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Historic preservation

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Title:
Historic preservation East Seventh Avenue Historic District, Denver, Colorado
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East Seventh Avenue Historic District, Denver Colorado
Creator:
Widmann, Nancy L
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English
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x, 169 leaves : illustrations ; 29 cm

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Historic districts -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Historic districts ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 162-169).
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Arts, History.
General Note:
Department of History
Statement of Responsibility:
by Nancy L. Widmann.

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|University of Colorado Denver
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|Auraria Library
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Resource Identifier:
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Classification:
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Full Text
HISTORIC PRESERVATION
EAST SEVENTH AVENUE HISTORIC DISTRICT
Nancy L. Widmann
B. A., University of Illinois, 1963
M.A., University of Denver, 1978
A thesis submitted to the
University of Colorado at Denver
in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Arts
History
DENVER, COLORADO
by
1995


1995 by Nancy L. Widmann
All rights reserved.


This thesis for the Master of Arts
degree by
Nancy L. Widmann
has been approved
by
James B. Whiteside

Date


Widmann, Nancy L. (B.A., History)
Historic Preservation: East Seventh Avenue Historic District, Denver, Colorado
Thesis directed by Professor Thomas J. Noel
ABSTRACT
The East Seventh Avenue Historic District was established by Denver City and County
ordinance in April 1993. This historic preservation masters thesis is based on the
application written to gain local historic designation. Four Denver historic district cri-
teria are met by the district: two relate to historical significance, one relates to archi-
tectural significance, and one relates to geographic significance. The primary period
of significance is from 1900 to 1930 although some history and architectural trends
before and after the period are included. The district is also placed in local, regional,
and national context. The historical significance considers the development of Denver
from a city with little planning to a city utilizing professional planning expertise. The
City Beautiful Movement, changing lifestyles, and the development of Denver into an
important western regional city are explored. The architectural significance considers
how the district exemplifies changing architectural styles, particularly highlighting
Victorian, American Arts and Crafts, the Foursquare, and the Bungalow. Denver
architects, builders, and landscape architects who worked in the district are discussed.
The geographic significance considers the relationship of district residents to a lush
landscape created from raw prairie and the relationship of the district to the Denver
park system, listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1986. The process
for establishing a historic district requires research and a grassroots campaign by dis-
trict residents. The districts Steering Committee planning, public relations efforts,
and resident participation are outlined along with the role of the Denver Landmark
Commission.
This thesis accurately represents the content of the candidates thesis. I recommend
its publication.
Signed
Thomas J. Noel
IV


CONTENTS
Figures.........................................................vii
Acknowledgements ...............................................x
CHAPTER
1. INTRODUCTION.................................................1
Purpose of the Study ....................................1
Scope of the Study.......................................2
National Context ........................................4
2. DESIGNING A HISTORIC DISTRICT................................7
District Street Names: Present Day and Historic.........11
3. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND ......................................12
Early Owners and Their Occupations......................13
Mamie Doud Eisenhowers Home............................21
East Seventh Avenue Churches ...........................23
East Seventh Avenue Schools.............................29
A Few Outstanding Women.................................34
Movies, Writers, Entertainment, the Arts ...............36
Early District Development .............................40
Early Landscaping.......................................45
Cheesman Esplanade and Williams Street Parkway .........45
East Seventh Avenue Parkway: Beauty and Inspiration ....46
East Seventh Avenue Parkway: Residential Development....48
v


The Brickyard .........................................54
Early Building Restrictions ...........................54
The Saints Streets....................................57
Residential Development: The Final Phase...............58
Horse Cars and Streetcars .............................59
East Seventh Avenue Parkway: 1927 Planting ............61
The History of the A. J. Baker Addition................62
4. THE CITY BEAUTIFUL LEGACY ................................73
5. ARCHITECTS AND ARCHITECTURE ..............................80
Intermingling Styles...................................81
Architectural Trends: 1900 To 1930 ....................89
District Architects...................................100
District Builders.....................................106
Pattern Books.........................................106
District Landscape Architects.........................109
Saco Reink DeBoer (1883-1974) .....................109
Jane Silverstein Ries (1909- ) ....................126
6. GEOGRAPHY AND THE URBAN CONTEXT .........................135
7. GRASSROOTS PRESERVATION..................................141
Neighborhood Participants.............................144
APPENDIX
A. APPLICATION .............................................147
B. SUBDIVISION PLAT MAPS ...................................151
C. APPROVED DISTRICT BOUNDARIES ............................159
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY ..........................................162
vi


FIGURES
Figure
1.1 Denver Parks and Parkways ..........................................3
2.1 East Seventh Avenue Historic District, 1980s real estate map....... 9
3.1 701 Williams Street............................................... 14
3.2 Downtown Denver, early 1900s...................................... 15
3.3 Prairie near East Seventh Avenue, early 1900s .................... 16
3.4 Albert J. Norton Residence, 661 Humboldt Street................... 18
3.5 Demolition of 648 and 658 Elizabeth Street.........................20
3.6 Doud House, Summer White House, 750 Lafayette Street ..............22
3.7 Construction of Good Shepherd Catholic Church......................25
3.8 Good Shepherd Church, 2600 East Seventh Avenue.....................26
3.9 Patrick Gallagher Residence, 2830 East Seventh Avenue..............27
3.10 Leonard Freeman Residence, 2611 East Seventh Avenue................28
3.11 Mary Ashton Cass Residence, 795 East Seventh Avenue............... 30
3.12 Henry Blackmer Residence, 795 East Seventh Avenue..................31
3.13 Cass-Blackmer-I AM Sanctuary, 795 East Seventh Avenue..............32
3.14 Alf OBrien Residence, 777 Ogden Street............................33
3.15 Dora Moore School, East Eighth Avenue and Corona Street............35
3.16 Harry Melon Rhoads. Rocky Mountain News photographer...............37
vii


3.17 Foursquare duplex, 636-638 Logan Street............................38
3.18 Rhoads Backyard playhouse, 642 Logan Street........................39
3.19 Ferguson Estate guesthouse, 722 E. Seventh Avenue, 1909 .......... 41
3.20 Charles Connor Foursquare, 765 Corona Street.......................44
3.21 Williams Street Parkway, early 1900s...............................47
3.22 Harry A. Hunsaker residence, 794 High Street.......................49
3.23 Electrical Co-operative League advertisement, 1922................ 50
3.24 Plan 604, Architects Small House Service Bureau................... 52
3.25 Fishers Cheesman Park Addition Residence, 735 Fillmore Street...55
3.26 James Canary Residence, 2945 East Seventh Avenue Parkway.........60
3.27 Clayton-Detroit Block Diagram......................................64
4.1 Wood-Morris-Bonfils House, 707 Washington Street, in 1911.......75
4.2 John A. Ferguson Residence, 700 Washington Street, in 1909...... 76
4.3 Calvin Bullock Residence, 750 Pearl Street, in 1911................77
5.1 Wood-Morris-Bonfils House, 707 Washington Street, in 1910.......82
5.2 H. Van Mater Residence, 680 Emerson Street, in 1906 .............. 84
5.3 American Arts and Crafts Example, 758 Fillmore Street............. 86
5.4 Denious-Maryknoll Fathers House, 2101 East Seventh Avenue..........88
5.5 Dr. George A. Moleen Residence, 719 Gaylord Street.................90
5.6 W. F. Spears Residence, 761 Gaylord Street.........................91
5.7 Mrs. A. B. Gavin Craftsman Bungalow, 661 Williams Street...........93
5.8 George Sanderson Residence, 701 Marion Street, in 1910.............94
5.9 First Issue Cover, Denver Municipal Facts February 20, 1909..... 95
5.10 Harry C. James Residence, 685 Emerson Street, in 1911..............96
viii


5.11 George W. House Residence, 656 Lafayette Street....................97
5.12 Charles and Mabel Orchard Residence, 930 East Seventh Avenue.......102
5.13 Mrs. W. Davis Residence, 633 Gaylord Street........................ 103
5.14 Governors Mansion, southwest view, in 1908 ....................... 104
5.15 1908 Townhouses, corner, East Eighth Avenue and Lafayette Street... 105
5.16 George E. Green Residence, 721 Marion Street, in cl920............. 107
5.17 Table of Contents, How To Plan, Finance and Build Your Home, 1922. 108
5.18 Saco Reink DeBoer (1883-1974), Denvers premier landscape architect ..110
5.19 DeBoer Album, John Mauro [sic] Residence, 2627 East Seventh Avenue .113
5.20 DeBoer Album, John Mauro Residence, 2627 East Seventh Avenue ..114
5.21 DeBoer Album, John Mauro Residence, 2627 East Seventh Avenue ..115
5.22 DeBoer Album, John Mauro Residence, 2627 East Seventh Avenue ..116
5.23 DeBoer Album, John Mauro Residence, 2627 East Seventh Avenue ..117
5.24 DeBoer Album, Amos Sudler Residence, 1717 East Seventh Avenue ..118
5.25 DeBoer Album, Amos Sudler Residence, 1717 East Seventh Avenue ..119
5.26 DeBoer Album, Myron Blackmer Residence, 975 East Seventh Avenue. 120
5.27 DeBoer Album, Myron Blackmer Residence, 975 East Seventh Avenue. .121
5.28 DeBoer Album, William Stanek Residence, 2433 East Seventh Avenue. 122
5.29 DeBoer Album, Samuel and Aimee Kohn Residence, 770 High Street. . . 123
5.30 Jane Silverstein Ries (1909- ), Denver landscape architect......127
5.31 Harry F. and Addie Rhoads Residence, 2750 East Seventh Avenue . . . 129
5.32 Harry M. Rhoads backyard, 642 Logan Street......................131
6.1 East Seventh Avenue Parkway........................................137
6.2 Harry M. Rhoads family, in East Seventh Avenue yard, cl909 ........ 138
ix


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The idea for the East Seventh Avenue Historic District grew out of a Capitol
Hill United Neighborhoods (CHUN) committee formed to investigate the potential
for creating historic districts in the greater Capitol Hill neighborhood. Dr. Thomas
J. Noel addressed the committee in his role as a member of the Denver Landmark
Commission. Dr. Noel encouraged the committees work and personally encour-
aged my participation as a neighborhood resident and history masters candidate.
I thank him for this encouragement both to me and to the movement.
I also thank Dr. Noel in his role as chairman of the University of Colorado at
Denver History Department and as my graduate advisor. The course work in the
masters program gave focus to this study. Especially helpful for their perspective
in regional and national history were Dr. Mark S. Foster and Dr. James B.
Whiteside.
So many district residents offered information about district history and partici-
pated in the research to prepare the basic application. I thank them all for sharing
their knowledge. A special acknowledgement of thanks must go to Wayne and
Patsy Salge, district residents who researched and consulted on technical matters
in the preparation of the district application and the thesis.
x


CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Purpose of the Study
Neighborhood interest in seeking historic designation for portions of Capitol Hill
in Denver, Colorado, reached a level in 1990 where community energy, leadership,
and expertise promised the necessary components for a successful grassroots cam-
paign. Residents identified three areas in Capitol Hill as eligible to qualify for desig-
nation under city ordinance: Quality Hill, Wyman, and East Seventh Avenue. This
study produced the application that began the political process that established the
East Seventh Avenue Historic District.
The Denver historic designation political process requires submission of an appli-
cation to the Denver Landmark Commission, a nine member appointed commission
made up of historians, architects, landscape architects, and citizens. The application
includes the proposed district boundaries, selection of at least two ordinance-defined
criteria under which the district qualifies, and justification for those selected criteria.
Criteria deemed appropriate were two in the Historical Importance category and one
each in the Architectural Importance and Geographic Importance categories. East
Seventh Avenue Historic District: An Application For Historic Designation To the
Denver Landmark Preservation Commission, is essentially the same as Chapter 2
through Chapter 7 of this study.
1


Scope of the Study
For purposes of the application process, most research was limited to the history
and architecture of the area defined by the proposed boundaries, roughly East Sixth
Avenue to East Eighth Avenue and Logan Street to Colorado Boulevard. To place
this seventy-two block neighborhood in proper perspective, the history of surround-
ing neighborhoods and Denvers history and development needed to be investigated
for their impacts on East Seventh Avenue. Criteria justification required an evalua-
tion of East Seventh Avenue as it related to the development of Denver and to some
extent to the development of Colorado and to the nation.
The study also required production of an inventory of the approximately 1400
buildings in the district. The inventory includes addresses, construction dates, permit
numbers, architects, builders, first owners, and their occupations. Many residents
provided information to the author about the history of their own homes. Inventory
data was also gleaned from local public sources. The inventory is on file in the
Denver Public Library, Western History Collection, and in the Denver Planning
Office.
As research progressed it became evident that telling the story of selected early
residents would be the best way to illuminate the history and architectural develop-
ment of East Seventh Avenue. Since it is primarily a residential district with a scat-
tering of small commercial centers, district development is a reflection of the aspira-
tions, values, choices, occupations, and decisions of first residents. Though some
buildings predate 1900 and are significant to the districts early history, the era
between 1900 and 1930 saw most of the development. The era of primary architec-
tural significance is 1900 to 1930. Historical significance is considered primarily
through 1942, but research also focused on historical highlights after 1942.
A review of previous historic district applications in the City and County of
Denver revealed a wide variety of approaches. Each district is unique and the appli-
cations reflect their differences. Through 1992, however, no district had attempted to
qualify, even partially, under the Geographic Importance category. The East Seventh
Avenue Historic District holds strong ties to the development of Denver parks, sec-
tions of which are on the National Register of Historic Places. (See Figure 1.1) This
study includes research to justify historic designation under this additional category.
Research includes Denver parks history and philosophy as related to East Seventh
Avenue, the work of early and later landscape architects, and the history of private
landscape development.
2


Figure 1.1 Denver Parks and Parkways, selected segments.


National Context
In 1900, when active development in East Seventh Avenue Historic District first
began, Denver was struggling to emerge from its national image as a small Western
towm of unsophisticated culture, pollution, boom-or-bust economy, and unplanned,
chaotic building. Denver was self-consciously struggling especially to emulate the
sophistication of eastern cities, who were in turn taking their culture cues from
European cities. Wealthy Denverites were traveling to these cultural meccas.
Denvers regional importance was also becoming firmly established. As a trans-
portation and distribution center, Denver was taking its place in national economic
networks. Population growth, especially of Denvers middle class, reflected this
importance.
Denvers increasing attention to its urban environment reflected a national recog-
nition that urban America was in need of better planning, additional and improved
parks, and greater attention to civic architecture and art. Professional landscape
architects, architects, and urban planners were beginning to emerge as necessary and
important authorities for American cities to consult to improve urban quality of life.
Landscape architects were often the professionals in American cities who led
other community leaders to conceptualize possible urban improvements. In 1850
landscape architect Andrew Jackson Downing noted that Americans visiting London
felt mortified that no city in the United States had a public park, that United States
parks were only squares or paddocks. New York City was the first United States
city to create a major urban park when landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted
designed Central Park in 1857.
Events like the Chicago Worlds Fair of 1893 were showcases for the ideas of the
landscape architects and architects. Nationally the City Beautiful Movement devel-
oped after the 1893 fair; its aim was urban civic embellishment on a grand scale.
Inspiration and precedence for urban planning had come from successful projects like
Baron Georges Eugene Haussmanns plan decades earlier that razed hundreds of
Parisian houses to create broad new boulevards. Architectural inspiration also came
from the French. The Ecole de Beaux Arts in Paris was the training academy for
many noted American architects.^
Established United States cities, east and west, pondered razing houses to create
grand civic centersDenver met this challenge during the same era that created the
East Seventh Avenue Historic District. But the City Beautiful Movement, looking
primarily at public buildings, was not enough to bring solutions to haphazardly devel-
4


oped, overcrowded cities. The first attempt to create a comprehensive plan of regu-
larization of roadways integrated with civic planning for an existing American city
was Daniel Burnhams Chicago Plan of 1909. The plan was grand and ambitious,
seeking to inspire change by virtue of example.-^
Wealthy citizens in other cities also formed Municipal Art Societies and Art
Commissions at the turn of the century and they in turn spawned the First National
Conference On City Planning in May 1909. Leadership came from landscape archi-
tects, architects, and engineers. In Denver, the Denver Art Commission was formed.
The commission is considered the citys first beautification and planning body.^
Outside the urban arena, the first decade of the twentieth century brought federal
protection to millions of acres of scenic and wilderness areas under the leadership of
President Theodore Roosevelt.^ Western cities benefitted from heightened public
awareness of the need to protect open public space. The concept ran parallel with the
values of the City Beautiful Movement. These values were also applied to urban
planning for previously undeveloped city land needed for a growing population. East
Seventh Avenue Historic District was undeveloped, treeless prairie when the new
emphasis on urban planning and urban beauty captured national attention. The dis-
trict became an expression of these new urban values in Denvers quest for accep-
tance as an important, sophisticated city.
East Seventh Avenue Historic District was developed primarily to meet housing
needs for wealthy Denverites who were anxious to live in neighborhoods that reflect-
ed their success and their acquisition of culture from eastern cities and from
European cities. Yet in early East Seventh Avenue development, Denver did not
abandon its tradition of integrating large homes for the wealthy with more modest
homes. The segregation of the wealthy into gated communities awaited a later date.
The wealthy chose to live in the city in economically integrated neighborhoods. The
emphasis on preservation today can be viewed as an effort to recognize the benefits
of encouraging wealthier citizens to continue living in the city.
As East Seventh Avenue developed from west to east, the tendency to build larger
homes on comers gave way to a regularized pattern of building larger homes facing
East Seventh Avenue, especially after the creation of the East Seventh Avenue
Parkway at Williams Street. Smaller homes continued to be built on the north-south
streets. In his Municipal Facts publications, Mayor Robert Speer followed
Burnhams philosophy to bring change through positive example by highlighting
large and small East Seventh Avenue homes as architectural styles to be followed.
Landscape architects of national statureFrederick Law Olmsted, Jr., George E.
5


Kessler and Saco Reink DeBoerplanned the Seventh Avenue District elements of
the nationally recognized Denver park system. East Seventh Avenue Historic District
continues to reflect Denvers passage from an adolescent western town to an ambi-
tious, if still self-conscious, small western city.
Chapter 1 Endnotes
1. Edmund K. Faltermayer, Redoing America: A Nationwide Report On How
To Make Our Cities and Suburbs Livable fNew York: Harper & Row, 1968), p. 24.
2. Ibid.
3. Francoise Choay, The Modem City: Planning in the 19th Century,
Planning and Cities Series, ed. George R. Collins (New York: George Braziller,
1969), 23.
4. Mel Scott, American City Planning Since 1890 (Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1969), p. 77; Don Etter, The Denver Parks and Parkway System;
National Register Theme Nomination (Denver: Colorado Historical Society, State
Historic Preservation Office, August 1986), 5.
5. Faltermayer, Redoing America, 23.
6


CHAPTER 2
DESIGNING A HISTORIC DISTRICT
The 1993 application for historic designation proposed that East Seventh Avenue
Historic District borders be defined by East Sixth Avenue, East Eighth Avenue,
Colorado Boulevard, and the alley west of Logan Street. The Denver Landmark
Preservation Commission accepted the historic basis for these borders, but a majority
voted to designate a district of smaller size due to their judgment that too many build-
ings in the proposed eastern section lacked architectural significance. Following are
the names of district subdivisions (see Appendix for original subdivision filing maps),
dates platted, and the historic basis for the borders as proposed in the 1993 applica-
tion:
Subdivision
Date Platted
Arlington Heights
Fletchers Capitol Hill
South Division of Capitol Hill
A. J. Baker Addition
Capitol Heights
Fishers Cheesman Park Addition
Capitol Avenue Subdivision
January 15, 1881*
June 10, 1880
August 26, 1882
December 3, 1912
February 21, 1887
August 21, 1911
October 19, 1888
*Thayers 1879 Map of Denver shows Arlington Heights already platted.
7


In 1871, prior to East Seventh Avenue Historic District street platting, J. W. Scott
owned the land between Broadway and Corona Streets. Benjamin F. Woodward
owned the land south of East Eighth Avenue between Corona and Steele Streets.
William M. Clayton owned the land between Steele and Monroe Streets. C. A. Rider
owned the land from Monroe Street to Colorado Boulevard.
East Sixth Avenue is the south border for six subdivisions within the District. Its
integrity is constant from Broadway to Colorado Boulevard. In 1887, East Sixth
Avenue was the south city limit for Denver between Logan Street and Josephine
Street. At that time it was also the northern town limit for Harman between York
Street and Colorado Boulevard. (See Figure 2.1)
East Eighth Avenue is the north border for four subdivision filings within East
Seventh Avenue:
Arlington Heights (Broadway to the alley between Washington and Clarkson)
Fletchers Capitol Hill (Arlington Heights filing to the alley between Corona and
Downing)
South Division of Capitol Hill (Fletchers Capitol Hill filing to Clayton)
A. J. Bakers Addition (Clayton to the eastern alley between Clayton and Detroit).
East Eighth Avenue is the south border for subdivision filings and for Cheesman
Park, once City Cemetery; Morgans Historic District, once Mt. Prospect Cemetery;
and Congress Park, once the Hebrew cemetery, then Denver Union Water Works, then
Denver City Nursery. (For more information about early Denver cemeteries, see
Jerome C. Smiley, History of Denver (Denver: Sun Publishing, 1901), 646.)
Only two subdivisions within East Seventh AvenueFishers Cheesman Park and
Capitol Avenue (filing 3) include property on north and south of East Eighth
Avenue. However, East Eighth Avenue, like East Sixth Avenue, has traditionally been
a heavily used route and thus a neighborhood border.
Colorado Boulevard is the east border of Capitol Avenue Subdivision. The
Denver maps drawn since the creation of East Seventh Avenue Parkway put the bor-
der of Capitol Avenue Subdivision down the center of Colorado Boulevard. The one
block island of landscaped median between East Sixth and East Seventh Avenues on
Colorado Boulevard is thereby included in the Capitol Avenue Subdivision.
The first zoning for Denver recognizes the proposed districts historic integrity as
a continuous residential area. The first Denver zoning scheme, adopted by City
Council in February 1925 and in place until the 1950s, shows all of East Seventh
8


East Seventh Avenue Historic District
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Downtown
Figure 2.1 East Seventh Avenue Historic District (adapted from 1980s real estate
map, The Greater Capitol Hill Neighborhoods, that appeared in Phil Goodstein,
Denvers Capitol Hill, published by Stuart MacPhail, 1988)
9


Avenue Historic District in Residential A classification, comparable to R-0 today.
There were exceptions for small, already established apartment and commercial
strips. The only apartment strip was along the south side of East Eighth Avenue from
Ogden Street to Cheesman Park. One commercial strip was along East Sixth Avenue
from Pennsylvania Street to the alley east of Marion Street, another took in the comer
lots at the intersection of East Seventh Avenue and Logan Street, and the last was at
the intersection of East Sixth Avenue and Gilpin Street. The area south of East Sixth
Avenue, that had been the town of Harman, was zoned B. The area south of East
Sixth Avenue, west of Williams Street, was zoned C.
Evidence of a cultural nature affirms East Seventh Avenue borders. Residents
from the west to east borders have recognized a feeling of neighborhood existing
between East Sixth and East Eighth Avenues. Residents comments at the series of
coffees held to discuss historic designation affirmed this cultural point of view. Mrs.
Mae L. Wyatt, 744 Ogden Street, relates that she was secretary for a Seventh Avenue
Association over fifty years ago that claimed these borders. In the 1970s, another
Seventh Avenue Civic Association was formed to obtain R0 zoning for the area
between Downing and York Streets and East Sixth and East Eighth Avenues. Capitol
Hill United Neighborhoods (CHUN) defines Colorado Boulevard as its eastern bor-
der.
In one sense, East Seventh Avenue district integrity has been defined by the
neighborhoods surrounding it. Denver historian Phil Goodstein, in Denvers Capitol
Hill, defines Capitol Hill neighborhoods of Morgans Addition, Denver Country
Club, and Cherry Creek as having borders in common with the borders of East
Seventh Avenue. Goodstein calls East Seventh Avenue Parkway the spine of south-
eastern Capitol Hill.
Though residents of East Seventh Avenue have not chosen a high profile stance as
a separate neighborhood throughout its history, the neighborhood itself has known its
boundaries and passed down to succeeding generations the definition put forward
here. The East Seventh Avenue Historic District boundaries have historic and cultural
integrity.
10


District Street Names: Present Day and Historic
East Sixth Avenue was Chamberlin Avenue (also Carson Street)
East Seventh Avenue was Woodward Avenue (also Cram Street)
East Eighth Avenue was Bowles Avenue (also Bowles Street)
Street East Number Historic Name
Logan 400 Kansas
Pennsylvania 500. Pennsylvania
Pearl 600 Pearl
Washington 700 Canal
Clarkson 800 Clarkson
Emerson 900 Venice
Ogden 1000 Alta
Corona 1100 Corona
Downing 1200 Hallet
Marion 1300 Gorsline
Lafayette 1400 Eyster
Humboldt 1500 Hunt
Franklin 1600 Franklin
Gilpin 1700 Gilpin
Williams 1800 Williams
High 1900 High
Race 2000 Page
Vine 2100 Vine
Gavlord 2200 Green
York 2300 York
Josephine 2400 Shoop
Columbine 2500 Baughman
Elizabeth 2600 Hawkins
Clayton 2700 Packard
Detroit 2800 St. Charles
Fillmore 2900 St. George
Milwaukee 3000 St. Ann
St. Paul 3100 St. Francis
Steele 3200 Washington
Adams 3300 Adams
Cook 3400 Jefferson
Madison 3500 Madison
Monroe 3600 Munroe fsicl
Garfield 3700 Charles
Jackson 3800 Jackson
Harrison 3900 Harrison
Colorado 4000 Colorado
11


CHAPTER 3
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
This chapter addresses the historical importance of the East Seventh Avenue
Historic District with regard to the cultural, political, economic, social, and historic
heritage of Denver. The district is set in context as a Denver neighborhood. This
historical background serves as an argument to show that the district complies with
Criteria I as outlined in the application for historic designation. (See the Appendix
for the application.)
East Seventh Avenue Historic District developed primarily from west to east
between 1900 and 1930. By 1930, 1208 buildings out of a 1990s total of 1477, or
87%, had been constructed. ^ This discussion will examine the heritage of East
Seventh Avenue Historic District with an overview of early owners and their occupa-
tions, churches, schools, and contributions to Denver. A narrative of the development
of the district from west to east will further document its heritage. But first a quick
look at the early years, when the elegant corridor was a dusty, dry and treeless prairie.
In 1889, Elizabeth and Joseph Witt moved into their new home at 745 Marion
Street. The small 1 1/2 story brick house, built in 1885, is the third documented resi-
dence in the East Seventh Avenue Historic District. The Witts had an unobstructed
view of Mordicai Borings two story home (1885) one block away at 773 Downing
Street, and of the earliest East Seventh Avenue residence, 759 Downing Street, a
charming one story (1880).^ Elizabeth Witt ran the Ogden Market while Joseph ran
Butler & Witt, a real estate company, and daughter Irene planned her career as a
domestic science teacher.
Perhaps Mordicai Boring, a plasterer, did the plaster work for the enclave of
12


seven homes built near the districts fourth documented building, 1727 East Seventh
Avenue (1887). This tiny East Seventh Avenue building is locally called the coach-
house. It had one room with a fireplace, no kitchen, and was the presumed coach-
house for 701 Williams Street (1890). (See Figure 3.1.) Local lore labels the alley
house next door at 709 Williams Street originally as a stable.^
In 1889, W. T. Craft built on Pearl Street and Peter Simmons built his home at
624 Washington Street. Despite one 1889 residence on Monroe Street and 30 docu-
mented residences built between Logan and Williams Streets, by 1900 the districts
pattern of development took its cue from Craft and Simmons with new residences
being built closer to central Denver. After 1900 East Seventh Avenue developed pri-
marily from west to east. (See Figures 3.2 and 3.3.)
Early Owners and Their Occupations
The East Seventh Avenue Historic District was built predominately by people
who exemplified the business and professional core of the Denver community. The
occupations of first owners offer evidence of the importance of the districts eco-
nomic heritage and its contribution to Denver. (Space prevents a narrative of all the
contributions by East Seventh Avenue residents; the reader is instead referred to the
East Seventh Avenue Historic District Inventory, located in the Denver Planning
Office and the Denver Public Library, Western History Collection.) This account
will outline only the range of occupations that have remained consistent throughout
the history of East Seventh Avenue.
Real estate and investment people, representing large and small companies, have
always been residents of East Seventh Avenue. Many of these early residents plied
their trade within the district. Henry and Mamie Hagen moved into one of three
homes he built at East Sixth Avenue and High Street in 1902. Advertising his real
estate address in the 1906 Denver City Directory as beeswax 1632 Blake, Hagen
used an unsophisticated attention-getting device that proved to be an anomaly in
what was to become an intensely competitive real estate market during its develop-
ment and to the present day. Like early realtor Henry T. Ellis, 735 Emerson Street,
individual realtors and builders continued to work in the district and often built and
sold more than one house in the same block. Ellis, for instance, negotiated several
sales on Lafayette Street. Later, investment and real estate firms developed several
lots on one block providing financing and builders. One active builder, Douglas M.
13


Figure 3.1 701 Williams Street, built in 1890, watches over the confluence of
Williams Street Parkway, Cheesman Esplanade and East Seventh Avenue Parkway.
(Drawing by district resident, Dr. David Hurst.)
14
I


Figure 3.2 Looking from downtown Denver southeast toward East Seventh Avenue in the early
1900s. (L. C. McClure Photo, courtesy of Denver Public Library Western History Collection)


Figure 3.3 Looking from the prairie near East Seventh Avenue northwest toward downtown Denver
in the early 1900s. (Photo courtesy of Denver Public Library Western History Collection)


Sugg, who lived at East Sixth Avenue and Lafayette Street, became the manager of
the building department for the Title Guarantee Co, responsible for building homes
on Elizabeth, Milwaukee, and Monroe Streets.
Owners of small businesses were attracted to East Seventh Avenue. Charles
Sauer, 710 Downing Street (1902) and 601 Marion Street (1905), owned Western
Candy Company and was the first of many confectioners to live in East Seventh
Avenue. The pickle makers, Lewis & Leech, commuted to their 795 Tejon Street
business from 1515 East Seventh Avenue (Wilson Leech) and 753 Milwaukee Street
(James Lewis). Richard Earl Joy, 111 Steele Street (1920), welcomed Denver diners
to the Fountain of Joy Luncheonette, 1510 Lincoln Street, and catered to their dairy
needs with Joys Butter Shop. There also were jewelers and grocers and milliners.
Many who did not own small businesses were employed by one. William Slater,
774 Lafayette Street (1903), hamessmaker for Hermann H. Heiser, found updated
employment laterperhaps with Harry Wimbushs Ford agency. Wimbush lived at
2501 East Seventh Avenue (1925).
Business tycoon Adolph Zang built his landmarked mansion at 709 Clarkson
Street in 1904. Other district landmarks also pay homage to successful
businessmen.^ John C. Mitchell, who built his landmarked home at 680 Clarkson
Street, was one of the first bankers to make East Seventh Avenue his home.
Convenience of the street rail suburb to downtown banks lured Gordon Jones, US
National Bank president, 750 Clarkson Street (1905); Lawrence Maroney, Hibernia
Bank & Trust president, 760 Clarkson Street (1911); Ben F. Bates, Denver National
Bank vice-president, 712 Lafayette Street (1911); and Joseph Houston, 1st National
Bank vice-president, 780 Columbine Street (1924). Denver R. Platt was a teller at
the First National Bank when he moved into 760 Downing Street in 1904.
The first architect to choose East Seventh Avenue for his residence was Albert J.
Norton in 1900. He lived at 661 Humboldt Street until 1940. (See Figure 3.4.)
Herbert C. Dimick moved from Leadville to 669 Marion Street in 1905. Eugene East
Cadwell moved into 609 Pearl Street (now demolished) in 1908. Montana Fallis
designed 624 Ogden Street for himself in 1909 and then designed 622 Ogden Street
next door in 1922, for his son Myrlin Fallis, when he too became an architect.
Audley W. Reynolds designed 783 Lafayette Street where he lived from 1909 to
1914; the companion townhomes to 783 on Lafayette and on East Eighth Avenue are
also his design. Aaron M. Gove designed 750 Marion Street in 1911 and lived there
until his death in 1924. Henry W. Huntington designed the 646 Franklin Street
duplex and lived there from 1924 to 1931. More recently, Donald Roark designed
17



Figure 3.4 A photo remnant (cl901) of the residence of architect Albert J. Norton, 661 Humboldt
Street. Norton with his partner, Willis A. Marean, designed the Cheesman Pavilion and many dis-
trict residences, including the Governors Mansion. (Photo courtesy of Denver Public Library


the 1968 contemporary brick at 770 Lafayette Street where he lived until 1911P The
list of architects who contributed to the district is in Chapter 5, Architectural
Importance. Those who contributed the most design work were William E. Fisher
and Arthur A. Fisher, of Fisher and Fisher, Architects, and Glenn Wood Huntington.
Lawyers, physicians, nurses and teachers are well represented in East Seventh
Avenues original owner list. Federal Court Judge J. Foster & Cynthia Symes lived in
a Fisher-designed house at 111 Logan Street (demolished) from 1911 to 1925. A few
other early lawyers include Edmon G. Bennett, 731 Clarkson Street (1901), of
Bicksler, McLean & Bennett; Ralph Hartzel, 667 Downing Street (1908); and Walter
W. Blood, 740 Vine Street (1912) of Bartels, Blood & Bancroft. William L. Dayton
and Wilbur F. Denious of the law firm Dayton and Denious both took out building
permits on May 29, 1908, so they could be next door neighbors at 671 and 675
Humboldt Street.
The occupations of first owners on the districts eastern streets reflect the same
business, law, trades, and service occupations as in the earlier west end. However,
the eastern blocks, because they were subdivided and built later, reflected the grow-
ing complexity of a Denver with automobiles and modem conveniences.
Changing lifestyles brought not only different architectural expressions, like the
Bungalow, but new occupational challenges for residents as well. Samuel Phillips
was Commissioner of Highways for Denver when he moved into 658 Elizabeth Street
(demolished) in 1930.^ (See Figure 3.5.) Surgeon J. Frederick Prinzing, building
623 Clayton Street in 1927, represents early specialization in medicine, while Dr. H.
J. Cooper, building 3924 East Seventh Avenue in 1924, signalled Denvers future
prominence in medical research with his position as Director of Research at National
Jewish Hospital.
Frank and Eva Cheley moved into 601 Steele Street in 1917 just prior to estab-
lishing the first Cheley Camp session near Estes Park. Frank Cheley had worked
through his church and the YMCA as part of Denvers response to the national mus-
cular Christianity movement, which, in part, determined to improve youngsters
physical fitness and spirituality in order to maintain the nations character. Cheleys
home continues today as the Denver office for Cheley Camp, run by Franks grand-
n
son and appealing to national and international clientele.1
Harry and Christina Huffman lived in a handsome craftsman Bungalow, 785 St.
Paul Street, from 1917 to 1933 while he was transformed from druggist to movie
house magnate. Eugene P. OFallon brought Denver into a modem era when he
19


Figure 3.5 Two homes, 648 and 658 Elizabeth Street, were demolished (cl950) to make way for
building Good Shepherd Catholic Church in 1953. (Photo courtesy of Denver Archdiocese)


started Channel 2, Denvers first TV station. OFallon lived at 740 Monroe Street
from 1930 until his death in 1963.^
Denvers political heritage is exemplified by the state and local politicians who
have resided in East Seventh Avenue. James Benton Grant, third governor of
Colorado, built the landmarked Grant-Humphries Mansion in 1902. The Boettcher-
Cheesman Mansion stands at the western edge of the East Seventh Avenue Historic
District and has served as the Governors Mansion since 1957. Eudochia Belle
Smith, a journalist, a Democrat, a two term State Representative and the third
woman elected to the Colorado State Senate (1940), retired to 644 Harrison Street
in 1965. Pat Pascoe, current State Senator, lives at 744 Lafayette Street. Jean
Knight Bain, 755 Gaylord Street, served as a Republican State Representative.
While serving his term in the early 1940s, Governor Ralph Carr lived at 747
Downing Street. Denver Mayor James Quigg Newton, mayor from 1947-1955, lived
at 712 Corona Street from 1950 to 1954. His successor, Mayor Will H. Nicholson,
lived at 655 Vine Street from 1948 to 1973.
Mamie Doud Eisenhowers Home
East Seventh Avenue was the home of the Summer White House during the
Eisenhower Administration. Mamie Doud Eisenhower was raised at 750 Lafayette
Street. Her father, John Shelton Doud, a stockman, built the Foursquare in 1907 for
$6925. The architect was Edwin H. Moorman. The Doud House is not a landmark to
date, but has been well maintained and bears a commemorative plaque from the
Daughters of the American Revolution. (See Figure 3.6.)
Ike and Mamie were married in the living room of 750 Lafayette Street in front of
the green tiled fireplace. The Eisenhowers used 750 Lafayette Street as their home
address through Eisenhowers forty years of Army service at twenty-five posts around
the world. Eisenhowers younger son, John, was bom in the house in 1922. Mamies
mother, Elivera (Miss Min), lived in the house until her death in 1960; Mamies
father had died in 1951. The Eisenhowers sold the home in 1961.
Ike and Mamie were frequent visitors to Denver throughout their lives. They are
remembered by Lafayette Street residents today. One story related by neighbor
Eileen Archibold, 700 Lafayette Street, told how Mrs. Elvira Bird, 775 Lafayette
Street, warned the Douds that Mamie would never be happy married to a military
man because they could never settle down in one place and have a real home.^
21


Figure 3.6 Doud House, 750 Lafayette Street, right, served as the Summer White House for
President and Mrs. Dwight D. Eisenhower. Mamie Doud Eisenhowers father, stockman John S.
Doud, built the Foursquare, designed by Edwin R. Moorman, in 1905. Left is the Frank and Lillian
Leary residence, 762 Lafayette Street, designed by the architectural firm of Phillips and Hess.
(Denver Municipal Fact, December 9, 1911, p. 4)


There are memories of the Eisenhower grandchildren and the Nixon children
playing with neighborhood children as well as stories about the secret service
escort in a more relaxed era. Older residents throughout East Seventh Avenue
remember the informal parade of cars that usually traveled on East Seventh Avenue
when Ike and Mamie arrived or departed. Ike and Mamie were frequent dinner
guests of Mamies school friends, Carl and Estelle Rush, 1533 East Seventh Avenue,
and of David and May Gordon, 768 Detroit Street, who met the Eisenhowers when
they were stationed at Ft. Logan. Ike always enjoyed Colorado. His visits to
Denver usually included short fishing trips in the mountains, especially to the
Winter Park area with Denver friends.^
East Seventh Avenue Churches
East Seventh Avenue exemplifies Denvers cultural heritage, in part, through its
church history. The earliest church was built at 1000 East Eighth Avenue (East
Eighth Avenue and Ogden Street) by Methodist residents of the district who honored
Denvers Methodist Bishop by naming it Warren Chapel. This small congregation
merged with another larger Methodist congregation to create Warren United
Methodist Church, 1630 East 14th Avenue. ^ Other denominations used the chapel
until it was demolished to build the Swanee Apartments in 1940.
In 1909, the Arlington Mission Episcopalians built Ascension Memorial Church
at 600 Gilpin Street. William Bird, an early lay reader, 775 Lafayette Street, must
have been pleased to organize his Sunday School in this brick church instead of the
previous meeting place, a tent at East Fifth Avenue and Corona Street. When fire
destroyed an enlarged Ascension Memorial Church on December 16, 1917, Church
Vestryman Arthur Fisher donated plans for the $26,000 Church of the Ascension.
Dedicated May 19, 1918, Ascension claimed strong neighborhood membership and
in the 1990s has resumed its old practice of ringing the melodic church bells on a
daily basis. ^
In 1918, Denvers first Mormon Chapel was erected at 536 East Seventh Avenue.
Serving as the First Ward for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints for
many years, it is fondly remembered by older Denver Mormons. The residence next
door at 538 East Seventh Avenue became headquarters for the Mormon Western
States Mission in 1919. In 1950 the headquarters moved to the Zang Mansion,
owned by the Mormon Church from 1950 to 1977. Apartment buildings replaced the
23


Chapel and residence when they were sold by the Mormon Church in 1980.^
Good Shepherd Catholic Church traces its roots to St. John the Evangelist
Church, East Fifth Avenue and Josephine Street, which first served the town of
Harman. As East Seventh Avenue developed, St. Johns parish served Catholics
living east of Downing Street. In 1924, the parish built St. Johns School at 620
Elizabeth Street. By 1942, Archbishop Urban Vehr agreed with the plan for a new
larger church and rectory. Land purchased on the northwest corner of East Sixth
Avenue and Elizabeth Street in 1924 for a church site had lost its appeal; this land
continues to serve as the school playground. Instead, the Denver Catholic
Archdiocese bought the two houses next to St. Johns School and vacant land on East
Seventh Avenue. ^ Good Shepherd Church was dedicated December 2,1953; the
rectory next door was completed in 1954. Architect John K. Monroes choice of the
Lombardic style in buff brick was sensitive in scale and color to the design and devel-
opment of East Seventh Avenue Parkway. A 1961 addition to the school is now Good
Shepherd Middle School at 600 Elizabeth Street with the original St. Johns School
serving as the Church office.^ (See Figures 3.7 and 3.8.)
The Catholic Church has owned three residences on East Seventh Avenue. In
1944, 2830 East Seventh Avenue (East Seventh Avenue and Fillmore Street), was
obtained from the estate of Mary J. Gallagher, widow of Patrick R. Reddy
Gallagher, sports writer for The Denver Post. Used as a convent for the Sisters of
Loretto teaching at St. Johns, it saved the Sisters the long commute from St. Marys
Academy. When sold in 1949, new owners told of scraping wax off the floors where
altars had stood. (See Figure 3.9.) In 1949 Archbishop Vehr purchased 2611 East
Seventh Avenue for $31,000 from the estate of Jeanne and Leonard Freeman, Jr., to
provide the Sisters a more spacious home across the street from the Church. Later
rented by Catholic high school chaplains, it was sold in 1973. (See Figure 3.10.)
Lawyer Wilbur Denious second East Seventh Avenue district home at 2101 East
Seventh Avenue was purchased by the Maryknoll Fathers and Brothers in 1958 for
use as their home and center for missionary work.1'
Helen Bonfils, living at 707 Washington Street, helped renovate Mother of God
Catholic Church, 475 Logan Street, when Archbishop Vehr purchased it from the
Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints in 1946. It continues to
serve East Seventh Avenue Catholics living west of Downing Street. Its statue of St.
Helen offers a gentle acknowledgement of Helen Bonfils devotion to the Church. ^
Three other churches that claim early support and continued membership of East
24


Figure 3.7 Good Shepherd Catholic Church during construction in early 1950s. Skeletal structure
frames the Leonard Freeman residence on East Seventh Avenue purchased in 1949 for use as a con-
vent for Sisters of Loretto. (Bill Smyth Photograph, courtesy of Denver Archdiocese)


Figure 3.8 Good Shepherd Church, 2600 East Seventh Avenue, in September 1956. (Flahn-Masten
Photo, courtesy of Denver Archdiocese)


to
Figure 3.9 Patrick and Mary Gallagher residence, 2830 East Seventh Avenue. Built in 1925, the
residence served as a convent from 1944 to 1952. Patrick Reddy Gallagher was an editor of The
Denver Post. (Ed Johnson Photo, courtesy of Denver Archdiocese)


Figure 3.10 Leonard and Jeanne Freeman residence, 2611 East Seventh Avenue. Built in 1922, the
residence became the convent for Sisters teaching at St. Johns School. Leonard Freeman was a sur-
geon with offices in the Metropolitan Building. (Photo courtesy of Denver Archdiocese)


Seventh Avenue residents are just across the street from the district. Christ Church
United Methodist, 690 Colorado Boulevard, provides a lovely visual backdrop for the
east end of East Seventh Avenue Parkway. Sixth Avenue United Church, 3250 East
Sixth Avenue, with historic roots in the old town of Harman, has long provided sup-
port for neighborhood organizations, and maintains its parsonage within the district at
3300 East Seventh Avenue. Corona Presbyterian Church, 1205 East Eighth Avenue,
across from Dora Moore School at a busy intersection, provides another handsome
entry point to the East Seventh Avenue Historic District.
The I AM Sanctuary, serving the Denver branch of the national I AM sect, is
located in the Cass-Blackmer Mansion at 975 East Seventh Avenue. Built by Mary
Ashton Cass, widow of CF & Is Alfred Curtis Cass, the red brick residence was
touted as the finest Colonial Revival in the West. ^ Henry Blackmer, alleged boot-
legger and multimillionaire attorney, purchased the mansion in 1920. Blackmer fur-
nished it lavishly indoors. After Blackmer fled to France in 1923 to avoid legal
entanglement in the oil industrys Teapot Dome scandal, his son Myron K. Blackmer
with wife Eleanor lived in the mansion until 1934. Eleanor Blackmer employed
Saco R. DeBoer to plan elegant landscaping.20 (See Figures 3.11, 3.12, and 3.13.)
After struggling as an apartment building, in violation of zoning codes, the man-
sion was purchased by Minnie Pattee in 1950 as a permanent Denver home for the
I AM sect. It was painted white to express purity. The intensely patriotic I AMers
spirituality includes a strong identification with color. One hundred eight gallons of
white paint were required to cover the mansion. Kept glistening white today, the fine
Colonial Revival detail can be seen by the discerning eye. I AM has kept the essen-
tials of the Saco DeBoer landscape design; the pergola and rose garden are intact
while a long grassy sunken area preserves the reflecting pool's location. The sect
operated an elementary school in the adjoining Foursquare at 777 Ogden Street until
1993.21 (See Figure 3.14.)
East Seventh Avenue Schools
Denvers cultural and social heritage is exemplified in East Seventh Avenue by its
strong support for quality education. Though no public schools are located within the
East Seventh Avenue Historic District, residents take pride in their history of support
for public education and participation in school organizations and politics. Teacher
Edwina Hume Fallis, whose grandfather, Daniel Hurd, was president of an early
29


Figure 3.11 The I AM Sanctuary, 795 East Seventh Avenue, was built in 1903 for Mrs. Mary Ashton
Cass, widow of CF&Ps Alfred Curtis Cass. This 1910 photo shows the Colonial Revival residence
landscaped with young trees. The next owner, Harry M. Blackmer, added a large brick and iron
fence. Today, the building is painted white in keeping with I AM tradition. (Denver Municipal Facts,
August 6, 1910, p. 9)


Figure 3.12 Interior of the Cass-Blackmer-I AM Sanctuary, 795 East Seventh Avenue, after Henry
M. Blackmer redecorated in the 1920s. Blackmer lived in the house from 1920 to 1924. His son
Myron with wife Eleanor, lived in the house from 1924 to 1934. (Harry M. Rhoads Collection, cour-
tesy of Denver Public Library Western History Collection)


OJ
K>
Figure 3.13 Cass-Blackmer-1 AM Sanctuary, 795 East Seventh Avenue, entrance as it appears today
with Henry M. Blackmers brick and iron fence. (Drawing by district resident, Dr. David Hurst.)


Figure 3.14 Alf and Ida OBrien built their $11,000 Spanish Mission Foursquare at
111 Ogden Street in 1904. OBrien was a lawyer and solicitor of patents. The home
returned to private use in 1992 after stints as a ten unit apartment and a private school
for the I AM sect. (Denver Municipal Facts, August 5, 1911, p. 6)
33


Denver School Board, moved into 637 Franklin Street in 1910. Her remarkably pro-
gressive teaching ideas, incorporating play, theater, and imaginative games, were
honored with the naming of Fallis Elementary School. Miss Fallis taught kinder-
garten for forty years in Denver Public Schools, wrote childrens plays and education
training books as well as a delightful Denver history, When Denver and 1 Were
Young.^ Many residents were teachers and administrators. The last East Seventh
Avenue resident to be a member of the Denver Board of Education was Katherine
Schomp, whose family has long occupied the Mitchell House and who engineered a
sensitive conversion of the residence to an apartment and private home compound.
This venerable landmark continues to exhibit exquisite Jane Silverstein Ries-
designed landscape and plantings.
Landmarked Dora Moore Elementary School, formerly Corona School, currently
serves elementary students west of Race Street. (See Figure 3.15.) Bromwell School
serves the students east of Race Street Both have proud histories of strong communi-
ty involvement with residents of East Seventh Avenue taking active leadership roles.
(School boundaries have changed from time to time since 1900; Steck School cur-
rently serves elementary students living east of Garfield Street) Morey Middle
School, East High School, and Manual High School have also profited from the
strong support of East Seventh Avenue residents. Many alumni are residents since
such a large number of young adults have always chosen to stay in East Seventh
Avenue to raise their children.
Small private schools have flourished at times with at least one going on to estab-
lish a prominent position of excellence in Denver. Graland Country Day School
spent its first years at 750 Franklin Street before moving to its Hilltop campus. A
shorter lived school, Miss Hardings School, Laura Harding, Principal, educated
proper young ladies from 1920 to 1933 in the Denver Square at 626 Franklin Street.
A Few of the Outstanding Women
Laura Harding joined other East Seventh Avenue women who enjoyed careers
and interests that exemplified the social and cultural heritage of Denver women.
Already mentioned are Helen Bonfils, Mamie Doud Eisenhower, Edwina Hume
Fallis and Eudocia Belle Smith who have been honored by inclusion in the Colorado
Womens Hall of Fame. Another East Seventh Avenue honoree is Miriam Goldberg,
publisher of the Intermountain Jewish News, who lived at 628 Street Paul Street.
34


Figure 3.15 Dora Moore School, formerly Corona School, East Eighth Avenue and
Corona Street, has served district residents since 1889. (Drawing by district resident,
Dr. David Hurst.)
35


(Her husband, Max Goldberg, a journalist and media personality, was a founder of
Rose Hospital and Channel 9 TV.)^ Jane Silverstein Ries, whose home at 737
Franklin Street was recently designated a Denver landmark, has received many hon-
ors as a landscape architect. Mrs. Ries and her brother, Court of Appeals Judge
Harry Silverstein, grew up at 725 Franklin Street.^ Emma Pronger was a physician
in 1903 when she moved into 736 Vine Street. Mrs. John Porter Evans had served as
president of Colorado Iron Works before she moved into 2133 East Seventh Avenue
in 1925. Henrietta Bromwell, for whom Bromwell Elementary School is named,
lived on the 600 block of Williams Street. Dana Crawford, Denver developer espe-
cially active in renovating downtown Denver, lived on the 600 block of Humboldt
Street and later at 685 Emerson Street. The East Seventh Avenue Historic District
Building Inventory notes the occupations and accomplishments of some East Seventh
Avenue women, but, sadly, older records rarely illuminate womens history.
Movies. Writers. Entertainment, the Arts
Thomas H. Harry Nolan purchased 770 Clarkson Street in 1923. Nolan came
to Denver in 1906 with the Hagenbach-Wall ace Circus, known for their black-tent
movie theatres, forerunners of silent pictures. In Hollywood with partner Carl
Laemmle, Nolan founded Universal Pictures, where he produced the silent version of
Daddy Long Legs. Nolan later owned a chain of movie houses in Colorado, Utah
and Oklahoma, and was the first president of the Rocky Mountain Screen Club.^
Impresario Arthur and Hazel Oberfelder are said to have entertained every musi-
cian and artist visiting Denver in their 1922 Jules Jacques Benois Benedict home at
2701 East Seventh Avenue.William Edmund Barrett, author of Lilies of the Field,
Left Hand of God, The High and the Mighty, and many other novels, lived at 770 York
Street. An artist of a different ilk, Herndon Davis, painted murals of famous
Coloradans on the basement walls of 1930 East Eighth Avenue to the delight of owner
and friend, Fred Milo Mazzula, an attorney and historian-writer who held notorious
card games amidst the clever and colorful murals.^ Continuing a Denver entertain-
ment tradition, Arnold Gurtler, 718 Corona Street, and John Gurtler, 725 Williams
Street, both chose East Seventh Avenue for their homes while running Elitch Gardens.
Photo journalist Harry M. Rhoads, of The Denver Republican, and later the Rocky
Mountain News, moved into 642 Logan Street with wife Sadie in 1909. (See Figures
3.16, 3.17 and 3.18.) His father, Harry F. Rhoads, who owned a hardware store at
36


Figure 3.16 Harry Melon Rhoads, early district resident and longtime Rocky
Mountain News photographer, poses with unidentified family members on rear porch
of his Foursquare duplex residence at 642 Logan Street. A serious young Rhoads
holds string to camera shutter. (Harry M. Rhoads Collection, courtesy of Denver
Public Library Western History Collection)
37


Figure 3.17 In the early 1900s young trees stood in front of the 636-638 Logan Street duplex. The
Foursquare duplex was built for $4,000 in 1911 on land owned by Harry Fisher Rhoads. ((Harry M.
Rhoads Collection, courtesy of Denver Public Library Western History Collection)


Figure 3.18 Architect Harry M. Rhoads built this playhouse for daughters Harriet (in doorway)
and Mary Elizabeth in utilitarian back yard of 642 Logan Street. (Harry M. Rhoads Collection,
courtesy of Denver Public Library Western History Collection)


East Eighth Avenue and Santa Fe Street, was a primary investor-developer of the 600
and 700 blocks of Logan Street in the early 1900s. In 1922, Harry F. Rhoads built
2750 East Seventh Avenue where he and his wife, Addie, lived for many years. Their
daughter, Mrs. Charles (Hazel) Gates, Jr., later lived in the tile-roofed, stucco home
with her family.^
Early District Development
Wealthier Denverites began building homes and mansions in Capitol Hill in the
1800s. They built east along East Colfax Avenue and south in Quality Hill.
Eventually further southern development was slowed by the presence of Cherry
Creek. Both its location as a geographical limit and its propensity to flood adjoining
lowlands turned development eastward to higher dryer land.29 At the turn of the cen-
tury, with Denver recovered from the 1893 Silver Crash, prospering Denver citizens
sought homes located in proximity of the early mansions. The subdivisions that
ended at East Sixth Avenue became a preferred choice for successful businessmen,
lawyers, bankers, and others. (See Figure 3.19.)
Development turned eastward and large homes were built east of Logan Street.
Doubles, terraces, and some smaller homes and stores were built on land between the
large homes. Permits reveal that the few stores were built primarily on the east-west
avenues; those built on the north-south streets were evidently demolished early or
were briefly located in homes. Comers tended to hold the larger mansions on three
or more lots, with smaller two and two-and-a-half story homes placed on two lots
each. The comer homes usually faced the avenues rather than the streets even before
the advent of East Seventh Avenue Parkway.
Most early construction on Logan Street was completed between 1900 and 1912.
The Cheesman-Boettcher Mansion, now the Governors Mansion, built in 1908, faced
East 8th Avenue. One block away, architect John Huddarts 644 Logan Street is a
two-story brick row house built in 1910 on land owned by Harry F. Rhoads. Huddart
may have designed the similar 642 Logan Street and the double, 636-638. These res-
idences are still standing. Governors Park now provides green space amid the man-
sions while newer buildings do not obscure the intact wonderful older buildings that
verify the historic origins of western East Seventh Avenue.
Pennsylvania Street originally claimed residents like leaf tobacco importer, Emil
M. Benesch, at 627 Pennsylvania Street and the president of Pioneer Iron Works,
40


Figure 3.19 Landmarked Ferguson estate guesthouse designed by Theodore Boal, 722 East Seventh
Avenue, was purchased by George Gano (Gano-Downs) in 1909. 1900s view towards Clarkson
Street and East Sixth Avenue. (Collier Photo, courtesy of Denver Public Library Western History
Collection)


Jacob Fitting, at 624 Pennsylvania Street. Eliza Higgens couldnt have guessed that
her 1908 four-unit apartment was an early version of what was to invade Capitol Hill
50 years later. Her building still stands at 661 Pennsylvania Street.
Walter S. Leavitt, a tool manufacturer, built 604, 608 and 612 Pearl Street in 1908
choosing 604 for his home. These still stand. One 1890 building, whose permit
records a W. Fisher, Jr. as architect, probably is gone; it would have been on the
east side in the 600 block of Pearl Street.^ The earliest permit found west of
Downing Street, dated June 13, 1889, is for 624 Washington Street. Lawyer Peter A.
Simmons lived here and waited ten years for close neighbors.^ 1 Frank and Carrie
Vaughn built their two-story home at 770 Washington Street in 1910 for $6000. He
was a salesman for Northern Coal & Coke. Edwin S. Kassler, president of Kassler
Investment Company, commissioned Biscoe and Heath to build a far grander $20,000
home the same year at 727 Washington Street. Kassler was an active investor in East
Seventh Avenue properties.^
Most early Clarkson Street residences remain intact and offer insight into how the
streets just west might have originally appeared. Mitchell House and Zang Mansion
anchor East Seventh Avenue at Clarkson Street. Smaller homes fill out the 600 block
while larger scale homes create a different visual impact on the higher ground of the
700 block. One notable 1892 residence stands at 722 Clarkson Street. Robert S.
Roeschlaub designed this shingle embellished two-story for Albert A. Blow, a mining
engineer who moved from 547 Clarkson Street.
A section of the City Ditch, now covered over, meandered down East Seventh
Avenue from Humboldt Street west to near Washington Street. This was an addition-
al benefit for new home owners desiring street trees and gardens. Early photographs
testify to the prompt planting of street trees.
Emerson Street, like Clarkson Street, offered a prestigious address to the early
status-conscious residents. Early residents included Claude K. Boettcher who moved
into his Frederick J. Sterner-designed home at 701 Emerson Street in 1902. Two
years later Marean and Norton designed 669 Emerson Street for physician Melville
Black. John W. and Mabel F. Morey, Morey Mercantile Company, moved into Gove
and Walsh-designed 717 Emerson Street in 1906. Carriage master, Charles Bishop,
moved into the more modest, but exquisite Foursquare, 625 Emerson Street, in 1906.
In 1912 Mrs. Charles (Ella) Denison commissioned architects Fisher and Fisher to
design 730 Emerson Street.
As development progressed eastward, the consistency of types of owners
remained. Yet every block has its unique story, its unique lore. The grand homes on
42


East Seventh Avenue continued to be built, usually with one home on each comer.
Some delightful exceptions give the avenue a softened transition to the scale of street
residences. Along East Sixth Avenue many stores were built to serve the neighbor-
hood. Most have remained friendly mom and pop businesses through the years.
Corona and Downing Streets bring thoughts of politicians like Governor Ralph
Carr, 747 Downing Street, and his sister who lived next door in an almost identical
house. Besides claiming some of the earliest residences in East Seventh Avenue,
these streets still hold a charming variety of architectural styles. The charm of these
busy one-way streets is often missed by motorists obeying synchronized traffic sig-
nals, but not by East Seventh Avenue residents. (See Figure 3.20.)
The one-way streets in East Seventh Avenue are unfortunate and have been a ral-
lying point for more recent residents. Thanks is generally attributed to Henry A.
Barnes, Denvers first traffic engineer, who proposed them in the late 1940s to solve
Denvers growing traffic congestion. (Downing Street is an exception; it was made a
one-way north street in 1934. Logan Street was its counterpart carrying southbound
traffic.)34 Perhaps Mayor James Quigg Newton, who appointed Barnes in 1947 and
lauded the plan, was demonstrating that one-ways were not so bad when he moved
into 712 Corona Street in 1950. One notes, however, that he moved out just before he
left office in 1955.
The first decade of this century saw incredible construction activity between
Clarkson Street and Williams Street. The variety of Foursquares that are so prevalent
came from planbooks or were individually designed by architects. Over 200
Foursquares are identified in East Seventh Avenue. They were interspersed with
grander homes, like the stately 1904 Fisher and Fisher-designed residence at 1130
East Seventh Avenue, and with smaller one stories, like the 1905 Phillips and Hess-
designed residence at 762 Lafayette Street. This Lafayette Street residence was
designed for Frank Leary, clerk to the Secretary of State. Descendants of the Denver
pioneer Schaefer family, William and Bertha Schaefer, desired a Foursquare and had
George Bettcher design their home at 631 Franklin Street in 1907. In 1911 U.S.
District Attorney Eugene Kelly selected architect Frederick L. Hamois to design 600
Franklin Street.-^
In 1912 Glen Wood Huntington designed the modified Foursquare at 677 Gilpin
Street. Max, Meyer, and Shirley Neusteter, the department store family, made it their
home in 1917. In 1924 R. H. Parrish, who had made a fortune in Colombian land
development moved into 715 Gilpin Street. Thirty-six years earlier in 1888 George
East Crawford, of Fleming & Crawford Investments, had moved into 721 Gilpin
Street, the first home with a Gilpin Street address in East Seventh Avenue.
43


Figure 3.20 Charles and Maggie Connor residence, 765 Corona Street, in 1902.
Later, in 1908, Connor built a barn on the alley for $1,000. (Denver Municipal
Facts, January 7, 1911, p. 14)
44


Early Landscaping
High priority was placed on planting street trees and on developing attractive
landscaping in front of the homes. Early photographs document this Denver tradi-
tion. The cottonwood is the only indigenous tree and this lovely giant of the prairie
grew only near the few natural waterways. The scrubby prairie, overlaid with grid
streets of dirt, needed water and greenery for the beauty and shade desired by former
easterners and midwestemers.
The 1905 Baist Map of Denver shows only fifteen homes built east of Williams
Street; streets west of Williams Street were fairly well developed. The stage was set
for East Seventh Avenue to become an expression of the City Beautiful Movement.
In 1904, the city of Denver created the East Denver Park District in anticipation of
civic interest in park development. In 1906 Charles Mulford Robinson, an early city
planner, suggested the design of a network of parks and parkways to the Denver Art
Commission. George E. Kessler, nationally respected designer of parkways and
boulevards, prepared a 1907 map based on his own and Robinsons ideas.The
Robinson-Kessler plan for Denvers parks and parkways included three elements that
converged at East Seventh Avenue and Williams Street: the Cheesman Esplanade,
Seventh Avenue Parkway, and Williams Street Parkway
East Seventh Avenues earliest landscape facts and lore are also documented near
this comer site. Robert Chapman, a florist, moved into his new home at 710 Gilpin
Street in 1892. His retail business was located at 801 West Sixth Avenue. Lore
passed down by old timers on the block bounded by Sixth, Eighth, Williams and
Gilpin Streets tell of large flower gardens, and later garden spots as they were
called, the last disappearing with the construction of 795 Williams Street in 1952.-^
At the confluence of Cheesman Esplanade, East Seventh Avenue Parkway and
Williams Street Parkway, the Robinson-Kessler parks and parkways expression of
Mayor Robert Speers City Beautiful Movement meshed with East Seventh Avenue
Historic District development.
Cheesman Esplanade and Williams Street Parkway
Saco R. DeBoer, the brilliant landscape architect who immigrated from Holland
in 1908, became Denvers landscape architect in 1910. Using the Robinson-Kessler
plan, he detailed in the plantings for Cheesman Esplanade.Cheesman Esplanade,
45


locally called Little Cheesman, was planted in 1912 while the city was buying the
land to create East Seventh Avenue Parkway and Williams Street Parkway. ^ 9
Cheesman Esplanades 3.7 acres provide a graceful entrance to Cheesman Park and
link Cheesman Park to Denvers park network.
To provide land for the parkways, Denver purchased six lots on each of the 600
blocks between Williams Street and Colorado Boulevard and also the west sixty feet
of each lot on the east side of Williams Street. Three houses had already been built
on the east side of Williams Street; these homes were lifted and moved across the
alley and now have High Street addresses.^ To create the Williams Street Parkway,
new residences had to be built very close to the alley on the east side of Williams
Street. The effect on Williams Street is an elegant tree-lined vista on 120 feet of right
of way. The Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., firm, nationally renowned urban landscape
architects, were engaged to plan this segment of the park plan. Residents of Williams
Street today carry on the neighborhood tradition of helping the city care for the dou-
ble-row of mature elms.^l (See Figure 3.21.)
East Seventh Avenue Parkway: Beauty and Inspiration
Saco De Boer is credited with planning East Seventh Avenue Parkway. According
to Don Etter, author of the 1986 National Register application for Denvers Parks
and Parkways, the more formal lower portion of the parkway, Williams Street to
Milwaukee Street, shows the influence of Olmsted, but the impact of [DeBoers]
hand, and of his design principles, is very evident in the mature parkway.^ The
actual planting of the lower portion of the Parkway commenced in 1914. Land acqui-
sition and initial planting were financed through the 1912 East Seventh Avenue
Parkway Improvement District, a special taxing district.^
The 155 foot right of way includes a forty-five foot median flanked by thirty foot
roadways and twenty-five foot parking strips. The parking strips were planted with
double rows of elms to create a high arching canopy. One of the best places to view
the intended effect of this strong canopy is at Clayton Street. The median contains
formal groupings of blue spruce, weeping birch, and weeping catalpa. The groupings
of trees are interspersed with sun spots.^ The sun spots fulfilled their dual role
of providing beautiful oases of flower gardens and demonstrating the flowers that
would thrive in Denvers fickle climate. East Seventh Avenue Historic District gar-
dens continue today to take inspiration from DeBoers legacy. DeBoers public edu-
cation also demonstrated plantings of his favorite tree choices for private gardens, the
46


-J
Figure 3.21 Looking south along newly planted Williams Street Parkway from the western end of
East Seventh Avenue Parkway in the early 1900s. Sun spot, which continues to be planted, is on
East Seventh Avenue median while the double row of trees and shrubs on Williams are punctuated
by vintage lampposts. ((Harry M. Rhoads Collection, courtesy of Denver Public Library Western
History Collection)


crab apple, hawthorn, and larch. With the city nursery conveniently located then in
what is now Congress Park, early residents must have been doubly inspired.
Denver Department of Parks and Recreation have continued DeBoers legacy. It
has long been the custom to have one master gardener in charge of selected sun spots
over a long period of time. Neighbors note consistency of design, but variation in
flower choices. A secret shared among many neighbors is a special border of basil at
one location each year. Neighbors valiantly hold off picking samples until just before
the first frost.
East Seventh Avenue Parkway: Residential Development
The advent of Cheesman Esplanade brought development of the choice lots on
700 High Street. (See Figure 3.22.) Jonathan & Martha Terry had moved into 760
High Street, designed by Glenn Wood Huntington, in 1905. In 1910, Baxter F.
Vreeland, president of Western Lumber & Pole Co, moved into his George F. Harvey-
designed home at 752 High Street. Harvey also designed 740 High Street for Charles
and Nellie Kendrick in 1912; Kendrick was president of Kendrick-Bellamy
Stationery Company. In 1925 J. J. B. Benedict designed the elaborate triple axis
palazzo at 770 High Street for Samuel and Aimee Kohn. Evidence of the Saco
DeBoer landscaping remains behind walls of fencing and shrubbery. Kohn, president
of American Furniture Company, lived at this East Eighth Avenue and High Street
location until 1941. The residence is well tended by owner occupant and Denver
architect Peter Dominic, Jr., and his wife Philae.
Race Street and Vine Street were developed primarily between 1905 and 1915.
Gaylord Street development had a later date range as did the the streets east to
Clayton Street where homes were built primarily between 1912 and 1928. The
majority of parkway homes were built in the 1920s. The Electrical Co-operative
League was aware of this trend in 1921 when building 716 Clayton Street as a show
house to demonstrate the many modem uses of electricity.^ (See Figure 3.23.)
Parkway homes tended to be large in scale and grand in design. Original owners
held prestigious positions in the Denver community, following the trend of East
Seventh Avenue owners living west of Williams Street The landmarked Kerr House,
designed by J. J. B. Benedict, anchors the west end of the parkway.
In 1922, David J. and Antonia Main commissioned Fisher and Fisher to design
their home at 2001 East Seventh Avenue. Mains partner in Standart & Main The
48


Figure 3.22 Foursquare residence of Harry A. Hunsaker, 794 High Street, overlooks
Cheesman Esplanade. Hunsaker was the manager of the life and accident depart-
ments for Travelers Insurance. (Denver Municipal Facts, February 18, 1911, p. 6)
49


Ui
o
DENVERS MOST MODERN HOME
When you build a home
make it modem
It is important that provision be made in house plans for
the use of electrical appliances and conveniences. Sec that
your plans include the proper number of Convenience Out-
lets. Otherwise you cannot secure efficient illumination
nor can you make proper use of electrical household ap-
pliances.
This homelocated at 712 Clayton Streetis an example
of modern construction. Designed and built by the Elec-
trical Co-operative l.eague to illustrate the importance of
Iuopcr wiring and the use of Convenience Outlets. In this
lomc, every essential has been included to assure beauty,
comfort and convenience.
This Kmhlcm in a Dealer's Window
is Yotir Guarantee of Intelligent
Klcctrical Service.
The Electrical Co-operative League as a part of
its services has assisted the Architects Small
House Service Bureau in developing the plans con-
tained in this book from the electrical standpoint.
Further information can be secured from the
Leagues Executive Manager.
It is extremely important to employ an up-to-date con-
tractor to assure an effective, modern electrical home.
Before you build, see or write the Executive Manager of
the Electrical Co-operative League, who will be glad to
advise you concerning any electrical matterand without
charge or obligation.
Send for a copy of the booklet "The Modern Electrical
Home." It will prove interesting. Its FREE
Electrical Co-operative League
A Non-profit Organization of Members of the Electrical Industry
Dedicated to the Service of the People
Offices Phone
301 G. & E. Building Champa 7273
DENVER, COLORADO
Figure 3.23 The Electrical Co-operative League built 712 Clayton Street in 1922 to demonstrate the
wonders of Convenience Outlets. [The address is now 716 Clayton Street.] This advertisement
first appeared on page IX in the plan book prepared by the Architects Small House Bureau,
Mountain States Division.


Insurance Men, Frederick W. Standard, commissioned Burnham Hoyt to design 2025
East Seventh Avenue in 1924. Arthur T. McClintock, general manager of the Beatrice
Creamery, lived at 2133 East Seventh Avenue, and oilman Mark U. Weber lived in the
Italian Renaissance Revival at 2215 East Seventh Avenue.
Moving east along the parkway, other original owners included John and Laura
Brannan, who in 1925 moved into the Georgian Federal Revival home at 2222 East
Seventh Avenue. Brannan was president of Brannan Sand and Gravel Company. The
president of Merchants Biscuit Company, Clinton Bowman, hired Douglas M. Sugg
to build 2279 East Seventh Avenue in 1923. Bowman donated the South Broadway
land where Merchants Park, Denvers former baseball stadium, was erected. Louis
W. and Irma Mack, owners of the downtown Mack Building, lived in what later
served as the Finnish Consulate, an imposing eclectic Revival at 2315 East Seventh
Avenue. Owners of the Denver Terra Cotta Company, Carl P. and Eva Schwalb
moved into their Colonial Revival residence at 2325 East Seventh Avenue in 1921.
The first parkway residence was built in 1908 at 2401 East Seventh Avenue (East
Seventh Avenue and Josephine Street). It is the only parkway residence built close to
the street; in 1908 the setback from the street was based on the original grid plan, not
the revised parkway scheme. The 1924 owners were Charles C. and Cathleen Barker.
Barker was senior partner in the law firm of Barker, Lindstrom, and Webster.
Eleven parkway homes can be attributed to architects William E. Fisher and
Arthur A. Fisher. Other parkway architects include Glen Wood Huntington, Willis A.
Marean, Albert J. Norton, Burnham Hoyt and J. J. B. Benedict. Architects also
designed homes on nearby north-south streets. However, many builders were work-
ing from designs produced in plan books of the day. An example is the residence at
645 Race Street, built from Plan No. 604 in the the Architects Small House Service
Bureau, Mountain Division, plan book. This residence is reported to have been a
wedding gift to the first owners, Irving and Marian Selover.^^ (See Figure 3.24.)
Race Street claims residences built between 1900 and 1910. The Fallis and Stein
architectural firm designed the 1906 Foursquare at 720 Race Street for lawyer George
P. Winters. The current owner of 658 Race Street reports that her 1908 Dutch
Colonial residence has been in the family since 1924 when carpet merchant F. C.
Latcham, Sr., purchased it. He was told it was built by an Oregon lumber man.
In 1907, Rose Realty Company owned the west side of 600 Vine Street; the lots
were sold off individually to separate builders. One of the builders was Arvid Olson,
builder of East High School. Olsen built 655 Vine Street for himself and his wife,
Emma, with plans drawn by architect Maurice B. Biscoe in 1916. This residence was
51


Plan No. 604
THIS beautiful home possesses a distinction and individuality rarely found in a house of its size and cost. While excellent in design it is also a type of house
which will give the home builder value for every dollar he puts into it. The exterior is an unusually effective and interesting one, and a house that will
compel a second glance from the casual observer and engage his interest. The house is nicely balanced and its pleasing reserve and graceful lines, with
the simple but skillfully-designed details all combine in giving this exterior a dignitied, yet at the same time, a very homelike air.
This house is constructed of wood studding with cream colored trowel-marked stucco, with back plastered over the metal lath to insure a warm house- The
roof should be painted a brownish green color with green shutters to harmonize with the roof, and the wood should be painted white. The appropriate Bower box
below the living room windows gives a touch of color in summer which will create a pleasing and delightful contrast with the light cream colored wall surfaces.
This house will have the air of being delightfully cool in summer with its enclosed arched porch, its southern exposure on the living room side and its at-
tractive arclicd entrance porch opening into the hall from the outside. 'Ilic hall is of ample site with a beautifully arranged siairw.iv, with a large triple window,
and is accessible to the living room through a wide opening with a view across the living room into the porch through the French windows The living room
is well lighted and spacious with its open fireplace, its balanced openings on either side, one of which leads to the dining room and the other to a rear hall containing
two spacious closets.
'I lie dining mom with its light on two sides, with casement windows overlooking the garden, insures a charming and inviting view.
The kitchen is most complete with its working space along the outside wall below the windows where practically all of the kitchen work may be performed,
with ample ehina and storage space. The kitchen is reached through a rear entrance with a position for the ice box and cupboards above. Opening out of the
rear entry is the basement stairs which is placed directly under the main stairs to the second floor. The house is fully excavated and contains a spacious iaundry,
a store room, fuel room and a large heating room.
For a house of these dimensions it would be difficult to provide a second floor of three bedrooms better arranged and of such generous size than the ones in-
dicated in this plan. The minimum allowance of second-floor hall space is provided witn the three bedrooms and one bath opening out of this hail. Ail of the bed-
rooms contain one or more closets of ample size, and a well placed linen closet occupies the space at the cud of the hall.
Altogether this house possesses many charming features and is designed for those who desire a home that is refined an.I yet different from the usual type
of small house.
WALLS'CICAM COLOIED-
T3.0W£L ViAC-iLD STUCCO
5ACn '-ADTIiLD Ob MuTAL-
ioor aaowiKitCh
jtainco 3tn;Lr.5-fe>£:cK--
W03.* V'AHIGATiD TAP13TW*
Mr ai03. wood wo a* paihtd
El
A
< ' ELC01$i'*
-.rajccc- jr.au sit-
Figure 3.24 Plan 604, contributed by architect George L. Bettcher, was used to build
645 Race Street in 1922. (Architects Small House Service Bureau, Mountain
Division, Finance and Build Your Home, p. 66)
52


home for Denver Mayor Will H. Nicholson and his family from 1948 to 1973.
Gaylord Street highlights include buggywhip salesman Warren Hall who convert-
ed his business to auto parts while living in his $4,000, 1908 residence at 624
Gaylord Street. In 1925, the keep smiling chiropractor, W. F. Spears built his home
at 761 Gaylord Street for $12,000. Gaylord history also tells of perhaps Denvers
first home swimming pool; it was made from a stock trough. In 1946, Francis and
Jean Bain built the unheated 8x30 pool in their back yard at 755 Gaylord Street.
Jean spent years watching their own and neighborhood children learn to swim before
diving into the political arena to win a seat in the Colorado House of Representatives.
One early York Street owner was surgeon R. R. Daniels who also edited Hygienist
Magazine. Another York Street home, 766 York Street, boasts recycled interior panel-
ing from the Moffat Mansion, an elegant residence demolished at the northeast comer
of East Eighth Avenue and Grant Street. Josephine Street claims four early
Foursquares while most of the remaining residences are eclectic one stories.
Josephine and Columbine Streets show off examples of early clay tile roofs.
York Street through Clayton Street offer an architectural transition from predomi-
nately two story homes to predominately one story homes. Building permits confirm
early construction dates for the two story residences. One story homes were built
later, between 1910 and 1930.
Benjamin A. Sweet, vice-president of the Board of Water Commissioners, lived at
710 Columbine Street from 1926 to 1941. Alva Schloss reports that the Schloss fam-
ily has lived at 657 Columbine Street since 1927. The east side of the 600 block of
Elizabeth Street is devoted to Good Shepherd Church and School. The Church adds
emphasis to an architectural transition at this point. The Foursquare falls out of favor,
replaced by Bungalows and eclectic styles exhibiting Craftsman detailing.
Herman Hedeen lived at 720 Elizabeth Street in 1924. He was a landscape gar-
dener and his wife, Sophie, taught at the Clifton Hughes Training School for Girls.
Edwin Marshall Kent, lived to be 100 at 755 Elizabeth Street. Kent worked at United
Bank of Denver until age 87 and his daughter continues to live in their home.
William and Loretta Horan built their two story brick 660 Clayton Street resi-
dence in 1927. William Horan ran Horan Mortuary, a family business since 1890 and
the company that made final arrangements for numerous Denver notables including
Horace and Elizabeth Baby Doe Tabor.
One block away at 740 Clayton Street, Max and Fannie Grimes had built their
home in 1919. Grimes owned a Delta coal mine that he sold in 1951 for $300,000.
In 1921 Samuel Friedland, president of the Cuban Cigar Company, built at 724
53


Clayton Street. Both Grimes and Friedland probably objected when the Powell
Detective Agency took out a permit to build an 8X8 metal signal station at 766 1/2
Clayton Street in 1931; the permit was cancelled in 1932. The signal station would
have been built in the center of the block bounded by Clayton, East Eighth Avenue,
Detroit, and East Seventh Avenue. Surrounded by residences, it would have been
well hidden from street view. Parts of this block are claimed by three different subdi-
visions. The special history of this block is treated, following, in The Brickyard,
and at this chapter conclusion under subtitle, The History of A. J. Baker Addition.
The Brickyard
Before the lower portion of the parkway was planted, Albert J. Baker had ceased
operation of his East Seventh Avenue and Clayton Street brickyard. Baker, a Denver
pioneer active in Denver city politics, purchased two acres from Hallack & Howard
Lumber Company on June 12, 1900.47 Though it wasnt until March 1912 that he
built two connected iron sheds, he used the two acres as the base of his brickyard
business throughout the decade, after moving his business there from Seventh and
Larimer Street. In 1905 he was one of twenty Denver brick manufacturers. Baker
also leased adjacent land from Cyrus W. Fisher. The 1905 Baist Map shows a brick-
yard covering the four blocks between Clayton Street and St. Paul Street north of
East Seventh Avenue.^^ In 1909 the leased land was platted as Fishers Cheesman
Park Addition. The two acres owned by Baker became the A. J. Baker Addition in
1912.
Early Building Restrictions
The former brickyard land gives no evidence of the two iron sheds today, but resi-
dents find bricks, bottles, and other items when they dig very deep in their gardens.
Local lore tells of the brickyard and also of stables, remembered as stables for
Denvers early horse car lines. Perhaps to guarantee the end of these land uses, Cyrus
W. Fisher specified building restrictions in 1911 for Fisher's Cheesman Park
Addition. (See Figure 3.25.) The restrictions were to last until January 1, 1930:
54


Figure 3.25 Built in 1912, the handsome timbered residence, 735 Fillmore Street,
was one of the first built in Fishers Cheesman Park Addition. Cyrus W. Fisher delin-
eated building restrictions to assure continuation of building patterns already in
vogue in the district. (Drawing by district resident, Roberta A. Heisterkamp)
55


1. No stores, factories, terraces, flats, public garages, public stables, flat-roofed
houses or double houses shall be built.
2. Only single dwelling houses.
3. Cost not less than $4000.
4. Only hip or gable roof shall be erected.
5. At least two lots for each dwelling.
6. Set-back of thirty-five feet. 9
These restrictions enforced customs that had been followed in East Seventh
Avenue except for the exclusion of doubles or terraces.^ They were a forerunner to
the first Denver zoning that would classify East Seventh Avenue as type A and to
the present zoning that came into effect in the 1950s. At least one precedent for
Cyrus W. Fishers restrictions appeared in the 600 block of Humboldt Street, east
side, South Division of Capitol Hill. Humboldt Street restrictions were in effect from
1908 to 1918. The restrictions included:
1. Houses on Lots 1-12 must be built on at least two lots.
2. Houses on Lots 13-18 must be built on at least one and one-half lots.
3. Cost of any house to exceed $3000.
4. Front set-back to be at least thirty feet.
5. No flat roofs.
6. No double house or apartment or terrace.
7. All used as dwelling houses.
8. All must face Humboldt Street ^
Its questionable whether realtor Edward Lewin followed the last restriction in
1909 when building the handsome comer residence at East Seventh Avenue and
Humboldt Street, 1500 East Seventh Avenue. The homes entry is on East Seventh
Avenue, but the brick porch wraps around the house allowing stairways from both
Humboldt Street and East Seventh Avenue.
The Saints Streets
The 600 blocks of Detroit Street through Steele Street were platted as Capitol
Heights in 1887. The streets were originally named for saints, and though the street
names were changed in the 1800s, these blocks became known as the parish neigh-
borhood.
56


St. Charles Street became Detroit Street
St. George Street became Fillmore Street
St. Ann Street became Milwaukee Street
St. Francis Street became St. Paul Street
[named for the city of St. Paul, Minnesota]-^
Legal problems involving the estate of Joseph M. Turner delayed development of
Capitol Heights; the earliest home carries a 1919 construction date. This delay con-
tributed to the special appeal of these blocks today. The homes are wonderful exam-
ples of the Bungalow style built with enough variation to make an impressive
streetscape of lower scale brick architecture and a strong statement that lifestyles had
definitely changed during the second decade of the century.
Surgeon Lewis I. Miller chose the brick Bungalow style for his home at 639
Fillmore Street in 1919. Dr. Miller was a founder of Beth Israel Hospital, Blue
Cross, and the Allied Jewish Community Council. In 1922 Walter and Eva Belk
moved into 630 Fillmore Street. Belk was manager of the Colorado Detective
Bureau. The last available lots on this block were used for the 600 Fillmore Street
Bungalow, moved from its original 563 Fillmore Street location to make way for a
Safeway store in 1939.
In 1927, after most of the Fillmore Street Bungalows were constructed, J. J. B.
Benedict designed 2900 East Seventh Avenue on the comer for John and Lydia
Fitzell, owners of Ideal Laundry, 2200 Curtis Street. Saco R. DeBoer designed the
landscape. The Fitzell home is a wonderful example of how well the parkway homes
are displayed against the relative consistency of style and scale on the streets perpen-
dicular to the parkway.
Thelma Owen remembers moving into the 600 block of St. Paul Street in the
1920s. The street was dirt and the homes were new, all Bungalows built by the same
builder. Designs were varied to avoid a repetitive look, and the neighbors were all
anxious to have trees and gardens. The first effort was to plant street trees, elms,
which Mrs. Owen watched grow to maturity to form a lovely canopy of shade. About
a third of these original trees are still there. Newer neighbors have planted replace-
ments for those lost. Mrs. Owen says that gardens were the other priority for early
residents. This is a common theme throughout East Seventh Avenue.
Across East Seventh Avenue, David G. (Bun) and May Gordon lived at 768
Detroit Street from 1915 to 1976. In the 1920s architect Fritz Benedict of Aspen
designed a large addition for the Gordons. Gordon, president of Gordon
Construction Company, continued to make changes including an outdoor pagoda and
57


fountain designed by one of Disneylands landscape architects. Gordons company
worked on major projects in the United States and India including Hoover Dam,
Horsetooth Reservoir, the Federal Center, Cheesman Dam, the Alva B. Adams
Tunnel, 11-Mile Canyon, and Tennessee Valley Authority projects. Gordon also
served as president of Cherry Hills Country Club from 1943-1956.
Residential Development: The Final Phase
At least eighty houses had been built between St. Paul Street and Colorado
Boulevard before 1920. This represented one eighth of the buildings in the East
Seventh Avenue Historic District at the time. Construction for homes east of St. Paul
Street began when Leonard Montgomery & Donald Fletcher Company pulled a per-
mit in 1889 to build a house designed by the Baerresen Brothers in the 700 block of
Monroe Street.The next permit of record was pulled in 1910 for the Foursquare at
777 Monroe Street. Neighborhood lore relates that this house was built in the middle
of an orchard. It was also used as a polling location for many years. Oldtimers who
grew up on 700 Monroe Street told of sitting on the front porches in the evening and
looking east over miles of prairie.
In 1911, Robert Ainsworth moved into his house on the prairie, 745 Steele Street.
Ainsworth manufactured precision survey instruments under the name Ainsworth &
Sons. In 1914 Anna Anderson financed three houses one block from Colorado
Boulevard, 747, 757, and 765 Harrison Street.
The earliest district Colorado Boulevard houses that stand today were built in the
mid-twenties. One was bought by Dr. Morris Printz in 1925 for his bride, Sally
Frieds. Colorado Boulevard was still a dirt road. Sally Frieds at age ninety-four con-
tinues to live at 661 Colorado Boulevard after retiring at age eighty-six from running
Frieds Art & Gift Shop.56
In August 1924 Howard and Meta Tillotson took out a permit to build their
$10,000 two story residence at 735 Colorado Boulevard. Tillotson was the orchestra
leader at the Orpheum Theatre. He might have been disappointed in 1925 when the
Denver Powerine Company built a brick and stucco filling station on four lots at the
southwest comer of East Eighth Avenue and Colorado Boulevard. Today the
Tillotson house is only a memory while a modem version of the Powerine gas station
continues on the comer.
The lots on East Seventh Avenues eastern streets were developed primarily in the
58


1920s, the same time period that saw the building of homes on the parkway. Only a
few lots were left undeveloped or were incorporated in extended side yards waiting
for later construction. (See Figure 3.26.)
Horse Cars and Streetcars
The East Seventh Avenue Historic District was considered a streetcar suburb in
the 1890s. Two 1890 maps in the Colorado Historical Society collection illuminate
the City Engineers perspective. One highlighted five sidewalk districts. The City
Engineer had designated five sections of the city to receive sidewalks. All five side-
walk districts were neighborhoods nearer downtown and all were at least partially
developed. Two sidewalk districts have East Eighth Avenue as southern borders;
none intrude across East Eighth Avenue.The other map shows four types of trans-
portation lines. Two Horse Car Lines provided service to East Seventh Avenue. One
Horse Car came from downtown. It traveled east on Seventh from Sherman Street to
Pennsylvania Street, then traveled south on the 600 Block of Pennsylvania to turn
east on East Sixth Avenue traveling to Hallet Street (Downing Street) where it turned
south to turn around at East Fifth Avenue and Hallet Street The other Horse Car trav-
eled down Monroe Street and stopped at East Sixth Avenue. This line connected with
electric and cable lines at East Colfax Avenue and Detroit Street. In 1890 East
Seventh Avenue had public transportation to downtown Denver from its western and
eastern extremes.In 1893 the western Horse Car Line was replaced with an
Electric Street Rail Road Line that continued east to East Third Avenue and York
Street.-^
A 1908 map shows the Denver City Tramway Co. continuing to serve the East
Seventh Avenue Historic District on the western end and on the eastern end with
three lines. The East Sixth Avenue Street Car Line followed the path of the early
Electric Line, but continued east on East Sixth Avenue to end at Madison Street
where it connected with the Madison Street Car Line. The Madison Street Car Line
traveled from East Colfax Avenue down Madison Street to end at East Sixth Avenue
A third street car, the East Eleventh Avenue Car, traveled along East Eighth Avenue
for one block from Lafayette Street to Humboldt Street as part of its end loop so it
could return to downtown Denver. The placement of street car lines led to commer-
cial establishments along East Sixth Avenue.
59


ON
o
Figure 3.26 James D. Canary residence, 2945 East Seventh Avenue Parkway, viewed from East
Seventh Avenue Parkway soon after construction in 1916. Peter Hansen with partner Laursen built
the residence for Canary, head of Canary-Stillwell Oil and owner of Wildacre Ranch. From 1919 to
1950 the home was owned by Roblin H. and Margaret Evans Davis. Davis was president of Davis
Brothers. Drug Company, and from 1933 to 1945, president of Denver National Bank. (Rocky
Mountain Photo Company, courtesy of Denver Public Library Western History Collection)


In 1947, during heated debates about a tram tax ordinance, Denver Tramway
Corporation took out permit #12073 to build a permanent one story, ten by sixteen
foot shelter at 795 Monroe Street. This was the location where soldiers from Lowry
Air Force Base transferred on their sojourns to downtown Denver. ^ A residence is
located on this site today. Over the years, routes have been adjusted, but public trans-
portation has been available and well used by East Seventh Avenue residents.
East Seventh Avenue Parkway: 1927 Planting
The surge in 1920s home building from St. Paul Street to Colorado Boulevard
and along the parkway gave urgency to the planting of the upper portion of East
Seventh Avenue Parkway. The upper portion of East Seventh Avenue Parkway was
planned by Saco DeBoer in 1927; this portion ran from Milwaukee Street to
Colorado Boulevard. Just as the sun spots are the hallmark of the lower parkway, for-
est plantings are the hallmark of the less formal upper parkway. Offsetting the loss of
elms over the years, tall silver cedar, blue spruce, and ponderosa, yellow, and white
pine trees create small forests. The evergreen arrangements allow for sunny spaces
and open views of the mountains. A uniform pine forest stands between Milwaukee
and Steele Streets. Pine and juniper groupings stand between Steele and Adams
Streets. Junipers are the focus between Adams and Cook Streets. As Don Etter
reported, DeBoers mature planting along the upper parkway ... in the winter after
a snow ... [allows] one to see the parkway as a picture postcard mountain scene.^
By 1929, DeBoer had approval from the Denver Planning Commission for a new
master plan that built upon Denvers already outstanding park and parkway system.
The plan provided public participation in the planning process as a natural extension
of DeBoers belief that parks existed to serve the needs of the people. East Seventh
Avenue Historic District residents embraced DeBoers plan by continuing to plant
and value street trees, by creating private landscapes worthy of proximity to the park-
ways, and by enjoying the beauty of his work.
The History of the A. J. Baker Addition
61


Residents between Clayton Street and Steele Street are pleased that their streets
do not go straight through from East Sixth Avenue to East Eighth Avenue. It keeps
traffic volume and speed to a minimum. Some believe it was planned for this reason.
Some believe it was necessary because of the layout of old Harman, the town named
for Edwin R Harman, that bordered East Sixth Avenue in the 1800s. Some note that
it was necessary because Elizabeth Street disappears south of East Sixth Avenue.
Some allude to stories of an old brickyard or stories of an old public stable in the
days when the streets were laid out.
First, Elizabeth Street disappears, but this seems to be a function of the disparity
between the block sizes in all subdivisions south of East Sixth Avenue, not just in
Harman. Also, early developers were not aware of potential future traffic problems.
Public stables do not appear to be a factor; old maps and real estate atlases do not
show stables in this area, although some may have existed. This leaves the spotlight
on the brickyard.
The brickyards significance to East Seventh Avenue development is related in the
section treating the historical significance of East Seventh Avenue. But, how did
Hallack & Howard Lumber Co., who sold to Baker, come to own two acres in the
middle of land destined to be subdivided and annexed to Denver? The answer goes
back to 24 September 1877.
In 1877 Benjamin Woodward sold one acre of land to Giant Powder Co, a
California corporation, for $150. Woodwards acre was part of the 160 acres that
come to him from the United States in 1870. On 2 August 1882, Woodward sold the
land, except for two acres, to Pennsylvanians, Samuel Shoop and Joseph Baughman.
(A second acre of land, adjacent to Giants acre had been sold to the Miami Powder
Co, an Ohio corporation, though a record of that transaction was not found.)
On August 7, 1882, five days later, Shoop and Baughman gave power of attorney
to Humphrey B. Chamberlin to plat and sell 160 acres. They neglected to mention
the two acres that they did not own. The land was platted as South Division of
Capitol Hill on August 26, 1882. On 12 April 1888, Albert Dibbles and I. B.
Chapman, acting for the Giant Powder Co, sold its one acre to John D. Smails for
$10. (This deed was executed in San Francisco.) On 30 November 1888, A. O. Fay
and C. M. Dickey, acting for the Miami Powder Co., sold its one acre to the same
John D. Smails [amount unreadable]. (The deed was executed in St. Louis,
Missouri.) On 5 December 1888, a quit claim deed went from Woodward to Smails.
Smails evidently sold to Angeline East Waddell. No record was found of a trans-
62


action between Smails and Waddell; to date it is not known who profited most. By
25 January 1889, the two acres were sold by Waddell to Julius H. Hammond for
$6100. On 30 January 1889, Hammond sold to Benn [sic] Brewer for $15,000.
Hammond definitely did well for his five days work. No record was found of a
transaction between Brewer and Hallack & Howard Lumber Company, but Hallack &
Howard Lumber Company sold the two acres 12 June 1900, to Albert J. Baker for
five dollars and other valuable consideration. Baker sold to the City and County of
Denver on 28 March 1911, for $10,000.
It is left for residents living in the A. J. Baker Addition to wonder at the history
of their land. The Park in the center of their block may well be considered a gift
from Woodward, or the powder companies, or perhaps industrious John D. $mails.
The story of The Park follows. ($ee Figure 3.27.)
The two acres of the A. J. Baker Addition appear to have caused the normal grid
to be altered between Clayton Street and Steele Street. Clayton and Steele both con-
tinue in a straight line from East Sixth Avenue to East Eighth Avenue. The four
intervening streets, Detroit, Fillmore, Milwaukee and St. Paul, do not proceed in a
straight line; they are offset at East Seventh Avenue. Capitol Heights, the 600 blocks
of these intervening streets, was platted in 1887, five years after South Division of
Capitol Hill. Capitol Heights blocks continued the normal grid pattern used by
South Division of Capitol Hill. Fishers Cheesman Park Addition was platted in
1911, but Baker's two adjacent acres along Clayton Street were not yet platted by
their new owner, the City and County of Denver. In order to have complete lots in
Block 15, on the west side of Detroit Street, Cyrus Fisher extended the size of the
block bound ed by East Seventh Avenue, East Eighth Avenue, Clayton Street and
Detroit Street. He then continued the grid with blocks 14-11 back to the size estab-
lished by South Division of Capitol Hill. The next year Denver platted the two acres,
creating standard lots fronting on Clayton Street. Block 178, South Division of
Capitol Hill, had already been platted. The result is that the 700 block between
Clayton and Detroit Streets is oversized. Since the lots are of uniform size, the City
and County of Denver found itself owning a strip of land in the center of the block.
Denver held ownership of this land in the center of the block until 1961 when
residents surrounding The Vacant, as it was called, purchased it and formed the
Clayton-Detroit Improvement Association. The Vacant had become a mosquito
and rat-infested weed patch. The association turned The Vacant into The Park
and since 1961 has treasured its central greenspace as a place for children to play
and families to congregate.
63


Figure 3.27 This block in East Seventh Avenue Historic District is claimed by three separate subdi-
visions. Block property owners purchased The Park in the center from the City and County of
Denver in 1961.


At Steele Street the streets go straight through again because Capitol Avenue, fil-
ing 3, was established with the normal grid. It matched up perfectly with Fishers
Cheesman Park Addition, but not with Capitol Heights. To reconcile the disparity,
the block bounded by Sixth, Seventh, St. Paul and Steele Streets also became over-
sized. It too has interior space. In this case, part of the land was used to build a
house, with the remainder privately owned. So each day the mailman treks down the
alley off East Seventh Avenue to deliver mail to a house few ever see.63
Chapter 3 Endnotes
1. Figures derived from analysis of East Seventh Avenue Historic District
Building Inventory. The East Seventh Avenue Historic District Building Inventory,
submitted with this application, was researched by the author and East Seventh
Avenue residents; it was compiled by the author. Specific names, addresses, original
owners, and other information pertaining to specific properties in East Seventh
Avenue and hereafter referred to have been collected for the Inventory from these
sources: building permits, real estate maps, archival records and manuscripts in the
Western History Collection, Denver Public Library; Denver City Directories', Denver
Householders Directories', Colorado Business Directories', Land Title Guarantee
Company property descriptions and owner lists; Grantor/Grantee index for Denver
subdivisions through 1917 [Capitol Heights and Capitol Avenue are missing],
Colorado State Archives; water tap permits, Denver Water Board; Bromwell School
House Tour publications; Dora Moore School House Tour publications; information
from interviews with East Seventh Avenue residents and former residents.
2. J. Nevin Carson, Naming Denvers Streets, cl960; Anna J. Trimble, Origin
of Denver Street Names, 1932; Denver: Changes of Streets, 1873-1927, n. d. Hallet
Street became Downing Street. In the 1890s, Howard C. Maloney, employee of
Denver Water Board, renamed Denvers streets. Between Broadway and Colorado
Boulevard, names were made consistent with names of the streets when they crossed
East Colfax Avenue. These publications also offer the history of street names.
3. Frankie Waits, interview June 14, 1992, with the author. Frankie Waits,
resident owner of 701 Williams Street, related information from former older resi-
dents on Williams Street, including Ruth Paylen who moved into 773 Williams Street
in the 1930s, and Portia Hitchens, formerly of 707 Williams Street. Mrs. Waits also
corresponds with the granddaughter of William and Viola Dunlap, the original own-
ers of her home, who moved into 701 Williams Street in 1892.
65


4. Selected businessmen associated with East Seventh Avenue landmarks:
Oscar L. Malo, Alex C. Foster, John Porter, Walter S. Cheesman, John Ferguson,
George W. Gano, James B. Grant, Albert East Humphries, and John C. Mitchell.
Following is the complete list of locally designated Denver landmarks that are within
East Seventh Avenue:
Governors Mansion, 400 East Eighth Avenue
Malo House, 500 East Eighth Avenue
Grant-Humphries Mansion, 770 Pennsylvania Avenue
Foster-McCauley-Symes House, 738 Pearl Street
John Porter House, 777 Pearl Street
Wood-Morris-Bonfils Mansion, 707 Washington Street
Ferguson-Gano House, 722 East Seventh Avenue
John C. Mitchell House, 680 Clarkson Street
Zang Mansion, 709 Clarkson Street
Brown-Congdon House, 1300 East Seventh Avenue
Jane Silverstein Ries House, 737 Franklin Street
Kerr House, 1900 East Seventh Avenue
5. See East Seventh Avenue Historic District Building Inventory for list of
East Seventh Avenue architects and the residences associated with them.
6. Residences at 648 and 658 Elizabeth Street were demolished to make way
for the construction of Good Shepherd Church, 2600 East Seventh Avenue.
7. For a discussion of muscular Christianity, See Benjamin G. Rader,
American Sports: From the Age Of Folk Games To the Age Of Televised Sports,, 2d
ed. (Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice Hall, 1990), 122-5.. Cheley Colorado Camps
have been run by the Cheley family since 1921. Frank Cheley worked for the
YMCA, wrote books, and was an active member of Fourth Avenue Church, predeces-
sor to Sixth Avenue United Church, where he led boys and young mens activities.
Franks son, Jack Cheley, lived at 649 St. Paul Street and took over operation of the
camps from his father. Franks grandson, Don Cheley, following family tradition,
runs the camps in 1992, using his grandfathers home as the camp office. Cheley
Colorado Camps, 601 Steele Street, PO Box 6525, Denver CO 80206. Summer
address: Estes Park, Colorado 80517 Don Cheley, interview by author 6 May 1992,
Denver.
8. In 1937 the Huffmans moved into Shangri-La on Leetsdale Drive
9. Eileen Ewing Archibold lived at 700 Lafayette Street from 1907-1991.
Her parents, John and Georgia White Ewing purchased 700 Lafayette Street in 1907
after living in Leadville. Eileen Archibold was a Republican National
Committeewoman. She was a close friend of Temple Buell and his first wife.
Temple Buell was in the wedding party when she married Robert F. Archibold. She
66


is fondly remembered by neighbors who remember her stories of early block resi-
dents. An informative article about the Doud House: Phyllis Nibling, Mamies
Denver Home, The Sunday Denver Post, 21 October 1962, pp. [21]-2. Molly
Archibold, interview by author, 8 April 1992, Denver.
10. Anecdotal information from East Seventh Avenue residents attending the
series of informational block coffees held in 1991 and 1992 to inform the community
about historic designation.
11. Reverend Paul Kottke, Warren United Methodist Church, interview by
author, 12 April 1992, Denver.. Reverend Kottke related information from files,
Warren United Methodist Church archive collection.
12. Mrs. E. C. Boyd and Mrs. Charles A. Bonfils, History; Church of the
Ascension-, Denver, Colorado (Denver: [Church of the Ascension] cl961), pp. 1-9,
located in Church of the Ascension Archives.
13. Denver City Directories; Twila Bird, two telephone interviews by author,
29 April 1992, Denver. Twila Bird is the local Denver Mormon historian. The
Chapel was the second Denver building the Mormons built. The first, at 610 East.
Sixth Avenue, was used for ten years prior to building the Chapel. The Chapel was
for the First Ward in the First Mormon Stake in the Denver metropolitan area.
14. Thomas J. Noel, Introduction by J. Francis Stafford, Archbishop of
Denver, Colorado Catholicism and The Archdiocese of Denver 1857-1989 (Denver:
University Press of Colorado, 1989), p. 320. Harman was organized December 31,
1886, and annexed to Denver February 20, 1895. Its northern boundary was East
Sixth Avenue (Carson Street in 1890) from Josephine Street to Colorado Boulevard.
Halbert W. Marsh, Correct Legal Titles For All Additions, Subdivisions and
Resubdivisions in the City and County of Denver, Colorado (Denver: Halbert W.
Marsh, 1931) p. 133.
15. Archbishop Urban Vehr correspondence and notes, Good Shepherd
Catholic Church file, Denver Archdiocese Archives.
16. Thomas J. Noel, Colorado Catholicism, pp. 320-1.
17. Archbishop Urban Vehr correspondence and notes, Good Shepherd
Catholic Church file, Denver Archdiocese Archives.
18. Ibid.; and Thomas J. Noel, Colorado Catholicism, pp. 330-1.
19 Edith Eudora Kohl, Classic Colonial, The Denver Post, 19 December
1948, Rocky Mountain Empire Magazine, p. 4.
67


20. Robert Stapp, I Am Cult Buys Blackmer Mansion for Sanctuary, The
Denver Post, 24 October 1947; Stephen J. Leonard and Thomas J. Noel, Denver;
Mining Camp To Metropolis (Denver: University Press of Colorado, 1990), pp. 159
and 420-21; and Saco R. DeBoer Collection, Archives, Western History Collection,
Denver Public Library.
21. Edith Eudora Kohl, Classic Colonial, p.4. The building housing the
school sold July 1992 to a private party planning to return it to a private residence.
The I AM School moved to a location west of Denver.
22. Unidentified clipping in Edwina Hume Fallis clippings file, Western
History Collection, Denver Public Library; Edwina H. Fallis, When Denver and I
Were Young (Denver: Big Mountain Press, 1956).
23. M. L. Hanson, Colorado Womens Hall of Fame (Denver: 501 Fairfax
Street, cl988); Nancy L. Widmann, Edwina Hume Fallis, 1876-1957, files of
Colorado Womens Hall of Fame; and Looking Back At a Legend: The Max
Goldberg Story, Intermountain Jewish News 26 June 1992, Literary Supplement.
24. Jane Silverstein Ries Application, Denver Landmark Commission files.
25. More recently (1960s-1974), 770 Clarkson Street was headquarters for
the World Unification Church (Moonies). Moonies purchased this house when an
offer to purchase 2611 East Seventh Avenue was refused. David and Peggy Atkinson,
interview by author, 10 September 1991, Denver.
26. Oberfelder-Slack Concert Series, Programs of Concerts and Other
Artistic Events, 1918-1957, Western History Collection, Denver Public Library.
27. The Herndon Davis murals are carefully maintained by the current own-
ers of this James Roger Musick-designed home that overlooks Cheesman Park.
Herndon Davis painted the face on the barroom floor in Central City. Fred Milo
Mazzulas memoirs and oral history tapes are being processed by the Amon Carter
Museum, Fort Worth, Texas, for their archival collection. Frank and Lela Komatz,
interview by author, 8 May 1992, Denver.
28. Morey Engle and Bernard Kelly, Denvers Man With a Camera: The
Photographs of Harry Rhoads (Evergreen, Colorado: Cordillera Press, 1989). The
Harry M. Rhoads Collection, Western History Collection, Denver Public Library,
contains photographs taken at his home on Logan Street and environs as well as on
East Seventh Avenue near his fathers home.
68


29. Phil Goodstein makes two additional arguments: 1) having ones home on
higher ground indicated higher social position and 2) the air pollution problems of
the era made living on higher ground more pleasant. Phil Goodstein, Denvers
Capitol Hill; One Hundred Years of Life In a Vibrant Urban Neighborhood (Denver,
Colorado: Stuart MacPhail, Life Publications, 1988). p. 12. With regard to the
floods, various documents and articles document damage caused by the many floods
of Cherry Creek, including the Burton Scrapbook, Western History Collection,
Denver Public Library. No flood is reported to have reached into the East Seventh
Avenue Historic District; the closest reached East Seventh Avenue and Lincoln Street.
In Letter From Bella To Stirie, 1912 July 15, Western History Collection, Denver
Public Library, a Colorado resident living near East Sixth Avenue and Franklin Street
describes Cherry Creek flood of 14July 1912. Source unverified, but appears to be
Belle Fallis, who lived at 637 Franklin Street from 1910-1940s.
30. Permit #1291 taken out 7/23/1890. William E. Fisher would have been
19 years old and his fathers name was Allen S. Fisher. This was either an error or
there was another architect named Fisher.
31. Permits are missing for some of the intervening years, but it is also true
that the economic crisis in 1893 brought new construction to a halt.
32. These homes are both demolished. Information on demolished homes in
the East Seventh Avenue Historic District Building Inventory is provided for the sense
of history they relate.
33. Filing Map, Fletchers Capitol Hill, June 10, 1880; Phil Goodstein,
Denvers Capitol Hill, p. 10.
34. Thomas J. Noel, Denver; Mining Camp To Metropolis, pp. 269-71.
35. Though the permit indicates Hamois as architect, information handed
down by owners credit J. J. B. Benedict with 600 Franklin Street.
36. R. Laurie Simmons and Thomas H. Simmons, Denver Neighborhood
History Project, 1993-94; Overview History of Denver Neighborhood Development
(Denver: Front Range Research Associates, 1995, 47; Don D. Etter, A Legacy of
Green, Colorado Heritage 3(1986): 12.
37. Frankie Waits, interview by author, 14 June 1992, Denver. This block
continued to attract flower afficionados. In 1919, Alfred H. and Lilia B. Gutheil
moved into 720 Gilpin Street. Gutheil was a lawyer who had owned a six hundred
acre nursery on the Aurora site where Fitzsimmons Army Hospital stands.
69


38. Don D. Etter, The Denver Park and Parkway System, p. 40. Etter asserts
DeBoers hand even though this small block falls within the area that Olmsted con-
tracted to design.
39. Grantor-Grantee lists in the Colorado State Archives indicate that some
land speculating began with the acceptance of the 1907 plan. On several 600 blocks
west of Williams, investors bought up land in 1907 and were ready to sell to the city
in 1912. One called itself Seventh Avenue Investors.
40. Research to date indicates that 606 Williams Street moved to become 631
High Street; 630 Williams Street moved to become 635 High Street; 612 Williams
Street moved to become 639 High Street. Permits to move these residences were
taken out by Denver Building and Wrecking Co, owned by Morris & Son, on
December 11, 1912. 631 and 639 High Street were purchased by carpenter/contrac-
tor David J. Reynolds, but he never lived in the homes. 635 High Street was pur-
chased by William and Anna L. Dougherty; William was a bookkeeper with
Hungarian Milling & Elevator Co. They moved from East Sixth Avenue and Gilpin
Street in 1913 to live at 635 High Street until 1917.
41. Don D. Etter, The Denver Park and Parkway System, p. 44-5. Olmsted
clashed with Denver residents and city officials at this time. Olmsted saw parks as
retreats needing borders of shrub fences to screen them from the view of adjoining
residences (and to screen potentially unsightly views for park users). DeBoers phi-
losophy of open parks and park interaction with neighborhoods was more in tune
with the city. Thomas J. Noel and Barbara S. Norgren, Denver: The City Beautiful
and Its Architects, 1893-1941 (Denver: Historic Denver, Inc., 1987), p. 23.
42. Don D. Etter, The Denver Park and Parkway System, p. 38.
43. The City of Denver; Issued Semi-monthly by the City and County of
Denver 1 (March 22, 1913)12: 11.
44. Don D. Etter, The Denver Park and Parkway System, p. 38-40
45. The permit was taken out by the Electric Co-op League. For an informa-
tive history of the promotion of gas and electric power technology, see Mark H. Rose,
Cities of Light and Heat; Domesticating Gas and Electricity In Urban America
(University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995).
46. Architects Small House Service Bureau, Mountain Division, How To
Plan, Finance and Build Your Home (Denver: USA Architects Small House Service
Bureau, Mountain Division, 1922), p. 66.
70


47. Title search by Elizabeth Kimmett, Land Title Guarantee Co. Kimmett is
a resident of East Seventh Avenue.
48. The lease deal called for Baker to pay $.05 per manufactured brick to
Fisher in addition to a small sum of money. Baker in turn leased half of his leased
land to William B. Robinson for $.10 per brick plus a small sum of money.
49. Abstract for Block 14, Lots 33 and 34, Fishers Cheesman Park Addition.
50. The 1892 house at 701 Williams originally had a flat roof. The present
hip roof was added to update its appearance. Frankie Waits, interview by author, 14
June 1992, Denver.
51. Abstract for Block 155, Lots 11,12 and 13, South Division of Capitol
Hill. (Robert and Sarah Hites abstract, 648 Humboldt Street) The restrictions
applied to the east side of 600 Humboldt Street. Humboldt Street was slated to
become a treelined boulevard in 1893. Source: Map of the City of Denver to accom-
pany the Report of J. B. Hunter, City Engineer, December 31, 1892. Denver: W. B.
Gray, 1892, cl893 (Denver Litho). No later mention of this plan could be found.
52. Capitol Heights plat filing map, February 21, 1887.
53. Thelma Owen, interview by author 9 March 1992, at St. Paul Street block
coffee, Denver. Thelma Owen only recently moved to a retirement home.
54. To date research has not determined which house the Baerresens
designed. This was a logical street to choose for a home since a Horse Car Line trav-
eled down Monroe Street from East Sixth Avenue, connecting with Electric and
Cable Lines at Colfax and Detroit. This was eight years prior to Montgomery &
Fletcher obtaining a water tap for their two lots on Clarkson that Adolph Zang pur-
chased from them in 1902. Rodney Greiner, interview by author, 7 April 1992,
Denver.
55. Mr. Schiemer, who lived at 765 Monroe Street, related this story to
Harold Crumrine, current owner of 777 Monroe Street, in 1958. 765 Monroe Street
had been Mr. Schiemers boyhood home.
56. A letter from Sally Frieds daughter provided this information.
57 J. B. Hunter, Map: Sidewalks, Denver, City Engineer, 1890. [In Stephen
Hart Library, Colorado Historical Society: MAP G4314 ,D4 1890 ,D4E5s]
58. Map, 1890. [Transportation Lines][In Stephen Hart Library, Colorado
71


Historical Society: MAP G4314 .D4 1890 ,D4E5tr] The four types of transporta-
tion lines diagramed on the map: Cable Line, Electric Line, Horse Car Line, Steam
Motor Line.
59. J. B. Hunter, December 31, 1892, Map of the City of Denver ...
60. George S. Clason, Clasons Souvenir Map of Denver, Issued For the
Democratic National Convention, July 1908 (Denver, Colorado: Clason Map Co,
1908.) [In Stephen Hart Library, Colorado Historical Society: MAP G4314 .D4
1907-1908 .c53].
61. It was in 1949 that Mrs. Lillian Studen, at 111 Monroe Street next door to
the tramway transfer shelter, was ordered by the city to discontinue use of the garage
as a Dancing Studio.
62. Don D. Etter, The Denver Park and Parkway System, p. 39.
63. Land Title Guarantee Company files.
72


CHAPTER 4
THE CITY BEAUTIFUL LEGACY
Selecting only major national trends and movements, and resting on the historical
background in Chapter 3, this brief chapter places East Seventh Avenue Historic
District in national perspective relative to culture characteristics. This chapter is
based on the argument required for Criteria II in the historic district application. The
decision to prove district qualification under two historic criteria was made to over-
come any potential opposition based on the unprecedented large size of the district.
The Denver Landmark Preservation Commission accepted both historical criteria.
East Seventh Avenue Historic District expresses, through its early residents, land-
scape, and architecture, that part of Denvers history when careful planning and an
appreciation for the citys environment replaced the chaotic growth of the 1800s. The
District was built primarily between 1900 and 1930. In 1900 national movements
like the American Arts and Crafts Movement and the City Beautiful Movement,
embodying new cultural values, were just beginning to have an impact.
Technological advances in electricity and central heating were waiting in the wings
to enter center stage in a more progressive era to abet changes in American lifestyles.
The two block grid from Logan Street east to Colorado Boulevard offered a slate
of clear land where residents could establish new homes and implement new
lifestyles. As the District grew, the national movements and the new technologies
came together. They brought a new emphasis on city planning and a transition in
architectural styles to augment the new lifestyles.
The first East Seventh Avenue Historic District buildings were constructed in the
1880s as Denvers growth forced a tentative reaching out to surrounding, treeless,
73


undeveloped prairie land. Early Denverites like Benjamin F. Woodward, Donald
Fletcher, David Moffat, Jr., Richard E. Whitsitt, Clarence Elder, Horace W. Bennett,
and William R. Owen, visionary land speculators, actively bought and sold this land,
fully confident that Denvers future held lucrative potential for the daring investor.
East Seventh Avenue abstracts attest to their foresight. ^ Seven subdivision filings
created East Seventh Avenue. They range in size from South Division of Capitol
Hill, contributing 34 blocks, to A. J. Baker Addition, contributing one third of a
block.^
The documentation of East Seventh Avenue owners over the last 125 years shows
a dogged continuation of belief in Denvers future.^ Through booms and busts,
East Seventh Avenue was developed and settled as a prime residential area for an
eclectic array of people whose hard work helped create todays Denver. Examples
range from bankers like John C. Mitchell, 680 Clarkson Street, to merchant, Vincent
Perini, 773 Downing Street, who sold umbrellas, gloves, novelties, fans, and purses.
Lawyers like Wilbur F. Denious, 675 Humboldt Street, physicians like Emma
Pronger, 736 Vine Street, mortician William P. Horan, 660 Clayton Street, mountain
camp founder Frank Cheley, 601 Steele Street, and United States Mint scale adjuster
Ernest F. Moessner, 605 Fillmore Street, give only a hint at the range of East Seventh
Avenue residents so important to establishing twentieth century Denver.
The first East Seventh Avenue residents generally moved from other parts of the
city or state having decided to make Denver their permanent home. Newly arrived
immigrants usually could not afford housing in the District. East Seventh Avenue
attracted families who wanted permanent quality residences, conveniently located,
where family life would be enhanced by fine churches, schools, transportation, and
by 1907, parks, and fine landscaping.
East Seventh Avenue residents, from early days to the present, have used their
energy and resources to create an enduring neighborhood. Early mansions along
Logan Street, Pennsylvania Street and Pearl Street set the tone for architectural and
landscaping values that continued as smaller homes infilled the west end of the dis-
trict. (See Figures 4.1,4.2 and 4.3.) By 1907, though many lots were still vacant,
vigorous development had reached Williams Street.^ The East Seventh Avenue
Historic District was poised to incorporate Mayor Robert Speers City Beautiful
Movement, a planned effort to make Denver over into one of the most beautiful
cities in the world. It was also welcoming the values of the American Arts and Crafts
Movement, a move away from the machine-made and toward a greater appreciation
of hand craftsmanship.
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Figure 4.1 Wood-Morris-Bonfils House, 707 Washington Street, in 1911. Built in
1908 on the northwest comer of Washington Street and East Seventh Avenue, the
elaborate landscaping scheme was featured in Denver Municipal Facts Most of the
landscaping was sacrificed to build the Encore Condominiums in 1985, despite
protests from the Denver Landmark Preservation Commission and preservationists.
(.Denver Municipal Facts, September 30, 1911, p. 10)
75



Figure 4.2 Four views of the elegant Ferguson residence at 700 Washington Street emphasize lovely
landscapes. Designed by Daniel Riggs Huntington and William E. Fisher during their 1900 to 1905
partnership, the home of John A. Ferguson, president of American Hydraulic Stone Company, was
demolished to make way for the Florentine Condominiums. The guesthouse remains at 722 East
Seventh Avenue. (Denver Municipal Facts, May 15, 1909, p. 5)


Figure 4.3 Bond broker Calvin Bullock built his stately residence at 750 Pearl Street
in 1906. Permit #1979 shows estimated cost as $13,000. The residence has been
demolished. {Denver Municipal Facts, March 25, 1911, p. 13)
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The values of the City Beautiful Movement complemented and further enhanced
those of the growing East Seventh Avenue neighborhood. The creation of Cheesman
Esplanade, Williams Street Parkway, and East Seventh Avenue Parkway provided the
final planning guideline defining the district. The mature park landscapes enjoyed
today, outlined in the Robinson-Kessler Plan in 1907 and planned by Saco R.
DeBoer, delivered on their early promise to create beautiful community spaces and
inspire residents to match private landscapes with the parks landscapes. Numerous
examples of responsive landscapes can be found throughout the district.^
East Seventh Avenue Parkway, and the streetscapes that reach out to East Sixth
Avenue and East Eighth Avenue between Williams Street and Colorado Boulevard,
expressed early East Seventh Avenue values. Residents interpreted these values
through evolving architectural design that spoke to changing lifestyles. The elabo-
rate East Seventh Avenue mansions west of Williams Street had been intermixed
with smaller scale residences. The elaborate homes along the parkway were built
in tandem with more modest homes branching off north and south from this green
and stately core. The appeal is in the diversity and evolution of style.
The architectural changes that occurred in the central portion of Capitol Hill
roughly from 1945-1970 did not adversely affect East Seventh Avenue buildings
east of Clarkson Street. West of Clarkson Street, high rise apartment buildings
denote 1950s and 1960s inner city trends and city objectives for planned higher
density living that temporarily courted favor. In fact, west of Clarkson Street, the
demolition of some residences to make space for high rises actually served as the
wake up call for the remainder of East Seventh Avenue. Residents felt strongly
about retaining the neighborhoods character, fighting for protective zoning changes,
protecting Dora Moore School from destruction, and aggressively joining positive
community movements to preserve the heritage of the area.^
Pride of early owners in their streetcar suburb was reflected in a pleasing evo-
lution of architectural styles and beautiful landscaping. Pride is reflected today in
the same ways for the, now, inner city neighborhood. The character of East Seventh
Avenue embodies a belief in Denvers future and a willingness to work, individually,
and as a community to assure the survival of a vibrant part of Denver.
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Chapter 4 Endnotes
1. Abstracts examined:
Fletcher's Capitol Hill, Second filing, Block 187, Lots 4, 5 and 6;
South Division of Capitol Hill, Block 155, Lots 11,12 and 13;
South Division of Capitol Hill, Block 157, Lots 26 and 27;
South Division of Capitol Hill, Block 158, Lots 24 and 25;
South Division of Capitol Hill, Block 179, Lots 15 and 16;
South Division of Capitol Hill, Block 178, Lots 14,15 and 16;
Capitol Heights, Block 3, Lots 31, 32 and 33;
Capitol Heights, Block 3, Lots 16, 17 and 18;
Fishers Cheesman Park Addition; Block 14, Lots 33 and 34.
2. East Seventh Avenue Historic Districts seven subdivisions:
Subdivision name Blocks Date platted:
Arlington Heights Blocks 16-1/2 of 20 & 1/2 of 26-30 -- January 15, 1881
Fletchers Capitol Hill -- Blocks 180-184 and 185-189 -- June 10, 1880
South Division of Capitol Hill -- Blocks 146-179 August 26, 1882
A. J. Baker Addition -- [one-third block] December 3, 1912
Capitol Heights Blocks 1-5 February 21, 1887
Fishers Cheesman Park Addition Blocks 11-15 August 21, 1911
Capitol Avenue Subdivision Blocks 331-339 & 341-349 Oct. 19, 1888
3. East Seventh Avenue Historic District Building Inventory.
4. 1905 Baist [Real Estate Map],
5. Don D. Etter, The Denver Parks and Parkway System; National Register
Theme Nomination (Denver: Colorado Historical Society, August 1986), 2 and 39.
6. East Seventh Avenue Historic District residents between Downing Street
and York Street formed a new Seventh Avenue Neighborhood Association with the
purpose of changing the zoning to R0 within that area in the 1970s; the effort was
successful. Dora Moore Schools demolition was prevented when residents, includ-
ing a very strong contingent from East Seventh Avenue, sought and received Moores
local historic landmark designation and inclusion on the National Register of Historic
Places. East Seventh Avenue Historic District residents have long been active in
Capitol Hill United Neighborhoods (CHUN), Denver East Central Civic Association
(DECCA), and Alamo Placita Neighborhood Association.
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CHAPTER 5
ARCHITECTS AND ARCHITECTURE
East Seventh Avenue Historic District architecture and architects make a
valuable contribution to Denver. This chapter discusses the specific architectural
styles found in the district. It also highlights the architects, builders, and landscape
architects credited with the designs. The work and philosophies of landscape archi-
tects Saco Reink Boer and Jane Silverstein Ries are explored. The discussion
further relates the architectural development to national trends and to technology.
This chapter fulfills the requirements under the architecture criteria in the
application. The Denver Landmark Preservation Commission approved the
district under the architecture criteria..
The East Seventh Avenue Historic District portrays the environment of Denver
residents during the period from 1900 to 1930. Residential architecture of this era
is characterized in Denver by its transition from Victorian to Neoclassical and Revival
styles and to Foursquare and Bungalow styles. The East Seventh Avenue Historic
District offers a unique opportunity to experience this architectural transition in
a setting that retains the integrity it exhibited when first built. A walk east from
Logan Street to Colorado Boulevard between East Sixth Avenue and East Eighth
Avenue is a walk through time. East Seventh Avenue Historic District portrays the
time-line development of Denver residential architecture primarily between 1900 and
1930.
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Intermingling Styles
The East Seventh Avenue Historic District exemplifies residences of the upper
and of the growing middle class between 1900 and 1930. An interesting intermixing
pattern ebbs and flows from the western end to the eastern end. A harmony exists
throughout between the larger avenue residences and their neighbors on the streets.
Characterizing the western portion of the District, residences of the wealthy are cor-
ner mansions, primarily Neoclassical and Colonial Revival styles, built in the first
decade of this century. (See Figure 5.1.)
Home Stvle (TearBuilf) Architects
Cheesman-Boettcher Mansion 400 East Eighth Avenue Colonial Revival (1908) Marean and Norton
Grant-Humphries Mansion 770 Pennsylvania Street Italian Renaissance (1902) Boal and Hamois
Wood-Morris-Bonfils House 707 Washington Street French Mediterranean (1911) Biscoe and Hewitt
Foster-McCauley House 738 Pearl Street Georgian Influence (1905) Sterner [unverified]
Ferguson-Gano-House 722 E. Seventh Avenue Italianate Spanish Infl. (1898) Boal and Hamois
Adolph Zang Mansion 709 Clarkson Street Classical Revival (1902) Frederick Eberley
John Mitchell House 680 Clarkson Street Eclectic Revival (1893) unknown
With the exception of the Grant-Humphries Mansion and the Foster-McCauley House, all
the above are located on comers. The 700 blocks of Clarkson Street and Emerson Street
also contain a few larger homes that fit into the Revival styles category and were built
before 1910. Two landmarked residences, built in the 1920s, much like East Seventh Avenue
Parkway homes east of Williams Street, follow more Romantic Revival designs:
Malo House Italian Villa (1921) J. J. B. Benedict
500 East Eighth Avenue
John Porter House Jacobean (1923) Varean and Varean
777 Pearl Street
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1
Figure 5.1 The landmarked Wood-Morris-Bonfils House, 707 Washington Street,
was first featured in Denver Municipal Facts in 1910. Architects Maurice B. Biscoe
and Henry Harwood Hewitt designed the French Mediterranean Revival for Guilford
S. Wood whose wealth came from Colorado mines. (Denver Municipal Facts, March
5, 1910, p. 7)
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The middle class residences between the comer mansions were primarily
Foursquares with Revival styles inspiring their detailing trim. Though demolition
took its toll west of Clarkson Street, enough early buildings remain to allow a sense
of how the neighborhood appeared in 1910. East of the alley between Washington
Street and Clarkson Street, the integrity of East Seventh Avenue Historic District is
intact.
East of Clarkson Street, in the west central portion of the District, larger more
elaborate homes continued to be built on East Seventh Avenue comers, executed in
Revival styles and facing East Seventh Avenue. (See Figure 5.2.)
Comer Home/ Location
Van Mater House
680 Clarkson Street
Claude K. Boettcher
701 Emerson Street
Vailima
905 East Seventh Avenue
Cass-Blackmer Mansion
975 East Seventh Avenue
Eaves-Seemann House
1000 East Seventh Avenue
Kistler House
1100 East Seventh Avenue
Veeder House
1433 East Seventh Avenue
Silverspaare-Sudler House
1717 East Seventh Avenue
Style (Year Built")
Eclectic (1903)
Modified Foursquare (1902)
Tudor(1908)
Colonial Revival (1903)
Traditional (1905)
Tudor(1911)
Traditional (1911)
Eclectic (1912)
Architect
Marean and Norton
Frederick C. Sterner
William E. Fisher
unknown
Wm. and Arthur Fisher
Wm. and Arthur Fisher
Glen Wood Huntington
Marean and Norton
On the streets between Clarkson and Williams, more modest residences, built
between 1900 and 1920, show a greater variety in style and size than the middle class
residences on the Districts western streets. An eclectic array of variously embell-
ished Four-squares intermingle with smaller Cottages, a few Bungalows, and some
one and two story duplexes. Strong indications of the American Arts and Crafts
Movement is evident on these streets in architectural detailing.
83


Figure 5.2 Architects Willis A. Marcan and Albert J. Norton designed the H. Van Mater residence,
680 Emerson Street, in 1906, in a style they dubbed Italian style Domesticated. ((Denver
Municipal Facts, August 6, 1910, p. 8)


The dominant building material remains brick, though several stucco over brick
and a few concrete residences can be found. Roofs are not flat. During the era from
1900 to 1930, flat roofs were not in style. Evidence of this is found in the building
restrictions written into the contract agreements in a few subdivisions. ^ Though 701
Williams Street was built with a flat roof in 1890, later owners dressed it up with a
false peaked roof to fit the fashion. Many roofs, originally of wood shake, have long
been replaced by composition roofing material. A significant number of roofs retain
original, colorful clay tiles, often by Denver Terra Cotta Company. ^
As elsewhere in East Seventh Avenue approximately fifteen percent of the build-
ings can be attributed to specific architects. While research continues to match archi-
tects with their accomplishments, it is also true that a significant number of East
Seventh Avenue residences were built from plans found in pattern books. Seethe
East Seventh Avenue Historic District Building Inventory for information about spe-
cific buildings for the remainder of this discussion. ^
At Williams Street, Seventh Avenue Parkway formalizes the pattern of very large
residences for wealthier owners. These large homes, built in the 1920s, are oriented
toward Saco Reink DeBoers planting scheme and include Romantic Revival styles
and eclectic, but traditional-looking styles, intermingled with the familiar Colonial
Revival.
The tree canopy planted and nurtured from Logan Street to Williams Street fol-
lows the intentions of early residents landscape planning for East Seventh Avenue. It
provides an easy transition to the Cheesman Esplanade, Williams Street Parkway, and
East Seventh Avenue Parkway.
A variety of architectural styles continue to grace the streets off the parkway.
These residences were primarily constructed between 1910 and 1920 and continue to
offer appealing streetscapes. Craftsman detailing is obvious. (See Figure 5.3.) The
600 block of High Street is, in part, an exception to the overall development pattern
of the District because is was developed comparatively early and displays some
Victorian and Revival embellishments on Foursquares and brick Cottages. The block
provides an architectural contrast to the residences on the 600 and 700 blocks of
Race, Vine, and Gaylord Streets, vividly demonstrating how Craftsman detailing had
established favor. The mature tree canopy on these streets continues to bear proof of
an early devotion to street trees. In fact, the mature tree canopy, replanted when nec-
essary over the years, continues to Colorado Boulevard on the streets between East
Sixth Avenue and East Eighth Avenue.
The larger residences facing the parkway were built later than residences on
85


Figure 5.3 Showing clear evidence of the American Arts and Crafts Movement in the
brackets beneath the eaves, the 758 Fillmore Street residence also reflects the hori-
zontal lines encouraged by Frank Lloyd Wright and the Chicago School. (Drawing by
district resident, Roberta A. Heisterkamp)
86


north-south streets. Parkway residences were built primarily in the 1920s and early
1930s. (See Figure 5.4.) The only earlier parkway residences are:
Address/Cross Street
Year Built
2401 East Seventh Avenue / Josephine Street
2909 East Seventh Avenue / Fillmore Street
2945 East Seventh Avenue / Milwaukee Street
3021 East Seventh Avenue / St. Paul Street
3131 East Seventh Avenue / Steele Street
1913
1908
1914
1916
1918
Comparatively few residences claim addresses on the bordering avenues, East
Sixth Avenue and East Eighth Avenue. Two charming East Eighth Avenue resi-
dences are James Roger Musicks 1935 design, at 1930 East Eighth Avenue, and the
1910 Woolston House, an Adams Colonial Revival at 1620 East Eighth Avenue. Both
are oriented to capture the view of Cheesman Park. Both residences, one early and
one a later arrival, punctuate the contrast with the developing craftsman tone in East
Seventh Avenue.
Moving east, the gradual emphasis on simplicity and a relaxing hold of revival
embellishment is felt on all the streets. Residences on the parkway continue to por-
tray a special elegance, but are not out of harmony with the north-south streets. The
overall scale tends to become somewhat lower as one travels east. Space seems more
abundantanother indication of the architectural transition of the era.
Denver landmark designation considers the exterior of buildings, but the crafts-
man details on the interior of East Seventh Avenue residences deserve mention.
Many Foursquares retain original interior unpainted detailing. Though some have the
original woodwork covered with paint, the style and detail of the wood shows
through. Residents of Bungalows also respect interior details. A significant number
of homes have been discovered where original woodwork avoided the paint brush and
exhibit original splendor. Two outstanding examples are at 785 and 791 St. Paul
Street, originally owned by Harry and Christine Huffman and Joseph and Rose
Miller. 4
The pattern of development is completed by the Bungalows and other lower scale
residences on north-south streets to Colorado Boulevard. They were built in the
1920s, like most parkway residences. Craftsman detailing is as apparent in the
Bungalows of the East Seventh Avenue as in the Foursquares.
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Figure 5.4 The Mediterranean Revival residence, 2101 East Seventh Avenue, was built for lawyer
Wilbur F. Denious in 1929. In 1958 it became home for the Maryknoll Fathers and Brothers.
Today, it is again in use as a private residence. (Turilli Photo, courtesy of Denver Archdiocese)


While the pattern of development offers an overview of East Seventh Avenue,
some exceptions need to be noted. Only in the extreme western portion have approx-
imately fifty-five demolitions made way for post-1950 apartment buildings and con-
dominium complexes. Some of these are sensitive additions; some are not.
East of Washington Street a few buildings represent other important architectural
developments of the era. Scattered throughout the District are examples of
Southwestern designs executed in true adobe, as at 656 Williams Street (1927), and
stucco over brick, as at 719 and 761 Gaylord Street. (See Figures 5.5 and 5.6.) There
are a few Art Modeme styles, like the recently landmarked Jane Silverstein Ries
House, 737 Franklin Street (1935). These residences enhance the architectural appeal
of East Seventh Avenue and draw attention to other significant architectural trends.
A few three story apartment buildings constructed in the 1920s face East Eighth
Avenue. One example is a Temple Buell design, mailing address 785 Humboldt
Street. Doubles, both one-story and two-story, can be found scattered among the pre-
dominately one family residences; they are of the same vintage and follow the same
design patterns outlined above. The low scale commercial buildings at East Seventh
Avenue and Logan Street, and along East Sixth Avenue, also follow the design pat-
terns outlined above. Eclectic styles and embellishments provide great variety
throughout East Seventh Avenue while respecting the scale of their individual blocks.
Some later infilling with 1950s ranch homes on and off the parkway and a few con-
temporary homes built since the 1960s complete the scene today.
Specific styles are identified by address in the East Seventh Avenue Historic
District Building Inventory. District development is detailed in the historic criteria
discussions in terms of the changing lifestyles of original owners between 1900 and
1930. Here, East Seventh Avenue development is relevant in terms of the philosophi-
cal orientation of architects and builders and the needs and desires perceived by their
clients between 1900 and 1930.
Architectural Trends: 1900 To 1930
By 1900, Denver residential architecture had abandoned its emphasis on Victorian
styles. In the late 1800s wealthy Denverites traveled widely and brought home archi-
tectural ideas that expressed cultural refinement and an appreciation of the classical
arts. Also, many 1800s Denverites had recently arrived from Europe or
89


Figure 5.5 Dr. George A. Moleen residence, 719 Gaylord Street, was built in 1922.
Moleen was a physician and psychiatrist with offices in the Mack Building. In 1937,
William and Mabel Price purchased the residence. Price was the traffic manager for
the Union Pacific RR. (Drawing by district resident, Roberta A. Heisterkamp)
90