Citation
A school geography

Material Information

Title:
A school geography embracing a mathematical, physical, and political description of the earth
Series Title:
The eclectic series of geographies ;
Creator:
Steinwehr, A. von ( Adolph ), 1822-1877
Place of Publication:
Cincinnati
Publisher:
Van Antwerp, Bragg & Co.
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Edition:
[Ohio ed.].
Physical Description:
126, 12+ pages : illustrations, color maps ; 33 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
1870-1945 ( fast )
Geography -- Textbooks -- 1870-1945 ( lcsh )
Geography -- Textbooks ( fast )
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
Includes a geography of Ohio : p. 1-12 at end.
Statement of Responsibility:
by A. von Steinwehr.

Record Information

Source Institution:
Auraria Library
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
14153197 ( OCLC )
ocm14153197
Classification:
G127 .E24 1870 ( lcc )

Auraria Membership

Aggregations:
Auraria Library
Auraria Library Special Collections

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1




I
The Eclectic Series of Geographies.
a
SCHOOL GEOGRAPHY
EMBRACING A
S'
A ^
n:
MATHEMATICAL, PHYSICAL, AND POLITICAL


DESCEIPTION OF THE EAETH.
I :
- ^
A r $
1
V
By A. von STEINWEHR.
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YAK ANTWERP, BRAGG & CO.,
CINCINNATI: 137 WALNUT STREET. NEW YORK: 28 BOND STREET.


POPULATION OP CITIES AND TOWNS.
Note.The population of towns in the United
States is according to the returns of the Enumerators of the Census of 1880.
UNITED STATES.
Akron, Ohio 16,512
Albany, N. Y. 90,903
Alexandria, Va. 13,658
Allegheny, Pa. 78,681
Allentown Pa. 18,063
Altoona, Pa. 19,716
Amsterdam, N. Y. 11,711
Annapolis, Md. 6,642
Atchison, Kan. 15,106
Atlanta, Ga. 37,421
Attleboro, Mass. 11,111
Auburn, N. Y. 21,924
Augusta, Ga. 23,023
Augusta, Me. 8,634
Aurora, 111. 11,825
Austin, Tex. ^ 10,960
Baltimore Md.7 332,190
Bangor, Me. 16,G57
Baton Rouge, La. 7,217
Bay City, Mich. 20,693
Belleville, 111. 10,682
Biddeford, Me. 12,652
Binghamton, N. Y. 17,315
Bloomington, 111. 17,184
Boston, Mass>> ,-362,535
Bridgeport Conn. 29,148
Brockton, Mass. 13,608
Brookhaven, N. Y. 11,544
Brooklyn, N. YN 566,689
Buffalo, N. Y. ~ 155,137
Burlington, la. 19,450
Burlington, Yt. 11,364
Cambridge, Mass. 52,740
Camden, N. J. 41,658
Canton, Ohio 12,258
Castleton, N. Y. 12,679
Cedar Rapids, la. 10,104
Charleston, S. C. 49,099
Chattanooga, Tenn. 12,892
Chelsea, Mass. 21,785
Chester, Pa.. 14,996
Chicago, UlA 503,304
Chicopee, Mass. 11,325
Chillicothe, Ohio v 10,938
Cincinnati, Ohic^f "-255,708
Cleveland, Ohio 160,142
Cohoes, N. Y. 19,417
Columbia, S. C. 10,040
Columbus, Ga. 6,152
Columbus, Ohio 51,665
Concord, N. H. 13,838
Cortlandt, N. Y. 12,664
Council Bluffs, la. 18,059
Covington, Ky. 29,720
Cumberland, Md. 10,693
Dallas, Tex. . 10,358
Danbury, Conn>. 11,669
Davenport, la. 21,834
Dayton, Ohio 38,677
Denver, Col. 35,638
Derby, Conn. 11,649
Des Moines, la. 22,408
Detroit, Mich. 116,342
Dover, N. H. 11,687
Dubuque, la. 22,254
Easton, Pa. 11,924
East Saginaw, Mich. 19,016
Eau Claire, Wis. 10.118
Elizabeth, N. J. 28,229
Elmira, N. Y. 20,541
Erie, Pa. 27,730
Evansville, Ind. 29,280
Fall River, Mass. 49,006
Fishkill, N. Y. 10,732
Fitchburg, Mass. 12,405
Flushing, N. Y. 15,919
Fond du Lac, Wis. 13,091
Fort Wayne, Ind. 26,880
Frankfort, Ky. 6,958
Galesburg, 111. 11,446
Galveston, Tex. 22,253
Georgetown* D. C. 12,578
Gloucester, Mass. 19,329
Grand Rapids,Mich.32,015
Hamilton, Ohio. 12,122
Hannibal, Mo. 11,074
Harrisburg, Pa. 30,762
Hartford, Conn. 42,553
Haverhill, Mass. 18,475
Hempstead, N. Y. 18,160
Hoboken, N. J. 30,999
Holyoke, Mass. 21,851
Houston, Tex. 18,646
Hyde Park, 111. 15,716
Indianapolis, Ind. 75,074
Jackson, Mich. 16,105
Jackson, Miss. 5,319
Jacksonville, Fla. 10,500
Jacksonville, 111. 10,927
Jamaica, N. Y. 10,089
Jefferson City, Mo. 5,420
Jeffersonville, Ind. 10,422
Jersey City, N. J. 120,728
Johnstown, Pa. 16,626
Joliet, 111. 16,145
Kalamazoo, Mich. 11,937
Kansas City, Mo. 55,813
Keokuk, la. 12,117
Kingston, N. Y. 18,342
Knoxville, Tenn. 9,690
LaCrosse, Wis. 14,505
Lafayette, Ind. 14,860
Lancaster, Pa. 25,769
Lansing, Mich. 8,326
Lawrence, Mass. 39,178
Leadville, Col. 14,820
Leavenworth.Kans. 16,550
Lenox, N. Y. 10,249
Lewiston, Me. 19,083
Lexington, Ky. 16,656
Lincoln, Neb. 13,004
Lincoln, R. I. 13,765
Little Rock, Ark. 13,185
Las Vegas, N. Mex. 8,500
Lockport, N. Y. 13,522
Logansport, Ind. 11,198
LongIsrdCity,N. Y. 17,117
Los Angeles, Cal. 11,311
Louisville, Ky. 123,645
Lowell, Mass. 59,485
Lynchburg, Ya. 15,959
Lynn, Mass. 38,284
Macon, Ga. 12,748
Madison, Wis. 10,325
Malden, Mass. 12,017
Manchester, N. H. 32,630
Marlborough, Mass. 10,126
Memphis, Tenn. 33,593
Meriden, Conn. 18,340
Middletown, Conn. 11,731
Milwaukee, Wis. 115,578
Minneapolis, Minn. 46,887
Mobile, Ala. 31,205
Montgomery, Ala. 16,714
Muskegon, Mich. 11,262
Nashua, N. H. 13,397
Nashville, Tenn. 43,461
New Albany, Ind. 16,422
Newark, N. J. 136,400
New Bedford, Mass. 26,875
New Berne, N. C. 6,443
New Britain, Conn. 13,978
NewBrunswk, N.J.17,167
Newburgh, N. Y. 18,050
Newburyport, Mass.13,537
New Haven, Conn. 62,882
New London, Conn. 10,529
New Lots, N. Y. 13,681
New Orleans, La/8216,140
Newport, Ky. 20,433
Newport, R. I. 15,693
Newton, Mass. - 16,995
New York, N. Y| 1,206,590
Norfolk, Va. 21,966
Norristown, Pa. 13,064
North Adams, Mass, 10,192
N orthampton, Mass. 12,172
Norwalk, Conn. 13,956
Norwich, Conn. 21,141
Oakland, Cal. 84,556
Ogdensburg, N. Y. 10,340
Omaha, Neb. 30,518
Orange, N. J. 13,206
Oshkosh, Wis. 15,749
Oswego, N. Y. 21,117
Oyster Bay, N. Y. 11,928
Paterson, N. J. 50,887
Pawtucket, R. I. 19,030
Peoria, 111. 29,315
Petersburg, Va. 21,656
Philadelphia, PaS846,984
Pittsburgh, Pa. **T56,381
Pittsfield, Mass. 13,367
Portland, Me. 33,810
Portland, Ore. 17,578
Portsmouth, N. H. 9,732
Portsmouth, Ohio 11,314
Portsmouth, Va. 11,388
Pottsville, Pa. 13,253
Poughkeepsie, N.Y. 20,207
Providence, R, I. 104,850
Quincy, 111. 27,275
Quincy, Mass. 10,529
^Racine, Wis. 16,031
Raleigh, N. C. 9,265
Reading, Pa. 43,280
Richmond, Ind. 12,743
Richmond, Va. 63,803
Rochester, N. Y. 89,353
Rockford, 111. 13,136
Rock Island, 111. 11,660
Rome, N. Y. 12,045
Rutland, Vt. 12,149
Sacramento, Cal. 21,420
Saginaw, Mich. 10,525
Salem, Mass. 27,598
Salt Lake City,Utah 20,768
San Antonio, Tex. 20,561
Sandusky, Ohio 15,838
San Francisco, Cafff233,956
San Jos6, Cal. 12,567
Santa Fe, N. M. 6,635
Saratoga Spgs,N.Y. 10,822
Saugerties, N. Y. 10,375
Savannah, Ga. 30,681
Schenectady, N. Y. 13,675
Scranton, Pa. 45,850
Selma, Ala. 7,529
henandoah, Penn. 10,148
hreveport, La. 11,017
omerville, Mass. 24,985
South Bend, Ind. 13,279
Springfield, 111. 19,746
Springfield, Mass. 33,340
Springfield, Ohio 20,729
Stamford, Conn. 13,298
Steubenville, Ohio 12,093
32,484
350,522
10,287
41,498
51,791
2,570
21,213
26,040
50,143
15,451
29,910
56,747
33,918
11,814
13,705
11,483
11,711
12,163
St. Joseph, Mo.
St. Louis, Mo,£
Stockton, Cal.
St. Paul, Minn.
Syracuse, N. Y.
Tallahassee, Fla.
Taunton, Mass.
Terre Haute, Ind.
Toledo, Ohio
Topeka, Kan.
Trenton, N. J.
Troy, N. Y. .
Utica, N. Y.
Vicksburg, Miss.
Virginia City, Na.
Wallkill, N. Y.
Waltham, Mass.
Warwick, R. I.
Washington, D.C. 147,307
Waterbury, Conn. 20,269
Watertown, N. Y. 10,697
Watervliet, N. Y. 22,220
Weymouth, Mass. 10,571
Wheeling, W. Va. 31,266
Wilmington, Del. 42,499
Wilmington, N. C.
Wilkesbarre, Pa.
Williamsport, Pa.
Winona, Minn.
Woburn, Mass.
Woonsocket, R. I.
Worcester, Mass.
Yonkers, N. Y.
York, Pa.
Youngstown, Ohio 15431
Zanesville, Ohio 18,120
17,361
23,339
18,934
10,208
10,938
16,053
58,295
18,892
13,940
DOMINION OF
CANADA.
Halifax 29,582
Hamilton 26,716
Kingston 12,407
London 15,826
Montreal 107,225
Ottawa 21,545
Quebec 59,699 28;805
St. John
St. Johns 22,583
Toronto 70,865
MEXICO, CENTRAL
AMERICA AND WEST INDIES.
Aguas Caliente 31,842
Campeachy 14,000
Chihuahua 12,000
Colima 31,000
Gaudalajara 68,000
Guanajuato 56,012
Guatemala 45,000
Havana 230,000
Kingston 34,314
Leon 78,930
Managua 10,000
Matanzas
Mazatlan
Merida
Mexico
Port au Prince
Puebla
Puerto Principe
San Domingo
San Jose
San Juan
San Luis Potosi
San Salvador
Santiago de Cuba
Tegucigalpa
Vera Cruz
Zacatecas
36,102
12,000
36.000
230.000
27.000
67,571
30,685
16.000
12,000
18,132
34.000
16.000
36,752
12,000
10,000
16,000
SOUTH
Arequipa
Assumption
Bahia
Barquisimeto
Bogota
Buenos Ayres
Callao
Caracas
Chilian
Conception
Cordova
Cuzco
Cochabamba
Georgetown
Guayaquil
La raz
Lima
Maracaybo
Maranhao
Medellin
Montevideo
Panama
Para
Paramaribo
Popayan
Potosi
Quito
Recife '
Rio Janeiro
Santiago
Sucre
Talca
Tucuman
Valencia
Valparaiso
AMERICA.
35.000
20.000
128,929
26,664
50.000
200,000
38.000
48,897
19,044
18,277
28,523
45.000
40,678
36,572
26.000
76,372
100,073
21,954
31,604
30.000
91,167
18,378
35.000
22,191
16.000
22,580
80,000
116,671
274,972
150,367
23,979
17,496
17,438
28,594
97,737
Dublin
Dundee
Dusseldorf
Edinburgh
Elberfeld
Ferrara
Florence
Frankfort
Geneva
Genoa
Ghent
Glasgow
Goteburg
Granada
Gratz
314,666
142,951
94,800
226,075
93,332
75,444
168,423
136,677
68,165
163,234
130,671
578,156
74,418
65,748
86,369
Grecian Empire (1878)
44,210,948
EUROPE.
Aberdeen
Adrianople
Aix-la-Chapelle
Altona
Amsterdam
Antwerp
Astrachan
Athens
Barcelona
Barmen
Basle
Belfast
Belgrade
Bergen
Berlin
Berne
Birmingham
Bologna
Bordeaux
Boulogne
Bradford
Bremen
Breslau
Brest
Brighton
Bristol
Bruges
Brunn
Brussels
Bucharest
Buda-Pesth
Cadiz
Carlsrtthe
Catania
Chemnitz
Christiania
Cologne
Constantinople
Copenhagen
Cork
Dantzic
Dresden
98,181
62,000
35,15$
91,124
302,266
159,579
48,220
44,510
215,965
96,320
44,834
174,394
27,605
33,830
1,118,630
36,001
388,884
111,969
215,140
40,075
191,046
112,114
272,390
66,828
105,608
209,947
44,968
73,771
391,393
177,646
270,476
68,006
42,739
90,886
94,963
112,977
144,225
600,000
250,000
78,642
107,610
220,261
Greenock
Groningen
Hamburg
Hanover
Havre
Hull
Kharkov
Kiev
Kishenau
Konigsberg
Leeds
Leghorn
Leicester
Leipsic
Leith
Lemberg
Liege
Lille
Lisbon
Liverpool
London
Lyons
Madrid
Magdeberg
Malaga
Manchester
Marseilles
Messina
Milan
Moscow
Munich
Murcia
Nantes
Naples
Newcastle
Norwich
Nottingham
Nuremberg
Odessa
Oldham
Oporto
Palermo
Paris (1881)
Plymouth
Portsmouth
Prague
Rheims
Riga
Rome (1881)
Rotterdam
Roubaix
Rouen
Salonica
Serai evo
Seville
Sheffield
St. Etienne
Stettin
Stockholm
Stoke
St. Petersburg
Strasbourg
Stuttgart
Sunderland
The Hague
Toulon
Toulouse
Trieste
Turin
Utrecht
Valencia
Venice
Vienna
Warsaw
Wolverhampton
ASIA.
Agra
Anmedabad
Aleppo
70,192
41,153
290,055
122,675
92,068
146,347
101,175
127,251
102,427
140,689
311,860
97,908
125,622
148,760
54,570
87,109
119,942
162,775
265,032
538,338
3,620,868
342,815
367,284
97,145
97,943
539,668
318,868
120,917
262,283
601,969
228,872
98,695
122,247
450,804
146.948
85,222
169,396
99,777
184,819
111,318
108,346
231,836
2,225,900
74,293
131,821
189.949
81,328
103,000
300,292
142,585
83,663
104,902
70.000
50.000
118,888
297,138
126,019
91,707
169,429
130,985
667,963
105,042
117,021
114,575
107,897
70,509
131,642
109,324
214,200
67,341
153,457
125,276
1,020,770
308,548
75,100
149,808
116,873
70,000
Allahabad
Amoy
Amritsur
Bagdad
Bangalore
Bangkok
Bareilly
Batavia
Benares
Beyroot
Bokhara
Bombay
Brusa
Cabool '
Calcutta
Candahar
Canton
Cawnpore
Changchow
Ching Kiang
Chingtow
Damascus
Delhi
Erzeroom
Foochow
Hang Chow
Herat
Hong Kong
Han-keoo
Hyderabad
Ispahan
Jerusalem
Kaiseriyeh
Kagosima
Kanagawa
Kioto
Kumamotu
Lassa
Lucknow
Macao
Madras
Mandelay
Manila
Mecca
Meshed
Muscat
Nagasaki
Nankin
Ningpo
Osaca
Patna
Pekin
Rangoon
Shanghai *
Shao Hing
Siangtan
Singan
Singapore
Smyrna
Soo Chow
Surat
Tabriz
Takao & Taiwan
Tashkend
Teheran
Tientsin
Tiflis
Tokio (Yeddo)
Trebizond
Wen Tchoo
Yank Chow
Yarkand
Yokohama
148,693
88,000
142,381
40.000
142,513
500.000
102,982
99,109
175,188
65.000
160.000
644.405
60.000
80,000
776,579
72.000
1,500,000
122,770
1,000,000
140.000
800.000
150.000
160,553
60.000
600.000
800,000
40.000
150.000
600.00
200.000
60,000
28,000
60,000
200,000
60,000
238,663
300.000
43.000
284,779
60.000
397,552
100.000
160,000
45.000
60.000
50.000
47,412
450.000
120.000
281,119
158,900
1,000,000
100,000
278.000
550.000
1,000,000
1,000,000
80,792
150.000
500.000
lO^ 149
x X)0
23c to
78,165
100.000
950.000
104,024
1,036,771
50.000
50.000
360.000
100.000
61,551
AFRICA.
Alexandria
Algiers
Cairo
Constantine
Fez
Khartum
Oran
Tunis
Zanzibar
165,752
52,702
327,462
39,823
150.000
35.000
40,674
128.000
80.000
AUSTRALIA.
Adelaide
Auckland
Ballarat
Brisbane
Christ Church
Dunedin
Geelong
Hobart Town
Melbourne
Sandhurst
Sydney
Wellington
31,573
24,772
35,086
32,012
20,043
*22,525
17,200
19,092
250,678
34,991
183,000
18,953
Entered according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1870, by WILSON, HINKLE & CO., in the Clerks Office of the District Court of the United States, for the Southern District of Ohio.
Copyright, 1877, by WILSON, HINKLE & CO. Copyright, 1881, by VAN ANTWERP, BRAGG & CO.
(81)


This volume is the third and.last of the Eclectic Series op Geographies, and lias been prepared with special regard
to the wants of the more advanced classes in our public and private schools.. It resembles the Intermediate Geography in
arrangement and treatment of topics, but differs from it in completeness and fullness of details.
The First Part contains an outline of Mathematical, Physical, and Political Geography. In this part will be found a
concise but thorough discussion of the distribution of heat, the alternation of the seasons, etc., subjects usually omitted, or
treated in an imperfect manner, in school geographies. They are so important, and are susceptible of such simple illustrations
and explanations, that no pupil should leave school without fully understanding them.
Although the text is clear and definite in statement, and the illustrations are presented in perspective, an artificial globe
will be a great help to teachers in explaining and demonstrating the principles of mathematical geography. Its use is
urgently recommended.
The description of the physical features and political divisions of the continents, in the Second Part, is as thorough
and complete as the scope and limits of a text-book will admit.
Especial care has been taken with the descriptions of the surface structure, or permanent forms of land areas. They are
believed to be accurate and complete. Surface structure determines the flow of water in rivers and its accumulation in
lakes. It also materially affects the climate and productions of a country, and determines, to some extent, the mode of life
of its inhabitants, the location of towns and cities, etc. This topic has heretofore been slighted, or treated illogically, in
geographical text-books. In this work, the surface features are delineated on the maps in accordance with the bold and
graphic system adopted in the Coast Surveys of the United States and in Europe. The author would express his obligations
to the publishers for their great liberality in employing the best artistic skill our country furnishes in the reproduction of
his designs. The representation of mountain topography is by far the most difficult and costly part of map engraving
hence, the imperfections, in this respect, of most school maps.
In the arrangement of subjects in each descriptive chapter, the same order has been followed as in the two preceding
books of the series.
The questions and map studies which precede each chapter are designed to assist the pupil in the study of the map:
the answers need not be committed to memory. They are so framed as to describe the object inquired for, and to direct the
attention of the pupil to the part of the map where the object and its name are to be found. This name is to be repeated
by the pupil, or to be made a part of a complete sentence containing the answer to the question propounded. The questions
which follow the different portions of the text require a description from the pupil, which he should be able to give from
memory. For example, the map questions are: What river empties into New York Bay? Where does this river rise?
What, tributary does it receive from the west? The pupil should answer: The Hudson River. In the Adirondack
Mountains. The Mohawk. The question on the text, referring to the same topic, is: What can you say of the Hudson
River? or, Describe the Hudson River. The pupil should answer: The Hudson River rises in the Adirondack Mountains,
flows south, and empties into New York Bay. It receives the Mohawk from the west.
Although the pupil may be able to answer all the map questions from memory, he should be required to refer to the map
while studying the descriptive text. Unless maps are intelligently and persistently studied and referred to, the acquisition
of sound geographical knowledge is an impossibility.
Geography is a science to be learned by observation and experience. It treats of objects, and not of names merely.
The existence, essential characteristics, and relative position of objects beyond ones own horizon, or limit of actual knowledge,
must be learned from maps and verbal descriptions. Satisfactory results can be obtained only by the use of a method which
furnishes the pupil with accurate maps, vivid, concise descriptions, and well-designed illustrations, and teaches him how to
study and use them, instead of burdening his memory with a mass of disconnected facts and an array of meaningless names.
The sincere thanks of the author are due to Thomas W. Harvey, Esq., of Painesville, Ohio, for able assistance rendered
in the preparation of this volume.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction,
5
PARTI. THE EARTH.
CHAPTER I. MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY.
Page PAGE
I. The Form of the Earth . 6 IV. The Earth and the Solar System, 8
II. The Horizon, 6 V. Day and Night, ...... 8
III. Lines and Circles upon the Earth 7 VI. The Seasons, 9
CHAPTER II. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
I. Land, Water, and Air, 11 VII. Inland Waters, . 'N 16
II. Distribution of Land and Water, .... 11 VIII. The Atmosphere, 17
III. The Land, 12 The Temperature, 17
IV. Volcanoes and Earthquakes, ..... 13 Winds, 18
V. The Sea, ......... 14 Moisture of the Atmosphere, . 19
VI. Form and Extent of the five Oceans, .... 15 IX. Plants and Animals, 19
CHAPTER III. POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY.
I. The Races, 22 V. Manner of Living, 24
II. Divisions of the Caucasian Race, .... 23 VI. Occupations, ...... 24
III. Languages, 23 VII. States and Governments, .... 26
IV. Religions, 24 Map Drawing, ...... 27
PART II. THE CONTINENTS.
North America, 31 Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies, 79
The United States, 34 South America, ....... 83
The New England States, 41 Europe, 89
The Middle States, 45 Wegtern Europe, a. ,: : 93
The South-Eastern States, ....... 51 Central Europe, i 97
The North Central StatesEast of the Mississippi, 55 Asia, . 101
The North Central StatesWest of the Mississippi, 61 Africa, ......... . 107
The South Central States, ... 65 Australia, ........ . 113
The Western States and Territories, ..... 69 General Review, ...... . 116
British America and Danish America, 75 Tables, . 117
MAPS.
Eastern and Western Hemispheres, 10
Northern and Southern Hemispheres, 12
Land and Water Hemispheres, 12
Volcanic Regions, . 14
Oceanic Currents, 15
Isothermal Lines, 18
Vegetation, ... 20
North America, ..... 30
The United States, .... between 33 and 34
The New England States, 40
The Middle States, .... 44
The South-Eastern States, 50
Australia* .
The North Central StatesEast of the Mississippi, 54
The North Central StatesWest of the Mississippi, 60
The South Central States, 64
The Western States and Territories, 68
The Dominion of Canada, 74
Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies, 78
South America, 82
Europe, 88
Western Europe, 92
Central Europe, 96

Africa, . 106
. 112


GEOGEAPHY.
Bay of Naples. Bay of New York.
INTRODUCTION.
Geography is a description of the earth and its inhabitants.
The science of Geography is divided into three branches:
(1) Mathematical Geography; (2) Physical Geography; (3)
Political Geography.
Mathematical Geography treats of the form, size, and mo-
tions of the earth, of its relations to other heavenly bodies,
of the alternations of day and night, and of the changes of
the seasons.
Physical Geography treats of the land, the water, the at-
mosphere, and of the organized beings which live upon the
earth.
Political Geography treats of men as inhabitants of the
earth, of the modes of life they lead, and of the forms of
government under which they live.
Questions.What is geography? Into what three branches is geogra-
phy divided?
Of what does Mathematical Geography treat? Physical Geography?
Political Geography ?
(5)


6
GEOGRAPHY.
PART I.
THE EARTH.
CHAPTER X.
MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY.
I. FORM OF THE EARTH.
1. The form of the earth is nearly that of a sphere, or globe.
A Sphere is a round body, like a ball, the surface of which
is every-where equally distant from the center.
The Diameter of a sphere is a line passing from one side,
through the center, to the opposite side.
A sphere has an infinite number of diameters, and they are all of
equal length.
2. The earth rotates, or turns upon one of its diameters.
The Axis is the diameter upon which the earth rotates.
The Poles are the two ends of the axis. The North Pole
is the northern end; the South Pole, the southern end.
3. A Spheroid is a sphere flattened at the poles. Our earth.
is a spheroid, its axis being its shortest diameter.
The figure shows the difference
between a sphere and a spheroid.
The shaded round body is a sphe-
roid. If it filled the circle repre-
sented by dotted lines, it would be
a sphere.
4. This flattening of the
earth at the poles, is called its
oblateness. It is so slight that,
for all practical purposes, the
earth may be called a perfect
sphere.
The earths axis is 7899
miles long. It is only 26J
miles shorter than the longest diameter.
5. The earth does not appear to have a curved surface, be-
cause we see so small a portion of it at one view. The fol-
lowing facts, however, prove that it is a spherical body:
I. When a ship sails from us, any where and in any direc-
tion, on the ocean, the hull first disappears from view, then
the lower parts of the masts, and at last their tops. This
would not be the case, if the surface of the water were not
curved. Hence, we conclude that the earth is round.
In the figure, a ship receding from a light-house on the shore, is shown
in four different positions. The dotted straight line is the spectators line
of sight; his horizon is at D, where this line touches the surface of the
water. When the ship is- beyond D, he can see only those parts of it
which are above this dotted line.
II. When the earth comes between the sun and the moon,
it casts a shadow upon the moon, causing an eclipse. Thii
shadow is always round. As a sphere is the only body that
always casts a round shadow, the earth must be nearly a
sphere.
6. That the earth is a spheroid, has been proved by careful
measurements upon its surface in different countries.
Questions.1. What is the form of the earth? What is a sphere?
The diameter of a sphere? 2. What is the axis of the earth? The poles?
The north pole? The south pole?3. What is a spheroid? What is the
real form of our earth?4. What is said of the oblateness of the earth?
How long is its axis ? How much shorter is it than the longest diame-
ter? 5. Why does the surface of the earth not appear curved? Give the
proofs that the earth is round.6. How do we know it is a spheroid?
II. THE HORIZON.
7. When we are on the sea, or on an extensive plain, where
our view is unobstructed, the portion of the earths surface
which we see is a circle. The circumference of this circle, or
the line which bounds our view, is called the Horizon.
8. Our horizon becomes larger and our view more extensive,
the higher we ascend above the earths surface.
Thus, when we stand upon a mountain, our horizon is larger than when
we stand in the midst of an open plain. From the deck of a ship, ten feet
above the water, the horizon is four miles distant, and incloses an area of
about 50 square miles. On Mount Washington, which is about 6300 feet
high, the horizon is 100 miles distant, and incloses an area of more than
9. The point in the hori-
zon which lies in the direc-
tion of the North Pole, is
the North; the opposite
point is the South. If we
face toward the north, we
have the East on our right
hand, and the West on our
left.
10. North, South, East,
and West, are called the
Cardinal Points. Between
them are the four other
points: North-east, South-east, North-west, and South-west
These are called the Semi-Cardinal Points.
N. P.
S. P.
A. Spheroid.
au,uuu square miles.
N


MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY.
7
11. The Compass is an in-
strument in common use, to
ascertain these points. It con-
sists of a circular box, con-
taining a Magnetic Needle
(A), supported in such a man-
ner that it swings freely upon
a pivot (c). One end of this
needle always points nearly to
the north; the other, to the
south. Knowing the direction
of these points, we can easily
determine that of the others.
Questions.7. Define horizon.8. What is said of the extent of the
horizon? How large is it on Mount Washington?9. Which point in the
horizon is North? Which South? East? West?10. What are North,
South, East, and West called? What other points lie between the Car-
dinal Points? What are they called?11. Describe a compass.
III. LINES AND CIRCLES UPON THE EARTH.
12. A number of circles are imagined to be drawn upon the
earth, for the purpose of describing the location of places on
These are either great
or small circles.
13. A great circle is
one that divides the earth
into two equal parts, call-
ed hemispheres, or half
spheres.
A small circle is one
that divides the earth into
two unequal parts.
The circumference of every
circle, whether great or small,
may be divided into 860 equal
parts, called degrees. In the annexed figure, the circumference is divided
into parts of ten degrees each. The degrees of large circles are of greater
length than those of small circles. Each degree is divided into 60 parts,
called minutes; and each minute, into 60 parts, called seconds.
14. The Equator is the circumference of a great circle,
passing around the globe, midway between the poles. It di-
vides the earth into a northern and a southern hemisphere.
15. Meridians are semi-circumferences of great circles, passing
from pole to pole. They intersect the equator at right angles.
In the figure, A B D is the
Equator; c F, c G, c H, c I,
and c k are Meridians; C is
the North Pole.
Two meridians upon op-
posite sides of the earth, form
the circumference of a great
circle which divides the earth
into two hemispheres.
16. One meridian is as-
sumed as the prime merid-
ian, and is designated by
zero (0); the others are num-
bered from 1 to 180 east and west of the prime meridian.
its surface.
360
The meridian which passes through the British observatory
at Greenwich, near London, is most frequently used as the
prime meridian.
17. The 180th meridian west and the 180th meridian east
of Greenwich coincide, and, together with the prime meridian
(0), form the circumference of a great circle.
18. The 20th meridian west and the 160th east of Green-
wich form the circumference of a great circle, which divides
the earth into an Eastern and a Western Hemisphere.
19. Parallels are the cir-
cumferences of small circles
passing around the earth par-
allel with the equator.
They are numbered froth
1 to 90, both north and south
of the equator. The equator
is the prime parallel, and is
designated, like the prime
meridian, by zero (0).
In the figure, ab, cd, and
ej are parallels.
20. The. Longitude of a place is the distance of its meridian
from the prime meridian.
Greenwich is in longitude zero (0); Washington is in 77
2' West Longitude.
29 14/ 35" E. L. is read 29 degrees 14 minutes and 35 seconds east
longitude.
21. The Latitude of a place is the distance of its parallel
from the equator.
The equator is in latitude zero (0); the poles are in lati-
tude 90.
63 15' 57" N. L. is read 63 degrees 15 minutes and 57 seconds north
latitude.
If we know the longitude and latitude of a place, we know
its exact position on the globe.
22. Longitude is measured upon the parallels and the
equator. The equator is nearly 25,000 miles long (24,899.022
miles). Hence, the length of one degree of longitude on the
equator is a little over 69 miles.
The length of the degrees of longitude decreases as we recede
from the equator, the parallels becoming smaller the nearer
we approach the poles.
Thus, on the 30th parallel, one degree of longitude is nearly sixty
miles long; on the 50th parallel, forty-four and a half miles; and on the
70th parallel, twenty-three and three-quarters miles.
23. Latitude is measured upon the meridians. The degrees
of latitude are of nearly equal length, being about 69 miles in
all parts of the earth.
A slight difference arises from the oblateness of the earth, which makes
the meridians ellipses.
On page 121, the pupil will find tables in which the lengths of degrees
of latitude and longitude are given in statute nliles.
24. The Tropics are parallels drawn 23J from the equator,
in both the northern and the southern hemisphere. The Tropic
of Caucer is the parallel of 23§- north latitude. The Tropic
of Capricorn is the parallel of 23south latitude.


8
GEOGRAPHY.
25. The Polar Circles
are parallels drawn 23J
from the poles. They are
the parallels of 66| north
and south latitude.
The Arctic Circle is
drawn 23J from the north
pole. The Antarctic Cir-
cle is drawn 23J from the
south pole.
26. These four parallels
and the equator divide the
earth into six Zones, or beltsthree in the northern hemi-
sphere and three in the southern. They are as follows:
(1) The Torrid zones lie between the equator and the
tropics. The north torrid zone extends from the equator to
the tropic of Cancer; the south torrid zone, from the equator
to the tropic of Capricorn.
(2) The Temperate zones lie between the tropics and the
polar circles. The north temperate zone extends from the tropic
of Cancer to the arctic circle; the south temperate zone, from
the tropic of Capricorn to the antarctic circle.
(3) The Frigid zones surround the poles, and are bounded
by the polar circles. The north frigid zone is bounded by the
arctic circle; the south frigid zone, by the antarctic circle.
Questions.12. What is said of the method of describing the loca-
tion of places on the earth?13. What is a great circle? A small circle?
How are the circumferences of circles divided?14. What is the equator?
How does it divide the earth ?
15. What are meridians?16. Which is the prime meridian? How are
the other meridians numbered?17. With what other meridian does the
prime meridian form the circumference of a great circle?18. What
meridians divide the earth into an eastern and a western hemisphere?
19. What are parallels? How are they numbered? What great circle
is the prime parallel?
20. What is longitude? What is the longitude of Washington?21.
What is latitude? In what latitude is the equator? In what latitude are
the poles?22. Upon what circles is longitude measured? How long is a
degree of longitude upon the equator? What is said of the degrees of
longitude upon the other parallels? 23. Upon what circles is latitude
measured ?
24. What are the tropics ? The tropic of Cancer ? The tropic of Capri-
corn?25. What are the polar circles? Which polar circle is in the
northern hemisphere? Which in the southern?
26. Into what do the equator, tropics, and polar circles divide the earth ?
How many zones are there in the northern hemisphere ? In the southern ?
Name the three zones in each hemisphere. How are they bounded?
IY. THE EARTH ANT) THE SOLAR SYSTEM.
27. The Sun is an immense globe, composed of fluid molten
matter, surrounded by an intensely hot atmosphere.
It is supposed that the innumerable stars we see in the sky, are bodies
resembling our sun in substance and condition.
28. A number of smaller heavenly bodies revolve around
the sun, and, being themselves dark and cold, receive their
light and heat from it.
29. These smaller bodies are called Planets. Over one hun-
dred and fifty have been discovered. Eight of these are very
much larger than the others. Our earth is one of these eight
planets.
30. The eight principal planets, in the order of their dis-
tances fr6m the sun, are: (1) Mercury; (2) Venus; (3) Earth;
(4) Mars; (5) Jupiter; (6) Saturn; (7) Uranus; and (8) Neptune.
31. Several of the planets have moons, or satellites, which
revolve around them. The earth has one moon, Jupiter four
moons, Saturn eight, Uranus four, and Neptune one.
The Solar System consists of the sun, the planets, and the
moons which revolve around the planets.
32. The planets have two movements. They rotate upon
their axes, and revolve around the sun.
The orbit of a planet is its path around the sun.
The orbits of the planets are nearly circular, and are nearly
all in the same plane.
This figure shows the sun in the center, and the orbits of the planets
in their relative distances from the sun. (1) Mercury; (2) Venus; (3)
the Earth; (4) Mars; (5) Jupiter; (6) Saturn; (7) Uranus; (8) Neptune.
The sun is 738 times larger than all the planets and moons
taken together.
33. Comets are heavenly bodies, consisting of- very rare,
nebulous matter.
Their orbits are elongated curves, or ellipses (see the figure).
Some comets visit the solar system from the distant regions of
space, while others complete their revolutions around the sun
within the orbit of Neptune.
V. DAY AND NIGHT.
34. As the earth is a spherical body, one-half of its surface
receives light from the sun, while the other half is in dark-
ness. It is day in the part turned toward the sun; Iligllt, in
the part turned from the sun.
35. The earth rotates from west to east once during a day
of twenty-four hours. This is the cause of the suns appear-
I ing to rise in the east, to stand at noon directly over the


MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY.
9
meridian, and to set in the west. In other words, the sun
appears to pass from the eastern horizon to the western.
36. The sun rotates on its own axis, but it is stationary as
regards the earth, and this revolution is only apparent. It is
the earth that moves.
Questions. 27. What is the sun?28. What revolve around the
sun?29. What are planets?30. Name the eight principal planets.
31. Which planets are accompanied by moons? What is the solar sys-
tem?32. What two movements have the planets? What is the orbit
of a planet? 33. What are comets?
34. What causes day and night?35. In how many hours does the
earth rotate once upon its axis? Of what is this the cause?36. What
is said of the motion of the sun?
VI. THE SEASONS.
37. The Ecliptic is the plane of the earths orbit. If we
could stretch a sheet from the sun to the earths orbit, this
sheet would represent the ecliptic.
38. The earth completes its journey around the sun in a
year of 365J days.
39. The earths axis is not perpendicular to the ecliptic;
but makes an angle with it of 66-J degrees. This is called
the obliquity of the earths axis.
This obliquity, together with the revolution of the earth
around the sun, causes the changes of the seasons.
The shaded plane in this figure represents a part of the ecliptic, a b
is the equator; cd and ef are the tropics; and <) h and ik, the polar
circles. It will be seen that the earths axis inclines toward it in such a
manner that one-half of the equator is above the ecliptic, and the other
half below. It will also be seen that both tropics touch the ecliptic.
40. On the 21st of June, the north pole is turned toward the
sun, the south pole is turned from it, and the suns rays fall
perpendicularly upon the tropic of Cancer. It is then summer
in the northern hemisphere, and winter in the southern.
On the 22d of September, the suns rays reach the two
poles, and fall perpendicularly on the equator. It is then fall
in the northern hemisphere, and spring in the southern.
On the 21st of December, the north pole is turned from the
sun, the south pole toward it, and the suns rays fall perpen-
dicularly upon the tropic of Capricorn. It is then winter in
the northern hemisphere, and summer in the southern.
On the 20th of March, the position of the earth is again as
it was in September, and the suns rays, reach both poles. It
is then spring in the northern hemisphere, and fall in the
southern.
The Seasons.
41. During the summer, the sun is much longer above the
horizon than below it; in other words, the days are longer than
the nights. Moreover, the sun shines more directly upon that
hemisphere which has summer than upon that which has win-
ter. Hence, the summers are warmer than the winters.
42. On the equator, the days and nights are always of equal
length, being twelve hours each.
In 41 24 latitude (north as well as south), the longest day
| lasts 15 hours; the shortest, but nine.
In 66 32/, the longest day lasts twenty-four hours.
At the poles, there is but one day in summer, and one night
in winter, each being six months long.
Questions.37. What is the ecliptic?38. In what time does the
earth complete one revolution around the sun? 39. What produces the
change of seasons? What is the position of the equator in regard to the
ecliptic? What two small circles just touch the ecliptic?
40. Describe the position of the earth, with reference to the sun, on the
21st of June. What seasons then in the northern and southern hemi-
spheres? Describe the earths position on the 22d of September. What
seasons then in the northern and southern hemispheres ? Describe the
position of the earth on the 20th of March. What seasons then in the
two hemispheres?
41. What is said of the length of days and nights in the summer? Why
are the summers warmer than the winters?42. What is the duration of
the longest day on the equator? At the poles?
Miscellaneous Questions.Which is farther from the earths center,
the equator or the poles? Why? What is the direction of the equator and
the parallels? What is the direction of the meridians? What is the dif-
ference of longitude between a place on the 15th meridian west and an-
other place on the 137th meridian west? What is the difference between
a place on the 37th meridian east and another place on the 99th meridian
east? What is the difference between a place on the 17th meridian east
and another place on the 78th meridian west? What is the difference of
latitude between a place on the 19th parallel north and another place on
the 87th parallel north? What is the difference between a place on the
23d parallel south and another place on the 73d parallel north?
What season prevails in Rio Janeiro when it is summer in New York?
In what season is it Christmas at Melbourne, Australia?


H V Tlr ^ .
^ v.'SlS,'tILe-MLs *>


PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
n
CHAPTER II.
*
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
I. LAND, WATER, AND AIR.
43. The earth consists of land and water, and is sur-
rounded by the air, or the atmosphere.
44. The land is composed of the solid parts of the earth,
such as sand, clay, rocks, soil, etc. Its surface consists of
elevations and depressions. The largest depressions are filled
with water, and are called Oceans. The elevations rise above
the water, and form the dry land.
45. If there were no elevations on the earth, it would be
covered by water to the depth of about 10,000 feet, and there
would be no dry land.
46. We know little of the interior of the earth; for the
greatest depth hitherto reached from the surface' is about
4,194 feet. It has been observed that the temperature in-
creases, as we descend, at the rate of about one degree for
every fifty feet.
47. If the temperature continues to increase, at the same
rate, it must, at moderate depths, be sufficient to fuse all
known substances. Hence some infer that the interior of the
earth is a molten mass. The solid crust, which surrounds
it, is estimated to be from fifty to several hundred miles thick.
The figure represents a
section of the earth, and
shows the arrangement of
the different parts of which
it is composed. I is the
molten interior; C, the solid
crust; W, the water; and A,
the atmosphere.
48. The air and the water
are constantly wearing away
and breaking down the solid
rocks. This action, contin-
ued through many ages, has
formed the loose earth of which the different soils are com-
posed.
Questions. 43. Of what does the earth consist? By what is it sur-
rounded?44. Of what is the land composed? What is said of the sur-
face? How are the oceans formed? The dry land?45. What would be
the condition of the earth, if there were no elevations?
46. What is said of the interior of the earth? At what rate does the
temperature' increase as we descend?47. AVhat is supposed to be the
condition of the earths'interior? Explain the figure. 48. How are the
soils formed?
II. DISTRIBUTION OF LAND AND WATER.
49. Three-fourths of the earths surface are water, and one-
fourth is land. The parts covered with water form one con-
tinuous water area, the Sea. The land is distributed in many
separate areas.
50. These land areas are unequal in size. Some are very
large; others, very small. The three largest land areas are
called Continents; the others, Islands.
51. The three continents are: (1) the Eastern; (2) the West-
ern; (3) the Australian.
The Eastern Continent is the largest. It contains more
than half of all the land on the globe. Its greatest extent
is from north-east to south-west.
The Western Continent is about half as large as the East-
ern. Its greatest extent is from north-west to south-east.
The Australian Continent is the smallest. It contains less
than one-tenth of the land on the earths surface.
Extensive tracts of land have been discovered which surround the south
pole. It is not known whether they consist of islands, or whether they
form a continuous body of land large enough to be called a continent.
52. The Eastern Continent comprises three grand divisions:
Europe, Asia, and Africa. The Western comprises two:
North America and South America. The Australian Con-
tinent includes but *one grand division: Australia.
53. The Islands, taken together, contain only about one-
sixteenth part of the land.
They are divided into two classes: Continental and Oceanic
Islands. Continental Islands lie near the continents, and ap-
pear as detached portions of them. Oceanic Islands lie in
mid ocean.
The' term continent is often applied to the main land of a grand di-
vision, as distinct from the adjoining islands. We thus speak of the con-
tinent of Europe and the islands of Europe, which together make up the
grand division of Europe.
54. The sea is divided by the continents into five Oceans.
The Arctic Ocean surrounds the north pole.
The Antarctic Ocean surrounds the south pole.
The Atlantic and Pacific Oceans extend from -north to
south, and join the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans.
The Indian Ocean lies south of Asia, east of Africa, and
*
north of the Antarctic Ocean.
The map of the Eastern and Western Hemispheres shows the distribu-
tion of land and water on the surface of the globe, and the position of
the continents and oceans.
55. Upon the Western Hemisphere lie two grand divisions:
North and South America: upon the Eastern, four: Europe,
Africa, Asia, and Australia.
The Eastern Hemisphere contains more than twice as much
land as the Western.
56. The Eastern and Western Continents widen toward the
north pole. Their north sides reach far beyond the Arctic
Circle. They gradually become narrower toward the south,
and terminate in the two points, Cape of Good Hope and
Cape Horn, neither of which reaches into the frigid zone.
57. Three-fourths of the land are in the Northern Hemi-
sphere ; one-fourth is in the Southern.
Sch.2.


i
12
GEOGRAPHY.
The Northern Hemisphere contains the three northern grand
divisions, Europe, Asia, and North America; also large parts
of Africa and South America.
*
The Southern Hemisphere contains the tapering ends of
Africa and South America, and all of Australia.
^<0
Northern and Southern Hemispheres,
58. It will be seen that the greatest mass of land lies in
a north-eastern hemisphere, called the Land Hemisphere; the
greatest mass of water, in a south-western hemisphere, called
the Water Hemisphere.
59. The center of the Land Hemisphere is in the North Sea,
between England, Germany, and France. The center of the
Water Hemisphere is near the island of New Zealand.
60. Thus, the great bodies of land lie around the Arctic
and Atlantic Oceans, inclosing them in the form of an irreg-
ular ring. The Antarctic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans form
but one body of water, which washes the outer margin of this
ring of land.
Questions.49. What is the proportion of land to water on the earths
surface? What is said of their distribution?50. What land areas are
called continents? What are called islands?51. How many continents
are there? Which is the largest? The next in size? The smallest? In
what direction does the greatest extent of the eastern continent lie? Of the
western? What is said of the Australian continent?
52. What grand divisions are comprised in the eastern continent? In
the western? In the Australian?53. How large a portion of the land
do the islands contain? Name the two classes of islands.
54. Into how many oceans is the water area of the earth divided?
Name them. Describe, from the map, the situation of the Arctic Ocean.
Of the Antarctic Ocean. Of the Atlantic. Of the Pacific. Of the Indian.
State the land boundaries of each of the oceans. What is said of the map
of the eastern and western hemispheres?55. What .grand divisions lie on
the western hemisphere? What grand divisions on the eastern? How
much more land does the eastern hemisphere contain than the western?
56. What observation is made on the eastern and the western conti-
nents? With what cape does the eastern terminate in the south? With
what cape the western?
57. How much more land is there in the northern than in the southern
hemisphere? Name, from the map, the land areas in the northern hemi-
sphere. In the southern.
58. What is the land hemisphere? What is the water hemisphere?
59. Where is the center of the first? Of the second?60. In what shape
do the bodies of land lie on the land hemisphere? What two oceans
do they inclose? What oceans surround the outside of the land ring?
III. THE LAND.
61. In studying the bodies of land, we must pay attention,
(1) to their horizontal shape; and (2) to their surface, or
forms of relief.
62. The horizontal shape of a continent, or of an island, is
determined by its shore, or coast line. This is the line
where land and water meet.
63. It is almost every-where a curved line. The curves of
the shore determine the forms of the land and water. These
have received different names.
64. A Gulf, Bay, Bight, or Inlet, is a part of the water
which extends into the land.
A Peninsula is a portion of land which projects from the
main body, and is nearly surrounded by water.
65. A Strait is a narrow passage of water which connects
two larger bodies of water.
An Isthmus is a narrow neck of land which connects two
larger bodies of land.
A Cape is a point of land projecting into the water. A
high and rocky cape is called a Promontory.
66. Comparing the six grand divisions, with respect to their
shore-line features, it will be seen that the three northern
Europe, Asia, and North Americaare deeply indented by
gulfs and bays, and have many peninsulas; while the three
southern Africa, Australia, and South America-have but
few indentations or projections.
One-fourth of Europe, one-fifth of Asia, and one-fourteenth of North
America consist of Peninsulas.
67. Australia is the smallest grand division; Asia, the
largest. Europe is a little larger than Australia; North and
South America are each more than twice as large; Africa is
more than three times, and Asia nearly five times as large.
68. The forms of relief of the land areas include, (1) low
plains; (2) plateaus, or table-lands; and (3) mountains.
69. Low plains are extensive tracts of land lying but little
above the level of the sea. Usually, they are less than 1000 feet
high.
70. There are on every grand division several extensive low
plains. In North America, there is the Plain of the Missis-
sippi; in South America, that of the Amazon, Orinoco, and
La Plata Rivers; in Asia, the great Siberian Plain; and in
Europe, the great Russian Plain.
71. Plateaus, or Table-lands, are extensive tracts which
are more than 1000 feet in height. The surface of plateaus
and low plains is frequently diversified by undulations and
ranges of hills.
Where the surface rises gradually, there is no real limit between a
plateau and a low plain. If we travel westward from the Mississippi River,


PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
13
the ground rises so gently that we pass from the low plain to the plateau
without being aware that we have reached so great an elevation as
1000 feet.
72. The great plateaus of the earth lie near the principal
mountain systems, or occupy regions between distant chains.
The plateau of Thibet, extending along the northern base of the Hima-
laya Mountains, is, in some parts, over 15,000 feet high, being the highest
in the world.
The great interior plateau of North America, between the Rocky Mount-
ains and the Sierra Nevada, varies from 4000 to 7000 feet in height.
Europe has but few plateaus, and none of them are extensive; while
Africa is almost entirely occupied by one of moderate height.
Mountains have the form either of single peaks, as
Mont Blanc and Mount Washington, or of long chains or
ranges.
The Summit is the highest point of. a mountain. The
Base, or Foot, is the line where the ascent commences. The
Slopes are the sides, from the top to the base.
74. The Crest is the line along the top of a range. Peaks
are its highest points. Passes are cuts or depressions in a
crest. Roads leading from one side of a mountain chain to
the other, usually cross over such passes.
The Spanish terms Sierra and Cordillera for mountain range, and
Cerro for peak, are of frequent occurrence.
75. A Mountain System consists of several mountain
ranges, which pass across a country near together.
Thus, the Apalachian Mountains, the Rocky Mountains, the Andes, and
others, consist each of many chains, and are mountain systems.
76. Valleys are the depressions between mountain chains
of the same system.
77. Each of the grand divisions has several mountain sys-
tems, and in each grand division there is one system which
greatly exceeds the others in extent and elevation.
78. The highest mountain system of Asia, and the highest
in the world, is the Himalaya. It has peaks more than
29,000 feet, or five and a half miles, in elevation; as, Mount
Everest. The highest system of South America is that of
the Andes, which ranks next to the Himalaya; of North
America, the Rocky Mountains; and of Europe, the Alps.
79. It is an interesting fact that the highest mountain sys-
tem in each grand division rises near the Pacific or the Indian
ocean, while the great plains border on the Atlantic or the
Arctic ocean.
80. On the maps of this book, the mountains are represented
by a shading of their slopes with a brown color; the low plains,
by a uniform brown tint; while the plateaus and highlands arc
left white.
The study of the forms of relief, though not so easy as that of the shore
lines, is of equal or even greater importance; for upon these depend to a
great extent the character of a country and the part it has played in the
worlds history. The system of representing mountains, etc., used in the
maps of this series, is more fully explained on page 29, paragraph 5.
Questions. 61. To what must we pay attention in studying the land
areas of the globe?62. What is meant by shore or coast line? 63. What
is said of the coast line? 64. Define Gulf, Bay, Bight, or Inlet. Define
Peninsula.65. Define Strait. Isthmus. Cape.
66. How do the three northern grand divisions compare with the three
southern, as regards their shore-line features?67. Which is the largest
grand division? The smallest? Name the others in the order of their size.
68. What are the forms of relief of the land areas?69. What are low
plains?70. Name a great low plain in North America. In Asia. In
Europe. In South America.
71. What are plateaus, or table-lands?72. Where do the great plateaus
of the earth lie?
78. What two forms have mountains? What is the summit of a mount-
ain? The foot, or base? The slopes?74. What is a crest? A pass?
75. What is a mountain system?76. What are valleys?77. What is said
of the mountain systems of the grand divisions?78. Name the highest
mountain system of Asia. Name its highest peaks, from the profile on
map of hemispheres. Name the highest system, and some of its peaks, in
South America. In North America. In Europe.
79. What interesting fact is mentioned? 80. How are mountains,
plateaus, and low plains represented?
IV. VOLCANOES AND EARTHQUAKES.
81. A Volcano is a mountain with a bowl-shaped depres-
sion, or Grater, on its summit or side, from which issue smoke,
ashes, cinders, and molten
rock, called lava.
The figure represents a
section of a volcano. From
the crater a passage leads
down to the interior of the
earth.
Most volcanoes have in-
tervals of rest, during which
only smoke and corrosive vapors issue from their craters.
82. When an eruption occurs, great quantities of ashes, sharp,
black sand, and half-melted stones, of various sizes, are thrown
into the air, and fall upon the surrounding country. The ashes
are sometimes carried to great distances by upper currents of
air. A column of fire and smoke, surmounted by a dark cloud,
rises to a great height above the crater. This-is dark by day,
but brilliantly lighted up at night by flames and great masses
of red-hot stones. The lava rises until it fills the crater, over-
flows its rim, and runs down the mountain side, destroying
every thing in its course.
An Eruption.
83. One of the most famous volcanoes is Mount Vesuvius,
near Naples, in Southern Italy. Its earliest known eruption
took place in the year 79 after Christ. The ashes, cinders,


14
GEOGRAPHY.
and lava then ejected completely buried the three flourishing
cities, Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Stabise.
Pompeii was not destroyed, but enveloped in ashes and cinders, and then
covered by a layer of lava. During the last century, its site was discovered,
excavations were made, and the volcanic substances removed from many of
its streets and buildings. Paintings, statues, domestic utensils, etc., were
found in an excellent state of preservation, although they had been buried
for more than 1600 years.
Since that terrific eruption, many others have occurred; one lasting from
November, 1867, till January, 1868. Eye-witnesses describe the phenom-
ena as grand and sublime. An immense cloud of smoke, lit up at night
by flames issuing from the crater, rose far above the summit of the vol-
cano. Red hot rocks were thrown out with great force, to the height of
several thousand feet. At last a stream of lava overflowed the craters
margin, and poured down the sides of the mountain, enveloping it in a
sheet of liquid fire. Thousands of people crowded the streets of Naples
to witness this sublime spectacle.
84. Vesuvius is but little more than 4000 feet in height, and
its crater is not very large. There are many volcanoes of much
grander dimensions. Aconcagua, Tupungato, and others, in the
Andes, lift their summits to a height of more than 20,000 feet.
Their craters, always overtopped by columns of smoke, are
covered with perpetual snow, while palms and other tropical
plants grow at their base.
85. The largest crater in the world is that of Kilauea, on
Hawaii, one of the Sandwich Islands. It is a pit, or amphi-
theater, seven and a half miles in circuit. Pools of liquid
lava, at the bottom of this pit, may always be seen from the
brink. Sometimes the lava rises and fills the entire crater,
which then resembles a great fiery lake.
86. There are about 400 active volcanoes in the world.
They stand, without exception, near the coasts of the sea, or
on islands. The Pacific Ocean is almost surrounded by vol-
canoes. There is also a large number upon its numerous
islands. Probably 350 volcanoes belong to the Pacific.
Map of Volcanoes.
On this Map are represented the principal volcanic regions
of the globe.
Extinct volcanoes are those which are no longer active.
They are very numerous, showing that the volcanic activity
of the earth was much greater in former ages than now.
They are known to have been active volcanoes, in former
ages, by their regular conical shape and the vestiges of craters
on their summits.
87. Earthquakes are vibrations, or tremblings of the
earths crust, caused by a wave-like movement of the fluid
interior. They occur most frequently in the neighborhood of
active volcanoes. No region, however, is entirely exempt
from them.
88. Earthquakes differ much in force. Some merely shake
the ground; others lift up the earth several times in quick
succession. They are very destructive in their effects.
One of the most terrible earthquakes known was that of Lisbon, in 1755.
It. lasted but six minutes. A few shocks, preceded by a noise resembling
distant thunder, sufficed to lay in ruins nearly all the buildings of this
large city, and to destroy over 60,000 human beings.
During the great earthquake of August, 1868, m South America, the
Andes were shaken from Columbia to Chili; many cities and towns
were suddenly laid in ruins, and the loss of life is estimated at from 30,000
to 60,000. The center of this earthquake was at Arica, from which port
it extended north and south. During the shocks, which were repeated
for several days at Arica, the earth moved like a tempestuous sea, and
the houses were shaken to their foundations. Several tremendous waves,
rushing in from the sea, overwhelmed the already half-destroyed city.
Questions.81. What is a volcano? What is a crater?82. Describe
an eruption.83. What celebrated volcano near Naples? When did its
earliest known eruption occur? What cities were buried during that erup-
tion?84. How high is Vesuvius? Name some of the high volcanoes in
South America. 85. Describe the crater of Kilauea.
86. How many active volcanoes are there on the earth? Where are
they ? Around what ocean are most of the volcanoes situated ? What are
extinct volcanoes ? '
87. What are earthquakes?88. In what do earthquakes differ?
V. THE SEA.
Storm at Sea.
89. The Sea is the general name given to the great body
of water which surrounds the continents and islands.
Its surface conforms to the shape of the earth. From this
surface, or sea level, all heights are measured. As the amount of
water on the earth is always the same, this level never changes.
90. The bottom of the ocean, like the surface of the land,
is diversified by mountains, plateaus, plains, and valleys.
Hence the depth varies greatly in different localities. In the
North Atlantic, a depth of 23,000 feet (more than four miles)
has been measured. The greatest measured depth of the Pacific
Ocean is a little over five miles.
91. The water of the sea is salt and bitter, and therefore
not drinkable. In a hundred pounds of sea-water there are


PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
15
dissolved about three and a half pounds of solid matter, con- f
sisting of common salt, magnesia, lime, and other substances;
but salt greatly predominates.
92. The sea is subject to three movements: waves, tides,
and currents.
Waves are produced by the wind, and vary in height with
its force. During storms and violent gales, the waves in the
open sea are sometimes more than forty feet high.
The force of high waves is tremendous. It has been estimated that, in
a severe storm, the waves beat against the rock-bound coasts of western
Scotland with a force of 6000 pounds to the square foot.
93. The Tides are a regular rising and falling of the sea.
They are caused by the attraction of the sun and the moon.
The rising is called the flood tide; the falling, the ebb tide.
The flood tide resembles a gently swelling wave of enormous extent, fol-
lowing the .moon in its revolution around the earth.
94. In the open sea, as observed on the shores of islands,
its height is but three feet; but when the tidal wave strikes
against a continent or passes into bays, it rises much higher.
At Boston, the flood rises ten feet; at the entrance of the Bay of Fundy,
eighteen feet; and at the head of this bay, seventy-five feet.
95. Oceanic Currents are great streams which traverse the
sea in certain directions.
The best known of these currents is the Gulf Stream.
It passes through the Strait of Florida, follows the coast of
our country as far as Cape Hatteras, then crosses the Atlantic
to Scotland and Norway, and, passing around North Cape,
terminates in the Arctic Ocean.
96. It is more than fifty miles wide in its narrowest place,
and flows with a velocity of about five miles an hour. As it
carries the heated waters of the Gulf of Mexico, which have a
temperature of 86 Fahrenheit, to the shores of Europe, its
influence upon the climate of that grand division is very great.
Without the Gulf Stream, Scotland and Norway would have
as cold a climate as that of Labrador.
97. This stream is an extension of the great Equatorial
Current, which flows from the Gulf of Guinea to America,
passes through the Caribbean Sea, and then makes the circuit
of the Gulf of Mexico, from which it receives its name of
Gulf Stream.
If an empty but well-closed bottle be dropped at the equator, west of
Africa, it will float westward to South America. Here it will probably
pass along the northern shores, through the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of
Mexico, and the Strait of Florida. It will then cross the Atlantic, and
many months after it was dropped into the sea, it may be picked up on
the western coast of Ireland, Scotland, or Norway.
98. The water thus continually transferred from the African
to the American coast is replaced by the Antarctic Current,
which sets into the Atlantic from the Antarctic Ocean.
99. In the Pacific Ocean, there are three currents, which
correspond very nearly to those of the Atlantic: a current
from the Antarctic Ocean, the Peruvian; an Equatorial;
and the Japan Current, the Gulf Stream of the Pacific.
The principal currents are represented on the map.
100. As these currents carry the cold water of the Arctic
and Antarctic oceans to the equator, or the hot water of the
tropics to the higher northern latitudes, they have a very
great influence upon the climate of the coasts along which
they flow.
Map of Oceanic Currents.
101. All of these currents are of great importance in navi-
gation, as they either accelerate or retard the passage of vessels.
Questions. 89. What is said of the surface of the sea? 90. How is
the bottom of the sea diversified? What depth has been measured in the
Atlantic? What is the estimated depth of the Pacific?
91. What is said of the water of the sea? How many pounds of solid
matter are dissolved in 100 pounds of sea-water? What substance pre-
dominates?
92. What three motions has the sea? What produces waves? 93. What
are the tides? What produces them? What is the flood tide? The ebb
tide?94. How high does the flood tide rise in the open sea? At Boston?
At the entrance of the Bay of Fundy? At the head of this bay?
95. What are oceanic currents? Describe the course of the Gulf Stream.
(See the map.)96. How wide is it in the narrowest place? With what
velocity does it flow ? What is its influence upon the climate of western
Europe?97. Of what other current is the Gulf Stream the extension?
Describe, from the map, the course of the equatorial current. 98. By
what current is the water replaced on the western coast of Africa?99.
Name the three great currents in the Pacific Ocean. Which of these cor-
responds to the Gulf Stream?
100. How do the ocean currents influence climate?101. In what way
are they important to navigation?
YI. FORM AND EXTENT OF THE FIVE OCEANS.
102. The Arctic is the smallest of the five oceans, and con-
tains but one-thirty-fifth of the water area on the earths sur-
face. It is bounded by the northern shores of Europe, Asia,
and America, and by the arctic circle, which forms the bound-
ary between it and the Atlantic.
It is connected with the Pacific Ocean by Behring Strait.
103. The Antarctic Ocean contains about one-twentieth of
the earths water area. It has no land boundary, as it forms
but one ocean with the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans.
The antarctic circle is assumed as its northern limit.
104. The Atlantic Ocean contains one-fourth of the water
surface, and extends from north to south between the Arctic
and Antarctic oceans. Its shape is that of a valley, or trough,
with nearly parallel sides, as will be seen by comparing the
direction of its eastern with that of its western shores.
The southern part is without important gulfs, while the
northern deeply indents the continents whose shores it washes.


16
GEOGRAPHY.
In the west, there are the Caribbean sea, the Gulf of Mex-
ico, and Hudson Bay; in the east, the Mediterranean and the
North seas, with their numerous inlets.
105. The Pacific Ocean comprises one-half of the earths
water surface, and extends from Behring Strait to the Antarctic
circle. Its greatest width is at the equator, where it meas-
ures over 10,000 miles.
The eastern, or American shores are very uniform, having
but one gulf of any magnitude the Gulf of California. The
western shores are diversified by a series of seas, hemmed
in by island chains and peninsulas. They are Behring Sea,
the seas of Ochotsk and Japan, the Yellow Sea, and the
China Sea.
The equatorial portion of this ocean abounds in islands.
106. The Indian Ocean lies north of the antarctic circle,
and south of Asia. It comprises less than one-fifth of the
earths water surface. It has land boundaries on three sides:
Australia on the east, Asia on the north, and Africa on
the west.
It is separated from the Atlantic by the meridian of the
Cape of Good Hope; from the Pacific, by that of Tasmania.
The Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea, and the Red Sea ex-
tend from its northern side.
Questions. 102. Which is the smallest of the five oceans? How
is it bounded? With what two oceans is it connected?
103. Has the Antarctic Ocean land boundaries? What is its northern
limit?
104. What parallel forms the northern boundary of the Atlantic Ocean?
The southern boundary? What continent on the west? On the east?
What is the shape of this ocean? What part of it is distinguished for
its important bays and peninsulas? Mention those on the American side.
On the European.
105. What is said of the size of the Pacific Ocean ? What is its width
at the equator? What gulf on its eastern shore? What five seas on its
western shore? What is said of its equatorial portion?
106. What grand divisions bound the Indian Ocean ? What meridian
separates it from the Atlantic Ocean ? From the Pacific Ocean ? Name
three great gulfs upon its northern side.
VII. INLAND WATERS.
107. Bodies of water upon the surface of continents and
islands are called Inland Waters. Three kinds may be dis-
tinguished: springs, rivers, and lakes.
108. A Spring issues from the ground, and forms a brook.
As this flows along, it receives the waters of many other
brooks, grows deeper and wider, and becomes a creek.
109. A River is a large stream of water, flowing in a chan-
nel. It is formed by the union of a number of brooks and
creeks, and differs from them only in size.
Many thousands of springs, brooks, and creeks must pour their waters
into one great channel to form such a river as the Mississippi or the
Amazon.
The Mouth of a river is the place where it empties into
another body of water, whether this be a river, a lake, or an
ocean.
The Source of a river is one of its springs; usually that
which is farthest from the mouth.
Tributaries are the rivers, creeks, and brooks which empty
into another river.
110. A River System is the entire net-work formed by a
river and its tributaries. The Basin of a river system is the
region which it drains. A river system is said to drain
its basin, because it carries oflf the surplus water which falls
on it in the form of rain or snow.
111. A Water-shed is the high land which separates one
river system from another.
This is sometimes the crest of a mountain range, but quite
as frequently a gentle swell of the ground in a low plain.
A Spring.
112. Springs derive their supplies of water from the rain
which falls from the clouds. Water evaporates, or is taken up
by the air, over the entire surface of the sea, but most rap-
idly in the hot equatorial regions. The winds carry it over
the land, where it forms clouds, and descends as rain, snow,
or mist.
Thus the water of the earth is continually traveling from the sea,
through the air, to the land, and thence back again to the sea, impart-
ing, on its circuitous way, life to plants and fertility to the soil.
113. The Course of a river is the direction in which it
flows. In studying a river, we must particularly note its
course.
The Bed of a river is the depression in the ground which
is filled by the water.
114. As water always seeks the lowest level, the source of
a river is always higher than its mouth.
The difference of height between the source and the mouth
is great in some rivers, and small in others.
Lake Itasca, the source of the Mississippi, is only 1575 feet above the
level of the sea. The source of the Orinoco, a much shorter river than
the Mississippi, is 5328 feet above this level.
115. The velocity with which a river flows depends upon
the difference of level between its mouth and its source. It
varies greatly in different parts of a rivers course, and is
always greater in the upper part than in the lower.
116. The navigability of a river depends upon its depth
and its velocity. Large and deep rivers, with uniform and
gentle currents, are navigable.


PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
17
The abundance of such streams in our country, has greatly contributed
to its rapid growth in wealth and prosperity.
117. Rapids are waters flowing with great velocity down
steep slopes or declivities. Cataracts, or falls, are waters
falling over perpendicular precipices.
The most celebrated waterfall in the world is that of Niagara. The
Niagara River flows from Late Erie into Lake Ontario. About the middle
of its course, it leaps over a precipice. Ooat Island divides it into the
American and the Canadian falls. The former descends 162 feet; the
latter, 149 feet; and both falls together present a mass of falling water
nearly a mile in width.
118. An Estuary is an open mouth of a river, resembling
a bay, where the tide meets the current.
A Delta is a tract of low
and level land, included be-
tween the mouths of a fiver.
Deltas are made of the solid
matter brought down by riv-
ers, and deposited at their
mouths. The Mississippi, the
Nile, the Rhine, and other
rivers, have large deltas.
119. Lakes are bodies of
water which fill depressions
in the surface of the land.
Delta of the wile. They receive their supplies
of water from the rivers and
creeks which empty into them. They are sometimes found
in mountainous districts, and sometimes on plateaus and low
plains. Those situated in mountainous regions are usually
small, but very deep.
Deep lakes abound in the European Alps. Being surrounded by snow-
covered peaks, they are justly famous for their picturesque scenery. The
Lake of Como is nearly 2000 feet deep; Lake Geneva, over 1000 feet deep.
The great American lakes contain more than half of the entire amount
of fresh water on the globe.
120.. There are lakes and rivers which have no outlet to the
sea. They are usually situated on arid steppes and plateaus.
Their surplus water is carried off into the atmosphere by
evaporation.
121. When water evaporates, it leaves all solid substances
behind. Hence rain or snow water is quite pure, or fresh.
If a quantity of salt be dissolved in a vessel of water, and the solution
heated, the water will evaporate, leaving the salt in the vessel.
122. The water in most springs, lakes, and rivers is fresh;
but, as rain water dissolves many substances in filtering
through the soil, spring water is never perfectly pure, though
its impurities can rarely be detected by the taste.
Lakes with no outlets are usually salt. They have become
so from the accumulation of impurities carried into them by
rivers.
The Caspian Sea has no outlet. Its water is salt. Its area
is one-third larger than that of the great American lakes.
East of it is the Aral Sea, which is also salt, and has no
outlet.
Questions.107. What are inland waters?108. How are brooks and
creeks formed? 109. Define a river. In what do rivers differ from brooks
or creeks? What is the mouth of a river? The source? What are trib-
utaries ?
110. What is a river system? A river basin?111. A water-shed?
112. How are springs supplied with water? 113. What is the course of a
river ? The bed ?
114. Which is highest, the source or the mouth of a river?115.
Upon what does the velocity of a river depend? 116. Upon what does
the navigability depend?
117. What are rapids? What are falls, or cataracts? How high are
the Falls of Niagara?
118. What is an estuary? A delta?119. Define lakes. 120. What
is said about lakes without outlets?121. Why is rain water pure, or
fresh?122. Why .is spring water never perfectly pure? Why are lakes
without an outlet usually salt?
VIII. THE ATMOSPHERE.
123. The earth is surrounded by the Air, or Atmosphere.
We do not see or feel the air, and yet it presses upon every thing
with a weight of about 15 pounds to the square inch.
124. The Atmosphere is heaviest at the level of the sea.
It decreases in weight and density, the higher we ascend
above this level.
At an elevation of 10,523 feet above the sea, the pressure of the atmos-
phere, on each square inch, is reduced to 7? pounds. At an elevation of
21,117 feet, the pressure is reduced to 3f pounds.
125. Climate is the condition of the atmosphere, as regards
temperature, winds, and moisture.
TEMPERATURE.
126. The earths surface receives heat directly from the
sun. The heated surface warms the atmosphere, which is
itself but slightly heated by the suns rays. Hence the tem-
perature decreases as we ascend above the surface of the earth.
212
32
A Thermometer.
127. The Temperature of any thing is the
intensity of heat which it possesses. This is
measured by the thermometer, an instrument
consisting of a glass tube and bulb, partly
filled with mercury.
When the thermometer is exposed to heat, the mer-
cury expands and rises in the tube. The temperature
indicated by this rise, is shown on a scale attached to
the tube.
The thermometer used in America and England is
that of Fahrenheit. On this, the temperature of boil-
ing water is 212 degrees; and that of ice and salt mixed,
is zero, or 0 degrees. The temperature of melting snow
or ice, is 32 degrees. This is called the freezing point.
128. A given place on the earths surface receives, in the
course of the year, a certain nearly uniform amount of heat.
This amount evenly distributed through the year is called
the Mean Annual Temperature.
The mean annual temperature of New York has been found to be
about 52 degrees. If, in this city, each day in the year received an equal
amount of heat, then each would have a mean temperature of 52 degrees.
Of course, it is a great deal warmer than this in the summer, and colder
in the winter.
129. There are many places, in each hemisphere, that have
the same mean annual temperature. Lines drawn around the
globe in such a manner that they connect places of the same
mean annual temperature, are called Isothermal Lines.


18
GEOGRAPHY.
Map of Isothermal Lines.
130. The map represents the principal isothermal lines. It
shows at a glance the distribution of heat on the earths
surface.
It will be seen that the hottest part of the globe surrounds the Bed
Sea, having a mean annual temperature of 90 degrees. It is as hot there,
throughout the year, as in New York in July and August.
The hottest part of the western continent is near the Caribbean Sea.
The coast of South America, bordering upon this sea, has a mean temper-
ature of 81 degrees.
North-eastern Siberia, in the Old World, and Melville Island in the
New, are the coldest parts of the world.
131. The isothermal lines are not 'parallel with the degrees
of latitude, because the decrease of temperature, from the equator
to the poles, is different in different parts of the earth.
The influence of the Gulf Stream upon the temperature of the Atlantic
Ocean and Western Europe, is shown by the northern curve of the iso-
thermals.
132. The true Zones of Climate are, therefore, bounded by
isothermal lines, and not by the tropics and the polar circles,
which bound the mathematical zones.
The true Torrid Zones lie between the isothermals of 72
degrees north and south of the equator. The Temperate
Zones extend from these to the isothermals of 32 degrees.
The Frigid Zones extend thence to the poles.
133. The decrease of temperature, as we ascend above the
earths surface, is about one degree for every 350 feet.
The Snow Line is the height above which snow does not
melt during the year. Mountains which rise above it, have
snow upon their tops even in midsummer.
The snow line is about 16,000 feet high at the equator.
North and south of the equator, it gradually descends, and
reaches the surface of the ocean a short distance from the
poles.
In the Andes, near Quito, the snow line is 15,820 feet high; in Colorado,
12,500 feet; in the Alps, 8,885 feet; and in Spitsbergen, 1000 feet.
Questions.123. With what is the earth surrounded ?124. Where is
the atmosphere heaviest?125. What is meant by the term climate?
126. From what does the earths surface receive its heat? How does the
atmosphere become heated? What part of the atmosphere receives the
greatest amount of heat?
127. What is temperature? With what instrument is it measured?
128. What is the mean annual temperature of a place?129. What are
isothermal lines ? 130. Through what countries does the isothermal of
32 degrees pass? Of 72 degrees north of the equator? Of 72 degrees
south of it? Which is the hottest part of the globe? Of the western
continent? Which is the coldest country in the Old World? In the
New World?
131. What is said of the direction of the isothermals? 132. Between
what isothermals are the true torrid zones? The temperate zones? The
frigid zones?133. What is the decrease of temperature above the earths
surface? What is the snow line? How high is it at the equator?
THE WINDS.
134. Winds are currents of air. They are caused by the
unequal heating of the atmosphere in different parts of the
globe.
Air expands when heated, and contracts when cooled. When
expanded, it becomes lighter, and rises. The colder and heavier
air then rushes in to supply its place, producing winds.



PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
19
135. In the hot equatorial regions, the air is constantly
rising; while a current of air from the colder regions is as
constantly rushing in to supply its place. ,
136. The Zone of Calms comprises those regions near the
equator where the air is constantly rising. In this zone, the
air appears still or calm, because we can not perceive the
ascending currents.
137. North and south of this zone, are the zones of the
Trade Winds. These are the currents which flow toward the
equator. In the northern hemisphere, the Trades come from
the north-east; in the southern, from the south-east.
138. Between the zones of the trade winds and the poles,
are the zones of the Variable Winds. In these zones, the
winds blow from all points of the compass, apparently with-
out any regularity.
139. Winds vary greatly in velocity and force. A gentle
breeze, which hardly stirs the leaves of the trees, travels about
two miles an hour. A storm travels 45 miles, and a hurri-
cane, over 80 miles in the same time. Hurricanes, or tornadoes,
are most frequent in the hot parts of the globe.
The West India islands are occasionally visited by these terrible storms.
Barbadoes was destroyed by a hurricane in 1831. The whole island was
laid waste, the plantations destroyed, and the houses laid in ruins.
140. Winds are very beneficial in their effects. They carry
the moisture from the ocean to the land, temper the stifling
heat of the tropics, and, by keeping up a constant circulation
of the atmosphere, preserve its purity and healthfulness.
Questions.134. What are winds? What causes them? Explain how
they are produced.--135. In what regions does the air constantly rise?
136. What is the zone called in which this takes place?137. What zones
are north and south of the calms ? What is the direction of the trades ?
138. What zones north and south of the trades?
139. How fast does a gentle breeze travel in an hour? A storm? A
hurricane? 140. What is said of the effects of winds?
MOISTURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE.
141. The atmosphere always contains moisture, or water
in the form of invisible vapor.
When a vessel of water is exposed to the air, the water
soon dries up, or evaporates.
142. A certain amount of air, at a given temperature, can
take up only a certain amount of water. The power of the
air to evaporate water increases with its temperature.
143. Saturated Air is air charged with as great an amount
of moisture as it can retain in an invisible state.
When saturated air is cooled, a part of the moisture con-
tained in it is condensed, and becomes dew, fog, rain, or snow.
144. Clouds are fogs formed in the higher regions of the
atmosphere. When air ascends, it becomes cold. Its capacity
for moisture is thereby decreased, and a portion of it is con-
densed, and becomes visible, forming clouds..
Rain is water falling in drops from the clouds. Very small
drops of water form mist.
Snow is water frozen into white, many-sided crystals, or
flakes.
Snow falls only when the temperature of the atmosphere is below the
freezing point (32 Fahrenheit).
The greatest amount of rain falls upon the coast of a
country, where the prevailing winds come from the ocean.
145. Rainless districts occur in the zone of the Trades.
The largest is the region of Central Asia and North Africa.
It extends from the Great Kliingan Mountains, in China, to the
shores of the Atlantic, and embraces the deserts of Gobi, Persia, Arabia,
and the Sahara. In this region the prevailing winds are easterly. As
they cross the lofty mountains of China, they are forced to ascend to a
great height, where they are cooled, and their moisture is precipitated.
When they reach the regions beyond, they are dry winds.
Questions.141. What does the atmosphere contain? In what form
is it ? What takes place when water is exposed to the air ? 142. What is
said of the evaporating power of air?143. What is saturated air? What
occurs when saturated air is cooled?144. What are clouds? How are
they formed? What is rain? Mist? Snow? Upon what part of a
country does the greatest amount of rain fall? 145. Where do rainless
districts occur? Where is the largest rainless region in the world?
IX. PLANTS AND ANIMALS.
146. Plants and animals are distributed over the entire sur-
face of the earth. They flourish best where warmth, sun-
light, and moisture are most abundant.
147. Hence the greatest development of vegetable and ani-
mal life is found in the equatorial regions. It gradually de-
creases from the equator to the poles. ^
Tropical Forest.
148. Plants especially require, beside warmth and sunlight,
a certain amount of moisture and a fertile soil. Water enters
largely into their composition; and no plant can take up
from the soil the substances which it requires, unless they are
dissolved in water.
149. Soil is fertile when it contains the substances neces-
sary to the growth of plants. Where these are wanting, plants
will either not grow at all, or grow imperfectly.
For this reason, the farmer enriches the field with manures, thus sup-
plying the soil with the materials for growth required by the plants he
cultivates.
Sch.3.


20
GEOGRAPHY.
150. The distribution of plants is, therefore, regulated by
the distribution of heat and moisture, and by the nature of
the soil in the different regions of the earth.
The following regions of vegetation are distinguished by
different names:
(1) Deserts are tracts of land nearly devoid of vegetation.
The rainless regions are mostly deserts.
(2) Steppes are tracts of land covered with grasses, herbs,
and shrubs. They owe their existence to an insufficiency or
an unequal distribution of moisture. The Tundras are steppes
covered with mosses.
(3) Forests are tracts of land covered with trees and shrubs.
They require moisture throughout the year.
151. The map shows the distribution of these regions.
A broad belt of Tundras extends along the shores of the
Arctic Ocean, in both the eastern and western continents.
Map of Vegetation.
An immense region of forests lies south of the tundras.
These consist, in the north, of pines, firs, spruce, and other
cone-bearing trees; further south, of deciduous trees (oaks,
maples, chestnuts, walnut-trees, etc.).
A large part of North America and Asia, and nearly the whole of
Europe, were covered hy these forests. In the more densely inhabited
regions, they have been cleared and transformed into cultivated lands.
152. The Gobi, in the interior of Asia, and the Great Sahara,
in northern Africa, are the largest deserts of the globe.
153. Tropical forests cover large regions of the continents
lying within the torrid zones. These forests are noted for the
great number of different species of plants which compose them;
as, palms, bananas, tree-ferns, and various kinds of fig-trees.
Questions.146. Where do plants and animals flourish best? 147.
Where is the greatest development of animal and vegetable life?
148. What do plants require besides warmth and sunlight? 149. When
is soil fertile? 150. By what is the distribution of plants regulated?
What are deserts? Steppes? Tundras? Forests? 151. Where is the
belt of Tundras? What region lies south of the Tundras? 152. Where
is the Gobi ? The Sahara ?
* 153. Where are the tropical forests ? For what are they noted ?
ANIMALS.
154. The animal kingdom numbers about 150,000 species.
Animals differ from plants in the character of their food.
Plants derive their nourishment from the soil, the water, and
the atmosphere; animals either feed on plants or on other
animals. Those which feed on grasses or herbage, are called
herbivorous animals; those which feed on flesh, carnivorous
animals.
155. The distribution of animals depends upon climate and
the distribution of plants.
Herbivorous animals are necessarily confined to those countries in
which they find the plants upon which they subsist. Beasts of prey, or
carnivorous animals, have a much wider range.
156. As a general rule, land animals increase in number,
variety, size, and strength from the poles to the equator.
This increase is not regular. There are hot countries, as Australia, in
which animal life is not abundant.
157. Marine animals are as numerous in the colder parts
of the ocean as in the warmer. The largest marine animals,
the whale and the walrus, live mainly in the polar oceans.


POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY.
21
158. In the Frigid Zone, we find the white bear, which
feeds upon marine animals, the musk ox, which feeds on the
mosses of the Arctic low-lands, the white fox, sable, and other
fur-bearing animals. Water birds, such as penguins, ducks,
geese, and gulls, abound in almost incredible profusion. No
reptile is found in this zone.
159. In the North Temperate Zone, a much greater diver-
sity prevails. The families of animals living here are repre-
sented by different species in different regions.
Thus, the black and grizzly bears of America are represented in Europe
by the brown bear, in Asia by the Thibetan bear; the Canadian deer and
the elk in America, by the stag and fallow deer in Europe, and the musk
deer in Eastern Asia; the bison in America, by the aurochs in Europe, and
the yak and zebu in Asia.
160. In the South Temperate Zone the diversity is still
greater. Each of the three continents lying within it repre-
sents a separate and distinct animal world.
161. The Torrid Zones abound in animals of great strength
and size.
Monkeys and apes are exclusively tropical, and seem to be
naturally associated with the palms.
The elephant, the hippopotamus, and the rhinoceros are
peculiar to the eastern continent; the tapir is found in both
the eastern and the western.
Animals in Torrid Zone.
The cat species is larger and fiercer in the eastern hemisphere than in the
western. Africa has the lion and leopard; Asia has the lion, the Bengal
tiger, and the leopard; America has the smaller cougar and the jaguar.
Each continent furnishes some peculiar forms: America, the sloth;
Africa, the gorilla, the giraffe, the zebra, and numerous antelopes; Asia,
the royal tiger and the orang-outang.
162. Domestic animals are those which man has tamed for
his own use. They do not number quite fifty species in all.
Domestic Animals.
163. The natives of the frigid zone employ dogs and rein-
deer to draw their sledges, and to assist them in hunting. In
the temperate zones, horses, cattle, and sheep are the most
highly-prized domestic animals. In the torrid zones, camels
and elephants are much used as beasts of burden. The camel
can live from 3 to 5 days without water, and is therefore
admirably adapted to traversing the deserts.
Questions. 154. How many species of animals are there? In what
do animals differ from plants? What are herbivorous animals? Carnivo-
rous animals?
155. Upon what does the distribution of animals depend?156. What
is said of the distribution of land animals?157. Of marine animals?
158. What animals are peculiar to the frigid zone?159. What is said of
the animals of the north temperate zone? 160. Of the south temperate
zone?161. Of the torrid zones?
162. What are domestic animals?163. What domestic animals are
raised in the frigid zone? In the temperate zones? In the torrid zones?
OIX^AIPTIEX^ III.
POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY.
164. Man is the most perfect of all living beings. He
alone has an immortal soul. To him alone is revealed a
knowledge of the existence and attributes of Deity. His
actions are governed by reason, while those of all other ani-
'mals are controlled by instinct, and he alone has language, or
the power to express his thoughts by words.
165. The number of men upon the earth is about 1,455,-
000,000. More than half of this number live in Asia, about
one fourth in Europe, one seventh in Africa, one twentieth
in North America, and one fifty-fifth in South America.
166. The density of population in a country is estimated
by the average number of inhabitants dwelling on a square
mile of its surface.
The following table exhibits continents: the density of population in the different
In Europe, there are, on an average, to each square mile, 82.
" Asia, a a (( a 48.
Africa, <4 a u 18|.
North America, a <( a u 7|.
South America, u u u 4.
Australia, a a u (( 1*.


22
GEOGRAPHY.
167. Men differ from each other in color, figure, form of
the bones, and intellectual qualities. They are accordingly
classed under five varieties, or races.
I. THE RACES.
168. The five races are: (1) the Caucasian, or White Race;
(2) the Ethiopian, or Black Race; (3) the Mongolian, or Yel-
low Race; (4) the Malay, or Brown Race; and (5) the Amer-
ican, or Red Race.
169. The Caucasian Race
is white; it has an oval head,
with a high, rounded fore-
head, moderately projecting
cheek-bones, a symmetrical
figure, and straight or curled,
but never woolly hair, vary-
ing in color. It is superior
to the others in intellectual
qualities.
It occupies south-western
Asia (East India, Arabia,
Iran, and Asia Minor), North-
ern Africa, and nearly the
whole of Europe. The na-
tionalities belonging to this
race have founded great and
prosperous states in America
and Australia.
The name Caucasian was given to this race by Professor Blumenbach,
of Gottingen, not because he believed it to have originated among the
Caucasus Mountains, but because the best skull in his collection was that
of a native of this mountain chain.
170. The Ethiopian Race
is black; it has a low and re-
ceding forehead, a broad and
flat nose, a large, projecting
mouth, thick lips, and woolly
hair.
This race inhabits the larger
part of Africa. It includes
many hundred distinct tribes,
which may be classed under
two groups: the Negroes, and
the South African nations.
The Negroes occupy the
eastern Sahara, the Soudan,
the coasts of Upper and Lower
Guinea, and eastern Africa
from the coast of Mozambique
to the Gulf of Aden.
The Negroes in North and South America are descendants
of slaves brought from Africa. They are most numerous in
the southern parts of the United States, the West India
islands, Brazil, and Guyana.
The South African nations inhabit the southern part of the
continent, and include the Bechuanas, Caffirs, Hottentots, and
others.
America, are often classed with
172. The Malay Race is
brown, or almost black. It
has some features in common
with each of the three pre-
ceding races the Caucasian
shape of the skull, the flat
face of the Ethiopian, and the
coarse, black hair of the Mon-
golian.
It inhabits Australia, and
the islands of the Pacific and
Indian oceans, from Madagas-
car on the -west, to the Society
Islands on the east; also the
Malay Peninsula in Farther
India.
The most important nations
are the Javanese, in Java;
the Battas, in Sumatra; the
Dyaks, in Borneo; the Papuans
tana. The Aztecs, in Mexico, w
the continent, when that country
171. The Mongolian Race
is yellow, has small, deep-set
eyes, large cheek-bones, and
coarse, black hair.
Central and northern Asia
is the home of this race. It
includes the Chinese, the Jap-
anese, the Mongols of Thibet
and the central table-lands,
the Turcomans and Khirgeez
in Western Asia, and numer-
ous tribes in Siberia.
In Europe, the Mongolian
race is represented by the
Turks, the Magyars in Hun-
gary, and other unimportant
nationalities.
The Esquimaux, inhabiting
the arctic shores of North
the Mongolian race.
in New Guinea.
173. The American, or In-
dian, Race has a reddish cop-
per color, black, straight hair,
projecting cheek-bones, and a
large and often aquiline nose.
It inhabits North and South
America, and is divided into
a large number of' distinct
tribes.
In North America, are found the
Athabascas, occupying the north-
ern part of the continent from
Alaska to Hudson Bay; the Sioux
or Dakotas, in Dakota; the Cher-
okees, Creeks, Chiekasaws, and
Choctaws, in Indian Territory; the
Apaches and Camanehes, in Ari-
zona and New Mexico; the Shos-
hones and Snakes, in the Great
Basin; and the Black feet, in Mon-
3re the most highly civilized people on
was conquered by the Spaniards.


POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY.
23
Questions.164. Mention some of the attributes of man.165. What
is the number of men living upon the earth?-166. How is the density
of population found? What is the density of population in Europe?
In Asia? In Africa? In North America? In South America? In
Australia?167. What differences exist among men? How many races-
are there?
168. Name the five races. 169. Describe the Caucasian race. What
countries does it inhabit? 170. Describe the Ethiopian race. What
countries does it inhabit ?171. Describe the Mongolian race. What
countries does it inhabit? Name some nations belonging to it.172.
Describe the Malay race. What countries does it inhabit?173. De-
scribe the American race. Where is it found?
II. DIVISIONS OF THE CAUCASIAN RACE.
174. The Caucasian race is divided into three branches: (1)
the North African; (2) the Semitic; (3) the Aryan branch.
The North African branch includes the Fellahs, in Egypt;
the Berbers, in the countries bordering on the Mediterranean
Sea; and the Tuaregs, in the central Sahara.
The Semitic branch includes the Arabs, in Arabia; the
Syrians, in Syria; and the Jews, or Hebrews, formerly living
in Palestine, but now scattered over the world among other
nationalities.
175. The Aryan branch is the most important, as it in-
cludes the great historical nations of the world. It comprises
the following six divisions:
(1) The Germanic nations, inhabiting central Europe, from
the Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea to the Alps. These
are the Germans, the English, or Anglo-Saxons, with their
descendants in America and Australia, the Danes, the Swedes,
the Norwegians, and the Dutch.
(2) The Slavonic nations, inhabiting eastern Europe, and
including the Russians, Poles, the larger part of the popu-
lation of Turkey, and many other less important nations.
(3) The Romanic nations, inhabiting south-western Europe,
and including the French, the Italians, the Spaniards, the
Portuguese, the modern Greeks, and some others.
(4) The Celts, including the Irish, the Highland Scots, the
Welsh, and the inhabitants of Brittany in France.
(5) The Persians, on the table-land of Iran; and
(6) The Hindoos, in East India.
176. The various nations which compose the Aryan branch
of the Caucasian race are descendants of the ancient Aryans,
who, it is supposed, lived in the fertile valleys of the Hindoo
Koosh Mountains. They were not savages, like the American
Indians; but cultivated the soil, built houses, raised domestic
animals, and believed in a Supreme Being.
177. They ceased to exist as a nation thousands of years
ago. At various times, bodies of them migrated from their
ancient homes, and settled in other countries.
178. These bodies took different routes. Some marched
north-westward, passed the Caspian Sea, and settled in cen-
tral Europe. From these the ancient Celts, Germans, and
Slavonian were derived. Other bands took a more south-
erly route, crossed the Black Sea, or the Archipelago, and
settled in the peninsulas of Greece and Italy. Their de-
scendants are known in history as the ancient Greeks and
Romans.
179. Those Aryans who remained at home, at a later date
left the country they had so long occupied, and conquered
Persia and the plain of the Indus and the Ganges, which
their descendants still occupy. They are the modern Persians
and Hindoos,
180. The Germanic nations of Europe are the descendants
of the ancient Germans; the Slavonic nations, of the ancient
Slavonians; and the modern Celts, of the ancient Celts.
In former times, the Greeks and Romans largely inter-
married with Celts, Germans, and Slavonians, and thus be-
' came, in part, the ancestors of the Romanic nations.
The following table shows the descent of the leading modern
nations from the ancient Aryans:
: v-
.
Ancient Germans... .
Germans,
English,
Danes,
Swedes,
Norwegians,
1 Dutch,
- Germanic nations.
y;;
Ancient Slavonians, { ^,uss^ans 1
( Poles, J
Slavonic nations.
Ancient
Aryans,
\ v.)v A
Ancient Homans....
Ancient Greeks.
Ancient Celts....
French,
Italians,
Spaniards,
Portuguese,
....Modern Greeks,
{Irish,
Highland'Scots,
Welsh,
- Romanic nations.
j- Modern Celts.
Persians.
Hindoos.
Questions.174. Into what three branches is the Caucasian race
divided? What nations are included in the North African branch?
In the Semitic branch? 175. Name the six divisions of the Aryan
branch.176. From what nation has this branch descended?177. What
is said of the Aryans? 178. What nations have sprung from those
Aryans who migrated in a north-westerly direction? What nations from
those who crossed the Black Sea and the Archipelago?179. Where
did the Aryans who had remained behind migrate?180. From whom
have the Germanic nations descended? The Slavonic nations? The
modern Celts? The Romanic nations?
HI. LANGUAGES.
181. It is estimated that there are over 800 different lan-
guages. Many of these show, by similarity of words and
construction, that they are related, and have been derived
from a common mother tongue. Thus, the languages of all
the Aryan nations have been derived from that of the
ancient Aryans.
182. The languages spoken by the Germanic nations are
derived from the ancient German; and those of the Romanic
nations, from the Latin.
The English is a mixed language, consisting of German,
Celtic, and Romanic words and idioms. Its construction is
allied to the German.


24
GEOGRAPHY.
IV. RELIGIONS.
183. The Religions in which the different nations of the
world believe are either Monotheistic or Pagan.
Monotheistic religions teach the existence of one God:
Pagan religions teach that there are many gods.
184. There are but three Monotheistic religions: the Chris-
tian, the Jewish, and the Mohammedan.
The Christian Religion, although revealed to the Jews,
a Semitic nation, has been adopted by most of the Aryan
nations. The Christians believe in Jesus Christ as the Son
of God, and Savior of mankind. .
It is divided into three branches: (1) the Roman Catholic;
(2) the Greek Orthodox ; and (3) the Protestant.
185. The Jewish Religion is that of the Jews, or Israel-
ites. They reject Jesus Christ, and believe that a Savior is
yet to come.
The Mohammedan Religion, or Islam, was founded by
Mohammed, among the Arabs, about 600 years after Christ.
He taught that Moses and Christ were true prophets, but
that he himself was the greatest. Islamism is the ruling
faith in northern Africa and southern Asia.
186. The Pagan religions are exceedingly numerous, and
differ materially, the one from another.
The most important are: Brahmanism, which is the ancient
religion of the Hindoos; and Buddhism, which was founded
by Buddha, in East India, in opposition to Brahmanism.
Buddhism has spread over central and eastern Asia, and
numbers more adherents than any other religion.
Questions. 181. How many languages are there? What is said of
the relations of the languages?182. What is said of the languages
spoken by the Germanic nations ? By the Romanic nations ? What is
said of the English language?
183. How are religions divided? What do monotheistic religions teach?
What do pagan religions teach? 184. Which are the monotheistic relig-
ions? What do Christians believe? Name the three branches of the
Christian religion.185. What is said of the Jewish religion? Of the
Mohammedan?186. Name the two most important Pagan religions.
; V. MANNER OF LIVING.
187. With regard to their manner of living, the nations of
the world are divided into three classes: (1) Barbarous, or
Savage; (2) Half-civilized; and (3) Civilized.
Barbarous, or Savage nations, have no fixed homes, but
rove about from place to place in search of food and other
necessities. .Those living near rivers or lakes are usually fish-
ermen; those living in regions which abound in game are
hunters. Such are our Indians, the Esquimaux, and many of
the Negro tribes in Africa.
188. Half-civilized nations have fixed homes and settle-
ments, cultivate the ground, and raise domestic animals.
They carry on the simpler mechanical trades, and lead a
much more comfortable life than barbarous nations.
The North African nations, some Negro tribes, the inhabit-
ants of Java, and others, are half-civilized.
Nomadic nations have domesticated cattle, horses, or cam-
els, and move from pasture to pasture with their herds.
They live in comfortable tents, wear clothing, and are much
less exposed to privations and hardships than fishermen and
hunters. Such are the Mongol tribes and Turcomans in cen-
tral Asia, and the Arabian Bedouins of the deserts.
189. Civilized nations carry on agriculture and industrial
occupations, develop the resources of their countries, and
enter into commercial intercourse with other nations. Law
and order are observed among them. Property is accumu-
lated and protected. They cultivate the arts and sciences,
possess a literature, establish schools, and devote much time
to intellectual improvement.
The nations of western Europe and their descendants in
America are the most highly civilized.
190. The progress of a people in civilization depends upon
the nature of the country it inhabits, and upon its intellectual
capacity.
Questions. 187. Into what three classes are nations divided accord-
ing to their manner of living? Describe barbarous or savage nations.
188. Describe half-civilized nations. What are nomadic nations?
189. Describe civilized nations. 190. Upon what does the progress of a
people in civilization depend ?
VI. OCCUPATIONS.
191. Man requires food, clothing, and shelter. These are
the prime or first necessities of his existence. Nature almost
every-where affords the materials for their supply : but man
has to labor in order to obtain them, or to adapt them to
his use.
This labor is divided in civilized countries, so that each
man is ordinarily engaged in a single branch of industry, as it
is called, or has a single occupation.
192. The principal occupations are: (1) Mining; (2) Ag-
riculture; (3) Manufacturing; and (4) Commerce.
Milling is the obtaining of useful minerals and metals from
the ground. Mines are usually found in mountainous countries.
The principal minerals and metals obtained are coal, salt,
gold, silver, iron, copper, and lead.
Iron is the most useful of the- metals, and is used by civilized man in
numberless ways. The largest quantities are produced in England, the
United States, France, Sweden, and Germany.
Coal is hardly less important than iron, as the manufactures of the
civilized nations are chiefly carried on by means of steam-engines, which
consume immense quantities of this useful mineral. England produces
the greatest amount of it as fuel; but the United States possesses the
most extensive coal fields in the world.
Gold and silver, the precious metals, are used as coined money and
in the manufacture of ornaments. The largest amounts of gold are ob-
tained in the western parts of our country and in Australia; the largest
amounts of silver, in the Rocky Mountain region, in Mexico, and in the
western part of South America..
193. Agriculture is the raising of useful plants by culti-
vating the soil. It depends upon the nature of the soil and
the .climate. Hence agricultural products differ greatly in dif-
ferent countries. ^
The following plants are most extensively cultivated:
(1) Cereals, such as wheat, Indian corn, rye, oats, barley,
and rice. They belong to the family of the grasses. Every
civilized nation raises one or several of the cereals.
Wheat is raised chiefly in the temperate zones. In the torrid zone, it
flourishes only in the more elevated districts.


POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY.
25
Rice requires a hot climate. The greatest quantities are produced in
China, India, and the Eastern Archipelago. Nearly one-half of the
human family subsists upon this cereal.
Indian Corn, or Maize, is a native of the warmer parts of America. It
can not be successfully cultivated beyond the 45th parallel north and
south.
(2) Plants with edible roots; as, potatoes, sweet potatoes,
The Potato, a native of America,
is the plant most widely cultivated
for food by civilized nations. It
flourishes best in the temperate
zones; but it is also raised in the
warmer parts of the north frigid
zone.
The Sweet Potato is cultivated in
the torrid zones and in the warm
parts of the temperate zones. It is
a native of India.
The Yam yields tuberous roots
weighing from 30 to 40 pounds. It
is a native of East India, but it is
now raised on nearly all the islands
of the Pacific Ocean. It requires a
tropical climate.
The Beet grows wild on the shores
of the Mediterranean Sea. Several
varieties have been produced by
long cultivation. The sugar which
is manufactured from one of these
varieties in Germany and France, closely resembles cane-sugar. Its pro-
duction is an important branch of industry in those countries.
(3) Trees and herbs yielding edible fruits; as, the bread-
fruit, date-palm, banana, and others.
The Bread-fruit tree is one of the chief fruit-plants within the tropics.
Its cultivation extends over the Eastern Archipelago, the islands of the
Pacific Ocean, and the West Indies. The fruit grows as large as a childs
head. When roasted, it resembles wheaten bread in flavor.
The Date-palm is extensively cultivated in Africa, particularly on the
oases of the Sahara.
The Banana is a herbaceous plant, growing chiefly in the torrid zones.
A single plant often yields from 50 to 100 pounds of healthy and nutritious
fruit.
yams, turnips, and beets.
The Tea-Plant.
(4) Tea, Coffee, and Sugar.
The Coffee Plant.
The Tea-plant is a shrub
which is cultivated almost
exclusively in China and
Japan. The leaves of the
young plants are gathered,
carefully dried, and then
packed for shipment. Three
pounds of leaves yield one
pound of dried tea.
Coffee is a native of Abys-
sinia, in eastern Africa. It
is now cultivated in the
West Indies, Central Amer-
ica, Brazil, Java, Arabia,
and elsewhere. Brazil yields
nearly one-half of the anjiual
product.
The Sugar-cane requires a
tropical climate. The West
Indies, Brazil, Java, and East India furnish the chief supply
of sugar. Some is raised in Louisiana and Florida.
(5) Plants cultivated for their
hemp.
The Pepper Plant.
fiber; as, cotton, flax, and
Cotton is by far the most
important of this class.
The largest quantity is pro-
duced in the southern part
of the United States. Bra-
zil, the West Indies, China,
Egypt, and East India also
furnish it in abundance.
Cotton is manufactured into
articles of clothing, bedding,
thread, laces, muslins, and paper.
Its preparation and sale give
employment to many millions
of people.
Flax and Hemp are cul-
tivated in the temperate
zones. Flax is manufac-
tured into linen; hemp,
into ropes. They are both
extensively cultivated in
the largest quantities of
various parts of the United States;
flax are produced in Ireland and Germany.
(6) Spices are tropical plants. The most important are
pepper, cloves, nutmegs, cinnamon, cassia, and vanilla.
The common black Pepper is indigenous in East India, and is now
largely cultivated in Sumatra,
Borneo, and the Malay Pen-
insula.
The Clove-tree is a native of
the Molucca Islands; the Rut-
meg-tree, of the Eastern Archi-
pelago. Its fruit resembles a
small peach. The thick skin
which surrounds the nut is
known as mace.
The Cinnamon-tree is a spe-
cies of laurel. It is almost ex-
clusively cultivated in southern
Ceylon. The inner bark of the
young branches is the cinna-
mon of commerce. Cassia is
also the product of a species of
laurel, and is used as a substi-
tute for the true cinnamon.
Vanilla is the fruit of a climb-
ing air plant, which grows in
the forests of tropical America.
The Clove-tree.
194. Manufacturing is that branch of industry by which
natural products are fitted for the use of man. (
Grain, raised by the farmer, has to be made into flour and bread before
it can be used; the ores, taken from the ground by the miner, have to be
reduced to a pure metallic state, and are then manufactured into tools,
and machines; cotton and flax have to be spun and woven. Thus,
almost every product of nature undergoes a series of changes before it
is fit for use.
The amount of manufactured articles is greatly increased, among civil-
ized nations, by the aid of machinery. It is estimated that, in Great
Britain alone, goods are manufactured that could not be produced,
without machinery, by the labor of a hundred million men.
The principal manufacturing countries are Great Britain,
the United States, France, Germany, Belgium, and Swit-
zerland.


26
GEOGRAPHY.
195. Commerce is the exchange of goods or commodities.
Domestic Commerce is the exchange of goods between dif-
ferent parts of the same country.
Foreign Commerce is the exchange of goods between different
countries.
Exports are those goods which are sent out of a country;
imports, those which are brought into it. Thus, the United
States export flour, cotton, pork, and corn, and import coffee,
tea, sugar, manufactures, and spices.
196. Goods are transported from one place or country to
another on railroads, canals, and navigable rivers, or across
the oceans.
Railroads are a modern invention. The first was built in
1830, between Liverpool and Manchester. At present the com-
bined length of the railroads of the world is nearly 220,000
miles. In the United States there are nearly 100,000 miles
of railroad.
Canals are artificial water channels connecting navigable
rivers or parts of the ocean. They are much used for the
transportation of heavy and bulky goods.
197. The foreign commerce of a country is chiefly carried
on in sea-port cities, which must have safe, commodious har-
bors, and good communications with the inland country.
New York is the chief sea-port of our country, because it enjoys both of
these advantages more than any other city. It has one of the finest har-
bors, and the Hudson River and the Erie Canal connect it with the pro-
ducing districts in the interior. Boston, Portland, Norfolk, Charleston, Sa-
vannah, Mobile, and San Francisco are the other important sea-ports of the
United States.
The inland commerce of a country is mostly carried on in
cities located on the banks of navigable rivers and lakes, or
otherwise readily accessible.
Such centers of trade are Philadelphia and Baltimore, on rivers flowing
into the Atlantic; Chicago, Milwaukee, Detroit, Toledo, Cleveland, and
Buffalo, on the great lakes; New Orleans and St. Louis, on the Mississippi;
and Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and Louisville, on the Ohio River. Philadel-
phia, Baltimore, and New Orleans also have extensive foreign commerce.
Questions. 191. What are the prime necessities of life? What is
said of the materials which supply them?192. Name the four principal
occupations. What is mining? Mention some of the most important
minerals and metals.
193. What is agriculture? Name the principal cereals. The plants
with edible roots. Trees with edible fruits. Where is tea produced?
Coffee? Sugar-cane? Name the plants cultivated for their fiber. Which
is the most important of these? Name the principal spices.
194. What is manufacturing? Which are the principal manufacturing
countries ?
195. What is commerce? What is domestic commerce? What is for-
eign commerce? What are exports? What are imports?
196. On what are goods transported? What can you say of railroads?
Of canals ?
197. What is said of sea-port cities? Why is New York the principal
sea-port of our country? How is inland commerce mostly carried on?
Name some centers of trade in our country.
VII. STATES AND GOVERNMENTS.
198. Law and order must reign among a people, so that
the life, liberty, and property of citizens may be secure.
For this purpose, every civilized people has certain political
institutions which constitute its government.
The Government is the supreme power, or sovereignty of
a state.
A State is the whole body of people united under one
government.
Uncivilized nations, as hunters and wandering tribes, have neither
fixed laws nor political institutions, and hence do not form states. They
are usually governed by chiefs, who are leaders in war, and who settle
disputes arising between individuals.
199. Every government exercises three distinct functions:
(1) The Legislative function, which consists in framing
laws for the people.
(2) The Judicial function, which consists in applying the
laws to individual cases.
(3) The Executive function, which consists in carrying
out the laws and enforcing obedience to them.
200. The exercise of these functions, in most governments,
is intrusted to different bodiesthe Legislative function, to
a parliament, a congress, or a legislature; the Judicial func-
tion, to judges and magistrates; and the Executive function,
to rulers, who, in different states, bear different titles.
201. Governments are either monarchical or republican in
form.
A Monarchy is a state in which the ruler, or monarch,
holds his place by virtue of his birth.
A monarchy is absolute when the monarch exercises the
legislative and executive functions. It is limited when the
legislative function is exercised by representatives chosen by
the people.
An absolute monarch makes the laws and executes them; a limited
monarch executes the laws, but can not make them; and his power is
otherwise limited by law.
A Despotism is a monarchy in which the monarch has
unlimited power over the life, liberty, and property of his
subjects.
The Asiatic monarchies are despotisms. In Europe, there are two
absolute monarchies, Russia and Turkey. Most of the other European
states are limited monarchies.
Monarchs have different titles; as, Emperor, King, Duke,
and Prince. The states they govern are accordingly called
Empires, Kingdoms, Duchies, and Principalities.
202. A Republic is a state in which the ruler, or Chief
Magistrate, is elected by the people for a term of years. His
title is usually President or Governor.
With the exception of the empire of Brazil, all the inde-
pendent states of North and South America are republics.
Switzerland and France are republics in Europe.
The greatest and most powerful republic in the world is
the United States.
Questions.198. Why are governments necessary? What is the gov-
ernment of a state? What is a state? 199. What three functions does
a government eMrcise ? In what does the legislative function consist? The
judicial function? The executive function?200. To what body is the
legislative function intrusted? To what persons the judicial function?
To whom the executive function? 201. Name the two forms of govern-
ment. What is a monarchy? What is an absolute monarchy? What
is a limited monarchy? What is a despotism? Name some titles of
monarchs..202. What is a republic? What is the title of its chief
magistrate ?


MAP DRAWING.
27
MAP DRAWING.
Map Drawing is a very useful exercise to the student of
geography, as it is well calculated to fix in his mind the
form, location, extent, and relative position of geographical
objects. But even those who do not intend to practice this
art should possess some knowledge of it, in order to be able
to judge of maps intelligently.
I. OF MATERIALS AND INSTRUMENTS.
The following materials and instruments are required:
1. A lead-pencil, which should not be too soft. The best
are Nos. 3 and 4 of the graded pencils sold by stationers.
2. A piece of India-rubber.
3. Some fine steel pens. The Eclectic No. 300 is well adapted
to map drawing.
4. A pair of dividers.
5. A scale, on which the inch is divided into at least thirty
equal parts. It may either be purchased from a stationer, or
the student may make it himself.
6. A piece of India-ink. If this can not be conveniently
obtained, good black writing-ink will answer.
7. If the maps are to be colored, the student requires a
cake of Prussian blue, of crimson lake (red), of gamboge
(yellow), and of burnt sienna (light brown).
8. A few camel or sable hair brushes of the size of a small
goose quill.
The paper for map drawing should be strong and firm, that
it may not be easily injured by the use of India-rubber.
II. OF .MAP DRAWING IN DETAIL.
The different processes necessary to produce a finished map
are to be executed in the following order:
1. Draw the projection.
2. Draw the outline, the rivers, and political boundaries in
pencil.
3. If the map is to be colored, the colors should be laid on
before any lines are marked in ink.
4. Draw with ink the outlines, rivers, and political bound-
aries, which have been drawn in pencil.
5. Draw the mountains.
6. Locate the towns and cities, and letter them.
7. Letter the rivers, mountains, and countries. Rub out
with India-rubber the pencil marks yet visible, and clean
the map.
1. THE PROJECTION.
A map is a representation, upon a plane, of the whole or a
part of the earths surface. ^
A perfect representation of a country upon a plane, with all
its parts in due proportions and relative positions, can not be
made by any contrivance, since the earth is a spheroid. A slight
inaccuracy in the proportions of the different parts is unavoid-
able. Geographers have, therefore, devised different methods
of representation, called projections.
The whole earth is usually represented on Mercators projec-
tion, in which the meridians and parallels are straight lines.
The polar regions are greatly exaggerated, but the relative
position of places is truly represented. The maps of the
isothermals, the distribution of plants, etc., on the preceding
pages, are constructed on Mercators projection.
Most of the maps of the continents and their subdivisions,
in the volumes of this series, are designed on the conical pro-
jection. Each parallel is the arc of a circle, on which the
degrees of longitude have their true length.
The projection of the parallels and meridians is made in
the following manner: Draw a vertical line through the mid-
dle of your sheet of paper. This line represents the central
meridian of the map. Then, find the number of parallels
which the map is to include, and mark off as many equal
parts on the central meridian.
In a map of a continent it is usually sufficient to draw every tenth
parallel. In maps of smaller countries it may be convenient to draw
every fifth, second, or every single parallel.
If we wish, for example, to draw a map about three inches
high, extending from the 50th to the 70th parallel, we make
the distance from 1 to 10 degrees one inch long; that is, equal
to thirty parts of the scale, provided we use a scale on which
the inch is divided into thirty parts. This length is then
marked off twice on a vertical line representing the central
meridian.


28
GEOGRAPHY.
The next step is to find the center for the parallels. This
is done by the aid of the following table:
Latitude. Length of Radius Latitude. Length of Radius
of Parallels in Miles. of Parallels in Miles
5 . 45294 50 . . 3332
10 . 22475 55 . 2781
15 . 14792 60 . 2294
20 . 10891 65 . 1853
25 8503 70 . 1447
30 . 6869 75 . 1065
35 5665 80 701
40 . 4729 85 . 348
45 3969
The parallel which crosses the middle portion of our map
is the 60th. In the table will be found for the distance of
the center of this parallel, or the length of its radius, the
number of 2294 miles.
Now, as ten degrees of latitude on our map are equal to
thirty parts of the scale, one degree is equal to three parts.
The length of one degree of latitude averages 69 miles.
The length of radius for the 60th parallel is found by means
of the following proportion:
69 : 2294 :: 8 : x.
Hence follows this rule:
Multiply the length of radius, as given in the table, by the
length of one degree of latitude in parts of the scale, and divide
the product by 69.
2294 X 3 -f- 69 = 99.73, or about 100 parts of the scale.
Point C, the center of the parallels, is found by marking
off 100 parts of the scale upon the central meridian from
point b. Strike, with the dividers, from C, arcs through a,
b, and c, representing the three parallels.
If point C is so far from the points on the central meridian,
through which the parallels pass, that the divider can not be
used in drawing them, a pin, to which a string is attached, may
be fixed in C. The pencil is then fastened to the string at
such a distance that its point describes one of the parallels
when drawn across the sheet of paper.
When this parallel has been constructed, the pencil is fastened
to the string, at the proper distance from C, for the next parallel,
and so on for the others in succession.
Next find the length of ten degrees of longitude on each
parallel. Table II, at the end of the volume, contains the
lengths of the degrees of longitude on each parallel in miles.
Thus, one degree of longitude on the 60th parallel is 34.669
miles.
The following proportion gives the length of one degree of
longitude on the 60th parallel, in parts of the scale:
69 : 34.669 :: 3 : z;
and
34.669 X 3-r-69 = 1.5.
One degree of longitude being equal to 1.5 parts of the
scale, ten degrees are equal to 15 parts, or to half an inch.
In the same manner the length of ten degrees of longitude
on the 50th and 70th parallels, is found to be, respectively 19
and 10 parts of the scale.
These lengths are marked oflP on the parallels, and at last
the points thus obtained are connected by straight lines, as
in the figure.
The meridians thus constructed form broken lines, and for
ordinary maps are sufficiently accurate. If, however, the stu-
dent desires to represent the meridians by curves, he must use
the so-called ship curves, or French curves. These are
rulers made of thin pieces of wood, the edges of which are
lines of different degrees of curvature.
The border of the map is now so adjusted as to include
the country which is intended to be shown on the map. If
the map is to include four meridians on the right and left of
the central meridian, then the borders on the sides are drawn
a little outside of them, and parallel to the central meridian.
The upper and lower borders are drawn last.
The maps of the United States Coast Survey and those contained in
this series of geographies, are constructed upon the polyconic projection.
It differs from that described in one point only, viz: the appropriate center
for each parallel is calculated, and marked on the central meridian. Hence,
the parallels are arcs of eccentric circles in the polyeonie projection, and arcs
of concentric circles in the projection above described. The mathematical
calculation is the same in both.
A very little practice in the easier projection will enable the student to
construct the polyconic projection for any given part of the world.
In maps showing a small part of the earths surface, it is
sufficient, for ordinary purposes, to draw the parallels and merid-
ians as straight lines.
For a map of Ohio, for example, draw a vertical line, and
mark upon it five points at equal distances. These must be
adjusted according to the size of the map to be produced.
Then, draw through the points horizontal lines, 'which rep-
resent the parallels 39, 40, 41, and 42.
Calculate the distances be-
tween the meridians for the
38th and 42d parallels in the
manner described above, and
connect the points thus found
by straight lines. These are
the meridians from 81 to 85.
If drawing cards are used, on
wbicb the projection is printed,
the labor of constructing it, is, of
course, obviated. Such cards have
been published, and may be pro-
cured of the stationers.
The projection enables us
readily to calculate the scale of a map, or to find the rate of
reduction. Thus, on the map of North America in this volume,
the length of ten degrees of latitude on the central meridian is
of an inch. Ten degrees of latitude are nearly 692 statute
miles, which are equal to 3,653,760 feet, or 43,845,120 inches,
or inches. Ten degrees of latitude on the map are
to ten degrees of latitude on the earth, as 38 to 1,315,353,600.
Dividing the last number by 38, wre obtain 34,614,568, which
number is the rate of reduction of our map.
2. HOW TO DRAW THE OUTLINE, RIVERS, AND BOUNDARIES.
The outline is drawn first. It is copied from a correct map.
The student should trace the outline in each of the rectangular
figures into which the map is divided by the projection. If
these figures are large, it may be convenient to subdivide them
with light pencil lines. The same subdivisions must be traced
on the printed map from which the copy is made.


MAP DRAWING.
29
U>
Every point or line must be correctly placed, according to
its proper latitude and longitude. When the outline is com-
pleted, trace the rivers, and then the political boundaries.
Care should be taken to make the lead-pencil lines distinct,
but light, so that they can be easily removed with India-rubber.
3. HOW TO COLOR THE MAP.
Rub each cake of color with a little water in a separate
saucer. Fill a brush with burnt sienna, and tint the low
plains. Draw your brush rapidly over the paper, and avoid,
as much as possible, going twice over the same ground. You
secure an even tint by following this rule.
After the paper has become dry, mark the boundaries with
different colors. The brush should not be too full.
By mixing gamboge and Prussian blue in a saucer, you
obtain green ; by mixing Prussian blue and red, you obtain
purple. You may thus have five colors at your disposal
with which to color the political boundaries.
4. HOW TO INK THE MAP.
Rub the India-ink with some water in a saucer, until you
have a sufficient quantity to dip your pen into. The ink should
not be too thin, as the pen marks should appear jet black
upon the paper.
Follow, as closely as possible, the pencil marks of the out-
line with your pen; then, ink the rivers, taking care to let
the lines increase slightly in thickness, from the source to
the mouth.
Lastly, draw the political boundaries with dotted lines. Let
all the lines you draw be clear, sharp, and black.
5. HOW TO DRAW THE MOUNTAINS, ETC.
The representation of the surface features is the most difficult
part of map drawing. Considerable practice. is required to
attain to a higlr- degree of proficiency in it. But some knowl-
edge of the subject is desirable to every student of geography, if
for no other purpose than to read well-executed maps correctly.
The annexed figure repre-
sents the ground plan of a
mountain, Avith three peaks,
A, B, and C. A section, or
profile, of the same is shoAvn
beloAv the plan.
The mountain is supposed
to be cut by a number of hor-
izontal planes, equally distant
from each other, into layers
of equal thickness. These
planes appear as horizontal
lines in the section; as curves
in the ground plan.
The outer curve represents the base of the mountain, the
next curve the height of 100 feet above the base, the third
curve the height of 200 feet, etc.
This ground plan enables us to read off the height of every
given point on the mountain by counting the curves from
the base upivards. Thus, A\e see that the peak at A is 600
feet above the base, the peak at B 500 feet, and the peak at
C only 300 feet.
The ground plan further shows the steepness of the slopes.
As the curves are separated by an equal height, one from the
other, it folloAvs that the slopes are most abrupt Avhere the
curves appear closest together, and most gentle where they
appear Avidest apart. Thus, from A toward C the slope is
gentler than from A toAvard e.
A map, on Avhich the mountains are shoAvn by such curves
of height only, will contain all the elements necessary to
study the elevation and form of the inequalities of the sur-
face; but they are not presented with sufficient boldness and
distinctness.
In order to attain this end, the spaces between the curves are
shaded with short lines. The knver figure shows the mount-
ain thus shaded, of which the upper figure is the ground
plan. The shading is darkest where the slopes are most
abrupt.
In draAving a map the student should mark Avith light
pencil lines, first, the base of the mountain chains, then, the
crests and peaks, and, lastly, shade the slopes, in accordance
Avith the principles above explained.
The map of the Western States contains some good examples
for practice; as, the Sierra Nevada, the Cascade Mountains, and
the Rocky Mountains. It Avill be noticed that the western
slope of the Sierra Nevada is much longer and gentler than
the eastern. Such features should be represented on a good
map.
If several mountain systems are on the same map, the
shading should clearly indicate Avhich is the highest.
In ordinary maps this principle is altogether neglected. The surface
structure is so imperfectly shown as to mislead the student, or to produce
an erroneous impression.
Plateaus are represented by shading the slopes along their
margins.
6. OF CITIES AND TOWNS.
Locate the principal cities and towns according to their
longitude and latitude. Mark the capitals by a star-shaped
figure, as in the maps of this volume.
Write the names of the cities and towns neatly, and always
parallel to the degrees of latitude. Do not make the letters too
large. It is a common error to believe that large letters render
a map more distinct. They produce the opposite effect. A good
map should be a picture. Large letters Avill obscure or destroy
its beauty and distinctness.
7. OF OTHER NAMES.
Letter the riArers and mountains. Place the names along
and parallel to the marks representing them. Write in cap-
ital letters the names of countries, taking care to arrange the
letters in straight or curved lines, and Avith equal spaces
betAveen them. Use no ornamental lettering. The plainest
is also the neatest and most legible.
When all is finished, clean the sheet with India-rubber
or with some stale bread.




NORTH AMERICA.
31
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PART II.
THE CONTINENTS.
NORTH AMERICA.
QUESTIONS AND MAP STUDIES.
Position and Outline.In which hemisphere is North America sit- I
uated? What ocean north of the- grand division? What ocean east? J
What ocean west? Name two capes on the northern shcre. What large j
hay indents this shore? What strait leads into Hudson Bay? i
What archipelago north of the grand division? What large island :
north-east of the grand division? Name the branches-of the sea which
separate Greenland from the other islands. What island east of Green-
land? What cape is the most southern point of Greenland?
What island east of the Gulf of St. Lawrence? What two peninsulas
border on the Gulf of Mexico?- What sea east of Yucatan and Central
America? What islands separate this sea from the ocean? What two
capes between the Bay of Fundy and Florida? What gulf and penin-
sula on the western shore of North-'America?
What cape is the most southern point of the peninsula of California?
What cape near the 40th parallel? What island on the 50th parallel?
What long peninsula between the 50th and 60th parallels ? What sea
west of Alaska ? What strait separates North America from Asia? What
cape projects into Behring Strait? What isthmus connects North and
South America ?
/
SUKF4CE.What great mountain region in the western part of the
grand division ? What plateaus lie between the Rocky Mountains and the
Sierra Nevada? What mountains in the eastern part of the grand divis-
ion? What low plain between the Apalachian Mountains and the ocean?
What great plain between the Apalachian and the Rocky mountains?
What plateau between Hudson Bay and the Arctic Ocean? What low
plain between the Arctic Plateau and the Rocky Mountains? What
elevation separates the Arctic Plain from the Mississippi Valley?
Rivers and Lakes. What great river empties into the Arctic
Ocean? Name three large lakes which the Mackenzie drains. Describe
the course of the Mackenzie. Name some of its tributaries. Where do
they rise? What river is the outlet of Lake Winnipeg? What river
empties into Lake Winnipeg?
What great river empties into the Gulf of St. Lawrence? Name the
five great lakes of which the St. Lawrence is the outlet. What great
river empties into the Gulf of Mexico near the 30th parallel? Where
does the Mississippi rise? What is its course? Name its largest western
tributary. Name two other western tributaries. Name its largest eastern
tributary. What other great river empties into the Gulf of Mexico?
What river emptied into the Qulf of California? Describe its course.
What river empties into the Pacific Ocean? Describe the course of the
Columbia. Name a tributary of the Columbia. What river empties into
Behring Sea?
Political Divisions.What country occupies the middle portion of
the grand division? What political division north of the United States?
What political division includes the islands of Greenland and Iceland?
To whq,t country does the north-western part of the grand division belong ?
What political division south of the United States? What country south-
easi of Mexico? What is the capital of the United States? Of Mexico?
DESCRIPTION.
I. POSITION.
Lth America embraces the northern part
of the New World, and has an area of
nine million square miles.
It extends from Cape Barrow, in lat.
71 23' N., to Cape Mariato, in lat.'6
40' N., a distance of 4500 miles.
Cape Charles, in Labrador, is >the most eastern point; Cape
Prince of Wales, on Behring Strait, the most western.
Questions.1. What is the area of North America? Where is Cape
Barrow? Cape Mariato? What is the distance between them? What
cape is the most eastern point of the grand division? What cape the
most western?
2. What is the shape of North America? Which side is the longest?
By what ocean is it washed? Between what capes does the northern
side extend? What oceans bound it? What ocean on the eastern side?
Where is Hudson Bay? The Gulf of St. Lawrence? Chesapeake Bay?
The Gulf of Mexico? What two peninsulas border upon this gulf? Where
is the Gulf of California? Where is the Peninsula of Alaska?
Where is Greenland? Iceland? Newfoundland? Name some islands
of the West Indies. Where are the Bahama Islands? Where is Van-
couver Island?
2. The shape of North America is that of an irregular
triangle. The longest side extends from Cape Prince of
Wales to the Isthmus of Panama, and is washed by the Pa-
cific Ocean.
The two other sides are of nearly equal length. The
northern side, from Cape Prince of Wales to Cape Charles,
is washed partly by the Arctic Ocean and partly by the
Atlantic; the eastern side, by the Atlantic.
II. SURFACE.
3. North America comprises three physical regions: (1) the
Cordilleras in the west; (2) three separate highlands in the
east; (3) an extensive low plain in the center.
4. The Cordilleras extend from the Isthmus of Panama
nearly to the shores of the Arctic,Ocean and to Behring Sea,
and occupy the western part of the grand division.
*


32
GEOGRAPHY.
They consist of a number of mountain chains, trending
mostly from south-east to north-west. Two of these chains
exceed the others in height and extent.
(1) The Rocky Mountains extend from the Rio Grande nearly
to the Arctic Ocean, and consists of several ranges.
(2) The second is called, in the south, the Sierra
Nevada; in the middle, the Cascade Mountains; and
in the north, the Coast Range.
5. The plateau which lies between this chain and
the Rocky Mountains, varies in width from 300 to
1000 miles.
East of the Rocky Mountains, the country slopes
gently down to the Mississippi Valley. This long and
gradual slope is known as the Great Plains.
6. The Eastern Highlands are: (1) the Apalachian
Mountains; (2) the Heights north of the St. Lawrence
River; (3) the Arctic Plateau.
The Apalachian Mountains extend from the Gulf
of St. Lawrence, in a south -westerly direction, to Ala-
bama and Georgia. They consist of a large number
of chains trending nearly parallel to the coast.
The heights north of the St. Lawrence River extend west-
ward from the coast of Labrador, and are connected with the
Great Plains by the Height of Land.
The Arctic Plateau occupies the northern part of the grand
division, between the Arctic Ocean and Hudson Bay.
7. The Great Low Plain of the grand division lies between
the eastern and western highlands. It extends from the
Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.
About the 48th parallel, the Height of Land divides it
into two sections: (1) the Mississippi Valley, on the south;
(2) the Arctic Plain, on the north.
Mount St. Elias.
Questions.3. Name the three regions comprised in North America.
4. Describe the Cordilleras. The Rocky Mountains. Give the names
of the second chain trending along the Pacific coast.
5. What is the width of the plateau between the Rocky Mountains
and the chain on the Pacific? What and where are the Great Plains?
6. Name the three eastern highlands. Where are the Apalachian
Mountains? Describe the Heights north of the St. Lawrence River. By
what are they connected with the Great Plains? Where is the Arctic
Plateau?
7. Where is the great low plain of the grand division? Of what two
sections does it consist? What elevation lies between them?
III. RIVERS AND LAKES.
8. North America contains many long, navigable rivers.
The Rocky Mountains form the principal water-shed between
the Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Atlantic and Arctic
oceans on the east and north-east.
9. The Mackenzie drains the waters of Great Bear Lake,
Great Slave Lake, Athabasca Lake, and many others of con-
siderable size. The St. Lawrence is the outlet of lakes
Ontario, Erie, Huron, Michigan, and Superior, which cover
an area of more than 90,000 square miles. The Mississippi
traverses the central low plain, or the Mississippi Valley,
from north to south. Its largest tributary is the Missouri.
10. The Yukon rises in the Rocky Mountains, flows west,
and empties into Behring Sea. The Columbia rises in the
Rocky Mountains. The Snake River is its chief tributary.
The Colorado empties into the Gulf of California. Its*
upper course is called Green River. It rises in the Rocky
Mountains.
11. The Lake region of the grand division extends from
Labrador to the Arctic Ocean, surrounding Hudson Bay on the
east, south, and west. It includes the lakes of the St. Law-
rence and the Mackenzie river systems, and many others.
Questions,8. What mountains form the principal water-shed of North
America? What great rivers are east of these mountains?
9. What is the course of the Mackenzie? What lakes does it drain?
What tributaries has it? Of what lakes is the St. Lawrence the outlet?
Into what gulf does it empty? What plain does the Mississippi traverse?
Into what gulf does it empty? In what direction does it flow? What
is its largest tributary?
10. Describe the Yukon. What does it drain? Where does the Co-
lumbia rise? Into what gulf does the Colorado empty? What is the
name of its upper course? Where does it rise?
11. Where is the great lake region of North America? Name, from
the map, its principal lakes.
IV. CLIMATE, VEGETATION, AND ANIMALS.
12. North America lies mainly in the temperate zone.
Central America, southern Mexico, and the West Indies lie
in the torrid zone; but in these countries the heat is not
intense, being tempered by their elevation above the sea
level. The northern extremity of the grand division, the Arctic
Indian War-dance.


NORTH AMERICA.
33
Lassoing a Cougar in Central America.
Archipelago, and the larger part of Greenland lie in the
frigid zone.
13. In the extreme north of the grand division, the vegeta-
tion is very scanty, consisting chiefly of mosses. The southern
part of the Dominion of Canada is covered with pine forests.
14. The eastern part of the United States is supplied with
abundant moisture by the prevailing winds from the Atlantic
Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico, and is a forest region.
West of the Mississippi are the grass-covered prairies. The
great plains and the high plateaus west of the Rocky Mount-
ains are arid and barren steppes. The Pacific coast has
an abundant vegetation.
15. The low coast plains of Mexico and Central America
have the rich vegetation of the tropicspalms, bananas,
cocoa-trees, etc. Deciduous trees and pines, yuccas, agaves,
and a great variety of the spiny cactus plants grow on the
highlands.
16. The following animals are peculiar to North America:
the cougar, a large and ferocious animal of the cat species,
found in the wilder portions of the Apalachian Mountains,
Mexico, and Central America; the grizzly bear, in the west-
ern mountains; the raccoon, in the forests of the temperate
zone; the musk-ox, in the Arctic regions; the bison, roam-
ing in large Iierds over the great plains; turkeys, passenger-
pigeons, and rattlesnakes.
17. Among the animals which North America has in common
with the eastern continent are the polar bear, the wolf, the fox,
the otter, the deer, the elk, and the beaver.
Questions.12. What part of North America lies in the temperate zone?
What part in the tropical zone? What part in the frigid zone?
13. Of what does the vegetation consist in the extreme northern part
of North America ? In the southern part of the Dominion of Canada?
14. What is said of the vegetation of the United States?
15. Name some plants of the coast plain of Mexico and Central Amer-
ica. Of the plateaus of the same countries.
16. What animals are peculiar to North America?
17. Name some animals which North America has in common with the
eastern continent.
V. INHABITANTS AND STATES.
18. The number of inhabitants of North America is about
70,000,000. They belong to three races: the American, the
Caucasian, and the Ethiopian. The American race, or Indians,
formerly occupied the entire grand division; but they have
been gradually pushed westward, and now inhabit chiefly the
regions of the Cordilleras. At present, they do not number
more than 6,000,000.
19. The Caucasians number about 55,000,000. Germanic
blood predominates in the United States and Canada; Ro-
manic, in Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies.
The Negroes and Mulattoes. may be estimated at 9,000,000,
of whom 6,500,000 live in the United States, and nearly
2,500,000 in the West Indies.
20. North America comprises six divisions:
(1) The United States of America, containing about sixty-
seven per cent of the population of North America.
(2) The Dominion of Canada, containing about five and
a half per cent of the population.
(3) Danish America, comprising the islands of Greenland
and Iceland, containing about one tenth of one per cent.
(4) The Republic of Mexico, containing about thirteen
per cent.
(5) The five Republics of Central America, containing
three and a half per cent.
(6) The West Indies, colonies under the dominion of
different European governments, containing six per cent.
Questions.18. How many inhabitants has North America? To
what races do they belong? What is the number of Indians? Where
do they live?
19. What is the number_of Caucasians? To what nationalities do
they chiefly belong? What is the number of Negroes? How many
live in the United States? In the West Indies?
20. Name the states and colonies of North America. What part of
the grand division do the United States occupy? What part, the Domin-
ion of Canada? Mexico? Central America?






34
GEOGRAPHY.
THE UNITED STATES.
(The Map Questions on page 35 should be studied before, the Description.)
DESCRIPTION.
I. POSITION.
1. The United States occupy the central portion of North
America, between the 25th and the 49th parallels of north
latitude.
The form of the country is that of a quadrangle, or four-
sided figure. It measures 2500 miles in average extent from1?
east to west, and 1600 miles from north to south.
2. The northern boundary is formed mainly by the 49th
parallel, the great lakes, the St. Lawrence and the St. John
rivers.
3. The Atlantic Ocean washes the eastern shore of the
country. This shore has three curves. The first, from Maine'
to Cape Cod, is rocky, and indented by numerous bays. The
second, from Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras, is fiat, and indented
by New York Bay, Delaware Bay, and Chesapeake Bay. The
third, from Cape Hatteras to Florida, is low, and bordered by
numerous sandy islands.
4. The southern boundary is formed by the Gulf of Mexico,
the Rio Grande, and a broken line from this river to the Pacific
Ocean. The shore of the Gulf of Mexico resembles that of the
third curve of the Atlantic shore. The delta of the Mississippi
forms a peninsular projection.
5. The western shore is washed by the Pacific Ocean, and is
high and rocky. It is indented by Puget Sound in the north,
and by the Bay of San Francisco. Cape Flattery is the most
western point of the country, excepting Alaska.
6. The United States cover an area of over three and a
half million square miles, which is but little less than that
of the entire grand division of Europe.
In extent, the United States occupy the fourth place among
the great powers of the earth; being surpassed only by the
Chinese, Russian, and British empires.
Questions.1. What part of the grand division do the United States
occupy? What form or figure has the country? What is the average
extent from east to west? What, from north to south?
2. Describe the northern boundary..3. Describe the three curves of the
eastern shore. What two capes separate them?4. Describe the southern
boundary.5. What two indentations on the western shore ?
6. What is the area of the United States? What three empires surpass
our country in extent?
II. SURFACE.
7. The United States include the widest and most elevated
portion of the Cordilleras, nearly the entire Apalachian mount-
ain system, and the Mississippi Valley.
8. The Cordilleras occupy more than half the area of the
United States. They consist of vast arid plateaus and many
lofty mountain chains, two of which, the Rooky Mountains and
the chain near the Pacific Ocean, known by the names of the
Sierra Nevada and the Cascade Mountains, are the most im-
portant.
9. The Rocky Mountains consist of several parallel ranges,
from 9000 to 10,000 feet high. From the Rio Grande to the
South Pass, they trend due north, and inclose the valley of the
upper Rio Grande and the Parks of
Colorado.
From the South Pass to the northern
boundary of our country, they trend north-
west. The Missouri, the Columbia, and
the Colorado rise in this region.
10. The chain of the Sierra Nevada
and Cascade Mountains is nearly as high
as the Rocky- Mountains. Its crest is
about 150 mi^s distant from the Pacific
coast.
The low plain of the Sacramento and
San Joaquin rivers extends along its base,
and is separated from the ocean by the
Coast Ranges, whose mean elevation is
about 3000 feet.
11. The Colorado Plateau, between
the Rocky and the Wahsatch mountains,
is from 6000 to 7000 feet high. It
derives its name from the Colorado River, which flows through
it from north to south.
The Great Basin, from 4000 to 5000 feet high, lies between
the Wahsatch Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, and is traversed
by many less elevated mountain chains, trending nearly north
View in Alaska.


THE UNITED STATES.
35
\
\
/
MAP QUESTIONS.
Position and Outline.What portion of North America do the United
States occupy ? What country bounds them on the north ? On the south ?
What ocean on the west? On the east? What river forms part of their
southern boundary? What gulf? What river forms part of their north-
ern boundary? What great lakes? Which parallel,? What is the trend
of the eastern shore? Of the western? What peninsula in the south-east?
What cape at its southern extremity? What two capes on the Atlantic
shore of the United States? What indentations between Cape Cod and
Cape Hatteras? What cape east of Florida? Name'four capes on the
Pacific shore. What bay on this shore?
Subface.What mountains in the eastern part of the United States?
In what direction do they trend? Name some of the prominent chains
of the Apalachian Mountains. What great mountain chain is the water-
shed between the Mississippi and the rivers emptying into .the Pacific
Ocean? Describe its trend. Name some of its highest peaks. What
great mountain chains near the Pacific? What lower ranges west of
these chains? What plateau between the Wahsatch and the Rocky
Mountains? What basin between the Wahsatch Mountains and the
Sierra Nevada? What low plain between the Rocky Mountains and
the Apalachians? What low plain east of the Apalachians?
Rivers and Lakes.-Name some rivers that empty into the Atlantic
Ocean. Where do they rise? What river empties into the Bay of New
York? Into Long Island Sound? What twp rivers empty into Chesapeake
Bay? What river between Pennsylvania and New Jersey? What rivers
in North Carolina? Name two rivers rising in the Apalachian Mountains
and emptying into the Gulf of Mexico. Describe the course of the Mis-
sissippi River: its source and mouth. Describe the course of the Missouri
River. Name its principal tributaries. Describe the course of the Ar-
kansas River. Name its tributaries. Describe the course of the Red River.
What rivers empty into the Gulf of Mexico between the Mississippi and
Rio Grande? Describe the Colorado River. Name its tributaries. De-
scribe the Columbia River. The Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers.
What river ir? the Great Basin? What large lake?
Political Divisions. What states border upon the Atlantic Ocean?
What states include parts of the Apalachian Mountains? What states
border on the Gulf of Mexico? What states lie in the Mississippi Valley,
east of the Mississippi? West of the Mississippi? What state and ter-
ritories include parts of the Rocky Mountains? What state includes the
Sierra Nevada? What state and territory include the Cascade Mountains?
What states and territory border on the Pacific Ocean? Name four
divisions that lie between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada
and Cascade Mountains.
Alaska.What ocean washes the northern shore of Alaska? What sea
the western ? What ocean the southern ? What cape is the most northern
point of Alaska? What cape the most western? On what strait is
Cape Prince of Wales? From what does Behring Strait separate Alaska?
What chain of islands extends south-west of Alaska? What large river
flows through Alaska? Name some high peaks near the Pacific coast.
C o
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R R A
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AT PLA1 NS
Section along the 38th Parallel, North Latitude.
w,
and south. The Humboldt River, the Great Salt Lake, and
several other lakes in this basin, have no communication with
the sea.
The Great Plain of the Columbia River is from 800 to
2000 feet high, and lies between the Cascade and the Rocky
mountains, north of the Great Basin. The Columbia River
drains this plain, breaks through the Cascade Mountains, and
empties into the Pacific Ocean.
12. The Apalachian Mountain System is divided by the
valleys of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers into two sections.
The northern section occupies New England and a part of
New York. The White Mountains, in New Hampshire, are
the highest group. Some of their peaks are over 6000 feet
high. The Qreen Mountains, east of Lake Champlain and the
Hudson River, are a long chain, about 3000 feet high.
The Adirondack Mountains, west of Lake Champlain and
north of the valley of the Mohawk, consist of several irregular
groups and chains. Numerous beautiful mountain lakes lie
among them. The scenery of this region is, picturesque.
13. The southern section of the Apalachians extends south-
Sch.5
west of the Mohawk and the Hudson. It consists of nu-
merous parallel ranges, the most important of which are the
Blue Ridge and the Alleghany Mountains.
The most elevated range of the Apalachian system is the
Black Mountains, in North Carolina. It forms a spur, which
projects from the Blue Ridge.
14. The Atlantic Coast Plain, which extends along the
eastern base of the Apalachians, has an area of over 100,000
square miles. In New England, it is about 50 miles wide.
Near the mouth of the Hudson River, its width is much less,
as the spurs of the mountains approach close to the sea shore.
South of New York, it increases in width, and measures, in
the latitude of Cape Hatteras, 300 miles from east to west.
15. The Mississippi Talley lies between the Apalachian
system on the east, and the Rocky Mountains on the west.
It has been compared to an immense trough, the lowest part
of which is occupied by the bed of the Mississippi River.
The central part of this valley is a low plain, of exhaustless
fertility. It rises toward the west, and forms a gently inclined
plain, uniting, in the western part, with the Great Plains.


36
GEOGRAPHY.
The Ozark Mountains, south of the
Missouri River, and trending west
from the Mississippi, are very broken
in the eastern portion, but in the west
form a broad table-land: their eleva-
tion nowhere exceeds 2,000 feet.
Questions. 7. What physical regions
are included within the United States?
8. Which are the two most important
mountain chains of the western highlands?-^
9. Describe the Rocky Mountains. Where
is the South Pass?10. Describe the Sierra
Nevada and the Cascade Mountains. Where
are the Coast Mountains?
11. Describe the Colorado Plateau. The
Great Basin. The Great Plain of the Colum-
bia River. 12. What valleys divide the
Apalaehian mountain system into two sec-
tions? Where are the White Mountains?
Where are the Green Mountains? The
Adirondack Mountains?
13. Describe the southern section. Where
is the Blue Ridge? Where are the Alle-
ghany Mountains? Which is the highest
ridge of the Apalaehian system ?
14. Describe the Atlantic coast plain.
15. Describe the Mississippi Valley. What part of it is a low plain?
Where are the Ozark Mountains?
Name the mountains and plains a traveler would cross in passing along
the 38th parallel from east to west. (See Section on page 35.)
III. RIVERS AND LAKES.
16. The largest river is the Mississippi, which rises in
Lake Itasea, in Minnesota, 1575 feet above the level of the
sea. It is navigable for large steamers from its mouth to the
Falls of St. Anthony, at Minneapolis, a distance of over 1950
miles, and for smaller steam-boats 400 miles further. The
Mississippi and its tributaries drain nearly one half of the
area of the United States.
Bridge at Quincy, 111.
Its largest eastern tributary is the Ohio. The most important
western tributaries are the Missouri, Arkansas, and Red rivers.
The Missouri rises in the Rocky Mountains, and can be
navigated by small steamers nearly to their base. Its course is
much longer than that of the Mis-
sissippi to their junction.
17. The Atlantic coast plain is
traversed by many large streams,
which rise among the Apalaehian
Mountains.
The Rio Grande rises in southern
Colorado, and empties into the Gulf
of Mexico.
The two largest rivers west of the
Rocky Mountains are the Columbia
and the Colorado.
18. The northern part of the United
States includes a portion of the lake
region of North America. The Great
Lakes form the largest fresh water
basin of the world, and their com-
bined area is nearly equal to that
of the states of New York and Penn-
sylvania. The chain comprises lakes
Superior, Huron, Michigan, Erie, and
Ontario. They are drained by the
St. Lawrence River, which issues from Lake Ontario.
The states on the 44th parallel, from Maine to Dakota,
contain multitudes of lakes of less extent.
19. The Cordilleras also embrace numerous lakes. Yellow
Stone Lake, in Wyoming, is famous for the grandeur of its sur-
rounding scenery. Great Salt Lake, near the base of the Wah-
satch Mountains, like the other lakes of the Great Basin, has
no outlet to the sea, and its water is salt.
Questions.16. Which is the largest river of the United States? What
lake is its source? 'Where is Lake Itasca situated? How far is the Mis-
sissippi navigable? What is the area of its basin? Name its most im-
portant tributaries. What is said of the course of the Missouri ?
17. Name from the map some rivers traversing the Atlantic coast plain.
Describe the Rio Grande: Name two rivers west- of the Rocky Mount-
ains.18. What is said of the lake region? Of the Great Lakes?
Name them and their outlet. What states contain many small lakes?
19. Describe the western lake region.
IV. CLIMATE, VEGETATION, AND ANIMALS.
20. The United States are situated within the warmer part
of the temperate zone.
Northern Maine and northern Minnesota, with a mean annual
temperature of 40, are the coldest parts of the country; and south-
ern Florida, with a mean temperature of 75, is the warmest.
21. With regard to Vegetation, the United States may be
divided into four regions:
(1) The Forest region includes the states lying east of the
Mississippi River, except Illinois and part of Wisconsin. It
receives copious rains in the warm seasons, and snow, in the
northern portions, in the winter.
(2) The Prairie region, west of the preceding, and extending
to the Great Plains. It is covered with grasses and herbaceous
plants. Trees grow only on the borders of the streams.
Sherman Falls California.


THE UNITED STATES.
37
(3) The Steppe region, embracing the Great Plains and the
plateaus of the Cordilleras. It has a barren soil, an arid
climate, and a very scanty vegetation.
(4) The Pacific region, west of the Sierra Nevada and the
Cascade Mountains.' It has a fertile soil, and is supplied with
abundant moisture by the westerly winds.
22. The principal wild animals are the bison, or buffalo;
grizzly, black, and cinnamon bears; the wolf, lynx, wild cat, and
panther; and various kinds of deer, rabbits, and squirrels. Rac-
coons, opossums, and foxes are found in the forest regions;
prairie-dogs, on the western plains; and beaver, chiefly in the
north-central part of the country.
The eagle, the wild turkey, progenitor of the domestic turkey,
the prairie-hen, the wild pigeon, ducks, and geese inhabit vari-
ous sections of the country.
Questions.20. In what zone are the United States situated ? Which
is the coldest part? What is its mean annual temperature? Which is
the warmest part? What is its mean temperature?
21. Into what four regions are the United States divided as regards
vegetation? Describe the forest region. Describe the prairie region.
Describe the steppe region. Describe the Pacific region.
22. Name some of the wild animals.
V. INHABITANTS AND OCCUPATIONS.
23. The number of inhabitants in the United States is
about 50,000,000. They belong to four races: the Caucasian,
the Ethiopian, the Indian, and the Mongolian.
24. The Caucasians are chiefly descendants of the English,
the Germans, and the Irish. They are estimated to number
43,400,000.
The Ethiopians consist of negroes and mulattoes, and number
about 6,500,000. They are descendants of slaves, who were, in
former times, brought from Africa.
The Indians are the aborigines of the grand division, and
formerly occupied the whole country. They have greatly de-
creased in number, and now live almost exclusively in the region
occupied by the Cordilleras. Their number is about 300,000.
The Mongolian race is represented by Chinese emigrants, who
live as laborers, mechanics, and merchants in California and
adjacent divisions.
25. A large proportion of the inhabitants of the United
States live in the eastern half of the country. But a little
over five millions reside in the western half. The 95th me-
ridian roughly marks the boundary between the densely and
the thinly inhabited regions.
The above sketch-map shows this, and fully exhibits the comparative
density of population. The most thickly populated parts of the country
(marked 5), having over ninety inhabitants to the square mile, lie in a
belt extending from southern New England to western Pennsylvania. Then
follow parts of the North Central States (marked 4), with from foity-five
to ninety inhabitants to the square mile; while from here, in a southerly
and westerly direction, the density gradually decreases. The population
in the western half of the country is chiefly along the Pacific coast, in
the valley of Great Salt Lake, and along the southern ranges of the
Eocky Mountains.


38
GEOGRAPHY.
26. The principal occupations of the people of our country
are agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and commerce.
Agriculture is the leading industry. This country excels in
the immense area and wonderful fertility of its agricultural
region, extending from the Atlantic coast to the Great Plains,
and embracing the valleys near the Pacific coast.
Gathering Corn and Pumpkins.
ever, ranks second in sheep-raising, and Vermont produces the
finest wool. Swine are raised for pork and lard. Their number
is largest in the corn-producing states.
29. The fisheries of the Atlantic coast, including the oyster
trade,, are industries of considerable importance.
30. Mining. Our country is the richest in the world as
regards the production of metals and other useful minerals.
Gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, salt,, quicksilver, coal, iron, and
petroleum, are mined in various places throughout the country.
The value of the gold and silver product for the twenty years
from 1848 to 1868 was more than a thousand millions of
dollars; and later developments in the Cordilleras have re-
vealed veins of ore rich beyond all precedent.
Copper is mined chiefly in Michigan, near Lake Superior. Wisconsin,
Missouri, Illinois, and Iowa have the richest lead mines. Iron is produced
in the Apalachians, in Michigan, and other Central States. Coal abounds
in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and West Virginia, and westward to Kansas
and Nebraska. The coal-fields of the United States are inexhaustible,
and cover an area of over 130,000 square miles.
27. The following are the agricultural staple products:
(1) Maize, or Indian corn, is raised most abundantly in the central and
southern states. Illinois ranks first in this product; then follow Iowa,
Missouri, Indiana, Ohio, and Kansas.
(2) Wheat is, next to corn, the most important crop. It requires less
heat than corn; hence its range extends farther north, hut not as far
south. Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, California, Iowa, and Minnesota produce r
the most wheat.
(3) Oats, hay, barley, rye, buckwheat, hops, and flax are largely produced.
Most of these thrive well throughout the entire agricultural region, but
are chiefly raised in New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Ohio, Iowa, and
Wisconsin.
(4) Cotton is the leading product of the Southern states, especially in
Mississippi, Arkansas, Alabama, and Texas. Large quantities are exported.
Bice is cultivated along the low coast south of Cape Hatteras. South
Carolina, Georgia, Louisiana, and North Carolina are foremost in rice
culture.
(6) Potatoes are raised from Alabama and Georgia to the shores of the
Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River.
(6) Sugar is a tropical plant, and its cultivation in the United States
is confined to the Mississippi delta in Louisiana.
(7) Tobacco and hemp are indigenous in America. These plants are cul-'
tivated chiefly in Kentucky, Virginia, Tennessee, Ohio, Maryland, and
Missouri. Tobacco is also raised in the Connecticut Valley.
Cotton Press.
28. Stock-breeding and grazing are important branches of
agriculture. Horses, cattle, and sheep are chiefly bred in the
North Central and Middle Atlantic states. California, how-
Mining Scene.
31. The manufactories produce the greatest variety of use-
ful and necessary articles; as iron materials, cotton and woolen
fabrics, flour, lumber, machinery, clothing, boots and shoes, leather,
carriages, books, paper, furniture, etc.
New York, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts greatly exceed the other
states in the value of their manufactures. Then follow Ohio, Missouri,
Illinois, New Jersey, Connecticut, Michigan, and Rhode Island.
32. Commerce. The American nation ranks second in the
commerce of the world, the English being the first. The
foreign commerce centers chiefly in the following sea-ports:
New York, Boston, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New Orleans,
Mobile, Savannah, and San Francisco.
The principal exports are cotton, flour, grain, pork, petroleum, gold,
and manufactures. The principal imports are dry goods, leather, and
other manufactures from Europe; coffee, hides, and sugar from the West
Indies and South America; and tea and silk from China and Japan.
33. The domestic commerce far exceeds the foreign in the
amount and value of the goods sold. It is greatly faeilitated
by the navigable waters and railroads of the country.
The coasting trade, in which thousands of vessels are en-
gaged, is an important branch of our domestic commerce.


THE UNITED STATES.
39
34. The railroads of the United States have a total length
of nearly 100,000 miles, which is almost as much as that of
all the European railroads together.
Trunk lines connect the leading sea-ports and lake-ports with
the inland cities, while two railroads cross the continent to the
Pacific coast. Indeed, few cities of importance in this country
are without railroad connections.
35. The combined length of the navigable rivers is estimated
at 50,000 miles. The Mississippi River, with its tributaries,
forms one of the most extensive systems of water-ways on the
globe.
A vessel at New Orleans can ascend the river to St. Louis, and thence,
by the upper Mississippi, to St. Paul; or, by the Missouri, to the base
of the Rocky Mountains; or, by the Ohio river, to Pittsburgh.
36. The most important water-way is formed by the Great
Lakes, the Erie Canal, from Buffalo to Albany, and the Hudson
River to New York. It is the only water communication be-
tween a sea-port on the Atlantic coast and the central region of v
the country, and has greatly contributed to make New York
the foremost commercial city of America.
Aaj
Questions.23. What is the number of inhabitants in the United -
States? 24. What is said of the Caucasians? Ethiopians? Indians?
Mongolians?25. In what part do nearly all the inhabitants live?
26. What are the principal occupations? Which is the fertile region?-
27. Name the agricultural products. Where are they chiefly grown?A
28. Where are horses and cattle raised? Sheep? Swine? 29. What is
said of the fisheries?
30. What minerals abound? Where is copper mined? Lead? Iron?
Coal? 31. Name the principal manufactured articles.
32. What is said about commerce?- Name the exports., The imports.
33. What is. said of domestic commerce? 34. What is said of railroads?
35. Of the navigable rivers? 36. What is the most important water-way?
YI. GOVERNMENT AND STATES.
37. The various states and territories of our country are
united under a general government, which is republican in
form.
The legislative function of the government is vested in
Congress, which is composed of two houses: a Senate and a
House of Representatives.
Each state is represented in the Senate by two members, or Senators,
who are elected for a term of six years; in the House of Representatives,
by one member for every 134,675 inhabitants. Each territory is repre-
sented by one delegate, who may debate on all matters relating to his
territory, but can not vote.
38. The executive function is vested in a President, who is
elected for a term of four years. With the concurrence of the
Senate, he appoints military and civil officers, declares war,
concludes peace, and makes treaties with foreign powers. He
is commander-in-chief of the army and navy.
The judicial function is vested in a Supreme Court, consisting
of a chief justice and eight associate justices, who hold a session
once a year, in Washington.
39. Each state or territory has its own separate, government,
consisting of a Legislature, a Governor, and a Supreme Court.
The legislature is composed of a Senate and a House of
Representatives, or Assembly.
The governors of states are elected; those of territories are
appointed by the President.
40. The District of Columbia is situated on the northern
bank of the Potomac River, and has an area of 64 square miles.
It was ceded to the general government by the state of Maryland
Washington, the capital of the United States, lies in this dis
trict. It is in longitude 77 3' west from Greenwich. American
geographers sometimes reckon longitude from the capital.
41. The United States consist of 38 states, 8 territories, the
district of Columbia, Alaska, and the Indian Territory.
The states and territories may be conveniently classed under
the following three groups, each of which includes one of the
great physical regions:
(1) The Eastern or Atlantic States include the Atlantic
coast plain and the Apalachian Mountains. They comprise
three sections:
(i)
New England States*
y"
1. Maine,
2. New Hampshire^
3. Vermont,
4. Massachusetts,
5. Rhode Island, ^
6. Connecticut__
(2)
Middle States.
1. New York,"~
2. Pennsylvania^
3. New Jersey,
4. Delaware,
5. Maryland,
6. Virginia,
7. West Virginia,
Dist. of Columbia.
(3)
South-eastern States.
1. North Carolina,
2. South Carolina,
3. Georgia, -
4. Alabama,
5. Florida.
(2) The Central States occupy the Mississippi Valley, and
comprise three sections:
(i)
Hortli Central States,
East of the Mississippi.
1. Ohio,
2. Indiana,
3. Illinois,
4. Michigan,
5. Wisconsin,
6. Kentucky.
(2)
North Central States,
West of the Mississippi.
1. Missouri,
2. Iowa,
3. Minnesota,
4. Dakota T.,
5. Nebraska,
6. Kansas.
(3)
South Central States.
1. Tennessee,
2. Mississippi,
3. Louisiana,
4. Arkansas,
5. Texas,
Indian Territory.
(3) The Western states and Territories occupy the region
of the Cordilleras.
(D
Rocky Mountll States.
1. Montana T.,
2. Wyoming T.,
3. Colorado,
4. New Mexico T.
(2)
Plateau States.
1. Idaho T.,
2. Utah T.,
3. Arizona T.,
4. Nevada.
(3)
Pacific States.
1. California,
2. Oregon,
3. Washington T.
Alaska.
Questions. 37. What is the form of our government? By whom is
the legislative function wielded?38. The executive function? The judi-
cial function?
89. What is said of the government of a state? Of the government of
a territory?
40. Where is the District of Columbia situated? What is its area?
What city lies in it? In what longitude is Washington?
41. How many states and territories are in the United States? Under
how many groups are they classed? What physical regions are included
in the Eastern States? Name the three sections of the Eastern States.
Name the states of each section. What region is occupied by the Central
States? Name the three sections. Name the states and territories of each
section. What region is occupied by the Western States and Territories?
Name the states aDd territories of this group.


i
i


ZJ^Ad^ A
THE NEW ENGLAND STATES.
41
THE HEW EH GLAND STATES.
QUESTIONS AND MAP STUDIES.
Position and Outline.What part of our country forms the New
England States? What political division bounds them on the north and
east? What state on the west? What ocean washes their shore?
What capes project from Massachusetts into the Atlantic Ocean?
What islands lie south-east of Massachusetts? Name the bays on the
coast of Maine. What bays east of Massachusetts? What sound and
bay south? What bay in Rhode Island? On what sound does Con-
necticut border?
Sure ace. What mountain chain traverses Vermont? What is the
trend of the Green Mountains? Name the two mountain chains in west-
ern Massachusetts? What river east of the Green and the Hoosic
mountains? What high mountains lie east of the Connecticut River?
Name two peaks of the White Mountains. Name two mountains in
northern Maine. Name some single mountains in Massachusetts.
Rivers and Lakes.What river on the northern boundary of
Maine? Describe its course. What river on the eastern boundary?
What lake is drained by St. Croix River? Name the three largest rivers
in Maine. What lakes are drained by the Penobscot? What lake by
the Kennebec ?
What river separates New Hampshire from Vermont? What is the
course of the Connecticut? Where does it empty? What river flows
through New Hampshire? What lake is drained by a branch of the
Merrimac? What river flows through eastern Connecticut? What river
through western Massachusetts and Connecticut?
States and Cities.Name the three northern New England states.
What state extends farthest north? Name the three southern New Eng-
land states. Which of the six states is the largest? Which is the smallest?
Bound Maine. What is its capital? On what river is it situated?
What city on the Penobscot?- What city on Casco Bay?
Bound New Hampshire. What is its capital? On what river is it sit-
uated? Name two other towns on the Merrimac. What is the seaport
of New Hampshire?
Bound Vermont. What is its capital? On what river is it situated?
What city on Lake Champlain? What town near Otter Creek?
Bound Massachusetts. What is its capital ? Where is it situated ? What
cities on the Merrimac? What city about half-way between Boston and
the Connecticut? Name some towns on the Connecticut. Name some
town in the western part of the state on the Housatonic.
Bound Rhode Island. Name its two capitals. Where is Newport?
Where is Providence?
Bound Connecticut. What is its capital ? Where is Hartford ? Where
is New Haven ? Name some cities on Long Island Sound.
3.1
DESCRIPTION.
I. POSITION.
1. The New England States are the most north-eastern
section of our country. They extend from the Atlantic Ocean
' to the valley of the Hudson River and Lake Champlain.
2. Maine is larger than the five other states together; yet
it is but two thirds the size of New York or Pennsylvania.
II. SURFACE.
3. This section includes the northern part of the Apala-
chian system. Its surface is exceedingly rough and broken.
Two well-defined belts of elevations traverse New England
from north to south.
4. The first of these lies west of the Connecticut, between
that river and the Hudson and Lake Champlain.
It comprises the Green Mountains in Vermont, and the
Hoosic and Taconie mountains, in Massachusetts.
5. The Green Mountains consist of a long and elevated
range, whose slopes are covered with pine, spruce, and hem-
lock forests. Several peaks are more than 4000 feet high; as
Mount Mansfield and Killington Peak.
The Hoosic and Taconic mountains traverse western Mas-
sachusetts. They are parallel ranges, inclosing the valley of
the upper Housatonic, and form the southern continuation of
the Green Mountains.
6. The second range lies east of the Connecticut, and in-
cludes several detached and irregular mountain groups. The
Sch. 6.
White Mountains are the highest of these. Their loftiest
peak, Mount Washington, is 6288 feet in height.

&
m

3f
&



A.

Summit of Mount Washington.
New Hampshire is often called the Switzerland of America, on account
of the grandeur and sublimity of its mountain scenery. No other sum-
mit east of the Mississippi affords so magnificent a view as that of Mt.
Washington. Mountains and hills meet the eye in every direction, and
among them lakes of rare beauty are seen.
7. South of the White Mountains, and on the same belt
of heights, are Kearsarge, Monadnock, Sunapee, and Wachu-
sett mountains, and several other isolated peaks.
1


42
T
GEOGRAPHY.
:_, W. k.
The Atlantic coast plain lies between this belt and the
ocean. It is from 50 to 75 miles wide, and diversified by
rocky hills and gentle undulations.
Questions.1. Describe the position of the New England States.
2. Which is the largest state of this section?
3. What part of the Apalachian Mountains do they include?4. Be-
tween what valleys does the western belt of elevations extend? What
mountain chain does it comprise?5. Describe the Green Mountains.
Name two of their highest peaks. Describe the Hoosic and Taconic
mountains. What valley do they inclose?
6. Where is the second belt of elevations? Which is the highest of its
mountain groups? Name the highest peak of the White Mountains.
7. Where is Kearsarge Mountain? Sunapee Mountain? Monadnock
Mountain? Wachusett Mountain? What is the width of the coast plain?
III. RIVERS AND LAKES.
8. New England has many rivers of considerable size, but
their fall is so great that they are not navigable beyond a
short distance from the sea.
The St. John drains the northern part of Maine, and
flows through New Brunswick. The St. Croix, the outlet of
Schoodic and Grand lakes, forms part of the eastern bound-
ary of Maine. It is navigable as far as Calais.
The two largest rivers of Maine are the Penobscot, which
is navigable to Bangor, and the Kennebec, which drains Moose-
head Lake. The Androscoggin is a branch of the Kennebec.
The Saco river rises in the White Mountains.
Public Gardens at Boston.
9. The Merrimac rises in the White Mountains, and re-
ceives the outlet of Winnipiseogee Lake. It is navigable to
Haverhill. The Nashua is its principal tributary. The Con-
necticut is the largest river of New England. It rises in
northern New Hampshire, flows south, and empties into Long
Island Sound. It is navigable to Hartford. The Housatonic
flows through western Massachusetts and Connecticut.
10. Lake Champlain forms part of the western boundary of Ver-
mont. Its outlet, Richelieu River, empties into the St. Lawrence.
Questions.8. Describe the course of the St. John. Of the St. Croix.
Of the Penobscot. Of the Kennebec. Of the Androscoggin.
9. Describe the course of the Merrimac. Of the Connecticut. Of the
Housatonic.
10. Where are the following lakes: Grand Lake? Schoodic Lake?
Moosehead Lake? Moosetocmaguntic Lake? Sebago Lake? Lake Win-
Dipiseogee? Lake Champlain?
IV. CLIMATE AND VEGETATION.
11. New England has a cold climate. The winters are
long and severe; the summers short and warm. In the
north, the period of vegetation lasts but four months; in
the south, five months. Snow and rain are abundant.
12. The forests which cover the mountain slopes and the
northern part of this section, consist of pines, spruce, firs,
hemlocks, and other evergreen trees. The forests of the val-
leys and plains are composed of maples, elms, and other
deciduous trees.
V. INHABITANTS AND OCCUPATIONS.
13. The inhabitants of New England are mainly descend-
ants of the first English settlers, and are noted for their
intelligence, industry, and enterprise.
14. Agriculture is carried on extensively, although the
soil is not very productive.
The agricultural products are: Indian corn and wheat, rye,
Irish potatoes, oats, and hay. Tobacco is cultivated in the
Connecticut valley. Wool is raised mainly in Vermont.
15. The great abundance of water-power afforded by its
rapid streams, enables New England to excel every other
section of the Union in the value and extent of its mauu-
factures. Cotton and woolen goods are the principal staples.
16. New England is abundantly provided with railroads.
There is one mile of railroad to every eleven square miles of
area. Eastern Massachusetts, particularly, is' crossed by rail-
roads in every direction.
Questions. 11. Describe the climate of New England. 12. De-
scribe the vegetation.
13. Of what descent are the people of New England?
14. What is said about agriculture? Name the principal staples raised.
15. What renders New England well fitted for manufacturing?
16. What is said about railroads?
VI. STATES AND CITIES.
MAINE.
17. Maine is the most eastern state in the Union, and is
the largest of the New England states. The coast is rocky,
and indented with numerous bays.
Lumbering and ship-building are the principal occupations.
The hardy lumber-men pass the winters in the great forests,
felling trees and hauling the logs to the banks of the rivers.
In the spring and summer, they float them down to the saw-
mills, where they are sawed into lumber.
18. Augusta, the capital, is the chief depot of the lumber
trade on the Kennebec. Portland, on Casco Bay, is the prin-
cipal sea-port. Bangor is the chief depot of the lumber trade
on the Penobscot. Eastport, on Passamaquoddy Bay, Bath, on
the Kennebec, Brunsioick, on the Androscoggin, and Saco, on
the Saco River, are important towns.
NEW HAMPSHIRE.
19. New Hampshire lies south-west of Maine. Its south-
eastern part borders on the ocean. Farming and manufac-
turing are the principal pursuits.


THE NEW ENGLAND STATES.
43
20. Concord, on the Merrimac, is the capital, and has con-
siderable trade. Portsmouth, near the mouth of the Piscataqua
River, is the only sea-port.' A government navy-yard is
located on an island near it. Manchester and Nashua, on
the Merrimac, are largo manufacturing towns. Hanover, on
the Connecticut, is the seat of Dartmouth College.;
i
\
VERMONT.
Willoughby Lake.
21. Vermont lies west of New Hampshire, between the
Connecticut River and Lake Champlain. The valleys con-
tain much fertile land. Agriculture and stock-raising are the
principal occupations of the people.
Montpelier, on the Onion, or Winooski River, east of the
main ridge of the Green Mountains, is the capital. Burling-
ton, on Lake Champlain, is the largest city. Rutland is a
pleasant town in the western part of the state.
MASSACHUSETTS.
Granite Quarry at Quinoy.
22. Massachusetts lies south of Vermont and New Hamp-
shire. The Connecticut flows through the center of this
state, and the Housatonic through its western part.
23. It is the first manufacturing state of the Union. Cot-
ton and woolen goods, paper, hardware, sheet and railroad
iron, machinery, tanned leather, and boots and shoes are some
of the chief articles manufactured.
Many of the towns on the coast are largely engaged in the
cod and mackerel fisheries on the Banks of Newfoundland,
and New Bedford is the greatest whaling port in the world.
Massachusetts is noted for the excellence of its schools
and colleges, and the wide diffusion of information among
the people.
24. Boston, situated at the head of Massachusetts Bay, is the
capital, and the metropolis of New England. It is noted for its
literary and scientific institutions. Near it is Cambridge, the seat
of Harvard University.
Plymouth, on Massachusetts Bay, was founded by the Pilgrim
Fathers, who landed there in 1620.
New Bedford is an active manufacturing town. Lowell and
Lawrence, on the Merrimac, and Fall River, on Narragansett
Bay, have extensive cotton and woolen factories. At Lynn, la-
dies shoes are manufactured ; at Taunt-on, steam-engines. Salem,
lying north of Boston, is a sea-port. Springfield, on the Connec-
ticut contains a United States armory and arsenal. Worcester is
an important manufacturing city.
RHODE ISLAND.
25. This is the smallest of the United States, and lies
south of Massachusetts. It comprises the islands in Narra-
gansett Bay, and the country surrounding it.
The principal manufactures are cotton and woolen goods.
.-. Rhode Island has two capitals: Providence, on the Black-
stone River, and Newport, on an island in Narragansett
Bay. Woonsocket and Pawtucket arc important manufacturing
cities.
CONNECTICUT.
26. Connecticut lies south of Massachusetts, and west of
Rhode Island. It is crossed from north to south by sev-
eral ranges of hills. The valleys contain much fertile soil.
Farming and manufacturing are the chief occupations.
There are manufactories in nearly every city and town.
Hartford, on the Connecticut, is the capital. New Haven, on
Long Island Sound, is the seat of Yale College, and the principal
city.
New London, near the mouth of the Thames, and Stoning-
tom are largely engaged in the coasting trade.
Bridgeport, on Long Island Sound, has extensive manu-
factories. Stamford, on Long Island Sound, is noted for its
handsome residences.
Questions.17. Maine: Bound it. Describe its surface. Its coasts.
Name the principal occupations. 18. What and where is the capital?
Where is Portland? Bangor? Eastport? Bath? Brunswick? Saco?
19. New Hampshire: Bound it. Describe its surface. What are the pur-
suits of the people?20. What and where is the capital? Where is Ports-
mouth? Manchester? Nashua? Hanover?
21. Vermont: Bound it. Describe its surface. What is the chief
occupation of the people? What and where is the capital? Where is
Burlington ? Rutland?
22. Massachusetts: Bound it. Describe its surface. What rivers flow
through it?23. What is said of the manufactures? Name another industry.
WTiat is said of its schools and colleges? 24. What and where is the
capital? Where is Cambridge? Plymouth? New Bedford? Lowell?
Lawrence? Lynn? Taunton? Fall River? Salem? Springfield?
Worcester?
25. Rhode Island: Bound it. Describe its surface. Name the two
capitals. Where is Newport? Providence? Woonsocket? Pawtucket?
26. Connecticut: Bound it. Describe its surface. What are the chief
occupations of the people? What is the capital? Where is Hartford?
New Haven? New London? Stonington? Bridgeport? Stamford?




THE MIDDLE STATES.
45

J&'ypx
THE MIDDLE STATES. fi
\
Y
QUESTIONS AND MAP STUDIES.
Position and Outline. What parallel bounds this section on the
north? On the south? What three states form the northern half of
the eastern boundary? What ocean the southern half? What lakes and
rivers bound it on the north-west? What states on the west? What
states on the south?
Name the three principal shore indentations on the east. What state
lies in the same latitude as southern New England?
course of the Monongahela. Of the Alleghany. What river do they
form? What large river forms the north-western boundary of West
Virginia?
What tributaries does the Ohio receive in West Virginia? What is
the upper course of the Great Kanawha called?
Trace the water-shed between the rivers emptying into the Atlantic
and those emptying into the St. Lawrence, the great lakes, and the Ohio.
Surface. What mountains occupy the angle between the Hudson
and the Mohawk? What is the trend of the Adirondack Mountains?
Name the principal chains in Pennsylvania. How do they trend? Name
the principal chains in Virginia and West Virginia. How do they trend ?
What chain in Virginia is the continuation of the Blue Mountains in
Pennsylvania? What range extends along the western boundary of
Virginia ?
Rivers and Lakes.What river empties into the Bay of New York?
Among what mountains does the Hudson rise ? What is its course ? Name
its largest western tributary. In what direction does the Mohawk flow ?
What river forms the eastern boundary of Pennsylvania? Name one
of its western tributaries. What river of Pennsylvania empties into Ches-
apeake Bay? Describe the course of the Susquehanna. Of the North
Branch. Of the West Branch. What tributary does the Susquehanna
receive from the west ?
What river separates Virginia from Maryland ? Where is the source of
the Potomac? Its mouth? What tributary does it receive? Between
what ranges does the Shenandoah flow?
What river empties into the southern part of Chesapeake Bay? De-
scribe the course of the James River. Through what mountain range
does it pass? What swamp in the south-east corner of Virginia?
What rivers in New York empty into the St. Lawrence? What three
rivers empty into Lake Ontario?
Of what lakes is the Oswego River the outlet? What river connects
Labes Erie and Ontario? What lake is on the north-eastern boundary of
New York?
What two rivers in Pennsylvania join near Pittsburgh? Describe the

(
States and Cities. Name' the states of this section. Which of them
border upon the ocean? Which upon Lake Erie? Which borders upon
Lake Ontario?
What is the capital of New York? The largest sea-port? Name
some towns on the Hudson. On the Mohawk. On the lakes which are
drained by the Oswego. On the Genesee. On Lake Ontario. On Lake
Erie. What part of the state is almost without towns? What city on
Long Island, opposite New York?
What is the capital of Pennsylvania? Its largest city? Where is
Philadelphia situated? What large cities at the confluence of the Monon-
gahela and the Alleghany? What city in Pennsylvania on Lake Erie?
What is the capital of New Jersey? What town lies opposite Phila-
delphia? What towns on the railroad between Philadelphia and New
York? What cape at the southern end of New Jersey?
What is the capital of Delaware? What city on the Delaware?
What cape at the entrance of Delaware Bay ?
What is the capital of Maryland? Its largest sea-port? What bay
divides the state into two parts? Name two towns on the Potomac.
What is the capital of Virginia? Where is it situated? What city
south of Richmond? On what river does Petersburg lie? What city on
the Rappahannock? Name some inland towns east of the Blue Ridge.
Name some towns in the Shenandoah Valley.
What is the capital of West Virginia? Where is it situated? What
city on the Great Kanawha River? What city at the mouth of the
Little Kanawha ?
On what river is Washington located? AVhat can you say of Wash"
ington? What city lies near it? , 'N
AS - /*
rr DESCRIPTION.
I. POSITION.
1. The Middle States lie between 36J and 45 north lat-
itude. Their combined area is nearly three times that of
New England. New York and Pennsylvania are the largest
states of this section, and have nearly the same area (46,000
square miles). Delaware is the smallest.
2. New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and Vir-
ginia border on the Atlantic Ocean. The coast is indented
by three bays.
New York Bay extends between New Jersey and southern
New York. The entrance is north of Sandy Hook.
Delaware Bay extends between New Jersey and Delaware.
Cape May and Cape Henlopen are at its entrance.
Chesapeake Bay extends north from Cape Henry and Cape
Charles, for a distance of 180 miles. It is surrounded by
Maryland and Virginia. Thu shores are deeply indented by
numerous small bays.
II. SURFACE.
3. The larger part of the Middle States is occupied by
the Apalachian mountain system. Two low depressions ex-
tend across this system. The first is the valley of the Hud-
son River and Lake Champlain, which extends north and
south; the second, which branches off from the first at right
angles, is the valley of the Mohawk.
4. The Adirondack Mountains lie between the valley of
Lake Champlain on the east, the Mohawk valley on the
south, and the valley of the St. Lawrence on the north and
west. They consist of several chains, trending mostly from
north-east to south-west, and are celebrated for their beauti-
ful mountain lakes and picturesque scenery. Mount Marcy
(5379 feet in height) is their highest peak.
5. South of the Mohawk Valley, the Apalachian region
rises gradually, and extends south as far as Georgia and
Alabama.


46
GEOGRAPHY.
New York Bay.
It is composed of a large number of mountain ranges. The
Catskill Mountains, on the west bank of the Hudson, are
the only chain which trends from south-east to north-west.
6. All the other chains trend from north-east to south-
west, and are parallel to each other. Of the numerous val-
leys which lie between these chains, one is by far the most
important. This great valley passes from the banks of the
Hudson through western New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland,
Virginia, and eastern Tennessee.
Different parts of this valley bear local names. In Virginia, its
northern portion is called the Shenandoah Valley.
7. The eastern boundary of the Great Valley, in Virginia,
is formed by the Blue Ridge. It is from 2000 to 3000 feet
high, and contains several peaks of more than 4000 feet in
elevation.
v The Blue Ridge terminates on the southern bank of the Potomac
River. The South Mountains of Maryland, may be considered its north-
ern continuation.
8. On the west, the Great Valley is bounded by a broad
belt of mountain chains. One of these is called, in Penn-
sylvania, the Blue Mountains, and in the Virginias, the Great
North Mountains.
The Alleghany Mountains are farther west, and traverse
Pennsylvania and the Virginias. They are the highest range
of this section of the Apalachian system.
There are lower ranges still further west, as the Chestnut
Ridge and Laurel Ridge, in Pennsylvania, and the Greenbrier
Mountains and Rich Mountain, in West Virginia. Beyond
these ridges lies a hilly table-land, which gradually slopes
down to the valley of the Ohio River.
9. The Atlantic Coast Plain extends from the Bay of
New York to the south-west, and includes south-eastern New
Jersey, a small portion of Pennsylvania, eastern Maryland
and Virginia, and Delaware.
In New York, this plain is but a few miles wide. It increases in
width to 125 miles in southern Pennsylvania, and 175 miles in southern
Virginia.
10. It consists of the tide-water section and a belt of hilly
lands near the foot of the mountains.
The boundary between the two is marked by the Ridge,
a line of rocky bluffs and slopes. The principal cities of this
section lie near this ridge; as, Newark, Trenton, Philadelphia,
Baltimore, Washington, Richmond, and Petersburg.
Questions.1. Describe the position of the Middle States. What
two states are the largest? Which is the smallest?
2. What states border upon the ocean? Describe New York Bay.
Delaware Bay. Chesapeake Bay.
3. What depressions extend across the Apalachian system in this
section ?
4. Where are the Adirondack Mountains ? What is their highest peak ?
5. Where are the Catskill Mountains? In what direction do they trend?
6. Describe the extent of the Great Valley.
7. What range of mountains east of the Great Valley?
8. Name some ranges west of it. What range in Virginia is the con-
tinuation of the Blue Mountains of Pennsylvania? Describe the Alle-
ghany Mountains. What ranges west of them?
9. Describe the Atlantic coast plain.
10. What cities lie near the ridge which separates the tide-water section
from the hilly country?
III. RIVERS AND LAKES.
11. The rivers of the Middle States empty into the At-
lantic Ocean, or belong to the systems of the St. Lawrence
and the Mississippi. Those emptying into the Atlantic are
navigable through the tide-water section.
The Hudson rises, among the Adirondack Mountains, and
receives the Mohawk from the west. It is navigable to Al-
bany and Troy.
It is sometimes called the Rhine of America, from the picturesque
scenery upon its banks. It is connected with the great lakes by the
Erie Canal, which follows the valley of the Mohawk River.
The Delaware rises near the Catskill Mountains, and emp-
ties into Delaware Bay. It is navigable by large ships to
Philadelphia, and by sloops to Trenton. The Lehigh and
Schuylkill are its most important tributaries.
The Susquehanna is formed by two branches, a northern
and a western branch, which join in central Pennsylvania.
The Juniata is its largest tributary.
The Potomac rises in the Alleghany Mountains, receives


THE MIDDLE STATES.
47
the Shenandoah, and empties into Chesapeake Bay. It is
navigable to Georgetown, near Washington.
12. The rivers in north-western New York belong to the
St. Lawrence basin. The Oswego is the outlet of a chain of
beautiful lakes, the largest of which are Oneida, Cayuga, and
Seneca lakes. These lakes are long and narrow, and have a
general north and south direction. The Genesee rises in
northern Pennsylvania, flows north, and empties into Lake
Ontario.
The eastern spurs of tlm Adirondacks surround Lake George. This
lake discharges its waters into Lake Champlain. The beauty of its
scenery makes it a favorite resort of tourists.
13. The rivers of western Pennsylvania and West Vir-
ginia belong to the Mississippi system. The Alleghany, ris-
ing in northern Pennsylvania, and the Monongahela, rising
in West Virginia, join at Pittsburgh, and form the Ohio,
which is a tributary of the Mississippi.
The Great Kanawha (whose upper course is called New
River), the Little Kanawha, and the Big Sandy are tribu-
taries of the Ohio.
IV. CLIMATE AND VEGETATION.
14. The climate of the northern part of this section is like
that of New England. The southern part is much warmer.
The climate of northern New York is somewhat tempered
by the neighborhood of the great lakes. The mountain region
is considerably colder than the coast plain. The coast plain
of Virginia has very warm summers and mild winters.
15. This section belongs to the great forest region of the
continent, and was formerly densely wooded. The plains and
valleys have been cleared, and are now under cultivation.
The mountains are still mostly covered with forests. In
northern New York, these consist mainly of evergreen trees;
farther south, of deciduous trees, with an undergrowth of
shrubs, such as the beautiful kalmia, commonly called the
laurel.
Questions. 11. Describe the Hudson. The Delaware. The Susque-
hanna. The Potomac.
12. What rivers belong to the St. Lawrence system? Describe the
Oswego. The Genesee.
13. What rivers belong to the Mississippi system ? What two rivers
unite to form the Ohio ? Where do they join ? Describe the Great
Kanawha.
14. What is said of the climate?15. Of the vegetation?
V. INHABITANTS AND OCCUPATIONS.
16. The inhabitants are mainly descended from the Eng-
lish, German, Dutch, and Irish nationalities.
The first permanent English settlement was made in 1607, at James-
town, in Virginia, 30 miles above the mouth of the James River. Two
years later, the Dutch settled at Fort Orange, on the Hudson, now
Albany, and at New Amsterdam, now New York. Soon after, some
Swedish settlements were made on the Delaware River, below Phila-
delphia. Many Germans settled in the Lehigh, Shenandoah, and Mo-
hawk valleys in the early part of the 18th century.
17. The leading occupations are mining, agriculture, man-
ufacturing, and commerce.
Milling is carried on chiefly in Pennsylvania. This state
furnishes more than half of the iron and nearly half of the
Sch.7.
coal produced in the United States. Coal is- also mined in
Maryland and West Virginia, and iron in New Jersey and in
the Adirondack Mountains.
Petroleum is obtained in enormous quantities in Pennsyl-
vania and West Virginia.
Salt is obtained in central New York, near Syracuse, and
in West Virginia.
18. Agriculture is extensively carried on in all the states
of this section. The Adirondack region, often called the Wil-
derness of New York, is the only part unfit'for cultivation.
The principal staples are corn, wheat, oats, and hay.
Tobacco is extensively cultivated in Virginia, and hops in
New York. New York is, next to Ohio, the chief wool-
growing state in the Union.
Farm-yard Scene.
19. In the manufacture of iron and steel, Pennsylvania
takes the lead. Cotton and woolen goods and agricultural
implements are extensively manufactured in Pennsylvania and
New York. The other articles of importance are machinery,
tanned leather, paper, carriages, furniture, and clothing. New
York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey rank next to New Eng-
land in manufactures. Virginia, Maryland, Delaware and West
Virginia are chiefly agricultural states.
20. The commerce of this section is very extensive. The
fine harbors on the sea-coast, and its geographical situation,
intermediate between the Mississippi Valley and Europe, make
the northern part of this section, and particularly New York,
the center of the foreign commerce of our country.
21. The principal lines of railroad, from east to west, are
the New York Central, from Albany to Buffalo; the Erie,
from New York to Dunkirk; the Pennsylvania Central, from
Philadelphia to Pittsburgh; the Baltimore and Ohio, from
Baltimore to Wheeling and Parkersburg; and the Chesapeake
and Ohio, from Richmond to the Ohio River.
The Hudson River Railroad and the Harlem Railroad con-
nect New York City with Albany. Other lines connect New
York with Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Richmond,
Charleston, Mobile, and New Orleans.
22. The Erie Canal, from Albany to Buffalo, is the most
important canal in the United States. In connection with
the Hudson River, it affords the only uninterrupted water


48
GEOGRAPHY.
communication between an Atlantic sea-port and the great
central plain. New York owes much of her commercial
preeminence to this canal.
Questions.16. What is said of the inhabitants?
17. What are the principal occupations? In what state is mining
chiefly carried on? What minerals are obtained in Pennsylvania? In
New York? In West Virginia?
18. Name some of the agricultural products raised in the Middle
States. Where is tobacco raised? Hops? Wool?
19. What three states of this section have extensive manufactories?
Name some of the articles produced.
20. What is said of the commerce of this section? What city is the
center of the foreign commerce of the Union?
21. What two railroads connect New York with the West? What one
connects Philadelphia with the West? What railroad connects Baltimore
with the West? Mention some other great railroad routes.
22. What important canal connects Albany with Buffalo? What is
said of it?
YI. STATES AND CITIES.
NEW YORK.
23. New York lies west of Vermont, Massachusetts, and
Connecticut. Its shape is that of a triangle. The southern
angle rests on New York Bay; the north-eastern, on Lake
Champlain ; the north-western, on Lake Ontario.
Long Island, which forms a part of this state, is separated
from the main land by Long Island Sound and the narrow
strait known as the East River.
Staten Island lies in New York Bay, about six miles from
New York city.
24. New York includes the Mohawk and Hudson River
Valleys, the Adirondack Mountains, the Catskill Mountains,
and the western slopes of the Taconic Mountains.
The soil of the valleys is very productive. The higher
lands afford excellent pasturage. The Adirondack region is
unproductive, and therefore very thinly settled.
25. New York has many objects of interest to tourists.
Niagara Falls are on Niagara River, which connects Lake
Erie and Lake Ontario. This river is only 26 miles long;
but its vast volume of water, falling over a ledge of rocks
160 feet high, forms the grandest cataract in the world.
26. New York is rich in minerals. Iron of the best quality
abounds in the Adirondack Mountains, and in several other
parts of the state. Large quantities of salt are obtained from
the brine springs and wells near Syracuse.
27. Albany, the capital, is situated on the west bank of
the Hudson, about 150 miles above its mouth.
New York, the largest city in America, occupies Manhattan
Island, at the mouth of the Hudson River. It is the center
of the foreign commerce of our country. Hundreds of
steamboats and sailing vessels crowd the wharves at all times.
New York has more than 1,200,000 inhabitants.
The principal streets are lined with magnificent buildings. Its public
schools are excellent. Among the higher educational institutions, may be
mentioned the New York University and Columbia College. The Astor
Library is one of the largest in the country.
Brooklyn, opposite New York, on Long Island, has 550,000
inhabitants.
Newburg, Hudson, and Troy are situated on the Hudson
River. Cohoes, Utica, Syracuse, and Auburn are flourishing
cities in the central part of the state. Oswego lies at the
mouth of the Oswego River; Ogdensburg lies on the St. Law-
rence.
Rochester, on the Genesee, is noted for its flour mills and
manufactures.
Buffalo, on Lake Erie, has an extensive lake commerce.
At West Point, on the Hudson, is the national Military
Academy.
NEW JERSEY.
28. New Jersey lie's between the Delaware River and the
ocean. The north-western part is mountainous; the south-
eastern, belongs to the Atlantic coast plain.
Large quantities of garden vegetables and fruits are raised
to supply the New York and Philadelphia markets. The
manufactories produce cotton and woolen goods, and many
other articles.
View at Cape May.
Trenton, the capital, is situated on the Delaware River.
Newark, on the Passaic, is the largest city, and has many
important manufactories.
Jersey City, opposite New York, is the principal sea-port.
Hoboken lies near Jersey City.
New Brunswick, on the Raritan, is the seat of Rutgers
College; Princeton is the seat of Princeton College.
Camden lies opposite to Philadelphia.
PENNSYLVANIA.
29. Pennsylvania lies south of New York, and west of
New Jersey. It embraces three physical regions: (1) a part
of the Atlantic coast plain in the east; (2) several of the
Apalachian mountain ranges and valleys in the center; (3)
a rolling table-land in the west.
In respect to foreign commerce, Pennsylvania ranks fourth
among the states of the Union.
Coal and iron are extensively mined in the central parts
of the state. Large quantities of petroleum are obtained in
the north-western part.
The state abounds in fertile farm-lands, and large quan-
tities of Avlieat, corn, rye, oats, and hay are raised. The
slopes of the mountain ranges are covered with forests, and
lumbering is extensively carried on in the valley of the
Susquehanna, and in the western part of the state.


THE MIDDLE STATES.
49
30. Harrisburg, on the Susquehanna, is the capital.
Philadelphia is the first manufacturing city, and the great
c jal emporium of the Union. It contains 847,000 inhabitants.
' Pittsburgh and Alleghany City, at the confluence of the Alle-
ghany and Monongahela, have extensive iron and steel works.
T Lancaster is a thriving city, in a highly cultivated district.
Reading, on the Schuylkill, is noted for its manufactures.
V Erie is an important port on Lake Erie. Scranton is a large
town in the coal mining regions.
DELAWARE.
31. Delaware lies in the Atlantic coast plain. Its surface,
except in the northern part, is level.
Agriculture and manufacturing are the principal occupations.
Dover is the capital; Wilmington, near the Delaware, is the
f. largest city.
V MARYLAND.
32. Maryland lies south of Pennsylvania, and north of
the Potomac River. It surrounds the upper part of Ches-
'v apeake Bay. The part of the state lying east of this bay
is called the Eastern Shore. The extreme western part of the
state is mountainous.
{j Corn, wheat, and tobacco are the agricultural staples,.
Manufacturing is extensively carried on.
Annapolis, the capital, is the seat of the United States
Naval Academy.
Baltimore is the largest city, and one of the principal sea-
ports of the United States. P contains 332,000 inhabitants.
Frederick and Cumberland are thriving cities.
THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.
33. The District of Columbia is situated on the north bank
of the Potomac River, and is under the immediate govern-
ment of Congress.
Washington, the capital of the United States, is in this
District. The government offices are costly and handsome
buildings. The Capitol, in which Congress holds its ses-
sions, covers over two acres of ground. The Presidents
mansion is called the White House.
VIRGINIA. '
34. Virginia extends from Chesapeake Bay and the At-
lantic Ocean to the Cumberland and Alleghany mountains.
The tide-water section includes several swamps. The Great
Dismal Swamp is the largest. It is covered with a dense
growth of cypress-tress.
The hilly country, west of the tide-water section, is often
called the Piedmont District. West of the Blue Ridge is
the beautiful and fertile Shenandoah Valley, fifty miles wide.
The Peaks of Otter, in the Blue Ridge (nearly 4000 feet in
height), are the highest mountain summits in the state.
Virginia is rich in iron and coal ; but these resources are
not yet fully developed. Some gold is also found. Agricul-
ture is the principal occupation of the people.
35. Richmond, the capital, is situated on the James River.
It exports much tobacco, flour, corn, and flax.
Petersburg, on the Appomattox, and Fredericksburg, on the
Rappahannock, are near the Ridge which separates the tide-
water section from the Piedmont District.
Norfolk has a fine harbor at the mouth of the James River.
Lynchburg, on the James River, and Winchester, in the
Shenandoah Valley, are thriving towns.
WEST VIRGINIA.
36. West Virginia lies between the Alleghany and Great
North mountains, on the east, and the Ohio and Big Sandy
rivers, on the west. The eastern part is crossed by chains of
the Apalachian system; the western part consists of a hilly
table-land, sloping toward the Ohio. Forests cover the inte-
rior and southern parts. Excellent grazing is found in the
valleys and glades.
Coal, iron, salt, and petroleum abound.
Wheeling, on the Ohio, is the present capital and principal
cityi Parkersburg, Charleston, and Martinsburg are active
business centers.
Questions. 23. New York: Bound it. Describe its shape. Where is
Long Island ? Staten Island ? 24. Describe the surface. What is said
of the soil? 25. Where are Niagara Falls? 26. Name the mineral
products. 27. What and where is the capital? Describe the city of
New York. Where is Brooklyn? Newburg? Hudson? Troy? Cohoes?
Utica? Syracuse? Auburn? Oswego? Ogdensburg? Rochester? Buf-
falo? West Point?
28. New Jersey: Bound it. Describe its surface. What are the prod-
ucts? What and where is the capital? Where is Newark? Jersey City?
Hoboken? New Brunswick? Princeton? Camden?
29. Pennsylvania: Bound it. Describe the surface. What is said of
its commerce? Where are coal and iron mined? Where is petroleum
found? Name the agricultural products. 30. What and where is the
capital? Where is Philadelphia? Pittsburgh? Alleghany City? Lan-
caster? Reading? Erie? Scranton?
31. Delaware: Bound it. Describe its surface. Name the principal
occupations. What is the capital? Where is Wilmington?
32. Maryland: Bound it. Describe its surface. Name the agricultural
staples. What and where is the capital? Where is Baltimore? Fred-
erick ? Cumberland ?
33. Where is the District of Columbia f Describe Washington.
34. Virginia: Bound it. Describe its surface.35. What and where is
the capital? Where is Petersburg? Fredericksburg? Norfolk? Lynch-
burg? Winchester?
36. West Virginia: Bound it. Describe its surface. What minerals
abound? What and where is the capital? What other principal towns?


<*Cttr

La
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!:..u> /
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93 ..tHj
THE SOUTH-EASTERN STATES.
r

QUESTIONS AND MAP STUDIES.
Position and Outline. What two states bound this
section on the north? What ocean on the east? What gulf
on the south?
Name three capes on the shore of North Carolina. Which
of these lies farthest to the east? What two sounds indent
the shore of North Carolina?
What cape on the shore of South Carolina? What cape
on the east coast of Florida? What cape at the southern
end of Florida?
What chain of islands lies south of Florida? What three
bays in northern Florida? What bay in Alabama?
Surface.What part of this section is traversed by
mountains? To what system do they belong? What is the
general direction of the ranges?
What range lies farthest to the east? What are the names
of the chain which separates North Carolina from Tennessee?
What mountains west of the upper Tennessee?
Rivers.' What two rivers empty into Albemarle Sound?
What two rivers empty into Pamlico Sound? What river
empties near Cape Fear? What two rivers empty near Cape
Romain ? '
What two rivers form the Santee? What river separates
South Carolina from Georgia? What large river in Georgia
empties into the Atlantic Ocean? What two rivers form
the Altamaha?
What river forms part of the boundary between Georgia
and Florida? What river in Florida empties into the At-
lantic Ocean? What river forms part of the boundary be-
tween Georgia and Alabama ? What river is formed by the
Flint and the Chattahoochee?
^What river on the western boundary of Florida ? What
river empties into Mobile Bay? By what two rivers is the
Mobile River formed? What two rivers form the Alabama,?
What large river flows through northern Alabama?
What two rivers form the Tennessee? Through what parts
of Tennessee does it flow? Of what river is it a tributary?
Describe the water-shed between the rivers flowing into
the Atlantic Ocean and those flowing into the Gulf of
Mexico. What lake in southern Florida?
States and Cities.What two are the most northern
states of this section ? What three states lie south of Ten-
nessee and North Carolina? What state lies south of
Georgia and Alabama?
What is the capital of North Carolina? What city lies
near the mouth of Cape Fear River?
What is the capital of South- Carolina ? On what river is
it situated ? What is the principal sea-port of South Car-
olina?
What is the capital of Georgia? What city near the
mouth of the Savannah? What city further up that river?
What city on the Chattahoochee River?
What is the capital of Alabama? On what river is it sit-
uated? What is the principal sea-port of Alabama? On
what bay is it situated?
What is the capital of Florida? What sea-port on Pensa-
cola Bay?
What is the capital of Tennessee? On what river is it
situated? What city near the mouth of the Holston? What
city on the Mississippi?
I. POSITION.
1. This section occupies the south-eastern por-
tion of our country, and includes five states: North
Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and
Florida.
The State of Tennessee belongs to the Mississippi Valley,
and it is, therefore, one of the Central States; but as the
eastern part of it extends into the Apalachian region, it is
described in this chapter.
The South-eastern States border upon the At-
lantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. The coast
is low and marshy, and is bordered by numerous
low and sandy islands.
2. Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds are the larg-
est indentations on the Atlantic coast. They are
separated from the ocean by a chain of islands.
On one of these is Cape Hatter as. Cape Lookout
and Cape Fear lie farther south-west.
3. The principal indentations on the gulf shore,
DESCRIPTION. Z'
are Tampa Bay and Pensacola Bay, in Florida;
and Mobile Bay, in Alabama.
The Keys are a chain of coral islands, ex-
tending along the southern extremity of Florida.

II. SURFACE.
4. The Apalachian mountain system extends
into this section.
The Blue Iiidge, in North Carolina, is the con-
tinuation of the Virginian Blue Iiidge, and trends
parallel with the coast, at a, distance of about 200
miles from the ocean.
The Grandfather, Sugar-loaf, and Ccesars Head
are some of its highest peaks.
5. West of the Blue Iiidge is another chain of
high mountains, bearing different local names; as,
the TJnaka, Smoky, and Iron mountains. The Ten-
nessee River has several tributaries which rise in
s v s.U z
the Blue Ridge, and make their way through pic-
turesque gorges in this chain.
6. A number of ranges, or spurs, branch off from
the Blue Ridge, and join the western chain, thus
dividing the valley between the two chains into
a series of basins.
7. Some of these spurs are higher than the
Blue Ridge. One of them, the Black Mountains,
contains the loftiest peaks of the entire Apala-
chian system, as Black Dome and High Pinnacle.
8. The Valley of East Tennessee, the southern
continuation of the Shenandoah Valley, extends
west of the Unaka, Smoky, and Iron mountains.
The Cumberland Mountains lie west of it.
9. The mountain region of this section is sur-
rounded, upon three sides, by low plains. The
Atlantic coast plain is on the east and south, the
Mississippi Valley on the west.
O'-






THE SOUTH-EASTERN -STATES.


52
GEOGRAPHY.
H 4 i
Point Lookout, on Lookout Mountain.
The Atlantic coast plain comprises a low tide-water section,
and the hilly country, near the mountains.
The Ridge which separates them is shown on the map.
The most important inland cities lie near it; as, Raleigh,
Columbia, Augusta, Milledgeville, and Montgomery.
Questions.1. Describe the situation of this section. What five states
belong to it? What other state is represented on the map? What waters
bound this section ? Describe the coasts.
2. Where is Pamlico Sound ? Albemarle Sound ? Where is Cape Hat-
teras? Cape Lookout? Cape Fear?
3. Where is Tampa Bay? Pensacola Bay? Mobile Bay? Where are
the Florida Keys?
4. What system of mountains extends into this section ? Where is the
Blue Ridge ? Of what chain is it a continuation ?
5. What other chain is west of the Blue Ridge?6. What is said of
the valley between the Blue Ridge and the western chain?
7. Which of the spurs connecting the chains is the highest? Name
two peaks of the Black Mountains.
8. Where is the valley of East Tennessee? What is said of it? What
mountains west of this valley?
9. What plains surround the mountain region of this section ? Name
some cities lying near the Ridge that separates the two terraces. What
physical features would you cross if you were to travel from Cape Hat-
teras to Memphis in a straight line?
III. RIVERS.
10. This section is watered by many large rivers. The
principal water-shed is the Blue Ridge. Most of the im-
portant streams rise near it.
11. The larger rivers are navigable through the tide-
water section. Rapids or water-falls generally mark the
points where they leave the hilly country.
The Roanoke is navigable to Weldon; Cape Fear River, to Fayette-
ville; the Santee and Congaree, to Columbia; the Savannah, to Augusta;
the Altamaha and Ocmulgee, to Macon; the Apalachicola and Chatta-
hoochee, to Columbus; the Alabama and Mobile, to Montgomery; the
Tennessee, to Florence, where its navigation is interrupted by a series of
rapids, known as the Muscle Shoals, above which it is again navigable
to Knoxville.
12. In the tide-water section, there are many large swamps,
covered with cypresses and cedars.
The Alligator Swamp occupies nearly the whole of the
peninsula between Albemarle and Pamlico sounds. The Okee-
jinokee Swamp lies partly in Georgia and partly in Florida.
Its surplus water is drained by St. Mary River.
13. Florida has extensive lakes and swamps. Lake Okee-
chobee lies in the southern part. The Everglades are an ex-
tensive grassy swamp, with numerous wooded islands, of
various sizes.
St. John River rises in the Everglades, flows north through
several lakes, and empties into the Atlantic Ocean.
I i.; 10', \ ;
t
CLIMATE AND VEGETATION.
14. The climate of this section is much warmer than that
of the Middle States. The winters are mild. Snow falls occa-
sionally, but does not remain long on the ground. The sum-
mers are long and hot.
15. The vegetation is very luxuriant. The mountain slopes
are covered with deciduous trees; the summits, with pines
and balsam firs. Many of the forest trees in the plains are
evergreens. Such are the live-oak, the wood of which is
highly prized for ship-building, and the magnolia, with large,
dark leaves, and white, sweet-scented flowers. The palmetto,
the smallest of American palms, grows in great abundance
on the sea-coast.
Large portions of the tide-water section have a barren,
sandy soil, and are covered with the long-leaved pitch-pine,
one of the most valuable of the coniferous trees.
Questions.10. What mountain chain forms the principal water-
shed of this section? 11. How far are the larger rivers navigable?
What points in their course are marked by rapids?
12. Where is Alligator Swamp ? Okeefinokee Swamp ?
13. Where is Lake Okeechobee? Where are the Everglades? De-
scribe them. Describe the course of the St. John River.
14. What is said of the climate?What trees cover the mountain
slopes? The summits? Name some evergreen trees. Where does the
palmetto grow? The pitch-pine?
V. INHABITANTS AND OCCUPATIONS.
16. The white inhabitants are mostly of English descent.
Some of the inhabitants of South Carolina are descendants
of the French.
17. The leading occupation of the south-eastern states is
agriculture. Cotton, corn, sweet potatoes, and rice are the
principal products.
The cultivation of wheat is confined to the elevated por-
tions of the country. Corn is the cereal most extensively
raised.
Cotton is the great staple of this section. The finest
variety is the sea-island cotton, which is cultivated on the
islands and near the sea-shore.
The cultivation of rice is coiifined to the low marshes on
the shores. Nearly one-half of the rice grown in our country
is produced in South Carolina.
The commerce of this section is not extensive. The prin-
cipal product exported to foreign countries is cotton.
Questions. 16. Of what descent are most of the white inhabitants
of this, section ? Where are those of French descent found ?
17. What is the leading occupation of the people? What are the
principal products ? Where does sea-island cotton grow ? Where rice?
What state produces most rice? What is said of the commerce?


THE SOUTH-EASTERN STATES.
53
VI. STATES AND CITIES.
FLORIDA.
Cotton Plantation.
NORTH CAROLINA.
18. North Carolina lies south of Virginia, and extends from...
the coast to the crest of the Unaka, Smoky, and Iron mount*
ains. It includes the Black Mountains and other chains.
19. Raleigh, the capital, is situated west of the Neuse, on-
the Ridge. Wilmington is the principal sea-port. It exportsy
pitch, tar, and turpentine. Weldon, on the Roanoke, is an;
important railroad center. -
SOUTH CAROLINA.
20. South Carolina lies between North Carolina and the'
Savannah River. Some spurs of the Blue Ridge extend into
its north-western corner.
The shores of the lower river courses are swampy, and
well adapted to the cultivation of rice.
21. Columbia, on the Congaree, is the capital, and the seat ^
of the College of 'South Carolina. Charleston is the princi-
pal sea-port.
GEORGIA.
22. Georgia lies south-west of South Carolina. It includes,
the southern extremity of the Blue Ridge. The north-eastern
part of the state is famous for its magnificent scenery.
23. Atlanta, in the northern part of the state, is the cap-
ital ; Savannah, on the Savannah River, is the largest sea-
port. Augusta, on the Savannah, Macon, on the Ocmulgee,
and Columbus, on the Chattahoochee, are flourishing cities.
ALABAMA.
24. Alabama lies west of Georgia. The south-western part
of the state borders on the Gulf of Mexico, and embraces
Mobile Bay. The north-eastern part is traversed by the
most southern ridges of the Apalachian system.
The valleys of the Alabama and Tombigby, in the south,
and of the Tennessee, in the north, are the richest portions
of the state.
25. Montgomery, on the Alabama, is the capital; Mobile,
on Mobile Bay, the principal sea-port. Selma, on the Ala-
bama, and Huntsville, in the valley of the Tennessee, are
thriving towns.
26. Florida embraces the peninsula of Florida, and a tract
of country extending westward along the shore of the Gulf
of Mexico. It is generally level: the highest ground is the
region between the Suwanee and the Chattahoochee rivers.
As this state approaches within a degree and a half of the
torrid zone, it has a very warm climate. Oranges, lemons,
figs, and pomegranates, are raised in abundance.
Plantation Scene in Florida.
' 27. Tallahassee, the capital, lies about twenty miles north
of its port, St. Marks. Pensacola, on Pensacola Bay, and
Key West, on an island of the same name, have fine harbors.
Augustine, on the Atlantic coast, is the oldest city in
our country. Jacksonville, on the St. John River, is the
largest city.
TENNESSEE.
28. Tennessee lies west of North Carolina, and extends
from the crest of the Unaka, Smoky, and Iron mountains,
to the banks of the Mississippi.
The Tennessee River flows twice through the state. The
middle course of the Cumberland River traverses the north-
ern .portion of the state.
29. Nashville, on the Cumberland, is the capital. Knox-
ville, at the junction of the Holston and French Broad rivers,
j and Memphis, on the Mississippi, are important cities. Chat-
tanooga, on the Tennessee, is an important railroad center.
Questions.18. North Carolina: Bound it. Describe its surface. De-
scribe its principal river.19. What and where is the capital? Where
are Wilmington and Weldon? . '
20South Carolina: Bound it. Describe its surface. Describe its prin-
cipal fivers. 21. What and where is the capital? Where is Charleston?
22. Georgia:' Bound it. Describe its surface. Its principal rivers.
23. What and where is the capital? Where is Savannah? Augusta?
Macon? 'Columbus?
24. Alabama: Bound it. Describe its surface. Its priricipal rivers.
25. What and where is the capital? Where is Mobile? Selma? Hunts-
ville?
26. Florida: Bound it. Describe its surface. Its principal rivers.
27. What and where is the capital? Where is Pensacola? Key West?
Saint Augustine?
28. Tennessee: Bound it. Describe its surface. Its largest rivers.
29. What and where is the capital? Where is Knoxville? Memphis?
Chattanooga ? :,
t




THE NORTH CENTRAL STATES.
55
J
\
x '

%
\'
THE NORTH CENTRAL STATES,
EAST OF THE MISSISSIPPI.
QUESTIONS AND MAP STUDIES.
Position- and Outline. What two rivers bound this section on
the west? What two rivers on the east? What mountain chain on
the south-east? What three lakes bound it on the north?
What bay at the western end of Lake Superior? What lake lies be-
tween Michigan and Wisconsin? What bay on the western shore of
Lake Michigan?
What strait leads from Lake Michigan into Lake Huron ? What bay
on the western shore of Lake Huron? What waters lead from Lake
Huron into Lake Erie?
Surface.Into what part of this section does the Apalachian region
extend? What part of this section is a low plain?
Eivers and Lakes.What river in this section is the largest trib-
utary of the Mississippi? Name the principal southern tributaries of the
Ohio. What state do they traverse?
What tributary of the Ohio forms part of the boundary between In-
diana and Illinois? Name the principal tributaries of the Wabash.
What three rivers in Ohio empty into the Ohio Eiver? What three
tributaries of the Mississippi traverse Illinois? What three tributaries
of the Mississippi traverse Wisconsin? Which of these is on the west-
ern boundary of Wisconsin?
What two rivers empty into Green Bay? What two rivers empty
into Lake Michigan from^he east? What river empties into Saginaw
Bay? What river empties into the west end of Lake Erie?
States and Cities. Name the six states of this section. Which
two are the most northern? Which three are in the middle? Which
is the most southern?
What is the capital of Wisconsin? What large city on Lake Michigan?
What city on Lake Winnebago? What two towns on the Mississippi
connected by railroad with Milwaukee? What town south of Milwaukee,
on Lake Michigan?
Michigan consists of two peninsulas: what lake and strait separate
them ? What is the capital of the state ? What city on Detroit Eiver ?
What large city on Grand Eiver? What city at its mouth ?
What is the capital of Ohio? Name three cities on Lake Erie.
Which of these is at the mouth of the Maumee? What large city on
the Ohio? What city at the mouth of the Muskingum? What city
on the Muskingum north of Marietta? What city on the Miami?
What is the capital of Indiana? On what river is it? What city
on the Ohio opposite Louisville? What city in the south-western part
of the state, on the Ohio?
What is the capital of Illinois? What city at the mouth of the Ohio?
What city near the mouth of the Missouri? What city on the Missis-
sippi, near the 40th parallel ? What city in the center of the state on the
Illinois Eiver? What large city on Lake Michigan?
' What is the capital of Kentucky ? On what river is it situated ?
What two cities on the Ohio, opposite Cincinnati? What large city on
the Ohio? What town at the mouth of the Tennessee? What city
south-east of Frankfort?
A)
1. This section lies in the same latitude as
New England and the Middle States. It is
bounded on the west by the Mississippi, and on
the north by lakes Superior, Huron, and Erie.
Lake Michigan extends between Michigan and
Wisconsin. 4 ^ *
2. The shores of these lakes are indented by
bays of considerable extent. Keweenaw Bay ex-
tends from Lake Superior; Green Bay, from
Lake Michigan; and Saginaw Bay, from Lake
Huron.
II. SURFACE.
3. The Cumberland Mountains are the only
mountain chain of this section. They form the boundary
between Kentucky and Virginia, and are the most western
range of the Apalachian system.
4. Eastern Kentucky, the larger part of Ohio, and the
south-eastern corner of Indiana, consist of a low and broken
table-land, the western declivity of the Apalachian system.
The rivers which traverse it have worn deep channels, so
that their banks are hilly and often precipitous.
Sch.8.
5. A second table-land embraces the larger part of Wis-
consin and the upper peninsula of Michigan. This slopes
gently from the north to the south and east. It is an ex-
tension of the Height of Land, which separates the Missis-
sippi Valley from the great northern or Arctic Plain.
6. The remainder of this section is a low plain, which
slopes toward the Mississippi and Ohio rivers and toward
the Great Lakes.


56
GEOGRAPHY.
Questions. 1. What is said of the latitude of this group of states?
How is it bounded?
2. What bays are mentioned?
8. What mountain range belongs in part to this section?
4. What is said of the table-land in the south-east? Of the rivers
that traverse it?5. Where is a second table-land? Of what is it an
extension ?
6. What is the surface of the remainder of this section?
III. RIVERS AND LAKES.
Willow Falls, Wisconsin.
7. The rivers in these states belong to the Mississippi and
the St. Lawrence systems.
The Mississippi is navigable through the entire extent of
this section.
8. Its largest eastern tributary is the Ohio, which is navi-
gable to Pittsburgh, a distance of nearly 1000 miles, follow-
ing the curves of the channel. The bed forms a deep de-
pression in the table-land, and the banks on either side rise
in picturesque hills from 300 to 500 feet above the water
level. Some of these hills are rocky and abrupt, while
others slope so gradually that they are cultivated to their
summits.
There are rapids near Louisville, Kentucky, where the
river falls 22 feet in two miles. During high wrater, boats
pass down these rapids; and a canal has been constructed
around them, which admits the passage of the largest steam-
boats at all times. At this point, one of the finest bridges
in the vTorld spans the river.
9. The principal affluents of the Ohio from the south, are:
The Big Sandy, which rises in West Virginia, and forms the
boundary between West Virginia and Kentucky. It is navi-
gable about 80 miles.
The Licking, rising in eastern Kentucky, and emptying
into the Ohio, opposite Cincinnati. It has but little vTater
in dry seasons.
The Kentucky, which rises near the Cumberland Mount-
ains, and admits steamboats as far as Frankfort. Small
boats ascend 100 miles farther.
Green River, which has a westerly course to its junction
with its chief affluent, the Big Barren, when it flows to the
north-west. It is navigable 180 miles.
The Cumberland, which rises in the Cumberland Mountains,
enters Tennessee, bends far to the south, and then reenters
Kentucky. It has a gentle current, and is navigable as far as
Nashville, Tennessee.
The Tennessee flows only 70 miles in this section, through
Kentucky, and properly belongs to Tennessee, as most of
its course is in that state. It admits steamers to Florence,
Alabama, 300 miles from its mouth.
10. The following affluents enter the Ohio from the north:
The Muskingum, which is formed by two branches, the
largest of which is the Tuscarawas. By means of locks and
short canals, it has been made navigable to Dresden.
The Scioto, which flows from north to south, through
central Ohio. It is navigable for small boats nearly 100
miles from its mouth.
The Miami, which flows through western Ohio, and fur-
nishes valuable water-power.
The Wabash, which rises in Ohio, flows through Indiana,
and then makes a bend to the south. It forms part of
the boundary between Indiana and Illinois, and is navigable
more than 300 miles. Its chief tributary is White River,
formed by two branches.
11. The following tributaries of the Mississippi belong to
this section:
The Kaskaskia, which rises in eastern Illinois. It is nav-
igable, in high-water, to Vandalia.
The Illinois is formed by the junction of the Des Plaines
and the Kankakee. It has a gentle current, and is navigable
to the mouth of the Fox, its chief northern tributary. The
Sangamon is its largest affluent from the east,
Rock River, rising in Wisconsin, enters the Mississippi at
Rock Island.
The Wisconsin rises at the northern boundary of the state
of Wisconsin, flows south, and turns to the w'est at Portage
City, to which place it is navigable.
The Chippewa flows through north-western Wisconsin.
The St. Croix forms part of the boundary between Wis-
consin and Minnesota, and is navigable to St. Croix Falls.
12. A number of rivers belong to the system of the St,
Lawrence. They are short, and offer but limited facilities
for navigation.
Lake Superior receives the Ontonagon and the St. Louis, the
latter forming part of the boundary between Minnesota and
Wisconsin.
Lake Michigan receives Fox River, which rises east of
the great bend of the Wisconsin, and. enters Winnebago Lake,
which it drains into Green Bay. It is navigable through
its entire course. A canal, joining its head-waters with the
Wisconsin, at Portage City, has been constructed, completing
the communication between Lake Michigan and the Missis-
sippi. The Escanaba and Menomonee, also empty into Green
Bay; and the Muskegon, Grand River, Kalamazoo, and St.
Joseph, in lower Michigan, empty into Lake Michigan.
Lake Huron receives the Saginaw, which is formed by a
large number of branches.
Lake Erie receives the Maumee, formed by the St. Joseph
and St. Mary; the Sandusky, emptying into Sandusky Bay;
and the Cuyahoga, emptying into the lake at Cleveland.


THE NORTH CENTRAL STATES.
57
13. The Great Lakes, Superior, Huron, Michigan, Erie,
and Ontario, have an area of about 90,000 square miles,
and contain nearly one-half of all the fresh water of the
globe.
Lake Superior is but little smaller than the state of Indiana. Its
surface lies 602 feet above the level of the ocean. Its greatest depth is
about 1000 feet. St. Mary River connects Lake Superior with Lake
Huron. The navigation of this river is interrupted by the Sault St.
Marie, a rapid, around which a ship canal has been constructed. Lake
Huron and Lake Michigan are about 20 feet lower than Lake Superior.
The Strait of Mackinaw connects them. The outlet of Lake Huron is
Si. Clair River, which enters into Lake St. Clair. The outlet of this
lake is the Detroit River.
Lake Erie is 9 feet lower than Lake Huron, but 323 feet higher
than Lake Ontario, into which it discharges its waters through Niagara
River. The great cataract in this river interrupts navigation. The
Welland Canal, which has been constructed on the western or Cana-
dian side of the Niagara, connects Lake Erie with Lake Ontario.
Thus, the St. Lawrence and the Great Lakes, with two comparatively
short canals, form one of the greatest inland water communications
on any continent.
Questions. 7. To what two systems do the rivers of this section
belong ?
8. Which is the largest tributary of the Mississippi in this section?
How far is it navigable? What is said of its bed?
9. Describe the Big Sandy. The Licking. The Kentucky. Green
River. The Cumberland. What part of the Tennessee belongs to this
section?
10. Describe the Muskingum. The Scioto. The Miami. The Wabash.
Ti. Describe the Kaskaskia. Bock River. The Illinois. The Wiscon-
sin. The Chippewa. The St. Croix.
12. Describe the St. Louis. The Ontonagon. Fox River. The Es-
canaba. The Menomonee. The Muskegon. The Grand. The Kala-
mazoo. The St. Joseph. The Saginaw. The Maumee. The Sandusky,
The Cuyahoga..
13. How large are the five great lakes? What bodies of water would
you traverse, if you should sail from Lake Superior to the St. Lawrence
River ?
IV. CLIMATE AND VEGETATION.
14. The climate of this section resembles that of the east-
ern states in the same latitude. In the southern parts, the
winters are mild, and snow seldom falls to much depth; in
the northern parts, they are quite cold. The summers are
warm. The rains are sufficiently abundant to support a rich
and varied vegetation.
15. The greater part of this section lies in the forest
region of the continent. Prairies abound in Illinois, western
Indiana, and southern Wisconsin. Wisconsin and Michigan
possess extensive white-pine forests.
The soil of the prairies is exceedingly fertile, and sustains
a luxuriant growth of herbs and grasses. In spring and
early summer, the entire prairie region is covered with beau-
tiful wild flowers.
V. INHABITANTS AND OCCUPATIONS.
16. The people of the states north of the Ohio are chiefly
descendants of emigrants from New England and the Middle
States; in Kentucky, of emigrants from Virginia and North
Carolina. The foreign inhabitants are mostly Germans and
Irish. In Wisconsin and Minnesota, there are many Nor-
wegians and Swedes.
17. Milling is extensively carried on in various localities.
The richest copper mines in the world are on the southern
shores of Lake Superior. Enormous blocks of this metal
are found in a pure metallic state. Lead is mined in north-
western Illinois, north-eastern Iowa, and in southern Wis-
consin. There are extensive coal fields in Ohio, Indiana,
Illinois, and Kentucky. Valuable iron ores are found in
Ohio and Michigan. Salt is found in Michigan.
18. Agriculture is the principal occupation of the inhab-
itants. Wheat and corn are raised in all the states of this
section. Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois raise more corn than
any other part of our country of equal extent. Kentucky
produces hemp, tobacco, and some cotton. Other products are
oats, hay, wool, pork, and beef. On the banks of the Ohio,
and on the shore and islands of Lake Erie, there are ex-
tensive vineyards, which yield fine grapes.
19. The Manufactures, though not so important as those
of New England or the Middle States, are rapidly increasing
in extent and value. The principal articles produced are flour
and meal, steam-engines, machinery, agricultural implements,
and cotton and woolen goods.
Commerce has increased considerably during the past few
years, and is greatly facilitated by numerous railroad lines
which cross this section in every direction. Northern Mich-
igan and northern Wisconsin are not yet fully provided with
railroads.
Questions. 14. What is said of the 'climate of this section ?
15. What part belongs to the forest region? Where are the prairies?
Of what trees do the forests of Michigan and Wisconsin largely consist?
16. What is "said of the. population ?
17. Where are there rich copper mines? Where is lead mined? In
what states are extensive coal fields? Where are iron ores found?
18. Name the chief agricultural products. Which states raise most
corn? What state produces hemp, tobacco, and cotton?
19. Name some of the manufactures. What is said of commerce and
railroads ?
VI. STATES AND CITIES.
KENTUCKY.
20. Kentucky extends from the crest of the Cumberland
Mountains to the Mississippi.
The south-eastern portion descends from the crest of the
Cumberland Mountains, and is covered with ranges of high
hills, with narrow and deep valleys.
North and west of this region, lies an undulating table-
land, the soil of which is very fertile. The richest part
of it is the district in which Frankfort and Lexington are
situated.
Between the Green and Cumberland rivers extend the
Barrens, which resemble the prairies north of the Ohio, but
are diversified by low, round-topped hills, called oak-knobs.
The tract between the Cumberland and the Mississippi is
undulating and fertile.
Kentucky produces more than half the hemp raised in the
Union, besides wheat, corn, tobacco, and cotton.
21. Frankfort, on the Kentucky River, is the capital.
The handsome city of Lexington lies south-east of it. Louis-
ville, on the Ohio River, is the chief commercial and man-
ufacturing city. Newport and Covington are situated at the


58
GEOGRAPHY.
mouth of the Licking River, opposite Cincinnati. Maysville,
south-east of Newport, is a thriving manufacturing town on
the Ohio.
Near Green River is the entrance to the Mammoth Cave, supposed
to be the largest cavern in the world. It has been explored for ten
miles, yet its termination has not been reached.
OHIO.
Suspension Bridge, Cincinnati.
22. Ohio lies between the Ohio River and Lake Erie. The
southern part belongs to the Apalachian region, and is a
hilly table-land from 800 to 1000 feet above the level of the
sea, furrowed by valleys. The low lands along the princi-
pal rivers are very fertile, and produce rich crops of grain.
In former times this region was covered with trees; but,
although timber is still abundant in some parts, large quan-
tities have been cut away.
The northern part of the state is a slightly undulating
plain, partly covered with forests and prairies. Extensive
swamps occur in the valley of the Maumee.
23. Corn, wheat, and other cereals yield abundantly. On
the banks of the Ohio, and on the shore and islands of Lake
Erie, the grape is extensively cultivated, and excellent wine
manufactured. Apples, peaches, pears, and other fruits, are
grown in all parts of the state.
Ohio excels in the raising of domestic animals, especially
sheep and hogs.
Pork is one of the chief articles of export.
The manufactures are important, particularly cotton and
woolen goods, paper, and agricultural implements. Tanneries,
distilleries, and breweries are numerous.
Coal and iron are the principal mineral products.
24. Columbus, on the Scioto, is the capital. Many rail-
roads center in this city. Since their construction it has
become a busy commercial and manufacturing place.
Cincinnati, on the Ohio, is one of the foremost manu-
facturing and commercial cities west of the Alleghany
Mountains. There are many elegant residences on the pic-
turesque hills which surround the city. Fine bridges across
the Ohio, connect Cincinnati with Covington and Newport,
Kentucky.
Dayton, on the Miami, is a large commercial and manufac-
turing city, and has fine water-power. Cleveland, on Lake
Erie, at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, is one of the
most beautiful cities in our country. Sandusky is situated
on Sandusky Bay. Toledo, near the mouth of the Maumee,
is a lake port of growing importance. Steubenville, on the
Ohio, Zanesville, on the Muskingum, Marietta, at the mouth
of the same river, Chillicothe, on the Scioto, and Springfield,
west of Columbus, are all thriving cities.
INDIANA.
25. Indiana extends from< the Ohio River to Lake Michi-
gan. The south-eastern part is undulating. Hills, rising
from 500 to 1000 feet above the level of the sea, skirt the
Ohio and other rivers.
The northern and western portions of the state are level.
The valley of the White River is heavily timbered, except
in the western part. The north-western portion contains
extensive prairies.
In soil, climate, and productions, it resembles. Ohio.
Indianapolis, the capital, on a branch of the White River,
is an important railroad center. The most populous towns are:
Evansville, New Albany, and Madison, on the Ohio; Terre
Haute, on the Wabash, in the neighborhood of rich iron
and coal beds; Ft. Wayne, on the Maumee; La Fayette, on
the Wabash; and Richmond, near the eastern boundary of the
state.
ILLINOIS.
Chamber of Commerce, Chicago.
26. Illinois lies between Indiana and the Mississippi, and
extends from the Ohio to Lake Michigan. It is mainly a
low plain, either level or undulating, and contains much
land of great fertility.
A range of low hills extends along the Ohio, and elevated
bluffs along the banks of the Mississippi.
The prairies, in which the state abounds, vary much in size. Grand
Prairie, between the Wabash and the Mississippi, is the largest.
Agriculture is the chief occupation, and abundant crops
of the cereals, potatoes, and fruits are raised. The state
ranks first in the Union in the production of corn and
among the first in wheat.


THE NORTH CENTRAL STATES.
59
Election Scene.
^ 27. Springfield, the capital, lies south of the Sangamon
, River. Chicago, on Lake Michigan, is the largest city and
commercial emporium, and is the most extensive lumber and
. grain market in the world. Quincy, on the Mississippi,
where a beautiful bridge has been constructed across the
Qsj1 great river, is next in size. Peoria lies at the outlet of
Peoria Lake, an expansion of the Illinois River.
Alton and East St. Louis, are situated on the Mississippi.
x ] Galena, near the Mississippi, is the center of the lead mining
" district. Bloomington is a flourishing city in the center of
. L. the state. Cairo lies at the junction of the Ohio and Mis-
sissippi rivers.

1
' MICHIGAN.
28. Michigan consists of two peninsulas. The northern
peninsula projects between Lake JSuperior and Lake Michi-
gan. It is hilly, and abounds in picturesque scenery. Along
the shore of Lake Superior, there are picturesque rocks of
considerable height.
The surface of the southern peninsula, between Lake Mich-
igan and Lake Huron is generally level, and diversified, in
some parts, by bold hills. The portion lying west of Lake
St. Clair and Detroit River is the most fertile.
Agriculture is carried on principally in the southern part
of the state. The products are grain, potatoes, lumber, and
salt. Large quantities of fruit are raised on the shores of
Lake Michigan. There are rich copper and iron mines on
the shores of Lake Superior.
29. Lansing, on Grand River, is the capital. Detroit,
delightfully situated on Detroit River, is the largest city,
O and a place of growing commercial importance. Grand
Rapids, on Grand River, is next in size. Ann Arbor is
the seat of the University of Michigan, one of the leading
educational institutions of the country. Jfialamazoo, Jackson,
and Adrian are flourishing towns. East Saginaw and Saginaw
City have extensive salt works and lumber mills.
WISCONSIN.
30. Wisconsin lies between the St. Croix and Mississippi
rivers on the west, and Lake Michigan on the east. The
northern portion borders on Lake Superior.
It is mainly an undulating plateau, covered with prairies
arid pine forests. The northern part of the state is a wild,
sandy country, from whose forests vast quantities of lumber
are sent down the St. Croix, Chippewa, Wolf, and Wisconsin
rivers. A very wide valley, which is uniformly bounded by
precipitous bluffs, extends along the Mississippi.
The country south of the Wisconsin is rolling or hilly, some
of the heights rising over 1000 feet above the sea-level. This
part of the state is well adapted to agriculture, which is the
chief occupation of the inhabitants.
31. Madison, situated between two small lakes, is the cap-
ital. Milwaukee, beautifully situated on Lake Michigan, is a
large and prosperous commercial city. Racine, south of Mil-
waukee, Janesville and Beloit, on Rock River, La Crosse and
Prairie du Chien, on the Mississippi, Oshkosh and Pond du
Lac, on Winnebago Lake, and Sheboygan, on Lake Michigan,
are thriving towns.
Questions. 20. Kentucky: Bound it. Describe the surface of the
south-eastern portion. The surface north and west of this region. Where
is the richest part of the state? Where are the Barrens? What staple is
largely raised? Name some other products. 21. What is the capital?
Where is it situated? Where is Lexington? Louisville? Newport and
Covington ? Maysville ?
22. Ohio: Bound it. Describe its surface. Name the five largest rivers.
23. Name some agricultural products. Some manufactures. 24. What
and where is the capital ? Which is the largest city ? Where is it situ-
ated? Where is Dayton? Cleveland? Sandusky? Toledo? Steuben-
ville? Zanesville? Marietta? Chillicothe? Springfield?
25. Indiana: Bound it. Describe its surface. What river forms part
of the western boundary? What and where is the capital? Where is
Evansville? New Albany? Madison? Terre Haute? Fort Wayne?
La Fayette ? Richmond ?
26. Illinois: Bound it. Describe its surface. What are the chief prod-
ucts?27. What and where is the capital? What and where is the largest
city? Where is Quincy? .Peoria? Alton? East St. Louis? Galena?
Bloomington ? Cairo ?
28. Michigan: Bound the northern peninsula. The southern. De-
scribe the surface. Name the products. 29. What and where is the
capital? Where is Detroit? Grand Rapids? Ann Arbor? Kalamazoo?
Adrian? Saginaw?
30. Wisconsin: Bound it. Describe its surface. What tributary of the
Mississippi flows through it? What is said of the soil?81. What and
where is the capital? The largest city? Where is Racine? Janesville?
Beloit? La Crosse? Prairie du Chien? Oshkosh? Fond du Lac?
Sheboygan ?




THE NORTH CENTRAL STATES.
f
61

THE NORTH CENTRAL STATES,
WEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI.
QUESTIONS AND MAP STUDIES.
Position and Outline.Describe the northern boundary of this
section. What great river on the east? What two meridians on the
west? What three parallels on the south?
Surface.What mountain group lies partly in Dakota on the 104th
meridian ? What elevations surround the head-waters of the Missis-
sippi? What mountain range crosses Missouri? .In what direction does
it trend?
I
Rivers and Lakes.What great tributary of the Mississippi crosses
this section from north-west to south-east? Name the two largest tribu-
taries entering the Missouri from the north. The five largest tributaries
from the west and south.
What is the largest tributary of the Mississippi in Minnesota? .Name
two tributaries in Iowa. What tributary crosses the south-western part
of Kansas?
What river forms part of the boundary between Dakota and Min-
nesota? Name the chief western tributary of the Red River of the
North.
What lake in northern Dakota ? What lakes and rivers form part of the
northern boundary of Minnesota? Name two other lakes in northern
Minnesota. What lake east of Minnesota? What lake is the source of the
Mississippi River? What two' lakes on the boundary between Minne-
sota and Dakota?
States and Cities.Name the six states and territories of this
section. Which are the three eastern ? Which the three western ?
Which two the northern? Which two the middle? Which two the
southern ?
Name the capital of Minnesota. Of Dakota. Of Iowa. Of Nebraska.
Of Missouri. Of Kansas.
Which is the .largest city on the Mississippi in this section ? What
town at the mouth of Des Moines River?
DESCRIPTION.
I. POSITION.
1. This section extends west of Lake Superior, the St.
Croix, and the Mississippi. The northern boundary is formed
by the Pigeon River, Sturgeon Lalce, Rainy Lake, Rainy
River, the Lake of the Woods, and the 49th parallel.
2. Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, Kansas, and Nebraska are
states. Dakota is a territory.
II. SURFACE.
3. The surface of this section is generally level. The
eastern part lies in the low plain of the Mississippi; the
western, on the Great Plains.
These plains form an elevated table-land, which extends
along the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains, and slopes
gently toward the Mississippi.
4. The Black Hills form an isolated mountain group,
which occupies the region between the two forks of the
Big Shyenne River.
5. The Ozark Mountains cover more than half the state
of Missouri, south of the Missouri River. They do not form
continuous ranges; but are moderate elevations, broken into
knobs and peaks, with broad, rounded summits, and abrupt
precipices.
The Coteau du Missouri and Coteau des Prairies are broad,
undulating plateaus in Dakota and Minnesota.
Coteau is a French word signifying a hill.
6. The Bad Lands, or Mauvaises Terres, are an extensive
basin, situated in south-western Dakota and western Ne-
8ch.9.
Mauvaises Terres.
braska. They are composed of sand, clay, and marl, cut up
by water into ravines, so as to leave peaks, columns, and
towers of singular shapes, presenting, in the distance, the
appearance of a gigantic city in ruins. This tract is rugged
and difficult of access.
Questions. 1. What lake and rivers bound this section on the east?
What lakes and rivers on the north? What parallel on the north?
2. What divisions are states? What one is a territory?
3. What part of this section lies in the low plain of the Mississippi?
What part on the Great Plains?
4. Where are the Black Hills?5. Where are the Ozark Mountains?
Where is the Coteau du Missouri? Where is the Coteau des Prairies?
6. Where are the Bad Lands? What is said of them?


62
GEOGRAPHY.
III. RIVERS AND LAKES.
Bridge across the Mississippi, at St. Louis.
7. Most of the rivers traversing this section are tribu-
taries of the Mississippi.
The largest of them is the Missouri, which flows, in a
very tortuous course, from north-west to south-east. It crosses
Dakota, forms the boundary between Iowa and Nebraska,
then between Kansas and Missouri, and crosses the last-named
state from west to east, emptying into the Mississippi north
of St. Louis.
It is navigable for small boats to the base of the Rocky
Mountains, far beyond the limits of this section.
8. The western tributaries of the Missouri, are : the Osage,
which rises in eastern Kansas, and is navigable for 200
miles; the Kansas and the Platte, rising in the Rocky
Mountains; and the Big Shyenne, formed by two forks,
which flow along opposite sides of the Black Hills.
9. The eastern tributaries of the .Missouri, are: the Big
Sioux, rising in the Coteau des Prairies, and forming part
of the western boundary of Iowa; and the Dakota, flowing
through the eastern part of Dakota territory.
10. The Mississippi River rises in Lake Itasca, which
lies in northern Minnesota, on the Height of Land. At
Minneapolis, the river forms one of the finest water-powers
in the country. Steamboats ascend the Mississippi to this
point.
11. Its principal tributaries are: the Minnesota, which
drains Big Stone Lake; the Iowa and the Des Moines, which
traverse Iowa from north-west to south-east, the latter form-
ing part of the south-east boundary.
The St. Croix enters the Mississippi from the north, and
separates Wisconsin from Minnesota.
The Arkansas flows through southern Kansas.
12. The Bed River of the North separates Minnesota from
Dakota, and flows through a low fertile valley. It empties
into Lake Winnipeg, in British America.
13. Lake Superior borders the north-eastern part of Min-
nesota. From it to the Lake of the Woods, the boundary
between Minnesota and British America is formed by a
chain of lakes, which are separated by low portages.
IV. CLIMATE AND VEGETATION.
14. The climate of this section is marked by great ex-
tremes. The winters are severe; the summers warm, par-
ticularly in the southern part.
In Pembina, on the Bed Eiver of the North, the summers are suf-
ficiently warm to ripen wheat; during winter the mercury often freezes.
15. This section lies wholly in the prairie region of the
continent.
Pine forests extend from Lake Superior to Red Lake, in
Minnesota, and yield large quantities of lumber. Forests of
deciduous trees occupy the central parts of Mihnesota, and
surround the head-waters of the Mississippi.
16. The streams are mostly fringed with woodland and -
groves of cotton-wood; but the greater part of the country
consists of open prairies. Those of the Great Plains are
quite arid well adapted for grazing, but not for tillage.
Questions 7. Of what stream are most of the rivers in this section
tributaries? Which is the largest? Describe the course of the Missouri.
How far is the Missouri navigable? -
8. Describe the Osage. The Kansas. The Platte. The Big Shyenne.
9. Describe the Big Sioux. The Dakota.
10. Where is the source of the Mississippi ?
11. Describe the Minnesota. The Iowa. The Des Moines. The St.
Croix. The Arkansas.
12. Describe the Bed Biver of the North.
13. What part of this section is bordered by Lake Superior? Where
is the Lake of the Woods? ~
14. What is said of the climate of this section?
15. In what region does this section lie? In what part of it are pine
forests? Forests of deciduous trees?
16. What is said of the vegetation along the rivers? What of the
Great Plains ?
V. INHABITANTS AND OCCUPATIONS.
17. The population consists of emigrants from the older
states and from Europe, especially from Germany. Some
Indian tribes live in the western and northern parts.
The principal occupations are agriculture and mining.
The mines yield iron, lead, and coal.
Coal fields extend through southern Iowa, central Missouri,
and Kansas.
18. Agriculture is pursued in the valleys of the rivers,
where the soil is exceedingly fertile.
Corn, wheat, oats, hay, hemp, and potatoes, are the staple
products.
19. Missouri, Iowa, and southern Minnesota are traversed
by numerous railroads, connecting with the great, lines east
of the Mississippi.
Questions.17. What is said of the population of this section?
What are the principal occupations? AVliat minerals are found?
18. Where is agriculture carried on? Name the principal staples.
19. What is said of the railroads?
VI. STATES ANp CITIES.
MISSOUBI.
20. Missouri lies west of Illinois, and includes the lower
course of the Missouri. The Ozark Mountains cover the
southern part of the state. The part lying north of the


63
THE NORTH CENTRAL STATES.
Missouri consists of prairie land, which is either rolling or
level.
21. Missouri is very rich in minerals. Two mountain
peaks, the Iron Mountain and Pilot Knob, which form the
eastern extremity of the Ozark Mountains, contain an inex-
haustible amount of rich iron ore. Coal fields are found
north of the metal region.
The bottom-lands of the rivers are very fertile, much
more so than the uplands. The agricultural products are
corn, wheat, tobacco, hemp, and flax. Manufactures are
rapidly increasing.
22. Jefferson City, on the Missouri, is the capital. St.
Louis, on the Mississippi, twenty miles below the mouth of
the Missouri, is the largest city. It is the center of commerce
on the upper Mississippi, and is rapidly increasing in wealth
and population. St. Joseph and Kansas City, on the Missouri,
St. Charles, west of St. Louis, and Hannibal, on the Missis-
sippi, are flourishing towns. St. Genevieve is a town on the
Mississippi.
IOWA.
23. Iowa lies between the Mississippi on the east, and the
Missouri and Big Sioux on the west.
The soil is fertile; hence, agriculture is the main occupa-
tion. The products are similar to those of Illinois and Wis-
consin. It is well provided with railroads and navigable
rivers.
Des Moines, on the Des Moines River, is the capital.
Iowa City is at the head of steamboat navigation on the
Iowa River. Dubuque, on the Mississippi, and in the min-
eral region, is the largest city. Keokuk, Burlington, and
Davenport, are flourishing towns on the Mississippi. Council
Bluffs and Sioux City, both on the Missouri, are growing
rapidly.
MINNESOTA.
The Falls of Minnehaha.
24. Minnesota lies north of Iowa, and extends from the
Mississippi and St. Croix rivers and Lake Superior on the
east, to the Red River of the North on the west.
The northern part of the state includes the Height of Land,
and consists of a table-land, embracing numerous lakes.
Agriculture and lumbering are the leading occupations.
St. Paul, at the head of steamboat navigation on the
Mississippi, is the capital and principal commercial city. Min-
neapolis, at the Falls of St. Anthony, is a busy and prosperous
manufacturing city.
KANSAS.
25. Kansas lies west of Missouri, and between the 37th
and 40th parallels. It consists of rolling prairies and fer-
tile river valleys. Agriculture and stock raising are the
leading occupations. The climate and soil are well adapted
to the growth of various grains and fruits.
Topeka, on the Kansas, is the capital. Leavenworth and At-
chison, on the Missouri, Lawrence, on the Kansas, and Fort
Scott, in the south-eastern part of the state, are thriving towns.
NEBRASKA.
26. Nebraska lies west of Iowa and north of Kansas.
The surface is mostly a rolling prairie, affording fine pas-
turage. The bottom lands on the Missouri are fertile.
The north-western part extends into the Bad Lands.
South of the Niobrara River is the extensive tract of the
Sand Hills, which is the favorite range of the bison and
antelope.
Lincoln, in the eastern part of the state, is the capital.
Omaha, a busy commercial center, Nebraska City, and Platts-
mouth are on the Missouri River.
DAKOTA TERRITORY.
27. Dakota lies north of Nebraska, and is composed of
rolling prairie land. The only elevated mountains are the
Black Hills, which extend into the western portion, between
the two forks of the Big'Shyenne River.
The valleys of the Missouri and Red rivers contain fertile
lands; the remainder of the territory is adapted to grazing.
Fur and peltries are obtained in large quantities; but
agriculture and stock raising are the chief occupations.
Yankton, on the Missouri River, is the capital. Pembina,
on the Red River, in 49 north latitude, is the most north-
ern town in the United States.
Questions.20. Missouri: Bound it. Describe its surface.21. Name
the mineral products. The agricultural products. 22. What and where
is the capital? Where is St. Louis? St. Joseph? Kansas City? St.
Charles? Hannibal? St. Genevieve?
23. Iowa: Bound it. Describe its surface. What is said of the
surface and products? What and where is the capital? Where is
Iowa City? Dubuque? Keokuk? Burlington? Davenport? Council
Bluffs ? Sioux City ?
24. Minnesota: Bound it. Describe its surface. What are the occu-
pations of the inhabitants? What and where is the capital? Where
is Minneapolis ?
25. Kansas: Bound it. Describe its surface. What and where is the
capital? Where is Leavenworth ? Atchison? Lawrence? Fort Scott?
26. Nebraska: Bound it. Describe the surface. In what part are the
Bad Lands? Where is the Sand Hill District? What and where is the
capital? Where is Omaha? Nebraska City? Plattsmouth?
27. Dakota: Bound it. Describe the surface. What lands are fertile?
What articles are obtained? What and where is the capital? When
is Pembina ?




/ '

Si


&Tx i
/
THE SOUTH CENTRAL 'STATES.
QUESTIONS AND MAP STUDIES.
Position and Outline. What three states hound this
section on the north? What gulf lies south of it? What
river bounds it on the south-west?
Name the bays on the gulf, lying between the uiiouth of
the Eio Grande and the Mississippi Delta. What sound
east of this Delta?
Surface. What mountains lie between the Eio Grande
and the Pecos Eiver?
What portion of this section is a low plain? What
portion is a table-land ? Name some mountain ranges in
northern Arkansas.
Eivers.What great river traverses the eastern part of
this section? Name some of its eastern tributaries.
Name its two largest western tributaries. Name two
affluents of the Arkansas Eiver.
What river forms the boundary between Louisiana and
Texas ?
What river empties into Galveston Bay? What river
empties into the Gulf of Mexico west of Galveston Bay?
What river empties into Matagorda Bay? What river
empties into the Laguna Madre?
What river forms the boundary between Texas and
Mexico? What is the largest tributary of the Eio Grande?
What lake lies north of New Orleans? What sound
east of Lake Pontchartrain?
States and Cities.Name the four states of this sec-
tion. The territory. What states border on the Missis-
sippi Eiver? What state is traversed by the Arkansas
Eiver? What state is traversed by the Eed Eiver?
What is the capital of Mississippi? What cities lie on
Mississippi Sound ? Name two cities in the state of Mis-
sissippi, on the Mississippi Eiver.
What is the capital of Louisiana? What large city
below Baton Eouge, on the Mississippi Eiver ?
What is the capital of Arkansas ? What city near the
mouth of the Arkansas Eiver?
What is the capital of Texas? What city on an island
near Galveston Bay? What city north-west of Galveston
Bay? Name two towns oh Matagorda Bay. What city
near the mouth of the Nueces Eiver? What city near
the mouth of the Eio Grande? What city, on the San
Antonio Eiver?
I. POSITION.
1. This section includes the southern part of
the Mississippi Valley and the barren plateau
east of the Rocky Mountains. It is bounded on
the south by the Gulf of Mexico and the Rio
Grande.
2. The shores of the Gulf of Mexico are low,
and in many parts swampy. Several lagoons and
bays project into the land; as, Sabine Bay, in Lou-
isiana and Texas; Galveston Bay, Matagorda Bay,
Aransas Bay, and Laguna Madre, in Texas.
The Mississippi Delta projects like a peninsula.
East of it, is the Mississippi Sound.
II. SURFACE.
3. The south-eastern portion is a low plain.
Extensive swamps and marshes extend along the
coasts, which are but little elevated above the
level of the sea., 11
4. The ground rises gently toward the north
and west, and attains an elevation of more than
4000 feet in the Great Plains, which cover a
large part of this section.
DESCRIPTION.
The Llano Estacado, in north-western Texas, is
a part of these plains. It is exceedingly barren
and arid, and is sometimes called the American
Desert.
5. The region between the Rio Grande and
the Pecos River is traversed by the, Apache and
Guadalupe mountains, which are southern ranges
of the Rocky Mountain system. The Ozark Mount-
ains extend through north-western Arkansas.
III. RIVERS AND LAKES.
6. The lower Mississippi River flows through
the eastern part of this section. Its course is
tortuous and winding.
The Delta of the Mississippi extends from the
mouth of the Red River to the Gulf of Mexico.
It is a low alluvial plain, 14,000 square miles in
area, and is intersected by numerous branches of
the great river, called bayous.
In the spring, when the snow melts in the northern part
of the Mississippi Valley, the water rises rapidly from 30
to 40 feet. To protect the country from inundation, em-
bankments, or levees, have been constructed for a long
distance above and below New Orleans.
7. The two principal tributaries of the Missis-
sippi, in this section, are the Arkansas and Red
rivers. Both have a general course from north-
west to south-east.
The Arkansas rises in the Rocky Mountains.
It is navigable for several hundred miles. The
Canadian River is its largest tributary.
The Red River rises in the Llano Estacado,
forms the boundary between the Indian Territory
and Texas, and flows through south-western Ar-
kansas and Louisiana. Thirty miles above Shreve-
port is the Great Raft, an accumulation of drift-
wood, which, until lately, filled the channel for a
distance of 70 miles.
The Washita traverses southern Arkansas and
northern Louisiana; the White River, northern
Arkansas.
The Yazoo is the largest eastern tributary of
the Mississippi in this section. It is a deep and
sluggish stream, navigable for 200 miles.
8. Most of the rivers of Texas have a south-
easterly course, and rise on the western plateau,
or near the Llano Estacado.
The Sabine forms the boundary between Louisiana




THE SOUTH CENTRAL STATES.


66
GEOGRAPHY.
and Texas. The Trinity empties into Galveston Bay; the
Colorado, into Matagorda Bay; the Brazos, into the Gulf
of Mexico; and the Nueces, into the Laguna Madre.
The Rio Grande rises in the Rocky Mountains, and forms
the boundary between Texas and Mexico. It is not navi-
gable. The Pecos is its principal tributary.
Questions.1. Wliat regions are included in this section?
2. What is said of the shores of the Gulf of Mexico? Where is
Sabine Bay? Galveston Bay? Matagorda Bay? Aransas Bay? Laguna
Madre? Mississippi Sound?
3. AVhich part of this section is a low plain? What is said of the coasts?
4. In what direction does the ground rise ? What and where is the
Llano Estacado?
5. What mountain ranges lie between the Pecos River and the Rio
Grande? To what system do they belong? Where are. the Ozark Mount-
ains? In what direction do they trend?
6. Through what part of this section does the Mississippi flow ? Where
is the Delta of the Mississippi? What is said of its surface? What is
its area? What are bayous? How are the banks of the Mississippi pro-
tected from inundation?
7. Name the two largest tributaries of the Mississippi in this sec-
tion. Describe the Arkansas. The Red River. The Washita. The
White River. The Yazoo.
8. Where is the Sabine? The Trinity? The Colorado? The Brazos?
The Nueces? Describe the Rio Grande. What is its principal tributary?
12. Agriculture is the most important occupation.
Cotton is extensively raised. Mississippi produces more of
this staple than any other state in the Union.
The sugar-cane is raised in Louisiana, Mississippi, and
Texas. The richest sugar plantations lie on the banks of the
Mississippi, in lower Louisiana. They yield more than nine-
tenths of all the sugar produced in the United States.
13. Indian corn is extensively cultivated in all the states
of this section; wheat, in Texas, Arkansas, and Mississippi;
and tobacco, in Louisiana. The western prairies of Texas are
well adapted to sheep raising.
Questions. 9. What is said of the climate of this section?
10. What portion belongs to the forest region?
11. By whom was this section settled? Where are inhabitants of
Spanish descent? Of French descent?
12. What is the most important occupation ? Name some of the
products. Where is sugar chiefly raised?
13. Name some other products.
VI. STATES AND CITIES.
14. This section includes four states: Mississippi, Louis-
iana, Arkansas, and Texas; and the Indian Territory.
10. That part of the Mississippi Valley which lies in this
section belongs to the forest region. The coasts are covered
with extensive swamps; farther inland is a wide belt of
forests. Magnolias, live-oaks, and other evergreen trees are
found in the southern part, along the river courses and
sea-shore.
V. INHABITANTS AND OCCUPATIONS.
11. This section has been settled mainly by emigrants
from the eastern states and from Europe. In Texas, there
are many descendants of the early Spanish colonists; and
in Louisiana, of the early French colonists. The latter are
often called Creoles,
MISSISSIPPI.
15. Mississippi lies between Alabama and the Mississippi
River. On the south, it borders on the Mississippi Sound.
The soil consists of alluvium, and is of inexhaustible
fertility. With the exception of the cypress swamps, be-
tween the Yazoo and the Mississippi, there is no portion
of the state that can not be profitably cultivated.
The Pearl River flows through the state, and empties into
the Mississippi Sound.
16. Jackson, on Pearl River, is the capital. Vicksburg, near
the mouth of the. Yazoo, is the largest city and an important
cotton market. Natchez is situated on a bluff on the Missis-
sippi, 150 feet above the level, of the river.
LOUISIANA.
Cutting Sugar-Cane.
17. Louisiana lies partly west and partly east of the Mis-
sissippi. It includes the Delta of the Mississippi, and is
throughout a low alluvial plain.


THE SOUTH CENTS,AL STATES.
67
di
The part of the state which borders on the Mississippi is
very fertile, and mostly covered with dense forests and cane-
brakes. In the center are extensive prairies, which have a
poor, sandy soil.
Sugar, cotton, and corn are the great staples. Rice and
tobacco are also raised. Fruits are abundant, particularly
peaches, oranges, lemons,
est city in this section. It oc-
cupies the concave side of a bend in-the river, and hence is
often called the Crescent City. It contains over 216,000 in-
habitants. Although over 100 miles distant from the mouth
of the Mississippi, sea-going vessels come up to its levee.
Algiers lies opposite New Orleans. Baton Rouge, the capital,
and Donaldsonville are cities on the Mississippi. Alexandria,
Natchitoches, and Shreveport, on the Red River, are active
business centers.
ARKANSAS.
19. Arkansas lies west of the Mississippi, and between
Louisiana and Missouri. It is traversed by the Arkansas
River.
The surface is considerably diversified. Along the Missis-
sippi is a low and marshy belt from 30 to 50 miles wide,
covered with dense forests and cypress swamps. Toward the
west, the ground gradually rises, and becomes hilly in the
center of the state. The north-western part is traversed by
the Ozark and Boston mountains. Coal is abundant.
- Cotton and corn are the chief staples.
20. Little Roch, on the Arkansas, is the capital. Bates-
ville, on White River, Napoleon and Helena, on the Missis-
sippi, and Camden, on the Washita, are flourishing towns.
TEXAS.
21. Texas, the largest state of the Union, is more than
five times as large as Pennsylvania, and embraces the wide
region between the .Gulf of Mexico, the Rio Grande, the
Red and Sabine rivers.
The country rises from the shores of the Gulf in three
terraces. The coast plain, from 25 to 60 miles in width, is
the lowest, and is covered by fertile prairies. Forest trees
grow only on the river bottoms. The second terrace is a
broad belt of hilly lands. These consist either of rolling
prairies, or are covered with mesquite trees, yuccas, and
cactus plants. The third terrace includes the Llano Esta-
cado, or Staked Plain, and the mountains between the Rio
Grande and Pecos River.
22. Stock-raising^ and agriculture are the principal pursuits
of the inhabitants. The farms lie mostly on the low alluvial
coast plain and on the river bottoms.
Texas abounds in wild animals. Panthers, bears, antelopes,
deer, and wild turkeys inhabit the thinly-settled regions.
Herds of wild horses roam over the prairies, and alligators
infest the rivers.
This state was first settled by the Spaniards, and was a
part of Mexico. In 1836, it became an independent republic,
and was annexed to the United States in 1846.
23. Austin, on the Colorado, in a picturesque region, is
the capital. Galveston, on a narrow island, near Galveston
Bay, has the best harbor on the Texas coast.
Houston, north-west of Galveston Bay, is a thriving town.
Dallas, in the northern part, is growing rapidly.
Indianola, on Matagorda Bay, and Brownsville, near the
mouth of the Rio Grande, are sea-ports.
San Antonio, near the source of the San Antonio River,
is one of the oldest cities in North America.
New Braunfels, in a fertile district, on the Guadalupe
River, is a German settlement.
lrlr:
INDIAN TERRITORY.
24. This territory lies north of Texas, west of Arkansas,
and south of Kansas.
It belongs to the region of the Great Plains, and consists
mainly of undulating, treeless steppes. The river bottoms are
fertile.
It has been set apart by the government for the residence
of several Indian tribesthe Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks,
Seminoles, and others, who formerly lived east of the Mis-
sissippi.
25. Each of these tribes has its own independent govern-
ment. They have made considerable progress in civilization
and the arts of peace. They live in well-built houses, culti-
vate the soil, raise domestic animals, and carry on some man-
ufacturing. The Cherokee capital is Talequah.
Questions. 14. Name the four states and the territory of this
section.
15. Mississippi: Bound it. What is said of the soil? Describe the
course of the Pearl River. 10. What and where is the capital? Where
is Natchez ? Vicksburg ?
17. Louisiana: Bound it. Describe its surface. What is said of
the soil and vegetation ? What is said of the productions ? 18.
What and where is the largest city? What is said of it? Where is
Algiers? What and where is the capital? Donaldsonville? Alexandria?
Natchitoches? Shreveport?
19. Arkansas: Bound it. Describe its surface. What mineral is found
in this state? What are the agricultural staples?20. What and where
is the capital ? Where is Batesville ? Napoleon ? Helena ? Camden ?
21. Texas: Bound it. Describe its surface. Name the largest rivers.
22. Where is agriculture chiefly carried on? Name some of the wild
animals. By whom was it first settled?23. What and where is the
capital ? Where is Galveston ? Houston ? Indianola ? Brownsville ?
San Antonio? New Braunfels?
24. Indian Territory: Bound it. What is said of its surface? Name
the Indian tribes living in it. 25. Which of them is most advanced in
civilisation ? What is the capital of the Cherokee nation ?




THE WESTERN STATES AND TERRITORIES.
69
THE WESTERN STATES AND TERRITORIES.
QUESTIONS AND MAP STUDIES.
Position and Outline.Bound tlys group on the north. On the
south. On the east. What ocean washes its western shore?
What strait south of Vancouver Island? What cape is near its en-
trance? What cape is the most western point? Name three capes
between capes Mendocino and Flattery. What point south of Cape
Mendocino?.
What bay near the 38th degree of latitude? What point north of the
34th degree of latitude? What islands south of Point Conception?
Surface.What are the general characteristics of this entire region?
What great mountain system traverses the eastern part of this group of
states? What is the general direction of the Rocky Mountains? Name
some ranges of the Rocky Mountains. Some peaks.
What mountain chain east of Great Salt Lake? In what direction
do the Wahsatch Mountains trend?
What mountains in eastern Oregon? Southern Idaho? Name some
ranges in Nevada. In southern California.
What is the principal range in California? What in Oregon and
Washington? What is the trend of the Sierra Nevada? Of the Cascade
Mountains? Name several peaks in each range.
What is the most prominent range in Arizona? In New Mexico?

Rivers and Lakes.What river traverses New Mexico? What is
the course of the Rio Grande?
What two rivers in Colorado flow to the east? What river in Wy-
oming flows to the east? In what Park does the South Platte rise?
In what Park, the North Platte?
Where are the head-waters of the Missouri? What is its chief tribu-
tary in Montana?
Which is the largest river emptying into the Pacific Ocean? De-
scribe the course of the Columbia. What is its largest tributary? De-
scribe the course of Snake River.
What two rivers empty into the Bay of San Francisco? Describe the
course of the Sacramento. Of the San Joaquin.
What large river empties into the Gulf of California? Its upper
course is called Green River: where does this rise? Name four east-
ern tributaries of the Colorado River.
What large lake lies west of the Wahsatch Mountains? What river
flows into Great Salt Lake? What river traverses Nevada? Describe
its course. Where does it empty?
Name some lakes on the eastern base of the Sierra Nevada. Of the
Cascade Mountains. What lakes in the National Park?
States and Territories.California, Nevada, Oregon, and Colorado
are States; Washington, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Utah, Arizona and New
Mexico are Territories.
What four territories and what state are traversed by the Rocky
Mountains? What state includes the Sierra Nevada? What state and
what territory include the Cascade Mountains? What territory is tra-
versed by the Wahsatch Mountains? In what three territories is the
National Park situated?
What three political divisions lie entirely within the great interior
plateau? What divisions lie partly on this plateau?
Cities and Towns,What large sea-port on San Francisco Bay?
Name the capitals of the four states and of the seven territories in this
group. What city on the Willamette, near the Columbia River? Name
some sea-ports in southern California. Some chief towns in Colorado.

DESCRIPTION.
I. POSITION.
1. The Western States and Territories include a portion
of the North American Cordilleras, and lie between the Cen-
tral States and the Pacific Ocean. They are bounded on the
north by the 49th parallel, which separates them from the
Dominion of Canada; on the south, they are bounded by
Mexico and western Texas.
2. All the political divisions are very large. California is
four times, Montana three times, and Idaho twice as large as
Pennsylvania.
II. SURFACE.
3. Two great mountain systems traverse this group: (1) the
Rocky Mountains in the eastern part; (2) the Sierra Nevada
and the Cascade Mountains in the western.
The Rocky Mountains consist of two distinct parts, which
are separated by the Laramie Plains, a high table-land in
southern Wyoming.
South of this table-land is the highest section of the Rocky
Mountains. It includes the Park, Sawateh, Elk, and other high
ranges, occupies central Colorado, and terminates abruptly near
Santa Ffi in New Mexico. Numerous peaks attain an altitude
Sch.10.
of more than 14,000 feet; as, Longs Peak, Ml. Lincoln, ML
Harvard, Ml. Yale, Uncompahgre Peak, and Ml. Wilson.
The ranges of this group surround those beautiful basins known as the
Parks. These are: North Park, with the sources of the North Platte;
Middle Park, with those of Grand River; South Park, with those of the
South Platte; and the large San Luis Park, through which flows the
Rio Grande.
South of Santa Fe, the Rocky Mountains consist of numerous
isolated ranges of moderate elevation.
4. The Rocky Mountains north of the Laramie Plains also
consist of many ranges, and have a general direction to the
north-west. The Wind River Mountains, with the lofty Fre-
monts Peak, form the watershed between the Green and Wind
rivers.
North of this range, the Rocky Mountains flatten out into
a rough and broken table-land over 8000 feet high, which
includes Yellow Stone Lake and the sources of Madison and
Snake rivers. This is the National Park, on the borders of
Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana.
The main chain of the Rocky Mountains again rises, and
trends north-west along the boundary between Idaho and
Montana. It then curves to the south-west around Big Hole
Prairie, and passes into Canada.


70
GEOGRAPHY.
5. The Rocky Mountains have an average height of 11,000
feet, and support many peaks of over 14,000 feet.
6. The Sierra Nevada extends from the 35th parallel to
Mt. Shasta, and forms a single lofty range, of an elevation
nearly as great as that of the Rocky Mountains.
The highest peaks are in the southern part, and range from
14,000 to 35,000 feet. Mt. Whitney (15,000 feet) is the lofti-
est peak thus far known in the United States. Mts. Tyndall,
Humphreys, Ritter, Lyell, Dana, and others are little lower.
The Sierra has a short and steep slope toward the east, but
a long and gentle slope toward the west. \j
Yosemite Valley.
The Yosemite Valley lies in the western slope of the Sierra Nevada,
and has been formed by the erosion of glaciers and running waters. It
is a great chasm, ten miles long, and about two miles wide. Stupendous
walls of granite inclose it on all sides. They are nearly perpendicular,
and rise from 3000 to 5000 feet above the bottom of the valley. Several
brooks fall over the rocky walls, and form picturesque cascades. The
wonderful Yosemite Falls are the most celebrated. The entire descent,
broken into three falls, is over 2500 feet.
7. The Cascade Mountains trend due north from Mount
Shasta to Frazer River, and form a continuation of the Sierra
Nevada. Their mean height is but 8000 feet. The highest
peaks are: Mt. Pitt, Diamond Peak, Mt. Hood (a volcano),
Mt. St. Helens, Mt. Adams, Mt. Rainier, and Mt. Baker.
8. A belt of lower ranges extends along the shore of the
Pacific Ocean, and is called collectively the Coast Mountains.
In California, they are separated from the Sierra Nevada by
the low plains of the San Joaquin and Sacramento rivers; in
Oregon, by the valley of the Willamette River; and in Wash-
ington, by the low lands surrounding Puget Sound.
9. The vast region, between the Rocky Mountains on the
east and the high ranges near the Pacific on the west, is an
arid plateau, nearly 800 miles wide in the latitude of Great
Salt Lake.
The Wahsatch Mountains cross it from north to south. To
the east of this lofty range lies the high table-land, which is
drained by the Colorado River and its branches. Many of the
streams flow through deep and narrow gorges, called canons.
10. From the Wahsatch Mountains to the Sierra Nevada
extends the Great Basin. (See map of United States.) It is
traversed by numerous mountain ranges, trending north and
south, which rise abruptly from the desert plain.
North of the Great Basin, and between the Rocky and the
Cascade mountains, is the low table-land which is drained by
the Columbia River and its principal tributary, the Snake
River. It includes, like the Great Basin, many ranges. Its
lowest part, the Great Plains of the Columbia, in Washington
Territory, is from 800 to 1500 feet high.
The average elevations of the three divisions of the vast plateau are
as follows: Colorado Plateau, from 6000 to 8000 feet; the Great Basin,
from 4000 to 5000 feet; the Plateau of the Columbia, about 2000 feet.
Questions. 1. What physical region does this group occupy?
2. What is said about the size of the political divisions of this group?
3. Name the two great mountain systems of this section. What is
said of the Rocky Mountains? What are their highest peaks? What
parks are embraced by these mountains?
4. What is said of the Bocky Mountains north of Laramie Plains?
What lofty peak in the Wind River Mountains?
5. State the mean and maximum heights of the Bocky Mountains.
6. What is the extent of the Sierra Nevada? What and where are
the loftiest peaks?
7. What is said of the Cascade Mountains? Name the highest peaks.
8. What mountains near the Pacific coast?
9. What is the character of the region lying between the Bocky
Mountains and the Sierra Nevada and Cascade ranges?
10. What is said of the Great Basin? The Columbia River basin?
III. RIVERS AND LAKES.
11. The principal watershed of the grand division, dividing
the rivers that empty into the Atlantic from those that empty
into the Pacific, is formed by the Rocky Mountains.
12. The Columbia River rises in the Rocky Mountains of
Canada, flows through Washington Territory, breaks through
the Cascade Mountains, and empties into the ocean. It is
navigable to the Cascade range, and again, for small boats,
east of it as far as Umatilla.
Its principal tributaries are: (1) Platbow River; (2) Clarks
Fork, which drains north-western Montana; (3) Spokane
River; (4) Snake River, which rises from a small lake in the
National Park of Wyoming, and drains the largest part of
Idaho; and (5) Willamette- River, which flows through a fertile
valley in western Oregon.
13. The Klamatli River drains the Klamath Lakes, and
breaks through the Cascade Mountains above Mt. Shasta.
The Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers of California
empty into Suisun Bay, and pour their united waters through
the Golden Gate, near San Francisco, into the Pacific. Thev
receive numerous tributaries from the Sierra Nevada and
drain the plain of California.
14. The Colorado is formed by the junction of Green and
Grand rivers. It flows for hundreds of miles through a scries
of stupendous canons with nearly vertical walls of rock rising
from 1500 to 6000 feet above the stream.


THE WESTERN STATES AND TERRITORIES.
71
The Colorado receives the San Juan, the Little Colorado,
and the Gila, and at last empties into the Gulf of California.
Small boats ascend to the mouth of Virgin River.
15. The rivers belonging to the drainage system of the
Gulf of Mexico are : the Rio Grande, Arkansas, Platte, and
Missouri. The last three are tributaries of the Mississippi.
The Rio Grande rises in the,, lofty mountains of south-
western Colorado, flows through the San Luis Park, and then
intersects New Mexico. The Pecos is its largest tributary.
16. The Arkansas rises in the Sawatch Mountains of Colo-
rado, west of the South Park, and, after passing through a
grand canon, flows to the east.
The South Platte and North Platte rise in Colorado and
unite in western Nebraska to form the Platte.
17. The Missouri is formed by the union of the Gallatin,
Madison, and Jefferson rivers, which rise in the Rocky Mount-
ains of Montana. Below the Gate of the Mountain, it passes
into the plain and flows to the east. During favorable seasons,
it is navigable to the Great Falls, a distance of over 3000
miles from the Gulf of Mexico.
The principal tributary is the Yellow Stone River, which
issues from Yellow Stone Lake, in Wyoming (7870 feet above
the sea.) It passes through the plains of Montana and empties
at Fort Union, near the boundary of Dakota.
The region surrounding Yellow Stone Lake and the sources of the
Madison and Snake rivers has been set apart by the government as a
National Park, on account of its wonderful scenery. Within this park
the Yellow Stone Biver forms several high falls, and flows through
a number of deep caKons. Geysers, hot springs, and other indications
of volcanic activity are here found in close proximity.
18. The Great Basin has no communication with the ocean.
Humboldt River flows through northern Nevada, and terminates
in a sink, which also receives the waters of Carson River.
Great Salt La,he, which receives Bear River, and Utah LmIcc
lie near the base of the Wahsatch Mountains; and Pyramid,
Walker, Mono, and Owens lakes, near the base of the Sierra
Nevada.
Questions.11. What mountains form the principal watershed of the
continent ?
12. What is said of the Columbia Biver and its chief tributaries.
13. Describe the Klamath Biver. The Sacramento and San Joaquin.
14. Describe the Colorado Biver.
15. What rivers belong to the system flowing into the Gulf of
Mexico? What is, the course of the Bio Grande?
16. Describe the Arkansas Biver. The Platte.
17. What is said of the Missouri Biver? Gf the Yellow Stone?
18. Mention the rivers and lakes of the Great Basin.
IY. CLIMATE AND VEGETATION.
19. The Climate of this region is more equable than that
of the corresponding latitudes farther east. The winters are
somewhat warmer, and the summers cooler.
In San Francisco ice and snow are but rarely seen, and in summer
the thermometer seldom rises to 80 degrees. 20 *
20. The belt of country extending from the Sierra Nevada
and the Cascade Mountains to the Pacific coast receives an
abundance of moisture.
In western Oregon and Washington, frequent rains occur, and lienee
this region is covered with dense forests, chiefly of pine and cypress.
Western California has dry summers and wet winters. Extensive for-
ests are only found on the slopes of the high Sierra and of the coast
mountains. The forests consist mainly of gigantic conifers. The mam-
moth tree (Sequoia gigantea), which grows in the higher parts of the
Sierra, attains the colossal height of more than 300 feet.
The plain of the Sacramento and San Joaquin is a treeless prairie,
which, in the latter part of the hot season, is almost destitute of verdure.
21. The great plateaus of the Cordilleras have a very dry
climate, and are therefore arid steppes, covered with a scanty
vegetation of grease-wood and wild sage (artemisia), or are
even absolute deserts, entirely without vegetation.
The higher ranges in the interior, such as the Rocky,
Wahsatch, Humboldt, and other mountains, receive some rain
and snow, and produce pine forests.
Questions.19. What is said concerning the climate? 20. Describe
the region of abundant moisture. What is said of the forests in this
belt? What of the valley of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers?
21. Describe the climate and vegetation of the great plateaus. Of the
high mountains
V. INHABITANTS AND OCCUPATIONS.
22. The states and territories of this group have been
rapidly settled since the discovery of their rich gold and
silver mines. The population consists of emigrants from the
older states, from Europe, and even from Asia. In Cali-
fornia alone, there are over 75,000 Chinese. Few countries
have a population composed of so many different nationalities.
Chinese Quarter, San Francisco.
23. The principal occupation is milling. There are min-
eral deposits of extraordinary richness in many chains of the
Cordilleras.
Gold is mined in the western slope of the Sierra Nevada,
California; in the Cascade Mountains of Washington and
Oregon; in the Rocky Mountains of Idaho, Montana, Wy-
oming, and Colorado; and in the smaller ranges of Nevada
and Arizona. The annual product is over §40,000,000.
Two thirds of the silver obtained in the United States is
mined in Nevada and Colorado. The value of the annual
product about equals that of gold.
Quicksilver is found in the' Coast Ranges of California.
The New Almaden mines, south-east of San Francisco, are
the richest in the world.


72
GEOGRAPHY.
24. Agriculture is carried on chiefly west of the Sierra
Nevada and the Cascade Mountains. The Rocky Mountains
and the interior plateaus have too dry a climate for this
occupation. The principal products are the cereals, except
Indian corn, which ripens well only in southern California,
hops, and most excellent fruits, as grapes, apples, pears,
and peaches.
25. The commerce of this region is extensive. It con-
sists in the exportation of the precious metals, of wheat,
barley, and hops, and in the importation of manufactures
and groceries.
The Paoifie Railroads connect San Francisco Bay with
Omaha and Kansas City, on the Missouri, passing through
California, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, Arizona, and
New Mexico.
Questions.22. Since what time have the states and territories of
this group been settled? What is said of the population?
23. What is the principal occupation? Where is gold mined? What
is the value of the annual product? Which state produces most silver?
Where is quicksilver mined?
24. In what portion is agriculture carried on? Name the products.
25. What is said of the commerce? Through what divisions do the
Pacific Railroads pass?
VI. STATES AND CITIES.
CALIFORNIA.
View in San Francisco.
26. California borders on the Pacific Ocean, and has a
coast line of 750 miles in length. It consists of four phys-
ical regions: (1) the Coast Ranges, including many fertile
valleys; (2) the plain of the San Joaquin and Sacramento
rivers; (3) the Sierra Nevada; and (4) the Colorado desert,
south-east of the Sierra Nevada, forming a part of the Great
Basin.
The slopes of the Sierra Nevada and the Coast Ranges
are covered with pine forests; the plains are mostly desti-
tute of trees. 27
27. California was ceded to the United States by Mexico,
in 1848. Its growth and prosperity date from the discovery
of the gold deposits, in 1849. The mines yield annually
$25,000,000 in gold, and much quicksilver; and the agri-
cultural products form an important source of wealth.
Wheat and barley are important staples. The fruits of
California are famous for their size and fine flavor. The
cultivation of the mulberry-tree and the silk-worm has been
introduced, and is rapidly extending. The grape culture is
growing in importance from year to year, and the wine of
California is the finest in the United States.
28. Sacramento is the capital. San Francisco, the prin-
cipal emporium on the Pacific shore, is situated near the
entrance of the Bay of San Francisco, and is rapidly increas-
ing in wealth and prosperity. Stockton lies south of Sacra-
mento ; San Diego, on the southern coast. Oakland, on the
eastern shore of San Francisco Bay, is a flourishing city.
Vallejo, on the same bay, is the terminus of the Central
Pacific Railroad. Not far from Mariposa, is the Yosemite
Valley, famous for its magnificent scenery.
OREGON.
29. This state lies north of California, and south of the
Columbia. The valleys of the Columbia, Willamette, Ump-
qua, and Rogue rivers, are fertile low plains; and are, at
present, the only settled portions. Gigantic pine forests
cover the western slopes of the Cascade Mountains.
Salem, on the Willamette, is the capital. Portland, on
the same river, is the largest town.
NEVADA.
30. This state lies entirely within the Great Basin, and
includes the Humboldt River valley. Silver mining is the
principal industry. Nevada contains the richest silver lodes
in the world, which yield one third of the total product of
the United States. Gold is also found.
Oarson City is the capital. Virginia City is the most im-
portant mining center.
COLORADO.
31. This is called the Centennial State, having been
admitted in 1876. It is the third state in area in the Union.
The eastern half consists of vast plains, through which flow
the Arkansas and South Platte rivers: the central portion
contains the highest group of the Rocky Mountains, em-
bracing North, Middle, South, and San Luis parks: and
the western part is upon the great Colorado plateau.
The Yampah, Grand, and Gunnison rivers rise in this
state and flow west; the Rio Grande flows south.
The healthful climate and fine mountain scenery make
Colorado a great resort for invalids and tourists.
Mining is the chief occupation, the products being gold
and silver.
Denver, the capital, is a large and prosperous city.
WASHINGTON TERRITORY.
32. This territory lies north of Oregon. In the north-
west, its shore .is deeply indented by Puget Sound. The
region west of the Cascade Mountains has a moist climate
and fertile soil, and is covered with dense pine forests.
Mount Olympus is the highest peak in the Coast Range.
33. The Great Plains of the Columbia River lie east of
the Cascade Mountains. These are not adapted to farming.
Olympia, on Puget Sound, is the capital.


THE WESTERN STATES AND TERRITORIES.
73
IDAHO TERRITORY.
34. Idaho has a triangular shape, and lies east of Oregon
and Washington. The north-eastern boundary is formed by
the Bitter Boot Mountains and the main range of the Rocky
Mountains. The Salmon River Mountains occupy the region
between the Salmon jnd Snake rivers.
The river bottoms contain good farming land; but gold
and silver mining is the main source of wealth.
Boise City is the capital.
MONTANA TERRITORY.
35. This large territory extends from the Bitter Root
Mountains to the 104th meridian.
The western part is traversed by the principal chain of
the Rocky Mountains. The Missouri and Yellow Stone are
the principal rivers. Much gold is mined.
Helena is the capital. Virginia City, on the Jefferson River,
the upper course of the Missouri, is surrounded by magnificent
mountain scenery.
WYOMING TERRITORY.
36. This territory lies south of Montana, and is traversed
by several high chains of the Rocky Mountainsthe Wind
River and Big Horn mountains, the Laramie Range, and
Medicine Bow Mountains. An outlying group, called the
Black Hills, lies between the two forks of the Big Shyenne
Rivers, and extends into Dakota.
Gold has been discovered at several places. The Union
Pacific Railroad crosses the southern part of this territory.
Cheyenne, at the junction of the Union and Denver Pacific
railroads, is the capital.
TERRITORY OF NEW MEXICO.
37. This territory lies south of Colorado, and is traversed
by several parallel ranges of the Rocky Mountains. The
Rio Grande flows through it from north to south. The
Pecos and Canadian rivers rise within its limits.
It contains valuable gold, silver, and copper mines. Farm-
ing is carried on, to a limited extent, by means of irriga-
tion, in the valley of the Rio Grande.
Santa Fe is the capital.
UTAH TERRITORY.
38. Utah lies west of Colorado, and is divided by the
Wahsatch Mountains into two nearly equal parts. The west-
ern is a section of the Great Basin; the eastern, ,of the
Colorado plateau. Great Salt Lake lies in the western sec-
tion. This territory contains the commonwealth of the Mor-
mons, a peculiar religious sect, who have flourishing towns
and settlements south of Great Salt Lake. By means of
irrigation, they raise cereals, vegetables, and fruits.
Salt Lake City is the capital.
ARIZONA TERRITORY.
39. Arizona lies west of New Mexico. The western bound-
ary is formed by the Colorado River. It is traversed bv
several mountain ranges from north-west to south-east. The
gold and silver mines are very rich.
Rrescott is the capital.
ALASKA.
See Map of the United. States.
40. The unorganized territory of Alaska, although not
belonging to this section, may be properly described here.
This immense territory, which contains an area of more than
500,000 square miles, occupies the north-western part of North
America, and was purchased from the Russian government.
It includes the long and narrow peninsula of Alaska and
the Aleutian Islands, which bound Behring Sea on the south.
41. Alaska is traversed by the most northern chains of
the North American Cordilleras. Mt. Fairioeather, Mt. St.
Elias, and the volcano Illiamna rise near the Pacific Ocean.
The Yukon is a large1 river, which empties into Behring
Sea, but as it flows through an almost uninhabitable region,
it is not important.
42. Alaska lies partly in the frigid zone and partly in
the north temperate zone. The vegetation is scanty. Trees
grow only in the southern portion, and agriculture can not
be carried on, owing to the rigor of the climate. Fur-bearing
animals are very abundant, and yield valuable peltries. The
neighboring sea abounds in fish.
43. The territory is chiefly inhabited by Indians and Es-
quimaux. Sitka, *on Baranoff Island, is a small town, and is
the chief settlement.
Questions. 26. California: Bound it. ^Describe its four physical
regions.-27. When was it ceded to the United States? When were the
gold deposits discovered? What is now the value of the annual gold
product? Name the agricultural staples. 28. What and where is the
capital? Where is San Francisco situated? What is said of it? Where
is Stockton? San Diego? Where is Oakland? Vallejo? Mariposa?
What valley near Mariposa?
29. Oregon: Bound it. What mountain chain passes through this
state ? What valleys are fertile low plains ? What and where is the
capital? Where is Portland?
30. Nevada: Bound it. In what great physical region does it lie?
What is the principal source of wealth? What and where is the
capital? What is the most important mining center?
31. Colorado: Bound it. Describe its surface. Name its rivers and
parks. What is said of the climate? What minerals are found? What
and where is the capital?
Name the seven territories of this group.
32. Washington: Bound it. Describe its surface. What river separates
it from Oregon ? 33. What and where is the capital.
34. Idaho: Bound it. Describe its surface. What mountains bound
it on the north-east? What and where is the capital?
35. Montana: Bound it. In what part are the Rocky Mountains?
Name the principal rivers. What mines are found ? What and where
is the capital ?
36. Wyoming: Bound it. Name the high Rocky Mountain chains lying
in it. What and where is the capital ?
37. New Mexico: Bound it. Describe its surface. What large river
flows through it? What two rivers rise in it? What and where is the
capital ?
38. Utah: Bound it. What mountain chain divides it? To what
physical region does the western part belong? The eastern? What
people live in it? What and where is the capital?
39. Arizona: Bound it. What river forms the western boundary?
Describe its surface. What metals are mined? What and where is the
capital ?
40. Alaska: Bound it. What is its area? What peninsula and what
islands does it include? 41. Describe its surface. Where is Mt. Fair-
weather? Volcano St. Elias? Volcano Illiamna? Describe the Yukon
River.42. What is said of the climate? Of the products? 43. Who
are the inhabitants? What is the capital?




CANADA.
75
CANADA.
QUESTIONS AND MAP STUDIES.
Position.What part of North America does Canada occupy? What
ocean north of it? What ocean east? What country south? What
country and what ocean west? What large bay in the north-eastern
part of Canada? What bay forms the southern extension of Hudson
Bay? What gulf on the east coast of Canada? What island east of the
Gulf of St. Lawrence? What islands in this gulf?
Surface.What' two great mountain ranges traverse the western part
of Canada? Of what range in the United States are the Coast Mount-
ains the continuation? What plain in the interior of Canada? What
heights north of Lake Superior?
Bivers and Lakes.What lakes between Canada and the United
States? What river is the outlet of Lake Ontario? Name the three
largest northern tributaries of the St. Lawrence. What southern tribu-
tary is the outlet of Lake Champlain? Name the three largest rivers
emptying into James Bay. Name the largest river emptying into
Hudson Bay from the west. Of what large lake is the Nelson Biver the
outlet ?
What river empties into Lake Winnipeg? What two branches form the
Saskatchawan Biver? In what mountain range do they rise? Name the
largest river emptying into the Arctic Ocean. Name three large lakes
which it drains. In what plain are these lakes?
What river empties into Athabasca Lake from the south-west ? From
the west ? What river flows from the Athabasca into Great Slave Lake ?
Provinces and Cities.What province occupies a peninsula east of
the Bay of Fundy? What province north-west of this bay? What island
north of Nova Scotia.
What province includes the larger part of the St. Lawrence Biver?
What province west of Quebec? What province south of Lake Winnipeg?
What district north of Manitoba? What province borders on the Pacific
Ocean? What island south-west of British Columbia?
What city on the Ottawa Biver is the capital of Canada? What is
the capital of Nova Scotia? Of New Brunswick? Of Prince Edward
Island? Of Quebec? Of Ontario ? Of Manitoba? Of British Columbia?
What territories are not organized into provinces?
Newfoundland.What ocean east and south of Newfoundland?
What gulf west? What strait separates Newfoundland from the main
land? What cape is the south-east corner of Newfoundland? What
and where is the capital?
DESCRIPTION.
I. POSITION.
1. The Dominion of Canada occupies the northern part of
North America, with the adjacent islands except Newfound-
land. It is about as large as the United States, but contains
only one fourteenth as many inhabitants.
2. Canada is bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean
and here includes the cold and uninhabitable islands of the
Arctic Archipelago. The eastern shores are washed by the
Atlantic Ocean, from which projects far into the land the
Sch.11.
large Hudson Bay, the southern part of which is called James
Bay. The western boundary is formed by the Pacific Ocean
and Alaska, and the southern by the United States.
II. SURFACE.
3. The western portion of Canada is occupied by
several mountain ranges, which constitute the northern
part of the Cordilleras. Not far from the shore, which
is broken by deeply-penetrating inlets, rise the Coast
Mountains, the northern extension of the Cascade Range
of the United States. About 250 miles farther inland
are the Rocky Mountains, which bear the high peaks
Mt. Head, Mt. Murchison, and Mt. Hooker.
4. From the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains the
country gently slopes towards the Arctic Plain, which
occupies the same relative position in Canada that the
Mississippi Valley occupies in the United States.
A belt of lesser highlands extends from the Arctic to
the Atlantic Ocean, forming a wide curve around Hud-
son Bay.
III. RIVERS AND LAKES.
5. The largest and most important river of Canada is
the St. Lawrence, the outlet of the Great Lakes. It receives
several tributaries from the north, of which the Ottawa, St.
Maurice, and Saguenay are the largest. The Ottawa River
forms the boundary between Quebec and Ontario.


76
GEOGRAPHY.
The principal southern tributaries are the Richelieu, the out-
let of Lake Champlain, the St. Francis, and the Chaudiere.
6. The River St. John, which rises in Maine, flows through
the western part of New Brunswick and empties into the Bay
of Fundy. The Restigouche River, in north New Brunswick,
empties into Chaleur Bay.
7. Into James Bay flow the Fast Main, the Abittibbe, and
the Albany rivers. The Saskatchawan River is formed by the
junction of the North and South branches, and flows east into
Lake Winnipeg. The surplus waters of this lake flow through
the Nelson River' into Hudson Bay.
8. The Arctic Plain is drained by the Mackenzie River Sys-
tem. The Mackenzie is the outlet of the Great Slave Lake,
which receives, through the Slave River, the waters of Deer,
Wollaston and Athabasca lakes. Into the latter flow the Ath-
abasca and Peace rivers, which rise in the Rocky Mountains.
The Frazer' River is the principal stream of British Columbia.
IY. CLIMATE AND VEGETATION.
9. The provinces east of the Rocky Mountains have long
winters, with considerable snow, and short, warm summers.
British Columbia has a milder climate. The entire northern
part is too cold for agriculture.
A broad belt of land along the Arctic Ocean produces no
vegetation except mosses and small stunted shrubs. South of
this region is a broad expanse of pine forests, which, in the
south-east, are merged into forests of deciduous trees. The
southern part of the Arctic Plain contains much prairie land.
Questions. 1. What part of North America does Canada occupy?
How large is it? 2. Bound Canada. 3. Describe its surface. Where are
the Coast Mountains? The Rocky Mountains? 4. Where is the Arctic
Plain ? Describe the country surrounding Hudson Bay.
5. Name the principal river of Canada. Of what is the St. Lawrence
the outlet ? What are its chief tributaries from the north ? What from
the south? 6. Describe the St. John River. The Restigouche. 7. What
rivers flow into James Bay? Describe the Saskatchawan. 8. Where is
the Mackenzie River? What lakes does it drain? Name the principal
rivers of British Columbia. 9. What is said of the climate of the eastern
provinces? Of British Columbia? Of the vegetation of the country?
Y. GOVERNMENT AND PROVINCES.
10. Canada includes seven provinces: 1. Ontario; 2. Quebec;
3. New Brunswick,; 4. Nova Scotia; 5. Prince Edward Island;
6. Manitoba; 7. British Columbia. The vast region north of
these provinces is called the North-west Territory.
11. The capital of the Dominion of Canada is Ottawa, a
thriving city on the Ottawa River. Here are the government
buildings and the residence of the Governor-General.
The executive function is vested in the Governor-General, who is ap-
pointed by the sovereign of Great Britain.
The legislative is vested in a Parliament of two Houses. The members of
the upper house, or Senate, are appointed for life by the Governor General;
the members of the lower, or House of Commons, are elected by the people.
Each of the provinces also has its own local government, with a legis-
lative assembly, the members of which are elected, and a Lieutenant-Gov-
ernor, who is appointed by the Governor-General.
12. Ontario is bounded on the south by the Great Lakes,
on the north and west by the Height of Land, and on the
east by Quebec, from which it is separated by the Ottawa
River. It is a very fertile country, particularly the southern
part, which forms a peninsula between lakes Ontario, Erie
and Huron.
Agriculture and lumbering are the chief branches of in-
dustry; and large amounts of grain and lumber are exported.
Ontario is well supplied with rail roads.
Toronto, on Lake Ontario, is the seat of government, and has
about as many inhabitants as Indianapolis. Hamilton, near the
western end of Lake Ontario; Kingston, on the St. Lawrence;
and London, in the interior, are the chief cities,
Ottawa, the capital of the Dominion, lies in this province.
13. Quebec extends from the Ottawa River to the Strait of
Belleisle, and includes the valley of the lower St. Lawrence,
which has a fine, productive soil.
Quebec formerly belonged to France; the inhabitants are
chiefly descendants of French settlers.
The climate is cold, but very healthful. Farming, lumbering,
and mining are the principal industries. The mines produce
gold, copper, iron, and other ores.
Victoria Bridge, at Montreal.
Quebec, on the St. Lawrence, is the seat of government. It
is strongly fortified. Montreal, the largest city of Canada, is
situated at the head of navigation on the St. Lawrence, and
has an extensive commerce. Three Rivers is on the St. Law-
rence, opposite the mouth of the St. Maurice.
14. New Brunswick lies between Maine and the Gulf
of St. Lawrence. It has an undulating surface, and is well
wooded and watered. Lumbering, ship-building and farming
are the chief industries. Coal and iron are abundant.
Fredericton, the seat of government, is on the river St. John.
St. John, a large commercial city, lies at the mouth of that river,
and near the Bay of Fundy.
15. Nova Scotia (formerly Acadia) includes Cape Breton
Island and the long, narrow peninsula east of the Bay of
Fundy. The surface consists of high hills and broad valleys.
Fruits and grain are the chief products. Ship-building and
fishing are carried on extensively. The province has large
deposits of coal and some gold mines.
Halifax, on a fine bay, is the seat of government, and has
much commerce.


DANISH AMERICA.
77
16. Prince Edward Island lies in the southern part of the
Gulf of St. Lawrence, and is separated from New Brunswick
by Northumberland Strait. Farming and fishing are the chief
pursuits. Charlotte Town is the capital.
17. Manitoba lies between Dakota and Minnesota on the
south, and lakes Manitoba and Winnipeg on the north. The
Red River of the North flows through this province, and its
valley has large bodies of fertile land.
Winnipeg is the seat of government.
18. British Columbia occupies the south-western part of
Canada, and lies between the main range of the Rocky
Mountains and the Pacific Ocean. Thek 60th parallel forms
the northern boundary the 49th, the southern. The province
includes numerous islands, the largest of which is Vancouver.
British Columbia is covered with magnificent pine forests,
and is rich in fur-bearing animals bears, lynx, marten, and
beaver. Gold is extensively mined in the Frazer River valley.
Vancouver Island is separated from the main land by Juan
de Fuca Strait, the Gulf of Georgia, and Queen Charlotte
Sound.
Victoria, on Vancouver Island, is the capital. New West-
minster, on Frazer River, is noted for its salmon fishing.
19. The North-east, Northern, and North-west Territo-
ries, and the District of Kewaydin, were formerly known as
the Hudson Bay Territory, which was transferred to the Dominion
of Canada, by the Hudson Bay Company, in 1870. Kewaydin
is under the jurisdiction of the Lieutenant-governor of Manitoba. 20
20. Newfoundland does not yet belong to the Dominion of
Canada. Its coast is indented by numerous bays. The interior
is a rocky table-land, covered with forests, lakes, and swamps.
The climate is cold and moist, and dense fogs are common
at all seasons of the year, particularly in the spring. Potatoes,
' turnips, and cabbages are raised.
The principal occupation is cod-fislling upon the New-
foundland Banks. From June to November more than 2,000
boats are engaged in these fisheries.
St. Johns is the capital. Heart's Content is the terminus of
the first trans-atlantic telegraph cable.
21. The small islands, Miquelon, Langley, and St. Fierre, be-
long to France.
Questions. 10. Name the seven provinces of Canada. Where is the
North-west Territory? 11. What is the capital of the Dominion? Who
is the chief executive officer?
12. Bound Ontario. Describe this province. What are the chief in-
dustries? Where is Toronto? Hamilton? Kingston? London?
13. Bound and describe Quebec. What is said of the inhabitants? Of
the climate? The industries? Where is the city of Quebec? Montreal?
Three Rivers?
14. Bound New Brunswick. Describe it. Mention the chief pursuits.
The products. Where is Fredericton? St. John?
15. Locate and describe Nova Scotia. What is the capital ? 16.
Where is Prince Edward Island? What are the chief industries? What
is the capital? 17. Describe Manitoba. What is the capital? 18. Locate
and describe British Columbia. Where is Vancouver Island? Name the
chief towns of British Columbia. 19. What is said of the territories?
20. Bound Newfoundland. What is said of this island? Its climate?
Products? Occupations? What and where is the capital? 21. What
small islands, south of Newfoundland, belong to France ?
DANISH AMERICA.
22. Danish America includes two islands, Greenland and
Iceland. They belong to the kingdom of Denmark. (See map
of North America).
23. Greenland lies east of Davis Strait, Baffin Bay, Smith
Sound, and the narrow channel leading north. Its area is
nearly 760,000 square miles. This large island is a rocky
plateau, 2,000 feet high, covered with fields of snow and ice.
The climate is intensely cold. Reindeer abound, and seals,
walruses, and whales live in the surrounding sea.
The inhabitants are Esquimaux. The Danes have established
several missionary stations along the western coast. The dog
is the only domestic animal, and is employed to draw sledges.
New Herrenhut is the largest settlement.
24. Iceland is separated from Greenland by Denmark Strait;
its northern extremities touch the Arctic circle. Its area is
nearly the same as that of Ohio. The shores are deeply in-
dented. The greater part of the island is occupied by snow-
covered mountains and rocky table-lands. There are seven
active volcanoes, the most noted of which is Mt. Ilekla (5,094
feet). The Geysers are springs which throw out, at -intervals,
jets of hot water.
25. The climate is cold and moist, and the vegetation con-
sists of grass, herbs, and a few birches. The inhabitants are
descendants of the ancient Northmen. Their chief occupations
are farming, fishing, and the raising of sheep. Potatoes and
a few garden vegetables are the only products. The only fuel
is driftwood, brought by oceanic currents to the south-western
shore.
Reykjavik is the capital.
Questions. 22. What two islands constitute Danish America? 23.
What waters surround Greenland ? Describe this island. Its inhabitants.
What is the largest town?
24. What is said of Iceland ? What noted volcano on the island ?
25. Describe the climate. The inhabitants. Occupations. Productions.
What is the capital ?




MEXICO, CENTRAL AMERICA, AND THE WEST INDIES.
79
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5 /
MEXICO, CENTRAL AMERICA, AND THE WEST INDIES.
QUESTIONS AND MAP STUDIES.
I. MEXICO.
What ocean west of Mexico? What gulf east? What is the name
of the south-western part of the Gulf of Mexico? What peninsula east
of the Gulf of Campeachy?
What peninsula north-west of Mexico ? What gulf between Lower
California and the main-land ? What cape at the southern end of Lower
California? What gulf on the southern coast of Mexico?
What country north of Mexico ? What country south-east of Mexico ?
Where are the lowlands of Mexico ? The highlands ?
What direction have the mountain chains ? What chain crosses Mexico
from north-west to south-east? What plateau south-west of the Sierra
Madre? Name four volcanoes and peaks south of the 20th parallel.
What river separates Mexico from the United States? What river
in northern Mexico empties into the Eio Grande? What river empties
into the Gulf of Mexico? What river empties into the Gulf of Cam-
peachy ?
Name the three largest rivers emptying into the Pacific Ocean. Name
two rivers emptying into the Gulf of California.
What is the capital of Mexico? Where is it situated? What sea-
port on the Gulf of Campeachy? What city near the mouth of the Eio
Grande ?
What What sea-port on the southern coast?
II. CENTRAL AMERICA.
What sea east of Central America? What ocean west? What gulf
east of Yucatan ? Name some indentations on the Pacific coast.
Of which does the greater part of Central America consist, high land
or low plains? Name some volcanoes. Near what shore are they situ-
ated, the eastern or the western ?
What river separates Central America from Mexico ? Into what gulf
does the Usumasinta empty ? What river empties into the Caribbean
Sea near the 15th parallel?
What large lake in the southern part of the country? What river
is its outlet? Into what sea. does the San Juan empty?
Name the five states of Central America. What is the capital of
Guatemala? Of San Salvador? Of Honduras? Of Nicaragua? Of
Costa Eica?
III. THE WEST INDIES.
What sea south of the West Indies? What ocean north and east?
What gulf north-west?
What island south of Florida? What strait between Florida and
Cuba?
What island south of Cuba? What island east of Cuba? What island
east of Hayti? Name the four Greater Antilles.
What chain of smaller islands south-east of the Greater Antilles?
What chain of islands north of the Greater Antilles ?
In what direction do the Lesser Antilles trend? In what direction
do the Bahama Islands trend?
What is the capital of Cuba? Of Porto Eico? Of Jamaica? What
two states on the island of Hayti? What is the capital of Hayti?
What is the capital of Dominica? What city on the southern coast
of Cuba? What city east of Havana?
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DESCRI
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I. MEXICO. X
1. Position. Mexico lies south of the United States. It
is widest in the north, and becomes smaller toward the south-
east. The narrowest part is the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, which
measures but 136 miles from shore to shore.
2. The coasts are very uniform and unbroken. The Gulf
of California is the only indentation of any magnitude. It
separates the peninsula called Lower California from the
main-land. In the east, Mexico embraces the peninsula of
Yucatan. The south-western part of the Gulf of Mexico is
called the Gulf of Campeachy.
The area of Mexico is over 760,000 square miles. It is,
therefore, more than sixteen times as large as Pennsylvania.
3. Surface.-Mexico includes the most elevated portion
of the Cordilleras of North America. It consists almost
entirely of a lofty plateau, which is traversed by a number
of mountain chains.
4. In the west, this plateau slopes down to the narrow
coast plains on the Pacific Ocean; in the east, to those on
the gulf; and in the south-east, to the depression of the
Isthmus of Tehuantepec.
5. The plateau is diversified by mountain chains, which
divide it into a number of compartments, or valleys, which
somewhat resemble the Parks of the Rocky Mountains in
Colorado.
6. The principal chain is the Sierra Madre, which, in the
south, trends along the eastern margin, but farther north,
traverses the plateau in a diagonal direction, and terminates
south of the Gila River.
It divides Mexico into two regions: the Plateau, of Anahuac
(7500 feet), in the south and west; and the Bolson de Mapimi
(4000 feet), a sandy steppe, in the north-east.
7. There is a series of volcanoes and lofty peaks on the
Plateau of Anahuac in a line from east to west. Volcano
Orizaba, and the Coffre de Perote, in the east; further west,
volcano Popocatepetl, the highest mountain in Mexico, and
Iztaccihuatl; still further west, the volcanoes Toluca, Jorullo,
and Colima.
Questions.1. Describe the situation of Mexico. Bound it. Where
is it the widest? Where the narrowest?2. What is said of the coasts?
What gulf in the west? What peninsula in the west? What peninsula
in the east?3. Describe the surface of Mexico.4. Where are the low
plains? What depression in the south-east? What are the elevations
east of this depression?5. What is said of the plateau?6. What is
the principal mountain chain called ? Describe its direction. Into
what regions does it divide the plateau ? Which is the highest ?
7. What volcanoes are there in Mexico? How are they arranged?
Which is the highest ?
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80
GEOGRAPHY.
Bandits robbing a Coach.
8. Rivers and Lakes. Mexico has no large navigable
rivers. The Rio Grande, which forms a part of the northern
boundary is the largest. It receives the Conchos, which rises
in the Sierra Madre. The Coaxacoalcos traverses the Isthmus
of Tehuantepec, and empties into the Gulf of Campeachy.
The Rio Grande de Santiago, which drains the large Lake
Chapala, and the Rio San Pedros, empty into the Pacific
Ocean.
9. Climate and Yegetation.The low plains which ex-
tend along the coast and separate the table-lands from the
sea, have a very hot and unhealthy climate. The climate of
the table-lands varies according to their elevation above the
ocean.
The inhabitants distinguish three regions:
(1) The tierras calientes, or hot lands, including the plains along the
shores and the valleys, as high as 4000 feet, where palms, tree-ferns, etc.,
grow, and the sugar-cane, cocoa, indigo, and cotton are. raised.
(2) The tierra templadas, or temperate lands, from 4000 to 6000 feet
high. Perpetual spring reigns here. Deciduous trees grow, and the
cereals and fruits of the temperate zone are raised.
(3) The tierras frias, or cold lands, including the highest plateaus and
mountains, exceeding 6000 feet in elevation. Here is found the vegeta-
tion of the colder parts of the temperate zone, as oaks, pines, etc.
10. Inhabitants and Cities.The population numbers over
9,000,000; only one million are white. They are mainly
descendants of Spaniards.
11. Agriculture and mining are the chief occupations.
The mines yield silver and gold, and are principally
worked by Germans and Englishmen.
The agricultural products are corn, wheat, sugar, cotton,
and indigo. , -o
12. Mexico has a republican form of government; but
revolutions, from perpetual feuds among the leaders, prevent
the rise and progress of the nation.
13. Mexico is the capital. It is situated in a beautiful
valley, surrounded by chains of mountains, with snow-covered
peaks. The important cities are: Guanajuato, in a district
of rich silver mines; and farther west, Guadalajara; Aguas
Calientes; Zacatecas, near the silver and gold
mining district; Chihuahua; Jalapa, between
Vera Cruz and the capital, charmingly situated
on the slope of the plateau. The principal sea-
port is Vera Cruz, on a sandy plain, and very
unhealthy. Tampico is situated near the Gulf of
Mexico; Acapulco and Mazatlan, on the Pacific
Ocean; and Guaymas, on the Gulf of California.
Questions. 8. What is said of the rivers of Mexico?
Where is the Eio Grande? The Conchos? The Coaxa-
coalcos? The Eio Grande de Santiago? What lake does
it drain? Describe its course. Where is the San Pedros?
9. In what zones does Mexico lie? What parts of the
country are very hot ?
10. What is said of the population of Mexico? Of
what does it consist?
11. What are the chief occupations? What are the
mining products? The agricultural products? 12. What
is the form of government?
13. What is the capital? Where situated? Where is
Guanajuato? Aguas Calientes? Zacatecas? Chihuahua?
Jalapa? Yera Cruz? Tampico? Acapulco? Mazatlan?
Guaymas?
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II. CENTRAL AMERICA.
v 14. Position. Central America lies south-east of Mexico,
between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. It has an
area of 182,000 square miles, and is nearly four times as
large as Pennsylvania.
15. Surface. This country is occupied by the southern
portion of the North American Cordilleras. There are only
a few narrow strips of low plains along the coast.
The Cordilleras are divided into three parts by two de-
pressions : that of the Ulloa River in Honduras, and that of
Lake Nicaragua, with its outlet, the San Juan.
16. They are the highest in the south and west, and
gradually descend to the north and east. The highest peaks
and volcanoes are near the Pacific coast ; as, the San Salvador,
the Coseguina, the Chiriqui, and Telica.
17. Rivers and Lakes. The Usumasinta forms part of
the north-western boundary; the Ulloa empties into the Gulf
of Honduras; the Wanks and the San Juan empty into the
Caribbean sea. The San Juan is the outlet of Lake Nicara-
gua, which is nearly as- large as Lake Ontario.
18. Climate and Yegetation. Central America resembles
southern Mexico. Constant spring reigns upon the plateaus,
which enjoy a temperate climate. The plains and valleys
have a very hot climate, and are clothed with the richest
tropical vegetation.
19. The population (about 2,500,000) consists of some
Spanish Creoles, but mainly of Mestizoes and Indians, who
seem unable to make a proper use of the rich gifts that
nature has bestowed upon this country.
20. Some valuable products arc raised, although agricul-
ture is rudely conducted. Indigo, cotton, bananas, sugar,
and coffee are raised on the coast plains; corn, beans, rice,
etc., on the cooler and more elevated regions. Large herds
of cattle find pasturage on the prairies which occupy a por-
tion of the high plateaus.


CENTRAL AMERICA AND THE AVEST INDIES.
81
21. States. Central America includes five independent
republics and the British colony of Honduras.
(1) Guatemala borders on Mexico, the Pacific Ocean, and
the Gulf of Honduras. It is a table-land, upon whose south-
ern margin are several active volcanoes. Guatemala is the
capital.
(2) San Salvador is the smallest of these republics. It
borders on the Bay of Fonseca. San Salvador, the capital,
was totally destroyed by an earthquake in 1854, but has
since been rebuilt.
(3) Honduras extends from the Bay of Fonseca to the
Gulf of Honduras. The mines yield some gold and silver.
The forests abound in logwood, mahogany, and other valua- .
ble woods; and the prairies, or savannas, support herds of
cattle and horses.
Comayagua, the capital, is situated in the fertile valley of
the Ulloa River.
(4) Nicaragua borders on the Pacific Ocean and the
Caribbean Sea. It includes the depression of the San Juan
River and Lake Nicaragua.
Managua, the capital, lies on Lake Managua. Leon, near
the Pacific coast, is the largest city.
(5) Costa Rica.Three-fourths of the population are of
Spanish descent. They are industrious and energetic. This
state is the most advanced of the five republics. The best
coffee in America is raised here. San Jose is the capital.
22. British Honduras, or Belize, is an English colony,
which exports much mahogany. Belize is the capital.
Questions. 14. Bound Central America. How large is it?15. De-
scribe the surface. What two depressions divide the Cordilleras? 16.
Name some volcanoes.
17. Describe the chief rivers. 18. What is said of the climate and
vegetation?19. How many inhabitants in Central America? What is
said of them? 20. Name the agricultural products.
21. Bound each of the following states, and name the capital: Guate-
mala, San Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica. 22. Bound British
Honduras. What article does it export?
III. THE WEST INDIES.
23. The islands which are situated east of the Gulf of
Mexico and the Caribbean Sea are comprised under the name
of the West Indies. They form three chains: (1) the Greater
Antilles; (2) the Lesser Antilles; and (3) the Bahama Islands.
24. The Greater Antilles comprise Cuba, Hayti, Porto
Rico, and Jamaica. The first three form a chain, trending
east and west; Jamaica lies south of Cuba.
They are traversed by mountain chains. A large portion
of their surface, however, is low and level.
As they lie in the torrid zone, and have a very moist
climate, the vegetation is rich and varied. Palms, tree-ferns,
and other tropical plants abound in them.
The population consists of whites (mostly Spanish Creoles)
and Negroes. The latter are greatly in the majority. Agri-
culture is the chief occupation. The principal products are
sugar, tobacco, coffee, Indian corn, bananas, and tropical fruits.
25. Cuba is the largest of the Greater Antilles, and has
an area equal to Maine and Massachusetts together. It be-
longs to Spain, and produces much tobacco, and more than
one sixth of all the cane sugar raised in the world.
Moro Castle.
26. Havana is the capital, and largest city of the West
India Islands. Its fine harbor is defended by Moro Castle.
The commerce is very extensive. Matanzas, east of Havana.,
and Santiago de Cuba, are flourishing sea-ports.
Porto Rico is also a Spanish colony.
27. Hayti is divided into two independent republics. The
western part is the republic of Hayti. Its inhabitants are
Negroes. Port au Prince is the capital. The eastern part
is the republic of Dominica, which is inhabited by Mulattoes.
San Domingo is the capital.
28. Jamaica is an English colony. Nine-tenths of the
population are Negroes and Mulattoes. Spanish Town is the
residence of the governor. Kingston is the largest city.
29. The Lesser Antilles form a chain which curves from
north to south, and bounds the Caribbean Sea on the east.
On several of these islands there are active volcanoes.
The Virgin Islands, east of Porto Rico, belong partly to
Denmark. St. Thomas is their capital and chief city.
Barbuda, Dominica, Santa Lucia, Barbadoes, and St. Vin-
cent are the largest islands in this chain belonging to England.
Guadaloupe and Martinique belong to France.
30. The Bahama Islands trend from Hayti in a north-
westerly direction. They are low, and covered with a light,
sandy soil. The climate is temperate and healthy.
The Bahamas are but thinly inhabited, and belong to
England. St. Andrew Island is the largest. Nassau, on
New Providence Island, is their capital.
Questions.23. What islands are comprised in the West Indies?
Name the three chains.
24. Name the Greater Antilles. What is said of their surface? Of their
climate and vegetation? Of the population? Name their products.
25. How large is Cuba? To whom does it belong?26. What is the
capital ? Where is Matanzas ? Santiago de Cuba ? What colony is
Porto Rico?
27. What two republics does the island of Hayti comprise? What
is the capital of Hayti? Of Dominica?28. To whom does Jamaica
belong? What is the residence of the governor? The largest town?
29. Where are the Lesser Antilles? To whom do the Virgin Islands
partly belong? What is the capital? What islands belong to England?
To France?
30. Where are the Bahama Islands? What is said of their surface;
Their climate? To whom do they belong? What island is the largest?
What is the capital?


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SOUTH AMERICA.
83
SOUTH AMERICA.
/
QUESTIONS AND MAP STUDIES.
What ocean bounds South America on the east? What ocean on the
west? What sea on the north? What isthmus joins it to North America?
Which extends farthest to the east, North or South America? Which
of the two has the largest peninsulas and bays?
What gulf on the northern shore of South America? What island at
the eastern end of the Caribbean Sea? What cape near the eastern
extremity of the grand division? What cape on the eastern coast, near
the tropic of Capricorn?
What island south of the grand division ? What strait separates Tierra
del Euego from the grand division? What cape on a small island south
of Tierra del Fuego? What bay on the western coast, north of the 20th
parallel ? What gulf south of the equator ?
What is the trend of the shore from the Isthmus of Panama to Cape
St. Roque? What is the trend of the shore from Cape St. Roque to Cape
Horn? What is the trend of the shore from Cape Horn to the Bay of
Arica? What is the trend of the coast from the Bay of Arica to the
Isthmus of Panama?
What great mountain system extends along the western coast of this
grand division? What plateau in the north-eastern part? What large
table-land in the eastern part?
What river empties into the Caribbean Sea? What river empties into
the Atlantic, opposite Trinidad? Where does the Orinoco rise? Name
three of its tributaries. Where do they rise? Is its mouth an estuary
or a delta? .
What great river empties into the Atlantic, near the equator? Where
is the source of the Amazon? What is the direction of its upper course?
Of its lower course? Name its two largest northern tributaries. Name
four southern tributaries.
What river empties into the Atlantic Ocean, near the 10th degree south
latitude ? In what direction does it flow ? What two rivers unite and form
the La Plata? In what direction does the Uruguay flow? The Parana?
What river enters the Parana from the north? What two rivers, rising in
the Andes, empty into the Paraguay?
What reason would you assign for the absence of large rivers emptying
into the Pacific Ocean?
What lake south of the Gulf of Venezuela?
Which is the largest division of South America? What part of the
continent does Brazil'occupy ? What is the capital of Brazil ?
What division borders on the Atlantic Ocean, north of Brazil?
What division north of Brazil, borders on the Caribbean Sea? What
is the capital of Venezuela?
What division borders on the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean?
What is the capital 'of Columbia?
Through what state bordering on the Pacific does the equator pass?
What is the capital of Ecuador?
What division south of Ecuador? What is the capital of Peru?
What division south-east of Peru? What is the capital of Bolivia?
What division south of Bolivia? What is the capital of Chili?
What divisions occupy the southern part of the continent ?
What division borders on the Atlantic Ocean, east of Chili? What is
the capital of the Argentine Republic?
What division north of the Rio de la Plata? What is the capital of
Uruguay?
What division between Brazil, Bolivia, and the Argentine Republic?
What is the capital of Paraguay?
What divisions border on the Pacific Ocean ? What divisions border
on the Atlantic Ocean? What divisions border on the Caribbean Sea?
What division has no sea-coast?
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DESCRIPTION.
BSS-
I. POSITION.
outh America is the southern part of
the western continent. It has an area
of 6,900,000 square miles, and is more
/ than 2,000,000 square miles smaller than
North America.
and the Caribbean Sea; Tierra del Fuego, or Fireland, lying
at the southern end of the grand division, from which it is
separated by 3Iagellan Strait; tire Falkland Islands, east of
Patagonia; the Galapagos^ Islands, lying west of the con-
tinent, on the equator; and the island of Juan Fernandez,
in the Pacific Ocean, west of Chili.
2. The most northern point is Cape Gallinas, west of the
Gulf of Venezuela; the most southern, is Cape Horn, on a
small rocky island, south of Tierra del Fuego; and the most
western, Cape Farina, south of the Gulf of Guayaquil.
3. South America, like North America, is triangular in
shape. Its longest side extends from the Isthmus of Panama
to Cape Horn, and is washed by the Pacific Ocean. The
northern side, from the Isthmus of Panama to Cape St. Roque,
is washed by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The
eastern side, from Cape St. Roque to Cape Horn, is washed
by the Atlantic Ocean.
4. The principal islands are: Trinidad, opposite the Delta
of the Orinoco River, and lying between the Atlantic Ocean
Sch.12.
II. SURFACE.
5. South America has three great highland systems: (1) the
Andes; (2) the Flatean of Guyana; and (3) the Table-land of
Brazil. It resembles North America in surface and structure,
as well as in shape. The Andes correspond to the Cordil-
leras; the Plateau of Guyana, to the Arctic Plateau; and
the Table-land of Brazil, to the Apalachians.
6. The Andes traverse South America from the northern to
the southern extremity. Their length, from north to south,
is about the same as that of the North American Cordilleras:
but their width, from east to west, is less, and their height
above the sea-level is greater.


84
GEOGRAPHY.
7. The Andes rise abruptly, like a massive and unbroken
wall, from the narrow coast plain which separates their
western base from the Pacific.
They may be divided into five sections :
(1) The Patagonian Andes, from Cape Horn to the 42d
parallel, are the lowest section, and have an altitude of less
than 5000 feet. Sarmiento, in Tierra del Fuego, and Yanteles
and Coroovado, in Patagonia, are the highest summits.
(2) The Andes of Chili, from 42 to 24 south lati-
tude, consist of a high and massive chain, accompanied by
lower parallel ridges. Aconcagua, the highest peak, was un-
til recently, thought to be a volcano.
(3) The Andes of Peru and Bolivia consist of several par-
allel ranges, inclosing elevated valleys and plateaus. The
most noted is that on which Lake Titicaca is situated. It is
entirely surrounded by mountain barriers and snowy peaks.-
Sorata, the highest peak of the Andes, and Illimani are east
of this lake. Farther north is the valley of the upper
Amazon.
city of Quito is situated on the table-land which they inclose.
Both ranges include a number of active and extinct volcanoes,
such as Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, and Pichincha.
(5) The Andes of Columbia consist of three chains, inclos-
ing the valleys of the Magdalena and Cauca rivers. The
eastern chain trends north-east, and then follows the coast
of Venezuela.
8. The Plateau of Guyana is traversed by a number of
ranges, mainly trending north-west and south-east, and bear-
ing peaks which are somewhat higher than Mt. Washington.
9. The Table-land of Brazil occupies nearly one-fourth
of the area of the grand division. Many mountain ranges
traverse it; as, the Organ Mountains, near the sea-shore,
the Sierra Mantiaueira and the Sierra do Espinkago;
10. The above-named mountain systems are separated by
three extensive low plains: (1) the Llanos of the Orinoco,
north-west of the Plateau of Guyana; (2) the Selvas, or
Forests, of the Amazon, between the Plateau of Guyana, the
Table-land of Brazil, and the Andes; (3) the Pampas and
Plains of the La Plata, between the Andes and the Table-
tad of Brazil. ^ ^ // x
Question's. 1. What is the area of South America?2. What is the
most northern point? The most southern? The most western?
3. What is said of the shape of South America? What bounds it
on the east, west, and north ?
4. Where is the island of Trinidad? Where is Tierra del Fuevo?
What strait separates it from the grand division? Where are the Falk-
land Islands? The Galapagos Islands? The island of Juan Fernandez?
5. Name the three highland systems of South America.
6. Describe the trend of the Andes. What is said of their resem-
blance to the Cordilleras of North America?
7. Describe the Patagonian Andes. The Andes of Chili. The Andes
of Peru and Bolivia. Name their highest peaks. What is said of the
Andes of Ecuador? What is their highest peak? Describe the Andes
of Columbia. What river valleys do they inclose?
8. Where is the Plateau of Guyana?9. Where is the Table-land of
Brazil? Name two mountain ranges traversing it.
10. Where are the Llanos of the Orinoco? The Selvas of the Amazon?
The Pampas of the La Plata?
III. RIVERS AND LAKES.
11. South America excels all other grand divisions in the
number and magnitude of its rivers; but, as the grand division
is very sparsely populated, the navigable streams flow through
vast and almost unbroken solitudes.
12. The Magdalena is the only river of importance empty-
ing into the Caribbean Sea. It rises in the Andes, and flows
due north through a narrow valley. The Cauca is its largest
tributary.
13. The Orinoco rises in the Plateau of Guyana, and emp-
ties, through a large delta, into the Atlantic Ocean. The
Casiquiare sends one branch into the Orinoco and another
into the Rio Negro, a tributary of the Amazon, thus forming
a natural connection between these two great rivers. The Meta
and Apure rise in the Andes, and empty into the Orinoco
from the west.
14. The Amazon is the largest river on the globe. It
drains a territory of more than 2,000,000 square miles. Its
'upper course flows in an elevated valley between the eastern
and western ranges of the Peruvian Andes. Near the 5th
degree south latitude, it turns to the east, and emerges from
the mountains in a series of rapids and cataracts.
Its fall, from the base of the Andes to the ocean, is but 850 feet. It
is navigable for 3360 miles.
The principal southern tributaries are the Ucayale, Madeira,
Tapajos, and Tocantins; the northern, the Japura and Bio
Negro.
15. The Rio de la Plata is formed by the confluence of
the Uruguay and the Parana. Both rise in the Table-land
of Brazil. The largest tributary of the Parana is the Para-
guay, which receives the Pilcomayo and the Vermcjo from the
west.
16. Lake Titicaca is situated on a plateau of the Andes
of Bolivia, 12,545 feet above the level of the sea. It is
about half as large as Lake Erie, and has no outlet to
the sea.
Lake Maracaybo lies south of the Gulf of Venezuela.


SOUTH AMERICA.
85
&:
IY. CLIMATE, VEGETATION, AND ANIMALS.
17. Three-fourths of South America lie within the torrid
zone. The lowlands and eastern plateaus of this portion of
the continent have a very hot climate. Upon the slopes of
the Andes, from the base upward, are belts of tropical heat,
moderate temperature, and excessive cold.
18. The southern part of the grand division, including Pat-
agonia, Chili, the Argentine Republic, and southern Brazil, lies
in the temperate zone.
19. South America has a very moist climate.' The trade
winds sweep across the grand division from east to west; and as
they come from the Atlantic Ocean, they are saturated with
moisture. No lofty mountain chain intercepts them until they
reach the Andes, near the western shore. Hence, abundant
rains fall on the greater part of the continent.
20. A narrow belt along the western shores of Peru and
northern Chili is rainless. It lies in the region of the trades
which have been deprived of their moisture in passing across
the lofty Andes.
21. Each of the physical re-
gions described above, has its
own peculiar vegetation.
The Selvas of the Amazon are
forests. They consist of gigantic
trees, growing closely together,
and so thickly interwoven with
climbing plants and dense masses
of underbrush that they are al-
most impenetrable. The numerous
rivers afford the only passages
through them.
The number of plant species growing
in these forests is very great. Palms and
tree-ferns, the representative plants of the
torrid zone, abound every-where. The
India-rubber, or caoutchouc-tree, with its
juicy leaves, and the bombax, or wool-tree,
with its thick, barrel-shaped trunk, are
also characteristic plants of this region.
The branches of many trees are covered
with parasitic plants; as, various brome-
lias, resembling pine-apples, and orchids,
which derive their support exclusively from the damp air, and are dis-
tinguished above all other plants by the beauty of their flowers.
22. The Pampas of the La Plata and the Llanos of the
Orinoco are treeless prairies, covered with grasses and herbs.
They have a wet and a dry season. During the dry season,
they resemble deserts.
28. The eastern part of the Table-land of Brazil is covered
with dense tropical forests, in which palms, tree-ferns, and
many trees yielding dye-woods, grow in great abundance.
24. The Andes lying within the belts of the trades have'
a luxuriant growth of vegetation on their eastern slopes, while
their western slopes are barren and desert. The high valleys
inclosed between the chains of mountains are covered with
oak forests and green meadows.
The western slopes of the Andes of Patagonia and Chili
are covered with forests of deciduous trees, and pines.
25. The animals of the warmer parts of South America
are the jaguar and cougar, belonging to the cat species; the
tapir, a thick-skinned animal, corresponding to the elephant
of the old world; the ant-eater, the armadillo, and the sloth.
Large reptiles are very abundant in the rivers, swamps, and
forests; as, the boa-constrictor, a huge serpent, the alligator,
and many kinds of large lizards. The insects and birds, as
parrots and humming-birds, are noted for their brilliant colors.
26. The llama and alpaca, which correspond to the camel
of the old world, are peculiar to the Andes. The llama is
domesticated, and used as a beast of burden. The condor, the
largest species of vulture known, lives in the Andes.
Questions.11. What is said of the rivers of South America?
12. Where is the Magdalena? What is its largest tributary?
13. Where does the Orinoco rise? In what direction does it flow?
What is said of the Casiquiare ? Where do the Meta and Apuro
rise ?
14. What is the area drained by the Amazon? Where does this river
rise? In what direction does it flow? What island divides its mouth
into two branches? In what direction does the Ucayale flow? The
Madeira? The Tapajos? The Tocantins? The Japura? The Rio Negro?
15. What two rivers form the Rio de la Plata? In what direction
does the Uruguay flow? The Parana? The Paraguay? The Pilcomayo?
The Vermejo?
16. Where is Lake Titicaca ? How high is it above the sea-level ?
Where is Lake Aullagas? Where is Lake Maracaybo?
17. What portion of South America lies in the torrid zone? What
is said of the Andes?
18. What portion of South America lies in the temperate zone ?
19. What is said of the climate as regards moisture? 20. What belt
is rainless ? Why is it rainless ?
'21. What is said of the vegetation of the Selvas? 22. What is said
of the vegetation of the Pampas and Llanos?23. What is said of the
vegetation of the Table-land of Brazil?24. What is said of the vegeta-
tion of the Andes?
25. Mention some animals living in the warmer portions of South
America.26. What animals are peculiar to the Andes?
Y. INHABITANTS AND STATES.
27. South America has about 27,500,000 inhabitants. One-
third of these belong to the Caucasian race,; one-third are
Indians, and the remainder consists of Negroes and persons
of mixed blood, as Mestizoes and Mulattoes.
A Jaguar Fishing.


86
GEOGRAPHY.
28. The white inhabitants live chiefly near the Atlantic
sea-board and on the plateaus of the Andes. They are
descendants of the. early Spanish and Portuguese colonists.
29. There are thirteen political divisions in South Amer-
ica. Nine of these are republics, one (Brazil) is an empire,
and three (British, Dutch, and French Guyana) are colonies
belonging to European states. Patagonia and Terre del Fuego
have lately been divided between Chili and Argentine Republic.
THE EMPIRE OF BRAZIL.
Bay of Eio Janeiro.
30. Brazil is nearly as large as the United States, includ-
ing Alaska, but has not one fourth as many inhabitants. It
greatly exceeds the other South American states in extent.
It includes the Table-land of Brazil and the greater por-
tion of the Selvas of the Amazon.
The towns and settlements are chiefly upon the sea-board.
Most of the interior is yet. a vast, unbroken wilderness,
inhabited by roving tribes of Indians.
31. Brazil was formerly a Portuguese colony. Since 1822,
it has been a constitutional empire. The house of Braganza,
to which also the King of Portugal belongs, is the reigning
family.
One-seventh of the population are white; the remainder
are Negroes, Mulattoes, and Indians.
32. The principal occupations are mining, agriculture,
and commerce.
The mineral wealth of Brazil is considerable. Gold is
found in the rivers north of the Sierra Mantiqueira; plati-
num, in the valley of the San Francisco River. Brazil is
richer in diamonds than any other country. They are found
chiefly in the sand of the tributaries of the upper Paraguay.
33. The agricultural products are coffee, rice, Indian
corn, the mate-plant, sometimes called Paraguay tea, tobacco,
cotton, cacao, and sugar. The cultivation of tea has lately
been introduced, and promises to be successful.
Brazil furnishes three-fifths of the coffee produced in the world; but
its quality is inferior to that of the West Indies, Java, and Arabia.
34. The principal exports are coffee, hides, sugar, cotton,
India-rubber, tobacco, dye-woods, great quantities of which are
found in the tropical forests, and diamonds. The imports are
flour, pork, and cotton-goods.
35. Rio Janeiro, the capital, is situated on the eastern
coast, and has the finest, safest, and most capacious harbor
in the world. It is surrounded by an amphitheater of hills
and mountains. The city is the largest and most beautiful
in South America, and has a population of nearly 275,000.
Bahia, on All Saints Bay, is a commercial city of much
importance. Recife, or Pernambuco, and Maranhao, are impor-
tant ports. Para is situated on the Para River, the southern
mouth of the Amazon.
THE COLONIES OF GUYANA.
36. Guyana, or Guiana, occupies the eastern part of the
Plateau of Guyana and the rich, densely-wooded, but un-
healthy coast plain. Coffee, sugar, and cotton are raised on
the large plantations near the sea-board. The interior is
but little known.
37. This territory consists of three colonies:
French Guyana lies in the east. Cayenne is the capital.
Dutch Guyana lies in the center. Paramaribo is the
capital.
British Guyana is in the west. Georgetown is the capital.
38. The nine South American republics were formerly
Spanish colonies. Hence, their white inhabitants are of Span-
ish descent, and speak the Spanish language. Internal dis-
sensions, revolutions, and war prevent their progress and
prosperity.
VENEZUELA.
39. Venezuela is more than nine times as large as Penn-
sylvania. It includes the coast ranges on the Caribbean Sea,
the western part of the Plateau of Guyana, and the Llanos.
Cacao, tobacco, coffee, and cotton are cultivated and ex-
ported.
Caracas, the capital, is situated a few miles south of the
sea-port, La Guayra.
COLUMBIA.
40. Columbia borders on the Caribbean Sea and the Pa-
cific Ocean. It embraces the northern section of the Andes
and the Isthmus of Panama.
The usual tropical products, as sugar, cacao, and coffee,
are raised to a limited extent. A railroad has been con-
structed aerosg the Isthmus of Panama.
Bogota, beautifully located on a small table-land near the
eastern chain of the Andes, is the capital. Cartagena,
near the mouth of the Magdalena, is the principal sea-port.
ECUADOR.
41. Ecuador, more than five times as large as Pennsylvania,
extends from the Pacific coast, across the Andes, into the
western part of the Selvas of the Amazon.
The greater part of the population live on the elevated
plateau inclosed between the two chains of the Andes.
42. Vanilla, cacao, and the bark of the cinchona-tree,
which yields quinine, are the principal articles of export.
Quito, the capital, is situated on the Andes, near the
equator, and is surrounded by several snow-capped peaks and
active volcanoes. Guayaquil is the sea-port.


SOUTH AMERICA.
87

wti.K
PERU.
43. Two-thirds of this republic lie upon the central Andes,
which here inclose the valley of the upper Amazon. The
eastern part extends into the Selvas.
Peru produces much silver, some gold, quicksilver, and
copper. Enormous deposits of guano are found on the
Chincha and Lobos islands.
44. Previous to the conquest of the country by the Span-
ish adventurers, Pizarro and Almagro, in 1526, the Quichua
Indians, then the only inhabitants, had attained a consider-
able degree of civilization, under the mild rule of the reign-
ing dynasty, the Incas.
45. Lima is the capital; Callao, its sea-port. Cuzco, on
the Andes, was the capital of the old Inca empire. Pasco,
in a district of silver mines, is 14,000 feet above the
sea-level.
BOLIVIA.
46. Bolivia includes the Plateau of the Titicaca Lake,
which is inclosed between the eastern and western chains of
the Andes, and the low plain separating the Andes from
the Table-land of Brazil. It is more than eleven times
as large as Pennsylvania. Like Peru, it produces silver
and gold.
47. Sucre is the capital; Cobija, the sea-port. La Paz was
formerly the capital. Potosi, 13,000 feet above the sea-level,
has celebrated silver mines.
CHILI.
48. Chili occupies the western slope of the Andes, from
the desert of Atacama to Cape Horn.
49. The northern part is sandy and rainless, but rich in
silver, copper, and saltpetre, while beds of guano are found
along the coast. The valleys of the central part are fertile,
and, with the mountains, are covered by dense forests. Coal
is found here and in the Chiloe Islands. The southern region
is wet, unhospitable, and thinly inhabited.
50. Minerals, guano, timber, wheat, flour, hides, and tallow
are the chief exports.
51. Santiago, the capital of the republic, is connected by
railroad with Valparaiso, the chief sea port. Valdivia, in a
rich agricultural district, has a fine harbor.
ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.
52. The Argentine Republic occupies the eastern slope of
the continent south of Bolivia, and is somewhat larger than
the part of the United States east of the Mississippi River.
53. The spurs and foothills of the Andes render the west
and northwest parts rough and mountainous, though the valleys
are fertile in the north, and gold, silver, and copper are
found in the hills. The characteristic feature of the country
is the plains, or pampas, which extend eastward from the
mountains and from Patagonia to Paraguay.
54. The grasses of the pampas, in the north, support vast
herds of cattle and sheep. The climate in the south is dry
and cold, but in the northeast rains from the Atlantic and
a milder temperature render agriculture profitable.
55. The chief articles of export are hides, leather, tallow,
horns, and dried or preserved beef.
Buenos Ayres, the capital, is situated on the southern bank
of the Rio de la Plata. 3Iendoza, near the Andes, is in a
grain-growing district.
URUGUAY.
56. Uruguay lies between the La Plata and Uruguay rivers
and the ocean. The exports are the same as those of Argentine
Republic. j . ^
Montevideo is the capital. ^ .
PARAGUAY. cl: cj:. ,
57. Paraguay is one of the states of South America which
does not border on the sea. The Pilcomayo and Paraguay
rivers flow along its western border; the Parana forms its east-
ern and southern boundary. The soil is very productive. Ag-
riculture and the raising of cattle are the leading pursuits of the
inhabitants. Tobacco, rice, and Indian corn are the products.
Assumption, on the left bank of the Paraguay, is the capital.
58. The Falkland Islands, east of Patagonia, belong to
England. The vegetation consists of grass and a few wil-
lows and shrubs. There are a few settlements on the eastern
island. The climate is moist and cold. Potatoes and tur-
nips are the only products.
Questions.27. What is the number of inhabitants of South America?
To what races do they belong?
28. To what nationalities do the white inhabitants belong?
29. How many political divisions are there in South America? Name
the republics. Name the empire. Name the three colonies.
80. Brazil: Bound it. What physical regions does it include? Where
are the towns and settlements chiefly situated?31. What is the form of
government? What proportion of the population is white?32. AVhat
are the principal occupations? Name the mineral products.33. Name
the agricultural products.34. AVhat articles are exported? AVhat are
imported? 35. AVhat and where is the capital? AVhere is Bahia?
Recife ? Maranhao ? Para ?
36. Guyana: Bound it. AVhat products are raised?37. Which part
belongs to France ? AVhat is its capital ? What part belongs to Holland ?
AARat is its capital? AVhich part belongs to England? AVhat is its
capital?38. AVhat is said of the nine republics?
39. Venezuela: Bound it. Describe its surface. AVhat are the principal
products? AVhat is the capital? The sea-port?
40. Columbia: Bound it. Describe its surface. Name the principal
products. AVhat important railroad has been built? AVhat and where
is its capital? AArhat is the principal sea-port?
41. Ecuador: Bound it. Describe the surface. 42. Name the exports.
AVhat is its capital? The sea-port?
43. Peru: Bound it. Describe the surface. Name the principal prod-
ucts. AVhere is guano obtained?
44. Who conquered Peru? AARat is said of the Indians previous to the
conquest ?
45. AArhat is the capital? AVhat is the most important sea-port? AVhere
is Cuzco? Pasco?
46. Bolivia: Bound it. Describe the surface. 47. AAThat and where is
its capital? AARat is the most important sea-port? AVhere is La Paz?
Potosi? AArhat is said of it?
48. Chili: Bound it. 50. AVhat articles are exported? 51. AVhat and
where is the capital? The most important sea-port? AAR ere is Valdivia?
52. Argentine Republic: Bound it. 53. Describe the surface. 55. AVhat
articles are exported? A\That and where is the capital? Where is
Mendoza ?
56. Uruguay: Bound it. AVRat is the capital?
57. Paraguay: Bound it. AAR at rivers on the west ? What river forms
the eastern and southern boundary ? Name the principal products. AVhat
and where is the capital?
58. AVhere are the Falkland Islandst AVhat is said of them?




EUROPE.
QUESTIONS AND MAP STUDIES.
Position and Outline.What ocean north of Europe?
What ocean west? What sea south? What mountain range
and river bound Europe on the east? What sea projects
from the Arctic Ocean ? What sea between the British Isles
and the continent ? What waters extend east from the North
Sea? What two gulfs extend from the Baltic Sea?
What large peninsula between the Baltic Sea and the At-
lantic Ocean? What peninsula between the North Sea and
the Baltic Sea?
What channel between England and France? What
strait connects the English Channel with the North Sea?
What bay north of Spain? What strait leads from the
Atlantic Ocean into the Mediterranean Sea? What sea be-
tween Italy and Turkey? What sea between Greece and
Asia Minor? What sea between Asia Minor and Russia?
What sea between the Black Sea and the Archipelago?
What sea north of the Black Sea? Name the three large
peninsulas which border upon the Mediterranean.
Surface.What part of Europe is a low plain? In
what part are the principal mountain systems? What mount-
ain system north of Italy? What mountains between France
and Spain? What mountains traverse Italy? What mount-
ains traverse Turkey? What ranges bound Austria on the
north and east? What mountains west of the Alps?
Rivers and Lakes.What river empties into the Arc-
tic Ocean? Name two rivers emptying into the White Sea.
Name Wo lakes lying east of,the Gulf of Finland. What
river of Russia empties into the Baltic? What two rivers
empty into the southern part of the Baltic? What, three
rivers in Germany empty into the North Sea?
What river of France empties into the English Channel?
What two rivers in France empty into the Bay of Biscay?
Name four rivers in Spain emptying into the Atlantic Ocean.
What river in Spain empties into the Mediterranean? What
river in France empties into the Mediterranean ? What river
in Italy empties into the Adriatic?
What river empties into the Black Sea from the west?
What river empties into the northern part of the Black
Sea? What river empties into the Sea of Azov? What
large river into the Caspian Sea? What river, emptying
into the Caspian, forms part of the eastern boundary? What
countries does the Danube traverse?
Political Divisions.What two states occupy the Turk-
ish peninsula ? What state occupies the Italian penin-
sula? What two the Spanish peninsula? What two the
Swedish, or Scandinavian peninsula? What state includes
the British Isles? What state occupies the peninsula and
islands west of the Baltic and east of the North Sea ?
What large state occupies the eastern part of Europe?
What state in the west borders on the English Channel,
the Atlantic, and the Mediterranean? What state between
Russia and France borders on the North and the Baltic
seas? What state west of Russia borders on the Adriatic?
What state lies between France, Germany, Austria, and
Italy? What two small states west of Germany? What
island south-east of France ? What island, belonging to Italy,
south of Corsica?
I. POSITION.
urope comprises the north-
T western part of the eastern
continent. The boundary be-
^ vtween Europe and Asia is
~ formed by the Ural Mount-
ains, the Ural River, the. Caspian Sea, and the
Caucasus Mountains.
The Mediterranean Sea bounds Europe on the
south, and separates it from Africa. The Atlantic
Ocean bounds it on the west, and the Arctic Ocean
on the north.
2. The outline of Europe is very irregular. No
other continent is so deeply indented by large bays
and gulfs, or has so many peninsulas.
Europe has an area of -1,800,000 square miles,
and is but little larger than the United States,
including Alaska,
is
DESCRIPTION.
II. SURFACE.
3. The mountain systems of Europe lie in the
south-western part. The north-eastern part is an
extensive low plain. A line from the mouth of the
Danube to that of the Rhine, roughly marks the
boundary between the highlands and lowlands.
4. The great low plain of Europe embraces
Russia and North Germany. It extends from the
Arctic Ocean to the Black and the Caspian seas,
and from the Ural Mountains to the North Sea.
The Valdai Hills, in western Russia, about 1000
feet above the sea-level, are the highest elevation
of this extensive region.
5. The mountain region of south-western Europe
presents the greatest diversity of surface. It con-
sists of a large number of groups and chains, which
inclose small plateaus and low valleys.
The Alps are the highest system of this region.
They extend, in a curve, from the shores of the
Mediterranean to the valley of the Danube.
They are surrounded on three sides by a broad
belt of mountains named from the countries in
which they are situated, the French, the German,
and the Hungarian Mountains.
III. RIYERS AND LAKES.
6. Europe is well supplied with rivers and
lakes. The largest European river is the Volga,
in Russia. It rises in the Valdai Hills, traverses
the low plain of Russia, and empties into the
Caspian Sea.
7. The Danube is the second in size. It is about
as long as the Rio Grande, but drains a larger
territory. It rises in the Black Forest, and emp-
ties into the Black Sea. The general direction
of its course is easterly.

*AitK.
5SS

, mm.




EUROPE.


90
GEOGRAPHY.
Fiord in Norway.
The area drained by the celebrated Rhine is but one-
sixteenth as large as that drained by the Mississippi.
8. There are two lake regions in Europe:
(1) The Alps, with upward of 300 lakes, the largest of
which lie near the base of this great mountain system.
(2) The region surrounding the Baltic Sea, which includes
the lakes of North Germany, of Sweden as Lake Mcelar,
Lake Wener, Lake Wetter, and of Russiaas Lake Ladoga,
Lake Onega, and Lake Peipus.
Questions. 1. Describe the boundary between Europe and Asia.
What sea bounds Europe on the south? What ocean on the west?
What ocean on the north ?
2. What is said of the outline of Europe? What is its area? How
does its area compare with that of the United States?
3. In what part are the mountain systems? What part is an exten-
sive low plain? f
4. Describe the great low plain of Europe.
5. Where are the Alps? What is their shape? What mountains sur-
round them ?
6. What is the largest river in Europe? 7. Where is the Danube?
Where does it rise, and where does it empty?
8. What are the two lake regions of Europe? Name some lakes near
the Baltic Sea.
IY. CLIMATE, VEGETATION, AND ANIMALS.
9. The greater part of Europe lies in the north temperate
zone; the northern extremity only is in the north frigid
zone.
In southern Europe the winter is mild, the spring pleasant,
and the summer hot. In central Europe the winter is severe,
the spring cool, and the summer warm. In northern Europe
there is a long and severe winter, a short, warm summer, and
scarcely any spring or autumn.
Western Europe, especially, has a remarkably warm climate
for its high latitude. This is chiefly owing to the influence
of the Gulf Stream, and the prevailing south-westerly winds.
Near Valencia, in Spain, are flourishing groves of oranges and lemons;
yet this city is in the same latitude as Philadelphia and Cincinnati, where
no sub-tropical plants can live in the open air.
10. In regard to vegetation, Europe may be divided into
three belts. The southern embraces the three peninsulas bor-
dering on the Mediterranean. The characteristic plants are
evergreen laurels, oleanders, and the dwarf palm. In shel-
tered localities, cotton and sugar-cane are cultivated, and
olives, almonds, and figs ripen their fruit.
The middle belt extends from the Alps to the 64th parallel.
It is the region of forest trees. The cereals, potatoes, flax,
tobacco, and garden vegetables are raised in great abundance.
The grape vine thrives at 48 north latitude.
The northern belt embraces northern Norway, Sweden, and
Russia. The vegetation is very scanty, consisting of pines,
birches, and mosses. Oats, barley, potatoes, and turnips are
raised to some extent.
11. Wild animals can not be abundant in a grand division
so densely inhabited and thoroughly cultivated as Europe. The
following may be enumerated: the polar bear in the extreme
north; the reindeer in northern Norway; the wolf in the
Russian forests; the stag, deer, hare, and fox, in south-
western Europe.
Eagles, falcons, partridges, and quails have a wide range.
The lammergeyer, a large buzzard, and the chamois, the only
kind of antelope living in Europe, are found in the Alps.
Y. INHABITANTS AND STATES.
12. Europe has 316,000,000 inhabitants. Its density of
population82 to the square mileis greater than that of any
other grand division.
The population is chiefly Aryan (295,000,000); the Jews
represent the Semitic branch (5,000,000); the remainder (about
16,000,000) belongs to the Mongolian race, and includes the
Turks, the Hungarians, the Lapps, and some savage tribes in
eastern Russia.
13. Europe is divided into nineteen independent states, very
unequal in extent and population. Russia, Germany, Austria,
England, and France are the largest, most populous, and
powerful, and are called the Five Great Powers.
Sardinia, and Sicily, in the Mediterranean Sea, belong to
Italy; the Balearic Islands, to Spain; Corsica belongs to
France; and Candia, to Turkey. England has the most
extensive foreign possessions, comprising important portions of
each of the grand divisions. Holland has foreign possessions
second only to those of England; and France, Spain, Portugal,
and Denmark have some distant colonies.
Englands foreign possessions are about seventy times the size of
Great Britain and Ireland together, and contain seven times as many
inhabitants. India, Australia, New Zealand, Cape Colony, and the Do-
minion of Canada are the most thriving of her colonies.
Questions.9. Tn what two zones does Europe lie? What is said of
the climate of western and southern Europe?
10. Into how many belts is Europe divided as regards vegetation? Name
the characteristic plants in the southern belt. The middle belt. The
northern belt.11. Mention some of the wild animals.
12. How many inhabitants has Europe? What is the density of popula-
tion? To what races does the population chiefly belong?
13. Into how many states is Europe divided? Name the Five Great
Powers. To what nations do the islands in the Mediterranean belong?
Which states have important foreign possessions?


EUROPE.
91
THE EMPIRE OF RUSSIA. (In Europe.)
14. Russia occupies the north-eastern part of Europe. It
"is nearly as large as the United States, exclusive of the ter-
ritories. The surface is level, as it includes the larger por-
tion of the great low plain of Europe.
The Ural Mountains trend along the eastern boundary.
They are about as high as the Apalachian Mountains.
The lofty chain of the Caucasus extends across the southern
portion, from the Caspian to the Black Sea.
The western part of the Scandinavian peninsula is a
mountainous plateau, with many lofty peaks. Its western
margin is precipitous, rising abruptly from the sea. In
the east it gradually slopes down to the low plain, which
extends along the Baltic Sea.
21. The principal rivers have a south-easterly course, and
empty into the Baltic Sea and its branches. The Tornea,
separating Sweden from Russia, the Luka, and the Dal, are
the largest.
15. The rivers are numerous, and, owing to the level
surface of the country, navigable for great distances. The
Volga and the Ural empty into the Caspian Sea; the Don
into the Sea of Azov; the Dnieper and Dniester into the
Black Sea; the Niemen and Dima into the Baltic Sea; the
Dwina into the White Sea; and the Petehora into the Arc-
tic Ocean.
The Neva drains the large Ladoga Lake into the Gulf of
Finland. Onega Lake lies east of Ladoga Lake.
22. The climate, though cold, is very mild for the latitude,
owing to the proximity of the Gulf Stream. The soil is
mostly barren. The chief crops are rye, barky, oats, Jlax,
and potatoes.
The extensive jir and pine forests yield valuable timber,
which is largely exported. The mines are very rich, and
produce excellent iron, lead, and copper.
23. The Swedes and Norwegians are Germanic nations, and
16. Russia has a great variety of climate. In
the south the summer is hot; in the north warm,
but very short. In all parts the winter is severe.
The region bordering upon the Black and the
Caspian seas consists of extensive steppjes, which
resemble our prairies. The central parts are covered
with pine forests.
17. The inhabitants are mostly Slavonians. Ger-
mans predominate in the provinces bordering on the
Baltic Sea. The higher classes are well educated,
but the great mass of the people can not read or
write.
18. The chief agricultural products are wheat,
flax, and hemp. The mines in the Ural Mount-
ains yield gold and platinum. Iron is also abundant.
The fisheries are important, and most actively
carried on in the Caspian Sea and the great
southern rivers.
The government is an absolute monarchy. The
the emperor, or czar, is unlimited.
A Russian Inn.
power of
speak languages related to the German. The two kingdoms
are independent of each other, but are governed by the
same monarch.
19. St. Petersburg, at the mouth of the Neva, is the cap-
ital and the principal sea-port. It is nearly as large as
Philadelphia.
Moscow, in the interior, is the second city of the empire,
and contains the Kremlin, the ancient palace of the czars.
It has many manufactories and a large overland commerce.
Niznei Novgorod is an important commercial city.
The principal sea-ports are: Archangel, on the White Sea,
which exports furs and herrings; Riga, on the Gulf of Riga;
Odessa, on the Black Sea, which exports grain and flour;
and Astrachan, near the mouth of the Volga.
Dorpat is the seat of a German University. Warsaw, on
the Vistula, was the capital of the former kingdom of Poland,
now a Russian province.
THE KINGDOMS OF SWEDEN AND NORWAY.
20. These two kingdoms occupy the Scandinavian penin-
sula, and together are more than six times as large as Penn-
sylvania.
24. Stockholm, at the outlet of Lake Mselar, is the capital
of Sweden; Christiania, the capital of Norway. Upsala, near
Stockholm, is the seat of a university. Bergen is the chief
sea-port of Norway.
Question's. 14. Russia: Bound it. How large is it? Describe the
surface. What mountains form the eastern boundary? Where are the
Caucasus Mountains? 15. What is said of the rivers? Describe the
Volga. The Ural. The Don. The Dnieper. The Dniester. The Nie-
men. The Duna. The Dwina. The Petehora. What lake is drained
by the Neva? 16. What is said of the climate?
17. What is said of the inhabitants? 18. What are the agricultural
products? What minerals are produced? What is the government?
19. What and where is the capital? Where is Moscow? Novgorod?
Archangel? Odessa? Riga? Astrachan? Dorpat? Warsaw?
20. Sweden and Norway: Bound them. What peninsula do they oc-
cupy? Describe the surface.21. Where is the Tornea River? The
Lulea? The Dal? In what direction do they flow? 22. What is
said of the climate? Name the chief crops. The mineral products.
23. Of what nationalities are the inhabitants? What is said of these
kingdoms in regard to government?
24. What and where is the capital of Sweden? The capital of Nor-
way ? Where is Upsala ? Bergen ?


16


WESTERN EUROPE.
93
WESTERN- EUROPE.
QUESTIONS AND
; QQ, y.
Great Britain and Ireland. Name the four divisions of this
kingdom. What sea between Ireland and England? What channels con-
nect the Irish Sea with the ocean? What bay on the west coast of
Ireland? Name three firths, or bays, on the eastern coast of Scotland.
What islands west of Scotland? What islands north of Scotland?
What channel south of Wales? What channel south of England? What
cape on the south-western coast of Ireland? What cape on the south-
western coast of England ? What two capes on the northern shore
of Scotland ?
Name two mountain chains in Scotland. What chain traverses north-
ern England? What mountains in the north-western part? What
chain traverses Wales ? Name the two largest English rivers emptying
into the North Sea. What river empties into Bristol Channel? Which
is the largest river in Ireland?
What city in Ireland is situated on the Shannon ? What city on
Galway Bay? What large city in the north-eastern part of Ireland?
What city on the Irish Sea? What city in Scotland on the Firth of
Forth? What city on the Clyde River?
Name two sea-ports on the western coast of England. On what river
is London? Name two sea-ports on the southern coast of England.
What city is at the head of Bristol Channel? Name four cities in
central England.
France.-What waters north-west of France? What bay in the
west? What sea on the south-east?
What mountain chain separates France from Spain? What mountains
separate France from Italy? What names does that mountain chain bear
which traverses France from south to north? What plateau lies in the
middle of southern France? 1
MAP STUDIES.
r / /f f >.
What river empties into the English Channel? What two rivers empty
into the Bay of Biscay? What river empties into the Gulf of Lyons?
What mountains form part of the eastern boundary?
What is the capital of France? On what river is it situated? What
sea-port at the mouth of the Seine? What sea-port on the north-western
extremity ? Name three large cities on the river Loire. What city on the
Gironde? What large city on the Rhone? Name two sea-ports on the
Mediterranean Sea.
Holland and Belgium.What sea extends into Holland? What
can you say of the surface of these countries? What river flows through
Holland?
What is the capital of Holland ? Of Belgium ? What sea-port on
the Zuyder Sea?
Spain and Portugal.What bay north of this peninsula? What
sea east? What ocean west? What strait south? What cape on the
south-west ? On the north-west ?
What mountain chain trends west from the Pyrenees? What range
in the center of the peninsula? What chain near the southern coast?
What river empties into the Mediterranean Sea? Name three rivers
emptying into the Atlantic ocean. What river north of the Sierra Ne-
vada? What river flows through the northern part of Portugal?
What is the capital of Spain ? Name two sea-ports on the eastern
coast. What port on the southern coast east of Gibraltar? What port
west of Gibraltar? What city on the Ebro? What city on the Guadal-
quivir? What city near the northern base of the Sierra Nevada?
What is the capital of Portugal? On what river is it situated? What
city on the Duero?
DESCRIPTION.
GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND.
f
1. This kingdom occupies the group of islands which is
separated from the continent by the North Sea and the Eng-
lish Channel, and is about two and one-half times as large
as Pennsylvania.
Great Britain is the largest of these islands, and in-
cludes England, Scotland, and Wales. Ireland is the second
in size. The smaller islands are: the Hebrides, west of Scot-
land; the Orkney Islands, north of Scotland; the Shetland
Islands, north-east of the Orkneys; the Isle of Man, and
Anglesey, in the Irish Sea; the Isle of Wight, south of Eng-
land; and the Channel Islands, near the French coast.
2. The surface of Great Britain is much diversified. In.
Scotland three mountain regions may be distinguished.
The first embraces a series of rocky elevations north-west
of the Caledonian Channel; the second includes the Gram-
pian Mountains, which bear peaks of over 3000 feet in
elevation; the third lies south of the low plain on which
Glasgow and Edinburgh are situated, and includes the Low-
ther and the Cheviot hills.
t ( c 7
(n (
.-lietiM/nb .( / r i
3. The Pennine Chain traverses the northern part of Eng-
land. Wales has a very rugged surface. The different ranges
traversing it are called the Cambrian Mountains. Mt. Snow-
don is their highest peak. In the south-western extremity
of England are the Cornish Heights, 2000 feet in height.
The rest of England is, in the main, a low plain diversified
by hills and gentle undulations. Ireland consists of a low
plain, on the borders of which rise isolated mountain groups.
Some peaks exceed 3000 feet in elevation.
4. The rivers of Great Britain are necessarily short, but
as their mouths form wide estuaries, they offer great facilities
for navigation. The Thames, the Humber, formed by the con-
fluence of the Ouse and Trent, the Tyne, and the Tweed, empty
into the North Sea.
The. Clyde, in Scotland, and the Mersey, on which Liver-
pool is situated, empty into the Irish Sea. The Severn, east
of the Cambrian Mountains, entities into Bristol Channel.
The Shannon is the largest river in Ireland.
5. The population of Great Britain is chiefly descended
from a mixed Celtic, Germanic, and Romanic origin.


94
GEOGRAPHY.
In 1879 it was distributed as follows: In England and
Wales, 25,166,000; Scotland, 3,627,000; Ireland, 5,363,000;
adjacent islands, 145,000; army and navy, 216,000.
6. Agriculture is carried on in the most perfect manner,
and the arable land produces immense crops of wheat, barley,
rye, oats, hay, and flax. The mines yield large quantities
of coal and iron, and some tin, copper, and lead.
England produces more manufactures than any other
country. Her cotton and woolen goods, cutlery, and machinery
are exported to the most distant parts of the globe.
England is the first commercial country in the world.
There are many excellent harbors upon the coast. Railroads
and canals traverse the country in every direction.
7. The government is a constitutional monarchy. The
Parliament, corresponding to our Congress, consists of the
House of Lords, which is composed of the nobles, or peers,
and the House of Commons, the members of which are
elected by the people.
8. London, on the Thames, is the capital, and the largest
commercial city in the world. It has more inhabitants than
the state of Ohio.
The principal sea-ports are:
Liverpool, on the Mersey; Bris-
tol, on the Severn; Portsmouth, on
the English Channel; Hull, on the
Humber; and Newcastle, on the
Tyne, near the great coal-fields.
The principal manufacturing
cities are in the central part of
England: as, Manchester, Bradford,
Leeds, Sheffield, Stoke-upon- Trent,
Birmingham, with from 100,000 to
500,000 inhabitants. Oxford, on
the Thames, and Cambridge, north
of London, are seats of renowned
universities. In Scotland are Ed-
inburgh, on the Firth of Forth;
Aberdeen, on the North Sea; and
Glasgow, on the Clyde. In Ire-
land are Lublin, on the east coast;
Belfast, in the northern part; and Cork, in the southern.
Questions.1. Bound the Island of Great Britain. Name its three
divisions. Bound Ireland. Where are the Hebrides? The Orkney Islands?
The Shetland Islands? Where is the Isle of Man? The Island of An-
glesea? The Isle of Wight? Where are the Channel Islands?
2. Describe the surface of Scotland. Where are the Grampian Mount-
ains? The Lowther and the Cheviot hills?3. Where is the Pennine
Chain? Where are the Cambrian Mountains? What is their highest
peak? Where are the Cornish Heights? Describe the surface of Ire-
land.
4. What is said of the British rivers? What rivers empty into the
North Sea? What rivers into the Irish Sea? Where is the Severn?
The Shannon ?
5. What is said of the inhabitants? Name the Celtic nationalities.
6. What is said of agriculture? What minerals do the mines yield?
Name the principal manufactures.7. What is the form of government?
Of what two houses does the Parliament consist?
8. What and where is the capital ? Where is Liverpool ? Bristol ?
Portsmouth ? Hull ? Newcastle ? Where is Manchester ? Leeds ?
Bradford ? Sheffield ? Stoke-upon-Trent ? Birmingham ? Where is
Oxford ? Cambridge ? Edinburgh ? Aberdeen ? Glasgow ? Dublin ?
Belfast ? Cork ?
FRANCE,
9. France lies south-east of England, and is about five
times as large as Ohio. The north-western shores are washed
by the English Channel; the western, by the Bay of Biscay.
The eastern boundary is formed by the crest of the Alps,
the Jura and the Vosges mountains. On the south it is
bounded partly by the Pyrenees and partly by the Mediter-
ranean Sea.
10. Surface. The south-eastern part of France is occu-
pied by the Alps, with their spurs and outlying ranges, and
a broad belt of lower mountains as, the Cevennes, the
Charollais Mountains, and Vosges Mountains. The Plateau of
Auvergne, which bears peaks over 6000 feet in height, lies
north of the Cevennes.
11. Four large rivers flow through France. The. Gironde,
formed by the junction of the Garonne and Dordogne, the
Loire, the Seine, and the Rhone, which rises in the Swiss
Alps, and empties into the Gulf of Lyons.
12. The French are descended from Celtic, Roman, and
German ancestors.
Landing of the English Boat at Boulogne.
*
Agriculture is carried on extensively, but not with the
same skill as in England. Grain, beet-roots, olives, and the
grape are the leading products.
13. The French are skillful manufacturers, and excel in
those branches which require taste and expertness. They
make cotton and woolen goods, fine broad-cloths, silks,
watches, beautiful articles of furniture, jewelry, and large
quantities of wine.
The government is republican in form. The empire for-
merly existing was overthrown during the war of 1870.
14. Paris, on the Seine, is the capital. It is the most mag-
nificent city in the world, the first manufacturing city in the
republic, and is justly celebrated for its literary and scientific
institutions. Many of its renowned palaces and monuments
were destroyed during the late sieges of the city.
Versailles, near Paris, contains the greatest palace in Europe.
It was formerly a royal residence, but is now used as a grand
historical museum.