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Innovative materials in highway construction

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Title:
Innovative materials in highway construction
Creator:
Morgan, Matt T
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English
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xi, 138 leaves : ; 28 cm

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Subjects / Keywords:
Roads -- Design and construction -- Equipment and supplies ( lcsh )
Road materials ( lcsh )
Road materials ( fast )
Roads -- Design and construction -- Equipment and supplies ( fast )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 113-119).
General Note:
Department of Civil Engineering
Statement of Responsibility:
by Matt T. Morgan.

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Source Institution:
|University of Colorado Denver
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|Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
262685193 ( OCLC )
ocn262685193
Classification:
LD1193.E53 2008m M67 ( lcc )

Full Text
INNOVATIVE MATERIALS IN HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION
By
Matt T. Morgan, P.E.
B.S., Metropolitan State College of Denver, 1998
A thesis submitted to the
University of Colorado Denver
In partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Science
Structural Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
2008


This thesis for the Master of Science
degree by
Matt T. Morgan
has been approved
bv
' Date
n


Morgan, Matt (MS, Structural, Civil Engineering Department)
Innovative Materials in Highway Construction
Thesis directed by Assistant Professor Stephan A. Durham
ABSTRACT
The continuous advancement in highway construction materials and technologies
produces a demand for efficient data cataloging and retrieval in order to take full
advantage of their benefits in highway quality, cost savings, environmental impact,
and prolonged life cycle. Although there are several excellent materials libraries and
database resources currently available, a single source system for quickly retrieving
materials evaluation data does not yet exist. The amount of research time required
reviewing a material, as well as the duplication of evaluation efforts and expenses
may be greatly reduced by merging these existing resources.
The basis of this study includes an extensive descriptive summary of many modem
material technologies currently being evaluated or used in highway construction, of
which many highway engineers may not be fully utilizing or even aware of all the
associated benefits or limitations involved. The study also summarizes many of the
existing material evaluation programs and data resources that are currently available
and being used by our Nations State Departments of Transportation (DOT).
m


A national survey was formulated and offered to DOT materials engineers and
representatives, where they were asked to comment on their current materials
evaluation programs and procedures. The results of this survey are used to provide the
Federal Highway Administration with valuable feedback for use in improving and
formulating a more efficient and effective evaluation process.
A materials evaluation data research tool was developed through this study which was
designed to form the basis for simplifying the research process, and ultimately aid in
the unification and combining of existing independent materials data resources.
This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidates thesis. I recommend
its publication.
Signed
(Stephan A. Durham)
IV


DEDICATION
I dedicate this thesis to my wife and daughters for their understanding and extensive
patience during my work on this project, and to my parents for their never-ending
support and instilling my desire to push my limits in all of my endeavors.
v


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
My sincere thanks to my academic advisor, Dr. Stephan Durham, who developed the
fundamental concepts behind this thesis project and obtained the subsequent financial
backing from the Federal Highway Administration. I greatly appreciate the
educational opportunities that he extended to me, and his guidance and understanding
throughout this project. In addition, I would like to thank Dr. Kevin Rens and Dr.
Bruce Janson for participating on my thesis committee.
I would also like to thank the faculty of the Civil Engineering Department of the
University of Colorado Denver for making the Structural Engineering Graduate
Program a high quality and richly rewarding educational experience, as well as
extending their professional help and expertise beyond the classroom.
vi


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Figures......................................................................x
Tables.......................................................................xi
Chapter
1. Introduction............................................................1
1.1 Problem Statement.......................................................1
1.1.1 Material Data Resources.................................................1
1.1.2 Material Evaluation and Implementation..................................2
1.1.3 Technology Transfer.....................................................3
1.2 Scope of the Study......................................................4
1.2.1 Literature Review..................................................... 4
1.2.2 DOT Survey............................................................. 4
1.2.3 Materials Database......................................................5
1.2.4 Evaluation Process......................................................5
1.3 Thesis Limitations......................................................6
1.3.1 Continuous Research.....................................................6
1.3.2 Redundant Efforts.......................................................6
2. Existing Programs.......................................................7
2.1 Federal Highway Administration..........................................7
2.2 State Departments of Transportation....................................12
2.3 Private Industry.......................................................13
2.4 American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.....13
2.5 University Transportation Centers......................................15
2.6 American Society of Civil Engineers....................................16
2.7 Transportation Research Board..........................................18
2.8 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...........................................19
2.9 Cooperatives...........................................................20
2.9.1 Accelerated Construction Technology Transfer...........................20
2.9.2 National Transportation Product Evaluation Program.....................21
2.9.3 Highway Engineering Exchange Program...................................21
3. Material Technologies..................................................23
3.1 Concrete Reinforcement.................................................27
3.1.1 Rebar..................................................................27


3.1.1.1 Epoxy Coated.......................................................27
3.1.1.2 Stainless Steel....................................................28
3.1.1.3 Microcomposite Multistructural Formable Steel......................30
3.1.1.4 Galvanized.........................................................32
3.1.1.5 Basalt.............................................................33
3.1.2 Composites..........................................................34
3.1.3 Fibers..............................................................36
3.2 Concrete Mix Designs................................................38
3.2.1 High Performance Concrete...........................................38
3.2.2 Waterproofing.......................................................40
3.2.3 Pervious Concrete...................................................41
3.2.4 Self-Compacting.....................................................42
3.2.5 High Volume Fly Ash.................................................43
3.2.6 Engineered Cementitious Composites..................................45
3.3 Roadways............................................................47
3.3.1 Thin Lift Asphalt...................................................47
3.3.2 Superpave...........................................................48
3.3.3 Warm Mix Asphalt....................................................48
3.3.4 Recycled Asphalt....................................................49
3.3.5 Asphalt Shingles....................................................50
3.3.6 Geosynthetics.......................................................50
3.3.7 Recycled Crumb Rubber...............................................53
3.3.8 Aggregate Binders...................................................54
3.3.9 Surface Overlay.....................................................54
3.3.10 Porous Asphalt......................................................55
3.4 Steel Technologies................................................ 56
3.4.1 High Performance Steel..............................................56
3.4.2 Shape Memory Alloys.................................................57
3.5 Components and Systems..............................................59
3.5.1 FRP Products........................................................59
3.5.2 Seismic Dampers.....................................................59
3.5.3 Corrosion Control...................................................60
3.5.4 Guardrails..........................................................61
3.5.5 Wildlife Protection.................................................62
3.5.6 Prefabrication......................................................64
3.5.7 Foundations and Soil Reinforcement..................................66
3.5.7.1 Chemical Grouting..................................................66
3.5.7.2 Chemical Soil Treatments...........................................67
3.5.7.3 Screwpiling........................................................68
3.5.7.4 Rammed Aggregate Piers.............................................70
3.5.7.5 Hollow-Core Soil Nailing...........................................70


3.5.7.6 Recycled Plastic Pins...............................................73
3.5.7.7 Geofoam.............................................................74
3.5.7.8 Soil Nail Launcher..................................................75
3.6 Timber Technologies..................................................77
3.6.1 Wood Preservatives...................................................77
3.6.2 Recycled Plastic Lumber..............................................79
4. Department of Transportation Survey..................................81
4.1 Objectives...........................................................81
4.2 Response.............................................................82
4.3 Conclusions..........................................................97
5. Materials Research Tool.............................................102
5.1 Objectives..........................................................102
5.2 Development.........................................................103
5.3 Implementation......................................................105
5.4 Maintenance.........................................................107
6. Materials Evaluation Process........................................108
6.1 Objectives..........................................................108
6.2 Development.........................................................108
7. Conclusions.........................................................112
References..................................................................113
Abbreviations...............................................................119
Appendix
A. Summary of Task Force Operations.....................................121
B. ASCE Report Listings.................................................123
C. DOT Survey...........................................................125
C. 1 Survey Cover Letter..............................................125
C.2 Survey Contacts...................................................126
C.3 Survey Form.......................................................127
D. Materials Research Tool..............................................130
IX


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure
1. Innovation Diffusion Curve................................................24
2. Long-term Cost Comparison of Typical Carbon Steel Rebar vs. Stainless Steel. .29
3. Electron Microscope Photograph of MMFX Microstructure....................31
4. Comparison of Stress/Strain Curves of Grade 60 Rebar and MMFX Rebar......31
5. Cost Comparison of Various Alternate Rebar Materials.....................32
6. ECC Ductile Behavior.....................................................46
7. Geosynthetic Materials...................................................51
8. Corrosion Resistance of Structural Steels................................56
9. Wildlife Protection System...............................................64
10. Screwpile Drill Rig......................................................69
11. (a) Schematic of Hollow-core Nail Installation, (b) Cross-sectional View.72
12. Reinforcing Potential Slope Failure......................................74
13. Soil Nail Launcher in Action.............................................76
14. DOT Respondents Map......................................................98
15. Typical Hyperlink Locations.............................................106
16. Evaluation Process Flowchart............................................109
x


LIST OF TABLES
Table
1. Innovative Materials.....................................................25
2. Innovative Materials Benchmark Comparison................................26
3. Relative Cost Comparison between Rebar Types.............................29
4. Engineering Properties of Plastic Lumber Products........................80
xi


Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 Problem Statement
1.1.1 Material Data Resources
The continuous advancement in highway construction materials and technologies
produces a demand for cataloging and retrieving data pertaining to these
advancements in order to take full advantage of their benefits in highway quality, cost
savings, environmental impact, and prolonged life cycle. Advancements in polymers,
steels, geosynthetics, high-performance concrete, hot and cold-mix asphalts, and
other innovative materials, along with construction techniques and technologies such
as pre-fabrication, recycled materials, and soil stabilization, have decreased
construction costs, environmental impact, and construction schedules, as well as
increased product quality and life cycle expectancies. Although there are several
excellent materials libraries and database resources of which to gather up-to-date
information on innovative highway materials, currently no single source system is
available for quickly retrieving the necessary information required for thorough
evaluation of new materials under investigation. Relevant data on construction costs,
lifecycle and maintenance costs, and environmental impacts may also be difficult to
obtain for newly introduced material technologies until a sufficient data pool can be
developed through field testing. Improved accessibility of pertinent evaluation data
1


for new material technologies could go a long way in accelerating the implementation
of these materials into our highway systems.
1.1.2 Material Evaluation and Implementation
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) must be kept informed with the most
current data on innovative materials and technologies, as well as have an efficient
process of storing and retrieving relevant data for evaluation of the new materials in
order to maximize the returns on their benefits. Some highway jurisdictions may have
crude or even non-existent evaluation procedures for new construction material
acceptance. Independent evaluation programs lead to a redundancy of efforts and
expenses if others are not kept informed on test results, testing progress, and planned
future evaluations. Local evaluation procedures may have large variations in
acceptance criteria and may not meet the demands of other jurisdictions, as a national
level of acceptance does not currently exist. A thorough evaluation process which can
equally weigh the benefits and disadvantages of new materials (such as short and
long-term costs associated with construction, product quality, life-span, and
maintenance requirements) and can be applied on a national or even international
level, would be greatly beneficial to those involved in highway projects as well as to
those using and paying for the highway systems. The results of these evaluations may
be incorporated into standard specifications, which could be readily used or revised as
necessary to meet the requirements of local jurisdictions. It has been shown that
2


typically it takes about two decades to get an innovation from state of the art to state
of practice (Innovator, 2007). A major obstacle to this implementation process is the
time dependant variables that remain as unknowns until the material is actually
exposed to repetitive cycles of intended use such as traffic loading combined with
environmental conditions. Limited local availability and high start-up costs such as
equipment modifications and new construction techniques typically associated with
new materials also have a major impact on the implementation of new technologies.
There are currently some federal programs that provide aid to such projects that
demonstrate promising innovative materials, in order to offset high initial
implementation costs and promote the development of new technologies. Huge
benefits could be obtained from simplifying and reducing this lengthy evaluation
period to accelerate the acceptance of new material technologies into modem
highway construction standards.
1.1.3 Technology Transfer
The difficulties in obtaining current information on state-of-the-art material
technologies and in evaluating and implementing these technologies into practice may
be combined into an efficiency problem of technology transfer. Many efficient
evaluation systems and programs currently exist on local levels, or even are available
on a national level, but a fluid networking of the current technologies that can be
accessed and shared by the whole highway construction community does not yet
3


exist. As a minimum it is hoped that this thesis will shed light on some of the
inefficiencies and perhaps result in some viable improvements or useful tools which
may be used to help accelerate the implementation of new technologies into practice.
1.2 Scope of the Study
1.2.1 Literature Review
One of the primary objectives of this study includes providing FHWA with an up-to-
date knowledge of new and emerging innovative materials. This involved extensive
research on materials used in highway construction as well as relevant data on
material and construction costs, available specifications, and environmental impacts.
The primary research tool used in this phase of the study was the Internet. Several
existing materials database resources were found during this investigation and links to
these websites are included in this thesis. The findings of this research have been
categorized by intended use, summarized, and compiled in Chapters 2 and 3 of this
thesis.
1.2.2 DOT Survey
A survey was developed as a research tool for use in this study, and submitted to all
of the major State Departments of Transportation (DOT) for their input (Chapter 4
and Appendix C). The feedback from this survey gave valuable insight into material
evaluation procedures and the specification development processes used by local
4


highway jurisdictions to implement new technologies into modem highway
construction.
1.2.3 Materials Database
An Excel spreadsheet was developed as a research tool to catalog and locate
authorative information sources for innovative material technologies (Chapter 5 and
Appendix D). This tool contains an array of direct hyperlinks to valuable Internet
websites for research information, specifications, and data storage libraries. The
intent of this tool is to network resources into a central location so that current
information may be easily retrieved and used in the evaluation process for alternative
construction materials.
1.2.4 Evaluation Process
The FHWA is in need of a consistently reliable and more efficient material evaluation
process that is readily adaptable to all new material technologies and may be easily
adopted or customized to meet local jurisdiction requirements. Existing material
evaluation means and methods were examined in the Literature Review and DOT
Survey tasks of this study, and an evaluation outline procedure and recommendations
are introduced in Chapter 6 of this thesis.
5


1.3 Thesis Limitations
1.3.1 Continuous Research
The scope of this thesis attempts to define and assemble only the fundamental
foundation elements involved in constructing an ideal evaluation process whereby
new materials may quickly move from new technology into standard practice. This
process is envisioned as an endlessly growing and evolving task without limits. New
material technologies are continually being introduced and refined, and the evaluation
process must be able to readily accommodate them.
1.3.2 Redundant Efforts
Some technologies mentioned in this study may not necessarily be new, but may
serve as a comparative benchmark for use in the evaluation of emerging technologies.
Much of the research data contained in this thesis was obtained from other sources,
and was merely compiled and summarized to demonstrate available material
technologies and for use in the development of a streamlined evaluation process.
Individual or combined evaluation concepts as discussed in this study have previously
been implemented by others, but to the best of my knowledge have not been
combined in their entirety to form the completed evaluation process outlined in this
thesis.
6


Chapter 2
Existing Programs
2.1 Federal Highway Administration
The FHWA aims to facilitate and accelerate the advancement of new technologies
into conventional practice. In 1998 the United States Congress passed the
Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) which was designed to
improve the nations mobility and productivity while enhancing driver safety.
Established under this act, the U.S. Department of Transportations Federal Highway
Administration (FHWA) has expanded its Innovative Bridge Research and
Construction program to form a new Innovative Bridge Research and Deployment
program (IBRD). The purpose of the IBRD program is to promote, evaluate, and
document the application of innovative designs, materials, and construction methods
in constructing, repairing, and rehabilitating bridges and highways (Library of
Congress, 2007). Also formed under the TEA-21, is the Surface Transportation
Research, Development and Deployment Program (STRRD). This program is
constructed to work with States, other Federal agencies, universities and colleges,
private sector entities, and nonprofit organizations to supplement research,
development, and technology transfer activities concerning innovative materials.
Over $196M per year is dedicated to this program through 2009. Key areas of interest
within this program include the following (FHWA, 2007):
7


A. Exploratory Advanced Research: addresses long-term, high-risk research
including materials, environment, safety, and performance monitoring.
B. Long Term Pavement Performance
C. Seismic Research: reduce the potential damage to transportation systems from
seismic events.
D. Long Term Bridge Performance
E. Innovative Pavement Research and Deployment
F. Demonstration Projects and Studies: Wood Composite Materials, Asphalt
Reclamation, and Alkali Silica Reactivity.
G. Future Strategic Highway Research: Addresses renewal, safety, and
congestion through the National Research Council in consultation with
AASHTO.
A recently completed IBRD project has been constructed in Colorado, utilizing High
Performance Concrete (HPC) and Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bars in precast
prestressed concrete panels for the I-225/Parker Road bridge structure. The goal of
this project was to utilize innovative materials to prolong the life span of the bridge
by reducing corrosion problems. Utilizing 70% less reinforcing in the topping slab,
the FRP reinforced decks showed equal performance to conventional reinforced
panels under fatigue loading tests and a longer life span and reduced maintenance
requirements are expected (Shing, 2006).
8


The FHWA does not maintain a list of current approved technologies, however it has
recently published a new edition of the Standard Specifications for Transportation
Materials and Methods of Sampling and Testing (27th Edition, 2007). This standard
contains 415 materials specifications and test methods commonly used in the
construction of highway facilities. The specifications have been developed and
maintained by transportation departments through participation in AASHTOs
subcommittee on materials (Section 2.4). The FHWA has also been publishing a
monthly newsletter called Focus which has been expanded to include the
implementation of new technologies in all areas of civil infrastructure including
bridges, pavements, maintenance, and safety. The newsletter is aimed at covering
technology developments from State highway agencies, industry, Transportation
Research Board, AASHTO, local governments, regional Superpave Centers,
International organizations, and academia. Focus has officially become the primary
communications tool for FWHAs infrastructure research and technology program.
The FHWA provides funding for candidate projects that meet the goals of these
programs and demonstrate progress and innovation in construction materials,
techniques, and applications. State departments of transportation may coordinate with
local, private, and Federal agencies to develop candidate projects for submission to
the FHWA. Approximately $7.3 million in funds was available in 2006 for qualified
IBRD projects alone, where individual projects could receive up to $250,000 each
9


(FOCUS, 2006). Many states have been successfully taking advantage of this
program, while improving product quality and delivery. The State of Louisiana DOT
(LADOT) has elected its primary University Transportation Center (UTC) to solicit
and assess research proposals from local universities for submittal to FHWA. Since
this process has been delegated to the UTC, the LADOT has benefited from a
substantial increase in its awards from the IBRD program, whereby grants were
received for four projects totaling $1 million in 2006 (Technology Today, 2006).
Another FHWA funded program available to State transportation departments is
called Highways for LIFE (HfL). Up to $1 million per project is available for projects
showing efficient use of emerging, readily available innovative technologies,
manufacturing processes, financing, or contracting methods
(http://www.fhwa.dot.gOv/hfl/I. A periodic newsletter called the Innovator began
being published in 2007 by this group, which highlights new technology
developments relating to highway construction and maintenance. The publication
hopes to promote advances in the implementation of innovative technologies and
processes in the highway industry.
The FHWAs center for obtaining and promoting materials research and technology
information is the Tumer-Fairbank Highway Research Center (TFHRC). The Center
conducts in-house as well as contract-sponsored research activities. The TFHRC
maintains many programs to provide the highway community with the most updated
10


and comprehensive source of information on materials technology available,
including the following specialized categories:
A. Asphalt Technology, specializes in the design, testing, and evaluation of
asphalt mixtures for optimizing performance to meet specific applications.
B. Bridge Nondestructive Evaluation: focused on the testing and development of
innovative tools for nondestructive evaluation of highways and bridges.
C. Bridge Coating: designed to optimize steel bridge corrosion control
maintenance operations targeting coating materials, surface preparation
requirements, corrosivity, and environmental effects.
D. Highway Operations: geared towards developing effective solutions to
minimize traffic flow interruptions, improve safety, and optimize highway
operations through research and technology applications.
E. Recycling, Secondary Materials, and Waste Utilization: designed to promote
the use of secondary material technologies in the construction and
rehabilitation of highways and bridges.
F. Portland Cement Concrete Pavements: aims to enhance the performance and
construction of concrete pavements through improving materials, design
mixes, and recycling and repair methodologies.
G. Simulation, Imaging, and Mechanics of Asphalt Pavement: includes 3-D
imaging and analysis of the aggregate structure in pavements with micro-
11


mechanics modeling to develop design software for optimizing pavement
designs.
Many other new and continued research and development projects are outlined in the
Office of Research, Development, and Technology Performance Plan Fiscal Year
2006-2007 from FHWA. This plan focuses on innovation and partnerships with a
common goal of delivering new materials and technologies into practice.
The FHWA facilitates partnerships with the International Highway Transportation
Outreach Program, which was formed to inform the U.S. highway community of
technological innovations in foreign countries as well as increase transfers of U.S.
technologies to foreign countries.
2.2 State Departments of Transportation
Many Individual State Departments of Transportation maintain their own materials
evaluation programs and develop their own materials specifications. The
corresponding evaluation reports and material specifications are typically available to
other States. One drawback to this program format is an overlap in evaluation efforts
produced from inadequate networking communications.
12


2.3 Private Industry
Many new material and highway construction technologies are developed and
marketed through private industry. The producers of these technologies are typically
eager to help in evaluation procedures and specification development in order to gain
acceptance and promote their product or service within the highway construction
community.
2.4 American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
(AASHTO) are associated with many programs and committees designed toward the
implementation of new materials, products, and technologies. AASHTO promotes
partnerships with designers, contractors, and outside organizations to accelerate
project delivery to meet the expectations of the public. New techniques and
technologies are continually being developed and promoted by AASHTO to reduce
construction time and costs while increasing quality and life span. Such techniques as
design-build, hot in-place asphalt recycling, soil stabilization, and pre-fabrication are
key features in todays preliminary design discussions. Were using a number of
technologies to address accelerated project delivery...and we believe that there are
more out there... there are different iterations and blendings of these technologies, and
we are very confident that with the emphasis placed on delivering projects faster that
we can deliver what our customers expect (AASHTO, 2005). AASHTOs
13


Technology Implementation Group (TIG) identifies new technologies that are proven
to perform and are likely to produce significant economic or qualitative benefits in
transportation projects. The program aims to maximize the use of resources and
information sharing between all stakeholders, including industry and local
governments. Program objectives also include developing mechanisms to solicit
emerging technologies, and developing a process to prioritize and select technologies
on which to focus the implementation efforts (AASHTO, 2007). Key divisions within
this program include Precast Concrete Paving Slabs, FRP Repair, Prefabricated
Bridge Elements, and Accelerated Construction Technology Transfer.
A joint committee has been established between AASHTO, the Associated General
Contractors of America (AGC), and the American Road and Transportation Builders
Association (ARTBA) to form the AASHTO-AGC-ARTBA Joint Committee. A
Subcommittee on New Highway Material and Technologies formed to identify,
evaluate, and specify deployment for new materials and technologies being proposed
for the highway industry. This subcommittee is composed of many individual
specialized task force operations (Appendix-A), which work with State highway
departments to accelerate the development of new materials and technologies to meet
the needs of highway organizations.
14


2.5 University Transportation Centers
Huge potential exists in making use of the human and laboratory resources available
in American Universities. The FHWA has allotted $76.7 million in funds to support
up to 60 University Transportation Centers (UTCs) in research and technology
development funds for the 2005 to 2009 period. The objective is to advance highway
technology through research and technology transfer at university-based centers of
excellence. The program aims to encourage education and diversity in the
transportation industry, and provide the industry with experienced personnel.
Through an objective review and selection process, funded research is directed
toward industry demands and growth. The program also aims to simplify the
availability of research results and aid in its implementation into practice. Research
reports and links to UTC sources are available through the U.S. DOT website
(University Transportation Centers, 2007). Some of the current UTCs established
and funded by FHWA include the following:
A. Center for Innovative Bridge Engineering, University of Delaware
B. Oregon Transportation Research and Education Consortium, A cooperative
of Oregon State Universities
C. Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University
D. Knoxville National Transportation Research Center, University of Tennessee
E. The Bridge Engineering Software & Technology Center, University of
Maryland
15


F. Western Transportation Institute, Montana State University
G. National Institute for Advanced Transportation Technology, University of
Idaho
H. Center for Advanced Infrastructure & Transportation, Rutgers University
I. Midwest Transportation Consortium, Iowa State University
J. Infrastructure Technology Institute, Northwestern University
K. Transportation Materials Research Center, Michigan Technological
University
L. Center for Transportation and Materials Engineering, Youngstown State
University
The State of Colorado currently has one FHWA funded UTC cooperative program
between the University of Denver and Mississippi State University called the
National Center for Intermodal Transportation. This program focuses on research and
technology transfer aimed at the integration of transportation systems for personnel
and freight within the United States.
2.6 American Society of Civil Engineers
The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) has been managing the Highway
Innovative Technology Evaluation Center (HITEC), which originated under a
cooperative agreement with the FHWA. HITEC conducts impartial performance
16


evaluations for market-ready products and/or technologies where standards or
specifications do not yet exist. The product applications are intended for use in any
aspect of the highway community including design, construction, operations, and
maintenance. The HITEC process utilizes a Technical Evaluation Panel composed of
key representatives from the user community, academia, and the private sector, along
with the product applicant, to identify specific issues and concerns requiring
resolution for these products to be adopted by the industry. Evaluation guidelines are
developed and used as the testing protocol for the subsequent evaluation process.
Product evaluations are then performed and HITEC evaluation reports are generated
containing performance information on innovative products and technologies to help
highway agencies make informed purchasing decisions (ASCE, 2007). Report
descriptions are listed in Appendix-B and may be purchase ordered through ASCE.
ASCE also maintains a vast electronic civil engineering Research Library of more
than 33,000 papers from journals, conference proceedings, and periodicals, with more
than 4,000 new papers added each year (http://www.ascelibrarv.org/).
ASCE has also established the Civil Engineering Forum for Innovation (CEFI) to
encourage the rapid application of project innovation, collaboration, and advances in
technology within the civil engineering profession and industry. The mission of the
CEFI is to strengthen productivity, performance, and quality through collaborative
efforts from industry leaders, academia, and government.
17


Another program established by ASCE in their efforts to bring new technologies into
current practice and promote technology transfer, is the Environmental Technology
Evaluation Center (EvTEC). This program was designed to accelerate the adoption of
environmental technologies into practice through independent technology evaluation
and verification.
2.7 Transportation Research Board
Advisors to the Nation on science, engineering, and medicine, the Transportation
Research Board of the National Academies (TRB) created a National Cooperative
Highway Research Program (NCHRP) in 1962 as a means to conduct research in
specific problem areas that affect national highway planning, design, construction,
operations, and maintenance. Other specialized TRB programs include Long Term
Pavement Performance, and Innovations Deserving Exploratory Analysis (IDEA),
which encourage innovative concepts with potential for technological breakthroughs
in transportation (TRB, 2007). The TRB is sponsored by individual state DOTs, and
its products including reports, guidelines, and recommendations that may be directly
adopted by AASHTO subcommittees for immediate use in standard practice
specifications. The TRB solicits research proposals from private and public research
organizations including universities, nonprofit institutions, and consulting firms.
18


Full research findings are available along with research in progress through the TRB
website. The on-line Transportation Research Information Services (TRIS) database
claims to be the worlds largest and most comprehensive source of information on
published transportation research on the Web (http://ntlsearch.bts.gov/tris/index.do').
In addition, the database contains one of the largest publicly accessible collections of
environmental impact statements in the world. Also maintained by the TRB, is a
Research in Progress database containing records of current or recently completed
transportation research projects (http://rip.trb.org/). This database includes Federal
and State DOT funded projects, along with university transportation research.
2.8 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) operates an Engineer Research and
Development Center (ERDC), which can be a valuable source of information for
state-of-the-art materials and technologies. The Center is focused on providing
expertise in science, engineering, technology, and environmental sciences as a service
to the Nation as well as the armed forces. The USACE operates and maintains an
extensive library of research findings available to the general public at
http://itl.crdc.usacc.armv.mil/librarv/publications.html. Divisions of the ERDC
include the following specialized fields:
A. Coastal and Hydraulics Lab
B. Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab
19


C. Construction Engineering Research Lab
D. Environmental Lab
E. Geotechnical and Structures Lab
F. Information Technology Lab
G. Topographic Engineering Center
2.9 Cooperatives
2.9.1 Accelerated Construction Technology Transfer
Sponsored by AASHTO and FHWA, the Accelerated Construction Technology
Transfer (ACTT) program is a strategic process that brings State highway agency
staff together with national transportation experts to identify innovative approaches to
reducing time, costs, and congestion for a planned highway project while improving
safety, quality, and performance. The process begins with a 3-day workshop to
evaluate all aspects of a project and explore various potential innovative techniques,
strategies, and technologies, which may be utilized to benefit the project. Twenty-
nine ACTT workshops have been held to date, and most of the projects have seen a
reduction in planned construction time of 30% or more with millions of dollars being
saved (FOCUS, Jan-Feb, 2007). ACTT skill sets cover all aspects of the project
including structures, materials, geotechnical, accelerated testing, long-life pavements,
maintenance, constructability, and environment.
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2.9.2 National Transportation Product Evaluation Program
The National Transportation Product Evaluation Program (NTPEP) was established
in 1994 by AASHTO in collaboration with individual State DOTS and vendors of
manufactured products. This program was designed to conduct laboratory testing and
field performance evaluation on transportation products, materials, and devices.
NTPEP pools resources from State DOTS to objectively evaluate products of
common interest and share the results in the form of periodic reports issued to the
Member State DOTs. The use of NTPEP can reduce duplicative efforts between
State DOTs as well as limitations typically associated with in-house testing and
product evaluation procedures resulting in cost savings and quality assurance.
Because NTPEP is a national program, product evaluations are typically more
extensive than individual state programs resulting in the introduction of more
products with a larger database of test procedures and results. An electronic database
called DataMine is being developed and maintained by NTPEP, where evaluation
data can be accessed as well as tools for querying, analyzing, and reporting
(http://data.ntpep.org/home/index.asp).
2.9.3 Highway Engineering Exchange Program
The objectives of the Highway Engineering Exchange Program (HEEP) are aimed at
increasing the effectiveness and promoting the knowledge and free exchange of
computer technology by providing solutions for highway and bridge engineering
21


challenges. HEEP aims to further enhance communications with vendor and
consulting firms that support transportation engineering disciplines. There are
nominal membership requirements and minimal fees associated with HEEP, and its
members are provided a periodic newsletter, free exchange of computer software, and
an opportunity to participate in local and international conferences. Annual reports
are submitted by each affiliate agency, whereby documenting local developments,
ideas, and concerns. Founded in Oregon in 1956, the international organization
currently has affiliates in the United States, Canada, and thirteen European countries
(HEEP, 2007).
22


Chapter 3
Material Technologies
New innovations in material technologies are continuously being developed to
improve the nations highways, reduce costs and environmental impact, and accelerate
project delivery. The classical definition of innovation is defined as the introduction
of something new, such as a new idea, method, or device. In this study, the term
Innovative Materials refers to the successful implementation of a creative idea,
process or product into highway construction thereby creating a new level of
performance. These innovations may be incremental or small steps forward, or they
may be breakthrough or radical changes launching entirely new construction concepts
or products. The innovations may be new uses for old materials, old uses for new
materials, or any combination thereof. Typically these innovations require time-
proven results to be successful.
Innovations can be described using a diffusion curve, as described in the authorative
works by Everett Rogers in his publication The Diffusion of Innovations (2003,
New York Free Press). This curve is derived from half of a normal distribution curve
and maps the growth of revenue or productivity against time as shown in Figure 1.
Initially the growth is fairly slow as the new concept is established, and at some point
customers begin to demand and the product growth increases more rapidly. Towards
23


the end of its lifecycle growth slows and declines, and ultimately no amount of new
investment in that product will yield a normal rate of return. A great majority of
innovations never get off the bottom of the curve or produce normal returns.
Successive diffusion curves will come along to replace older ones and continue to
drive growth upwards.
Some of the material technologies mentioned in this study are not necessarily new
innovations, but serve as a benchmark standard for comparative analysis of emerging
technologies. Table 1 summarizes the primary Innovative Materials discussed in this
thesis and their potential benefits. Table 2 summarizes a comparison of these
innovative materials against conventional benchmark materials and methods.
24


Innovative Malarial Potential Benefits Reference Section
Cost 1 Durability 1 Environment 1 Quality 1 Safety 1 Schedule I Other
Concrete Reinforcement 3.1
EnduraMet 32 MMFX Basalt FRP XX X 3.1.1.2 X X 3.1.1.3 XX X 3.1.1.5 X X X X X 3.1.2
Concrete Mix Oeakma 3.2
HPC Waterproofing Pervious Self-Compacting High Volume Fly Ash ECC X X X X X 3.2.1 X XX 3.2.2 X X 3.2.3 X XX 3.2.4 XXX 3.2.5 XX XX 3.2.6
Roadways 3.3
Thin Lift Asphalt Warm Mix Asphalt Geosynthetics SafeLane Overlay Porous Asphalt X XXX 3.3.1 X XX 3.3.3 X X X X X 3.3.6 XXX X 3.3.9 X X 3.3.10
Steal Technoloalee 3.4
HPS Shape Memory Alloy XXX X 3.4.1 X XX X 3.4.2
Timber Technologies 3.6
Valhalla Wood Preservative Plastic Lumber XX XX 3.6.1 XX X 3.6.2
FRP Products 3.1.2,3.5.1
Decking Structural Shapes X X X X X 3.5.1 XX XX 3.5.1
Seismic Dampers 3.5.2
Taylor Devices X XX 3.5.2
Corrosion Control 3.5.3
Vector XX XX 3.5.3
Guardrails 3.5.4
Bryson Products X XXX 3.5.4
Wildlife Protection 3.5.5
Wildlife Collision Prevention Program X XXX 3.5.5
Prstabrlcatlon 3.5.6
Bridges XX XXX 3.5.6
Foundations and Soil Reinforcement 3.5.7
Chemical Grouting Chemical Soil Treatments Screwpiling Rammed Earth Piers Hollow-core Soil Nailing Recycled Plastic Pins Soil Nail Launching X X X X X 3.5.7.1 X X X X X 3.5.7.2 X X 3.57.3 X 3.5.74 X XX 3.5.75 XX X 3.5.76 X XX 3.5.78
Table 1: Innovative Materials
25


Innovative Material Conventional Materials and Methods
Concrete Reinforcement
EnduraMet 32 carbon steel, epoxy coated, stainless steel, galvanized
MMFX carbon steel, epoxy coated, stainless steel, galvanized
Basalt carbon steel, epoxy coated, stainless steel, galvanized
FRP carbon steel, epoxy coated, stainless steel, galvanized
Concrete Mix Deaigna
HPC normal levels of design and quality control
Waterproofing waterproof membrane and topping slab, surface coatings
Pervious stormwater management systems
Self-Compacting manual consolidation
High Volume Fly Ash Portland cement
ECC carbon steel reinforcing, normal levels of design and quality control
Roadways
Thin Lift Asphalt hot-mix asphalt paving
Warm Mix Asphalt hot-mix asphalt paving
Geosynthetics drainage systems, soil reinforcement, frost protection
SafeLane Overlay de-icing chemicals, surface overiay
Porous Asphalt stormwater management systems
Steel Technologies
HPS common structural grade steels
Shape Memory Alloy seismic connections, seismic dampers
Timber Technologies
Valhalla Wood Preservative chemical wood preservatives
Plastic Lumber wood products
FRP Products
Decking steel decking, surface overiay
Structural Shapes structural steel shapes, corrosion protection
Seismic Dampers
Taylor Devices friction damping devices
Corrosion Control
Vector concrete repair
Guard relit
Bryson Products wood products, chemical wood preservatives
Wildlife Protection
Wildlife Collision overpass, underpass, signage
Prevention Program
Prefabrication
Bridges cast-in-place construction
Foundations and
Soli Reinforcement
Chemical Grouting soil stabilization, controlling groundwater
Chemical Soil Treatments soil stabilization
Screwpiling concrete caissons, casing
Rammed Earth Piers concrete caissons, concrete footings
Hollow-core Soil Nailing soil stabilization, soil nailing
Recycled Plastic Pins soil stabilization, soil nailing
Soil Nail Launching soil stabilization, soil nailing
Table 2: Innovative Materials Benchmark Comparison
26


3.1 Concrete Reinforcement
3.1.1 Rebar
The first applications of reinforced concrete can be attributed to a gardener from Paris
by the name of Joseph Monier, who in 1849 began using an iron mesh covered in
cement paste to make garden pots. Advancements in concrete tension reinforcing
applications have been continually optimizing the structural properties and corrosion
resistance of conventional rebar, as well as developing improved protective coatings
and advanced alternative materials. The major drawback to the use of conventional
steel reinforcement in highway and bridge construction is its susceptibility to
corrosion that ultimately reduces the strength capacity of the steel as well as causing
cracking and spalling of the concrete.
3.1.1.1 Epoxy Coated
Epoxy coated rebar (ECR) is currently the most popular concrete reinforcing material
used in the industry, utilizing standard rebar sections and increasing the corrosion
resistance, and thus the expected service life of the project. The thermally bonded
polymer coating is environmentally friendly and provides a barrier to chloride ions
and oxygen. The primary limitations to the protective capacity of ECR come from
imperfections in coating coverage or damaged coating from production, handling, and
placement processes. Additional limitations include a loss of adhesion to steel and an
increased permeability of the epoxy over time. Longer development lengths in
27


concrete are also required with the use of ECR. Advances in polymer coatings have
led to developments in high performance flexible epoxies (HPFE) having a higher
tolerance to bending stresses from fabrication and handling. Epoxy coating
technologies have also been used in conjunction with thermally sprayed zinc alloy
coatings to further increase corrosion protection and increase the expected service life
to more than 100 years (Gerdau, 2007).
3.1.1.2 Stainless Steel
Superior strength characteristics and uncompromising corrosion protection can be
realized through the use of stainless steel (SS) reinforcement. Various grades of solid
SS bar as well as SS clad rebar are currently available. The iron-chromium-nickel
alloys achieve their stainless characteristics through the formation of a thin
chromium-rich oxide film, which becomes self-healing in the presence of oxygen.
The SS alloys have improved ductility for formability and fabrication processes. SS
clad rebar is fabricated by spray forming, roll cladding, or heat shrinking of SS tubes
around standard rebar sections. The SS cladding can be effectively bonded to the
rebar to eliminate any concerns of separating from the base steel. See Figure 2 and
Table 3 for comparisons of service life and costs between conventional rebar and
stainless steel rebar.
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Total Cost [millions of Pounds]
Figure 2: Long-term Cost Comparison of Typical Carbon Steel Rebar vs. Stainless
Steel (FHWA CD).
Table 3: Relative Cost Comparison between Rebar Types (FHWA CD).
Rebar Type Rebar Cost $/lb Cost per Deck Area $/sq ft Cost Increase $/sq ft Service Life (Yrs)
Black $0.35 $1.89 10
Epoxy $0.50 $2.70 $0.81 40
SS Clad $ 1.20 $6.05 $4.16 75+
SS $2.20 $ 11.88 $9.99 100+
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A newly introduced stainless steel product termed EnduraMet32 is now being
produced for 1.5-2 times the cost of carbon steel, or approximately half the cost of
typical stainless steels (CRS Holdings, 2008). The product achieves higher yield
strengths of 75ksi (517MPa) while retaining the ductility and corrosion resistance
characteristics of conventional Type 304 and 316 stainless steels. The low nickel
content and metallurgical balanced alloy content reduce its cost dramatically.
3.1.1.3 Microcomposite Multistructural Formable Steel
Developments in microcomposite multistructural formable steel (MMFX) have been
raising the bar for improved mechanical properties and corrosion resistance from
convention carbon rebar. MMFX steel has refinements in chemical composition and a
laminated lath microstructure, which give it higher strength and toughness compared
to plain carbon steels (Figures 3 and 4). With less than one percent carbon and eight
to ten percent chrome, yield strengths of 120 ksi (828MPa) are easily reached
(MMFX Technologies, 2008). The MMFX bars exhibit 5-9 times the corrosion
resistance of conventional A615 rebar. Unlike conventional reinforcement, the
MMFX steel exhibits poor ductility and lacks a well-defined yield point, thus special
detailing considerations may be required when using this material.
30


Figure 3: Electron Microscope Photograph of MMFX Microstructure (MMFX
Technology, 2008)
Figure 4: Comparison of Stress/Strain Curves of Grade 60 Rebar and MMFX Rebar
(FHWA CD).
31


3.1.1.4 Galvanized
Hot-dipped galvanized rebar forms a protective coating from the zinc-iron metallurgic
bond, as well as allowing for superior bond strength with concrete. The coating
protects the steel from corrosive chemicals, and it provides a sacrificial anode so that
the steel itself will not corrode until the zinc coating is exhausted. Galvanized rebar
cannot be used in a placement with uncoated steel, as the coating will sacrifice itself
to protect the uncoated steel nearby. Similar to other rebar coatings, damage from
fabrication and construction operations along with surface defects and variations lead
to early localized corrosive decay of the steel. See Figure 5 for relative cost
comparison between varieties of alternate rebar materials.
(A
o
o
Reinforcing Type
Figure 5: Cost Comparison of Various Alternate Rebar Materials (FHWA CD).
32


3.1.1.5 Basalt
Originally developed in Russia, Basalt reinforcing is gaining acceptance in America
as a preferred substitute for conventional concrete reinforcing steel, as well as a
variety of other applications. Basalt reinforcing is now entering the U.S. market in the
form of fiber mat felt, geo-mesh, fiber strands, fabrics, and reinforcing rods. Basalt is
chemically inert and will not react with concrete mixtures. Basalt is also very resistant
to alkali and acid corrosion, whereby greatly extending the service life of structural
concrete and reinforced pavements. Tensile strengths of 145ksi (lOOOMPa) can be
reached with Basalt reinforcing, with an elastic modulus three times that of steel
(Moon, 2005). The Research & Technology Corp., Madison Wisconsin, has
conducted bond strength tests on U.S. fabricated Basalt fiber composite slotted rebar
and twisted cables resulting in no bond failure or slippage at ultimate strength (Brik,
2003). Rods made of unidirectional composite of Basalt fibers have the same
coefficient of thermal expansion as concrete and a very high resistance to fatigue.
Basalt is also lighter than its steel counterpart, providing cost savings in handling and
shipping costs.
Basalt has a very low thermal conductivity and can withstand working temperatures
in excess of 1800F (1000C), higher than glass or carbon fibers, making it a better
alternative for strengthening members subjected to fire. Basalts ability to withstand
high temperatures can also be beneficial for use as reinforcing in hot-mix asphalt
33


applications in the form of a mesh or fiber admixture. The Basalt reinforcing will not
damage tires if exposed to the road surface, and the surface life of the asphalt surface
may be increased by up to 47% using Basalt reinforcing mesh (Sudaglass, 2007).
Basalt mesh for reinforcing highway overlays can greatly reduce the effects of
reflective cracking caused by traffic loading, age hardening, and temperature cycling.
Basalt reinforcing may allow a reduction in pavement thickness by 20% with lower
costs and better mechanical properties than glass fibers (Kamenny Vek, 2008).
The Basalt Fiber Association of Woodlands, Texas, was formed in 2004 to share
experiences and promote the use of Basalt fibers in industry. Hightec, Inc. of Las
Vegas, Nevada, joined with Basalt Fiber Industries in 2002 to commercialize the
development of numerous Basalt fiber products in America.
3.1.2 Composites
Advances with composite materials in the aerospace industry are progressively
making their way into highway and bridge construction projects in increasing
quantities. Fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) may be unidirectional or bi-directional
and typically utilize carbon, glass, or aramid high strength fibers set in a thermoset or
thermoplastic polymer matrix to produce a high modulus, non-corrosive alternative to
steel reinforcement. With up to seven times the ultimate tensile strength of
conventional steels (60-300ksi or 414-2070MPa), high resistance to fatigue, and low
34


weight, FRP is currently being manufactured as rebar, standard structural shapes,
bridge deck panels, and as rolled sheets which can readily conform to any desired
shape (Black, 2005).
FRP sheets are being used extensively in structural upgrades and seismic retrofit
applications as the polymer matrix may be constructed to easily bond with any of the
primary construction materials used today (QuakeWrap, 2007). Currently, working
stress design methods are being used, as standard resistance factors have not yet been
established. The high tensile strength of FRP is used to increase shear and flexural
strengths, increase stiffness, provide confinement, enhance ductility, and provide
leak-proofing and corrosion protection. The American Concrete Institute (ACI) has
developed recommendations for the structural use of FRP with concrete which are
available in ACI 440.IR-03 Guide for the design and construction of concrete
reinforced with FRP bars.
Several major considerations for design with FRP include the materials lack of a
defined yield point before failure, and its high coefficient of thermal expansion
perpendicular to the fibers relative to concrete. ACI restricts its use in seismic zones,
as compression reinforcement, and in applications involving high temperatures or
moment redistribution. Thermal loading can create high tensile forces and produce a
beneficial hogging in simple-span bridge decks, or excessive stresses in continuous
35


member construction. FRP may experience molecular degradation over time, and can
also have a lower elastic modulus than steel, leading to increased deflections and
crack widths. Bends in FRP bars must be made during the manufacturing process.
FRP products are also susceptible to damage from ultra-violet rays, chemicals, and
high temperatures.
3.1.3 Fibers
A wide variety of polymer and/or steel fiber products are currently being used as
admixtures in concrete mix designs as a means of enhancing concrete tensile strength
and controlling cracking. This type of secondary reinforcement is typically not
susceptible to corrosion and has been shown to dramatically reduce cracking caused
by drying shrinkage, plastic settlement, and thermal stresses as well as reduce
problems from curling (Propex Concrete Systems, 2007).
Pending current research findings, fibers have the potential of reducing or eliminating
temperature reinforcing requirements, as well as increasing joint spacing. Fiber
admixtures provide increased cohesion for shotcrete applications, and help to suspend
aggregates and promote uniform bleedwater, which aids in the surface finishing of
slabs. The addition of fibers also reduces water migration and permeability, thereby
increasing the corrosion protection of the primary structural reinforcement.
36


Fiber admixtures have been shown to substantially improve ductility and energy
absorption in concrete, providing greater toughness, durability, and fatigue resistance
(Buckeye Technologies, 2007). See Section 3.2.6 Engineered Cementitious
Composites for more information on ductile concrete mix designs.
37


3.2 Concrete Mix Designs
3.2.1 High Performance Concrete
The beginnings of high performance structural concrete development may be traced
to the British Engineer John Smeaton, who in 1756 began adding pebbles and
powdered brick to his hydraulic lime cement to improve its strength and durability.
Advancements are constantly being made to conventional concrete performance-
enhancing additives, along with the continued development and expansion of new
components and mixtures. These technologies require independent study as well as
extended research on the interaction variables involved with the vast array of
potential mixture design combinations and environmental conditions (Sika
Corporation, 2007). Some of the more common concrete mixture additives include
the following:
A. Accelerators', targets high-early strength gain with improved workability and
consolidation. May reduce or eliminate steam curing or external heat
requirements.
B. Water-reducers: superplasticizers that improve workability, pumpability, and
consolidation and produce high-early strength gains. An increase in cement
content is achieved with higher strength and durability while reducing
shrinkage problems.
C. Corrosion inhibitors: chemically inhibits corrosive action of chlorides on steel
reinforcement resulting in extended service life and reduced maintenance.
38


D. Shrinkage-reducers: reduces early life cracking and slab curling.
E. Air-entrainers: improves resistance to freeze-thaw effects and chemical
attack.
F. Retarders', extends curing time for construction and finishing schedules.
High performance concrete (HPC) is defined as engineered or optimized concrete,
where elevated performance requirements beyond the range of conventional practice
are desired. One or more types of admixtures may be used in combination to obtain
the desired results for specific applications and conditions. Additional desired
concrete characteristics include low permeability, higher density and durability,
lightweight, and ease of consolidation (Euclid Chemical Company, 2007). HPC
requires more attention to detail in mixing, curing, and placement operations, and
frequently requires special training for batching and inspecting (Burgess Pigment
Company, 2007). The primary limitation to HPC applications becomes the
contractors awareness of the current state of practice and his/her controls from the
early design stage through the curing process.
Supplementary cementitious materials such as silica fume, blast-furnace slag, fly ash,
and natural pozzolans have been used extensively to increase concrete strength and
durability while reducing shrinkage and permeability. These products can have highly
reactive cementitious properties thus reducing cement content requirements (Grace
39


Construction Products, 2007). These materials are typically refined waste products
from manufacturing processes. Advances in pozzolan admixtures have resulted in
significant high-early strength gains and improved surface finishes. Pozzolan
additives typically increase cohesion for shotcrete applications (Pressure Grout
Company, 2007). A new lightweight synthetic aggregate product currently being
tested by GEI Consultants of Winchester, Massachusetts, was developed from fly ash
and waste plastics, two materials currently sent to disposal facilities. This product has
many potential applications in the precast industry, concrete structures, or as
lightweight fill. An ultra-fine Class F fly ash material termed Micron3, due to its
average particle size of three microns, substantially increases the packing density of
the cementitious materials thus increases the strength of the concrete. This addition of
ultra-fine particles greatly reduces the permeability of the concrete and increases its
resistance to corrosive materials such as chlorides, resulting in increased durability.
3.2.2 Waterproofing
There are several admixtures available that can go beyond corrosion resistance and
actually produce a concrete matrix that is totally waterproof. Such systems negate the
requirement for waterproof membranes with topping slabs or protective coating
applications, and can greatly accelerate construction schedules. One product by
Kryton International reacts with water and cement to create a crystalline structure that
seals the voids and small cracks thus becoming a self-healing waterproof barrier. This
40


product is environmentally friendly, increases concrete strength, reduces shrinkage
and cracking during the plastic curing stage, and improves concrete durability through
high quality air entrainment (Kryton International, 2007). Aside from high cost, an
additional consideration with the use of this type of admixture is the limited window
for surface finishing, particularly in cold weather.
3.2.3 Pervious Concrete
Pervious concrete mixture designs with a 15-25% void structure allowing from 3-8
gallons of water per minute to pass through one square foot of pavement (125-325
liters per minute, per square meter), have become common in recent years (National
Ready Mixed Concrete Association, 2007). Greatly reducing or eliminating fine
aggregates from the mixture design produces the porous concrete. This porosity
allows for stormwater runoff to be greatly reduced, while quickly replenishing water
tables and aquifers. Compressive strengths of 7.3ksi (50MPa) and flexural strengths
of 0.9ksi (6MPa) can easily be reached while maintaining high porosity, by using
smaller sized aggregate, silica fume, and superplasticizers (Yang, 2002). The pervious
concrete pavement acts as a detention area, thus greatly reducing the demand for
storm water management systems. In addition, pollutants from vehicles are absorbed
and filtered through the pervious concrete thus reducing environmental impact.
Pervious concrete has been shown to effectively filter pollutants such as copper and
zinc, and greatly reduce motor oil infiltration into water tables. The open-cell
41


structure of the concrete allows aerobic bacteria to develop, breaking down many of
the common roadway pollutants. Pervious concrete provides a lowered atmospheric
heating capacity as compared to conventional concrete and pavements, which results
in reduced ground level ozone production. Pervious concrete also improves
environmental conditions and ride quality through increasing the absorption of
vehicle noise. On rainy days, the pervious concrete has no surface splashing and does
not glisten at night, creating safer roadways. Regular maintenance is required for less
traveled roadway applications in order to maintain unclogged drainage paths; this is
accomplished by using high-pressure water jets. Drainage clogging is not a problem
for more heavily trafficked roads due to a pumping-action phenomenon related to the
frequency of the passing vehicles.
3.2.4 Self-Compacting
Self-compacting or self-consolidating concretes (SCC) have been developed which
greatly increase workability and durability while producing an enhanced surface
finish. A SCC is able to flow and consolidate under its own weight and fill spaces of
almost any size and shape. Tight clearances and reinforcing congested areas are easily
poured with little or no manual consolidation techniques required. Strength and
durability similar to conventional concretes are achieved, although higher plastic
shrinkage cracking will result without proper curing.
42


The use of SCC in drilled shaft foundation systems offers decreased placement times
and a reduction in size and frequency of unwanted voids, especially in highly
reinforced seismic applications. Research has shown that SCC exhibits no noticeable
change in aggregate segregation as compared to conventional concrete mixtures in
drilled shaft applications (S&ME, Inc., 2005). This research also showed that similar
strengths were reached from both conventional and SCC mixes, although the SCC
took slightly longer to reach its design strength.
3.2.5 High Volume Fly Ash
The use of High-Volume Fly Ash (HVFA) in concrete mixtures can have a
substantial impact on the depletion of limestone deposits and in reducing greenhouse
gas emissions produced during the production of portland cement. Replacing cement
content with recycled waste products such as fly ash from coal-fired power plants,
while maintaining performance requirements, can play a key role in the sustainability
of concrete production. Concrete mixtures containing 15-20% fly ash by mass are
currently used and well documented. It is now possible to use 50-60% of the blended
cementitious materials as fly ash to produce high performance concrete mixtures that
show high workability, high ultimate strength, and high durability. Fly ash may be
used as either a component of blended portland cements or as a mineral admixture to
concrete. Good fly ash can act as a superplastizer when used in high-volume,
achieving a reduction in cement paste and water content by up to 20%, and result in a
43


substantial reduction in drying shrinkage problems. Cement replacements of 50-60%
can result in up to a 25% reduction in fossil fuel consumption and smog effects
during production, and cost reductions of 15-20% for capital and life cycle costs
(Reiner and Rens, 2006).
The environmental impacts of fly ash as a constituent of cement is well understood,
with years of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys (EPAs) Toxicity
Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) data showing the leachate as being non-
hazardous. However, new research in the use of High Volume Fly Ash as a higher
percentage constituent of cement (30-50% or more) is beginning to establish a
documented history of positive environmental effects.
Two studies conducted in 2001 show that regardless of the type and/or higher
percentage of fly ash used as an additive in concrete, and regardless of the curing
methods used, none of the trace metals used in the U.S. EPAs TCLP procedure
exceeded the regulation concentration limits, and HVFA is therefore considered
environmentally stable (Zhang et all. 2001a, 2001b).
The use of High Volume Fly Ash also can significantly lower carbon-dioxide
emissions that occur from the production and use of portland cement. Every ton
(8.9kN) of portland cement that is replaced with fly ash eliminates one ton of Carbon
44


Dioxide emissions. A study conducted by the State of Texas found that by replacing
fly ash use with HVFA in the Texas Department of Transportation, carbon dioxide
emissions in Texas could be reduced by 6.6 million tons (58.7GN) annually by the
year 2015 (Estakhri et all, 2004). This switch from using fly ash to using HVFA by
the Texas DOT alone could eliminate the disposal of over 2 million tons (17.8GN) of
fly ash annually from landfills.
Replacing the portland cement with HVFA also reduces energy and utility costs
associated with the production of the cement manufactured on a one-to-one basis.
With the manufacturing of portland cement accounting for approximately 8% of the
worlds carbon dioxide emissions, using HVFA could have a dramatic effect upon
climate stabilization and emission levels.
3.2.6 Engineered Cementitious Composites
Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC), also known as Bendable Concrete,
have been developed where a tensile strain capacity of 3-5% can be reached
compared to 0.01% for normal concrete (Li, 2006). This results in a more plastic
yielding concrete, obtaining much larger inelastic deformations prior to failure, as
demonstrated in Figure 6. ECC is a micro-mechanically designed material, where the
micro mechanical interactions between the short, random reinforcing fibers, and the
cementitious materials are taken into effect for optimization of design. The ECC has
45


shown to be 500 times more resistant to cracking and up to 40% lighter than
conventional concretes, and is expected to show substantial cost and energy savings
as well as reducing carbon dioxide emissions over its life cycle, as it is expected to
last twice as long (Li, 2005).
Figure 6: ECC Ductile Behavior (Li, 2005)
A comparative Life Cycle Analysis of two bridge deck systems over a 60-year service
life showed that the ECC link slab design is expected to extend the bridge deck
service life and reduce maintenance activities. A life cycle model was developed that
accounts for materials production and distribution, construction and maintenance
processes, construction-related traffic and congestion, and end-of-life management.
Results indicate that the ECC bridge deck system has significant advantages in
environmental performance: 40% less life cycle energy consumption, 50% less solid
waste generation, 38% less raw material consumption, and produces 39% less carbon
dioxide (a major cause of global warming) than regular concrete (Keoleian, 2005).
46


3.3 Roadways
Construction and maintenance costs for the U.S. roadway infrastructure are
approximately $100 billion per year, about one percent of the U.S. gross domestic
product. Asphalt paving is the largest component of this cost, representing about 20
percent of the total (Anderson, 2006).
3.3.1 Thin Lift Asphalt
Advancements in asphalt mixture design and construction methods such as thin-lift
hot-mix surface courses have improved ride quality, reduced traffic noise, and
increased tire traction and safety (Bennert et. al, 2005). This material has an open-
graded and gap-graded aggregate shell with nominal aggregate sizes less than 0.5
inch (12.5mm) and surface courses can be laid in a thickness of less than 1 inch
(24.4mm). Difficulties with the thin lifts include the reduction in cooling time which
leaves little time available for compaction, and density control is difficult as
aggregate particles have fewer options to rearrange under compaction resulting in less
uniform mat densities. The thin lifts can also produce greater screed wear from
dragging large aggregate particles. Although the hot-mix asphalt (HMA) content is
reduced, the asphalt binder content is typically increased. Epoxy resins have also been
added to asphalt mixtures to enhance tensile strength, rupture elongation, and fatigue
resistance resulting in a substantial increase in expected life cycle.
47


3.3.2 Superpave
Research and development in pavement designs has led to superior performing
pavement mixture design methods (Superpave) where substantial increases in
durability, workability, and service life expectancy are realized while reducing long-
term deformations and cracking. The Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP)
of the National Research Council has published a manual of recommended test
methods, specifications, and practices (SHRP-A-379, 1994) for the use of the
Superpave mix design system. This document is currently under review by AASHTO
and is expected to be adopted with minor changes and revisions. The Superpave
system is designed to maximize the performance properties of pavement designs
while targeting specific design requirements, reliability, and environmental
conditions. The design procedure uses a systematic approach in materials selection,
testing of trial mixture designs, and performance evaluation criteria in order to
optimize the design.
3.3.3 Warm-Mix Asphalt
Warm-mix asphalt (WMA) technologies allow a substantial reduction in temperatures
at which asphalt mixes are produced and placed, thus greatly reducing energy
consumption requirements and emissions associated with burning fuels when
compared to conventional HMA production and placement techniques. Temperature
reductions of 50-100 degrees Fahrenheit (10-20C) have been achieved. The
48


reduction in heating required also correlates to a direct improvement in working
conditions at the plant as well as the paving site. Several mix-design additives are
now commercially available in America and have been used extensively in European
countries for years. These emerging technologies allow the production of WMA by
reducing the viscosity of the asphalt binder at a given temperature. This reduced
viscosity allows the aggregate to be fully coated at a lower temperature than
traditionally required in HMA production. A major impedance to the growth of this
technology is that some of these applications require significant modifications to
standard equipment (Asphalt Technology News, 2005). Continued research and
specification development is currently underway in the U.S. to further advance the
use and benefits offered by WMA.
3.3.4 Recycled Asphalt
Advancements in recycled asphalt pavements (RAP) have been studied at the
Louisiana Transportation Research Center in the form of foamed RAP. A method
of pre-treating RAP using foamed asphalt design methods, has proven to be a viable
alternative to a traditional stone base, and may be considered for use as a standard
base material. The process combines hot asphalt and a small quantity of water in a
small chamber to produce an asphalt-foam that is incorporated into an asphalt base.
Some reconstruction projects generate large quantities of RAP, and the use of this
material as a base quickly becomes more efficient than hauling to a plant for use in
49


asphalt mixtures. The utilization of treated RAP on-site will also likely be less
expensive than importing stone base material from another location. These two
benefits combined may produce substantial savings on a highway reconstruction
project. In addition, strips of shredded reclaimed plastics are being studied for use as
reinforcement in aggregate base coursing.
3.3.5 Asphalt Shingles
Scrap asphalt shingles contain the same basic ingredients as HMA: aggregate, asphalt
binder, and mineral aggregates. Laboratory and field-testing by the University of
Minnesota and the Minnesota DOT (MN/DOT) demonstrated that scrap asphalt
shingles could be used successfully in HMA. The MN/DOT has issued specifications
that allow up to 5% manufacturers asphalt shingle scrap in HMA applications.
Research continues in the promising arena of tear-off roofing, or post-consumer waste
usage in asphalt mix designs. Nationally, an estimated 11 million tons (98GN) of
used asphalt shingles are landfilled each year (Northeast Recycling Council, 2007).
3.3.6 Geosynthetics
Geosynthetics are factory manufactured polymeric materials typically produced in
rolls of woven or knit textile yams (Geotextiles), plastic formed grid sets of
interconnected polymer ribs (Geogrids or Geonets), or thin impermeable sheets of
rubber or plastic materials (Geomembranes), (Figure 7). Geocomposites are
50


combinations of the basic Geosynthetic materials with a rapidly growing usage in soil
reinforcement, filtration, and drainage applications.
i > ... i. I I-1-
0 t 2 3 4 5 0IZS4**
INCHES JMCHE8
i. i. -A. .i L. -J_. I J. . I
0 2 4 6 (0 12 14 ' o 2 4 o 10 12 .4 ife
CCNTIMCTCKS CCNTIMCTCRS
GEOMEMBRANES GEOCOMPOSITES
Figure 7: Geosynthetic Materials (ISSMFE, 2007)
Advancements in Geotextiles have created synthetic products which can replace and
improve upon traditional open-graded aggregate, free-draining base layers. Roadways
incorporating good drainage design are typically expected to see design lives of two
to three times that of undrained pavement sections. Water in the asphalt surface can
lead to moisture damage, modulus reduction, and loss of tensile strength. Additional
moisture in unbound aggregate base can result in a 50% loss of stiffness. Geotextiles
may provide improved drainage, reduce the amount of undercut required, and provide
a true capillary break for demanding freeze-thaw environments (Christopher, 2001).
51


Geotextiles may directly replace aggregate drainage layers in modem rigid or flexible
pavement systems. Asphaltic or cement stabilization binders typically used in open-
graded systems can also be eliminated.
A synthetic aggregate geotextile produced by Contech Earth Stabilization Solutions,
Inc. called RoaDrain is an engineered drainage layer to be directly and continuously
tied to an edge drain system, and also provides energy absorption to mitigate
reflective cracking to asphalt (Tenax, 2007). Open flow is maintained by a high-
density polyethylene core, which does not allow the geotextile layers to touch, unlike
most of the commercially available geonet products. The RoaDrain product also
contains a geotextile separator to prevent the migration of fines. When the product is
placed between the base and the sub-grade to dramatically reduce the effective
drainage length from the width of the lanes to the thickness of the base, the use of
more fines and lower permeability base materials may be utilized. With this approach,
a higher drainage modifier is used, thus the thickness of these layers may be reduced,
higher strength capacity utilized, or a greater service life may be expected. This
system will allow for stabilization and improved foundation support for pavements
constructed over soft soils. In addition, the system allows these foundations to
consolidate and improve over time. The geocomposite drainage net interlocks with
the aggregate base acting like geogrid reinforcement and restrains lateral movement.
The tensile strength and stiffness of the geocomposites are typically greater than
52


many geogrids used in base reinforcement. For deep frost penetration, the
geocomposite net could be placed at a lower depth within the sub grade to act as a
capillary break, whereby replacing the non frost-susceptible granular sub base layer
often required to extend down to frost depth.
3.3.7 Recycled Crumb Rubber
Scrap tires contribute to one of the most serious environmental problems in the world,
and continued research into the application of recycled tires into hot asphalt mix
designs has led to improved performance of asphalt, along with relief of detrimental
environmental impacts (Farrell, 1999). Crumb rubber additives from discarded tires
have been know to increase performance aspects of asphalt mixtures through working
properties and resilience of asphalt binder and the ability to withstand oxidation aging
more easily. Performance aspects such as thermal susceptibility, elastic behavior,
fatigue cracking resistance, and aging stability may also be increased as shown in
studies conducted at the Center for Advanced Infrastructure & Transportation
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 2007. The FHWA continues to
encourage the use of waste rubber in engineering applications and will provide
technical assistance in its application. The Rubber Pavements Association has been
formed, dedicated to encouraging greater usage of asphalt pavements containing
recycled rubber, and provides a means of technology transfer.
53


3.3.8 Aggregate Binders
Resin pavement binder emulsion mixed with local aggregate materials may be used to
create an aesthetic, environmentally friendly alternative to asphalt and concrete
pavements in lightly loaded applications. These compacted pavement surfaces retain
the natural coloration and texture of the constituent aggregate materials. A product
called NaturalPAVE contains no petroleum ingredients and no air pollution is created
from fossil fuel burning in the production, mixing, or placing of the pavement system
(Soil Stabilization Products Company, 2007). There are no toxic components to
contaminate water supplies, and light colored solar reflective pavements can be used
to lessen impact from Urban Heat Island Effect, smog formation, greenhouse gas
emission, and global warming, thus becoming an ideal solution for environmentally
sensitive applications.
3.3.9 Surface Overlay
An innovate surface overlay product called SafeLane has won grants through the
FHWAs IBRC program in four different state transportation departments. This
overlay combination of epoxy and aggregate is able to store liquid anti-icing
chemicals within its structure and release them as conditions develop for the
formation of ice and snow (Cargill, 2006). The overlay product allows for a reduction
in usage of deicing chemicals by reducing the amount that is ineffective and wasted,
as well as providing a safer roadway by allowing the chemicals to be more fully
54


effective when they are most needed. The product also can extend the life of roads
and bridges by acting as a sealant that reduces the effects of chloride and water
intrusion. The overlay can be installed over asphalt, concrete, steel, or wood and has
traction characteristics better than asphalt and equal to concrete.
3.3.10 Porous Asphalt
With all of the storm water management and water filtration benefits discussed in
Section 3.2.3 for Pervious Concrete, porous asphalt typically costs about 75% less
with approximately the same cost as conventional asphalt roadways (APA, 2007).
Using the highest amount of recycled materials by volume in the nation, asphalt
encourages sustainability and does not leech toxic chemicals to harm the
environment.
55


3.4 Steel Technologies
3.4.1 High Performance Steel
Todays high performance steels (HPS) such as ASTM A1010 include improved
weldability, toughness, and ductility along with increased corrosion resistance (Figure
8) and higher strengths. Increased fracture initiation and arrest resistance of HPS
allows larger crack size tolerance and more time to catch fatigue cracking through
inspections. These steels quality as weathering steel, thus painting is not required.
Current HPS grades include 50, 70, and lOOksi (345, 485, 690MPa). AASHTO has
well established steel design codes for HPS, which is increasingly becoming more
available and cost-effective for hybrid bridge girder design. Project cost savings of up
to 18% and weight savings of up to 28% can be realized through efficient use of HPS
in highway bridge design (Wilson, 2005).
42 25
A36 A588 Galvanized A1010
Carbon Weathering Carbon
Steel Steel Steel
Figure 8: Corrosion Resistance of Structural Steels (FHWA CD)
56


3.4.2 Shape Memory Alloys
The super-elastic properties of Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) have been proven to
effectively dissipate large amounts of energy through hysteretic behavior as typically
seen during seismic events. A plateau where the force remains nearly constant with
increasing displacement characterizes the force-displacement curve of an SMA.
Strains of up to about 10% can be reached with full shape recovery. These properties
are a result of a solid-solid transformation between austenite and martensite phases of
the alloy that may be induced by stress or temperature. The main advantage derived
from the use of SMAs is their ability to act as force-limiting devices by allowing a
fairly constant force, even under substantial deformations. Applications are being
developed for use as passive energy dissipaters and dampers as well as for limiting
relative displacements at piers and abutments of bridge structures. During unloading,
SMA-based devices do not return all the energy accumulated upon loading as
conventional elastic bars do. Incorporating nickel-titanium (NiTi) SMAs into devices
to increase the strength and energy dissipation capacity of a structure allows recovery
from large deformations, more than 10 times that recovered by a conventional steel
(Brussels, 1999). This can translate into strength performance at least 50% greater
than that of conventional steels. SMAs have a Young's modulus lower than that of
conventional steel and exhibit excellent fatigue and corrosion resistance.
57


Testing on SMA reinforced concrete beams showed that the average residual
displacement was less than one-fifth of that for conventional steel reinforced beams
(Saiid, 2007). The stiffness of NiTi reinforced test beams however was lower than
those of the steel reinforced test beams. It was found that a hybrid system that
incorporated NiTi combined with high strength steel or carbon fiber reinforced plastic
bars was a better choice for design because of their relatively high stiffness.
Manufacture and welding of the NiTi alloy is difficult because of the reactivity of
titanium and all melting must be done in a vacuum or in an inert atmosphere.
Machining techniques are difficult with NiTi alloys, thus the alloy is costly to
fabricate and use.
58


3.5 Components and Systems
3.5.1 FRP Products
Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) structural sections and deck panel systems are
becoming more widespread in new bridge construction, as well as increasing load
ratings for existing bridges. The high strength to weight ratio of FRP products can
allow for reduced depth of a structure and reduced seismic loads. Intensive quality
controls and quality assurance procedures are required to take full advantage of these
innovative products and systems.
Commercially made FRP deck panels accelerate construction schedules and reduce
lane closures. Difficulties in construction and detailing arise due to the high
coefficient of thermal expansion and sensitivities with epoxy applications (Cassity,
2000). Thermal expansion and fatigue create a need for special joint detailing such as
fabric tape and joint sealants. Several layers of epoxy and sand can be used to create a
polymer concrete wearing surface, which can be susceptible to debonding and
cracking if not within recommended temperatures and properly cleaned prior to its
application.
3.5.2 Seismic Dampers
Seismic damping devices are commercially available with damping ratios as high as
50% of critical which may drastically reduce seismic stresses in bridges (Taylor
59


Devices, 2007). These devises can be constructed to allow thermal movements with
minimal resistance, while providing lockup for seismic events. Seismic dampers
absorb energy from earthquake or wind induced motion, thus reducing the load on the
structure. For most structures, a relatively small amount of damping provides a large
reduction in stress and deflection by dissipating energy from the structure. Fluid
viscous damping reduces stress and deflections because the force from the damping is
completely out of phase with stresses due to flexing of the columns or piers. Unlike
friction dampers, fluid viscous dampers allow the structure to completely re-center
itself at all times.
3.5.3 Corrosion Control
Many advances in steel corrosion mitigation and prevention have taken place in both
new construction and in repair and maintenance of existing structures. Sacrificial zinc
anode systems embedded in concrete have been a reliable system for limiting
corrosion. Cathodic catalyzed titanium anodes, and impressed current cathodic
protection are some of the current systems available (Vector Corrosion Technologies,
2007). Electrochemical treatment systems are also being used to remove chloride ions
and increase the alkalinity around reinforcing steel and can facilitate lithium
penetration into concrete (C-Probe Systems Limited, 2007).
60


Several methods are currently available for extending and maintaining the service life
of post-tensioning (PT) systems due to corrosion. Innovative methods using
pressurized gas injected into PT cable conduits can remove moisture from the cables
and reduce the risk of corrosion (Vector Corrosion Technologies, 2007). Grease-
injection methods can be used to fill voids in dry cables and protect from future
corrosion.
3.5.4 Guardrails
Guardrail systems and components constructed from composite or recycled materials
are gaining acceptance by the FHWA as an acceptable alternative, or even
improvement, to the traditional timber post and block guardrail systems. The lack of
maintenance requirements resulting from the inherent stability under environmental
stresses, and corrosion resistance, are key benefits from this innovative application.
The Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, (Atahan, 2004b), has documented a series
of static and dynamic tests performed on recycled content guardrail posts showing
that strength and energy dissipation are comparable to the conventional wood post W-
beam system. Computer models of energy dissipation have also been analyzed
showing favorable comparison (Atahan, 2004a). Recommended specifications have
been developed based on a series of test procedures and performance levels. The
Transportation Research Board (TRB) has installed recycled plastic guardrail posts in
high-risk locations for in-service evaluation in the standard W-beam weak post
61


(flexible) guardrail system. Recycled plastic block elements are currently FHWA
approved and commercially available, and are being used to replace wooden blocks in
guardrail systems (Bryson, 2007). These blocks are the connecting element between
the guardrail and the posts. These new blocks are being made from post-consumer
and industrial recycled plastics. Another type of block currently available utilizes tire
sections from recycled or new tires, bonded together to form a solid block.
An innovative design approach used at the University of Wisconsin utilizes glass
fiber reinforced polymer to design a potentially safer guardrail system (Mattmiller,
1999). The new system is designed to better capture todays wide range of vehicle
classes ranging from tinny compact cars to large sport utility vehicles and four-wheel
drive trucks. Better strength and flexibility was observed through testing, and full-
scale crash testing is scheduled in attempt to satisfy FHWAs qualifying standards.
This system offers a lighter, more durable, rustproof alternative to steel guardrail
systems. The beam members are made of a series of rectangular hollow elements,
which fail one layer at a time whereby absorbing more impact energy before
complete failure of the system occurs.
3.5.5 Wildlife Protection
A wildlife protection system developed in British Columbia uses infrared cameras
and flashing lights to alert approaching drivers with real time information on the
62


presence of wildlife on or near the road. The high-resolution infrared technology
enables the cameras to detect a heat difference of ,02F (.01 C) and have a range of
up to Vi mile (0.8km) (Kinley, T., et al, 2007). The cameras can see through
darkness, and, to some degree, through rain, snow, smoke and fog. The cameras can
interpret patterns of thermal gradients and movements to differentiate between
wildlife and other heat sources. When the cameras detect wildlife, flashing lights at
both ends of the road segment are triggered to warn drivers to reduce speed and
anticipate wildlife on the road. See Figure 9.
This technology offers several advantages over conventional mitigation strategies
making highways safer for both the public and the wildlife populations. The wildlife
cannot be habituated as they do to scents, reflectors, and other deterrents because the
system focuses on the actions of motorists rather than the animal behavior. Drivers
are less likely to become complacent to the warning system as it is only triggered
temporarily when wildlife is present. This system does not interfere with the natural
movement of wildlife, nor require the construction of overpasses or underpasses to
allow for highway crossings. Another benefit is the systems capability to collect
video footage allowing researchers to record and study wildlife numbers and behavior
on a 24-hour basis.
63


Wildlife Protection System
State-oMhe-art infrared camera will be placed by a highway where it will take
continuous live video pictures of a stretch of road several kilometres long.
0
O
Even beforv a morn*, chwr,
bear or sbeep Vectde* to
cross a fbailway tha camera
will knowft's thfm. ' ~~
Whsn ths hsat-ssnsltlvs Infrarsd camara
dstsets an animal at day or night, it
send* a message to a computer to
activate flashing warning lights or
variable message signs for
4
Yi
\
ggoocow
01
^ocoCOOO
This real-Ume Information cues
drivers to Immediately slow down
and watch for wildlife. This reduces
the chance of a dangerous cotNslon
lor people end Increases the animal's
ability to safely cross the highway.
Figure 9: Wildlife Protection System (Kinley, T., et al, 2007).
3.5.6 Prefabrication
Continued expansion of civil infrastructure along with maintenance, restoration, and
higher load rating demands for existing structures, create a constant need for
improvements and innovative approaches to construction processes and procedures.
Along with these demands, the value of Accelerated Bridge Construction (ABC)
continues to rise. Traffic lane closures, detours and delays can be extremely costly,
and weather conditions and terrain can limit on-site construction progress. Innovative
use of prefabricated systems and components such as precast concrete pavements,
64


panelized bridge deck panels, and precast concrete piers and pier caps have been used
effectively and show great potential in ABC. Entire completed spans or large sections
of prefabricated assemblies may be erected off-site and lifted into place.
There are many advantages to prefabrication aside from reduced costs and shortened
construction schedules. Such systems can result in higher quality by being produced
in controlled conditions with consistent reliable materials and production methods,
thus reducing maintenance requirements. Concrete curing can be optimized, and on-
site falsework requirements can be eliminated. Prefabrication can result in minimal
environmental impact, and can greatly increase the safety for both the construction
workers and the general public.
Difficulties and limitations in prefabrication include adequate construction tolerances,
and high cost and availability of required construction transport and lifting
equipment. Currently there are no standards for detailing and assembly of
prefabricated systems and components, which raises concerns for seismic design and
detailing, as well as limitations in system continuity and redundancies. It can also be
difficult to meet site-specific soil conditions and roadway smoothness expectations
with prefabricated assemblies.
65


3.5.7 Foundations and Soil Reinforcement
Several methods are currently available to stabilize or increase the bearing capacity of
soft or compressible soils, whereby greatly reducing foundation size and depth
requirements. Such methods are also used for underpinning existing structures, above
or below the water table.
3.5.7.1 Chemical Grouting
Injecting chemical grout is an effective method of soil reinforcement, with minimal
accessibility requirements. This process may be substantially more advantageous than
other methods in terms or economics, risk reduction, simplicity, and flexibility. The
injection of one or more liquid chemicals into a cohesionless soil is used to create an
impervious sandstone-like mass for soil stabilization and controlling groundwater
(Pressure Grout Company, 2007). This process is easily adapted to providing support
for excavations, preventing surface settlement, controlling erosion, reducing
liquefaction potential, or creating tieback anchorage where problem soils or limited
accessibility conditions exist. Chemical grouting has been used successfully to
control or shutoff groundwater seepage into tunnels, pipelines, excavations, and from
embankments and sheet pilings.
66


3.5.7.2 Chemical Soil Treatments
Liquid chemical soil stabilization is rapidly becoming an environmentally friendly,
and economically beneficial alternative method over traditional stabilizers for base
treatments, and cement or bituminous treatments. These chemical treatments can save
resources, improve road performance, lower construction costs, reduce wear on
adjacent road systems, and reduce construction related air pollution. Chemical
treatments are much less expensive than traditional flexible road base treatments
while providing improved bearing strength and retaining flexibility and resistance to
cracking. Chemical treatments can provide increased density layers with excellent
resistance to moisture intrusion. Treatments can produce stable bound layers without
excessive rigidity or susceptibility to cracking, much cheaper than conventional
multiple layer systems.
A concentrated liquid stabilizer produced called EMC Squared is environmentally
friendly and approved by major land management agencies including the Bureau of
Land Management, National Forest Service, and the National Park Service (Soil
Stabilization Products Company, 2007). This product claims many advantages over
traditional calcium based stabilizers such as cement, fly ash, and lime, including a
huge reduction in freight costs, alleviating site storage issues, and the lack of special
chemical protection procedures. This product is effective in the treatment of moisture
and frost susceptible aggregate materials. Improvements in control of dust and in
67


protection of water resources from erosion and sediment problems are inherent with
this procedure. The benefits of chemical treatments may also be extended to dirt and
gravel roadways. Soil stabilization performance, savings from surface replacement,
reduced maintenance, and increased road strength far exceed the initial cost incurred
using this treatment (McElroy, 2005). Dirt roads at Fort Carson, Colorado, used for
heavy equipment traffic such as tanks, and subject to extreme weather conditions
were treated and tested using this product. The sub-grade material for these roads was
classified as extremely poor under AASHTO guidelines. After one year of service
with no maintenance, inspection reports noted that the treated roads were in
extremely good condition, and were superior to adjacent, untreated roads, which were
being maintained by grading on a monthly basis.
3.5.7.3 Screwpiling
Cousin to the familiar and smaller-scale helical pier foundation system, and pioneered
in Arvada Colorado, Engineered Screwpiling is an innovative alternative to concrete
caissons. Shown in Figure 10, these large diameter hollow steel pipes have an auger-
type helix and only require pre-drilling in hard rock applications. The screwpiles are a
suitable alternative to caissons in most soil conditions and may be installed battered,
horizontally or vertically. The screwpiles may be easily removed and reused to
accommodate design changes and modifications. Screwpiles can be installed in 20
minutes or less, over four times faster than drilled piers, caissons, or driven piles
68


(Alpine Site Services, 2007). No curing time is required for this system to be fully
functional, and it can be installed through groundwater without casing. In addition,
low noise and no vibration are benefits of its installation process. Loads of up to 500
kips (2.2MN) may be reached with this system, and Alpine has portable,
computerized load testing equipment which may be easily mobilized for performance
of site-specific loading evaluations.
Figure 10: Screwpile Drill Rig (Alpine, 2007)
69


3.5.7.4 Rammed Aggregate Piers
A unique and innovative system developed by Geopier Foundation Systems utilizes
Rammed Aggregate Piers as an alternative to large spread footings or deep
foundations. The process involves first drilling a cavity normally ranging from 7-30
feet (2-9m) deep and 24-36 inches (0.6-0.9m) in diameter, followed by layers of
aggregate in lifts of one foot (0.3m). A beveled tamper rams each layer of aggregate
using vertical impact ramming energy to increase the density of the aggregate as well
as the surrounding soil. The aggregate interlocks with the soil and results in reliable
settlement control as well as uplift capacities. Conventional spread footing or mat
foundation designs are then used, bearing on the rammed-aggregate piers. This
intermediate foundation alternative is environmentally safe, and has been shown to
increase allowable soil bearing pressures by as much as 10,000 psf (9.9GPa) (Geopier
Foundations, 2007). The potential for soil liquefaction in a seismic event can also be
greatly reduced through this soil reinforcement technique. Accelerated schedules and
substantial cost savings are also possible through the utilization of this foundation
approach.
3.5.7.5 Hollow-Core Soil Nailing
Hollow-core bars are used as self-grouting soil nails allowing fewer installation steps
than the typical solid bar technique, and are especially beneficial in soils that would
normally require casing such as with caving ground conditions in sands, loose soils
70


with cobbles and boulders, and high water-content soils. Use of casing makes the
standard solid-bar nailing process slower and costlier. Initially used for temporary
installations, hollow bars may also be advantageous for permanent installations.
An alternate to installing solid-bar nails in pre-drilled holes involves the use of
hollow-core bars in a more efficient manner. The hollow-core bar is fitted with an
oversized sacrificial drill bit that serves as a cutting tool and includes several holes for
the passage of pressurized grout. Grout is pumped through the hollow-core of the nail
to the drill bit where it flows out of the holes and facilitates drilling. The nail is
rotated and advanced using a percussion hammer as grout flows along the outside and
back to the ground surface as shown in Figure 11. Once the target depth is reached,
the nail remains in the hole as reinforcing. The hollow-core nailing technique
combines the soil drilling operation, nail installation, and grouting process into a
single procedure. The dynamic rotary pressure grouting technique used by the
hollow-nail installation process permeates the grout into the surrounding soil further
than conventional installations, resulting in greater bond strength between the grout
and the soil. The FHWA is currently working to develop standard installation and
inspection specifications to ensure the quality control of the hollow-core soil nailing
system.
71


Grout Flow Paths CVuylei Centralizer
Localized
Enlargement
Permearion Zone
Hollow-Core Bar
Geomaterial
Dh
Drill Hole
Diameter
Oversized
Sacrificial
Drill Bit
()
Do
Drill Bit
Diameter
D.-,
Grout Body
Diameter
Figure 11: (a) Schematic of Hollow-core Nail Installation, (b) Cross-sectional View.
(DiMaggro, 2006).
72


3.S.7.6 Recycled Plastic Pins
A new technique for stabilizing slope failures has been developed using recycled
plastic reinforcing members. This technology has proven to be effective at providing
long-term soil stabilization. Such reinforcement has been evaluated and performance-
monitored for nearly a decade for material properties, long-term performance
properties and stability, and potentially detrimental environmental effects under
differing conditions of slope type, inclination, and water conditions. While the
required member spacing is dependant on local geotechnical conditions, a typical
placement pattern consists of using the plastic pm reinforcing placed in a 3 x 3
(2.9m x 2.9m) staggered arrangement over the entire slide area. Typical plastic pin
members used in test evaluations are 3.5 square by T (9cm x 2m) in length. Reliable
installation can be accomplished by using either a percussion hammer similar to what
is used on most drill rigs, or a simple drop-weight hammer similar to what is used for
driving guardrail posts.
Slender structural members manufactured from recycled plastic lumber (Section
3.6.2) can be used to effectively reinforce slopes as illustrated in Figure 12. These
plastic pins are installed in slopes to intercept potential sliding surfaces and provide
the resistance needed to maintain long-term stability of the slope. Substantial cost
savings can be obtained using this stabilization technique when compared to most
73


other competing slope stabilization technologies, where materials and installation
figures from Loehr and Bowders indicate $40 per member.
Roadway
Figure 12: Reinforcing Potential Slope Failure (Loehr and Bowders, 2007)
3.5.7.7 Geofoam
Geofoam is a lightweight, rigid foam plastic typically used as fill material in civil
engineering applications. Expanded polystyrene (EPS) has been the most widely used
geofoam material worldwide for reducing earth pressures in road applications for the
past 30 years. Geofoam is approximately 100 times lighter than most soils weighing
only 1-2 lb/ft3 (160-320N/m3). Applications include reducing earth pressures for
stabilizing slopes and embankments, retaining structures, utility protection, and
minimizing differential settlement at bridge abutments. Geofoam may also provide
insulation, noise and vibration damping, thermal insulation, and improved drainage.
The ease of geofoam transportation and placement can greatly accelerate highway
74


construction, resulting in cost and energy savings, as well as reducing environmental
pollutants.
EPS does not use CFCs or HCFCs (ozone depleting substances) in its
manufacturing process. EPS is an inert material that does not readily biodegrade or
decompose in a natural environment, nor does it release any toxic leachate. The
environmental effects of the manufacture of EPS raw materials and their conversion
to EPS insulation material are small. The main environmental effects are those of
substances released into the atmosphere, principally when the raw EPS is made. The
main substance used is pentane (used as blowing agent), which has minimal global-
warming potential. EPS is recyclable and can be manufactured from recycled
materials; typically 5% of geofoam production raw material is from recycled
geofoam.
3.5.7.8 Soil Nail Launcher
A new technology for mitigating soil stabilization problems by rapidly propelling soil
nails into the soil has been shown to cut costs in half and completion times by up to
90% as compared to traditional stabilization repair methods (Soil Nail Launcher,
2008). The Launcher utilizes a declassified British military cannon that can accelerate
a 1.5 (38cm) diameter by 20 foot (6m) long steel bar to 220 mph (lOOmps) utilizing
compressed air (Figure 13). The launcher is typically mounted to a tracked excavator
75


making it portable and allowing access to remote locations. As the nail penetrates the
soil a shock wave is generated at the tip that causes the soil particles to compress
outward from the nail allowing it to penetrate the soil with greatly reduced friction.
The soil is then compacted around the nail resulting in very high pullout resistance.
About any type of nail may be launched from the cannon including solid steel,
fiberglass, threaded rods, or hollow bars which can provide improved drainage or be
grouted to increase strength. In 1992 the U.S. Forest Service and the FHWA
collaborated with Colorado, Washington, California, and Oregon State DOTs on
eight evaluation projects that resulted in the publication of a design manual for
launched soil nails.
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3.6 Timber Technologies
3.6.1 Wood Preservatives
Significant changes have been occurring in recent years in the wood preservative
industry based upon environmental and safety concerns within the market. Recent
restrictions imposed upon the primary residential wood preservative, Chromated
Copper Arsenate (CCA), has forced some new innovations and reviews of industrial
wood preservatives as well. The most notable recent change in the wood
preservatives industry is the recent EPA approval and American Wood Preservatives
Association backing of Copper-HDO preservatives, which are arsenic and chromium-
free wood preservatives. Other research has been done evaluating new clean
creosote preservatives which are a result of a modification of the way that the coal
tar is processed, resulting in fewer contaminants (Crawford et all, 2000). Long-term
results of this method are still being determined.
Other more recent environmentally-friendly alternatives that are now emerging or re-
emerging include Borates, Copper Dimethyldithiocarbamate (CDDC), Alkaline
Copper Quat (ACQ), as well as Copper Azole (CA) compounds, all of which are
experiencing increased usage due to their decreased levels of leaching contaminants
and other environmentally damaging constituents and effects.
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An environmentally friendly wood preservative product called Lifetime Wood
Treatment has been used successfully in Canada for over 60 years and is just
beginning to get noticed in the United States. Manufactured in Canada using
sustainable resources, one application of Lifetime lasts a lifetime with no
maintenance requirements (Valhalla, 2007). Parks Canada has used Lifetime in
several of its National Parks and the City of Calgary is using the product for wooden
roadside sound barriers. The British Columbia of Transportation approves Lifetime
for Municipal highway signage projects. This product is made from naturally
occurring plant and mineral substances. There are no chemicals to harm plants,
animals, or people, or leach into soils or water tables. The product penetrates the
wood fibers, permanently modifying the wood structure. Lifetime works with the
natural cracking and checking weathering processes by migrating into cracks to cover
the newly exposed wood as it occurs. The product is applied with a brush, roller,
spray, or dipping as in conventional treatments, and may be applied in any weather
condition. Lifetime Wood Treatment product is supplied in a powder form which is
light and easy to ship and is simply mixed with water. Lifetime has an indefinite shelf
life and is priced below several of the conventional chemical applications and stains.
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3.6.2 Recycled Plastic Lumber
Recycled plastic lumber (RPL) is an environmentally clean, non-toxic product
manufactured primarily from by-products or post-consumer waste, consisting
predominantly of high or low-density polyethylene. Although the manufacturing costs
are typically higher than conventional wood products, the RPL products result in a
long term cost savings due to low maintenance and replacement costs, while diverting
waste from landfills. The plastics are less susceptible to degradation by chemical and
biological attack than other structural materials, and do not contain the toxins found
in treated lumber. RPL is resistant to fire, insects, and ultraviolet light degradation, as
well as cracking, peeling, splitting, and dimensional instabilities typically associated
with conventional wood products. Graffiti is easily removed from RPL products as
well.
Aside from the typical all-plastic composition of RPL products, bio-composites are
being developed where wood waste, flax, or rice hulls are used as an inexpensive
filler material. Typically these composites are a 50% mixture of plastic and biological
materials, which produce a higher material stiffness. The composite products require
some maintenance, as they will show stains or host mold and mildew in the organic
materials similar to wood. Available in structural grade dimensional lumber, RPL has
many applications including rail ties, boardwalks, piers, nature trails, and fencing.
Additional strength increases can be achieved by adding glass fiber reinforcing to the
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plastic material during manufacturing. The material properties of the recycled plastics
can vary significantly as shown in Table 4, and must be properly qualified for their
intended use.
Table 4: Engineering Properties of Plastic Lumber Products (Loehr, 2007)
Product Composition Unit Specific Weight^ Gravity (lb/ft3) Compressive Strength (psi) Youngs Modulus (ksi) Tensile Strength (psi)
TRIMAX HDPE Glass fibers 0.75 46.80 1740 450 1250
Lumber last Commingled recycled plastic 0.86 53.66 3755 140 1453
Earth care recycle maid Post-consumer milk jugs 0.79 49.30 3205 93 102.5 2550
Earth care products HDPE 0.909 56.72 173.4
Supenvood Selma. A1 33% HDPE. 33% LDPE, 33% PP 0.82-0.8751.2-54.3 3468 146.2
100% Curb tailings 0.944 58.9 3049 89.5
Rutgers University 60% Milk bottles. 15% Detergent bottles. 15% Curb tailings. 10% LDPE 0.883 55.1 3921 114.8
50% Densified PS 0.806 50.3 4120 164
BTWRec. plastic lumber Post-consumer 0.88-1.0154.9-63.0 1840-2801 162
80


Chapter 4
Department of Transportation Survey
4.1 Objectives
A questionnaire was developed to target key national highway materials evaluation
specialists in hopes of gaining valuable information on the use of innovative
materials, current materials evaluation methods used, and materials specification
development processes. The survey was designed to be short, simple, and concise in
order to keep it user-friendly and to maximize the potential number of responses
generated. A cover letter for the survey (Appendix C.l) was e-mailed to the targeted
recipients, consisting primarily of DOT Materials Engineers (Appendix C.2), along
with a direct hyperlink to the survey (Appendix C.3). A web-based tool called
SurveyMonkey.com (http://www.survevmonkev.comA was used to formulate the
questionnaire and retrieve the responses.
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4.2 Response
The survey questions followed by the responses received are listed as follows:
Response Summary Tota) Slarte Total Completed Survey: 23 (86.5%)
Page: Technology Transfer and Deployment Survey
1. Questionnaire completed by:
| view |
| p view |
.3 view
p view
p view
j) view
Name: Response Percent Response Count
I - H 100.0% 25
Agency/vi son:
W *-. v.-- - r-- !. w ' ' 100.0% 25
PosifioniTItle:
\ _ .. .. ^ 100.0% 25
Address:
I . .....I. - r- < 100.0% 25
City/Statefflp:
I 1 100.0% 25
Phone No.:
f wwi-.ii. 96.0% 24
Email Address:
I - : 100.0% 25
answered question 25
skipped qutstton 1
1. Questionnaire completed by:
Name: Gary Frederdck
AgencyBivison: New York State Department ^Transportation
Posltton/mte: Director. Research and Development
Address: -50 Wolf Rd
City/State/Zip: Albany NY
Phone No.: 518-457-4645
Email Address: gfrederidrgdot state ny.us
Name: Ahmad Abu-Hawash
AgencyiOMson: Iowa Department of Transportation Highway Division
PosNon/TMe: Chief Structural Engineer
Address: 800 Lincoln Way
Clty/StalefZip: Ames. Iowa 50010
Phone No :-515-239-1393
Email Address: ahmad.abu-hawashgdot.lowa gov
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Name: William Real
Agency/Divison: New Hampshire Dept of Transportation
Positon/Titte: Research Supervisor
Address: 5 Hazen Drive
Clty/State/Zip: Concord, NH 03302
Phone No.:-603-271-3151
Email Address: wreai@dot state.nh us
Name:-Tom Bold
Agency/OMson: North Dakota Department of Transportation
Positon/Tite: Materials & Research Division
Address: 300 Airport Road
Clty/State/Zip: Bismarck. NO 58504-6005
Phone No.: 701-328-6900
Email Address: lbold@nd.gov
Name: Joseph Cancelliere
AgencyOMson: Connecticut DOT Bridge Design
Positon/Titte: Transportation Principal Engineer
Address: 2800 Berlin Turnpike
Clty/State/Zip: ConnecDuct
Phone No.: 860-594-3208
Email Address: losph.cancelliere@po.state d.us
Name: Andrew J. Mroczkowskt
Agency/Divison: Connecticut DOT Office of Research & Material Testing
Positon/Titte:-Transportation Engineer Hi
Address: 280 West Street
City/State/Zlp: Rocky Hitt. Connecticut 06067
Phone No :-860 258-0304
Email Address: Andrew Mroczkowski@po state ctus
Name: Irene Battaglia
Agency/Divison: Wisconsin DOT
Positon/Titte: Pavement Research and Warranty Engineer
Address: 3502 Kinsman Bird
Clty/State/Zip: Madison. Wl, 53704
Phone NO.:-608-246-3855
Email Address: lrene.battaglla@dot.state wi us
Name: Dale Peabody
AgencyCMson: MalneDOT
Positon/Titte: Diredor, Transportation Research Division
Address: 16 State House Staton
City/State/Zlp: Augusta. Maine 04333
Phone No.: 207-624-3305
Email Address: dale.peabody@maine.gov
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Name: Jim
Agency/DMson: Pappas
Poslton/ntle: Chief Materials & Research Engineer
Address: BOO Bay Road
City/State/Zip: Dover. De 19903
Phone No :-302.760.2400
Email Address: James pappas@state.de.us
Name: Hadty Elsenbelsz
Agency/DMson: South Dakota DOT/Brldge Design
Posit on/Tlte: Bridge Constmdlon Engineer
Address: 700 E. Broadway
Clty/State/Zip: Pierre. SO 57501
Phone No.: 605-773-4452
Email Address: hadtyeisenbelsz@state.sd.un
Name: Jason VanHavel
Agency/DMson: Nevada DOT Research
Posifon/THIe: Product Evaluation Coordinator
Address: Stewart St
Cily/Stale/Zip: Carson City. NV 89712
Phone No.: -775-888-7894
Email Address: Jvanhavel@dotstate.nv.us
Name: Mike Dunning
Agency/DMson: Oregon DOT Construction and Materials Section
Posltlon/TItle: Product Evaluation Coordinator
Address: 800 Airport Road SE
Clty/State/ZIp: Salem OR 97301-4798
Phone No.: 503-986-3059
Email Address: mike d dunnlnggodotstate or us
Name: Mark Miller
Agency/DMson: INDOT
Poslton/TIbe: Director, Construction management DMsIon
Address: -100 N Senate Ave
Clty/State/Zip: Indianapolis, in 46204
Phone No.:-317-232-5456
Email Address: mmlllergindot in.gov
Name: Aaron Gillispie
Agency/DMson: West Virginia DMsIon of Highways
Positon/TItle: Director of Materials DMsIon
Address: -190 Dry Branch Road
Clty/State/Zip: Charleston WV 25306
Phone No.: 3045583160
Email Address: agllllsple@dot state wv.us
84


Name: Bill Tfolingtr
Agency/DMson: TNDOT/Materials and Tests
Positlon/TIfle: Asst Materials Engineer
Address: 6601 Centennial Btvd
City/State/Zip: Nashville, TN 37243
Phone No.:-615-350-4105
Email Address: Bin.Trollnger@state.tn.us
Name: James Maxwell
Agency/DMson: Tennessee DOT
PosItlon/TiHe: Assistant Director Materials and Tests Division
Address: 6601 Centennial Btvd.
Clty/State/Zip: Nashville, TN 37243
Phone No.: 615-350-4167
Email Address: James maxwell@state.tn.us
Name: Richard E. Krelder Jr.
Agency/DMson: KsDOT
Poslton/ntle: Chief, Bureau of Materials and Research
Address: 700 SW Harrison, 8th floor
Clty/State/Zip: Topeka, KS 66603
Phone No.: 785-296-3899
Email Addfess: nchard.kreider@ksdot.org
Name: Fred Conway
Agency/Dkrison: ALDOT Bridge
Position/ritle: Bridge Engineer
Address: -1409 Coflseum Blvd.
Clty/State/Zip: Montgomery. AL 36110
Phone No.: 334-242-6007
Email Address: conwayf@dotstate.al us
Name: Rodney Wynn
Agency/DMson: Office of Materials Technology
PostVon/Tltla: Team Leader New Products & Research Activities
Address: 2323 W. Joppa Road
Clty/State/Zip: Lutherville. MD 21093
Phone No.: -410-321-4106
Email Address: rwynn@sha.state.md.us
Name: Erik Wolhowe
Agency/DMson: MnDOT. Bridge Office
Posilion/ntle: Structures Research Engineer
Address: 3485 Hacfley Ave N
Clty/State/Zip: Oakdale, MN 55128-3307
Phone No.: 651-366-4505
Email Address: erik wolhowegdotslate mn us
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Nam*: Pe-Shen Yang
Agency/DMson: Arizona Department of Transportation
Position/Title: Assistant State Bridge Engineer
Address: 205 S. 17th Avenue. Room 269E
Clty/State/Zip: Phoenix. AZ 85007
Phone No.: (602)712-8608
Email Address: pyang@azdot.gov
Name: Jerry R. Westerman
Agency/DMson: Arkansas Highway 6 Transportation Department Materials Division
Position/Title: Division Engineer Materials
Address: P. 0. Box 2261
City/State/ZIp. Little Rock, Arkansas 72203
Phone No.:-501-569-2185
Email Address: JerTy.westerman@arkansashighways.com
Name: Jimmy Camp
AgencyCMson: New Mexico DOT
Position/Tiie: State Bridge Engineer
Address: -PO Box 1149
Clty/State/Zip: Santa Fe. NM 87504
Phone No.: 505-827-5532
Email Address: Jlmmy.camp@state.nm.us
Name: James A. Williams, IH, P E.
Agency/DMson: Mississippi Department of Transportation
Position/Title: State Materials Engineer
Address: P.0 Box 1850
Clty/State/Zip: Jackson, MS 39215
Phone No :-(601) 359-1798
Email Address: -jwilliams@mdolstate.ms.us
Name: Tim Keller
Agency/DMson: Ohio Department of Transportation
Position/Title: Administrator, Office of Structural Engineering
Address: -1980 West Broad Street
City/State/Zip: Columbus. Ohio 43223
Email Address: timkeller@dotstate.oh us
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2. Does your State Department of Transportation currently utilize an established program for evaluating and accepting new material technologies? Please Describe.
Response Response
Percent Count
Ye, | - 65.4* 17
NO | H 34.6% 9
Please describe view 22
answered Question 28
skipped Question 0
Comment Text
1. We have a new product evaluation commttee that acts as a clearing house to get new products to the proper program area for
evaluation
2. In addition to various research projects that are funded by the IBRD program Iowa has a committee that evaluate and approve new
products
3. NDDOT does not maintain a 'qualified products list" Materials are considered acceptable for use on NDDOT projects based on their
ability to meet the requirements of the current NDDOT Standard Speculations 'New materials or products (not meeting current
specificationsjmay be evaluated under internal experimental or university research projects.
4. Our Department Policy states. 'The Department shall, through research, assure that new and innovative materials, products and
processes which offer cost-effective solutions to Department needs or problems are evaluated for merit.'
5. Connected Materials and Testing Office initiates most new technology research and materials, sometimes at the request of the
Design Office seeking such evaluation. Some Engineers gather information on new matenals and technologies from other
professional affiliations, that may appropnate for project application.
6. WIsDOT pavement-related research is conducted either through in-house evaluations, or through the Wisconsin Highway Research
Program (WHRP). which is an agency/university partnership to perform transportation-related research for the state. WHRP studies are
generally conducted at universities or by private research Arms (e g. Applied Research Associates. Transtec). The feasibility of
implementation is evaluated at the conclusion of each study If results are implementable. the appropriate WisDOT personnel are
notified to begin revisions to specifications or manuals. In-house studies often monitor and evaluate a pavement or new material for
five or more years. At the conclusion of the study, agency personnel recommend and implement changes to specifications and
manuals, or add new products to the WisDOT approved products list.
7. I wouldnl say there is an established program with the sole purpose of new material technologies MaineDOT does have a research
program and product evaluation program that does experimental construction using new materials and technologies.
8. usually done through research studies
9. Product Evaluation Committee, and field tests
10. lam the main contact at ODOT The technology is routed through me and I contact others within ODOT. local agencies. FHWA. or
others for input If we see promise, we may start a Research Program. Just keep it within a small group of individuals for review and
testing
11. New Product Committee meets quarterly and reviews submittals Submiltals deemed practical and promising are forwarded to
appropriate division for further evaluation. Research and trial projects are performed for new technologies that offer promise.
87


12. We have a procedure (or evaluating new products (or use in highway construction. This is outlined in a Material Procedure (MP). which
is overseen by our Materials Division All requests (or use o( new materials are sent through the Deputee State Migway Engineer ot
Construction to Materials Division. A standard torm is sent to the manutacturer/supplier (or completion, and returned to Materials
Division The (orm along with all pertinent data is then circulated (or review and comment by all pertinent parties. It the review indicates
that the product is acceptable without further evaluation a proposed specification is submitted (or consideration by the Specifications
Subcommittee and the manufactureer/supplier is advised so by letter. If the review indicates the need (or further information,
evaluation, or research, a request fro funding the additional work is submitted by Materials Division to the Deputee State Highway
Engineer of Constructor If the consensus review Indicates the product is not acceptable a letter of advisement Is sent to the
manufacturer/supplier All documentation is maintained by the Materials Division.
13. We have a qualified products list for existing material types but when a new material technology comes to public attention, someone
in the Department will champion the technology and the Materials and Tests Division, along with Construction and Maintenance, will
usually be called upon to evaluate it and provide recommendations
14. Approved Products List (see bottom of website): httpT/www.ksdotorg/1l90ltr asp
15. New Products Committee. Experimental Features Program. Qualified Products List and Research projects.
16. The vendor contacts MnDOTs new product person who initiates a tracking process for the new product and coordinates the review. A
determination is made as to the area within MnDOT where the product will be used and the vendors prelim information is forwarded to
the appropriate person within that area who is respondble for new product evaluations From this point, the product is evaluated
based on MnDOTs needs and applicable codes and specifications. Additional testing is done as needed by either the vendor or the
state. The results of the evaluation determine whether or not the product is approved for use and the vendor is notified accordingly The
results are noted in MnDOTs tracking system.
17. Product Evaluation Board
18. New Product Evaluation Committee
19. FHWA has established the IBRD program which ADOT submit the new bridge projects which utilize the new method of construction
and new materials.
20. We have no formal process that is consistantly used
21. MOOT evaluates new products through a Product Evaluation Committee Products not having or meeting current MDOT Specifications
that are deemed to have potential use by the agency are installed on a project and evaluated over time.
22. ODOT has a new products engineer that establishes the test protocals for new materials
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3. Please Identify where you typicaly obtain research findings and current Information for your evaluation of new materials and
technologies:
exclusively mostly sometimes never Rating Average Response Cocrt
Within your DOT 3.8% (1) 46 2% (12) 50.0% (13) 0.0% (0) 2.46 26
Federal Highway Administration 4.0% (1) 32.0% (8) 64.0% (16) 0 0% (0) 2.60 25
University Transportation Centers 0.0% (0) 17.4% (4) 78.3% (IS) 4.3% (1) 287 23
Transportation Research Board 0.0% (0) 28.0% (7) 72.0% (18) 00% (0) 272 25
AASHTO 0.0% (0) 30.8% (8) 69.2% (18) 0.0% (0) 2.69 26
ASCE 0.0% (0) 4 2%(1) 58.3% (14) 37.5% (9) 3.33 24
Public Universities 0.0% (0) 16 0% (4) 84.0% (21) 00% (0) 284 25
Private Firms 0.0% (0) 4.0% (1) 80.0% (20) 16.0% (4) 3.12 25
Others 0.0% (0) 11.1% (1) 77.8% (7) 11.1% (1) 3.00 9
Others (Please identify) p view 9
answered question 2*
shipped question 0
*For rating purposes: exclusively, mostly, sometimes, and never each have a weight of
1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively.
Comment Text
1. We 'borrow' from other states when we can as well as international studies Also NTPEP
2. We have received information from Architects and engineers in private practice, trade magazines, conferences and product vendors and
technical exchanges.
3. Other State DOTS along with HITEC, Army Corps of Engineers, and Industry groups.
4. Other state or provincial DOTS
5. Other DOT reports and contacts
6. internet searches
7. Local agencies, ie other City or County engineers.
8. Maryland Aggregate Association. Maryland Asphalt Association
9. ASTM, HITECH
89