Qualitative exploration of counselor trainers' frameworks of diversity and multiculturalism

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Qualitative exploration of counselor trainers' frameworks of diversity and multiculturalism
Paynter, Natalie Christine
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vii, 162 leaves : ; 28 cm


Subjects / Keywords:
Counselors -- Training of ( lcsh )
Cross-cultural counseling -- Study and teaching ( lcsh )
Cultural pluralism ( lcsh )
Counselors -- Training of ( fast )
Cross-cultural counseling -- Study and teaching ( fast )
Cultural pluralism ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (leaves 154-162).
General Note:
School of Education and Human Development
Statement of Responsibility:
by Natalie Christine Paynter.

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Source Institution:
|University of Colorado Denver
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|Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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463298830 ( OCLC )
LD1193.L645 2009m P39 ( lcc )

Full Text
Natalie Christine Paynter
B.A., University of Colorado at Boulder, 1999
A thesis submitted to the
University of Colorado Denver
in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Arts
Counseling Psychology and Counselor Education

This thesis for the Master of Arts
Counseling Psychology and Counselor Education
degree by
Natalie Christine Paynter
has been approved

Diane Estrada
Nancy Leech
Carmen Williams

Paynter, Natalie C (M.A., Counseling Psychology and Counselor Education)
Qualitative Exploration of Counselor Trainers Frameworks of Diversity and
Thesis directed by Associate Professor Diane Estrada
The present study addresses counselor trainers pedagogical frameworks as
they pertain to views of diversity and multiculturalism. There is a significant body of
recent work related to multicultural counseling competency in U. S. counselor
training programs. However, the vast majority of studies do not address the trainers
internalized and socially constructed sense of diversity and multicultural ideology
and process that has a profound effect on how they train. In order to tap into such
dimensions the present study employed a qualitative methodology and narrative
interview. Subjects were asked to tell the story of how they conduct themselves as
counselor trainers for a normative or typical week in regards to diversity and
multicultural conduct. Results indicate the need for further development relative to
the process by which programs infuse these concepts into their curricula and training
process. Specifically, the necessity of diversity training for trainers, as well as
attention to the impact of cultural identity development on programmatic success
with regard to infusion, is highlighted. Institutional policy and power relative to
faculty perceptions is herein discussed and recommendations are made for program
responsibility and accountability relative to diversification processes.
This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidates thesis. I recommend
its publication.
Dr. Diane Estrada

So i
(live thunks to lie most, the least that cun do
I wear this <,kin to tine' the me inside ol'vou
When I dream ihtil I'm dreaming I feel most alive
Sacrifice nights
Write to survive"
Blue Scholars
To my family, in all senses of the word... Thank you for teaching me to respect my thoughts and my
voice and for standing with me, underneath me, and around me throughout this process. To Dr.
Steven Byers for beginning my journey with this project and to Dr. Diane Estrada, Dr. Nancy Leech,
and Dr. Carmen Williams, my committee members, for seeing it through to the end.

1. INTRODUCTION........................................................1
Theoretical Framework..........................................1
Scope of the Problem...........................................5
Need for the Study.............................................6
Purpose of the Study...........................................6
Research Questions.............................................7
Operative Definition of Terms..................................8
Study Limitations..............................................8
Organization of the Study......................................9
2. LITERATURE REVIEW..................................................10
3. METHOD.............................................................25
Research Design and Rationale.................................25
Data Collection...............................................33
Data Analysis.................................................34

Researcher Perspective and Bias.................35
4. RESULTS.............................................36
5. DISCUSSION.........................................131
A. EMAIL TO FACULTY................................146
B. DEMOGRAPHIC FORM................................148
D. HUMAN SUBJECTS APPROVAL FORM....................153

3.1 Ethnic and racial identification of study participants..........28
5.1 Stages of identity development for VREGs........................133
5.2 Stages of White racial identity development....................134

The following study was a qualitative inquiry into the meaning and
perceptions counselor educators held regarding the concepts of multiculturalism and
diversity. These concepts are hot issues within the broad culture of the United
States, higher education, and as discussed in this paper, within the field of counseling
psychology and counselor education. The implications of counseling trainer
perceptions toward the infusion of multiculturalism and diversity into training and
impact on the personal and political framework of trainers are herein discussed.
Theoretical Framework
Original work by multicultural practitioners and educators argue that social
and population demands in the United States and throughout the world call for major
revisions in how the counseling profession conducts itself (DAndrea and Daniels,
1995). The infusion of multiculturalism and diversity into training is a primary focus
of research within counseling psychology and counselor education. Researchers
exploration of this issue begins with defining multicultural competence by Sue,
Bernier, Durran, Feinberg, Pederson, Smith, and Vasquez-Nuttall (1982).
Multiculturally competent counselors are professionals who possess the necessary
skills to work effectively with clients from various cultural and ethnic backgrounds

(Abemethy, 1995; Ponterotto & Casa, 1987; Sue, Arredondo, & McDavis, 1992)
(Holcomb-McCoy, Myers, 1999, p. 294). Exploration of multicultural competence
in trainees leads to focus on key counselor skills supporting multicultural
competency including: (a) awareness of ones own personal worldviews and how
one is the product of cultural conditioning (b) knowledge of the worldviews of
culturally different clients, and (c) skills necessary for work with culturally different
clients including appropriate therapeutic intervention (Sue et al., 1992).
Counselor Training
Building on the proposed skills for multicultural competency, researchers
discuss programmatic components essential to building on the identified elements of
multicultural competence in counseling trainees. Several models (Chambers, Lewis
and Kerezsi, 1995; DAndrea et al., 1992; Ibrahim, Stadler, Arredondo, and
McFadden, 1986) suggested and developed in the literature propose how to
effectively infuse multicultural and diversity issues into counseling education
programs (Holcomb-McCoy, Myers, 1999). However, the incorporation of
multicultural counseling training into graduate programs is a gradual process (Bernal
and Padilla, 1982; Constantine, Ladany, Inman, and Ponterotto, 1996; Hills and
Strozier, 1992; Midgette and Meggert, 1991; Ponterotto, 1996; Quintana and Bernal,
1995). Ponterottos (1996) survey of counseling education faculty finds that 89% of
programs require at least one multicultural counseling course, but only 58% integrate

multicultural issues into all coursework. Survey responses show that programs often
fall short in the areas of encouraging and providing multicultural practicum and
supervision experience (Ponterotto, 1996). In addition to the call for infusion of
multicultural issues in coursework, Arredondo (2003) emphasizes the need for self-
evaluation, supervision, and client assessment as key components to evaluation of
effective program training and counselor competence in areas of multiculturalism
and diversity. Yet most programs are still in the initial process of implementing
these types of evaluative procedures and subsequently modifying curriculum
practices in order to increase multicultural competency among counseling trainees.
The terms multiculturalism and diversity change in reference to the
populations and clientele they represent over time. The focus of early research into
multicultural issues in counseling address socio-cultural issues specific to ethnic
diversity. The inclusion of gay and lesbian issues within the definition of
multiculturalism has been a split argument within the counseling field (Pope, 1995).
The importance of recognizing gay and lesbian culture and its position as a
marginalized identity is discussed within several studies (Pope, 1995; Israel,
Selvidge, 2003; Israel, Hackett, 2004; Matthews, 2005). Multicultural and diversity
counseling research now expands to include other groups: various subcultures,
racial groups, gender groups, age groups, and socioeconomic groups,(Patterson,

1996, p. 227) as well as affectional-sexual orientation, religion, and ability status
(Reynolds & Pope, 1991).
Clinical Supervision
Ponterotto, Alexander, & Grieger (1995) identify counseling practice and
supervision as one of six key factors to developing a multiculturally competent
counselor training program. However, research into the effects of clinical
supervision practices on increasing counselor competency has only just begun to
appear in the current literature, and has previously been a topic of theoretical
discussion (Toporek,Ortega-Villalobos, & Pope-Davis, 2004). It is demonstrative of
the fields continued ethnocentrism in that there is a greater body of research
addressing the needs of White counseling trainees in working with ethnically diverse
clients than there is identifying the needs of ethnically diverse trainees in supervision
and training.
Given the importance of supervision to the development of competent
counselors, researchers strive to identify aspects of the clinical supervisory
relationship that increase counselor knowledge, skills, and awareness in working
with ethnically diverse clients. In a study exploring supervisor and supervisees
experiences of the supervision process relative to issues of multiculturalism, the
authors emphasize the importance of training supervisors to establish and build the
supervisory relationship in addition to addressing multicultural issues. The authors

also express the need for further training in similar components to that identified for
trainees of knowledge, awareness, and skills for supervisors (Toporek et al., 2004;
Sue et al., 1992). The discourse supervisors infuse into their supervision practices
impacts the integration of concepts of multiculturalism and diversity.
Scope of the Problem
The terms multiculturalism and diversity represent many different kinds of
policies and procedures around retention, and hiring of underrepresented groups
(Hon, Weigold, Chance, 1999). The growing impact of multiculturalism is due both
in part to ethnically diverse populations growth as well as a growth in the
counseling communities recognition of a diverse and changing society (Sue et al,
1992). These terms are both personal and political. When applied to systems of
higher education, multiculturalism and diversity take on an institutional charge in
both aspects of political and personal meaning.
An environment of cultural pluralism is inevitable within the higher
educational institution (Hon, Weigold, Chance, 1999). The internal and external
politics of diversity and multiculturalism in higher education force the issue for
trainers to digest and adopt a common discourse to describe these concepts within
the field. While expansive, the body of multicultural and diversity competency
research seldom emphasizes the complex and important internal processes that
counselor trainers bring to the training process. The process by which a counselor

educator is engaged in expanding their awareness, knowledge, and skills relative to
multicultural competency is critical to their articulation and transmission in the
training of counselors (Vinson& Neimeyer, 2000).
Need for the Study
As programs struggle to infuse curricula with teaching strategies, materials,
interventions, internship/practicum experiences, and supervision with culturally-
sensitive pedagogy, the phenomenological experience of trainers and students
relative to this process impacts and is relevant to the evolving literature. A better
understanding of the unique, phenomenological experience of faculty trainers
interactions with these concepts in both a personal and professional context provides
significant contribution to understanding the progress of creating multiculturally
competent counseling services and training programs. The present study explored
how faculty perceptions and meanings associated with the concepts of
multiculturalism and diversity influenced their daily experience, views, and practices
as counselor trainers.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to explore how faculty members definitions of
multiculturalism and diversity permeated the life context of counselor educators in
the areas of teaching, clinical practice, and supervision.

The use of qualitative research methodology in studying multicultural issues
in counseling is advocated by several researchers (Helms, 1989; Hoshmund, 1989;
Dupuy, 1996). The present study was a qualitative exploration using a semi-
structured interviewing process. The interview involved two sections, the first a
series of four questions, and the second, a narrative interview using a storyboard to
assist interviewees in addressing relevant topics to counselor educators
responsibilities. Data analysis involved use of constant comparative analysis, and
themes were generated from each interview and compared across interviews to seek
out larger themes within the faculty context.
Research Questions
In the stages of conceptualizing a study to tap into the complex and profound
parameters associated with multicultural and diversity counselor training, various
research questions were generated. In the first section of interview faculty were
asked to discuss definitions and perceptions of the meaning of diversity and
multiculturalism. These questions were posed in order to gain understanding of the
personal and professional discourse associated with these terms.
The next session explored facultys experience with diversity and
multiculturalism in the framework of a typical week. This format was introduced in
order to explore several research questions: How do educators perceptions of the
concepts of multiculturalism and diversity influence their daily experience as

counselor trainers? How do educators perceive the process of infusion of diversity
and multiculturalism into existing training? What are faculty views and practices
associated with the topics of multiculturalism and diversity? The interviewer
explored these questions with faculty within the present study.
Operative Definition of Terms
Diverse/Diversity differing from one another (Merriam-Webster, 2001, p.339).
Multiculturalism the philosophy of treating virtually all aspects of human
diversity as equivalent; a controversial term adopted by mental health
professionals and educators as a means of acknowledging the presence in U.S.
society of many demographic groups with unresolved sociopolitical concerns.
(Helms, Cook, 1999, p. 29)
Culture as psychologically defined, (i.e. psychoculture), refers to the values,
beliefs, language, rituals, traditions, and other behaviors that are passed from one
generation to another within any social group (Helms, Cook, 1999, p. 21)
Discourse a system of statements, practices, and institutional structures that share
common values (Hare-Mustin, 1994, p. 19)
Study Limitations
The present study incorporated a small sample of counseling educators at the
same Western university. Therefore, conclusions drawn from interviews were
encapsulated within this universitys cultural context, and may not extend to all

higher education institutions and counseling programs. Study participants were
limited to full-time counseling faculty, excluding adjunct faculty.
Organization of the Study
Chapter 1 is an introduction to the theoretical framework and scope of the
problem discussed within the present study. This chapter includes a brief overview
of the study design, limitations, research questions, and definitions of operative
terms. Chapter 2 is a comprehensive literature review discussing the main
theoretical framework behind the study including multiculturalism and diversity,
counselor training, clinical supervision, and use of qualitative research within the
present study. Chapter 3 provides detailed description of the study design including
participants, demographics, apparatus, and data analysis procedure and technique.
Chapter 4 discusses the results and findings of the author relative to the
phenomenological exploration of counselor educators experiences with the topics of
multiculturalism and diversity. Chapter 5 discusses implications of the study on the
counseling fields efforts toward multicultural competency as well as implications
and recommendations for future research.

Historical Perspective Multiculturalism and Diversity
The ethnic composition of the United States population has undergone
dramatic changes over the past thirty years. The immigration trend since 1990 has
been the largest in U.S. history, and unlike earlier migrations, the current groups
migrating into the U.S., primarily of Asian and Latin American ethnicity, are less
inclined toward assimilation than previous European immigrants. This trend is likely
to continue well into the twenty-first century (Atkinson, Morten, & Sue, 1998).
These dynamics impact the counseling field in that there is a demand for counselors,
and counseling trainers to become more knowledgeable of different cultures,
culturally-sensitive practices, and cultural sensitivity (Atkinson, Morten, & Sue,
In the 1970s, previous years research (Jaco, 1959; Jones & Gray, 1986;
Leong, Wagner, & Tata, 1995; D.W. Sue, 1994, cited in Atkinson et al., 1998),
indicating problematic assumptions about the utilization of mental health services,
upon re-evaluation, reveals that services were not adequately addressing needs nor
were culturally appropriate for ethnically diverse clientele. Differential treatment
rates have been documented for both inpatient and outpatient treatment for ethnically
diverse clients. In the event that an ethnically diverse client does access treatment

Atkinson et al. (1998) state, When racial/ethnic minorities do make an initial
contact with a mental health service, there is evidence that they are less likely to
return for subsequent counseling than their European American counterparts
(Barnes, 1994) (Atkinson et al., 1998, p. 53). This is particularly concerning
relative to the unique stresses marginalized groups are subjected to that may lead to
greater concern for mental health issues in culturally diverse communities (Atkinson
et al, 1998). The need for cultural competency was spurred by the study of services
among clients of ethnic/racial diversity, but the implications of change needed within
the field apply to the broad population of oppressed peoples in the United States and
the world beyond (Constantine, Hage, Kindaichi, & Bryant, 2007).
Recognizing the impact of a dominant and powerful mainstream culture on
marginalized groups, recent literature expands the concept of multiculturalism to
include different aspects of identity such as ability status, sexual orientation,
socioeconomic status, and gender identity in an effort to expand the
conceptualization of culture and difference (Sue et al., 1992; Fuertes, Bartolomeo, &
Nichols, 2001). This expansion creates a shift in the initial approach toward
increasing competency by analyzing specific counseling theory and techniques, and
making adjustments in consideration of diverse clientele. The shift is toward a more
universal approach to the counseling process, thus acknowledging the counseling
relationship exists in a mutually interacting cultural context, suggesting all

counseling is cross-cultural (Arredondo, McDavis, 1992; Patterson, 1996). The
stated philosophy behind the multicultural competencies and standards
acknowledges that all counseling is multicultural in nature; sociopolitical and
historical forces influence the culture of counseling beliefs, values, and practices,
and the worldview of clients and counselors, ethnicity, culture, race, language, and
other dimensions of diversity need to be factored into counselor preparation and
practice (Arredondo, Arciniega, 2001, p.266). Studies addressing these issues
suggest a re-titling and focus of multicultural counseling to a diversity-sensitive
model (Weinrach, Thomas, 1996), a universal counseling approach (Patterson,
1996), and a constructivist approach to culture in counseling (Tatar, Bekerman,
Definitions in higher education
The impact of terminology on the integration of diversity-sensitive
curricula is a hot issue in the counseling field (Atkinson, Morten, Sue, 1998).
Arredondo & McDavis (1992) discuss the issue as a dilemma between a broad
definition of culture that embraces women, gays and lesbians, and other populations
and the fear that this broad approach creates a dilution of the racial and ethnic
concerns of prejudice and discrimination experienced by the major ethnically diverse
populations in the United States. Given the political history relative to systemic and
institutional psychological violence toward ethnically diverse individuals, this fear is

substantial (Atkinson et al, 1998). However, there is value in recognizing the
commonality of oppression experienced between marginalized groups and in
creating terminology that acknowledges this common ground, especially given the
weight of these terms within our educational systems and their policies.
The literature is replete with evidence toward the impact of embracing
diversity and multiculturalism on the effectiveness of counseling programs ability to
train competent counselors, and increase the effectiveness and reach of the
therapeutic field (Arredondo & McDavis, 1992; Dinsmore & England, 1996;
Holcomb-McCoy and Myers, 1999). Within the higher education systems however,
defining and communicating about diversity invokes significant hurdles (Hon,
Weigold, & Chance, 1999). Universities and departments adopting policies to
protect marginalized individuals, and to infuse their curricula and student experience
with exposure to various cultural phenomena, face the challenge of defining what it
is they are talking about when speaking to diversity or multiculturalism. This
discussion has been studied in several other fields, and the resulting implications are
applicable to the current process within the counseling field.
In a survey of mass communication professors in 1999, responses to
implementation of affirmative action policies toward women and ethnic minorities
inspired varied positive and negative responses to questions relating to diversitys
impact on facultys professional life. The study suggests that most faculty find

diversity has had little to no impact. Some express that diversity has brought in
additional perspectives, ideas, and dialogue, which have resulted in a more broad and
enriched exchange of ideas. (Hon et al., 1999) Respondents describe negative
effects suggesting an environment of political correctness, and another states
Diversity has made me extremely wary and jittery about what I say that is,
language, when speaking with faculty colleagues and with students (Hon et al.,
In a survey of faculty at the University of Guam, authors find ethnically
diverse faculty members tend to associate and collaborate in teaching and research
with other ethnically diverse faculty. In addition, Caucasian faculty are less inclined
to associate or collaborate with other Caucasians and are more open to developing
relationships with non-Caucasian faculty. This study also finds that amount of
teaching experience is negatively correlated with attitudes toward diversity and
multiculturalism (Inoue, Johnson, presented 2000). These findings are indicative of
the types of varied responses that occur within institutions that are engaged in
implementation of progressive policies. Specifically, policies geared toward
increasing the representation of diverse populations within faculty and student
In a study interviewing English professors in four United States universities,
the interviewer finds that professors assign meaning to multiculturalism to

principles of organizational convenience rather than political conviction. The study
suggests and emphasizes the power of institutional routines for withstanding
ideological challenges and illuminates the mechanisms through which that resistance
operates. The author goes on to suggest that top-down cultural change is possible
when meaning is infused into patterns of everyday life, at the same time co-existing
in the public sphere (Bryson, 2002). Hence, for higher education to successfully
infuse diverse and multicultural policies into their departments, faculty/student
retention, and curricula, the definitions when using those terms must be grounded in
daily routine and widely acceptable. Bryson indicates that these qualifications give
the concepts a better chance of survival within established social institutions.
The discourse we choose to describe the current infusion of multicultural and
diversity into counselor training is essential to the implementation and infusion of
these concepts into curricula and training techniques. In reference to the terms in
question in the current study, diversity and multiculturalism, these terms and their
meaning intertwine and seem to lack a consensus of content among the counseling
community, as well as the broader community of higher education. Trainers and
students perceptions of the meaning and definition of these terms influences the
effectiveness of infusion of multicultural and diverse concepts within program
curricula (Vinson & Neimeyer, 2000).

Counselor Training
Diversification of the U. S. population, the ethnocentric and mono-cultural
bias of counselor training, sociopolitical realities such as barriers to diversity and
differing cultural styles of learning and education in schools, the need for empirical
studies of diversity and a multitude of ethical issues raised by practicing in diverse
context without adequate training have all been cited as domains that call for a
deeper focus on how counselors are trained in the United States (American
Counseling Association, 1995, American Psychological Association, 2000). Indeed,
the counseling field acknowledges the dynamic demographic shifts and growth of
diverse populations within the United States. Coupled with this acknowledgement is
the understanding that counseling theory and practice that is culturally encapsulated
does not meet the needs of a diverse clientele (Katz, 1985; Wrenn, 1985; Pedersen,
1976). This acknowledgment leads to emphasis on counselor education programs
prioritization of multicultural counseling competence in curriculum and practice
(ACA, 1995; APA, 2000; CACREP, 1994; Sue, Arredondo, & Davis, 1992).
Accreditation Standards
Changes in accreditation standards identifying multicultural competence as a
core component of counseling and psychology training programs affect existing
program expectations (Altmaier, 1993; Burn, 1992; Casas, Ponterotto & Guiterrez,
1986; LaFromboise & Foster, 1989). Many historical and contextual shifts in the

counseling field highlight the importance of multicultural competencies in relation to
skills development and training. A primary example of these shifts, in 1994
CACREP introduced requirements addressing infusion of multiculturalism and
diversity into counselor training standards. These standards include not only
incorporation of issues into core subject areas, but also require counselor education
programs have diverse faculty and student representation, as well as diverse
practicum and internship placements for clinical experience (Holcomb-McCoy,
Myers, 1999).
Since the invocation of standards addressing multicultural and diversity
issues put into place by the American Counseling Association, American
Psychological Association, and CACREP a survey of accredited programs and non-
accredited programs was conducted. Results indicate that there are no differences
between the self-perceived multicultural competence of counselors who graduate
from CACREP-accredited programs and those who did not (Holcomb-McCoy,
Myers, 1999). The only significant difference relates to higher levels of perceived
multicultural competence based on survey respondent ethnicity (Holcomb-McCoy,
Myers, 1999).
Proposed Guidelines
As stated previously, Ponterottos (1996) survey reveals that 89% of
counseling programs offer a course in multicultural counseling issues, however

Copeland (1982) suggests infusion and integration of material into each core course
is most desirable due to the increased accessibility and digestible nature of the
information for each individual student. Barriers to the infusion model are numerous
within the institution and its learning environment. Saundra Tomlinson-Clarke
(2000) describes the lack of information detailing training philosophy, faculty
commitment to multicultural and diversity issues, goals and objectives of
multicultural courses and the manner in which a course integrates into overall
training curriculum. Given the significant barriers, researchers focus on effective
infusion of multiculturalism and diversity toward increasing counselor competence is
an ongoing pursuit.
Several models (Copeland, 1982; Carney & Kahn, 1984; Bennett, 1986;
Helms, 1990,1995) suggested and developed in the literature propose how to
effectively infuse multicultural and diversity issues into counseling education
programs (Holcomb-McCoy, Myers, 1999). Development of models follow and
incorporate the landmark development of the Multicultural Competency Checklist,
endorsed by the Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development, and the
revised Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale (Ponterotto,
Gretchen, Utsey, Rieger, & Austin, 2002; Sue et al. 1992), as well as theories of
racial/cultural identity formation and development (Atkinson et al., 1992).

Developments in counseling training focus on key counselor skills supporting
multicultural competency stated earlier, but placed here as reminder, these three
areas include (a) awareness of ones own personal worldviews and how one is the
product of cultural conditioning (b) knowledge of the worldviews of culturally
different clients, and (c) skills necessary for work with culturally different clients
including appropriate therapeutic intervention (Sue et al., 1992). In addition to these
skills, in order to be truly effective in work with culturally diverse clients, counselors
must examine and be a part of social justice reform and work against a climate of
oppression (Constantine, Hage, Kindaichi, & Bryant, 2007). Through this process of
examination counselors are able to consider the relevance of roles as an advocate,
change agent, and ally for marginalized persons and bring these considerations into
their therapeutic work with diverse clients (Atkinson et al., 1998).
Therapeutic models appropriate to work with diverse clients build on the
conventional psychotherapy experience to include approaches that include ethnically
diverse individuals in a constructive and approachable therapeutic experience
(Atkinson et al., 1992). Approaches include an interactional model, in which
counselor and client cultural identity development is a key indicator of the positive
outcome of therapy (Helms, 1990; cited in Atkinson et al., 1998). In addition, there
are developmental models that follow a curriculum corresponding to the developing

cultural and cross-cultural awareness levels of counseling trainees (Carney and
Kahn, 1984; Bennett, 1986; cited in Atkinson et al., 1998).
Ponterotto, Alexander, & Grieger (1995) list 22 items as guidelines for
multicultural program development. The six major themes listed are diversity
representation, curriculum, counseling practice and supervision, research
considerations, student and faculty competency, and environment (Ponterotto et al.,
1995). It is important to the present study to focus on implications of clinical
supervision considerations relative to trainee competency. Supervision is a key
element of counselor training impacting trainees' exposure and integration of cross-
cultural issues in therapeutic practice. In addition, racial identity development and
interactions of supervisor trainees racial identity is relevant to multicultural
competence and may be impacted by the supervisory relationship in a positive
manner (Cook, 1994; Ladany, Brittan-Powell, & Pannu, 1997; Ladany, Inman,
Constantine, Hofheinz, 1997). Supervisors instruction to focus on multicultural
issues is significantly related to trainees ability to conceptualize multicultural
treatment strategies and appropriate interventions for diverse clientele (Ladany et al.,
1997). The supervisor should be a key facilitator to promoting personal awareness
and the ability to apply personal awareness to the surrounding environment with a
level of insight into the nature of self, others, and the interactions between the two

(Torres-Rivera, Phan, Maddux, Wilbur, Garrett, 2001).
Unfortunately, many supervisors have not had formal training in integrating
culturally relevant competencies into supervision processes (DAndrea & Daniels,
1997). In addition, in a study of cross-cultural supervision, Estrada, Frame, &
Williams (2004) discuss the counseling field has only recently broadened
perspectives of significant client cultural variables such as race, ethnicity,
socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, ability status, and spirituality. In addition,
the authors identify that a lack of consistent, cohesive approach to cultural context
is the case especially with regard to supervision. (Estrada et al, 2004, p.4) The
authors conduct a review of current counseling supervision models and discover a
lack of systematic implementation of culturally relevant practices. Estrada et al.
(2004) suggest that in order to make counseling supervision a multiculturally
supportive process the counseling trainee must be made to feel safe, involving
supervisors acknowledging their position of power. In addition, the authors suggest
it is the duty of supervisors to raise issues of racial and ethnic difference, as well as
to engage supervisees in a safe and open discussion of fears and expectations around
these topics.
It is important to note that the predominant discourse around
multiculturalism is being challenged and discussed within the supervision aspects of
counseling. In a discussion of the use of terms around multicultural and cross-

cultural counseling, authors Hird, Cavalierei, Dulko, Felice, and Ho (2001) describe
their dilemma and reasoning behind choosing the term multicultural supervision:
Considerations of multicultural supervision from a
unidimensional aspect of culture (i.e. race and ethnicity)
oversimplify the breadth and depth of what constitutes culture. We
prefer to describe supervision as multicultural, reflecting (a)
supervision as a triadic process involving the supervisor,
supervisee/counselor, and client and (b) the multiple cultural
interactions and contexts that occus within counseling and
supervision dyads (e.g. gender, age, religion, socioeconomics;
Bernard, 1994; Constantine, 1997; Fukuyama, 1994). That is, the
supervisor, supervisee, and client bring multiple aspects of their
cultural beings into the counseling and supervision processes. All
supervision experiences must integrate culture such that
multicultural supervision ultimately need not be distinguished from
traditionally defined supervision. (p. 115)
The pervasive, and at times elusive, determination of what constitutes
multiculturalism and diversity in the practice and infusion of the concepts into
counselor training is an evolving dynamic of counselor education programs. It is the

hypothesis of the author that the impact of top-down distribution (Bryson, 2002) of
ideas and terminology within the institution has significant impact on the success of
programs in promoting multicultural competence in trainees.
Research design and methodology
The present study expands on the themes of multiculturalism and diversity
within the counseling field, and examines the ways in which the personal is
political (Hanisch, 1970) aspect embeds and distorts in the institutional learning
environment. This study is focused specifically on full-time faculty counseling
psychology and counselor education trainers perceptions of these concepts in their
day to day practice and experience in the higher educational learning institution. The
study explores effects on faculty interactions with colleagues and students, teaching
techniques, research, and clinical practice in depth with interviewees. Each
interview reflects struggles faced with integrating personal ideology about the
concepts and meaning of diversity and multiculturalism within the broader
institutional expectations, meanings, and demands.
The recognition of multiple belief systems and perspectives impacts and
shapes the phenomenological experience of interviewees in the process of infusing
multiculturalism and diversity into their views and practices (Gonzalez, Biever, &
Gardner, 1994). Thus the relationship of respondents to the study concepts, and the
depth of experience respondents may have relative to the infusion process guided the

researcher toward qualitative methodology. The current study uses qualitative
methodology in order to attempt to reflect the reality of respondents experiences
with the concepts of multiculturalism and diversity, and to avoid imposing a bias or
agenda on the interpretation of expressed experiences (Gale, 1993). Qualitative
methodology is useful in the research of multicultural counseling due to similarities
between basic assumptions and methodology to the multicultural competencies
(Merchant, Dupuy, 1996). It is as important for the researcher to have an
understanding of bias, worldview, cultural perspective and background while
conducting a qualitative inquiry as in conducting a therapeutic session (Merchant et
al 1996).

Research Design and Rationale
This study incorporated a qualitative methodology design, utilizing a
combination of structured and semi-structured interviewing techniques. The
qualitative approach used facilitated access to the phenomenological and contextual
dimensions of respondents experiences of the concepts of multiculturalism and
diversity. This methodology is noted as powerful in obtaining insight into difficult
experiences and meaning attached to the experiences of individuals (Leech &
Onwuegbuzie, 2007). In addition, as a phenomenological inquiry qualitative
methodology permits the researcher to engage subjects at a deeper level around
important domains associated with their daily lives as counselor trainers (Creswell,
Interviews were intended to be about an hours length, and consisted first of a
structured section and second of a semi-structured, narrative section. The first
section of the interview was composed of four structured questions designed to elicit
responses delineating meaning and definition of the separate concepts of
multiculturalism and diversity (see Appendix B). The second section consisted of
the narrative portion, and included a scripted transitional piece that guided the
respondent through considering their various roles as an educator, trainer, and

scholar during a typical week (see Appendix C). During the semi-structured second
section, narrative technique was used to explore the story of each respondent relative
to multiculturalism and diversity as counselor educators. Narrative technique
permits deep and engaged affective and cognitive processing of research foci
relevant to real world issues and topics (Lieblich, Tuval-Mashiach & Zilber, 1998).
Narrative technique is recommended when exploring critical parameters associated
with a given professional group expertise, such as infusion of diversity and
multiculturalism (Bickman & Rog, 1998).
The narrative piece incorporated a storyboard outlining areas in which the
respondent might address their experience (see Appendix D). Respondents were
instructed to use the storyboard as a guideline only if they found it helpful, and were
not required to address all areas identified. Topics outlined on the storyboard were
consistent with areas present in the lives of faculty/educators within counseling
training programs and their various relationships affiliated with students,
administration, and colleagues.
The study comprised full-time faculty within a Counseling Psychology and
Counselor Education Program at a major urban Western university. The faculty in
the counseling department was engaged in a series of diversity/multicultural focused
workshops. These workshops were held internally, with the faculty as participants

utilizing an outside, contracted facilitator. Faculty members described the
workshops exploration of cultural awareness among and between faculty members,
and examining infusion of multiculturalism and diversity in curriculum of the
program. Individual university emails obtained through the department website
identified full-time faculty members. Faculty members were contacted via an
introductory email (see Appendix A) outlining the study and requesting voluntary
contact for participation in interviews. The email summarized the intent of the study
and inquired as to the facultys availability for the interview. In addition, the email
gave the opportunity to decline to interview and invited faculty to contact the
principal investigator if clarification of the project was needed. The department
respondents included the university counseling center clinical faculty as well as
strictly academic instructors, in addition to faculty functioning within multiple roles
of the department; academic, clinical, and administrative. All respondents were
included in the study and interviewed.
All demographic information for this study was based on self-report, and
characteristics such as gender, sexual orientation, ethnic identity, and racial identity
were not assigned corresponding response options. The form included the
demographic category, examples of corresponding labels, and a blank line on which
the respondent filled in their self-identification within the category. An example of

the demographic form is included in the appendices (see Appendix B). This form
was given to respondents at the beginning of the interview and they were each given
time to fill it out before commencing the interview.
Of the nine study participants, five individuals self-identified as female, and
four respondents self-identified as male. The age range of participants varied within
range of 40 68 years of age. Gender identification, age, ethnic and racial
identification, and sexual orientation of participants are summarized in Table 1.1.
Table 3.1
Respondent demographic summary
Respondent Gender Age Racial Identification Ethnicity Sexual Orientation
Agatha Female 58 Caucasian Norwegian/Irish Heterosexual
Constance Female 40 Biracial(Caucasian, Asian, Black) Latina Heterosexual
Doris Female 51 Caucasian Anglo Hetero
Fern Female 56 Caucasian White/ Northern European Hetero
Nancy Female 56 Caucasian Polish, Italian, Scottish Hetero
Alan Male 40 Caucasian (blank) Gay
Brent Male 68 Caucasian Irish-Russian Hetero
Clayton Male 61 Caucasian (blank) Hetero
Matthew Male 44 Native Am. Nat. Am. Hetero- Straight

Upon further research and learning, the researcher realized that the
identification of race and ethnicity were misleading and incorrect. In Privilege,
Power, and Difference, Johnson (2001) discusses the social construction of meaning
behind skin pigmentation being socially assigned to race. He states that, unless you
live in a culture that recognizes those differences as significant and meaningful, they
are socially irrelevant and therefore do not exist. (Johnson, 2001, p. 21) He goes
on to say that race and all its categories have no significance outside of systems of
privilege and oppression, and it is these systems that created them. (Johnson, 2001,
p. 22) Atkinson et al. (1998) discuss the problematic identifier of race as follows:
We prefer the term ethnicity to race when referring to groups of
people who are distinguished by their ancestry and/or culture.
Race assumes a unique, isolated gene pool that clearly does not
apply to may people who identify as African American, American
Indian, Asian American, or Hispanic American. The broader
definition of ethnicity discussed earlier includes people who share
common ancestors and those who share a common culture, (p. 9)
Thus, participants should have been offered the category of ethnicity/cultural
background only, and racial identification been excluded. However, responses
served as an interesting example of the power of discourse, and its impact on

peoples associations with popular and historically dominant terminology.
Sexual orientation reported in the study included nine heterosexual or
straight-identified respondents and one respondent identifying as gay. Ability status
was reported by five respondents as able-bodied, three as none, and one left blank.
One respondent included slight hearing loss along with a fully abled identification.
Respondents identified spiritual/religious affiliations as follows: three- None, one-
Christian, one-non-religious/spiritual, two-Unitarian, one-Native American, and one-
Not Applicable.
Identified languages spoken by seven respondents identified English with
two indicating minimal Spanish, one respondent fluent in both English and Spanish,
and one non-response. Educational level of eight respondents was doctoral level
completion, with one respondent reporting masters degree as highest level
completed. Four respondents indicated number of years teaching experience to be 4-
7 years, and five respondents reported 7+ years experience teaching. Three
respondents reported having lived in only one region of the US, three respondents at
least three regions, two respondents two regions, and in addition to US experience,
three respondents identified living in another country. One respondent did not
answer this question. Each respondent identified having more than seven years of
clinical/counseling experience.
Respondents were asked to identify their past experience with regard to

diverse populations, and categories ranged from clinical/counseling experience to
significant personal experience. Respondents were offered the following responses:
Clinical/counseling experience, training/workshops, conference sessions, reading,
undergraduate courses, graduate courses, post-graduate training/workshops,
supervision/consultation, peer discussion, experiential opportunities, significant
personal experience (please clarify), other. All nine respondents indicated
clinical/counseling experience, training/workshops, reading, post-graduate
training/workshops, peer discussion, and supervision/consultation. Six respondents
indicated experience in undergraduate coursework. Eight respondents indicated
experience in graduate coursework. Seven respondents indicated having experiential
opportunities with regard to diverse populations.
Eight respondents indicated having significant personal experience with
regard to diverse populations. Those respondents that did indicate significant
personal experience clarified their answers as follows: one indicated world travel,
work in inner city, personal friendships/inter-racial relationships; another indicated
experience of discrimination based on ethnicity; one indicated inter-racial
relationships; another indicated university department exchanges; one indicated
previous job-related experience; and another indicated own ethnic inter-cultural
relationship. One respondent marked the other category and indicated diversity
training retreats next to it.

The study procedure began with initial contact of the prospective
participants via email as described in the Participant section of this study.
Respondents were then contacted to set up individual interviews via email and phone
contact. At the appointed time of interview participants were presented with the
demographic form to be completed as recording equipment was being set up. After
completing the form, interviewees were asked if they were ready to begin, and when
confirmed, the interviewer began recording. The interviewees were informed that
the interview had two sections, the first consisting of a set of four structured
questions they would be asked to respond to. The interviewee was told that after the
first section was completed a script would be read transitioning us to the second,
narrative portion of the interview. Interviewees were asked if they had any questions
before we began, and once they were ready, the interviewer began the structured
portion of the interview and followed with the narrative section.
Throughout the interview, interviewees were prompted to either follow up
on statements or clarify meaning of statements when they appeared somehow vague
or unclear to the interviewer. At the end of the narrative section interviewees were
asked if they had anything else to add or discuss relative to the topics addressed.
Once interviewees confirmed they had nothing more to add at the time, the
interviewer prompted that if they thought of anything in the future they should

contact the interviewer via email or telephone. At that time the interview concluded,
recording was stopped.
The interviews were then transcribed by the interviewer. After
transcription, the interviews were carefully read through, and then read through again
with the intent of coding. Codes were developed by highlighting content with
emotion, emphasis, and import to the topics of multiculturalism and diversity relative
to the context of the interviewee. Shorter phrases were introduced to each code and
eventually assigned to content with similar contextual meaning throughout the
interview. The interviews were coded sequentially and codes from previous
interviews were cross-referenced for similarity and application within the proceeding
interviews. If appropriate, the same codes would be applied, and if deviant, new
codes were developed.
The inductive coding process was used to generate a series of themes across
interviews. Themes are discussed in the Results section, reported under the titles of
interview topics introduced by the storyboard. The similarity and dissimilarity of
themes across interviews is discussed in Chapter 5 of this study.
Data Collection
Interviews were conducted between the principal investigator and the
participant. All interviews were recorded using an audio tape recorder, and
transcribed by the principal investigator using the same equipment. Interviewees

filled out a demographic form (see Appendix B).
Data Analysis
To facilitate data analysis all subject narratives were transcribed into text
documents. Data analysis consisted of constant comparative analysis (Strauss &
Corbin, 1998) commonly used within a grounded theory approach to qualitative
research design. The grounded approach argues for inductive theory-building
created by developing theoretical ideas from the process of inquiry (Glesne, 1999).
Observations are made from data and linked to concepts; these concepts are
examined across all data, drawing out comparisons with other linked areas. Theory
is generated through observation of the data itself. In accordance with grounded
theory, inductive coding was used in the present study to generate themes from
participants words, rather than attempting to impose interpretations on the data or
procure support for a particular worldview. The intent and goal was to let the data
speak for themselves.
Interview transcripts were read with careful attention to detail in search of
emergent themes, patterns, and discrete ideas. Emergent themes were identified and
then labeled in a process commonly referred to as open coding (Strauss & Corbin,
1998). This process allowed for the production of a coding structure based on the
information contained in these initial interviews. Finally, coding was compared
across interviews in order to identify themes that were similar across individuals.

Researcher Perspective and Bias
The author of this study was a student in a counseling program at the time of
the conducted research. In addition, the author is a queer, White, female, each of
which contributed to the cultural bias of this author. During the research the author
was in the process of revealing her sexual orientation in a more public forum, and
was impacted by the varied responses associated with this experience within the
counseling program from both faculty and peers. This process may have created a
hyper-vigilance and sensitivity to the varied cultural awareness among respondents,
and could have impacted the inductive coding process. An outside coder was not
used at the time of the study, but would likely provide an increased integrity in the
results if data is used for further analysis and publication.

Results are reported by presenting a narrative of themes identified by the
investigator of each individual interview. The themes are discussed within each
category the respondent addressed relative to the topics listed on the storyboard used
in the interview. Topics of discussion are reported corresponding from bottom to top
of the storyboard diagram (see Appendix C). All general topic titles are included in
each interview, but within individual interviews subtitled themes may be present in
order to increase readability or acknowledge a unique theme present in a single
interview. The themes discussed are then cross-analyzed and themes that bridge the
entire sample are discussed further in Chapter 5. Demographic information pertinent
to the understanding of the contextual experience of each interviewee is reported at
the beginning of each interview section.
Interview One Clayton
Clayton is 61 years old, male, Caucasian, and identifies as heterosexual.
Definition/Meaning of Diversity and Multiculturalism
The interviewee stated that since the diversity retreats faculty has been
participating in, his definition of diversity has changed and that he now felt he could
argue everybodys diverse. This correlated with his expression that there is no
norm. Clayton described that his previous definition was relative to self in that it

meant anybody different from me was diverse. He expressed feeling that he was
aware and open, and as time has passed he has become as open to diversity as
Ive ever been. The last years events and diversity retreats had broadened his
perspective of diversity to move beyond only including racial/ethnic backgrounds
different from his own. Clayton stated he has become aware of the impact of white
privilege in a way he did not recognize before.
Clayton stated peoples origins, language differences, regional differences,
gender, and gender orientation are all aspects of diversity. He included disability
stuff, or lack of disability as well. His sense of diversity included a broad
descriptor of individual identity aspects including middle-class, White, male, young
woman, racial/ethnic composition, people with disabilities, and size. The dominant
theme in his discussion of definition of diversity was that diversity is equated with
difference and what differentiates one person from another.
Clayton described people and categories of difference with reference to color.
There were several sections in which he used the phrase color of skin, and
described ethnicity as people of different colors, obvious kinds of differences.
When discussing a lack of diversity within the student composition he stated
specifically that his recognition of diversity was probably based on skin color.
Clayton discussed his developmental influence relative to difference, and that
it was heavily related to a period of time and region in which people were identified

by color. He discussed his personal background as being raised in a semi-rural
White community close to a large Native American population. He stated this was
when he first heard language, words used about Indians, and that he was aware
that he lived not amongst them. Clayton discussed this becoming the foundation
of his experience in which he learned about being different, separate. In
describing his first encounter with diversity he discussed the mythical perceptions
of classes of people and that these classes were described as the blacks, the
browns, the Asians were yellow, reds were Indians. He mused in the interview
funny how colors were used and goes on to acknowledge that whites used to
classify and separate people.
When discussing his definition of multicultural ism Clayton stated it means
people from multiple cultures, not being in the same place, one person having a
bunch of different cultures. He expanded on culture explaining it is groupings of
people for various reasons, examples being shared region, religion, and language.
He discussed feeling the current region he lives in is multicultural, all kinds of
people living here, different nationalities, beliefs, colors, whatever origins.
Clayton stated he feels isms are a study of and imply a knowing,
understanding of cultures. This included reading, talking, and recognizing
differences as well as having an understanding of self. He expressed concern that
isms are also sources of discrimination, examples: racism, ethnocentrism, and

finally multiculturalism. He went on to describe that multiculturalism could be
people viewing people of other cultures negatively. He defended his own position
stating those negative feelings are foreign to me, I dont think about [it] ever,
and that there is not multiculturalism going on here. Clayton expressed some
discomfort with the language of multiculturalism and diversity, and struggled with
what he perceived as negative connotations with the terminology.
Interactions with students inside the classroom and/or training settings
Clayton expressed that the most interaction he has with concepts of
multiculturalism and diversity occur in interactions with students. This interaction
happens both ways and is from me and from students. When discussing
interactions with students Clayton described that he argues for uniqueness and
individuality with students in class. Clayton discussed asking students to pick
presentation topics and being thrilled when they chose to talk about diversity
issues. He stated one of three talked about disability, one gender orientation, one
overviewed kind of ethnic, black, white, yellow, green issues.
Clayton expressed valuing students that bring international experience into
the classroom and appreciated them offering their experiences and perspectives. He
stated that at times it is helpful to have somebody to bring me up short. He stated
students effectively remind him to address issues in class such as socioeconomic
status, color, ethnicity and that he truly values that and invites that. Clayton

described feeling some insecurity in that he still overlooks it too much, though he
feels he is getting better about that and feels the students sense that.
Clayton expressed frustration with the student body composition at the
university stating it is middle class, mostly white, too many white women. He
stated he feels that the university need[s] to reflect the reality of the surrounding
community. He expressed disappointment that he doesnt think we do better now
than 15 years ago in our division. When discussing his perspective on why that is
the case, he related that the program gets good applicants and rejectjs] many so,
why worry about getting the better/right mix. He discussed that it is hard to get a
non-white in our student body. Clayton acknowledged the role of the students in his
classes assisting him in addressing and bringing up diversity and multicultural issues.
He related this to the lack of visible diversity in the classroom as a barrier to infusion
of these concepts.
Clayton related a story of a class in which he got into a discussion of
diversity issues after having completed the student evaluations. After the discussion,
a student approached to see if the evaluation could be re-done, and his reaction was
surprise that this was important to them and he didnt think anyone would want to
change evaluations. He later stated, maybe I need to rethink this whole thing.

Interaction with students outside the classroom and/or training settings
Clayton discussed his interactions with students outside of the classroom only
in an advising capacity. He briefly stated he see[s] students every week, you
know, at least a few and then qualified, you know most of them are Caucasian
before he moved on to discuss the next topic.
Interactions with Faculty members
Clayton discussed the composition of the department faculty over time,
stating that it initially began with three white men. He identified the department
incorporating diversity in its future hires beginning with women and eventually
coming to a point where three candidates were recommended on which he was part
of the hiring committee. He described the individuals applying for the position with
the statement, every one of those was diverse. He reflected that the department at
that point had diversity all over and that he thought we were lucky. He stated he
would tell people and, maybe this isnt cool, but, weve got one or more of
each group, a Hispanic-American, got an In- uh Native American, got an Asian
here, got a gender different person. He stated [Weve] got [the] major categories
covered. He expressed pride that the department represents a lot of diversity in the
division. Clayton did not mention personal interaction or relationship with
individual faculty throughout the interview aside from discussion of the diversity

Diversity Training
Clayton discussed the impact of the diversity retreats he attended on how his
perceptions of diversity and multiculturalism were affected before and after the
retreats. He considered the retreats to have made working in the department more
stimulating now than ever. In talking about the trainings and retreats Clayton
expressed initially feeling a little leary about those in that he was, not sure what it
meant and didnt know what Id have to do or expose in terms of background,
values, and issues. Clayton described feeling that the retreats have been fun and
have given him a chance to talk about who he is and in general as a faculty given the
chance to tell our stories. He expressed it has been valuable to learn about white
privilege throughout the retreats.
Clayton discussed his personal response toward the retreats and that he
valued the diversity of the department. During these statements he realized, Im not
sure I say I value that. Clayton identified that the process has been healthy, and
that the retreats helped educate about how neat it is to have diversity around.
Regarding personal views of the need for recognition of diversity Clayton expressed
he has no interest in homogenizing, no interest in all being the same. He stated
that with how the world is changing in the US there is a need to reflect the
reality of the broader culture.

Clayton discussed his various regional experiences with diverse populations.
He described a previous employment scenario in which 50% of the population
identified as Black, blue collar, and was in a region where the major employment
was in manufacturing. He also discussed living and working in a region in which the
dominant religious culture creates a marginalized positioning for those who do not
affiliate with the predominant religious community. He identified an international
experience in which he lived in a somewhat culturally encapsulated environment in
relation to the nations culture, but that he was surrounded by it [the native
While discussing these experiences Clayton identified his personal feelings
about being in a marginalized position to the broader culture. He described his
revelation during the story as By god I was a minority in ... He discussed that this
was interesting because I was a minority, plain of White middle-class male. He
then stated some look at my background and say [I have] never been discriminated
against, but I was. He related he couldnt get a job I applied for there and that
it was based on his lack of affiliation with the dominant religious population. He
discussed that this was a healthy thing for me to experience, that you may think
youre king of the hill, but by god youre not, not in some places or cultures or

Clayton discussed how these experiences in which he felt marginalized
opened his eyes to the idea that this dynamic could be happening to other people,
and possibly worse or more than his own experience. He related that the different
regional experiences hes had have desensitized me to people [being] different and
that its ok, [I] dont have to like it. He then stated, to deny that there are
differences would be stupid, unhealthy, and unwise.
Clayton reflected on his history of privilege and its impact on his experience
of a historical life incident. He described a situation several years ago in which he
was pulled out of a predominantly black patron establishment due to the fact the
place was going to be raided and they wanted the white guy out of there before
the cops raided the place. He stated this is an incredible example of that (white
As a final note in the interview, Clayton discussed that he is encountering
diversity within his family, and that he is learning more about cross-cultural things
first hand through this experience. He approached the topic stating I dont know if
anybody knows here in faculty... about the development within his family culture.
Time for Reflection and Planning: Teaching Techniques, Social Perspectives,
Political Views, Clinical Work, Research Planning & Activities
With regard to teaching and curricula Clayton discussed three classes he
teaches and his issues with infusing diversity and multicultural topics into each class.

He expressed feeling that the topics have more relevance in some classes than others,
and while he mused it must be present in the material he doesnt have as much to
bring up in some classes. In the classes he felt diversity and multiculturalism are
inherent to the topics, he stated he loves that class and enjoyed challenging
students with what he saw as material being full of grays. He noted students are
often disappointed if they want black and white. He expressed he loves the
discussion and that the book for the class had pretty good authors which provide
cross-cultural and multicultural scenarios throughout the book. When discussing
materials, Clayton described using new textbooks that infused topics of diversity in
every chapter. He stated one of the authors is Hispanic, and that the text has little
scenarios throughout the book.
While discussing classes Clayton related that a specialization of his own
professional practice informed him of dynamics in the outside world that are relevant
to counseling diverse individuals. He stated it is important for him to make the
students aware of the type of discrimination and racism they and their clients might
experience. He also stated it is important for students to be aware of the larger
political dynamics that may affect their clients in these areas.
Clayton related he does not currently see clients in private practice, but that
when he did in a previous environment he was sought out as an ally. He stated this
was largely due to his marginalized position in the community, and that these clients

were often struggling with disparity in their majority cultural affiliation. He stated
that he doesnt have experience working clinically with counseling people or
supervising people who arent white. He related that his current position does
occasionally require him to supervise students and do internship classes. He stated
in his experience at the current university he has not supervised anybody that wasnt
Clayton discussed a longitudinal research study in which his original sample
was not diverse. He discussed feeling regretful at this point that this sample was not
more diverse. He stated it affects the studys current relevance to the counseling
community due to increased recognition of the impact of diversity within counseling
Interview Two
Nancy is 56 years old, female, Caucasian, and identifies as heterosexual.
Definition/Meaning of Diversity and Multiculturalism
Nancy equated multiculturalism with ethnicity and color of skin. She
described this as a more traditional viewpoint that is passed down to her from an
institutional perspective. This institutional focus on ethnicity and color created
personal and professional conflict for her. She often stated it is hard to focus
classroom and curriculum activity, supposedly centered on multiculturalism,
primarily on ethnicity and color. Nancys perception of the university view of

multicultural hiring practices is that they are centered on increasing culture
represented by color of skin, which she identified as problematic for her both
personally and professionally. She identified with a broader definition of diversity
and felt the focus of the university practiced emphasis on ethnicity and color of skin.
Nancy perceived culture as diet, holidays, religion, worldview, relationships,
and partnerships. She emphasized she perceived a lack of recognition for culture
within the LGBT population, and expressed personal investment and interest in
acknowledging this population. This was evident when Nancy described feeling
personal dissent in the department and university hiring for representation of
diversity by color and not prioritizing candidates that may represent the LGBT
Nancy vacillated in her use of the words diversity and multiculturalism. In
some areas it appeared the two are interchangeable and others that she appeared to be
embedded in the university culture, echoing that multiculturalism equated to
ethnicity. She also spoke to how the broader US society defines diversity, stating it
is perceived as anything that is outside of the norm, or outside of mainstream. She
clearly stated she perceived the student body with which she interacted as primarily
within the mainstream, and lacking in visible or otherwise diversity representation,
save for one or two students.

The interview process
Throughout the interview Nancy expressed voicing dissent and personal
conflict that she was previously unaware of feeling. This was especially poignant
when Nancy discussed her loss of access to apply to a tenured position due to the
departments desire to increase its diversity representation among faculty. She
became emotional in both her words and tone, as well as cried while discussing the
topic, her sense of conflict and loss evident.
Diversity Training
Nancy discussed retreats and work on diversity and multiculturalism issues
the faculty has engaged in for a year or more. She discussed her role in assisting in
the design of the retreats and a negative experience shed had at a prior university in
which a facilitator created a divisive environment she felt was counter-productive
for that team. Nancy vacillated between expressing hope for what the faculty was
engaged in, and disappointment for the perceived lack of motivation on the issue and
prioritizing of other departmental issues. She often expressed the difficulty of
raising issues for folks, and the tendency for individuals to move away from the
personal realm and into safer space they couched in departmental priority. Nancy
expressed strong feelings of stagnation and a loss of energy toward achieving goals
that had been previously set within the department.

Interactions with Students inside the classroom and/or training settings
Nancy expressed hesitance and insecurity relating to her infusion of
multiculturalism and diversity issues in the classroom through her use of the phrase
I try and sometimes I do better than others. She expressed the desire for
someone to come in and teach how to infuse these issues into curriculum, often
using the term weave into the curriculum. This sentiment was coupled with
frustration that often when she attempted to weave it into the curriculum,
students expressed they were not receiving information about diverse or
multicultural topics. Nancy stated this was reflected most on student evaluations
rather than through direct contact with students. This appeared to be a great source
of frustration for her because the institution/university perception of whether the
topics were being addressed in classes was most often tied to student report on
evaluations. She discussed the use of diverse speakers, films, books, and diverse
populations reactions to different counseling theories.
Interaction with students outside the classroom and/or training settings
Nancy discussed highlighting the experiences and viewpoints of visibly
diverse students in her classes, as well as appearing as a mentor and source of
contact for students that expressed a diverse identity. She involved herself in clubs
centered on diverse individuals and their support, and expressed that these efforts
were toward retention of these students. Nancy expressed frustration and

exasperation at how to teach diversity issues when there is no diversity in the
Interactions with Faculty members
Nancy described herself as a liberal. Yellow Dog Democrat, and reasoned
that this is why she often related to the faculty of color, or faculty that hold some, as
she perceived, diverse aspect to their identity. She stated that acceptance and
embracing of individuals fills her up. Nancy made the observation this was related
to her personal background identifying she grew up classified as low socio-
economic status.
Time for Reflection and Planning: Teaching Techniques, Social Perspectives,
Political Views, Clinical Work, Research Planning & Activities
Nancy discussed at length her perception of how her classroom and
relationship to the curriculum has changed due to the level of work the faculty is
putting into its diversity retreats. She discussed being more conscious of taking into
account diversity issues and being mindful of classroom reactions. It is
interesting to note that she delineated between reacting to, and teaching diversity
issues. She expressed efforts to highlight how multiculturalism impacts worldview
and how to take this into account within different case studies.
Interview Three
Matthew is a 44 year old, male, Native American, who identifies as heterosexual.

Definition/Meaning of Diversity and Multicidturalism
Matthew described his definition of diversity 'in relation to human beings in
practice. He stressed that it includes the differences and contexts in development
of people. He also stated that it includes race, sexual orientation, and unique
spiritual experiences. Matthew went on to discuss that the meaning of diversity was
subject to a diversity of opinions and definitions. He stated the meaning of
diversity has negative connotations depending on the background of the person.
He stressed that it is confusing to most people and may be perceived as a clinically
correct term. He stressed that the meaning of diversity is important and should
mean something.
Matthew described his personal struggle with definition and creating meaning
in his own life context around the term diversity. He stressed that he doesn't want
to tie it to race, ethnicity, or culture, and that he has worked hard professionally
and privately to come up with a working schema to use in his own perceptions.
He stressed that this was not just for academic purposes, but for life. Matthew
emphasized this by stating that diversity helps me look at all different parameters
making people what they are including contexts and lived experiences. He stated
this is in regard to his professional studies, research, and teaching.
Matthew emphasized the impact of American culture on the terms meanings
and definition and stated his experience is one that is Americanized relative to his

own cultural background. He stressed feeling the American consciousness is
lacking in its regard for diversity and is a culture that emphasizes culture as race
and doesnt pay attention to other dimensions. Matthew expressed the mono-
cultural existence of most Americans places them in a context where they encounter
the concept of diversity as a random occurrence presented in materials and media
they read, see, or [represented in] politics. As a result of this randomness of
encounter by the American population he viewed the American experience as one of
confusion and resentment toward issues of diversity and stressed that Americas
not come too far in its prejudice. He goes on to state that those individuals in
American culture that are not in the center, but are living a marginalized existence,
are viewed as an aggravation, and often when the dominant culture is confronted the
response is oh yeah, those Indians, those Blacks...
Matthew discussed the impact of American cultures lack of regard for
diversity as an important construct Americans fail to view as an important
socialization piece. It impacts the socialization of children and in general disrupts a
lens that influences how we do everything and conduct ourselves toward others
and in daily life. He again stressed that the concept of diversity should be important
and mean something and be beyond passive acknowledgement. He believed that
if diversity is honored as an important social construct it is not elevated or
demeaned but becomes a part of the daily contextual lens in which we conduct

ourselves by. He emphasized that if diversity was important it would impact the way
people live their lives and create a greater awareness of differences. Matthew stated
this type of conduct would be evident in that people watch television differently,
read texts differently, notice mono-cultural orientation, and notice
ethnocentrism. He summarized by stating diversity is a cognitive set, [that is] also
part of your psychological and emotional way of looking at the world.
Matthew stressed concern that often people assume education cures
unfamiliarity with diversity, and stated educated people are still educated in a very
non-diverse system. He explained that education is also a powerful socializing
system and expressed he feels it is often more so than families of origin. He
expressed concern that often diverse families struggle when kids go to school, and
this is a reflection of American cultural disregard for the impact of diversity in
education. He related the importance of individual efforts to transgress and
deconstruct educational systems.
Matthew described the definition of multiculturalism in a three part
definition. He articulated multiculturalism is an emphasis and focus on differences
that occur based upon cultural patterns; how cultures function. In addition
differences inform your life, and stressed that one must take them seriously and
engage them. He specified that multiculturalism should not be an academic
footnote, but should mean something. Finally, Matthew emphasized people

should be how you act based upon your recognition and engagement of
differences. He expressed some concern that multiculturalism takes away from
noting diversity, and at the same time people need to know about the cultural
Matthew discussed what he perceives to be barriers obstructing American
culture from recognizing and being impacted by the importance of diversity and
multiculturalism. He stated people arent disciplined enough and that they
havent thought it through which means in part that they dont see it as relevant to
conduct. He expressed frustration that people want to say culture matter but then
the majority view it as an aggravation and only a minority think about it.
Matthew discussed his perception of the terms from an institutional and
higher education perspective. He expressed the concepts are often a buzz word
and tend to be treated as an academic footnote. He expressed frustration that the
institution views diversifying as something it should do but cant get around to it
and expressed that often other things take priority. Matthews frustration was
further evident in his discussion of how ethnocentric day to day conduct in the
academy is. He stated that the Eurocentric bias of the institution is embedded in
the system, and that it is an injustice and prejudicial. Matthew suggested the
educational systems mirror the general population and that the institution has to
face it and take the time to really change.

Matthew stated the campus is skirted by so many communities. Its almost
as if we put a gate up and just don't let them (diverse individuals) in. He again
stressed that higher education has a really low level of cultural and racial diversity.
He stated that this is the case at most higher education campuses and felt this is
due to the ethnocentric practices that are embedded in subtle and overt ways in
the principles, concepts, and techniques of teaching practices. Matthew repeatedly
emphasized the goal of diversity and multicultural infusion in higher education is a
token effort and gets side-tracked by other demands in the machine. He
expressed that when higher education institutions become more inclusive or address
adversity they are misinformed and un-divested which often leads to replicate
higher faculty who are assimilated into the Eurocentric higher education agenda.
Matthew expressed disgust toward the focus of higher education on color
and giving the message were all for color but not sexual orientation. He stated this
dynamic replicates the inequity at a different level, and while current practices are
decorated as working for inclusiveness they are not, when is comes down to
substantive parts of them. He again expressed frustration at the lack of inclusion of
individuals who are of a marginalized sexual orientation, and emphasized that the
focus of higher education on increasing its color precludes the inclusion of other
cultures. Matthew stated that the issues surrounding the gay, lesbian, bisexual, and
transgender communities are too politically hot. He emphasized the dysfunction of

power structures and stated the people in power that really carry the difference
and make a difference dont even mean culture, they mean color and goes on to call
this a neanderthalic blind scheme. Matthew stated when it comes to hiring the
university stressed we and the black one, red one, brown one.
Matthew discussed the impact of the focus on color as a barrier to
promoting allied individuals who are using their privilege to become a spokesman
for multiculturalism and diversity. He stated who better to be fighting and talking
about privilege, racism, homophobia than a white, straight, male. He then stated
however, hire too many straight, white, males, and I get nervous.
Matthew expressed a consistently conflicted sentiment in his experience of
being a part of a system he regards as espousing ethnocentric and exclusive cultural
values. He discussed the impact of fragmenting the diversity question when
deciding which cultures to include in diversity and how it puts a person of color in a
weird space. He stated what about other marginalized comrades that arent going
to get gains from the university focus on increasing ethnic diversity. Matthew
described a statement he made to the dean of the department, I suggested I grade the
division on its racism while theyre grading me on tenure.
Interactions with Students inside the classroom and/or training settings
Matthew stated several times throughout the interview that he worked with a
non-diverse student body and that there is diversity within but its structured. He

stated the lack of diversity is apparent; it is a very homogenous group of people.
He described the university student culture as a privileged population of students,
coming from a Eurocentric perspective, very hetero-sexist, homophobic even, and
certainly racist. Matthew stated there is a minority among students who gravitate
toward critical thought, but that the majority of students are here just to get the
Matthews interactions with students around curriculum focused on being
formal about critiquing as we go along, and he expressed he structures
interactions around transgressing the curriculum. He stated that he struggles with
going into classrooms and feeling the students are ready now to just want the
answer. He stated he has to work harder to get them to think critically, and that
the majority pull back from that. Matthew defined himself as a critically
conscious faculty and stated I walk a line as an instructor. He stressed its a
bicultural existence and feels that the majority (of students) just put up with me or
get what they can out of it.
Matthew discussed being drawn to a minority of students that are in turn
drawn to critical reflection and a lack of conformity. He ended up bonding with
these students in more than just a clerical interaction, but may end up doing
research with and connecting with them. He stated that often these students are
open to criticalness and [a] transgressive model and that this is independent of

race, culture, or sexual orientation. Matthew described these students as having
more aware, awake minds.
Interaction with students outside the classroom and/or training settings
Outside of the classroom Matthew described racist, prejudicial things
encountered from students. He stated some students detest me, dont like my non-
linear style, [they] just want the answers. This is impacted by his teaching
multicultural counseling, he states Teaching multicultural counseling (class), you
take a lot of hits. He discussed talking about these issues can pierce some
privilege/guilt. Students are not aware of reaction and reactivity and go ballistic
in that class, and approach the Chair, and [are] upset with me. He stated that the
message from the university with regard to student response is be afraid for your
job, dont upset too many people or theyll go to the chair. Because of these issues,
Matthew stated there is typically a group {of students) each semester that we dont
Interactions with Faculty members
Matthew described his interactions with faculty relative to the multicultural
training they are currently engaged in as well as expanded on his personal experience
as a diverse faculty member within higher education. He expressed that the current
multicultural training is an uphill climb. He discussed his frustration with the
limited scope of training focused on race and culture and stated when it came to

other parameters of difference I just want to scream. He stated that as an ethnic
minority in the faculty he feels there is a different language, different code you
Matthew discussed the impact of his feelings of cultural displacement within
the department and institution. He stated I avoid this place several times and went
on to say he experiences a macro-displacement relative to the Euro-centrism and
mono-cultural orientation embedded in the department. He stated he approaches
the faculty always with caution, not a fear and that it is an adverse environment
for me. This affected his interactions with faculty and he described himself as
quite stand-offish. He stated he doesnt utilize retention programs and feels the
need to do the minimal in order to avoid this place.
Matthew described subtle interactions with faculty that emphasize a feeling
of difference in his cultural values. He stated that conversations around
shopping, travel and the kind of humor often conflict with his perception of
American Indian core values. He stated he perceives people come to programs
through careerist aspirations, that this exemplifies an American cultural value,
and contributes to the displacement he feels as a faculty member because he does not
hold that same value.
Matthew discussed feeling pressured to play reindeer games as a faculty
member and a strong distaste for what he perceives as assuming the narcissism

required to write for tenure. He explained that these elements of his position are
antithetical to his cultural values and stated, Indians dont compartmentalize things
that way. He expressed repeatedly that these feelings fuel his drive to attack the
canon and stated, I would lose my mind if I just took it for what it was and
espoused it. Matthew expressed an obligation toward the students, stating if he were
to assimilate to the dominant culture of higher education, I would be doing a
disservice to the most sheltered, privileged student in the world.
Matthew discussed an incident in which a faculty member engaged in racist
derogatory behavior and stated that these types of incidents occur with some
frequency in his daily experience. He discussed confronting the faculty on email
because he felt it better to have a trail of record in order to protect himself. He
stated he regularly grades individuals on their level of prejudice and expressed
exasperation at the evidence he perceives in his colleagues engagement of prejudicial
In order to support himself Matthew discussed taking the advice of another
ethnic faculty member, they stated, dont go to that place for support, go there to
do your job, go there to attack the paradigm, go there to deconstruct and teach what
needs to be taught, but dont look at it as a support, go somewhere else. He stated
he talks to other marginalized faculty but often feels he must wonder where
theyre at in their own Euro-centrism. He primarily looks outside of university

relationships and interactions for support, including various diverse professional
societies focused on embodying the phenomenology of the different, the fringes, the
margins. However, since becoming involved in multicultural training in the
department he has become more open to some individual faculty and been more
deliberate in attempts at ally building.
Matthew discussed seeking out allies within the department. Spurred by a
limited amount of time to build a sense of support and community, he has created
a formal process of forming allies. When asked how he goes about this process,
Matthew stated it is based on intuition, certain kinds of questions and phrases put
out there. He also stated he will share curriculum, materials, and see [their]
reaction. He described putting tests out there to gauge the receptiveness of
other faculty. He stated, you find support folks and also describes these are
largely faculty outside of present system also committed to this (diversity issues)."
Matthew concluded our interview by discussing his hopes and concerns for
the future environment of the higher education institution as well as his current
faculty involvement. He expressed a sort of catharsis as he made personal
statements followed by, to put it out there on tape, to get it out of my system. He
discussed feeling concerned that creating an inclusive environment is becoming
another pitch term and that although this may be true, it is what Im looking for.
He described an inclusive environment as one in which adversity is evenly

distributed, and stated he feels the current models of increasing diversity often
replicate inequity. Matthew felt there are different ways to approach this, such as
models of divestment. He passionately expressed his belief in the importance of
creating critical consciousness in order to get a critical mass that will attack
the current paradigm of higher educations focus on color as diversity, and to see
diversity beyond that category.
Time for Reflection and Planning: Teaching Techniques, Social Perspectives,
Political Views, Clinical Work, Research Planning & Activities
Matthew described his background, stating he came from a low-income blue
collar Native American, grew up with poor Black folk, poor White folk. He stressed
that back home tribal issues created an environment in which issues of
marginalization and discrimination have to be faced and that being part of the
community forces a political issue like racism, prejudicial treatment. He stated
Ive always been an outsider and stated that his personal education involved study
in many areas including anthropology and philosophy. Matthew stated philosophy
gave me a way to analyze what I was seeing and expressed his need to gauge to
measure everything. He discussed being burned by racist assumptions in his
anthropology class.
The impact of Matthews experience in higher education is summarized in his
statements of I can do it, but it doesnt fulfill my culturally different, diversity

defined needs. He stated as a faculty its the same thing, I look as an outsider to
the canon, to the curriculum. He also acknowledged that his involvement in higher
education is not an accident and discussed the importance of approaching the
system from a critically conscious perspective. Matthew expressed frustration that
as a student I could critique (the curriculum) while doing it, now Im having to
espouse it.
Matthew discussed the current department curriculum and materials as
clearly Eurocentric, heterosexist, and sexist. He stated he attempts to fit in a
cultural critique of materials and trainings and use diverse scenarios and
overheads. He gave an example of placing pictures of same-sex couples as family
in presentations and slides. He described creating an environment in which he
encouraged the students to deconstruct and transgress the curriculum. He stated he
makes effort to read broadly and try to infuse the narrow canon with diversity
reading and study. Matthew felt that depending on topic or class he has to do a
lot of improvising or innovating because there is nothing set down relative to
infusing curricula with diverse and multicultural issues.
In addition, Matthew discussed outside interactions with diverse individuals
from a non-higher education background and his attempts to get (those
experiences) into higher education, into my teaching. He expressed that often these
interactions involve a powerful statement of how they {diverse individuals) are

struggling through structural barriers in our culture. Matthew stated that infusing
curriculum with diversity concepts is often a struggle and this is one example of
how he attempts to deconstruct and transgress the curriculum.
Matthew discussed feeling a lack of support from the leadership within his
division and his dismay that they are not an ally. He expressed experiencing
rejection in relation to a proposed recruitment/retention design. The design replaced
some of the expected responsibilities of faculty members with more service-oriented
duties. In addition, he proposed an independent internship project focusing on
placement of students in a diverse cultural environment. This would be achieved by
facilitating a relationship with a local agency focused on a particular diverse
population. He stated he feels he received minimal acknowledgement for new ideas,
and then was rejected and put off repeatedly due to other things take priority.
Matthew expressed exhaustion with the impact of these types of interactions and
stated on an interpersonal level he can't take everything on in a given week.
Interview Four
Alan is a 40 year old, male, Caucasian, who identifies as gay.
Definition/Meaning of Diversity and Multiculturalism
Alan described his definition of diversity as including ethnic and cultural
diversity, gender norms, diversity issues around gender stereotypes, sexual
orientation, differing abilities and that he is currently examining how ageism plays

in. He stated his personal view of diversity is broader than how he perceives the
divisions definition. Alan delineated definition from meaning in that he feels
meaning includes context. He stated the meaning of diversity is inclusive of the
struggles people have and the context of what people have to struggle with.
Alan perceived multiculturalism initially presented as a term that was
inclusive but has become about ethnic diversity. His personal definition is
inclusive of immigrants, ethnically diverse folks, interracial relationships, sexual
minorities, though not to the extent it could be, they are included. He discussed
having a hard time with the term and feeling that it excludes a lot of people;
often other marginalized groups are thrown into the mix as an add-on. Alan stated
it is going to take time before it becomes more inclusive. He discussed that
marginalized groups included in the past however now [it] feels like lip service
and he doesnt feel its as broad or inclusive as it could be. The meaning of
multiculturalism has a bad rap, and is focused on what groups have been
marginalized and why they have been marginalized. Alan stated it also involves
what could we do to change that marginalization.
When discussing the use of the term and culture of sexual minorities in
multiculturalism Alan identified that it hits with some backlash. He stated that
often ethnic minorities are not comfortable with the term being used for non-
heterosexual folks. He stated there is a splitting going on within the multicultural

field around what is multiculturalism and diversity and what is a marginalized
Alan discussed how the division defines diversity differently than his
personal definition in that it promotes diversity as ethnic diversity. He expressed
that the division has a narrow view, and that while multiculturalism and diversity
are terms [the] school of ed uses that it is about ethnic diversity, not including
other diversities. He explained that the division is trying to increase diversity and
emphasized that new hires should be ethnically diverse faculty. Alan expressed
disappointment with the narrow perspective and felt it does not consider [the]
benefit that someone who is in their 50s and white might bring in their personal
and professional experience to a position.
Interactions with students outside the classroom and/or training settings
None were mentioned.
Interactions with Faculty members
Alan described his experience with marginalization as a faculty member. He
stated when he first came out he was told that was stupid, could affect my
tenure line, and felt he was essentially reprimanded. At that point he decided to
go back in the closet, and did not come out for a while. At some point he
disclosed to the majority, and stated now bulk of students know, and if dont [they
are] not listening. Alan described there was (an) undercurrent of homophobia, still

is. He stated that once I saw a group of faculty would support me being openly
gay he became more brave and bold.
Alan described the role of other ethnically diverse faculty in assisting him in
confronting his own socioeconomic privilege. He described being confronted with
his own economically privileged perspective in a conversation with another faculty
member. The faculty member commented, Wow that was really from a place of
privilege. Being confronted on this issue brought insight into his own
socioeconomic privilege and increased his awareness. He translated this interaction
into his personal relationships and noticed he has friends from extreme positions of
privilege. He stated he is setting limits in his interactions with these friends around
finances, and noted that in his pursuit to confront my own messages,
socioeconomic status is one of them.
Alan discussed a division in the faculty between the junior and senior faculty.
He stated the junior faculty represent diversity differently than senior faculty, and
the junior faculty bring diversity the senior faculty (are) not necessarily
representing. He stated he feels the presentation of diversity from the junior
faculty is tied to more passion and there is more ownership in it. He then stated
with some hesitance, I could be off, but believe thats true. Alan expressed feeling
the junior faculty set [themjselves up by bringing up difficult stuff, push
peoples buttons, and move students past comfort zones. He stated the junior

faculty are engaged in efforts senior faculty arent doing. He speculated they
don't want the backlash and dont want to affect teaching evaluations. They feel
more comfortable not say(ing) anything, keep it calm. Alan suggested perhaps
there was some type of median space and that they could be in it as a group. He
sated he had hope for the next retreat because at this time he feels the junior
faculty in particular are worried about repercussions.
Based on Alans experience with student backlash, as well as his perceptions
of the student receptivity to multicultural issues, he stated as a faculty weve gotta
get ready for backlash. Alan described the focus of the next retreat is classroom
management regarding discussions of diversity and the backlash from the
student realm. As a department, were comfortable talking about diversity but
have no way to manage that. Alan stated, Were not trained in how to manage
discomfort. I cant reiterate that enough and that it is starting to take away some
steam. He expressed hope that it would be talked about at the next retreat and
that hopefully this will stop the faculty from losing momentum, so we dont buckle
under pressure.
Diversity Training
Alan stated, The program is looking at how it defines diversity, looking at
diversity as a group. During this process his personal definition expanded. The
group initially defined diversity as ethnic and racial identity, and then began

talking about sexual orientation", and others talking about ageism, differing
abilities." He stated he feels most faculty here hold the same position" that diversity
encompasses a broader perspective" than ethnic and racial diversity. Alan stated
the department is looked at as a model around faculty working on diversity" within
the division and expressed pride in this area.
Alan discussed the diversity retreats the faculty engaged in and stated the
retreats were tough. Aspects of the retreats changed over time and affected the
dynamics of comfort within the faculty as well as his comfort as an individual. He
expressed the retreats were the first time I looked at white privilege and looked at
being able bodied", and mused that each of these had numerous benefits. His
personal background included both parents being college educated, he was sent to
good schools and had resources. He related there were a lot of things I took for
granted" and in the process with colleagues, started to see" what it means to come
from a marginalized culture in various ways such as socioeconomic and ability
status. Alan learned how they navigated and how this was different from his
experience of being raised in a predominantly white neighborhood, in a Catholic
school for twelve years.
Alan discussed that he noticed folks talking about differing diversities and
that often this was usually those of us [that were] Caucasian. He sated the group
was comparing ourselves and our marginalization and oppression. Alan described

retreat discussions in which his position as an openly gay faculty member was
compared to an ethnic minority faculty member's oppression. He stated this was
important to figure out what [they were] talking about around diversity, but also
expressed some frustration and conflict around the process. He expressed feeling he
thinks different than people. He described remembering conversations around
diversity and multiculturalism amongst other faculty, and stated that often he would
experience visceral reactions to talk about differences."
Alan discussed the effects of the facilitator on the dynamic of the retreats. He
stated initially there were a lot of flip charts and diagrams and that after work with
that woman ended and the players changed the next facilitators focused more on
process than education. He stated he felt the previous facilitator was not
equipped, not expecting that emotional level, but that the current facilitators were
more comfortable and let it sit. With that, he stated the retreats got really
emotional and people upset. He described that even the facilitator became not
comfortable and later realized they were confronting part of their own issues around
coming from a position of privilege. Alan stated that with becoming more
comfortable with the emotional process there were huge amounts of growth. The
group would talk about pains people had gone through and were starting to trust
each other as a group. Alan felt this was important because previously the group

had not established trust and someone might get emotional, but were out of their
Alan discussed the impact of the faculty diversity composition on the retreats
and felt that with the fluctuating presence of various diverse faculty members over
time, there was a change in richness of the diversity of the composition. He
expressed that this impacted the interactions of the retreats. He also stated that
because one of the ethnically diverse faculty was the instigator of the process, the
loss of this presence in the group was very impactful on his experience of the
retreats. Alan stated this member represented a layer of things with regard to
multiple layers of a diverse identity.
Alan discussed a goal evolving from the retreats as a department/division
move toward infusion of multicultural and diversity issues in training. He stated
the faculty decided to work on it from Foundations on, always discussed, not just a
lecture. He stated this was a great idea, but how do we add to this and infuse it?
Alan expressed that sometimes it works out well, and sometimes doesnt. He
stated he has heard all instructors are incorporating this and that often they
compare syllabi, incorporate (the topics) in lecture, and seek out infused texts.
The benefits of the retreats are evident to Alan, and he stated he feels the
department has come a long way. He described the discussions and goals are
already making a difference and that classroom experiences are different. He

believed that the program is more inclusive of diversity concerns but that we still
have work to do around [classroom] management.
On a personal level, Alan described the retreats as tough and strange. He
stated we are incorporating it in our work, and it has started to affect [his]
personal life, outside of here. One way this occurred for Alan is he is talking about
ways to get more involved with folks from different backgrounds. In addition, he
described how the trainings have, confronted some of my prejudices and
expressed, I really hold some. He discussed confronting issues around ethnic
diversity and confronting some of his own cultural bias, relating a new realization
that not all (of my) friends have to be gay.
Alan reflected on learning about how Im going to operate, now that I
know about this stuff. He mused, How am I going to not continue living messages
modeled for me? Alan described his personal process as weird and tough, and
felt that at the age he is, things are ingrained. He then stated that its good to
confront these messages, and move forward in his own process.
Interactions with Students inside the classroom and/or training settings
Alan described his personal experience with student backlash in a class he
taught. He began by stating he had a really difficult experience with that and
dont know that I want to get into it. He stated the incident involved homophobic
backlash from the students relative to a class activity that upset Christian

conservative groups. The class was taken to a sex shop as a field trip exploring
the use of sex toys and other techniques in sex and couples therapy. The group was
brought to the store to familiarize themselves with what their clients may experience
as well as know what types of products, information, and resources were available in
the area. A group of students approached the Chair of the department and presented
that I'm a sex crazed individual who goes to sex shops all the time and buys all
these products. Alan felt the way it was approached was very underhanded and
was dealt with outside the classroom and not involving me but went to the head
of the program. He stated the incident was potentially damaging to my career and
stated he used to be more emotional about it but now its something I need to
Alan discussed the facultys handling of the situation and stated the faculty
response was amazing and supportive. He addressed the way it was presented to
him by the department head, that he was informed there was an anonymous email
and knew he would be upset about it and stated I dont want you to be alone
when you read it. He expressed that the email was diffused by sending it to the
dean and reviewed with the dean and other faculty. Eventually it was decided to
take it into the classroom and the message was given hey, this isnt cool. Alan
stated he felt it was in many ways affirming, and that the peer faculty were very

Afterwards, Alan stated a subset of students approached him and suggested
he should not change the way you teach and that they choose to follow him as an
instructor. He stated many of the students expressed those folks are outliers.
However he remarked they are vocal, self-empowered outliers. He discussed the
aftermath of the incident and stated Im not going to change the way I teach because
people are uncomfortable, and that the incident spurn me on. He expressed
sadness that the incident damaged my teaching evaluations for that semester,
stating three students gave me straight F's. Alan expressed exasperation that this
does not reflect on his teaching practice and that other classes are in the A, A+
range. He also expressed he had to write a memo explaining what happened and
that it is in his annual review as an audit trail.
Alan stated that after this incident he decided to take a hiatus from that class
for a year. He questioned if where Im at in the coming out process could be
affecting my teaching, and wondered if he could be over-zealous. He then stated
that often part of coming out is being pissed off about the oppression, and that he
doesnt know if it affected my lecture. He stated until I know that, I want
distance from it. He stated this feels good and that he needs to take care of
myself a bit.

Time for Reflection and Planning: Teaching Techniques, Social Perspectives,
Political Views, Clinical Work, Research Planning & Activities
Alan discussed his use of materials in classroom curriculum. He stated the
Foundations [course] book was very feeble. He described attempts to supplement
it with articles, reading packets, and class exercises. He stated the students
wouldnt have exposure to diversity with the mainstream text weve always
Alan typically operated in white middle-class circles however since the
retreats, and subsequent self-described growth, those relationships have expanded.
He stated he has included several cross-cultural couples in his circle of friends, and
noticed there is more ethnic diversity amongst [his] straight couple friends than
among previous gay male friends. He discussed he was struck by that and stated
for a while I was pretty gay-centric but felt he was moving past that, expanding
that. He stated he has noticed a greater degree of loyalty in some of his newer
Alan discussed an example from a class in which he was providing
supervision for a family therapy scenario from his theoretical orientation which he
identified as Structural Family Therapy. The scenario involved an ethnically diverse,
cross-cultural couple confronting what he perceived as gender stereotypical roles.
He approached the family with a Structural intervention involving rearranging the

hierarchy. During the break-out session in which the scenario was discussed,
several students suggested they were uncomfortable with the rigidity of the
theoretical orientation. An ethnically diverse student expressed identifying with the
scenario and stated they did not feel the intervention would fly. The interaction
started as an in-group discussion, but was later brought back to the large group. Alan
processed what seemed to be a charged interaction around the students expressing
frustration with the theoretical approach, and his feeling the need to do back-
paddling and consider what offended them, while trying to remain true to the
theoretical bend.
When he processed the incident later, Alan stated he was wondering if I was
trying to cover my tracks. He relayed his concern to a colleague, and in discussing
the incident, they wondered whether Structural Family Therapy [is effective] in
context of working with ethnically diverse families, marginalized families, or gay
and lesbian families. They speculated that investigating the effectiveness was a
potential manuscript.
Alan discussed his theoretical perspective relative to multicultural case
conceptualization. He described his training in Structural Family Therapy, and
stated I cant not be structural. He wondered if in the incident with the clinical
supervision of a class maybe something in my presentation falls short. Alan
defended the theory, he stated it has a very explicit way of bringing about change

though it might not work for some clinicians. He stated the theory started with
inner city families and that the population it was primarily used with were
extremely ethnically diverse, around 80% families of color. Again Alan stated
regret that somehow his presentation of the theory had folks thinking it was an
oppressive theory, patriarchal, and non-considerate of diversity. The theory is
housed in serving marginalized families. However, he stated he feels the need to
figure out whether Structural Family Therapy is culturally sensitive or insensitive.
Alan stated he often works with other diverse faculty on projects. In part
due to his experience of backlash from the students, he feels compelled to address
these issues because obviously some folks are really uncomfortable working with
gay and lesbian folks. He discussed being involved currently in a counselor
competency project relative to diversity issues. Alan also described his
involvement as co-chair on the committee of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and
Transgender faculty concerns. He stated this was a direct way of being out at a
higher level and that he never would have done that three years ago. He also
stated he is looking into being involved with the local GLBT youth agency as an
adult mentor and facilitator.
The interview process
Alan stated he was not this linear in relation to the interview design. He
discussed that there was challenge in having a linear (storyboard). He stated he

viewed it more as a pyramid. Alan opted not to use the storyboard for the majority
of the interview however still remained within the topics suggested on the
Interview Five
Agatha is a 58 year old female, Caucasian, and identifies as heterosexual.
Definition/Meaning of Diversity and Multiculturalism
Agathas definition of diversity was pretty broad. She identified feeling
each individual is unique and we are influenced by man things including race
or ethnicity or spirits, our values, our culture, physical selves, gender, sexual
orientation. She stated she thinks diversity is an all-inclusive term. The way I
translate that as a professional is to always try to understand any behavior, any
person, contextually and to try really hard not to make assumptions about someone
being in a class or a group and having this... character or set of characteristics
because of what might be visible. She went on to say diversity is a way of
understanding people, and that theres a rich uniqueness in each of us that defies
classification. Agatha clarified she understands there are people bom into
circumstances that up the ante. She discussed these people have limitations or
oppressions that impact how they see themselves and their opportunities, and
that some of those perceptions are very realistic. She identified there is a

political overlay with her statements on uniqueness and individual
Agatha stated she worries about the term diversity, that the meaning has
gotten diluted but then at times also used too strictly. She then questioned
herself stating, but I dont have any solid evidence that my perceptions are accurate
or verifiable. Agatha also expressed worry that diversity training, while
supposed to be making her sensitive to other people, feels like its something that
comes in a package, and you can ingest it, and get it, and that youre done with it or
something. She described her concern about how the word is perceived and
also whether it is accurate or not.
Agatha discussed her perception of American society, white society, its
tendency to believe that because there are laws that protect people from
discrimination there is a dismissing of the intense racism that (I think) is pervasive
in our country and discrimination against anybody who doesnt fit into the kind of
white, heterosexual mentality or status. She equated the concept of diversity
with a way of dismissing the reality of the oppression.
Agatha stated she struggled with the difference between the terms
multiculturalism and diversity. She expressed that it is embarrassing and
shes asked people whats the difference? She stated that though people have
told her, it doesn't register. She then stated she thinks multiculturalism is a more

strictly defined term than diversity', and quickly joked shed like to look it up in the
dictionary. She went on to state she associated more visible differences with the
term multiculturalism, skin color and ethnicity, and that diversity is a broader
term that encompasses all the differences. She joked that the interviewer could tell
me if Im right or not.
Agatha struggled with finding difference between her perception of meaning
relating to the two terms. She discussed that she feels worry that the term
multiculturalism gets connected with liberal and that it, too is used as a method of
dismissal. She quipped it can be used almost in a pejorative sense, like oh,
whats all this multicultural stuff about? She discussed that society is a free and
democratic entity that acceptjs] people from many different cultures and many
different countries and that this whole multicultural stuff is more about separating
us than really bringing us together and that it is the liberals that promote all this
kind of way of thinking. After this reflection Agatha stated she thinks of the two
words as not all that different in meaning.
The interview process
During the transition to the narrative portion of the interview Agatha
questioned how she was supposed to respond to the proposed reflection on a typical
week. She stated this is from my own perception of my own multiculturalism?
And then asked, You want stuff that I am aware Ive already thought about or that I

might think about something from a multicultural perspective for the first time as Im
talking to you and it would be okay to talk about that? I encouraged her to just
follow her stream of consciousness.
At the end of the interview Agatha stated, it was helpful to take time out and
reflect particularly about what Im noticing about my own transformation, my own
growth. She expressed she hadnt really articulated it, and that it feels good to
notice those differences.
Interactions with students outside the classroom and/or training settings
None were mentioned.
Interactions with students inside the classroom and/or training settings
Agatha described impact from her personal exposure and growth inspired by
an international trip she had taken on her supervisees. She stated they shared with
her that they felt she really got it about who they were and again she expressed
gratitude that some things change and she could hold them in a different way.
She described one particular supervisee had maintain[ed] a certain boundary for
self-protection and that they were able to push through that boundary and have a
very powerful learning experience for both.
Agatha stated she is more likely to be proactive about bringing up
assumptions students may make clinically, about families or individuals based on
ethnicity, or gender, or whatever. She also encouraged students to think about

how theyre conceptualizing their cases, and to look through that lens. She
stated, thats really new for me over the last couple of years.
Interactions with faculty members
Agatha stated the diversity training the faculty underwent has changed my
interactions with faculty members. She described she really care[s] that the faculty
of color and faculty whose sexual orientation is not the majority, I really care that
they stay here. This translated into what she described as extra effort to
connect and let them know I really value what they bring. She observed that this
was different from before.
Agatha discussed a situation with another faculty member in which she
didnt feel good about their relationship. She described their interactions as being
like ships in the night. She stated she really wanted to get to know him and
understand his experiences here. She described a desire to know if she could help
him feel connected as well as a desire to be connected to him. Agatha expressed
a desire to meet with the faculty member and connect on a personal level instead of a
work level. She stated the faculty member was open to that. She described
wanting to repeat this interaction.
In another faculty interaction Agatha described an ethnically diverse faculty
member reacting to a comment she made. She described the faculty members
reaction as a really strong emotional reaction. She stated previously she may have

just dismissed her, but because it didn't feel okay to just leave it they processed
it a little bit more. She described she really did learn from how she saw my
behavior and that it keeps coming home to her that intention can easily be used
as a rationale for dismissing important learning and that it doesnt matter. She
stated this is something she finds it is important to keep reminding myself of.
Agatha noticed on a personal level that it matters to her that the
department tr[ies] to increase our diversity as a staff. She delineated that it is
important not just because the university is but that it is something she personally
wants to do. She described a sense of commitment to find the right person who
will bring different perspectives here. With regard to a current faculty search
process Agatha stated, we havent set a specific criteria that someone needs to be
diverse, whatever that is (laughs), but stated there has been discussion on the staff
about the level of commitment to valuing this opportunity to hire someone that
may have a different perspective from the rest of us. She expanded on the lack of
criteria set and stated specifically that they have not said, well, were all female so
we need to have a male or we probably need to have another person of color. She
stated, it isnt so much that we, you know, describe the exact aspect of
multiculturalism but that the staff have had a general discussion about the
opportunity to enrich the staff. She again described how she intends to look
through that lens when examining candidates.

Diversity Training
Agatha stated the faculty had a series of multicultural... um fairs. I guess.''
She stated prior to these events there were a couple faculty people she didnt
really feel a connection to. Agatha stated this was mostly because she didnt
understand their perspective on things. The way she dealt with this was
acknowledge a difference and that was it. Agatha felt that through the
discussions with the faculty around diversity she began to have a small inkling
of what it could have been like for me to have walked in those kinds of shoes, and
how differently I would see the world. She stated, I actually find myself having a,
instead of a, a way of closing off and almost a fear of hearing about somebodys
anger, about oppression, or about somebodys sense their system isnt fair... I
actually now really want to know more about that and have a curiosity about it.
Agatha stated that she is not yet at a place where she feels compassion but that
she experienced feeling toward others perspectives.
Agatha stated she could remember teaching classes three years ago, and when
she encountered sections on multiculturalism she would dismiss it saying theyll get
that in that other class. She stated now she finds she is curious herself about what
the authors are saying about that stuff. She expressed she still feels she doesnt
do a very good job, as good a job as I would like to of bringing that into the class,
but that it is more important to her than it used to be. She described that it

matters more and is more substantive. Its real. She reflected she has included
that way of seeing the world in my own sense of what my mission is in life. She
expressed a desire to change the world and stated that previously it was just by
being caring, but now realizes theres more that has to happen and that she wants
to be a part of the solution on a systemic level. However, she described that she
doesnt exactly know how yet. This awareness and expansion into her personal
goals impacted her work with students in raising consciousness and her
understanding it is not the job of the people who really care about these issues, but
that on some level its more my job.
Agatha stated something she noticed about herself is that she is more
vocal about some of these things in personal and professional relationships. She
described that she will speak out when something sounds to me like its racist, or
stereotypic, or whatever. She reflected that she does not feel regret after the fact
and wish I had said this. She described she will more often find the courage to do
it in the moment.
Time for Reflection and Planning: Teaching Techniques, Social Perspectives,
Political Views, Clinical Work, Research Planning & Activities
Agatha discussed being aware lately of the lens of context in her
thinking, and expressed this is much more accessible than it was even a year ago.
She stated she is thankful for that and felt in the past she may have missed

opportunities for understanding people. She described feeling she has fuller
interactions with people because I have more awareness than I used to have. She
also stated she is appreciative of how far I have to go. Agatha described an
integration of the ideas of going into the world and being with people from such
starkly different experiences from me and described that she was able to take that
in to both her head and her heart.
Interview Six
Brent is a 68 year old, male, Caucasian, who identifies as Heterosexual.
Definition/Meaning of Diversity and Multiculturalism
Brent defined diversity as the ability to relate to many sectors of the
population. These sectors included characteristics as follows: religion, race,
ethnicity, economic status, physical abilities, sexual orientation, age, sex, cultural
background, intellectual abilities. Brent mentioned tolerance in his description of
the meaning and definition of diversity. He later qualified his meaning by stating,
rather than tolerance is more a mutual acceptance, the ability and the sensitivity and
the understanding for diverse populations.
Brent defined multiculturalism as an understanding and awareness of all
cultures that exist. He stated this was not only in the US but in the world as a
whole. He further qualified his meaning of understanding as a knowledge base,
an acceptance, the ability to take your own culture and accept it as well as fully

understand and accept other cultures. In discussing meaning of this term he
acknowledged the overlap between meaning and definition. He then described the
meaning of multicultural ism as an action by which we recognize that we have a
wide range of diversity and many cultures and that recognizing is not only to
understand it, but fully support different cultures. In the context of
understanding] others and hav[ing] them understand you, Brent stated it is
important to continue to look at your own values more than anything else. He
suggested look at yourself, and your own biases, your prejudices, your background,
your history, to see how that interfaces with others. Brent advised, See what you
bring to the table as far as acceptances, as well as prejudices and biases.
The Interview Process
Not mentioned.
Interactions with students outside the classroom and/or training settings
None were mentioned
Interactions with students inside the classroom and/or training settings
Brents daily routine involved heading] to the clinic to see the students
and do a check in specifically regarding how you doin, whats going on, how they
feel about their day and their work here. He described his time in clinical
supervision and looking at what students do in their clinic sessions. This involved

criteria set forth in the practicum manual for what quality clinical practice is and
that it entailed really watchfing] that closely.
Brent stated in his supervision of individual students his awareness levels
come up if they are working with a diverse population or diverse client and to
explore the impact of their values. He stated this happened more now than I have
in the past. He described that we tend to come from a very narrow White approach
to clinical problem solving rather than looking at where clients are coming from
first. He stated the clinic is fortunate to have a lot of diverse populations,
students coming in for sessions.
Brent discussed the impact of his perceived lack of diversity among the
student population on the classroom setting. He stated therell be times when I have
ten students in a group therapy class and theyre all the same, meaning
ethnically and racially, not their values or attitudes, but pretty much. He stated
as we look across the room and we exchange, we all tend to exchange from a very
narrow frame of reference. Without more diverse faces, just pure faces, we dont
get a chance to grow as much as we should. Brent followed this statement with his
investment in the belief that we grow when theres differences, when theres
conflict. He stated, When I sit with somebody else and we talk and agree for an
hour we leave at the same point we started. He described the benefit of someone
who differs from himself and the exploration of that in a caring and

understanding way as forcing him to think and propose. He stated the lack of
opportunity for growth for the students by these encounters worried him, because
we speak the same language, and use the same context and the same examples, you
tend to operate then at that similar level. He stated when somebody thats diverse
is present in the classroom to challenge the majority perspective, the class then will
have to wrestle, then we have to talk, we have to think different.
Interactions with Faculty Members
Brent stated the first thing to do in his week, after coming into the office
was to see what faculty members are around so that he can socialize. He
described his interaction with faculty as just to enjoy them as people and stated
with the diversity, we are very fortunate. He suggested the first place he would
go would be to seek out a particular ethnically diverse faculty member and see if he
wants to go get a cup of coffee and see how his world was over the weekend. He
stated they would talk extensively about the lack of diversity within the university
and how its very westernized as well as white and male. This was with
regard to the university as a whole. He stated they would discuss how difficult it
is for somebody who doesnt fit in to that to survive. They catharted probably,
complained a great deal and Brent would share that I dont have many of those
issues because I am white and male, and would fit into it. He stated he would then
visit with the program coordinator.

Brent described himself as pretty social and that he would spend some
time with all the faculty, just visiting and talking with them. He stated the
relationships have a much closer, personal awareness than prior to our training.
This was in relation to their diversity in terms of their sexual orientation and their
ethnic and racial backgrounds and that it is also true from his end of the
relationship. He stated the faculty talk at a deeper level and laughed about his
being drawn to the faculty member he described a relationship with in the previous
The faculty member Brent has developed a friendship with has had a great
impact as far as my awareness level, and he stated he is more sensitive to his
environment. He described that he paid attention in grocery stores and shopping
centers and noticed whos working, whos not working. He explained he is
critical of his entertainment and asked How diverse is the movie? In addition he
noticed whether if he is reading a book, does it bring in diversity? Brent stated his
awareness levels come way up, but also its recognized how far I still need to
Brent discussed his interactions with several diverse faculty members outside
of the institutional setting. He described that his and his wife have broadened
significantly through these relationships. He described these experiences as
enriching and that they prize those things. He stated previously their friendship

circle was very narrow and comprised of the people I used to work with. He
described feeling the faculty is socializing as a group and that he would attend
those once a month. He described the once monthly outings as each faculty
member does something on diversity socially and the group will have potluck at
these functions focused on diversity. He stated each of these factors has had
impact and that he is much more comfortable with diverse populations than I
have been before.
Brent described attending meetings as part of his weekly routine. He stated
he experienced two types of meetings, one a very traditional university meeting
lets get the task done and stated he would tolerate those. Tolerating those
meetings meant he would try to be as quiet as I can, find out what needs to be done,
when it needs to be done, and then get out. He described the second kind of
meeting as a place where we would talk about values and issues and those
meetings would have two outcomes for me. The first outcome Brent described as
excitement and were making progress. The alternative outcome would be
were up against a system that has little or no tolerance for change.
Brent continued to describe this feeling of defeat within the system and that it
was related to issues of multiculturalism as well as creative thinking, to other
approaches for professors to do their work rather than the traditional teaching,
service, and research. He mused is there another way to do it, to do that? He

described a discussion between himself and another diverse faculty member in which
they both agree itd be much better for some university professors to provide
service and drop out of the technical research and stated bringing this idea to the
university was like howling at the clouds and nothing is going to change the
Diversity Training
Not mentioned.
Time for Reflection and Planning: Teaching Techniques, Social Perspectives,
Political Views, Clinical Work, Research Planning & Activities
Describing his daily routine, Brent stated he spent time answering emails, he
tries to answer within twenty four hours, and then moves into his class
preparation. Brent stated he tr[ied] to analyze and look at what I was going to
teach and how I was going to teach it and that this was a different process than two
years ago, that previously I wouldnt look at things Im looking at now. He stated
this is predominantly because of the diversity training and that he would really
double check to see if I had any significant changes I need to make in content, this
was particularly related to sexual diversity, to women, and to any culture, and
ethnic diversity. He stated this scrutiny meant he gave more examples and would
be sensitive. Brent stated he made an effort now to know the students better and
this informed which students I needed to ask other kind of questions that I normally

wouldnt have asked two years ago. He described his questions two years ago as
pretty much upper middle class Anglo type of questions. In addition, Brent stated
he spent time on reading and keeping current on journals and articles.
Brent elaborated on his frustration with the larger picture, the university as a
whole and described he felt it talks but never walks its talk at all. He stated the
students are fantastic, but its very narrow, and described the student population as
all Anglo female in the program. He stated he felt we are not doing the. effort we
need to do to bring in a diverse population. He described feeling the faculty are the
most diverse division within their department of the university. He stated, in fact
if it wasnt fur us I dont think [the division] would have much diversity at all. This
diversity, Brent attributed to a very concentrated, up front, and supported effort.
This effort was something we want[ed] to see happen. He described frustration
with the efforts of another faculty member being rejected in new ways of admitting
students than the traditional GREs, grade point averages and stated we cant get
past it, and we always fall back on the old traditional model. Brent expressed, I
dont know if were afraid to try something different, or we dont know how to do it,
or what to do it. He again stated hes frustrated with impacting the system and
that we survive pretty well within it, but when you try to push its pretty frustrating.
Interview Seven
Doris is a 51 year old female, Caucasian, who identifies as heterosexual.