr
4s| ilst
49] too I
flol data | |
I and ffmpeg Encoded Fi
Figure 51. Comparison of LG G3 Original and ffmpeg Encoded Fi e Structure
Medialnfo reports the same series of changes to the properties in the re-
encoded LG G3 file as it did with the re-encoded GoPro sample file format
profile and codec ID have been modified, the embedded timestamps have been
zeroed out, and any identifying metadata has been stripped out and replaced
with the same reference to Lavf56.25.101.
51


Figure 52.
General
Complete name 3840x2160-LG-G3-2015-06-20 02.38.24-JH.mp4
Format MPEG-4
Format profile Base Media / Version 2 I
Codec ID mp42
File size 17.7 MiB
Duration 5s 35ms I
Overall bit rate 29.4 Mbps
Performer LGE
Encoded date UTC 2015-06-20 02:38.24
Tagged date UTC 2015-06-20 02.38.24

Video
ID 1
Format AVC
Format/lnfo Advanced Video Codec I
Format profile HiahL5.1
Format setlinas, CABAC Yes
Format setlinas, ReFrames 1 frame I
Format setlinqs, GOP M=1, N=30
Codec ID avc1 I
Codec ID/Info Advanced Video Godina I
Duration 4s 822ms
Bit rate 29.9 Mbps I
Width 3 840 pixels
Height Display aspect ratio 2 160 pixels 16.09
Frame rate mode Variable
Frame rate 29.451 fps
Minimum frame rate 29.221 fps
Maximum frame rate 29.703 fps
Color space YUV
Chroma subsafnplina 4.02:00 I
Bit depth 8 bits
Scan type Progressive I
Bits/IPixelTrame1) 0.122
Stream size 17.2 MiB f97%1
Title VideoHandle 1
Lanauaoe Enalish 1
Encoded date UTC 2015-06-20 02.38.24
Taaaed date UTC 2015-06-20 02.38.24
mdhd Duration 4822


ID 2
Format AAC
Format/lnfo Advanced Audio Codec I
Format profile LC
Codec ID 40 I
Duration 5s 35ms I
Source duration 5s 44ms
Source Duration FirstFrame 9ms
Bit rate mode Constant I
Bit rate 156 Kbps
Nominal bit rate 96.0 Kbps
Channelisf 2 channels I
Channel positions Front. L R
Samplina rate 48.0 KHz
Compression mode Lossv I
Stream size 95.9KiB(1%1
Source stream size gs.OKiBfm
Title SoundHandle 1
Lanauaae Enalish
Encoded date UTC 2015-06-20 02.38.24 I
Tagqed date UTC 2015-06-20 02.38.24
mdhd Duration 5035
Medialnfo Comparison of Oriq
iGeneral I
[Complete name LG ffmoea mp4
iFormat MPEG-4
iFormat profile Base Media
iCodec ID |isom
iFile size 17.3 MiB
iDuration 5s 78ms
Overall bit rate 28.5 Mbps
lEncoded date UTC 1904-01-01 00.00.00
iTaqqed date UTC 1904-01-01 00.00.00
IWritina application Lavf56.25.101

Video I
ID M
[Format AVC
iFormat/Info Advanced Video Codec
IFormat profile Hiqh@L5.1
IFormat sfittinas. CABAC Yes
IFormat settinas, ReFrames 1 frame
IFormat settings, GOP M=1, N=30
ICodec ID avc1
ICodec ID/Info Advanced Video Coding
IDuration 4s 822ms
I Bit rate 29.9 Mbps
[Width 3 840 pixels
HBioht 2 160 pixels
Display aspect ratio 16.09
iFrame rate mode Variable
Frame rate 29.451 fps
iMinimum frame rate 29.221 fps
iMaximum frame rate 29.703 fps
Color space YUV
[Chroma subsamolina 4.02.00
[Bit depth 8 bits
iScan type Progressive
Bits/(PixefTramel 0.122
IStream size 17.2 MiB (100%}
lLanauaae Enalish
lEncoded date UTC 1904-01-01 00:00.00
ITaqqed date UTC 1904-01-01 00:00.00


|

ID 2
IFormat AAC
IFormat/Info Advanced Audio Codec
IFormat profile LC
Codec ID 40
IDuration 5s 78ms
iBit rate mode Constant
Bit rate 129 Kbps
IChanneKsl 2 channels
[Channel positions Front. L R
iSamplinq rate 48.0 KHz
[Compression mode Lossv
IStream size 79.7 KiB <0%f
lLanauaae Enalish
lEncoded date UTC 1904-01-01 00:00.00
ITaqqed date UTC 1904-01-01 00:00.00


|
I
|
|
LG G3 and ffmpeg Encoded File
Adobe Premiere
Example files were tested against re-encoded versions created with
Adobe Premiere CC 2015. Files were imported into Premiere and then exported
directly back out using the MPEG-4 settings in the software dialog being careful
to match encoder settings without creating any edits in the timeline of the videos
themselves. An analysis of the file structure reveals a clear difference between
the original GoPro recording and the re-encoded file. The User Data Box (udta)
containing the device serial number has been moved within the structure of the
52


file and modified to contain data from Adobe but not from the original file. Adobe
inserts a UUID, as well, but it does not appear to be unique to the file itself.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ^ 1 2 3 4 _ _ 5 _ _ 6 _ _ 8 _ _ 9 _
1 ftro
2 moov H E
3 mvhd H E mvhd
4I udfa m e trak
s! FIRM H E tkhd
e; LENS edts
Tl CAME m e elsl
8' SETT S * mdia
. 9, AMBA S K mdhd
IP I free hdlr
trak 11 rm nf
12 tkhd vmhd_
13' iref ^b n hdlr
14l ! fmcd dinf
is! adts dref
16! eisl stbi _
1?l mdia stsd
18' mdhd m c avc1
19 ndlr S E BVcC
20 minf ^n stts
21 vm hd 71 stss
22 dinf sdtp
23 dref stsc
24 stbi ^^^^24 St5Z
25, slsd stco
26 BVC1 efts
traK
. stts tkhd
29 rtfs edts
30 StSG elst
31 stsz 31 mdia
32 slco
33 stss hdlr,_
34l minf
35j trak smhd"
36! tkhd hdlr
37! tref dinf
38! tmcd dreF
39 mdia ^^^^39 stbi _
4d; mdhd ststT
41 idlr ^^^^141 mp4a
42 minf esds
43 smhd H EE stts
44 dinf stsc
45! dref ^B Q stsz
46: stbi ^B Pis 5tCO
47! stsd udta
4J TIM
49 [esd^^^^^^^^49 lTSC
so: stts_ ;tsz I
51' stsc uuid=be7acfcb-97a9-42e8-9c71-999491e3afac
"52i [ 5lSZ mdat
53 stca ^B
54 Irak ^B
-5= tkhd ^B B
56; mdia ^B
57! mdhd. ^B B
58! Ihdlr m m
591 :minf m m
60] ; gmhd m m
bT] hdlr m E
62! dinf ^B
63 dref_ ^B |
64l slbl_ _ ^B B
m! slsd ^B B
66! tfTTCd ^B |
67! stts^ ^B B
68 [stsc; I m m
691 [stsz 1 I m m
[7Ql Step I m m
[Til [free 1 m E
m [mdat I 1 | ^B B
Figure 53. Comparison of GoPro Hero 3 Original and
Adobe Premiere Encoded File Structure
An analysis with Medialnfo reveals that the format profile and codec ID
have been modified by Adobe Premiere. The embedded timestamps have been
updated from the original time to the time of the re-encoding. There are other
changes to the properties of the re-encoded file but most notable is the absence
of the QuickTime Time Code track contained in the original GoPro file.
53


General
Formal settings, CABAC
Codec ID/Info
Bit rate mode
Bit rate
Width
Height
Display aspect ratio
Frame rate mode
Chroma subsampling
Bits/(Pixel'Framej_
Stream size________
1920x1080-GOPRO-HERQ3-GQPR1682-BL.mp4|
26.5 Mbps
UTC 2015-04-26 17:56:56
UTC 2015-04-26 17:56:56
Advanced Video Codec
Advanced Video Coding
080 pixels
Tagged date
19.1 MiB (94%)
UTC 2015-04-26 17:56:56_
UTC 2015-04-26 17:56:56
Transfer characteristics
Matrix coefficients
Advanced Audio Codec
Format profile
Bit rate mode
Channel positions
Compression mode
Language
Encoded date
Tagged date
Duration
Time code of first frame
00 KiB (0%)
UTC 2015-04-26 17:56:56
UTC 2015-04-26 1 7:56:56
i, striped
UTC 2015-04-26 17:56:56
UTC 2015-04-26 17:56:56

IComplete name 1920x1 Q8Q_tjopra_premieremp4 MPEG-4
iFormat
iFormat profile Base Media! Version 2
Codec ID mo42
I File size 9.91 MiB
I Duration 7s174ms
I Overall bit rate 11.6 Mbps
lEncoded date UTC 2015-10-11 01:04:39
iTaaaed date UTC 2015-10-11 01:04:40
lTIM 00:00:00:00
lTSC 60000
lTSZ 10Q1

IVI (inn
ID 1
IFormat AVC
iFormat/Info Advanced Video Codec
IFormat profile Main@L4.2
IFormat settinqs, CABAC Yes
IFormat settings. ReFrames 3 frames
IFormat settinos, GOP M=4, N=59
Icodec ID avc1
Icodec ID/Info Advanced Video Codfn'a
I Duration 7s174ms
I Bit rate 11.3 Mbps
I Width 1 920 pixels
I Heid ht 1 080 Bixets
iDisoiavaspect ratio 16:09
iFrame rate mode Variable
I Frame rate 59.940 fps
I Minimum frame rate 59.940 fps
iMaximum frame rate 60.000 fps
IStandard NTSC
I Color space YUV
I Chroma subsamplina 4:02:00
I Bit deoth 8 bits
I Scan tvbe Progressive
BitstfPfeel'Framel 0.091
Istream size 9.63 MiB I97%
ILarauaae Ennllsh
lEncoded dale UTC 2015-10-11 01:04:39
ITaaaed date UTC 2015-10-11 01:04:39
I Color range Limited
Icolor primaries BT.7Q9
iTransfer characteristics BT.709
I Matrix coefficients BT.709


lID 2
IFormat AAC
iFormat/Info Advanced Audio Codec
IFormat profile LC
Icodec ID 40
1 Duration 7s174ms
Isource duration 7s 211ms
1 Bit rate mode Constant
[Bit rate 317 Kbps
[Charmelfsl 2 channels
IChannel oosittons Front: L R
ISampffna rate 48.0 KHz
(Compression mode Lossv
Istream size 278 KiB (3%)
Source stream size Language Encoded date ITaaaed date 279 KiB (3%i
English
UTC2015-10-11 01:04:39
UTC2015-10-11 01:04:39










of Oriqina GoPro Hen
and Adobe Premiere Encoded File
Comparing the original LG G3 recording to the re-encoded copy created
with Adobe Premiere shows an identical change to MPEG-4 file structure as was
observed with the GoPro re-encoding. The embedded UUID is identical and
again any user data in the original file has been stripped away and replaced with
Adobes own content.
54


Figure 55. Comparison of Original LG G3 and
Adobe Premiere Encoded File Structure
An analysis with Medialnfo reveals the change expected to the embedded
timestamps but a file recorded at 60fps rather than at the 30fps of the original.
There are other inclusions and exclusions in the properties of the re-encoded file
and this level of analysis will only serve to confirm or deny a match between files.
However, at the most basic level a keyword search of either file created by
Adobe Premiere reveals fifteen hits for the string adobe in the metadata of the
file itself.
55


General
Cometets name 3840x2160-LG-G3-2015-06-20 02.38.24-JH.mp4
Format MPEG-4
Formal profile Base Media / Version 2 I
Codec ID mp42
File size 17.7 MiB
Duration 5s 35ms I
Overall bit rate 29.4 Mbps
Performer LGE
Encoded date UTC 2015-06-20 02:38:24
Taqfled date UTC 2015-06-20 02:38:24




Video
ID 1
Format AVC
Format/lnfo Advanced Video Codec I
Format profile Hiah Formal settlras, CABAC Yes
Format settinas, ReFrames 1 frame I
Format setllnos, GOP M = 1, N=3Q
Codec ID avd I
Codec ID/Info Advanced Video Codino I
Duration 4s 822ms
Bit rate 29.9 Mbps
Width 3 840 pixels I
Heiaht 2 160 pixels I
Display aspect ratio 16:09 I
Frame rate mode Variable I
Frame rate 29.451 fpa
Minimum frame rate 29.221 fog
Maximum frame rate 29.703 fps
Color space YUV
Ghroma subsamolina 4:02:00
Bit depth 8 bits
Scan type Proaressive I
BitsifPbcelFrame) 0.122
Stream size 17.2 MiB f97%i
Title VldeoHandle I
Lanauaae Enallsh I
Encoded date UTC 2015-06-20 02:38:24
Taaoed date UTC 2015-06-20 02:38:24
mdhd Duration 4822



Audio
ID 2
Format AAC
Format/lnfo Advanced Audio Codec I
Format profile LC
Codec ID 40
Duration 5s 35ms I
Source duration 5s 44ms I
Source Duration FirstFrame 9ms I
Bit rate mode IConstant I
Bit rate 1156 Kbps I
Nominal bit rate 96.0 Kbos I
Channslfsl 2 channels I
Ghannel positions Front: L R
Sampfina rate 48.0 KHz
Compression mode Lossy I
Stream size 95.9 KiB f1%)
Source stream size 95.9 KiB f1%)
Title SoundHandle I
Language Encoded date Enallsh I
UTC 2015-06-20 02:38:24
Taaoed date UTC 2015-06-20 02:38:24
mdhd Duration 5035
igure 56. Vledialnfo Compa
General
Icomplete name 3840x2160-LG-G3 premiere.mp4
iFormat MPEG-4
[Format profile Base Media/ Versbn 2
[codec ID mp42
File size 6.29 MiB
[Duration 4s 821ms
lOverall bit rate mode Variable
lOverall bit rate 10.9 Mbps
lEncoded date UTC 2015-10-11 01:00:25
ITaaaed date UTC 2015-10-11 01:00:25
TIM 00:00:00:00
TSC 60000
TSZ 1001

Video
I ID 1
IFormat AVC
Format/lnfo Advanced Video Codec
IFormat profSe MainiL5.2
Format settinos, CABAC Yes
[Format settings, ReFrames 3 frames
[codec ID avc1
[codec ID/Info Advanced Video Codina
iDuration 4s 821ms
Bit rate 10.6 Mbps
Width 3 840 pixels
Heiaht 2 160 pixels
[Display aspect ratio 1609
iFrame rate mode Variable
iFrame rate 59.940 fos
[Minimum frame rate 59.940 fos
[Maximum frame rate 60000 fos
Istandard NTSC
Colorspace YUV
Chroma subsamolina 4:02:00
Bit depth 8 bits
I Scan type Proaressive
Bits/i'Pixel'Framel 0.021
Istream size 6.09 MiB f97%1
Lanauaae Enalish
lEncoded date UTC 2015-10-11 01:00:25
ITaaaed date UTC 2015-10-11 01:00:25
iColorranoe Limited
IColor primaries BT.709
[Transfer characteristics BT.709
iMatrix coefficients BT.709

Audio
I ID 2
IFormat AAC
iFormat/Info Advanced Audio Codec
IFormat profte LC
Codec ID 40
IDuration 4s 821ms
[Source duration 4s 864ms
iBit rate mode Variable
Bit rate 317 Kbps
iMaximum bit rate 388 Kbps
IChanneifsl 2 channels
IChannel positions Front: L R
ISamoitna rate 480 KHz
Icompression mode L088V
Istream size 187 KiB (3%1
[Source stream size 188 KiB f3%1
lLanauaae Enalish
[Encoded date UTC 2015-10-11 01:00:25
ITaaaed date UTC 2015-10-11 01:00:25



Adobe Premiere Encoded File
Apple Quicktime
To test another encoding engine, Apples QuickTime Player v.10.4 was
used to re-encode the sample files for analysis and comparison using its Export
function to re-encode the two sample files being examined. The MPEG-4
structure of a file re-encoded with QuickTime shows clear differences from the
original GoPro recording. The QuickTime Time Code track has been stripped
away but it should be noted that QuickTime is the first piece of software to make
any attempt to preserve the contents of the User Data Box (udta) present in the
56


original file. To verify the preservation of the User Data Box (udta) contents
between the original and the re-encoded file, these boxes were examined
separately to confirm their data. QuickTime has re-arranged these boxes but
their contents remain valid.
Figure 57. Comparison of GoPro Hero 3 Original and
Apple QuickTime Encoded File Structure
57


Examining the file with Medialnfo shows that the format profile and the
codec ID have changed, the embedded timestamps have been updated to the
time of re-encoding, and two pieces of self-identifying GoPro references have
been stripped away from the audio and video tracks.

Complete name 1920x1080-GOPRO-HERO3-GOPR1R82-RI mn4^B ^^Hcomplete name 1920x108O-GOPRO auicklime.mo4
Format MPEG-4 ^B ^^Fnrmat MPEG-4
Format profile JVT ^ ^^Fnrmat protlie Base Media l Version 2
Codec ID avc1 ^Hcodec ID mp42
File size 20.3 MiB ^B ^^BTiiesize 21.3 MiB
Duration 6s 440ms ^^Hnuration 7s174ms
Overall bit rate 26.5 Mbps ^B ^^Inverall bit rate mode Constant
Encoded date UTC 2015-04-26 17:56:56 ^B ^^Boverail bit rate 24.9 Mbps
Tagged date UTC 2015-04-26 17:56:56 ^B ^^BFnroded date UTC 2015-10-1023:41:07
AMBA m ^BTanaed date UTC 2015-10-1023:41:07
^^^^amba m


Video
ID 1
Formal AVC ^^iFormat AVC
Format/lnfo Advanced VWeo Codec ^Fmnafc'info Advanced Video Codec
Format profile Main(L4 2 ^^iFnrmat profile MainL4.2
Format settings, CABAC Yes ^^BFnrmat settinaa CABAC Yes
Format settinos, ReFrames 1 frame ^^Hprirmat settinas. ReFrames 1 frame
Formal settings, GOP M=1, N=8 ^B ^^Format settrnas, GOP M=1, N=8
Codec ID avc1 ^^Hcodec ID avc1
Codec ID/Info Advanced Video Coding ^^HCodec D/Info Advanced Video Codina
Duration 6s 440ms ^^Hiiration 7s174ms
Bit rate mode Constant ^hiI rate mode Constant
Bit rate 25.0 Mbps ^ ^^HRit rate 25.0Mbps
Width 1 920 pixels ^B ^B Width 1 920 Pixels
Height 1 080 pixels ^^^B KtetaM 1 080 pixels
Dispiav asped ratio 16:09 ^B ^Bnkntav aspect ratio 16:09
Frame rate mode Constant ^^iFrame rate mode Constant
Frame rate 59.940 fps ^B ^^HFrame rate 59.940 fps
Color space YUV ^Color space YUV
Chroma subsamolinD 4:02:00 ^ ^^Hr.hroma subsampling 4:0200
Bit depth 8 bits ^B ^^BrnTrieoth 8 bits
Scan type Proaressive ^^Bsnantvoe Progressive
BKsffPIxei'Framel 0.201 ^B ^BRfrH/Tpixamamei 4:49:26
Stream size 19.1 MiB 04% 1 ^B ^stream size 21.2 MiB f89%3
Title GoPro AVC ^B ^BnEs Core Media Video
Lanauaae English ^^^B ^^iFncoded date UTC 2015-10-1023:41:07
Encoded date UTC 2015-04-26 17:56:56 ^B ^BTaaaed date UTC 2015-10-10 23:41:07
Taaaed date UTC 2015-04-26 17:56:56 ^B ^^Ir.nior ranae Full
Color range Full ^^Onlor primaries BT.709
Color primaries BT.709 ^B 1 ransfer characteristics BT.709
Transfer characteristics BT.709 ^B ^^HMatrix coefficients BT.709
Matrix coefficients


Audio
ID 2 ^Biri 2
Formal AAC ^B ^^HFormat AAC
FormaVlnfo Advanced Audio Codec ^^Fnrmat/lnfo Advanced Audio Codec
Formal profile ^B ^^Fnrrnat profile LC
Codec ID 40 ^B ^^Hundec ID 40
Duration 6s 421 ms ^B ^^Hnuration 7s124ms
Bit rale mode Constant ^^Snurce duration 7s 168ms
Bit rate 128 Kbps ^ ^^iRit rate mode Constant
Channel's! 2 channels ^^^iTrate 128 Kbps
Channel positions Front: L R ^^BchanneKsl 2 channels
Sampling rate 48.0 KHz ^B ^^Hr.hannel positions Front: L R
Compression mode Lossy ^sempSna rate 48.0 KHz
Stream size 100 KiB (0%) ^B ^^compression mode Lossv
Title GoPro AAC ^^B ^^Bstream size 111 KiBf1%)
Lanauaae Enalish ^^Hsnurce stream size 112 KiB (1%1
Encoded date UTC 2015-04-26 17:56:56 ^B ^Briue Core Media Audio
Tanaed date UTC 2015-04-26 17:56:56 ^B ^^Fncoded date UTC 2015-10-1023:41:07
^^^^BTanneh date UTC 2015-10-1023:41:07
Other
ID
Type Time code
Format OuickTimeTC ~~~
Duration 6s 440ms
Time code of first frame
Time code, striped Yes ^^^^B
Lanauaae Enalish
Encoded date UTC 2015-04-26 17:56:56 ^^^^B
Tagged date UTC 2015-04-26 17:56:56 ^^^^B
Figure 58. Medialnfo Comparison of GoPro Hero 3 Original and
Apple QuickTime Encoded File
Using AtomicParsley to compare the structures of the original LG G3 file
and the QuickTime re-encoded file shows distinct differences in the MPEG-4
structure that would allow the QuickTime file to be identified as being not original.
58


That being said, the structure of the re-encoded LG G3 file is not the same as the
structure of the re-encoded GoPro file. It seems that QuickTime takes certain
parts of the original files structure into account when re-encoding rather than re-
encoding using a strict structure as observed with ffmpeg and Adobe Premiere.
While there was no meaningful data contained in the User Data Box (udta) of
the original file this data was not preserved during re-encoding as it was in the
case of the GoPro.
Hi 2 3 4 5 _ 6 7 8 ^^^^B * I ^ 3 4 5 6 8 9
1 ftyp ^^^B 1 ftyp
2 moov ^^^B 2 wide
3 mvhd mdat
4 udta ^^^B 4 moov
5 auth ^^^B 5 mvhd
6 adze ^^^^B 6 trak
7 adzm 7 tkhd
8 adze ^^^B 8 edts
9 trak 9 elst
10 tkhd ^^^B10 mdia
11 mdia ^^^B 11 mdhd
12 mdhd 12 hdlr
13 hdlr ^^^^B 13 mint
14 mint 14 vmhd
15 vmhd dint
16 dint ^^^B 16 dref
17 dref ^^^B 17 stbl
18 stbl 18 stsd
19 stsd ^^^B 19 avc1
20 avc1 ^^^B 20 avcC
21 avcC^^^^^B~21 pasp
22 Daso^^^^^l~22 stts
23 stts ^^^B 23 stss
24 stss 24 stsc
25 |stsz ^^^B 25 stsz
26 stsc 26 stco
27 stco ^^^B 27 trak
28 trak ^^^B 28 tkhd
29 tkhd 29 edts
30 mdia elst
31 mdhd ^^^B 31 mdia
32 hdlr ^^^B 32 mdhd
33 mint 33; hdlr
34 smhd 34 mint
35 dint ^^^B 35 smhd
36 dref ^^^B 36 dint
37 stbl 37 dref
38 stsd ^^^B 38 stbl
39 mp4a ^^^B 39 stsd
40 esds 40 mp4a
41 stts ^^^^B41 esds
42 stsz 42 stts
43 stsc ^^^B 43 stsc
44 stco 44 stsz
45 free stco
46 mdat
Figure 59. Comparison of LG G3 Original and
Apple QuickTime Encoded File Structure
Analysis with Medialnfo shows that the embedded timestamps have been
updated to the time of re-encoding, the self-identifying reference LGE has been
removed, as well as the references to VideoHandle and SoundHandle.
59


General
Complete name 3840x2160-LG-G3-2015-06-20 02.38.24-JH.mp4
Format MPEG-4
Format profile Base Media/ Version 2
Codec ID mp42
File size 17,7 MiB
Duration 5s 35ms
Overall bit rate 29.4 Mbps
Performer LGE
Encoded dale UTC 2015-06-20 02:38:24
Tagged date UTC2015-06-20 02:38:24
Virlen
ID 1
Format AVC
FormaVInfo Advanced Video Codec
Format profile High@L5.1
Format settings, CABAC Yes
Format settings, ReFrames 1 frame
Format settings, GOP M=1, N=30
Codec ID avd
Codec ID/Info Advanced Video Coding
Duration 4s822ms
Bit rate 29.9 Mbps
Width 3 840 pixels
Height 2 160 pixels
Display aspect ratio 16:09
Frame rate mode Variable
Frame rate 29.451 fos
Minimum frame rate 29.221 fps
Maximum frame rate 29.703 fps
Color space YUV
Chroma subsampling 4:02:00
Bit depth 8 bits
Scan type Progressive
Bits/(Pixel'Frame) 0.122
Stream size 17.2 MiB (97%)
Title VideoHandle
Language English
Encoded date UTC 2015-06-20 02:38:24
Tagged date UTC 2015-06-20 02:38:24
mdhd_Duration 4822
Aurlin
ID 2
Format AAC
FormaVInfo Advanced Audio Codec
Format profile LC
Codec ID 40
Duration 5s 35ms
Source duration 5s 44ms
Source Duration FirstFrame 9ms
Bit rate mode Constant
Bit rate 156 Kbps
Nominal bit rate 96.0 Kbps
Channel(s) 2 channels
Channel positions Front: L R
Sampling rate 48.0 KHz
Compression mode Lossy
Stream size 95.9 KiB (1%)
Source stream size 95.9 KiB (1%)
Title SoundHandle
Language 1 English
Encoded date UTC 2015-06-20 02:38:24
Tagged date UTC 2015-06-20 02:38:24
mdhd Duration 5035
General
Complete name 3840x2160-LG-G3_quicktime.
Format MPEG-4
Formal profile Base Media / Version 2
Codec ID mp42
File size 17.3 MiB
Duration 4s 999ms
Overall bit rate 29.0 Mbps
Encoded date UTC 2015-10-10 23:24:08
Tagged date UTC 2015-10-10 23:24:08
Video
ID 1
Format AVC
FormaVInfo Advanced Video Codec
Formal profile High(gL5.1
Format settings, CABAC Yes
Format settings, ReFrames 1 frame
Format settings, GOP M=1, N=30
Codec ID avc1
Codec ID/Info Advanced Video Coding
Duration 4s 821ms
Bit rate 29.9 Mbps
Width 3 840 pixels
Height 2 160 pixels
Display aspect ratio 16:09
Frame rate mode Variable
Frame rate 29.451 fps
Minimum frame rate 29.221 fps
Maximum frame rate 29.703 fps
Color space YUV
Chroma subsampling 4:02:00
Bit depth 8 bits
Scan type Progressive
Bits/(Pixel'Frame) 0.122
Stream size 17.2MiB (99%)
Title Core Media Video
Encoded date UTC 2015-10-10 23:24:08
Tagged date UTC 2015-10-10 23:24:08
Andin
ID 2
Format AAC
FormaVInfo Advanced Audio Codec
Formal profile LC
Codec ID 40
Duration 4s 999ms
Source duration 5s 44ms
Source Duration FirstFrame 9ms
Bit rate mode Constant
Bit rate 156 Kbps
Nominal bit rate 96.0 Kbps
Channel(s) 2 channels
Channel positions Front: L R
Sampling rate 48.0 KHz
Compression mode Lossy
Stream size 95.1 KiB (1%)
Source stream size 95.9 KiB (1%)
Title Core Media Audio
Encoded date UTC 2015-10-10 23:24:08
Tagged date UTC 2015-10-10 23:24:08
Figure 60. Medialnfo Comparison of LG G3 Original and
Apple QuickTime Encoded File
voutube-dl
As a final test of the methods of analysis outlined in this paper, the sample
clips from the GoPro Hero 3 and LG G3 were uploaded to YouTube and then
downloaded using youtube-dl version 2015.10.09. This software is released into
the public domain and is available online at https://github.com/rg3/voutube-dl/
These downloaded files were then compared with the original files in order to
compare the files created by a popular tool used for downloading YouTube
videos.
60


Using AtomicParsley to extract the file structure of the YouTube re-
encoded file reveals a file structure very different from the original and appears to
be the same output structure as was observed in the ffmpeg structure analysis.
I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 I
1 IftVP
2 moov
3 mvhd
4 udta
5 FIRM
6 LENS
7 CAME
8 SETT
9 AM BA
10 free
11 trak
12 tkhd
13 tref
14 tmcd
15 edts
16 elst
17 mdia
18 mdhd
19 hdlr
20 mint
21 vmhd
22 dint
23 dref
24 stbl
25 stsd
26 avc1
27 coir
28 stts
29 ctts
30 stsc
31 stsz
32 stco
33 stss
34 sdtp
35 trak
36 tkhd
37 tref
38 tmcd
39 mdia
40 mdhd
41 hdlr
42 mint
43 smhd
44 dint
45 dref
46 stbl
47 stsd
48 mp4a
49 esdsl
50 stts
51 stsc
52 stsz
53 stco
54 trak
55 tkhd
56 mdia
57 mdhd
58 hdlr
59 mint
60 qmhd
61 ; hdlr
62 dint
63 dref
64 stbl
65 stsd
66 tmcd
67 stts
68 stsc
69 stsz
70 stco
71 free
72 mdat
1 | 2 3 4 5 6 8 9
1 flyp
2 free
3 mdat
4 moov
5 mvhd
6 trak
7 tkhd
8 edts
9 elst
10 mdia
11 mdhd
12 hdlr
13 mint
14 vmhd
15 dint
16 dref
17 stbl -
18 stsd
19 avc1
20 avcC
21 stts
22 stss
23 ctts
24 stsc
25 stsz
26 stco
27 trak
28 tkhd
29 edts
30 elst
31 mdia
32 mdhd
33 hdlr
34 35 mint
smhd
36 dint
37 dref
38 stbl
39 stsd
40 mp4a
41 esds
42 stts
43 stsc
44 stsz
45 stco
46 udta
47 meta
48 hdlr
49 ilst
50 too
51 data





















Figure 61. Comparison of Original GoPro Hero 3 and
YouTube Encoded File Structure
61


Medialnfo confirms relevant changes to the file properties of the re-
encoded file. The format profile and codec have been modified and the
embedded timestamps have been zeroed out. The presence of the
Lavf56.25.10T string in this file correlates with the theory that youtube-dl is using
ffmpeg to transcode YouTubes downloaded data stream into a playable format.

Complete name 1920x1080-GOPRO-HERO3-GOPR1 asTRiTnoT^B ^^Hr.nmplete name 1920x1080 oodto voutube.mo4
Format MPEG-4 ^^HFnrmat MPEG-4
Format profile JVT ^^Hhnrmat profile Base Media
Codec ID ^^Bendec ID isom
File size 20,3 MiB ^B ^^Bnle size 4.82 MiB
Duration 6s 440m S ^i luration 7s 245ms
Overall bit rate 26.5 MbDS ^B (Overall bit rate 5 584 Kbps
Encoded date UTC 2015-04-26 17:56:56 ^B ^^BEncoded date UTC 1904-01-01 00:00:00
Taaaed date UTC 2015-04-26 17:56:56 ^B I aaaed date UTC 1904-01-01 00:00:00
AMBA T1l ^B ^^writlna application Lavf56.25.101

Video
ID 1 M
Format AVC ^^Fnrmat AVC
Format/Info Advanced Video Codec ^^Hhnrmat/lnfn Advanced Video Codec
Format proflfe Msini8>L4.2 ^^Fnrmat profile High@L4.2
Format settlrras, CABAC Yes ^^BFnrmat settinas. CABAC Yes
Format settinqs, ReFrames 1 frame ^^Fnrmat settinqs, ReFrames 3 frames
Format aetttnas, GOP M=1, N=8 ^B ^Format ssttinaS. GOP M=1, N=16
Codec ID ^^Bondec ID avc1
Codec ID/Info Advanced Video Codino ^^BTiodec ID/Info Advanced Video Codinq
Duration 6s 440ms ^^Bnuration 7s174ms
Bit rate mode Constant ^^Brh rate 5 494 Kbps
Bit rate 25.0 Mbps ^B ^Bwtdth 1 920 pixels
width 1 920 pixels KSm 1 080 Pixels
Heldhl 1 080 pixels ^^Displav aspect ratio 16:09
Display aspect ratio 16:09 ^Bprame rate mode Variable
Frame rate mode Constant Frame rate 59.940 fps
Frame rate 59.940 fbs ^^HMinimum frame rate 59.920 fDS
Color soace YUV ^^HMaximum frame rate 59.960 fos
Chroma subsampllna 4:02:00 ^B ^^Bcnlor space YUV
Bit depth 8 bits ^^Ohroma subsamolina 4:02:00
Scan tvoe Pronressive ^^^B ^^Bbh depth 8 bits
Bit s/fPixel'Frame) 0.201 ^B ^^Sran tvoe Proaressive
Stream size 19.1 MiB f94%1 ^^HRitsAPixel'Framei 1:03:22
Title GoPro AVC ^stream size 4.70 MiB (97%)
Lanauaae Enalish ^^HFncoded date UTC 1904-01-01 00:00:00
Encoded date UTC 2015-04-26 17:56:56 ^B ^ranaed date UTC 1904-01-01 00:00:00
Tanoed date UTC 2015-04-26 17:56:56
Color ran'oe Full ^^^B
Color primaries BT.709
T ransfer characteristics BT.709
Matrix coefficients BT.709


ID 2 ^BTro 2
Format AAC ^^HFnrmat AAC
Format/lnfo Advanced Audio Codec ^B ^Fnrmat/lnfo Advanced Audio Codec
Format profile LC H ^^HFormat profile LC
Codec ID 40 ^^Ondec ID 4Q
Duration 6s 421ms ^^niiratbn 7s 245ms
Bit rate mode Constant ^Ril rate mode Constant
Bit rate 128 Kbps ^^Brh rate 126 Kbps
ChanneKs) 2 channels ^B ^^channelfs) 2 channels
Channel positions Front: L R ^B ^^fihannel positions Front: L R
Samolina rate 48.0 KHz ^Bsampllna rate 44s 1 KHz
Compression mode Lossy ^B ^compression mode Lossy
Stream size 100 KiB ro%) ^B ^stream size 111 KiB (2%)
Title GoPro AAC ^B ^^HFncoded date UTC 1904-01-01 00:00:00
Lanauaae Enalish ^Trinned date UTC 1904-01-01 00:00:00
Encoded date UTC2015-04-26 17:56:56 \
Taaaed date UTC 2015-04-26 17:56:56

Other
ID
Time code
Format QuickTime TC
Duration 6s 440m s ^^^^B
Thie code of first frame 17:55:51:27 ^^^^B
Time code, strtoed Yes
Lanauaae Enalish
Encoded date UTC 2015-04-26 17:56:56 ^^^^B
Tacraed date UTC2015-04-26 17:56:56 ^^^^B I
Figure 62. Medialnfo Comparison of Original GoPro Hero 3 and
YouTube Encoded File
The original LG G3 video file uploaded to YouTube was also downloaded
and analyzed. Its structure is consistent with the ffmpeg re-encoded videos
62


examined for this paper and is distinctly different from the structure of an original
LG G3 file.
1 1 2 3 4 5 6 _7 8 2 3 4 5 6 8 9
1 ftyp ^^^B i ftvp
2'moov 2 free
3 mvhd ^^^B 3 mdat
4 udta ^^^B 4 moov
5 auth 5 mvhd
6 adze ^^^B 6 trak
7 adzm ^^^^B 7 tkhd
8 adze 8 edts
9 trak ^^^^B 9 elst
10 tkhd ^^^B10 mdia
11 mdia ^^^B11 mdhd
12 mdhd 12 hdlr
13 hdlr ^^^^B 13 mint
14 mint ^^^B 14 vmhd
15 vmhd ^^^B 15 dint
16 dint dref
17 dref ^^^B 17 stbl
18 stbl 18 stsd
19 stsd 19 avc1
20 avc1 ^^^B 20 avcC
21 avcC^^^^^B~21 stts
22 Daso^^^^^B~22 stss
23 stts ~^^^B 23 etts
24 stss ^^^B 24 stsc
25 stsz ^^^B 25 stsz
26 stsc ^^^B 26 stco
27 stco 27 trak
28 trak ^^^B 28 tkhd
29 'tkhd 29 edts
30 mdia ^^^B 30 elst
31 mdhd ^^^B 31 mdia
32 hdlr 32 mdhd
33 mint ^^^B 33 hdlr
34 smhd ^^^B 34 mint
35 dint ^^^B 35 smhd
36 dref ^^^B 36 dint
37 stbl ^^^B 37 dref
38 stsd ^^^B 38 stbl
39 mp4a ^^^B 39 stsd
40 esds 40 mp4a
41 stts ^^^B 41 esds
42 stsz ^^^^B42 stts
43 stsc stsc
44 stco ^^^^B44 stsz
45 free stco
46 mdat ^^^B 46 udta
47 meta
^^^B 48 hdlr
^^^B~49 ilst
^^^B 50 too
51 data
Figure 63. Comparison of LG G3 Original and YouTube Encoded File Structure
As expected, Medialnfo reports the changes to format profile and codec
ID, as well as the resetting of the embedded timestamps and presence of the
ffmpeg identifying string in the metadata of the file.
63


Figure 64.
M

Complete name 3840x2160-LG-G3-2015-06-20 02.38.24-JFI.me4
Format MPEG-4
Format Drafile Base Media/Version 2 I
Codec ID mo42
File size 17.7 MiB
Duration 5s 35ms I
Overall bit rate 29.4 Mbps
Performer LGE
Encoded dale UTC 2015-06-20 02:38:24
Taaaed date UTC2015-06-20 02:38:24


ID 1
Format AVC
Format/lnfo Advanced Video Codec I
Format profile Hioh@.L5.l
Format settinas, CABAC Yes
Format settinns. ReFrames 1 frame I
Format settinas, GOP M=1, N=30
Codec ID avd I
Codec ID/Info Advanced Video Codind I
Duration 4s822ms
Bit rate 29.9 Mbps
Width 3 840 pixels
Helaht 2 160 pixels
DtSDlav aspect ratio 16:09
Frame rate mode Variable I
Frame rate 29,451 fps
Minimum frame rate 29.221 fps
Maximum frame rate 29.703 fps
Color space YUV
Ghrom'a subsamollna 4:02:00
Bit depth 8 bits I
Scan tvee Proaressfve
Bits/fPixeFFramel 0.122
Stream size 17.2 MiB f97%)
Title VldeoHandle I
Lanouane Enalish I
Encoded date UTC 2015-06-20 02:38:24
Taaaed date UTC 2015-06-20 02:38:24
mdhd Duration 4822

Audio
ID 2
Format AAC
FormaVInfo Advanced Audio Codec I
Format profile LC
Codec ID 40
Duration 5s 35ms I
Source duration 5s44ms I
Source Duration FirstFrame 9ms I
Bit rate mode Constant I
Bit rate 156 Kbps
Nominal bit rate 96.0 Kbps
Channelfsl 2 channels I
Channel oositions Front: L R
Sampiina rate 48,0 KHz
Compression mode LOSSV I
Stream size 95,9 KiB f1%)
Source stream size 95.9 KIB (1%l
Title SoundHandle I
Lanauaae Enalish I
Encoded date UTC 2015-06-20 02:38:24
Taaaed date UTC 2015-06-20 Q2i38;24
mdhd Duration 5035
edialnfo Comparison of LG

iComolete name 3840x2180 !aa3 youtube,mp4
iFormat MPEG-4
IFormat profile BaseMedia
iCodecID isom
File size 12.8 MiB
[Duration 5s 86ms
lOverall bit rate 21.0 Mbps
lEncoded date UTC 1904-01-01 00:00:00
ITaaaed date UTC 1904-01-01 00:00:00
Writtna application Lavf56.25.101


ID 1
[Format AVC
Format/lnfo Advanced Video Codec
IFormat profile lHinh(L5,1
[Format settings, CABAC IFormat settinns. ReFrames No
2 frames
Icodec ID avd
Codec ID/lnfo Advanced Video Codlna
iDuralion 4s 822ms
(Bit rate 22.0 Mhos
Width 3 840 pixels
Helaht ,2l60otxels
[Display aspect ratio 116:09
iFrame rate moCe Variable
IFrame rate 29.451 fps
iMinimum frame rate 29.450 fps
iMaximum frame rate 29.460 fps
IColorsoace lYUV
IChroma subsampHna 4:02:00
Bit depth 8 bits
[Scan type feits/fPixelTramei Proaressive
0.09
iStream size 12.7 MiB f99%.)
lEncoded date UTC 1904-01-01 00:00:00
iTaoaed date UTC 1904-01-01 00:00:00





Aurilft
ID 0:00:00
IFormat AAC
iFormat/Info Advanced Audio Codec
IFormat profile LC
IcodecID 40
iDuration 5s 86ms
iBit rate mode Constant
Bit rate 126 Kbps
ICbannelfs) 2 channels
|Channel positions Isamofina rate Front: L R
44.1 KHz
IComDressbn mode Lossy
Istream size 78.3 KiB f1%l
lEncoded date UTC 1904-01-01 00:00:00
ITadaed date UTC 1904-01-01 00:00:00







Original and YouTube
ncoded File
64


CHAPTER VII
CONCLUSION
The framework for analysis outlined in this paper presents a viable means of
authenticating a MPEG-4 recording based on its file structure and metadata. Test
recordings from the device purported to have made the recording or a model of the
same make and model will need to be created and analyzed in a forensically sound
manner in order to establish the baseline of what constitutes an original file as created
by the device. Once this baseline is established, that structure can be compared
against the structure of the questioned file in order to determine authenticity.
In cases where the provenance of a questioned file is unknown, this framework
of analysis presents a viable means of establishing a greater understanding of the file
based on its file structure and metadata. If the file has been re-encoded due to editing,
then the file's structure will be comparable to that of files created by known encoding
software. To provide the greatest likelihood of identifying an unknown file, this
framework of analysis could be utilized to create a database of file structures and
properties from known devices and software encoders.
There are a number of open questions that present an opportunity for future
work. Neither tool used in this method of analysis was created expressly for the
purpose of forensic video analysis. It is important to explore the use of other existing
tools for the purpose of analysis. Exiftool (http://www.sno.phy.queensu.ca/~phil/exiftool/)
is a powerful tool for viewing image and video file. It supports MPEG-4 video containers
and its use should be explored as an alternative or addition to Medialnfo. Another
powerful tool that should be considered for further analysis is an extension of the ffmpeg
65


project called ffprobe (https://ffmpeg.org/ffprobe.html) VLC
(https://www.videolan.org/vlc/index.html) and GSpot
(http://www.videohelp.com/software/GSpot) are two other tools that can report MPEG-4
file properties but It should be noted that none of these tools will report on the MPEG-4
container structure of a file, nor will they report on the contents of any forensically
relevant containers of the file such as the User Data Box (udta). Defraser, a tool
released by the Nederlands Forensisch Instituut (NFI), released under the BSD license
at http://sourceforge.net/proiects/defraser/, is a tool used to find video data streams in
unallocated disk space. Its use to bolster this method of authentication should be
explored as it is an actively maintained purpose-built tool for the purpose of forensic
video examination.
In order to create a validated database of file structures from known devices, it
will be important to create a new purpose built tool to parse the file structure of these
files. This tool should also take into account and record the contents of the User Data
Box (udta). None of the tools surveyed for this paper are capable of returning the
contents of this forensically relevant container.
It is also important to expand the pool of video files to be analyzed. A larger
collection of data will only serve to help refine the methods of analysis and reveal further
similarities in file structure across device manufacturers. A study of the effects of
software versions would also serve to help strengthen such a database. There are
many open guestions surrounding the idea of how device operating system software
affects the file structure of recorded files. For example, does the file structure change
across different versions of Android OS? An exploration of third party software would
66


also help to identify if the file structure is created at the OS level of the device or by the
software being used. The exploration of third party software would also allow the further
analysis of the contents of the User Data Box (udta) to determine what forensically
relevant information recorded by a given piece of software.
As with any method proposed for the authentication of digital video, this method
of authenticating digital video based on its file structure should be incorporated into a
greater framework of digital video analysis that would correlate findings from as many
analyses as possible in order to strengthen confidence in the ultimate opinion regarding
a files authenticity. Digital video should be inherently more easily authenticated since
there are two data streams to consider in analysis: the video and the audio. After the
file structure and metadata have been analyzed for authenticity, further analysis can be
performed on the pixel level of the video stream and at the sample level of the audio
stream. By combining these three methods of analysis, I believe that a greater
framework for digital video analysis can be realized.
67


REFERENCES
[1] Daniel Lawn Rappaport, Establishing a Standard for Digital Audio
Authenticity: A Critical Analysis of Tools, Methodologies, and Challenges.
University of Colorado Denver, 27-Apr-2012.
[2] Scott Dale Anderson, Digital Image Analysis: Analytical Framework For
Authenticating Digital Images. University of Colorado Denver, 2011.
[3] T. Gloe, A. Fischer, and M. Kirchner, Forensic analysis of video file formats,
Proc. First Annu. DFRWS Eur., vol. 11, Supplement 1, no. 0, pp. S68-S76,
May 2014.
[4] ISO/IEC, ISO/IEC 11172-1:1993 Information technology -- Coding of moving
pictures and associated audio for digital storage media at up to about 1,5
Mbit/s Part 1: Systems. ISO/IEC, 1993.
[5] ISO/IEC, ISO/IEC 13818-1:1996 Information technology -- Generic coding of
moving pictures and associated audio information -- Part 1: Systems.
ISO/IEC, 1996.
[6] ISO/IEC, ISO/IEC 14496-1:1999 Information technology -- Coding of audio-
visual objects -- Part 1: Systems. ISO/IEC, 1999.
[7] ISO/IEC, ISO/IEC 14496-2:1999 Information technology -- Coding of audio-
visual objects -- Part 2: Visual. ISO/IEC, 1999.
[8] ISO/IEC, ISO/IEC 14496-3:1999 Information technology -- Coding of audio-
visual objects -- Part 3: Audio. ISO/IEC, 1999.
[9] Apple, Inc., Classic Version of the QuickTime File Format Specification.
Apple, Inc., 2001.
[10] ISO/IEC, ISO/IEC 14496-14:2003 Information technology Coding of
audio-visual objects -- Part 14: MP4 file format. ISO/IEC, 2003.
[11] ISO/IEC, ISO/IEC 14496-10:2003 Information technology Coding of
audio-visual objects -- Part 10: Advanced Video Coding. ISO/IEC, 2003.
[12] ISO/IEC, ISO/IEC 14496-15:2004 Information technology Coding of
audio-visual objects Part 15: Carriage of network abstraction layer (NAL)
unit structured video in ISO base media file format. ISO/IEC.
[13] ISO/IEC, ISO/IEC 14496-12:2004 Information technology Coding of
audio-visual objects -- Part 12: ISO base media file format. ISO/IEC, 2004.
[14] MP4 Registration Authority, MP4REG Registered Types File Types,
MP4REG, 15-Oct-2015. [Online]. Available:
http://www.mp4ra.org/filetype.html. [Accessed: 15-Oct-2015].
[15] Apple, Inc., QuickTime File Format Specification. Apple, Inc., 2015.
[16] MP4 Registration Authority, MP4REG Registered Types Codecs,
MP4REG, 15-Oct-2015. [Online]. Available:
http://www.mp4ra.org/codecs.html. [Accessed: 15-Oct-2015].
[17] MP4 Registration Authority, MP4REG Registered Types Box Types,
MP4REG, 15-Oct-2015. [Online]. Available:
http://www.mp4ra.org/atoms.html. [Accessed: 15-Oct-2015].
68


[18] Gravity Lab, What is the difference between Baseline, Main and High h264
mpeg4 / mp4 profiles?, GravityLab. [Online], Available:
http://www.gravlab.com/2013/11/07/difference-baseline-main-high-h264-
mpeg4-mp4-profiles/. [Accessed: 15-Oct-2015],
[19] Leach, et al., A Universally Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace.
The Internet Society, Jul-2005.
69


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PAGE 32

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PAGE 75

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PAGE 76

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