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Prosecutorial discretion and the social construction of animal cruelty

Material Information

Title:
Prosecutorial discretion and the social construction of animal cruelty how cruel is "cruel?"
Creator:
Muehlenbeck, Kerry Lynn
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xii, 278 leaves : ; 29 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Prosecution -- Decision making -- Arizona ( lcsh )
Sociological jurisprudence -- Arizona ( lcsh )
Animal welfare -- Law and legislation -- Arizona ( lcsh )
Animal welfare -- Law and legislation ( fast )
Prosecution -- Decision making ( fast )
Sociological jurisprudence ( fast )
Arizona ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 247-263).
General Note:
Vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Kerry Lynn Muehlenbeck.

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Source Institution:
Auraria Library
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
742381964 ( OCLC )
ocn742381964
Classification:
KFA2771 .M84 2010 ( lcc )

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Auraria Library

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Prosecutoria l Discretio n an d th e Socia l Constructio n o f Animal Cruelty : Ho w Crue l i s "Cruel? b y Kerr y Lyn n Muehlenbec k A Dissertatio n Presente d i n Partia l Fulfillmen t o f th e Requirements fo r th e Degre e Docto r o f Philosoph y ARIZON A STAT E UNIVERSIT Y Ma y 201 0

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UM I Number : 341057 4 Al l right s reserve d INFORMATIO N T O AL L USER S Th e qualit y o f thi s reproductio n i s dependen t upo n th e qualit y o f th e cop y submitted I n th e unlikel y even t tha t th e autho r di d no t sen d a complet e manuscrip t an d ther e ar e missin g pages thes e wil l b e noted Also i f materia l ha d t o b e removed a not e wil l indicat e th e deletion UM I Dissertatio n Publishin g UM I 341057 4 Copyrigh t 201 0 b y ProQues t LLC Al l right s reserved Thi s editio n o f th e wor k i s protecte d agains t unauthorize d copyin g unde r Titl e 17 Unite d State s Code ues t ProQues t LL C 78 9 Eas t Eisenhowe r Parkwa y P.O Bo x 134 6 An n Arbor M l 48106-134 6

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Prosecutoria l Discretio n an d th e Socia l Constructio n o f Anima l Cruelty : Ho w Crue l i s "Cruel? b y Kerr y Lyn n Muehlenbec k ha s bee n approve d Apri l 201 0 Graduat e Supervisor y Committee : Dori s Mari e Provine Chai r Joh n Johnso n Christin a Risley-Curtis s ACCEPTE D B Y TH E GRADUAT E COLLEG E

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ABSTRAC T M y researc h examine s ho w prosecutor s exercis e discretio n t o creat e sociall y relevan t definition s o f felon y offense s o f anima l cruelty I examin e th e socia l an d lega l histor y o f society' s effort s t o regulat e crue l act s towar d animals T o thi s end I trac e th e legislativ e histor y o f anima l cruelt y law se t agains t th e socia l contex t o f th e time Next I us e documen t analysi s t o examin e 15 5 case s o f anima l cruelty participan t observatio n i n a n Arizon a count y attorney' s office an d in-dept h interview s o f 2 2 count y attorney s t o identif y whic h factor s shap e prosecutoria l decision-making Prosecutor s tak e int o accoun t varyin g combination s o f legal extralegal an d organizationa l factor s i n decidin g whic h case s t o charge ple a bargain o r try Mos t salien t o f thos e factor s ar e thos e tha t addres s th e "human elemen t i n anima l cruelt y cases not th e anima l a t all Individua l characteristic s o f th e defendant th e correlativ e lin k betwee n anima l cruelt y an d subsequen t violenc e toward s humans an d othe r huma n actor s withi n th e system lik e th e judg e an d jury ar e consistentl y th e focu s fo r pre adjudicatio n decisions Overall I conclud e tha t a large r socia l an d mora l traditio n exist s i n society whic h underscore s ho w prosecutor s met e ou t justic e fo r animals ii i

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DEDICATIO N Fo r Cobi a i v

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT S Goo d thing s happe n whe n yo u surroun d yoursel f wit h goo d people Suc h i s th e stor y o f m y lif e an d thi s piec e o f research Th e thank-you' s ar e man y an d surel y neve r enough Marie John an d Christina—you r patience insight an d encouragemen t ar e simpl y withou t end Shelley Angela Jennifer Michael Hilary Kimber an d Laurin—a s th e proverbia l caboos e i n ou r trai n o f scholars thank s fo r pullin g m e dow n thos e tracks Kathi — yo u ar e a phenomena l professiona l an d a tru e rol e model Than k yo u fo r lettin g m e leav e th e trenches ye t alway s fee l saf e i n m y return Mom Dad Kelly Audrey — onl y you r unconditional lov e an d support (eve n whe n I hav e a n empt y stomach! ) coul d giv e m e th e wing s t o fly Without you I woul d stil l hav e m y fee t o n th e ground v

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TABL E O F CONTENT S Pag e DEFINITION S x INTRODUCTIO N 1 CHAPTE R 1 PROSECUTORIA L DISCRETIO N 1 1 Th e Prosecuto r 1 2 Admnistratio n o f Prosecutoria l Discretio n 1 4 Lega l An d Extr a Lega l Variable s 1 5 Organizationa l Variable s 1 6 Persona l Preferenc e Variable s 2 0 2 TH E SOCIA L AN D LEGA L HISTOR Y O F ANIMA L CRUELT Y 2 2 Animal Cruelt y La w i n Arizon a 2 5 Anima l Cruelt y a s a Socia l Constructio n 2 7 Arizon a Histor y an d th e Prevailin g Socia l Contex t 3 1 Th e Socia l Constructio n o f Animal Cruelt y i n Arizon a 3 6 Friedma n 3 7 1871-192 8 3 8 1929-197 6 4 2 1977-200 7 4 4 Readin g betwee n th e line s 4 7 Fro m th e Statute s t o th e Trenche s 5 2 v i

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CHAPTE R Pag e 3 MAPPIN G TH E TERRA INCOGNITA 5 3 Researc h Questio n 5 4 Method s 5 6 Acces s a s a Returnin g Membe r 5 7 Documen t Analysi s 6 1 Participant-Observatio n 6 6 In-dept h Interview s 7 0 Analyti c Strateg y 7 3 Bia s an d Validit y 7 5 4 PROSECUTIN G ANIMA L CRUELT Y CASE S 7 8 Th e Prosecuto r 7 8 Wh y Prosecutio n 7 8 A Typica l Prosecuto r 8 2 Reputationa l Impac t o f Prosecutin g Animal Cruelt y Case s 8 7 Reflection s o n Thei r Wor k 8 9 Th e Organizatio n o f Animal Cruelt y Prosecutio n 9 7 Offic e Polic y 9 8 Locatio n i n th e offic e hierarch y 10 1 Attorne y Availabilit y 11 5 vi i

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Pag e 5 TH E EXERCIS E O F PROSECUTORIA L DISCRETIO N I N ANIMA L CRUELT Y CASE S 12 7 Lega l Variable s 12 9 Proo f o f Cas e Element s 13 0 Statutor y Criticism s 13 4 Strengt h o f th e Evidenc e 14 9 Prio r Conviction s 15 3 Extr a Lega l Variabl e 15 3 Victi m 15 4 Defendan t 15 8 Locatio n o f th e Crim e 16 6 Organizationa l Variable s 16 9 Micro-leve l 16 9 Macro-leve l 17 5 Persona l Preferenc e Variable s 19 6 Previousl y Unhear d Variable s 19 9 Independen t Mora l Statu s 19 9 Human-Anima l Bon d 20 1 Functiona l Wort h 20 3 vii i

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CHAPTE R Pag e 6 TYPICA L CRUELT Y AN D IT S CONSEQUENCE S 22 1 Th e Goo d Cas e 22 1 Typica l Cruelt y 22 4 Beyon d Typica l 22 6 Egregiousnes s o f th e Offens e 22 9 Th e Firs t Cas e 23 1 Uniqu e Lega l Issue s 23 2 Distinctive Defendan t and/o r Animal 23 5 Persona l Affec t 23 8 Th e Troubl e wit h Typica l 23 9 CONCLUSIO N 24 2 REFERENCE S 24 7 APPENDI X A IR B APPROVA L 26 5 B ARIZON A ANIMA L CRUELT Y STATUTE S 26 7 C PROTOCO L O F INTERVIE W QUESTION S 27 2 D ORGANIZATIO N O F CRIMINA L DIVISIO N 27 6 BIOGRAHICA L SKETC H 27 8 i x

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DEFINITION S Cas e Summary Detaile d summar y o f th e cas e prepare d b y th e lega l assistan t (paralegal) I t contain s a mor e detaile d synopsi s o f th e facts witnes s statements tangibl e evidence possibl e evidentiar y problems an d overal l succes s o f prosecution Cover-me Thi s i s a one-pag e documen t tha t a prosecuto r use s whe n unabl e t o cove r a hearing i n a particula r case Th e cover-m e contain s informatio n abou t th e cas e an d direct s th e covering attorne y wha t t o do wha t t o say an d wha t t o reques t a t th e hearing Diversion I n Arizona pursuan t t o A.R.S §9-500.22 th e prosecuto r ha s th e discretio n t o diver t a n offender Diversio n program s provid e fo r th e dismissa l o f a crimina l complain t upo n th e successfu l completio n o f particula r requirements I n mos t instances a defendan t wil l plea d guilt y t o a certai n offense bu t th e entr y o f convictio n wil l b e deferred Durin g thi s deferra l period th e defendan t mus t compl y variou s requirements I f successful th e ple a i s vacate d an d th e charge s dismissed I f unsuccessful a judgmen t o f guilt y i s entere d an d th e defendan t i s the n sentenced Diversio n i s not availabl e t o a n individua l accuse d o f a crim e involvin g th e discharge use o r threatenin g exhibitio n o f a deadl y weapo n o r dangerou s instrument Felony Thi s i s th e mos t seriou s typ e o f crim e i n th e crimina l code I t i s distinguishabl e fro m a misdemeano r becaus e felonie s ar e punishabl e b y mor e tha n a yea r i n priso n o r death A misdemeanor o n th e othe r hand i s generall y punishabl e b y u p t o on e yea r i n jail Th e genera l sentencin g schem e i n Arizon a i s on e o f numbere d felonies A felon y i s x

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labele d accordin g t o class — a clas s 1 2 3 4 5 o r 6 felony Clas s on e felonie s ar e th e mos t serious ; clas s si x felonie s ar e th e leas t serious Similarly th e punishmen t fo r a clas s on e felon y i s th e mos t serious t o includ e death Th e punishmen t fo r a clas s si x felon y i s th e leas t serious usuall y involvin g probation A clas s six-ope n felony als o calle d a clas s six-undesignate d felon y i s anothe r wa y prosecutor s an d judge s ma y trea t a defendant A clas s six-ope n mean s th e convictio n i s initiall y treate d a s a clas s si x felony Th e defendan t wil l normall y b e place d o n probation He/sh e wil l hav e t o serv e a perio d o f probatio n successfull y (typicall y 1 8 months ) an d complet e al l require d conditions I f th e defendan t i s successful he/sh e ca n reques t th e cour t t o designat e th e offens e a misdemeanor Issuing Thi s i s th e proces s b y whic h individual s ar e charge d wit h felon y offenses Als o know n a s charging Defendant s arreste d an d i n custod y o n felon y charge s ar e entitle d t o a probabl e caus e finding eithe r vi a grand jur y o r preliminar y hearing withi n te n day s (longe r i f the y ar e ou t o f custody). Whe n unifor m officer s mak e arrests th e case s ar e late r assigne d t o a detectiv e i n charg e o f whateve r typ e o f crim e i t is Detective s the n mak e a n appointmen t wit h th e prosecuto r (issuin g attorney ) t o revie w th e evidenc e an d determin e i f ther e i s sufficien t evidenc e t o g o forwar d an d fil e th e complaint Th e complain t i s the n presente d befor e th e gran d jury wh o wil l eithe r issu e a tru e bil l o r refus e t o indict o r a judg e fo r a preliminar y hearing Issuin g Attorney Thi s i s th e attorne y wh o issue s (charges ) th e case x i

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Issuin g summary Thi s i s th e documen t tha t th e issuin g attorne y prepare s t o memorializ e his/he r decisio n abou t whethe r o r not t o charg e a defendan t (i.e t o issu e a cas e agains t him/her) Th e issuin g summar y varie s i n length dependin g o n th e complexit y o f th e cas e an d th e numbe r o f count s t o b e charged I t i s a shorthan d wa y t o evaluat e a cas e tha t contain s interna l assessment s abou t th e strengths/weaknesse s o f a cas e wit h a n ey e towar d prosecution Issuin g summarie s contai n a shor t factua l synopsis a n identificatio n o f pros/cons an d a listin g o f dat a bas e codes whic h correspon d t o th e statutor y cite s unde r whic h th e particula r defendan t wil l b e charged Justic e Court Misdemeano r case s occurrin g i n th e count y ar e trie d i n thi s cour t o f limite d jurisdiction Judge s ar e calle d magistrate s and/o r Justice s o f th e Peace Thi s cour t als o ha s jurisdictio n t o hea r preliminar y hearings Necropsy Thi s i s a post-morte m examinatio n o f animal s (a n autopsy) Superio r Court Felon y case s occuring i n th e count y ar e trie d i n thi s cour t o f genera l jurisdiction Judge s i n thes e court s ar e appointe d b y th e governor xi i

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Introductio n "Yo u ar e a n agen t o f socia l control, sai d m y professo r a s h e raise d hi s bro w an d trie d t o hid e a sarcasti c smil e behin d hi s Hemingway-esqu e beard I be g you r pardon, I mustered wit h th e respec t tha t was due bu t shadowe d wit h a bi t o f disdain N o repl y fro m him Jus t a smil e tha t broadene d pas t th e pape r cu p o f coffe e tha t h e ha d place d t o hi s lips An d s o i t began—m y torture d transitio n fro m prosecutin g attorne y t o studen t o f socia l life A researc h stud y typicall y begin s wit h on e bein g curiou s abou t something ; i t ma y emerg e fro m socia l an d politica l issue s o f th e da y o r eve n fro m one' s specia l area s o f interest M y professor s tol d m e th e bes t plac e t o loo k fo r a researc h proble m wa s i n m y everyda y experience S o I did I ha d n o ethni c fathe r wh o was wrongfull y imprisoned I was not bor n int o a n impoverishe d inne r cit y single-paren t household I wa s no t raise d i n a neighborhoo d buil t o n a landfill Al l t o th e contrary I gre w u p wit h privileg e an d money M y parent s wer e colleg e educated I boas t a histor y o f militar y servic e an d prosecution Eve n a s I pursu e thi s dissertation I hav e mor e initial s afte r m y nam e tha n befor e it S o exactl y wha t platfor m o f socia l justic e di d I have ? None None tha t is unti l I hear d th e challeng e levie d b y Holstei n an d Mille r (1997) wherei n the y urge d reader s t o conside r th e mundane ye t importan t aspect s of one's own life. M y wor k a s a prosecuto r cas t a lon g shado w fo r me on e o f grea t prid e an d service A s a prosecutor I reall y ha d n o tim e t o searc h fo r meanin g o r understandin g i n wha t I did I jus t "did. Give n th e tim e fo r reflection i t wa s obvious : I wa s a n agen t o f socia l contro l afte r all I constructe d th e ver y problem s tha t concerne d m e i n th e firs t place

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2 Shapir o (2002 ) conclude d tha t th e stat e o f human-anima l studie s was solidl y a t th e margin H e posite d tw o questions : Wha t ha s you r fiel d contribute d t o anima l studie s thu s far ? Wha t doe s you r fiel d nee d t o d o t o advanc e anima l studies ? A s a forme r prosecutor onc e th e targe t o f critica l sociologica l inquiry no w turne d doctora l studen t an d submerge d i n a socia l justic e curriculum th e iron y i n generatin g a n answe r wa s apparent A t heart I a m exactl y ho w I bega n m y professiona l education: a n attorney A prosecuto r a t on e time I was a voic e speakin g fo r th e community—a t a tim e whe n animal s wer e comin g int o a ne w focu s i n society M y answe r wa s t o stud y th e prosecuto r i n th e contex t o f anima l cruelt y cases M y researc h examine s ho w prosecutor s exercis e discretio n t o creat e sociall y relevan t definition s o f particula r crimes Prosecutor s are i n fact jus t anothe r laye r o f socia l constructionists Critica l t o thei r rol e i s th e concep t o f prosecutoria l discretion Accordingly m y researc h addresse s ho w discretio n i s exercise d i n th e furtheranc e o f administerin g justice Mor e specifically I loo k a t th e exercis e o f tha t discretio n wit h particula r regar d t o th e crim e o f felon y anima l cruelty Ultimately th e entranc e o f animal s int o crimina l la w alter s som e o f th e traditiona l concern s influencin g prosecutoria l discretio n an d als o provide s fertil e soi l ou t o f whic h o f ne w concern s ma y grow B y investigatin g th e factor s tha t shap e prosecutoria l decision-makin g i n th e narrowe r contex t o f anima l cruelt y cases I hop e thi s dissertatio n wil l b e a ste p toward understandin g ho w prosecutor s administe r justice Thi s understandin g i s importan t fo r bot h theoretica l an d polic y reasons A t a theoretica l level m y researc h wil l examin e th e socia l constructio n o f anima l cruelt y via th e exercis e o f prosecutoria l discretion I t wil l

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3 produc e furthe r evidenc e o f ho w th e la w an d societ y ar e mutuall y constitutive Fro m a polic y perspective th e prosecutor' s decisio n t o prosecut e a cas e provide s usefu l decisio n point s t o understan d ho w prosecutor s construc t "cruelty an d th e effec t thi s conceptio n ha s o n furthe r processin g a particula r case alon g wit h th e likel y conceptualizatio n o f subsequen t cases Studyin g pre-adjudicatio n decision s provide s a goo d vie w o f th e factor s tha t dictat e wha t constitute s "cruelty. Th e la w ha s declare d animal s worth y o f attentio n i n th e crimina l justic e system an d thi s rational e i s filtere d throug h th e individua l lense s o f cour t personnel organizationa l structure an d broade r systemi c concerns But thi s are a o f la w ha s receive d littl e attention Th e empirica l researc h o n prosecutoria l decision makin g i s impressive I t cover s a broa d rang e o f issues—fro m thef t (Adam s & Cutshall 1987 ; Sudnow 1965 ) t o rap e (Albonetti 1986 ; Estrich 2004 ; Frohman 1991 1997 ; Kerstetter 1990 ; LaFree 1980 ) t o chil d abus e (Cross 2003 ) t o stalkin g (Dunn 2002) Give n th e vas t landscape m y desir e wa s t o fin d a ne w nich e i n whic h t o examin e prosecutoria l discretion an d th e decision s mad e i n th e crimina l justic e syste m mor e generally Th e prosecutoria l exercis e o f discretio n i n th e contex t o f anima l cruelt y case s ha d ye t t o b e examined Virtuall y n o are a i n everyda y huma n lif e i s untouche d b y animal s (Bryant 1979). 1 The y ar e i n societ y a s companions pets entertainment food clothing experimen t subjects workers an d rescuers American s spen d $4 1 billio n dollar s a yea r o n thei r pets 1 Eve n a s earl y a s 1979 Bryan t argue d tha t despit e th e obviou s influenc e o f animal s o n ou r lives sociologist s hav e not accounte d fo r th e socia l influenc e o f animal s i n th e overal l cultura l fabric

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4 doublin g th e figure s o f th e las t decad e (Brad y & Palmeri 2007) Sixty-thre e percen t o f al l U.S household s (7 1 millio n homes ) ow n a t leas t on e pet ; forty-tw o percen t o f dog s slee p i n th e sam e be d a s thei r owners ; an d afte r consume r electronics pe t car e i s fastes t growin g retai l category expandin g 6 % pe r yea r (Brad y & Palmeri 2007) Ther e ar e pe t resor t hotel s wher e pet s ca n tak e call s fro m thei r owners ; mobil e groomer s an d do g spas ; brace s fo r crooke d teet h an d "Neuticles (testicula r implant s fo r neutere d dogs) ; canin e perfume s an d clothin g couture ; indoo r potties ; gourme t food ; do g parks do g strollers an d doggi e pla y dates ; an d eve n pe t healt h insuranc e t o hel p wit h th e $9. 9 billio n spen t o n veterinar y services medicines an d supplie s (Brad y & Palmeri 2007 ) Ther e ar e pe t store s galore A Googl e searc h i n Octobe r o f 200 7 fo r "pe t stores returne d 2,180,00 0 hits A simila r searc h fo r "sho e stores, yielde d onl y 892,00 0 hits Animal s eve n hav e thei r ow n cabl e televisio n channel an d figur e int o wills trusts wrongfu l death suits an d custod y battle s i n divorce W e construc t ou r relationshi p wit h animal s throug h variou s socia l arenas—arts media literature an d commerce No t surprisingly th e la w i s als o anothe r wa y i n whic h w e construc t tha t relationship Ho w w e organize argue communicat e about an d persuad e other s tha t law s shoul d exis t suggest s ye t anothe r interpretatio n o f reality Whe n i t comes t o la w making societ y engage s i n a line-drawin g exercise definin g th e lega l boundarie s betwee n acceptabl e an d unacceptabl e conduct Becaus e animal s ar e not votin g constituents whateve r fundamenta l valu e animal s have human s construc t fo r them

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5 I n academia th e ter m "anima l law i s a relativel y ne w an d growin g are a o f study I n hi s article Welt y (2007 ) highlight s som e o f th e "firsts o f anima l law : th e firs t la w schoo l clas s i n anima l la w wa s offere d i n 1990 ; th e firs t volum e o f th e Anima l La w Revie w was publishe d i n 199 4 b y th e Lewi s an d Clar k La w Schoo l i n Portland Oregon ; an d th e firs t anima l la w caseboo k was publishe d i n 2000 Accordin g t o th e Anima l Lega l Defens e Fun d ( www.aldf.org ) ninet y on e la w school s no w offe r classe s o n th e topi c o f anima l la w an d twent y fiv e national regional an d stat e animal-la w section s hav e bee n forme d i n ba r association s acros s th e Unite d States Anima l la w encompasse s al l huma n interaction s wit h animal s an d i s scattere d acros s th e landscap e o f th e traditiona l field s o f law o n local state federal an d internationa l levels Administrativ e lawyer s addres s agenc y rule s an d regulation s t o ensur e conformit y wit h th e American s wit h Disabilitie s Act The y focu s o n th e abilit y o f servic e animal s t o ente r publi c area s wher e animal s ar e not normall y allowe d (e.g stores airplanes restaurants an d apartments) Environmenta l law s gran t protectio n t o certai n specie s vi a acts lik e th e Endangere d Specie s Act th e Clea n Wate r Act an d th e Nationa l Environmenta l Polic y Act Estat e lawyer s includ e provision s i n clien t will s an d creat e pe t trust s t o provid e fo r th e continuin g car e o f companio n animals Famil y la w practitioner s provid e fo r custody support an d visitatio n o f famil y pet s i n prenuptia l agreement s an d divorc e settlements Product s liabilit y attorney s fil e lawsuit s agains t manufacturer s fo r harm s cause d b y toys pesticides househol d cleaners medicines an d othe r products Similarly tor t lawyer s tes t ne w water s wit h suit s t o recove r emotiona l an d los s o f companionshi p damage s fo r th e harm/deat h o f a pet

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6 On e o f th e mos t commo n intersections betwee n animal s an d th e la w i s crimina l law Th e firs t federa l law writte n i n 187 7 an d late r revise d i n 1906 mandate d tha t railroad s an d shippin g companie s coul d not confin e animal s fo r mor e tha n twenty-eigh t consecutiv e hour s withou t unloadin g the m fo r rest water an d feedin g (Th e Twenty-Eigh t Hou r Law) Fro m 190 0 t o 1950 onl y on e federa l la w tha t addresse d animal s wa s passed althoug h individua l state s di d pass/amen d anima l protectio n law s durin g thi s perio d (Rowa n & Rosen 2005) Sinc e then fou r critica l federa l law s hav e emerged al l providin g fo r imprisonmen t o r civi l penalties : th e 195 8 Human e Method s o f Livestoc k Slaughte r Act whic h regulate s ho w animal s tha t ar e raise d fo r foo d ma y b e killed ; th e 196 6 Animal Welfar e Act whic h regulate s th e procedure s tha t ca n b e use d o n animal s i n scientifi c an d medica l research ; th e 197 2 Marin e Mamma l Protectio n Act whic h prohibit s harassing hunting capturing o r killin g al l marin e mammals ; an d th e 197 3 Endangere d Specie s Act whic h identifie s specie s tha t ar e "endangered an d limit s huma n activitie s i n area s wher e thos e specie s ar e present I n vie w o f th e limite d federa l legislation th e charg e agains t anima l cruelt y i s largel y a matte r fo r th e states Al l fift y state s hav e legislatio n relatin g t o anima l cruelt y an d forty-tw o state s an d th e Distric t o f Columbi a mak e certai n form s o f cruelt y a felon y (HSUS 2002 ; HSUS 2006) Th e state s tha t d o not hav e felon y anima l cruelt y provision s are : Idaho Utah Nort h Dakota Sout h Dakota Arkansas Mississippi Alaska an d Hawaii Althoug h dated Frash P.D. et al (1999 ) provide s a decen t overvie w o f th e 2 Fo r a federa l legislativ e summar y fro m 195 8 -2003 se e Rowa n & Rosen (2005)

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7 provision s o f stat e anti-cruelt y laws I n general thes e anti-cruelt y statute s ai m t o protec t animal s fro m mistreatmen t b y imposin g a penalt y fo r crue l o r neglectfu l act s toward them Neithe r federal no r stat e measures however addres s th e thre e mai n practice s tha t ar e th e targe t o f th e anima l movement : anima l research factor y farming an d recreationa l hunting Whil e abuse s occu r i n thes e settings the y ar e beyon d th e scop e o f thi s paper Instead I addres s stat e anima l cruelt y statute s mainl y a s the y appl y t o "companio n animals. Dryde n (2001 ) explain s tha t thi s ter m typicall y refer s t o pet s o r domesti c animal s tha t ar e not use d fo r agricultura l o r economi c purposes I focu s o n companio n animal s becaus e Arizona' s anima l cruelt y statut e exempt s huma n activitie s lik e hunting rodeos scientifi c experimentation an d mos t farmin g activitie s fro m it s reach Ou r moder n cruelt y law s trac e thei r origin s bac k t o Englis h commo n law a s wel l a s th e Puritan s o f Massachusetts Earl y prosecution s fo r cruelt y t o animal s wer e base d o n charge s o f maliciou s mischief breac h o f peace an d thef t o f property Th e Puritan s o f Massachusett s Ba y Colon y establishe d th e earlies t printe d cod e i n Americ a i n 1641 I t containe d th e firs t tw o writte n provision s protectin g animals Th e statut e provide d that : N o ma n shal l exercis e an y Tirran y o r Cruelti e toward s an y bruit e Creatur e whic h ar e usalli e kep t fo r man' s use I f an y ma n shal l hav e occasio n t o lead e o r driv e Catte l fro m plac e t o plac e tha t i s fa r off s o tha t the y b e weary o r hungry o r fal l sick o r lambe I t shal l b e lawfu l t o res t o r refres h hi m fo r a competen t time i n an y plac e tha t i s no t Corne meadow o r inclose d fo r som e peculia r use (HSUS 2002)

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8 I n 1829 Henr y Berg h founde d th e America n Societ y fo r th e Preventio n o f Cruelt y t o Animal s (ASPCA ) t o ensur e suc h legislatio n woul d b e enforced H e sough t law s tha t protecte d any livin g creatur e regardles s o f ownership an d agains t act s o f simpl e negligenc e (Favr e & Tsang 1993) Whil e othe r state s followe d wit h thei r ow n anti cruelt y statutes not al l o f thes e statute s me t th e vision o f Bergh Instead mos t require d intentiona l acts an d protecte d onl y certai n kind s o f animals Throughou t history eac h stat e ha s adopte d an d revise d th e element s o f it s anima l cruelt y laws Th e lega l definition s o f "cruelty an d th e type s o f animal s covere d var y fro m stat e t o state I n a n attemp t t o formulat e a genera l definitio n o f cruelty Ascion e (1993) synthesize s th e feature s commo n t o mos t states suggestin g tha t anima l cruelt y i s "sociall y unacceptabl e behavio r tha t intentionall y cause s unnecessar y pain suffering o r distres s t o and/o r th e deat h o f a n animal. Sinc e anima l cruelt y i s a statutor y offense an y determinatio n o f whethe r th e conduc t complaine d o f constitute s a n offens e depend s o n th e languag e o f th e statute Thus whil e th e statut e ma y th e startin g point th e word s hav e n o actua l meanin g unti l applie d t o instance s o f huma n conduct Th e mor e significan t inquir y lie s beyon d th e statute Fo r m y research tha t inquir y lie s wit h thos e wh o appl y th e statut e th e prosecutors M y startin g poin t i s m y belie f tha t th e la w an d it s exercis e reflec t share d notion s o f righ t an d wrong based o n collectiv e societa l values Idea s abou t wha t is an d i s not acceptable ar e sociall y constructed Meanin g i s negotiate d a t variou s level s withi n society Prosecutor s ar e bu t on e grou p o f thos e wh o construc t knowledg e a t a n

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9 institutiona l level The y interpre t often-ambiguou s statutor y pronouncement s fro m th e legislature an d appl y the m t o real-lif e behavior s o n th e streets Give n th e shee r numbe r o f case s brough t befor e them broad prosecutoria l discretio n i s a necessity Studie s examinin g th e exercis e o f thi s discretio n identif y certai n variable s tha t affec t prosecuto r decisions Acros s th e literature, however non e o f th e researc h ha s addresse d th e exercis e o f prosecutoria l discretio n i n th e contex t o f anima l cruelt y cases Th e dynamic s o f anima l cruelt y prosecutio n presen t unusua l consideration s an d difficulties principall y becaus e anima l cruelt y case s involv e animal subject s o f violence—no t huma n subjects M y researc h begin s wit h a loo k a t th e institutiona l mainsta y o f prosecutoria l discretion Fro m there I examin e th e socia l an d lega l histor y o f anima l cruelt y i n th e stat e o f Arizona Fro m thi s base I explor e ho w prosecutor s i n a loca l count y attorney' s offic e exercis e thei r discretio n t o giv e lif e t o th e felon y anima l cruelt y statute. I d o thi s throug h a tri o o f qualitativ e methods—cas e analysis participant-observation an d in dept h interviews M y inquir y applies onl y t o adul t felon y cases Othe r institutiona l form s o f abus e ar e outside th e scop e o f thi s paper Overall prosecutoria l discretio n remain s affecte d b y variou s legal extra-legal organizational an d persona l preferenc e variables However anima l cruelt y cases ar e i n a sense sui generis. The y pus h prosecutor s int o ne w territory a terra incognita o f sorts Certai n concern s becom e mor e salien t i n thes e cases ; other s les s s o i n thei r exercis e o f discretion Ne w consideration s emerg e i n th e struggl e t o accommodat e animal s i n th e crimina l justic e system Take n a s a whole a concep t o f "typica l cruelty emerges an d a s

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1 0 such yield s interestin g consequence s fo r th e futur e prosecutio n o f felon y anima l cruelt y cases

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1 1 Chapte r 1 Prosecutoria l Discretio n I n thi s chapter I discus s prosecutor s an d ho w the y exercis e discretio n t o creat e sociall y relevan t definition s o f particula r crimes I begi n m y discussio n wit h th e assumptio n tha t knowledg e i s sociall y constructe d an d tha t meanin g i s constantl y negotiate d a t variou s societa l levels A t thei r mos t basi c sociologica l level prosecutor s ar e anothe r laye r o f socia l constructionists Sudno w (1965) Frohman n (1991 1997) Estric h (2004) an d other s hav e argue d tha t prosecutor s d o not jus t tak e thei r crimina l case s a s given Instead the y creat e thei r ow n cas e a s a n approximatio n o f wha t a specifi c crim e shoul d loo k like Critica l t o thei r typification s o f particula r crime s i s th e exercis e o f prosecutoria l discretion Prosecutor s exercis e thi s discretio n t o creat e sociall y relevan t definition s o f particula r crimes Thus not onl y ar e ther e layer s o f construction but layer s o f constructor s a s well Individual s ma y collectively arriv e a t a share d meanin g o f "anima l cruelty; an d tha t meanin g ma y the n b e codifie d int o statut e b y th e legislature But i t i s th e enforcemen t o f tha t statut e tha t rest s i n th e hand s o f th e polic e officers investigators prosecutors judges an d juries Thes e individual s ultimatel y giv e th e la w o n th e book s it s meanin g i n practice T o understan d th e concep t o f prosecutoria l discretio n a s i t use d t o sociall y construc t meaning I wil l addres s thre e relate d topics First I examin e th e rol e o f th e prosecuto r an d identif y discretio n a s it s hallmark. Second I asses s ho w prosecutor s actuall y administe r thei r discretion T o tha t end I identif y fou r type s o f variables a s suggeste d b y pas t research tha t ar e though t t o accoun t fo r th e exercis e o f discretio n i n

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1 2 prosecutoria l decisio n making Third I discus s th e concep t o f "th e goo d case, a s a manifestatio n o f prosecutoria l discretion Th e prosecutor' s role overal l negotiatio n o f tha t role an d exercis e o f discretio n remain s essentiall y unchange d toda y i n compariso n t o earlier findings Th e Prosecuto r Prosecutor s occup y a uniqu e positio n i n ou r society The y ar e charge d wit h tw o crucia l tasks First prosecutor s ar e th e voic e o f th e community : the y ar e electe d t o uphol d communit y value s an d t o "d o justice. The y spea k fo r th e societ y o f whic h the y ar e a part Second prosecutor s ar e agent s o f socia l control A s par t o f a peopl e processin g institution the y d o not necessaril y attemp t t o chang e th e behavio r o f peopl e directly ; instead prosecutor s see k t o proces s peopl e an d confe r publi c statuse s upo n the m (Hasenfeld 1972 256) Ho w a perso n i s designate d thu s determine s ho w th e individua l wil l b e controlled Designatio n a s a "criminal depend s o n th e prosecutor' s evaluatio n o f particula r behavior an d whethe r tha t behavio r constitute s a "crime. Ultimately prosecutor s becom e a sor t o f gatekeepe r t o th e crimina l justic e system Despit e th e statute s o n th e books i t i s th e prosecuto r tha t give s meanin g t o thos e statutor y definitions I n short ther e i s n o "crime unles s a prosecuto r say s so Prosecutor s decid e whic h case s t o issu e (charge) whic h case s t o plead whic h case s t o divert whic h case s t o dismiss an d whic h case s t o try Th e la w ma y b e neutral but it s applicatio n ma y not be Therefore ho w th e prosecuto r accomplishe s thes e role s i s o f grea t importance Hence th e focu s mus t b e o n th e in-the-trenche s activit y o f th e prosecutor' s office

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1 3 I begi n wit h th e basi c assumptio n tha t prosecutor s ar e jus t anothe r laye r o f socia l construction The y ac t togethe r i n a socia l syste m an d graduall y develo p typification s o f concept s i n dail y life "Typifications embod y th e essentia l o r salien t characteristic s o f a particula r thin g (Merriam-Webste r Online 2007) Th e proces s o f typificatio n i s a for m o f perceivin g th e worl d an d structurin g i t b y mean s o f type s (McKinney 1969) Hence a prosecutor' s socia l syste m i s th e crimina l justic e syste m an d the y ac t s o a s t o typif y wha t constitute s a particula r "crime. Eventually categorie s o f wha t constitute s a "crime becom e habitualized an d thu s institutionalized ove r time Prosecutoria l typification s becom e th e realit y o f tha t socia l system Thi s concept als o know n a s socia l constructionism emerge d whe n Berge r an d Luckman n (1966 ) argue d tha t knowledg e i s create d b y interpretin g th e worl d i n differen t way s accordin g t o th e particula r social/historica l context s i n whic h knowledg e exists N o huma n though t i s immun e t o th e influence s o f it s socia l contex t (Berge r & Luckmann 1966) Societ y identifie s a particula r behavio r tha t shoul d b e criminalized legislature s defin e an d enact polic e filter an d prosecutor s enforce Ultimately however th e la w i s greate r tha n jus t th e statues Identifyin g a particula r behavio r a s 'criminal involve s a se t o f practice s tha t combine s morality discretion constructivism an d socia l biases La w i s mad e everyda y "o n th e ground b y humans wh o ar e b y thei r ver y nature creature s o f discretion Whe n i t come s t o "crime, ther e i s a cultural legal an d organizationa l contex t i n whic h meanin g i s crafted discretio n i s exercised an d knowledg e produced Offense s ma y b e define d on e wa y i n th e statutes but a ver y

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1 4 differen t way i n application Discretion therefore become s a n essentia l too l fo r th e carvin g ou t o f reality Administratio n o f Prosecutoria l Discretio n On e o f th e greates t concentration s o f discretionar y powe r lie s wit h th e prosecutor Sh e decide s whe n t o charge wha t t o charge whe n t o plead whe n t o dismiss an d whe n t o tr y a case I n fact prosecutor s hav e bee n referre d t o a s th e mos t powerfu l official s i n th e crimina l justic e syste m (Davis A. 2007 ; Davis K.C. 1969 ; LaFave 1970) Give n th e vas t numbe r of an d immens e difference s i n cases se t agains t a ver y rea l contex t o f limite d resources prosecutoria l discretio n i s essential A s a hallmar k o f th e crimina l justic e system discretio n ha s bee n calle d a necessar y evi l (Davis A. 2007) Fo r withou t it eve n mor e disparat e result s woul d endure Eve n th e Suprem e Court, i n United States v. Armstrong (1996) hel d tha t relativel y unchecke d prosecutoria l discretio n i s constitutiona l an d acceptable Furthermore i n Imbler v. Pachtman (1976) th e cour t previousl y rule d tha t an y prosecuto r actin g withi n th e scop e o f hi s dutie s i n initiatin g an d pursuin g a crimina l prosecutio n an d i n presentin g th e State' s case i s absolutel y immun e fro m a civi l sui t fo r damages Despit e th e nee d fo r discretion fe w office s hav e manual s wit h guideline s o r policie s o n ho w t o charge plead o r exercis e discretion ; an d i f the y do enforcemen t i s difficul t an d rar e (Davis A. 2007) Justic e t o individual s i s administere d mor e outsid e o f th e court s tha n i t i s inside o f the m (Davis K.C., 1969) Researcher s hav e criticize d th e seemingl y un-guided un-supervised un-standardized un-controlled an d un-predictabl e discretio n exercise d b y well-meaning prosecutor s (Davis A. 2007 ; Davis K.C., 1969)

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1 5 Reformer s sugges t an y variet y o f cures : a mandat e o f publi c justifications stronge r stat e ba r sanction s fo r prosecutoria l misconduct an d greate r medi a accountabilit y (Davis A. 2007 ; Davis K.C., 1969 LaFave 1970) I t i s no t m y inten t t o debat e whethe r discretio n i s goo d o r bad Instead give n tha t discretio n i s authorize d an d necessary I examin e th e variable s affectin g prosecutoria l discretio n an d ho w the y ar e use d t o justif y it s exercise I n th e end a convictio n i s th e ultimat e goa l fo r prosecutors Trial s ar e risk y endeavors ple a bargain s ar e sur e things an d dismissal s ar e safet y valves jus t i n cas e th e precedin g tw o shoul d fail Prosecutor s proces s a larg e numbe r o f case s wit h relativ e confidenc e b y relyin g o n man y consideration s an d shorthan d typifications Studie s tha t focu s o n decisio n makin g b y prosecutor s hav e examine d variou s type s o f case s (e.g shoplifting chil d abuse sexua l assault robbery etc. ) a t variou s stage s i n cas e processin g (e.g th e initia l filin g o f charges followin g indictment an d followin g th e initia l decisio n t o prosecute) Overall th e studie s identif y fou r variable s tha t prosecutor s mus t accoun t for : legal extralegal organizationa l (resource ) an d persona l preferenc e variables Lega l an d extr a lega l variables Thes e variable s gover n th e researc h landscap e o f prosecutoria l discretion Lega l variable s ar e identifie d b y researcher s a s consideration s tha t ar e specifi c t o eac h case The y includ e factor s suc h as : presenc e o f th e crime' s statutor y elements seriousnes s o f th e offense victi m credibility strengt h o f th e evidence an d a defendant' s prio r crimina l histor y (Adam s & Cutshall 1987 ; Albonetti 1986 1987 ; Kerstetter 1990 ; Rainville 2001) Extralega l variable s ar e als o specifi c t o eac h case Althoug h not technicall y "legal, the y affec t cas e worthiness Extralega l variable s includ e factor s suc h as : race age gender an d socioeconomi c statu s o f th e victi m an d

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1 6 defendant ; victi m relatio n t o th e offender ; locatio n o f th e crime ; an d natur e o f th e crim e (Albonetti 1987 ; Adam s & Cutshall 1987 ; Cross et al. 2003 ; Dunn 2002 ; Frohmann 1991,1997 ; Rainville 2001 ; Stanko 1981) Certainly i t i s not appropriat e fo r prosecutor s t o deny/g o forwar d wit h prosecutio n simpl y becaus e the y d o not lik e th e race age gender behavior o r personalit y o f a particula r victi m o r witness However whe n thes e factor s affec t th e reliabilit y o f evidence the n the y d o becom e relevant Organizationa l variables Organizationa l (resource ) variable s ar e not relate d t o a particula r case Instead the y ar e consideration s tha t ste m fro m th e organizationa l contex t withi n whic h case s ar e processed Organizationa l contex t ca n b e eithe r micro o r macro leve l i n substance Micr o leve l variable s ar e tie d mor e closel y t o th e working s o f th e particula r prosecutor' s office The y includ e cos t o f a particula r case overal l budget prosecutoria l caseload an d availabl e placemen t options suc h a s jai l o r therap y (Emerson 1983 ; Emerso n & Paley 1992 ; Rainville 2001) Whil e th e exercis e o f discretio n ma y not b e governe d b y rigi d rules i t i s stil l governe d b y othe r context-specifi c considerations. Emerso n an d Pale y (1992 ) referre d t o thes e a s "organizationa l horizons. Suc h horizon s ca n b e eithe r retrospectiv e (backwar d looking ) o r prospectiv e (forwar d looking) Retrospectiv e horizon s includ e wh o brough t th e complain t (th e particula r office r o r th e particula r unit ) an d ho w th e complain t was presente d (i n person vi a telephone t o a centra l offic e [instea d o f t o a specialize d office lik e Se x Crime s o r th e Gan g Unit]) Prospectiv e horizon s focu s o n anticipate d outcome s an d includ e consideration s suc h a s conviction keepin g ba d case s fro m cloggin g th e system an d likelihoo d o f a priso n

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1 7 sentence Overall prosecutor s ten d t o focu s o n on e majo r prospectiv e horizon — convictabilit y (Emerso n & Paley 1992 ; Frohmann 1991) Eac h cas e become s a n institutiona l phenomeno n wherei n decision s ar e rationall y linke d t o know n course s o f past/projecte d (retrospective/prospective ) organizationa l activit y (Emerso n & Paley 1992) Wide r holisti c concern s an d influence s als o shap e decisio n outcome s (Emerson 1983) Individua l case s mus t b e examine d i n thre e "wholes. Th e firs t holisti c concern i s ho w th e cas e a t han d compare s t o othe r simila r case s (relativit y i n judgment) Assessment s a s t o th e seriousness o f a cas e ar e ofte n mad e i n relatio n t o case s typicall y encountered Case s o n han d a t an y on e tim e ar e evaluate d b y referenc e t o wha t i s "normal an d expecte d withi n tha t cas e se t (Emerson 1983 ; Sudnow 1965) A secon d holisti c facto r i s ho w th e cas e a t han d i s judge d i n competitio n wit h al l th e othe r case s o n a prosecutor' s caseloa d (resourc e allocatio n problems ) (Emerson 1983) Th e competitio n i s betwee n al l th e othe r case s a prosecuto r mus t handle Certainly al l case s "ought t o b e prosecuted bu t th e realit y i s whethe r o r not a cas e ca n be Th e las t holisti c concer n i s ho w a cas e i s handle d whe n i t i s a n initia l case whos e treatmen t ma y se t preceden t fo r subsequen t case s (Emerson 1983) Clearly th e exercis e o f discretio n i s embedde d i n wide r organizationa l contexts Macr o leve l variables o n th e othe r hand focu s o n th e natur e an d constraint s o f th e broade r crimina l justic e system The y include : publi c reaction othe r player s i n th e crimina l justic e system an d othe r communit y influential s (Cole 1970 ; Hasenfeld 1972 ; Hagan 1989 ; Hagan et al. 1979 ; Rainville 2001) Hagen et al (1979 ) sugges t tha t

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1 8 th e crimina l justic e syste m i s a "loosel y coupled system mad e o f variou s subsystems al l responsiv e t o on e another ye t al l maintainin g independen t identitie s an d a degre e o f physical/logica l separation Eac h sub-system suc h a s th e prosecutor' s office create s it s ow n rule s an d ultimatel y it s ow n syste m o f justice I n a loosel y couple d system subunit s ma y tak e o n ne w responsibilitie s demande d b y othe r subunits ye t a t th e sam e tim e selectivel y ignor e thos e responsibilitie s (Hagan et.al. 1979) Th e resul t i s tha t th e organizatio n i s abl e t o maintai n it s legitimac y withou t dramaticall y changin g it s everyda y practices Fo r example a prosecutor' s offic e ma y suppor t stron g prosecutio n o f a particula r crime ye t unde r th e guis e o f it s ow n interna l rules no t actuall y pursu e thos e crime s i n an y increase d measure Th e prosecutor' s offic e "couples whe n i t assume s ne w responsibilities but "decouples whe n i t follow s it s ow n interna l se t o f rules I n a relate d area Edelma n an d Suchma n (1997 ) identif y a n emergin g convergenc e betwee n researc h o n organization s an d researc h o n th e law The y sugges t tha t la w an d organization s ar e intertwined Importan t aspect s o f lega l lif e occu r i n bureaucrati c setting s an d importan t organizationa l activit y occur s withi n lega l environment s (Suchma n & Edelman 1996) Thei r focu s i s o n th e relationshi p betwee n non-lega l organization s an d th e law an d ho w thes e organization s actuall y operationaliz e th e la w i n thei r ow n organizationa l environmen t (Edelma n & Suchman 1997) Th e author s specificall y exclud e lega l institution s (e.g legislatures la w firms police courts prosecutor' s offices etc. ) fro m thei r discussion Becaus e o f th e ambiguit y o f law-on-th e books th e practica l meanin g o f an y give n law-in-actio n ca n onl y emerg e throug h a highl y interactiv e proces s o f socia l constructio n (Berge r & Luckmann 1967 ; Edelma n & Suchman 1997) Thi s

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1 9 sense-makin g exercis e involve s not onl y officia l lega l actors bu t als o member s o f th e foca l organizationa l field (Edelma n & Suchman 1997) I n th e civil/regulator y arena organization s participat e actively i n th e socia l constructio n proces s tha t give s la w it s meaning Th e "lega l rationa l myth suggest s tha t th e materialis t imag e o f la w a s "explicit authoritative an d coercive ha s graduall y give n way t o a mor e culturalis t accoun t o f la w a s 'ambiguous contested, an d largel y symbolic. (Suchma n & Edelman 1996) Thus organization s ar e ye t anothe r socia l constructo r o f meaning Similarly prosecutor s operat e i n a n organizationa l setting The y to o hav e externa l force s tha t affec t th e particula r organizationa l environment Lik e organization s i n general th e prosecutor s loo k outwar d towar d othe r constraint s a s the y creat e th e law Prosecutor s mus t als o construc t th e la w withi n thei r specifi c organizationa l context I t jus t s o happen s tha t "creatin g th e law i s th e exac t busines s o f th e prosecutor A "crime i s a cultura l ico n o f sorts B y proscribin g certai n conduct societ y expresse s it s underlyin g values However thes e symboli c statement s mus t b e operationalize d a t th e groun d leve l o f prosecution Anima l cruelt y offense s symboliz e a commitmen t t o certai n lega l objectives However ther e ar e othe r informa l organizationa l procedure s tha t actuall y giv e specifi c meanin g t o th e meanin g o f anima l "cruelty. Th e prosecutor' s offic e als o ha s it s ow n organizationa l field withi n whic h i t operates Th e broader field i s tha t o f th e crimina l justic e system Whe n calle d upo n t o appl y th e lega l jargo n o f th e statutes prosecutor s loo k t o othe r player s i n th e crimina l justic e syste m fo r constructio n "clues t o giv e substanc e t o th e law' s abstrac t labels Th e prosecuto r i s linke d t o othe r externa l unit s suc h a s societ y (publi c opinion communit y influentials activis t

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2 0 organizations) th e court s (judge s an d juries) correction s (jails prisons probation) an d la w enforcemen t (police) A prosecutor' s effectivenes s depends, i n part o n th e respons e o f th e othe r marke t unit s t o it s process (Hasenfeld 1972) Becaus e prosecutor s canno t contro l al l o f th e actor s i n th e loosel y couple d syste m (e.g. judge jury defens e counsel) certai n criteri a ar e self-impose d an d hel p determin e whe n prosecutio n wil l continue Albonett i (1986 1987 ) refer s t o thi s a s "bounde d rationality. Prosecutor s wan t t o avoi d uncertaint y i n thei r marke t dealing s (Albonetti 1986 1987) Gradually discretio n become s routinize d fo r th e purpos e o f reducin g uncertaint y an d predictin g th e response s o f othe r marke t unit s (Hasenfeld 1972) I n othe r words prosecutor s wil l mov e forwar d wit h charges base d o n th e reaction s fro m othe r marke t units I n general th e mor e a prosecuto r depend s o n a give n marke t uni t fo r acceptin g it s produc t (e.g th e judge/jury) th e mor e it s classification-dispositio n syste m wil l respon d t o th e constraint s an d contingencie s o f tha t marke t uni t (Hasenfeld 1972) Overall prosecutor s operat e i n a n environmen t o f scarc e resource s an d subjec t t o a variet y o f broade r contextua l influence s (Cole 1970 ; Edelma n & Suchman 1997 ; Suchma n & Edelman 1996) Th e la w i s mad e a s i t i s enforced—wit h a s muc h inpu t fro m thos e wh o ar e it s target s a s fro m thos e wh o ar e it s custodian s (Suchma n & Edelman 1996) Persona l preferenc e variables Rainvill e (2001 ) foun d tha t lega l an d extralega l variables whic h hav e bee n correlate d wit h othe r cas e processin g decisions wer e not determinant s o f prosecutors recommendation s i n th e sentencin g phas e o f cas e processing H e suggest s tha t furthe r analyse s shoul d examin e othe r factor s not indigenou s

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2 1 t o specifi c cases—lik e resourc e variable s o r eve n persona l values o f prosecutors Electe d prosecutor s behav e strategicall y whe n settin g offic e agenda s fo r prosecution Persona l values/preference s certainl y ar e on e factor ; other s ma y b e politica l o r particula r t o a certai n locale Withi n th e offic e schema individua l prosecutor s ar e stil l responsibl e fo r thei r ow n calendars thu s the y to o ma y decid e whic h case s tak e priority I t i s unrealisti c t o thin k tha t prosecutor s ar e immun e t o thei r ow n persona l sentiments ; som e ar e mor e highl y motivate d wit h gan g cases som e wit h homicide other s favo r crime s agains t children an d stil l other s gravitat e toward anima l cruelt y cases Persona l preferenc e variable s ma y includ e th e prosecutor' s philosoph y o f law his/he r perceptio n o f a prosecutor' s purpose an d preferre d cas e outcome s (Rainville 2001) Whil e researc h o n thi s variabl e i s mor e limite d tha n th e precedin g three it s potentia l fo r affectin g th e prosecutio n o f ne w crime s seem s immense especiall y i n th e contex t o f a crim e lik e anima l cruelty

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2 2 Chapte r 2 Th e Socia l an d Lega l Histor y o f Animal Cruelt y Law s i n Arizon a Somewher e i n Arizona "anima l cruelty wa s identifie d a s a proble m i n nee d o f attentio n an d th e la w wa s selecte d a s a n appropriat e response Behavior s tha t transgresse d mer e socia l ostracis m and/o r civi l litigatio n wer e labele d a "crime. A constructionis t approac h t o anima l cruelt y endeavor s t o describ e th e proces s whereb y societ y create d thi s phenomeno n no w know n a s "anima l cruelty. I n thi s section I specificall y focu s o n th e law-makin g member s o f society th e legislature I als o loo k t o th e contex t behin d th e law — historica l events legislativ e committe e minutes legislativ e summaries th e languag e o f th e law an d contemporar y cultura l an d politica l events a s documente d i n historica l text s an d a loca l newspaper T o conduc t thi s socia l an d lega l histor y o f anima l cruelt y la w i n Arizona I focuse d o n thre e mai n source s o f historica l data : th e law th e legislativ e histor y behin d th e law an d contemporar y newspape r article s fro m th e greate r Phoeni x area Whe n i t cam e t o th e law I examine d th e actua l languag e o f eac h statute a s se t fort h i n variou s legislativ e crimina l codes Becaus e ther e i s n o officia l writte n recor d o f an y law s i n th e territor y o f Arizon a prio r t o th e 187 1 Territoria l Laws m y inquir y bega n there I canvasse d th e Compile d Law s o f th e Territor y o f Arizon a fo r 187 1 an d 1877 th e Revise d Statue s o f Arizon a o f 1887 th e Revise d Statute s o f Arizon a Territor y o f 1901 th e Revise d Statute s o f Arizon a o f 1913 th e Arizon a Revise d Cod e o f 192 8 an d supplemen t o f 1934 th e Arizon a Cod e o f 1939 an d th e Arizon a Revise d Statute s Annotate d o f 1956 wit h al l amendments t o present

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2 3 I n orde r t o reconstruc t th e legislativ e histor y o f Arizon a law s fro m 1871-present I consulte d a variet y o f secondar y sources Fo r th e olde r laws I examine d th e Journal s o f th e Hous e an d th e Journal s o f th e Senat e i n th e Capito l Librar y o f th e Stat e o f Arizona Fo r newe r laws I use d th e bil l file s i n th e Offic e o f th e Cler k o f th e Hous e an d th e Secretar y o f th e Senate Bil l file s wer e not require d prio r t o th e lat e 1960' s an d a s such ther e was rando m an d limite d information Committe e folder s wer e kep t i n har d cop y fo r th e Senat e fro m 1967-199 6 an d fro m 1965-199 6 fo r th e Hous e o f Representatives Afte r 1996 thos e committe e folder s wer e poste d o n lin e a t th e Arizon a Stat e Legislatur e websit e ( www.azleg.gov ) Bil l file s an d committe e folder s containe d variou s documents suc h a s hous e an d senat e committe e meetings legislativ e counci l summar y analyses senat e fac t sheets an d hous e abstracts But not al l o f th e file s an d folder s containe d al l o f thi s information I als o examine d th e publicit y pamphlet s issue d b y th e secretar y o f stat e fo r relevan t ballot propositions I chos e t o examin e newspape r article s i n th e capito l cit y o f Phoenix M y articl e coverag e o f th e Phoeni x paper s bega n i n 1987 1 0 year s afte r th e passag e o f Arizona' s curren t anima l cruelt y la w i n 197 7 (A.R.S §13-2910) 198 7 ha s n o particula r distinction othe r tha n thi s i s whe n th e databas e began I use d Acces s Worl d New s an d th e AS U Librar y C D New s ban k t o acces s article s containin g th e word s "anima l cruelty i n th e Arizona Republic an d Phoenix Gazette fro m Januar y 1 198 7 Octobe r 15 2007 Th e Arizona Republic ha s publishe d a dail y newspape r i n Phoeni x fo r mor e tha n 11 0 years I t rank s amon g th e to p 2 0 newspaper s i n dail y circulatio n an d i s Arizona' s larges t newspaper reachin g approximatel y 1. 5 millio n reader s pe r week Th e pape r bega n

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2 4 printin g o n Ma y 19 189 0 a s The Arizona Republican, but was rename d The Arizona Republic i n 1930 It s owner s als o bough t th e Phoenix Evening Gazette (late r name d The Phoenix Gazette) an d th e Arizona Weekly Gazette (no w th e Arizona Business Gazette). Th e Phoenix Gazette folde d i n earl y 1997 I recogniz e tha t Arizon a i s broade r tha n jus t th e cit y o f Phoenix ; however th e scop e o f thi s newspape r conten t analysi s i s limite d t o a samplin g o f article s fro m thes e Phoeni x newspapers I foun d 27 1 tota l articles excludin g opinio n piece s fro m th e genera l publi c an d editorials M y thinkin g was t o examin e "news i n it s pures t sense Whil e I understan d al l news i s reporte d throug h someone' s lens I trie d t o avoi d ye t anothe r laye r o f persona l opinio n foun d i n opinio n pieces Som e article s repeate d coverage o f ongoin g events s o i t i s not th e cas e tha t ther e wer e 27 1 separat e reporte d incident s o f anima l cruelty Th e paper s detaile d "cruel events toward s horse s 4 1 times ; toward s dog s 10 1 times toward s cats 3 4 times an d 1 8 time s regardin g birds Althoug h 4 1 article s addresse d ne w incident s o f cruelt y t o horses ofte n times ther e wa s mor e tha n on e hors e involve d i n eac h incident ; thi s was th e sam e wit h dog s an d cats Almos t al l horse s suffere d malnourishmen t a t th e hand s o f thei r owners Dog s wer e subjecte d t o horribl e condition s (n o water n o shade feces debris o r chaine d out ) i n th e majorit y o f articles however article s wher e the y wer e beate n o r sho t wer e secondaril y prevalent Wit h regar d t o cats th e majorit y o f the m wer e foun d i n squalo r (hundred s hoarde d i n house s all a t once diseased an d covere d i n fece s an d ticks) Excep t fo r thre e cockfightin g cases bird s wer e eithe r beate n o r mutilated.

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2 5 Anima l Cruelt y La w i n Arizon a A s t o b e expected Arizona' s anti-anima l cruelt y statut e i s a produc t o f it s economic political social an d cultura l history A quic k glanc e t o th e pas t reveal s tha t Arizon a wa s th e las t o f th e lowe r forty-eigh t state s t o b e admitte d t o th e Unio n i n 1912 Fo r sixt y year s prio r t o that i t enjoye d on e o f th e longes t territoria l tenure s (Trimble 1989) Earl y on minin g was king—gold silve r an d coppe r al l too k thei r turn s reignin g supreme Settler s fro m th e Sout h an d th e Midwes t poured int o th e stat e a s th e railroad automobile an d ai r ag e ease d th e import/expor t o f goods Th e economy boome d o n th e back s o f ranchers herders cattleman lumberjacks an d farmers Individua l right s wer e golde n i n th e earl y 1900's Worl d Wa r I cam e an d wen t an d was followe d b y a shif t fro m agricultur e (cotto n an d cattle ) t o manufacturing Afte r th e Secon d Worl d War hi-tec h industr y mad e it s way t o Arizona ai r conditionin g arrive d o n scene an d th e housin g marke t boomed Mor e peopl e flocke d t o th e stat e an d touris m expanded a s di d th e retiremen t population Pet s bega n t o occup y greate r spac e i n th e huma n environment Today bot h th e econom y an d th e populatio n continu e t o grow a s doe s th e fiel d o f anima l law Arizona' s anti-anima l cruelt y statut e i s foun d i n th e Arizon a Revise d Statutes Titl e 1 3 (Crimina l Code) Chapte r 2 9 (Offense s agains t Publi c Order) Dryde n (2001 ) an d Frasch et al (1999 ) sugges t a comprehensiv e rubri c t o evaluat e anima l cruelt y statutes wherei n th e followin g element s ar e discussed : animal s covered prohibite d acts stat e o f min d requirements exempte d activities penalties an d othe r sanctions Fo r a mor e detaile d analysi s o f th e Arizon a statut e tha n tha t provide d i n th e text se e Appendi x A

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Arizona' s Cruelt y t o Animal s Provisions Thoug h not include d i n Chapte r 2 9 o f th e crimina l code Arizon a la w als o prohibit s th e offens e o f bestiality whic h i s define d a s engagin g i n ora l sexua l contact sexua l contact o r sexua l intercours e wit h a n anima l (dea d o r alive) o r causin g anothe r t o d o th e same A.R.S §13-291 0 et. seq. govern s anima l cruelty do g fighting cockfighting an d th e cruel/inhuman e confinemen t o f a pi g durin g pregnanc y o r cal f raise d fo r veal Accordin g t o th e statute "animal include s mammals birds reptiles o r amphibians I n general th e statut e criminalize s th e followin g acts : • Crue l neglec t (failur e t o provid e necessar y food water o r shelter ) • Abandonmen t • Failur e t o provid e medica l attentio n necessar y t o preven t protracte d sufferin g • Inflictin g unnecessar y physica l injur y • Crue l mistreatmen t (t o tortur e o r otherwis e inflic t unnecessar y seriou s physica l injur y o r t o kil l i n a manne r tha t cause s protracte d suffering ) • Killin g anothe r person' s anima l • Interferin g with/harming/killin g a workin g o r servic e anima l • Owning possessing keeping trainin g an y do g fo r fighting ; fightin g dogs ; allowin g do g fightin g o n premise s unde r contro l • Owning possessing keeping trainin g an y coc k fo r fighting ; fightin g cocks ; allowin g coc k fightin g o n premise s unde r contro l

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2 7 Overall punishment s vary based o n th e mens rea (stat e o f mind ) o f th e action : intentiona l an d knowin g acts o f crue l mistreatment interfering/killing / harmin g a workin g o r servic e animal o r subjectin g a n anima l t o crue l neglec t o r abandonmen t resultin g i n seriou s physica l injur y ar e al l felonies So too ar e do g an d coc k fightin g activities Thos e acts wit h th e lesse r mens rea o f recklessnes s ar e misdemeanors Arizon a als o make s i t a crim e t o leav e a n anima l unattende d an d confine d i n a moto r vehicl e wher e seriou s physica l injur y i s likel y t o result Activitie s tha t ar e exempte d fro m th e statutor y definitio n o f "anima l cruelty include : hunting fishing ranching farming rodeos show s an d securit y services Similarly defense s includ e usin g th e anima l o r bir d i n th e otherwis e lawfu l sport s o f falconry anima l hunting ranching o r th e training/us e o f huntin g dogs I t i s als o a defens e i f on e expose s poiso n fo r rodent s an d dogs/predatory animal s tha t hav e wounde d livestock Th e anima l cruelt y la w doe s not exemp t researc h animal s fro m coverage Therefore person s committin g crue l o r abusiv e acts agains t researc h animal s coul d b e charge d unde r thi s la w -althoug h non e have Th e basi c structur e o f Arizona' s curren t anima l cruelt y statut e was originall y enacte d i n 1977 an d ha s bee n amende d severa l time s since I t i s throug h trackin g th e earl y law s an d amendment s t o th e 197 7 law s tha t on e garner s a bette r fee l fo r th e evolutio n o f thi s concep t know n a s "anima l cruelty. Anima l Cruelt y a s a Socia l Constructio n I n thi s section I examin e ho w th e la w an d societ y ar e mutuall y constitutive No t onl y doe s th e la w construc t society bu t s o to o doe s societ y

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2 8 construc t th e law Arizona' s curren t anima l cruelt y law s o f 200 7 ar e surel y quit e differen t tha n thos e o f it s territoria l days Peopl e change time s change value s change law s change Ultimately societ y craft s it s ow n existence "Who an d "what w e plac e withi n th e laws reac h ar e conditione d b y man y socia l circumstances-organizational political an d cultural Thi s concept know n a s socia l constructionism emerge d whe n Berge r an d Luckman n (1966 ) argue d tha t individual s (an d groups ) creat e knowledg e b y interpretin g th e worl d i n differen t ways accordin g t o th e particula r social/historica l context s i n whic h the y wer e raised N o huma n though t i s immun e t o th e influence s o f it s socia l contex t (Berge r & Luckmann 1966) Searl e (1995 ) suggest s a differenc e betwee n brut e fact s an d institutiona l facts : brut e fact s exis t independently o f an y huma n institution s (e.g th e su n i s 9 3 millio n mile s fro m earth) ; institutiona l fact s exis t onl y withi n huma n institution s (e.g Georg e Bus h i s th e President) Th e meanin g o f "anima l cruelty, a n institutional fact depend s o n huma n values opinion an d agreement Moreover ho w w e categorize (Lakoff 1989 ) an d ou r choic e o f word s als o structure s th e worl d (Stibbe 2001) Th e brut e feature s o f animal s hav e not changed : dog s stil l hav e fou r leg s an d bark ; cats hav e fu r an d purr ; cow s hav e hoove s an d severa l stomachs Instead thei r institutiona l feature s changed : fro m worker s an d propert y t o companions A s t o b e expected thei r institutional treatmen t change d a s well

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2 9 Becaus e "anima l cruelty i s a socia l construct archiva l researc h ca n establis h it s connectio n t o th e rea l socia l terrain suc h a s politics economics an d cultur e (Berger 1963 ; Holstei n & Miller 1993 1997 ; Sarbi n & Kitsuse,1994 ; Specto r & Kitsuse 1977) B y studyin g th e proces s b y whic h "anima l cruelty ha s com e t o be I focu s o n ho w societ y work s i n th e firs t place not o n wha t i s wron g wit h i t (Berger 1963) Accordingly I a m no t intereste d i n "wh y anima l abuser s abuse, bu t i n ho w th e law s regardin g anima l cruelt y wor k i n th e first place Ho w hav e human s use d th e la w t o create define an d institutionaliz e acceptable / unacceptabl e treatmen t o f animals ? Prio r t o examinin g th e la w a s a socia l construct however on e shoul d ste p bac k an d as k ho w th e field o f sociolog y itsel f ha s treate d animals Th e answe r is : not s o well Watso n (1996 ) suggeste d thi s was du e t o a "sociologica l sensibility. Sociolog y i s sensitiv e onl y t o th e oppresse d group s wh o ca n actuall y spea k fo r themselves—fo r example homosexuals females an d racia l an d ethni c minorities Fo r th e animal however ther e i s n o voic e t o b e heard Eve n i n m y PhD cohort th e buddin g socia l justic e scholar s attende d t o vulnerabl e population s suc h a s juveniles incarcerate d individuals th e homeless femal e engineerin g students an d huma n victim s o f domesti c violence A discussio n o f th e vulnerabl e populatio n o f animal s wa s missing I t i s no t tha t animal s ar e consciousl y rejected ; the y jus t d o not exis t a s subject s o f researc h becaus e the y canno t constitut e themselves Thi s powerlessnes s lead s t o academi c disregar d an d overal l neglect Watso n (1996 ) recommend s addin g a n "ethica l caesura t o establishe d pattern s o f

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3 0 sociologica l thinking—a n orientatio n tha t rest s o n a n ethic s o f carin g fo r a disadvantage d group not o n ho w muc h powe r th e constituen t has Perhap s Ghand i (1959 ) foreshadowe d thi s notio n whe n h e noted "th e greatnes s o f a natio n an d it s mora l progres s ca n b e judge d b y th e wa y it s animal s ar e treated. Studyin g animal s an d huma n interaction s (bot h goo d an d bad ) tell s u s somethin g abou t ourselve s a s socia l being s (Arluk e & Sanders 1996) Th e way w e tal k about/trea t animal s i s actuall y a reflectio n o f human s constructin g ourselve s (Fudge 2002) Ou r treatmen t o f animal s unde r th e guis e o f th e la w i s heavil y lade n wit h ou r attitude s toward s them Fudg e (2002 ) emphasize s tha t th e inevitabl e centralit y o f th e human s i n th e la w nee d not b e regarde d a s a failure W e mus t recognize however tha t law s wil l tel l u s mor e abou t th e politica l an d cultura l concern s o f societ y tha n abou t th e lif e o f animal s a t a particula r time Eve n scholar s lik e MacKinno n (1984 ) an d Foucaul t (1991 ) loo k t o th e underlyin g realit y behin d la w t o identif y deep-roote d societa l assumptions values an d hegemoni c ways o f thinking Beirn e (1999 ) suggest s tha t sociologist s ca n contribut e t o th e stud y o f animals especiall y i n th e are a o f anima l cruelty I n lin e wit h hi s suggestions i t i s importan t t o addres s th e conceptua l difficultie s involve d i n definin g "anima l cruelty, th e ideologica l an d cultura l processe s tha t underpin it ho w i t i s criminalize d o r otherwis e censure d b y th e state an d ho w it s form s ma y var y fro m on e socia l an d cultura l settin g t o another Alas th e tas k i s a t hand

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3 1 Arizon a Histor y an d th e Prevailin g Socia l Contex t Whe n th e Mexican-America n Wa r ende d i n 1848 Mexic o gav e u p it s clai m t o th e land s o f Texas California Utah Colorado Wyoming Ne w Mexic o an d par t o f Arizon a (nort h o f th e Gila River) Th e Unite d State s acquire d th e remainde r o f Arizon a si x year s late r i n th e Gadse n Purchas e (Trimble 1989) Whe n gol d miner s hi t pa y dir t i n th e 1850' s Arizona' s thrus t int o th e mainstream began Sinc e it s territoria l existence Arizon a ha s witnesse d man y shift s i n it s population politica l character an d economi c growth Th e territoria l traditio n o f federa l Republica n appointment s governin g th e territory' s Democrati c populac e bega n i n 186 3 whe n Arizon a becam e a separat e territor y (Trimble 1989) I n th e 1870' s minin g continued bu t silve r rule d th e land Th e Deser t Lan d Ac t o f 187 7 gav e 64 0 acre s t o eac h settler resultin g i n a floo d o f newcomer s t o th e territor y (Trimble 1989) Th e governo r backe d mining agriculture ne w roads an d crim e enforcement ; h e eve n suggeste d tha t highwa y robber y b e mad e a capita l offens e (Governor' s message 1877) Ultimately Arizon a woul d becom e a cultur e o f layer s (Berman 1998) Th e bas e laye r wa s compose d o f Nativ e Americans Thi s was overlai n b y Mexicans whic h was the n toppe d of f wit h a n Angl o stratum Th e Anglo s believe d i t wa s thei r manifes t destin y t o conque r th e culture s befor e them Wit h thi s layere d analogy on e i s lef t wit h th e notio n tha t n o blendin g o f culture s occurred th e Indian s wer e displace d t o reservation s an d put unde r th e watchfu l ey e o f th e Unite d State s Arm y (Trimble 1989) Mexican s wh o remaine d afte r

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3 2 Arizon a was acquire d b y th e Unite d State s becam e citizens o f a ne w country But the y maintaine d thei r cultura l connection s wit h familie s jus t acros s th e border Th e 1880' s witnesse d th e arriva l o f th e railroad Wit h th e eas y ingress/egres s o f supplies eve n mor e rancher s settle d i n th e territor y an d lumbe r becam e th e firs t majo r manufacturin g industr y (Trimble 1989) Th e governo r o f thi s decad e urge d greate r suppor t o f industry irrigatio n canals railroads immigration, an d th e protectio n o f persona l an d propert y rights especiall y stockme n an d thei r herd s (Governor' s Message 1887) Rustlin g o f cattl e was considere d on e o f th e mos t seriou s offense s o f th e day Althoug h th e firs t ca r arrive d i n 1899 mos t road s wer e nothin g mor e tha n cattl e trail s (Trimble 1989) Th e 1900' s sa w th e ris e o f th e "cowboy an d coppe r dethrone d silve r t o reig n a s kin g (Trimble 1989) Th e Roosevel t Da m assure d wate r t o th e regio n wit h it s completio n i n 191 1 an d Arizon a wa s admitte d t o statehoo d i n 1912 I n 1912 th e firs t Arizon a Stat e Legislatur e gav e wome n th e righ t t o vote eigh t year s befor e th e passag e o f th e nineteent h amendment Turbulenc e alon g th e Mexica n borde r cam e a t th e sam e tim e th e Unite d State s entere d Worl d Wa r I Prio r t o th e war th e stat e econom y was i n a downturn bu t b y 1918 i t boome d an d affluen t Midwesterner s bega n t o migrat e t o Arizona Th e 1920 s witnesse d a conservativ e shif t i n politic s an d th e pro-labo r influenc e wane d (Berman 1998) Arizon a welcome d th e ai r ag e i n 192 7 whe n th e Davis-Montha n Airpor t opene d i n Tucson I t wa s th e larges t municipal airpor t i n th e Unite d State s (Trimble

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3 3 1989) Tw o year s later th e Arizon a Biltmore th e first majo r resor t hotel i n Arizona opene d i n Phoeni x an d signale d th e beginnin g o f stat e tourism (Kelly 2004) "Thre e Cs rule d th e state : coppe r (mining) cotto n (farming) an d cattl e (ranching) I n th e 1930s th e populatio n fel l b y 50,00 0 a s peopl e packe d thei r bag s an d move d o n (Trimble 1989) A democrati c shif t emerge d i n respons e t o th e Grea t Depressio n (Berman 1998) Althoug h revenue s fro m th e 3 Cs wer e down mor e touris t resort s wer e buil t durin g th e depressio n year s (Trimble 1989) Th e econom y o f th e 1940' s witnesse d anothe r wartim e manufacturin g boo m (Berman 1998) Constructio n o f Route 6 6 acros s norther n Arizon a bega n an d pos t Worl d Wa r I I migratio n pattern s reveale d th e arriva l o f mor e retirin g militar y an d senio r citizens (Trimble 1989) Th e influ x o f peoples cam e mostl y fro m th e Midwes t an d th e middl e state s eas t o f th e Mississipp i Rive r (Berman 1998) Mos t o f th e earlie r settler s wer e rugge d an d physicall y robus t outdoo r types However settler s durin g thes e time s suffere d fro m asthm a an d wer e simpl y lookin g fo r a plac e t o breath e (Berman 1998) Wit h mor e peopl e arriving manufacturin g soare d i n importanc e ove r agricultur e (Trimble 1989) Arizon a passe d it s right to-wor k la w i n 1946 proclaimin g it s emphasi s o n freedo m o f associatio n an d privat e ownershi p o f property Motorol a arrive d i n Phoeni x i n 1948 wit h Inte l an d McDonnel l Dougla s soo n t o follow Hig h tec h industr y bega n a s a stapl e o f th e econom y (Kelly 2004) Peopl e i n thi s post-wa r er a ha d mor e leisur e tim e an d mor e mone y t o spen d (Trimble 1989)

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3 4 Th e 1950 s sa w th e influ x o f mor e Republica n Midwestemer s an d th e boomin g touris t industr y challenge d th e 3 Cs o f th e pas t (Berman 1998) I n thi s decade evaporativ e coolin g an d ai r conditionin g mad e thei r wa y t o th e state makin g th e deser t climat e mor e livable Rapi d economi c developmen t an d th e constructio n boo m bega n (Kelly 2004) Th e Su n Cit y retiremen t communit y opene d an d se t th e stag e fo r Arizon a a s a retiremen t have n (Kelly 2004) Althoug h ofte n portraye d a s th e hom e o f man y senio r citizens th e percentag e o f Arizonan s 6 5 an d ove r wa s onl y 13.16 % (Arizon a departmen t o f commerce advantage 2007) Thi s i s slightl y above th e 200 5 nationa l averag e o f 12 % (U.S Censu s Bureau 2006) Turnin g t o th e 1960's th e politica l news o f th e decad e focuse d o n th e 196 6 reapportionmen t revolution I t hi t wit h ful l forc e whe n stat e senator s wer e n o longe r apportione d b y are a an d instea d wer e apportione d b y population Thi s resulte d i n a politica l shif t fro m rura l Democrat s t o urba n Republican s (Berman 1998) Cit y areas wit h burgeonin g population s no w ha d greate r politica l representatio n tha n sparsel y dwelle d rura l area s (Kelly 2004) Despit e a mi d 1970' s Democrati c surg e i n respons e t o Watergate an d a n increas e i n th e politica l participatio n o f Hispanics th e Republica n politica l wav e continue d throughou t th e 1970's 1980's an d 1990' s (Berman 1998) I n 1985 th e Centra l Arizon a Projec t brough t wate r t o th e state. Divers e interes t group s hi t th e scen e i n th e 1990's lobbyin g fo r tourism utilities an d hig h technolog y companies Opposin g reform-minde d group s als o emerge d i n th e for m o f environmentalist s an d publi c interes t la w practitioner s (Berman 1998)

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3 5 Thu s fa r i n th e 21 s t century Arizona' s econom y ha s emphasize d computers electroni c goods an d aerospac e technology Ther e ha s bee n a hug e spreadin g ou t i n al l directions—s o muc h so tha t Phoeni x i s projecte d t o mee t Tucso n b y 204 0 (Reagor 2006) Th e stat e no w ha s approximatel y 6. 3 millio n people an d it s growt h continues wit h mor e tha n hal f th e state' s populatio n residin g i n Maricop a County (Arizon a Departmen t o f Commerce Arizon a Advantage 2007) An d a s o f 2007 28.6 % o f Arizona' s populatio n wa s o f Hispani c origi n (Arizon a Departmen t o f Commerce Profile 2007) Graduall y durin g thi s tim e frame animal s move d furthe r int o th e huma n experience Th e Arizon a Human e Societ y was founde d i n 1957 New s o f th e firs t successfu l us e o f a do g i n huma n therap y wa s documente d i n th e Unite d State s i n 196 4 (Levinson 1964 ) an d th e firs t pe t assiste d therap y progra m i n th e Unite d State s starte d a t Ohi o Stat e Universit y i n 197 7 (Corson et.al 1977) I n Phoenix th e anima l contex t was reflecte d i n it s newspape r coverage Article s regardin g malnourishe d horses a pus h t o outla w Pi t Bulls an d a cal l fo r bannin g cockfightin g mad e th e front-pag e new s i n Phoeni x i n th e latte r par t o f th e 1980's On e articl e eve n addresse d th e bod y o f scholarl y literatur e tha t linke d th e abus e o f animal s t o othe r violen t crime s (th e "Link") I n 1988 th e America n Pet Produc t Manufacturin g Associatio n (AMPPA ) bega n compilin g nationa l statistic s abou t "pe t consumers. Phoeni x fron t pag e new s abou t anima l cruelt y focuse d o n trapping greyhoun d dumping religiou s sacrific e o f animals fac e brandin g o f cattle th e poisone d do g o f a paraplegi c

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3 6 woman a stone d mallard clubbe d rabbit s aroun d Easte r time a postma n wh o mace d a dog an d activitie s a t a meatpackin g plant Movin g int o th e 1990's tw o article s addresse d th e "Link phenomenon an d anothe r thre e mor e feare d fo r th e wel l bein g o f childre n wh o witnesse d crue l acts Thi s decad e als o sa w th e firs t rewar d offere d b y th e Arizon a Human e Societ y fo r th e captur e o f a n anima l abuser Th e onl y front-pag e new s i n th e 2000' s concerne d do g fightin g an d it s tie s t o gangs drugs an d gambling Th e firs t felon y anima l cruelt y tria l too k plac e i n Maricop a Count y i n 200 0 an d resulte d i n a three-mont h priso n sentence Hog-do g fightin g emerge d int o th e Phoeni x spotligh t i n 2004 a s di d th e field o f anima l law "Link discours e mad e i t int o seve n Phoeni x newspape r article s an d offer s o f reward s continue d fo r th e captur e o f thos e crue l t o animals Privat e companie s als o bega n donatin g monie s i n th e charg e agains t anima l cruelty I n 2002 th e Arizon a Human e Societ y launche d it s emergenc y mobil e car e fo r animals providin g service s t o stray s an d victim s o f anima l cruelty I t wa s late r profile d o n th e Anima l Plane t i n 2006 Th e las t hal f o f 200 7 sa w a surg e i n newspape r coverage ove r national/loca l do g fightin g case s (Phoeni x residen t an d rapper DM X an d Atlant a Falco n quarterback Michae l Vick) I n addition article s abounde d ove r th e deat h o f a canin e polic e do g whos e polic e sergean t handle r lef t hi m i n th e ca r fo r twelv e hours Th e Socia l Constructio n o f Anima l Cruelt y i n Arizon a I t i s her e tha t I attemp t a "Friedman-esque accoun t o f th e histor y o f anima l cruelt y la w i n Arizona Arme d wit h th e theoretica l underpinnin g o f socia l constructionism an d se t agains t a n abbreviate d historica l backdro p o f Arizona I identif y

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3 7 severa l socia l norm s tha t wer e mirrored/echoe d i n th e law M y discussio n i s separate d int o thre e basi c tim e frames : Fro m 1871-1928 ; 1929-1976 ; an d 197 7 present Friedman Th e thre e encyclopedi c work s o f Friedma n (1993 2002 2005 ) ar e example s o f ho w th e la w work s i n tande m wit h society The y provid e a sweepin g histor y o f America n codifie d la w fro m colonia l t o curren t times Hi s book s hav e tw o centra l themes First lega l histor y i s reall y a socia l history Friedma n tie s th e histor y o f America n la w t o th e underlyin g socia l fabri c a t th e tim e o f th e law Thus hi s analysi s i s abou t la w in society ; no t la w and society Hi s secon d them e i s a natura l corollar y t o th e first: i f socia l structur e an d norm s craf t th e law the n th e histor y o f crimina l justic e i s a stor y abou t th e dominan t moralit y o f th e day I f "crime ha s a specia l meanin g a s Friedma n (1993 ) maintains ho w i s i t tha t change s i n anima l cruelt y la w com e about ? Som e answer s ma y b e foun d i n th e wor k o f Felstiner Abel an d Sara t (1980 ) wh o discus s th e emergenc e an d transformatio n o f dispute s befor e the y ente r forma l lega l institutions Th e author s provid e a framewor k t o stud y th e man y processe s whereb y unperceive d injuriou s experience s are/ar e no t perceive d (naming) do/d o not becom e grievance s (blaming) an d do/d o not becom e dispute s (claiming) Becaus e forma l litigatio n onl y account s fo r a tin y fractio n o f thos e harmfu l encounter s tha t coul d matur e int o suc h forma l disputes wha t happen s a t earlier stage s i n th e proces s ofte n determine s th e content s o f th e dispute a t th e forma l leve l (Felstiner et al. 1980) Fo r thes e authors dispute s ar e no t things ; the y ar e socia l constructs Similarly th e worl d i s ful l o f misconduc t an d crime Bu t on e doe s no t equa l th e other On e ma y b e irritate d b y lying adultery o r wome n whos e thong s rid e hig h

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3 8 abov e thei r pants bu t no t al l sort s o f ba d act s ar e agains t th e law Certai n behavior s exis t fo r quit e som e time ye t onl y recentl y ar e labele d a crim e ("injurious") Befor e certai n huma n behavior s wer e "anima l cruelty the y wer e somethin g else Wha t changed ? 1871 1928 Th e earl y law s i n Arizon a echoe d Favr e & Tsang' s (1993 ) criticis m tha t anima l cruelt y statute s throughou t th e countr y wer e not a panace a t o cur b anima l abuse Th e Arizon a statute s durin g thi s tim e fram e reflecte d fou r socia l theme s o f th e state : 1 ) animal s wer e property ; 2 ) becaus e animal s wer e property th e stat e seldo m interfere d i n th e persona l affair s o f ho w peopl e treate d thei r animals ; 3 ) i f animal s wer e addressed onl y certai n one s counted ; an d 4 ) i n th e end shoul d anima l an d huma n interest s collide th e huma n interest s trumpe d th e former First animal s wer e viewe d a s property Thi s i s echoe d i n th e sociologica l literatur e (Francione 1995a ; Dryden 2001 ; an d Ibrahim 2006 ) an d th e Arizon a statutes Outsid e o f Arizona earlier legislativ e attempt s t o regulat e thi s typ e o f behavio r cam e unde r a n assortmen t o f theories : maliciou s mischief publi c nuisance an d breac h o f peac e (Favr e & Tsang 1993) Arizon a was n o different Lakof f (1989 ) suggest s tha t whe n individual s categorize i t reveal s somethin g abou t thei r mind ; whe n th e legislatur e categorizes i t reveal s somethin g abou t th e collectiv e societa l mind Lakof f s title "Women Fire an d Dangerou s Things, suggest s tha t thes e item s shar e somethin g i n common—tha t wome n ar e fier y an d dangerou s (which I admit, i s no t altogethe r a ba d thing) Thi s inferenc e i s base d o n th e commo n ide a tha t thing s tha t ar e categorize d togethe r hav e somethin g inheren t i n common Fro m it s territoria l law s beginnin g i n 187 1 u p an d throug h th e Arizon a Revise d Cod e o f 1928

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th e legislatur e categorize d th e maltreatmen t o f animal s unde r th e "Maliciou s Mischie f sectio n o f th e crimina l code Othe r crime s i n thi s sectio n include d damag e t o doors lumber boats dams bridges an d land Al l o f th e thing s t o b e protecte d wer e nothin g les s tha n persona l property Beside s locatio n i n th e overal l crimina l code thes e statute s containe d th e "belongin g t o another qualifier Thi s languag e furthe r suggest s th e primac y o f propert y rights I t reinforce s th e notio n tha t on e ca n d o wha t on e want s wit h his/he r ow n property bu t no t wit h propert y (animals ) belongin g t o another Contextually thi s makes sense Thi s wa s th e tim e whe n Arizona firs t a s a territor y an d late r a s a state was evolvin g int o it s ow n existence Th e wheel s o f developmen t wer e turnin g an d growt h was a hig h priority Individualis m reigne d a s th e rugge d herders ranchers an d settler s carrie d th e succes s o f Arizon a o n thei r back s (an d th e back s o f thei r animals) Second th e statute s fro m 190 1 throug h 192 8 reflec t a "hands-off'/laissez-fair e ideology No t onl y was th e la w expecte d t o kee p out o f famil y matter s (Friedman 1993) bu t als o th e Stat e wa s onl y goin g t o interfer e whe n a n anima l ha d som e economi c valu e t o societ y an d th e owner Th e law s proscribe d owners o r person s t o who m animal s wer e let fro m overloading overworking o r deprivin g o f necessar y sustenanc e (Ariz laws 1909 ; Rev Stat Ariz. 1913) Whil e ther e was a n underlyin g assumptio n tha t owner s woul d protec t thei r ow n propert y t o maximiz e th e economi c benefit s derive d fro m it Francion e (1995a ) argue d tha t statue s o f thi s sor t wer e ineffectiv e i n protectin g animals Nobl e i n intent, but ineffectiv e i n reality thes e law s onl y di d a goo d jo b o f protectin g huma n propert y right s i n animal s (Ibrahim 2006) Thi s wa s a tim e o f economi c growth ;

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4 0 animal s wer e bot h tool s t o mak e profits a s wel l a s th e sourc e o f th e profi t themselves Th e stat e wa s no t willin g t o allo w inefficien t behavio r o f it s citizens I f privat e act s ha d n o economi c benefit onl y the n wer e thes e act s stymied Th e "belon g to language alon g wit h th e qualifier "havin g charg e o r custody o f a n anima l i s importan t i n thi s discussio n a s well Individual s coul d b e punishe d i f th e anima l the y mistreate d belonge d t o anothe r perso n o r i f they themselves exercise d custod y ove r th e animal Th e individua l exercise s custody/contro l ove r a n anima l whe n th e anima l i s a t wor k o r fo r hir e (Rev Stat Ariz Terr. 1901 ; Re v Stat Ariz. 1913 ; Ariz Rev Code 1928) I f th e anima l di d no t belon g t o anothe r o r th e offendin g individua l was no t exercisin g custody/contro l ove r it th e la w offere d n o protection I f th e anima l was no t subjec t t o man' s dominion o r put t o hi s use the n th e anima l wa s not recognize d unde r th e law Third eve n whe n th e law s di d addres s animals i t wa s clea r tha t onl y certai n one s actuall y mattered Ther e wa s a hierarchica l them e o f sort s whe n i t cam e t o animals Th e poisonin g o f cattl e was specificall y addresse d i n 187 1 an d 1877 bu t n o othe r animal s wer e include d i n thi s provision Horse ox cattle an d shee p wer e th e onl y animal s give n protectio n i n 187 1 beyon d th e poisonin g provisions—an d eve n then thes e animal s wer e onl y protecte d t o th e exten t the y "belonge d t o another. Thi s makes sense give n th e tim e period—Arizon a was a lan d o f mining cattle an d agriculture ; law s neede d t o protec t th e economi c asset s an d tool s use d i n territoria l development Th e la w regardin g poisonin g expande d i n 188 7 t o includ e mor e tha n jus t cattle Now th e statut e covere d "domesti c animals, provided o f course tha t the y wer e als o th e

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4 1 "propert y o f another. Thi s provisio n remaine d throug h th e 192 8 Code Prio r t o this however i t wa s clea r tha t workin g animal s wer e mor e importan t tha n pets Althoug h th e poisonin g o f dog s was a crim e fro m 188 7 throug h th e 192 8 laws i t was punishe d muc h les s severel y ($5-$5 0 fine) tha n othe r domesti c animal s ( 3 year s i n priso n and/o r a $50 0 fine). Moreover a n owne r coul d poiso n his/he r ow n do g withou t sufferin g prosecution Dog s ha d not ye t achieve d thei r statu s a s (wo)man' s bes t friend Fourth a n endurin g socia l construc t evolve d fro m th e ver y beginnin g o f Arizon a legislation : huma n interest s trumpe d anima l interests Perhap s her e lie s a n eve n deepe r cultura l ide a fro m th e Bible I n th e earl y passage s o f th e Ol d Testament Go d give s ma n dominio n ove r th e eart h an d al l creature s upo n i t ( 1 Gen 26-2 9 Kin g Jame s Version) Thi s bee n interprete d a s establishing a mora l hierarch y o r sorts Similarly i n earl y statutes whe n face d wit h a conflic t betwee n anima l sufferin g an d huma n use animal s almos t neve r prevailed Francion e (1995b ) call s thi s th e lega l welfar e approach a versio n o f th e genera l mora l theor y o f anima l welfare Understoo d i n a ver y broa d sense anima l welfar e i s th e vie w tha t i t i s morall y acceptable a t leas t unde r som e circumstances t o kil l animal s o r subjec t the m t o sufferin g a s lon g a s precaution s ar e take n t o ensur e tha t th e anima l i s treate d a s "humanely a s possible I t generall y hold s tha t ther e i s n o anima l interes t tha t canno t b e overridde n i f th e consequence s o f th e overridin g ar e sufficientl y beneficia l t o huma n being s (Francione 1995b ; Ibrahim 2006) Whe n ther e i s a conflict th e la w defer s t o owne r determination s abou t anima l welfare Fo r example specifi c exemption s fo r foo d an d experimentatio n appeare d a s earl y a s 187 7 (Compile d laws 1877) Moreover th e statute s ooze d wha t Francion e

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4 2 (1995a ) calle d a "humanocentric quality Animal maltreatmen t was overlooke d i f i t was necessar y fo r th e human Moreover onl y th e highes t of mens rea justifie d a prosecutio n fo r crue l action s towar d animals Qualifier s lik e "maliciously, o r "cruelly existe d i n th e statute s fro m 1871-1928 Thus mer e knowledge recklessness o r negligenc e was no t sufficient Similarly ver y broa d an d vagu e languag e seeme d t o allo w an y numbe r o f ways t o excus e malic e o r behavior Action s ha d t o b e don e "unmercifully, o r caus e "unnecessary pai n o r "needless suffering Th e 3 C's coppe r cattle an d cotto n rule d th e day Workin g animal s wer e tool s o f thes e trades ; thei r treatmen t was certainl y no t goin g t o hinde r huma n progress 1929 1976 Arizon a law s i n thi s er a not onl y reflecte d th e fou r basi c norm s identifie d i n it s earlie r laws the y als o modifie d the m an d adde d a fift h socia l norm Animal s wer e stil l property However the y almos t too k o n a "propert y plus status. Th e origina l "belongin g t o another qualifier s remaine d i n tac t unti l 197 6 (Ariz Cod e Ann. 1939 ; Ariz Re v Stat Ann. 1956) Tha t year th e legislatur e not onl y remove d th e "propert y o f another language but i t als o di d awa y wit h th e term s "havin g charg e o r custody. Ownershi p wa s no w irrelevan t (Ariz laws 1976) I n addition th e crime s agains t animal s wer e move d ou t o f th e Maliciou s Mischie f sectio n o f th e code I n 1939 th e crim e was liste d i n Crue l Treatmen t sectio n o f th e code wher e i t was paire d wit h a secon d provisio n dealin g wit h cruelt y t o th e insane Thi s seem s t o sugges t tha t animals lik e insan e individuals neede d som e sor t o f specia l attentio n and/o r protectio n fro m crue l treatment Animal s wer e not th e sam e a s dams doors o r bridge s anymore I n 1956 th e

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4 3 offens e move d t o th e "Othe r Crimes sectio n o f th e code Animal s weren' t propert y o r people—the y wer e a n "other. Th e laissez-fair e approac h endured Onc e again th e stat e woul d onl y interfer e whe n th e anima l ha d som e economi c valu e t o societ y a s wel l a s th e owner Th e "overload overwork languag e remaine d intac t i n th e 1939 1956 an d 197 6 laws Th e hierarch y o f animal s remained but i t wa s altere d i n th e 192 9 laws an d late r codifie d i n th e 193 9 cod e (Ariz laws 1929 ; Ariz Cod e Ann. 1939) I n 1929 th e legislatur e expande d th e la w t o punis h th e poisonin g o f al l domesti c animal s equally ; ther e was n o exceptio n fo r punishin g th e poisonin g o f dog s les s severel y tha n othe r domesti c animals Th e onl y exceptio n liste d i n th e ne w statut e wa s fo r predator y animals Thes e animal s wer e a threa t t o a farmers propert y (cattle herds livestock) thu s occupyin g a n eve n lowe r run g o n th e ladde r o f societa l worth Th e "huma n trum p card persisted Onc e again onl y th e highes t o f mens rea (malice ) woul d suppor t a prosecutio n o f cruelt y toward animals Moreover th e broad an d vagu e languag e o f "unnecessar y pain o r "needles s suffering persevered allowin g plent y o f excuse s fo r malic e o r behavior Ther e als o appeare d o n th e statute s fro m 1934 193 9 a specifi c exemptio n allowin g th e poisonin g o f animal s i f on e live d outside o f tow n (Rev Code Ariz Ann Supp. 1934 ; Ariz Cod e Ann. 1939) Interestingly a ne w them e appeare d o n th e legislativ e landscape : on e o f growin g accountabilit y fo r animals Pe t ownershi p ros e afte r Worl d Wa r II retiremen t communitie s boomed an d dog s wer e use d i n huma n therapy I n 1973 th e legislatur e adde d "abandonment an d "failur e t o clai m fro m boardin g facility a s a for m o f anima l

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4 4 cruelt y (Ariz Laws 1973) Thi s suggeste d a n are a o f growin g huma n responsibilit y towar d animals a s wel l a s th e recognitio n tha t ther e ar e othe r ways t o har m animals A s th e siz e o f th e populatio n swelled s o to o di d th e responsibilit y o f livin g wit h man y other s i n society Th e legislativ e note s indicat e tha t a representative fro m th e Tucso n Human e Societ y wa s presen t durin g thi s provision' s debat e an d urge d it s adoptio n (Ariz stat e senat e committe e o n judiciary 1973 ; Ariz legislativ e counci l summar y 1973 ; Ariz legislativ e counci l summary 1973b ; Ariz hous e committe e o n judiciary 1973 ; Ariz hous e committe e o n agriculture 1973) No t onl y di d abandonin g a n animal o r failin g t o pic k i t u p fro m a boardin g facility infring e o n other' s individua l freedoms bu t i t presente d th e ver y rea l logistica l dilemm a o f wha t t o d o wit h mor e animals 1977-2007 I n thi s particula r tim e frame I was abl e t o us e th e newspaper s a s a sourc e o f greate r socia l context Lik e th e year s before thes e mos t recen t thirt y year s hav e bot h echoe d th e socia l norm s o f previou s tim e frame s an d generate d it s shar e o f emergin g ones First th e statu s o f animal s a s propert y continued but inroad s wer e cut Second n o longe r was governmen t interventio n limite d t o economicall y unsoun d use s o f animals Third mor e animal s wer e eithe r grante d recognitio n o n th e socia l ladde r o f wort h o r give n greate r protection Fourth ther e wa s th e emergenc e o f certai n anima l interest s tha t huma n interest s coul d no t trump Fifth ther e continue d th e nor m o f growin g accountabilit y fo r animals An d lastly althoug h certai n gain s wer e made ther e emerge d a n underlyin g subtex t a s t o wh y change s wer e made—on e tha t di d no t necessaril y revea l a n unadulterate d focu s o n animal s alone

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4 5 A s expected th e ide a tha t animal s ar e propert y remained but legislativ e inroad s wer e cut Thi s i s reflecte d i n th e section s below Th e antiquate d "overload overwork languag e was abandone d i n 1977 N o longe r was stat e interferenc e limite d t o economicall y unfi t instance s o f mistreatment A s demonstrate d below th e stat e interfere d whe n othe r act s o f "cruelty wer e committed. Th e notio n o f a hierarch y o f animal s continued bu t evolve d i n ne w directions Th e statut e no w covere d al l mammals birds amphibians an d reptiles Stra y animal s wer e no t protecte d unde r 197 7 language but wer e eventuall y brough t unde r th e statut e i n 199 6 whe n th e "unde r contro l o f another languag e was remove d (Ariz laws 1996) Stiffe r penaltie s fo r crime s agains t servic e animal s wer e institute d i n 200 2 (Ariz laws 2002) An d i n a histor y settin g 200 6 citize n initiative th e la w wa s amende d t o provid e fo r greate r protectio n o f far m animals requirin g certai n requirement s fo r mobilit y withi n thei r pen s (Ariz prop 204 2006) N o longe r wer e far m animal s a t th e botto m o f th e socia l ladder Som e anima l interest s trumpe d huma n interests Th e valu e o f huma n interest s seeme d t o reac h a hig h poin t whe n cruelt y exemption s wer e carve d ou t fo r hunting ranching farming rodeos shows securit y services falconry an d do g trainin g i n 197 9 (Ariz laws 1979 a s amende d b y Ariz laws 1986) Bestialit y was als o remove d fro m th e crimina l cod e i n 198 5 (Ari z Laws 1985) Soon however th e huma n trum p car d bega n t o los e it s value Varyin g degree s o f mens rea, lik e intent, knowledge an d recklessnes s wer e adde d t o th e statut e (Ariz laws 1977 1999) Thi s mean t tha t huma n acts les s tha n th e mos t intentional/seriou s coul d b e prosecuted Th e penaltie s fo r reckles s

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4 6 cruelt y wer e increase d t o a clas s on e misdemeano r i n 199 6 (Ariz laws 1996) Th e poisonin g o f Moose a do g wh o belonge d t o a loca l paraplegic inspire d thi s legislation Seve n separat e article s appeare d i n th e loca l Phoeni x are a pape r abou t Moose Eventually i n 1999 th e penalt y fo r intentiona l cruelt y wa s raise d t o a clas s si x felon y (Ariz laws 1999) Wit h a ne w wav e o f prohibition s cam e th e pronouncemen t tha t som e anima l interest s trul y d o trum p huma n interests Th e bloo d sport s o f do g an d coc k fightin g wer e prohibited (Ariz laws 1979 a s amende d b y Ariz laws 1986 ; Ariz prop 201 1998) I n 2006 limit s wer e impose d o n th e confinemen t o f pig s an d calve s raise d fo r vea l (Ariz prop 204 2006) Th e righ t t o enjo y a goo d piec e o f vea l was trumpe d b y th e requiremen t o f human e farmin g conditions Opponent s o f th e legislatio n argue d tha t dedicate d farmer s woul d no t mistrea t thei r ow n animal s becaus e i t woul d decreas e thei r profit s (Stat e o f Arizon a publicit y pamphlet 2006) Althoug h thi s argumen t prevaile d i n earlie r decades th e peopl e didn' t bu y i t thi s time Ther e was stil l th e recognitio n o f growin g huma n responsibilit y fo r animals I n othe r words ther e wer e othe r way s t o har m animals I n 1999 th e legislatur e adde d "fai l t o provid e medica l attentio n necessar y t o preven t protracte d suffering a s a for m o f cruelt y (Ariz laws 1999) I t als o adde d "leavin g a n anima l unattende d an d confine d i n moto r vehicle whe n physica l injur y o r deat h likel y t o resul t i n 200 2 (Ariz laws 2002) I n 2007 th e legislatur e passe d a n anti-freez e safet y la w requirin g tha t a bitterin g agen t b e adde d t o antifreez e (Ariz Rev Stat. §13-2910 et seq.) However i t wa s not willin g t o includ e menta l pain/agony/anguis h t o th e definitio n o f cruelt y (Ariz senat e bil l 1548

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4 7 2007) No r was i t read y t o outla w al l anima l fighting whe n i t decline d t o criminaliz e hog-do g fightin g i n Arizon a Hous e Bil l 261 0 (2007) Readin g betwee n th e lines Althoug h greate r protection s hav e bee n institute d sinc e 1977 a close r loo k reveal s tha t not al l o f thes e protection s wer e mean t fo r th e benefi t o f th e animal Severa l wer e a means t o a greate r huma n end I n thi s regard the y agai n reflecte d Francione' s (1995a ) humanocentri c approach Althoug h animal s wer e protected the y wer e give n protectio n a s a n instrumen t t o th e achievemen t o f som e greate r huma n goa l (fo r example punishin g offender s t o refin e huma n morals—no t t o actuall y stom p ou t acts o f cruelt y towar d animals) Interestingly th e cruelt y t o anima l provisio n ha s bee n par t o f Chapte r 2 9 o f th e Crimina l Code "Crime s Agains t Publi c Order sinc e 1977 Als o include d i n thi s chapte r ar e crime s suc h a s disorderl y conduct loitering obstructin g a highwa y o r othe r publi c thoroughfare fals e reportin g t o la w enforcemen t agencies residentia l picketing disruptio n o f a n educationa l institution unlawfu l introductio n o f diseas e o r parasite preventin g th e us e o f a telephon e i n a n emergency publi c nuisance harassment stalking unlawfu l solicitation o f tor t victims abandonmen t o f a dea d body an d unlawfu l feedin g o f wildlife Lakof f s (1993 ) analysi s o f ho w w e categoriz e thing s based o n commo n denominator s i s especiall y relevant Thi s statutor y categorizatio n suggest s tha t anima l cruelt y ha s a negativ e impac t o n th e human publi c order ; i t corrupt s human morals Similarly th e 197 9 ba n o n al l anima l fightin g was justifie d becaus e bloo d sport s harde n human sense s t o th e valu e o f lif e (Ariz hous e committe e o n natura l resources 1979 ; Ariz hous e committe e o n judiciary ; Ariz hous e committe e o n agriculture 1979)

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4 8 Later however th e la w wa s amende d t o ba n "dog fighting but no t al l anima l fightin g (Ariz laws 1986) Supporter s o f th e 199 8 cockfightin g ba n argue d tha t thes e behavior s wer e unhealth y fo r children correlate d t o late r violenc e agains t humans tie d t o othe r crime s (gambling drugs rape weapons murder) an d create d a ba d imag e fo r Arizon a (Stat e o f Arizon a ballo t propositions 1998) Opponent s proffere d argument s lik e th e domin o effec t (soo n othe r rights lik e huntin g an d votin g woul d b e lost) th e mone y car d (i t woul d cos t to o muc h t o enforc e an d jai l offenders) an d th e infringemen t o f constitutiona l right s t o propert y (Id.) Whe n th e penalt y fo r intentiona l cruelt y wa s increase d t o a clas s si x felon y i n 1999 eve n th e Arizon a Human e Societ y office r claime d thi s woul d hel p people; not animal s (Ariz committe e o n judiciary 1999 ; Ariz stat e senat e fina l revise d fac t sheet 1999) The y furthe r asserte d tha t stiffe r penaltie s woul d protec t childre n a s well Th e bestialit y la w was brough t bac k o n book s i n 2006 bu t ther e was n o discussio n o f th e har m involve d t o animals Instead th e legislativ e discussio n focuse d o n a poodl e tha t was attacke d an d a loca l firefighte r caugh t i n a n indecen t ac t wit h neighbor' s sheep La w enforcemen t was frustrate d becaus e ther e wa s n o crim e o n th e book s t o charg e th e perpetrators I t i s difficul t t o discer n i f legislator s wer e upse t wit h th e human behavio r o r th e effect s o n th e anima l (Ariz hous e committe e o n counties 2006) Turnin g t o newspape r coverag e sinc e 1987 i t i s interestin g t o not e jus t whic h type s o f "anima l cruelty wer e o f enoug h human impor t t o mak e fron t page O f th e 27 1 article s tha t I examined 2 9 o f the m mad e th e Fron t section Sinc e 2001 however ther e hav e bee n n o front-pag e articles Th e 2 9 article s ra n th e spectru m o f incidents Fiftee n

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4 9 o f the m detaile d incident s o f cruelt y an d te n focuse d o n th e actua l law s i n place/sough t t o b e put i n place Thre e reporte d Associate d Pres s coverag e o f od d out o f stat e incident s o f cruelt y an d on e addresse d a n anima l cruelt y stud y i n Grea t Britain Th e actua l "cruel event s tha t mad e th e fron t sectio n wer e no t necessaril y th e mos t egregiou s o f al l th e article s sinc e 1987 : horse s wer e malnourishe d (1987) ; a do g was poisone d wit h anti freez e lace d ca t foo d (1995) ; a mailma n Mace d a do g (1998) ; rabbit s wer e dumpe d a t th e lak e (1998) ; numerou s hoarde d cats wer e discovere d (1998) ; anima l condition s a t a meatpackin g plan t wer e foun d substandar d (1999) ; an d do g fightin g wa s addresse d (2001) Wha t mad e the m o f particula r impor t was th e wa y the y wer e contextualized The n Senato r DeConcin i champione d th e horses caus e a t th e promptin g o f hi s constituents Th e poisone d do g was "Moose, th e canin e servic e companio n o f a loca l paraplegi c woman A neighbo r wh o was tryin g t o ri d th e are a o f stra y cats wa s accuse d o f poisonin g Moose Moos e mad e th e new s eigh t times—fou r o f the m i n th e fron t section Upo n reflection thi s shoul d not com e a s an y surprise Thi s phenomeno n wa s identifie d b y Yates Powell an d Beirn e (2001 ) whe n the y examine d wh y publi c attentio n i s directe d t o certai n form s o f crim e an d devianc e (i n thi s article the y focuse d o n hors e maimin g i n a rura l Englis h countrysid e i n th e 1990's) Commo n propertie s o f "mora l panics, simila r t o Best' s quadrangl e proces s (Best 1999) wer e identified The y als o examine d whe n victimhoo d wil l b e ascribe d t o animal s (whe n societ y wil l construc t animal s a s victims ) b y examinin g utterance s abou t offender s an d victim s b y th e media police tha t involve d humans Victimhoo d was not a n objectiv e condition—i t was

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5 0 ascribed/constructed Th e mor e worthie r th e animal-victim th e mor e reprehensibl e th e offender Moos e was th e perfec t "victim becaus e h e ha d th e perfec t owner A s imagined Moos e was everythin g t o her H e brough t he r ou t o f depressio n an d allowe d he r t o functio n i n society Hi s trainin g wa s eve n pai d fo r b y non e othe r tha n Charle s Shultz creato r o f Snoopy Detail s o f hi s owne r an d communit y suppor t activitie s fille d th e article Ove r $11,00 0 wa s raise d fo r Moose' s owner bu t th e accuse d neighbo r was acquitte d a t tria l du e t o lac k o f evidence Th e 199 5 legislatio n makin g reckles s anima l cruelt y a higher-clas s felon y was inspire d b y Moose bot h throug h th e newspape r an d eve n i n th e legislativ e committe e hearings Th e mailma n tha t mace d th e do g wa s th e basi s o f a politica l feu d betwee n colorfu l officials—Jo e Arpaio th e count y sheriff an d Richar d Romley th e count y attorney Discussion s centere d o n th e allocatio n o f power an d ho w th e aggrieve d mailma n wa s goin g t o su e th e sherif f fo r bein g wrongl y arrested Har m t o th e do g was minimized. Th e rabbi t dumpin g was tie d t o Easter Ca t hoarding s wer e al l ove r th e news bu t on e too k to p billin g whe n th e Arizon a Human e Societ y sai d i t wa s th e wors t cas e i n thei r forty-on e yea r history Condition s a t a mea t packin g plan t wer e haile d a s dangerou s t o th e huma n mea t supply Th e do g fight s garnere d attentio n whe n the y wer e tie d t o othe r socia l ill s lik e gambling drugs an d gan g activity—al l activitie s affectin g th e welfar e o f humans. I n Arizona a s i n th e Unite d State s overall certai n devian t acts ar e institutionalize d a s legitimat e area s o f concern throug h a proces s o f quadrangling—medi a

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5 1 attention adoptio n b y othe r relate d socia l proble m advocates involvemen t b y stat e an d federa l governmen t (vi a laws statistics an d trackin g metrics) an d attentio n b y professiona l expert s (Best 1999) Wit h ne w crimes com e ne w victims Thes e victim s requir e response s fro m societa l institution s lik e th e la w (legislation judicia l action an d lega l scholarship) therapies education an d medi a (Best 1999) Whil e th e news coverag e o f act s o f anima l cruelt y an d th e incrementa l respons e fro m th e legislatur e surel y indicate s tha t par t o f th e quadranglin g proces s i n wel l underwa y i n Arizona a roadbloc k remains Despit e th e attentio n t o th e ne w crimes i t i s th e ne w victim s (animals ) wh o mus t stil l gai n acceptanc e fro m thos e i n authority Interestingly animal s ar e not referre d t o a s "victims unde r th e presen t statutor y scheme On e assume s tha t doin g s o migh t impl y variou s right s an d entitlement s tha t huma n victim s ar e ofte n granted However fo r th e firs t tim e i n 2005 th e Maricop a Count y Attorney' s Offic e assigne d a victi m advocat e t o th e owne r o f a n anima l wh o wa s th e subjec t o f a n anima l cruelt y case Throughou t th e lif e o f th e Arizon a anima l cruelt y statute no t onc e was th e offens e eve r bee n referre d t o a s anima l "abuse. Althoug h onc e proposed i t was promptl y sho t dow n i n 200 2 (Ariz hous e committe e o n judiciary 2002 ; Ariz hous e committe e o n natura l resources 2002 ; Ariz hous e abstract 2002) Arizon a statute s mentio n chil d abuse elde r abuse an d wif e abuse But ther e i s n o suc h thin g o n th e statute s a s anima l abuse Cruelt y i s bad but i t seem s tha t abus e i s th e ultimat e malevolen t act Cruelt y implie s inhuman e treatmen t (Merriam-Webste r Online 2007) Abuse however refer s t o a n entir e corrup t practic e o r custom ofte n involvin g th e imprope r o r excessiv e us e o r treatmen t (Merriam 2007) Abus e seem s t o b e broade r tha n

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5 2 cruelty Cruelt y focuse s o n specifi c acts o f inhumanity wherea s abus e coul d includ e a n entir e societa l practic e (i.e anima l husbandr y practices scientifi c experimentation rodeos zoos hunting etc.) Fro m 1977 present anima l cruelt y gaine d increase d publi c attention I t wa s no t th e cas e tha t act s o f cruelt y wer e neve r befor e committed I t wa s jus t tha t the y ha d bee n ignored hidden o r deeme d unimportant Particula r form s o f maltreatmen t transfixe d th e publi c an d th e legislatur e responded However animal s di d not appea r t o b e occupyin g an y greate r rol e a s being s themselve s i n thi s tim e frame Instead i t was thei r impac t o n humans tha t changed Fro m th e Statute s t o th e Trenche s Sinc e animal s ar e a s muc h a par t o f societ y a s ever th e problem s o f animal s ar e ver y muc h ou r problems too Naturally w e hav e resorte d t o a n institutional pilla r fo r recourse—th e law Sinc e 1871 th e Arizon a law s hav e continue d t o reflec t th e dominant moralit y o f th e da y (Freidma n 1993 2002 2005) First animal s wer e privat e propert y an d tool s i n ou r journe y toward economi c prosperity Next som e animal s too k o n greate r statu s an d th e phenomeno n o f increase d populatio n mandate d ne w way s o f accountin g fo r them An d i n th e pas t thirt y years th e statute s reache d not onl y a greate r variet y o f non intentiona l mistreatment bu t als o mor e type s o f animal s an d activitie s onc e acceptabl e t o society La w o n th e book s i s on e thing ; ho w tha t la w i s operationalize d i s th e provinc e o f othe r player s i n th e crimina l justic e system I n particular I no w tur n t o th e prosecuto r an d thei r rol e i n constructin g th e meanin g o f "cruelty

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5 3 Chapte r 3 Mappin g th e Terr a Incognit a Th e prosecutio n o f anima l cruelt y case s i s a uniqu e are a i n th e practic e o f crimina l law Attorney s g o beyon d th e specie s barrie r i n seekin g t o safeguar d th e interest s o f non humans Th e rol e o f prosecutoria l discretio n i n thes e case s ha s ye t t o b e formall y explored A s note d above previou s studie s hav e focuse d o n th e factor s tha t influenc e a prosecutor' s decisio n makin g i n variou s human-base d cases an d a t variou s stage s o f th e crimina l justic e process Al l o f thes e case s involv e huma n victims Tha t researc h ha s suggeste d variable s (e.g legal extralegal organizational an d attitudinal ) tha t ar e relevan t i n exercisin g discretion O f course sometime s sensitiv e o r controversia l offense s affec t traditiona l decision-makin g considerations Felon y anima l cruelt y case s are b y definition non-routine The y ar e infrequen t i n compariso n wit h othe r ordinaril y committe d crimes Thi s typ e o f cas e ma y b e furthe r complicate d b y th e lac k o f unifor m investigation inconsistent prosecutoria l response an d a prevailin g mora l orthodox y tha t i s inconsisten t wit h statutor y standards Ther e ar e consideration s uniqu e t o thes e case s tha t influenc e a prosecutor' s decisio n t o fil e charge s and/o r procee d t o trial I n thi s section I revisi t briefl y th e rol e o f th e prosecuto r an d discus s th e consideration s tha t other s hav e suggeste d affec t th e exercis e o f prosecutoria l discretion Next I sugges t ne w typification s an d broade r justification s fo r wh y crime s o f anima l cruelt y shoul d b e prosecuted Overall th e rol e o f th e prosecuto r remain s th e same ye t broader i n scope whe n i t comes t o prosecutin g anima l cruelt y cases Anima l cruelt y inhabit s th e intersectio n o f

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5 4 la w an d violence a topi c familia r t o th e law but visualize d fro m a n unusua l angle Violenc e tha t th e crimina l la w investigate s i s usuall y towar d othe r humans not towar d othe r species I n anima l cruelt y cases prosecutor s mus t no w th e mus t spea k fo r a silen t constituency The y wil l stil l hav e t o decid e who m t o labe l a s a crimina l an d remai n engage d i n th e practic e o f operationalizing statutor y definitions No t muc h ha s change d i n thi s regard O f course ther e continue s t o b e a ga p betwee n la w o n th e book s an d la w i n th e streets—betwee n intention s an d implementation Animal cruelt y statute s defin e cruelt y i n th e abstract fa r remove d fro m an y sociall y grounde d context Statute s mus t b e vagu e t o cove r al l o f th e possibl e permutation s o f cruelty Prosecutors therefore mus t giv e "cruelty a practical workabl e definition I n short the y becom e "author s o f meaning (Arluke 2006) Muc h lik e anima l contro l officers prosecutor s creat e thei r ow n workin g definitio n o f cruelt y b y interpretin g an d applyin g th e la w o n a daily case-by-case basi s (Arluke 2004) I n managin g th e problem s o f ambiguity prosecutor s ma y en d u p reproducin g an d perhap s furtherin g th e problem s the y encounter Th e challeng e fo r prosecutor s i s t o define validate an d giv e lif e t o th e word s "anima l cruelty (Arluke 2004) Researc h Questio n Prosecutor s construc t knowledg e an d negotiat e meanin g a t a n institutiona l level The y ar e but on e grou p i n societ y tha t perform s thi s function Prosecutor s interpre t often-ambiguou s statutor y pronouncement s fro m th e legislatur e an d appl y the m t o rea l

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5 5 lif e behavior s ou t i n th e streets Give n th e shee r numbe r o f case s brough t befor e them broa d prosecutoria l discretio n i s a necessity Studie s examinin g th e exercis e o f thi s discretio n identif y certai n variable s tha t affec t prosecuto r decisions Acros s th e literature however non e o f th e researc h ha s addresse d th e exercis e o f prosecutoria l discretio n i n th e contex t o f anima l cruelt y cases Th e dynamic s o f anima l cruelt y prosecutio n presen t consideration s an d difficultie s o f differen t proportions primaril y becaus e thes e case s involv e anima l subject s o f violence not huma n subjects Animal cruelt y case s pus h prosecutor s int o a n unknow n land Whil e thei r discretio n ma y stil l b e affecte d b y mor e traditiona l concern s (legal extralegal organizational) thes e ma y appl y i n differen t ways an d t o differen t extent s tha n experience d wit h human-onl y cases Moreover certai n aspect s o f a prosecution lik e organizationa l issue s an d persona l preference s o f th e particula r prosecutor ma y ultimatel y b e o f greate r salienc e tha n wit h huma n cases Further th e landscap e o f anima l studie s seem s t o sugges t tha t a differen t blen d o f consideration s ma y ente r an d alte r th e decision-makin g arena—consideration s tha t revolv e aroun d establishin g th e legitimac y o f havin g anima l victim s i n th e crimina l justic e system M y goa l i s t o understan d ho w felon y prosecutor s exercis e thei r discretio n t o sociall y construc t th e meanin g o f "anima l cruelty. I focu s o n wha t prosecutor s ar e doin g i n th e trenches M y goa l i s not t o predic t a futur e outcome Instead I wis h t o describ e th e normativ e univers e o f publi c official s wh o posses s immens e discretion T o d o this I examine d th e interna l decisio n makin g processe s o f a count y attorney' s offic e

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5 6 locate d i n th e southwester n Unite d States a s i t considere d felon y anima l cruelt y cases Mor e specifically I asked : • Wha t predict s whethe r a n individua l wil l b e charge d wit h th e crim e o f felon y anima l cruelty ? • Ho w d o prosecutor s decid e tha t a particula r ac t constitute s felon y anima l cruelty ? • Wha t ar e th e characteristic s o f th e case s tha t procee d t o ple a bargai n o r trial ? • Ho w ar e prosecutor s socialize d withi n th e prosecutor' s offic e t o distinguis h betwee n "cruel an d "non-cruel behavior ? • Wha t ar e th e commo n typification s prosecutor s us e t o charge/dismiss/plead/tr y a felon y anima l cruelt y case ? • Wha t ar e th e consequence s o f th e decisio n t o charge/plead/dismiss/try a felon y anima l cruelt y case ? Method s M y researc h question s determine d whic h researc h method s t o employ Ha d I wante d t o fin d ou t ho w man y anima l cruelt y case s wen t t o trial I woul d hav e don e a quantitativ e historica l revie w o f actua l cas e dispositions Instead I was concerne d wit h ho w prosecutor s chos e t o mov e forwar d wit h particula r instance s o f cruelt y an d not others Thus i n answerin g question s o f "how, an d perhap s eve n "why, I preferre d a qualitativ e assessment Yi n (2003 ) suggest s a n interestin g exercis e t o assis t th e researcher H e encourage s researcher s t o answe r th e followin g si x questions : 1 ) Wha t a m I tryin g t o fin d out ? 2 ) Wha t kin d o f focu s d o I want ? 3 ) Ho w hav e othe r researcher s deal t wit h thi s

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5 7 topi c an d d o I wan t t o alig n mysel f wit h them ? 4 ) Wha t practica l consideration s shoul d swa y m y choice ? 5 ) Wil l I lear n mor e fro m quantitativ e o r qualitativ e methods ? 6 ) Wha t work s bes t fo r m e personally ? Th e las t tw o question s wer e m y trigger A s a studen t o f th e law I ha d grow n accustome d t o shade s o f gray Th e la w i s a flexible subjective value-laden science No t onl y i s a focu s o n la w mor e familia r t o me i t i s als o wel l suite d t o qualitativ e assessment Th e flexibilit y o f bot h th e la w an d qualitativ e method s o f inquir y encourage s innovatio n an d allow s roo m fo r a n evaluatio n sensitiv e t o th e specifi c detail s o f a particula r situation. Thus qualitativ e analysi s an d th e la w appeare d t o mak e goo d bedfellows Ho w doe s on e prosecut e a cas e o f anima l cruelty ? A s I discovered i t al l depends T o ge t close r t o th e prosecutor' s perspective I examine d a process—th e exercis e o f prosecutoria l discretio n i n th e contex t o f anima l cruelt y cases T o tha t end I explore d multipl e instance s o f th e sam e process I focuse d o n decision s mad e a t th e initia l issuin g stage durin g ple a negotiations an d befor e trial I di d thi s b y canvassin g cas e files observin g informa l processe s behin d th e scene an d interviewin g prosecutor s abou t thei r decision s i n particula r cases M y samplin g metho d was informe d b y m y goa l o f understandin g ho w anima l cruelt y case s ar e decided Therefore I onl y looke d a t anima l cruelt y case s an d th e prosecutor s involve d i n thos e particula r cases I wa s intereste d i n a qualitativel y ric h an d detaile d description an d a s such use d a serie s o f methodologica l tools : documen t analysis participan t observation an d in-dept h interviewing Acces s a s a returnin g member Usin g thes e methods I examine d 15 5 individua l case s o f felon y anima l cruelt y a t a count y attorney' s offic e i n th e stat e o f Arizona I ha d

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5 8 th e benefi t o f havin g bee n previousl y employe d a s a deput y count y attorne y i n thi s ver y office A s a returnin g member I wa s abl e t o dra w o n m y ow n experienc e i n th e office M y researc h resemble d wha t Tedloc k (2000 ) refer s t o a s a narrativ e ethnography Thi s for m o f ethnograph y i s create d whe n a researche r portray s th e subject s o f stud y alon g wit h his/he r ow n experiences I fee l a s thoug h I wa s on e o f m y ow n bes t informants Writin g fo r an d abou t th e communit y i n whic h on e ha s grow n u p an d lived o r a t leas t achieve d som e degre e o f inside r status produce d a n engage d writin g tha t centere d o n th e ongoin g dialectica l political-persona l relationshi p betwee n mysel f an d th e other s (Tedlock 2000) A s a forme r prosecuto r i n th e offic e I studied I stil l possesse d a stron g gras p o n th e nods silences humor an d naught y nuance s withi n th e offic e itself (Altheid e & Johnson 1998) T o pu t i t i n another' s fame d terms I alread y kne w mos t o f th e "trick s o f th e trade (Becker 2001) I starte d wit h th e assumptio n tha t ther e woul d b e multipl e realitie s an d I woul d inevitabl y participat e i n th e creatio n o f tha t reality Gainin g acces s was relativel y simple Th e electe d official fo r who m I ha d worke d previously wa s stil l i n offic e an d remembere d me Althoug h muc h tim e ha d passed man y thing s stil l remaine d th e same Ther e wer e n o languag e barriers sinc e I alread y kne w th e office-specifi c acronym s an d genera l lega l jargon Culturally I encountere d n o barrier s a s a n attorne y an d forme r prosecuto r fro m thi s office Mos t attorneys paralegals an d suppor t staf f eithe r remembere d m e individually o r m y name fro m reviewing m y previou s cases motions an d paperwork I n term s o f presentin g myself I remaine d informal I di d no t do n th e traditiona l lawyer' s suit bu t dresse d casuall y i n orde r t o blen d in Fo r thos e tha t asked I informe d

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5 9 the m o f m y researc h project I foun d severa l "insiders wh o serve d a s guide s throug h th e institutiona l cultur e currentl y a t work The y wer e forme r colleagues supervisors secretaries an d lega l assistants Trus t appeare d a non-issu e a s th e electe d officia l immediatel y grante d m e access Establishin g rappor t was fairl y simple Ever y researche r trul y need s a ke y informan t t o hel p maneuve r th e innard s o f a n organization I ha d min e i n Lucy a forme r supervisor Without her I woul d not hav e ha d th e immediat e standin g o r lastin g carryove r o f m y inside r status Sh e introduce d m e t o ne w attorneys sough t administrativ e approva l o n m y behalf ordere d cas e files commandeere d m y workspace an d eve n le t m e dro p he r nam e a s I approache d th e prosecutor s fo r interviews I liv e severa l hour s fro m thi s particula r count y attorney' s office Thus commutin g o n a dail y basi s was no t a n option M y typica l weekl y routin e wa s t o driv e dow n earl y o n Tuesda y mornings wor k Tuesda y throug h Friday an d the n leav e Frida y earl y afternoon I di d thi s fo r si x week s eac h i n th e summer s o f 200 8 an d 2009 Fo r me thi s wa s a grea t homecomin g o f sorts Afte r a seven-yea r absence th e name s o f th e street s escape d me but th e locatio n o f parkin g di d not Th e wal k fro m th e parkin g garag e t o th e offic e was tw o blocks I t immediatel y brough t bac k familia r smell s o f downtown — urine sweat garbage stal e air an d exhaust Th e bac k alle y entranc e wa s no w gate d t o preven t entry Before thi s wa s th e shor t cu t int o th e buildin g tha t som e o f th e employee s used A s I approache d th e twenty-stor y buildin g fo r th e firs t time th e mornin g ingress/egres s o f count y employee s ha d alread y begun A lega l assistan t fro m m y forme r

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6 0 uni t exite d th e door Sh e immediatel y yelle d m y nam e an d embrace d me Al l o f th e othe r lega l assistant s wit h he r too k notice A s I walke d int o th e building I notice d th e change s immediately Before ther e wer e si x glas s door s int o whic h individual s coul d enter Now ther e wer e onl y tw o fo r entranc e an d th e remainde r fo r exit Immediatel y obviou s wer e al l th e securit y measures I lef t befor e th e 9-1 1 attack s an d no w visitor s wer e require d t o han d ove r al l item s t o securit y officials pas s throug h a meta l detector an d submi t t o a detectio n wan d i f th e detecto r alerted Instea d o f headin g t o a n office I wen t t o th e floo r tha t house d th e mai n administrativ e offices I checke d i n wit h th e staf f behin d th e bi g wal l o f window s an d waite d i n th e lobby Fiftee n minute s later m y forme r supervisor Lucy greete d m e wit h a smil e an d a bi g bea r hug I fel t specia l an d welcome an d I thin k th e fron t offic e staf f noticed I originall y suggeste d meetin g m y forme r superviso r a t he r office o n a completel y differen t floor Thi s was n o longe r possibl e becaus e o f a ne w offic e policy Eac h da y I was require d t o repor t t o th e mai n administrativ e office dro p of f m y license an d obtai n a visitor' s pas s fo r m y sta y durin g offic e hours S o I did an d thu s bega n m y tim e ther e a s a "visitor. Al l th e othe r staf f member s (attorneys paralegals secretaries investigators etc ) ha d badge s wit h thei r pictur e o n them alon g wit h a ba r cod e tha t allowe d the m fre e acces s t o th e offices I however neede d someon e else' s badge o r ha d t o cal l the m t o gai n acces s t o th e offic e area Thes e smal l thing s wer e a constan t reminde r o f m y ne w outside r status I reall y di d not lik e tha t badge On e day abou t fou r week s int o m y tim e a t th e office I me t Luc y i n th e mornin g o n m y wa y int o th e office I aske d he r i f I neede d t o g o

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6 1 t o th e mai n office s t o ge t m y visitor' s pass Sh e said "Nah I kno w you. "Yes, I thought Fo r on e mor e tim e I go t t o fit in Although upo n reflectio n I kne w I shoul d hav e gon e an d gotte n th e pass I di d th e nex t da y an d eac h da y forward I n reality however onc e insid e th e offic e area tha t visitor' s pas s almos t seeme d meaningless I was recognize d b y man y an d introduce d t o other s wh o wer e new Thi s tende d t o reinforc e m y schizophreni c identit y a s insider...n o outsider...yes insider...no outsider M y homecomin g ha d a downsid e t o i t a s well I was initiall y distracte d wit h al l o f th e reminiscing Soon however Luc y le d m e dow n on e hallway t o a n offic e wit h pile s o f cas e files an d severa l banker-styl e boxes Du e t o a n ongoin g hirin g freeze ther e wer e severa l vacan t office s an d Luc y secure d on e fo r me Whe n sh e bega n orderin g th e anima l cruelt y files fro m archives sh e ha d the m sen t t o thi s vacan t office—"my office "It' s nic e t o hav e yo u bac k i n th e office wa s al l sh e said Documen t analysis A s Huberma n an d Mile s (1998 ) noted mos t ethnographi c researc h involve s "cases. A cas e i s a phenomeno n o f som e sort occurrin g i n a bounde d context—i t i s a functiona l uni t o f analysi s fo r socia l scientist s (Huberma n & Miles 1998) I studie d individua l case s o f felon y anima l cruelty but I looke d separatel y a t th e individua l prosecutor an d th e prosecutor' s offic e a s a whole M y startin g point however wa s th e individua l cas e file. Cas e files wer e importan t fo r severa l reasons First acces s wa s eas y an d lo w cost Second th e informatio n withi n the m offere d a n alternativ e t o participan t recall Thirdly th e files endured Thus the y offere d historica l insigh t tha t migh t hav e bee n los t i n th e individua l minds A n adequat e stud y o f th e

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6 2 exercis e o f prosecutoria l discretio n depende d o n th e incorporatio n o f materia l evidenc e containe d i n th e actua l cas e files. I spok e t o Luc y severa l time s prio r t o arrivin g a t th e offic e i n th e summe r o f 2008 whic h allowe d he r t o construc t a databas e searc h fo r case s tha t containe d a coun t unde r A.R.S §13-2910 Arizona' s anima l cruelt y statute Th e office' s interna l databas e generate d a six-pag e compute r printou t wit h approximat e 22 5 tota l defendant s wh o ha d bee n reviewe d fo r th e propriety o f issuin g anima l cruelt y charges Onc e th e lis t wa s assembled Lucy' s secretar y ordere d al l th e availabl e case s fro m thei r archive s division Case s tha t wen t t o archive s wer e thos e tha t ha d bee n closed—eithe r tried pled o r dismissed Ultimately I reviewe d 15 5 defendant s an d thei r case s fro m 1999-2008 Th e reaso n fo r th e discrepanc y ha d t o d o wit h a 200 6 chang e i n th e office' s archivin g policy Effectiv e i n 2006 al l case s tha t wer e reviewed but not issued wer e onl y kep t fo r on e year Thus I ha d n o acces s t o thos e files. Th e cas e file revie w i s wher e m y inside r knowledg e wa s mos t valuable Havin g worke d a s a prosecutor I instantl y recognize d th e se t u p o f th e cas e files Eac h cas e file containe d informatio n o n th e outsid e o f th e file, wit h th e bul k o f informatio n naturall y existin g o n th e inside Th e externa l informatio n included : th e issuin g attorney dat e o f issuance tria l attorne y (wh o th e cas e was assigne d to) judg e o f assignment cas e number date s o f th e crime office r an d la w enforcemen t agency defens e counsel releas e conditions gran d jur y details forma l charges name/race/dat e o f birt h o f th e defendant an d th e victi m names

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Internally th e cas e wa s loade d wit h mor e information Cas e file s al l containe d a serie s o f severa l interna l folder s an d miscellaneou s piece s o f evidence Evidenc e tha t was not ye t file d ofte n include d th e officer' s origina l issuin g folde r an d an y evidenc e i n th e way o f photograph s o r cd-roms Interna l fil e folder s wer e labele d wit h color-code d tabs The y typicall y include d th e following : Issuing/Cas e Summary Stat e Disclosure Join t Pre-Tria l Statement Ple a Agreement Witnes s List Attorne y Notes Gran d Jury/Preliminar y Hearin g Transcript Stat e Motions Correspondence Minute Entries/Cover-Me's Rul e 39/Restitutio n Affidavits Voi r Dire/Jur y Instructions Witnes s Folder s (ther e wer e an y numbe r o f thes e dependin g o n th e complexit y o f th e case Medica l Records Photos Defens e Motions Defens e Disclosure Defendant' s Priors Defendant' s Mu g shot/Statement an d Pleadings Fro m perviou s prosecutoria l experience I kne w ho w t o cu t throug h th e volum e o f extraneou s informatio n an d wher e t o direc t m y inquiry I starte d wit h th e issuin g summary an d i f thi s was not presen t I looke d fo r th e gran d jur y o r preliminar y hearin g transcript I looke d fo r an y sor t o f ple a agreemen t t o se e wha t ha d bee n offered I the n examine d th e fil e labele d "attorne y notes t o se e note s o f discussion s wit h supervisors lega l assistants secretaries a s wel l a s analyse s o f th e merit s o f th e cas e and/o r thing s t o do I als o looke d i n th e correspondenc e folde r fo r th e attorney' s discussion s wit h defens e counse l an d an y othe r outsid e agencies Thi s folde r occasionall y include d letter s fro m th e publi c o r individual s concerne d abou t th e case Th e folde r entitle d "minut e entries/cover-me's containe d th e attorney' s comment s fo r cour t coverage othe r relevan t informatio n abou t th e case an d a recor d o f wha t happene d i n th e case Th e "pleadings

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6 4 folde r house d th e officia l charges allegations an d notic e o f prio r convictions i f an y wer e present I als o pulle d th e defendant' s mu g shot althoug h i n hindsight I a m stil l not quit e sur e why Perhap s i t wa s a n instinctiv e nee d t o pu t a fac e wit h th e individual' s actions Occasionally ther e wer e n o interna l file s sinc e th e cas e ha d ple d an d not bee n preppe d fo r trial I n thos e cases I ha d t o plo d throug h th e document s on e a t a time But I was stil l abl e t o recogniz e th e issuin g summary cover-me's an d minut e entries Durin g m y secon d week I mad e th e decisio n t o gathe r th e photo s i n th e cas e files wher e available Thi s require d a secon d loo k a t som e o f th e cases Th e picture s wer e helpfu l i n understandin g ho w th e prosecuto r sa w th e case A pictur e o f a n animal' s conditio n definitel y tol d a bette r stor y tha n di d an y o f th e note s i n th e files I t i s on e thin g t o sa y "th e hors e ha d overgrow n hooves o r "th e do g wa s emaciated; a ver y othe r thin g t o actuall y se e it Thi s immersio n i n th e graphi c detail s o f thes e case s wa s muc h mor e taxing emotionally tha n I remembered. Thi s surprise d me I prosecute d felon y case s fo r man y years I n tha t time ther e wa s a constan t strea m o f society' s worst I trie d a murde r cas e wher e a woman' s hea d was smashe d i n wit h a landscap e boulder I viewe d picture s o f peopl e wit h thei r head s blow n off I sa w th e mos t graphi c o f sexua l assaul t traum a t o th e bodie s o f wome n an d youn g children I deal t wit h dea d babie s lef t t o ro t i n tras h dumpsters an d I eve n handle d severa l o f m y ow n strikin g anima l cruelt y cases Thi s time however seeme d different Mayb e i t was becaus e al l I di d was revie w case s o f anima l cruelty : eviscerations beatings gunshots stabbings blood mistreatment an d neglect Before ther e wer e onl y a fe w sprinkle d o n m y caseload Thi s tim e i t was non

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6 5 sto p al l da y a s I plodde d throug h th e stac k o f anima l cruelt y cases I wa s actuall y reduce d t o tear s i n on e o f th e cases Thi s was definitel y ou t o f character I was th e attorne y wh o coul d brin g fact s t o lif e suc h tha t the y brough t tear s t o th e eye s o f th e jurors but i t was neve r th e othe r wa y around I t seem s tha t whe n on e doe s thi s sor t o f wor k o n a dail y basis ther e i s a par t o f th e sel f tha t become s inure d t o th e otherwis e disturbin g natur e o f certai n behavior Simila r t o a maratho n runne r wh o develop s calluse s o n he r fee t i n resistanc e t o th e frictio n o f he r strides s o to o prosecutor s develo p thei r ow n resistanc e t o th e dept h o f despair Thi s resistanc e migh t translat e int o a rathe r functiona l copin g mechanism I f prosecutor s too k an y cas e to o seriously the y ma y los e thei r objectivity I t wa s clea r fo r m e tha t ther e was fo r th e first time n o objectivit y t o lose I was not lookin g a t thes e case s a s a prosecuto r anymore I wa s lookin g a t the m a s a socia l scientist An d a s such the y wer e ofte n to o muc h t o bea r Gradually I foun d mysel f not wantin g t o pic k u p th e nex t case I eve n witnesse d thi s phenomeno n wit h th e individua l I ha d hire d t o d o th e transcription s fo r me Sh e commented "sometime s I jus t cr y whe n I liste n t o thes e interviews I t i s jus t awful. M y separatio n fro m thi s routin e illustrate d ho w inure d t o th e huma n sid e o f thi s wor k I ma y hav e been M y dat a analysi s include d thre e othe r procedures : dat a reduction dat a display an d conclusio n drawin g (Huberma n & Miles 1998) A s I sorte d throug h al l o f th e cas e files I focuse d onl y o n particula r aspect s tha t prosecutor s migh t fin d significant I wa s unabl e t o d o an y sor t o f compariso n o f jus t m y notes I develope d a way t o displa y th e dat a i n a compresse d forma t tha t helpe d m e dra w conclusions Thi s tabl e wa s focuse d

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6 6 enoug h t o permi t viewin g o f a ful l se t o f dat a i n on e location Fro m thi s table I wa s abl e t o identif y th e subject s o f m y interviews dra w a connectio n betwee n th e fact s an d th e ultimat e disposition an d focu s i n o n uniqu e cas e elements Becaus e ther e ca n reall y b e n o "true meanin g o f a tex t outsid e o f it s specifi c context s (Hodder 1998) I supplemente d th e cas e fil e wit h othe r method s o f inquiry—participan t observatio n an d in-dept h interviews Participan t observation Ethnographi c researc h involve s a lon g proces s o f grou p observation typicall y throug h participan t observation i n whic h th e researche r i s immerse d i n th e day-to-da y live s o f th e peopl e observed (Creswell 1998) Immediat e presenc e i s th e sine qua non o f ethnography Som e degre e o f participatio n i s unavoidabl e i n orde r t o establis h a plac e an d identit y fo r onesel f an d one' s researc h activitie s (Emerso n & Pollner 2001) A s I conducte d m y cas e analyses I als o engage d a s a participant-observe r i n th e office A t leas t two-third s o f m y tim e was spen t i n th e offic e reviewin g th e anima l cruelt y cas e files Th e remainde r wa s spen t participatin g i n variou s othe r activitie s wit h th e offic e staff T o garner greate r descriptiv e qualit y beyon d jus t th e cas e files I observe d an d participate d i n hallwa y discussions meeting s betwee n prosecutors issuin g session s betwee n prosecutor s an d polic e officers junio r attorne y mentorin g sessions an d a n anima l cruelt y tas k forc e meeting I di d no t observ e an y courtroom proceedings Instead I chos e t o focu s o n th e behind-the-scene s activitie s i n th e "hall s o f justice. Prosecutor s engage d i n discussion s i n th e offic e tha t wer e differen t fro m thos e i n fron t o f

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6 7 a jur y o r o n th e record Fo r example prosecutor s readil y reveale d cas e weaknesse s t o othe r prosecutors ye t the y di d not giv e awa y thi s assessmen t i n a publi c forum Emerso n an d Pollne r (2001 ) discus s boundar y wor k i n participan t observation suggestin g tha t th e threa t o f increase d inclusio n i n th e offic e activitie s i s ofte n les s appreciate d tha n th e threa t o f exclusion Thi s was precisel y th e cas e i n m y experience Th e inclusiv e overture s abounded I wa s use d a s a resource incorporate d a s a co member an d engage d a s a perso n (Emerso n an d Pollner 2001) Stil l a license d attorney I brough t certai n attribute s usefu l t o th e prosecutor' s office I n on e o f th e hallway mentorin g sessions fo r example a prosecuto r wa s discussin g a n anima l cruelt y case Polic e officer s sa w starvin g an d emaciate d animal s i n a house bu t refuse d t o ente r withou t a warrant Coincidentally i n th e cours e o f preppin g fo r on e o f m y ow n classes I ha d com e acros s a simila r cas e ou t o f Montana Thi s cas e addresse d th e exigen t circumstance s exceptio n t o th e Fourt h Amendmen t warran t requiremen t i n th e contex t o f animals Quit e intereste d i n th e case th e prosecuto r aske d m e t o sen d i t t o her I did Onl y a fe w day s later tw o younge r attorneys i n th e middl e o f thei r firs t anima l cruelt y trial stoo d i n th e hallway outside m y office talkin g t o Lucy Th e attorney s wer e o n a lunc h brea k an d wer e seekin g guidanc e fo r thei r upcomin g closin g argument Luc y peeke d aroun d th e corne r an d said "Com e o n ou t here Yo u migh t hav e somethin g t o add. I n a simila r vein I walke d int o Lucy' s offic e on e da y t o exten d th e usua l "goo d morning. Sh e wa s wadin g throug h pile s o f paperwor k o n he r desk Sh e picke d u p a serie s o f folder s fro m th e corne r o f he r des k an d hande d the m t o me Sh e aske d m e t o rea d throug h the m an d tel l he r whethe r th e cas e shoul d b e issued M y furrowe d bro w an d

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6 8 hea d til t mus t hav e appropriatel y conveye d m y uncertainty "You'r e stil l a lawyer aren' t you, sh e said "W e migh t a s wel l ge t som e wor k ou t o f you. An d s o sh e did I wa s a resourc e i n differen t non-lega l regard s a s well On e evening I wa s abl e t o trac k dow n Lucy' s cel l phon e numbe r fo r a junio r attorney Becaus e m y offic e wa s s o clos e t o th e fron t entranceway I occasionall y serve d a s greete r fo r detective s an d witnesse s reportin g fo r prosecuto r interviews Beyon d th e office I wa s invite d t o atten d a n anima l cruelt y tas k forc e meeting Onc e th e meetin g began Luc y actuall y calle d o n m e t o giv e a summar y o f a recen t anima l cruelt y cas e i n a cit y clos e t o wher e I lived I n additio n t o bein g a resource I als o too k o n th e statu s a s a co-member. Ther e wer e severa l instance s i n whic h I was mad e a par t o f th e offic e team I was a soundin g board fo r som e regardin g dissatisfactio n i n th e office I n respons e t o m y "H i Ted ho w ar e you, I receive d a n earfu l regardin g thi s prosecutor' s frustration s wit h work I suck I t i s neve r endin g aroun d here I'v e go t [specia l victim s unit] [issuing] violent offenses do g cases an d no w death penalty Ther e ar e s o man y case s i n thi s offic e an d n o bodie s t o handl e them I' m doin g violent offense s an d thes e fuckin g do g cases An d le t m e tel l you w e bi t of f mor e tha n w e ca n chew N o pu n intended The y ar e jus t s o complicated Ther e i s a bi g cas e behin d ever y smal l case Jus t s o muc h shit S o muc h evidence Par t o f th e notio n o f membershi p als o involve d m y master y o f th e insid e joke s an d m y contributio n t o th e proverbia l wa r stories I wa s als o abl e t o reconnec t wit h man y ove r offic e gossi p fro m day s gon e by whethe r i t was abou t th e disbarre d attorneys th e ongoin g offic e lov e triangles o r th e perpetua l offic e slackers Man y o f th e lega l

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assistant s actuall y cam e t o m e wit h update s o n offic e personalities Th e attraction s o f membershi p wer e clearl y present—afte r all thes e wer e a grou p o f individuals man y o f whom I ha d worke d wit h before I ha d n o fea r o f goin g "native. A par t o f m e alread y was ; but a bigge r par t o f m e ha d lef t an d move d o n t o othe r endeavors I n additio n t o servin g a s a resourc e an d holdin g a statu s a s co-member Emerso n an d Pollne r (2001 ) describ e a situatio n wher e th e fieldworke r i s treate d a s a "friend b y th e hos t agency thu s creatin g a temptatio n fo r th e researche r t o deepe n tie s i n way s tha t ma y ignor e his/he r researc h commitments Muc h lik e m y discussio n abov e regardin g co membe r status I wa s a frien d t o thes e subject s lon g befor e I entere d th e field. Mos t o f m y hallwa y o r offic e conversation s wer e ofte n lade n wit h mutua l disclosur e o f persona l details I eve n experience d a scenari o wher e m y previou s co-worker s engage d i n protectiv e behavio r o f me A s I plodde d throug h on e o f m y olde r anima l cruelt y cases I learne d tha t th e verdic t ha d bee n overturne d o n appeal Whe n I asked Luc y wh y sh e neve r tol d me sh e said "W e kne w yo u worke d s o har d o n tha t on e an d didn' t wan t yo u t o fee l badly. Sh e wa s right No t surprisingly I spen t eve n mor e tim e goin g throug h th e appellat e recor d o f tha t case I use d thes e inclusiv e overture s t o m y advantage Throug h mutua l disclosure participatio n i n m y capacit y a s a n attorney an d statu s a s forme r prosecutor I wa s abl e t o engag e mor e rapidl y an d i n greate r dept h wit h man y o f th e prosecutors Wha t becam e troublesom e fo r m e was th e nee d t o retur n t o m y tas k a t hand Sometime s i t wa s eas y t o ge t los t i n th e re-connectin g wit h friend s an d colleague s o r i n th e storie s o f day s gon e by Emerso n & Pollne r (2001 ) describ e a proces s o f selectiv e anchoring Ofte n times I wa s

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7 0 caugh t u p i n th e day-to-da y experienc e o f lif e a t th e count y attorney' s office B y simpl y participatin g an d experiencing m y researc h prioritie s occasionall y recede d an d disappeared But whe n I too k u p th e tas k o f writin g fiel d notes I was re-anchore d bac k int o th e spac e o f researc h an d observation (Emerso n & Pollner 2001) I foun d mysel f stopping an d writin g thing s wheneve r th e ide a hi t me Dat a wa s everywher e an d nowhere Sometimes I fel t guilt y fo r retreatin g t o m y offic e t o scribbl e ou t note s abou t wha t ha d jus t bee n said Eac h night however I sa t an d wrot e ou t longhan d th e note s I ha d take n durin g th e day addin g detai l wher e I coul d remember In-dept h interviews I n additio n t o cas e analysi s an d participan t observation th e thir d qualitativ e metho d tha t I utilize d was th e semi-structure d in-dept h interview I wante d t o us e th e interview s t o chec k ou t th e theorie s I ha d develope d throug h documen t analysi s an d participant-observation Thi s in-dept h interviewin g was mor e exploratory theor y driven an d mutuall y creativ e tha n othe r structure d interview s (Johnson 2002 ; Warren 2002) Fro m a constructivis t approach I use d th e interview s t o uncove r ho w prosecutor s construc t wha t "anima l cruelty mean s an d ho w thes e meaning s guid e thei r perception s o f realit y (Charmaz 2002) Fontan a & Fr y (2000 ) discus s wha t the y cal l th e "intervie w society. I n th e Unite d States ther e i s tremendou s relianc e o n th e interview—b y new s reporters la w enforcement moder n media employers students pollsters an d others I f w e wan t t o kno w wha t a socia l worl d i s like w e as k th e individua l inhabitant s (Gubriu m & Holstein 2002) I n effect th e intervie w i s n o longe r jus t th e provinc e o f social-science researchers However socia l scientist s ar e mor e likel y tha n man y othe r occupationa l group s t o

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7 1 recogniz e tha t interview s ar e interactiona l encounters an d t o acknowledg e tha t th e natur e o f th e socia l dynami c ca n shap e th e natur e o f th e knowledg e generate d (Fontan a & Fry 2000) I foun d tha t th e interview s helpe d fil l i n th e meaning s o f observe d interaction s an d content s o f th e cas e files I starte d wit h a ten-questio n semi-structure d protocol but ultimatel y ever y intervie w too k it s ow n cours e (Se e Appendi x C fo r a protoco l o f m y intervie w questions) Muc h lik e an y conversation th e interview s wer e neve r linea r i n thei r content Instead the y wer e ofte n circula r an d tangential I wa s foreve r comin g bac k t o th e question s t o sta y o n point I determine d m y lis t o f interviewee s afte r a revie w o f th e anima l cruelt y cas e file s an d intra-offic e discussions T o mak e m y lis t o f interviewees th e attorne y ha d t o hav e handled a s a n issue r o r tria l attorney a t leas t tw o anima l cruelt y cases M y origina l poo l was twenty-thre e attorneys ; o f whic h I was abl e t o locat e twenty-two I locate d mos t o f th e individual s via th e stat e ba r director y an d mad e initia l contac t vi a emai l and/o r offic e telephone Fiftee n o f th e attorney s I alread y kne w o r ha d worke d wit h i n th e past Fo r thos e I di d no t kno w personally I use d m y leftove r attorney lega l assistant an d secretar y contact s t o ru n interferenc e fo r me Whil e I mad e th e initia l contact I ha d thes e othe r individual s pu t i n th e proverbia l "goo d word fo r me s o th e attorney s woul d kno w I was not ther e t o wast e thei r time I include d mysel f i n thi s par t o f th e study interviewin g mysel f prio r t o an y othe r interview s s o a s not t o tain t m y ow n recollectio n o f events A s a forme r prosecuto r i n thi s office I ha d certai n expectation s fo r th e contingencie s tha t migh t affec t a particula r case : characteristic s o f th e cas e itself organizationa l constraints an d th e persona l

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7 2 preference s o f eac h particula r attorney Thus I becam e m y ow n startin g point O f th e remainin g twenty-on e in-dept h interviews five wer e telephoni c an d sixtee n i n person Tim e an d geographi c constraint s force d m e t o rel y o n telephon e interviews O f th e twenty-tw o attorney s wh o ha d handle d th e anima l cruelt y case s a s a count y prosecutor eleve n wer e stil l employe d a t thi s count y attorney' s office Two ha d becom e defens e attorneys fou r wer e prosecutor s elsewher e i n th e state tw o wer e governmen t attorneys on e was a communit y colleg e instructor an d tw o ha d thei r ow n civi l la w practices primaril y i n th e area s o f famil y law Th e experienc e o f th e attorney s varie d remarkably Thei r year s o f experienc e a s a n attorne y range d fro m tw o t o thirt y four Tim e a s a n actua l prosecuto r spanne d fro m tw o t o twent y five years Longevit y a t thi s particula r count y attorney' s offic e wen t fro m tw o t o twent y tw o years Genera l progressio n throug h offic e assignment s typicall y starte d i n th e misdemeano r uni t wit h a subsequen t movemen t throug h eithe r th e vehicular propert y crimes o r narcoti c units A s note d b y on e attorne y wit h twenty-tw o year s o f experienc e a t thi s office "Justic e Cour t wa s a forgettabl e experience bu t a rit e o f passag e nevertheless. Individual s wit h previou s experienc e a s attorney s ofte n bypasse d th e misdemeano r uni t altogether Al l o f th e attorneys fourtee n female s an d eigh t males wer e quit e willin g t o participat e i n th e interview I n fact on e individual no w a defens e attorney calle d m e fro m th e count y jai l parkin g lo t a t 7p.m on e nigh t rathe r tha n hav e t o reschedul e he r interview "It' s actuall y th e safes t plac e i n th e city, sh e mused Non e o f th e attorney s wer e pai d o r offere d anythin g i n exchang e fo r thei r time Al l interview s wer e audi o

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7 3 recorded I use d a portabl e microphon e attache d t o a n iPo d an d digitall y recorde d ou r interaction I als o supplemente d th e audi o recording s wit h th e handwritte n note s tha t I too k durin g th e interview A s I progresse d throug h th e subjec t interviews I reviewe d prio r interview s befor e conductin g subsequen t ones A s I complete d group s o f interviews I pai d t o hav e the m transcribe d int o document s tha t I coul d the n review Thes e interviews alon g wit h cas e reviews week s o f participan t observation an d m y institutiona l knowledge buil t o n year s o f wor k a s a count y attorney helpe d m e defin e th e organizationa l contingence s tha t create d decisio n point s fo r prosecutors Th e membe r knowledg e tha t I possesse d woul d hav e take n man y year s t o amas s a s a tru e outsider but I wa s abl e t o mobiliz e m y pas t organizationa l resource s suc h tha t m y researc h di d not begi n tabula rosa. M y past i n a ver y rea l sense mad e m y presen t projec t feasible Analyti c strategy Previou s researc h suggest s tha t person s wh o encounte r anima l cruelt y o n a dail y basi s ar e thos e tha t construc t it s meaning Arluk e (2004 2006 ) examine d ho w thos e wh o dea l dail y wit h anima l mistreatmen t actuall y ferre t ou t wha t "cruelty reall y means T o d o this h e studie d th e live d experience s o f five group s o f peopl e whos e live s wer e linke d t o anima l cruelty : la w enforcemen t agents colleg e student s wh o ha d harme d animals hoarders shelte r workers an d publi c relation s experts Al l o f th e group s develope d thei r ow n definition s o f cruelt y an d use d thos e definition s fo r differen t ends I use d thi s qualitativ e ethnographi c accoun t a s a "jumpin g off piec e fo r m y research Takin g hi s analysi s a ste p further I targete d a sixt h group—prosecutors Ho w was cruelt y define d i n th e contex t o f publi c prosecution ? Wha t ar e th e aims goals need s

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7 4 o f prosecutor s an d ho w doe s tha t effect i f a t all th e workin g definition s o f cruelty ? Wha t d o prosecutoria l definition s o f "cruelty hav e t o sa y abou t thei r ideologie s an d identities ? Whe n i t comes t o th e prosecutor' s constructio n o f "anima l cruelty, I looke d fo r a detaile d meanin g o f realit y i n thei r particula r setting M y researc h als o draw s o n th e insight s o f Glase r an d Straus s (1967 ) wh o outline d grounde d theor y a s a ne w metho d fo r qualitativ e research The y sugges t tha t theor y ca n b e inductivel y derive d fro m th e phenomeno n t o b e explored I n othe r words th e theor y i s "grounded i n th e data Th e adequac y o f a theor y canno t b e divorce d fro m th e proces s o f creatin g i t (Glase r & Strauss 1967) M y research lik e mos t studie s usin g grounded research employ s interview s an d observation s a s th e mean s t o gathe r data But a s Glase r an d Strau s (1967 ) explain a wid e variet y o f documentar y materials literature an d previou s researc h ar e als o potential source s o f valuabl e data M y wor k relie s significantl y o n suc h material intendin g t o generat e ne w theory no t t o tes t o r verif y a n existen t theory M y researc h followe d th e stoc k patter n o f grounde d analysis : codin g an d categorization o f dat a a s i t was collected ; generatio n o f memos ; constan t comparison an d theoretica l analysi s (Charmaz 2000 2001 2002 2006 ; Glase r & Strauss 1967) A t th e sam e time I participated alon g wit h th e subjects i n th e creatio n o f a particula r reality Thus m y researc h desig n als o reflecte d a constructivis t pat h (Charmaz 2000) I studie d fro m a s clos e t o th e insid e experienc e a s possible an d wa s actuall y a par t o f tha t reality I n summary I use d th e empirica l literatur e t o identif y importan t factor s relevan t t o prosecutoria l decision-makin g an d th e socia l relevanc e o f animals Th e literatur e

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7 5 serve d a s a guidelin e fo r enterin g th e field I examine d cas e files, participate d i n offic e socia l life an d conducte d in-dept h interviews Fiel d note s wer e transcribe d dail y t o enhanc e reliability Whateve r theor y wa s t o b e discovere d woul d addres s a slic e o f socia l lif e i n th e prosecutio n o f felon y cruelt y cases T o understan d prosecutoria l decision making, I analyze d th e interactiona l wor k an d discours e throug h whic h prosecutor s arrive d a t thei r decisions Lik e Frohman n (1991 1997) I bega n wit h describin g ho w prosecutor s mad e decision s an d ho w the y understoo d th e wor k the y wer e doing Later I focuse d o n ho w prosecutor s accounte d for explained an d describe d thei r decisions I looke d fo r patterns inconsistencies an d contradiction s i n th e prosecutors account s o f thos e decisions Bia s an d validity Qualitativ e work b y it s ver y nature i s a n ar t o f interpretation T o tha t end bot h th e method s an d th e interprete r mus t b e assessed Altheid e an d Johnso n (1998 ) presen t a framewor k fo r reformulatin g validit y i n thi s context suggestin g tw o mai n principle s t o follow First delineat e th e proces s b y whic h th e ethnograph y occurred T o tha t end I hav e detaile d m y interaction s withi n th e office an d wit h th e attorney-interviewees I describe d th e context researcher methods physica l settings an d actors I identifie d particula r ke y individuals alon g wit h th e offic e hierarch y fo r handlin g anima l cruelt y cases Next the y sugges t tha t th e researche r specif y his/he r ow n perspective Thi s i s wh y I discusse d an d describe d m y statu s a s a returnin g member I anticipat e tha t m y ethnographi c loyalt y an d commitmen t ma y b e challenge d (Altheid e & Johnson 1998 ) becaus e o f m y statu s a s a returnin g member A s a forme r prosecutor an d on e wh o remain s closel y acquainte d wit h thos e I studied I kep t m y

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researche r statu s th e forefron t o f m y interactions I ha d n o busines s lef t a t th e count y attorney' s office no r i n publi c prosecution I was not worrie d abou t maintainin g relationships ; thes e individual s tha t I studie d alread y kne w me—an d eithe r like d m e o r not Fo r thos e I ha d jus t met ther e wa s n o pre-existin g relationshi p t o preserve I n sociology validatio n canno t occu r throug h subsequen t replication sinc e th e identica l socia l circumstance s canno t b e recreate d outsid e th e laborator y (Bloor 2001) Instea d Bloo r (2001 ) suggest s tw o alternat e method s o f validation : triangulatio n an d membe r validation Triangulatio n i s a way t o doubl e chec k finding s b y usin g multipl e source s an d mode s o f evidence I buil t th e triangulatio n proces s int o m y dat a collectio n fro m th e beginning Fo r m y work I use d severa l method s o f dat a collection : cas e analysis participant-observation an d i n dept h interviewing T o enhanc e externa l validity I looke d a t multipl e actor s i n multipl e setting s (Huberma n & Miles 1998) Beyon d triangulation Emerso n an d Pollne r (1992 ) sugges t providin g a membe r wit h a cop y o f one' s research Thi s i s membe r validation I hav e ye t t o d o that but wil l likel y d o so Anothe r criticis m ma y b e raise d i n th e contex t o f th e in-dept h interviews Namely tha t thes e canno t b e vali d becaus e the y ar e reall y jus t anecdota l storie s use d t o provid e evidenc e o f som e principle Triangulatio n dismisse s thi s risk I di d not tak e th e intervie w a t fac e value I actuall y evaluate d thei r recal l an d informatio n base d o n m y ow n independen t evaluatio n o f th e cas e files issuin g summaries an d compariso n betwee n al l cases Overall I a m confiden t tha t m y method s achieve d thei r purpose The y tel l a stor y ric h i n detail The y describ e lif e i n th e trenche s o f a prosecutor' s offic e

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7 7 an d ho w prosecutor s exercis e thei r discretio n i n th e contex t o f felon y anima l cruelt y cases An d the y d o s o relativel y accurately

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7 8 Chapte r 4 Prosecutin g Animal Cruelt y Case s Th e Prosecuto r O f al l th e attorney s I contacte d fo r interviews non e refused no r wer e an y to o bus y t o accommodat e me Thre e o f th e attorney s I interviewe d actuall y printe d of f th e curren t anima l cruelt y statut e an d brough t i t wit h the m t o th e interview Te n o f th e attorney s state d the y ha d reviewe d th e statut e prio r t o ou r interview I t was clea r tha t lega l agenc y cam e firs t i n hal f o f th e interviews But i t wa s th e persona l sid e I wa s lookin g fo r i n thi s par t o f m y research A s par t o f m y inquir y int o ho w prosecutor s exercis e discretion I coul d no t ignor e th e fac t tha t ther e ar e huma n face s an d storie s behin d th e publi c figures Jus t a s individual s mus t accoun t fo r legal extra-legal organizational an d persona l preferenc e variable s wit h regar d t o anima l cruelty the y als o operat e agains t thei r ow n persona l backdrops Accordingly I endeavore d t o discove r wha t sor t o f prosecuto r i s draw n t o anima l cruelt y prosecution Wh y prosecution ? I n m y initia l rapport-buildin g serie s o f questions I touche d o n wh y individual s selecte d prosecutio n a s a career A s t o b e expected twenty-tw o attorney s provide d twenty-tw o differen t answers Yet th e reason s tende d t o fal l int o thre e differen t categories : eleve n discusse d publi c servic e a s a motivator eigh t entere d prosecutio n becaus e o f th e natur e o f th e work an d tw o entere d th e professio n out o f necessity Whe n i t cam e t o th e publi c servan t rationale mos t prosecutor s eschewe d th e hig h corporat e paycheck s i n favo r o f doin g wel l fo r others On e attorne y wa s draw n t o th e huma n sid e o f th e work I lov e thi s job It' s not fo r th e money I t i s a sens e o f helpin g th e

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7 9 community I find crimina l la w interestin g i n th e sam e sense a s literatur e i s interesting It' s rea l storie s abou t rea l people. Stil l anothe r echoe d thes e thoughts I lik e th e rol e th e prosecutor s pla y a s fa r a s victim' s right s an d protection] [ I wanted] t o contribut e t o th e community M y brothe r alway s say s tha t I a m th e mos t educate d socia l worke r h e knows. Other s focuse d o n service I hav e bee n a publi c servan t prett y muc h al l m y lif e an d I jus t thin k it' s importan t t o serve I hav e ha d m y opportunitie s i n private but chos e not t o d o them I neve r wante d t o b e a defens e attorney I wa s on e but I didn' t lik e it Le t someon e els e wh o ha s a differen t philosoph y d o that I thin k tha t we'v e go t enoug h troubl e i n ou r country an d i f yo u ar e not willin g t o stan d u p t o kee p th e peac e o r t o kee p peopl e safer non e o f u s woul d b e safe S o I hav e t o liv e b y th e sam e wa y I woul d lik e t o b e treated Whic h i s t o hav e a s muc h publi c safet y availabl e s o I ca n g o abou t m y business.. an d th e polic e an d hopefull y th e prosecutor s ar e wha t mak e tha t happe n s o peopl e ca n g o abou t thei r busines s an d liv e safel y i n thei r homes Communit y servic e was no t th e motivato r fo r al l attorneys however Som e focuse d primaril y o n th e natur e o f th e work Man y foun d th e wor k highl y interesting A s on e attorne y noted I like d bein g i n court I enjoye d th e tria l wor k first an d foremost. Stil l anothe r on e searche d fo r a reason bu t ende d i n simpl e honesty I wis h I ha d som e gran d reason bu t th e sa d trut h i s tha t crimina l la w wa s th e onl y are a o f la w tha t kep t m y attentio n i n la w school Tha t an d tax bu t wh o want s t o d o ta x fo r a living? Others a s illustrate d i n th e severa l quote s below sough t ou t prosecutio n becaus e o f th e qualit y o f life bot h insid e an d outside th e office

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8 0 • I wa s a privat e attorne y i n Ne w York I worke d fo r a la w fir m doin g corporat e arbitration I can' t sa y I hate d it I wa s competen t a t it I t wa s fine bu t I didn' t reall y enjo y it spendin g lon g hour s a t th e offic e an d not reall y havin g an y lif e outside o f working Thi s i s kin d o f ironi c whe n yo u thin k abou t it a t leas t fo r me I was pai d bi g buck s t o mak e decision s tha t mad e n o impac t o n anyone ; an d no w I ge t pai d no t a s bi g buck s t o mak e decision s tha t hav e a hug e impact • I' d bee n i n privat e practic e fo r abou t thirtee n years I reall y kin d o f go t burne d out I didn' t wan t t o b e i n privat e practic e wher e yo u hav e t o fin d clients chas e clients kee p trac k o f time [and ] collec t mone y fro m people I was alway s a sof t touch [and ] ende d u p workin g fo r littl e o r nothing S o I though t th e eas y wa y t o g o bac k int o la w practic e was t o wor k fo r th e government an d I wa s right I'v e go t a jo b here ; it' s a goo d job I ge t a paychec k ever y tw o weeks whic h i s actuall y quit e decent an d I don' t hav e t o kee p trac k o f time fin d clients o r bil l people • I wa s neve r reall y goo d a t business I fel t reall y ba d becaus e I ha d a secretar y t o pa y fo r an d provid e healt h car e an d I jus t couldn't. .mos t o f m y clientel e wer e wome n an d I jus t couldn' t tak e thei r house s fro m the m t o guarante e m y fe e an d s o a s a resul t I neve r mad e ver y muc h money So a t th e ris k o f ultimatel y goin g bankrupt I lef t a t a tim e whe n a t leas t anothe r attorne y coul d emplo y m y secretar y tha t I share d office s with an d I wa s offere d a position I can' t reall y se e mysel f doin g anythin g else

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8 1 On e prosecutor i n particular suggeste d tha t whil e qualit y o f wor k was important th e underbell y o f thi s wa s a persona l fixatio n o n power Thi s i s wh y mos t peopl e d o it althoug h the y wil l neve r admit it ; I don' t hav e a stron g enoug h eg o t o handl e losing an d I don' t lik e goin g i n an d havin g th e cra p bea t ou t o f m e wee k i n an d wee k out Prosecutor s hav e s o muc h contro l ove r thei r workin g lives The y decid e wha t the y wan t t o tak e t o trial wha t the y wan t t o plea d out [and ] the y decid e whic h case s t o issue whic h not t o eve n ge t involve d with The y kno w th e likelihoo d o f winnin g i s great unlik e a defens e attorney [who ] los e al l tha t contro l [and ] ar e a t th e merc y o f th e prosecutor' s office Innately I kne w tha t [ I ha d control] bu t i t becam e clea r durin g th e cours e o f m y caree r tha t i s wha t mad e m e happy Onl y tw o attorney s focuse d o n necessit y a s thei r initia l reaso n fo r entranc e int o prosecution On e neede d a n immediat e jo b t o tak e car e o f hi s family Th e othe r attorne y di d s o t o appeas e he r father Th e trut h i s tha t I didn' t wan t t o b e a lawyer M y degre e i s i n biochemistry Whe n I go t bac k fro m college w e discovere d tha t m y mothe r wa s terminall y ill S o I didn' t wan t t o leave M y fathe r was yammerin g a t me "you'v e go t t o b e a professional, an d I was youn g enoug h a t tha t poin t t o stil l care So I said "Alright I don' t wan t t o g o t o medica l school but I'l l g o t o la w school. I go t i n an d I wen t t o la w school Fo r lac k o f an y desir e t o d o anythin g else an d whe n th e opportunit y presente d itself I followe d alon g an d di d prosecution

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8 2 A typica l prosecutor Whe n aske d t o describ e themselves thei r persona l relationship s wit h animals an d how i f a t all tha t affect s thei r wor k o n thes e cases th e response s varied wit h n o discernabl e radica l element I foun d i t interestin g tha t on e attorne y wa s particularl y militan t i n distinguishin g hersel f fro m wha t sh e viewe d a s th e "typical anima l cruelt y prosecutor Th e profil e o f a n anima l cruelt y prosecuto r i s not me I a m no t vegetarian I wa s a n anima l veterinary ] tech[nician ] fo r fiv e years s o I' m not ver y sensitive I lov e animals I jus t hav e a littl e mor e hard-cor e vie w o f thei r positio n i n th e societ y tha n other s do I gre w u p o n a ranc h wher e animal s go t slaughtere d fo r meat s o I com e fro m a backgroun d wher e th e killin g o f animals jus t a straigh t killing ther e i s nothin g wron g wit h it I thin k tha t som e o f th e prosecutor s tha t handl e thes e cases a t leas t i n thi s office the y absolutel y don' t com e fro m tha t background I thin k [som e prosecutors ] hav e a littl e mor e sympath y o r empath y fo r animal s tha n sometime s the y d o fo r huma n victims an d I don' t thin k that' s right.... 1 thin k tha t som e o f th e folk s tha t en d u p prosecutin g the m hav e tha t reall y emotiona l response I n hindsigh t an d afte r reviewing al l th e interviews i t was clea r t o m e tha t he r impression s o f a typica l anima l cruelt y prosecuto r wer e quit e telling Base d o n m y serie s o f interviews he r impressio n wa s bot h righ t o n point ye t als o fa r fro m wha t I too k fro m th e interviews Thi s attorne y was correc t i n on e aspect—th e othe r prosecutor s wer e ver y muc h anima l lovers

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8 3 Interestingl y enough al l but on e o f th e prosecutor s owne d animals O f thos e wh o owne d animals mos t ha d grow n u p wit h them I'v e alway s ha d a dog Fo r lik e 3 0 years I'v e alway s care d abou t animal s s o it' s har d t o sa y ho w i t woul d b e differen t i f I didn't becaus e th e fram e o f referenc e tha t I operat e o n to p o f ha s alway s bee n ther e fro m whe n I was a kid Th e animal s o f choic e wer e overwhelmingl y dog s an d cats wit h mos t prosecutor s i n multipl e anima l households Othe r animal s owne d include d horses ferrets a rat a duck a bird an d a sheep Severa l ha d rescue d animal s of f th e streets o n man y occasions Mos t readil y admitte d thei r stron g affinit y fo r animals Ac e Ventur a Pe t Detective. .pe t prosecutor. .that' s me I mea n Bamb i i s a n indelibl e experience Bamb i an d Ol d Yelle r an d Dumb o shap e wh o I am an d hav e fro m th e beginning I hav e see n Old Yeller onc e an d I can' t watc h i t a secon d time I ha d t o leav e Gorillas in the Mist i n tears S o yes I a m a n anima l person I hav e alway s ha d a pet On e attorney Renee no w fou r year s int o privat e practice occupie d a n offic e i n wha t use d t o b e a home Sh e was th e onl y on e wh o seeme d t o illustrat e wha t th e particula r prosecuto r abov e mentioned i n term s o f distancin g hersel f fro m "th e profil e o f a n anima l cruelt y prosecutor. Thi s attorney' s offic e ha d th e fee l o f a peacefu l sanctuar y o f sorts Th e entranc e area wha t wa s onc e a livin g room ha d ligh t arm y gree n pain t an d eart h ton e furniture Pillow s adorne d th e sofas Th e trickl e o f th e wate r fountai n fille d th e area Thre e smal l dog s wer e wanderin g thi s fron t room A s I mad e m y wa y t o th e attorney' s office I notice d i t wa s occupie d b y severa l do g bed s o n th e floo r an d man y

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8 4 piece s o f do g artwor k o n th e walls Afte r th e intervie w i n he r office I picke d u p Rene e fo r dinne r a t he r home Whe n I entere d he r house eigh t dog s (fiv e o f the m he r foste r animals ) greete d me I n he r backyar d was a catter y th e siz e o f a walk-i n closet o f whic h mos t woul d b e envious He r garage fille d wit h ca t an d do g supplies rivale d th e shelve s a t th e loca l Costco Th e dept h o f thi s attorney' s involvemen t wit h animals however was th e exceptio n rathe r tha n th e nor m amongs t th e prosecutor s tha t I interviewed A s Rene e reflecte d o n th e anima l cruelt y cases he r connectio n t o animal s wa s evident Sh e was th e onl y on e tha t readil y identifie d mor e closel y wit h animal s tha n wit h humans [Anima l cruelt y cases ] wer e probabl y mor e damagin g t o m e a s a huma n bein g tha n case s involvin g kid s an d adults becaus e I don' t hav e kids s o I don' t understan d th e bon d tha t yo u hav e wit h children I' m sur e i t exists but I don' t relat e t o that Wha t I coul d understand becaus e I ha d turne d t o the m sinc e I was a baby was th e unconditiona l lov e o f animals So whe n someon e get s shot I jus t dissociat e fro m tha t an d jus t go "O h Pedro go t sho t an d he' s i n a gang, an d mov e on An d it' s horribl e t o admit that but I put huma n emotio n ont o animal s becaus e o f wha t I wen t throug h a s a child I hav e mor e feelin g involve d i n th e case s I d o wit h animal s tha n th e one s I d o involvin g people Othe r prosecutor s i n th e offic e wer e keenly awar e o f Renee' s proclivities I n th e issuin g summar y o f on e case wher e a defendan t punche d a polic e do g whil e resistin g arrest th e issuin g attorne y wrote "Luck y fo r th e defendan t Rene e didn' t issu e thi s o r thi s

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8 5 woul d hav e bee n death penalt y eligible. Rene e hersel f mad e othe r comment s whe n sh e issue d cases I n on e case wher e th e defendan t sli t a thirteen-inc h gas h int o th e throa t o f hi s girlfriend' s Chow Rene e wrot e i n th e cas e summary I talke d t o Pet e an d h e agree d t o tak e cas e t o tria l eve n thoug h jus t a si x open I wil l understan d (sor t of ) an d won' t bea r hi m a grudg e (lie ) i f h e choose s t o plea d i t ou t (wimpy). I n othe r cases sh e discounte d witnesses statement s t o authorities He r note s i n th e issuin g summarie s include d th e followin g comments "Defendan t didn' t cal l 911—becaus e it' s a ne w emergenc y syste m s o wh o knew? an d "Ve t sai d do g wa s dangerous Mayb e yo u shoul d muzzl e a do g befor e stickin g you r finger s i n it s gunsho t wounds? I n additio n t o Renee othe r attorney s wrot e a serie s o f colorfu l comment s o n cover-me' s an d i n issuin g summaries Mos t calle d fo r punishment s o f th e offender s simila r i n natur e t o th e offense I n a dehydratio n case on e attorne y wrote "Wh y don' t the y sentenc e thi s idio t t o b e tie d u p wit h n o foo d o r water? Ye t anothe r attorne y ha d th e followin g remar k i n a starvatio n case "Pu t he r i n a cag e an d not fee d he r an d le t he r ea t he r wa y out. An d i n a cas e wher e th e defendan t bludgeone d a do g t o death on e o f th e mor e senio r attorney s i n th e offic e wrote "Defendan t aske d th e officer s t o bea t hi m becaus e h e go t carrie d away Hopefull y someda y hi s wis h wil l b e granted. Despit e th e overwhelmin g connectio n betwee n th e prosecutor s an d animals onl y thre e o f th e prosecutor s identifie d themselve s a s anima l right s activist s whe n asked On e attorne y was actuall y quit e deliberat e i n definin g hersel f a s a welfar e activis t an d not a right s advocate

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8 6 I a m a n anima l welfar e activist I thin k peopl e se e anima l right s individuals an d I don' t necessaril y shar e thi s poin t o f view a s th e right s o f a n anima l alway s trum p th e right s o f a huma n bein g o r t o elevat e animal s t o huma n bein g status. I thin k tha t i s a n artificia l argument Bu t ther e ar e thos e peopl e wh o d o thing s tha t I thin k ar e stupi d an d counterproductive I believ e a n anima l ha s th e righ t t o b e treate d wit h th e sam e amoun t o f dignity respec t an d integrit y a s an y othe r livin g thing But b y th e sam e token peopl e rais e the m fo r foo d an d I ea t them I f I wer e a tru e anima l right s activis t i n tha t definition I woul d not ea t them An d I do Further o f al l th e attorneys onl y tw o wer e vegetarians O f th e two on e wa s a vegan Thus ther e di d not appea r t o b e a n overwhelmin g personal/politica l anima l right s agend a i n plac e b y thos e prosecutin g th e anima l cruelt y cases Som e attorney s struggle d wit h th e contradictio n i n bot h prosecutin g anima l cruelty an d the n late r eatin g the m a s food A s on e noted I woul d lov e t o b e [ a vegetarian ] but I don' t hav e enoug h willpower An d I ge t [th e contradiction]. Anothe r echoe d a simila r stance "I' m a vegetarian o f convenience I g o throug h phases I t jus t depend s o n ho w muc h I thin k abou t m y food. Give n th e responses i t seeme d quit e clea r tha t th e typica l anima l cruelt y prosecuto r wa s neithe r a vegan no r a n anima l right s activist I n fact th e on e vega n wa s als o a retire d militar y office r an d gu n aficionado Further i n a n interestin g twist on e o f th e prosecutors wh o actuall y declare d hersel f a n anima l right s activist wa s no w a defens e attorney Sh e explaine d awa y th e seemin g contradictio n betwee n onc e prosecutin g individual s charge d wit h anima l cruelt y case s an d no w defendin g them

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8 7 I mea n I ca n reconcil e i t a hundre d differen t ways Thes e folk s nee d competen t lega l representation The y nee d somebod y t o hel p them I f the y wan t t o hol d th e state' s fee t t o th e fire that' s thei r righ t a s citizens unde r th e law I n a mor e practica l sense whateve r mone y I mak e fro m tha t goe s t o hel p rescu e animals Reputationa l impac t o f prosecutin g anima l cruelt y cases I was intereste d i n ho w anima l cruelt y prosecutor s wer e treate d b y other s i n thei r circl e o f professionals T o tha t end I centere d m y inquir y o n whethe r o r not the y wer e ribbe d abou t prosecutin g thes e sort s o f cases Onl y fiv e o f th e twenty-tw o attorney s tha t I interviewe d note d som e instance s o f this Som e wer e chide d i n th e beginnin g whe n th e legislatio n firs t wen t int o effect ; other s wh o joine d i n thi s prosecutio n late r i n tim e di d not shar e th e sam e experience An d eve n whe n the y di d experienc e th e gentl e ribbing i t wa s ofte n a produc t o f othe r crimina l justic e professionals outside o f thei r office Th e quote s belo w sugges t th e bench th e legislature an d th e defens e attorney s wer e th e sourc e o f mos t o f th e rebuking • Sometime s I ge t flac k fro m th e judg e o r defens e counsel ; lik e the y wan t t o kno w wh y I' m wastin g m y time Ther e ar e peopl e wh o stil l don' t thin k muc h o f [animals ] an d that' s a philosophica l an d a professiona l problem I t i s har d fo r m e t o understan d ho w i t woul d b e difficul t fo r somebod y els e no t t o understan d wh y w e ar e doin g it • I ge t razze d a t th e legislatur e sometime s amon g m y peer s lik e "Oh [she'll ] car e abou t thi s becaus e ther e i s a n anima l thin g involved. Bu t not i n a ba d way No t

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8 8 i n th e count y attorney' s offic e anymore Sometime s [ a mor e senio r attorney ] makes comment s her e an d there but h e doesn' t reall y mea n them • Whe n I di d th e cases i t was mor e grie f fro m th e defens e communit y o r th e bench ; not s o muc h fro m folk s i n th e office I thin k som e o f th e defens e attorney s thin k portion s o f ou r pleas ar e harsh Wheneve r w e plea d a n anima l cruelt y w e wan t the m t o atten d a human e societ y class w e wan t the m t o pa y restitution w e wan t the m t o g o throug h a lo t o f stuf f lik e that becaus e w e reall y thin k tha t i s par t o f wha t shoul d happen An d a lo t o f defens e attorney s hav e hug e issue s wit h that The y [complain] "m y clien t shouldn' t hav e t o d o X Y Z. Whil e ther e wer e a fe w prosecutor s wh o recalle d specifi c instance s o f razzin g b y other s fo r thei r wor k wit h anima l cruelt y cases non e see m t o fin d thi s a commo n event T o th e contrary severa l indicate d the y actuall y receive d ver y positiv e comment s an d heightene d respec t fro m co-work s i n regar d t o thei r wor k wit h anima l cruelt y cases I n som e o f th e issuin g summaries ther e wer e eve n compliment s pai d t o attorney s wh o ha d agree d t o tak e th e case On e prosecuto r describe d he r experience I t ha s alway s bee n ver y positiv e feedbac k fro m everybody I wa s ver y excite d [abou t on e defendant ] gettin g [priso n time ] an d I'v e share d i t wit h man y peopl e becaus e i t seeme d ver y appropriate An d i t was reall y exciting Everybody' s reactio n was "Wel l done o r "Goo d job Whe n [I ] wo n tha t tria l I thin k tha t i s th e mos t compliment s I hav e eve r received—email s an d peopl e i n th e hallwa y congratulatin g us

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8 9 Despit e eve n th e greates t o f compliments I notice d anothe r patter n emergin g fro m thos e wh o handle d thes e sort s o f cases—on e o f self-preservation/protection A s on e attorne y noted I a m self-protective ; I tr y t o bloc k thes e fro m m y memory. Man y other s expresse d simila r strategies • A s wit h anythin g i n th e world it' s on e o f thos e thing s tha t yo u hav e t o separat e yoursel f from I gues s it' s a double-edge d sword I gues s i t coul d mak e i t difficult but a t th e sam e tim e i t make s m e wan t t o pursu e thes e cases becaus e I d o car e s o much I wan t t o se e peopl e hel d accountabl e fo r th e action s tha t the y hav e take n an d fo r wha t the y hav e don e t o thes e animals So i n a wa y yo u d o tr y t o separat e it but i n a way yo u can't • I spen t severa l o f year s doin g th e se x cases—mostl y ki d se x cases Thes e I coul d d o an d di d not hav e an y sor t o f leftove r effect s tha t I brough t hom e wit h me N o s o wit h th e anima l cases Thes e trouble d me Th e huma n conditio n i n thi s worl d neve r cease s t o amaz e me. .disgus t m e mor e like Anyway th e thing s w e sa w w e couldn' t mak e up An d w e couldn' t un-se e them ; the y jus t sta y wit h you S o yo u hav e t o reall y mak e a n effor t t o disassociate Reflection s o n thei r work Nea r th e en d o f m y interview I aske d a ver y broa d questio n abou t whethe r th e intervie w mad e the m thin k o f anythin g the y ha d not though t o f before Th e prosecutor s consistentl y focuse d o n tw o specifi c things : som e smal l sor t o f thank-yo u fo r allowin g the m t o tal k abou t thes e cases separat e fro m th e lega l world an d wha t the y wis h the y coul d change I t was thi s las t are a o f reflectio n tha t yielde d excellen t advic e fo r th e successfu l prosecutio n o f thes e case s i n th e future

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Severa l attorney s turne d rathe r introspectiv e a t thi s point almos t thankfu l fo r bein g abl e t o participat e i n th e interview Man y o f th e attorney s wh o ha d originall y issue d th e case neve r kne w th e fina l cas e disposition s o the y appreciate d th e closure On e attorne y actuall y enjoye d bein g abl e t o tal k abou t hi s wor k i n non-lega l terms "Thanks I don' t ge t t o tal k lik e thi s to o ofte n abou t m y philosophy s o it' s kin d o f nic e t o b e abl e t o vent Bu t I' m a voic e i n th e ne w wilderness. Lucy on e o f th e mor e senio r attorney s gre w concerne d a s sh e reflecte d o n he r work I d o tr y t o trac k the m bu t I can' t remembe r everybody' s nam e al l th e time I hav e a lo t o f institutional memory. .and. .i t cause s m e som e paus e abou t whe n I retire Wha t i s goin g t o happe n t o thi s afte r I leav e an d I think.. Well I don' t know I hop e w e ar e doin g thi s right I thin k ther e i s a chang e wit h thes e cases A t leas t the y ar e o n th e radar no w an d othe r attorney s ar e thinkin g abou t it Whe n i t cam e t o reflectin g o n changes mos t prosecutor s focuse d o n wha t the y viewe d a s th e inadequac y o f availabl e sentences Al l wante d greate r consequence s fo r thes e sort s o f offenders Explanations lik e th e tw o tha t follow wer e mos t prevalent • W e hav e mandator y jai l time s fo r [drun k driving] Ther e i s a mandator y 2 4 hour s i n jai l fo r [them] I thin k tha t ther e ar e man y reason s fo r that bu t th e bigges t reaso n fo r tha t i s tha t yo u potentiall y ma y endange r othe r people Yo u coul d hav e hur t othe r peopl e reall y badly I don' t thin k mandator y jai l tim e i s inappropriat e fo r anima l cruelty I t doesn' t hav e t o b e a lot bu t I jus t thin k i t i s somethin g tha t says "Yo u ignore d [the ] sufferin g o f anothe r creature—th e creatur e tha t yo u

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9 1 didn' t hav e t o tak e responsibilit y for. Nobod y force s anybod y t o ge t a do g o r a cat jus t lik e nobod y force s yo u t o driv e whe n yo u hav e bee n drinking • I thin k th e statut e shoul d g o furthe r int o emotiona l abus e a s well but I realiz e th e proo f requirement s o n thi s woul d b e almos t insurmountable I believ e prosecutor s encounte r th e sam e proble m wit h venerabl e adul t abuse Emotiona l i s include d i n [th e statute] bu t withou t th e prope r witnesses forge t it Peopl e wh o overfee d an d don' t exercis e dog s als o troubl e me I thin k mayb e m y standard s ar e to o hig h fo r most I jus t thin k i f yo u tak e o n th e responsibilit y o f ownin g a dog ; whic h n o on e force d yo u t o do the n yo u mus t assum e responsibilit y fo r th e dog' s goo d health I don' t know ; ou r natio n ha s th e mos t overweigh t kids. .adults. .yo u nam e it I f peopl e canno t tak e car e o f themselve s o r thei r kids wh y shoul d I thin k the y ca n tak e car e o f a n animal ? Tim e t o star t licensin g parentin g an d pe t ownership On e prosecuto r wa s clearl y frustrate d wit h th e seemin g disparit y i n th e wa y offender s wer e sentence d i n case s o f anima l cruelty Wha t alway s frustrate d m e abou t this yo u know a thef t o f $250 that' s a [class ] si x ope n [offense] O r it' s joyridin g i n a car...crime s tha t don' t caus e pai n an d suffering Yet [th e legislature ] mad e agonizin g deat h [o f a n animal ] a [class ] si x ope n [offense] too An d I neve r understoo d tha t abou t th e legislature Wha t ar e w e distinguishin g here ? A misdemeano r shoul d be not necessaril y a non-victi m crime but someon e wh o didn' t d o somethin g wit h th e intentio n t o destroy mutilate maim an d kill An d yet i f I stol e th e telephone o r I stabbe d a dog it' s th e sam e crime It' s no t i n m y head An d I coul d not eve r reall y accep t tha t o r ge t

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9 2 m y hea d around it See on e involve s pickin g u p a knif e an d thrustin g i t int o th e beatin g fles h o f a livin g bein g versu s "I' m goin g t o jus t cu t th e phon e an d tak e i t an d put i t i n m y trunk. I coul d neve r understan d ho w th e legislatur e coul d paralle l thos e tw o an d sa y they'r e th e same Som e o f th e attorney s lamente d abou t a n overal l lac k o f la w enforcemen t skill s whe n i t cam e t o handlin g thes e cases Whe n i t cam e t o trainin g th e anima l contro l officers ther e was a focu s o n whe n t o charg e an d ho w t o actuall y d o th e investigation Traditionally anima l contro l officer s ar e no t sen t throug h a polic e academ y an d thu s ar e not give n th e investigativ e trainin g expecte d fo r a swor n stat e peac e officer A couple attorney s explaine d th e nee d fo r training • W e nee d a thoroug h investigatio n done an d tha t jus t doesn' t includ e repor t writing but actua l photography videos actuall y collectin g evidence Fo r example th e [Golde n Retriever ] case Wher e sh e was tie d ou t an d the y ha d t o brin g he r i n an d sh e eventuall y passe d away Wel l th e anima l [control ] office r didn' t tak e th e ti e out That' s somethin g they'v e sinc e bee n traine d on Yo u know whe n you'r e investigatin g o n a cas e wit h a ti e out tak e th e ti e out Don' t jus t leav e i t there • W e ar e havin g som e difficult y wit h anima l [contro l officers] Tal k abou t tur n ove r an d lac k o f training The y ar e goin g ou t t o scene s an d dog s ar e nea r death an d the y ar e sayin g [t o th e owners] "Tak e tha t do g t o th e vet. I' m sorry i f th e anima l i s nea r death th e anima l [contro l officer ] shoul d b e impoundin g tha t anima l an d gettin g i t immediat e medica l car e an d the n charging ] it O r not a s

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9 3 th e cas e ma y be but a t leas t yo u hav e a n obligatio n i f a n anima l i s i n distres s not t o leav e i t there Eve n th e polic e officer s an d sheriff s deputie s ha d thei r ow n difficulties On e wa s thei r inabilit y t o thin k outsid e thei r are a o f expertise Fo r example i n domesti c violenc e cases mos t officer s though t onl y o f humans The y wer e not necessaril y lookin g fo r animal-victims which a s severa l attorney s detailed ar e ofte n involve d i n thes e sort s o f cases On e attorne y colorfull y highlighte d hi s frustration s wit h la w enforcement Th e polic e raide d fou r differen t propertie s o n th e sam e da y an d confiscate d ove r 15 0 [dogs ] fro m fou r differen t locations The y ha d bee n tol d b y ou r office d o not mak e arrest s becaus e tha t woul d star t th e cloc k tickin g fo r th e cas e t o b e prepared an d despit e tha t advice the y arreste d thes e people Yo u learne d a s yo u went s o that' s wh y i t woul d hav e bee n bette r i f the y ha d not mad e th e arrest s s o w e woul d hav e ha d mor e time—no t onl y t o ge t throug h th e many man y boxe s o f evidence but t o se e wha t wa s developing wha t wasn't an d the n [get ] backgroun d information Bu t yo u reall y didn' t ge t a chanc e to a s wel l a s yo u coul d have [La w enforcement ] ca n b e lik e a n ol d Seinfeld episode—th e on e abou t th e renta l car Seinfel d show s up but th e agenc y tell s hi m the y hav e n o car H e says "What' s th e poin t o f a reservation? Th e agenc y says "O h w e kno w th e point. Seinfel d says "N o yo u don't Anyon e ca n mak e a reservation but th e poin t i s t o hol d th e car. I t i s th e sam e wit h [la w enforcement] Th e poin t i s t o accoun t fo r wha t the y seize W e wen t ove r ther e [t o th e station ] an d wen t throug h th e

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envelopes Fuckin g mone y i n them [They ] shoul d kno w tha t the y nee d t o accoun t fo r that. .bu t no neve r an y verification I n additio n t o a cal l fo r trainin g la w enforcement ther e wa s a n eve n loude r outcr y t o educat e th e judges an d th e communit y a t large a s t o th e deepe r contex t o f anima l cruelty A s on e attorne y noted "Yo u hav e t o ge t th e benc h t o care Ther e ar e member s o f th e benc h a t ever y leve l tha t car e mor e abou t certai n thing s tha n othe r things. Furthe r evidencin g th e nee d fo r judicia l education wer e th e measure s som e attorney s too k i n sentencing Occasionally prosecutor s requeste d aggravatio n hearings wherei n the y coul d presen t additiona l evidenc e abou t a defendant A s on e attorne y explained Tha t i s par t o f m y judicia l educatio n proces s not onl y t o educat e m y ow n prosecutor s abou t wha t thes e peopl e ar e about bu t t o tak e [judges ] ou t o f th e "thi s i s onl y a n animal wha t a m I goin g t o sentenc e thi s perso n to? S o I say "Her e i s everythin g els e abou t thos e people. Yes educat e [judges] It' s fo r thi s case but it' s beyon d thi s case The n ever y tim e the y loo k a t a n anima l cruelt y cas e the y ar e not jus t thinking "Oh thi s i s jus t abou t som e dum b animal. Man y o f th e prosecutor s detaile d thei r struggle s wit h ho w t o fi t a n animal-victi m int o th e contex t o f a crimina l cod e an d overal l justic e syste m tha t ha s heretofor e focuse d o n human-victims On e prosecuto r summe d i t u p bes t whe n sh e suggeste d a change — tha t mor e attorney s neede d "out-of-the bo x creativity. Thi s translate d int o an y numbe r o f tactics : see k chil d protectiv e service s record s i f a famil y ha s instance s o f anima l cruelty as k th e judg e t o brin g th e anima l int o court an d thin k o f innovativ e ways beside s felon y convictions t o hol d offender s accountable On e attorne y suggeste d th e

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9 5 nee d t o humaniz e th e case Sh e noted I put th e animal' s nam e i n th e indictment eve n thoug h i t drive s th e folk s i n gran d jur y crazy I us e word s lik e 'murdered instea d o f 'killed whe n I tal k abou t th e animals. Sh e was quick however t o tempe r he r advice i n a hallway meetin g wit h a junio r attorne y seekin g guidanc e o n closin g argument s i n he r anima l cruelt y case I n respons e t o a questio n abou t likenin g tyin g u p a do g t o tyin g u p a child sh e responded Well b e carefu l tryin g t o mak e animal s ou t t o b e humans Statute s regardin g humans lik e murder ar e jus t an d se t out th e specifi c stat e o f min d requirements So too th e statute s regardin g anima l mistreatmen t ar e jus t an d the y se t ou t specifi c stat e o f min d requirements T o tha t exten t the y ar e similar Bu t I wouldn' t sa y th e do g equal s a kid Yo u migh t los e som e o f the m [th e jury] Severa l attorney s discusse d creativit y i n th e us e o f statutor y provisions one s tha t wer e originall y enacte d fo r applicatio n t o huma n cases not t o anima l cases The y discusse d usin g "dangerou s nature an d "seriou s physica l injury allegation s i n th e cas e o f anima l a s wel l a s huma n victims On e prosecuto r observed "[Th e statute ] doesn' t 3 Accordin g t o A.R.S 13-10 5 (13) "Dangerou s offense mean s a n offens e involvin g th e discharge us e o r threatenin g exhibitio n o f a deadl y weapo n o r dangerou s instrumen t o r th e intentiona l o r knowin g inflictio n o f seriou s physica l injur y o n anothe r person I f th e offens e i s "dangerous, th e defendan t i s subjec t t o enhance d sentencing Accordin g t o A.R.S 13-10 5 (38) "Seriou s physica l injury include s physica l injur y tha t create s a reasonabl e ris k o f death o r tha t cause s seriou s an d permanen t disfigurement seriou s impairmen t o f healt h o r los s o r protracte d impairmen t o f th e functio n o f an y bodil y orga n o r limb Muc h lik e th e dangerou s natur e allegation a n allegatio n o f seriou s physica l injur y enhance s th e sentencin g range

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9 6 specif y tha t th e victi m has t o b e a person S o yo u kin d o f hav e t o ge t creative Ne w la w demand s creativit y t o mes h i t wit h ol d law. Similarly ther e wa s a n interestin g us e o f th e statut e i n a particula r cas e o f se x wit h a n animal I n 1985 th e offens e o f bestialit y wa s remove d fro m th e Arizon a statute s (Ariz laws 1985) Thus fo r instance s o f sodomy prosecutor s wer e limite d t o a n anima l cruelt y charge Thei r creativit y cam e i n th e for m o f addin g a n allegatio n o f sexua l motivatio n t o th e underlyin g cruelt y offense. 4 Prosecutor s di d no t hav e a monopol y o n creativity Som e reporte d instance s o f defens e attorney s makin g nove l arguments I n a n od d twist on e defens e attorne y file d a motio n arguin g tha t th e dog' s owner s wer e no t victims ; tha t th e do g was th e victim An d therefore th e owner s ha d t o submi t t o defens e interview Th e judg e denie d tha t motion Th e rulin g ensure d tha t th e owner s woul d no t b e subjecte d t o a pre-tria l defens e interview Bu t a t th e sam e time i t als o solidifie d th e animal' s positio n a s somethin g othe r tha n a victim I n additio n t o th e nee d fo r trainin g an d creativity th e admonitio n t o remai n reasonabl e an d no t allo w persona l emotion s t o interfer e wit h th e cas e wer e othe r commo n piec e o f advice I d o not believ e thi s was uniqu e t o onl y anima l cruelt y cases ; i t woul d 4 Accordin g t o A.R.S §13-118 th e prosecutio n ma y fil e a specia l allegatio n o f sexua l motivation I f th e stat e ca n prov e beyon d a reasonabl e doub t tha t th e defendan t committe d th e offens e wit h a sexua l motivatio n (meanin g tha t th e crim e was committe d fo r th e purpos e o f defendant' s sexua l gratification) the n th e defendan t i s subjec t t o registratio n a s a se x offender

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9 7 see m t o appl y t o al l crime s involvin g victims violence o r rea l lif e stories Ther e appeare d a nee d fo r emotional/persona l distanc e i n handlin g one' s caseload Whe n I bega n thi s research I questione d whethe r a particula r typ e o f perso n i s attracte d t o prosecutio n o r i f th e prosecutoria l caree r fiel d actuall y shape s th e outloo k o f it s participants I canno t sa y tha t m y researc h wa s abl e t o conclusivel y answe r tha t question Wha t i t di d do however wa s t o demonstrat e th e complexit y o f th e huma n sid e o f prosecution S o often w e spea k o f prosecutio n i n term s o f som e ad hoc formula base d o n a serie s o f variables Whil e thi s ma y b e th e cas e i n som e area s o f th e law prosecutor s remaine d product s o f thei r ow n experiences A s such the y use d thei r experience s i n th e exercis e o f discretion Moreover whe n aske d t o reflec t o n thei r work mos t prosecutor s too k th e opportunit y t o addres s fault s i n th e curren t process Heedin g thei r criticism s migh t sugges t a pat h t o furthe r th e effectiv e prosecutio n o f anima l cruelt y cases Organizatio n o f Anima l Cruelt y Prosecutio n I n th e previou s section I concentrate d o n th e individua l prosecuto r o f anima l cruelt y cases I n thi s section however I us e a broader len s t o examin e th e structur e o f th e prosecutor' s offic e an d it s influenc e o n wha t prosecutor s do I focu s o n ho w anima l cruelt y case s wer e organize d office-wide Prosecutor s identifie d a n offic e structur e tha t create d certai n constraints Thes e constraint s ultimatel y affecte d ho w a n anima l cruelt y cas e was issued pleaded tried an d handle d overall M y interview s suggeste d thre e constraints : 1 ) overal l offic e polic y regardin g anima l cruelt y cases 2 ) th e physica l

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9 8 locatio n o f th e anima l cruelt y case s i n th e offic e hierarchy an d 3 ) whethe r o r no t attorney s wer e availabl e t o handl e thes e cases Offic e policy Whe n i t cam e t o th e genera l offic e policy ther e wer e discussion s a t tw o relevan t points Prosecutor s identifie d a s critica l th e electe d count y attorney' s decisio n whethe r o r not th e offic e woul d respon d an d prosecut e thes e sort s o f offenses Th e fac t tha t anima l cruelt y was elevate d t o felon y statu s i n 199 9 di d no t mea n th e offic e ha d t o dedicat e resource s t o prosecutin g thes e offenses Th e broad spectru m o f felonie s prosecute d b y th e count y attorney' s offic e allowe d budge t constraint s t o dictat e polic y decision s tha t prioritize d som e case s ove r others Eve n i f th e electe d officia l chos e t o pursu e a polic y o f prosecutin g felon y anima l cruelt y cases constraint s wer e impose d o n amoun t o f time money an d effor t t o b e spen t o n eac h case Severa l attorney s wer e quic k t o acknowledg e tha t th e electe d official' s stance alon g wit h cultivatin g a n institutiona l bas e o f suppor t fo r prosecutin g thes e cases wa s crucial Th e prosecutor s tha t I spok e t o al l describe d th e count y attorne y a s supportive seein g anima l cruelt y a s a broader communit y issue Accordin g t o on e prosecutor "ther e was n o issu e wit h th e electe d officia l not supportin g thes e case s i n th e beginning. A s attorney s pondere d th e futur e o f anima l cruelt y prosecution the y als o acknowledge d a relate d importan t factor Wha t I hop e wil l not happe n i s tha t i f th e administratio n changes w e ar e n o longe r abl e t o d o thes e case s a t all [Anothe r count y attorney' s office ] i s a grea t example Unde r th e tenur e o f th e previou s count y attorney the y ha d som e dedicate d prosecutor s t o tha t endeavor Unde r th e ne w count y attorney tha t i s n o

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9 9 longe r th e cas e s o ther e ar e n o active proactiv e prosecution s i n anima l cruelty anima l neglect goin g o n i n [that ] county I don' t wan t tha t t o happe n i n [our ] county Onc e mad e a par t o f th e institutiona l base advocate s fo r th e prosecutio n o f anima l cruelt y case s ha d t o figh t fo r time attention an d resources muc h lik e ever y othe r felon y case Give n th e shee r numbe r o f cases i t was commo n practic e t o plea d mos t cases A t thi s count y attorney' s office 8-10 % o f al l felonie s wen t t o trial Th e res t wer e handle d via ple a o r othe r non-tria l disposition suc h a s diversio n o r dismissal A s Lucy th e mos t experience d anima l cruelt y prosecuto r noted "Les s tha n 1 % o f al l anima l cruelt y case s g o t o trial I n fact mor e misdemeanor s tha n felon y anima l cruelt y case s ar e actuall y tried. Ple a guideline s wer e commo n i n eac h prosecutoria l uni t t o ensur e th e unifor m treatmen t o f offenders bot h amon g prosecutor s an d amon g defendants Writte n guideline s se t th e expecte d resolutio n fo r variou s cases give n th e particula r circumstances Fo r instance i n propert y crime s ther e wa s onc e a polic y tha t individual s wh o wer e charge d wit h committin g a burglar y wit h a weapo n woul d onl y b e offere d a ple a tha t calle d fo r priso n time Thus probatio n was no t available Severa l attorney s indicate d tha t ple a guideline s wer e mor e appropriat e i n som e units but no t i n others give n th e natur e o f certai n offenses Non e o f th e prosecutor s interviewe d coul d recal l an y sor t o f written forma l offic e polic y regardin g th e prosecution/pleadin g o f anima l cruelt y cases A s on e attorne y

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10 0 suggested "I t wa s jus t m e wit h th e statute. On e attorne y provide d a n explanatio n a s t o th e lac k o f interna l guidelines I don' t recal l ther e bein g a writte n policy but on e o f th e nic e thing s abou t m y superviso r i s tha t wit h he r twent y year s o f experience i t wa s mor e importan t t o d o th e righ t thin g tha n t o necessaril y follo w policy An d tha t doesn' t mea n tha t ethic s wer e eve r i n jeopardy It' s jus t tha t wit h se x crimes chil d abuse famil y crimes an d anima l abus e crimes th e influenc e tha t th e emotions an d th e player s involve d hav e ove r th e case i s muc h mor e s o tha n i n an y othe r kin d o f cas e wher e yo u hav e polic y dictates abou t whethe r o r not a cas e deserve s a plea Th e variable s ar e s o immeasurable wherea s i n a gan g crim e the y al l suck s o yo u migh t a s wel l tak e the m al l t o trial An d a propert y crime th e fingerprint s matc h o r the y don't An d yo u ca n tak e har d line s i n thos e kind s o f cases Bu t th e variables eve n u p unti l th e moment whe n th e perso n utter s thei r firs t wor d o n th e stand ar e not know n an d th e ris k i s jus t to o great Whe n yo u ca n garne r a convictio n withi n th e real m o f reasonableness tha t i s muc h mor e valuable tha n t o hol d t o a polic y line Th e onl y steadfas t polic y recalle d b y on e o f th e prosecutor s wa s th e directio n tha t sh e receive d fro m a superviso r tha t non e o f th e anima l cruelt y case s woul d b e take n t o trial Ther e wa s a tim e whe n ther e wa s a polic y tha t w e wer e not t o tak e an y anima l cruelt y case s t o trial W e go t a ver y stron g edict an d I don' t kno w wha t triggere d it I t cam e fro m m y supervisor I thin k someon e ha d take n a cas e t o tria l an d

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ther e migh t hav e bee n a lo t o f criticis m fro m th e benc h abou t i t t o [th e count y attorney ] o r t o ou r office W e go t a very ver y stron g instructio n t o not tak e thes e case s t o trial I didn' t agre e wit h it but tha t was th e policy Withou t offic e and/o r unit-wid e ple a policie s regardin g anima l cruelt y cases individua l attorney s crafte d thei r ow n ple a guideline s whe n handlin g suc h cases Som e base d th e reasonin g o n th e degre e o f har m cased "Well fo r me i f yo u kil l a n animal I thin k yo u shoul d d o jai l time S o I star t there. Other s looke d t o wha t the y describe d a s th e connectio n betwee n anima l cruelt y an d othe r violen t offenses W e jus t go t [severa l domesti c violenc e cases ] i n a ro w wher e tw o o f the m deal t wit h cats o r kitten s tha t wer e killed A s th e supervisor I mak e th e ple a decision s generally I n thos e situation s it' s beneficia l t o us an d society t o hav e [defendants ] plea d t o a n anima l cruelt y charg e i n conjunctio n t o th e domesti c violenc e charge I n trainin g tha t I'v e received torturin g o f animal s i s a re d fla g fo r othe r type s o f crimina l behavio r lik e chil d abuse domesti c violence sexua l offenses s o on an d s o forth Th e perso n tha t tend s t o lik e t o tortur e animal s i s eithe r a gatewa y o r somethin g the y d o i n conjunctio n wit h othe r crimina l activities S o I thin k tha t it' s beneficia l t o u s t o hav e peopl e plea d t o th e anima l cruelt y a s wel l a s a domesti c violenc e charge Locatio n i n th e offic e hierarchy Eve n thoug h case s wer e t o b e prosecuted the y seeme d mor e lik e vagrant s i n th e norma l offic e structure Thi s count y attorney' s offic e wa s organize d int o fiv e divisions : administrative investigation victi m services civil an d criminal I concentrate d m y researc h effort s i n th e crimina l division wher e ther e

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wer e sixt y attorneys wh o operate d thirtee n prosecutoria l units Thes e thirtee n unit s wer e divide d accordin g t o th e typ e o f crime s prosecuted Th e unit s included : domesti c violence forfeitures gang gun homicide/col d case issuing juvenile misdemeanors narcotics property specia l victim s uni t (formerl y know n a s se x crimes) vehicular an d violen t offenses Appendi x D contain s a mor e detaile d descriptio n o f eac h unit I n total th e offic e prosecute d ove r 5,00 0 case s annually I t i s se t i n a count y wit h a reporte d U.S Censu s populatio n o f almos t 850,00 0 i n 200 0 (U. S Censu s Bureau 2000) Th e media n ag e fo r th e count y was 36 wit h a media n househol d incom e o f $36,75 8 overal l an d $44,44 6 fo r famil y income 14.7 % o f th e populatio n was unde r th e povert y line I n m y interviews I aske d where i n th e crimina l division anima l cruelt y case s wer e located Th e resultin g dialogu e reveale d severa l interestin g pattern s o f organization Overall ther e wa s n o specifi c organizationa l locatio n fo r thes e sort s o f cases Instead anima l cruelt y case s wer e "accommodated. An d wha t m y informant s mean t b y "accommodation was ad hoc, a t best Felon y anima l cruelt y prosecutio n bega n becaus e a coupl e prosecutor s too k a persona l interes t i n it an d the y wer e abl e t o convinc e th e count y attorne y o f th e merit s o f thes e sort s o f cases Thi s a d ho c allocatio n o f anima l cruelt y cases mixe d wit h th e rallyin g spiri t o f a fe w individua l prosecutors ultimatel y le d t o a syste m o f extr a dutie s fo r thos e prosecutor s wh o actuall y trie d thes e cases Interestingly eve n whe n attorney s wer e aske d t o structur e thei r ow n prosecutor' s office mos t wer e uncomfortabl e establishin g a uni t dedicate d t o anima l cruelty So a t thi s count y attorney' s office ther e was n o singl e uni t dedicate d t o th e prosecutio n o f

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anima l cruelt y cases A s on e attorne y lamented "I n a n idea l world w e woul d hav e a dedicate d unit but limite d resource s forc e u s t o allocate whic h i s effective I guess. Th e organizatio n o f anima l cruelt y prosecutio n i s bes t discusse d i n fou r tim e frames : prio r t o 1999 1999-2004 2004-2006 an d 2006-present Prio r t o 1999 whe n anima l cruelt y case s wer e al l misdemeanors the y wer e assigne d t o th e misdemeanor s unit Prosecution s occurre d i n lowe r justic e o f th e peac e courts Mos t anima l cruelt y case s wer e prosecute d a s citation s i n violatio n o f th e loca l code I n 1999 however ne w stat e legislatio n was passe d t o mak e certai n intentiona l an d knowin g form s o f anima l mistreatmen t an d neglec t clas s si x felonies Fro m 1999-2004 th e organizatio n o f anima l cruelt y felon y case s was informa l a t best Case s wer e organized handled an d assigne d dependin g o n wh o wa s interested an d wh o wa s availabl e t o ad d the m t o thei r tria l calendars Th e tw o mai n player s wer e Renee a n issuin g attorney an d Lucy a senio r prosecuto r i n th e office Th e movemen t t o prosecut e felon y anima l cruelt y case s wa s a bottom-u p phenomenon I t bega n wit h a prosecuto r i n th e issuin g division Renee not wit h a top dow n offic e policy No t out o f coincidence Renee' s stron g professiona l interes t i n th e prosecutio n o f th e felon y anima l cruelt y case s mirrore d he r persona l interes t i n anima l rescue Sh e wa s th e on e mak e th e firs t mov e i n th e prosecutio n o f felon y anima l cruelt y cases A s soo n a s statut e changed I wa s ver y aggressive I t wa s somethin g tha t was ver y persona l t o me An d a s soo n a s w e coul d mak e felonie s ou t o f it I wante d t o aggressivel y pursu e i t becaus e I ha d bee n workin g wit h anima l rescu e

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group s fo r a coupl e year s prio r t o this I wa s seein g wha t was goin g o n an d wa s alread y reall y frustrate d abou t th e inabilit y t o d o anythin g abou t it othe r tha n t o tak e th e anima l an d tr y t o ge t i t t o recove r o r recuperate The n suddenl y someon e hande d m e a sword lik e a "ha-ha an d I coul d d o somethin g finally I wa s i n th e positio n i n th e count y attorney' s offic e tha t I coul d mak e i t happen O f course nois e makin g wa s no t withou t it s challenges Rene e provide d insigh t int o wha t sh e called "th e battle. I starte d th e battle [On e detective ] an d I wer e ver y aggressiv e wit h anima l contro l becaus e the y wer e no t reporting The y wer e killin g withou t doin g th e follo w u p investigations I woul d fin d out abou t a lo t o f th e animal s tha t weren' t reporte d throug h th e anima l rescu e grou p tha t I was a boar d membe r of An d w e woul d ge t a cal l tha t ther e was a ca t tha t wa s se t o n fire.. [or ] a do g wit h a rubbe r ban d aroun d it s rotte d tail An d I woul d cal l th e detectiv e an d sa y "d o w e kno w o f [an y o f this]? The n I woul d cal l u p th e directo r [o f anima l control ] an d sa y "Wha t ar e yo u doing? "Ther e i s thi s la w yo u hav e t o follow. Tha t was a lo t o f work Th e directo r o f anima l contro l file d a complain t agains t m e becaus e I was demandin g tha t the y compl y wit h th e law Whe n thes e animal s tha t wer e abuse d cam e through an d anima l contro l was lik e "We'r e no t goin g t o kee p it. An d I tol d the m the y ha d t o [because ] i t wa s evidence An d the y woul d say "Wel l we'r e no t goin g t o d o that. So I woul d transitio n [th e animals ] int o m y rescu e grou p s o I woul d kno w wher e th e victim s o f anima l cruelt y were An d whe n th e polic e woul d releas e the m fo r adoption w e woul d adop t the m out an d

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10 5 peopl e woul d kno w tha t the y migh t hav e t o brin g th e anima l i n fo r observation [Anima l control ] ha d a ve t tha t wouldn' t properl y car e fo r th e animal s an d s o I wen t afte r th e vet too an d h e didn' t ge t hi s contrac t renewed I t wa s jus t a lot A lo t battlin g anima l contro l [and ] battlin g th e officer s becaus e i t ha d jus t becam e a felony an d w e wer e th e onl y count y i n Arizon a tha t was prosecutin g felon y cases I woul d hav e call s fro m othe r officer s i n othe r jurisdiction s tha t wante d m e t o tal k t o thei r prosecuto r t o hav e the m star t charging th e case Ha d ther e bee n othe r prosecutor s i n he r position les s sympatheti c t o th e maltreatmen t o f animals i t i s unclea r whethe r th e offic e woul d hav e bee n a s aggressiv e i n it s prosecutio n o f thos e cases Clearly Rene e ha d a heightene d persona l interes t i n anima l wel l being alon g wit h th e motivatio n t o d o th e extr a work O f course thi s wa s no t somethin g sh e coul d d o o n he r own Thus Rene e bega n t o recrui t other s i n th e office wit h approva l o f th e Count y Attorney Sh e di d thi s vi a email a t offic e meetings i n hallways an d eve n in-perso n i n thei r offices I f attorney s ha d a persona l interes t i n handlin g anima l cruelt y cases the y typicall y contacte d her Afte r issuance Rene e woul d the n assig n the m t o othe r attorney s i n th e office A s a n issuin g attorney sh e di d no t maintai n a tria l calendar Eventually Rene e neede d othe r attorney s t o assis t wit h bot h issuin g an d trials Certai n prosecutor s succumbe d t o he r solicitation s an d agree d t o tak e th e cas e a s thei r own Onc e a prosecuto r too k a case the y wer e mor e tha n likel y t o b e solicite d a secon d time Withi n a shor t perio d o f time Rene e wa s abl e t o identif y whic h prosecutor s woul d handl e th e case s an d whic h woul d not

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Soon however on e o f th e mor e senio r attorney s i n th e office Lucy too k a persona l an d professiona l interest Th e interes t wa s persona l becaus e o f he r self proclaime d titl e a s anima l lover I t was professiona l becaus e o f he r histor y a t th e office I'v e actuall y bee n involve d i n th e anima l cruelt y case s throughou t m y entir e career Whe n I wa s a t th e cit y prosecutor' s offic e I becam e th e anima l prosecutor s o I wa s doin g cruelt y case s whe n the y wer e misdemeanor s way bac k whe n i n 1986 Whe n I cam e ove r her e I di d a couple o f hig h profil e misdemeano r anima l cruelt y case s i n th e justic e court [Sinc e then] I'v e sor t o f jus t kep t m y nos e i n i t t o th e degre e tha t I ca n whe n peopl e hav e aske d m e question s abou t i t durin g th e intervenin g years Bu t the n whe n I go t int o se x crimes I jus t didn' t hav e tim e fo r muc h els e excep t fo r questions Whe n i t becam e a felon y i n 1999, 1 go t bac k int o i t becaus e I was aske d t o participat e i n th e anima l cruelt y tas k force. 5 Lucy' s interest s gre w fro m persona l t o professiona l becaus e o f wha t sh e describe d a s "th e legitimat e connectio n betwee n anima l cruelt y case s an d th e case s i n th e se x crime s unit. Eventually becaus e o f Lucy anima l cruelt y crime s foun d a hom e i n th e se x crime s uni t (no w know n a s SVU specia l victim s unit) Sh e describe d th e foldin g o f anima l cruelt y crime s int o tha t uni t a s a n "organic move formin g a n integra l par t o f th e se x crime s prosecutio n unit Accordin g t o Lucy sh e was th e onl y attorne y wh o was 5 Th e anima l cruelt y tas k forc e i s a n organizatio n compose d o f veterinarians la w enforcement prosecutor' s offices anima l car e an d shelte r facilities probation chil d protectiv e services an d gam e an d fis h officers The y attemp t t o coordinat e ho w anima l cruelt y crime s ar e deal t wit h acros s th e souther n par t o f th e state. Thei r focu s i s o n th e trainin g o f all individual s involve d i n th e prosecutio n o f anima l cruelt y cases Thi s particula r tas k forc e stoo d u p immediatel y afte r th e 199 9 felon y anima l cruelt y legislatio n too k effect

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10 7 senio r enoug h i n th e offic e t o mak e decision s abou t ho w th e anima l cruelt y case s woul d b e handled Becaus e I was th e superviso r o f se x crime s an d I coul d arguabl y mak e a legitimat e connectio n betwee n th e kind s o f case s w e wer e handlin g an d anima l cruelt y cases an d tha t I coul d als o kee p a n ey e o n them I mad e the m par t o f m y unit Whil e th e movemen t mad e logica l sens e t o th e Lucy I sense d som e emotional hesitanc y fro m Rene e i n lettin g g o o f thes e cases I thin k Luc y wante d t o tak e them I don' t thin k anybod y wante d them The n ultimatel y sh e wante d contro l ove r wh o was issuin g th e cases s o sh e too k the m fro m me I understan d wantin g t o b e i n charg e o f wha t you'r e prosecuting Fift y percen t m e was like tha t make s tota l sense An d th e othe r 50 % wa s like wai t a minute I' m th e on e that' s bee n lobbyin g i n fron t o f th e legislature I' m th e on e that' s bee n takin g i t o n th e fron t lines an d you'r e takin g thi s fro m me Lik e I' m a tw o year-ol d an d I' m no t doin g a goo d job S o par t o f m e was offended Mayb e no t eve n half Mor e lik e 25% I t was jus t like hey Go d dam n it I was disappointe d bu t a t th e sam e time i t was a phenomena l prosecuto r wh o [was ] goin g t o b e givin g thes e case s th e attention Afte r th e anima l cruelt y case s wer e move d t o th e se x crime s unit the y wer e handle d i n tw o differen t ways : mos t wer e supervisor-assigne d t o attorney s i n tha t uni t a s par t o f thei r se x crime s caseload whil e a fe w other s wer e dole d ou t whe n particula r attorney s contacte d Luc y an d volunteered Som e attorney s simpl y di d no t wan t t o d o th e

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cases bu t wer e assigne d the m anyway I n som e instances prosecutor s wer e simpl y unintereste d i n thes e cases A s on e attorne y remarked I di d not wan t anima l cruelt y case s becaus e the y wer e onl y a [class ] si x [felony] Giv e m e th e seria l rapis t o r highe r felonies. A s note d i n th e followin g quotes th e majorit y o f attorney s wh o proteste d di d s o becaus e o f persona l reasons • I woul d not [try ] anima l cases I ge t to o emotional to o upset an d actuall y weepy wher e I woul d no t wit h a huma n being W e al l hav e a breakin g point Ther e ar e a coupl e peopl e i n ou r uni t tha t hav e a rea l proble m goin g t o chil d autopsie s an d ar e ver y bothered I mean I' m no t sayin g it' s a n enjoyabl e experience but t o m e it' s mor e o f a scientifi c experience Perhaps [i t is ] becaus e I don' t hav e children I hav e pets s o that' s m y breakin g point I f I ha d to I could I mea n i f the y said "You'r e th e one you'v e go t t o handl e it, I would But I woul d prefe r no t to an d the y generall y honored that • I di d not volunteer Th e degre e o f cruelt y tha t human s d o i n thes e case s t o animals tha t ar e s o vulnerabl e an d s o a t th e merc y o f humans I can' t dea l wit h tha t dynamic I t haunt s me I hav e tw o girls I hav e tw o cats I wis h I coul d explai n it but I hav e absolutel y n o ide a [wh y I ca n d o th e ki d case s an d not th e anima l cruelt y cases] I di d them but bo y I tel l yo u thos e wer e harde r tha n an y othe r cas e I had I wouldn' t loo k a t th e photographs I wouldn' t g o throug h th e disclosur e wit h th e degre e o f detai l tha t I g o throug h [th e ki d cases] I jus t couldn't Sometime s I woul d hav e m y lega l assistan t rea d i t an d jus t tel l m e th e

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10 9 stuf f I reall y neede d t o know Filte r i t an d senso r it I t wa s self-protective I begge d no t t o d o th e ca t cases—giv e m e fiv e other s instead Eve n on e prosecutor wh o ha d originall y volunteere d t o tr y th e cases realize d th e emotiona l weightines s o f th e cases I di d voluntee r i n th e beginning but graduall y thes e case s reall y starte d t o tak e a n emotiona l tol l o n me Mor e s o tha n an y o f th e chil d molest[tation ] o r rap e case s tha t I did Mayb e i t was becaus e I di d no t hav e kid s an d di d hav e pets I' m not sure I remembe r tellin g m y boss Lucy tha t I didn' t wan t an y mor e o f thes e cases Tha t I was to o investe d i n them ; almos t to o emotiona l abou t them Sh e jus t smile d an d politel y said "Well that' s th e exac t reaso n wh y I'v e assigne d the m t o yo u i n th e firs t place. So I neve r di d sto p tryin g them Well unti l I lef t th e office I n 2004 a ne w superviso r was appointe d t o hea d th e se x crime s unit Th e anima l cruelt y case s remained bu t Luc y left Sh e was assigne d othe r higher-leve l administrativ e dutie s outsid e th e office Thus fro m 2004-2006 a ne w prosecutor/superviso r was put i n charg e o f bot h th e se x crime s uni t an d th e felon y anima l cruelt y cases N o longe r wer e thes e anima l case s a priorit y fo r th e ne w supervisin g attorney Case s o f anima l cruelt y wer e seldo m issued An d eve n i f the y wer e issued non e o f the m wen t t o trial Althoug h havin g a n assignmen t outsid e o f th e office Luc y neve r stoppe d he r professiona l involvemen t i n variou s communit y an d la w enforcemen t meetings I n 2006 Luc y too k bac k al l th e anima l cruelt y case s ou t o f a continuin g persona l interest

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11 0 Eventually I too k the m al l back I t becam e clea r t o m e tha t th e case s wer e n o longe r bein g give n th e sam e degre e o f priorit y tha t I fel t tha t the y deserved The y wer e not bein g take n seriously The y wer e not bein g issued The y wer e bein g al l waive d [t o misdemeanors] Th e superviso r i n charg e o f th e uni t di d not car e abou t them an d di d not thin k the y wer e important I [now ] overse e th e ple a offer s i n al l misdemeano r an d felon y [anima l cruelty ] cases I a m tryin g t o maintai n continuit y an d tryin g t o instil l a cultur e o f accountability safet y o f futur e animals an d education Notwithstandin g th e interes t o f th e count y attorney an d th e hom e tha t th e anima l cruelt y case s foun d i n th e se x crime s unit i t was apparen t tha t withou t th e interes t o f a fe w specifi c attorneys thes e case s woul d not hav e resume d t o a positio n o f an y sor t o f legitimacy T o thi s day ther e i s n o distinc t anima l cruelt y unit Instead Lucy wit h th e assistanc e o f a couple othe r senio r attorneys i s th e on e wh o oversee s th e prosecutio n o f felon y anima l cruelt y cases She alon g wit h a fe w others issue s th e cases an d the n dole s the m out t o variou s recruite d o r otherwis e intereste d attorneys Som e attorney s wer e mor e dedicate d tha n others bu t Luc y expresse d gratitud e fo r an y attorne y wh o agree d t o help Muc h o f th e recruitmen t was stil l don e informally via emai l an d i n person I t wa s clea r afte r jus t a fe w interview s tha t i t wa s generall y know n i n th e offic e tha t Luc y wa s th e on e t o overse e al l th e anima l cruelt y cases Intereste d attorney s specificall y contacte d Luc y t o expres s thei r interest A s on e prosecuto r noted "It' s jus t

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Il l kin d o f know n aroun d th e offic e tha t Luc y handle s mos t o f th e felon y prosecutio n o f anima l cruelty. Whe n i t cam e t o th e attorney s wh o volunteered the y di d s o fo r a n arra y o f reasons—eithe r the y wer e anima l lovers wante d t o wor k wit h victims o r wante d t o wor k wit h Lucy No t al l o f th e intereste d attorney s wer e junio r ones ; ther e wer e three i n particular tha t wer e mor e senio r attorney s i n th e office—eac h o f the m havin g betwee n 28-3 4 year s experienc e a s attorneys Overwhelmingly i t was persona l interes t tha t motivate d al l o f th e prosecutor s t o participate I di d kin d o f voluntee r t o d o anima l cases I' m fon d o f animals I'v e alway s owne d animals cat s an d dogs a couple o f fish an d bird s alon g th e way An d I though t i t woul d b e somethin g goo d t o do interestin g t o do an d worth y t o do I don' t thin k anybod y twiste d m y arm an d I wa s respectfu l o f th e wor k [o f othe r attorney s i n th e office] Ha d ther e not bee n anyon e interested i t appear s unlikel y tha t th e case s woul d hav e maintaine d wha t limite d priorit y the y did I n m y sampl e o f attorney s wh o ha d handle d a t leas t tw o felon y cases ther e evolve d a cor e grou p o f individual s wh o handle d mos t o f th e anima l cruelt y cases I thin k w e hav e peopl e i n ou r offic e tha t wan t t o specializ e i n that Fo r whateve r reason they'r e intereste d i n thos e kind s o f cases An d s o I thin k tha t thos e kind s o f case s generall y jus t g o t o thos e certai n peopl e i n th e office I t seem s t o b e th e peopl e tha t reall y hav e a passio n fo r i t ar e th e one s tha t en d u p takin g them Lucy

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11 2 Te d Nadine Mary Mayb e Luc y find s th e peopl e tha t reall y hav e a passio n fo r doin g thos e type s o f cases an d that' s wh o the y en d u p with Als o influencin g th e assignmen t o f case s wer e instance s o f multipl e count s agains t a n individua l defendant Sometimes anima l cruelt y charge s wer e considere d "add-ons t o othe r crimes Fo r example i n case s o f chil d abus e an d neglect ther e migh t hav e als o bee n a neglecte d anima l i n th e case Thus th e cas e woul d ge t assigne d t o th e specia l victim s unit Similarly i f th e cas e involve d dru g possessio n an d anima l cruelty i t woul d b e assigne d t o th e narcotic s unit Wit h n o specifi c hom e fo r anima l cruelt y cases I aske d th e prosecutor s t o whic h uni t the y woul d assig n thes e cases i f the y ha d th e authority Ove r hal f o f th e attorney s woul d hav e house d th e anima l cruelt y case s i n th e specia l victim s unit Som e als o suggeste d th e violen t offense s o r propert y crime s uni t a s secondar y choices Ther e wer e a t leas t fou r o f th e attorney s wh o sai d the y preferre d tha t thes e particula r case s continu e i n thei r ad hoc status withou t a definit e home Thos e wh o suggeste d housin g th e anima l cruelt y case s i n th e specia l victim s uni t focuse d o n th e rea l and/o r perceive d connectio n betwee n violenc e t o animal s an d subsequen t violenc e t o humans Thei r responses som e o f whic h ar e highlighte d below sugges t th e uniquenes s o f th e animal-victim • [Anima l cruelt y crimes ] ar e appropriat e fo r specia l victim s uni t becaus e they'r e correlate d wit h othe r type s o f crime s tha t ar e frequentl y associate d wit h specia l victim s an d domesti c violence Th e folk s tha t prosecut e thos e type s o f case s 6 I n 2008 Te d was on e o f seve n attorney s i n th e countr y honored fo r hi s wor k i n anima l cruelt y prosecution

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11 3 generall y receiv e th e typ e o f trainin g that' s neede d t o b e abl e t o dea l wit h thes e cases [Animals ] ar e no t victim s unde r th e law bu t the y ar e victim s o f a sort An d t o tha t extent ther e was a [specia l victim s unit ] cultur e tha t the y wer e th e mor e qualifie d one s t o [handl e victims] W e handle d othe r kind s o f violent famil y things an d crime s tha t woul d mayb e mak e u s a littl e mor e equippe d t o evaluat e thos e cases a s oppose d t o jus t someon e wh o hasn' t handle d violen t crime s o r [domesti c violence] It' s kin d o f th e sam e idea Fo r mos t people pet s ar e a par t o f th e famil y i f w e ar e talkin g abou t pets I kno w it' s no t alway s pets I t coul d b e a wor k anima l o r horse but I thin k i t i s a littl e different I don' t equat e animal s wit h huma n being s a s fa r a s th e affec t o r wha t th e punishmen t shoul d be but I stil l thin k i t i s family-related I don' t equat e the m wit h childre n wh o hav e bee n moleste d o r somethin g lik e that but I can' t reall y thin k o f a bette r place • Th e othe r plac e i t coul d possibl y fi t woul d b e violent crimes [And ] not a sla m agains t prosecutor s i n violen t crimes but a lo t o f time s i t [was ] stranger s an d not a [domesti c violence ] situation. S o the y ma y no t b e a s use d t o handlin g situation s wher e peopl e fee l lik e th e anima l i s a membe r o f th e family o r heightene d publi c awareness o r thing s lik e that Eve n whe n th e prosecutor s suggeste d puttin g anima l cruelt y case s int o th e propert y crime s unit the y struggle d t o addres s th e concep t o f animal s a s property Ther e was a cognitiv e dissonanc e o f sorts—whil e th e pas t dictate d som e logica l sens e t o animal s a s property recen t evolutio n seeme d t o hav e suggeste d otherwis e t o them Th e comment s belo w illustrat e thei r struggle

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11 4 • Th e onl y othe r uni t I ca n thin k of potentially an d i t doesn' t see m t o fit there i s i f you r vie w i s tha t animal s ar e property Jus t on e othe r possessio n tha t folk s own The n th e propert y uni t woul d b e a n appropriat e place Dog s ar e considere d property s o tha t woul d b e th e logica l choice Bu t that' s kin d o f simple • I think technically i f yo u jus t loo k a t i t i n blac k an d white I gues s animal s ar e propert y i n a way But I thin k tha t anima l right s advocate s migh t not lik e tha t placemen t there becaus e I thin k tha t minimize s th e whol e affec t o f th e la w itself Becaus e yo u ar e equatin g i t wit h someone' s ca r gettin g trashe d o r stolen • Mayb e propert y crimes but tha t make s n o sens e wit h wha t w e kno w today Bu t b y eliminatio n i t doesn' t belon g i n guns o r homicide o r vehicula r [drivin g unde r th e influenc e cases] I mean jus t b y elimination But yo u ca n se e wh y i t doesn' t mak e sense I mea n historicall y animal s hav e bee n propert y fo r centuries But i n th e las t twent y o r thirt y year s a t th e most we'v e see n suc h a connectio n wit h abus e t o animal s t o abusiv e behavio r agains t others Ther e was als o a stron g contingen t o f deput y count y attorney s wh o believe d anima l cruelt y case s shoul d remai n t o wande r th e halls Fo r thes e prosecutors th e over t persona l interes t b y som e attorney s seeme d t o trum p an y sor t o f overridin g organizationa l location I f a prosecuto r ha d th e interest dedication an d experience that' s al l tha t seeme d t o matter On e attorne y explained "Wel l i n a rea l broa d perspective [assig n thos e cases ] t o an y t o an y prosecuto r tha t give s a damn. Others a s note d below echoe d thes e sentiments but als o reste d thei r reasonin g o n th e nee d fo r consisten t treatmen t o f anima l cruelt y cases

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11 5 • Keep[ing ] i t withi n tw o o r thre e peopl e wh o d o thos e case s i s probabl y a goo d idea Yo u wan t t o hav e som e kin d o f control som e continuit y betwee n th e detective s s o the y hav e somebod y wh o know s wha t the y ar e doing an d wha t kind s o f problem s yo u migh t hav e i n trial • I thin k yo u pic k on e perso n wh o i s intereste d i n them becaus e ther e i s not tha t man y o f them S o on e o f th e thing s I thin k w e ought t o b e doing jus t a s a prosecutin g agency i s tr y t o remai n consistent—trea t similarl y situate d defendant s i n a consisten t way So i f yo u hav e multipl e peopl e handlin g thes e cases w e hav e inconsistent results an d that' s no t necessaril y fair Ultimately withi n th e office ther e appeare d a tensio n betwee n a bureaucrati c an d a professiona l approac h t o organizationa l allocation Th e bureaucrati c approac h woul d assig n th e anima l cruelt y case s t o thei r mos t efficien t locatio n (i.e se x crimes propert y crimes o r nowhere) Th e professiona l approac h woul d conside r whic h lega l professiona l demonstrate d a n interes t i n thes e sort s o f cases Th e professiona l approac h seem s t o ensur e mor e dedicate d treatment Attorne y availability I t was clea r tha t despit e institutional support ther e stil l neede d t o b e willin g prosecutor s t o tak e o n thes e type s o f cases Without them th e prosecutio n o f anima l cruelt y crime s ma y lessen A s Luc y noted Th e prosecutio n busines s i s a hard business Th e difficult y o f ou r jo b i s compounde d b y th e fac t tha t w e ar e ver y financiall y limite d i n ou r rewards Ther e i s ver y littl e advancemen t i n bein g a prosecutor Yo u ca n b e a caree r prosecutor a s I am an d b e makin g th e sam e amoun t o f money comparatively

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11 6 tha t other s wer e makin g te n year s ago Tha t doesn' t encourag e peopl e t o sta y i n thi s lin e o f work S o I hav e lawyer s wh o ar e intereste d i n doin g th e work bu t ar e the y goin g t o b e motivated long-term t o sta y a s a caree r prosecutor ? I don' t know So I hav e a concer n tha t onc e I depar t ther e ma y b e n o [one ] withi n th e offic e tha t i s dedicate d t o seein g tha t thes e case s g o forward I gues s tha t i s somethin g tha t I a m goin g t o hav e t o spen d som e tim e figurin g out I don' t wan t t o us e th e ter m legacy Tha t i s ver y self-importan t sounding It' s not a legac y thing It' s th e righ t thin g t o d o fo r th e community It' s th e righ t thin g t o d o fo r th e futur e o f ou r society It' s th e righ t thin g t o d o [for ] ou r culture Ever y cultur e i s judge d b y ho w w e dea l wit h th e mos t vulnerabl e amon g us an d righ t no w th e mos t vulnerabl e amon g u s ar e ou r anima l companions I f ther e i s not a n institutional bas e anywher e t o mak e sur e tha t happens the y wil l b e lef t behind I t appeared however tha t availabilit y involve d mor e tha n jus t whethe r o r not a n attorne y was intereste d i n prosecutin g a n anima l cruelt y case Th e particula r prosecutor' s curren t caseloa d an d leve l o f trainin g wer e als o factor s tha t playe d int o thei r handlin g o f thes e extr a anima l cases Whe n I querie d th e prosecutor s a s t o thei r averag e caseloa d a t th e tim e the y wer e prosecutin g anima l cruelt y cases th e number s varied Ther e wa s a lo w o f 2 5 case s currentl y i n plac e i n som e unit s t o a hig h o f 5 0 case s i n th e past Th e natur e o f th e uni t ofte n determine d wha t th e caseloa d woul d be Fo r example i n th e narcotic s o r propert y crime s unit th e caseloa d wa s highe r tha n thos e i n th e homicid e o r se x crime s unit Regardles s o f th e numbe r given al l attorney s though t thei r require d caseloa d wa s to o onerous

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11 7 Whe n a prosecuto r was interested th e cas e wa s the n assigne d t o tha t particula r attorney Ultimately thi s metho d translate d int o a syste m o f extr a dutie s fo r thos e wh o agree d t o prosecut e thes e cases A s on e prosecuto r noted th e amoun t o f extr a wor k involve d ha d a n impac t o n th e prosecutor' s decisio n whethe r o r not t o accep t a n anima l cruelt y case I le t [m y boss ] kno w tha t I wante d t o d o [anima l cruelt y cases] [My ] onl y warnin g was not t o overburde n mysel f wit h doin g a larg e amoun t o f anima l cruelt y cases suc h tha t m y [regular ] calenda r becam e unmanageable. Further eve n whe n attorney s accepte d thes e cases the y wer e stil l ranke d lowe r o n th e offic e tote m pole Shoul d th e anima l cruelt y cas e tak e to o muc h tim e an d effort o r interfer e wit h othe r cases i t was clea r tha t a prosecutor' s regularl y assigne d caseloa d woul d tak e priority Severa l attorney s detaile d th e restriction s unde r whic h the y coul d accep t anima l cruelt y cases • I can' t pic k u p to o man y o f them becaus e I stil l hav e t o pic k u p prett y muc h m y ful l loa d o f chil d se x case s an d chil d abus e cases [Th e anima l cruelt y cases ] tha t I tak e don' t coun t [towar d m y caseload] • [M y uni t supervisor ] allow s m e t o tak e anima l cruelt y case s becaus e I don' t le t the m interfer e wit h m y gan g prosecution Yo u know i f the y wer e t o eve r trul y interfer e wit h a gan g prosecution the n I woul d hav e t o figur e somethin g els e out o r I woul d hav e t o declin e it [Th e anima l cruelt y prosecutors ] as k m e [i f I can] tak e o n a case I f I hav e time I'l l sa y sure On e prosecuto r eve n documente d he r recen t declin e o f a n anima l cruelt y cas e tha t sh e ha d previousl y accepted

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11 8 I actuall y jus t withdre w fro m [ a pendin g anima l cruelt y case ] becaus e i t wa s jus t to o muc h fo r me I' m issuin g an d th e volum e o f case s i s massive I do definitel y [wan t t o continue] I jus t don' t hav e th e tim e righ t now bu t whe n I g o bac k o n th e tria l team I d o full y inten d o n gettin g bac k int o doin g anima l cruelt y cases Institutiona l suppor t an d persona l interes t wer e necessar y fo r th e prosecutio n o f anima l cruelt y case s t o continue However the y wer e no t enough Ther e was a growin g sens e tha t th e requisit e leve l o f attorne y skil l an d trainin g mus t als o exist Lega l trainin g a t th e count y attorney' s tende d t o b e formal informal an d sel f taught I considere d trainin g t o b e forma l i f i t was develope d b y th e offic e fo r in-hous e presentation o r i f i t was presente d b y externa l agencies Informa l trainin g consiste d o f one-on-on e mentorin g an d non-structure d discussion s i n an d aroun d th e offic e (wha t I referre d t o a s "hallwa y justice") Self-taugh t wa s simpl y that—a n attorne y too k i t upo n hi m o r hersel f t o stud y material s tha t he/sh e ha d researche d i n relatio n t o anima l cruelt y prosecution Th e successfu l prosecutio n o f al l case s involve s th e prope r trainin g o f attorneys Ne w lawyer s mus t lear n litigatio n skills jus t a s experience d attorney s mus t lear n t o prosecut e ne w sort s o f offenses Ther e i s a learnin g curv e t o b e conquere d whe n a prosecuto r transfer s fro m on e uni t t o th e next Th e nut s an d bolt s o f fingerprin t identificatio n i n a ca r thef t case fo r example ar e certainl y differen t tha n th e DN A testimon y o f a forensi c scientis t i n a sexua l assaul t case Eve n crime s onc e committe d agains t people lik e thef t o r stalking hav e take n o n a ne w twis t a s th e crime s fin d a ne w platform—cyberspace Similarly anima l cruelt y case s presente d a ne w foru m fo r prosecution. Thi s count y attorney' s offic e traine d it s prosecutor s i n variou s ways : i n

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11 9 hous e training gran t funde d training annua l stat e prosecuto r conference outside loca l agenc y training individua l attorne y mentoring an d individua l research Variou s prosecutoria l training s wer e i n place stat e wid e an d acros s th e country fo r adul t se x crimes crime s agains t children domesti c violence death penalt y cases vehicula r homicides etc A t thi s office n o on e recalle d an y formall y organize d in-hous e trainin g o r grant-funde d trainin g specificall y targetin g anima l cruelt y cases Som e prosecutor s di d not e th e existenc e o f a n occasiona l electiv e sessio n a t th e annua l stat e conference Similarly a t som e o f th e grant-funde d trainin g fo r domesti c violence prosecutor s recalle d a n occasiona l mentio n o f th e correlativ e lin k betwee n anima l cruelt y an d subsequen t violenc e toward s humans but nothin g particula r t o investigatio n o r prosecutio n o f anima l cruelt y crimes Thos e wh o sough t ou t th e training particularl y b y outsid e agencie s connecte d t o la w enforcement wer e allowe d t o attend provide d i t di d no t otherwis e interfer e wit h thei r othe r cas e obligations Othe r prosecutoria l agencies th e loca l anima l agencies th e sheriff s department an d a loca l anima l cruelt y tas k forc e conducte d wha t limite d trainin g tha t di d exist The y the n instructe d othe r attorney s wh o ha d expresse d a n interes t i n anima l cruelt y cases A s I interviewe d severa l o f th e mor e experience d anima l cruelt y prosecutors I note d a concer n wit h trainin g beyon d th e offic e walls Ther e was a sentimen t expresse d tha t othe r professional s i n th e chai n o f prosecutio n als o neede d qualit y training Thi s include d polic e officers veterinarians an d anima l contro l officers Befor e trainin g coul d tak e place th e prosecuto r ha d t o convinc e th e othe r agencie s o f th e worth no t onl y o f th e training but als o o f thes e sort s o f case s i n th e firs t

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place Thi s too k o n a ver y functiona l quality Th e inheren t wort h o f anima l cruelt y case s was not th e touchston e o f legitimacy Instead i t wa s th e relatio n o f thes e anima l cruelt y case s t o othe r overarchin g la w enforcemen t concerns Luc y documente d th e evolutio n o f trainin g fo r anima l cruelt y case s withi n th e office Ther e wasn' t an y [training] W e ha d t o inven t it W e sa t dow n wit h member s o f th e anima l cruelt y tas k forc e an d other s outside o f th e tas k force Primarily th e sherif f was th e onl y agenc y initiall y tha t was intereste d an d som e member s o f th e anima l contro l agenc y lin e workers no t th e brass [We ] bega n t o tal k t o the m abou t th e kind s o f thing s w e wante d the m t o star t thinkin g abou t i n a differen t wa y i n orde r t o brin g case s t o felon y land So w e se t u p th e trainin g curriculu m ourselves Whe n I starte d preparin g trainin g material s tha t I coul d delive r t o people I starte d doin g m y ow n research U S Human e [and ] th e Dori s Da y Foundatio n hav e ton s o f stuff s o ther e i s lot s o f researc h ou t there Yo u pic k th e researc h tha t identifie s wha t I alread y knew intuitivel y an d anecdotally throug h m y ow n se x crime s an d chil d abus e practice Bu t the n yo u tak e tha t researc h an d appl y i t t o wha t yo u ar e teachin g an d t o tha t targe t audience So i f I wan t t o tal k t o recalcitrant polic e officer s i n a rura l jurisdictio n I say "Her e i s wh y yo u shoul d car e abou t do g fighting : meth gambling prostitution domesti c violence. I f I wan t t o tal k t o a rura l farmin g communit y abou t cockfighting I tal k abou t importin g bird s fro m foreig n jurisdiction s wh o brin g wit h the m avia n fl u an d Newcastle' s diseas e tha t ca n decimat e thei r ow n flocks [If ] I wan t t o tal k abou t

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prosecutor s wh o don' t car e abou t anima l crime s bu t d o car e abou t [domesti c violence] "Well thi s ma y b e ho w yo u ge t tha t [domesti c violence ] offende r tha t i s respondin g i n thi s way. So I wen t an d di d m y ow n researc h t o b e abl e t o develo p thos e training s tha t ar e specifi c t o tha t audience Informa l offic e discussion s wer e importan t t o th e attorney s interviewed Thes e discussion s wer e typicall y one-on-on e mentorin g session s b y supervisor s o r mor e experience d attorney s wit h thos e les s experience d i n th e prosecutio n o f felon y anima l cruelty Ofte n times prosecutor s describe d a sor t o f "hallwa y justice, wher e ne w attorney s woul d catc h mor e experience d attorney s fo r advice—i n th e hallway i n thei r office afte r a n offic e meeting o r whil e waitin g i n court Thes e informa l session s occurre d durin g offic e an d afte r offic e hours Whe n i t cam e t o th e cor e o f anima l cruelt y educatio n an d litigatio n training thi s wa s done initially b y a selec t grou p o f individuals bot h interna l an d externa l t o th e count y attorney s office Mos t attorney s focuse d o n wha t I calle d "th e bi g two, wh o becam e th e mentor s fo r crime s o f anima l cruelt y i n thi s particula r office On e wa s Lucy th e mor e senio r deput y count y attorney Th e secon d was Kevin a long-tim e la w enforcemen t officer Ever y attorne y referre d t o Luc y a s th e rea l authorit y fo r thes e type s o f cases Th e comment s abounded : "Hand s down Lucy; " I wen t t o he r fo r inpu t o n al l m y cases; "Luc y ha s a fantasti c lega l mind; "Wha t a grea t soundin g board an d mentor; "Sh e i s the expert; an d "Luc y i s a wealt h o f knowledge. Eve n on e o f th e prosecutors now-turned-defens e attorne y quipped "Definitel y he r whe n I prosecuted ; an d no w a s a defens e attorney sh e jus t kick s m y as s al l ove r th e courtroom.

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Attorney s als o identifie d Kevin a n experience d la w enforcemen t office r a s ye t anothe r sourc e o f guidanc e i n prosecutin g anima l cruelt y cases Prosecutor s describe d hi m a s follows "Tha t gu y wa s a n exper t i n everything an d "Hand s down th e 'pe t detective'— I can' t remembe r hi s name. On e attorne y describe d hi s wort h i n greate r detail Kevi n woul d tal k t o m e a lo t abou t differen t case s h e ha d an d differen t outcomes H e was a grea t sourc e o f informatio n o n wha t t o d o [and ] ho w t o d o it H e wa s ver y informative a goo d guy happ y t o shar e information happy t o educat e folks Really eve n thoug h yo u ar e a lawyer yo u don' t kno w everythin g abou t everythin g an d it' s important. .h e ha d tha t specifi c expertise Beyon d thes e tw o figures ther e wer e severa l reference s t o individua l attorney s wh o ha d bee n handlin g anima l cruelt y cases Eac h individua l attorne y seeme d t o hav e hi s o r he r ow n mentorin g circle based eithe r o n locatio n i n th e sam e unit previou s workin g relationship o r knowledg e o f havin g handle d simila r cases Th e constan t cross fee d o f informatio n an d sharin g o f cas e outcome s betwee n th e attorney s appeare d mor e importan t fo r man y attorney s tha n an y o f th e forma l trainin g the y received A s som e recalled ther e was littl e tim e fo r training "Wh o ha d tim e fo r training ? Yo u staf f thing s i n th e hallway s o r th e elevator Tak e th e smar t folk s t o lunc h an d hav e the m teac h you base d o n th e mistake s the y mad e o r th e thing s the y di d tha t worked. Prosecutio n wa s a cooperativ e effort [ I had ] littl e forma l trainin g a t all Totall y on-the-jo b mentoring Mos t o f m y cases anima l cruelt y a s wel l a s th e others wer e round-table d i n informa l

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discussio n settings I n othe r attorney' s offices i n hallways o n th e wa y t o court i n elevators ove r lunch a t a n offic e function a t th e ba r i f w e wen t ou t fo r a drink That' s jus t wha t w e did I t i s kin d o f reminiscen t o f la w schoo l day s a s [firs t yea r la w students] Typically I' d ru n th e fact s b y th e perso n an d the n sugges t ho w I was goin g t o handl e th e case I' d ge t thei r secon d opinion Ho w woul d the y handl e it di d the y hav e an y othe r creativ e idea s t o fill i n som e holes o r othe r strategie s give n th e fact s o f th e case On e attorne y was quic k t o poin t out however tha t th e informa l session s wer e not th e sol e metho d o f cas e resolution I woul d jus t sa y [thes e informa l hallway s discussions ] ar e complimentary Forma l trainin g i s usuall y someon e talkin g a t yo u an d yo u absor b th e concept s fo r th e first time An d som e peopl e ar e bette r a t thinkin g thing s throug h a t tha t tim e talkin g [to ] th e trainer Bu t I ten d t o tak e a longe r though t proces s o n som e o f thes e things an d so a s I said I evolve d a s a prosecutor S o ove r tim e I thin k mor e abou t them An d whe n I hav e thes e hallwa y conversation s wit h peopl e abou t stuff i t mayb e sharpen s m y focu s an d belie f abou t wha t happene d i n th e case I go t th e sens e tha t wit h thi s ne w typ e o f offense prosecutor s wer e forgin g a ne w path Thus muc h o f th e in-the-trenche s wor k was lef t t o thei r ow n design I n thei r effort s t o enforc e th e statute mos t seeme d unwillin g t o mov e to o fa r forwar d withou t consultin g thei r peers I t demonstrate d fo r m e a mor e team-oriente d approac h t o prosecutio n a s th e lawyer s struggle d wit h exercisin g discretion A s exemplifie d i n th e

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followin g tw o quotes prosecutor s routinel y spok e wit h othe r attorney s regardin g thei r cases • I looke d a t othe r peoples case s t o se e wha t th e dea l was o r the y woul d com e tal k t o me Jus t t o ge t eac h other' s opinion s o r eve n just "Tak e a loo k a t this ca n yo u believ e this? I thin k mos t o f th e tim e yo u probabl y alread y hav e i n you r min d wha t yo u wan t t o do bu t yo u ar e jus t lookin g t o thin k aloud becaus e i t i s someon e tha t i s familia r wit h ho w thing s ar e an d wha t yo u nee d t o do I mea n yo u don' t wan t t o g o of f th e reservation s o yo u usuall y confe r wit h someon e wh o doe s thos e kind s o f cases • Wha t w e d o her e a t th e offic e i s tal k wit h mor e senio r attorneys attorney s wh o hav e ha d experienc e wit h th e case s tha t we'r e trying W e bounc e ideas of f eac h othe r an d w e say "What' s th e bes t way t o g o abou t this? An d w e tal k abou t wha t w e thin k th e cas e is wha t w e thin k th e evidenc e i s goin g t o show an d i f there' s a bette r way t o presen t it It' s jus t kin d o f workin g togethe r t o ge t a successfu l prosecution Prosecutor s ofte n playe d th e devil' s advocat e fo r eac h other a s the y helpe d anticipat e defense s o r poin t ou t hole s i n on e another' s cases Mos t preferre d a goo d cas e thrashin g befor e th e cas e wen t t o trial Interestingly no t alway s wer e th e prosecutor s seekin g a n opinio n based o n thei r colleague' s lega l training Whe n yo u ar e tryin g t o anticipat e th e defens e an d bea t it ther e i s nothin g mor e valuable tha n goin g t o you r peers I t doesn' t matte r wha t thei r experienc e leve l is becaus e s o muc h o f th e case s ar e life-experienc e dependent Yo u ca n ge t insigh t

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o n [cases ] fro m someon e wh o ha s jus t bee n i n th e uni t fo r a month a s muc h a s yo u ca n fro m someon e wh o ha s bee n ther e fo r te n years A constan t i n man y o f th e interview s wa s th e nee d t o self-educate Almos t hal f o f th e attorney s actuall y note d tha t muc h o f thei r trainin g wa s throug h thei r ow n efforts Non e seeme d t o begrudg e thi s extr a self-motivate d ste p i n preppin g a case A s I sa t an d listened i t was almos t a taken-for-grante d tone— a responsibilit y tha t the y assume d a s par t o f thei r career Mos t attorney s rea d articles watche d relevan t televisio n programs learne d fro m la w enforcemen t an d othe r professionals an d relied o n whateve r on-the-jo b experienc e the y had On e attorne y summe d u p th e discussion s quit e well Eve n i f you'r e no t rea l brigh t you'l l pic k u p stuff Yo u jus t figur e i t ou t o n you r ow n sometimes ; especiall y i f it' s som e sor t o f cas e tha t i s ne w t o bein g prosecute d o r ther e i s a ne w defens e bein g used An d that' s reall y n o differen t tha n practicin g la w a s a whole I mea n i f ther e i s a ne w cas e o r ne w lega l ruling yo u jus t d o th e research M y interview s reveale d a n offic e structur e subjec t t o operationa l constraint s tha t affecte d th e handlin g o f anima l cruelt y cases Whil e ther e wa s th e suppor t o f th e electe d count y attorney thi s was onl y th e openin g o f th e gate s t o justice Beyon d thei r entranc e int o th e prosecutoria l landscape anima l cruelt y case s depende d o n interna l advocate s an d th e availabilit y o f qualifie d attorneys Without a dedicate d unit anima l cruelt y case s compete d fo r tim e an d spac e wit h othe r case s o n a n attorney' s calendar Th e tim e require d t o tr y thes e case s ofte n depende d o n th e attorney' s leve l o f trainin g an d experience Th e trainin g opportunitie s availabl e t o count y prosecutor s reveale d thei r

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priorities Governmen t budget s ar e tight s o mone y mus t b e stretche d t o bes t serv e th e need s o f th e office th e prosecutors an d th e communit y a t large Trainin g fo r anima l cruelt y case s was mostl y i n th e "hall s o f justice. Informa l mentorin g an d individua l researc h wer e th e mainstay s o f knowledge Thi s mean t tha t cas e processin g an d th e ultimat e exercise s o f discretio n wer e collectiv e endeavors

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Chapte r 5 Th e Exercis e o f Prosecutoria l Discretio n i n Animal Cruelt y Case s Prosecutor s wiel d a grea t swor d o f discretio n a s the y interpret crimina l statute s t o determin e whethe r o r not a crim e ha s bee n committed. Th e crimina l statute s ar e ofte n a n incomplet e guide Thus discretio n i s th e hallmar k fo r determinin g wha t behavior s wil l b e classifie d a s criminal Clearly thi s swor d o f discretio n ha s a doubl e edge—fo r th e powe r the y wiel d ca n als o b e abused. I n thi s chapter I examin e th e arra y o f consideration s tha t entere d int o th e calculu s o f prosecutoria l decision-making I wa s intereste d i n wha t fact s an d circumstances o r lac k thereof hav e th e greates t impac t o n a prosecutor' s exercis e o f discretion Thei r evaluatio n o f anima l cruelt y cases i n general i s simila r t o thei r evaluatio n o f an y othe r cas e befor e them—ther e i s a n overarchin g concer n fo r whethe r al l element s o f th e offens e ca n b e prove n beyon d a reasonabl e doubt Thi s evaluation whil e similar i s als o differen t i n certai n regards Ther e ar e uniqu e qualitie s i n th e exercis e o f prosecutoria l discretio n i n th e contex t o f anima l cruelt y case s tha t confounde d th e element s o f proof Th e prosecutor' s jo b i s not a mechanica l process ; i t i s a matte r o f discretio n an d judgment Accordin g t o Sara t an d Clark e (2008) th e decision s tha t prosecutor s mak e involv e mor e tha n jus t a straightforwar d exercis e o f discretion ; the y reflec t a n exercis e o f sovereig n power Mor e bluntly prosecutor s decid e wh o wil l com e withi n th e law' s gras p b y makin g tw o broa d decisions : 1 ) Ca n I prosecut e successfully an d 2 ) Shoul d I tr y t o prosecut e successfully ? (Sara t & Clarke 2008) Answerin g th e first questio n involve s consideration s suc h a s sufficienc y o f evidenc e an d credibilit y o f witnesses Th e secon d

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question o n th e othe r hand involve s issue s suc h as : alternative s t o charging individua l caseload offic e policy medi a attention an d lac k o f mora l culpability I n a n effor t t o answe r th e question s raise d above I examine d 15 5 individua l case s o f anima l cruelt y a t a loca l count y attorney' s office I the n conducte d open-ende d interview s wit h eac h attorne y wh o ha d handle d th e cases—whethe r i n a n issuing o r tria l capacity Th e genera l sentimen t was tha t eac h cas e merite d a consideratio n o f it s ow n individua l factors A s on e prosecutin g attorne y noted Wel l yo u hav e t o loo k a t eac h cas e individually Yo u hav e t o loo k a t th e histor y o f th e defendant an d whethe r they'v e ha d previou s anima l cruelt y charges Wha t was th e deliberatenes s o f th e offense ? Wa s i t ou t o f negligenc e i n takin g car e o f th e animal ? Wa s i t on e anima l o r a sle w o f them ? Yo u know i f yo u hav e a hous e ful l o f dog s o r cats withou t sufficien t sanitatio n o r foo d o r something clearl y tha t i s wors e tha n jus t one Yo u hav e t o loo k a t eac h cas e individuall y an d stud y ho w t o dea l wit h it Yo u hav e t o b e sympatheti c t o th e animals Yo u hav e t o b e realisti c a s t o ho w the y ar e goin g t o b e resolved too Whe n pushe d t o identif y th e factor s o f greates t import th e answer s gravitate d towar d th e fou r variable s introduce d earlier i n th e literatur e review : lega l considerations extr a lega l concerns organizationa l factors an d persona l preferences Whe n attorney s di d not remembe r a specifi c case the y di d a n after-the-fac t revie w o f thei r ow n work identifyin g wha t factor s the y woul d loo k a t toda y i f the y wer e t o mak e th e sam e decisio n again A s i f i t wer e th e firs t time the y stil l spok e th e languag e o f th e variable s identifie d i n th e literature Becaus e anima l case s di d no t begi n wit h th e sam e legitimac y a s huma n

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cases othe r factor s entere d int o th e calculu s i n determinin g ho w t o exercis e discretion Prosecutor s gav e voic e t o a previousl y unhear d justificatio n fo r prosecution—socia l scienc e research Altogether prosecutoria l judgment s abou t "good case s continued eve n reproducin g wha t I cal l a n "anima l ideology o f sorts—i n othe r words a "typical cas e o f rea l cruelty Lega l variable s I n thi s category I place d traditiona l law-relate d concerns : presenc e o f th e cor e cas e elements seriousnes s o f th e offense victi m credibility prio r crimina l histor y o f th e defendant an d th e overal l strengt h o f th e evidence Thes e concern s continue d t o affec t discretio n i n anima l cruelt y cases Whe n i t cam e t o substantiv e crimina l la w i n general ther e was nothin g strikingl y differen t abou t th e crim e o f anima l cruelty Proo f o f thes e elements remaine d conceptuall y th e same : ther e wa s direc t an d circumstantia l evidence witnes s testimony tangibl e evidence diagrams an d exper t witnesses Th e on e glarin g differenc e fro m crime s involvin g violenc e agains t human s i s tha t wit h animals th e subjec t o f th e cruelt y coul d no t testify Th e prosecutor instead depende d o n th e strengt h o f othe r evidenc e an d extralega l variable s suggeste d below O f course a s differen t a s thes e case s wer e fro m human-victi m crimes the y di d resembl e crime s agains t children wherei n th e child-victi m coul d not necessaril y testif y o n thei r ow n behalf I n bot h situations victi m credibilit y wa s likel y t o b e assesse d i n othe r terms I n m y observations th e term s use d include d "value o r "worth o f a n animal bot h o f whic h wer e subjectiv e assessment s dependen t o n man y othe r extralega l variables Still th e weighties t o f element s i n thes e discussion s wer e th e presenc e o f th e cas e

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elements seriousnes s o f th e offense an d th e overal l strengt h o f th e evidenc e (i.e th e lega l variables) Proo f o f cas e elements Regardles s o f egregiou s natur e o f th e offens e o r th e crimina l backgroun d o f th e defendant ther e was a n overwhelmin g focu s o n th e actua l elements o f th e case Prosecutor s identifie d a n importan t differenc e betwee n factua l proo f an d lega l proof The y wer e clearl y awar e tha t wha t the y kne w and/o r fel t t o b e tru e was sometime s differen t tha n wha t the y coul d prov e i n a cour t o f law Case s wer e limite d b y th e strengt h (o r lack ) o f evidenc e an d whethe r o r no t al l element s o f th e offens e o f anima l cruelt y coul d b e proven On e attorne y provide d a goo d explanation I don' t car e s o muc h abou t th e dynamic s o r th e emotion s anymore ; ca n I prov e th e elements o r not? Ever y crim e consist s o f certai n genera l elements Thes e element s for m th e cor e o f crimina l culpability Th e typ e o f crim e wil l determin e wha t genera l element s th e prosecuto r mus t prove I n general crime s ca n b e divide d int o tw o groups : thos e tha t caus e n o harm an d thos e tha t d o caus e harm Crime s i n th e firs t grou p hav e onl y thre e genera l elements : a ) mens rea (evi l stat e o f mind) b ) actus reus (evi l act) an d c ) concurrenc e o f th e firs t two Th e specifi c ac t an d stat e o f min d wil l vary o f course dependin g o n th e particula r crime Fo r example whe n i t come s t o th e crim e o f possessio n o f marijuana ther e ar e thre e genera l elements : knowingl y (th e mens rea), possessin g marijuan a (th e actus reus), an d proo f tha t th e knowledg e an d possessio n happe n a t th e sam e tim e (concurrence)

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13 1 Crime s o f crimina l conduc t tha t caus e har m hav e tw o additional element s tha t mus t b e proven : causatio n an d harm Onc e again thes e genera l elements wil l differ give n th e particula r crime Fo r example second-degre e murde r i s a crim e o f crimina l conduc t causin g harm T o prov e thi s crime th e prosecuto r mus t prov e tha t a person : a ) intentionall y o r knowingl y (mens red), b ) di d an y ac t (actus reus), c ) whos e ac t an d stat e o f min d occurre d a t th e sam e tim e an d c ) caused d ) th e deat h o f anothe r perso n (harm) Felon y anima l cruelt y i n th e stat e o f Arizon a fall s int o th e secon d grou p o f crime—thos e tha t caus e harm Accordin g th e Arizon a stat e statutes a s se t fort h i n greate r detai l i n Appendi x B felon y anima l cruelt y i s committe d i n fou r genera l ways : • Mistreatment : Intentionall y o r knowingl y subjectin g an y anima l t o crue l mistreatment Crue l mistreatmen t mean s t o tortur e o r otherwis e inflic t unnecessar y seriou s physica l injury o r t o kil l i n a manne r tha t cause s protracte d suffering • Neglect : Intentionall y o r knowingl y subjectin g an y anima l unde r th e person' s custod y o r contro l t o crue l neglec t o r abandonmen t tha t result s i n seriou s physica l injury Crue l neglec t mean s t o fai l t o provid e a n anima l wit h necessar y food water o r shelter • Interferenc e wit h Servic e Animals • Do g fightin g an d Cockfighting. 7 7 A s o f 9/30/2009 however thi s i s no w calle d anima l fighting On e attorne y provide d a goo d backgroun d fo r th e evolutio n o f thi s change :

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Th e crim e o f bestialit y i s not containe d i n th e anima l cruelt y provisions Instea d i t i s locate d i n Chapte r 1 4 o f th e Arizon a Revise d Statutes Thi s chapte r addresse s se x offenses Thus i t woul d appea r tha t th e legislatur e considere d bestialit y mor e o f a sex offens e tha n a crim e o f anima l cruelty M y researc h focuse d o n tw o particula r statutor y provisions maltreatmen t an d neglect Wit h regar d t o th e first provision crue l mistreatmen t ma y b e committe d i n tw o ways Th e first occur s whe n a perso n intentionall y o r knowingl y (mens rea) torture s o r otherwis e inflict s {actus reus) unnecessar y seriou s physica l injur y (harm) upo n a n animal W e ha d a numbe r o f events tha t cam e t o ou r attentio n a fe w year s back Ther e was a ver y bi g on e i n [ a neighborin g county ] calle d Ho g Dogging W e coul d not successfull y prosecut e an y o f thos e involve d i n this Ho g Doggin g i s a n even t i n whic h ther e i s a confine d area a smal l corra l i f yo u will th e pig s ar e release d int o thi s corra l wher e the y ar e chase d b y a t leas t tw o dog s sometime s mor e an d the n the y ar e cornered. Thi s stem s fro m a legitimat e us e o f huntin g dog s t o actuall y trac k dow n fera l pigs whic h ca n b e quit e dangerou s i n part s o f th e South Bu t typicall y the y woul d corne r th e pi g an d th e human s woul d dispatc h o f th e pigs No t s o i n Ho g Dogging Th e dog s ar e permitte d t o attac k th e pigs The y han g o n fo r dea r lif e generall y attackin g th e genitals th e bellies th e throat s an d th e ears Th e soun d i s jus t horrifi c o f bot h th e dog s an d th e pig s tha t ar e attacked An d the y le t tha t g o o n fo r a whil e an d I gues s ther e i s som e sor t o f scorin g syste m abou t ho w man y bite s an d ho w lon g th e dog s hol d out Simila r t o do g fighting, th e dog s sometime s hav e t o b e remove d fro m th e victi m wit h brea k stick s s o the y ca n pr y th e dog' s jaw s apar t i n orde r t o remov e i t fro m th e pig I f th e pi g i s not dead the y ar e put bac k i n th e holdin g pe n t o wai t fo r th e nex t fight. On e o f th e thing s tha t w e als o did an d I gues s it' s oka y fo r m e t o sa y i t i n thi s context Peopl e wer e s o focuse d o n wha t [th e word ] "animal mean t tha t the y neglecte d t o se e tha t w e change d th e burde n o f proof Th e origina l dog-fightin g bil l sai d tha t w e ha d t o sho w tha t th e do g wa s bred owned trained whatever wit h th e inten t tha t th e do g shal l engag e i n do g fighting. W e go t tha t successfull y change d i n th e contex t o f thi s bil l t o knowin g o r havin g reaso n t o know I t diminishe d ou r burde n o f proof Nobod y caugh t o n t o that (Thus ther e was a chang e i n th e men s re a require d fo r do g fighting. Instea d o f havin g t o prov e tha t th e breede r intended th e do g t o fight, prosecutor s no w onl y hav e t o prov e tha t th e breede r knew th e do g was goin g t o fight o r ha d reaso n t o kno w tha t th e do g woul d b e fighting)

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Causation althoug h not specificall y mentioned i s inheren t i n th e concep t o f connectin g th e ac t t o th e resultin g harm Simpl y inflictin g seriou s physica l injur y i s not enough however Th e injur y mus t b e unnecessary Th e secon d wa y o f committin g crue l mistreatmen t occur s whe n a perso n intentionall y o r knowingl y (mens rea) kill s a n anima l (actus reus) i n a manne r tha t cause s (causation ) protracte d sufferin g (harm) Killin g require s a differen t result however Onc e again merel y killin g a n anima l i s not felon y cruelty ; instead i t mus t b e don e i n suc h a wa y a s t o resul t i n protracte d suffering I t i s a misdemeano r t o kil l another' s anima l withou t authorization However i t i s not a misdemeano r t o kil l one' s ow n animal a s lon g a s i t i s don e swiftl y an d withou t tortur e o r unnecessar y suffering Th e secon d felon y provision crue l neglect ma y als o b e committe d i n tw o ways Th e first occur s whe n a perso n intentionall y o r knowingl y (mens rea) fail s t o provid e necessar y food water o r shelte r (actus reus) tha t result s i n (causation ) seriou s physica l injur y (harm) Simila r t o crue l mistreatment failin g t o provid e th e necessar y sustenance i n itself i s not a felony Felon y treatmen t lie s onl y i f thi s failur e result s i n seriou s physica l injury Th e secon d wa y o f committin g crue l neglec t i s t o intentionall y o r knowingl y (mens rea) abando n (actus reus) tha t result s i n (causation ) seriou s physica l injur y (harm) Ye t again mer e intentiona l o r knowin g abandonmen t i s not enough ; i t mus t resul t i n seriou s physica l injury Attorney s mus t not onl y prov e eac h element the y mus t als o prov e identity—i n othe r words wh o di d it ? Ther e ma y b e evidenc e tha t a n anima l was kille d i n a

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13 4 particularl y egregiou s manne r indicativ e o f sufferin g (i.e i t wa s disemboweled whil e alive) However ther e ma y b e n o evidenc e o f wh o actuall y di d i t (identity) Statutor y criticisms M y interviews perhap s no t surprisingly bega n wit h a genera l dialogu e o f wha t "cruelty mean t i n th e statutor y language Afte r that th e discussion s al l seeme d t o follo w a natura l progressio n fro m criticizin g th e languag e o f th e statut e t o th e eventua l shorthan d method s fo r categorizin g wha t "cruelty reall y meant I n short th e statut e gav e th e attorney s clues o n wha t languag e t o us e i n discussion s wit h respondin g officer s (anima l contro l an d la w enforcement) detectives defens e attorneys judges an d jurors Th e commo n criticism however wa s tha t th e statutor y languag e wa s poor an d offere d littl e guidanc e o r relief I n general eac h prosecuto r ha d his/he r ow n genera l criticis m o f th e statute. On e attorne y noted "W e ar e constraine d b y a shitt y statute. Th e la w need s t o b e rewritte n i n certai n respect s becaus e w e ar e feelin g ou r wa y throug h it. Thi s wa s echoe d furthe r whe n on e prosecuto r said I definitel y thin k tha t ther e need s t o b e som e change s wit h th e la w a s fa r a s makin g i t a littl e bi t clearer. Eve n a thir d prosecuto r commente d o n th e uniqu e natur e o f th e Arizon a cruelt y statute "Th e statut e sucks ; animal s ar e no t humans but th e la w i s writte n a s i f the y wer e humans. Beyon d jus t genera l criticis m o f th e statute man y prosecutor s ha d som e ver y specifi c critiques Th e criticism s mad e exercisin g thei r discretio n a challenge Th e specifi c criticism s o f th e statut e addresse d proo f o f identity mens rea, causation an d resultin g harm Ultimately thes e area s o f criticis m wer e als o th e one s i n whic h prosecutor s bega n t o develo p thei r ow n shor t han d rule s fo r determinin g a "real

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13 5 meaning I t was thei r criticis m o f th e elemen t o f resultin g har m tha t turne d int o a discussio n o f ho w crue l i s "cruel? Th e identit y o f th e actua l perpetrato r was a proble m i n severa l o f th e cases I n thes e cases prosecutor s recovere d th e dea d anima l an d coul d tel l ther e wa s som e sor t o f seriou s physica l injury Wha t the y couldn' t ferre t out beyon d a reasonabl e doubt wa s th e actua l perpetrator On e shoul d no t conclude however tha t identit y wa s a criticis m uniqu e t o anima l cruelt y cases Prosecutor s mus t alway s prov e th e proverbia l "wh o dunnit, regardles s o f th e offense A s on e attorne y explained "Ver y fe w peopl e ar e caugh t i n th e act. Repeatin g thi s ide a i n mor e detail a secon d attorne y commented "It' s lik e whic h huma n cause d it ? Yo u hav e a husban d an d wif e an d a dea d ca t wh o kille d th e cat ? Wh o di d it ? Wh o lai d thei r hand s o n i t an d ho w ca n th e stat e prov e that? I n on e particula r case th e owner s o f a pi t bul l foun d thei r dog' s decapitate d hea d i n thei r backyard Whe n I questione d th e assigne d attorne y abou t wh y h e dismisse d th e case h e said "I t was proo f o f wh o killed—tha t was th e problem. Upo n review th e evidenc e i n th e cas e wa s limite d t o th e dog' s decapitate d head do g hai r i n th e neighbor' s car an d do g bloo d o n a bi g whit e t-shir t i n th e neighbor' s house Bot h th e neighbo r husban d an d wif e wer e larg e individuals Thus th e shir t coul d hav e belonge d t o eithe r on e o f them Provin g a defendant' s stat e o f min d {mens rea) appeare d difficul t i n man y cases A s on e prosecuto r suggested "Wha t goe s o n inside someone' s hea d i s anyone' s guess Thus w e ar e force d t o loo k a t thei r actions—th e natur e o f th e injury ho w i t wa s inflicted wha t the y said etc. Interestingly severa l o f thes e case s suggeste d a n underlyin g elemen t o f domesti c violence Thi s lin k betwee n violenc e t o animal s an d subsequen t

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violenc e t o human s i s discusse d infr a i n thi s chapter Give n th e nee d fo r mor e tangibl e proo f o f a defendant' s stat e o f mind prosecutor s consistentl y focuse d o n behavio r tha t woul d circumstantiall y indicat e wha t a defendan t wa s thinking Prosecutor s gav e specifi c example s o f behavio r tha t woul d trigge r felon y treatment A s on e attorne y said "Cuttin g of f a dog' s hea d show s what' s goin g o n inside ; i t show s dangerousness. Anothe r attorne y discusse d a particula r case : Yeah [ I charge d rippin g of f a parakeet' s hea d a s a felony] Especially i n tha t scenari o becaus e tha t was clearl y don e t o intimidat e an d scare.. an d jus t i n genera l b e a n asshol e t o hi s wif e t o ensur e tha t sh e woul d d o wha t h e wante d i n th e future Occasionally prosecutor s woul d als o commen t o n wha t woul d not qualif y fo r felon y treatment : Knowingl y o r intentionall y i s different I f it' s deliberate tha t i s ver y different Ther e i s ignorin g sufferin g verse s a n inadvertent I didn' t mea n t o leav e m y ca t i n th e car wen t i n t o bu y milk cam e out an d th e cat' s okay typ e o f thing That' s different Severa l attorney s focuse d o n th e recurrin g natur e o f th e crim e a s a n indicato r o f a defendant' s stat e o f mind I n on e case th e defendan t was upse t wit h hi s mothe r s o h e repeatedl y thre w he r smal l do g agains t th e wall Th e attorne y commented "Repeate d behavior Fiftee n differen t time s h e thre w th e do g agains t th e wall ? C'mon that' s lik e h e fel l o n th e knif e 3 0 differen t times. I n anothe r case th e defendan t bludgeone d t o deat h

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hi s wife' s ca t an d dog Upo n reviewin g thi s case th e attorne y said "No w that' s deliberation Tw o clas s si x felonie s there. Som e attorney s wante d mor e informatio n abou t th e "why behin d th e defendant' s behavior On e defendan t wa s charge d wit h runnin g ove r dog s i n th e road A s th e assigne d attorne y noted "Fo r me it' s wh y di d yo u kil l th e dog ? Whe n yo u ar e goin g dow n th e roa d an d sayin g let' s se e ho w man y dog s I ca n hit wel l that' s problematic. I n anothe r case a defendan t sho t a do g tha t cam e u p t o snif f hi s hand Althoug h th e deat h wa s swift th e attorne y commented "Tha t on e i s jus t disturbing It' s onl y disturbin g agai n i n tha t wh y woul d yo u d o tha t jus t fo r fun I mea n th e do g wa s jus t smellin g hi m an d h e kille d it. I n on e case tw o mal e defendant s wer e takin g B B gu n practic e a t a ca t tha t wa s walkin g o n thei r balcony Th e prosecuto r assigne d t o th e cas e note d th e following It' s not necessaril y th e deat h [tha t make s a cas e a felony] ; it' s th e natur e i n whic h th e death i s done I remember readin g tha t an d thinkin g [th e defendants ] wer e ver y callous Yeah i t matters Th e boy s wer e mean vindictive joking laughing an d havin g a goo d time Overall an d quit e simila r t o m y discussio n o f identity concer n wit h provin g mens rea i n a n anima l cruelt y di d no t appea r an y mor e overwhelmin g tha n i n an y othe r case Provin g one' s stat e o f mind withou t som e sor t o f detaile d confession must b y it s ver y natur e rel y o n circumstantia l evidenc e i n al l cases A fe w prosecutor s discusse d issue s the y ha d wit h provin g causatio n i n thei r cases Onc e again th e nee d t o prov e causatio n wa s not a n elemen t tha t wa s uniqu e t o anima l

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13 8 cruelt y cases Prosecutor s mus t prov e caus e o f deat h i n murde r case s an d caus e o f injur y i n aggravate d assaul t cases Th e on e thin g tha t anima l cruelt y case s di d demand i n regar d t o provin g causation was th e stron g nee d fo r medica l evidence Afte r all ther e was ofte n n o eyewitness Severa l attorney s provide d example s o f thei r struggle s wit h causation I n on e case a homeles s femal e defendan t wa s foun d covere d i n bloo d spatte r tha t le d t o a burie d dea d dog Defendan t sh e sai d sho t do g becaus e i t ha d rabies but ther e wa s n o necropsy Th e cas e pled Th e attorne y noted "Mayb e th e do g ha d rabies....[i t is ] hard t o tel l caus e o f deat h withou t [ a necropsy]. Anothe r attorne y lamente d abou t th e simila r absenc e o f a necrops y i n a cas e wher e tw o me n sho t an d kille d a Rottweiler claimin g i t ha d Parvo Th e proble m her e [was ] th e polic e didn' t recove r th e dog Yo u stil l hav e t o prov e caus e o f death An d s o yo u nee d t o hav e a necropsy lik e a n autops y fo r people t o sho w ho w th e do g died especiall y i f ther e wer e accusation s o f Parvo posin g a s a killer Again you'r e no t bouncin g aroun d i f you'v e go t Parvo S o I neede d th e do g fo r necrops y an d withou t th e bod y I can' t d o much Whe n i t cam e t o th e languag e o f resultin g harm th e statut e mandate d a n interestin g exercis e i n lin e drawing Th e firs t lin e t o b e draw n centere d o n th e natur e o f th e injury Felon y maltreatmen t mus t resul t i n "serious physica l injury Thus prosecutor s wer e force d t o dra w a distinctio n betwee n seriou s an d non-seriou s physica l injury Th e statut e provide d som e limite d guidance Seriou s physica l injur y i s define d as "los s o r protracte d los s o f an y bodil y orga n o r limb"(A.R.S §13-105) So i n effect prosecutor s use d a definitio n originall y crafte d fo r applicatio n t o human s an d applie d i t t o

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animals Whe n i t cam e t o "serious physica l injury prosecutor s approximate d i t t o egregiou s conduct A s on e attorne y opined I thin k ther e ar e kin d o f differen t degree s [o f cruelty] ; shootin g puppie s i s prett y egregious. Anothe r opined I f somebod y skin s a cat tha t probabl y fo r m e ha s s o man y othe r red flag s jus t inherentl y i n th e ac t itsel f tha t I woul d g o felon y regardless. On e liste d deat h a s th e trigge r point "I f th e anima l i s dea d o r nea r dying yo u star t ou t wit h tha t a s a felony The n investigat e completel y an d full y a s a felony If a t th e en d o f that i t turn s ou t t o b e somethin g else that' s fine. On e attorne y provide d a quic k run dow n o f particula r injurie s an d whethe r the y qualifie d a s "serious, I f i t doesn' t involv e seriou s physica l injury the n i t woul d b e a differen t leve l o f cruelty [I f yo u kil l th e dog] tha t i s seriou s physica l injury [I f yo u brea k a bone ] tha t i s late r properl y set [that ] woul d not b e a seriou s physica l injury unfortunately [I f th e do g lose s eyesigh t o r hearing] tha t i s seriou s physica l injury [I f yo u cu t i t o r sta b it] tha t coul d be I mea n i t depend s o n th e circumstances I t definitel y doesn' t mak e th e cas e an y stronge r becaus e o f [th e do g surviving] No t tha t yo u wis h ill ; yo u ar e happy tha t th e anima l i s fine. I n a n effor t t o uncove r specifi c example s o f "serious physica l injury prosecutor s recalle d particula r cases Commentin g o n Paco th e Borde r Colli e tha t wa s sho t b y th e neighbor th e attorne y said "25 3 shotgu n pellet s i n th e dog' s sid e i s seriou s physica l injury Th e do g i s maule d t o piece s [b y th e shot] H e i s luck y tha t h e lived Bu t a shotgu n

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wit h 25 3 pellets. .tha t wa s eas y fo r me. I n th e cas e o f Phoenix a Cho w mi x whos e throa t was sli t b y he r owner' s estrange d boyfriend th e attorne y explained Yes definitel y [ a felony ] becaus e i t wa s likel y t o caus e death I remember th e fact s bette r the n I remembe r th e statute. H e go t int o a n argumen t wit h hi s girlfrien d an d I thin k sh e left H e ende d u p wit h th e do g i n th e van An d I thin k h e sai d somethin g lik e "I' m goin g t o kil l you r dog t o pis s he r of f an d h e sli t th e dog' s throa t i n th e van I can' t believ e [th e dog ] didn' t blee d out Someho w 91 1 go t involve d an d sh e recovered Animal contro l patche d he r u p an d the y jus t kin d o f staple d he r together I remembe r photograph s o f he r nec k bein g shaved Jus t awful I n anothe r case th e attorne y detaile d injur y t o a do g tha t onl y resulte d i n a limp W e ha d a cas e wher e th e defendant s wer e see n an d hear d b y neighbor s throwin g thei r pupp y u p agains t th e wal l an d th e cement an d [then ] hittin g i t wit h a rak e o r something Th e pupp y survived but ha d a lim p fo r a significan t perio d o f time W e go t a "seriou s physica l injury ou t o f that On e attorne y commente d o n a cas e o f neglectfu l behavior wher e dog s ha d bee n starve d t o death Well th e seriou s physica l injur y woul d hav e bee n th e emaciatio n an d ultimat e death i n digestin g thei r ow n bodies Thi s i s th e cas e wher e th e onl y thin g I remembe r ou t o f i t wer e th e dea d Dachshunds An d ther e wa s somethin g tha t I' d neve r hear d before The y wer e i n th e crat e an d the y wer e dea d Whe n the y di d th e necropsy the y foun d blu e plasti c i n thei r stomachs S o apparentl y th e

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Dachshund s wer e eatin g th e crate An d tha t on e bothere d me Yo u know th e stomac h an d bodie s wer e empt y excep t fo r th e blu e plasti c an d apparentl y the y wer e tryin g t o ea t th e crat e jus t t o ge t out Suc h a prolonge d an d horribl e way t o die I n a cas e involvin g a poodle th e defendan t argue d wit h hi s mothe r an d the n slamme d he r do g agains t th e wall resultin g i n numerou s skul l fractures Defendan t the n disembowele d th e dog killin g it H e tol d officer s tha t th e do g bi t hi m an d tha t i s wh y h e thre w it Upo n review th e attorne y remembere d instantly That' s wha t the y al l say N o questio n [thi s i s a felony]. .seriou s physica l injury Wha t I plea d hi m t o the n an d wha t I migh t plea d hi m t o today. .tha t varie s o n a day-to-da y basis Bu t righ t now he' d b e goin g t o jail I thin k tha t woul d hav e bee n a goo d tria l case but I ple d hi m an d I don' t remembe r why Tha t wa s earl y i n th e proces s an d w e wer e stil l explorin g wha t w e though t w e coul d ge t awa y with I don' t mea n i n a ba d way but sor t o f testin g th e law I hop e I go t som e jai l tim e ou t o f tha t gu y bu t I don' t remember (I n fact sh e did—defendan t ple d t o a clas s si x ope n felon y an d was sentence d t o 3 0 day s i n th e count y jail. ) I n anothe r case th e defendan t lef t he r Pi t Bul l pupp y i n th e backyar d withou t wate r o r shad e an d tie d t o a ladder Th e do g wa s s o severel y sunburne d tha t i t ha d t o b e resuscitate d twice Th e burned ski n eventuall y ha d t o b e cu t awa y an d re-sew n bac k together Afte r showin g he r th e picture s o f th e puppy th e issuin g attorne y jus t shoo k he r head "Loo k a t th e seriou s injury Loo k a t that Thir d degre e burn s o n [that ] littl e body

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I remembe r that OH. .o h m y gosh Ther e ar e s o man y thing s I trie d t o forget. Picture s helpe d t o tel l th e stor y o f th e seriousness o f th e injury I n additio n t o th e case s tha t wer e "serious physica l injury prosecutor s als o identifie d case s i n th e negative—thos e tha t wer e no t seriou s physica l injury Injurie s tha t di d not qualif y a s "serious wer e eithe r waive d t o a misdemeano r i n th e firs t instanc e o r late r ple d t o a lesse r charge I f a n injur y wa s not permanen t o r i f a killin g wa s swift i t was not serious I n on e cas e tha t was presente d fo r issuing th e polic e repor t detaile d a ma n wh o duc t tape d hi s Borde r Collie' s mout h shu t a s a for m o f discipline Th e issuin g attorne y explained I don' t thin k I woul d issu e i t a s a felony [ I need] mor e information I mea n i s h e removin g th e duc t tape i s th e pupp y bleeding i s i t losin g hair o r i s i t yelpin g whe n th e duc t tap e get s off ? I woul d assum e tha t duc t tap e i s ver y rough an d b y roug h I mea n i t i s ver y strong Whe n yo u ar e takin g i t of f i t woul d not surpris e m e i f ther e was actua l bleedin g an d physica l injury So i f ther e was bleedin g an d physica l injur y an d ther e was repeate d o n an d offs the n I woul d conside r issuin g felon y cruelty [I f defendant ] didn' t realiz e tha t th e duc t tap e woul d hur t tha t do g tha t muc h whe n [he ] too k i t off but [did ] i t a numbe r o f times the n yo u hav e th e knowledg e o f th e pai n yo u ar e inflictin g an d the n yo u continu e t o inflic t it I n othe r cases prosecutor s describe d th e followin g a s non-seriou s injuries : mange ; subcutaneou s mites ; bein g peppe r sprayed ; vomiting ; seizing ; an d rupture d ey e vessels Whe n case s ha d alread y bee n issue d a s felonies prosecutor s wer e force d t o plead o r dismis s th e cas e altogether whe n the y reevaluate d th e injur y a s not "serious.

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I n on e case a defens e attorne y argue d tha t i f a do g ha s it s le g amputated i t coul d not b e seriou s sinc e i t stil l ha s thre e othe r goo d ones Muc h t o th e disma y o f th e prosecutor th e defens e attorne y wo n tha t case I n anothe r cas e involvin g a cat th e prosecuto r detaile d he r struggle s wit h whethe r paralysi s i s seriou s physica l injur y an d he r decisio n t o plea d th e case [Tha t defendant ] sho t hi s neighbor' s ca t becaus e i t eithe r pee d o n hi s law n o r walke d o n th e wal l an d h e didn' t lik e eithe r o f thos e tw o things Th e ca t wa s paralyze d an d tha t wa s th e proble m tha t w e had Th e ca t cam e home wa s treated bu t the n wa s abl e t o ge t awa y agai n an d clim b ove r th e sam e wal l an d vanish accordin g t o th e [owner] S o th e paralysi s tha t w e observe d didn' t sto p th e anima l fro m doin g wha t th e ca t neede d t o do Which undercu t ou r seriou s physica l injur y argument W e wen t ou t an d visited an d wer e lik e "shit th e ca t ca n stil l jum p ove r th e wall. I t ha d limite d us e o f it s bac k legs Obviously paralysi s i s seriou s physica l injury bu t yo u kno w the y ca n alway s argu e tha t th e ca t wasn' t seriousl y injure d i f i t ca n stil l ho p around, an d i t ca n stil l wal k around, an d i t ca n stil l jum p fences I ple d i t t o dischargin g a firearm W e ha d t o ge t creativ e wit h tha t one Give n thi s dichotom y betwee n seriou s an d non-serious attorney s lamente d th e seemin g parado x o f animal s tha t actuall y surviv e crue l treatment Two i n particular explaine d thi s ide a quit e well • Ther e wer e varyin g degree s o f injury I suppos e i t was th e luck y anima l tha t survived Bu t i t wasn' t s o luck y i n dispositio n o f th e case sinc e hi s injur y ma y

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hav e not bee n felony-worthy Which i s reall y shamefu l i f yo u thin k abou t tha t reasoning S o th e defendan t i s a ba d shot an d becaus e h e i s a failure o r th e anima l i s unusuall y resilient h e get s a lesse r charge • Tha t i s th e traged y abou t th e wa y th e la w i s written W e hav e ha d dog s an d cats tha t hav e bee n victim s o f bruta l treatmen t but throug h thei r ow n resilienc e don' t suffe r an y seriou s physica l injur y a s a resul t o f it An d s o tha t i s misdemeano r conduc t a s oppose d t o feloniou s conduct But tha t i s th e way i t i s wit h human s too I coul d hi t yo u ove r th e hea d wit h a ba t an d m y conduc t i s jus t a s egregious Bu t i f yo u ar e luck y an d you r hea d i s harder tha n someon e else' s an d nothin g ba d happen s t o you hello Here' s a n example I jus t go t don e reviewing a case Defendan t slamme d a pupp y o n th e groun d thre e time s (no t cement ) an d hi t i t wit h a mop Ther e i s n o injury jus t limping Th e pupp y appeare d fin e whe n officer s go t there Th e proble m i s tha t becaus e th e injur y i s not seriou s an d th e pupp y was lucky no w th e defendan t i s lucky Th e defendant' s behavio r i s terrible Bu t n o seriou s physica l injury s o onl y a misdemeanor Stil l ba d behavior I offere d hi m on e da y i n jai l an d a fine but h e probabl y wil l not tak e it I n additio n t o "serious physica l injury th e statut e als o require d tha t an y anima l tha t was killed ha d t o hav e bee n kille d i n manne r tha t cause d "protracted suffering Thu s prosecutor s wer e als o lef t t o craf t a distinctio n betwee n mer e sufferin g an d "protracted suffering Thi s was n o eas y task Whe n i t cam e t o suffering ther e seeme d t o b e a n acknowledgemen t tha t death maltreatment o r neglec t ha d t o b e accompanie d b y som e sor t o f extende d tim e frame A s on e prosecuto r noted "Deat h i s not enough

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[Ther e mus t be ] som e typ e o f proces s tha t woul d indicat e suffering torture [or ] protracte d natur e o f th e injury. Moreover a swif t deat h was not cruel ; a death tha t too k som e tim e was On e attorne y summe d u p thi s distinctio n whe n h e said "I f a do g doesn' t suffer the n th e offens e i s a misdemeanor. Anothe r attorne y suggested I f yo u d o i t quic k an d fast the n it' s a lesse r crim e tha n i f it' s lon g an d draw n out. Othe r prosecutor s echoe d thes e sentiments • I mea n i f yo u se e rib s pokin g out wher e the y ar e not suppose d to it' s emaciated It' s th e slownes s o f starvatio n [and ] th e lengt h o f tim e th e anima l ha d t o suffe r an d jus t ho w systemati c i t is It' s evil I t i s prolonge d behavior lik e i n th e concentratio n camps That' s wh y the y ar e felonies • [I n on e case th e gu y was just ] watchin g th e ca t slowl y di e an d not interferin g wit h hi s do g killin g th e cat I thin k that' s a crime [ I would ] screa m an d yell an d I woul d b e physica l wit h th e do g t o ge t th e do g t o dro p th e cat An d i f th e ca t wer e hurt I woul d tr y t o captur e th e cat brin g i t t o th e vet find th e owne r an d ge t i t som e assistance Yo u can' t just yo u know le t th e thin g suffer • Ther e ar e differen t level s [o f cruelty] Starvin g woul d b e righ t u p ther e becaus e it' s suc h a slo w systemati c death tha t it' s horribl y cruel Th e [embedded ] colla r on e i s becaus e it' s no t lik e th e do g ha s opposabl e thumb s an d ca n und o th e collar I don' t thin k [th e shooting ] i s a s slow systematic an d crue l a s th e othe r ones I can' t hel p but thin k tha t a shootin g deat h i s goin g t o b e s o muc h quicke r an d mercifu l tha n starvin g it

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Eve n give n th e requisit e degre e o f harm a defendan t ma y not fal l withi n th e statute' s parameter s i f suc h har m was no t "unnecessary. I n a discussio n o f wha t sor t o f seriou s physica l injur y wa s necessary th e prosecutor s invariabl y turne d t o notion s o f self-defens e an d society' s institutionalize d way s o f anima l husbandry On e attorne y commented "I f yo u ha d a n anima l tha t actuall y wa s attackin g a perso n o r anothe r animal the n yo u ma y b e justifie d i n harmin g them. Anothe r wen t int o mor e detai l abou t wha t act s societ y wil l tolerat e toward s animals : Animal s ar e t o b e treate d i n a certai n way Yo u kno w w e kil l animal s t o ea t the m o r w e kil l the m fo r othe r purposes I strongl y believ e i f yo u ar e goin g t o yo u hav e t o d o i t i n a manne r tha t present s th e leas t amoun t o f sufferin g a s possible Understandin g sometimes lik e fo r example i f the y hav e t o shoo t a mountai n lio n becaus e i t i s attackin g human s o r potentiall y i s goin g t o attac k humans The y tr y t o kil l i t th e firs t time I f the y don' t the y ar e goin g t o hav e t o kee p shootin g i t an d i t ma y suffer I t i s a horribl e consequence Ther e i s a wa y t o d o i t tha t i s righ t an d anothe r way tha t cause s th e anima l mor e suffering A simila r discussio n ove r th e meanin g o f "necessary was ha d i n th e contex t o f neglect A s note d earlier individual s mus t provid e necessar y food water an d shelter Prosecutor s agai n indicate d ther e wa s a certai n lin e whe n i t cam e t o th e necessaries Neglectfu l behavio r wa s define d b y on e attorne y a s "failin g t o provid e shelter o r foo d an d water ; jus t th e basi c necessitie s tha t the y nee d t o live. Prosecutor s als o identifie d thing s lik e roamin g are a an d medica l car e a s fundamenta l necessities bot h o f whic h fel l outsid e th e statutor y definition Thre e attorney s provide d th e followin g comments :

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• Th e breakin g poin t fo r m e i s whe n yo u den y certai n thing s t o animals whic h the y requir e t o live A do g penne d u p canno t ge t foo d [and ] canno t ge t water A do g ou t i n th e wil d i s goin g t o b e abl e t o hun t an d d o whateve r i t ca n t o survive Bu t whe n yo u tak e tha t do g ou t o f tha t environmen t an d pu t hi m i n a close d environment wher e h e ha s t o b e dependen t o n a huma n being the n cruelt y start s whe n yo u don' t provid e th e basic s fo r tha t do g t o live • Readil y availabl e goo d water—no t gree n stuf f tha t yo u can' t drink Foo d a t leas t onc e a day i n a n adequat e amount Medica l care licensing vaccination s an d I' d lik e t o sa y a wal k ever y day an d a gift but that' s no t wha t th e la w includes I thin k i f you r do g get s hi t b y a car an d yo u don' t ge t medica l treatmen t fo r it an d it' s activel y sufferin g i n fron t o f you that' s jus t heinous • I' d loo k a t n o foo d an d water an d the n obviousl y not cleanin g u p th e fece s wher e th e do g ha s t o liv e i n hi s ow n crap Th e nex t leve l woul d probabl y be yo u know i f it' s tie d u p 2 4 hour s a da y o n a chai n an d i t can' t exercise I thin k tha t i s crue l a s well Dog s ar e movin g animals The y hav e t o exercise They'r e pac k animals Beyon d th e seriou s physica l injury prolonge d suffering unnecessar y acts o r failin g t o provid e th e necessaries ther e was a commo n sentimen t whe n i t cam e t o wha t mad e anima l mistreatmen t s o "cruel. Severa l prosecutor s seeme d t o sugges t tha t th e inheren t natur e o f th e relationshi p betwee n human s an d animals based o n dependency mad e mistreatmen t an d neglec t s o "cruel. Severa l likene d th e relationshi p an d accompanyin g degre e o f abus e t o th e caretaker-child relationship A s on e attorne y suggested "[The y are ] kin d o f simila r t o childre n i n a way It' s th e sam e ide a becaus e

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the y ar e dependen t o n yo u fo r thei r care The y ar e waitin g fo r yo u t o put th e Alp o i n th e dish. Severa l other s repeate d thi s sentiment : "Th e anima l ha s n o recourse—i t can' t ge t u p an d g o fin d anothe r plac e t o live; "I t doesn' t hav e th e commo n sens e t o kno w tha t wha t thi s owne r i s doin g i s wrong; an d "Th e fac t tha t th e anima l i s totall y helples s an d a t th e merc y o f tha t adult wh o ha s muc h mor e gra y matte r i n it s brain i s wha t i s crue l t o me. On e attorney i n particular delve d int o a lon g indictmen t o f human s a s the y relate d t o animals : I n m y ow n words I wouldn' t b e a s forgivin g a s th e statute I n fact I reall y fee l tha t i f someon e pick s o n a n animal the y hav e seriou s behaviora l issue s i n term s o f powe r an d control Lik e i n m y ki d cases It' s tha t fai r figh t mentalit y I have Harmin g animal s jus t isn' t a fai r fight The y canno t defen d themselves—a t leas t no t i n today' s society We a s a huma n culture hav e domesticate d them makin g the m dependen t o n us Pet s los e thei r abilit y t o exis t o n thei r own The y don' t kno w ho w t o cross streets g o grocer y shopping o r mov e out I thin k thi s wa s mos t eviden t i n th e Katrin a fallout Tha t said t o har m somethin g tha t otherwis e i s dependen t o n you i s cruelt y fo r me Yo u know I remember whe n tha t tige r attacke d thos e me n a t th e zoo I thin k i t was California—th e guy s wer e drun k an d wer e tauntin g an d throwin g stuf f a t th e animal Anyway th e femal e cat— I thin k i t was a tiger—brok e out o f th e cag e an d sh e cam e lookin g fo r them No w don' t hol d thi s agains t me bu t I foun d mysel f rootin g fo r th e tige r i n tha t stor y a s I watche d i t o n th e news O f course th e tige r wa s euthanized—heave n forbi d w e hol d th e dum b as s human s responsibl e fo r anything

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Base d o n m y observations prosecutor s wer e face d wit h th e dail y realit y o f pigeonholin g particula r fact s pattern s int o th e definitio n o n th e books Thi s too k o n a two-ste p reality First prosecutor s consulte d th e languag e o f th e statute No t jus t an y har m woul d do ; i t ha d t o b e "serious physica l injur y o r "protracted suffering Second onc e th e prope r forma l languag e was identified prosecutor s the n formulate d thei r shorthan d metho d o f classifyin g degree s o f harm Although th e statut e wa s th e initia l drivin g force i t wa s thei r interpretatio n o f tha t statut e tha t pushe d th e cas e forward Thes e degree s o f cruelt y ma y sugges t a n underlyin g consensu s o f norms—norm s not necessaril y develope d i n th e prosecutor' s offic e o r i n la w school But instead perhap s the y wer e reflectiv e o f eac h attorney' s existenc e i n societ y overall Strengt h o f Evidence Prosecutor s linke d discussion s abou t strengt h o f thei r evidenc e t o a discussio n o f thei r abilit y t o prov e th e elements o f th e offense Stron g evidenc e mean t th e element s coul d b e prove n a t trial ; wea k evidenc e mean t proo f o f th e element s an d th e ultimat e outcom e wa s questionable Prosecutor s operat e i n a broa d environmen t o f uncertaint y becaus e the y canno t contro l al l th e actors suc h a s th e judg e o r jury Thusly the y develo p self impose d criteri a fo r whe n a prosecutio n wil l commenc e o r continue Thes e criteri a exemplif y th e concep t o f "bounde d rationality (Albonetti 1986 1987) Bounde d rationalit y i s sensitiv e t o victi m an d witnes s credibility Prosecutor s wan t t o avoi d uncertaint y b y managing an d ultimatel y guaranteein g witnes s cooperatio n (Albonetti 1986 1987) Gradually decision-makin g become s routinize d fo r th e purpos e o f reducin g uncertaint y an d achievin g a successfu l outcome

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15 0 A s Albonett i (1986 ) noted th e followin g factor s reduc e th e prosecutor' s uncertaint y an d hav e a statisticall y significan t effec t o n pos t indictment prosecution : mor e tha n on e witness presenc e o f physica l evidence arres t a t th e scen e o f th e crime crime s betwee n strangers Kerstette r (1990 ) referre d t o thes e a s instrumenta l factors Wha t I discovere d i s tha t th e uncertaint y wa s not necessaril y highe r wit h th e anima l cruelt y cases ; i t wa s tha t th e evidenc e require d t o reduc e th e uncertaint y no t onl y neede d t o b e o f greate r detail but i t wa s ofte n mor e difficul t t o obtai n tha n i n non-anima l cases Interestingly whe n i t cam e t o actua l cas e management severa l o f th e prosecutor s fel t th e anima l cruelt y case s wer e not tha t differen t tha n som e o f th e other s the y ha d handle d i n thei r tenur e a t th e office Prosecutor s cite d similaritie s t o othe r sort s o f case s wher e a victi m coul d no t talk—eithe r a chil d victi m o r a dea d victim I n thos e cases prosecutor s neede d a docto r t o explai n a n injury t o counte r a defendant' s explanation t o describ e th e injury-causin g mechanism an d t o relat e th e diagnosis/prognosis Similarly withou t liv e witnesses scen e photograph s gre w i n thei r importance On e prosecuto r commented I woul d trea t [anima l cruelt y cases ] lik e an y othe r investigatio n i n term s o f makin g sur e I ha d m y ducks i n a row. An d anothe r tracke d he r standpoint I thin k it' s jus t lik e an y othe r case. .revie w everythin g an d loo k a t th e statut e an d mak e sur e [ther e is ] enoug h ther e t o prov e th e case. Th e commo n denominato r was th e qualit y o f evidence—namel y th e qualit y o f th e witnesse s an d th e tangibl e evidence Whe n i t cam e t o witnesses prosecutor s consistentl y identifie d cooperatio n an d competenc y (bot h fro m la y an d exper t witnesses ) a s crucial A s on e attorne y explained "Thes e ar e ver y toug h case s becaus e animal s canno t spea k fo r

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15 1 themselves Yo u nee d peopl e wh o ar e willin g t o com e forward. Withou t cooperativ e witnesses on e prosecuto r expresse d th e fat e o f th e case "I f witnesse s don' t cooperate I tr y t o plea d it. Stil l eve n mor e prosecutor s detaile d simila r emphasi s o n th e qualit y o f witnesse s an d tangibl e evidence : • [It ] i s simila r t o an y kin d o f victi m crime Offende d a s yo u migh t b e abou t a case yo u hav e t o bea r i n min d tha t th e cas e i s goin g t o b e prove n b y testimony Th e testimon y tha t it' s base d o n ma y not b e entirel y dependabl e throughou t th e case Yo u ma y hav e a victim-owne r wh o migh t reconcil e wit h th e defendant o r b e afrai d t o suppor t th e governmen t i n thei r case [W e should ] distinguis h [anima l cruelty ] fro m a DUI wher e it' s chemica l dependent o r a propert y crime whic h i s vide o surveillanc e an d fingerprin t dependent [Wit h anima l cruelty] yo u reall y ar e dependen t o n th e emotiona l commitmen t behin d th e witnesse s i n th e case s o yo u alway s hav e t o bea r tha t i n mind • [Yo u need] peopl e wh o ar e willin g t o com e forward A lo t o f thes e case s ar e relate d t o domesti c violenc e an d whe n yo u hav e a perso n i n th e househol d wh o i s holdin g th e do g hostage o r th e ca t hostage o r threaten s t o har m thes e animal s i f thi s perso n leave s them a lo t o f time s they'r e no t willin g t o com e forward It' s tha t whol e powe r an d contro l aspec t o f domesti c violence S o w e definitel y nee d t o hav e thos e peopl e wh o ar e willin g t o com e forwar d an d testify Veterinar y testimon y wa s als o specificall y identifie d a s crucia l i n case s o f anima l cruelty A s on e attorne y remarked "I t i s har d t o prov e seriou s physica l injur y t o animal s withou t som e sor t o f ve t support Th e natur e o f th e injur y relie d heavil y o n th e testimon y

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15 2 o f th e veterinarian. Prosecutor s als o recognize d th e strengt h i n havin g la w enforcemen t personne l a s witnesses On e attorne y wrot e th e followin g commen t i n he r issuin g summary "On e o f m y witnesses th e neighbo r tha t th e defendan t despises i s a forme r polic e officer H a h a h a h a h a ha! Beyon d witnes s testimony othe r direc t an d circumstantia l tangibl e piece s o f evidenc e wer e important Whe n i t cam e t o pictures th e proverbia l sentimen t abou t picture s reigne d suprem e acros s th e interviews A pictur e i s wort h a thousan d words I f yo u wan t t o prov e a cas e t o a jury ther e i s nothin g lik e a pictur e o f a n emaciate d animal a n injure d person o r a blood y crim e scen e t o conve y th e severit y o f th e incident Yo u ca n si t ther e [i n trial ] an d blithe r awa y endlessl y an d th e jur y ma y ge t it But i f yo u hav e th e picture s the y will ge t it Sometime s eve n a vide o o f th e animal' s conditio n a s i t improve s wil l hel p th e case Veterinar y record s wer e als o a s importan t a s pictures Without th e prope r necropsy i t was impossibl e fo r prosecutor s t o determin e th e caus e o f death Moreover i t was ofte n onl y th e veterinaria n wh o coul d confir m injurie s t o th e animals Overall withou t a victim' s testimony th e strengt h o f th e evidenc e tende d t o focu s o n th e nee d fo r othe r tangibl e evidenc e an d credibl e witnes s testimony Give n tha t th e anima l coul d no t testify prosecutor s relie d o n photograph s t o conve y th e seriousness o f th e injur y o r th e protracte d natur e o f th e suffering Without pictures th e evidenc e wa s not a s strong

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15 3 Prio r convictions Consistently attorney s identifie d prio r crimina l histor y a s a facto r t o consider Mor e specifically the y looke d fo r previou s felonie s i n general but specificall y the y searche d fo r previou s anima l cruelt y an d assaultiv e behavior Eve n n o know n crimina l histor y wa s important Severa l prosecutor s specificall y recognize d a particula r defendan t a s a "frequen t fliers wit h thei r units Traditiona l law-relate d concerns suc h a s th e presenc e o f th e cor e cas e elements seriousnes s o f th e offense victi m credibility prio r crimina l histor y o f th e defendant an d th e overal l strengt h o f th e evidence continue d t o affec t prosecutoria l discretio n i n anima l cruelt y cases Becaus e th e subjec t o f th e cruelt y i n crime s involvin g violenc e agains t animal s coul d not testify th e prosecuto r depende d mor e heavil y o n th e strengt h o f othe r evidenc e an d othe r extralega l variables a s suggeste d below Extra-lega l variable s Variou s scholar s sugges t tha t extr a lega l factor s ar e secondar y consideration s t o lega l factor s (Adam s & Cutshall ; Frohmann 1991 1997 ; Gottfredso n & Gottfredson 1980 ; Lafree 1980 ; Spoh n et al. 2001) I n case s involvin g humans extr a lega l variable s includ e th e following : th e victim' s o r defendant' s race age sex socio economi c status ; th e relationshi p betwee n th e victi m an d defendant ; an d th e geographi c locatio n o f th e crime I n anima l cruelt y cases thes e continue d i n relevance Mor e interesting perhaps ther e wa s a developin g demographi c wit h regar d t o animals Whil e age species particula r breed physica l appearance an d th e nam e o f th e anima l wer e no t use d t o justif y prosecution a fe w prosecutor s di d emphasiz e th e particula r circumstance s o f th e defendan t an d th e particula r locatio n o f th e crime

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15 4 Victim I n huma n cases prosecutor s spok e i n term s o f a readil y identifiabl e victim I f a huma n wa s th e targe t o f a n aggravate d assaul t o r a n attempte d murder he/sh e wa s considere d a "victim unde r th e law Give n tha t label he/sh e wa s the n entitle d t o certai n rights/privileges i n accordanc e wit h th e Arizon a Constitutio n an d statutes Thi s wa s not th e cas e fo r animals I n anima l cases th e eas y logi c o f identifyin g a "victim an d his/he r right s an d privilege s was problematic Unde r th e law animal s di d not qualif y a s "victims. I t was th e owner s wh o hel d tha t status Yet ther e appeare d a stron g disconnec t betwee n wha t th e attorney s were i n fact doin g an d wha t th e statut e said I n almos t al l cases prosecutor s spok e o f th e anima l a s th e victim eve n labelin g th e anima l a s such Despit e wha t seeme d intuitiv e fo r the m i n labelin g th e anima l a s a victim ther e wa s a lingerin g frustratio n wit h th e way th e la w wa s structured Fo r example i n th e Beasle y case defendan t sli t th e throa t o f hi s girlfriend' s dog Th e do g survived Pendin g th e dispositio n o f th e case a loca l non-profi t rescu e agenc y fostere d th e do g an d provide d behaviora l therapy Th e do g require d therap y t o ensur e i t coul d b e adopte d int o a ne w family A s par t o f th e defendant' s sentence h e was ordere d t o pa y restitutio n t o th e rescu e agenc y an d t o th e behaviora l therapist O n appeal th e orde r fo r restitutio n was vacate d becaus e th e judg e determine d tha t neithe r th e agenc y no r th e therapists wer e "victims withi n th e meanin g o f th e statute Victim s ar e define d a s "persons, not animals Accordin g t o th e Arizon a statutes "victim means : A perso n agains t who m th e crimina l offens e ha s bee n committed includin g a minor o r i f th e perso n i s kille d o r incapacitated th e person' s spouse parent child

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15 5 grandparen t o r sibling an y othe r perso n relate d t o th e perso n b y consanguinit y o r affinit y t o th e secon d degre e o r an y othe r lawfu l representativ e o f th e person excep t i f th e perso n o r th e person' s spouse parent child grandparent sibling othe r perso n relate d t o th e perso n b y consanguinit y o r affinit y t o th e secon d degre e o r othe r lawfu l representativ e i s i n custod y fo r a n offens e o r i s th e accused (A.R.S §13-440 1 [19]) Clearly th e statutor y definitio n di d not envisio n animal s a s possibl e victims no r di d i t envisio n owner s a s anythin g othe r tha n a lawfu l representative Moreover i n particula r regar d t o restitution th e statut e specifies : [I] f a perso n i s convicte d o f a n offense th e cour t shal l requir e th e convicte d perso n t o mak e restitutio n t o th e perso n wh o i s th e victi m o f th e crim e o r t o th e immediat e famil y o f th e victi m i f th e victi m ha s died i n th e ful l amoun t o f th e economi c los s a s determine d b y th e cour t (A.R.S §13-60 3 C) Additionally th e Arizon a Stat e Constitutio n an d th e hos t o f statutor y provision s gran t numerou s privilege s an d right s a t la w t o "victims. Non e o f thes e ar e grante d t o animals Se e Arizon a Constitution Articl e II sectio n 2.1 Victim' s bil l o f rights Se e als o A.R.S §§13-80 4 (Righ t t o restitutio n fo r offens e causin g economi c loss) ; 13-4402.0 1 (Victims right s eve n a s t o dismisse d counts) ; 13-440 5 (Informatio n provide d t o victi m b y la w enforcemen t agencies) ; 13-440 6 (Righ t t o receiv e notic e o f initia l appearance) ; 13 440 7 (Righ t t o receiv e notic e o f term s an d condition s o f release) ; ,13-441 0 (Righ t t o receiv e notic e o f conviction acquitta l o r dismissal an d righ t t o provid e impac t statement) ; 13-441 1 (Righ t t o receiv e notic e o f post-convictio n revie w an d appellat e proceedings) ; 13-441 2 (Righ t t o receiv e notic e o f releas e o r escape) ; 13-441 3 (Righ t t o receiv e notic e o f prisoner' s status) ; 13-441 4 (Righ t t o receiv e notic e o f post-convictio n releas e an d t o b e heard) ; 13-441 5 (Righ t t o receiv e notic e o f probatio n modification

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15 6 A s I reviewe d th e anima l cruelt y cas e files, ther e wer e differen t place s tha t calle d fo r a n identificatio n o f a victim : o n th e outside o f th e fil e itself o n th e witnes s list o n th e issuin g summary an d o n th e cover-me' s fo r court I n ove r hal f o f th e case s tha t wer e actuall y issue d an d proceede d t o disposition animal s wer e liste d a s victim s o n th e cas e file. Animal s wer e calle d b y name : Phoenix Ringo Paco Buddy Rusty Sli m an d Zoey Bubba Glove Xena Capone Midnigh t an d Jack Amber Tucker Bear Xerox Yul Mikos Fonzie Harley Lucky Doll y an d Princess Sass y an d Kikipesi Sash a an d McKenzie Miss y an d Samson Dora an d Oscar Whe n not liste d b y name the y wer e identifie d i n th e genera l sense : a dog a canine a cat a bird a La b puppy a Rottweiler th e famil y dog th e famil y cat an d a Terrier Sometime s thes e descriptor s wer e i n quotatio n marks suc h a s a dog o r a cat. A fe w attorney s eve n bega n usin g th e name s o f th e animal s i n th e actua l indictment Severa l prosecutor s actuall y laughe d whe n I tol d the m tha t the y ha d liste d th e particula r animal an d sometime s th e name a s th e victi m withi n th e confine s o f th e cas e file. A s on e replied "Oh tha t i s somethin g tha t I woul d do I woul d lik e the m t o b e victim s onl y becaus e tha t i s sor t o f a gatewa y t o elevat e the m int o somethin g mor e tha n propert y unde r th e law. I notice d othe r prosecutor s wer e strugglin g wit h thi s phenomeno n o f statutor y definition s tha t wer e i n plac e befor e th e anima l cruelt y terminatio n o r revocatio n dispositio n matters) ; 13-441 9 (Righ t t o conferenc e wit h prosecutin g attorney) ; 13-442 3 (Righ t t o b e presen t fo r ple a negotiatio n proceedings) ; 13 442 4 (Righ t t o provid e impac t statemen t fo r presentenc e report) ; 13-4426.0 1 (Righ t t o b e presen t an d hear d a t sentencing) ; 13-442 7 (Righ t t o receiv e notic e o f probatio n modification revocatio n dispositio n o r terminatio n proceedings) ; 13-443 3 (Righ t t o refus e a n interview) ; 13-443 5 (Righ t t o receiv e notic e o f motion s fo r continuances) ; an d 13-443 9 (Righ t t o leav e work )

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legislation no w bein g applie d (o r not ) t o animals Thre e prosecutors i n particular provide d evidenc e o f thi s struggle • Tha t migh t b e wh y I put [th e wor d cat ] i n quote s becaus e they'r e no t considere d victim s unde r th e law Technically th e estrange d spous e woul d hav e bee n th e victim onl y b y emotiona l target S o yo u can' t reall y put tha t down S o I thin k I was wrestlin g wit h ho w d o I justif y th e magnitud e o f th e cas e withi n th e confine s o f th e statute. S o that' s wh y I pu t ca t i n quot e probably • O h they'r e not victim s becaus e they'r e not people, because yo u know Well whatever Th e statut e say s i f yo u kil l a do g o r seriousl y injur e a dog you'v e committe d a crime S o th e do g didn' t hav e t o b e a victim It' s th e subjec t o f th e act I f yo u wan t t o charg e a prohibite d possessor yo u don' t wan t t o cal l th e gu n th e victim I t certainl y i s a n elemen t o f th e crime S o whatever i t doesn' t chang e ho w th e cas e was issue d i f i t was issue d properl y i n accordanc e wit h th e statutor y requirements I lik e t o thin k o f the m a s victim s but i f the y jus t wan t t o b e a n elemen t o f th e crim e the n they'r e a n elemen t o f th e crime • Oh a ros e i s a ros e i s a rose Th e anima l i s th e victi m t o me regardles s o f th e statute. I mea n really I t was m y case s o I'l l cal l th e anima l th e victim Th e owner s ge t t o invok e th e real victi m rights—lik e not havin g t o submi t t o defens e interview s an d not bein g sequestere d fro m th e tria l lik e othe r witnesses Ho w ar e yo u goin g t o appl y tha t t o th e anima l anyway ? No t lik e a dog cat bird whateve r i s goin g t o b e interviewe d o r si t i n th e courtroom Th e la w jus t hasn' t caugh t up

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15 8 Beyon d th e concer n wit h whethe r t o labe l th e anima l a s a victi m o r not ther e wer e a fe w prosecutor s wh o focuse d o n th e typ e o f anima l involve d i n th e cas e an d whethe r i t woul d b e juro r worth y Mos t attorney s recognize d th e law' s limit s whe n i t cam e t o th e cattl e industr y an d othe r form s o f anima l husbandry On e attorne y focuse d o n bird s an d wha t sh e perceive d thei r statu s i n th e communit y t o be "Well bird s clearl y qualif y unde r th e law But pigeon s don' t coun t i n th e community Rat s wit h wing s i s wha t peopl e thin k abou t pigeons...s o yeah ther e ar e speciesists. Stil l anothe r attorne y focuse d o n a rankin g o f animals I don' t thin k yo u ca n sho w u p fo r a jur y tria l wit h a hamste r victim I kno w tha t sound s bad Bu t becaus e juror s woul d thin k well thos e hamsters the y don' t las t lon g anyway An d then fo r exampl e i f it' s a dog a lo t o f peopl e hav e dog s a s pet s an d s o the y ca n relat e t o tha t an d the n horses I don' t know I t seem s lik e recentl y I hav e hear d abou t horses bein g starve d o n th e new s an d thos e pictures Visuall y tha t jus t look s s o horrible But I thin k tha t i f i t i s a n anima l tha t i s mor e lik e a pe t o r a friend—tha t a t leas t ha s significanc e fo r jurors sa y versus a snake I don' t kno w wher e yo u dra w th e lin e exactly Whil e som e animal s ma y hav e bee n protecte d b y th e anima l cruelt y statute thei r jur y appea l wa s a separat e inquiry Defendant Whe n i t cam e t o a consideratio n o f th e defendant i t appeare d tha t prosecutor s operate d unde r wha t I coul d onl y describ e a psycholog y o f prosecution Whe n distinguishin g ho w t o handl e a case prosecutor s marshale d som e interestin g anecdota l theorie s o f huma n behavior The y ha d n o forma l trainin g i n assessin g huma n

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15 9 behavior but the y nevertheles s looke d fo r reason s t o explai n malic e toward s animals Whil e i t i s commo n tha t al l individual s hav e a wa y o f existin g i n th e world—throug h categorization assimilatio n an d differentiation i t wa s noteworth y tha t publi c official s wer e basin g officia l decision s o n thi s sam e sor t o f behavior I n general prosecutor s seeme d t o tak e a n interes t i n th e extenuatin g circumstance s i n eac h particula r case A s on e noted "Th e impressio n yo u ge t whe n yo u rea d th e cas e sometime s evolves a s yo u ge t mor e facts. Two othe r prosecutor s discusse d thi s i n greate r detail • I woul d wan t t o hea r fro m th e defens e attorne y abou t wha t th e dea l wa s wit h what' s goin g on Yo u know was [defendant ] jus t drun k a s hell ? The n mayb e a misdemeanor but [he ] need s alcoho l monitoring Wa s [defendant ] gettin g cance r treatmen t an d i n pain ? Yo u know i s ther e somethin g goin g o n i n [th e defendant's ] lif e tha t makes thi s unusua l circumstances ? I s [defendant ] jus t mea n an d like s t o shoo t dogs ? The n that' s a problem Bu t i f ther e wa s somethin g els e goin g on an d the y ca n giv e m e a justification I ca n se e givin g a misdemeano r ou t o f thi s on e dependin g o n wha t th e justificatio n was • Wha t I wan t t o kno w abou t yo u i s ho w an d wh y yo u di d that Shoul d I giv e yo u a brea k becaus e othe r ba d thing s wer e happenin g i n you r life ? An d ther e i s n o wa y yo u woul d hav e know n th e anima l was thi s sic k an d yo u trie d t o engag e i n som e intervention Okay mayb e yo u don' t nee d a n extende d perio d o f tim e o n probation Yo u don' t nee d an y tim e i n jail but yo u nee d t o lear n abou t ho w t o tak e car e o f you r animal Becaus e I a m goin g t o a t leas t mak e sur e yo u don' t hav e an y fo r a year o r whatever dependin g o n wh o yo u ar e an d wha t th e crim e

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is unti l yo u hav e take n thi s class an d provide d proo f t o th e courts S o a t leas t no w I kno w yo u hav e som e educatio n o n wha t yo u ar e suppose d t o do And i f yo u com e bac k int o th e syste m agai n havin g don e th e sam e thin g t o anothe r animal no w yo u ar e no t goin g t o ge t m y sam e degre e o f largess I n particular prosecutor s focuse d o n a defendant' s menta l health age th e totalit y o f thei r curren t life' s circumstances an d thei r personality A t leas t hal f o f th e prosecutor s discusse d a defendant' s menta l healt h a s a mitigatin g facto r i n determinin g whethe r o r no t t o issu e o r plea d a case Whil e ignoranc e o f th e la w was clearl y not a defense bein g stupi d o r lackin g th e menta l abilit y certainl y determine d treatmen t o f th e case Ther e [are ] differen t stupidities I mea n lik e peopl e wil l g o awa y fo r a wee k an d leav e a bowl o f water An d yo u don' t kno w i n thei r hea d i f they'r e jus t incredibl y stupid Ther e ar e a numbe r o f peopl e i n th e worl d tha t ar e jus t stupi d lumps I n on e case th e defendan t dumpe d thre e puppie s i n a dumpste r nex t t o th e loca l Human e Society Al l wer e ver y ill malnourished an d thin Th e prosecuto r wh o handle d th e cas e explained "T o m e tha t gu y wa s mentall y deficient lo w IQ unabl e t o ge t hi s ac t together [and ] ma y hav e menta l healt h issues I t [was ] not a deliberat e act H e didn' t intentionall y tortur e th e puppies. Som e cas e files containe d letter s and/o r medica l record s fro m defens e attorney s documentin g thei r client' s illness Other s containe d comment s i n issuin g summarie s and/o r cover-me' s tha t alerte d futur e o n defendant' s particula r situation Attorne y comment s include d th e following : "Accordin g t o officers [defendant ] i s paranoid dig s

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tunnel s i n hi s yard an d i s know n t o carr y a rifle; "Defendan t ha s severa l ou t o f stat e priors i s homeless an d a nut bag; "Menta l healt h problem s nee d t o b e monitored; "Defendan t previousl y foun d incompeten t i n anothe r cas e an d not sur e i f competen t now; an d "Defendan t ha s a n anti-socia l personalit y disorde r an d wil l likel y g o [Rule ] ll. 9 Wit h regar d t o menta l health ther e was a recognitio n tha t thes e individual s neede d th e interventio n o f th e courts not necessaril y a s punishmen t o r becaus e the y pose d a threat bu t becaus e the y neede d mental-healt h care Mos t often i t was th e hoarder s wh o wer e considere d t o hav e menta l healt h problems A s on e prosecuto r opined "Fro m wha t I see a lo t o f th e hoardin g case s migh t hav e som e menta l healt h componen t t o i t tha t can't i n m y opinion b e adequatel y addresse d i n lowe r cour t jurisdictions. Stil l anothe r prosecuto r describe d hi s vie w o f a hoarder "The y hav e som e sor t o f obsessiv e compulsiv e disorde r wher e the y ar e peopl e wh o jus t can' t thro w anythin g out an d the y hav e animal s livin g i n thei r squalor. Th e wor d "hoarder tende d t o b e shorthan d fo r female old an d lot s o f cats Two attorney s specificall y commente d o n thei r hoarder cases • I' m not sur e tha t a hoarde r i s dangerous but ther e i s som e sor t o f menta l healt h issu e goin g on I mea n thos e 8 0 cat s coul d b e love d an d take n wel l car e of I t depend s on I think ho w yo u kee p th e house Althoug h wit h 8 0 cat s I don' t kno w 9 Rul e 1 1 i s a n Arizon a Rul e o f Crimina l Procedur e tha t govern s Incompetenc y an d Menta l Health Examinations Accordin g t o thi s rule a perso n shal l not b e tried convicted sentence d o r punished. .while a s a resul t o f a menta l illness defect o r disability th e perso n i s unabl e t o understan d th e proceeding s agains t hi m o r he r o r t o assis t i n hi s o r he r ow n defense. (A Z S T RCR P Rul e 11 1973)

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ho w yo u woul d kee p th e house Someon e doesn' t hav e 8 0 cats unles s ther e i s somethin g goin g o n there I f you'r e goin g t o hav e 8 0 cats yo u hav e t o hav e significan t resource s t o tak e car e o f the m i n a wa y that' s healthy Mos t peopl e wit h menta l illnes s ar e not goin g t o hav e thos e resources s o you'r e goin g t o hav e a problem Whic h wil l tak e thei r existenc e dow n t o n o foo d an d lot s o f poop • [Tha t defendant ] wa s a perennia l hoarder wh o had o n th e firs t tim e sh e wa s arrested probabl y twent y plu s cats Th e secon d tim e was ove r thirty Sh e wa s livin g i n filth th e hous e was covere d wit h feces an d al l th e cats wer e sic k and/o r dying He r hous e was condemned Som e o f th e cats wer e i n suc h ba d shape lik e eye s hangin g out an d stuf f lik e that The y sen t i t t o m e fo r felon y prosecution Th e traged y i s tha t [sh e di d not ] se e tha t ther e i s anythin g wron g wit h that Sh e [di d not ] recogniz e tha t i t [was ] a problem She i n spit e o f m y bes t efforts wa s foun d t o b e incompeten t an d th e cas e was dismissed I f yo u ar e incompeten t t o stan d tria l yo u can' t b e trie d b y th e state Ag e was als o a consideratio n whe n i t cam e t o resolvin g cases—a t bot h end s o f th e spectrum youn g an d old I n term s o f youth on e prosecuto r handle d a cas e wherei n a femal e defendan t travelle d t o La s Vega s fo r th e weekend an d lef t he r do g i n th e backyar d withou t water Whe n discovered th e do g ha d t o b e euthanized Th e prosecuto r commente d o n he r youth Th e defendan t wa s barel y a n adul t an d sh e didn' t hav e an y crimina l history Personally I don' t thin k sh e eve n neede d probatio n supervision. A s fo r a s ol d age on e cas e stuc k ou t fo r anothe r deput y count y attorne y becaus e o f th e defendant' s age

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16 3 H e wa s i n hi s sixtie s I thin k whe n w e discovere d him H e an d hi s wif e wer e livin g i n a hous e i n midtown bu t h e owne d tw o trave l trailer s an d i n thos e trave l trailer s h e wa s capturin g an d feedin g fera l cats bot h inside an d outside An d a s w e know wha t happen s t o cat s i n thos e kind s o f environment s i s tha t the y wil l fight ove r foo d [and ] sprea d disease It' s unhygieni c an d cruel but the y don' t recogniz e that W e le t hi m plea d becaus e h e was old Ol d matter s i n th e sens e tha t I a m not tryin g t o sen d ol d peopl e t o prison That' s reall y not wha t w e wan t t o do Tha t i s a wast e o f priso n resources W e wan t t o allo w thes e peopl e t o recogniz e th e fac t tha t thi s i s not th e wa y the y nee d t o relat e t o cats So h e pled W e pu t hi m o n probation Th e probatio n office r i n an y even t discovere d tha t h e was collectin g mor e cats an d neglectin g hi s wife an d sh e wa s i n il l health Stil l I wasn' t goin g t o sen d hi m t o jail H e violate d probation I thin k w e go t adul t protectiv e service s involve d a t tha t tim e becaus e h e wa s threatenin g th e wif e t o kee p he r quie t abou t th e cats I t wa s ver y bizarre Prosecutor s wer e als o intereste d i n th e whol e pictur e o f th e defendan t an d whethe r ther e wer e othe r event s transpirin g i n thei r lives—lik e health famil y turmoil financial problems I n essence the y wer e lookin g a t th e snapsho t o f eac h defendant' s lif e circumstances A s on e attorne y note d i n hi s issuin g summary "[Defendant ] i s a longtim e homeles s drunk. Homelessnes s wa s echoe d i n anothe r attorney' s intervie w a s wel l whe n h e said "Tha t gu y jus t doesn' t soun d lik e a dangerou s perso n th e acts jus t see m misdemeanor-ish H e doesn' t nee d th e supervisio n o f th e felon y syste m i f [he ] was a perpetua l misdemeanan t o r homeless. Beyon d homelessness th e poo r physica l healt h

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16 4 o f on e defendan t resulte d i n th e case' s dismissal Th e ma n was terminall y il l s o ther e was n o rea l purpose W e ha d th e bes t cas e agains t hi m becaus e al l o f hi s animal s showe d patter n ring s o f do g fightin g an d h e mad e a statement. Severa l othe r attorney s detaile d case s wher e th e defendant' s persona l circumstance s wer e o f particula r relevanc e i n ho w the y handle d th e case I n on e case th e defendan t was allowe d t o plea d t o a misdemeano r offens e becaus e o f a n ongoin g medica l condition [He ] was charge d becaus e witnesse s describe d hi m a s intentionall y swervin g t o ru n dow n tw o dogs A s i t turn s out h e ha d som e medica l condition H e wa s partiall y blin d an d paralyzed s o h e shoul d no t hav e fuckin g bee n o n th e roa d i n th e firs t place but h e mad e a ba d decisio n an d wen t o n th e road Wha t looke d t o b e intentiona l conduc t was accordin g t o hi s physicians was th e fac t tha t h e wa s unabl e t o contro l hi s vehicle He' s dyin g an d he' s gon e bac k t o hi s famil y t o di e o n th e Eas t coas t somewhere I n anothe r case th e family' s chocolat e Labrado r Retrieve r die d o f sever e tic k infestation hea t exposure an d dehydration Th e mothe r woul d no t le t he r childre n ou t i n backyar d becaus e o f th e tic k problem ye t di d not trea t th e dog I n thi s case th e prosecuto r explaine d ho w th e defendant' s persona l situatio n motivate d hi m t o offe r a plea [Defendant ] wa s all emotionall y caugh t u p wit h th e divorce He r lif e was a mes s an d sh e wa s sorry but I gues s sh e overlooke d th e dog [That ] wa s kin d o f he r defense Sh e wa s sorr y i t happened [Here' s this ] patheti c woma n wh o was i n th e

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throe s o f divorc e an d othe r persona l problem s an d mad e som e effor t t o tak e car e o f th e dog Prosecutor s als o discusse d financia l difficultie s o f thei r defendant s a s reason s fo r cas e disposition On e suggeste d th e notio n o f bein g animal-poor Thes e peopl e can' t affor d t o tak e the m t o th e ve t whe n the y ge t sick Ther e ar e a lo t o f peopl e i n th e hors e communit y tha t ar e hors e poo r an d it' s i s th e sam e thing [They ] ca n barel y mak e end s meet but decid e t o hav e pet s around I f somethin g catastrophi c happens the y jus t can' t affor d t o tak e the m t o th e vet Similarly a secon d prosecuto r echoe d thi s notio n o f poo r peopl e no t takin g car e o f thei r pets ye t paine d wit h a broade r brush On e hate s t o stereotyp e to o much but defendant s ten d t o b e peopl e o f lowe r economi c statu s wh o ar e jus t not smar t enoug h o r hav e th e commo n sens e t o properl y tak e car e o f a n animal O r mayb e th e mean s t o acquir e enoug h foo d fo r th e anima l o r medica l car e fo r thei r animal an d th e anima l end s u p gettin g neglecte d an d suffering W e ca n stereotyp e al l kind s o f criminals They'r e usuall y not ric h people Stil l anothe r prosecuto r connecte d anima l cruelt y t o dru g usage I thin k ther e i s probabl y dru g an d alcoho l abus e tha t i s involve d i n anima l cruelt y case s jus t lik e a lo t o f crimina l cases Whe n peopl e ar e mor e intereste d i n gettin g hig h an d stayin g loaded they'r e not goin g t o worr y abou t thei r animals Interestingly i n som e cases th e attitud e o f th e defendan t actuall y bor e upo n ho w th e cas e was handled Th e cas e files containe d comment s i n th e notes issuin g

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16 6 summaries an d cover-me' s like "Appear s t o b e a rea l troublemaker/po t stirrer; "Defendan t i s a flake; an d "Ma y b e Aria n Natio n type. Durin g m y interviews prosecutor s furthe r explaine d ho w a defendant' s attitud e migh t affec t a case' s disposition Two i n particular detaile d th e attitude s o f defendant s i n thei r cases • O f course attitud e counts I gues s I too k a n interes t i n thi s cas e an d i n thes e people The y wer e stubborn The y wer e openl y hostil e t o th e anima l contro l officer s wh o wen t i n th e first place The y wer e hostil e toward th e sherif f deputies The y wer e hostil e toward th e whol e judicia l process an d the y wer e hostil e towar d m e personally I thin k the y fel t the y hadn' t don e anythin g wrong • Th e gu y was a n asshole Yo u know that' s actuall y a lega l term I thin k h e tol d th e co p tha t h e wa s luck y th e do g wasn' t swingin g fro m a tree I mean c'mon Tha t attitud e jus t mad e m e wan t t o tak e th e cas e t o tria l eve n more Forge t a ple a bargain I go t pai d th e sam e whethe r I trie d th e cas e o r ple d it So hec k I migh t a s wel l tr y it Hi s attitud e mad e i t wort h m y time Overall i t seem s a s thoug h prosecutor s develope d a perceptua l shorthan d (Spohn et al. 2001 ) base d o n stereotype s ofareal defendant I was surprise d a t th e degre e o f attentio n give n t o th e persona l situations o f th e anima l owners I anticipate d prosecutor s woul d hav e bee n muc h mor e reluctan t t o liste n t o th e individua l circumstances Locatio n o f th e crime I n th e cours e o f everyda y life peopl e categoriz e an d stereotype Prosecutor s ar e n o different The y categoriz e place s (troubl e spots) person s (victims offenders jurors) an d activitie s t o hel p the m i n thei r decision-making Description s ar e draw n fro m a mixtur e o f th e prosecutor' s experience s wit h cas e

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16 7 processin g an d generi c cultura l knowledg e (Frohmann 1997) Th e interpla y betwee n categorizin g place s an d person s ca n produc e wha t Frohman n (1997 ) labele d "discordan t locales. Man y o f th e prosecutor s too k int o accoun t th e geographi c locatio n o f wher e a defendan t lived Sometimes th e locatio n wa s see n a s a justificatio n fo r th e behavior I n othe r words th e behavio r wa s expected give n th e defendant' s particula r locale Expectin g th e behavio r di d not necessar y mea n th e behavio r woul d not b e prosecuted but i t migh t mitigat e th e offense Fo r example m y interview s suggeste d tha t a certai n rura l locatio n was equate d wit h a differen t sor t o f mentalit y toward animals Thi s geographi c locatio n eve n presente d problem s earlie r u p th e la w enforcemen t chain—wit h la w enforcemen t officials A s on e attorne y observed Rura l countie s ar e notoriousl y unabl e o r unwillin g t o dea l wit h thes e issue s becaus e the y ar e not considere d prioritie s give n thei r limite d resources Th e discussio n i s ver y frustrating primaril y amon g th e la w enforcemen t an d anima l car e professional s wh o wan t t o hol d accountabl e perpetrator s i n thos e rura l counties bu t ru n int o tw o obstacles Th e firs t i s tha t the y hav e a limite d numbe r o f count y attorney s an d the y hav e a financia l inabilit y t o handl e ever y cas e tha t come s t o them s o thei r priorit y i s prett y muc h huma n base d an d the y hav e a n electe d judiciar y wh o i s ver y muc h embedde d int o th e ol d bo y networ k whic h i s al l ver y rura l ranching I kno w you I kno w you r brother I kno w you r cousi n an d s o i t i s ver y difficul t t o ge t proactiv e anima l neglec t prosecutions Othe r attorney s commente d o n perceptio n o f lif e i n a n Arizon a town : "It' s th e wild wil d Wes t ou t here. Anothe r wen t int o greate r detail :

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No w I didn' t gro w u p here s o I don' t hav e a lo t o f experienc e bein g ou t o n th e far m o r ranching Bu t yo u kno w a lo t o f peopl e i n th e mor e rura l area s ar e use d to "i f th e do g get s sic k yo u tak e th e do g out bac k Ol e Yelle r styl e an d shoo t it. Ther e ar e othe r option s available bu t yo u kno w othe r option s cos t mone y t o people I thin k lot s o f time s whe n peopl e kil l the m the y ar e lookin g ahea d loo k fo r wha t i s goin g t o b e th e leas t expensiv e an d mos t convenient Fo r a lo t o f peopl e i n rura l are a th e leas t expensiv e i s t o tak e th e do g ou t bac k an d shoo t it On e particula r area know n a s Th e Crossroads, was a rura l area approximatel y twent y mile s outsid e o f th e city wit h a stat e road runnin g throug h it Whe n prosecutor s identifie d thi s particula r area the y use d i t a s shorthan d fo r wha t I woul d describ e a s a n out-in-th e countr y mentality A s on e attorne y jokingl y remarked "th e folk s ou t ther e lik e thei r guns. Other s echoe d thi s sam e descriptio n wit h comment s like "Definitel y on e o f thos e 'ou t i n th e boonies places, an d "The y hav e a Green Acres mentalit y out there. Stil l mor e attorney s wen t int o greate r detai l abou t case s involvin g defendant s fro m thi s particula r locale Th e followin g thre e quote s provid e a goo d descriptio n o f "Th e Crossroads. • I n thi s case th e defendan t decide d tha t th e neighborhoo d dog s wer e comin g o n hi s propert y an d tha t the y wer e botherin g him s o h e lace d a bunc h o f choppe d mea t wit h antifreez e an d pu t i t out i n a do g bowl i n fron t o f hi s propert y an d h e woul d u p actuall y killin g hi s neighbor' s do g tha t cam e ont o th e property I gues s that' s ho w the y d o thing s ou t there

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• I'v e hear d fro m peopl e tha t dog s ar e neve r o n leashe s [and ] tha t th e yard s ar e neve r fence d i n s o yo u jus t hav e dog s roamin g around I kno w tha t a lo t o f peopl e ou t ther e hav e livestoc k a s well [I t i s a ] differen t place • Yo u happe n t o liv e i n a n are a o f th e communit y wher e peopl e don' t hav e t o hav e fences wher e nobod y pay s an y attentio n t o wha t i t i s tha t yo u do an d tha t i s th e way yo u choos e t o live An d becaus e yo u liv e i n a plac e wher e ther e ar e n o fences yo u ge t ma d becaus e you r neighbo r doesn' t hav e a fenc e t o kee p thei r do g in An d becaus e yo u don' t lik e th e fac t tha t thei r do g come s o n you r propert y an d anima l car e i s hour s away you r onl y recours e i s t o shoo t th e dog Fin d anothe r plac e t o live Thes e discordan t locale s ascribe d stereotypica l characteristic s o f neighborhood s t o defendants and a s demonstrate d late r o n i n thi s section eve n t o jurors (Frohmann 1997) Prosecutor s use d thes e discordan t locale s t o justif y thei r decisio n t o prosecute dismiss o r ple a bargain Organizationa l Variable s A s Emerso n an d Pale y (1992 ) suggest whil e th e exercis e o f discretio n ma y not b e governe d b y rigi d rules i t i s stil l governe d b y othe r contextua l considerations know n a s "organizationa l horizons. I n additio n t o lega l an d extr a lega l variables th e literatur e suggest s a thir d variable organizationa l variables Thes e ar e o f tw o kinds : micro an d macr o level Micro-level Thes e micro-leve l variable s emerge d fro m a discussio n o f th e individua l prosecutin g attorney' s office The y wer e usuall y expresse d i n term s o f budget

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17 0 cost caseload an d placemen t option s (Hagan Hewitt an d Alwin 1979) M y researc h als o suggeste d tha t th e statutor y punishmen t wa s a majo r drivin g facto r wit h regar d t o anima l cruelt y case s a t th e micro-level A t thi s level retrospectiv e concerns lik e whic h agenc y brough t th e case an d prospectiv e concerns lik e convictability wer e als o present (Emerso n & Paley 1992) Withi n th e offic e itself ther e wer e broade r concerns Animal cruelt y case s compete d wit h othe r anima l cruelt y cases an d wit h othe r case s o n a prosecutor' s ow n individua l caseload (Emerson 1983) A t th e micro-level establishin g th e legitimac y o f anima l cruelt y case s was crucial Animal case s existe d i n competitio n wit h huma n cases bot h acros s th e offic e an d o n a prosecutor' s individua l calenda r (Emerson 1983 ; Emerso n & Paley 1992) Case s wer e no t deal t wit h a s isolate d entities bu t a s a par t o f a n office-wid e institutional context (Emerso n & Paley 1992) A s on e attorne y noted A lo t o f experience d attorney s woul d sa y "you'r e wastin g m y tim e wit h this. Becaus e the y wante d adul t crimes—homicides arme d robberies an d thing s lik e that I don' t kno w i f it' s th e powe r o r th e ide a o f bein g involve d i n seriou s cases A ver y rea l concern was als o th e allocatio n o f resource s withi n th e offic e an d ho w a n anima l cruelt y cas e woul d compar e t o othe r felon y cases A s on e prosecuto r aptl y noted "Al l th e case s figh t fo r time. I di d no t ge t th e sens e tha t prosecutor s though t o f case s a s "anima l versu s human. Instead th e sentimen t was on e o f a clas s si x felon y versus al l th e othe r higher-clas s felonie s (one-five) Almos t ever y attorne y commente d o n this Th e followin g quote s illustrat e thi s concern :

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• [Anima l cruelt y cases ] ar e a clas s si x an d that' s nothin g compare d t o th e one s w e ha d i n se x crimes [These ] aren' t automati c pleas bu t the y wer e dow n th e lis t o f priorities That' s kind a ho w I manag e m y cases Becaus e what' s th e best-cas e outcome ? Yo u spen d on e wee k i n tria l an d al l thi s menta l tim e an d energ y u p t o tria l an d yo u ge t a clas s si x felon y an d th e judg e designate s i t a misdemeano r righ t afte r th e cas e i s don e i f h e chooses Becaus e th e legislatur e chos e t o mak e i t a clas s six yo u hav e s o littl e powe r ove r th e ple a negotiation s an d th e outcom e i s mino r agains t th e offende r compare d t o a lo t o f othe r cases It' s not wort h spendin g th e tim e o n it • Which on e ar e w e goin g [t o trial ] on ? A clas s si x felony ? A t th e en d o f th e day th e judg e coul d trea t i t a s a misdemeano r afte r tria l anyways s o I' m assumin g tha t i s was primaril y a resourc e issu e an d ther e wa s no t a whol e lo t t o b e gained • It' s kin d o f a resourc e issu e an d i s i t reall y wort h al l o f th e effor t tha t goe s int o a felon y prosecution ? Includin g i f yo u ar e pushe d t o trial takin g a jury takin g member s o f th e communit y awa y fro m thei r job s t o hea r a cas e tha t yo u ar e willin g t o plea d t o a misdemeanor A t th e en d o f th e da y i f yo u wer e willin g t o offe r th e misdemeano r t o begi n with wh y i n th e hec k ar e yo u prosecutin g i t i n superio r cour t a s a felony ? I n on e case th e defendan t was charge d wit h failur e t o registe r a s a se x offender base d o n a n out-of-stat e twenty-year-ol d conviction Deputie s wer e calle d ou t becaus e ther e was possibl e do g abuse The y foun d th e do g wit h chemical s o n it burned skin an d pellet s unde r it s skin/face Th e defendan t live d nex t doo r an d tol d th e officer s tha t th e do g

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17 2 barke d al l th e time Deputie s foun d th e sam e chemica l o n th e defendant' s pant s an d shoes The y als o foun d a pelle t gu n i n hi s bus whic h apparentl y was wher e h e lived Th e pellet s fo r th e pelle t gu n matche d thos e i n th e dog Defendan t ple d t o th e failur e t o register a clas s fou r felony Th e anima l cruelt y charge a clas s si x felony was dismissed Th e attorne y explaine d why On e o f th e thing s tha t I pa y attentio n t o i s th e issu e o f motion s t o seve r an d resource s involve d i f w e ar e pushe d t o trial Becaus e tha t i s tw o separat e trial s righ t there On e i s clearl y not relate d t o th e other Failur e t o registe r case s ar e generall y easie r to o becaus e yo u ar e talkin g a one-da y trial Plus w e go t th e clas s four Ever y attorne y expresse d thi s practica l statutor y constraint : tha t th e offens e o f anima l felon y cruelt y wa s bu t a clas s si x felony Ye t again I di d no t ge t th e impressio n tha t thi s wa s "jus t a n anima l case. Instead th e prevailin g sentimen t was "it' s jus t a clas s si x felony. Th e fac t tha t anima l cruelt y wa s a clas s si x felon y seeme d t o limi t thei r abilit y t o effectivel y negotiat e an y sor t o f meaningfu l cas e outcome I n m y interviews thi s discussio n o f leverag e ofte n turne d int o a mor e genera l assessmen t o f th e statutor y scheme Give n suc h a lo w clas s felon y t o begi n with prosecutor s wer e limite d i n jus t wha t sor t o f bargai n the y coul d strik e wit h a defendant Th e bigges t too l i n effectiv e prosecutoria l cas e managemen t i s th e ple a bargain I n fact i n 1971 th e Unite d State s Suprem e Cour t hel d i n Santabello v. New York, tha t plea-bargainin g i s "no t onl y a n essentia l par t o f th e process bu t a highl y desirabl e par t fo r man y reasons. Nationwide ple a bargainin g account s fo r 95 % o f crimina l

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17 3 conviction s i n stat e court s (Burea u o f Justic e Statistics Stat e Cour t Sentencin g o f Convicte d Felons 2002) Thi s offic e wa s belo w tha t number wit h a 90 % settlemen t rate Wit h thes e numbers i t follow s tha t bot h th e prosecutio n an d defens e hav e stron g motivation s t o engag e i n plea-bargaining Th e strengt h o f a ple a i s determine d b y th e strengt h o f th e case Strengt h turn s o n th e evidentiar y consideration s discusse d above a s wel l a s th e penaltie s tha t ar e available I n term s o f availabl e penalty conside r th e exampl e o f a defendan t wh o i s charge d wit h a clas s fou r felony I f th e prosecuto r wishe s t o offe r a plea ther e ar e a rang e option s tha t wil l stil l ensur e a felon y conviction Th e defendan t ma y b e incline d t o accep t a clas s fiv e o r a clas s si x felony sinc e bot h ar e les s seriou s tha n clas s fou r felony However whe n a n individua l i s charge d wit h a clas s si x felony thi s i s th e lowes t clas s felon y i n Arizona Th e onl y lesse r offense s ("bargains" ) availabl e ar e a clas s si x open-ende d offens e o r t o a clas s on e misdemeanor Th e availabl e statutor y punishmen t affecte d th e exercis e o f discretio n a t bot h th e initia l issuin g decisio n an d th e decisio n t o plea d th e cas e Whe n i t cam e t o issuing I note d a cost-benefi t analysi s t o th e prosecutors reasoning Give n th e limite d felon y option s fo r pleadin g th e case prosecutor s questione d th e futilit y i n goin g forwar d i n th e firs t instance Th e proble m wit h chargin g anyon e wit h a clas s si x felon y i s ther e isn' t a n incentiv e fo r the m t o plea d muc h o f anything becaus e i f the y g o t o tria l an d ge t convicted afte r al l th e effor t o f havin g a tria l yo u kno w wit h th e witnesse s comin g in th e jur y an d everything a s soo n a s they'r e convicte d th e judg e ca n designat e i t a misdemeanor W e jus t don' t hav e a lo t o f leverage s o that' s wh y I

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17 4 woul d waiv e i t [t o a misdemeanor]. 1 0 That' s th e mindse t I woul d hav e gon e throug h fo r almos t an y clas s si x felony "I f you'v e go t a clas s five fo r example you'v e go t a hamme r ove r tha t defendant a t leas t fo r a felony becaus e i f tha t goe s t o tria l an d tha t perso n i s foun d guilty he' s go t a felony Th e si x o n th e othe r hand they'v e go t a chanc e t o tur n i t int o a misdemeano r afte r probation Eve n afte r trial th e judg e ha s discretio n [t o designat e i t a misdemeanor] Prosecutor s ofte n ha d t o discus s thi s perceive d lac k o f leverag e wit h polic e detective s wh o wer e bringin g th e case s i n fo r issuing Wha t I alway s tel l m y detective s whe n the y com e i n wit h an y clas s si x is "I f that' s al l w e hav e an d w e don' t hav e a prior the n w e don' t hav e muc h leverag e i n term s o f bargaining. I tel l the m i f w e ar e oka y pleadin g i t t o a misdemeanor the n wh y ar e w e here ? Whe n i t cam e t o pleading th e sam e concern s wit h wasted tim e an d energ y arose I n addition prosecutor s wer e frustrate d wit h thei r lac k o f vali d negotiatin g power Mos t fel t tha t th e legislatur e gav e the m s o littl e power On e attorne y seeme d t o su m i t u p quit e well "It' s a shitt y statute. .th e la w i s not a hug e hammer. Othe r attorney s echoe d simila r sentiments An y clas s si x felony—cruelty dru g possession o r shoplifting—i s difficul t t o plea d becaus e there' s not muc h incentiv e fo r th e charge d perso n t o plea d anythin g bu t a misdemeanor And yo u know it' s hard becaus e eve n i f yo u g o t o tria l it' s 1 0 Whe n a prosecuto r "waives a cas e t o misdemeanor th e count y i s essentiall y refusin g t o tak e felon y jurisdiction Th e cas e i s no w a misdemeano r an d processe d vi a th e cit y (throug h cit y court ) o r throug h th e count y (injustic e court)

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17 5 goin g t o b e a si x ope n an d they'r e goin g t o ge t a misdemeano r anyway s an d i t just frankly sucks Overall whe n i t cam e t o anima l cruelt y cases attorney s wer e no t unfettere d i n thei r exercis e o f discretion True the y wer e no t governe d b y stric t rules However the y wer e stil l governe d b y th e contex t o f th e case Eac h cas e becam e a n institutiona l phenomeno n wherei n decision s wer e rationall y linke d t o know n course s o f organizationa l activit y (Emerso n & Paley 1992) Macro-level I n additio n t o micro-leve l concerns macro-leve l variable s wer e use d t o describ e th e systemi c natur e o f th e crimina l justic e system A s such the y include d othe r player s withi n th e syste m overall suc h a s th e judge jury an d medi a (Frohmann 1997 ; Hagan 1989) I n effort s t o contro l th e othe r systemi c pieces a discussio n o f ple a bargain s turne d particularl y relevant A s a peopl e processin g organization th e prosecutor' s offic e di d no t attemp t t o directl y alte r people' s behavior Instead i t sough t t o proces s peopl e an d confe r publi c statuse s upo n the m (Hasenfeld 1972) I n thi s process th e prosecutor' s offic e develope d link s t o othe r externa l units/organization s tha t wer e par t o f a large r organizationa l network Ther e wer e link s t o societ y (publi c opinion) th e court s (judge s an d juries) correction s (j a il s > prisons probation) an d la w enforcement Th e effectivenes s o f th e prosecutor' s offic e depended i n part o n th e respons e o f th e othe r system-wid e players t o th e statuse s proposed (Hasenfeld 1972) Th e succes s o f th e prosecutor' s offic e wa s contingen t o n th e judge' s o r jury' s reactio n t o th e "criminal classification s proposed Hasenfel d (1972 ) analyze d people

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17 6 processin g organization s b y focusin g o n th e exchang e relation s the y develo p wit h thei r environment an d the n trace d th e effect s o f thes e relation s t o th e structur e an d conten t o f th e people-processin g functions H e suggeste d tha t th e classification-dispositio n system s o f processin g organization s reflec t th e contraint s o f thei r exchang e relation s wit h othe r marke t units I n othe r words whe n i t comes t o prosecution prosecutor s wil l mov e forwar d wit h charge s base d o n th e reaction s fro m othe r marke t units I n general th e mor e a processin g organzatio n (prosecutor ) depend s o n a give n marke t uni t fo r acceptin g it s produc t G u dg e o r jur y verdic t o f guilty) th e mor e it s classification-dispositio n syste m wil l respon d t o th e constraint s an d contingencie s o f tha t marke t uni t (Hasenfeld 1972) Mos t recently Edelma n an d Suchma n (1997 ) identifie d a n emergin g convergenc e betwee n researc h o n organization s an d researc h o n th e law The y sugges t tha t la w an d organization s ar e intertwined—tha t la w exist s independently o f th e organization but i s als o a par t o f th e organizationa l environment Edelma n an d Suchma n (1997 ) focu s o n th e relationshi p betwee n non-lega l organization s an d th e law discussin g ho w thes e organization s actuall y us e th e la w i n thei r ow n organizationa l environments I t i s clea r fro m m y researc h tha t prosecutor s als o operat e i n a n organizationa l setting simila r t o th e non-lega l settin g tha t Edelma n an d Suchma n (1997 ) describe The y to o hav e externa l force s tha t becom e elements o f thei r particula r organizationa l environment Aki n t o othe r organizationa l settings th e prosecuto r look s outwar d towar d othe r institutions evaluatin g th e constraint s i n th e organizationa l field M y interview s sugges t tha t i t was th e perceive d exchang e betwee n prosecutor s an d tw o othe r

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downstrea m actors th e judg e an d jury tha t mos t affecte d wha t typ e o f cas e was prosecuted Whil e prosecutor s kne w the y wer e th e one s responsibl e fo r charging th e case the y als o realize d that withou t a guilt y verdict jus t chargin g someon e mad e littl e difference Thus th e systemi c natur e o f th e crimina l justic e syste m seeme d naturall y t o forc e a downstrea m consideration Ther e wa s th e attemp t t o predic t a n outcome base d o n som e limite d estimation s o f wha t a juro r woul d fin d prosecutio n worthy I n determinin g whethe r o r not t o issue plead o r tr y a case th e prosecutor s gav e though t t o whethe r th e cas e woul d hav e a n emotional impac t o r evok e sympath y fro m jurors Neithe r "emotion no r "sympathy i s considere d a n elemen t o f a crime Jur y instruction s acros s th e countr y specificall y instruc t juror s t o decid e case s solel y o n facts not o n emotio n o r sympathy But whethe r o r no t a cas e migh t evok e sympath y i s nevertheles s a n importan t consideratio n fo r th e prosecutor s I interviewed I n effort s t o determin e exactl y wha t woul d evok e sympathy th e concep t o f "discordan t locale was relevant Th e discussio n o f thi s issu e proceede d i n stages A t first prosecutor s endeavore d t o describ e th e sor t o f cas e tha t woul d b e meaningfu l fo r jurors Ther e wa s a n initia l focu s o n th e typ e o f injur y an d th e typ e o f animal On e prosecuto r explained "Jur y appea l [is ] huge—pictures death seriou s injurie s t o a n anima l wil l wi n th e da y ove r th e opposite. Othe r prosecutor s repeate d he r response • I as k myself wha t i s i t tha t th e jur y care s about ? I f it' s a ti e out an d th e anima l dies maybe ; i f th e anima l i s not containe d an d wandering—no t s o much Ideally

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17 8 I thin k abou t ho w m y cas e wil l b e sympathetic o r not t o a jury I nee d t o fee l som e mora l hig h groun d fo r mysel f o r i t probabl y won' t convinc e a jur y either • Th e conduc t ha s t o b e s o outrageous I kno w a lo t o f peopl e don' t fee d thei r animal s well don' t car e fo r the m well an d i f thos e wer e th e peopl e tha t mad e u p m y jury they' d think "well wow ther e fo r th e grac e o f Go d g o I. S o the y wouldn' t tak e i t seriously Clearly prosecutor s wer e lookin g fo r somethin g tha t woul d startl e and/o r evok e som e emotion Thus th e defendant' s behavio r and/o r th e resultin g injur y ha d t o b e somethin g beyon d just cruel. I t ha d t o affec t th e juror s i n thi s particula r county Th e notio n o f discordan t locale a s discusse d supr a i n relatio n t o extra-lega l variables eve n playe d ou t i n th e contex t o f pickin g th e righ t cas e fo r th e jury Prosecutoria l comment s lik e th e followin g abounded : • I mea n thi s i s [th e Southwest ] an d som e peopl e lik e thei r gun s an d somebody a do g o r someon e comes ont o thei r property they'v e go t a righ t t o shoo t them S o that' s a pragmati c look Wherea s othe r cases lik e th e sodomizin g tha t dog yo u know I don' t car e wha t yo u do tha t coul d relat e t o n o on e a t all An d yo u pu t a piec e o f pape r i n fron t o f th e jury an d the y ar e goin g t o find tha t gu y guilt y o f anythin g yo u put i n fron t o f them • [Southwester n folk ] lik e thei r gun s an d defendin g themselve s an d property Th e shootin g a do g whe n it' s o n you r propert y [mentality] an d yo u know thi s i s Arizona s o you'v e go t t o loo k a t th e tria l o n tha t an d s o pragmaticall y yo u coul d los e ver y easily

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17 9 • Demographicall y we'r e kin d o f i n th e West an d i n term s o f treatmen t t o animal s it' s stil l a bi t wild I don' t wan t t o b e prejudiced but th e ris k o f goin g wit h a jur y tria l i n a n anima l abus e cas e i s tha t you'l l hav e peopl e mor e s o ou t Wes t thinkin g tha t animal s ar e property Therefore howeve r yo u trea t them i s not a crime S o yo u nee d t o worr y abou t tha t typ e o f nullification It' s a ris k w e th e governmen t ha s t o assum e befor e w e decid e t o g o t o trial n o matte r ho w firml y w e feel Afte r a discussio n o f thes e genera l concern s ove r wha t behavio r was crue l enoug h an d th e demographi c natur e o f th e jurors th e dialogu e turne d t o th e specifi c contex t o f th e case s handle d b y eac h attorney Thi s gav e som e insigh t int o ho w prosecutor s viewe d particula r cases O n on e case tw o defendant s too k turn s shootin g on e o f th e defendant' s Rottweiler The y late r argue d tha t i t ha d Parv o an d the y wer e euthanizin g th e dog Th e assigne d prosecuto r noted Yes I thin k i t doe s [hav e jur y appeal] Th e revelatio n abou t wha t was goin g o n woul d b e mor e infuriatin g [and ] s o muc h mor e intentional. I n ye t anothe r case th e femal e defendan t lef t he r pupp y i n th e backyar d wit h n o shad e o r water Th e do g survived bu t ha d thir d degre e sunburns eventuall y losin g muc h o f it s skin Evaluatin g thi s case th e prosecuto r explained Ther e i s a n emotiona l component an d I neve r discoun t that eve n thoug h i t i s no t technicall y par t o f th e law An d th e reaso n I don' t discoun t tha t i s becaus e o f on e o f th e thing s yo u hav e to a s issuin g o r charging yo u hav e t o conside r th e impac t o f th e cas e o n th e jury An d i f I hav e a n emotiona l respons e o n i t th e jur y wil l too [Th e jury ] woul d n o doub t hav e t o se e pictures eve n thoug h th e motio n i s t o kee p

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18 0 the m out becaus e ho w els e woul d w e b e abl e t o se e th e sunburn ? Tha t i s somethin g I considered Ye t anothe r attorne y suggeste d th e valu e o f addin g a n anima l cruelt y charg e t o a defendant' s case : I ha d a cas e wher e a forme r caretake r fo r a n elderl y ma n actuall y ende d u p slicin g an d dicin g an d stabbin g him Bu t befor e h e di d it h e too k th e guy' s littl e do g an d thre w hi m u p agains t th e wall An d s o I ha d t o g o actuall y loo k a t th e cruelt y statut e becaus e I thought Ooh I' d lov e t o charg e somethin g becaus e th e jur y i s goin g t o hat e him Jus t fro m hearing it H e confessed Evidenc e u p th e wazoo bu t I though t tha t woul d b e a nic e hoo k fo r th e jur y t o reall y dislik e thi s guy I n som e instances prosecutor s specificall y focuse d o n wha t the y perceive d t o b e th e ver y lac k o f perceive d emotiona l impac t o n a juror I n on e case a do g approache d a defendan t wh o wa s walkin g o n th e stree t an d sniffe d hi s hand Th e defendan t the n sho t th e dog Th e prosecuto r o n tha t cas e reasoned "I t migh t hav e bee n tha t I [pled ] i t becaus e I wasn' t tha t excite d abou t th e case It' s no t lik e somebod y tha t I' m reall y goin g t o com e a t hard. I n anothe r case a dog' s le g was severel y infecte d afte r it s cas t ha d bee n lef t o n fo r ove r si x months Th e veterinaria n subsequentl y euthanize d th e animal Th e prosecuto r describe d he r dispositio n o f th e case : I though t i t woul d loo k ver y ba d t o g o t o tria l agains t someon e wh o yo u coul d als o argu e i s a goo d Samarita n fo r eve n bringin g i n th e do g an d no t jus t takin g th e do g t o th e pound I t wa s [defendant's ] roommate' s do g an d h e ha d lef t an d move d withou t takin g hi s do g wit h hi m an d jus t kin d o f lef t th e do g there An d whil e th e

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18 1 defendan t shoul d hav e take n bette r car e o f him h e finall y jus t brough t hi m i n o f hi s ow n accord S o i t wasn' t reall y hi m tha t hadn' t take n th e cas t off I n ye t anothe r case a do g cam e int o th e defendant' s yard s o h e sho t th e do g i n th e leg Th e prosecuto r i n tha t cas e anticipate d a n argumen t tha t migh t hav e swaye d th e jury I thin k ther e ar e alway s goin g t o b e issue s tha t yo u ar e goin g t o nee d t o worr y about; issue s tha t a jur y woul d b e sympatheti c o r not towards Yea h lik e [sel f defense] I f th e jur y i s goin g t o say "yeah he' s protectin g hi s daughter, you'l l los e tha t one On e prosecuto r too k a mor e genera l loo k a t th e possibl e impact o r lac k thereof o n jurors : I thin k yo u hav e t o understan d that yo u know the y ar e fed the y ar e watered the y hav e a plac e t o cra p i n an d th e cra p i s picke d up an d that' s not a crim e a t all I mean [m y dogs ] g o fo r walks I brus h thei r teeth I flos s thei r teeth I tal k t o them [and ] I spen d tim e wit h them The y ar e m y childre n an d I don' t leav e tow n becaus e I don' t wan t t o leav e the m alone [But] ther e ar e peopl e wh o se e animal s jus t a s animals Th e dog s survive The y ar e no t abused. The y ar e no t neglected Bu t th e qualit y o f thei r lif e i s ver y differen t tha n m y dogs I thin k yo u ge t jamme d u p i n fron t o f a jur y i f yo u [hav e highe r persona l standards ] becaus e ther e ar e plent y o f peopl e wh o are yo u know yo u fee d th e dog yo u pu t ou t water. .it' s a dog

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18 2 Whe n I specificall y querie d on e o f th e prosecutor s abou t whethe r o r not the y woul d charg e a cas e wher e a n owne r sho t hi s ow n do g a s a way o f euthanizin g it sh e replied : Tha t woul d b e harder an d I probabl y wouldn' t issu e that Because yo u know i f yo u g o t o tria l you'r e goin g t o hav e Joh n an d Jan e sittin g o n th e tria l an d [defendant ] i s goin g t o com e i n an d testif y tha t th e ve t wante d $30 0 t o euthaniz e hi s do g wh o i s sufferin g fro m cance r an d h e doesn' t hav e tha t kin d o f money An d i s sobbin g becaus e h e wa s hi s bes t frien d fo r sixtee n year s an d yo u know I jus t di d wha t I coul d t o put hi m ou t o f hi s misery. You'r e not goin g t o wi n that I don' t agre e wit h th e metho d but you'r e not goin g t o wi n that A coupl e attorney s di d brin g u p th e discussio n o f wha t juror s migh t thin k o f potentia l breed s o f dogs—namel y th e infamou s "bi g breed dogs • I thin k thi s mothe r o f th e do g was a fairl y larg e aggressiv e breed lik e a Pit-bull Thi s nast y mothe r Pit-bul l wa s attackin g hi m was hi s stor y an d ther e was nobod y els e ther e s o i f w e wen t t o tria l that' s th e stor y th e jur y woul d hav e heard No t s o great • Wel l i f you'r e i n trial an d th e gu y i s goin g t o b e testifyin g tha t thi s Rottweiler wh o peopl e ar e traditionall y afrai d of was tryin g t o attac k him. .wheneve r yo u hav e a Doberman a Rottweiler o r a Pit-bul l you'r e mos t likel y goin g t o los e whe n yo u g o t o trial Yo u go t thi s bi g dangerou s do g breed yo u know you'r e goin g dow n i n flames

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18 3 A s note d earlier th e prosecutor' s offic e ha s man y client s wit h whic h i t interact s an d upo n whic h i t depend s (Cole 1970) I n additio n t o potential jurors prosecutor s wer e als o concerne d wit h judges I t was clea r fro m m y interview s tha t ther e wa s a n underlyin g distrus t o f th e bench—no t i n term s o f an y sor t o f ethica l misconduct bu t fro m a positio n o f no t trustin g tha t th e judge s wil l impose wha t prosecutor s conside r a n appropriat e sentence Som e judge s wer e acknowledge d a s bein g mor e receptiv e t o anima l cruelt y cases whil e other s wer e not Th e sentence s an d ruling s hande d dow n b y judge s certainl y affec t th e wa y a prosecutor s handle s futur e case s i n fron t o f tha t judge I ha d a directe d verdict 1 1 i n [m y case] Which mean s th e judg e foun d tha t ther e was no t enoug h evidenc e fo r i t t o g o t o th e jury Onc e w e presente d i t h e sai d w e didn' t hav e th e evidenc e t o prov e [th e defendant ] was th e perso n wh o di d th e damage s eve n thoug h w e ha d th e testimon y o f th e neighbo r tha t h e was hom e an d th e polic e ha d com e an d h e wa s stil l i n th e hous e an d th e cal l tha t h e wa s lik e 'shi t wha t hav e I don e typ e thing. I ca n tel l yo u I don' t thin k ther e woul d hav e bee n [a n acquittal ] base d o n wha t th e jur y ha d sai d afterwards I thin k w e woul d hav e ha d a conviction The y wer e surprised I thin k tha t [ a directe d verdic t b y a judge ] make s yo u eve n mor e consciou s t o mak e sur e w e hav e stron g evidenc e t o mee t al l o f th e elements I n crimina l cases a judg e ma y direc t a verdic t o f acquitta l whe n th e prosecutio n fail s t o prov e enoug h evidence suc h tha t n o reasonabl e juro r coul d find th e defendan t guilty Judge s ma y not direc t verdict s o f guilty

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18 4 Wor d o f thi s directe d verdic t eve n sprea d t o othe r attorneys impactin g thei r perception s o f thei r ow n cases I actuall y becam e a littl e bi t concerne d becaus e anothe r attorne y i n th e offic e wh o doe s anima l cruelt y case s ha d a cas e i n fron t o f [my ] judg e jus t a wee k before...an d woun d u p gettin g a directe d verdict...s o I wa s a littl e bi t worried Prosecutor s als o identifie d certai n judge s a s bein g les s sympatheti c t o anima l cases H e i s th e one W e ha d ou r las t neglec t felon y tria l i n fron t o f hi m a n anima l wh o wa s tie d ou t withou t wate r an d shad e an d strangle d himsel f o n th e chain Th e defendan t wa s convicte d b y th e jury H e essentiall y sai d I don' t thin k thi s gu y di d anythin g wron g an d th e mos t I a m goin g t o giv e hi m i s si x month s probation n o conditions n o nothing. That' s wh y I plea d case s whe n I can I kno w ver y wel l tha t I ma y hav e t o negotiat e awa y m y felon y t o a misdemeanor bu t th e condition s ar e wha t driv e me It' s th e downsid e o f havin g clas s sixes Th e upsid e i f I ca n negotiat e something bu t th e downsid e i s i f I tak e i t t o tria l ther e i s no t muc h I ca n forc e th e judg e t o do I don' t trus t th e judges I n additio n t o consideration s o f juro r an d judge ther e wa s a focu s o n th e medi a coverag e tha t a particula r cas e received Coverag e b y th e medi a wa s anothe r systemi c consideratio n whe n i t cam e t o th e dispositio n o f cases However i t was not a critica l aspec t o f th e dail y routin e o f cas e disposition I go t th e sens e tha t medi a attentio n di d no t alte r th e wa y th e prosecutor s handle d thei r cases Instead the y recognize d tha t th e pres s wa s i n th e busines s o f sellin g stories tha t ofte n tim e wha t w e hea r abou t i s no t necessaril y wha t i s goin g o n dow n o n th e groun d level

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18 5 Thi s discussio n i s reminiscen t o f th e "weddin g cak e model o f justice, a terme d coine d b y Friedma n an d Perciva l (1981) Thi s mode l suggest s tha t discretio n i s mete d ou t base d o n th e relativ e importanc e o f a particula r case Pictur e a weddin g cake—i t i s layered wit h th e larges t laye r a t th e botto m an d th e smalles t laye r a t th e top Th e to p laye r include s a smal l numbe r o f celebrit y case s tha t attrac t medi a attention Classi c example s woul d b e th e crimina l case s o f O.J Simpson Michae l Vick an d Scot t Peterson Th e secon d laye r encompasse s othe r hig h profil e felonies typicall y burglary rape an d murder The y ar e hig h profil e becaus e the y attrac t som e degre e o f publi c attentio n tha t pressure s prosecutor s t o tr y th e cas e instea d o f pleadin g i t fo r a lesse r sentence Hig h profil e case s includ e thos e wher e th e victi m was seriousl y injured wher e th e defendan t ha d a previou s crimina l history o r instance s wher e a weapo n was used Movin g furthe r dow n int o th e cake th e thir d laye r house s th e ordinar y felonies—thos e tha t wer e les s violent, involve d n o weapon o r wer e committe d b y firs t tim e offenders Typically thes e ordinar y felonie s t o ar e no t take n t o trial Finally th e fourt h laye r i s mad e u p o f misdemeanors Friedma n an d Perciva l (1981 ) not e th e iron y o f thi s model Th e case s o n th e to p leve l represen t society' s idea l o f crimina l justice—bruta l instance s o f crime seasone d defens e attorneys length y trials an d exper t witnesses Th e furthe r dow n int o th e layers th e les s forma l i s th e justice Instead discretio n predominates wit h mos t case s resolve d throug h th e us e o f a ple a bargain B y th e tim e on e reache s th e fourt h layer almos t n o defendan t receive s th e idea l treatmen t o f th e to p layer Unfortunately publi c attentio n o n th e celebrit y case s portray s a n unrealisti c pictur e o f ho w th e syste m work s i n reality

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A s on e attorne y remarked "Th e pres s need s t o surviv e b y sellin g storie s an d whateve r sell s a stor y i s wha t the y ar e goin g t o do. On e o f th e mor e senio r attorney s describe d th e pres s i n greate r detail [Pres s coverage ] doesn' t affec t th e ple a tha t w e offer I t affect s ho w w e explai n wha t happen s t o th e communit y i n tha t case It' s lik e chil d abuse/chil d kidnapping/chil d murde r cases W e hav e s o man y o f thos e tha t happe n her e ever y year bu t wha t get s th e nationa l attention Th e Elizabet h Smart s o f th e world ? Wha t wa s s o specia l abou t Elizabet h Smar t tha t he r kidnappin g i s differen t tha n an y othe r kidnappin g tha t happen s t o a ki d i n ou r ow n community ? I don' t ge t that I don' t understan d that So it' s sor t o f annoying Bu t th e pres s decide s wha t i s important an d tha t ma y not b e wha t i s reall y importan t i n th e gran d schem e o f things abou t wha t i s happenin g i n you r community an d wha t i s happenin g i n you r day-to-da y prosecutoria l thing A s a se x crime s prosecutor 95 % o f you r cases an d th e mos t painfu l t o th e participant s i n thos e cases ar e you r in-hom e molests Does th e press car e abou t that ? No The y don' t car e abou t ho w man y uncles dads brothers mothers sisters cousins nephew s ar e molestin g kid s i n thei r family Tha t doesn' t have. .tha t i s not sex y enoug h fo r them They'r e lookin g fo r th e unusua l suspec t o r th e specia l victi m o r priests The y lov e priests Priest s hav e preye d upo n a whol e lo t o f peopl e bu t not nearl y a s man y a s you r dad s an d stepdads Bu t the y don' t car e abou t tha t an d anima l cruelt y case s ar e th e sam e way The y don' t car e abou t th e fac t tha t wha t kill s mos t animal s i n thi s communit y i s peopl e tha t hav e the m tie d u p i n thei r

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18 7 backyard s an d don' t fee d them don' t giv e the m water an d don' t giv e the m veterinar y care That' s ho w mos t animal s di e i n thi s community Wha t ge t th e pres s ar e th e animal s wh o ar e skinne d aliv e an d lef t alon g th e sid e o f th e road Which i s not th e norm Thin k outside th e box ladie s an d gentleman. Prosecutor s sa w th e pres s a s servin g thre e functions : First a s a reminde r fo r lin e attorney s t o kee p th e offic e leadershi p "i n th e loop an d apprise d o f th e highe r profil e cases Second i n additio n t o fosterin g effectiv e communicatio n t o th e Count y Attorney medi a attentio n provide d a n alternat e for m o f communit y educatio n beyon d a jur y trial Thus prosecutor s trie d t o bes t mobiliz e th e pres s t o thei r advantage A s on e attorne y describe d them "Th e pres s i s goo d becaus e the y ca n provid e tip s fo r reporting education awareness. Similarly anothe r attorne y noted "Well it' s importan t i n a numbe r o f ways [They ] hel p u s solv e crime s whe n w e hav e incident s wher e w e ar e lookin g fo r a n individua l o r individuals I n on e o f th e earlier cases som e puppie s [were ] lef t i n a dumpster W e di d a press releas e o n that an d a s a resul t o f tha t pres s release w e go t a ti p wh o tha t offende r was S o th e pres s i s ver y importan t i n tha t regard Thus th e pres s was a vehicl e t o solv e cases Anothe r prosecuto r commente d o n th e valu e o f th e press i n holdin g othe r la w enforcemen t agencie s responsibl e fo r thei r (in)action "Yes [th e pres s i s good] T o no t onl y hol d th e offender s accountable bu t sometime s hol d othe r agencie s an d othe r entitie s accountabl e fo r no t doin g wha t the y shoul d do.

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18 8 Perhaps on e o f th e mos t prevalen t use s o f th e pres s cam e i n th e for m o f communit y education Severa l prosecutor s sa w th e pres s a s a too l t o brin g informatio n abou t anima l cruelt y befor e th e public • I trie d t o b e a s cooperativ e wit h th e pres s a s I could I alway s returne d phon e call s an d jus t tol d th e reporter "Look here' s wha t yo u ge t fo r now can' t d o anythin g else. I kno w the y wer e sellin g information I wante d a goo d relationshi p s o the y woul d put ou r case s ou t ther e fo r th e public I thin k I use d the m a s muc h a s the y use d me • I thin k th e pres s i s importan t i n th e awarenes s o f ho w anima l cruelt y i s commo n i n th e communit y an d th e kind s o f threat s tha t thos e offender s pos e t o othe r member s o f th e community I thin k w e woul d [prosecut e i f n o literatur e supporte d th e link ] becaus e ofte n we'r e prosecutin g case s i n suc h a wa y tha t th e publi c want s u s t o do Eve n acquittal s ha d silve r lining s i n th e contex t o f press coverage • Well w e los t s o bad[ly ] i n tha t case but i t was good I t shon e a ligh t lik e th e Michae l Vic k cas e did I f i t hadn' t bee n fo r him dog-fightin g case s woul d not nearl y b e a s important t o not jus t thi s state bu t t o others Becaus e yo u neve r hear d abou t thes e before an d th e prosecutio n jus t didn' t hav e them • W e ar e happ y th e press cover s thes e case s becaus e th e mor e peopl e kno w abou t it th e better eve n i f w e los e th e case I didn' t min d tha t th e pres s cam e an d interviewe d me an d the y did Th e fac t is th e mor e publicit y ther e is eve n i f w e

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18 9 don' t wi n th e case a t leas t mor e peopl e ar e awar e o f wha t i s goin g o n around thei r community Lastly th e pres s coverage gav e prosecutor s a databas e o f possibl e informatio n tha t a juro r o r judg e migh t hav e bee n expose d t o befor e sittin g i n judgmen t o f th e case I n fou r o f th e cas e files I reviewed ther e wer e newspape r article s abou t th e case s tha t ha d bee n cu t ou t an d inserte d int o th e files Th e impressio n was tha t th e prosecutor s wante d t o ensur e a bias-fre e jury Whe n I aske d th e prosecutor s i n thos e cases on e commented : It' s ver y commo n fo r me jus t a s a C-YA thing o n al l m y case s i f somethin g ha s hi t th e new s t o remin d mysel f tha t th e news ha s pai d attentio n t o thi s onc e s o the y [judg e o r jurors ] ma y pa y attentio n t o i t again Anothe r repeate d thi s reasoning I probabl y woul d hav e [pu t th e news clippin g i n th e file]. I stil l d o i t today I typicall y put i t i n th e file, s o tha t i f i t eve r becam e relevan t fo r jur y selectio n purposes the n yo u ca n determin e i f ther e i s a bias [Media ] doesn' t affec t wha t w e d o i n a case but i t doe s affec t ho w yo u handl e it an d that' s a goo d example Dependin g o n th e degre e o f exposur e t o th e medi a yo u ca n expect a t th e ver y least tha t the y hav e hear d abou t i t an d prejudge d it I n on e o f th e cases th e defendan t sho t a Rottweile r an d claime d i t wa s self defense I n th e cas e file, th e tria l attorne y ha d place d a serie s o f loca l newspape r article s tha t h e ha d retrieve d fro m th e Internet Th e article s reporte d o n th e following : insurer s denyin g coverag e t o owner s wit h dangerou s dogs th e polic e shootin g o f a Pi t Bull' s

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owner an d a do g attac k tha t sen t ma n t o th e hospital I n respons e t o m y questions h e explaine d wh y th e article s wer e i n th e cas e file I probabl y pu t thos e in Sometime s I' m jus t anticipatin g th e potential venu e notification whatever Th e reaso n I d o tha t i s becaus e I worr y abou t th e judge s bein g numbe d t o th e offense s b y presentin g potentia l outcome s i n simila r situations tha t didn' t g o a s well i t go t a s ba d a s yo u sa y i t coul d be Yo u know wha t i f thi s happened wha t i f th e do g was kille d o r th e perso n didn' t intervene whatever The n yo u hav e a n articl e a fe w week s late r wher e th e three-yea r ol d was maule d b y th e Rottweiler t o death Yo u ca n re-institut e i n th e judge s min d tha t th e potentia l i s fo r real S o abou t hal f th e tim e tha t i s wh y I cu t article s out Fo r that an d sentencin g purposes Beyon d th e jury judge an d media i t was clea r fro m ever y intervie w tha t th e particula r defens e attorney asid e fro m som e sor t o f insid e jok e abou t thei r personality reall y ha d n o bearin g o n th e treatmen t o f th e case A s on e attorne y responded I coul d car e less I tr y th e cas e th e sam e wa y anyway A t th e en d o f th e day I ge t th e sam e salar y whethe r I wi n o r lose An d whe n I was doin g thes e anima l cases the y wer e al l new s o I coul d alway s us e th e practice Becaus e o f th e perceive d uncertaintie s o f othe r marke t actors man y prosecutor s turne d t o ple a bargain s a s a wa y t o gai n greate r contro l ove r thei r cas e outcomes Oh [tha t defendant] She' s apiec e o f shit Peopl e sa y sh e was havin g som e financia l issues Sh e wa s goin g throug h a divorc e an d yadd a yadd a yadda Bu t she' s go t a histor y o f thi s an d sh e keep s movin g fro m hous e t o hous e an d around

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19 1 So ther e ma y b e a ple a mostl y becaus e I don' t trus t judges I thin k I ca n ge t a jur y convictio n o n som e o f thes e things but i t al l depend s o n whic h judg e th e cas e goe s to Becaus e the n I los e control I don' t wan t t o leav e th e consequence s u p t o th e judge I woul d offe r a ple a fo r th e sam e reaso n tha t I offe r the m i n an y case — a bir d i n th e hand i f yo u wil l excus e th e animal-relate d metaphor I t wa s apparen t tha t ther e wa s a genera l distrus t o f th e bench A s w e know case s ar e assigne d randoml y t o variou s member s o f th e bench Ther e ar e som e judge s w e ca n hav e som e fait h i n wh o wil l follo w th e recommendation s tha t w e migh t giv e them Wer e ther e t o b e a trial an d ther e i s a guilt y verdict the n w e ca n as k th e judg e t o impos e thos e conditions Som e o f thos e judge s w e hav e confidenc e tha t the y wil l impose those Man y o f the m wil l not Prosecutor s als o use d ple a bargain s a s a n exercis e i n creativity—imposin g wha t the y though t wer e mor e productiv e outcome s tha n thos e provide d fo r i n th e statute. On e attorne y required a s par t o f th e ple a agreement tha t th e defendan t d o a publi c servic e announcement Stil l a differen t prosecuto r require d a defendan t t o tak e anima l classe s an d mak e a $50 0 donatio n t o th e count y anima l car e agency Anothe r dismisse d a cas e whe n th e defendan t agree d t o forfei t hi s dog Dismissa l als o happene d i n a cas e wher e th e defendan t sho t anothe r man' s Rottweiler I n exchang e fo r payin g th e veterinar y bills th e charge s wer e dropped I n misdemeano r case s ther e i s what' s calle d a misdemeano r compromise It' s authorize d b y statute. Generall y whateve r thos e qualification s are i f yo u mee t

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them th e perso n i s entitle d t o tr y an d pursu e a misdemeano r compromis e wit h th e victim Tha t means tha t the y mak e th e victi m whol e an d o r whol e plus I f yo u wan t t o compensat e fo r time pai n an d suffering that' s permitte d unde r th e statute It' s no t bribery it' s not inappropriate it' s al l contemplate d b y compromisin g th e misdemeanor an d i n exchange th e misdemeano r compromis e la w allow s th e charg e t o b e dismissed Th e spiri t o f tha t ma y hav e bee n embodie d i n thi s result Beyon d thes e examples on e attorne y explaine d wh y sh e preferre d ple a bargain s wit h suc h uniqu e conditions I a m abl e t o structur e th e ple a i n way s tha t doe s th e thing s tha t w e wer e talkin g abou t earlier—accountability a s wel l a s a chang e i n wha t I hop e i s thei r futur e behavior So it' s alway s a standar d ter m o f th e ple a tha t the y ar e o n thre e year s probation whic h i s th e maximu m yo u ca n ge t fo r a clas s six I t i s supervise d an d i t canno t b e earl y term[inated] The y canno t ow n an y animal s o r hav e car e o r custod y o f the m durin g tha t tim e period The y hav e t o tak e th e anti-cruelt y class Ther e ma y b e psychologica l evaluation s tha t ar e require d counselin g perhaps Thos e ar e ke y components a s wel l a s whethe r o r not ther e i s an y jai l tim e tha t i s required I' m tryin g t o buil d a cultur e wher e [attorneys ] understan d wh o thes e [defendants ] ar e an d wha t i t i s w e wan t the m t o lear n fro m th e prosecutio n process S o tha t it' s not jus t i n ever y cas e issuin g an d requestin g th e mandator y fin e an d [time ] i n jail jus t becaus e that' s wha t th e ple a guideline s say [W e need ] t o loo k a t eac h case t o weig h eac h individual an d mak e sur e tha t ther e i s

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restitutio n paid i f ther e ar e veterinar y costs t o mak e sur e the y g o t o th e anima l cruelt y preventio n classes an d mak e sur e the y can' t hav e animals So it' s reall y abou t th e broader pictur e o f bot h educatio n an d futur e anima l welfar e Th e genera l impressio n was tha t prosecutors i n th e proverbia l spor t o f ple a negotiation wer e force d t o offe r something Give n tha t th e offens e o f felon y anima l cruelt y was onl y a clas s si x felony thei r rang e o f option s wa s severel y limited Recognizin g thi s negotiatin g disadvantage prosecutor s wer e force d t o exercis e creativit y outsid e th e statutor y confines Sometimes prosecutor s woul d eve n dismis s th e felon y charg e o f anima l cruelt y i f the y coul d ge t certai n condition s o f probation I n addressin g pleas ther e was als o a consideratio n o f th e cas e a s a whole Anima l cruelt y charge s wer e ofte n th e lowes t clas s felon y i n th e indictment Prosecutor s consistentl y describe d ho w the y woul d us e a particula r charg e a s a vehicl e fo r a greate r result I loo k a t th e severit y o f th e crimes I f i t i s strictl y a n anima l cruelt y cas e b y itself I' d obviousl y loo k a t i t a littl e differently Bu t whe n [th e counts ] ar e al l jumble d i n a s clas s four five si x [felonies] it' s toug h t o loo k a t th e anima l cruelt y whe n yo u kno w th e gu y i s lookin g a t seriou s tim e o n a clas s fou r [felony] I' m no t tryin g t o vindicat e th e othe r charges [but ] a s yo u know th e judge s ar e onl y lookin g a t th e to p charg e whe n they'r e handin g out sentences Yo u pic k th e on e tha t get s yo u there On e cas e was a n excellen t exampl e o f usin g othe r charge s t o ge t mor e mileag e wit h a n anima l cruelt y case Th e defendan t was walkin g b y th e victim' s hom e afte r dark Th e victi m wa s a 75-year-ol d femal e wh o ha d tw o dog s fence d i n he r yard Th e

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defendan t bange d o n he r doo r an d tol d he r tha t he r do g ha d bitte n him H e returne d t o hi s home grabbe d a basebal l bat an d cam e bac k t o confron t th e female Afte r rantin g an d ravin g h e smacke d on e o f th e dogs a Labrado r Retriever a fe w time s wit h th e bat Officer s arrived but h e di d no t immediatel y cooperate Instead h e hi t th e do g anothe r fou r o r fiv e times threatene d th e propert y owner an d the n flicke d bloo d a t th e police claimin g h e wa s HI V positive Th e attorne y i n tha t cas e discusse d th e outcome "Defendan t ple d t o th e clas s 3 [felony ] assaul t an d go t prison I thin k everythin g h e presente d was jus t s o appalling. I n ye t anothe r case a famil y was drivin g a truc k an d th e do g was tethere d t o th e bac k o f th e truck Th e do g jumpe d ou t an d th e famil y dragge d i t fo r quit e a well Th e do g neede d veterinar y care Th e famil y wa s goin g t o leav e i t o n th e sid e o f th e roa d unti l th e younge r daughte r urged th e famil y t o d o something Th e parent s ultimatel y too k th e do g t o th e Human e Society But the y pretende d tha t the y foun d th e do g o n th e sid e o f th e roa d an d tol d th e agenc y the y wante d t o adop t it Th e defendant s wer e charge d wit h frau d becaus e the y receive d almos t $90 0 wort h o f fre e veterinar y care eve n thoug h the y kne w th e do g wa s theirs Th e do g recovered s o th e anima l cruelt y charg e was actuall y no t a s seriou s a s i t coul d hav e been Instead th e greate r charg e was th e frau d charge whic h was a clas s thre e felony On e prosecuto r ha d a cas e involvin g a defendan t tha t eviscerate d hi s girlfriend' s cat Th e maximu m charg e fo r th e anima l cruelt y woul d hav e bee n a clas s si x felony Instead however th e prosecuto r explaine d ho w h e manage d t o convic t th e defendan t o n anothe r charge

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O h yeah w e couldn' t forge t [tha t defendant] [Th e cat ] didn' t di e righ t away I t ra n aroun d th e roo m bleedin g unti l i t died Bu t h e i s mor e o f jus t a psycho H e wa s drun k an d h e fel l aslee p wit h a pisto l i n hi s hand An d [w e foun d out ] h e was a prohibite d possessor. 1 2 H e ple d t o th e clas s fou r [felony] prohibite d possesso r [charge] A t leas t [he ] wen t t o priso n fo r longe r tha n h e woul d hav e i f h e didn' t hav e th e prohibite d possesso r charge Give n tha t prosecutor s coul d not alway s adequatel y predic t th e outcom e a t trial the y ple d case s i n favo r o f mor e restrictions treatment an d educatio n programs The y di d thi s i n a n effor t t o contro l outcomes give n thei r lac k contro l ove r othe r player s i n th e crimina l justic e system Thus th e potentia l fo r wha t Hagan et al (1979 ) calle d "ceremonial versu s actua l justic e was certainl y presen t i n th e contex t o f anima l cruelty Th e author s sugges t tha t inter-connecte d subunits suc h a s th e police prosecutor an d judg e i n th e crimina l justic e system ma y tak e o n ne w appendage s demande d b y change s i n th e externa l environment Yet a t th e sam e time thes e subunit s ma y selectivel y ignor e th e activitie s o f thes e ne w appendages Th e resul t i s tha t th e organizatio n i s abl e t o maintai n it s legitimac y withou t dramaticall y changin g it s everyda y practice s (Hagan et al. 1979) Fo r m y purposes th e prosecutor' s offic e wa s clearl y willin g t o tak e o n th e appendag e o f felon y anima l cruelt y cases thu s gainin g publi c legitimacy Yet i t wa s not require d t o alte r it s practice s i n an y grea t form Reviewing issuing an d processin g case s 1 2 A prohibite d possesso r i s generall y a perso n wh o ha s a previou s felon y convictio n an d i s forbidde n b y statut e fro m possessin g an y weapons A.R S §13-310 1 an d §13-3102

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o f anima l cruelt y becam e a ne w appendag e fo r th e count y attorney' s office Yet i n reality ther e wer e fe w case s tha t eve r resulte d i n tria l and/o r clas s si x felon y convictions Plea s wer e not onl y institute d i n th e nam e o f efficienc y an d expedienc y (Hagan et al. 1979) bu t als o fo r th e sak e o f greate r contro l ove r offende r sanctions Persona l Preferenc e Variables I n additio n t o th e prominenc e o f legal extra-legal an d organizationa l variables anima l cruelt y crime s wer e somewha t susceptibl e t o th e particula r proclivitie s o f eac h individua l prosecutor Rainvill e (2001 ) identifie d thi s variabl e a s th e persona l preferenc e o f th e prosecutor I t include d factor s suc h a s th e prosecutor' s philosoph y o f law his/he r perceptio n o f a prosecutor' s purpose an d his/he r preferre d cas e outcomes Without organizationa l o r system-wid e support prosecutions earl y on an d throughou t thei r history depende d o n th e willingnes s o f eac h prosecuto r t o g o forwar d wit h a case Moreover preferre d outcome s fo r anima l cruelt y case s di d not alway s focu s o n a "felon y conviction. Succes s wa s define d accordin g t o futur e contro l o f a defendant' s behavior education furtherin g organizationa l policy an d sendin g a message A s t o b e expected prosecutor s coul d no t divorc e themselve s fro m thei r cases Som e relie d o n thei r ow n persona l standard s an d experience s a s commo n guide s t o cas e disposition I tak e m y ow n dail y circumstance s int o consideration M y cats ar e ou t ther e [o n th e screene d i n porch ] an d I a m not playin g wit h the m lik e 24/7 s o I can' t overl y judg e peopl e wh o don' t pa y minute-by-minut e attentio n t o thei r pet s o r th e animal s tha t ar e o n thei r property But I als o kno w tha t i f I ge t u p i n th e mornin g

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an d I don' t fee l lik e feedin g them that' s no t m y option I hav e t o ge t u p an d fee d the m becaus e the y nee d tha t an d the y ar e no t goin g t o ge t i t fro m an y plac e else S o tha t i s sor t o f th e baselin e fro m whic h I star t an d whe n I loo k a t neglec t issues particularl y veterinar y neglect I loo k a t ho w ofte n I interac t wit h m y animals ho w ofte n I se e them I understan d tha t whe n m y ca t throw s u p i n th e morning I' m no t necessaril y goin g t o rus h tha t ca t of f t o th e vet But i f tha t ca t i s stil l throwin g u p a t nigh t an d not eating the n I' m thinkin g I nee d t o go Ho w lon g d o yo u le t a n anima l languis h wh o i s no t eating an d no t lookin g well an d not active befor e yo u decid e tha t gee mayb e I ough t t o tak e i t t o th e vet An d the n a t wha t poin t d o yo u say I don' t hav e mone y t o g o t o th e vet. M y respons e t o tha t i s havin g a n anima l i s not you r right I t i s a choic e yo u mak e an d a privileg e tha t yo u hav e t o shar e you r lif e wit h tha t livin g being I f yo u ar e no t willin g t o mak e th e commitmen t the n yo u ough t not t o hav e it Simple Eve n give n thei r persona l standards severa l prosecutor s realize d the y migh t trea t thei r ow n anima l fa r bette r tha n others I realiz e tha t th e wa y I trea t m y animal s i s fa r differen t fro m th e mainstream ; min e liv e a ver y goo d lif e wit h birthda y cakes holida y presents beds toys dail y exercise kisse s o n th e lips an d a spo t o n m y ow n bed I d o tr y t o conside r tha t ther e i s a bas e leve l o f treatment whic h whil e I ma y not agre e wit h i t o r lik e it i s not a crime So yes yo u ca n hav e a n outsid e do g tha t neve r see s th e insid e o f a hous e o r neve r leave s th e backyard An d a s lon g a s i t ha s water shade [and ] food tha t i s oka y unde r th e law

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19 8 A s I complete d th e interviews a n interestin g discussio n threa d emerge d i n severa l o f th e prosecutors intervie w responses Man y o f the m maintaine d a particula r persona l philosoph y abou t thei r rol e a s a prosecutor : givin g a voic e t o animals On e attorne y remarked "It' s par t o f th e reaso n tha t I cam e t o [th e Specia l Victim s Unit] It' s helpin g an d dealin g wit h victim s wh o reall y can' t spea k fo r themselve s o r stan d u p fo r themselves. Stil l other s echoe d thi s notion • Ther e i s n o on e t o represen t animals Kid s ar e take n car e of Th e kid s hav e CPS I s ther e an y agenc y lik e tha t fo r an y animal ? Nope Th e judge s i n juvenil e cour t ar e al l i n plac e t o tak e car e o f th e children I s ther e anybod y takin g car e o f th e animal s outside o f th e voluntee r rescu e group s an d th e anima l shelters an d th e Human e Society ? Nope Th e governmen t doe s nothin g abou t takin g car e o f animal s excep t grudgingl y pas s a la w her e an d ther e o n behal f o f thei r welfare • Obviously animal s ar e th e mos t vulnerabl e creature s i n ou r society The y can' t hir e lawyers the y can' t cal l th e police [and ] the y tak e thei r sufferin g i n silence I thin k wha t especiall y bother s m e abou t th e crime s agains t childre n o r vulnerabl e adult s o r animals i s th e fac t tha t the y ar e vulnerable The y can' t stic k u p fo r themselves An d a s a prosecuto r I don' t necessaril y represen t th e victim bu t I thin k I ca n giv e th e victi m a voic e i n court Thes e response s wer e consisten t wit h th e earlie r comment s abou t th e attorneys motivation s fo r enterin g publi c prosecution—thos e o f communit y servic e an d publi c advocate Th e recognitio n tha t animal s wer e a t som e sor t o f societ y disadvantage an d i n nee d o f a voice seeme d a logica l extensio n o f thei r wor k i n regar d t o huma n cases

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Previousl y Unhear d Variable s Becaus e anima l case s di d not begi n wit h th e sam e legitimac y a s huma n cases othe r factor s entere d int o th e calculu s i n determinin g ho w t o exercis e discretion I n thi s section I sugges t thre e additiona l factor s tha t affecte d th e prosecution/non-prosecutio n o f anima l cruelt y cases I hav e labele d thes e factor s th e independen t mora l status th e human-anima l bond an d functiona l worth Whil e al l thre e ar e certainl y not ne w t o th e discussio n o f animal s i n society thi s discours e ha s ye t t o b e hear d i n th e prosecutoria l circles Prosecutor s seeme d t o rel y o n thes e considerations i n varyin g degrees t o suppor t thei r ultimat e decision s regardin g anima l cruelt y cases Independen t mora l status A powerfu l justificatio n t o som e prosecutor s wa s tha t anima l cruelt y i s jus t morall y wrong Suc h acts i n thei r views excee d th e fundamenta l baselin e way livin g thing s shoul d b e treated regardles s o f an y sor t o f lin k t o late r violenc e agains t humans I n othe r words animal s coun t independen t o f thei r valu e t o humans Thei r welfar e matters i n an d o f itself wit h n o nee d t o sugges t a futur e connectio n t o th e maltreatmen t o f humans Thes e independen t mora l statu s argument s tak e tw o forms : libera l anima l rights a non-propert y theory ; an d consideratio n base d o n a n animal' s ow n emotional life Rega n (1984 2001 ) an d Francion e (1995b ) advocat e a stron g libera l right s argument suggestin g tha t a n anima l ha s valu e i t i s ow n right not jus t i n relatio n t o humans Accordin g t o Rega n (1984 2001 ) animal s hav e certai n belief s an d desire s tha t mak e the m subjects not objects Lik e humans animal s fee l physica l pleasur e an d pain The y experienc e fear anger loneliness satisfaction an d a hos t o f othe r psychologica l

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state s (Regan 2001) Thi s confer s inherent/intrinsi c valu e tha t give s the m th e righ t not t o b e kille d o r use d t o satisf y huma n end s (Bartlett 2002 ; Regan 1984 2001) Th e dut y t o animal s i s direct meanin g tha t animal s ar e owe d certai n treatment independen t fro m ho w human s wil l b e affected Contrar y t o Singe r (1975) animal s ma y no t b e harme d i n orde r t o brin g abou t th e bes t aggregat e consequence s fo r human s (Francione 1995b ; Regan 1984) Whil e ther e i s som e overla p wit h Rega n (1984) Francion e (1995b ) present s a les s complicate d theor y b y simpl y rejectin g th e statu s o f animal s a s property Animal s alway s los e i n th e usua l analysi s becaus e interest s o f propert y ar e neve r judge d superio r t o th e interest s o f th e propert y owner I n Francione' s analysi s (1995b) human s an d animal s ar e alik e a s sentien t being s an d shoul d not b e treate d a s a thin g o r a s propert y o f another No r shoul d the y b e mad e t o suffe r fro m bein g use d a s another' s resourc e (Francione 1995b) Thi s doe s no t mea n tha t animal s ar e th e sam e a s humans I n fact give n th e "you r chil d o r th e dog scenario Francion e (1995b ) acknowledge s tha t w e ma y rightfull y choos e t o sav e th e huma n ove r th e anima l i n tru e emergencie s an d whe n necessar y t o d o so This however doe s no t diminis h hi s argument Fo r Francion e (1995b) th e choic e i s simple : eithe r animal s ar e thing s o r the y ar e not An d i f the y ar e not things the n the y hav e morall y significan t interests independen t o f thei r effec t o n humans A handfu l o f prosecutor s echoe d sentiment s simila r t o this A s on e noted Personally I d o no t believ e tha t ther e ar e level s o f cruelty Cruelt y i s cruelty However i t i s th e la w tha t attempt s t o quantif y cruelty. Ye t anothe r remarke d i n stride

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I t i s a life I t i s not a huma n life bu t i t i s a n anima l life An d tha t anima l feel s pai n jus t a s muc h a s a huma n doe s whe n i t i s bein g torture d o r whe n ther e ha s bee n cruelt y o r abus e toward s it T o me that' s th e test The y ar e sentien t creatures period I t i s importan t eve n i f ther e i s n o lin k t o huma n cruelty Supplementin g thes e tw o rights-base d arguments Bekof f (2007 ) assembles a n immens e bod y o f scientifi c evidenc e t o suppor t th e existenc e o f emotion s i n animals Recognizin g tha t animal s hav e emotion s i s importan t becaus e i t ma y affec t ho w human s interac t wit h the m o n a dail y basis Human s hav e enormou s powe r t o mol d th e world I n th e contex t o f thi s study prosecutors throug h th e exercis e o f discretion ha d a n impac t o n th e societ y i n whic h the y operated Greate r knowledg e abou t animal s shoul d thu s mak e a differenc e i n ho w w e represen t fello w sentien t creatures Whil e anima l emotion s ar e critica l t o huma n wel l being suc h a s helpin g human s i n therapeuti c an d service-relate d ways Bekof f (2007 ) suggest s the y ar e als o importan t i n thei r ow n right Whe n i t cam e t o prosecutoria l mobilizatio n o f thes e arguments however onl y a handfu l o f attorney s suggeste d "cruelt y i s cruelty. Thus thi s di d not appea r a stron g justificatio n fo r th e prosecutio n o f cases Human-Anima l Bond I n additio n t o th e vie w o f independen t mora l statu s fo r animals ne w studie s continu e t o surfac e documentin g th e bon d betwee n animal s an d humans Accordin g t o th e 2007-200 8 Nationa l Pet Owner s Survey 63 % o f U.S household s ow n a pet whic h equate s t o 71. 1 million s home s (APPMA Industr y Trends) I n th e 2005-200 6 Nationa l Pe t Owner s Survey three-quarter s o f do g owner s considere d

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thei r do g lik e a famil y membe r an d mor e tha n hal f o f ca t owner s sai d th e sam e (APPMA Releas e Detail) Historically animal s hav e playe d a significan t rol e i n th e live s o f humans Domesticatio n o f animal s bega n ove r 12,00 0 year s ago ; th e Yor k Retrea t i n Englan d incorporate d animal s int o patien t therap y i n th e lat e 1700's ; Florenc e Nightingal e use d animal s i n healt h car e i n th e mi d 1800's an d th e Arm y Ai r Corp s use d animal s i n a therapeuti c settin g fo r returnin g soldier s i n th e mi d 1940' s (Jorgenson 1997) New s o f th e firs t successfu l us e o f a do g i n huma n therap y was documente d i n th e Unite d State s i n 196 4 (Levinson 1964 ) an d th e firs t pet-assiste d therap y progra m i n th e Unite d State s starte d a t Ohi o Stat e Universit y i n 197 7 (Corson et.al 1977) Despit e thes e documente d account s o f human-anima l bonds scientifi c researc h int o th e human-anima l bon d remaine d limited I n recen t years however ther e ha s bee n a renewe d ques t fo r data Scientifi c evidenc e continue s t o validat e thi s bond thu s givin g th e relationshi p credibilit y i n it s ow n righ t (Anderson 2008) Researc h confirm s tha t companio n animal s ar e essentia l t o th e "ne w America n family, fulfillin g a vas t numbe r o f role s an d ar e meshin g wit h th e live s o f human s (Anderson 2008) The y hav e a positiv e impac t o n th e overal l developmen t o f humans—socially emotionally physically an d otherwise Animal s ar e famil y members friends socia l connections teachers co-workers heroes rescuers militar y members officers playmates healers doctors caregivers servic e providers diagnosticians therapists an d key s t o bette r livin g (Anderson 2008) I n short the y ar e par t o f th e huma n world A s such crime s o f cruelt y agains t the m shoul d b e prosecute d becaus e o f thi s importan t socia l bon d tha t human s hav e wit h them

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Onl y tw o o f th e prosecutor s spok e abou t th e human-anima l bon d an d wh y thi s justifie d prosecutio n o f anima l offenders Thus simila r t o th e independen t mora l statu s argument thi s di d not appea r t o posses s significan t swa y i n th e exercis e o f discretion Instead prosecutor s capitalize d o n th e socia l scienc e dat a documentin g th e lin k betwee n anima l cruelt y an d subsequen t violenc e t o humans Functiona l worth Accordin g t o thi s lin e o f thinking th e protection/vindicatio n o f animal s was not i n an d o f itself th e desire d goal Instead prosecutin g anima l case s serve d a functio n beyon d tha t o f protectin g animals ; i t serve d othe r huma n interests Whil e i t ma y als o hav e benefitte d th e animal i t wa s th e huma n i n th e equatio n tha t rendere d anima l cruelt y prosecutio n o f importance Becaus e almos t ever y prosecuto r discusse d thi s idea i t merit s lengthie r discussion Utilitaria n theor y play s int o thi s discussion A s w e know utilitaria n discours e i s a forward-lookin g dialogue I n othe r words th e consequence s o f a n ac t determin e whethe r i t i s righ t o r wrong no t th e underlyin g intent/motivatio n o f tha t act Utilitarianis m i s a n ontologica l theory—i t focuse s o n en d states Moreover i t stand s i n shar p contras t t o th e duty-base d theory deontology develope d b y Immanue l Kant Deontologica l theorie s sugges t tha t on e coul d d o th e righ t thin g fo r th e wron g reason Thus i t i s th e intentio n o f th e acto r tha t determine s wha t i s right/wrong Singe r (1975 ) reject s discriminatio n based o n specie s (speciesism) Instea d h e argue s tha t al l sentien t creatur e (thos e capabl e o f suffering ) ar e entitle d t o equa l consideration H e grant s animal s equa l mora l equivalenc e based o n thei r abilit y t o experienc e pain Singe r take s thi s notio n o f sentienc e fro m Jerem y Bentha m (1789)

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Bentha m was on e o f th e first philosopher s t o propos e right s fo r animals I n a famou s footnote h e suggeste d tha t th e abilit y t o fee l "pain was th e touchston e fo r rights not rationa l ability Th e da y ha s been I griev e t o sa y i n man y place s i t i s not ye t past i n whic h th e greate r par t o f th e species unde r th e denominatio n o f slaves hav e bee n treate d b y th e la w exactl y upo n th e sam e footing as i n Englan d fo r example th e inferio r race s o f ma n ar e still Th e da y ma y com e whe n th e res t o f th e anima l creatio n ma y acquir e thos e right s whic h neve r coul d hav e bee n withholde n fro m the m but b y th e han d o f tyranny... Wha t els e i s i t tha t shoul d trac e th e insuperabl e line ? I s i t th e facult y o f reason o r perhap s th e facult y o f discourse ? Bu t a full-grow n hors e o r do g i s beyon d compariso n a mor e rational a s wel l a s mor e conversabl e animal tha n a n infan t o f a day o r a week o r eve n a month Bu t suppos e th e cas e wer e otherwise wha t woul d i t avail ? Th e questio n i s not ca n the y reason ? Nor ca n the y talk ? But ca n the y suffer ? (Bentham 1789 283) Accordingly human s shoul d not exploi t animal s merel y becaus e the y belon g t o a specie s othe r tha n homo sapiens. However Singer' s positio n i s not absolute lik e Rega n (1984 2001 ) an d Francion e (1995b) Hi s equa l consideratio n doe s not translat e int o equa l treatment Thi s i s becaus e h e distinguishe s betwee n tw o separat e anima l interests Lik e humans animal s hav e a n equa l interes t i n no t suffering Unlik e humans however animal s hav e n o interes t i n "life an d d o not kno w wha t i t mean s t o exis t ove r tim e (Singer 1975) H e als o acknowledge s tha t irreparabl y brai n damaged severel y retarded an d extremel y senil e individual s hav e n o interes t i n "life either Becaus e animal s hav e

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20 5 n o interes t i n thei r life human s ma y us e the m a s resources a s lon g a s the y ar e treate d wel l (Singer 1975) Fo r Singer pai n i s equa l amon g sentien t creatures an d s o non e shoul d b e mad e t o suffe r unnecessarily However death i s a differen t issue ; an d so too i s necessar y suffering Accordin g t o Singe r (1975) not al l deaths ar e equall y harmful becaus e not al l live s ar e o f equa l value Sinc e onl y self-awar e being s hav e a n interes t i n continue d life thei r lif e i s o f greate r value ; thei r death i s a greate r har m (Singer 1975) Thi s positio n ha s le d t o a n increase d concer n wit h betterin g th e human e treatmen t o f animals bu t not i n abolishin g th e us e o f animal s fo r necessar y huma n consumption entertainment an d experimentation Mos t o f th e anima l cruelt y law s acros s th e countr y ech o thi s sam e sentimen t (Francione 1995a) Singer' s wor k neve r specificall y addresse d th e prosecutio n o f anima l cruelt y case s usin g a utilitaria n calculus Fro m hi s perspective prosecutio n shoul d b e pursue d whe n animal s suffer But Singe r als o implicitl y suggest s tha t case s ca n b e ranke d accordin g t o worthiness Pai n ma y b e equal bu t som e pai n i s acceptable Thi s ide a i s expresse d i n man y stat e statutes whic h acknowledg e tha t not al l sufferin g i s equal—onl y "unnecessary sufferin g counts I n othe r words i t i s acceptabl e t o subjec t animal s t o sufferin g a s lon g a s precaution s ar e take n t o ensur e tha t th e anima l i s treate d a s "humanely a s possible Thus i t appear s tha t ther e i s n o anima l interes t tha t canno t b e overridde n i f th e consequence s o f th e overridin g ar e sufficientl y beneficia l t o huma n beings Anima l maltreatmen t i s overlooke d i f i t wa s necessar y fo r th e human

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Fro m a functiona l perspective th e valu e o f a n anima l depend s o n it s valu e fo r humans Th e prosecutor s I studie d ofte n too k thi s perspective arguin g tha t pursuin g case s o f anima l cruelt y wa s justifie d becaus e the y serve d a greate r purpos e o f protectin g humans Thus fro m thei r perspective th e legitimac y o f anima l cruelt y prosecutio n depended t o a certai n extent o n it s connectio n t o humans Bartlet t (2002 ) refer s t o thi s a s homocentrism Th e valu e o f th e anima l depend s o n it s valu e fo r humankind Similarly Rega n (2001 ) label s thi s a n "indirec t duty vie w toward s animals i n whic h othe r factors beside s th e animal s themselves justif y particula r behavio r toward s animals Th e ke y poin t her e i s tha t prosecutin g anima l cruelt y offense s wa s sometime s legitimize d a s servin g a greate r huma n end I f prosecutio n onl y serve d th e animal i t migh t hav e los t valu e i n th e eye s o f prosecutors However whe n connecte d t o huma n benefit i t ha d greate r standing On e o f th e mor e commo n justification s tha t prosecutor s gav e fo r issuin g an d tryin g felon y anima l cruelt y case s was th e "link. I n las t severa l decades ther e ha s bee n a growin g bod y o f researc h documentin g th e lin k betwee n anima l cruelt y an d interpersona l violence Favr e an d Stran d (2003 ) provid e a goo d summar y o f thi s research suggestin g way s t o integrat e thi s researc h int o socia l wor k curriculum thereb y strengthenin g effort s t o prevent interven e in an d en d domesti c violence Th e author s describ e a "systems approac h t o famil y violenc e wherei n al l aspect s o f th e violent environmen t shoul d b e considere d (Favr e & Strand 2002) I n particula r regar d t o lin k research som e theorist s no w recogniz e tha t animal s ar e a significan t elemen t i n tha t environment

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Lin k researc h indicate s tha t ther e i s a stron g connectio n ( a "link" ) betwee n anima l cruelt y an d othe r form s o f violence Cruelt y t o animals thi s bod y o f researc h suggests ha s a stron g connectio n t o subsequen t violenc e and/o r aggressio n toward al l human s (Arluk e & Luke 1997 ; Felthou s & Kellert 1987 ; Flynn 1999 ; Keller t & Felthous 1985 ; Lockwood, 1999 ; Merz-Perez Heid e & Silverman 2001 ; Tapia 1971) Thes e finding s indicat e tha t individual s wh o reporte d engagin g i n childhoo d anima l abus e wer e mor e likel y t o endors e othe r acts o f violence On e longitudina l stud y suggest s tha t childre n d o not outgro w thes e crue l tendencie s (Rigdo n &Tapia 1977) I n addition thos e wh o engage d i n acts o f anima l cruelt y ar e mor e likel y t o suppor t violenc e agains t wome n an d children thu s highlightin g a penchan t fo r violenc e agains t th e les s powerfu l i n society Animal cruelt y als o appear s relate d t o famil y violence Deviney Dickert an d Lockwood (1983 ) documente d anima l abus e i n 88 % o f familie s wher e physica l chil d abus e was present wit h th e abusiv e paren t mos t ofte n th e on e wh o was abusiv e towar d th e pet Studie s examinin g th e occurrenc e o f anima l abus e i n household s o f battere d wome n revea l tha t anima l abus e occur s i n conjunctio n wit h domesti c abuse Th e percentag e o f battere d wome n wh o als o repor t har m t o o r deat h o f thei r animal s a t th e hand s o f thei r abuse r range s fro m 12 % t o 85% (Ascione 199 8 [71%] ; Ascione Weber & Wood 199 7 [85%] ; Daniell 200 1 [44%] ; Flynn 200 0 [46.5%] ; Jorgenso n & Maloney 199 9 [12%i] ; Quinlisk 199 9 [79%]) Becaus e mos t wome n ar e primar y caretaker s o f famil y pets the y ofte n develo p clos e emotional bond s wit h th e animal A s such the y ar e vulnerabl e t o abuser s wh o exploit thi s bond Twelv e independen t studie s repor t tha t betwee n 18-48 % o f battere d wome n dela y leavin g abusiv e situations ou t o f fea r fo r th e

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safet y o f thei r animal s (Ascione 2007) Thus anima l abus e i s a ke y ris k facto r fo r intimate-partne r violence Clearly link s t o man y form s o f interpersona l violenc e abound However ther e i s n o basi s t o argu e tha t cruelt y i s a predicto r o f subsequen t huma n violenc e (Arluke 2002) Anima l abus e doe s not necessaril y lea d t o interpersona l violence despit e stron g correlation s betwee n cruelt y t o animal s an d violenc e agains t humans Wha t i s know n i s simple : thos e wh o ar e crue l t o animal s ar e mor e likel y t o b e crue l t o othe r humans Wrigh t an d Hensle y (2003 ) expande d thei r researc h beyon d violenc e i n genera l an d conducte d fiv e cas e studie s o f seria l killers Thei r wor k demonstrate d a possibl e lin k betwee n childhoo d cruelt y t o animal s an d late r seria l murde r a s al l fiv e cas e studie s yielde d evidenc e o f childhoo d instance s o f anima l abuse Henr y an d Sander s (2007 ) recentl y discovere d a differen t link : thos e wh o wer e abov e th e media n wit h regar d t o perpetratin g physica l bullyin g exhibite d th e highes t rate s o f involvemen t i n multipl e act s o f anima l abus e an d th e lowes t level s o f sensitivit y wit h regar d t o cruelty-relate d attitude s pertainin g t o animals Thi s researc h ha s capture d th e attentio n o f sociologists psychologists criminologists an d legislatures I t als o capture d th e attentio n o f mos t o f th e prosecutor s tha t I interviewed Th e underlyin g assumptio n fo r prosecutor s wa s tha t the y mus t pursu e crime s o f anima l cruelt y becaus e thi s coul d preven t furthe r violenc e toward humans Prosecutor s mobilize d th e social-scienc e languag e i n variou s way s t o furthe r justif y thei r prosecutoria l efforts The y marshale d thi s researc h t o suppor t prosecution see k ple a agreements obtai n particula r sentencin g conditions an d formulat e effectiv e

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argument s t o th e jury Som e focuse d o n tangibl e historie s o f previou s Chil d Protectiv e Service s involvement Other s use d th e literatur e an d th e documente d relationshi p betwee n violenc e agains t animal s an d subsequen t violenc e toward s human s t o validat e thei r handlin g o f a case Th e lin k literatur e was identifie d a s a n importan t consideratio n i n almos t 70 % o f m y interviews Whil e som e prosecutor s di d us e th e social-scienc e jargo n (i.e "th e link") other s picke d u p o n moniker s like : "gatewa y crime, "devolution, "marker o r "re d flag. The y garnere d thi s information eithe r throug h thei r ow n researc h efforts o r i n th e limite d trainin g opportunitie s tha t wer e available Thi s recognitio n o f th e lin k betwee n cruelt y t o violenc e an d subsequen t violenc e agains t human s wa s eve n presen t a t th e highes t leve l o f administration A s on e o f th e attorney s remarked [Ou r electe d official ] recognize s tha t [anima l cruelty ] i s a significan t communit y issue Tha t ther e ar e individual s i n thi s communit y wh o engag e i n thi s behavior whethe r i t i s neglectfu l o r intentiona l cruelty [and ] pos e a threa t t o th e communit y o n othe r issues I t i s importan t t o recogniz e th e functiona l natur e o f thes e lin k studies Prosecutor s argue d fo r th e legitimac y o f anima l case s a s a mean s t o protec t humans Lucy th e mos t senio r prosecuto r o f anima l cruelt y offenses seeme d t o hav e a n exceptiona l gras p o n th e valu e o f th e research : I car e abou t th e issue havin g don e i t a s a misdemeano r prosecuto r an d als o a s a se x crime s prosecutor I ha d see n a lo t o f association s betwee n anima l cruelty domesti c violence an d se x offenders Th e sam e peopl e wh o commi t se x crime s

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21 0 ar e th e sam e peopl e wh o ar e crue l t o animals ; th e sam e peopl e tha t abus e thei r kid s ar e th e sam e peopl e tha t abus e thei r animals Domesti c violenc e offender s don' t sto p wit h thei r adul t spouses I t transcend s t o thei r childre n an d th e pet s i n th e hous e a s well Ther e i s a whol e seria l kille r thin g tha t say s peopl e star t tha t way I ten d t o thin k i t i s mor e circular but I certainl y kno w ther e ar e chil d molester s tha t I hav e know n [wh o are ] sexuall y abusin g animals It' s not uncommo n fo r rapist s t o star t tha t way Usually thi s informatio n i s i n anecdota l report s tha t w e ge t late r o n [lik e pre-sentenc e report s o r psychologica l evaluations] Stil l others whil e perhap s not a s eloquent echoe d th e sam e genera l concern wit h anima l cruelt y crime s an d th e behavio r t o whic h the y ar e currentl y connecte d o r wil l ultimatel y lead Comment s wer e scattere d acros s al l th e interviews : "Thes e sort s o f crime s ar e marker s fo r othe r crimes; "Thes e ar e suc h bi g red flags; an d "The y ar e sign s o f thing s t o com e i n term s o f futur e fatality. Tw o prosecutor s likene d thes e crime s t o "gatewa y crimes i n th e contex t o f dru g usage On e commented "Th e anima l cruelt y case s ar e lik e a gatewa y crime lik e gatewa y drug s lik e marijuana I t doe s lea d t o othe r crime s tha t ar e eve n mor e serious. Anothe r repeate d thi s idea "[Thes e crimes ] ar e almos t lik e entries ; yo u kno w ho w the y sa y marijuan a i s a n entr y typ e dru g t o d o worse. Othe r prosecutors lik e th e following wen t int o greate r detai l abou t th e lin k t o futur e violen t behavior The y als o focuse d o n th e notio n o f stoppin g a particula r defendan t t o protec t futur e victims

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21 1 • I t i s th e de-evolution i f yo u will o f th e anima l abuser Animal cruelt y b y a perso n i s a prett y goo d indicato r tha t perso n ma y engag e i n futur e activitie s includin g domesti c violence sexua l crimes an d generalize d brutality Mayb e w e interven e s o w e ca n sto p tha t patter n o r a t leas t kno w wh o the y ar e late r on • I t wa s jus t s o obviou s t o me an d studie s show.. an d ther e ar e hundred s o f studies it' s no t lik e i t was one. .it' s everywhere Al l thes e studie s sho w peopl e wh o d o thi s ar e a dange r t o society The n yo u d o somethin g abou t i t a s i t i s happening Yo u ge t them I thin k the y ar e beyon d help but yo u ge t the m th e hel p the y nee d o r th e rehabilitatio n the y need An d you'v e don e somethin g s o the y ar e unde r someone' s ey e fo r tw o o r thre e years o r the y ar e i n priso n fo r tw o years Peopl e the y woul d hav e injured harmed o r kille d i n tha t tim e period hav e bee n save d temporarily • I d o bu y int o th e theor y tha t i f peopl e wh o ar e crue l an d terribl e t o animal s tha t it' s likely althoug h no t 10 0 percen t positive tha t the y ar e goin g t o perpetrat e agains t childre n o r adults Ther e i s somethin g sociopathi c abou t it an d peopl e i n societ y an d othe r creature s nee d t o b e protecte d fro m thos e folks I t was clea r tha t prosecutor s wer e readin g th e literatur e an d understoo d th e natur e o f th e lin k discours e containe d therein Beyon d jus t th e scholarl y studie s however prosecutor s continuall y connecte d th e lin k studie s t o th e particula r case s the y ha d handled givin g furthe r legitimac y t o th e research a s wel l a s thei r decisio n t o prosecute Fo r example i n on e case th e mal e defendan t stabbe d t o deat h hi s girlfriend' s Germa n Shepherd o n th e kitche n floor Th e do g refuse d t o com e ou t fro m unde r th e tabl e afte r

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th e defendan t ha d chase d i t there Th e owne r state d tha t th e locatio n unde r th e tabl e was th e dog' s "saf e space. Well i n tha t case [la w enforcement ] too k photograph s o f th e interio r o f th e refrigerator I n th e freeze r wer e tor n u p picture s o f hi s girlfriend That' s ho w I kne w i t wa s a domesti c violenc e case Afte r w e issue d th e case I thin k w e cam e acros s th e x-ray s an d th e do g ha d healin g fractures So it' s lik e battere d do g syndrome Th e do g ha d bee n gettin g th e shi t kicke d ou t o f i t fo r a lon g tim e i n thi s household W e lear n thing s abou t thes e peopl e tha t I tr y t o shar e a s ofte n a s I ca n t o tr y t o ge t peopl e t o pa y attentio n t o wh o thes e perpetrator s are Severa l prosecutor s detaile d instance s o f repea t offenders Defendant s wer e assigne d t o thei r caseloa d fo r anima l cruelty ye t ha d othe r pendin g domesti c violenc e cases On e prosecuto r tol d o f a cas e involvin g a juvenil e defendan t wh o ha d bee n transferre d t o th e superio r cour t fo r treatmen t a s a n adul t felon y offender H e ha s bee n i n th e syste m sinc e 2001 Yeah that' s prett y muc h on e o f th e mos t patheti c thing s I hav e seen. .h e strangle d on e [bird] decapitate d anothe r an d the n h e use d th e othe r on e a s a littl e football kickin g i t aroun d th e yard [H e ha d a histor y of ] trespass threats [being ] incorrigible simpl e assaults burning [and ] simpl e assaults S o it' s no t ver y hard t o imagin e hi m bein g crue l t o animals Ther e i s a lo t o f reaso n t o believ e tha t peopl e wh o ar e crue l t o animal s ar e a threa t Pursuan t t o A.R.S §13-501(B) th e count y attorne y ma y brin g a crimina l prosecutio n agains t a juvenil e i n th e sam e manne r a s a n adul t i f th e juvenil e i s a t leas t fourtee n year s o f ag e an d i s accuse d a clas s si x felon y involvin g a dangerou s offense o r i f th e juvenil e i s a chroni c felon y offender

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t o societ y i n general—particularly younge r offenders Ther e i s a ver y clea r indicator somethin g calle d conduc t disorder prio r t o eighteen Psychiatrist s sa y ther e i s a patter n o f behavio r here an d on e o f th e mos t outstandin g feature s o f tha t disorde r i s cruelt y t o animals Whe n a perso n turn s eighteen th e follow-u p t o conduc t disorde r i s anti-socia l personalit y disorder I t to o ha s criteria on e o f [which ] i s previou s cruelt y t o animals Yo u ca n prett y muc h b e read y t o diagnos e thi s perso n a s a psychopath Jus t reading th e DSM Diagnosti c Statistica l Manual an d [the ] pre-sentenc e reports [where ] ofte n ther e i s psychologica l testing yo u jus t sor t o f kno w wha t t o loo k for Ther e i s definitel y a lo t o f materia l o n th e correlatio n betwee n peopl e wh o ar e crue l t o animal s an d peopl e wh o bea t thei r wive s o r childre n o r wh o sexuall y abus e people I n additio n t o repea t offenders prosecutor s als o detaile d case s wher e th e defendant s committe d multipl e inter-relate d crimes Thi s [case ] i s a ver y goo d exampl e abou t ho w offender s cross types La w enforcemen t go t involve d i n thi s cas e becaus e ther e was a complain t o f [domesti c violence] The y fin d thes e tw o grown-up s doin g thei r typica l "w e don' t kno w wh y you'r e here. [Officers ] star t lookin g around th e plac e an d th e plac e is. . 1 canno t eve n describ e it Lik e a bom b ble w of f i n Sears Yo u wan t t o tal k abou t th e shi t hittin g th e fan Literally ther e i s fece s o n th e ceilin g fans I t i s disgustin g wha t thi s hous e i s lik e an d ther e ar e a t leas t tw o childre n i n thi s household Ther e i s meth[amphetamine ] an d othe r dru g paraphernali a strew n throughou t th e place I onl y foun d ou t abou t i t becaus e th e detectiv e [found ] Pi t Bull s an d som e o f th e Pi t

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Bull s didn' t loo k s o well Th e kids becaus e o f th e conditio n o f th e house wen t t o th e [chil d advocac y center ] fo r a n interview I n th e contex t o f tha t interview th e olde r on e describe d ho w hi s mothe r decapitate d puppies Thos e weren' t th e term s h e used but sh e didn' t lik e [t o sell ] th e brow n puppies s o sh e woul d cu t th e head s of f th e brow n puppie s whe n the y wer e stil l alive Tha t was recorde d i n th e CP S records s o tha t wa s par t o f ou r whol e prosecutio n proces s wit h [thi s defendant] So met h head chil d neglect anima l neglect anima l cruelty an d [domesti c violence] Al l related Prosecutor s consistentl y focuse d o n th e futur e dangerousnes s o f thos e wh o wer e crue l t o animals On e prosecuto r commente d o n th e defendan t sh e ha d wh o sli t th e throa t o f hi s girlfriend' s dog Phoenix [I]t' s no t jus t anima l cruelt y standin g o n i t own It' s interwove n wit h al l th e studie s tha t sho w tha t peopl e wh o d o thi s t o animal s ar e goin g t o [d o this] o r hav e don e this t o people I f I ca n catc h a gu y wh o slit s a dog' s throa t an d put hi m i n priso n fo r tw o year s befor e h e slit s th e girlfriend' s throat aren' t I doin g wha t I a m suppose d t o b e doing ? I mean yo u can' t tak e o n th e cattl e industry an d yo u can' t tak e o n th e chicke n industry but yo u ca n dea l wit h thes e individual s wh o sho w sign s o f bein g dangerou s t o people An d tha t wa s reall y wha t m y focu s wa s on I t wasn' t necessaril y ridin g i n t o b e th e her o an d sav e th e dog I t was ridin g i n t o sav e th e girlfrien d fro m bein g killed It' s ridin g i n t o protec t th e neighbo r fro m bein g shot An d studie s ar e ver y clear Yo u tortur e animals yo u mutilat e animals yo u ar e a dange r t o people T o m e i t i s a cut e cuddl y puppy bu t yo u

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hav e t o loo k a t th e bigge r pictur e whic h is Jesus wha t i s thi s gu y goin g t o d o next ? An d I thin k Phoeni x reall y drive s tha t home I n th e cas e wher e th e defendan t sho t a do g tha t cam e u p t o hi m o n th e street on e prosecuto r wa s particularl y troubled Let' s jus t assum e tha t [th e defendant ] was s o offende d b y [bein g sniffed ] tha t h e pulle d out a gu n an d ende d th e lif e o f a livin g being Ho w eas y i s tha t goin g t o b e fo r hi m t o pul l o n a huma n being ? An d shoo t an d kil l a child ? An d shoo t an d kil l hi s neighbor ? O r someon e i n a bar ? M y goa l was not onl y t o defen d th e animal but t o b e aggressiv e an d tr y t o interven e prio r t o peopl e bein g injure d o r killed Peopl e wh o mutilate harm an d kil l animal s ar e practicin g [to] o r ar e alread y doin g it t o people O r the y ar e abou t t o d o i t t o people An d that' s wh y anima l cruelt y prosecutio n i s s o important Fo r th e prosecuto r wh o handle d th e cas e o f th e defendan t who becaus e h e wa s ma d a t hi s mother disembowele d he r poodle sh e echoe d th e comment s above "[I f yo u are ] goin g t o disembowe l a poodl e becaus e you'r e ma d a t you r mom wha t els e ar e yo u goin g t o do ? Wha t els e ar e yo u capabl e o f doing ? I mea n seriously. Ye t anothe r deput y count y attorne y describe d a cas e wher e th e angr y mal e defendant afte r snatchin g a pupp y fro m hi s daughter bega n t o wal k int o traffi c wher e h e intende d t o thro w th e dog Yo u know [tha t defendant ] wantin g t o thro w th e do g int o th e traffic. .tha t i s ver y disturbin g t o me Tha t say s t o me : 1 ) h e ha s ange r managemen t issue s an d 2 ) h e i s probabl y willin g t o d o tha t t o a person Tha t typ e o f behavio r t o m e i s ver y scary [T]hroug h ou r training tha t we'v e ha d here whe n yo u se e peopl e abusin g

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21 6 animal s there' s a ver y hig h correlatio n tha t the y wil l abus e peopl e a s well S o it' s almos t tryin g t o b e preventive I f yo u ca n sto p the m whe n they'r e abusin g animals yo u ca n possibl y sav e someone' s lif e late r o n dow n th e road Referenc e t o th e "link researc h extende d beyon d jus t th e interviews I t wa s als o documente d i n presentenc e reports Attorney s commente d abou t th e content s o f th e pre sentenc e repor t an d ho w i t documente d th e socia l scienc e literature • M y understandin g i s tha t ther e use d t o b e th e triangl e o f seria l killers bed wetters anima l abusers an d fir e starters An d s o i n th e [pre-sentenc e report ] i t say s thi s guy' s go t a Moloto v cocktai l an d [is ] killin g pigeons An d [ther e is ] cruelt y t o horses Al l I go t t o kno w i s i f thi s gu y i s peein g i n hi s be d i n term s o f futur e dangerousnes s t o me • W e rea d i n th e presentenc e report wha t I'v e alway s believe d abou t home s characterize d b y thi s kin d o f violence [Th e defendant's ] fiv e yea r ol d [son ] ha d alread y bee n kicke d ou t o f kindergarte n fo r havin g bee n s o violen t an d aggressive W e learne d fro m othe r relative s tha t [domesti c violence ] i n tha t hous e ha d bee n goin g o n forever So w e hop e t o mak e a n interventio n int o thi s famil y becaus e o f wha t ha d happene d t o thi s ca t an d do g becaus e [th e mother ] neve r reporte d an y o f [defendant's ] behavior I n on e case th e assigne d attorne y submitte d a length y sentencin g memorandu m detailin g th e defendant' s othe r incident s o f bot h anima l an d chil d neglect Comment s i n issuin g summaries cover-me's an d miscellaneou s note s reflecte d man y o f th e socia l scienc e conclusion s abou t thi s lin k t o subsequen t violence Issuin g summarie s containe d

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comment s lik e th e following : "Defendan t onc e kille d a pe t quai l wit h a n a x an d smeare d gut s o n mom' s windshield; "Defendan t i s unde r investigatio n fo r tyin g u p a hors e an d shootin g i t i n th e head; "Famil y immerse d i n domesti c violenc e an d thi s i s th e classi c cas e o f th e lin k betwee n th e tw o acts; an d "Kid s i n th e hous e whe n thi s happened. Cover-me' s wer e peppere d wit h comment s suc h as "studie s sugges t tha t defendant' s violen t histor y an d acts toward animal s revea l defendant' s violen t tendencie s an d i s a threa t t o society an d "Thi s offens e i s disturbing—defendan t kille d do g i n fron t o f son. Othe r rando m note s documente d thi s lin k betwee n anima l an d subsequen t huma n violence Fo r example i n on e cas e file ther e was a not e tha t th e defendant' s so n wa s modelin g hi s behavior Whe n querie d abou t this th e prosecuto r replied Th e not e abou t th e modelin g woul d b e somethin g I woul d loo k fo r t o memorialize Tha t show s ho w th e abus e t o animal s i s a gatewa y t o mor e violen t conduct o r predicto r o f violen t conduc t agains t humans particularl y famil y members Thi s woul d b e ther e t o demonstrat e tha t th e conduc t isn' t isolated It' s not jus t a propert y victim Ther e ar e othe r peopl e wh o ar e impressionabl e [and ] tha t ca n b e influenced Beyon d jus t th e over t instance s o f domesti c violenc e o r a connectio n t o familia l violence previou s contac t wit h particula r la w enforcemen t o r governmen t agencie s wa s als o importan t t o severa l attorneys Ther e wa s a sens e amon g th e prosecutor s I interviewed tha t involvemen t wit h thes e particula r agencie s wa s tangentiall y relate d t o violenc e i n general Give n a defendan t charge d wit h anima l cruelty prosecutor s looke d fo r previou s involvemen t wit h domesti c violence wit h Chil d Protectiv e Service s an d

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21 8 eve n th e Stat e Departmen t o f Gam e an d Fish Th e typ e o f contac t seeme d t o mirro r th e factor s i n th e lin k studies On e attorne y summarize d he r approac h t o evidenc e gathering Sometime s i t ma y b e othe r documente d history lik e anima l cruelt y tha t neve r ros e t o th e leve l o f crimina l conduct o r somethin g tha t i s goin g o n t o sho w a patter n o r a n on-goin g history o r somethin g need s t o b e addressed Mayb e the y hav e a lo t o f [domesti c violence ] arrests o r a lo t o f dru g history o r menta l healt h issues I'v e learne d tha t I ofte n se e kids thing s wit h anima l things S o I ru n defendan t name s throug h CP S records It' s al l connected—jus t lik e th e literatur e says Yo u jus t hav e t o look Yo u hav e t o actuall y thin k t o look A soli d bloc k o f prosecutor s fel t oblige d t o prosecut e anima l cruelt y offender s becaus e o f th e lin k t o subsequen t huma n violence I t seeme d clea r tha t th e languag e o f th e lin k was quit e a powerfu l too l t o mobiliz e suppor t fo r bot h prosecutio n an d stif f sentencin g o f thos e crue l t o animals Regardles s o f whethe r prosecutor s actuall y use d th e academicall y correc t language the y believe d i n th e connectio n betwee n th e type s o f violence B y attachin g anima l cruelt y t o th e potentia l fo r huma n violence prosecutor s seeme d t o creat e greate r functiona l valu e t o fo r thei r cases Withou t th e lin k discourse I a m no t convince d tha t th e case s woul d hav e carrie d wha t weigh t the y did Felon y "anima l cruelty ma y b e define d on e wa y i n th e stat e statutes bu t i n a ver y differen t way i n th e applicatio n o f tha t statut e t o rea l worl d events M y researc h documente d th e arra y o f consideration s tha t entere d int o th e calculu s o f prosecutoria l decision-makin g i n th e contex t o f anima l cruelt y cases Whe n aske d t o identif y th e factor s o f greates t import th e prosecutors answer s gravitate d toward th e fou r variable s

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introduce d earlie r i n th e literatur e review : lega l considerations extr a lega l concerns organizationa l factors an d persona l preferences Accordin g t o thes e prosecutors th e mos t prominen t factor s i n th e contex t o f anima l cruelt y case s seeme d t o b e th e macro-leve l organizationa l variabl e wherei n the y focuse d o n th e "trustworthiness o f othe r player s i n th e crimina l justic e system—namel y th e judg e an d jury Give n th e lac k o f prosecutoria l contro l ove r thes e tw o players ther e appeare d a greate r incentiv e t o ple a bargain I n case s tha t pled prosecutor s receive d mor e favorabl e sentenc e outcome s tha n i n thos e case s tha t actuall y wen t t o trial I n additio n t o thi s organizationa l focus prosecutor s als o too k grea t hee d o f th e defendant' s persona l situatio n (a n extra-lega l variable) an d th e degre e o f injur y inflicte d upo n th e anima l (lega l variable) Persona l preferenc e variable s appeare d mor e prominen t i n regar d t o th e initia l pus h t o prosecut e felon y case s o f anima l cruelt y an d th e identificatio n o f thos e attorney s intereste d i n handlin g thes e sort s o f cases O f interestin g note prosecutor s gav e voic e t o a previousl y unhear d justificatio n fo r prosecution—socia l scienc e research Durin g m y interviews ever y attorne y commente d o n wha t the y identifie d a s th e connectio n betwee n violenc e t o animals an d subsequen t violenc e t o humans Som e wer e wel l verse d i n th e socia l scienc e researc h documentin g thi s relationship ; other s reveale d anecdota l evidenc e supportin g thi s link A s a whole b y connectin g th e prosecutio n o f anima l cruelt y crime s t o subsequen t preventio n o f crime s agains t humans prosecutor s ensure d greate r legitimac y fo r thei r anima l cruelt y cases

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22 0 Overall th e prosecutors evaluatio n o f anima l cruelt y cases i n general was simila r t o thei r evaluatio n o f an y othe r cas e befor e them—ther e wa s a n overarchin g concer n fo r whethe r al l elements o f th e offens e coul d b e prove n beyon d a reasonabl e doubt Thi s evaluation whil e similar was als o differen t i n certai n regards Ther e wer e uniqu e qualitie s i n th e exercis e o f prosecutoria l discretio n i n th e contex t o f anima l cruelt y case s tha t confounde d th e element s o f proof Prosecutoria l judgment s abou t goo d case s continued eve n reproducin g wha t I cal l a n "anima l ideology o f sorts—i n othe r words a "typical cas e o f cruelty

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22 1 Chapte r 6 Typica l Cruelt y an d it s Consequence s Give n th e rol e o f th e prosecutor th e task s the y assume an d th e numbe r o f case s the y mus t process discretio n continue s a s thei r stapl e fo r success I t i s n o wonde r tha t prosecutor s marsha l a s man y argument s a s the y ca n t o craf t a "goo d case. A larg e numbe r o f similarl y recurrin g crime s allow s fo r th e identificatio n o f bot h a "type o f crim e an d th e "type o f perso n wh o normall y commit s i t (Frohman 1991 1997 ; Sudnow 1965) Jus t becaus e a cas e i s good however doe s not mea n tha t i t i s typical Prosecutor s viewe d a s typical th e case s tha t routinel y cam e befor e them Insider s kne w tha t thi s translate d int o case s o f neglect no t intentionall y violent acts committe d agains t animals Interestingly thes e neglec t case s wer e not th e one s tha t wen t t o tria l wit h an y frequency Instead crime s o f violenc e wer e th e one s wit h greate r attentio n tha t move d forwar d throug h th e office Thus outsider s migh t hav e assume d tha t intentiona l violenc e wa s th e typica l cas e o f cruelty Th e "Good Cas e Thi s concep t i s familia r i n th e sociologica l literatur e an d i s usefu l i n analyzin g ho w prosecutor s trea t anima l cruelt y cases I n evaluatin g whethe r a cas e i s a "goo d one, prosecutor s identif y possibl e outcomes based o n th e previou s fate s o f pas t simila r type s o f cases (Conti 2006 ; Emerso n & Paley 1992) Identifyin g a "good cas e thu s depend s o n thes e pas t decisions a constan t flo w o f cases an d th e long-ter m exchang e relation s amon g th e participant s (Cole 1970 ; Sudnow 1965) Ove r time prosecutor s develo p typica l characterization s o f offense s base d o n th e usua l manne r i n whic h th e offens e was

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committed th e socia l characteristic s o f th e person s wh o regularl y commi t them th e setting s i n whic h the y occur an d th e typ e o f victi m involve d (Frohmann 1991 1997 ; Stanko 1981 ; Sudnow 1965) I n effect thi s typificatio n become s perceptua l shorthan d fo r processin g "good case s (Spohn et.al 2001) Goo d case s hav e goo d victims goo d eyewitnesses an d goo d tangibl e evidence Goo d victim s hai l fro m "good locations ar e victimize d b y "good offender s i n "good ways Fo r example i n sexua l assaul t cases victi m credibilit y influence s prosecutoria l discretio n (Frohmann 1991 1997 ; Kerstetter 1990 ; LaFree 1980 ; Stanko 1981) Credibility however i s not inheren t i n an y perso n o r experience bu t i s contingen t upo n interpretatio n (Dunn 2002) Statu s a s a victi m i s a n ongoing interactiv e process wher e victim s ar e continuall y force d t o manag e thei r identit y a s a "victim. The y mus t becom e "typical victim s (Dunn 2002 ; Estrich 2004) Prosecutoria l discretio n i s wel l researche d i n th e contex t o f huma n victims but not i n th e cas e o f th e animal-victim Fro m a lega l standpoint th e prosecutor s I interviewe d wer e hard-presse d t o cal l th e anima l a "victim, sinc e unde r th e law the y ar e not grante d tha t status Fro m a persona l standpoin t o f th e prosecutors th e animal s wer e eithe r victim s o r too k o n a statu s a s somethin g mor e tha n jus t property However eve n whe n a n anima l i s classifie d a s a "victim, i t canno t manag e it s ow n identit y a s human s themselve s ca n do Animal s d o no t speak testif y i n court o r fac e impeachmen t durin g cross-examination Thei r identit y a s a "victim mus t b e manage d b y humans namel y th e police anima l contro l officers veterinarians prosecutors an d owners Ultimately th e animals identitie s ar e constructe d fo r them

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Beyon d consideration s o f a goo d victim prosecutor s searc h fo r goo d eyewitnesse s an d goo d evidence Typically ther e i s n o huma n eyewitnes s i n anima l cruelt y cases Moreover excep t throug h picture s documentin g maltreatmen t o r neglect th e subjec t o f th e cruelt y wil l no t b e presen t i n court T o understan d ho w th e notio n o f a "good cas e i s important i t i s helpfu l t o reflec t o n ho w prosecutor s mak e decision s t o carr y anima l cruelt y case s forward Prosecutoria l decision s ar e not influence d solel y b y th e statutor y definitio n o f a crime The y wor k fro m thei r ow n classification s o f wha t constitute s a n offens e (Frohmann 1991 1997 ; Sudnow 1965) Prosecutor s categorize place s (troubl e spots) person s (victims offenders jurors) an d activities Description s ar e draw n fro m a mixtur e o f experienc e wit h cas e processin g an d generi c cultura l knowledg e (Frohmann 1997) Th e interpla y betwee n categorizin g place s an d person s result s i n wha t Frohman n (1997 ) label s "discordan t locales, wherei n prosecutor s ascrib e stereotypica l characteristic s o f neighborhood s t o victims defendants an d eve n jurors Whil e a crim e ma y fi t th e pena l code' s definitio n o f a n offense i t i s not a "crime unti l th e prosecuto r define s i t a s such Prosecutoria l decision s reflec t organizationa l goals constraints an d subjectiv e evaluations base d o n pas t outcomes Thus la w ultimatel y become s a n aren a i n whic h certai n stereotype s ar e constructe d an d reinforce d i n th e large r community Wha t a "good cas e look s lik e depend s o n wh o i s negotiatin g th e meaning I n m y interviews I foun d tha t anima l cruelt y mean t differen t thing s t o differen t attorneys I t was clear fro m al l interviews howeve r tha t th e anima l cruelt y statut e was onl y par t o f th e cruelt y equation I n creatin g a "good case prosecutor s combine d th e statut e wit h

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22 4 morals lega l interpretation contextua l constraints an d cultura l biases Th e "good cas e o f anima l cruelt y emerge d fro m al l o f this suggestin g tha t th e "law i n practic e i s mor e comple x th e la w o n th e books Typica l Cruelt y Prosecutors workin g wit h a continuin g flo w o f cases com e t o hol d a variet y o f expectation s abou t th e typica l characte r o f a case Familiarit y als o tend s t o softe n reaction s t o particula r cases Th e frequentl y encountere d case eve n i f acknowledge d a s serious lose s som e o f it s aur a o f seriousness a s othe r case s lik e i t ar e encountere d ove r tim e (Emerson 1983) Soon i t become s "typical. On e o f m y researc h goal s was t o identif y ho w th e typica l cas e o f anima l cruelt y wa s constructe d an d wha t tha t mean t fo r futur e case s o f lik e o r dissimila r facts Arluk e (2006 ) examine s ho w differen t "practitioners, namel y th e la w enforcemen t agents an d th e publi c relation s experts view/defin e anima l cruelty Simila r t o th e "good case thes e individual s loo k fo r th e "beautiful cas e (Arluke 2006) I t mus t b e a perfec t mi x o f variables Th e sufferin g mus t b e "acceptable, neithe r to o disturbin g no r to o mundane Th e anima l mus t b e appealing—preferabl y a companio n anima l (do g o r cat) I t mus t b e neithe r to o youn g (becaus e that' s to o disturbing) no r to o ol d (sinc e thei r tim e i s almos t u p anyway) A goo d nam e i s importan t a s well "Hope an d "Sunshine hav e grea t appeal ; "Lusty an d "Tramp d o no t (Arluke 2006) I f ther e i s a n owner he/sh e mus t b e distraugh t an d willin g t o endur e trial An d happy ending s ar e important — animal s shoul d surviv e an d b e fre e fro m lastin g behaviora l problems Th e proble m i s tha t "beautifu l cases seldo m portra y th e gritt y realit y o f anima l cruelt y (Arluke 2006)

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Jus t a s human e officer s clamo r fo r a commo n meanin g o f anima l cruelty s o to o d o prosecutors Th e ambiguitie s lea d t o greate r discretio n i n processin g crime s a t th e cus p o f wha t i t mean s t o b e cruel Th e prosecutor s wit h who m I spok e constantl y referre d t o "th e typica l case. The y identifie d neglect rathe r tha n intentiona l violence a s th e "typical case Prosecutor s routinel y detaile d case s o f failure s t o feed provid e water ge t veterinar y care an d ensur e prope r shade Rarely di d prosecutor s se e eviscerations decapitations o r hangings Moreover almos t non e o f th e prosecutor s coul d describ e a cas e wherei n a n anima l wa s a random haphazar d target Eve n whe n prosecutor s coul d describ e suc h a case ofte n thes e case s coul d no t b e prosecute d becaus e the y coul d no t identif y a perpetrator I n a n attemp t t o confir m thei r impressions I reviewe d th e summarie s o f availabl e cases I n doin g so I note d a n almos t eve n divid e betwee n tw o type s o f cases Th e firs t typ e involve d a n intentiona l ac t o f harm—no t necessaril y thos e resultin g i n th e greates t har m o r injur y t o th e animal but thos e acts tha t wer e no t neglectful Th e mos t prevalen t for m o f cruelt y was th e shootin g o f a n animal Almos t equa l i n numbe r t o th e shooting s wer e acts o f physica l abuse includin g throwing punching kicking an d beating Ther e wer e fou r stabbing s an d a coupl e instance s eac h o f evisceration duct-taping mouth s shut an d runnin g ove r a do g wit h a n automobile Tw o case s detaile d acts o f sodomy I foun d onl y singl e incident s o f peppe r spray decapitation an d pourin g boilin g wate r o n a n animal Thoug h instance s o f intentiona l behavior I di d not coun t case s o f do g fighting coc k fighting o r interferenc e wit h a servic e anima l i n thi s particula r assessmen t o f th e type s o f cruelty I n al l but a limite d numbe r o f cases th e offende r actuall y kne w th e

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animal thu s prosecutor s wer e correc t i n thei r assessmen t tha t violenc e was no t typicall y rando m o r haphazard Th e secon d typ e o f cas e involve d neglectfu l behavior a s describe d above I als o foun d a t leas t five hoardin g cases wit h on e o f th e defendant s possessin g a s man y a s 35 0 animals Th e sufferin g i n thes e neglec t case s appeare d fa r greate r tha n i n th e vas t majorit y o f th e intentiona l har m cases Deat h fro m starvation dehydration hea t stroke o r diseas e was no t a s swif t a s i n th e intentionall y violen t case s o f anima l cruelty Beyon d Typica l Whe n I too k th e prosecutor s a t res t an d asked the m t o reflect the y reveale d anothe r sid e o f thei r existence Prosecutor s wer e mor e tha n lega l agents The y wer e actuall y anima l cruelt y philosopher s o f sorts developin g thei r ow n paradig m withi n whic h t o understan d cases Thei r paradig m was mostl y abou t th e typica l cas e o f cruelty T o ge t a t th e typica l case i t was als o productiv e fo r u s t o examin e th e "atypical cases I n m y interviews I wa s initiall y intereste d i n wha t case s th e prosecutor s wer e abl e t o freel y recal l withou t m y prompting Onc e the y exhauste d thei r memory I trie d t o refres h thei r recollectio n b y reading the m th e issuin g summar y fro m th e case I n bot h instances I was lookin g fo r exactl y wha t particula r fact s the y remembere d (o r forgot ) abou t th e case I als o explore d ho w th e case s mad e the m feel Thi s helpe d m e evaluat e an d theoriz e abou t wh y prosecutor s remembere d particula r cases I starte d wit h th e assumptio n tha t individual s remembe r thing s fo r an y variet y o f reasons I f a n attorne y handles thirt y hand-to-han d undercove r dru g sal e case s i n on e year on e woul d imagin e tha t th e fact s o f thos e case s woul d blu r together non e bein g to o

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easil y distinguishabl e fro m th e next If however a prosecuto r handle s a cas e involvin g a n atypica l personality a n atypica l injury o r a n atypica l lega l issue i t ha s bee n m y experienc e tha t thi s leads t o greate r recall I n short thes e case s wer e not typica l cruelty M y goa l wa s t o uncove r a categor y o f anima l cruelt y case s tha t wen t beyon d wha t a prosecuto r woul d se e a s "typical. Give n th e volum e o f al l case s tha t prosecutor s ha d handled I di d no t expec t a comprehensiv e listin g al l o f th e anima l cruelt y case s i n whic h the y wer e involved Fro m th e mos t senio r o f attorney s dow n t o th e mos t junior al l remembere d bit s an d piece s o f thei r cases Ther e wer e case s the y remembere d o n thei r ow n an d case s the y onl y remembere d afte r I reminded them Som e prosecutor s ha d n o cas e memor y a t all But th e majorit y o f attorney s amaze d m e wit h thei r memories Fo r thos e lawyer s unabl e t o recal l an y cas e details I surmis e tha t eithe r thes e case s wer e not memorabl e (i.e not atypica l enough) o r consisten t wit h th e previou s discussion the y blocke d th e memories On e attorne y explained I don' t remember tha t particula r case ; mayb e becaus e i t was jus t a do g gettin g shot I hop e w e mad e th e gu y a t leas t forfei t th e rifle. Anothe r attorne y reasone d i n simila r fashion : Honestly n o [ I canno t remember] An d I wil l tel l yo u it' s probabl y purposeful Ther e ar e som e case s I remembe r i n 2 5 year s bu t fo r th e mos t part th e onl y way t o ge t throug h thi s i s t o not remember al l o f the m honestly I mea n yo u rea d nothin g bu t ba d stuf f al l da y lon g fo r 2 5 years Yo u don' t wan t t o remember al l o f it Ther e ar e certai n case s tha t d o stic k wit h you Non e o f thes e tha t I handle d wer e o f th e typ e tha t wer e s o seriou s tha t jus t brok e m y heart o r tha t woul d b e

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memorabl e t o me I f i t [had ] involve d th e death o f th e belove d pe t o f a person I thin k tha t woul d probabl y bothe r m e mor e i n som e respect s tha n huma n cruelty Becaus e I se e tha t ever y day I don' t lik e it bu t I se e it Whe n i t cam e t o sparkin g memories th e prosecutor s consistentl y remembere d certai n kind s o f cases Wha t mad e a cas e memorabl e wa s it s separatio n fro m thei r typica l day-to-da y cas e routine Thi s separatio n fro m th e nor m existe d o n on e larg e genera l front whil e a t th e sam e tim e i n ver y specifi c contexts Whe n i t cam e t o th e overal l genera l natur e o f thes e cases ther e wa s somethin g "atypical abou t anima l cruelt y cases On e attorne y explaine d th e genera l natur e o f anima l cruelt y cases I haven' t though t o f anima l cruelt y i n a lon g time I wonde r no w i s i f yo u cam e t o m e wit h an y othe r type s o f case s i f I woul d remembe r the m becaus e i f yo u jus t cam e t o m e an d said I wan t t o tal k t o yo u abou t you r [domesti c violence] cases, well I woul d hav e ha d s o man y tha t I wonde r i f I woul d hav e a s muc h o f a recall Thes e wer e s o uniqu e tha t I wa s like "S o I hav e a n anima l cruelt y case no w what? I loo k a t i t a s s o different Yo u hav e thes e challenge s o f wha t a m I suppose d t o d o wit h i t no w tha t I hav e it ? It' s jus t different Beyon d jus t th e genera l differenc e betwee n anima l an d huma n cases ther e wer e particula r factor s tha t prosecutor s recalled Th e overwhelmin g memor y trigge r wa s th e severit y o f th e injur y and/o r th e egregiousnes s o f th e crue l behavio r i n a case Th e nex t mos t cite d memor y trigge r ha d t o d o wit h on e o f "firsts"— a firs t tria l o r a firs t cas e o f anima l cruelty Beyon d that severa l prosecutor s als o remembere d case s becaus e o f th e

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uniqu e lega l issue(s ) presente d i n th e case th e particula r defendan t o r animal o r th e persona l effec t i t ha d o n them Egregiousnes s o f th e offense Consistentl y acros s th e interviews prosecutor s remembere d case s tha t disturbe d them Interestingly non e o f thes e case s actuall y wen t t o trial Al l wer e handle d wit h non-tria l dispositions eithe r a dismissa l o r ple a bargain Tw o case s tha t on e o f th e prosecutor s describe d wer e particularl y graphi c example s o f harm ye t bot h wer e dismisse d becaus e n o perpetrato r coul d b e identified I remembe r [two] A ca t hangin g upsid e i n a tre e b y hi s tail Th e gu y ha d kille d th e cat ha d tie d i t u p i n a tre e b y it s tail an d ha d a rule r nex t t o i t t o sho w ho w bi g hi s kil l was Stuf f lik e tha t reall y i s disturbing [Then ther e was ] th e do g tha t ha d bee n gutte d o n schoo l ground s an d was stil l alive W e didn' t kno w wh o di d it Jus t som e evi l person Fro m ste m t o ster n an d pulle d ou t th e organ s an d lef t i t o n schoo l ground s an d i t was stil l aliv e whe n th e childre n foun d it O h yeah I'v e go t tha t burne d int o m y memory I n on e case a prosecuto r describe d a defendan t wh o ha d intentionall y poure d chemical s o n a dog "Oh th e poo r [dog ] i n a cage I t wa s s o ba d i t scratche d an d scratche d unti l ther e was nothin g lef t o f hi s nose. A s furthe r note d i n th e followin g example attorney s ofte n remembere d case s o f sever e injuries Ther e wa s one I t wa s a domesti c violenc e cas e wher e th e famil y [cat ] was foun d dea d an d I thin k cremate d b y th e angr y separate d husband I thin k the y determine d th e caus e o f death was th e skul l bein g crushed Normall y i n th e vas t

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majorit y o f thes e cases it' s neglec t o r abuse—no t necessaril y purposeful Th e anima l was obviousl y th e targe t o f ange r agains t th e mother-wife Som e prosecutor s recalle d sever e har m a s a resul t o f neglectful rathe r tha n violen t behavior I n particular the y describe d example s o f failin g t o car e fo r animals • I remembe r th e embedde d colla r case ; tha t go t m e s o fire d up I t was freakin g gross Th e chok e collar I hav e a reall y stron g memory It' s lik e a tre e whe n yo u put barbwir e aroun d i t an d the n i t grow s aroun d th e barbwire It' s gross It' s jus t horrible Ho w d o yo u possibl y d o tha t t o a dog ? Yo u ca n se e ho w th e ski n gre w throug h th e [collar] Jus t thin k abou t th e pai n an d ho w ca n yo u eve r no t notic e that ? That' s a pathologica l problem Freaks • Th e sunburne d dog I actuall y hav e a prett y vivi d recollection Th e do g [was ] a Pi t Bul l tha t wa s stake d dow n i n a barre n bac k yard I t wa s basicall y of f o f someone' s bac k door of f int o a chai n lin k yar d an d ther e wa s nothin g there Pebble s an d har d earth Thi s do g ha d really reall y cracke d an d blood y skin I t looke d lik e hell Lik e yo u se e a pictur e o f a victi m o f th e Hiroshim a atomi c bomb It s ski n burne d [and ] poppe d open Tha t do g wa s s o mistreate d b y tha t perso n [that ] I questio n thei r humanity Tha t the y coul d d o tha t t o a dog Thre e o f th e cruelt y case s involve d sodom y wit h dogs No t surprisingly al l th e attorney s wh o handle d thes e case s remembere d them I attribute d thi s mor e t o th e fac t tha t thes e case s reflecte d a judgmen t abou t norm s governin g sexua l activit y tha n i t di d abou t th e underlyin g cruelty On e prosecuto r rathe r humorousl y explaine d hi s case

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23 1 [Defendant ] say s h e wa s drunk Di d h e thin k i t was hi s girlfriend ? I was drun k an d I wa s jus t horn y an d h e was a sex y dog? It' s har d t o bu y tha t excuse I don' t car e ho w muc h booz e yo u ha d o r ecstasy It' s har d t o se e ho w that' s goin g t o mak e tha t do g sexy Th e gu y was embarrassed I t wen t b y ple a agreemen t righ t away Sometime s th e egregiousnes s tha t prosecutor s remembere d di d no t relat e t o th e particula r har m t o th e animal Instead on e recalle d th e particula r indifferenc e o f th e defendant I remember ther e wer e som e kid s BB-gunnin g a ca t fo r fun... for fun." Anothe r prosecuto r provide d a simila r accoun t o f on e o f he r cases I remembe r th e gu y [who ] jus t watche d hi s do g slowl y kil l th e cat H e di d no t eve n tr y t o help. .n o respec t fo r life. Ye t anothe r commente d o n th e manne r i n whic h a defendan t kille d hi s girlfriend' s puppies "H e sho t th e puppies Tha t was nasty H e sen t he r a tex t messag e tha t sai d on e pupp y pe r ever y minute On e pupp y ha d it s le g sho t off On e pupp y wa s neve r found. Take n a s a whole thes e act s appeare d ou t o f th e ordinary thu s sparkin g a memor y fo r th e prosecutors Th e firs t case Whe n i t cam e t o rememberin g cases a grou p o f prosecutor s als o recalle d th e "firsts i n thei r careers Fo r them i t wa s th e firs t felon y anima l cruelt y cas e tha t the y hear d o f i n th e office tha t the y issued tha t was assigne d t o them o r tha t the y actuall y too k t o trial On e o f th e prosecutor s I interviewe d trie d th e firs t anima l cruelt y cas e i n tha t county Sh e remembere d i n particula r detail I mos t certainl y d o [remembe r m y firs t case] I' m prett y sur e I trie d th e first felon y anima l cruelt y cas e a t th e county th e Pi t Bul l pupp y an d it s mother Th e

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tw o dog s ha d bee n lef t i n th e backyar d unsupervised The y chewe d u p law n furnitur e tha t belonge d t o defendant' s parents Defendan t ho g tie d th e adul t do g an d wrappe d balin g wir e aroun d it s mouth Lef t i t withou t foo d o r wate r i n th e yard H e too k th e pupp y an d bale d it s mout h shut tosse d i t i n th e bac k o f hi s picku p truck an d thre w a spar e tir e o n to p o f it Th e pupp y wa s shakin g an d i n shock I didn' t wan t t o plea d it s o of f w e wen t t o trial Th e jur y onl y foun d hi m guilt y o f th e misdemeanor I aske d fo r limite d jai l tim e a s conditio n o f probation I remember gettin g m y cover-m e bac k fro m coverage but I can' t remembe r wh o th e coverage attorne y was H e sai d I wa s a softy o r easy o r somethin g lik e that fo r onl y askin g fo r wha t I did H e sai d h e aske d fo r mor e an d th e judg e gav e th e guy I think si x months Here I fel t lik e I ha d le t dow n th e animal s an d peopl e involved Tha t stil l irk s m e toda y a s I'v e alway s though t o f mysel f a s mor e o f th e opposite A t leas t whe n i t comes t o th e animals I t wa s apparen t tha t th e "firsts lef t lastin g impression s o n th e prosecutors O f course th e first s di d no t see m t o hav e a bearin g o n th e seriousness o f th e animal' s injur y o r th e dangerousnes s o f th e offender Uniqu e lega l issues Ofte n rule d b y thei r lega l minds som e prosecutor s remembere d case s becaus e o f th e uniqu e lega l issue s tha t wer e presented Fo r example on e remembere d havin g t o plea d a cas e becaus e th e marita l privileg e prevente d th e defendant' s statemen t fro m comin g int o evidence Th e attorne y wen t o n t o provid e a layman' s definitio n o f marita l privilege :

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Marita l privileg e i s i f yo u ar e a legall y marrie d spouse yo u canno t b e compelle d t o testif y agains t you r spouse eve n i f yo u wan t to Unles s th e othe r spous e consents Ther e ar e exemption s fo r [domesti c violence ] offenses crime s committe d agains t children crime s relate d t o failur e t o provid e suppor t fo r th e famil y and effectiv e Septembe r 30t h o f [2009] fo r crime s o f a seriou s nature I t stil l wil l not cove r anima l cruelt y crimes Jus t seriou s violen t offense s agains t anybod y excep t animals Stil l anothe r prosecuto r recalle d interestin g tactic s take n b y a defens e attorney I n on e case I remembe r a couple interestin g things [First] th e defens e counse l trie d t o disqualif y ou r offic e fro m prosecuting H e sai d Renee ou r issuin g attorney ha d a conflic t o f interes t becaus e sh e rescue s animal s an d trie s t o ge t animal s adopted Therefore sh e couldn' t prosecute Th e judg e denie d it sayin g ther e was a concurren t interes t an d not a conflictin g one The n I remembe r th e question s i n voir dire 14 fro m th e defens e attorney H e asked "I s anyon e a vegetarian? "I s anyon e fro m a farmin g family? I understoo d wher e h e wa s going but I ha d neve r hear d thos e before Prosecutor s wer e navigatin g ne w water s a s the y endeavore d t o appl y human base d statute s t o non-humans B y wa y o f illustration on e attorne y questione d whethe r a n anima l cruelt y cas e coul d b e considere d a "dangerous offense Voi r dir e i s th e process befor e trial wher e attorney s questio n potentia l juror s abou t thei r abilit y t o serv e a s competent unbiase d juror s i n th e case

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Th e on e cas e I remember i s th e on e Luc y sen t t o gran d jury Go d bles s her I lov e her but on e da y I' m doin g gran d jur y an d a n anima l cruelt y cas e comes across Luc y ha d attache d a n allegatio n o f dangerou s nature allegin g th e us e o f a weapo n o n thi s anima l a do g i f I recall I jus t couldn't Whe n I wen t t o return s th e judg e jus t looke d a t me I [said ] "I' m goin g t o tak e of f thi s allegation Th e judg e mumbled "Migh t b e a goo d idea unde r hi s breath Luc y cam e u p t o m e whe n th e cas e go t bac k t o her a da y o r tw o later an d sh e didn' t challeng e me but sh e le t i t b e know n sh e di d not appreciat e m e takin g he r allegatio n off I didn' t thin k th e la w supporte d it becaus e allegation s o f dangerou s nature the y jus t appl y t o humans I can' t imagin e reading th e statut e i n a manne r tha t yo u coul d alleg e a dangerou s natur e allegatio n agains t a n animal Th e dangerou s natur e ha s t o b e applie d t o th e victi m an d th e victi m [ha s t o b e a human] Othe r attorney s disagreed believin g th e allegatio n applie d t o th e defendan t an d no t th e victim I n on e case a n attorne y filed thi s allegatio n wher e a defendan t use d a basebal l ba t t o bludgeo n a do g an d ca t t o death Sh e remarked "We'v e actuall y don e prett y wel l wit h that It' s not jus t limite d t o humans It' s committin g an y crime. Thes e difference s illustrat e th e difficultie s wit h bringin g non-huma n victim s int o th e law' s grasp Beyon d th e definitiona l struggl e o f t o wha t th e dangerou s natur e refers prosecutor s recalle d thei r initia l troubl e wit h applyin g th e statute' s definitio n o f "seriou s physica l injury t o a n animal On e attorne y explaine d thi s struggl e quit e well

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I remember a case [Th e dog ] brok e it s leg W e wer e experimentin g [wit h th e statute] There' s a differenc e whe n yo u tal k abou t seriou s physica l injur y a s describe d i n [A.R.S. ] §13-10 5 a s oppose d t o seriou s physica l injur y i n th e chil d abus e statute whic h i s a differen t definition I t include s th e broke n leg but onl y i f i t i s not heale d properly—fo r th e children no t fo r th e regula r people I thin k tha t i n thi s case th e do g di d not hea l fro m th e broke n bon e an d tha t woul d mak e th e difference Becaus e wit h huma n being s an d wit h kids yo u ca n brea k th e bone but i t i s no t a seriou s physica l injur y unles s i t result s i n permanen t los s o r significan t impairmen t o f th e us e o f th e limb Tha t was on e o f m y ver y firs t cases Distinctive defendan t and/o r animal Prosecutor s als o remembere d atypica l defendant s an d animals—th e one s wit h personalities behaviors o r a n existenc e tha t straye d fro m mundane Fo r most the y remembere d th e anima l instea d o f th e defendant A s on e attorne y suggested "I'l l kno w th e victi m bette r tha n I'l l kno w th e defendant. Th e followin g remark s explai n th e uniqu e natur e o f th e animal s involved • Ther e wer e s o man y animals I thin k ultimatel y the y too k lik e 331,351 somethin g lik e that animal s of f tha t property Al l th e cats ha d t o b e euthanized Mos t o f th e dog s go t adopte d out I hav e n o ide a wha t happene d t o th e pigs Ther e was a Suga r Glider whic h i s lik e a flyin g squirre l fro m Sout h America I remembe r on e o f th e animal s wa s a rabbi t tha t ha d bee n kep t i n thi s glas s cag e fo r s o lon g i n hi s ow n fece s an d urine tha t ultimatel y h e coul d n o longe r expe l hi s ow n feces The y calle d i t a prolapse d cloacae whic h mean s hi s peni s turn s inside out H e ultimatel y ha d t o b e euthanized

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• On e o f th e case s tha t stick s ou t was a [domesti c violence ] relate d cas e wher e i t was a weird animal I t wa s lik e a chinchill a o r something not somethin g tha t I com e acros s ver y often Th e girlfrien d ha d allege d tha t [defendant ] ha d kille d he r chinchilla Tw o attorney s specificall y recalle d thei r bir d cruelt y case s a s unique give n th e broader spectru m o f anima l cases • I remembe r a bir d deat h case Som e kin d o f parro t an d i t starve d t o death I t was a s egregiou s a s som e o f th e others [but ] I thin k i t stick s out Dog s ar e th e mos t personifie d pe t yo u ca n have an d yo u ca n identif y emotionall y wit h the m s o they'r e th e mos t affecting Birds lizards an d thos e kin d o f thing s ar e probabl y a t th e othe r end Don' t judg e m e personally o n this [but ] they'r e not common Bird s especiall y ar e ver y uncommo n victim s o f cruelty an d the n t o hav e on e starve I though t tha t wa s abou t a s ba d a s i t coul d ge t becaus e i t i s suc h a slo w death an d they'r e cage d an d the y can' t exactl y forag e o r tur n ove r garbage • M y pigeo n case I was walkin g hom e fro m th e bus—th e firs t tim e I decid e t o tak e th e bu s t o work—an d I hear d a shot I sa w bir d flutterin g s o I too k picture s wit h m y cel l phone Th e gu y said "Wh o ar e you. I pulle d out m y badg e an d said "I' m th e gu y wh o wil l b e prosecutin g you. Th e gu y sai d pigeon s wer e jus t rat s wit h wings H e pick s i t u p an d throw s i t i n trash Th e ma n wa s a mother-fuckin g coward

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Beyon d jus t th e particula r animal m y interview s suggeste d tha t personalitie s o f defendant s als o lef t a mar k o n prosecutors Two example s belo w mak e thi s poin t quit e well • O h boy [tha t defendant] Tha t wa s th e secon d anima l cruelt y tria l i n count y history I wa s ver y involve d i n this H e sho t hi s neighbor' s dog Paco wit h a shotgun Gu y ha d lon g re d hai r an d was a ver y interestin g dresser ; somewha t hippy-ish ; androgynous ; unise x attire ; grea t belts H e ha d a prio r convictio n an d wa s a prohibite d possessor I thin k ther e wa s informatio n somewher e tha t h e was a cross dresse r o r wor e hi s girlfriend' s clothe s o r something I won' t forge t him • [Tha t woman ] was a fuckin g pig. . a bitch-as s pig I hat e her I hav e hate d he r fro m da y on e an d I hat e he r today Sh e an d he r daughte r wer e m y defendants Mo m was drivin g a ca b an d wa s havin g a relationshi p wit h som e ma n wh o live s someplac e else s o sh e couldn' t b e bothere d t o tak e car e o f al l th e animal s sh e an d he r daughte r ha d collecte d ove r th e cours e o f severa l years becaus e the y wer e bot h involve d i n 4H Yo u hav e a roo m ful l o f 4 H ribbon s an d you r propert y i s surrounde d b y starvin g animals Hal f o f thos e dog s wer e dea d b y th e tim e w e go t there Ther e wer e dog s tha t ha d die d i n th e kitche n an d outside o n th e bac k patio whos e remain s ha d melte d int o th e floo r an d t o th e cement An d the y jus t sor t o f blithel y walke d aroun d al l o f this Ther e wer e remain s outside Th e cattl e an d th e horses wer e s o skinny The y woul d fee d the m fo r a couple o f day s an d the n the y starve d the m fo r a coupl e o f weeks I hate d her I t wasn' t a trial I ple d them I woul d hav e take n i t t o trial Th e judg e was absolutel y an d totall y appalled Th e

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mothe r was jus t totall y unrepentant unmvolved I didn' t d o crap. An d sh e blame d he r kids Tha t wa s th e thin g tha t irke d m e th e most I hat e adult s wh o blam e thei r kid s fo r th e fac t tha t thei r animal s ar e not bein g wel l take n car e o f i n thei r household No t onl y ar e the y not takin g responsibility but wha t doe s tha t sa y abou t you r ow n sens e o f integrit y tha t yo u woul d blam e a mino r wh o onl y takes a lea d an d a lesso n fro m you It' s despicable Persona l affect Ther e wer e a fe w prosecutor s wh o ha d som e dee p emotional response s whe n talkin g abou t thei r cases Thei r comment s demonstrate d a lingerin g attachmen t t o wha t the y di d i n th e case an d th e ultimat e outcome Thei r humanit y shine d through A s on e o f th e senio r mal e attorney s recalled I crie d whe n I ha d t o b e th e on e t o tel l th e detectiv e tha t i t was oka y t o euthaniz e thos e Pi t Bulls The y ha d bee n kep t fo r a lon g tim e becaus e the y wer e als o evidence s o th e defens e go t t o sen d i n thei r ow n vet s t o g o se e them So tha t too k a while Best Friends cam e an d a variet y o f othe r organization s tha t coul d rehabilitat e some [But becaus e o f th e Vicktor y dogs] the y couldn' t tak e anymore Stil l anothe r attorne y fel t responsibl e fo r th e acquitta l i n a cas e tha t sh e ha d handled Maggie th e Schnauzer [That ] was sad Gu y wa s hom e an d a neighbo r hear d hi m throwin g th e do g agains t th e wall an d th e do g yelping W e ha d a confessio n an d I los t th e confessio n becaus e i t was se t fo r hearin g wit h a motio n t o suppres s i n fron t o f th e judge I [was ] i n a homicid e tria l a t th e sam e time I calle d th e

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defens e counse l abou t th e fac t tha t I probabl y wouldn' t b e abl e t o d o tha t motio n t o suppress an d h e said "I'm no t goin g t o object yo u don' t hav e t o worr y abou t gettin g anythin g filed. Somebod y wen t ove r an d move d orally an d th e judg e sai d i t require d a writte n motio n t o continue So eve n thoug h I ha d file d a response h e denie d th e motio n t o continue an d grante d th e motio n t o suppress I n hindsigh t I fel t wit h thi s cas e th e wors e I eve r have I fel t responsibl e fo r not filin g a writte n motio n t o continue An d I though t w e ha d th e case Lik e I said I thin k [th e loss ] was m y fault Overall prosecutor s share d thei r storie s o f th e in-the-trenche s activitie s i n th e figh t agains t anima l cruelty Thei r memorie s o f specifi c instance s wer e memorie s o f critica l point s i n th e evolutio n o f a cohesiv e institutiona l approac h t o th e handlin g o f thes e cases The y wer e th e one s t o carv e ou t th e line s betwee n typica l an d atypica l cruelty Th e Troubl e wit h "Typical Th e limited an d ofte n inconsistent, developmen t o f anima l cruelt y jurisprudenc e ha s a tremendou s impac t o n th e abilit y o f prosecutor s t o predic t th e outcom e o f a case Typica l case s o f anima l cruelt y reinforc e th e parado x o f prosecutoria l work—anima l case s ultimatel y receiv e a "rough justice Th e typica l cas e i s no t on e o f intentiona l violen t acts Mos t ar e neglectfu l omission s tha t resul t i n seriou s physica l injur y o f animals Thes e case s ar e ofte n handle d wit h ple a agreements replet e wit h nove l conditions Typica l case s o f anima l cruelt y ar e pled no t tried Eve n atypica l case s ar e plea-bargained give n th e broader organizationa l constraint s an d th e challeng e o f

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competin g wit h othe r mor e serious-classe d felonies I n th e contex t o f m y interviews prosecutor s recalle d specifi c instance s o f case s tha t involve d particularl y egregiou s injuries a uniqu e lega l issue a distinctiv e defendant o r case s tha t ha d a persona l affec t o n them Thos e wer e no t th e majorit y o f cases Thus i t seem s mos t anima l cruelt y case s passe d throug h th e syste m withou t muc h fanfare Typifyin g case s ma y als o hav e wide r sociolega l significance I f prosecutor s continu e t o us e thes e framework s i n th e exercis e o f discretion th e framework s themselve s wil l persist Ultimately a layere d model o f decision-makin g i n th e crimina l justic e syste m wil l resul t (Gottfredso n & Gottfredson 1980) A t th e to p leve l li e mor e seriou s cases suc h a s rape robbery an d murder Littl e discretio n exists A t th e lowe r leve l ar e les s seriou s offenses suc h a s larceny simpl e assault an d disorderl y conduct A s a clas s si x felony anima l cruelt y woul d logicall y fi t int o thi s lowe r level Thes e offense s ar e subjec t t o a n extensiv e screenin g process wit h discretio n exercise d i n a way tha t include s extralegal organizational an d persona l preferenc e considerations Discretio n ma y als o b e exercise d i n th e pursui t o f alternat e goals Thus felon y conviction s ar e not alway s th e tru e measur e o f succes s fo r a prosecutor Adam s an d Cutshal l (1987 ) sugges t tha t court s processin g thes e lowe r leve l offense s proces s the m i n a for m o f "rough justice Whil e case s o f anima l cruelt y hav e finall y foun d thei r wa y int o th e Arizona' s felon y cour t system a s clas s si x felonies the y typicall y represen t th e leas t seriou s o f offenses Thus wit h littl e bargainin g power fe w case s actuall y receive d felon y convictions Typica l cruelt y seeme d t o b e shorthan d fo r "cas e worth y o f pleading. Case s tha t wer e typica l di d no t necessaril y strik e emotional

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chords cal l fo r concern, o r meri t organizationa l support Instea d the y signifie d commo n communit y behavio r towar d animals Whe n prosecutor s plea d case s i n favo r o f certaint y o f convictio n o r sentencin g conditions the y remov e case s fro m th e public' s eye Waitin g fo r th e atypica l case t o educat e o r brin g heightene d awarenes s t o th e crime ma y actuall y lesse n awareness Th e publi c wil l not kno w ho w commo n act s o f anima l cruelt y reall y are no r wil l the y hav e a n accurat e pictur e o f jus t wha t sort s o f act s ar e committed Th e crimina l justic e syste m migh t d o wel l t o focu s o n ho w i t handle s th e typical rathe r tha n th e atypica l case

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Conclusio n Whe n th e concer n grow s i n respons e t o a particula r day' s events incrementa l change s i n th e la w results Bu t thes e change s yiel d onl y a moras s o f provisions qualifiers an d exemptions Th e Arizon a statute s ar e a goo d illustration Felon y anima l cruelt y i s define d a s eithe r crue l mistreatmen t (whic h mean s t o torture inflic t unnecessar y seriou s physica l injury o r kil l i n a manne r tha t cause s protracte d suffering) o r crue l neglec t (failin g t o provid e a n anima l wit h necessar y food water o r shelter ) o r abandonmen t tha t result s i n seriou s physica l injury "Necessary har m i s tolerated a s i s suffering a s lon g a s th e sufferin g i s no t "protracted. Injur y i s acceptable but i t canno t b e "serious. A s fo r th e meanin g o f "necessary food water an d shelter tha t i s anyone' s guess Th e on e thin g tha t was consisten t i n th e prosecutio n o f anima l cruelt y case s was not th e anima l a t all I t was th e huma n connectio n t o them Fo r example th e anima l cruelt y statute itself reflect s th e legislature' s effor t t o maintai n th e prevailin g mora l orthodox y o f huma n superiorit y (Monro 2005) Provision s o n anima l cruelt y ar e locate d i n Chapte r 2 9 o f Arizona' s Crimina l Code Thi s chapte r i s entitle d "Offense s Agains t Publi c Order. Thus cruelt y t o animal s i s likene d t o offense s suc h a s unlawfu l assembly loitering disorderl y conduct fals e reporting an d rioting Thes e ar e crime s i n whic h ther e i s n o victi m excep t th e broade r public Th e legislature' s apparen t overarchin g concer n i s th e effec t o f cruelt y o n th e commo n order Further th e mor e salien t factor s tha t affec t a prosecutor' s exercis e o f discretio n i n th e anima l cruelt y case s wer e wha t coul d b e termed traditiona l concerns wit h th e greates t

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weigh t focuse d o n th e huma n actor I n othe r words th e defendan t was th e focus—his/he r life' s circumstances his/he r stat e o f mind an d th e degre e o f injur y he/sh e inflicted Moreover nearl y al l th e prosecutor s mobilize d th e languag e o f th e lin k researc h t o suppor t prosecutio n o f anima l cruelt y cases Th e pligh t o f animal s wa s importan t t o th e exten t tha t i t migh t affec t humans Eve n withi n th e offic e hierarchy anima l cruelt y case s wer e see n a s "extr a duties, thu s providin g furthe r evidenc e o f thei r subordinat e rol e i n compariso n t o othe r human-base d cases Prosecutor s als o struggle d wit h othe r human-actor s withi n th e crimina l justic e syste m overall Outsid e o f ple a bargains convictio n ofte n depende d o n another' s assessmen t o f an d respons e t o a particula r case Leavin g decision s t o th e judg e and/o r jur y wa s risk y business Prosecutor s displaye d grea t distrus t o f th e bench Felon y conviction s wer e foregone i n exchang e fo r plea s t o lesse r crime s wit h greate r an d mor e creativ e condition s o f probation A s I conclud e thi s research I a m lef t wit h mor e question s tha n answers I s th e lega l syste m reall y hearing th e voic e o f nonhumans ? I f not the n wha t mechanism s ar e i n plac e t o kee p thei r voices misheard i f no t unheard ? Bartlet t (2002 ) suggest s tha t tru e advance s i n preventin g anima l maltreatmen t ar e hindere d b y th e psychologica l mindse t o f mos t humans Thi s i s wha t Munr o (2005 ) call s a "mora l orthodoxy. Animal s matter but not a s muc h a s humans Ther e i s a deeply engraine d powe r structur e i n societ y tha t suggest s animal s ar e les s tha n humans ; an d tha t human s ar e th e owners i f not dominators o f animals Animal s ca n b e eaten hunted dissected an d otherwis e destroyed a s lon g a s i t i s don e humanel y an d i t benefit s humans I n th e end huma n

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interest s stil l trum p anima l interests Th e resultin g nor m i s on e o f moderat e concer n fo r animals Wha t th e publi c i s willin g t o tolerat e translate s exactl y int o ho w animal s ar e use d (Munro 2005) Munr o (2005 ) demonstrate s ho w anima l right s activist s construc t anima l cruelt y a s a socia l problem A s wit h al l socia l movements th e participant s endeavo r t o problematiz e a n activit y tha t i s take n fo r grante d b y mos t people Jense n (2007 ) echoe s thi s notio n i n hi s articl e o n zoos Bot h author s contes t th e dominant value s an d socia l construction s i n society Thei r work s questio n deepl y engraine d assumption s behin d wha t I cal l th e hegemoni c human—th e entit y tha t possesse s reason dominion fre e will a soul an d a conscience I n othe r words th e bein g tha t claim s superiorit y ove r othe r species Whe n prosecutor s tr y case s tha t ben d th e traditiona l cognitiv e framewor k o f thi s hegemoni c human deep-seate d cultura l code s ar e challenged Whil e ther e ar e battle s o n th e surfac e ove r statutor y definition s o f cruelty strengt h o f evidence an d availabilit y o f resources th e rea l battl e i s agains t th e conceptua l structure s tha t underli e societ y a s a whol e (Bartlett 2002 ; Jenson 2007) Prosecutor s ar e caugh t betwee n th e mora l orthodox y o f th e rankin g o f human s abov e non-humans an d enforcin g a statut e tha t bring s animal s withi n th e huma n crimina l justic e system Becaus e the y ar e close r t o th e fact s o f eac h case prosecutor s di g deepe r i n thei r effort s tha n th e public th e legislature o r eve n th e judges I t i s a tragi c situatio n fo r prosecutor s i n th e trenches especiall y thos e lik e Lucy Becaus e crime s o f anima l cruelt y ar e onl y clas s si x felonies offic e resource s wer e deeme d "bette r spent o n th e tryin g o f

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mor e seriou s case s (i.e thos e abov e a clas s si x felony) Th e incentiv e t o plea d thes e case s i n th e fac e o f uncertai n sentencin g outcome s was obvious Prosecutor s coul d ofte n secur e mor e punitiv e sanction s an d restrictiv e condition s wit h ple a agreements tha n i f the y relied o n a judg e t o han d dow n a sentenc e followin g convictio n a t trial Whil e th e statut e an d othe r organizationa l factor s constrai n wha t th e la w coul d be i t i s society wri t large whic h tolerate s thi s unfortunat e paradox Th e prosecutor s I interviewe d overwhelmingl y calle d fo r law s wit h greate r sensitivit y t o animal s an d thei r non-huma n status On e o f th e onl y way s t o ensur e thi s sensitivity—b y th e public th e legislature th e juries an d th e judges—i s t o tr y mor e cases Give n unlimite d resources thi s woul d b e possible Bu t thi s i s not th e reality Instead anima l case s ran k lo w i n priorit y an d prosecutor s attai n bette r result s wit h ple a bargains Thus i t seem s prosecutor s ar e lef t wit h a guilt y knowledg e o f sorts Th e prosecutor s I interviewe d recognize d tha t holdin g offender s accountabl e require s mor e tha n jus t a stron g anima l cruelt y law Onl y b y tryin g cases o r otherwis e bringin g the m t o th e forefron t o f publi c attention ca n prosecutor s influenc e socia l perceptions The y als o kno w tha t i n pleadin g cases the y wil l ensur e mor e unifor m an d appropriat e handlin g o f offenders However a t th e sam e time the y fai l t o educat e th e public th e legislature an d th e judge s regardin g th e treatmen t o f animal s s o law s ca n b e improved Ho w ofte n doe s prosecutoria l wor k lea d t o an y sor t o f transformativ e worl d view ? No t very Th e law an d thos e charge d wit h carryin g i t out ar e limited Prosecutor s ca n onl y us e th e tool s the y ar e given Wit h a statut e an d a health y dos e o f discretion the y mus t fi t anima l case s int o th e prevailin g socia l fabric a fabri c mad e fro m strand s o f th e

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prevailin g mora l orthodoxy Criteri a fo r prosecutin g anima l case s ar e ofte n couche d i n th e languag e o f huma n cases But animal s ar e not lik e humans Hence the y shoul d not hav e t o measur e u p t o "human standard s (MacKinnon 2004) Thoug h not read y t o giv e animal s an y sor t o f mora l status th e Arizon a statute s d o protec t some o f the m fro m some degree s o f maltreatment A s Friedma n (2005 ) notes th e lega l syste m i s coextensiv e wit h society : i t reflect s an d continue s t o reflec t th e wants wishes hopes an d demand s o f society i n al l thei r irrationality ambiguity an d inconsistency Animal cruelt y laws afte r all ar e not onl y abou t animals The y ar e abou t ho w human s regar d them T o tha t end i t i s a chang e i n th e underlyin g socia l norm s tha t wil l spar k an y change s i n th e law Recen t legislatio n seem s t o protec t animal s whe n ther e i s som e "human subplo t t o th e story Practicall y speaking thi s certainl y benefit s th e animal Theoretically however i f thi s functiona l lin k shoul d disappear, on e i s lef t t o ponde r ho w th e animal s woul d b e constructed Perhap s a s w e furthe r civiliz e th e human w e ma y jus t humaniz e th e animal

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REFERENCE S Abuse (2007) I n Merriam-webster online. Retrieve d fro m http://www.merriam webster.com/dictionary/cruelt y Adams K & Cutshall C R (1987) Refusin g t o prosecut e mino r offenses : Th e relativ e influenc e o f lega l an d extralega l factors Justice Quarterly 4(4) 595-609 Albonetti C.A (1986) Criminality prosecutoria l screening an d uncertainty : Towar d a theor y o f discretionar y decisio n makin g i n felon y cas e processing Criminology 24(4) 623-44 Albonetti C.A (1987) Prosecutoria l discretion : Th e effect s o f uncertainty Law & Society Review 21 29 1 -313 Altheide D & Johnson J (1998) Criteri a fo r assessin g interpretiv e validit y i n qualitativ e research. I n N K Denzi n & Y.S Lincol n (Eds.) Collecting and interpreting qualitative materials (pp 283-312) Thousan d Oaks : Sag e Publications America n Pet Product s Manufacturer' s Association Inc (2008) Industry statistics & trends. Retrieve d fro m http://www.appma.org/press_industrytrends.as p America n Pet Product s Manufacturer' s Association Inc (2006) National pet owner's survey. Retrieve d fro m http://www.appma.org/press_releasedetail .asp?id=5 2 America n Prosecutor s Researc h Institute (2006) Animal cruelty prosecution: Opportunities for early response to crime and interpersonal violence. Alexandria VA : Randal l Lockwood Anderson P E (2008) Th e powerfu l bon d betwee n peopl e an d pets : Ou r boundles s connection s t o companio n animals Westport CT : Praeger Publishers Arizon a cod e annotated 1939 Vol 3 Ch 43 §1202-1203 2209 5818 Arizon a departmen t o f commerce (2007) Arizona advantage. Retrieve d fro m http://www.azcommerce.com/doclib/prop/state_economic_profile.pd f Arizon a departmen t o f commerce (2007) Profile, Maricopa County, Arizona. Retrieve d fro m http://www.azcommerce.com/doclib/COMMUNE / Maricopa % 2 0 County.pd f Arizon a hous e bill anima l cruelty H B 2610 48 t h legislature 1 s t session 2007

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24 8 Arizon a hous e o f representative s abstrac t fo r H B 2036 Apri l 6 2002 Arizon a hous e o f representative s abstrac t fo r S B 1174 Apri l 13 1999 Arizon a hous e o f representative s committe e o n agriculture minute s o f meeting Apri l 23 1973 Arizon a hous e o f representative s committe e o n agriculture minute s o f meeting Ma y 6 1976 Arizon a hous e o f representative s committe e o n agriculture minute s o f meeting Marc h 29 197 9 Arizon a hous e o f representative s committe e o n agriculture minute s o f meeting Februar y 27 198 6 Arizon a hous e o f representative s committe e o n agriculture minute s o f meeting Marc h 24 1999 Arizon a hous e o f representative s committe e o n counties municipalitie s an d militar y affairs minute s o f meeting Marc h 28 2006 Arizon a hous e o f representative s committe e o n judiciary minute s o f meeting Apri l 12 1973 Arizon a hous e o f representative s committe e o n judiciary minute s o f meeting Ma y 10 1976 Arizon a hous e o f representative s committe e o n judiciary minute s o f meeting Marc h 5 1979 Arizon a hous e o f representative s committe e o n judiciary minute s o f meeting Marc h 11,1985 Arizon a hous e o f representative s committe e o n judiciary minute s o f meeting Februar y 10 1986 Arizon a hous e o f representative s committe e o n judiciary minute s o f meeting Marc h 19 2002 Arizon a hous e o f representative s committe e o n natura l resource s an d energy minute s o f meeting Februar y 26 1979

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Arizon a hous e o f representative s committe e o n natura l resource s an d agriculture minute s o f meeting Februar y 13 1996 Arizon a hous e o f representative s committe e o n natura l resource s an d agriculture minute s o f meeting Marc h 27 2002 Arizon a law s 1909 Ch 40 §3 Arizon a law s 1921 Ch 167 §§1 3 Arizon a law s 1929 Ch 106 §1 Arizon a law s 1973 Ch 179 §1 Arizon a law s 1976 Ch 58 § 1 Arizon a law s 1977 Ch 142 § 91 Arizon a law s 1979 Ch 119 §1 Arizon a law s 1985 Ch 364 §22 Arizon a law s 1986 Ch 42 §§1-2 Arizon a law s 1996 Ch 89 §1 Arizon a law s 1999 Ch 143 §2 Arizon a law s 2000 Ch 32 §5 Arizon a law s 2001 Ch 382 § 1 Arizon a law s 2002 Ch 302 §1 Arizon a legislativ e counci l summar y analysi s o f H B 2342 Februar y 26 197 9 Arizon a legislativ e counci l summar y analysi s o f S B 1317 Februar y 19 197 3 Arizon a legislativ e counci l summar y analysi s o f S B 1317 chp 179 Ma y 23 1973 Arizon a propositio n 201 §1 approve d electio n Nov 3 1998 eff Nov 23 1998

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26 1 Shapiro Kennet h J (2002) Th e stat e o f human-anima l studies : Soli d a t th e Margin Society & Animals. 10(4) Retrieve d fro m http://www.animalsandsociety.org / assets/library/469_ s 104 1 .pd f Singer P (1975) Anima l liberation Ne w York : Rando m House Spector M & Kitsuse J I (1977) Constructin g socia l problems Menl o Park CA : Cummings Spohn C Beichner D. & Davis-Frenzel E (2001) Prosecutoria l justification s fo r sexua l assaul t cas e rejection : Guardin g th e "gatewa y t o justice. Social Problems, 48(2) 206-35 Stanko E (1981-1982) Th e impac t o f victi m assessmen t o n prosecutor' s screenin g decisions : Th e cas e o f th e Ne w Yor k Distric t Attorney' s Office Law & Society Review, 16(2) 225-40 Stat e o f Arizon a 199 4 ballot propositions genera l electio n Novembe r 8 1994 Compile d b y th e secretar y o f state propositio n 201 p 57-65 Stat e o f Arizon a 199 8 ballo t propositions genera l electio n Novembe r 3 1998 Publishe d b y Betse y Bayless Arizon a secretar y o f state propositio n 201 p 93 112 Stat e o f Arizon a publicit y pamphlet genera l election Novembe r 7 2006 Issue d b y Janic e K Brewer Arizon a secretar y o f state propositio n 204 p 133-152 Stibbe A (2001) Language power an d th e socia l constructio n o f animals Journal of Human-Animal Studies. 9(2) Retrieve d Jun e 26 200 7 fro m htt p :// www.psyeta org/sa/sa5. 3 /Arluk e 1 .htm l Sudnow D (1965) Norma l crime : Sociologica l feature s o f th e pena l cod e i n a publi c defender' s office Social Problems 12(3) 255-76 Suchman M.C & Edelman L B (1996) Lega l rationa l myths : Th e ne w institutionalis m an d th e la w an d societ y tradition Law and Social Inquiry, 21(4) 903-941 Tapia F (1971) Childre n wh o ar e crue l t o animals Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 2, 10-11

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26 2 Tedlock B (2000) Ethnograph y an d ethnographi c representation I n N K Denzi n & Y S Lincol n (Eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research, 5 th ed. (pp 455-485) Thousan d Oaks : Sag e Publications Th e cas e fo r anima l rights : A decade' s passin g (2001) I n T Regan Defending animal rights (pp 39-65) Chicago : Universit y o f Illinoi s Press Th e Anima l Welfar e Act 7 U.S.C §213 1 (1966) Th e Endangere d Specie s Act 1 6 U.S.C §153 3 (1973) Th e Human e Method s o f Slaughte r Act 7 U.S.C §1901-190 6 (1958) Th e Marin e Mamma l Protectio n Act 1 6 U.S.C §3 1 (1972) Th e Twent y Eigh t Hou r Law 4 9 U.S.C §8050 2 (1877) Trimble M (1989) Arizona : A cavalcad e o f history Tucson : Treasur e Chest Publications Unite d State s v Armstrong 51 7 U.S 45 6 (1996) U.S Censu s Bureau (2000) Profile of general demographic characteristics, Arizona (Tabl e DP-1) Retrieve d fro m http://censtats.census.gov/data/AZ/04004.pd f U.S Censu s Bureau (2006) Pres s Release CB06-72 Retrieve d fro m http://www census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/population/006808.htm l Warren C (2002) Qualitativ e interviewing I n J F Gubriu m & J A Holstei n (Eds. ) Handbook of interview research: Context & method (pp 83-101) Thousan d Oaks : Sag e Publications Watson W (1996) Ba d Samaritan : Ver y cognitivel y disable d peopl e an d th e sociologica l sensibility International Journal of Comparative Sociology. 3 7 (3 4) 231-251 Welty J (2007) Animal law : Thinkin g abou t th e future Law & contemporary problems, 70 1-8 Wright J & Hensley C (2003) Fro m anima l cruelt y t o seria l murder : Applyin g th e graduatio n hypothesis International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 47(1) 71-88

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26 3 Yates R. Powell C & Beirne P (2001) Hors e maimin g i n th e Englis h countryside : Mora l panic huma n deviance an d th e socia l constructio n o f victimhood Journal of Human-Animal Studies. 9(1) Retrieve d Jun e 25 200 7 fro m http://www.psyeta.Org/sa/sa5.3/Arlukel.htm l Yin R (2003) Cas e stud y desig n an d research 3 r d ed Thousan d Oaks : Sag e Publications

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APPENDI X A IR B APPROVA L

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26 5 ARIZON A STAT E •* : UNIVERSIT Y M > .•...s;••!:• "k5?rc c rrjii^fe j To : From : Data : Cufnmlll M Action : IR B Actio n Data : IR B Protoco l f. Stud y Title : Duri s Provln e WILS N Mar k Roosa Chai r Soc3e h IR B 09/OS/ZOO B Exemptio n Grante d 080900323 1 Prosaculoria i Discretio n & m e Socia l Constructio n a t Anima l Crusilt y Th e above-reference d protoco l I s considere d exsmp t afte r revie w b y tri e Instltutjana Revie w Boar d pursuan t l o Federa l regulations 4 5 CF R Par t 45.10 1 (b)(2 ) (4) Thi s par t o f C M federa l regulation s require s tha i tl infwmalta n b e recorde d b y Investigator s I n suc h a manne r tha t subject s canno t b e identflted directl y o r tnroug h identifier s linke d t o tri e subjects i t i s necessar y tha t th e Informatio n obtaisw d no t b s suc h tha t I t disclose d outsid e th e reseaicn I t coul d reasonably plac e th e subject s a t ris k o f crmlna l o r crvl l liability o r b e damagin g t o th e subjects financia l standing auapluysomty o r reputation Yo u shoul d retai n a cop y c' till s lette r fo r V JL B records

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APPENDI X B ANIMA L CRUELT Y STATUTE S (2007 ) AR S § 13-29 1 OET.SEQ.

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26 7 mens rea ls I,K, R I,K, R I,K, R I, K R I,K, R I, K R I,K, R Acts prohibited subject s an y anima l unde r person' s custod y o r contro l t o cruel neglect 16 o r abandonmen t fail s t o provid e medica l attentio n necessar y t o preven t protracte d sufferin g t o an y anima l unde r th e person' s custod y o r contro l inflict s unnecessar y physica l injur y subject s an y anima l t o cruel mistreatment kill s an y anima l unde r custod y o r contro l o f anothe r perso n withou t lega l privileg e o r consen t o f th e owne r interfere s with kills o r harm s a working animal o r service animal withou t lega l privileg e o r consen t o f th e owne r leave s a n anima l unattende d an d confine d i n a moto r vehicl e an d physica l injur y t o o r deat h o f th e anima l i s likel y t o resul t §§ A l A2 A 3 A 9 A 4 A 5 A1 0 A 6 A 7 Penalty 1 M 1 M 1 M 6 F 1 M 1 M 6 F 1 M 1 M Other Replacemen t costs Trainin g costs Veterinar y bills Handler' s los t time Owner' s contractua l losse s Peac e office r an d anima l contro l ma y us e reasonabl e forc e t o ope n vehicl e 15 1 = Intentional ; K = Knowing ; R = Reckles s 1 6 "Crue l neglect means t o fai l t o provid e a n anima l wit h necessar y food water o r shelte r [A.R.S 13-2910(H)(3) ] 1 7 "Crue l mistreatment mean s t o tortur e o r otherwis e inflic t unnecessar y seriou s physica l injury o r t o kil l i n a manne r tha t cause s protracte d sufferin g [A.R.S 13 2910(H)(2) ] 1 8 "Workin g animal mean s a hors e o r do g use d b y a la w enforcement specificall y trained fo r la w enforcemen t work an d unde r contro l o f a handle r [A.R.S 13 2910(H)(6) ] 19 "Servic e animal mean s a n anima l tha t ha s complete d a forma l trainin g progra m tha t assist s it s owne r i n one/mor e dail y livin g task s tha t ar e associate d wit h a productiv e lifestyle an d trained not t o pos e threa t t o healt h an d safet y o f th e genera l publi c [A.R.S 13-2910(H)(5) ]

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26 8 I, K I, K R I, K subject s an y anima l unde r person' s custod y o r contro l t o cruel neglect o r abandonmen t tha t result s i n seriou s physica l injur y t o anima l allow s an y do g unde r th e person' s custod y o r contro l t o interfer e with ill o r caus e physica l injur y t o a servic e anima l obtain s o r exert s unauthorize d contro l ove r a servic e anima l wit h inten t t o depriv e servic e anima l handle r o f th e servic e anima l A 8 Al l A12 A1 3 6 F 6 F 1 M 6 F K K Dog Fighting Al : Owning possessing keepin g o r trainin g an y do g wit h intent i t engag e i n exhibitio n fightin g wit h anothe r do g A2 : fo r amusemen t o r gain caus e an y do g t o figh t wit h anothe r o r caus e an y dog s t o injur e eac h othe r A3 : permittin g an y ac t i n 1 o r 2 t o b e don e o n an y premise s unde r charge/contro l Presen t a t an y place/buildin g wher e preparation s ar e bein g mad e fo r a n exhibitio n o f fightin g o f dogs o r presen t a t suc h exhibitio n .0 1 .0 2 5 F 6 F K Cockfighting Owning possessing keepin g o r trainin g an y cock 20 wit h inten t i t engag e i n a n exhibitio n o f fightin g wit h anothe r coc k Fo r amusemen t o r gain caus e an y coc k t o figh t wit h anothe r coc k o r caus e an y cock s t o injur e eac h othe r Permi t an y ac t i n 1 o r 2 t o b e don e o n an y premise s unde r charg e o r contro l .0 3 6 F "Cock means an y mal e chicken includin g gav e fow l excep t wildlif e a s define d i n A.R.S.§17-10 1 ("wil d bird s an d th e nest s o r egg s thereof)

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26 9 K Presen t a t an y place/buildin g wher e preparation s ar e bein g mad e fo r a n exhibitio n o f th e fightin g o f cocks o r presen t a t suc h exhibitio n Confinement ofPig/Veal tethe r o r confin e a n pi g durin g pregnanc y o r cal f raise d fo r vea l o n far m fo r all/majorit y o f th e da y i n an y manne r tha t prevent s anima l fro m lyin g dow n an d full y extendin g limb s o r turnin g around freel y .0 4 .0 7 1 M 1 M Effectiv e 12/31/12 Pro p 10 5 (1998 ) applies : legislatur e canno t repea l thi s initiative Exemptions : transportation rodeo fair killing research veterinar y exam pig s i n 7 da y deliver y windo w Human e Treatmen t o f Animal s Fun d .0 8 K Bestiality engage s i n ora l sexua l contact, 2 1 sexua l contact, 2 2 o r sexua l intercourse 2 3 wit h a n anima l (dea d o r alive ) o r cause s anothe r t o d o th e sam e A.R.S §13 141 1 6 F 3 F i f othe r i s mino r <1 5 psyc h assessment counselin g a t ow n expense reimburs e anima l shelte r fo r car e exemptions : accepte d veterinar y & husbandr y practices sam e specie s inseminatio n 21 < Ora l sexua l contact mean s ora l contac t w / penis vulva o r anu s [A.R.S 13 1401(1)] 9 9 "Sexua l contact means direct/indirec t touching fondling manipulatin g an y par t o f genitals anu s o r femal e breas t b y an y par t o f th e bod y o r b y an y objec t o r causin g a perso n t o engag e i n suc h contac t [A.R.S 13-1401(2)] 9" Sexua l intercourse mean s penetratio n int o penis vulva o r anu s b y an y par t o f bod y o r b y an y objec t o r masturbator y contac t w / peni s o r vulv a [A.R.S 13-1401(3)]

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Anima l Cruelt y Exception s Poiso n do g wh o killed/wounde d livestoc k Poiso n predator y animal s t o protec t livestock/poultr y Poiso n t o contro l wild/domesti c rodent s (no t fur-bearin g animals ) Activit y tha t involve s possession training exhibition o r us e o f bir d o r anima l i n otherwis e lawfu l sport s o f falconry anima l hunting rodeos ranching o r th e trainin g o r us e o f huntin g dogs §A.R.S 13-291 0 (B)(1 ) §A.R.S 13-291 0 (B)(1 ) §A.R.S 13-291 0 (B)(2 ) §A.R.S 13-2910.0 6 Anima l Cruelt y Defense s Takin g o f wildlif e o r othe r activitie s allowe d pursuan t t o Titl e 1 7 (Gam e an d Fish ) Activitie s permitte d b y Title 3 (Agriculture ) Activitie s regulate d b y Arizon a Gam e an d Fis h o r Arizon a Departmen t o f Agricultur e Activitie s involvin g th e possession training exhibitio n o r us e o f a n anima l i n th e otherwis e lawfu l pursuit s o f hunting ranching farming rodeos shows an d securit y services §A.R.S 13-291 0 (C)(1 ) §A.R.S 13-291 0 (C)(2 ) §A.R.S 13-291 0 (C)(3 ) §A.R.S 13-2910.0 5

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APPENDI X C PROTOCO L O F INTERVIE W QUESTION S

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1 Backgroun d Question s a Ho w lon g hav e (did ) yo u worke d a s a prosecutor ? b Ho w lon g wit h thi s office ? c Wha t i s you r curren t position ? Wha t ar e you r responsibilities ? d Ho w man y case s d o yo u currentl y hav e o n you r calendar ? e Coul d yo u explai n you r previou s assignment s withi n th e office ? f Wh y di d yo u choos e publi c prosecution ? 2 Animal cruelt y case s i n genera l a Ho w man y felon y anima l cruelt y case s hav e yo u bee n assigned ? b Ho w man y d o yo u currentl y have ? c Ho w ar e (were ) th e case s assigne d t o you ? d Whe n di d yo u first begi n prosecutin g thes e cases ? e D o yo u remembe r you r first case ? Wha t was i t like ? Wha t di d yo u feel/think ? 3 Anima l cruelt y case s i n particular fre e recal l a D o an y o f th e case s stic k out i n you r memory ? Why ? b Tel l m e abou t wha t happene d i n thi s case c Wha t contribute d t o th e decisio n t o (issue)(decline)(plead)(try)(dismiss ) thi s case ? 4 Animal cruelt y case s i n particular m y directio n a I notice d yo u handle d th e case What i f anything, d o yo u remember abou t th e case ? b Th e final dispositio n wa s Why ?

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27 3 c Wha t contribute d t o th e decisio n t o (issue)(decline)(plead)(try)(dismiss ) thi s case ? d A s yo u loo k bac k o n thi s specifi c case ar e ther e an y othe r factor s tha t woul d hav e chang e th e wa y yo u handle d th e case ? 5 Th e definitio n o f "Anima l cruelty a I n you r ow n words ca n yo u tel l m e wha t "anima l cruelty means ? b Ar e ther e differen t level s o f cruelty ? I f so wha t ar e the y an d wha t ar e thei r distinguishin g characteristics ? c Wha t make s a "good case ? Wha t is/wa s a typica l anima l cruelt y cas e like ? 6 Offic e a Tel l m e ho w yo u learne d t o handl e anima l cruelt y case s a s a prosecutor b Doe s th e offic e provid e an y forma l training ? I f so ca n yo u tel l m e wha t take s place ? c Wha t abou t informa l discussions roundtables lunc h groups etc. ? I f so ca n yo u tel l m e th e type s o f issue s discussed ? 7 Ca n yo u describ e th e mos t importan t elements o f a n anima l cruelt y case ? a Wha t rol e d o picture s play ? b Death ? Injuries ? c Typ e o f animal ? Bree d o f animal ? d Owner ? e Offic e policy ?

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f Publi c awareness/interest ? 8 Wh o ha s bee n mos t helpfu l t o yo u i n understandin g anima l cruelt y cases ? Why ? 9 Tel l m e abou t you r view s o n anima l cruelty Hav e an y o f you r view s change d ove r time ? 10 Wha t advic e woul d yo u giv e a novic e attorne y abou t handlin g felon y anima l cruelt y cases ? 11 I s ther e anythin g tha t yo u migh t not hav e though t o f befor e abou t anima l cruelt y tha t ha s occurre d t o yo u durin g thi s interview ?

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APPENDI X D ORGANIZATIO N O F CRIMINA L DIVISIO N

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Th e crimina l divisio n i n thi s particula r count y attorney' s offic e ha s approximatel y sixt y attorneys assigne d t o thirtee n differen t prosecutoria l units Th e unit s ar e a s follows : 1 Domesti c Violenc e Unit : prosecute s felon y case s o f domesti c violenc e 2 Forfeiture s Unit : seize s mone y an d propert y fro m dru g dealer s an d othe r criminals Distribute s mone y t o la w enforcemen t agencie s throughou t th e count y an d support s community-base d project s fo r childre n an d youth 3 Gan g Unit : prosecute s crime s committe d b y stree t gan g members rangin g fro m murde r an d carjackin g t o dru g offenses Thi s uni t als o work s closel y wit h la w enforcemen t t o identif y gang s an d thei r member s i n a n effor t t o monito r gan g activity 4 Gu n Unit : prosecute s firearm s case s wit h a focu s o n prosecutin g violent an d repetitiv e offender s wh o us e o r posses s firearms 5 Homicide/Col d Cas e Unit : prosecute s th e majorit y o f th e murde r case s an d als o handle s older as-of-ye t unsolve d cases 6 Issuin g Unit : Thi s i s th e chargin g unit Attorney s receiv e fact s o f a particula r cas e fro m polic e officer s (polic e reports statements tapes othe r evidence ) an d decid e what i f anythin g shoul d b e charged Issuin g deal s wit h felonie s only ; misdemeanor s ar e don e differently Wit h a felony someon e i s arrested I f the y ar e i n custod y the y hav e th e righ t t o a probabl e caus e finding whic h i s eithe r gran d jur y o r preliminar y hearin g withi n 1 0 days I f the y ar e ou t o f custody the y hav e 2 0 days Whe n a unifor m office r makes a n arrest paperwor k i s sen t t o a detectiv e i n charg e o f whateve r typ e o f crim e wa s committed Detective s d o th e follow-u p an d mak e a n appointmen t wit h a n issuin g attorne y t o se e i f ther e i s

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enoug h evidenc e t o g o forwar d an d fil e a complaint Th e issuin g attorne y ma y procee d forwar d b y presentmen t t o th e gran d jur y o r b y preliminar y hearing I f a n individua l i s indicted/boun d ove r fo r trial th e cas e return s t o th e issuin g attorne y fo r disposition I f th e cas e was seriou s o r th e defendan t ha d anothe r pendin g cas e i n th e office i t woul d g o directl y t o a particula r tria l team Otherwise th e issuin g uni t woul d mak e th e firs t ple a office r t o tr y t o mov e th e cas e quickly I f th e defendan t refuse d th e firs t ple a offer th e cas e wa s the n transferre d fo r tria l t o th e appropriat e tria l team 7 Juvenil e Unit : handles al l matter s tha t accus e a mino r o f committin g a crimina l offense delinquen t act o r incorrigibl e act 8 Misdemeanor s Unit : handle s misdemeano r offense s occurrin g i n th e unincorporate d area s o f th e county Thes e crime s ar e deal t wit h i n th e lowe r justic e courts 9 Narcotic s Unit : prosecute s dru g crimes 10 Propert y Unit : prosecute s burglary theft frau d an d embezzlemen t cases 11 Specia l Victim s Unit (SVU) : handle s se x crimes crime s agains t children crime s agains t th e elderly o r crime s involvin g highl y traumatize d individuals 12 Vehicula r Crime s Unit : felon y offense s primaril y relate d t o th e us e o f a vehicle Thes e includ e aggravate d DUI endangerment chil d abuse felon y fleeing leavin g th e scen e o f a collision crimina l damage aggravate d assaul t an d murder 13 Violen t Offense s Unit : prosecute s offender s wh o hav e committe d violen t crime s agains t others an d tha t ar e not alread y handle d i n othe r specifi c unit s (suc h a s SVU homicide guns gangs o r DV)

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BIOGRAPHICA L SKETC H Kerr y L Muehlenbec k i s currentl y a residentia l facult y membe r i n th e Administratio n o f Justic e Studie s Departmen t a t Mes a Communit y College Mesa Arizona Sh e ha s serve d a s a Deput y Count y Attorne y i n Arizona a Deput y Judg e Advocat e Genera l fo r th e Unite d State s Ai r Force an d a n Assistan t Prosecutin g Attorne y i n Michigan Sh e i s admitte d t o practic e la w i n th e state s o f Michiga n an d Arizona Kerr y i s als o currentl y assigne d a s th e Staf f Judg e Advocat e fo r th e Join t Force s Headquarters Arizon a Nationa l Guard Phoenix Arizona I n addition sh e serve s a s th e Cours e Directo r fo r th e Contemporar y Bas e Issue s Course a national-leve l lega l semina r fo r Ai r Nationa l Guar d Commanders Kerr y i s als o a contributin g edito r fo r th e Ai r Nationa l Guar d Commander' s Lega l Deskbook an d ha s lecture d a t variou s Ai r Forc e an d Ai r Nationa l Guar d courses Sh e receive d he r B.S fro m Northwester n University he r J.D fro m Indian a Universit y Schoo l o f Law an d he r LL.M fro m th e Universit y o f Sa n Dieg o Schoo l o f Law