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A sojourn through teacher techne

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A sojourn through teacher techne an outcomes study of two teacher preparation programs
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Wyman, Wendy A
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xv, 262 leaves : ; 28 cm

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Teachers -- Training of -- Longitudinal studies -- United States ( lcsh )
Teachers -- Training of -- Evaluation -- United States ( lcsh )
Teachers -- Training of ( fast )
Teachers -- Training of -- Evaluation ( fast )
United States ( fast )
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Longitudinal studies. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Longitudinal studies ( fast )

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Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 253-262).
General Note:
School of Education and Human Development
Statement of Responsibility:
by Wendy A. Wyman.

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ocm66910639
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Full Text
A SOJOURN THROUGH TEACHER TECHNE:
AN OUTCOMES STUDY OF TWO
TEACHER PREPARATION PROGRAMS
by
Wendy A. Wyman
B.A., University of Colorado, Boulder, 1990
M.A., University of Colorado, Boulder, 1997
A thesis submitted to the
University of Colorado at Denver
in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
Educational Leadership and Innovation
2004


This thesis for the Doctor of Philosophy
degree by
Wendy A. Wyman
has been approved
Colleen Rickert
l& ZbCfj
Date
Connie L. Fulmer


Wyman, Wendy, A. (Ph.D., Educational Leadership and Innovation)
A Sojourn Through Teacher Techne: An Outcomes Study of Two Teacher
Preparation Programs
Thesis directed by Professor Elizabeth B. Kozleski
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to follow up with practicing teachers from two teacher
preparation programs to come to better understand how the two programs have
contributed to teachers practices in the real world of the classroom. The research
was being conducted by the University of Colorado at Denver as part of a national
study being carried out by the National Education Association and was also the
doctoral research of doctoral candidate Wendy Wyman. Both of the programs
studied, one alternative and one professional development school model, represent a
departure from more traditional teacher education models. The study examined three
aspects of teachers performance after they completed one of the programs and
became licensed teachers. The three aspects were 1) classroom activities related to
student academic achievement and accepted teaching methods; 2) principals
perceptions of the performance of teachers from both programs; and 3) teachers
perceptions of their own teaching efficacy. These three aspects were examined
through the employment of a classroom observation measure, a teacher efficacy
survey, and a principal survey. The study involved teachers and principals from
across a metropolitan area. Findings from the three methods in the study
demonstrated that teachers from both programs exhibited moderately-high scores on a
majority of the measures. A few significant differences were found between the
groups. The differences, however, were mixed sometimes favoring one group and
sometimes the other. Study conclusions indicate that both programs provide
reasonably qualified teachers to the urban districts they serve.
This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidates thesis. I rgcbmmend
its publication.
Signed I
Elizabeth B/Rybzleski


DEDICATION
I dedicate this dissertation thesis to my husband Tim Bliss for his unfaltering support,
love, and encouragement.
Also, I dedicate this to my forever and always best friend Lisa, as well as my
immediate family members who have deeply influenced my world view, my parents
and grandparents, Pat, Dave, Don, Irene, and Louis; my siblings Kari, Kym, Don,
Yvette, Scott, and Joann; and my nephew and nieces, Brian, Kathryn, and Torey.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
My thanks go to my advisor, Elizabeth B. Kozleski, for her continued support of my
progress throughout the doctoral program and the dissertation process. Thank you for
not only opening doors for me, but for modeling how to open them for myself.
Thanks to my other committee members, Kenneth Wolf, Colleen Rickert, Connie
Fulmer, and Tom Bellamy, who all played a role in shaping and guiding this study.
Thanks also to all of the following individuals and organizations that offered support
to this study.
Sylvia Seidel, David Wallace, Steven Ross, Aaron McDonald, Bruce Gorze, Willie
Hepting, and all of the teachers, principals, teacher association members, school
district personnel, and administrators who participated in, approved, and supported
the study.
The National Education Association (NEA) for funding the research study that
informs this work. (The research and conclusions presented in this thesis are solely
the work of the researcher and do not represent the NEA in any way).


CONTENTS
Contents..................................................................v
Equations................................................................xi
Figures.................................................................xii
Tables.................................................................xiii
1 INTRODUCTION............................................................1
Significance and Purpose of the Study: A Context of
National Debate....................................................2
The Context........................................................4
Professional Development School (PDS) Program...............4
Teacher Internship Program (TIP)............................5
Urban Context...............................................7
Overview of the Design.............................................8
Educational Research........................................9
Research Questions.........................................12
Constructs and Terms.......................................13
Design Specifics...........................................15
Summary...........................................................16
2 REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH................................................17
Innovative Teacher Preparation....................................17
Research Genre: Haves and Have-Nots........................23
Comparative Literature.....................................26
Alternative Teacher Certification....................26
Professional Development Schools.....................43
v


Research Implications for the Current Study.........................52
Theoretical Location: Activity Theory................................56
Activity Theory: Introduction.................................57
Activity Theory Overview.............................................58
Generations of Activity Theory................................61
Five Principles of Activity Theory............................63
Hierarchical Structure of Activity.....................64
Object Orientedness....................................64
Intemalization/Extemalization..........................65
Tool Mediation.........................................65
Development............................................66
Ontological Emphasis in Activity Theory.......................66
Epistemological Emphasis in Activity Theory...................68
3 PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGY...............................................71
Descriptions of the Preparation Programs.............................72
The Professional Development School (PDS) Partnership.........73
Teacher Preparation....................................76
Professional Development...............................78
Renewal of Curriculum and Instruction..................79
Inquiry and Research...................................79
The Teacher Internship Program (TIP)..........................80
Teacher Internship Program Curriculum..................82
The Urban Context.............................................83
Activity Theory and the Research Design..............................85
Research Activity as Action..........................................87
Methodological Implications of the Principles of
Activity Theory...............................................92
vi


Researchers Gaze and Activity Theory.......................96
Thin Methods and Activity Theory............................98
Activity Theory and Teacher Preparation....................100
Teacher Stages of Development..............................102
Research Actions..................................................106
Research Action, Getting Our Hands Dirty: Classroom
Observations...............................................106
Tool: The School Observation Measure................108
Classroom Observation Methods........................114
Classroom Observers..................................115
Classroom Observation Sample.........................118
Classroom Observation Analysis and Findings..........120
Research Action, Teachers Sense of Their Own Techne:
Examining Teacher Efficacy, Proficiency, and Participation.121
Tool: Teacher Survey Part I, the Teachers Sense of
Efficacy Scale.......................................122
Teachers Sense of Efficacy Scale....................126
Tool: Teacher Survey Part II, Teachers Proficiency and
Professional Participation...........................129
Tool: Teacher Survey Part III, Employment and
Demographics.........................................130
Teacher Survey Methods.....................................130
Teacher Survey Sample......................................132
TIP Sample...........................................133
PDS Sample...........................................135
Teacher Survey Response Rates..............................136
TIP Response Rates...................................137
vii


PDS Response Rates.....................................138
Teacher Survey Analysis and Findings..........................140
Part I: Teachers Sense of Efficacy Scale..............140
Part II: Teacher Perceptions of Proficiency and Professional
Participation..........................................141
Part III: Demographics, Employment, and
Descriptive Items......................................142
Research Action, A Professional Community Perspective:
Examining Principals Perceptions of Teacher Proficiency......143
Tool: Principal Survey.................................143
Principal Survey Methods...............................144
Principal Survey Sample................................144
Principal Survey Response Rate.........................145
Principal Survey Analysis and Findings.................146
Analyses and Findings Summary.................................148
4 FINDINGS..................................................................149
Analyses of Research Actions..........................................149
Teacher Survey Analysis and Findings..........................150
Part III: Demographics, Employment, and
Descriptive Items......................................151
Part I: Teachers Sense of Efficacy Scale..............160
Part II: Teacher Perceptions of Proficiency and
Professional Participation.............................163
Teacher Survey Findings Summary...............................171
Classroom Observations Analyses and Findings..........................175
Classroom Observation Findings Summary........................182
Research Activity: Examining Principals Perceptions of
Teacher Proficiency...................................................184
viii


Principal Survey............................................184
Principal Survey Findings Summary...........................193
5 CONCLUSIONS............................................................195
Discussion.........................................................196
Implications.......................................................200
Practical Implications......................................201
Teaching to Learn, Learning to Teach.................201
Diversity and Culturally Responsive Practices........201
Teaching as a Part of Cultural Historical Constructs.202
Teacher Preparation in Urban Contexts................203
Policy Implications.........................................204
Highly Qualified Teachers............................204
Resources for Quality Programs.......................205
The Context of Teaching..............................205
Research Implications.......................................206
Theorizing from practice.............................206
Innovative Thin Methodologies........................207
Research Within the Contexts of Practice.............208
Limitations, Delimitations, and Recommendations
for Future Research................................................210
Outside Influences on Teacher Training......................211
Internal Differences in the Characteristics of the Teachers.212
Omission of Student Data....................................213
Geographic Constraints......................................214
Choice to Study Two Programs................................215
Concluding Thought.................................................215
IX


APPENDIX
A. LITERATURE REVIEW TABLES....................216
B. SCHOOL OBSERVATION MEASURE TOOLS............227
C. TEACHER SURVEYS.............................231
D. PRINCIPAL SURVEY............................242
E. HUMAN SUBJECTS APPROVAL.....................246
F. COPYRIGHT APPROVAL..........................248
REFERENCES..........................................253
x


EQUATIONS
Equation
3.1. Response Rate 4 for the TIP Teacher Survey.......................138
3.2. Response Rate 4 for the PDS Program Teacher Survey...............139
3.3 Response Rate 6 for the TIP.......................................140
3.4. Response Rate 6 for the PDS Program..............................140
3.5 Response Rate 5 for the Principal Survey..........................146
xi


FIGURES
Figure
2.1. Theoretical and Conceptual Frameworks Illustration...................22
2.2. Conceptual Framework: Recommendations from the Research..............55
2.3. Sieve Demonstration of the Theoretical and Conceptual Frameworks.....57
2.4. Diagram of Classroom Example.........................................60
2.5. Adaptation of Common Reformulation of Early
Activity Theory (The Center, 2004)...................................62
3.1. Researcher Actions within the Research Activity......................89
3.2. Methodological Considerations, Activity Theory, and Research Actions.93
3.3. The Researchers Activity Adapted from Engestroms (2002) Diagram....99
xii


TABLES
Table
3.1. Urban Teacher Preparation Principles and Program Components...........84
3.2. Examples of Activities, Actions, and Operations (Kuutti, 1996, p. 33).91
3.3. Number of Hours Spent in Licensure Preparation.......................103
3.4. Action/Operation Items from the School
Observation Measure (SOMO)...........................................113
3.5. Action and Operation Items from the TSES...........................128
3.6. Response Rate Disposition Codes for the
TIP Teacher Survey...................................................138
3.7. Response Rate Disposition Codes for the
PDS Program Teacher Survey...........................................139
3.8. Response Rate Disposition Codes for the Principal Survey...........145
4.1. Age of Survey Respondents PDS......................................151
4.2. Age of Survey Respondents TIP......................................152
4.3. Racial/Ethnic Groups of Respondents PDS............................153
4.4. Racial/Ethnic Groups of Respondents TIP............................153
4.5. Gender of Survey Respondents PDS...................................154
4.6. Gender of Survey Respondents TIP...................................154
4.7. Full or Part-time Employment PDS...................................155
4.8. Full or Part-time Employment TIP...................................155
4.9. Previous Coursework in Education PDS...............................155
4.10. Previous Coursework in Education TIP..............................156
4.11. First Career Teachers PDS.........................................156
4.12. First Career Teachers TIP.........................................156
xiii


4.13. Previous Teaching Experience PDS....................................157
4.14. Previous Teaching Experience TIP....................................157
4.15. Consideration of Other Programs PDS.................................157
4.16. Consideration of Other Programs TIP................................158
4.17. Plan to Stay in Teaching PDS.......................................158
4.18. Plan to Stay in Teaching TIP.......................................158
4.19. Overall Quality of Teaching Program PDS............................159
4.20. Overall Quality of Teaching Program TIP............................159
4.21. T-tests for Efficacy Subscales and Overall Scale.....................162
4.22. Teachers Perceptions of Their Proficiency on
INTASC Standards Items................................................164
4.23. Teachers Perceptions of Their Proficiency in
INTASC Standards Domains..............................................168
4.24. Teachers Participation in Professional Actions.......................170
4.25. Univariate F Test Results............................................176
4.26. SOM Data Summary for PDS Prepared Teachers...........................178
4.27. SOM Data Summary for TIP Prepared Teachers...........................180
4.28. Principals Perceptions of Teachers Perceptions on
INTASC Standards Items................................................186
4.29. Principals Perceptions of Teachers Perceptions in INTASC
Standards Domains.....................................................190
4.30. Principals Perceptions of PDS Teachers Proficiency and Ability.....191
4.31. Principals Perceptions of TIP Teachers Proficiency and Ability.....192
4.32. Comparison of Comparison Questions...................................193
5.1. Significant Differences per the Program that the Difference Favored....197
Al. Primary Research Comparing Alternative Certification
(AC) toTraditional Certification (TC)..................................221
xiv


A2. Primary Research Comparing Professional Development
School (PDS) to Traditional Education (TE)..................
225
xv


CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
For a number of years, public dissatisfaction with schools has been
coupled with dissatisfaction with schools of education as well.
Education schools have been variously criticized as ineffective in
preparing teachers for their work, unresponsive to new demands,
remote from practice, and barriers to the recruitment of bright
college students into teaching. (Darling-Hammond, 1999)
In the midst of a national push for heightened accountability for teacher
education, teacher preparation programs are being challenged to demonstrate their
role in creating a quality teaching force. Darling-Hammond (1999) outlines
critiques of traditional teacher education programs. These are a lack of time,
fragmentation of teacher education coursework, practice teaching, and subject
matter coursework, uninspired teaching methods, superficial curriculum, and
traditional views of schooling (Jelmberg).
Educators, researchers, and policymakers are responding to these critiques
by investing in new ways to prepare teachers. Inventive programs are gaining
momentum. Novel twists both on traditional teacher education programs and on
alternative preparation programs are becoming more commonplace. Education
Secretary Rod Paiges (Brewer) annual report on teacher quality, illustrates this
point with examples of promising innovations to prepare a highly qualified
1


teaching force. His examples are divided into to two categories: those that
improved upon traditional models of schools of education and those focused on
alternatives to traditional certification routes.
That same categorization could be applied to the two routes to certified
teaching that are examined in this dissertation study. Professional development
schools (PDSs) and teacher internship programs (TIPs) are among two models that
appear to be gaining momentum. One of the programs, a PDS partnership, is an
innovative twist on the traditional teacher education model. The other, a TIP, is a
high quality alternative program (Feistritzer & Chester, 2000).
Significance and Purpose of the Study: A Context of
National Debate
Many highly politicized debates about reforming teacher education
are embedded within two larger national agendas: the agenda to
professionalize teaching and teacher education, which is linked to
the K -12 Standards movement, and the movement to deregulate
teacher preparation, which aims to dismantle teacher education
institutions and break up the monopoly of the profession.
(Cochran-Smith & Fries, 2001, p. 3)
The research presented in this dissertation examined two innovative teacher
preparation programs that served a shared urban context. Study of the programs is
significant as it informs the national debate regarding the reform of teacher
education in terms of outcomes. One of the models, PDSs, could be said to be one
2


of the best models that has come out of the agenda to professionalize teaching. The
other model, TIP, embraces premises that come from the movement to deregulate
teaching. This dissertation study contrasted these two programs in terms of teacher
practice and teacher efficacy to take up an outcomes question.
The first construction of the outcomes question in teacher
educationlong term impactis related to larger issues about the
general impact of teacher education on teacher knowledge, teacher
preparedness, teacher attrition, teacher ratings, and student
achievement. Explorations of this question in teacher education
are located within much larger debates about teacher quality and
teacher qualifications, teacher licensing and certification,
professional standards for teaching and curriculum, and the use of
student achievement as a valid evaluation measure for teachers and
schools. (Cochran-Smith, 2001, p. 531)
The current study dealt with the outcomes question by placing it within the
context of yet another point of contention within the debate on teacher quality
regarding preparation. Proponents of the deregulation agenda argue in favor of
ensuring that entrants into the field of teaching have adequate knowledge of their
subject matter. Supporters of professionalization contend that highly qualified
teachers need preparation in both subject matter and pedagogy (Education
Commission of the States, 2000). This study was then furthered by taking up the
outcomes questions as it relates to important aspects teachers pedagogy. The
outcomes in this study were these essential aspects of teachers pedagogy: teachers
sense of their own efficacy and proficiency, their principals perceptions of their
practice, and outside observers impressions of the teachers classroom practices.
3


These outcomes engaged the national debates from the perspectives of practicing
teachers, their supervisors perspectives, and observers within their classrooms.
The Context
The two teacher preparation programs that prepared the teachers in this
study engaged their program participants in coursework and significant fieldwork.
The designs of both programs recognize that time spent in the field is required for
teachers to master their craft. The programs implemented this recognition through
different paths, one program by requiring teachers to apprentice under practicing
teachers, and the other program immediately placing teachers into the practice.
Both of the programs were fifth-year programs: that is the teacher candidates in
both programs already held at least a baccalaureate degree.
Professional Development School (PDS1 Program
The particular PDS partnership in this study is based in a school of
education at a university in a large western city. The university partners with
several local schools to enact PDS reform, which is aimed not only at educating
teachers, but also at teacher professional development, student learning, and
educational inquiry. Teacher candidates are placed in one of several local schools,
4


known as PDSs, that partner with the university. Each of these local schools has
several teacher candidates learning to teach at the school. Candidates are placed in
PDSs from the start of their programs. Each local partner school has an assigned
university professor, who counts weekly on-site involvement at the local school,
with both the candidates and the school staff, as part of a university teaching
assignment.
The PDS partnership program was created in 1994 and until the 2003-2004
school year, it was strictly a fifth-year graduate program. It now has an
undergraduate program, too. In the fifth-year program, students with at least a
bachelors degree are admitted to a combined licensure/masters degree program.
Teacher candidates can attend the program part- or full-time and receive their
teacher licensure within 12-24 months. The licensure coursework applies to their
masters degree, which is typically completed within the first year or two of
teaching. All of the teachers in this study from this program attended the fifth-year,
graduate program. They had received their license in time to be eligible to be in
their first full year of teaching as a licensed teacher in the 2003-2004 school year.
Teacher Internship Program (TIP)
TIPs, also known as apprenticeship or residency programs, allow districts to
hire not yet certified teachers, who want to put their energies directly into their jobs
5


and learn by doing in classrooms. These programs blend theory and practice,
target preparation to individuals specific needs, provide opportunities for schools
and districts to play an active role in the preparation of teachers, and help districts
respond to pressing needs (McKibbin, 1999).
Teachers in this particular internship program are prepared as they teach;
they prepare for licensure while learning to teach on the job. These teachers
receive instruction in pedagogy and theory, while they are in their first year of
teaching and participate in a district induction program in their second year. The
individuals in the internship program are hired by the local school district.
Training is provided in partnerships between local districts and a local college. The
program begins in August for the upcoming school year. Candidates must obtain a
teaching contract, hold baccalaureate degree with a major or equivalent in the
subject to be taught, and pass the state created licensure test or PRAXIS content
area test prior to April 15 th of their first year of teaching in the program. In the
second year of the program, interns complete a district induction program and a
portfolio/teacher work sample. Once an intern completes program requirements
and their second year of teaching, his or her school district can recommend the
intern to the state department of education for licensure and the intern will become
licensed. The program was created by a senate bill which states,
The General Assembly recognizes that many school districts face a
shortage of teachers and often struggle to find qualified persons to
6


teach their students. Furthermore the General Assembly finds that
often persons with experience in areas other than teaching can help
alleviate the teacher shortage faced by many school districts so
long as these persons receive adequate supervision and education
in teaching methods and practices. The General Assembly
therefore authorizes school districts to create [Internship]
programs. (State Legislature, 1999)
All of the interns in this study were from a cohort of the program who
began interning in the fall of the school year 2001-2002. Thus, they had received
their license in time to be eligible to be in their first full year of teaching as a
licensed teacher in the 2003-2004 school year.
Urban Context
Both of the programs in this study prepare and provide teachers in an urban
context. This setting poses unique opportunities and challenges for each of the
programs. Schools in urban areas are often challenged by a lack of resources and
are among the hardest hit by teacher shortages (Jorissen, 2003; Oakes, Franke,
Quartz, & Rogers, 2002). Oakes, Frankes, Quartz, and Rogers (2002) suggest that
to be successful in urban contexts teachers need more than generic competencies.
They need to understand local urban cultures, the urban political
economy, the bureaucratic structure of urban schools, and the
community and social service support networks serving urban
centers. They need skills to draw on and develop urban youth
literacies across the academic content areas, promote college
access for first-generation college goers, build social capital across
schools and community organizations, and create alliances and
7


engage in joint work with other reform-minded teachers. (Oakes et
al., 2002, p. 229)
These two unique programs are described in detail in chapter three of this
dissertation. Special consideration for learning to teach in urban contexts is given
in these descriptions.
Overview of the Design
This research examined the outcomes question (Cochran-Smith, 2001)
through a study of two teacher education programs that share an urban locale
through by exploring the practice and efficacy of teachers who completed one of
the two programs. The study was conducted at the practice level, but contributed to
discussions taking place in the large, politically charged context of educational
research.
The design of this study is based in the principles of activity theory and
built on previous comparative research that contrasted PDSs or alternative
preparation paths with traditional teacher education. Activity theory is a cross-
disciplinary collection of basic principles that are jointly labeled a theory and that
constitute a theoretical system (Kaptelinin & Nardi, 1997). The theory is relatively
young and still being defined and is considered to be less restrictive and predictive
than more traditional theories. Because the theory is still somewhat nebulous, the
8


researcher created a conceptual framework for this study, which allowed previous
research on the topic to sharpen the design. Conceptual frameworks facilitate
comprehensive ways of investigating research problems (Eisenhart, 1991).
The material used to build the conceptual framework for this study came
from a genre of research literature known as the Haves and Have-nots (Kennedy,
1996). This genre encompasses comparative literature of teacher preparation
programs for those who have teacher certification upon entering the classroom and
those who do not have it (Kennedy, 1996). The requirements of the genre itself,
supplied support for the conceptual framework. The framework was then
completed with support from the findings, conclusions, and recommendations from
previous research conducted within the genre (Abdal-Haqq, 1998; Brown,
Edington, Spencer, & Tinafero, 1989; Burstein & Sears, 1998; Ng, 2003; Reynolds,
Ross, & Rakow, 2002; Sandholtz & Dadlez, 2000; Wilson, Floden, & Mundy,
2001). (See Chapter 2 for in-depth discussion of the literature.) Previous research
not only strengthened the initial framework provided by the genre, it also defined
the research questions for the study.
Educational Research
Educational research does not occur in a vacuum; it is influenced by social,
cultural, historical, and political contexts. Federal education policy has recently
9


generated public debate regarding two questions: What constitutes scientifically
based research in education? and Is scientifically based research the only or the
best approach to meaningful studies of educational phenomena? (Eisenhart &
Towne, 2003, p. 31). Clearly answering these questions are beyond the scope of
this study or the ability of any single researcher. The act of engaging in research
however, implies response.
The Committee on Scientific Principles for Educational Research, a
National Research Council (NRC) committee was formed to examine the nature of
scientific inquiry in education. They took up the first question in a report entitled
Scientific Research in Education (SRE) and detailed six guiding principles that
underlie all scientific inquiry, including education research (National Research
Council, 2002, p.2). These six guiding principles provide a general framework for
supporting or refuting inferences and outline an ethical code of behavior (National
Research Council, 2002, p. 52). These principles helped shape the design of this
study:
SRE Principle 1.
empirically.
SRE Principle 2.
SRE Principle 3.
question.
SRE Principle 4.
SRE Principle 5.
Pose significant questions that can be investigated
Link research to relevant theory.
Use methods that permit direct investigation of the
Provide a coherent and explicit chain of reasoning.
Replicate and generalize across studies
10


SRE Principle 6. Disclose research to encourage professional scrutiny and
critique. (Eisenhart & Towne, 2003, p. 34)
The principles allow researchers to have flexibility to choose methods
based on their research questions and to draw conclusions that are valid for the
questions and the methods used (Eisenhart & Towne, 2003, p. 34). The mixed-
method design of this study subscribes to these principles adopting the committees
answer to the first question posed above, What constitutes scientifically based
research in education?
The second question regarding the role of scientific research in education
versus other ways of knowing is also complex. Both the theoretical framework
selected for this research and the practice-oriented focus that is at the heart of this
study not only allow for but indeed call for the inclusion of multiple ways of
knowing in education research. The choice made here, to subscribe to a study
design within the confines of scientific principles, is deliberate.
This study builds on Rivera and Tharps (2004) assertion that there is room
in socio-cultural research, particularly within activity theory, for thin description
to supplement the thick body of work already being compiled (p. 205). In a
chapter describing their conceptualization and development of an observation
instrument, Rivera and Tharp (2004) contend that thin systems of research, which
allow for quantification, can also contribute to rich study. The choice to employ a
combination of complementary thin methods in no way devalues thick
11


description (Geertz, 1973) or multiple ways of knowing. In fact, the underlying
theoretical framework and the studys basis in practice implicitly offer this
response to the second question: multiple ways of knowing including, but not
limited to scientifically based approaches, are not only warranted, but also
necessary if we are to illuminate the complexities of learning to teach through
research.
Research Questions
This study spanned the 2003-2004 school year using multiple measures to
study differences between teachers prepared in a PDS partnership and a TIP. The
research contributes to the knowledge base on teacher preparation with evidence
that includes teachers reflections of their own efficacy and practice, data from
classroom observations, and principals perceptions of teachers practice.
The research questions below guided the data collected in the study.
What are the differences, if any, on a teacher observation performance
measure that has been associated with student learning between teachers
who have completed the TIP and teachers who have completed the PDS
program, who are in the first year of teaching following program
completion ?
What are the differences, if any, in the self-perceived efficacy, proficiency,
and participation of teachers who have completed the TIP and those who
have completed the PDS program, who are in the first year of teaching
following program completion?
12


What are the differences, if any, in perceptions that principals hold
regarding the proficiency of teachers who have completed the TIP and
teachers who completed the PDS program, who are in the first year of
teaching following program completion?
Constructs and Terms
A few definitions of constructs and terms that are referenced in the research
questions are supplied here to help orient the reader. The constructs and terms are
discussed in-depth in Chapter 3.
Observed Teacher Performance This term refers specifically to teachers
implementation of 26 instructional strategies that are supported by education
reform research and were designed with the input of multiple education
stakeholders. The target strategies include both traditional practices and alternative,
predominately student-centered methods associated with educational reform. The
strategies were identified through research involving policymakers, researchers,
administrators, and teachers (Ross & Lowther, 2003). Teachers were observed by
outside observers for use of these strategies.
Teacher Efficacy The construct of teacher efficacy describes teachers
beliefs about their own ability to produce effects with their students. Efficacy is a
complex construct from social cognitive theory that links knowledge to action.
Efficacy involves a generative capability in which cognitive, social, and behavior
13


subskills must be organized into integrated sources of action to serve innumerable
purposes (Bandura, 1997, p. 391).
Teacher Techne This term is used here to encompass both the art and
science of teaching. Merriam-Websters unabridged online dictionary defines
techne as art and skill; especially: the principles or methods employed in making
something or attaining an objective (Merriam-Webster, 2004). This dissertation
refers to teacher techne as the practices that teachers undertake towards the goal of
student learning.
Teacher Proficiency In this study this term refers specifically to teachers
proficiency on 15 teaching tasks that were adapted from the Interstate New Teacher
Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC) standards for beginning teachers
(INTASC, 1992). One additional task, implementing instruction that results in
student achievement was added to this construct, by the researcher.
Teacher Participation Five factors are used in this study to describe
teacher professional participation in common teacher actions dealing with
community, professional, and teacher leader actions. These include collaborating
with colleagues, working with parents and the community, continuing professional
development, assuming leadership roles, and becoming involved in program and
policy changes.
14


Design Specifics
Activity theory served as a broad theoretical framework for the study and
guided the study design. The motive of the research activity was to follow up with
practicing teachers from two teacher preparation programs to come to better
understand how the two programs have contributed to teachers practices in the real
world of the classroom. A series of three separate, but complementary research
actions combined in the design and guided the researchers activity. Denzins
(1978) concepts of data triangulation (the use of a variety of data sources in a
study) and methodological triangulation (the use of multiple methods to study a
research problem), as cited in Tashakkori and Teddlie (1998) were present in the
study design.
The three research actions involved the collection and analysis of data from
classroom observations as well as principal and teacher surveys. Independent t
tests were used to analyze survey data and a MANOVA was used to analyze the
classroom observation data. The design and methods utilized in this study are
described in detail in chapter three of this dissertation. The analysis of data is
described in detail in Chapter 4.
Finally in recognition of SRE Principle 6: disclose research to encourage
professional scrutiny and critique (Eisenhart & Towne, 2003, p. 34) a discussion of
15


limitations is warranted. Chapter 5 presents limitations of the study as well as
possibilities for future research.
Summary
The research presented in this dissertation was a study of two teacher
preparation programs: one TIP and one PDS partnership. The research questions
addressed differences in perceptions of efficacy, uses of instructional strategies, and
perceptions of practices. The study design was based in principles of activity
theory as well as a research genre, which was refined by recommendations from
previous comparative literature. The overall research activity involved multiple
research actions including observations of teachers as well as surveys of teachers
and principals. The findings and conclusions contribute to the knowledge base on
teacher preparation.
The rest of this dissertation describes the study in greater detail. Chapter 2
provides a literature review of previous research relevant to the study and an
overview of the conceptual and theoretical frameworks. Chapter 3 provides an in-
depth discussion of the study design and methods. Analyses of the findings are
offered in Chapter 4 and conclusions follow in Chapter 5.
16


CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH
Innovative Teacher Preparation
The past twenty years in education have been characterized by calls for the
reform of teacher preparation. Improving the quality of teaching and the quantity
of qualified teachers is a goal espoused at local, state, and national levels. While
there is general agreement that every child deserves access to quality teaching, a
fervent debate ensues regarding the best approaches to filling every classroom with
a qualified teacher, or for that matter, defining what a qualified teacher is (Cochran-
Smith & Fries, 2001). New and varied pathways into the teaching profession have
accompanied this debate. Alternative teacher preparation programs and innovative
programs within schools of education are gaining momentum (Paige, 2003).
As researchers, teacher educators, and policymakers propose and implement
strategies to create higher numbers of better-qualified teachers, the reality becomes
apparent that learning to teach cannot be isolated from the practice of teaching.
Similarly, learning to teach does not occur outside of the experiences a teacher had
before coming to or upon leaving a teacher preparation program.
17


Learning to teach is not synonymous with teacher education.
Teacher educators intervene in a process that begins long before
teachers take their first education course and that continues
afterward on the job; nor can teachers formal learning about
teaching be confined to professional studies, since teachers learn
about their subjects and the teaching and learning of those subjects
in other academic contexts, including elementary and secondary
school, as well as on the job. (Feiman-Nemser & Remillard, 1996,
p. 65)
Teacher preparation programs are recognizing the importance of extensive field
experiences and the necessity of explicitly linking coursework to those field
experiences.
Teachers have opinions on the matter too. Kennedy (1996) found evidence
that teachers attributed on the job experience as having more influence when
compared to teacher education. She reviewed difficult to find studies that asked
teachers about the contribution that teacher education made to their practice. The
primary research that she cites indicated that teachers thought the most necessary
competencies were learned on the job (Pigge, 1978), felt they learned more from
their experience and their colleagues than they did from formal teacher education
(Henry, 1986), generated ideas about how to teach by themselves or acquired them
from other teachers (Clark, Smith, Newburg, & Cook, 1985), highly rated direct
experience, consultation with other teachers, independent study and observations of
other teachers as sources of knowledge (Smylie, 1989), and believed that learning
to teach happens through experience (Ryan, 1979) (Kennedy, 1996, pp. 133-34).
18


In light of the value being placed on real world experience, this study
examined two models of teacher preparation that both heavily emphasize
experience in the classroom. Specifically, the research focused on cohorts of
teachers prepared in two different types of programs to look for differences in
teachers use of instructional strategies and their sense of their own efficacy and
practices; the study gathered principals perceptions of teacher practices as well.
The two models studied were professional development schools (PDSs) and
teacher internship programs (TIPs). In PDSs, universities partner with local
schools to bridge the chasm between theory and practice (Darling-Hammond &
Cobb, 1996). The PDS model of teacher preparation is part of a reform effort
aimed at local partner schools and schools of education. Teacher candidates and
education faculty in PDS programs spend a significant amount of time in local
schools.
The other program researched, Teacher Internship Programs (TIPs), are a
type of alternative preparation program that offer on the job training to candidates
for licensure, who are the full-time teacher on record for their own classroom. In
this particular TIP, following two years of on the job training, after-school
coursework on pedagogy and theory, and an induction program these candidates are
eligible, if recommended by their school district, for a teacher license.
19


Conducting research of the practices of teachers to learn about preparation
required utilization of conceptual and theoretical frameworks that are able to
incorporate complexities. The Committee on Scientific Principles for Education
Research (2002) offered the guiding principle that studies should link research to
some overarching theory or conceptual framework that guides the entire
investigation.
A genre of education research entitled the haves and have-nots (Kennedy,
1996) provided a structural support for the conceptual framework for this study.
The genre provided support by framing the context of the literature where the study
would take place. The frame provided by the genre was then focused with
recommendations from the review of literature that fell within the genre. Both the
genre and the recommendations shaped the conceptual framework for the study and
produced the research questions and design. The creation of the conceptual
framework and the study design were guided by a larger theoretical framework
based on activity theory.
A fluid image is perhaps more helpful in understanding the relationship
between the theory, conceptual framework, research questions, and research design
for this study. It is useful to visualize the components of the conceptual and
theoretical frameworks as a set of concentric circles similar to the ripples that occur
when a stone is tossed in a pond. Figure 2.1 demonstrates how these nested
20


frameworks fit together to shape a framework for the design of the study. None of
the circles are contained by strict boundaries, rather they are somewhat fluid ideas;
the liquidity of these boundaries is represented in Figure 2.1 by dashed boundary
lines. The outer most circle, activity theory, is like a pond, a lake, or even an
ocean: it is a dynamic, living theory that is in a constant state of development.
Genres the word that Kennedy (1996) chose to describe her categorization of
available research also implies something less rigid and static than other words that
might have been chosen, e.g. category or typology. Thus, neither the conceptual
nor the theoretical frameworks represent rigid or static ideas.
In the rest of this chapter, a review of the research will offer the reader:
An explanation of the research genre that defines the conceptual framework,
Overviews of the comparative literature available comparing alternative or
PDS programs to traditional preparation,
Implications from the literature that developed the conceptual framework
and led to the research questions and study design, and
A discussion of activity theory as the theoretical framework for the study.
The research reviewed in the next two sections comparing alternative and
PDS programs to traditional preparation consists of primary and secondary
research. The research was located via searches of academic indexes including
Education Full Text, Academic Search Premier, EBSCO, and Educational
Resources Information Center (ERIC). Additionally, books, book chapters,
21


Figure 2.1. Theoretical and Conceptual Frameworks Illustration
............................i
Theoretical Framework: Activity Theory
Object-orientedness
Hierarchical structure of acti vity
Internal ization/extemalizatiom
Mediation m Conceptual Framework
Genre: Have & Have-Nots
* Research Recommendations
dissertations, conference papers and proceedings, and other sources were located
through Aurarias Library Catalog, the Colorado Unified Catalog, WorldCat, and
UMI ProQuest Digital Dissertations. Tables that summarize the primary research
appear in Appendix A. Heeding Braceys (1998) advice to beware of secondary
sources, the only secondary sources cited here are literature reviews that served as
22


sources of information because they are widely-known, well-respected, and only
draw on rigorous research.
Research Genre: Haves and Have-Nots
In an effort to understand what research has taught us thus far about, the
benefits (or lack of benefits) of teacher education as a whole, Kennedy (1996)
looked across studies that address the question, Does teacher education make a
difference? (p. 120). She found studies to be so diverse that it was impossible to
summarize findings, so she grouped them into five broad categories, or what she
termed genres (p. 121). Each genre presents a coherent and internally consistent
way of thinking about whether teacher education makes a difference (Kennedy,
1996). The distinctions between genres come from delimitating decisions, for
instance which aspects of teacher education are studied, what counts as an
outcome, and the kinds of arguments made. Additionally, each of the genres
represents a body of study. The labels for the five genres are searches for
contribution to student learning, comparing the haves and have-nots, ask the
teacher, experiments in education, and watch the teacher candidate change
(Kennedy, 1996).
23


Further, because the study of teacher education is a broad and multifaceted
endeavor, Kennedy pointed out the necessity for studies to focus on particular
aspects of the work.
Because of the complexity of the enterprise, and because of the
ambiguity about its intended outcomes, no study can accommodate
all aspects of teacher education and all outcomes. Every
researcher necessarily limits his or her attention. Every researcher
makes difficult decisions about which aspects of teacher education
will be studied, about which outcomes will be examined, and about
how the study will be designed to determine the relationship
between teacher education and its outcomes. (Kennedy, 1996, p.
121)
Recognizing these complexities, the work of this study was dedicated to
furthering scholarship in the genre labeled, comparing the haves and have-nots
(p. 127). Considering these complexities, this research study spanned across two
teacher preparation contexts and gathered the perspectives and experiences of
teachers in their own classroom and practice.
Research in the have and have-nots genre focuses on the practice of
currently practicing teachers, who have completed their teacher preparation.
Kennedy (1996) described the work in this genre as geared toward policymakers,
looking backward from currently practicing teachers to their education, and focused
on practice as the outcome with teacher education as the predictor. Practices of
researchers in this genre generally included, seeking teachers from teacher
education programs and non-, emergency-, or provisionally certified teachers,
24


working within a geographic region, and comparing the classroom practices of both
groups in search of differences (Kennedy, 1996). A recent variation has been to
compare teachers from alternative routes with those from traditional programs.
Comparisons among different types of programsfor instance, alternative routes
versus traditional programsare also of interest, particularly in policy climates that
encourage alternatives (Kennedy, 1999).
Strengths of studies in this genre have been reliance on independent
observers to assess teachers practice, comparisons between two groups who have
different kinds of educational backgrounds, and control for the influence of context
because they occur within geographic regions (Kennedy, 1999). Researchers in
this genre typically have focused on entire programs instead of examining the
particular coursework. A weakness of this focus has been that it left the definition
of teacher education entirely up to the particular programs being studied
(Kennedy, 1996; Kennedy, 1999). This study and the literature reviewed here are
characterized by this genre. Previous literature that typifies the genre is reviewed
below. The lessons and recommendations for future research from previous
research in this genre were employed in the design of this study in recognition of
two of the principals recommended by the Committee on Scientific Principles for
Educational Research. The first principle recommended that researchers pose
significant questions that can be investigated empirically and the fifth principle
25


recommended that researchers replicate and generalize across studies. By
examining and contributing to a defined genre of the literature this study honors the
fifth principle. The reliance on recommendations from previous studies allows the
study to pose questions that are significant within this line of study. The national
context of debate ensures that the genre itself has remained significant.
Comparative Literature
Comparative research in the genre of haves and have-nots (Kennedy, 1996)
contrasts alternative teacher preparation programs with traditional teacher
education. The research reviewed here either fell within the genre or provided a
parallel type of comparison contrasting PDS preparation to traditional. In the next
two sections, literature reviews compare alternative and PDS programs to
traditional routes.
Alternative Teacher Certification. Calls for alternative routes into teaching
have gained strength from a number of contextual factors. Major arguments for
alternative certification include: diversifying the teaching force, reducing subject
matter shortages, reducing shortages in hard to staff geographic areas, i.e. urban
and rural, recruiting bright college graduates into teaching, and recruiting those
with a broad range of experience into teaching (Shen, 1999). Hawley (1990)
explained that, there are many reasons why alternative certification has gained so
26


many advocates, but two of thesea practical one and a more philosophical one
seem to influence policy more than others (p. 3). On the practical side teacher
shortages prompted states to adopt alterative certification routes and restructure
teacher education programs (Brown et al., 1989; Hawley, 1990; Feistritzer, Haar,
Hober, & Losselyong, 2004; Jelmberg, 1996; Sandlin, Young, & Karge, 1992).
The philosophical and often political premise has held that traditional
preparation is part of the problem: proponents of this idea view college- or
university-based preparation programs as lacking merit and as barriers to teaching
(Guyton, Fox, & Sisk, 1991; Hawley, 1990; Feistritzer et al., 2004; Jelmberg,
1996). Thus, the rise in alternative certification programs was intended to open the
teaching profession to non-education majors, who would enter the field if they did
not have to endure additional teacher education coursework (Guyton et al., 1991).
Alternative programs rise and decline in responses to demand and teacher
shortages and thus often have not been sustained long enough for substantial
research to be done regarding their outcomes (Kennedy, 1996; Sandlin et al., 1992).
Research in the have and have-nots genre is highly dependent on this waxing and
waning nature (Kennedy, 1996). Several studies were conducted in the early 1960s
comparing certified to non-certified teachers and more recently, a new wave of
studies accompanied a new wave of programs (Kennedy, 1996). Research studies
in the genre tend to be few and far between.
27


Urban districts have experienced shortages with great intensity and have
been left little choice but to hire teachers without full certification (Burstein &
Sears, 1998, p. 49). Urban teachers have often enrolled in alternative programs and
participate in on-the-job training to obtain their credentials. One view of
alternative preparation has been as a promising source of teachers for urban
schools, who while initially unqualified, may become a good supply with the right
kind of preparation (Burstein & Sears, 1998). Others criticized these programs
pointing out that these unqualified candidates are placed largely in high poverty
schools, making already challenging situation more difficult.
Alternative certification has not been easily or consistently defined
(Feistritzer et al., 2004; Hawley, 1990; Hutton, Lutz, & Williamson, 1990). States
have had authority for approving alternative programs and certifying teachers;
definitions of what qualifies as alternative has varied from state to state (Feistritzer
et al., 2004). Alternative programs vary from short summer programs that place
candidates in teaching assignments with full responsibility for students after a few
weeks of training to those that offer 1- or 2-year post baccalaureate programs, with
ongoing support, integrated coursework, close mentoring, and supervision
(Darling-Hammond, Chung, & Frelow, 2002, p. 287). The National Center for
Education Information has been tracking alternative certification programs across
the country since 1983 and came up with a list of similar characteristics that
28


alternative programs share. Candidates who are certified to teach through these
routes:
Have at least a bachelors degree
Pass a rigorous screening process, such as passing tests, interviews, and
demonstrated mastery of content to be taught
Begin teaching usually full-time early. They engage in on-the-job
training
Take any coursework or equivalent experiences in professional education
studies while teaching
Work with mentor teachers
Meet high performance standards (Feistritzer, et al., 2004).
Comparative Literature: Alternative Programs. With changes in teacher
education over the past few decades, alternative teacher certification programs
gained momentum (Feistritzer, et ah, 2004). An ardent debate has ensued.
Supporters of alternative preparation argue that knowledge of content matter should
be the most weighted determinant of teacher quality. They argue that the how or
pedagogical knowledge involved in teaching can be learned on the job. On the
other side, proponents of university-based teacher education, insisted that teachers
are best prepared by schools of education where they obtain both pedagogical and
content knowledge (Education Commission of the States, 2000). In spite of
zealous debates regarding the merit of alternative programs and, occasioned
controversy over their value, researchers have conducted very few substantive
29


investigations on their effectiveness. The few extant studies have somewhat
contradictory results (Miller, McKenna, & McKenna, 1998, p. 165).
Comparative studies of alternative teacher preparation programs contrasted
these programs with traditional preparation. Just as there has been great variation
in teacher preparation in schools of education there has been great variation in
programs that are labeled alternative. Feistritzer and Chester (2000) identified
effective alternative teacher certification programs as those that include these
components:
A strong academic coursework component
Field-based: individuals get into classrooms early in their preparing
Teacher candidates work with a qualified mentor teacher
Candidates go through the program in cohorts, not as isolated individuals
Programs are collaborative efforts among state departments of education
whose responsibility it is to license teachers, colleges and universities that
historically have had the responsibility for educating and preparing
teachers, and school districts who actually hire teachers (Feistritzer &
Chester, 2000).
Primary Research. In a review of primary research, some studies looked
for, but showed little or no differences between traditionally and alternatively
certified teachers. Such findings indicated that alternative certification was a viable
pathway into teaching.
Miller, McKenna, and McKenna (1998) compared 41 alternatively certified
teachers from a carefully constructed program to 41 traditionally certified teachers.
30


Both groups were three years into their classroom practice. They compared
specific dimensions of instruction known to be causally related to learning that they
observed in the teachers classrooms. Their observation measure contained two
subscales, Effective Lesson Components and Effective Pupil-Teacher Interaction
Components. Their findings indicated that the two groups did not differ on the sets
of behaviors. They offered that the most reasonable conclusion is the most
obvious: alternative certification did not lead to inferior practice among teachers
evaluated 3 years into their careers (Miller et al., 1998).
In a second study, Miller et al. (1998) selected 18 5th and 6th grade teachers
of the original 82 and compared student achievement scores from the Iowa Test of
Basic Skills via a MANOVA procedure. This study also indicated that there was
no difference between the alternatively and traditionally certified teachers. Then in
a third study, Miller et al. (1998) again found no differences. This was a qualitative
interview study and interestingly neither AC nor TC teachers felt particularly well
prepared (p. 172). Looking across the three studies Miller et al. concluded, we
can clearly say that after 3 years there appear to be no observable teaching behavior
differences, student output differences, or attitudinal differences concerning
perceptions of competence of people prepared under the two conditions (p. 174).
Guyton, Fox, and Sisk (1991) conducted research to compare the attitudes
and sense of efficacy of teachers prepared in an alternative certification program to
31


those prepared in traditional teacher education programs in the state of Georgia.
They collected background information for 49 teachers (23 alternatively certified
and 26 traditionally certified) and administered five different (surveys over the
course of a school year that included an Attitudes, Influences, and Concerns
Survey, an Educational Attitudes Inventory, a Teaching Attitude Inventory, a
Teacher Efficacy Scale, and a Beginning Teachers Evaluation Form. They
analyzed scores from these measures using dependent and independent t tests as
well as the Mann-Whitney U test and found no significant differences in grade
point averages or teacher certification test scores. Traditionally trained teachers
were slightly more teacher-centered, there were few differences in teaching
attitudes, and alternatively certified teachers felt at least as efficacious as
traditionally certified. The researchers concluded that, the findings from this
study generally support the contention that condensed pedagogical preparation and
a supervised internship are a reasonable alternative to traditional teacher
preparation programs for persons with degrees in the subject they will teach
(Guyton et al., 1991).
Sandlin, Young, and Karge (1992) undertook research to explore the
possibility of differences between beginning teachers and intern [alternative]
teachers during their first years of teaching in the elementary classroom (p. 18).
They conducted classroom observations using a Teacher Evaluation Scale (TES), a
32


Teacher Concerns Survey, and telephone interviews. Their findings included that
by an end of year assessment the groups showed no differences across the TES and
beginning teachers were generally more concerned about all elements of their
teaching abilities than were the interns [alternative] (p. 21). Interview data
supported the statistical findings. Sandlin et al. 1992 suggested follow-up research
of these participants to address the concerns differences as well as longitudinal
studies.
Similar to studies that find little or no differences, studies that favor
alternatively certified teachers also indicated that alternative preparation is a viable
option for filling shortages and preparing teachers. Brown, Edington, Spencer, and
Tinafero (1989) conducted a comparison study and found that alternative teacher
preparation is a viable approach for filling shortages. Their study included
traditionally prepared first year teachers, emergency permitted teachers, and teacher
candidates in an alternative teacher program where teachers earn graduate teacher
education credits as they are completing their first year of teaching in the
classroom. These researchers used grade point averages, grade point averages
within the teaching field, and scores on the Pre-Professional Skills Test (a test
required for admission into teaching programs in Texas). They also evaluated
teacher performance twice during the school year using the Texas Teacher
Appraisal System (TTAS) in five domains. Their findings showed that
33


ACP [alternative] participants earned overall GPAs, teaching field
GPAs and P-PST scores that were comparable to or better than,
traditionally trained teachers and teachers on emergency permits.
On classroom performance, all three groups of teachers performed
similarly. These results suggested that first-year ACP teachers
performed as well as teachers prepared under traditional teacher
education programs, as measured by the TTAS. It would appear
that this type of teacher training provides a viable option for
fulfilling the serious teacher shortages which exist in this area.
(Brown et al., 1989)
Brown et al.s (1989) follow up recommendations suggested subsequent
evaluations that include comparisons between ACP participants and other groups of
teachers including teachers in other alternative programs in other states as well as
examining student achievement scores. They also recommend that an outside
consultant should administer performance observation measures.
Hutton, Lutz, and Williamson (1990) studied the characteristics, attitudes,
and performance of 110 alternative interns and compared them with traditionally
certified first year teachers. A chi-square analysis of the two groups showed that
minorities were more highly represented in the alternatively certified group and that
they were more heavily assigned to secondary schools. A t test analysis of a
Teacher Work-Life Inventory showed that alternatively certified teachers perceived
their job as less rewarding and more complex. Even so, alternatively certified
teachers compared favorably or very favorably as compared to traditionally
certified teachers. Hutton et al. (1990) concluded, in the present study, the AC
34


program appeared to provide an urban school district with teachers who met or
exceeded the prevailing standards in teacher education (p. 46).
Conversely, studies that favored traditionally prepared teachers indicated
that alternative preparation is not living up to the promise of providing quality
teachers. Darling-Hammond, Chung, and Frelow (2002) examined teacher
pathways in New York City by examining teacher perceptions of their own
preparation using previously obtained survey data. They also examined the
relationship of teachers sense of preparedness, views of their pathway, and plans
to remain in teaching, as related to their sense of efficacy, a variable bound to be
correlated to teacher effectiveness (Darling-Hammond et al., 2002, p. 294).
Numerous pathways (18) to teaching exist in the city, but Darling-Hammond et al.
(2002) only had sufficient data available to analyze data for one of the alterative
programs, Teach for America (TFA). They compared each group with a large
enough sample to the overall group and found that TFA recruits felt significantly
less well prepared than teacher education graduates overall and on most items
(Darling-Hammond et ah, 2002, p. 291). These researchers conclude that, based
on their graduates feelings of preparedness, teacher education programs do differ in
the quality of preparation they provide, although not as much as we initially
expected (Darling-Hammond et ah, 2002, p. 297).
35


Jelmberg (1996) found teachers from more traditional programs to rate
themselves as more highly prepared when compared to self-ratings made by
teachers prepared in alternative programs. Jelmberg (1996) points out that studies
that compare teacher performance of graduates of traditional teacher education and
alternative certification programs focusing on teacher performance demonstrate
mixed results with some favoring each of the programs.
Jelmbergs (1996) study compared teachers from traditional teacher
education programs to their alternatively certified colleagues in the state of New
Hampshire with teacher and principal surveys. He employed z tests to compare
nonparametric data from teacher surveys that were primarily program evaluations
and t tests to compare parametric data from principals surveys that were primarily
teacher performance evaluations. Findings from Jelmbergs (1996) research
indicate that on all but one variable measuring teacher instructional skills and
instructional planning, principals rated teachers from teacher education programs as
higher. Teachers from teacher education programs rated their programs
significantly higher with regard to professional courses, practicum supervision, and
overall preparation (Jelmberg, 1996, p. 62). Teachers trained in teacher education
programs also indicated more child-oriented reasons for entering teaching as
opposed to their alternatively certified colleagues who indicated more job
36


availability reasons. A significantly higher percentage of alternatively certified
teachers in this study indicated that district staffs were valuable.
Wayman, Foster, Mantle-Bromley, and Wilson (2003) conducted a study of
first year alternative residency program participants comparing them to
traditionally trained first year teachers, who received their education from a variety
of institutions. They compared the groups scores on a Teacher Concerns Survey
regarding effective instruction, classroom environment, and collegial relationships
using t tests. The largest differences were found in effective instruction and
classroom environments. The researchers found that first year teachers ranked their
concerns similarly regardless of their route. Alternative teachers however indicated
higher level of concerns in almost every area, with the greatest difference being in
areas specific to pedagogy and instructional preparation.
Finally, at least one study sometimes favored alternatively certified teachers
and at other times traditionally certified teachers. Such a study potentially indicates
that there are lessons to be learned from both types of teacher preparation
programs.
Ruhland and Bremer (2003) mailed surveys to 2,091 alternatively and
traditionally certified career and technical education teachers in 18 states. The
surveys collected data regarding, demographics, CTE [career and technical
education] certification area(s), type of teacher certification program, status of
37


teacher certification requirements, preservice preparation, support services and
likelihood to remain in the teaching profession (Ruhland & Bremer, 2003, p. 291).
They compared the surveys from traditionally certified teachers to those who were
alternatively certified using a Mann-Whitney U test and found that 67% of the
respondents had participated in traditional certification and the remaining 33% in
alternative certification and those teachers with alternative certification reported
feeling more prepared in content areas, while traditionally prepared teachers felt
more prepared in pedagogy. Differences were found between the two groups on
sense of accomplishment, availability of a mentoring program, and recognition and
support from supervisors (p. 298). Both groups were equally likely to remain in
teaching. The researchers suggest further comparison studies that look at teachers
intentions to remain in the field, retention, especially in urban and rural schools
where alternative certification is more widespread, and mentoring. They conclude
that alternative programs can help with teacher shortage problems, however, these
programs must offer high quality preparation so that newly certified teachers can be
effective the classroom and will want to stay in the field (Ruhland & Bremer,
2003, p. 300).
Secondary Research. In an extensive and rigorous review of the literature
Wilson et al. (2001) posed the question, What are the components and
characteristics of high-quality alternative certification programs? (p. 26). They
38


reviewed 14 papers, several that were comparative studies and found that research
on alternative certification routes supports the following important results:
Alternative routes are attracting a more diverse pool of prospective teachers
in terms of age and ethnicity.
Alternative routes have a mixed record for attracting the best and
brightest.
There are higher percentages of alternatively certified teachers teaching in
urban settings or teaching minority children.
Evaluations of the performance of alternative route and traditionally
prepared teachers produce mixed results.
Teachers who have come through high-quality alternative routes and
teachers traditionally certified show some similarities on a number of
characteristics.
Successful routes appear to be resource- and labor- intensive.
Many programs have high dropout rates (Wilson et al., 2001, p. 27-30).
Wilson et al. (2001) also make recommendations for the design of future
research based on their review: programs of research must include or facilitate
comparisons among plausible alternatives (Wilson et al., 2001, p. 32), examine
teacher preparation components or programs already in use (Wilson et al., 2001, p.
32), and compare the effect of teacher preparation that uses competing approaches
with roughly comparable student bodies (Wilson et al., 2001 p. 33).
Summary. Overall research that compares alternative with university-based
approaches to teacher licensure is, as of yet, inconclusive. Variables measured in
these studies included student achievement, teacher strategies, teacher concerns,
39


teacher behaviors, components of lessons, teacher efficacy, teacher attitudes,
teacher test scores, and grade point averages. Some studies found minimal and
unremarkable differences between the alternatively and traditionally certified
teachers (Guyton et al., 1991; Miller et al., 1998; Sandlin et al., 1992). Others
found complex findings that sometimes favored alternatively certified teachers and
sometimes favored traditionally certified teachers (Ruhland & Bremer, 2003).
Then there were those studies that indicated that alternatively certified teachers
came out favorably in the study (Brown et al., 1989; Hutton et al., 1990) or
conversely that traditionally certified teachers were favored (Darling-Hammond et
al., 2002; Jelmberg, 1996; Wayman, Foster, Mantle-Bromley, & Wilson, 2003).
Additionally, Wilson et al.s (2001) review of the literature confirms that
comparative evaluations of alternative and traditional preparation programs have
shown mixed results.
An interesting finding was across two studies that both used teacher concern
surveys (Sandlin et al., 1992; Wayman et al., 2003). When traditionally certified
teachers were found to have higher levels of concerns researchers interpreted it in
one of two ways: either these beginning teachers were insecure about their practices
or their high levels of concern may demonstrate that they have a greater focus on
the teaching profession than their alternatively certified colleagues (Sandlin et al.,
1992). However, another study that used concerns as a measure found that
40


alternatively certified teachers had higher levels of concerns. This time a high level
of concern was interpreted as negative and having the potential to translate into a
poorer quality of teaching (Wayman et al., 2003). While different measures were
used this causes some confusion regarding the measurement and interpretation of
concerns.
One consideration that is not explicitly dealt with in these studies is the
context in which these programs occur. Most alternatively certified teachers are
trained and teach in urban and rural areas. The greatest demands for new teachers
across the nation are in large urban areas and outlying rural areas (Feistritzer et al.,
2004). The programs in this study both take place in an urban area and place
teachers in urban schools. Ng (2003) examined the role of alternative and
traditional programs in filling teacher shortages in urban schools and districts. She
reminded us that although existing research on the outcomes of traditional and
alternative certification programs remains admittedly mixed, both deserve
continued assessment (Ng, 2003, p. 382). In order to be successful in urban
contexts teachers need to develop a set of competencies that are well-matched to
the contexts they teach in (Burstein & Sears, 1998).
The Urban Teacher Collaborative is a joint effort of three organizations
concerned with teacher supply and urban schools namely, Recruiting New
Teachers, the Council of the Great City Schools, and Council of the Great City
41


Colleges of Education. The Collaborative (2000) released a report, The Urban
Teacher Challenge, that provided a picture of teacher supply and preparation
challenges in city school systems across the country (Fideler, Foster, & Schwartz,
2000). The report concluded that city school districts are experiencing shortages in
subject areas, across grade levels, and in numbers of minority teachers while
extreme shortages are occurring in special education, science, and math (Fideler et
al., 2000). If urban districts continue to experience these shortages, it is likely that
they will continue to rely on alternative routes for teacher preparation to fill
shortage areas.
Further research is warranted by the review of research presented here.
Some confusion caused by varying results may be attributed to differences in
definitions of programs being studied (Wilson et al., 2001). Further research can
clearly define programs being studied and study quality programs that have an
opportunity to actually teach us about preparation as opposed to further entrenching
previously held positions. The studies above also indicate that further research
should be conducted by outside observers, include follow-up studies, examine
academic achievement, address quality and shortage issues, study retention and
recruitment issues, and include comparison studies. While it is outside of the scope
of this study to address all of these recommendations, this study will look at a
program created to address shortage issues, compare two high quality teacher
42


preparation programs, employ the use of outside observers and use measures that
are correlated with student learning.
Professional Development Schools. While research and literature on PDSs
in general is plentiful, studies that conform to the limits of this genre are more
difficult to find. Research on PDSs has focused more on the preservice preparation
of teacher candidates and other aspects of implementing the model than on results
in practicing teachers classrooms. PDS researchers have recognized this gap and
are advocating for research that includes student or teacher outcomes (Teitel,
2003). Because of this gap, the studies reviewed here comparing PDS prepared and
preservice teachers to traditionally prepared and preservice teachers meet two of
the requirements of the genre that studies compare two programs and sample with
geographic regions. The studies do not, however include observational research by
independent observers, because none were located. Observational research has not
become a hallmark of this set of comparative literature, but the literature here
maintains the essential comparative feature. This study pushes the comparative
PDS research in that direction.
The PDS concept has its roots in teacher education, school-university
collaboration, the professionalization of teaching, and school reform (National
Governors' Association, 2000). The Holmes Group, a consortium of over 100
teacher preparation programs and the National Network for Educational Renewal, a
43


nation-wide network of school-university partnerships, have played key roles in
designing and promoting this model aimed at simultaneously restructuring and
renewing teacher education programs and local schools (National Governors'
Association, 2000; Thompson & Ross, 2000). Program structures may vary, but it
is generally recognized that PDSs have four main goals: maximize student
learning, inservice teacher development and practice, educate preservice teachers,
and conduct inquiry and research aimed at school and university renewal
(Sandholtz & Dadlez, 2000). The model is gaining momentum (National
Governors' Association, 2000) with numerous school-university partnerships self-
identifying as PDSs, but comparative research is still scarce (Sandholtz & Dadlez,
2000).
Comparative Literature: Professional Development Schools. There is a
small and growing body of literature that compares the PDS model to traditional
teacher education programs. Results of this work tend to separate into two
categories: PDS preparation is at least as good as traditional preparation or PDS
preparation is somewhat better that traditional preparation. Studies that represent
both of these categories are discussed here. These studies are based on teacher and
principal perceptions of performance gathered in a variety of ways.
44


Primary Research. Some studies indicate that PDS preparation is at least as
good as traditional preparation by indicating that there are small or no differences
between the teachers who finished the programs.
Sandholtz and Dadlez (2000) conducted a four-year longitudinal study
regarding the experiences of PDS prepared teachers as compared with teachers
prepared in a variety of other programs in Southern California. The study spanned
the participants time in teacher education through their first year of teaching. The
researchers conducted interviews and administered surveys in addition to other
evaluation activities. PDS prepared teachers cited camaraderie and support and
eased entry into the profession as major strengths of their programs. In contrast,
the traditionally prepared teachers would have liked a more intense student
teaching experience. Findings also indicated that PDS participants grew in their
personal and teaching efficacy over the course of a year. These researchers
concluded that comparisons of PDSs with traditional programs, inevitably comes
down to a question of individual program quality (Sandholtz & Dadlez, 2000, p.
25).
Sandholtz and Wasserman conducted a study of student teachers in a
traditional and PDS program associated with the same university and the same
school district. They conducted surveys and exit interviews of 26 student teachers.
Their findings included that students in both programs gave their programs positive
45


ratings, PDS students gave higher, but not significantly higher ratings to their
program components. Student teachers in the traditional program offered more
suggestions for program improvement. They concluded to strengthen teacher
preparation programs, we should be most concerned with individual program
quality (p. 63). Then they point out that research that compares programs allows
us to, identify key features that enhance professional growth and prepare
prospective teachers for the profession.
Other researchers work falls into category two: PDS preparation is better
than traditional education. Blocker and Mantle-Bromley (1999) interviewed 42
preservice teachers in both a traditional and PDS program to understand in which
format, campus- or PDS-based, preservice students felt better prepared to student
teach (p. 73). They found that preservice teachers in the PDS program exhibited
dissatisfactions that have shown up in other studies, students dissatisfaction
regarding inordinate time requirements, communication difficulties, school
conflict, and PDS-related stress (Blocker & Mantle-Bromely, 1997). In spite of
these dissatisfactions, the research showed that PDS students were more satisfied
with their program and enthusiastic about their experiences and confidence. These
findings, in light of self-efficacy theory, are significant. Because the PDS students
reported much greater levels of confidence in their preparation, they should,
theoretically, increase their effort and their persistence in future teaching
46


opportunities (p. 86). Students in the traditional program were unhappy with the
amount of practice and the quality of their coursework and practica.
Blocker and Mantle-Bromley concluded that, a comparison of the practicum
experiences of the two programs revealed that the PDS students were exposed to a
much wider range of experiences and were more involved with the public school
students than were the non-PDS participants (p. 85). They recommend that in the
future teacher education institutions should consider teachers increased confidence
and resulting self-efficacy when establishing PDSs.
Long and Morrow (1995) conducted a study of 32 teacher candidates, 16
who were placed in one of two PDS schools and 16 who participated in a
traditional preparation program. The study included a variety of measures
including teachers National Teacher Examination (NTE) scores, teacher surveys,
and questionnaires. They found that the PDS trained teachers when compared with
the traditionally trained teachers were significantly more positive toward inclusion
and mainstream classrooms and better prepared for the first year of teaching. There
were not major significant differences between the two groups on differences on
NTE scores and the teacher questionnaire, which asked about teachers beliefs
about teaching, learning, and subject matter (Long & Morrow, 1995).
Reynolds, Ross, and Rakow (2002) found that there are not differences in
the retention rates of teachers prepared in PDS and non-PDS programs, they
47


[teachers] are finding jobs and remaining in teaching in similar numbers (p. 300).
Their findings indicated that while graduates of both programs appear to be
proficient in the important tasks of teaching, PDS graduates are better prepared
than non-PDS graduates to show sensitivity to ethnic and cultural differences
among students, reflect on teaching and student learning, balance the varied
demands of teaching, and work cooperatively with colleagues (p. 301). Principal
surveys confirmed this finding by rating PDS graduates as slightly more able.
These statistical differences, were however smaller than within group differences.
Overall Reynolds et al. (2002) found that the scale is slightly tipped towards PDSs
as better models of teacher education. They also call for further comparative
studies for the design of teacher education models.
Walling and Lewis (2000) administered open-ended questionnaires to
preservice teachers from PDS and traditional programs to better understand their
sense of teacher identity at the close of their programs. Their questionnaire probed
for teacher attitudes and beliefs regarding teaching and the profession. They found
differences between programs that lead them to conclude that teachers at the close
of the PDS program had a better sense of teacher identity when compared to their
peers from traditional teacher education programs.
Yerian and Grossman (1997) compared students within a traditional and a
PDS program at the middle school level via a questionnaire and interviews of ten of
48


the questionnaire respondents. They found that PDS students felt they knew more
about early adolescents and their needs, instructional strategies, the role of
specialized teachers, integrated curriculum, and meeting the needs of students with
disabilities. Both groups were generally positive in their beliefs about their own
efficacy as teachers and as decision makers (p. 93). The PDS participants,
however, felt more sure that they could affect student achievement by trying
different methods and they were more likely to recognize the contributions that
other staff in the building contribute to their practices
Secondary Research. Abdal-Haqq (1998) examined the literature on PDS
prepared teachers as compared to traditionally prepared teachers. Her literature
review reveals support for category two, in which PDS preparation is superior to
traditional preparation. Abdal-Haqq (1998) found that PDS prepared teachers:
Utilize more varied pedagogical methods and practices (Miller & OShea,
1994; Zeichner, 1992)
Are more reflective (Hayes & Wetherill, 1996)
Enter teaching with more knowledge of school routine and activities beyond
the classroom (Trachtman, 1996)
Feel more confidence in their knowledge and skill as professionals and
subsequently experience less culture shock when they become practicing
teachers (Book, 1996; Tusin, 1995)
Feel themselves to be better equipped to instruct ethnically and
linguistically diverse student populations and are more likely to seek
employment in inner-city schools when their practicums stress work in
urban areas (Abdal-Haqq, in press; Arends & Winitzky, 1996)
49


Have lower attrition rates during the first few years of teaching and are
more likely to hit the ground running when they become employed
(Hayes & Wetherill, 1996; The Model Clinical Teaching Program, no date)
Abdal-Haqq (1998) identifies a gap in the research, noticeably missing
from PDS literature on teacher development are adequate follow-up studies that
track preservice teacher after they enter the profession (p. 29). This study
addresses that gap by venturing into the classrooms of PDS program completers.
Summary. Variables measured in these studies comparing PDSs and
traditional preparation included teacher concerns, teacher efficacy, teacher
attitudes, teacher test scores, and grade point averages, among others. The first
category of PDS studies demonstrate that teachers prepared in PDSs are fairing at
least as well as their colleagues who were prepared in traditional programs. These
studies show little or no differences between teachers who were prepared in these
two programs and often indicate that the quality of the program may be as
important as they program type (Sandholtz & Dadlez, 2000; Sandholtz &
Wasserman, 2001). The second category indicates that ratings on various variables
demonstrate that PDS preparation is better than traditional preparation (Abdal-
Haqq, 1998; Blocker & Mantle-Bromely, 1997; Long & Morrow, 1995; \Reynolds,
Ross, & Rakow, 2002; Walling & Lewis, 2000; & Yerian & Grossman, 1997).
Interestingly, there is no category of research that indicates that PDS
preparation is somehow less than traditional preparation. This is important to note
50


in the context of this study. A weakness exposed in comparative studies is a
tendency to under-define programs. In order to compare a university based
program to an alternative program and learn something meaningful from the
results, it is necessary to look at two well-defined, quality programs (Sandholtz &
Dadlez, 2000) otherwise the research is comparing program quality instead of
program design.
Other implications from the research that helped shaped this research are a
focus on teacher efficacy as an indicator of teacher effectiveness (Darling-
Hammond et al., 2002; Sandholtz & Dadlez, 2000), and teacher pedagogy as
expressed as effective instructional practices (Abdal-Haqq, 1998; Reynolds et al.,
2002). These two concepts, teacher efficacy and effective instruction, will serve as
measures of pedagogy in this study. This is an important concept to test when
comparing university-based teacher preparation with alternative preparation.
Generally, advocates on either side of the alternative or university-based
preparation argument agree that content preparation is necessary for good teaching;
they differ however on agreement about pedagogical preparation. Darling-
Hammond (1999) clarified this difference:
More than 30 years of research demonstrate that both subject
matter knowledge and understanding of teaching and learning
matter for teaching effectiveness. Teachers who have more
background in their content areas and have greater knowledge of
learning and teaching methods are more highly rated and more
successful with students in fields ranging from early childhood and
51


elementary education to mathematics, science, and vocational
education.... While subject matter knowledge is important,
research consistently indicates that knowledge of how to teach is
an equally powerful factor in teacher effectiveness and in some
cases bears and even stronger relationship to teacher performance
and student learning. (Darling-Hammond, 1999\
These two proxies for effective pedagogy, efficacy and instructional
strategies, will be used to compare the pedagogy outcomes from two programs.
Research Implications for the Current Study
The literature falling into the haves and have-nots genre (Kennedy, 1996)
comparing PDSs to traditional programs indicates that PDS prepared teachers are
fairing at least as well if not better than their non-PDS prepared colleagues in a
variety of areas. Comparisons of alternative programs to traditional programs
present mixed findings. Some studies seem to indicate that differences tend to
favor alternatively prepared teachers on some measures, while others demonstrate
that differently prepared teachers demonstrate different strengths.
This study seeks to add to the knowledge regarding teacher preparation by
comparing, contrasting, and learning from a specific kind of high-quality haves
program and a high-quality have-nots (alternative) program. A weakness that
Kennedy (1999, 1996) exposed in this genre of research is a lack of attention to
52


particular coursework and program specifics. This will be addressed in the analysis
through a thorough discussion of the components of each program.
Within this genre, the following implications and suggestions that emerged
from the research reviewed above will be addressed:
Examine two quality programs (Sandholtz & Dadlez, 2000)
Focus on teacher efficacy as an indicator of teacher effectiveness (Sandholtz
& Dadlez, 2000; Darling-Hammond, et al., 2002)
Focus on teacher pedagogy as expressed as effective instructional practices
(Abdal-Haqq, 1998; Reynolds et ah, 2002)
Include or facilitate comparisons among plausible alternatives (Wilson et
ah, 2001)
Examine teacher preparation components or programs already in use
(Wilson et ah, 2001)
Compare the effect of teacher preparation that uses competing approaches
with roughly comparable student bodies (Wilson et ah, 2001)
Clearly define programs being studied (Wilson et ah, 2001)
Conduct observation research with outside observers (Brown et ah, 1989)
Conduct follow-up research in the field after teachers have completed their
preparation programs (Abdal-Haqq, 1998)
Consider the urban context that teachers work in and necessary
competencies (Burstein & Sears, 1998; Ng, 2003).
These recommendations layer over the have and have-nots genre creating
more support for the conceptual framework of this study. The research
recommendations guided the research design that is explicitly described in Chapter
53


Three. They appear in figure 2.2 a version of the frameworks diagram that
accentuates this particular aspect of the conceptual framework.
54


Figure 2.2. Conceptual Framework: Recommendations from the Research

Conceptual Framework: Research
Recommendations
Examine twoquality programs (Sandhol!/ & Dadlez. 2000)
Focus on teacher efficacy as an indicator of teachei
effectiveness (Sandholtz & Dadlez, 2000;
Focus on teacher pedagogy as expressed as effective
instructional practices (Abdat-Haqq, 1998 & Reynolds, 2002)
Include or facilitate comparisons among plausible alternatives
(Wilson, 2001, p. 32)
Examine teacher preparation components or programs already
in use (Wilson, 2001, p. 32)
Compare the effect of teacher preparation that uses competing
approaches with roughly comparable student bodies (Wilson,
2001,p33) v
- Clearly define programs being studied (Wilson, Floden, &
Mundy, 2001)
Conduct observation research with outside observers (Brown,
Edington, Spencer, & Tmafero, 1989)
Conduct follow-up research in the field after teachers have
completed their preparation programs (Abdal-Haqq, 1998)
55


Theoretical Location: Activity Theory
This section of this dissertation describes the basic principles of activity
theory, the theoretical framework for this study. The theoretical framework
supports the conceptual framework, which was created within a research genre,
recommendations from the research, and the research questions. Again, using a
fluid metaphor, if Figure 2.1 is turned on its side, one can imagine the framework
for the study as a sieve in which the large-scale activity of educating students in the
contexts of classrooms is poured through successive meshes (theory, conceptual
framework, research questions, and research design) to separate out the fine
particles of actions and operations that make up this activity we call teaching.
Figure 2.2 demonstrates this sieve.
In addition to conducting research within a theoretical framework, Moll
(2001) pointed out the importance of using research to contribute back to theory.
He summarized the basic tenets of Vygotskian cultural-historical psychology and
constructed four trends in the literature. He labeled the trends theorizing from
practice, changing how teachers teach, conducting teaching experiments, and
creating activity systems. Careful attention is paid to Molls first category:
theorizing from practice (Moll, 2001) in this study. The study results are linked
back to theory in Chapter 5.
56


Figure 2.3. Sieve Demonstration of the Theoretical and Conceptual Frameworks
Activity Theory: Introduction
Activity theory is a cross-disciplinary theory that encompasses both
individual and social aspects of developmental human practices (Kuutti, 1996).
Both parts of the term activity theory, referring to the Soviet-originated, cultural-
57


historical research tradition, are slightly misleading, because the tradition is neither
interested in activities in general, nor is it a theory (Kuutti, 1996, p. 25). This
philosophical approach has been characterized as an integration of three
perspectives: the objective, the ecological, and the sociocultural (Kaptelinin, 1996).
The theory has roots in Soviet cultural-historical psychology as founded by
Vygotsky, Leontev, and Luria and is also descendent from the classical German
philosophy of thinkers like Kant and Hegel and the writing of Marx and Engels
(Kuutti, 1996). Even though it is labeled a theory, activity theory is a set of basic
principals that constitute a conceptual system as opposed to being a highly
predictive theory (Kaptelinin & Nardi, 1997). The Soviet history of activity theory,
i.e. the work of Vygotsky and his colleagues, is often stressed in discussion and
application of the theory, while the Marxist tradition has often been omitted in
Western applications as a theoretical source due largely to political and ideological
reasons (Engestrom & Meittinen, 1999).
Activity Theory Overview
Activity theory utilizes human activity within meaningful contexts as basic
units of analysis. Activity theorists recognize that the study of human activity is
neither rigid nor static and acknowledge that activities have histories of their own
that do not necessarily unfold in linear progressions. Activities are complex events
58


that are enacted by subjects, within contexts of rules, communities, and cultural
historically determined divisions of labor. Objects are acted upon using tools with
a motivation in mind. Activities involve smaller more discrete actions and
incorporate operations (more automatic actions) (Kuutti, 1996; Nardi, 1996).
Kuutti (1996) describes the model in simpler terms:
This systemic model, which is based on the conceptualization by
Engestrom (1987), contains three mutual relationships between
subject, object, and community. The relationship between
subject and object is mediated by tools, the relationship between
subject and community is mediated by rules, and the relationship
between object and community is mediated by the division of
labor. These three classes should be understood broadly. A tool
can be anything used in the transformation process, including both
material tools and tools for thinking. Rules cover both explicit and
implicit norms, conventions, and social relations within a
community. Division of labor refers to the explicit and implicit
organization of a community as related to the transformation
process of the object into the outcome. Each of the mediating
terms is historically formed and open to further development.
(Kuutti, 1996)
An example of an activity helps to clarify these explanations. Imagine a
first grade class where the classroom community is made up of a subject, the
teacher and objects, the students. The intended and motivational outcome of the
activity is that the students gain a sense of numeracy and learn addition. In a set of
preplanned actions, the teacher demonstrates to the students, using manipulatives,
how their knowledge of counting and understanding of numbers can help them
learn to add. The teacher then puts the students in pairs to work on an addition-
59


counting task. The teacher circulates the room actively coaching the students but
also monitoring their behavior. Her coaching is indeed a conscious action, her
monitoring behavior is comprised of more automatic operations based on her
historical and cultural conceptions of a classroom environment. The most basic
division of labor is that of teacher and student, although there may be other
understood and implicit divisions of labor among the students. The rules of the
classroom are also explicit, students do not throw their math manipulatives at each
other, and implicit, they do not make fun of students who offer incorrect answers to
questions. The tools that students use to learn the lesson are math manipulatives,
analysis, and their individual and collective senses of numeracy. Figure 2.4 adapts
Engestroms (2002) diagram to represent the example described above.
Figure 2.4. Diagram of Classroom Example
Instruments:
Manipulatives, analysis, and
senses of numeracy
Outcome:
Learn addition, gain
numeracy
Rules: -----
Classroom behavior
Classroom norms
Community:
Teacher, students
Division of Labor:
Teacher to student
Student to student
60


Generations of Activity Theory
There is much work being conducted within the field of education based on
activity theory. The work in this study falls mostly into what might be described as
the second generation of the theory. The Center for Activity Theory and
Developmental Work Research (the Center) (2004) describes three theoretical
generations of the cultural historical theory of activity. The first approach was
formulated by Lev Vygotsky and his colleagues A. R. Luria and A. N. Leontev.
They created the idea of object mediation, which illustrated human action as a
tripartite structure. In this structure humans (subjects) have relationships with
objects (outcomes or goals) that are mediated by artifacts or tools (The Center,
2004). One might envision this relationship as set of relationships represented by
an equilateral triangle in which subjects at one point of the triangle interact with
artifacts or tools at another point in pursuit of an outcome. Figure 2.5 is an
adaptation of a figure from the website of the Center for Activity Theory and
Developmental Work Research (2004) that represents a common reformulation of
these early theorists conceptualizations.
61


Figure 2.5. Adaptation of Common Reformulation of Early Activity Theory (The Center,
2004)
The changes that occurred in the second theoretical generation of activity
theory were based largely on the work of Alexei Leontev and include a division of
labor based largely on concepts of labor forwarded by Karl Marx (The Center,
2004). This iteration also explicates a difference between individual action
and collective activity. The theory becomes more complex as the original
formulation of an activity is expanded into an activity system. The complexity of
the second generation of activity theory is represented in Figure 2.4 an adaptation
of Engestroms illustration of activity theory (Engestrom, 2002; The Center, 2004).
Finally, a third useful, relevant, and timely theoretical generation of activity
theory is emerging. This most recent version engages questions of diversity and
the importance of dialogues between different traditions and perspectives (The
Center, 2004). This third theoretical generation takes the complexity of activity
theory to yet another level, recognizing that individual activities take place
Tools/
Artifacts
Object/
Subject
>
Outcome
62


concurrently with other activities in shared contexts and with potentially shared
objects.
While the research presented here draws on work based in the more recent
third generation of work that classifies itself as belonging to cultural historical
activity theory (CHAT), the dissertation research design is based in the second
generation of thought, which is referred to here as activity theory. While the
researcher fully recognizes the importance and relevancy of the scope of the third
generation of work, the developmental nature of theory at this point makes it
difficult to truly pin down the third generation in a way that was succinct enough to
formulate a research design for this particular study. The implications of this work,
however, point to possibilities for a broadening of conceptual and methodological
considerations that may facilitate further research within CHAT.
Five Principles of Activity Theory
Kaptelinin, Nardi, and Macaulay (1999) suggest that a set of five principles
that are useful in describing activity theory: the hierarchical structure of activity,
object-orientedness, internalization /extemalization, tool mediation, and
development. These five principles can be used to orient thought and research
(Kaptelinin & Nardi, 1997; Kaptelinin, 1996).
63


Hierarchical Structure of Activity. Activity, which is the unit of analysis, is
composed of conscious, goal-directed actions. Automatic operations, which are not
goal oriented, are part of actions that allow subjects to adjust to situations.
(Kaptelinin & Nardi, 1997) Thus, a motive-centered activity is made up of a set of
goal oriented goals and automatic actions: activity is the highest component, action
is below activity, and operation is on the lowest rung (Kuutti, 1996).
Leontevs (1981) famous example is instructive here to orient the reader in
how these levels fit together:
A beater, for example, taking part in a primaeval [sz'c] collective
hunt, was stimulated by a need for food or, perhaps, a need for
clothing, which the skin of the dead animal would meet for him.
At what, however, was his activity directly aimed? It may have
been directed for example, at frightening a herd of animals and
sending them toward other hunters, hiding in ambush. That,
properly speaking, is what should be the result of the activity of
this man. And the activity of this individual member of the hunt
ends with that. The rest is completed by the other members. This
result, i.e. the frightening of game, etc. understandably does not in
itself, and may not, lead to satisfaction of the beaters need for
food, or the skin of the animal. What the processes of his activity
were directed to did not, consequently, coincide with what
stimulated them, i.e. did not coincide with the motive of his
activity; the two were divided from one another in this instance.
Processes, the object and motive of which do not coincide with one
another, we shall call actions. We can say, for example, that the
beaters activity is the hunt, and the frightening of game his action.
(Leont'ev, 1981, p. 210)
Object Orientedness. The object oriented principle states that human
beings live in a reality that is objective in a broad sense: the things that constitute
64


this reality have not only the properties that are considered objective according to
natural sciences but socially/culturally defined properties as well (Kaptelinin &
Nardi, 1997, p. 3). Activities are shaped by the object and motive that the subject
holds; motivation plays a key role in defining any activity. Several goal-oriented
actions may be combined in one activity with a single motivation. Goal-oriented
actions and operations may also appear similar, but be aimed at different motives.
This formulation of activity as driven by motive demonstrates that activity theorist
subscribe to a sense of self-determination (Nardi, 1996).
Intemalization/Extemalization. Internal activities can only be understood if
they are analyzed with external activities. The processes of extemalization and
internalization demonstrate that mental or cognitive activity is tightly
interconnected with external object-practical activity and that these two types of
activity must be considered in unity (Bedny et al. 2001) (Bedny & Karwowski,
2004, p. 139).
Internalization is the transformation of external activities into
internal ones. Internalization provides a means for people to try
potential interactions with reality without performing actual
manipulation with real objects (mental simulations, imaginings,
considering alternative plans, etc.). Extemalization transforms
internal activities into external ones. (Kaptelinin & Nardi, 1997, p.
3)
Tool Mediation. Human activity is mediated through the use of tools.
Broadly, tools shape external activities, which in turn shape internal activities.
65


Tools also reflect the accumulated experience of those who had experience with the
tool before and the social and cultural development of the tool (Kaptelinin & Nardi,
1997; Kaptelinin, Nardi, & MaCaulay, 1999).
Activity Theory emphasizes that human activity is mediated by
tools in a broad sense. Tools are created and transformed during
the development of the activity itself and carry with them a
particular culture historical remains from their development. So,
the use of tools is an accumulation and transmission of social
knowledge. Tool use influences the nature of external behavior
and also the mental functioning of individuals. (Kaptelinin &
Nardi, 1997, p. 3)
Development. Activities undergo continuous uneven change and
development. Each activity also has a history of its own. Parts of older phases of
activities often stay embedded in them as they develop, and historical analysis of
the development is often needed in order to understand the current situation
(Kuutti, 1996, p. 26). This principle has implications for research design and
methodology (Kaptelinin & Nardi, 1997). Research conducted in activity theory
includes developmental considerations.
Ontological Emphasis in Activity Theory
Activity theory engages a dualistic notion of reality that juxtaposes
individual subjectivity and objective social context as equal influences in the
creation of reality. Culturally, socially and historically constructed notions of
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reality exist within an objective world (Engestrom & Meittinen, 1999 &
(Kaptelinin, 1996). The theory is useful and applicable in that it is real or
natural sciencelike and integrates cultural factors with developmental aspects of
human mentality (Kaptelinin, 1996). For activity theorists social and cultural
interactions become tangible and identifiable like objective reality.
Unlike Piaget and Gibson, activity theorists consider social and
cultural properties of the environment to be as objective as
physical, chemical, or biological ones. These properties exist
regardless of our feelings about them. The object is a book is no
less an objective property of a thing than the surface of the object
mostly reflects the light of the red spectrum (that is, that the
object is red). (Kaptelinin, 1996, p. 107)
This design of this study also embraces that ontological duality. In one
research action, observations of teachers instructional practices the researcher will
uncover an objective view how teachers from two programs enact the socially
constructed notion of teaching. In another research action with the same overall
research activity, teachers will be asked to reflect on and share their own,
subjective perception of their practice via an efficacy and practice survey. Finally,
in yet another research action principals will be asked to offer their view of the
teachers practice, offering a view that is once objective, from outside of the
teachers classroom and yet subjective, from inside the teachers school
communities. The data collected will uncover instructional actions from the
objective stance of outsider observation and the subjective stance of insider
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understanding, both situated in another simultaneous activity motivated by another
culturally conceived motive: research.
Epistemological Emphasis in Activity Theory
Toulmin (1999) takes a historical view of activity theory and situates it
against the background of intellectual history to enter a discussion on
epistemological considerations. He emphasizes the importance of practice and
context in the process of acquiring knowledge and exposes the intellectual
historical tendency to elevate theory and explanation over practice regularly
serving antiegalitarian interests (p. 63).
Certainly, we all understand how theorizing spares us the labor of
making detailed, concrete observations and so allows us to keep
our hands clean. But such intellectualism cannot claim a
monopoly on serious knowledge. Knowing how a chair is made
(even how to make it yourself) may not be less subtle and rich than
knowing how a differential equation is to be solved (or how to
solve it yourself) but more; and, even in mathematics, handling
formal algorithms is only one small part of a larger art (techne) that
requires us to recognize when, in what ways, and for what
purposes the algorithm can be applied to concrete practical
situations. (Toulmin, 1999, p. 62)
Toulmin (1999) goes on to suggest how we might think about acquiring
knowledge in the future,
The key notion in any new theory of knowledge needs to be
practice. In place of the foundationalist theories that held center
stage from Descartes to Russell, we shall do better to develop a
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newpraxiology the term is Kotarbinskis (1965) that asks what
procedures are efficacious in any given rational enterprise, on what
conditions, and for what practical purposes. Such a theory of
knowledge (incidentally) has an additional merit: Its practitioners
are not ashamed of getting their hands dirty. Instead they are ready
to work with, and alongside, the professionals whose enterprises
they study: practical or theoretical, scientific or diagnostic, legal or
technical. (Toulmin, 1999, p. 62)
The epistemological implications that arise from activity theory for this
study are exposed in Toulmins (1991) encouragement to keep research grounded
in practice and the description of practice is well heeded in this study. The
emphases of the research questions (goals) as well as the research actions are all
centered on learning about the practices of teachers in their classrooms. Toulmin
(1991) clarifies the necessity of studying practice as it is and as it has come to be.
In any professional work, we master the relevant knowledge by
making our own the Wissensstand of the discipline involved the
procedures that constitute the knowledge comprises the standard
repertory of well-established procedures that are in good standing
in the discipline at a given time, but the standards by which we
judge the merits of the procedures are historical variables. This
means that the rationality of a scientific or judicial procedure, say,
is not a matter of clarity and distinctness or logical coherence
alone. Rather, it depends on the way in which these procedures
develop in the historical evolution of any given discipline.
So understood, shared procedures are neither the exclusive
property of collective professions nor the exclusive property of
individual agents. Rather, the rational history of a human
discipline involves a continuing interchange between the
innovations of creative individuals and their acceptance or
rejection by the professional community. (Toulmin, 1999, p. 60)
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A detailed description of how the study design that arose from the literature
and frameworks described in this chapter appears in the next chapter. Chapter 3
describes how the principles and epistemological considerations described here are
translated by methodological considerations into research design. Research actions
described in the next chapter include:
Observations of teachers that allowed researchers to get their hands dirty
conducting research in the context of the teachers classrooms alongside
students and teachers.
Teacher efficacy and practice surveys that asked teachers to reflect on and
share their reflections regarding their own techne: actions they conduct to
instruct and engage students as well as manage their classrooms.
Principal surveys gathered a point of view of the teachers practices from a
regular participant in the teachers professional community.
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CHAPTER 3
PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGY
The goal of this study was to address current outcome questions being
argued regarding the role and value of teacher education (Cochran-Smith, 2001).
The current discourse surrounding the role and value of teacher education has relied
in large part on theoretical rather than empirical arguments. By investigating the
effects of different kinds of teacher preparation on student learning, this study
offers the possibility of lending empirical evidence to the discourse. Those who
support professionalization argue that pedagogical preparation should occur in
preservice teacher education, while supporters of the deregulation of the teaching
profession would contend that pedagogical skills and knowledge could be learned
on the job.
Accordingly, this study examined how two different teacher preparation
programs, one teacher internship program (TIP) and one professional development
schools (PDS) partnership, contribute to the pedagogy of teachers who have
finished either of the programs. This chapter presents the research design and
research methods involved in answering three complementary research questions
that explore the outcomes of different approaches to teacher preparation.
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Wilson, Floden, and Mundy (2001) made recommendations for future
research on teacher preparation at the close of their extensive review of the
literature. Among their specific recommendations, they suggested that, data
collected about teacher preparation should describe specific features of the content
and quality, rather than using counts of courses and vague terms such as alternate
route (Wilson et al., 2001, p.32). They also suggest that programs of research
include comparisons among plausible alternatives and that comparisons examine
teacher preparation programs already in use (Wilson, Floden, & Mundy, 2001, p.
32). The next section of this chapter offers detailed descriptions of the two current,
5th year teacher preparation programs that served as the context for this study. Both
programs existed in the same geographic area and offered viable alternatives to
potential teacher candidates along with other programs available in the same
metropolitan area.
Descriptions of the Preparation Programs
The two teacher preparation programs required coursework and extensive
fieldwork. The designs of both programs recognized Stephens (1969) assertion
that while course content may be important, it is important for teachers to gain
experience in the art of teaching. Both of the programs were fifth-year programs.
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That is, the teacher candidates in both programs already held at least a
baccalaureate degree.
The Professional Development School (PDS) Partnership
The particular PDS partnership in this study exists in a school of education
at a university in a large city in the western United States. The university partners
with several local schools to enact PDS reform, aimed not only at educating
teachers, but also at teacher professional development, student learning, and
educational inquiry. Teacher candidates are placed in one of several local schools,
known as PDSs, that partner with the university. Each of these local schools has
several teacher candidates learning to teach at the school. Candidates are placed in
PDSs from the start of their programs. Local partner schools have assigned
university professors, who count weekly on-site involvement at the local school
with both the candidates and the school staff as part of a university teaching
assignment. Each school also has a site coordinator who oversees the partnership
at the school.
The PDS partnership program was created in 1994 and until the 2003-2004
school year, it was strictly a fifth-year graduate program. It now offers an
undergraduate option, too. In the fifth-year program, students with at least a
bachelors degree are admitted to a combined licensure/masters degree program.
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Teacher candidates can attend the program part- or full-time and receive their
teacher licensure within 12-24 months. The licensure coursework applies to their
masters degree, which is typically completed within the first year or two of
teaching. All of the teachers in this study from this program attended the fifth-year,
graduate program. They had received their license in time to be eligible to be in
their first full year of teaching as a licensed teacher in the 2003-2004 school year.
Program completers are eligible for a teaching license in elementary or
secondary education in any of the following areas: English, foreign languages,
mathematics, sciences, social studies, and special education. The PDS partnership
offers an undergraduate program for students seeking a teaching license in the areas
of elementary education, secondary English, secondary math, and secondary social
studies.
The programs foster critically reflective inquiry about teaching and
learning and the development of collaborative skills necessary to
work effectively with other adults on schooling issues. The
programs strive to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse
population of students, and to productively participate in and lead
school renewal by applying democratic principles in educational
settings. (The School of Education, 2004)
The PDS concept has its roots in teacher education, school-university
collaboration, the professionalization of teaching, and school reform (National
Governors' Association, 2000). Both the Holmes Group, a consortium of over 100
teacher preparation programs, and the National Network for Educational Renewal,
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a nation-wide network of school-university partnerships, have played key roles in
designing and promoting this model aimed at simultaneously restructuring and
renewing teacher education programs and local schools (National Governors'
Association, 2000; Thompson & Ross, 2000). Program structures may vary, but
its generally recognized that PDSs have four main goals, maximize student
learning, provide professional development for teacher development, educate
teachers, and conduct inquiry and research aimed at school and university renewal
(Sandholtz & Dadlez, 2000). The model is gaining momentum with numerous
school-university partnerships self-identifying as PDSs, but comparative research is
still scarce (National Governors' Association, 2000; Sandholtz & Dadlez, 2000).
This particular PDS partnership addresses these four functions across its
program. The university partners with over thirty elementary and secondary
schools across six districts to engage in simultaneous renewal of local schools and
the school of education. The roles and responsibilities of individuals from the
university and the local schools are shaped by the four functions of a partner
school: teacher preparation, professional development, renewal of curriculum and
instruction, and inquiry/research (The School of Education, 2002). These
functions are engaged in collaboratively by public school and School of Education
faculty and are important in positively supporting K-12 student learning and well-
being (The School of Education, 2002, p. 41).
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Multiple individuals contribute to and learn in partner schools. In addition
to the schools faculty, administration, and staff, the partnership adds a site
coordinator, a site professor, and teacher candidates. How these roles play out
varies according to the particular situation in each school. Site coordinators have
broader responsibilities in the partner schools than teacher preparation. Teacher
candidates should expect that professors and site coordinators will spend significant
time with teachers and administrators and students on issues and tasks that may or
may not connect to new teacher preparation (The School of Education, 2002, p.
41). Site Coordinators maintain a continual presence to ensure that school and
university personnel work together successfully for the benefit of all learners
(public school students, teacher candidates, school and university faculty, school
and university administrators, parents and other community members) (The
School of Education, 2002, p. 41).
Site professors work in schools on Thursdays to support and provide
leadership in partner school efforts. Both site coordinators and site professors
collaborate with the principals, the professors, teacher candidates, university staff
and administrators, and school faculties and staff to implement the four functions
(The School of Education, 2002).
Teacher Preparation. Site coordinators, professors, and other PDS members
work collaboratively within the partnership to:
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Work directly with and provide support to teacher candidates, coach them
in and about two settings: classroom teaching, and broader school
leadership responsibilities
Collaborate with clinical teachers who mentor teacher candidates, especially
to enhance their skills in co-teaching
Help teacher candidates see and understand what they are not yet capable of
appreciating on their own
Assist teacher candidates with crises
Evaluate teacher candidates, provide significant input regarding grades, and
award grades for school internships
Ensure that teacher candidates have the opportunity to become proficient in
State teacher education standards and in teaching responsibilities
Encourage excellent teacher candidates to remain in the PDS as UCD
contract teachers for their first year of teaching
Work with university course professors as needed to ensure that course
requirements are appropriate and properly timed
Select teacher candidates to enter the program and arrange placements of
teacher candidates
Support students with logistics and through one-on-one coaching and small
group meetings
Provide effective models of supervision/coaching for teacher candidates and
clinical teachers and articulate the models and the underlying philosophy of
coaching
Assist clinical teachers in developing supervision/coaching skills as needed
and in establishing a system to document coaching
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Ensure that teacher candidates have the opportunity to become proficient in
State teacher education standards and teaching responsibilities (The School
of Education, 2002).
Professional Development. Site coordinators, professors, and other PDS
members promote professional development and work collaboratively within the
partnership to:
Serve as a mentors and coaches for PDS contract teachers, and to other first
year teachers as requested by the principal
Work with clinical teachers to determine directions for professional
development and then take the lead in implementing professional
development
Lend expertise in determining and implementing processes for professional
development that meets the needs of the teachers
Become familiar with the talents and expertise of the school staff (beyond
clinical teachers) and help them share their talents and expertise with others
Serves as a mentor and coach along with the site coordinator for contract
teachers.
Work with the leadership team to determine directions and processes for
professional development
Lend expertise in providing or structuring the provision of formal
professional development opportunities
Become familiar with the talents and expertise of the school staff (beyond
clinical teachers) and help them share their talents and expertise with others
in the school and at the university (The School of Education, 2002).
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Renewal of Curriculum and Instruction. Site coordinators, professors, and
other PDS members promote the renewal of curriculum and instruction as they
work collaboratively within the partnership to:
Assist individual teachers, teams of teachers, or the faculty as a whole in
determining what they want to do to improve or advance curriculum and/or
instruction (including assessment) in the classroom/school in order to
positively impact student learning
Work with teacher candidates and teachers to determine how they can be of
assistance to each other in implementing curriculum and/or instructional
reforms or initiatives (such as standards). If university faculty may be of
assistance in the effort, seek to involve them as well
Lend or obtain expertise in curriculum and instruction (The School of
Education, 2002).
Inquiry and Research. Site coordinators, professors, and other PDS
members promote inquiry and research as they work collaboratively within the
partnership to:
Help determine what questions are of interest, what information or data to
gather, a process for gathering and analyzing information or data, and a
process for dissemination
Actively engage in aspects of action research
Work with university faculty who are interested in particular research
questions to facilitate communication with teachers who might want to be
or are involved in research
Work with others in the school to plan and implement research that
advances progress toward school goals
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Provide and/or obtain support for teacher candidates and school personnel
engaged in action research
Conduct personal research, seeking appropriate approval and assistance and
collaboration (The School of Education, 2002).
The Teacher Internship Program (TIP)
Teacher Internship Programs (TIPs), also known as apprenticeship or
residency programs, allow districts to hire not yet certified individuals, who want to
put their energies directly into their jobs and learn by doing in classrooms. These
programs blend theory and practice, target preparation to individuals specific
needs, provide opportunities for schools and districts to play an active role in the
preparation of teachers, and help districts respond to pressing needs (McKibbin,
1999).
Teachers in this particular internship program are prepared as they teach,
they prepare for licensure while learning to teach on the job. These teachers
receive instruction in pedagogy and theory, while they are in their first year of
teaching and participate in a district induction program in their second year. Local
school districts hire the individuals in the internship program. Local districts
partner with local state colleges or universities to provide teacher training on-the-
job. The program begins in August for the upcoming school year. Candidates
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must obtain a teaching contract, hold baccalaureate degree with a major or
equivalent in the subject to be taught, and pass the state created licensure test or
PRAXIS content area test prior to April 15th of their first year of teaching in the
program. In the second year of the program, interns complete a district induction
program and a portfolio/teacher work sample. Once an intern completes program
requirements and their second year of teaching, his or her school district can
recommend the intern to the state department of education for licensure and the
intern receives a teaching license. A senate bill that introduced the program states:
The General Assembly recognizes that many school districts face a
shortage of teachers and often struggle to find qualified persons to
teach their students. Furthermore the General Assembly finds that
often persons with experience in areas other than teaching can help
alleviate the teacher shortage faced by many school districts so
long as these persons receive adequate supervision and education
in teaching methods and practices. The General Assembly
therefore authorizes school districts to create Teacher Intern
Programs (TIP). (State General Assembly, 1999)
All of the interns in this study were members of a program cohort that
began internships in the fall of the school year 2001-2002. Thus, they had received
their license in time to be eligible to be in their first full year of teaching as a
licensed teacher in the 2003-2004 school year.
Specific requirements for the candidates for licensure in the program require
that in their first year they:
Attend weekly seminars at the local state college where they participate in
classes with other teachers from their cohort
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Pass the state licensure content area test within their first year of teaching
Complete year one of a two-year teacher work sample and portfolio
Demonstrate proficiency on selected benchmarks from the state
performance-based standards for teachers (Teacher Internship Program,
2004).
In their second year in the program candidates for licensure:
Participate in and complete a district induction program
Complete their teacher work samples and portfolios that were started in year
one
Demonstrate proficiency on remaining benchmarks from the state
performance-based standards for teachers that were not demonstrated in
year one
Obtain district recommendation to the state department of education by the
district for teacher licensure (Teacher Internship Program, 2004).
Teacher Internship Program Curriculum. The state college course
curriculum covers strands important to the development of an effective teacher:
classroom discipline, classroom management, short and long range planning, unit
and lesson plans, implementation, comprehensive assessment, educational theory,
and current issues in education (Teacher Internship Program, 2004). The methods
of instruction in the program include:
State college instructors at weekly seminars demonstrate instruction
methodologies, the methods are then applied and demonstrated by licensure
candidates in their classroom in accordance with the proficient level of
performance for the state performance-based standards for teaching
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State college instructors model discipline, management, and pedagogy
based on selected theories and programs in weekly seminars, TIP candidates
implement them in their classroom practice
TIP candidates receive coaching and feedback regarding their classroom
practices to support their development
TIP candidates reflect on model content, standards-based instruction, and
pedagogy and get feedback from their cohort instructors
TIP candidates participate in comprehensive assessments including written
assignments, response journals, objective midterm and final examinations,
and performance-based tasks in both the seminar and the school setting
TIP candidates must demonstrate proficient level performance on state
performance-based standards for teachers through evidences that include
artifacts, observations, reflections, response to rubric-based evaluation
feedback, a teacher work sample, portfolio, and other data required for
licensure [Teacher Intern Program, p. 2],
The Urban Context
Both of the programs in this study prepare teachers in and for urban
schools. While neither is specifically an urban program it is useful to consider
ways that they address appropriate preparation for an urban setting. Oakes et al.s
(2002) contend that teachers in urban areas require a specialized set of knowledge
and skills if they are to be successful. With these specific requirements in mind
they offer five principles for teacher learning that are based in the work of Jean
Lave and Etienne Wenger, social theorists, who argue that learning arises from
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relations among people involved in activity within socially and culturally
constructed frameworks (Lave & Wenger, 1991). Oakes et al. (2002) principles are
listed in Table 3.1 and accompanied by components of the two programs that relate
to each principle that come from the program descriptions above.
Table 3.1. Urban Teacher Preparation Principles and Program Components
Principle PDS Partnership TIP
Learning occurs as novices participate with each other and experts on meaningful tasks. The desire to participate in more and more competent ways leads participants to try out new strategies and understandings that stretch their skills and capacities and in turn lead to the development of new practices (Oakes et al., 2002). Internships Coursework Work with site professor/site coordinator Coursework Mentoring Induction Coaching
Learning unfolds as individuals participate in groups. This joint participation enables participants to draw on one anothers particular knowledge and expertise, thereby expanding their shared repertoire (Oakes et al., 2002). Internships Coursework Coursework Coaching
Learning emerges in and through dialogue, often around tools and artifacts connected with practice. Such dialogue provides participants with opportunities to make their knowledge explicit, to argue and challenge one anothers beliefs, and to forge new ways of making sense of existing practice (Oakes et al., 2002). Internship Coursework Coaching Coursework
Learning involves the emerging identities of participants; these identities develop as knowledge and skills are acquired. In this sense, learners take on new dispositions, skills, and beliefs as they become more competent in practice (Oakes et al., 2002). Internship combined with coursework Time spent teaching combined with coursework
Learning through mutual engagement in a joint enterprise enables participants to develop socially valued work-products for example, stories, texts, and presentationsthat become tools for further learning (Oakes et al., 2002). Performance-based assessments Teacher-work samples and portfolios
84