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Architectural and typographic ornamentation and social change

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Architectural and typographic ornamentation and social change
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Sheppard, Jeff
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vi, 59 leaves : illustrations ; 29 cm

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Subjects / Keywords:
Architecture and society ( lcsh )
Printing -- Social aspects ( lcsh )
Architecture and society ( fast )
Printing -- Social aspects ( fast )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Includes bibliographical references (leaves 56-59).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Humanities.
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Department of Humanities and Social Sciences
Statement of Responsibility:
by Jeff Sheppard.

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Full Text
ARCHITECTURAL AND TYPOGRAPHIC
ORNAMENTATION AND SOCIAL CHANGE
by
Jeff Sheppard
B.A., Regis University, 1990
A thesis submitted to the
University of Colorado at Denver
in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Humanities
1997


This thesis for the Master of Humanities
degree by
Jeff Sheppard
has been approved
by
Charles Moone
Pamela Laird

Date


Sheppard, Jeff (Master of Humanities)
Architectural and Typographic Ornamentation and Social Change
Thesis directed by Professor Charles Moone
ABSTRACT
This thesis tracks the development and use of ornamentation in both architec-
tural and typographic design in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries to reveal
parallel stylistic patterns of change and their relationship to social conditions.
This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidates thesis.
I recommend its publication.
Signed
in


DEDICATION
This is dedicated to my father and mother.


CONTENTS
Figures ...............................................vi
CHAPTER
1. INTRODUCTION .......................................1
Connecting Type to Buldings.......................3
Wolfflins Study of Style.........................6
The Importance of Architecture and Typography as Visual Design
in the Commonplace................................9
2. JOHN RUSKIN AND WILLIAM MORRIS: DECORATION AND
ORNAMENTATION AS SOCIAL MORALITY....................11
The Connection Between Ornamentation in Architecture,
Typography, and Zeitgeist........................20
3. THE CRIME OF ORNAMENT .............................24
4. DESIGN FORMALISM AND THE ABANDONMENT OF
ORNAMENT ...........................................30
5. FROM 1880 TO 1960 ................................37
Stylistic Change in Architecture
and Typography After Positivism.................39
6. CONCLUSION........................................45
ENDNOTES ..................................................52
BIBLIOGRAPHY ..............................................56
v


FIGURES
Figure 1 .......................................................................7
Figure 2 .......................................................................7
Figuure 3 .......................................................................8
Figure 1.1 .....................................................................21
Figure 1.2......................................................................22
Figure 2.1 .....................................................................24
Figure 2.2......................................................................25
Figure 2.3 .....................................................................26
Figure 3.1 .....................................................................34
Figure 3.2 .....................................................................35
Figure 4.1 .....................................................................38
Figure 4.2 .....................................................................39
Figure 4.3 .....................................................................40
I
VI


CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
The origins of the history of Western civilization were marked by the conflu-
ence of two seemingly unrelated visual forms of communications: architecture and
writing. Within each historical period and across vast geographic expanses, these
two disciplines reveal striking parallels in stylistic forms and in design approaches to
ornamentation. The geometric, triangle wedges of cuneiform pressed into wet clay
and set out to harden under the hot Mesopotamian sun are the stylistic cousins of the
Sumerian ziggurats rising in three dimensional, wedged forms out of the harsh, dry
plains massive tapered sculptures, one on top of the other. The incised capitol "T"
of the Roman alphabet with its arch-like serifs and post and lintel construction is
similar in design to the base of the aqueducts carrying water from their mountain
sources to the city's populace. The flowering, garish ornamentation spreading across
the printed pages in Rococo typography feels quite at home in the luxurious gold
encrusted, inlaid parlors of eighteenth-century France. For the most part, the patterns
of similitude between style of type and architecture of each period have gone unno-
ticed. But, on the other hand, they appear to be more than coincidental.
Style in the visual arts is often interpreted as an indicator of underlying social
conditions. Typically, art historians look to the fine arts and architecture to ascertain
information concerning stylistic movements, and one marker they have used in identi-
fying change is ornamentation. The relationship between the patterns of ornamentation
in both architecture and typography continued to develop during the nineteenth and
1


twentieth centuries.
In 1904, a German architect, painter, industrial designer, and typographer
named Peter Behrens articulated the connection between these two enterprises.
Type, said Behrens, is one of the most eloquent means of expression in every
epoch of style. Next to architecture, it gives the most characteristic portrait of a peri-
od and the most severe testimony of a nations intellectual status. ^ This thesis
proposes that the metamorphosis of style in the late nineteenth-century and twenti-
eth-century typographic design can be more deeply understood by exploring its con-
nection to twentieth-century architectural change. Making the connection between
these two fields is useful in the study of typography for two reasons. First, many
designers of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries drew upon architectural
ornamentation as a source for their typographic designs. Second, the role ornamenta-
tion plays in identifying changes in the style of architectural design is more fully
documented and, thus, can provide a model for understanding the role of type in
reflecting social change. Finally, by using the model provided by Heinrich Wolfflin,
author of Principles of Art History (a work that compared stylistic changes between
Renaissance and Baroque architecture), we can begin to describe the quality of typo-
graphic changes that occurred in the late 1960s from the International Style of
typography to New Wave typography. The end goal is to begin to relate the ebb
and flow of ornamentation in architecture and typography to the changing social cli-
mate.
2


Connecting Type to Buildings
The letterform, with its horizontal and vertical strokes and its curved and
diagonal lines, is an often-overlooked ingredient in daily life. The visual skill needed
by the type designer in forming the quiet and, at times, not so quiet gestalts between
the vastly different shapes of letters placed next to one another to form the words,
sentences and paragraphs of a daily newspaper chronicling the life of the city, goes
unappreciated by the reading public. The visual form of the letter is a carrier of
information a building block for words and sentences, an aid in the transmission
of facts, ideas, and stories of life. Surely, the words we read in the morning newspa-
per are as commonplace as the knife, fork, and spoon beside us at the breakfast
table. Rarely do we give anything more than a passing thought to such routine items.
The usefulness of the breakfast fork lies in its service to the act of eating. In the
same way, letters, in and of themselves, find their usefulness in the act of imparting
information. Seldom do we require anything more of typographic letterforms than
that they are printed clearly and that they are large enough to read without causing
eyestrain. Outside these basic requirements, letters, words, sentences, and paragraphs
are simply servants employed by those who write for those who read. It would seem
the humdrum of typography is not the stuff of cultural myth, the conveyer of a social
conscience, or the standard bearer of civilized thought and artistic achievement.
However, for some, the social and national conscience of a people presents
itself in the common artifacts surrounding everyday lives. Included among those
commonplace artifacts is typography. Behrenss claim regarding the significance of
typography at the beginning of the twentieth century is, to say the least, grand. To
3


CONNECTING TYPE TO BUILDINGS
The letterform, with its horizontal and vertical strokes and its curved and
diagonal lines, is an often-overlooked ingredient in daily life. The visual skill needed
by the type designer in forming the quiet and, at times, not so quiet gestalts between
the vastly different shapes of letters placed next to one another to form the words,
sentences and paragraphs of a daily newspaper chronicling the life of the city, goes
unappreciated by the reading public. The visual form of the letter is a carrier of
information a building block for words and sentences, an aid in the transmission
of facts, ideas, and stories of life. Surely, the words we read in the morning newspa-
per are as commonplace as the knife, fork, and spoon beside us at the breakfast
table. Rarely do we give anything more than a passing thought to such routine items.
The usefulness of the breakfast fork lies in its service to the act of eating. In the
same way, letters, in and of themselves, find their usefulness in the act of imparting
information. Seldom do we require anything more of typographic letterforms than
that they are printed clearly and that they are large enough to read without causing
eyestrain. Outside these basic requirements, letters, words, sentences, and paragraphs
are simply servants employed by those who write for those who read. It would seem
the humdrum of typography is not the stuff of cultural myth, the conveyer of a social
conscience, or the standard bearer of civilized thought and artistic achievement.
However, for some, the social and national conscience of a people presents
itself in the common artifacts surrounding everyday lives. Included among those
commonplace artifacts is typography. Behrenss claim regarding the significance of
typography at the beginning of the twentieth century is, to say the least, grand. To
3


interpret his statement, it is grand in its emphatic boldness on two points. First, he
implies that type is more than the transmitter of words; for Behrens, typographic
style contains both signs and symbols of cultural intellect. Type is not simply the
banal servant of information, but an eloquent banner in every epoch and style.
Second, Behrens maintains that typography is second only to architecture in
the task of defining a nations attributes. Here, Behrens infers that a commonality
exits between architecture and typography. For Behrens, the connective relationship
between the two lies not in their structure or form, but rather in their ability to
express national temperament. Further, the ability of these two distinctively different
visual expressions to communicate national temperament does not arise from the
reverence society places upon them; rather, their power is derived from their ordi-
nary, everyday use by all persons at all levels. Similarly, for all of its pretense to
monumental and aesthetic importance, architecture in its everyday use is as invisible
as typography to the average passerby.
At the outset, Behrenss juxtaposition of typography and architecture may
seem unusual. Yet, in modern design, Behrens is not alone in making this connec-
tion, as a quick survey of architects of the late nineteenth and early twentieth cen-
turies reveals. John Ruskin and William Morris of the English Arts and Crafts move-
ment employed Gothic ornamentation in both architecture and typography in a moral
crusade against the dehumanizing effects of the industrialization of Europe.
Conversely, Henri van de Velde, modernist from Belgium, Charles Mackintosh of the
Glasgow School, Joseph Olbrich of the Vienna Secession, El Lissitzky from Russia,
Theo van Doesburg the founder of the de Stijl movement and Piet Zwart, both from
Holland, and Herbert Bayer of the Bauhaus used anti-historical forms of omamenta-
4


tion as expressions of modernity. Significantly, all of the above trained as architects,
and all became intimately involved in typographic design.
The number of designers who work in both fields promises something of a
connection between architecture and developments in styles of typographic design.
If Behrenss statement regarding the stylistic importance of typography to the read-
ing of national character is to be taken seriously, then it is necessary to understand
the relationship between typography and its distant cousin, architecture. This paper
will track some of the changes in twentieth-century typographic and architectural
design to understand more fully the connection between these two forms of visual
expression.
Because of this approach, my presentation regarding architectural design is in
general, abstract terms. While there is danger in painting architectural theory with
too broad a brush, this study is not meant be to about architectural programs. Rather,
its intent is to relate certain aspects of architectural ornamentation to the function of
typographic design as a technique better to understand cultural change. This paper
will review architectural change only with respect to its use of ornament, and that
only briefly because the use of architectural ornamentation in the twentieth century
provides grounding for an understanding of typographic change. Further, in this
paper, the word typography refers to the study of letterforms, shapes, and decora-
tion. Similarly, the phrase typographic design refers to the formal use of typogra-
phy as it is employed in the field of graphic design.
5


Wolfflins Study of Style
The model for this study comes from Heinrich Wolfflins classic study of
visual change, Principles of Art History. Wolfflin's theory of identifying stylistic
change will he used in three ways. One, to identify the common characteristics
between the ornamentation of architecture and typography. Two, to compare one
period's style to its predecessor to identify common stylistic changes in both archi-
tecture and typography. Third, to link three consecutive periods together to interpret
the pattern of modernism in the twentieth century and relate it to social conditions.
Style, for Wolfflin, is a product of two things, "the blood of the artists" and Zeitgeist,
the spirit of the times. In the end, we will see the stylistic patterns established by
extending Wolfflin's methodology to typography correspond to social changes in the
industrialized west. Wolfflin's model is used in this study to juxtapose style with
national character, similar to what Behrens suggests. However, when viewed in the
succession of the one hundred and ten years from John Ruskin to Wolfgang
Weingart, we also observe the patterns of the modernists movement as they are jux-
taposed to the social Zeitgeist.
In his Principles of Art History, Wolfflin categorizes the changes in painting,
sculpture and architecture from the Renaissance to the Baroque as a move from clas-
sical thought to romanticism. He devises five binary terms to account for these dif-
ferences in style. His terms reflect, on one side, classical modes of thought and, on
the other, romantic expression. He aligns the stylistic qualities of classical thought
with line, plane, closed form, multiplicity, and absolute clarity. Wolfflin describes
the qualities of romantic thought as painterly, recession, open form, unity, and rela-
6


tive clarity. (Figure 1) As an
example of Wolfflins terms,
Raphaels Marriage of the Virgin,
1504, would be a classical or lin-
ear style of painting and Peter
Paul Rubenss Elevation of the
Cross, 1610, would be a roman-
tic or painterly style of painting.
Examples of Wolfflins terms in
architecture would be
LINEAR (CLASSICAL)
Lane Emphasis on line to guide
eye in forming so lid structures
Plane Careful spaces are es&b -
fehed on a box-1 ike stage contain -
ing the image on the picture plane
dosed Form Structures are well
defined by line and are solid, self-
contained objects
Multiplicity The image is built
from independent, stand -alone
parts into a harmonious whole
Absolute darky- Solid forms are
constructed with an emphasis on
evenly rendered structure rather
tian color or light
F*M TER LT (ROMANTIC)
fonterty -\blumes and outlines
merge and blur together to create
shifting movements of forms
Recession The c reatb n of depth
using diagonal lines and forms
that break out from the picture
plane
Open Form Forms that fede and
merge with other forms and struc-
ture that is built on patterns of light
and dark
Unity The image is built on the
infordependenceof pare to form
visual harmony
tefathre Clarity- Forms are agi-
tated through the use of dramatic
contrast of shadows, cobrand
Sght
Figure 1
Michelangelos Museo
Capitoline in Rome (Figure 2) as classical architecture, with its grid-like approach to
decoration which reveals structure. Borrominis facade of San Carlo alle Quattro
Fontane in Rome (Figure 3) is romantic architecture, notably because the forms
Figure 2 Michelangelos Museo Capitoline
1


appear to move about, almost
defying structure. For an exam-
ples of these principles in
typography, see figures 3.2 and
4.2.
Architecture of its very
nature cannot become an art of
semblance, according to
Wolfflin. In other words, archi-
tecture does not develop its
themes from literature, as
painting did during both the
Renaissance and the Baroque
periods. Instead, architectural
expression uses decoration and
ornamentation to obtain style.
Figure 3 Borrominis San Carlo alle Quattro
Because of this, decoration and Fonfane,1665-1676.
ornament play a leading role in identifying stylistic change. For the purposes of this
study, if architecture is not based on resemblance of natural forms, then typography
is even less so. In type design, decoration and ornament become the essential factors
in determining changes in style. Wolfflins method of analyzing architectural style is,
therefore, an appropriate model for the study of typography.
The comparative section of this study will focus on the stylistic modifications
that occurred within the International Style of architecture and its counterpart in
8


typography as they changed from the modern to the post-modern movements in
architecture and New Wave typographic design. This will be accomplished in three
stages: first, by investigating the roots of modem design as they relate to the devel-
opment of decoration and ornamentation leading up to the International Style of
architecture and typographic design; second, by a comparative, analytical study of
the formal elements of architecture and typographic styles as they changed from the
international style to more eclectic and ornamental forms of design; and, third, by
presenting these changes within a social context. The first two stages provide back-
ground for the third stage. The third stage will explore the relevance of typography
as evidence of cultural myths forming, changing as they play themselves out in the
day-to-day course of ordinary life.
The Importance of Architecture and Typography as Visual Design
for the Commonplace
To understand what we might gain from this study, two simple comparisons
between architecture and typography can help establish some commonality between
the design of buildings and the design of typography. One striking, but not so obvi-
ous, association between architecture and typography exists in their use. Both archi-
tecture and typography are brought to bear in common, every-day activities. It is as
implausible to conceive of modem society without buildings as it is to imagine mod-
em life without the printed, or at least written, word. Both are fundamental experi-
ences common to Western civilization. The sophisticated architectural programming
of a downtown corporate headquarters is used by both executives and mailroom
clerks alike. Granted, the investment they have in the design aspects of the building
9


may be radically different, but they are equally dependent on the building for their
livelihoods. Similarly, both the vice president of finance and the maintenance worker
read the corporate newsletter. The point is not to illustrate any egalitarian, leveling
qualities of architectural and typographic design, rather it is meant to make a case
that these applications of designs cut across social and economic strata. Design
affects all of us, albeit in different ways.
Because the experience of architectural and typographic design is so common
to every-day life, both go almost unnoticed by the public. In that sense, they are both
under-appreciated, everyday cultural artifacts of the commonplace. Yet, as ordinary
as buildings and typefaces are in our public lives, they still constitute a silent, sym-
bolic language. Unintentionally, we tend not to notice the significance of the non-
verbal signs and symbols made by architectural and typographic designers.
Behrenss statement on architecture and typography asserts that deep within these
silent and anonymous signs and symbols of the commonplace there resides evidence
of the narratives of modem life. Behrens asserts the possibility of using typography
to discover a nations character.
However, typography, by itself, is not the point from which to begin this
search. By understanding some of the developments regarding the philosophy of
architectural ornamentation in the late nineteenth century, we can gain new insights
into stylistic changes in typographic design. Stage one of this study will start by
building the connection between late nineteenth-century roots of architecture and the
role of ornamentation to understand their parallel functions in typography.
10


CHAPTER 2
JOHN RUSKIN AND WILLIAM MORRIS: DECORATION AND
ORNAMENTATION AS SOCIAL. MORALITY
Ornamentation is the principal part of architecture. John Ruskin ^
Changes in modem architecture and typography can best be understood
against the anxious backdrop of early modem, nineteenth-century life. John Ruskin
was one of many in England who looked to the arts and crafts of architecture as a
possible cure for the social ills caused by the industrialization of Europe.
The social impact of industrialization was noted by many, including sociolo-
gist Georg Simmel. In the winter of 1902, Simmel described the change in the
social order facilitated by industrialization. Industrialization, claimed Simmel,
exacted a price from the individual that included a fundamental loss of a sense of
autonomy caused by the conditions found in a modem metropolis. Modem industry
demanded that the worker become a specialist, working on a single aspect in a larger
production, making each worker dependent on other specialists in other areas of pro-
duction. For Simmel, the result of industrialized city life on the individual was
twofold. First, in contrast to slower rhythms of rural life, modem city life brought on
by industry provided an intensification of nervous stimulation. 3
Second, stimulation coupled with the need to integrate with other specialists
produced a different mental attitude. As Simmel said, The modem mind has
11


become a more and more calculating mind.... The technique of metropolitan life is
unimaginable without the most punctual integration of all activities and mutual rela-
tions into a stable and impersonal time schedule. ^
For Simmel, the subsequent attitude toward modem life, then, is that the
individual has become a mere cog in a enormous organizing of things and power
which tear from his hands all progress, spirituality, and value in order to transform
them from their subjective form into the form of a purely objective life. ^ The
wonders of the machine had helped to dehumanize the quality of life of the worker.
Simmels concerns for the fate of the individual in an impersonal society
were not dissimilar from those of John Ruskin and William Morris, both leaders in
the Arts and Crafts Movement in the waning decades of the last century. They, along
with other social-minded thinkers, developed their ideas approximately fifty years
earlier than Simmel. However, rather than simply describing the conditions of mod-
em life, both individuals prescribed a common remedy for its ills. Their cure for the
debasement of life brought by industrialized society was art, and their particular pre-
scription had to do with the quality and crafts of ornamentation.
John Ruskin and his follower, William Morris, were diverse in their profes-
sional undertakings. Ruskin was an author, art critic, professor and lecturer, and
watercolorist. Morris engaged in painting, writing, textile design, furniture design
and construction, printing, and typographic design. Both men also advocated social
reform and were intimately involved with the development of the Arts and Crafts
Movement. The movement is best known for its objections to the decline of the
crafts in favor of what Morris called cheap and nasty mass-produced goods of the
Victorian era. ^ Ruskin and Morris believed that the decline of the arts and crafts
12


held moral implications for the worker, as well as for the society at large. Ruskin
passionately defined the roles of architecture and ornamentation within the social
and moral framework of society. His grand idea, his ultimate goal in architecture and
its ornamentation, was to unite the life of the worker through the union of art and
labor.
Ruskins life spanned most of the nineteenth century, 1819-1900, and his
work was instrumental in forming the social and artistic reaction to industrialization.
In Ruskins Stones of Venice, Volume II, he wrote:
We have much studied and much perfected, of late, the great civilized
invention of the division of labour (caused by the industrial
Revolution]; only we give it a false name. It is not truly speaking, the
labour that is divided; but the men: Divided into mere segments of
men broken into small fragments and crumbs of life; so that all the
little pieces of intelligence that is left in a man is not enough to make
a pin, or a nail, but exhausts itself in making the point of a pin or the
head of a nail. ^
For Ruskin, art balances the equation between the good and desirable thing
to make many pins in a day^ and the toll it takes on the nobility of labor. Clearly,
Ruskin sides with art over industry, and his artistic vision harkened back to the
Gothic era. Ruskins The Stones of Venice heralded the virtues of medieval crafts-
manship. For him, Gothic architecture was the finest example of the right relation-
ship between labor and the worker as a form of satisfaction and ultimate salvation. ^
An example of Ruskins religious fervor in this regard is in his Lecture II
from The Crown of Wild Olive. He comments on the new buildings going up around
the town and says they seemed to fall into two different categories. The churches and
13


schools were constructed in the Gothic fashion, while the mills and mansions were
in a different style. He told his audience this was a peculiarly modem phenome-
non. Ruskins question to his audience was simple, How do you live under one
school of architecture and worship under another? ^ His answer to the question
was just as simple, It signifies neither more nor less than that you have separated
your religion from your life. * This observation cuts to the core of Ruskins prob-
lem with the style of architectural decoration and its relation to moral issues. He saw
the stylistic choices in architecture as evidence of a rupture in modem life. Art,
said Ruskin, of any country is the exponent of its social and political virtues. ^
For Ruskin, the social and political virtues of a country were imbedded in its choice
of style and ornamentation. Architectural ornamentation, because of its fundamental
importance to social function, is a pervasive, silent voice of a nations character. And
during the Victorian Age, Ruskin claimed that ornamentation was indicating a
decline in social morality.
For Ruskin, the moral deterioration and the long, slow separation of workers
from their work began in the Renaissance. Contrasting the Gothic and Renaissance
architecture, said George Landow author of Ruskin, ...he [Ruskin] finds that the
later style, which demands that everything follow a rigid, predetermined plan, neces-
sitates turning the worker into a slave, a machine, a mere animated tool. ^ On
the other hand, for Ruskin, Gothic architecture like all great art with its intricacy
and soaring ornament was rich with human labor. ^ From L^on Battista Alberti
on, there develops a propensity in architectural design that tends to prefer structured,
classical paganism over the more Christian oriented designs of the Gothic.
For Ruskin, morality preserves itself in architecture only when the
14


worker/craftsman is not treated as a machine. For him, the worker must be allowed
to provide his own stuff to the work. Gothic craftsmanship and ornamentation pro-
vides Ruskin with just such a model. According to Edmund Feldman in his The
Artist, A Social History, the medieval craftsmans guild established the foundations
of a radical idea: The quality of an object is closely related to the human condition
of the person who makes it. ^
Granted, for the contemporary viewer, Ruskins ideas concerning
Renaissance verses Gothic architectural decoration are largely a matter of taste.
Whether one is a rationalist or a romantic is the determining factor in siding with
either Renaissance or Gothic design. But for Ruskin, it identifies a concern over the
moral fiber of England. Said Ruskin in his Seven Lamps of Architecture:
Ornamentation has two entirely distinct sources of agreeableness:
one, that of the abstract beauty of its form, which for the present, we
will suppose to be the same whether they come from the hand or the
machine; the other, the sense of human labour and care spent upon
it.... Its delightfulness deepens on our discovering in it the record of
thoughts, and intents, and trails, and heartbreakings of recoveries
and joyfulness of success: all this can be traced by a practiced eye;
but, granting it even obscured, it is presumed or understood; and in
that is the worth of the thing, just as much as the worth of any thing
we call precious. ^
The human touch, for Ruskin, provides value in ornamentation. The machine
produces only an illusion of quality; true quality comes from the human hand.
Therein lies the moral issue of industrial architecture and production. For Ruskin,
only the concept of the ennobling aspects of hand labor on architecture and crafts
could provide a cure for nineteenth-century modernity a return to the past via the
15


arts. How does Ruskin suggest we judge good ornamentation over that which is infe-
rior? Simply stated, Ruskin said, I believe the right question to ask, respecting all
ornament, is simply this: Was it done with enjoyment was the carver happy while
he was about his work? ^ The human hand happily at work sums up the
Ruskinian ideal of the unity of life and work through art.
Ruskins second point was that he chose the Gothic style over Renaissance
classicism because he sided with ornamentation over mathematical grid systems (a
Wolfflin-like distinction of form). Did he do this because one is more beautiful than
the other? No, he chose Gothic over Renaissance designs because of its association
with spiritual concerns rather than rational thought. Gothic ornamentation offers
more opportunity for the craftsman to engage the work through its more significant
use of ornamentation, and its extension into religious symbolism.
Whether Ruskin was right in attributing the correct virtues to the appropriate
stylistic movements in historical architecture is not in question. His ideas concerning
the role of the arts, architecture, and ornamentation in the unification of life and
work, however, become the hinge-pin upon which the door of modem architecture
and typography swing. His impact on future discourse regarding the arts and crafts
and the machine was immense. His assessment of the relationship between art and
life influenced, in differing ways and degrees, architectural and typographic design-
ers ranging from Otto Wagner and Adolph Loos to Walter Gropius, Philip Johnson,
Theo van Doesburg, and Jan Tschichold.
In summing up Ruskins contribution to the dialogue between art and social
well being, Arnold Hauser claimed:
16


Ruskin was also the first person in England who articulated a posi-
tion that design was a moral act and chose Gothic architecture and
ornamentation as well as letter forms as its most appropriate expres-
sion to emphasize the fact that art is a public concern and that no
nation can neglect it without endangering its social existence.... His
influence was extraordinary, almost beyond description. The purpose-
fulness and solidity of modem architecture and industrial art are very
largely the result of Ruskins endeavors and doctrines. ^
Ruskins ideas were influential on another major figure in the Arts and Crafts
Movement William Morris. Morris, while pursing undergraduate studies at
Oxford, had read many of Ruskins works, including The Seven Lamps of
Architecture. ^ Morris preached, I dont want art for a few. What business have
we with art at all unless all can share it? ^ This idea of sharing art with all led
Morris to work with common items including wallpaper designs, furniture designs,
and typography. Morris believed that art must be made by the people and for the
people. 21 If typographic design is anything, it is for the use of people. It is valu-
able to note how Ruskins ideas concerning society and ornamentation affected
William Morriss typographic enterprises.
Morriss ideas on art and ornamentation were very much in line with those of
Ruskin. Art could not be separated from morality. In an address to the Trades Guild
of Learning in 1877, Morris lectured the gathered by first stating that he would not
speak much on the great art of Architecture. Rather he spoke on the lesser or so
called decorative arts. Like Ruskin, Morris forcefully suggests that the ills of mod-
ern society are symptomatic of the separation of the greater arts painting, sculp-
ture, and architecture from the lesser, decorative crafts. As with Ruskin, the
machine was at the root of Morriss dilemma. Morris explained:
17


It is only in latter times, and under the most intricate conditions of
life, that they [greater and decorative art] have fallen apart from one
another.... when they are so parted, it is ill for the Arts altogether: the
lesser ones become trivial, mechanical, unintelligent, incapable of
resisting the changes pressed upon them by fashion or dishonest;
while the greater, however they may be practiced for a while by men
of great minds and wonder-working hands, unhelded [sic] by the less-
er, unhelped by each other, are sure to lose their dignity of popular
arts. 22
In these few lines, Morris strengthens the argument against the machine. At the
same time, he builds the bond between the arts of architecture and the role of the arti-
san. During his time, handicrafts had almost disappeared in favor of less expensive
products produced by the machine. As with Ruskin before him, Morris believed that the
most troubling aspect of the machine-made product was not its durability. Instead,
Morris believed that the machine produced an immoral product and spread its immorali-
ty throughout society through its cheap and nasty mass-produced goods. Philip
Meggs states, Morris called for a fitness of purpose, truth to the nature of materials and
methods of production, and individual expression by both the designer and worker. 23
For him, the arts, through handicrafts, would reunite the worker with his
product. To further this goal, Morris instituted his manufacturing firm, Morris,
Marshall, Faulkner & Company, in 1861. The firms stated goal came from Morriss
experience in decorating his own home, Red House, which derived its form from the
medieval English cottage. His good friend and Pre-Raphaelite painter Burne-Jones
explained, The idea came to him of beginning a manufacturing of all things neces-
sary for the decoration of a house. 24 Many of his friends had already produced
items for the decoration of his new home, and the idea grew into a business venture.
18


What was new about Morris & Co. was that Morris insisted that artists involve them-
selves in the actual process of production and not simply leave it to factory laborers.
25 Morriss ideas extended into his typographic work, and his concern for the rela-
tionship between artists and craftsmen became a hallmark of typographic design of
Walter Gropiuss Bauhaus as well.
Late in life, Morris took Ruskins interest in architectural morality and the
total involvement of the craftsman with his product and turned toward the design of
books. As the nineteenth century wore on, states Meggs, the quality of book
design and production became a casualty of the Industrial Revolution. 26 The
technologies of industrialization, such as lithography and the wood router, facilitat-
ed the explosion of new typefaces. The proliferation of typefaces, caused by the
improvement of manufacturing techniques, coupled with the deterioration of crafts-
manship in book production, left the Victorian reader with few options in the quality
of typography in production of books. Morris sought to rectify this.
With that in mind, Morris embarked on his last artistic endeavor. In 1891, he
established the Kelmscott Press. It was responsible for the printing of eighteen thou-
sand volumes of fifty-three titles over its seven-year history. All of Kelmscotts
books were limited editions, printed on hand-made papers and bound in vellum. 27
What is important to this study, however, is that Morris also developed two type-
faces, Golden and Troy, for the purposes of his printing enterprises. Both of Morriss
typefaces are illustrations of Behrenss claims that type is one of the most eloquent
expression in every epoch of style. (See Figure 1.1)
19


The Connection Between Ornamentation
in Architecture. Typography, and Zeitgeist
Troy is a type design influenced by medieval architecture and illuminated
manuscripts. The choice of style for this design is significant. In Wolfflin's terms,
this signifies a style of ornamentation that is romantic in nature. While Wolfflin does
not discuss Gothic architecture in his book, the patterns and forms of Gothic build-
ings certainly fall into his painterly, romantic category.
Morriss Gothic references for his type designs are also reflections of the
Ruskin ideal of the spiritual qualities of medieval ornamentation. Troy is a typeface
designed to recall the individual, hand-made qualities of the illuminated manuscript.
In fact, his goal in producing books was to revive the human touch and attachment
to craftsmanship as illustrated by Gothic ornament. The pages of his books presented
a certain stylistic typographic density and clarity that sought refuge in the handi-
craft of the past.
Troy, as employed in Morriss layouts for The Story of the Glittering Plain
(Figure 1.1), also exhibits certain similarities to Gothic architectural orientation. The
flowering designs and overall pattern of lights and darks in the illustration on the
left, as well as the spiral-like serifs on the typeface are not dissimilar to the effects of
the ornamentation on the West facade of Amiens Cathedral in France (Figure 1.2).
Both exhibit qualities of design that Morris and Ruskin would have claimed demon-
strated the moral virtue of the times. Morris's typeface and page layout for The
Story of the Glittering Plain take on painterly qualities as the elegant calligraphy-
like serifs of the letterforms create visual lines that merge with one another
20


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Figure 1.1 William Morris, The Story of the Glittering Plain, 1894.
causing an overall pattern of movement on the page. The diagonal down stokes of
the serifs produce a sense of typographic drama. The unity of the typographic pat-
tern on the right-hand side of the layout is built on the lights and darks produced by
contrasting elements of the lowercase letters against the bolder and more elaborate
Uppercase letters. The ornamental flourishes of the leaves and the three-line dropped
cap "B" add yet another layer of depth to the design. The woodcut on the left has
many of the same visual characteristics. The unity of the entire layout is not revealed
through a structural description of its parts, rather, it is disclosed through the gentle
21


movements of the readers eyes, caused by
the soft patterns of light and dark.
By comparing Morris's type work
to the Amiens Cathedral, we discover that
both have many features corresponding to
Wolfflin's painterly category. The physical
structure of the cathedral is disguised by
the abundance of ornamentation. Like
Morris's layout, the unity of the cathedral
is derived from the patterns of light and
dark. No one element is independent of
another, the narrow arches are played
against the organic rose widow and the
detailed horizontal borders outlining the
four layers of the cathedral are contrasted
by the open spaces of the archways.
Together, as in Morriss layout, they form
a harmonious unity, in this case, one that
moves the eye up into space.
Morris's choice of Gothic has social meaning. As Ruskin has pointed out, the
divisions of modem life are reflected in the segmentation of architecture according
to social function. Morris's use of Gothic influences on his type and typographic
designs are indicative of the Arts and Crafts movement and its crusade to reunify
life, work and worship through visual ornamentation based on the romanticizing of
Figure 1.2 The West fagade of Amiens
Cathedral in France, 1220-1230.
22


the Gothic era. Modem industry and machined products served as the antithesis of
ethical life. I hold, said Morris, that men would wake up after a while, and look
around and find the dullness unbearable, and begin once more inventing, imitating,
and imagining, as in earlier days. ^ This dictum of social reform amply illustrated
itself through the use of ornament in both architecture and typography. The battle
lines of late nineteenth-century culture were clearly drawn in the use of everyday
items such as architecture and typography. In Ruskin and Morriss designs, decora-
tion takes on qualities of romantic mythology which paved the way for a transfor-
mation to functional form a form that was to express a new concept of matter. 30
Ruskin argued against the architectural use of rational geometry over the labor-rich
Gothic ornament. His point was that handmade Gothic ornament provided the work-
er with human dignity. For Morris, exclusive bookmaking practices produced a prod-
uct that enriched both the maker and the consumer. The designs for common use,
including typography, are expressions of a social conscience social myth.
Unfortunately, Ruskin and Morriss theories concerning craftsmanship and
the dignity of the worker proved to be flawed. For all their interest in the worker, the
cost of hand-made articles proved to be too expensive. Morriss typographic designs,
while beautiful, could be enjoyed only by those who could afford his books. Ruskin
and Morriss theory addressed itself only to a small empathic elite, according to
Alexander Domer. 31 Ironically, the next generation of designers, both in architec-
tural and typographic design, would employ the machine in spreading Ruskin and
Morriss artistic social reform to the masses. With the acceptance of the machine as
a factor in modem design came a change in attitude toward ornamental style.
23


CHAPTER 3
THE CRIME OF ORNAMENT
Ornament is mentally a luxury, not a necessity. It would be greatly for our esthetic
good, if we should refrain entirely from the use of ornament.^
- Louis Sullivan
To say that Ruskin and Morris romanticized ornamentation of the Gothic past
would be an understatement. Others that followed them saw Ruskin and Morriss
rejection of the industrial age and the machine as shortsighted. With the death of
Morris in 1896, the romantic zeal for the Gothic in the modem era began to wane as
well. In its place, the structural, skeletal forms of Gothic became the forerunners of
modem preoccupations with
height, transparency and
structural efficiency made
possible by new materials
of steel and glass as illus-
trated by the 1850 Crystal
Palace in London
(Figure2.1). Designers
began to view the machine f
as a reality of life, and the
advantages of mass produc-
Tigure2.1 -The Crystal Palace London 1850-1851.
24


tion for the burgeoning population of Europe were obvious. The practicality of the
machine could no longer be ignored. In 1896, in direct opposition to Ruskins lavish
Gothic idealism, architect Otto Wagner stated, All modem forms must be in harmo-
ny with the new requirements of our time.... Nothing that is not practical can be
beautiful. 33 Practicality and avant-garde architecture won out over romantic design.
That design shift was soon followed by changes in typographic design as well.
Not everything, however, of Ruskin and Morriss concepts of design was dis-
missed. The connection between art, life and honesty to materials and processes
were instrumental influences on modems such as Walter
Gropius and the Bauhaus. Without a doubt, Gropius saw
himself as a descendent of Ruskin and Morris. 34 On
the other hand, Ruskin and Morriss choice of ornamen-
tal style did not survive the transformation into the next
generation of designers, and in its place grew a more
mathematical, geometric, even anti-ornamental style of
design.
In the late nineteenth century, the transformation
in styles of architectural and typographic design was
notable in at least two geographical locations, Glasgow,
Scotland, and Vienna, Austria. In Glasgow, a young
architectural student named Charles Rennie Mackintosh
designed a poster for the 1896 Scottish Musical Review
(Figure 2.1). What is remarkable about this poster is that FjgUre 2 2 Charles
. . , . , , . , . Rennie Mackintosh,
its typographic design elements were derived from Scott/s/l Musicai RevjeWi
1896.
25


Mackintoshs architectural studies.
In 1898, Mackintosh was commissioned to design the new building for the
Glasgow Art School (Figure 2.2). Photographs of the interior of the library reveal
that Mackintosh did not employ a single feature.... derived from period styles. 35
Instead, he arranged the materials to form strong vertical and horizontal lines break-
ing the space into rhythmic movements with
little use of curvilinear lines. He created the
ornamentation, not by applying decoration to
structural form, but rather by permitting
ornamentation to develop from form itself.
One implication of this modernist idea was
clear: modem life required modem architec-
tural spaces and not the nostalgic ornament
of past. In that sense, Mackintosh used his
designs and materials to create metaphors of
modem space, and not history.
Mackintoshs architectural ideas of
design and space obviously influence his sense of typography. In the typographic
design for the Scottish Musical Review, we can also discover Mackintoshs ahistori-
cal use of design elements. He used the vertical lines and geometrical curves in an
abstraction of the human form. The quality of music in the poster for the Scottish
Musical Review, like the quality of space in the Glasgow Art School library, was rep-
resented through the use of form itself. Unlike Morriss book designs, which relied
on Gothic influences, Mackintoshs poster depends not on an historical period but on
Figure 2.3 Mackintosh Library for
Glasgow Art School,1898.
26


the purity of geometric form. In other words, he uses line for its own sake, clean,
simple and geometrical. Mackintoshs use of the typeface in the design is also
important in that it is comparatively non-ornamental. In the same way that
Mackintosh shows the structure of his buildings using materials, his letterforms are
paired down to essential, economic strokes. Serifs are reduced to a minimum, and
the overall effect of this work is to strip the elements of all unnecessary forms of
communication. Mackintosh rejects history and excessive ornamentation and in their
place remains a modem, geometric, stylization of the abstract ideas of music pro-
duced with pure form and design.
Both Mackintosh's designs for the library in the Glasgow Art School and the
poster for the Scottish Musical Review are demonstrations of Wolfflin's linear cate-
gory of visual design. Line is the determining factor in guiding the eye around the
spaces. In the library, line is used to define space and reveal structure. Each indepen-
dent line carves out its own self-contained space and all parts play an equal role in
forming the harmonious unity. Planes are clearly and calmly defined and organized
spaces built on logical, geometric patterns.
His approach to his poster design is similar. The mildly serifed typeface
helps to define each individual letterform, blocking them off into clearly defined
shapes and lines. The lines are evenly rendered and as used in this design direct the
eye in an upward, musical movement. The overall effect of the poster is a visually
cool, logical rendition of musical, harmonious sounds.
To contrast Mackintosh's designs with those of Morris and Ruskin's is to
understand the difference between Wolfflin's linear and painterly classification as it
applies to architecture and, by extension, to typography. Moreover, changes in style,
27


according to Wolfflin, cannot simply be attributed to the general explanation that
every phenomenon must beget its opposite. Rather, The interruption [of style]
remains something unnatural and will only happen in connection with profound
changes in the spiritual world.36 The stylistic differences between Mackintosh's
Unear or classical approach and Morris and Ruskin's painterly or romantic approach
to design in architecture and typography also correlate to a change in Zeitgeist.
Morris and Ruskin called on the nostalgic images of the Gothic, turning away from
the ills of modem life. Mackintosh, on the other hand, rejected history to create a
modem visual representation of the positivism of industrialization.
Clearly, when viewing side-by-side the style of Mackintosh with style of
Ruskin and Morris, there is a significant difference in their approaches to design.
Further, in both architecture and typography, the stylistic shift is most notable in the
use or absence of ornament. In the early part of this century, non-ornamental design
in architecture and elsewhere became the hallmark of the modem movement.
In the early twentieth century, ornamentation or non-ornamentation in both
architecture and typography were used by designers as lines of demarcation between
the past and present. Extreme architectural modernists, such as Adolf Loos in his
1908 article, Ornament and Crime, went so far as to claim that the use of ornament
in modem times was an offense to humanity. Loos wrote, Cultural evolution is
equivalent to the removal of ornament from all articles in daily use. J' Loos, using
a biological model of human development, equates humanitys early history with
childhood. Loos claimed, When man is bom, his instincts are those of a new-born
dog. His childhood runs through all the changes corresponding to the history of
mankind. At age two he looks like a Papuan, at four like one of the ancient
28


Germanic tribe, at six like Socrates, at eight like Voltaire. In explaining this analo-
gy, Loos groups murder and ornament into the same child-like act. Loos said that
the child is amoral and so too the Papuan. If the Papuan chooses to kill and eat his
neighbor or decorate his skin with tattoos or his canoe with ornamentation, these too
are amoral acts. Yet, for modem man at the top of the evolutionary chain to perform
such actions would be criminal. For him, ornamentation had become an artistic mill-
stone, weighing down cultural progress. Lack of ornament has pushed the other arts
to unimagined height said Loos. For him, lack of ornamentation in everyday arti-
cles, such as goods, clothing, architecture and type, were signs of modem spiritual
superiority and power. For Loos, by avoiding ornamentation man concentrates his
own powers of invention on other things. 38
29


CHAPTER4
DESIGN FORMALISM AND THE ABANDONMENT OF ORNAMENT
Less is more. Mies van der Rohe ^
Some thirty years later, Looss strident reproach of ornament gained cultural
legitimacy in the International Style of architecture. Twentieth-century architects
Philip Johnson and Henry Hitchcock in conjunction with director of the Museum of
Modem Art Alfred Barr, coined the term International Style in 1931. The designa-
tion refers to architectural design that avoids ornamentation in favor of structural
arrangements of materials. During this period, ornamentation in typographic design
shadowed the developments in architecture.
In fairness to Johnson and to the International Style, I mention that I have
selected his earlier designs for this study because they provide stark contrast as
extreme illustrations of the style, but they are not meant to represent the entire body
of his work and are certainly not representative of the International Style of architec-
ture as a whole. His later work, such as the AT&T Building in New York, shows his
flexibility in design. Along the same line, Johnsons early comments indicate a lack
of social concern in architecture. However, Walter Gropius, who was certainly an
avid contributor to the International Style, was intimately involved with architectural
design and use of materials as a form of social responsibility and may be more rep-
resentative of the style in general. I.e Corbusier was also an influential figure in the
International Style of architecture as well as on Johnson himself. Le Corbusiers
30


designs were very much concerned with architectures effect on public life. Still,
Johnsons rational, systematic approach to this early work provides clear contrast for
the purposes of comparing stylistic changes in architectural design.
Of the International Style, Johnson said, We were all searching for a name
for the obviously clear line of work being done in the 20s by men like le Corbusier,
Mies, and Gropius. ^ By mid-century, the International Style of architecture had
become a synthesis of formalism and self-referential design. In no small measure,
this was accomplished by dispensing with ornament. The ideas concerning space,
pure form, and the use of modem materials that reveal structure from earlier design-
ers like Macintosh and Frank Lloyd Wright had found their way into architectural
buildings of glass and steel.
Under Johnsons hand, architectural design turned more toward emphasizing
structure and materials, as opposed to the morality of design as intended by Ruskin
and Morris. Johnsons brand of non-ornamental design differs even from Looss
ideas concerning the morality of modernism. According to Johnson, the International
Style of architecture was amoral and self-referential. It [International Style] needs
no reference to any other discipline to make it viable or to justify its value, con-
firmed Johnson. We might even question whether words like value or morals are
applicable to an architecture style. The International Style, for example, needs no
one to say it was good or it was bad. ^ Looss moral stance on ornament was no
longer even in question. In a letter to an architectural critic, Johnson said that our
day no longer has need of moral crutches of late 19^ century vintage. ^2 jn his
Seven Crutches of Modem Architecture, Johnson makes it clear that architects
should not necessarily even interest themselves in details such as comfort, cost, ren-
31


derings, utility, or the client, and, least of all, history as a base for the understanding
of architecture. Rather, Johnson refers to le Corbusiers definition of the goal of
modem architecture. Architecture, Johnson quotes from le Corbusier, is the play
of forms under the light, the play of forms correct, wise and magnificent. 43
Unlike others in modernism, Johnsons first allegiance was to form, structure and
light and not use or purpose. By mid-century, this split was indicative of the divi-
sion in International Style and Western culture in general. One faction focused on
social concerns and the other, as represented by Johnsons early work, leaned toward
corporate, capitalist endeavors.
During the first half of this century, the aim of the artist/architect displays
itself in the clash between established, traditional values and modern sensibilities,
and the battle was waged over ornament. John Jacobus explained:
The iconoclastic attitude of the International Style architects with
respect to historical forms, together with their fondness for severe,
uncompromisingly plain designs, provided much more than the mere
illusion of novelty or the suggestion of gratuitous revolution. This
new architecture of the 1920s responded to that periods passionate
and idealistically motivated craving for the creation of fresh themes
and ideas that could contribute to a liberated, extroverted artistic
expression. ^
Typography shadowed the liberation and iconoclasm of historical style and
ornament in architecture. In 1917, architect, painter, and typographic designer Theo
van Doesburg launched the de Stijl movement in the Netherlands. De Stijl advocated
the merging of the pure arts with applied arts in a way suggestive of Morris. This
consolidation of the pure and applied arts would elevate everyday objects, such as
32


type, to the status of art. However, van Doesburg based his design philosophy on a
principle he called Elementarism. Elementarism calls for dynamic composition in
the pure plastic elements of art, line, color, and form. To the de Stijl members,
explained Philip Meggs, beauty arose from the absolute purity of the work. They
sought to purify art by banning naturalistic representation, eternal values, and
expressions of the individuals subjective whims. ^ With this in mind, Van
Doesburg preferred sans serif type for his designs because of its purity of form. For
him, sans serif typefaces express only the essential qualities of the letterform in a
clear, simple, non-ornamental structure. Sans serif typeface eliminates the serif and
its mimicking of the calligraphers hand, thus it becomes a more mentally conceived
and constructed object. Sans serif type also provides ample contrast to Victorian sen-
timentalities.
Van Doesburg meant for his designs, through their stark, asymmetrical
shapes, to express the general conciseness of their age. ^ De Stijl sought to
articulate the ideals of their age, and among those ideals were scientific theory,
mechanical production, rhythms of the modem city, and, ultimately, universal order.
In the 1950s, the universality of typographic design grew into what Meggs
called the International Typographic style. Swiss designer Josef Muller-Brockmann
was one of the leading proponents of this style of typographic design. Muller-
Brockmanns work emphasizes logic, mathematical harmonies and universality
rather than individualistic typographic communication. In this new and rational
age, ornament had no place. Brockmann elaborated, The designer must know and
accept the technical possibilities of modem typography and, instead of striving for
ornamental effects, he must be able to see his plan as a formal conception. ^7 For
33


Brockmann, this was a practical approach to practical problem solving. This
approach, for him, dispenses with individual arbitrariness and replaces romantic,
ornamental ideas concerning type design with solid, sure principles. The goal of his
design was to create an unadorned typographical form serving purely the needs of
pure, universal principles of communication.
Pure form, as opposed to ornament, was a hallmark in both the International
Styles of architectural and typographic design. By comparing Philip Johnsons floor
tion of design elements -
modem interpretations using a logical, mathematical treatment of form. What fol-
lows is a study along Wolfflins lines of comparative styles that illustrates two
things. One, both the International Styles of architecture and typography exhibit
parallel uses of design ornamentation, and two, they are expressions of the posi-
tivism of the mid twentieth century.
Both designs use the square in the division of space. In Johnsons house, the
basic floor plan is six-and-one-half squares wide by three squares deep. The right
side of the floor plan equals two-by-three squares and is asymmetrically balanced by
communication. For Brockmann, lack of ornament moves design closer to
. ....... , Figure 3.1 Philip
similarity in the mampula-
Figure 3.1 Philip Johnson, floor plans for the Farney
House, 1946.
34


the left side, which is one-by-three squares. Placement of the staircase falls on a
gridline of squares as does the bottom exterior wall that leads to the outside patio.
The closet wall in the largest room on the left-hand side of the plans also falls on a
gridline of squares. The two remaining rooms from the outside wall to the interior
closet wall form the golden section (the ancient Greek ideal for prefect proportion),
as does the master bathroom. By dissecting the middle section of the design begin-
ning from the one-by-three-square line on the left toward the gridline formed by the
patio, you find that this space also forms a golden section. The remaining patio
space is a duplication of the one-by-three format of the left-hand rooms. The overall
effect results in a clever use of mathematical proportions to control the systematic
use of space in a domestic building.
In a similarly typographic imple-
mentation of systematic design thinking,
Muller-Brockmann employs the same use
of the square and the golden section in the
design of his poster, Der Film. Brockmann
sets his poster format in the shape of a
golden section, three squares wide by five
squares tall, creating a fifteen-square mod-
ule. The top nine modules, ending at the
crossbar of the F form a square. The
Word Film from the right side of the ver-
tical stroke of the F occupies two mod-
ules. The secondary type, both top and bot- Figure 3.2 Josef Muller-Brockmann, Der
J F Film, 1960.
ilm
35


tom, is flush left to a secondary gridline formed by the leading edge of the letter F\
In both the floor plan and the poster, we see a deliberate use of mathematical
and, as Muller-Brockmann would say, universal principles applied to design. Ruskin,
Morris and Mackintoshs work, in both architecture and typography, established the
modem connection between art and applied design in common, everyday objects.
However, since Mackintosh, the tendency has been to strip both type and architecture
of ornament. Non-ornamental work became associated with progress and modernity,
and ornamentation was analogous with nostalgia. Worse yet, Loos saw ornament as
an impediment to human evolution and to employ it was a social and economic crime
against humanity. As Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said, Less is more.
36


CHAPTER 5
FROM 1880 TO 1960
Less is a bore Robert Venturi ^9
In the eighty years between the 1880s to the 1960s, ornamental styles in
architecture and typography changed from the decorative, romantic Gothic of Ruskin
and Morris to the linear, mathematical and geometrical applications of Johnson and
Muller-Brockmann. Ruskin and Morris rejected the machine age and used ornamen-
tal design to restore the moral ground of the past. Mackintosh and Loos celebrated
the possibilities of the machine by devising non-ornamental, streamlined visual
images. Johnson based his architectural plans solely on geometric forms that were,
at least to him, beyond moral question. Muller-Brockmanns typography designs
were meant to communicate data in the emerging information age.
Of course, change is a constant, and many historians view stylistic changes in
visual images as an index of social transformation. If we accept this premise, then
the changes that occur in the late 1960s in typographic design also indicate another
social transformation, and, not surprisingly, the revival of ornamentation marks this
change.
An early example of the break between modernism and post-modernism is
Architect Robert Venturi. Venturi became one of the most eloquent spokespersons
and practitioners of post-modern architectural design. His eclectic approach to archi-
tectural design includes the pop cultural influences of Las Vegas and irreverence
37


for the canons of the International style. Venturi's designs provide the viewer with
unexpected twists and turns as illustrated in his seemingly straightforward Guild
House, a project for the
elderly in Philadelphia in
1963 (Figure 3.1). In what
appears to be a modem
design in line with the
International Style, Venturi
adds quaint details such as
traditional sashed window
coverings and tops the
building with a decorative
TV antenna. In an almost
Figure 4.1 Robert Venturi's Guild House, Philadelphia,
playful manner, Venturi 1960-1963
subverts the apparently classical grid system set up by the widows by shifting the
grid planes from one surface to the next. The windows themselves are not uniform in
size. The overall affect of the building is one of subtle surprise and a notable break
from the universality of the International Style. His statement Less is a bore
speaks volumes on the sentiment of the pop culture of the 1960s. Like Venturis
designs, Haight-Asbury, Timothy Leary, Abbie Hoffman, and rock and roll music
expressed a longing to break free from the stifling uniformity of the 1940s and
1950s uniformity that was symbolized in Johnsons architecture and Muller-
Brockmanns typography.
38


Stylistic Change in Architecture
and Typography After Positivism
The comparison of Johnson and Muller-Brockmanns works helps to estab-
lish the continuity of style between architecture and typography. After the 1960s,
stylistic changes in both architecture and typography continue to parallel one anoth-
er. Designers in both disciplines exhibit many of the same attitudes and treat orna-
mentation in similar ways. The typographic design of Wolfgang Weingarts maga-
zine layout for Typografiche Monatsblater in 1974 (Figure 3.1), has many of the
same ornamental design characteristics as in Michael Gravess Portland Building in
1980 (Figure 3.2). Both use ornamentation to achieve the same affect an individu-
alistic, eccentric and personal approach to design problems.
In contrast to
Johnsons early works,
Graves takes an historically
eclectic approach to architec-
$$$
tural design. His ornamental
HdiS
rob?
*, zr *..I
t
<>Ui<
column design on the left
side of the building only
hints at structural reality. In
Figure 4.2 Wolfgang Weingart, Typografiche
fact, both column designs are Monatsblater, 1974.
merely decoration and not
structural at all. Historically, the column-like design on the right is reminiscent of
the campaniform capitols of Egypt's Middle Kingdom. The larger triangular shape
above them is a reflection of the decorative capitol design below. The overall stacked
39


feeling of the building is suggestive of clas-
sical Mayan temples. The windows of the
building repeat themselves in a familiar
classical grid, yet when they reach the tri-
angle shape on the right, they change to
reflect the decoration. The view from either
side of the building gives little clue as to
what is in store for the viewer of the other
side. It is as unpredictable in nature as
Johnson's Famey House is predictably geo-
metric. The eclectic nature of Graves's
Portland Building reflects the growing influence of non-European cultures in design,
as well as in society as large. Even Philip Johnson in his AT&T Building, 1980,
takes on certain post-modern eccentricities that are also found in typographic
designs. In Wolfflin's terms, Graves's work employs a romantic rather than a classi-
cal approach to ornamentation. Weingart's typographic work is equally reflective of a
romantic approach.
Further, by comparing the works of Josef Muller-Brockmanns Der Film, dis-
cussed earlier, and Wolfgang Weingarts 1974 layout in Typografiche Monatsblater
magazine, we can identify the revealing characteristics of stylistic change. Both
designs are representative of Muller-Brockmann and Weingarts overall work.
Weingart had studied typography at the Basle School of Design/Switzerland
in 1964. His teachers, Emil Ruder and Arimin Hofmann, were recognized leaders in
the International Style of typography. Weingart also taught at the Basle School and
Figure 4.3 Michael Graves, Portland
Building, 1980.
40


recounted:
When I began teaching in 1968, classical, so-called Swiss typogra-
phy (dating from the 1950s) was still commonly practiced by design-
ers through Switzerland and at our school [Basle School]. Its conserv-
ative design dogma and strict limitations stifled my playful, inquisi-
tive, experimental temperament and I reacted strongly against it.... I
try to teach students to view typography from all angles: type not
always to be set flush left/ragged right.... Typography must not be
dry, tight ordered or rigid.... perhaps [type] sometimes [should be] in
chaos. 50
The editor of Design Quarterly illustrated Weingarts position by comparing his
work to that of Hofmann, the Swiss master. Hofmann was an Apollonian theoretician
whereas Weingart was a Dionysian eccentric. 51 With the former, type must be
assessed carefully; in the latter, said Weingart, It is necessary to feel that sense of
freedom to produce good work. 52 What Weingart implies in his comment is a dra-
matic change in style from the International approach to a New Wave sense of
design. It also represents a change in the role of ornament from logical and
impersonal to whimsical and individualistic.
As they apply to typographic design, Wolfflin's classifications can be
used to portray Muller-Brockmanns Der Film as highly controlled, classical
thought, and Weingarts magazine layout as emotional, romantic design. What fol-
lows are Wolfflins definitions of his terms as they apply to the study of the typo-
graphic works of Muller-Brockmann and Weingart. What this comparison illustrates
is a dramatic stylistic change in typographic design, and what it infers is a Wolfflin-
like corresponding change in Zeitgeist.
Linear versus Painterly emphasizes line and structure in creating tangible,
41


solid shapes as opposed to the use of volumes and outlines that merge and shift to
create a quality of moving masses of shapes, in Muller-Brockmanns classical
approach to work, the fifteen modules of space are defined by the linear structures of
the typeface itself. He achieves this by lining up type to the edges of the modules,
exposing the fifteen squares that form the golden section and reveal the grid plane.
Even the secondary grid constituting the small type top and bottom organizes
itself into the subordinate visual lines formed by the contrast of lights and darks at
the intersection to the F in film.
Weingarts romantic approach to design is different. The creation of outlined
shapes of the central cartoon bubble overlap and merge with the surrounding spaces.
The jagged edge cutout on the extreme left of the design repeats itself in its opposite
form as arrows along the bottom half of the page. The irregularly shaped blocks con-
taining photographs and text build into a pattern subverting the discovery of the
overall structure of the design. Shapes are used not for revealing structure, but as
emotional expressions of shapes in and of themselves.
Plane versus Recession is the difference between devising carefully regulated
and highly organized shapes and spaces so as not to impinge on one another as
opposed to creating dramatic movement using diagonal lines, as well as deliberately
obscuring spatial relationships to create tension. Muller-Brockmanns Der Film
treats each individual shape as a unique and separate form. Although the words
Der and Film overlap, both remain in highly defined boxes. Further, all solid
and negative spaces are contained on the surface plane locked to the paper as it
were.
Weingarts layout, on the other hand, exercises dramatic diagonal lines com-
42


ing from the mouths of the two figures in the upper right to counteract the horizontal
and vertical movements of type and geometric boxes. The uneven and jagged pat-
terns of the figures and shapes break into one another, imposing form on top of form
in ways that project the overall image off the picture plane and into space. (An aside:
Early on, Weingart used a technique of overlaying film to create both implied and
real depth in his work.)
Closed form versus Open form distinguishes the use of lines and shapes to
define a self-contained structure as opposed to lines and forms that allow the image
to appear and disappear, and instead structure is formed more out of contrasts
between light and dark. This definition carries some characteristics of the first two
terms. However, it exhibits itself in Muller-Brockmanns work as lines that form a
self-described grid pattern. Again, the items in Der Film are also used to expose the
underlying organization of the work.
In Weingarts layout, the edges of the forms, rather than describing structure,
interact and merge with one another. The top of the central bubble blends into the
white space above it. The diagonal lines of the two figures on the right are exten-
sions of the lines of the garment in the female figure to the left. The effect of this is
the appearance/disappearance of defined objects, replaced by the emergence of
blending patterns.
Multiplicity versus Unity, the difference here is that, in multiplicity, each part
of the whole can exist independently of the others but is organized in harmony with
one another, and unity consists of the subjugation of parts to the overall effect of the
design. Muller-Brockmanns poster is an excellent example of what Wolfflin means
by multiplicity. Each element is fully developed within its own right. The type, car-
43


rying information regarding time and dates, is exquisitely placed at the top and bot-
tom of the poster. Type placement has rightness all by itself, and each of the inde-
pendent parts work together to achieve harmonic balance of the whole.
Conversely, Weingarts layout achieves unity not through any one element,
but by the overall effect of all the parts together. No one part is emphasized over
another. The unity of the work produces an overarching visual impression, and not a
regulating structure.
Absolute Clarity versus Relative Clarity uses clarity of line as an organizing
principle to produce smooth, static finishes, as opposed to the use of color and value
to produce dramatic, agitated surface movements. Muller-Brockmann demonstrates
the use of lines, shapes and patterns to produce a calculated, static quality. Der Film
is design that is controlled, orderly and harmonious.
The drama in Weingarts work is the antithesis of Muller-Brockmanns. The
patterns of light and dark create motion on the page. Two-dimensional space is
forced to move back and forth across the surface of the page. There is a lack of
solidity to the forms and in their place, is an agitation of space. ^
In looking at these two designers under a Wolfflin-like glass, we can recog-
nize the telltale signs of changing styles within society. Both the changes in style
and society are amply recorded in the typographic designers use of ornament.
44


CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION
First we design our buildings and then they design us. Winston Churchill
Whether it was the man or the sound of his words, Churchills utterances ring
with a certain truth. He suggested that the visionary builders of a period can design
their own future. The shapes and sizes they choose, as well as the forms and orna-
ments, help to predict who we all become. If this is true, then we can only know our
present situation by reading backwards. Architecture and typography hold the same
potential for both reading the past, and, for some, predicting the future. Over the past
one hundred and ten years, both architectural and typographic designs have exhibited
patterns of change that parallel one another in the rise and fall of the use of orna-
ment and parallel shifts within society.
By viewing type design through the eyes of Heinrich Wolfflin, the movement
from the International Style of typography in the 1950s to New Wave typography in
the late 1960s indicates a distinct change in attitudes toward the use of ornament. To
identify stylistic or social change is one thing; to interpret it, is altogether different.
How can we best understand the changes in style that occur between Philip
Johnsons glass boxes and Robert Venturis controversial thinking on Las Vegas
the tacky wonderland of the middle classes? How do we assess the effects of
Johnsons mentor Mies van der Rohe, who was famous for his statement Less is
45


more? Clearly, Johnsons early architecture is as far as one could move from
Morriss ideal of morality in craftsmanship. For Johnson, architecture was form and
space in light and that was that an amoral venture into plastic elements of design.
Client concerns, comfort and the rest were considered to be architectural crutches.
Venturis statement Less is a bore was made into flesh and bones, or
should it be said wood and steel, by a playful use of common, even tacky influences,
such as the architecture on the Las Vegas strip. Was it simply boredom that caused
Venturi to turn from the impersonal, classical forms of the International Style? Can
Wolfgang Weingart offer no better reasons for his rejection of the International Style
of typography other than he felt restricted by it? Or were both designers expressing
changes in social attitude? We can say for sure that, in both cases, the use of orna-
mentation was an identifying factor in the changes of style, but what more can we
say?
Certainly, if Behrens is right in his 1909 statement concerning type and archi-
tecture as one of the most eloquent means of expression in every epoch of style,
then he is speaking in terms that border on myth myth in the sense that these styl-
istic forms tell a story of certain aspects of modem life.
Can the construction of letterforms as well as the buildings where we live and
work truly be considered as modem myth? Roland Barthes reminds us that myth can
be formed from any material. Myth, said Barthes, is not defined by the object of
its message, but by the way in which it utters this message. For example, when
we look at architecture and typography, Barthes suggests that the most fruitful inter-
pretation of Muller-Brockmanns Der Film poster and Johnsons Famey House is
that they are not simply statements about the time and the location of the show or an
46


innovative use of a floor plan, rather they are ways to understand modern life. In both
cases, the ways in which the forms organize into architectural and typographic hierar-
chies and stark contrasts are telling indicators of a certain cultural milieu. The clarity
sought by Johnson and Muller-Brockmann reflects the longing for surety and univer-
sality of early modernist design canons of modernism. These canons mirror the cul-
tural need for order and structure that marks much of the twentieth century. For
instance, Gropiuss Bauhaus was an attempt to re-engineer industrialized Europe
through the arts. The role of many twentieth-century designers in both architecture
and typography was to align an emerging society with modem industries.
Ornamentation in both fields reflects a desire to order the world and a belief that
design can effect positive social change. Like Morris and Ruskin before him, Gropius
believed that human beings have the power to restore order to a chaotic world. In a
similar way, but to more horrifying affects. Hitlers Germany, Stalins Russia and
McCarthyism in the United Sates also exhibited a twisted faith in the human ability to
impose social order. The design choices of Muller-Brockmann and Johnson are evi-
dence of the attempt to engineer a new social order through the most basic artifacts of
modem life, reading materials and buildings.
In the United States, Johnsons brand of architecture and its faith in the math-
ematical applications of architectural design reflects a culture order that has an
almost absolute faith in rational, scientific and technological thinking. Johnsons
trust in systematic geometry to produce good design is not too far removed from the
publics trust in John F. Kennedys faith in scientific technological achievements
a faith that led eventually to landing men on the moon. Muller-Brockmanns Der
Film reflects a similar desire for scientific clarity in its direct, logical use of materi-
47


als and division of space to produce modem, concise communications. As Behrens
suggests, Muller-Brockmanns treatment of type gives a characteristic portrait of a
period, a period that put its faith in the rightness of human achievement through
logic classical thought superseding romantic emotion.
Conversely, Weingarts typographic individualism exhibits the post-modem
tendency toward the dismissal of canon and the fracturing of truth into a multiplicity
of opinions and personalities a distrust of the ideas of the previous generation.
Like Weingarts designs, Michael Gravess Portland Building subverts the viewers
ability to discover immediately solid structural elements and instead, gives way to
romantic, playful interpretations of forms that move about freely in space reminis-
cent of the new social freedoms of the post-modem world. After the 1960s, Western
culture found it hard to place its trust in modernist doctrine. The drug culture, stu-
dents protesting against the war in Vietnam, sit-ins, walk-outs, and drop-outs are all
examples of the tearing of social fabric.
It is clear that the nostalgia of Ruskin and Morris is different in kind than
Graves's or Weingart's. Both styles use history as a source for ornamentation. But
Morris uses Gothic as a shield to ward off the advancement of industrialization. He
longed for the comfort and surety in his romanticized golden age of Gothic. Graves's
Weingart and Venturi, on the other hand, use historical forms as experiments, placing
one period to the next in a collage of history. Their designs come after the
International Style with its certainty of form and their missions create a universal
language of visual communication, albeit a mission that splits into two factions.
Weingart and Venturi are actively rejecting modernism's call for clarity and rational
classicism. Instead, the eclectic nature of their works indicates a desire to create for
48


the sake of creation, to experiment with form and ornament to manufacture a way
out of modernism.
This study in ornamentation in architecture and typography reveals the pat-
tern of the modernists movement. The late nineteenth century ornamentation of
Ruskin and Morris reflects the fear and hesitation in the move toward industrializa-
tion and how that will affect humanity. Ruskin and Morris would have the artists
and craftsmen link arms one next to the other in an effort to maintain the dignity of
humankind against the relentless onslaught of the machine. Loos, Gropius, van
Doesburg, and later, Johnson and Muller-Brockmann accept -- even celebrate -
modernism. They were impressed with its potential to effect social change. Form in
both architecture and typography was executed with the careful, methodological cer-
tainty of the engineer -- as if modernism could engineer its own destiny. On the
other hand, Weingart, Graves, and Venturi run contrary to the International Style.
They are bored with certainty. Instead, their eclectic, haphazard, frantic arrange-
ments attempt to design themselves out of the comer into which modernism had
painted itself -- to reinvent themselves out of the failure of modernism.
Jan Tschichold, a highly influential typographic designer and a contemporary
of van Doesburg, summed up the modernist dilemma in a most personal and elo-
quent way. In 1925, Tschichold wrote The New Typography, a text that stridently
extols the virtues of the newfound clarity in type design. In a 1959 address to the Art
Directors Club in New York City, he gave a compelling speech expressing the short-
comings of the International Style. In his speech Tschichold said:
A few years after Die Neue Typographie, Hitler came. I was accused
of creating 'un-German' typography and art..In time, typographi-
49


cal things, in my eyes, took on a very different aspect, and to my
astonishment I detected most shocking parallels between the teach-
ings of Die Neue Typographie and National Socialism and fascism....
Obvious similarities consist in the ruthless restriction of typefaces, a
parallel to Goebbel's infamous gleichschaltung.... Typography should
be allowed individuality; this is to appear as different as the people
around us, just as there are girls and men, fat and thin, wise and stu-
pid, serious and gay, easily pleased and fussy. ^
In the end, Tschichold called on typographic design to allow for human
desire and the need for variety.
According to Barthes, It [myth] is therefore by no means confined to oral
speech. It can consist of modes of writing or of representation; not only written dis-
course but also photography, cinema, reporting, sport, shows, publicity, all these can
serve as a support to mythical speech. Myth can be defined neither by its object nor
by its material, for any material can arbitrarily be endowed with meaning. ^6 Under
Barthes definition, architecture and typography certainly fall within the description of
symbolic, mythological language; and it would be hard to fathom anything more sym-
bol-driven than the letterform. If we can learn to separate the content of letters,
words, and paragraphs from their forms, we also may discover a deeper understand-
ing of how myth plays out in the commonplace world of typography.
In truth, there is nothing magical about the shift from the classical
International Style to the romantic New Wave typography. To Wolfflins way of think-
ing, it is apart of a natural generational cycle, the new generation rejecting the
premises of the older generation. Nor are changes in style as clear cut as has been
presented here. Modernism in architecture didnt begin at the turn of this century, and
New Wave typography didnt simply appear in 1968 with Weingart. Modernist
50


thought in architecture reaches back to the nineteenth century, as evidenced by the
modem prefabrication of glass and steel in the 1851 Crystal Palace. Similarly, typog-
raphys post-modem roots go back at least as far as 1913, with the ideas of Marcel
Duchamp, the Futurists, and, later, Dada. However, it is interesting that the timing of
the stylistic changes from the International Style to New Wave correlates with when
these particular ideas were in vogue with pop culture they had the ability to
communicate to the public. Public design in both architecture and typographic is a
cultural marker indicating the acceptance and or rejection of the artistic and social
visionaries of the past, an index of social transition. Wolfflins architectural compar-
isons as applied to typography provide a method for identifying the stylistic change
between the International Style and New Wave. But, those changes in style also repre-
sent changes in social character. Therefore, changes in the style of architectural and
typographic designs represent the promise of a Wolfflin-like connection between
visual images and the cultural Zeitgeist. Because of this, we discover that type pro-
vides us with another avenue in which to explore social change. Type, as Behrens
said, is one of the most eloquent means of expression in every epoch of style. Next
to architecture, it gives the most characteristic portrait of a period and the most severe
testimony of a nations intellectual status. In architecture, we can understand style as
it relates to culture, and in type, we may learn to read the signs of social change,
and, as Churchill suggests, we become what we design.
51


ENDNOTES
1. As quoted in Edward M. Gottschall, Typographic Communications Today,
(Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1989), p. 102.
2. Spiro Kostof, A History of Architecture, Settings and Rituals, (New York:
Oxford University Press,
1995), p. 635
3. As quoted in Charles Harrison and Paul Wood, Art in Theory 1900-1990: An
Anthology of Changing Ideas, (Oxford: Blackwell Publisher, 1994), p. 131.
4. Ibid, p. 131.
5. Ibid, p. 131.
6. Philip B. Meggs, A History of Graphic Design 2nd ed. (New York: Van
Nostrand Reinhold, 1992), p. 174.
7. As quoted in Kenneth Clark, Ruskin Today (New York: Holt, Rinehart and
Winston, 1964), p. 283.
8. Ibid, p. 283.
9. Ian Bradley, William Morris and His World (New York: Charles Scribners
Sons, 1978), p. 11.
10. Clark, Ruskin Today, p. 255.
11. Ibid, p. 255.
12. George P. Landow, Ruskin (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985),
p. 56.
13. Ibid, pp. 59-60.
14. Clark, Ruskin Today, p. 251.
52


15. Edmund B. Feldman, The Artist: A Social History (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice
Hall, Inc., 1995), p. 73.
16. Clark, Ruskin Today, p. 235.
17. Ibid, p. 235.
18. Eandow, Ruskin, pp. 5-6.
19. Anonymous. [03-04-97J. William Morris and His Circle (Harry Ransom
Humanities Research Center, The
University of Texas at Austin [On-line],
http://www.lib.utexas.edU/Libs/HRC/HRHRC/morris.htm#morris soocialist) p. 2.
20. Nikolaus Pevsner, Pioneers of Modem Design (New York: The Museum of
Modem Art, 1949), p. 9
21. Ibid, p. 9.
22. William Morris, (03-04-97). The Decorative Arts, Their Relation to Modem
Life and Progress. (J. B. Burrows & Company [On-line]
http://www.burrows.eom/dec.5.html). p. 1.
23. Meggs, A History of Graphic Design, p. 174.
24. Bradley, William Morris and His World, p. 28.
25. Ibid, p. 30.
26. Meggs, A History of Graphic Design, p. 174.
27. Bradley, William Morris and His World, p. 100.
28. Ibid, p. 182.
29. William Morris, (03-04-97). The Decorative Arts, Their Relation to Modem
Life and Progress. (J. B. Burrows & Company [On-line],
http://www.burrows.eom/dec.5.html). part 3, p. 1.
30. Alexander Domer, The Way Beyond Art (New York: New York University Press,
1958), p. 127.
53


31. Ibid, p. 126.
32. Pevsner, Pioneers of Modern Design, p. 14.
33. Ibid, pp. 12-13
34. Ibid, p. 19.
35. Ibid, p. 100.
36. Heinrich Wolfflin, Principles of Art History: The Problem of the Development of
Style in Later Art (New York:Dover Publications, Inc., 1950) p. 233.
37. Ludwig Munz and Gustav Kunstler, Adolf Loos, Pioneer of Modern
Architecture (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, Publishers, 1966), p. 277.
38. Ibid, p. 231.
39. Meggs, A History of Graphic Design, p. 295.
40. John M. Jacobus, Philip Johnson (New York: George Braziller, 1962), p. 119.
41. Ibid, p. 118.
42. Ibid, p. 121.
43.Ibid, p. 117.
44. Ibid, pp. 11-12.
45. Meggs, A History of Graphic Design 2nd ed, p. 280.
46. Ibid.
47. Gottschall, Typographic Communications Today, p. 46.
48. Ibid.
49. Paul Goldberger, Less is More Mies van der Rohe. Less is a Bore Robert
Venturi. The New York Times
54


Magazine, October 17, 1971, p. 34.
50. Wolfgang Weingart, My Typography Instruction at the Basle School of Design,
Switzerland, 1968 to 1985. {Design Quarterly, 130), pp. 1.
51. Mildred Friedam, Armin Hofmann: Thoughts on the Study and Making of
Visual Sings, Basle School of Design/Yale School of Art, 1947 to 1985. {Design
Quarterly, 130), p. 1.
52. Wolfgang Weingart, Teaching Sensitivity to Type. (Step-By-Step Graphics.,
Vol. 6, No. 2), p. 185.
53. Based on notes from Wolfflin, Principles of Art History: The Problem of the
Development of Style in Later Art.
54. As quoted in Harrison and Wood, Art in Theory 1900-1990: An Anthology of
Changing Ideas, p. 688.
55. Gottschall, Typographic Communications Today, p. 43.
56. Ibid, p. 689.
55


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