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Patterns of interactions among black organizations

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Title:
Patterns of interactions among black organizations
Creator:
Trotman, Patricia Curry
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English
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x, 107 leaves : ; 29 cm

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Subjects / Keywords:
African Americans -- Societies, etc -- Colorado -- Denver Metropolitan Area ( lcsh )
African Americans -- Societies, etc ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver Metropolitan Area ( fast )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 77-82).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts, Department of Communication.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Patricia Curry Trotman.

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Source Institution:
|University of Colorado Denver
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|Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
17998042 ( OCLC )
ocm17998042
Classification:
LD1190.L48 1987m .T76 ( lcc )

Full Text
PATTERNS OF INTERACTIONS
AMONG BLACK ORGANIZATIONS
BY
Patricia Curry Trotman
B.A., Metropolitan State College, 1981
A thesis submitted to the
Faculty of the Graduate School of the
University of Colorado in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Arts
Department of Communication
1987




Trotman, Patricia Curry CM.A., Communication)
Patterns of Interactions among Black Organizations
Thesis directed by Associate Professor Jon A.
Winterton
The present Investigation concerns itself with
the frequency of interactions which occur between
black organizations. The term, frequency of
interactions, refers to how often contacts (verbal or
written) occur between organizations. The study
contends that the frequency with which black
organizations interact varies depending upon the
following factors of interorganizational
relationships: (1) the Importance of contacts for the
operations of an organization, (2) the extent of
benefits resulting from a relationship, (3) the
quality of the working relationship, (4) the quality
of the coordination, (5) the quality of the
communication, (6) the power of the other
organization, (7) the performance of the other
organization, and (8) the competence of the other
organization's personnel.
The study examines exclusively the
lnterorganizational relationships of the Urban League
of Metropolitan Denver, Inc., an historically


lv
proclaimed black organization, with selected black
organizations in its local environment. Thirty-one
black organizations randomly selected from a list of
black organizations in the 1985 Directory of Civic and
Social Organizations in Denver Black Communities
responded to the research survey. Data were collected
in face-to-face interviews with informants selected by
the organizations to represent them. The results of
the study are discussed in terms of the informants''
perceptions of their organization's relationships with
the Denver Urban League.
It is the hope of this study to stimulate
continued research of black organizational
interactions. Many have chronicled the development of
black organizations, yet we know so very little about
the patterns of Interactions which occur among these
organizations. Consequently, avenues for future
studies are cited.


DEDICATION
This thesis is dedicated to my husband,
Monroe, our sons, Monroe III and Thomas, and my
grandmother, Leeanna Curry for their love, support and
understanding throughout this challenging process.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
A sincere appreciation Is extended to the
Urban League of Metropolitan, Denver, Inc. for their
support in this thesis; to Dr. George Bardwell for his
support and encouragement to the accomplishment of the
thesis; and to Dr. Samuel Betty for his guidance in
the early development of the study.
Also, I wish to thank the members of my
committee, Drs. Jon Winterton, Robley Rhine and J.
Atman Hutchinson, for their generous contribution in
terms of time and constructive commentary to the
drafts of this study. To Dr. Winterton for assuming
primary responsibility for the management of the
thesis process, I am eternally grateful. His guidance
has been Indispensable in making this thesis a
reali ty.
Lastly, to my family and friends for their
ever present and warm support, I thank you.


CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION............................... 1
II. LITERATURE REVIEW........................... 6
Interorganizational Relations
Research................................ 6
Limitation of Interorganizational
Relations Research Addressed In
this Study............................. 11
The Framework............................ 13
Summary.................................. 19
III. METHODOLOGY................................ 20
Type of Study............................ 20
Selection of Subjects.................... 21
Focal Organization................... 22
Respondents............................ 24
Variables of Study...................... 27
Method of Data Collection................ 29
Interview Procedure.................... 31
The Pilot Study....................r ... 33
Data Analysis and Statistical
Methods................................ 35
Profile of Responding Organizations... 39
Summary
42


vi i i
IV. RESULTS.................................... 44
Analyses of Hypotheses................... 44
Hypothesis 1........................... 44
Hypothesis 2.......................... 47
Hypothesis 3........................... 49
Hypothesis 4........................... 50
Hypothesis 5........................... 54
Hypothesis 6........................... 56
Hypothesis 7......................... 63
Hypothesis 8........................... 65
Summary................................. 67
V. DISCUSSION................................ 69
Summary and Conclusions.................. 69
Limitations of Study.................... 73
Avenues for Future Research.............. 74
BIBLIOGRAPHY.................................... 77
APPENDIX
A. LETTER TO THE URBAN LEAGUE OF
METROPOLITAN DENVER, INC.................... 83
B. THE BLACK ORGANIZATIONS LISTED IN
THE 1985 DIRECTORY OF CIVIC AND
SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONS IN DENVER'S
BLACK COMMUNITIES........................... 85
C. SURVEY QUESTIONS.......................... 102


TABLES
Table
4.1. s There is a significant
relationship between perceived
importance of contacts and .
frequency of interactions between
black organizations (questions 11
and 13)..........................
4.2. H2: There is a significant
relationship between perceived
relational benefits and frequency
of interactions between black
organizations (questions 11 and 14)...
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
H3: There is a significant
relationship between perceived
quality of the working relationship
and frequency of interactions
between black organizations
(questions 11 and 15)..............
H4j There is a significant
relationship between perceived
quality of coordination in a
relationship and frequency of
interactions between black
organizations (questions 11 and 16)...
Hg! There is a significant
relationship between perceived
quality of communication in a
relationship and frequency of
interactions between black
organizations (questions 11 and 17)...
Hg: There is a significant
relationship between perceived
power of other black organizations
and frequency of interactions with
them (questions 11 and 24)........
46
48
51
53
55
58


X
4.7. Hgj There is a significant
relationship between perceived
power of other black organizations
and frequency of interactions with
them (questions 11 and 25)............. 60
4.8. Hgj There is a significant
relationship between perceived
power of other black organizations
and frequency of interactions with
them (questions 11 and 26)............. 62
4.9. Hy: There is a significant
relationship between perceived
performance of other black
organizations and frequency of
interactions with them (questions
11 and 27)............................. 64
4.10. Hg: There is a significant
relationship between perceived
competence of other black
organizations personnel and
frequency of interactions with
them (questions 11 and 28)............. 66


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Organizations are social units that exist
within an environment or milieu. They consist of two
or more people involved in a cooperative relationship,
which Implies some kind of collective goal(s) or
output(s). The members of the organization differ in
terms of function, and they maintain a stable and
explicit hierarchical structure (Strother, 1963).
Earlier research on organizations has been
concerned with intraorganizational analyses (e.g.,
Argyris, 1964} Bales, 1970; Barnard, 1938; Bormann, et
al., 1969; Haire, 1959; Leavitt, 1963; Likert, 1967;
McGregor, 1960; Redding, 1972; Schein, 1965; Weick,
1969). Common Issues of investigation' Include the
study of individuals within organizations;
interpersonal relationships among organizational
members; group behavior; and the structure, hierarchy,
and authority relationships found in organizations.
Attention to the Interrelationships of phenomena was
confined most often to units or groups within the same
organizational structure.


2
In recent years, researchers began to realize
that organizations are a part of larger social
systems, and as such, should be examined in relation
to other units in the total system (e.g., Katz and
Kahn, 1966; Thompson, 1967). This general view of
organizations has been refined by postulating that
organizations are "open" systems. An "open" system,
by definition, interacts with its environment. It
receives energy from its environment, transforms that
energy into a product or service characteristic of the
system, exports that product or service into the
environment, and reenergizes the system from energy
sources found once again in the environment (Katz and
Kahn, 1966).
As a result of the "open" systems theory, the
study of organization-environment relations has
received the critical attention of organizational
theorists (e.g., Aldrich, 1979; Duncan, 1972; Mulford,
1984; Pfeffer and Salanick, 1978; Terryberry, 1968;
Thompson and McEwert, 1969). The concentration of this
research has been primarily on exploring the
relationships of organizations with other
organizations In their environment. The guiding
philosophy behind these studies is the assumption that
organizations Interact with other organizations in


3
order to acquire needed resources for the realization
of their respective goals or objectives.
Levine and White (1961, p. 585) write:
In order to achieve its specific objectives,
however, an agency must possess or control certain
elements. It must have clients to serve; it must
have resources in the form of equipment,
specialized knowledge, or the funds with which to
procure them; and it must have the services of
people who can direct these resources to the
clients.
. . Usually agencies are unable to obtain
all the elements they need from the community or
through their individual efforts and, accordingly,
have to turn to other agencies to obtain
additional elements.
Despite, however, the flurry of interest in
studying interorganizational relationships, the state
of the art has not reached its full potential. For
example, our knowledge about the interactions which
occur among black organizations, for the most part,
remains minimal.
Black organizations are those organizations
that are set up basically to assist black people in
their efforts to Improve standards of living
(Yearwood, 1980). Literature that have discussed the
interrelationships of these organizations tend to
characterize the organizations' interactions as being
cooperative at one extreme, or intensely hostile and
conflictive at the other (e.g., Yearwood, 1980). But,


4
as far as can be determined, limited empirical
research exists on black organizational interactions.
Johnson (1980, p. 108), in an article on black
organizational development, writes:
Blacks in coming together have demonstrated
conscious motivation around mutual Interest and
activity. And [black] organizations have further
explicated their organizational purposes and goals
with formal documents related to their existence.
There is, however, the need to seek further the
identification of variables which relate to the
interaction which occurs between black
organizations and their members.
The present thesis moves in the direction of
Identifying variables that relate to the interactions
between black organizations as it explores the
frequency of Interactions between the Urban League of
Metropolitan Denver, Inc. and selected black
organizations in its local environment. The term,
frequency of interactions, refers to the number of
times organizations have contacts (verbal or written)
with each other. A study of the frequency of
interactions between black organizations is viewed as
being important for the development of theory on black
organizational interactions. It not only establishes
the intensity of interactions between black
organizations, but it also allows an investigator to
discover factors leading to the development and
maintenance of interorganizational relations.


5
In the ensuing chapters of this document, an
account of the completed research is given. Chapter
two provides some background on previous research
conducted on interorganizational relations and sets
forth the framework for this study. Chapter three
describes the methodology of the study, and in chapter
four, the findings of the research are presented.
Finally, the fifth chapter discusses the research and
the conclusions reached, and recommends avenues for
future research.


CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW
Relatively little attention has been given to
the study of black organizational interactions.
However, the study of interorganizational relations in
general has received the critical attention of
organization theorists in recent years. The purpose
of this chapter, therefore, is to review previous
research that has been conducted on
interorganizational relations and to utilize the
research to set forth a framework for the present
study. In the following sections of this chapter,
common themes and approaches evident in the field of
interorganizational relations are discussed. Then
follows the framework for studying the interactions of
the black organizations participating in this thesis.
Interorganizational Relations Research
Interorganizational relations refer to al1
kinds of interactions, from antagonistic to
cooperative, between organizations (Rogers, 1974).
The greatest attention to Interorganizational
relations research, however, has been through studies


7
interpreting the coordination between organizations
Hall, et al., 1977; Levine and White, 1961; Reid,
1969; Rogers, et al., 1982). Most of these studies
regard interorganizational coordination as a highly
valued outcome. Reid <1969, p. 176), in his study on
the coordination in social welfare programs, writes:
It is well known that most of our social
welfare programs have been handicapped by the
frequent failure of participating organizations to
coordinate their activities. At the same time
instances of close cooperation among social
welfare organizations are by no means rare. That
interorganizatlonal coordination occurs in some
situations, but not in others, is a puzzling
phenomenon which has yet to be explained. Even
more perplexing particularly to community
practitioners is the problem of how to achieve
more effective interorganizatlonal coordination
when there is a desired goal.
Coordination,
defined as the extent
integrated their actlv
in the broadest sense,
to which organizations
lties with one another
is
have
According to Hall, et al., <1977, p. 459):
Coordination occurs as organizations attempt
to attain their goals or carry out their programs
and probably at the same time that they are trying
to cope with their environment. ...
relationships could be minimal, only occurring
when a particular focal organization had to take
another organization into account. Or, at the
other extreme, organizations could merge as
programs and cost conditions make the maintenance
of separate ent1ties difficu1t. Coordination can
be formalized, as in computerized transmittal of
routine information, or informal, as when a member
of one organization telephones to check some
information with a friend in another organization.
Coordination may cover only a few facets of the


8
potential interactions among organizations, or the
organizations can participate in Joint meetings in
which all phases of their operations are discussed
and plans for continued coordination developed.
Coordination can also Involve the resolution of
conflict among organizations.
In his discussion on interorganizational
coordination, Davidson <1976, p.120) proposed five
types of coordination among organizations. They are
presented below In ascending order of complexity.
1. Communication Coordination Organizations
are doing no more than talking together, sharing
information, ideas, and feelings about the shape
of their shared world.
2. Cooperation Coordination Organizations
work together" on some small project. This stage
is characterized by informality of the
arrangements and a degree of vagueness of the
tasks to be accomplished or even the broader goals
to be achieved.
3. CmfA arrangements between organizations become more
formalized and the tasks more clearly limited and
well defined. However, the relationship is still
11 loose" and without formal sanctions for
nonparticipation.
. 4. Federation Coordination The
organizations are willing to define the goals and
'tasks precisely and to create a formal structure
to carry them out. They are also willing to cede
a degree of their autonomy to the joint structure.
5. Merger Coordination The joint structure
is formalized to the point that the original
organizations are willing to give up their
identities as organizations, at least regarding
the specific domain take place, and merge, to form a new formal
organization.
In an attempt to synthesize the literature on
Interorganizational coordination, Marrett <1971, pp.


89-95) performed a useful disaggregation of the
concept of coordination, suggesting the following
dimensions for research analysis:
9
1. Formalization the extent to which a
given relationship is formally agreed upon by the
parties involved, or maintained by an
intermediary.
2. Intensltv the size of the resource
investment in the transaction and the frequency of
lnterorganizational contact.
3. Reciprocity the degree to which there Is
a balance in resources exchanged and the extent to
which terms of the transaction are mutually
reached.
4. Standardization the fixedness of the
units of exchanges and the procedures used in a
transaction.
Since interorganizational research is broadly
conceived as an effort to predict, explain, and
understand relationships between organizations,
dimensions of lnterorganizational coordination are
generally coupled with other dimensions of
interorganizational relations in research studies.
These include:
1. Cooperat1 on the extent to which
organization members perceive that the
interactions with another organization are
agreeable 2. Conf11ct the extent to which staff
members of an organization perceive that the
interactions with another organization are
characterized with disputes and disagreements
1979).


10
3. Dependency the extent to which
organization members perceive that an interacting
organization is critical to the mission of the
organization (e.g., Hall, et al., 1977; Rogers,
1974; Schmidt and Kochan, 1977).
4. Competition the extent to which
organization members see the interacting
organization as a competitor for scarce resources
(e.g., Akinbode and Clark, 1976; Raelin, 1977).
5. Power of Alter Organization the extent
to which organization members perceive that the
interacting organization has the ability to affect
or influence the works of other organizations
and Kochan, 1977).
6. Performance of Alter Organization the
extent to which organization members perceive the
interacting organization as being successful in
its mission (e.g.. Hall, et al., 1977; Raelin,
1977).
7. Competence of Personnel the extent to
which organization members view the personnel of
the interacting organization as competent or
capable in performing organizational functions
(e.g., Rae1i n, 1977).
Halpert (1982, pp. 57-65), who also has
conducted an analysis of the general literature on
interorganlzationaT coordi-nation, lists a number of
antecedent conditions that affect an organization's
decision to coordinate and the coordinative activity
itself. For the most part, the conditions are
interpretive in nature and involve the attitudes,
values, and perceptions of organization members.
According to Halpert, antecedent conditions that
facilitate coordination Include:


11
# positive attitudes toward working with
other organizations in a joint endeavor;
# positive evaluations of other organization
and its staff;
# perceived need for some type of joint
endeavor to fulfill an organizational goal;
# perception of benefits or rewards accruing
from a coordinative activity;
# perceived partial interdependence;
# similar goals, interests and needs;
# common definitions, ideologies, approaches
and commitments to resolve environmental problems,
Issues and needs; and
# good historical relations.
Antecedent conditions that Inhibit
interorganizatlonal coordination include:
* vested interests;
* perceived loss of organizational and
program identity;
# perceived loss of organizational autonomy;
* perceived competition;
# di fferent priorities, ideologies , outlooks
and goals; and
* poor historical relations.
Limitation of Interorganizatlonal
Relations Research Addressed
in this Study
Although the body of thought known as
interorganization relations has matured to the present
stage of intensive empirical investigation, there is a


12
need for more embracing studies. For we know very
little about the interrelationships of black
organizations. If we are to define research as Winans
(1915, p. 201) did, as a search for Insight about any
subject, then we need to seek further the
identification of variables that relate to the
interactions between black organizations.
Research is simply a determined effort, by
sound methods, to find out the truth about any
subject. It does not accept traditions at face
value or Jump at conclusions; but it puts all to
the test of investigation.
In this manner, we cannot Jump to the
conclusion that our present knowledge on
interorganizational relations encompasses all groups
of organizations. We need to search for facts under
specified conditions. Blacks constitute the largest
minority group in this country, sometimes estimated at
well over 22 million people (Johnson, 1975). Blacks
also make up the largest minority grouping in
voluntary association participation (William, et al.,
1973). Yearwood (1978) found that in 1976, there were
at least 244 national black "active" organizations in
the United States with an estimated 26,720,000
membership. Such groups continue in their growth
pattern and warrant attention to their Influence upon
interorganizational relations theories. The present
study addresses directly this limitation of


13
interorganizational relations research as it explores
the frequency of Interactions between the Denver Urban
League and selected black organizations in its local
environment. In the following section, the framework
for this analysis is presented.
The Framework
The present investigation examines exclusively
the interorganizational relationships of one focal
organization, the Urban League of Metropolitan Denver,
Inc., with other selected black organizations in its
local environment. The principal objective of this
study is to establish factors of interorganizational
relationships that relate to the frequency of
interactions between black organizations. The term,
frequency of interactions, refers to how often
contacts (verbal or written) occur between
organizations. The study contends that the frequency
with which black organizations interact varies
depending upon certain factors of interorganizational
relationships. The following hypotheses are proposed
l
for research testing. The hypotheses are based upon
previous studies of interorganizational relations (see
Aldrich, 1976; Davidson, 1976; Hall, et al., 1977;
Halpert, 1982; Levine and White, 1961; Mulford, 1984;
Raelin, 1977; Rogers, 1974; Schmidt and Kochan, 1977)


14
and they acknowledge the importance of members*'
perceptions in guiding the direction of their
respective organizations (for an interpretation of the
perceptual process, see Hastorf, et al., 1970).
Hypothesis 1 There is a significant
relationship between perceived Importance of
contacts and frequency of interactions between
black organizations.
Hypothesis 2 There is a significant
relationship between perceived relational benefits
and frequency of interactions between black
organizations.
Hypothesis 3 There is a significant
relationship between perceived quality of the
working relationship and frequency of interactions
between black organizations.
Hypothesis 4 There is a significant
relationship between perceived quality of
coordination in a relationship and frequency of
interactions between black organizations.
Hypothesis 5 There is a significant
relationship between perceived quality of
communication in a relationship and frequency of
interactions between black organizations.
Hypothesis 6 There is a significant
relationship between perceived power of other
black organizations and frequency of interactions
with them.
Hypothesis 7 There is a significant
relationship between perceived performance of
other black organizations and frequency of
interactions with them.
Hypothesis 8 There is a significant
relationship between perceived competence of other
black organizations' personnel and frequency of
interactions with them.


15
Hypothesis 1 argues that the perceived
importance of contacts is a good predictor of the
frequency of Interactions between black organizations.
To explain, if organization members perceive that
contacts with the. focal organization are important for
the operation of their organization, the motivation
for interaction with the organization will be great,
thus resulting in frequent contacts. Similarly, if
the contacts with the focal organization are perceived
as being unimportant for the operation of the
organization, the motivation for interaction will be
low, consequently resulting in fewer contacts.
Hypothesis 2 maintains that the perception of
relational benefits is a good predictor of the
frequency of interactions between black organizations.
For example, if the contacts with the focal
organization are perceived to be accompanied by
enhanced organizational benefits, the motivation for
interaction with the focal organization will be great,
thus resulting in frequent contacts. Likewise, if
members perceive that contacts with the focal
organization are not accompanied by enhanced benefits,
the motivation for interaction will be low, thus
resulting in fewer contacts.
Hypotheses 3, 4 and 5 focus upon the qualities
of the lnterorganizational relationships. Hypothesis


16
3 suggests that the perceived quality of the working
relationship Is a good predictor of the frequency of
interactions between black organizations. For
example, if organization members perceive that they
have a good working relationship with the focal
organization, the motivation for interaction will be
great, thus resulting in frequent contacts.
Similarly, if the working relationship is perceived as
unsatisfactory or poor, the motivation for Interaction
will be low, thus resulting in fewer contacts.
Hypothesis 4 argues that the perceived quality
of coordination is a good predictor of the frequency
of interactions between black organizations. If
organization members perceive that the activities of
their organization with those of the focal
organization are well coordinated, we expect that the
motivation for interaction will be great, thus
resulting in frequent contacts. Likewise, if the
joint activities of each organization are perceived to
be poorly coordinated, the motivation for interaction
will be low, thus resulting in fewer contacts.
Hypothesis 5 maintains that the perceived
quality of communication in a relationship is a good
predictor of the frequency of interactions between
black organizations. For example, if members perceive
that the quality of communication between their


17
organization and the focal organization is good, the
motivation for interaction will be great, thus
resulting in frequent contacts. Similarly, if the
quality of communication between organizations is
perceived to be poor, the motivation for interaction
will be low, consequently resulting in fewer contacts.
Hypotheses 6, 7 and 8 focus on perceptions of
the other organization. Often, how one organization
perceives another determines motivation for
interaction. Hypothesis 6 argues that the perceived
power of other organizations is a good predictor of
the frequency of interactions between black
organizations. In interorganizational relations,
power organizes around critical and scarce resources
(Pfeffer and Salancik, 1978). To the extent that
organizations furnish resources that are more critical
and scarce, they are perceived as having power. Of
course, the determination of what is critical and
scarce is itself open to change and definition. In
the case of the black organizations in this study,
such elements as information, money, prestige, and
services of personnel may be viewed as critical and
scarce resources. We expect that if organization
members perceive the focal organization as having
power, the motivation for interaction will be great,
thus resulting in frequent contacts. Likewise, if the


18
focal organization is perceived as having no power,
the motivation for interaction will be low,
consequently resulting in no contact or fewer
contacts.
Hypothesis 7 argues that the perceived
performance of other organizations is a good predictor
of the frequency of interactions between black
organizations. Here, we imply that when organization
members perceive the focal organization as performing
its tasks well, the motivation for interaction will be
great, thus resu1ting in frequent contacts.
Similarly, when members perceive the focal
organization as performing its tasks poorly,
motivation for interact ion wi11 be low, therefore
resulting in no contact or fewer contacts.
Hypothesis 8 maintains that the perceived
competence of other organizations' personnel is a good
predictor of the frequency of interactions between
black organizations. To explain, if organization
members perceive the personnel of the focal
organization as being competent in performing
organizational functions, the motivation for
interaction will be great, thus resulting in frequent
contacts. Likewise, when members perceive the
personnel of the focal organization as being
incompetent in performing organizational tasks, the


19
motivation for interaction will be low, thus resulting
in no contact or fewer contacts.
Summary
This chapter presented background material on
previous research conducted on interorganizational
relations and set forth the framework for studying the
frequency of interactions between the Denver Urban
League and selected black organizations in its local
environment. Recognition was given to the fact that
we know very little about the interactions which occur
between black organizations. Thus, the need became
apparent for the inclusion of the black experience in
interorganizational relations research. It is the
contention of this study that the frequency of
interactions between black organizations varies
depending upon certain factors of lnterorganizational
relationships. A set of hypotheses was proposed for
research testing. In the next chapter we will discuss
the methodology of this study and present the findings
in chapter four.


CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY
In this chapter, we will describe the selected
methodologythe type of study, the subjects, the
variables, the procedures, and the statistical
methods. The aim is to provide the readers an
overview of the research design by which the study was
approached. The study adopts approaches similar to
past analyses of interorganizational relations.
Type of Study
The descriptive method of research was
undertaken to provide an evaluation of the frequency
of interactions between the Denver Urban League and
the black organizations in this study. Descriptive
research is generally employed when the main purpose
of inquiry is to portray the character of given
phenomena. The goals of descriptive-research include
identification of key variables, ranking of variables
in terms of importance and development of possible
relationships between variables. Auer (1957, p. 35)
discusses descriptive research in the following
statements


21
In adding to our body of knowledge, or in
developing new and Improved methods of using
present knowledge, we must begin with an appraisal
of what is already known. To do this we must
first discover, and quantify whatever possible,
whatever data is available, and then interpret our
findings and generalize about them. The method
employed in this process is usually called
descriptive.
Lastrucci (1967, pp. 106-107) states:
A descriptive study has as its main purpose
the accurate and systematic portrayal of what is.
It may be concerned with units . or
quantities . or times sequences .... or
any other particular features of phenomena being
evidently ascertained and verified. The
descriptive study basically tries to answer the
questions of who, what, where, when, or how much;
and its essential function is largely reportorial.
Thus, by employing a descriptive approach, we
can attempt to answer the question as to what factors
of interorganizational relationships relate
significantly to the frequency of interactions between
black organizations. Also, since the present study is
considered to be a preliminary exploration of the
interactions which occur between black organizations,
a descriptive approach is believed to be an avenue to
gain meaningful and useful information for future
research.
Selection of Subjects
Generally, one studies interorganizatlonal
relations by examining the relationship between two
organizations or patterns of interrelationships among


22
a group of organizations (see Mulford, 1984). In this
study, we chose to focus upon the relationships of one
focal organization with randomly selected black
organizations in its local environment. By focusing
on the interorganizational relationships of one
organization, it is believed that we can more readily
identify factors relating to the frequency of
interactions between black organizations.
Focal Organization
The focal organization of this study is the
Urban League of Metropolitan Denver, Inc., which is
one of 113 affiliates of a national organization.
Permission for studying the interorganizational
relationships of the Denver Urban League was obtained
prior to the beginning of the research from the
organization's Board of Directors and its Executive
Director at the April, 1985 board meeting. A letter
from the University of Colorado, Department of
Communication, requesting consent for the study is
Appendix A.
In 1985, the Denver Urban League celebrated
thirty-eight years of service in Denver's black
communities. It was the opinion of the investigator
that the Denver Urban League would serve well as the
focal organization of this study. It seems logical


23
that a black organization which has served its local
communities for as many years as the Denver Urban
League would more than likely interact with other
black organizations in its environment. Such an
organization also may find it necessary to share
resources, to divide responsibilities, and to plan
jointly with other black organizations in order to
continue its existence. The mission of the Denver
Urban League suggests such efforts. The following
statement appeared in information distributed at the
organization's 38th Annual Membership Dinner (May 23,
1985):
The Mission of the Urban League shal1 be to
serve Blacks and other minority groups by:
1. Promoting, encouraging and assisting in
efforts to improve their individual, economic,
social and spiritual conditions;
2. Bringing about coordination and
cooperation among existing agencies and
organizations which seek to improve such
conditions;.
3. Developing other agencies and
organizations as necessary to better achieve the
goals of the Urban League;
4. Making studies of the industrial, economic
and spiritual conditions among its service
const i tuenc i es.
The business affairs of the Denver Urban
League are managed by its Board of Directors and its
staff which serves at the pleasure of the Board. At


24
present, the organization has 26 Board members and 11
paid staff members. The ethnic group representation
of the Board is 58% Black, 35% White, and 7% Hispanic;
and its staff is comprised of 60% Black, 30% Hispanic,
and 10% White. The Chairperson of the Board and the
Executive Director of the organization! are both Black.
Although the primary task of the Denver Urban League
is. to find Jobs for Blacks as well as other minority
groups within its community, the organization conducts
a number of programs designed to assist their
constituencies in efforts to improve standards of
living. These programs range from providing low-cost
weatherlzation for elderly, handicapped and low-income
homeowners and renters to monitoring the educational
needs of Black youths and the processes being utilized
and developed to meet those needs. With its various
programs, the Denver Urban League serves an average of
15,000 people yearly. About.95% of the constituents
are Black.
j
t
Respondents
l
The organizations that responded to this study
were drawn from the 1985 Directory of Civic and Social
Organizations in Denver's Black Communities. The
directory lists 220 nonprofit Black Organizations"
which include women/s, religious, social,


25
professional, international, political, youth, and
community groups as well as city-sponsored agencies
such as neighborhood libraries and recreation centers.
A listing of the various organizations appears in
Appendix B.
To investigate each one of the "Black
Organizations" listed in the directory would have been
an excessively expensive and time-consuming project.
Therefore, a sampling procedure was implemented.
According to Auer <1957, p. 157).*
The basic assumption for such a procedure is
that when it is not expedient to assess each
individual member of a population (any group with
at least one specified characteristic in common),
an assessment of each member of a sample (any
group smaller than the total population from which
it is drawn) will yield acceptable results.
There are a number of sampling methods. The
method used in this study is referred to as random
sampling. Lastrucci <1967, pp. 122-123) writes:
Random sampling refers to the process of
selecting from a population a sample in which all
units have an equal opportunity to be selected;
but it does not mean that one just chooses the
sample haphazardly or "at random" in the popular
sense of that term. In practice any number of
methods may be employed to select a random sample:
e.g., every tenth name in the telephone book (if
all the names in the book constitute the
population); every fifth shopper (if all the
shoppers constitute the population); ... Or
tables of random numbers may be employed which
have been statistically devised to assure
unaffected scrambling of all ranges of numbers.


26
In this study, the "Black Organizations"
listed in the directory were numbered serially and the
sample organizations were selected systematically;
that is, every nth organization-on the list. This
process was done twice. The first time a pilot study
was conducted to test the workability of the survey
procedures. For the pretest, eight organizations were
randomly selected at intervals of twenty-seven. The
second time forty-two organizations were randomly
selected at intervals of five.
The criteria for including an organization in
this study are: (1) the organization must be a member
organization of the Denver metropolitan area; <2> at
least fifty percent of the organization's work force
must be Black, which includes staff members, Board
members, and volunteers; and <3> at least fifty
percent of the organization's clientele must be Black.
In this manner, each organization selected.for the
study would be considered a representative of black
organizations in the local environment of the Denver
Urban League. Thirty-one of the total fifty sampled
organizations, that were randomly selected for either
the pilot study or the actual survey, met the criteria
of the study. The remaining nineteen sampled
organizations were excluded for various reasons.


27
# One organization is located in Pueblo,
Colorado and, therefore, does not meet the
criteria set forth in the study.
# Two organizations are comprised of only one
person and do not fit within the definition of an
organization (e.g., Farace, et al., 1977).
# Three organizations are no longer in
existence.
# Three organizations are no longer "active"
and eliminated themselves from the study.
# One organization had recently reestablished
itself as a group and wished not to participate in
the study.
# One organization excluded itself from the
study because it functions solely as a bridge
club.
# Four organizations could not be reached
during the execution of the survey research.
# A conscious decision was made by the
investigator to exclude four city-sponsored
agencies because of the time-consuming process
enforced by the city to obtain permission for
participation in the study.
Variables of Study
Variables are any class of characteristics or
events whose values may change (Bowers and Courtright,
1984). Two types of variables are usually discussed
in research. The variable(s) whose variation the
scientist hopes to explain are called dependent
variable(s), and the variable(s) used to explain the
dependent variable(s) are called independent
vari able(s).


28
The dependent variable of this study is
frequency of interactions, referring to the frequency
with which the organizations have contacts (verbal or
written) with the focal organization, varying from no
contact to one or more contacts a day (Appendix C,
question 11). The variable was operationalized
following suggestions provided by Hall, et al., (1977)
and Schmidt and Kochan (1977).
There are nine independent variables. Each
variable involves the perceptions of organization
members. Guidelines for the development of these
variables are provided by Hall, et al., (1977); Raelin
(1977); Rogers (1974); and Schmidt and Kochan, (1977).
1. Importance of Contacts The perceived
importance of contacts with the focal organization
for the operation of the organization, varying
from not at all important to extremely important
(Appendix C, question 13).
2. Extent of Benefits The perceived extent
of organizational benefits resulting from contacts
with the focal organization, varying from no
benefits to a great extent (Appendix C, question
14) .
3. Quality of Working Relationship The
perceived quality of the working relationship with
the focal organization, varying from not good to
extremely good (Appendix C, question 15).
4. Quality of Coordination The quality
perceived as to how well the activities of the
focal organization and those of the organization
are coordinated, varying from poorly to extremely
well (Appendix C, question 16).
5. Quality of Communication The perceived
quality of the communication between the^


29
organization and the focal organization, varying
from poor to extremely good (Appendix C. question
17).
6. Power of Focal Organization The extent
of power the focal organization is perceived to
have in the operation of other organizations,
varying from no power to a great deal of power
(Appendix C, questions 24-25).
7. Power Differences The perceived power of
the focal organization in relations to other black
organizations, varying from less powerful to more
powerful (Appendix C, question 26).
8. Performance of Focal Organization The
quality perceived as to how well the focal
organization performs its organizational task,
varying from poorly to extremely well (Appendix C,
question 27).
9. Competence of Personnel The perceived
competence of the focal organization's personnel,
varying from not competent to extremely competent
(Appendix C, question 28).
Method of Data Collection
The method used in this study to collect data
was the personal interview. This method was chosen
over other methods of research surveys because of i ts
many advantages.
According to Bowers and Courtright (1984, pp.
68-69):
This method has decided advantages over other
methods. The respondent knows that the researcher
is strongly committed to the project and is likely
to reciprocate that commitment. Hence, if the
auspices of the study are appealing and if the
motivational appeals are strong, response rate
both in general and to particular items is likely
to approach 100 percent. Furthermore, a competent
interviewer in the personal context has nearly


30
total control of the situation. Social rules
define the interviewer role rather clearly, and
the interviewer can probe unclear or ambiguous
answers, can detect nonverbal signs that the
respondent is dodging questions (and can reword or
repeat questions to test for and resolve
inconsistencies), and can elicit and record
spontaneous comments that may, upon analysis,
illuminate certain results.
Thus, it was expected that for this particular
study, which is based on perceptions of organization
members, personal interviews would be more responsive
and less constraining than other methods of survey
research. Also, by acquiring information directly
from members and being able to clear any ambiguous
responses, a high degree of accuracy may be achieved.
In past study on interorganizational
relations, however, different approaches have been
used for selecting informants. Some researchers have
relied only on the responses of the agency's top
decision maker (e.g., Paulson, 1976; Rogers, 1974;
Schmidt and Kochan,. 1.977), while others have surveyed
all members of the organization and then aggregated
their responses (e.g., Aiken and Hage, 1968; Hall, et
al., 1977). Both approaches have been shown to be
deficient inasmuch as agency directors describe the
organization's interorganizational relations
differently than do the staff members, and people who
are actually involved in the interorganizational
activity describe it differently than organizational


31
members who are not directly involved (Whetten, 1982).
This study chose to follow the suggestion of Whetten
(1982, p. 116) who feels that investigators need to
deliberately select respondents based on their
firsthand information about the referents to the
survey questions, rather than relying on
approximations from uninformed observers.
Interview Procedure
The sampled organizations were contacted first
by telephone. The investigator's introduction
included the purpose of the study and a statement
explaining how the organizations were selected for the
study. An organization's cooperation was solicited by
holding a face-to-face interview with the person who
would most likely represent the organization in any
interorganizational contacts with the Denver Urban
League. The organizations were informed of the Denver
Urban League's support for the research, and were
assured that confidentiality would be respected
throughout the study. In almost all cases, the person
with whom the investigator talked made the decision on
whether the organization would participate in the
study and on who would represent the organization.
All thirty-one organizations that were not excluded
from the study consented to the survey.


32
Upon agreement of participation, a convenient
time and location for the interviews were sought.
Each organization was interviewed individually. The
interviews occurred mainly at the informants'' place of
employment (eight of the interviews took place in the
home and two interviews were held at a coffee shop).
For three of the interviews, two people represented
their organization, and in one interview, there were
three people present. In each of these cases, the
informants collaborated on their responses. The
remaining twenty-seven organizations were each
represented by one person. All interviews were
conducted by the investigator.
The interviews concentrated on two areas of
data: the participating organizations; and the extent
and qualities of their interorganlzatlonal relations
with the Denver Urban League. Data on the
organizations were sought in order to gain some
knowledge about the black organizations in this study.
Information on the extent and qualities of the
interorganizational relations were necessary for the
realization of the study. The survey questions were
predetermined and many of the responses were indicated
from a five-point scale anchored at the extremes with
polar adjectives. Appendix C displays the survey
questions (for the Interviews, 3" x 5" memo notebooks


33
were used to list the questions and to record the
responses of informants). In general, the interviews
lasted on the average of one hour depending on such
factors as the number of interruptions, the knowledge
of the informant, the verbosity of the informant, and
the style and practice of the interviewer.
The Pilot Study
The first five interviews of the research were
used to pretest the workabi1ity of the survey
procedures. The investigator was concerned with the
effectiveness of the survey's approach to soliciting
respondents, the abilities of the informants to
verbalize the extent and qualities of their,
organization's relationship with the Denver Urban
League, and the reactions of the informants in regard
to the flow of the interviews in terms of clarity,
efficiency and comfort.
Contacting the organizations by telephone
proved to be an effective approach to solicit
respondents. Initially, eight organizations were
randomly selected for the pretest. Five of the eight
organizations consented to the survey. Of the
remaining three organizations, two no longer existed
as organizations and one could not be reached during
the pilot study.


34
It was found also that the informants could
verbalize the extent and qualities of their
organization's relationship with the Denver Urban
League and that the informants had definite opinions
about the focal organization. For example, one
informant stated that, "The staff of the Denver Urban
League does not have the aggressiveness that is needed
in finding Jobs for blacks." Another informant said
that, "The Denver Urban League has had some good
people employed by the agency who have not been used
effectively." One of the informants talked about the
organization's lack of regard for other black
organizations. He explained that, "The Denver Urban
League spearheaded a commission in which we should
have been included, but we were not made aware of the
commission until after it was established."
To determine reactions to the interviews, the
informants were encouraged to offer feedback after
each interview regarding the flow of the interview in
terms of clarity, efficiency and comfort. The
feedback was positive with the exception of one
informant who felt uncomfortable with the questions
relating to the competence of the Urban League's
personnel and to the power differences between the
Urban League and other black organizations in Denver.
He explained that to him it was "unfair to compare


35
black organizations because each has their own
struggle for survival" and that he felt it was not his
place to judge the competence of other individuals..
However, after giving his comments a great deal of
consideration, the decision of the investigator was to
proceed with the questions as part of the study.
To summarize, the findings of the pilot study
led to the present investigation. Also, since the
results of the pilot study did not indicate a need to
change the survey questions or the survey procedure,
and since it was found that the five organizations
surveyed fit the criteria set forth in this study, the
pilot study is combined with the actual survey total of thirty-one responding organizations).
Data Analysis and Statistical Methods
The data collected from the survey research
were recorded on a code sheet according to the
responding organization and the variables of the
study. Data related to the dependent variable,
frequency of interactions, were coded in ordinal
fashion: l=no contact, 2=infrequent contact (contacts
which occur at least once a year but not as often as
once a month), and 3=frequent contact (contacts which
occur one or more times a month). Data related to the
independent variables were reduced to a nominal


36
division of high and low categories for statistical
analysis. A low category (a response of "1," "2" or
"3") was coded as 1 and a high category (a response of
"4" or "5") was coded as 2. The data were then
computerized for frequency distribution and for
cross-tabulation of variables using the Statistical
Package for the Social Sciences (an integrated system
for computer programs designed for the analysis of
social science data). This enabled the investigator
to summarize the data in terms of the number of
observations representing each category in each set of
data.
It is commonplace for investigators to collect
data from surveys and, from such data, make inferences
concerning the population from which the data are
generated. In this study the following hypotheses are
proposed for testing:
Hj_: There is a significant relationship
between perceived importance of contacts and
frequency of interactions between black
organizations.
H2: There is a significant relationship
between perceived relational benefits and
frequency of interactions between black
organizations.
H3: There is a significant relationship
between perceived quality of the working
relationship and frequency of interactions between
black organizations.
H4: There is a significant relationship
between perceived quality of coordination in a


37
relationship and frequency of interactions between
black organizations.
Hgt There is a significant relationship
between perceived quality of communication in a
relationship and frequency of interactions between
black organizations.
Hgj There is a significant relationship
between perceived power of other black
organizations and frequency of interactions with
them.
H7: There is a significant relationship
between perceived performance of other black
organizations and frequency of interactions with
them.
Hg: There is a significant relationship
between perceived competence of other black
organizations' personnel and frequency of
interactions with them.
To determine whether a given relationship is
significant, the chi-square (x2) test statistic and
the Fisher exact test were applied to the computerized
data. According to Bowers and Courtright <1984, p.
283):
The x2 test statistic ... is intended solely
to determine whether a given relationship is
significant, whether the association between two
nominal variables is sufficiently large to surpass
. that which would be obtained by chance alone. The
x2, however, is not designed to serve as an index
of "meaningfulness." In other words, the size of
the x2 statistic is generally not indicative of
the magnitude of the relationship being tested.
Some relatively weak relationships can generate
large x2/s (especially if N [number of
observations] is large), while some relatively
strong relationships can produce a small x2
(especially if N is small).
Bancroft and Han (1981, p. 250) explain the
use of the Fisher exact test:


38
The chi-square test . is an approximation
test and the approximation is satisfactory when
the expected numbers are large. When the
frequencies are small, it is customary to consider
the exact test given by Fisher.
Maxwell (1961, p. 23) adds:
Though a bit laborious it [Fisher exact test]
is the only safe method to employ when the sample
size is less than about 40 and one or more of the
expected frequencies falls below 5.
In carrying out a test of significance, the
chi-square test assesses the degree to which a
cross-classification matrix deviates from the
assumptions of independence. It advances a
hypothetical model of cross-classification matrix
which corresponds exactly to statistical independence.
It then examines how "good" the fit is between the
obtained data and this hypothetical cross-
classification. If the deviation between the obtained
data and the hypothetical cross-classification is
sufficient to surpass the critical value of the
chi-square test statistic, the presence of a
significant relationship is established (Bancroft and
Han, 1981; Bowers and Courtrlght, 1984; Maxwell,
1961).
The Fisher exact test, like the chi-square
test of significance, assumes that the data have been
collected and recorded in an Independent manner.
Under the assumption of independence, the test


39
statistic gives a sum in which the probability level
is significant. If the sum of the Fisher exact test
is the same or smaller than the nominal alpha level
(the level of significance), the presence of a
significant relationship is established (Bancroft and
Han, 1981; Maxwell, 1961). For this particular study,
an alpha level or Type I error of 0.05 is considered
appropriate. The critical values of chi-square were
obtained from the table of critical values for the
chi-square statistic found in Bowers and Courtrignt
(1984, p. 352).
Profile of Responding Organizations
The criteria set for including organizations
in this study were (1) the organization must be a
member organization of the Denver metropolitan area;
(2) at least fifty percent of the organization's work
force must be Black, which includes staff members,
Board members and volunteers; and (3) at least fifty
percent of the organization's clientele must be Black.
Thirty-one black organizations responded to
the survey research. All thirty-one organizations are
member organizations of the Denver metropolitan area.
Twenty-two of the thirty-one organizations reported
that their work force is comprised of only Blacks and


40

the remaining nine organizations indicated that more
than half of their work force is Black. Twenty-one of
the organizations informed us that their programs are
designed to serve only Blacks and the other ten
organizations reported that 60% or more of their
clientele is Black.
In general, the organizations define and
justify their existence in terms of goals that have
meaning to the black communities. Most of the goals
are oriented toward the elimination of social,
economic, and/or political problems faced by their
constituents. The types of services provided by the
organizations can be described accordingly (each
organization provides three or more types of
services):
1. Educational Grants or Scholarships Some
organizations (22 out of 31) seek to improve
educational quantity and quality for black
students by providing a stipend to help them reach
their educational goals.
2. Political Awareness Programs Some
organizations (10 out of 31) see the lack of black
Influences in politics as a major problem and
therefore develop programs such as voters
registration and political forums which are
designed to increase black political awareness.
3. Health Care Some organizations (20 out
of 31) view the problems facing the black
community, as health or welfare problems. The
services provided by these organizations include
counselling, food and clothing, medical care, and
emergency housing.


41
4. Christian Leadership The goals of some
organizations (5 out of 31) are to promote
spiritual and Christian leadership. They provide
a number of workshops and programs designed to
encourage spiritual growth and to develop the
quality of Christian leadership.
5. Professional Development Some
organizations <14 out of 31) see the major
problems of Blacks being unemployment and/or
underemployment. These organizations provide
programs designed to assist Blacks in their
efforts to achieve employment or to increase their
employment status.
6. Cultural Awareness The goals of many
organizations <26 out of 31) are to help Blacks
understand themselves and their heritage. Forums
for creative talent and themes of black unity are
types of programs provided by these organizations.
7. Social Events Some of the organizations
<17 out of 31) function as a vehicle for Blacks to
network and to socialize with other Blacks within
their communities. These organizations promote
luncheons, fashion shows, etc. to fulfill this
goa 1 .
8. Information and Referral Many
organizations <15 out of 31) serve as a
clearinghouse and provide information to
individuals and other groups within their
community.
9. Assistance to Other Organizations The
services of some organization <12 out of 31)
include helping other organizations by providing
needed resources such as money, housing, technical
skills, and speakers.
In light of our findings in regard to the
responding organizations, it might be reasonable to
suggest that the organizations in this study are
typical of black organizations in the local
environment of the Denver Urban League. They seem to
exist with important similarities. However, more


42
important to this study, are the factors of
interorganizational relations that relate to the
organizations' frequency of interactions with the
focal organization.
Summary
The purpose of this study is to establish
factors of lnterorganizational relations that relate
to the frequency of interactions between black
organizations. The descriptive method of research
seemed best fitted for this particular study. Thus,
it is possible to explore a number of factors which
may relate to the frequency of interactions between
black organizations.
Several assumptions were made by the study.
It was assumed that the Urban League would serve well
as the focal organization of this study because of its
many years of services in the Denver black
communities. It was further assumed that the sample
size would be sufficient and that the responding
organizations would be a representative group of the
black organizations within the Urban League's local
environment. Also assumed was that the organizations'
informants would have a frame of reference for
responding to the survey questions and would be able
to verbalize the extent and qualities of their


43
organizations' relations with the Urban League.
Another assumption made was that the independent
variables selected for study would be good predictors
of the frequency of interactions between the
organizations studied.
In the next chapter we will present the
results of the research. It is the hope of this study
that the information discovered will lead to a more
intensive investigation of black organizational
interactions for future research.


CHAPTER IV
RESULTS
We how turn our attention to the empirical
speculations of this thesis. The outline of this
chapter follows the eight hypotheses proposed for
testing in Chapter II. Results are based exclusively
upon the interorganizational relationships of the
Urban League of Metropolitan Denver, Inc. with
selected black organizations in its local environment.
Tables are provided to illustrate the major data
findings.
Analyses of Hypotheses
Hypothesis 1
Hj: There is a significant relationship
between perceived importance of contacts and
frequency of interactions between black
organizations.
This hypothesis involved the answers to two
questions, questions 11 and 13:
Question 11: How often would you say your
organization has contacts, whether verbal or
written, with the Denver Urban League?
Nine of the thirty-one responding
organizations reported having no contact with the


45
Denver Urban League, fifteen organizations had
infrequent contact, and seven organizations had
frequent contact.
Question 13: On a scale of 1 to 5, with 1
being "not at all important" and 5 being
"extremely important," how important are the
contacts with the Denver Urban League for the
operation of your organization?
Thirteen of the thirty-one organizations rated
the importance of contacts low or "3") and nine organizations rated the importance of
contacts high (a response of "4" or "5"). The nine
organizations that reported having no contact with the
focal organization were not asked to respond to the
question. Table 4.1 shows opinions related to the
importance of contacts in association with the
frequency of interactions reported. As shown in the
table, five out of seven organizations <71.4 percent)
that had frequent contact with the Denver Urban League
rated the Importance of contacts high, compared to
only four out of fifteen organizations <26.7 percent)
that had infrequent contact. This implies that the
perceived importance of contacts for the operation of
an organization may be a good predictor of the
frequency of interactions between black organizations.
The applIcation of the chi-square test of significance
gave a value of 3.955

46
TABLE 4.1
Hj: There Is a significant relationship between
perceived importance of contacts and frequency
of interactions between black organizations
(questions 11 and 13)*

Importance of Contacts Infrequent Contact** Frequent Contact** Total
Low*** 11 (73.3%) 2 (28.6%) 13 (59.1%)
High*** 4 (26.7%) 5 (71.4%) 9 (40.9%)
Total 15 (100.0%) 7 (100.0%) 22 (100.0%)
X2*** D.F. Significance Min E.F. Cells with E.F.<5
2.32088 1 .1276 2.864 2 of 4 (50.0%)
3.95588 1 .0467 (Before Yates Correction)
*The total group of thirty-one organizations is not reflected in this
table because nine organizations had no contact with the focal organization.
^Infrequent contact refers to contacts which occur at least once a year
but not as often as once a month and frequent contact refers to contacts which
occur one or more times a month.
***A response of 'l,* ,2 or 3* is placed in the low category and a
response of '4 or "5* is placed in the high category.
****For the chi-square, values above 3.8 are considered significant.


47
surpassed the critical value of Type I error of 0.05
level. Therefore, it was concluded that:
There is a significant relationship between
perceived importance of contacts and frequency of
interactions between black organizations.
Hypothesis 2
There is a significant relationship
between perceived relational benefits and
frequency of interactions between black
organizations.
This hypothesis involved the answer to
questions 11 and 14.
Question 14: With 1 being "no benefits" and 5
being "a great extent," to what extent do you feel
that your organization benefits in attaining its
goals as a result of its contacts with the Denver
Urban League?
Eighteen of the responding organizations rated
the extent of benefits low
"3") and four of the organizations rated the extent of
benefits high
organizations.that reported no contact with the focal
organization were not asked to respond to question 14.
Table 4.2 shows opinions related to the extent of
benefits in association with the frequency of
interactions reported. As shown in the table, no
significant differences existed in the opinions of
organizations as to the extent of benefits resulting
from contacts with the Denver Urban League. Thirteen
of the fifteen organizations <86.7 percent) that had


48
TABLE 4.2
There is a significant relationship between
perceived relational benefits and frequency of
interactions between black organizations
(questions 11 and 14)*
Extent of Benefits Infrequent Contact** Frequent Contact** Total
Low*** 13 (86.7%) 5 (71.4%) 18 (81.8%)
High*** 2 (13.3%) 2 (28.6%) 4 (18.2%)
TOTAL 15 (100.0%) 7 (100.0%) 22 (100.0%)
D.F. Significance Min E.F. Cel Is with E.F.<5
.07275 1 .7874 1.273 2 of 4 (50.0%)
.74497 1 .3681 (Before Yates Correction)
*The total group of thirty-one organizations is not reflected in this
table because nine organizations had no contact with the focal organization.
**lnfrequent contact refers to contacts which occur at least once a year
but not as often as once a month and frequent contact refers to contact which
occurs one or more times a month.
***A response of "l," ,2* or '3" is placed in the low category and a
response of "4* or "5* is placed in the high category.
****For the chi-square, values above 3.8 are considered significant.


49
infrequent contact with the focal organization and
five of the seven organizations <71.4 percent) that
had frequent contact rated the extent of benefits low.
The application of the chi-square test gave a value of
.744 (before Yates correction) which did not surpass
the critical value of Type I error of 0.05 level.
Therefore, it was concluded that:
There is no significant relationship between
perceived relational benefits and frequency of
interactions between black organizations.
Hypothesis 3
H3: There is a significant relationship
between perceived quality of the working
relationship and frequency of interactions between
black organizations.
This hypothesis involved the answer to
questions 11 and 15.
Question 15: On a scale of 1 to 5, with 1
being "not good" and 5 being "extremely good," how
would you describe your organization's working
relationship with the Denver Urban League?
Five organizations rated the quality of the
working relationship low (a response of "1," "2" or
"3") and eleven organizations rated the quality high
that reported no contact with the focal organization
were not asked question 15, and six organizations that
had contacts with the Urban League chose not to
respond to the question because of limited contacts.


50
Table 4.3 shows opinions related to the quality of the
working relationship in association with
organizations' frequency of interaction with the Urban
League. Again, no significant-differences occurred in
the opinions of organizations. Six of nine
organizations (66.7 percent) that had infrequent
contact with the Denver Urban League and five of seven
organizations (71.4 percent) that had frequent
contact, rated the quality of the working relationship
high. The chi-square test could not be computerized
for these measurements because the expected
frequencies of certain cells fell below 5 (see Maxwell
1961). The application of the Fisher exact test,
however, gave a value of .634 which was well above the
nominal alpha level of 0.05. Therefore, it was
concluded that:
There is no significant relationship between
perceived quality of the working relationship and
frequency of interactions between black
organizations.
Hypothesis 4
H4: There is a significant relationship
between perceived quality of coordination in a
relationship and frequency of interactions between
black organizations.
This hypothesis involved the answer to
questions 11 and 16.
Question 16: With 1 being "poorly" and 5
being "extremely well," how well would you say the


51
TABLE 4.3
H3: There is a significant relationship between
perceived quality of the working relationship and
frequency of interactions between black
organizations (questions 11 and 15)*
Quality of Working Relationship Infrequent Contact** Frequent Contact** Total
Low*** 3 (33.3%) 2 (28.6%) 5 (31.3%)
High*** 6 (66.7%) 5 (71.4%) 11 (68.7%)
Total 9 (100.0%) 7 (100.0%) 16 (100.0%)
Statistic****
Fisher Exact Test (one tail) = .63462
*The total group of thirty-one organizations is not reflected in this
table because nine organizations had no contact with the focal organization, and
six organizations that had contacts with the Urban League did not respond to the
question.
**Infrequent contact refers to contacts which occur at least once a year
but not as often as once a month and frequent contact refers to contacts which
occur one or more times a month.
***A response of "l,1 ,2 or '3' is placed in the low category and a
response of 4 or "5 is placed in the high category.
****For the Fisher exact test, values below the 0.05 alpha level (Type I
error) are considered significant.


52
activities of your organization and those of the
Denver Urban League are coordinated?
Seven of the responding organizations rated
the quality of coordination low (a response of "1,"
"2" or "3") and six organizations rated the quality of
coordination high (a response of "4" or "5"). The
nine organizations that reported no contact with the
Denver Urban League were not asked to respond to
question 16, and nine of the organizations that had
contacts with the focal organization wished not to
respond to the question because of limited
coordination of activities between organizations.
Table 4.4 shows the opinions related to the quality of
coordination in association with the frequency of
interactions between organizations. Two of seven
organizations C28.6 percent) that had infrequent
contact with the focal organization rated the quality
of coordination high, compared to four of six
organizations <66.7 percent) that had frequent
contact. This supports the assumption that when the
activities of organizations were perceived to be
coordinated well, the more frequently contacts
occurred. The chi-square test of significance could
not be applied to these measurements because the
expected frequencies of certain cells fell below 5
(see Maxwell, 1961). The Fisher exact test, however,


53
TABLE 4.4
H^: There is a significant relationship between
perceived quality of coordination in a relationship
and frequency of interactions between black
organizations (questions 11 and 16)*

Quality of Coordination Infrequent Contact** Frequent Contact** Total
Low*** 5 (71.4%) 2 (33.3%) 7 (53.8%)
High*** 2 (28.6%) 4 (66.7%) 6 (46.2%)
Total 7 (100.0) 6 (100.0%) 13 (100.0%)
Statistic****
Fisher Exact Test (one tail) = .15325
*The total group of thirty-one organizations is not reflected in this
table because nine organizations had no contact with the Urban League, and nine
organizations that had contacts with the focal organization did not respond to
question 16.
**Infrequent contact refers to contacts which occur at least once a year
but not as often as once a month and frequent contact refers to contacts which
occur one or more times a month.
***A response of "1,' '2* or 3* is placed in the low category and a
response of *4* or a5a is placed in the hictfi category.
****For the Fisher exact test, values below the 0.05 alpha level (Type I
error) are considered significant.


54
gave a value of .153 which exceeded the nominal alpha
level of 0.05. Therefore, it was concluded that:
There is no significant relationship between
perceived quality of coordination in a
relationship and frequency of interactions between
black organizations.
Hypothesis 5
H5: There is a significant relationship
between perceived quality of communication in a
relationship and frequency of interactions between
black organizations.
This hypothesis involved the answer to
questions 11 and 17.
Question 17: How would you characterize the
quality of communication between your organization
and the Denver Urban League on a scale of 1 to 5
with 1 being "poor" and 5 being "extremely good?"
Eight organizations rated the quality of
communication low
ten organizations rated the quality of communication
high
organizations that reported no contact with the Denver
Urban League were not asked to respond to question 17,
and four of the organizations that had contacts with
the focal organization chose not to respond because of
limited contacts. Table 4.5 shows opinions related to
the quality of communication in association with the
frequency of interaction. Four of eleven
organizations (36.4 percent) that had infrequent
contact with the focal organization rated the quality


55
TABLE 4.5
Hg: There Is a significant relationship between
perceived quality of connunication in a relationship
and frequency of interactions between black
organizations (questions 11 and 17)*

Quality of Communication Infrequent Contact** Frequent Contact** Total
Low*** 7 (63.6%) 1 (14.3%) 8 (44.4%)
High*** 4 (36.4%) 6 (85.7%) 10 (55.6%)
Total 11 (100.0%) 7 (100.0%) 18 (100.0%)
Statistic****
Fisher Exact Test (one tail) .05655
*The total group of thirty-one organizations Is not reflected in this
table because nine organizations had no contact with the focal organization, and
four organizations that had contacts with the Denver Urban League did not respond
to question 17.
**Infrequent contact refers to contacts which occur at least once a year
but not as often as once a month and frequent contact refers to contacts which
occur one or more times a month.
###A response of "l,1 *2 or *3" is placed in the low category and a
response of M* or *5 is placed in the high category.
****For the Fisher exact test, values below the 0.05 alpha level (Type I
error) are considered significant.


56
of communication high, compared to six of seven
organizations <85.7 percent) that had frequent
contact. This suggested that when the quality of
communication was perceived to be good, the more
frequently contacts occurred. The chi-square test of
significance could not be applied to the measurements
because the expected frequencies of certain cells fell
below 5 (see Maxwell, 1961). The Fisher exact test,
however, gave a value of .0565, which is slightly
larger than the nominal alpha level of 0.05.
Therefore, it was concluded that:
There is no significant relationship between
perceived quality of communication in a
relationship and frequency of interactions between
black organizations.
Hypothesis 6
Hg: There is a significant relationship
between perceived power of other black
organizations and frequency of interactions with
them.
This hypothesis Involved the answers to
questions 11, 24, 25, and 26.
Question 24: In every network of
organizations some organizations have more power
in what goes on in the network than others. If we
define power as the extent to which an
organization affects other organizations, on a
scale of 1 to 5 with 1 being "no power" and 5
being "a great extent of power, how much power
would you say the Denver Urban League has, In the
operations of organizations within Denver's black
communities?


57
Sixteen of the responding organizations rated
the extent of power of the Denver Urban League low (a
response of "1," "2" or "3") and eleven organizations
rated the extent of power high
"5"). Four organizations chose not to respond to the
question. Table 4.6 shows opinions related to the
extent of power the focal organization has in the
operations of organizations in Denver's black
communities in association with the frequency of
interactions between organizations. As shown in the
table, no significant differences existed in the
opinions of organizations. Six of eight organizations
<75.0 percent) that had no contact with the Denver
Urban League rated the extent of power low compared,
to six of fourteen organizations <42.9 percent) that
had infrequent contact and four of five organizations
<80.0 percent) that had frequent contact. The
chi-square test of significance gave a value of 3.272
which did not surpass the critical value of Type I
error of 0.05 level, thus suggesting no significant
relationship between variables.
Question 25: Using the same scale, how much
power would you say the Denver Urban League has in
the operations of organizations beyond Denver's
black communities when the issue relates to
Denver's Blacks?
Seventeen organizations rated the extent of
power low


58
TABLE 4.6
Hg: There is a significant relationship between
perceived power of other black organizations and
frequency of interactions with then
(questions 11 and 24)*
Extent of Power No Contact Infrequent Contact** Frequent Contact** Total
Low*** 6 (75.0%) 6 (42.9%) 4 (80.0%) 16 (59.3%)
High*** 2 (25.0%) 8 (57.1%) 1 (20.0%) 11 (40.7%)
Total 8 (100.0%) 14 (100.0%) 5 (100.0%) 27 (100.0%)
D.F. SIGNIFICANCE MIN E.F. CELLS WITH E.F.<5
3.27200 2 .1948 2.037 4 OF 6 (66.7%)
*The total group of thirty-one organizations is not reflected In this
table because four of the organizations did not respond to question 24.
**Infrequent contact refers to contacts which occur at least once a year
but not as often as once a month and frequent contact refers to contacts which
occur one or more times a month.
***A response of 1, '2' or '3' is placed in the low category and a
response of "4" or "5" is placed in the high category.
****For the chi-square, values above 6.0 are considered significant.


59
organizations rated the extent of power high (a
response of "4" or "5). Seven organizations did not
respond to the question. Table 4.7 shows opinions
related to the extent of power the focal organization
has in the operations of organizations beyond Denver's
black communities in association with the frequency of
interactions between organizations. Again, we see no
significant differences in the opinions of
organizations. Six of seVen organizations <85.7
percent) that had no contact with the Denver Urban
League rated the extent of power low, compared to
eight out of thirteen organizations <61.5 percent)
that had infrequent contact and three of four
organizations <75.0 percent) that had frequent
contact. The chi-square test of significance gave a
value of 1.327 which did not surpass the critical
value of Type I error of 0.05 level, thus suggesting
no significant relationship between the variables.
Question 26: With 1 being "less powerful" and
5 being "more powerful," how would you describe
the extent of power the Denver Urban League has in
relations to other black organizations in Denver's
black communities?
Nineteen organizations rated the power of the
Denver Urban League low
"3") in relations to other black organizations and
eleven organizations rated the power of the
organization high


60
TABLE 4.7
Hg: There Is a significant relationship between
perceived power of other black organizations and
frequency of interactions with then
(questions 11 and 25)*
Extent of Power No Contact Infrequent Contact** Frequent Contact** Total
Low*** 6 (85.7%) 8 (61.5%) 3 (75.0%) 17 (70.8%)
High*** 1 (14.3%) 5 (38.5%) 1 (25.0%) 7 (29.2%)
Total 7 (100.0%) 13 (100.0%) 4 (100.0%) 24 (100.0%)
x2*ft* D.P. Significance Min E.F. Cel is with E.F.<5
1.32755 2 .5149 1.167 5 OF 6 (83.3%)
*The total group of thirty-one organizations is not reflected in this
table because seven of the organizations did not respond to question 25.
**Infrequent contact refers to contacts which occur at least once a year
but not as often as once a month and frequent contact refers to contacts which
occur one or more times a month.
***A response of 'l," "2* or *3* is placed in the low category and a
response of *4' or "S' is placed in the high category.
****Por the chi-square, values above 6.0 are considered significant.


61
organization chose not to respond to the question.
Opinions related to the power differences in
association with the frequency of interactions between
organizations is reported In Table 4.8. As shown in
the table, no significant differences existed in the
opinions of organizations. Five of nine organizations
(55.6 percent) that had no contact with the Denver
Urban League rated the extent of power low, compared
to ten of fourteen organizations (71.4 percent) that
had infrequent contact and four of seven organizations
(57.1 percent) that had frequent contact. The
chi-square test of significance gave a value of .745
which did not surpass the critical value of the Type I
error of 0.05 level, thus suggesting no significant
relationship between the variables.
Since the application of the chi-square test
of significance did not give a critical value which
surpassed the Type I error of 0.05 level in the
association of the frequency of interactions between
organizations and opinions related to the extent of
power of the focal organizations as described aboved,
it was concluded that:
There is no significant relationship between
perceived power of other black organizations and
frequency of interactions with them.


62
TABLE 4.8
Hg: There is a significant relationship between
perceived power of other black organizations and
frequency of interactions with them
(questions 11 and 26)*

Extent of Power No Contact Infrequent Contact** Frequent Contact** Total
Low*** 5 (55.6%) 10 (71.4%) 4 (57.1%) 19 (63.3%)
High*** 4 (44.4%) 4 (28.6%) 3 (42.9%) 11 (36.7%)
Total 9 (100.0%) 14 (100.0%) 7 (100.0%) 30 (100.0%)
X2*** D.F. Significance Min E.F. Cells with E.F.<5
.74504 2 .6890 2.567 3 of 6 (50%) >
*The total group of thirty-one organizations is not reflected in this
table because one organization did not respond to question 26.
**Infrequent contact refers to contacts which occur at least once a year
but not as often as once a month and frequent contact refers to contacts which
occur one or more times a month.
***A response of.'l,* *2* or "3' is placed in the low category and a
response of '4a or 5a is placed in the high category.
****For the chi square, values above 6.0 are considered significant.


63
Hypothesis 7
H7: There is a significant relationship
between perceived performance of other black
organizations and frequency of interactions with
them.
This hypothesis Involved the answer to
questions 11 and 27.
Question 27: On a scale of 1 to 5, with 1
being "poorly" and 5 being "extremely well," how
well would you say the Denver Urban League
performs its task in regard to helping Denver's
Blacks improve their employment status?
Fourteen of the responding organizations
rated the quality of the Denver Urban League's
performance low
thirteen organizations rated the quality high response of "4" or "5"). Four organizations chose not
to respond to the question. Table 4.9 shows opinions
related to the quality of the focal organization's
performance in association with the frequency of
interactions between organizations. The table shows
no significant differences in the opinions of
organizations. Five of seven organizations <71.4
percent) that had no contact with the Denver Urban
League rated the quality of performance high, compared
to five of thirteen organizations <38.5 percent) that
had infrequent contact and three of seven
organizations <42.9 percent) that had frequent
contact. The chi-square test of significance gave a


64
TABLE 4.9
Hy: There is a significant relationship between
perceived performance of other black organizations
and frequency of interactions with them
(questions 11 and 27)*

Quality of Performance No Contact Infrequent Contact** Frequent Contact** Total
Low*** 2 (28.6%) 8 (61.5%) 4 (57.1%) 14 (51.9%)
High*** 5 (71.4%) 5 (38.5%) 3 (42.9%) 13 (48.1%)
Total 7 (100.0%) 13 (100.0%) 7 (100.0%) 27 (100.0%)
X2*** D.F. . Significance Min E.F. Cells with E.F.<5
2.08670 2 .3523 3.370 4 OF 6 (66.7%)
*The total group of thirty-one organizations is not reflected in this
table because four of the organizations did not respond to question 27.
^Infrequent contact refers to contacts which occur at least once a year
but not as often as once a month and frequent contact refers to contacts which
occur one or more times a month.
***A response of '1,' *2 or *3' is placed in the low category and a
response of '4* or 5' is placed in the high category.
****For the chi-square, values above 6.0 are considered significant.


65
value of 2.086 which did not surpass the critical
value of Type I error of 0.05 level. Therefore, it
was concluded that:
There is no significant relationship between
perceived performance of other black organizations
and frequency of interactions with them.
Hypothesis 8
Hg: There is a significant relationship
between perceived competence of other black
organizations'" personnel and frequency of
interactions with theiii.
This hypothesis involved the answer to
questions 11 and 28.
Quest ion 28: With 1 being not competent" and
5 being "extremely competent," how would you
describe the competence of the Denver Urban
League's personnel?
Eight organizations rated the perceived
competence of the Denver Urban League's personnel low
and seventeen organizations rated the personnel
competence high. Six organizations wished not to
respond to question 28. Table 4.10 shows opinions
related to the perceived competence of the focal
organization's personnel in association with the
frequency of interactions between organizations. As
shown in the table, six of thirteen organizations
<46.1 percent) that had infrequent contact with the
Denver Urban League rated the personnel competence
high, compared to five of six organizations <83.3


66
TABLE 4.10
Hg: There is a significant relationship between perceived
ccopetence of other black organizations' personnel
and frequency of interactions with then
(questions 11 and 28)*
Perceived No Infrequent Frequent
Competence Contact Contact** Contact** Total
Low*** 0 (00.0%) 7 (53.9%) 1 (16.7%) 8 (32.0%)
High*** 6 (100.0%) 6 (46.1%) 5 (83.3%) 17 (68.0%)
Total 6 (100.0%) 13 (100.0%) 6 (100.0%) 25 (100.0%)
x2*ft* D.F. Significance Min E.F. Cells with E.F.<5
6.32306 2 .0424 1.920 5 OF 6 (83.3%)
*The total group of thirtyrone organizations is not reflected in this
table because six organizations did not respond to question 28.
**Infrequent contact refers to contacts which occur at least once a year
but not as often as once a month and frequent contact refers to contacts which
occur one or more times a month.
***A response of 'l," '2' or "3" is placed in the low category and a
response of '4' or '5" is placed in the high category.
****For the chi-square, values above 6.0 are considered significant.


67
percent) that had frequent contact. All six
responding organizations that reported no contact with
the focal organization rated the competence of
personnel high. The chi-square test of significance
gave a value of 6.323 which surpassed the critical
value of Type I error of 0.05 level. Therefore, it
was concluded that:
There is a significant relationship between
perceived competence of other black organizations'
personnel and frequency of interactions with them.
Summary
Chapter four has discussed the finding of the
study in terms of the eight hypotheses proposed for
testing. The data collected support two of the
hypotheses tested when subjected to the chi-square
test of significance. It was found that the perceived
importance of contacts for the operation of an
organization and the perceived competence of the focal
organization's personnel are significantly related to
the frequency of interactions between the black
organizations studied. One possible explanation for
the lack of support for the other hypotheses may be
that the number of organizations responding to
questions was very small. Results may have been
somewhat different with a larger number of


respondents.
68
A summary of the major findings and the
conclusions reached are presented in the next chapter


CHAPTER V
DISCUSSION
Chapter five summarizes the research and
conclusions reached, and recommends avenues for future
research.
Summary and Conclusions
The purpose of the present investigation was
to establish factors of interorganizational relations
that related to the frequency of interactions between
black organizations. The study contended that the
frequency with which black organizations interact will
vary depending upon certain factors of
interorganizational relationships. The study examined
exclusively the interorganizational relationships of
the Urban League of Metropolitan Denver, Inc. with
selected black organizations in its local environment.
Thirty-one black organizations randomly selected from
a list of black organizations in the 1985 Directory of
Civic and Social Organizations in Denver^ Black
Commun i t i es responded to the study. The research
survey was administered in face-to-face interviews


70
with informants selected by the organizations to
represent them.
Eight hypotheses served as the frame of
reference for the study. Six of the eight hypotheses
were not supported when subjected to the chi-square
test of significance or the Fisher exact test.
According to researchers, these statistical tests are
intended solely to determine only whether a given
relationship is significantmaking no assumptions as
to the "meaningfulness" or value of the relationships
studied.
Hypothesis 1 predicted that there would be a
significant relationship between the perceived
importance of contacts and the frequency of
interactions between black organizations. It was
expected that when organizational members perceived
that the contacts with the Urban League were important
for the operation of their organization, the
motivation for interactions with the Urban League
would be great, thus resulting in frequent contacts.
Similarly, the reverse could occur. If the contacts
with the Urban League were perceived as being
unimportant for the operation of the organization, the
motivation for interactions would be low, consequently
resulting in fewer contacts. The data supported the
hypothesis; thus, establishing that the importance of


71
contacts was a factor of interorganizational
relationship that relates significantly to the
frequency of interactions between black organizations.
Hypothesis 2 proposed that there would be a
significant relationship between perceived relational
benefits and frequency of interactions between black
organizations. This inferred that enhanced
organizational benefits resulting from the contacts
with the Urban League would be a motivation for
interactions. The data, however, did not support
Hypothesis 2; thus, indicating that there was no
significant relationship between the extent of
benefits resulting from a relationship and the
frequency of Interactions between black organizations.
Hypothesis 3, 4 and 5 suggested that the
perceived qualities of the relationship between black
organizations would be motivators for interactions.
Hypothesis 3. predicted a significant relationship
between the perceived quality of the working
relationship and the frequency of interactions between
black organizations. Hypothesis 4 argued that there
would be a significant relationship between the
perceived quality of coordination in a relationship
and the frequency of interactions between black
organizations. Hypothesis 5 maintained that there
would be a significant relationship between the


72
perceived quality of communication in a relationship
and the frequency of interactions between black
organizations. None of these hypotheses were
supported when subjected to the Fisher exact test;
thus, establishing that the perceived quality of the
working relationship, the perceived quality of
coordination, and the perceived quality of
communication are not significantly related to the
frequency of interactions between black organizations.
Hypotheses 6, 7 and 8 focused upon
organization members'' perceptions of the Denver Urban
League. How one perceives another organization often
determines motivation for interaction. Hypothesis 6
suggested a significant relationship between the
perceived power of other black organizations and the
frequency of interactions with them. Hypothesis 7
argued that there would be a significant relationship
between the perceived performance of other black
organizations and the frequency of interactions with
them. Hypothesis 8 proposed a significant
relationship between the perceived competence of other
black organizations' personnel and the frequency of
interactions with them. Hypotheses 6 and 7 were not
supported when subjected to the chi-square test of
significance; however, the data col 1ected indicated
that there was a significant relationship between the


73
perceived competence of other black organizations''
personnel and the frequency of interactions with them.
Overall, the results of the study were
positive from the researcher's point of view. The
findings indicated a considerable amount of
information about the frequency of interactions
between black organizations. Of special interest to
the investigator is the fact that all six
organizations that had no contact with the focal
organization rated the competence of the
organization's personnel high (see Table 4.10), and in
Table 4.9 the majority of the organizations that had
no contact with the Denver Urban League rated the
quality of its performance high. This suggested that
there were possible contingencies of
interorganizational relations that encouraged no
contacts between black organizations, such as, the
perceived threat of autonomy loss or the-loss of
program identity. While this interpretation is
plausible, it is only a post hoc interpretation of
unanticipated findings and thus should be viewed only
as suggestion for further investigation.
Limitations of Study
While the results of the study were positive
from the researcher's point of view, caution must be


74
exercised when attempting to generalize from the
findings. One possible explanation for the lack of
support for some hypotheses may be that measurements
failed to adequately account for them. Having
respondents indicate responses from a five-point scale
can only encourage the individual to seek the middle
ground; that is, a response that does not appear too
negative or too positive. Also, the number of
organizations responding to some of the questions was
very small. Results may have been somewhat different
with a larger number of respondents. This is
particularly true statistically. The small number of
respondents made tests of significance very hard to
achieve.
Avenues for Future Research
If the purpose of communication research is to
explain how and why people produce messages and what
consequences those messages might be expected to
effect (Bowers and Courtright, 1984), then further
research on the interaction between black
organizations is greatly needed. We have established
in this study that the importance of contacts for the
operation of an organization, and the perceived
competence of the other organization's personnel
relate significantly to the frequency of interactions


75
between the Denver Urban League and selected black
organizations in its environment. The questions we
need to ask here are: Do the same factors exist in the
relationships of other black organizations, or other
collections of organizations with similar goal
statements? If not, what unique characteristic
differentiates the relationships?
Also, we know from history that black
organizations often work jointly in seeking mutual
goals and objectives (e.g., Brisbane, 1970). This in
itself provides opportunities for further research of
black organizational interaction. For example, what
is the nature of the interaction between black
organizations participating in joint ventures? Is the
climate of their interactions competitive or
supportive? Why? To what extent does Conflict
characterize the interactions? What is characteristic
of the organization(s) in which the locus of
decision-making and authority rest? How do boundary
spanners (those individuals who represent and
negotiate for their organizations) view each other in
terms of role performance and leadership qualities?
What factors contribute to the effectiveness of joint
activities between black organizations? And, what
factors diminish the effectiveness of joint activities
between these organizations?


76
The present research is only a beginning.
There is much more to discover about the interactions
which occur between black organizations. Hopefully,
the findings of this study and the issues suggested
for future research will be taken into consideration
by those who are committed to further analysis of
black organizational interactions.


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APPENDIX A
LETTER TO THE URBAN LEAGUE
OF METROPOLITAN DENVER, INC.


84
COLLEGE OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES
Division of Arts and Humanities
1100 Fourteenth Street
Denver, Colorado 80202
629-2730
English
Fine Arts
French
German
Communication and Theatre
Philosophy
Spanish
UNIVERSITY
OF COLORADO
AT DENVER
Lawrence Borom
Executive Director
Urban League
1535 Josephine
Denver, CO.
Dear Mr. Borom:
This letter is to indicate that Pat Trotman, who has approached
you about studying the Urban League, is formally enrolled for
thesis credit at UCD and is in the initial stages of her thesis
project. Pat is one of our very best students. Our confidence
in her is such that she has served as a teaching assistant for
us even though she has not completed her graduate degree. She is
keenly interested in organizational communication. I hope you
will agree to allow her to study your organization.
For my part, as her thesis advisor, I will act to insure that her
study is conducted it\ a fully professional manner. I will advise
her on methods and strategies for research and make sure that she
has consulted with you before implementing any part of her
research plan. I wholeheartedly support Pat in this project and
I think that her thesis will be an excellent one.
Sincerely,
Samuel A. Betty
Assoc. Prof.
Dept. of
Communication


APPENDIX B
THE BLACK ORGANIZATIONS LISTED IN
THE 1985 DIRECTORY OF CIVIC
AND SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONS IN DENVER'S
BLACK COMMUNITIES


86
Black Organizations
AFFIRMATIVE ACTION OFFICER
Denver Public Works Department
1445 Cleveland Place Room 300
Denver, CO 80202
575-3808
Review contracts for compliance to Ordinance 246 which
sets annual goals tor minorities and women business par-
ticipation in public works and also certifies women and
minority owners for participation in city contracts.
AFRO-AMERICAN POETRY THEATRE
P.O. Box 18505
Denver, CO 80218
831-8086
Staged poetry readings.
ALTERNATIVES TO WOMEN IN PRISON
1001 E. Evans #39D
Denver, CO 80210
671-0591
Concerned women lobbying for funds to provide a facility for
women in trouble and caters to the specific needs of women,
i.e., women with children, women with a drug problem,
women in need of financial support.
ALTRUISTICS CIVIC AND SOCIAL CLUB
2900 E. 36th Ave.
Denver, CO 80205
355-8409
Takes care of one needy family per year for a period of one.
year providing support such as food, clothing, medical or
help in other areas.
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF BLACKS IN ENERGY
7259 Upham Street
Arvada, CO 80003
425-0989/629-5210
Promotes education and information programs concerning
energy particularly to Black communities regarding public
policy, technology and corporate strategy.
ARKANSAS STATE COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION
2655 Locust Street
Denver, CO 80207
322-0819
Fund raising support group for Arkansas State College.
ASSOCIATION OF BLACK ENGINEERS
AND SCIENTISTS
190 S. Ivy
Denver, CO 80224
388-0146
Encourages the recruitment of Blacks into the engineering
and science fields and provides the support to ensure
ASTRO JETS SOCIAL CLUB
3570 Eudora
Denver, CO 80207
322-0346
Social couples club that enjoys traveling frequently.
BARNEY FORD MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION
P.O. Box 8464
Denver, CO 80201
377-1212
Historical preservation of Black history and heritage through
Western History and Black organizations.
BILL PICKETT INVITATIONAL BLACK RODEO
P.O. Box 39163
Denver, CO 80239
373-1246/373-BPIR
To introduce and inform American minorities of contributions
of Black cowboys, fund raising coordination through selected
non-profit organizations and charities.
BLACK ADMINISTRATORS AND
SUPERVISORS ASSOCIATION
DENVER PUBLIC SCHOOLS
900 Grant Street Rm. 408
Denver, CO 80203
837-1000 X2229
Addresses concerns of Black administrators and supervisors
in (he Denver Public Schools with emphasis on getting more
Blacks inspired to work towards promotions.
BLACK AMERICAN WEST MUSEUM AND
HERITAGE CENTER
608 26th
Denver, CO 80205
337-2741
Established for the purpose of the collection, housing, dis-
playing. exhibition and preservation of history, art. docu-
ments and other memorabilia which tell the history and
related the story of Black men and women who helped settle
and develop the American West.
BLACK ARTS COMPANY
2620 Poplar
Denver, CO 80207 '
321-7436
Theatre performing arts company.
BLACK BOOK WRITERS NETWORK
333-0625/575-3384
Helps Black writers to network as encouragement in getting
books written and'published.
success.


37
BRONZE DAUGHTERS OF AMERICA
3131 St. Paul
Denver, CO 80205
333-7344/861-0085
Provides scholarships for high school seniors and engages in
civic projects such as visiting nursing homes.
BLACK AMERICAN WEST MUSEUM AND
HERITAGE CENTER
608 26th Street
Denver, CO 80205
337-2741/295-1026
Networking of all social service, business, and fraternal
organizations in (he black community to address concerns ol
education, and employment discrimination.
BLACK DIRECTORS' COUNCIL
1525 Josephine
Denver, CO 80206
388-5861
Networking ol all social service, business, Iraternal organiza-
tions in the black community to address concerns of educa-
tion, employment discrimination.
BLACK EDUCATION ADVISORY COMMITTEE
900 Grant Street
Denver, CO 80203
837-1000 X2229
Serves as a liaison between the Denver Public Schools and
the Black community.
BLACK EDUCATORS UNITED
900 Grant Street
Denver, CO 80203
837-1000
Deals with issues and concerns of Black educators.
BLACK MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION OF
MOUNTAIN BELL
99918th Room 740
Denver, CO 80202
896-6287
Inner support group for Black employees and encourages
improvement in skills and abilities and upward mobility within
the company. The group also provides 4 $1,000 scholarships
yearly.
BLACK METHODISTS FOR CHURCH RENEWAL
3401 High Street
Denver, CO 80205
295-2468
BLACK MUNICIPAL LEAGUE OF DENVER
2130 Oowning
Denver, CO 80205
861-2381/575-3012
Primary locus is the organization and development of
employment opportunities for Black and other minority city
employees.
BLACK POLICE OFFICERS ORGANIZATION
1331 Cherokee
Denver, CO 80202
575-2378
Addresses concerns of Black police officers.
BLACK PRESBYTERIANS UNITED
2780 York Street
Denver, CO 80205
333-6088/388-2042
Offers classes and workshops on Black history.
BLACK WOMEN'S NETWORK
2247 Oneida Street
Denver, CO 80207
355-3486/394-7921
To help Black women newcomers to Denver to network to
help find employment and to meet and make new Iriends.
Also, BWN offers assistance in coordinating community
activities.
CAMELLIA ART CLUB
2160 Downing St. #305
Denver, CO 80205
832-9598
Offers help for underprivileged girls.
CAMEO SOCIAL AND CIVIC CLUB
5075 Wheeling Way
Denver, CO 80239
371-6406
Engages in social activities and makes donations to various
charitable organizations.
CARNATION ART AND LITERARY CLUB
2241 Marion
Denver, CO 80205
861-7967
Provides needlework pieces for nursing homes and other
institutions. Also holds book reviews.
Develops strategies for Black United Methodists Churches to
build memberships and strengthen the organization.


88
CENTRAL BRANCH NAACP
3580 Monaco Parkway
Denver, CO 80207
355-0107
Civil rights organization.
CHILD OPPORTUNITY, INC.
3607 Martin Luther King Blvd.
Denver, CO 80207
399-0603
Comprehensive Child Care Center that houses Headstart,
day care, before and after school care, evening care, infant
and toddler care and crisis care, for low income families.
CHRISTIAN CORPS
2259 Oneida
Denver, CO 80207
393-0528
Provides emergency servicefood, clothing and energy
assistanceto low income families in northeast Denver.
CITY PARK RACQUET CLUB
2885 Monaco Parkway
Denver, CO 80207
388-3276
Tennis club.
CLAYTON PRIDE
3239 St. Paul
Denver, CO 80205
322-1791
Clayton neighborhoodbounded by York on the west, Colo-
rado Blvd. on the east. Martin Luther King Blvd. on the south
and 40th on the north. Those residents who seek improve-
ment of their neighborhood through specific projects.
CLEO PARKER ROBINSON NEW DANCE THEATRE
2006 Lawrence
Denver, CO 80205
295-1759
Dedicated to promoting instruction in the performing arts
including, but not limited to dance; to provide programs of
cultural enrichment for the culturally deprived.
CLUB ESSENCE, INC.
2220 S. Sable Blvd.
Aurora, CO 80014
696-0275/394-7112
Fund raising for Sickle Cell Anemia. Conducts a blood donor
drive and sponsors Children's Day at an amusement park
each year.
CLUB FINESSE BRIDGE
2815 Hudson Street
Denver, CO 80207
355-0496
Bridge club.
COALITION OF BLACK SOCIAL WORKERS
2025 Roslyn
Denver, CO 80207
321-4682/233-8025
Offers support to Black communities in terms of social
services and it is a professional organization for Black social
workers.
COALITION OF 100 BLACK WOMEN
2685 Fairfax
Denver, CO 80207
398-0970
Focuses on self development, economic development and
political awareness.
COLE PLANNING TEAM
3786 Gilpin
Denver, CO 80205
295-6839/837-1235
A group of residents who live in the Cole area and deals with
social, economic or political issues in the development of a
responsible community.
COLORADO ASSOCIATION FOR NON-WHITE
CONCERNS (CANWC)
3063 Birch
Denver, CO 80207
985-8746/321-0539
Addresses the concerns of minority students, K-12, and
provides counseling and guidance for higher education
students.
COLORADO ASSOCIATION OF MINORITY
UNDERWRITERS
1957 Peoria
Aurora, CO 80010
361-6054
Professional organization that encourages personal and
career development of its members and educates and
informs public about the insurance industry. Makes donations
to charitable causes.
COLORADO BLACK CAUCUS OF ELECTED OFFICIALS
Senator Regis Groff, Chairman
388-2250
Addresses the political concerns of Black people.


89
COLORADO BLACK MEDIA ASSOCIATION
7200 E. Evans #219
Denver, CO 80224
758-0359
Support organization for Blacks in both print and electronic
media.
COLORADO BLACK PROFESSIONAL FIREFIGHTERS
P.O. Box 7492
Denver, CO 80207
771-6047/295-9292
To help in community where needed through volunteer
activities, make charitable contributions, enhance the recruit-
ment of Blacks into fire service in Denver and statewide and
strive for upward mobility within fire service once hired.
COLORADO BLACK REALTISTS ASSOCIATION
2608 Welton
Denver, CO 80205
295-2128
An independent professional real estate lobbying organiza-
tion that opposes laws that are discriminatory in nature or
otherwise adversely affects the real estate industry.
COLORADO BLACK REPUBLICAN COUNCIL
102 S. Balsam
Lakewood, CO 80226
233-3321
To promote active participation of Blacks in politics, to foster
education of the Republican viewpoint, and lo recruit Blacks
into the Republican party.
COLORADO BLACK WOMEN FOR POLITICAL ACTION
2841 Colorado Blvd.
Denver, CO 80207
388-2260
A non-partisan vehicle to effect meaningful participation in
the political process lor ail Colorado Blacks, particularly
Black women.
COLORADO CIVIL RIGHTS DIVISION
2855 Tremont Room 104
Denver, CO 80205
866-3684
Slate agency that processes claims of discrimination in
housing, employment and public accomodations.
COLORADO COALITION AGAINST APARTHEID
3401 High Street
Denver, CO 80205
832-4508/393-7050
Coalition of organizations and individuals working lo bring
about an end to United Slates collaboration in South Africa
apartheid.
COLORADO COUNCIL OF BLACK NURSES
3076 Clermont
Denver, CO 80207
861-1607
Professional organization that promotes good health and
deals with problems laced by Black nurses in the medical
profession.
COLORADO GOSPEL MUSIC ACADEMY AND
HALL OF FAME
102 S. Balsam
Lakewood, CO 80226
371-6750
To perpetuate gospel music and to award outstanding
achievements or professional growth.
COLORADO LINCOLNITES
13198 E. Center Avenue
Aurora, CO 80012
364-8531
Natives and former residents of Lincoln, Nebraska.
COLORADO MINORITY BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT
AGENCY
1525 Sherman Street Room 701
Denver, CO 80203
866-2077
Work with minorily and women business persons lo provide
access to construction, procurement and purchasing oppor-
tunities within the state.
COLORADO OPTOMETR1C CENTER
929 29th Street
Denver, CO 80205
295-2402
Provides eye care for the low income.
COLORADO SELF HELP PROGRAM
1741 Gaylord
Denver, CO 80206
333-1984
Person lo person exchange of local initiative or project to
project exchange of sharing approaches that work.
COLORADO STATE ASSOCIATION OF COLORED
WOMEN'S CLUBS
3401 Race Street
Denver, CO 80205
295-2482/388-1917
Umbrella for all Federated Colored' Women's Clubs that
focuses on charitable causes, promotes literacy programs,
makes arts and crafts for compefition, and provides scholar-
ships for young people.


90
COLORADO UNITY, EDUCATIONAL, ECONOMIC
DEVELOPMENT
2800 Dahlia
Denver, CO 80207
322-6062
Offers small scholarships for books. Sent soap to Haiti and
provided shoes for Whittier Elementary School children and
sponsors two children in Africa.
COLORADO WOMEN'S AMATEUR GOLF CLUB
2290 Oneida
Denver, CO 80207
399-5250
Golfing for fun.
COMMUNITY ALCOHOL/DRUG REHABILITATION
AND EDUCATION CENTER
3315 Gilpin Street
Denver, CO 80205
295- 2521
Provides education about drug/alcohol abuse, therapy and
counseling sessions and monitors anlibuse users.
COMMUNITY OFFICE
State Senator Regis Groff
2841 Colorado Blvd.
Denver, CO 80207
388-2260
Resource center for referrals for various services. Staffed by
volunteers, the center offers job referrals, economic
assistance and counseling.
COMMUNITY RELATIONS SERVICE
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE
1531 Stout Street
Denver, CO 80202
844-2973
Mandated to take care of any problems that affect the
minority community such as high school drop outs and police
excessive use of force.
COMMUNITY TECHNICAL SKILLS CENTER
3993 E. Martin Luther King Blvd.
Denver, CO 80205
329-3434
Offers training in word processing, business English, typing
and job readiness.
CONCERNED CITIZENS CONGRESS OF
NORTHEAST DENVER
3542 York Street
Denver, CO 80205
296- 0389
Home improvement center, rental of tools, weatherization
program, block organization around neighborhood issues.
COUNCIL FOR SELF DEVELOPMENT
3401 High Street
Denver, CO 80205
759-0351/295-2468
Provides diversionary activities for northeast Denver youth
and encourages each participant to develop him/herself to
their fullest potential.
COUNCILMANIC DISTRICT 8
COMMUNITY OFFICE
2130 Downing
Denver, CO 80205
861-2381/575-3012
Facilitator role in dealing with community issues and a
referral agency for various services.
COUPLE CLUB
5087 Vaughn Way
Denver, CO 80239
371-8408
Strictly social, couples only.
CRISIS PREGNANCY CENTER
3405 Downing
Denver, CO 80205
295-2288/795-2965
Offers a free pregnancy test, counseling, shepherding home,
and information on social services available for expectant
mothers.
CURTIS PARK COMMUNITY CENTER
2940 Curtis Street
Denver, CO 80205
295-2399
Provides recreation, emergency services, education,
employment, community and cultural .enrichment, summer
day camp and residential camp.
CURTIS PARK CONSUMER CENTER
3050 Champa
Denver, CO 80205
295-7880/839-5615
Provides emergency food, clothing and day shelter for fami-
lies. single parents and women.
DAHLIA ART AND LITERARY CLUB
628 W. 16th Street
Pueblo, CO 81003
544-5383
Part of network of Federated Colored Women's Clubs that
focuses on speech arts, book reviews, arts and crafts.