THE DREAM CITY
A Portfolio of Photographic Views
Worlds Columbian Exposition
WITH AN INTRODUCTION
PROF. HALSEY C. IVES,
Chief of the Department of Fine Arts
MARVELOUS ARCHITECTURAL, SCULPTURAL, ARTISTIC, MECHANICAL, AGRICULTURAL,
INDUSTRIAL, ARCH/EOLOGICAL, ETHNOLOGICAL, HISTORICAL *
AND SCENIC ATTRACTIONS
ALSO PRESENTING AND DESCRIBING
The Magnificent Vistas, Water-Ways, Natural Scenery and Landscape Effects
ALL CONVEYING AUTHENTIC REALISTIC IMPRESSIONS AS RECEIVED BY THE ACTUAL VISITOR
And they shall bring the glory and honor of the nations into it."Rev. 21 : 26.
PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY
N. D. THOMPSON PUBLISHING CO.
ST. LOUIS, MO.
MAY 1 o 1988
COPYRIGHT 1883 N. D. THOMPSON PUBLISHING CO.
The Photographs used in this book were taken by the Government Photographer and used here by special arrangement.
This work is fully protected by copyright, and any infringement will be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law.
IF there has been a lesson taught the thinking people of our country by the Worlds Columbian Expositiona lesson which
has impressed them more forcibly than any other-it has been the fact that we, a race of individualists more than any
who have preceded us in Exposition work, have put aside individual taste and have united in an effort to carry out the
several parts of a design which, from the day the work was inaugurated, was dominated by one idea. Never in modern
times have men of widely different characteristics been brought together in a work that has resulted in such complete unity
The great exhibit buildings of the Fair will stand unrivalled in the history of the century as the most complete architec-
tural work produced. So much has been written and said of the beauty of the individual buildings that many have lost sight
of the work as a whole. The real art workthe designwas the ensemble. While the structures themselves were derived
from classical prototypes, the grouping was thoroughly original, and the carrying out of the design was accomplished in a way
that cannot fail to influence future architectural efforts to a remarkable degree. The two great points of interest were the Court
of Honor and the Art Building, located at opposite ends of the grounds. The artistic effect produced by the noble proportions
of the Art Palace mirrored in the placid surface of the lagoon made a picture the beauty of which cannot be described in
words. So much enthusiasm was created in the early days of Exposition work by Mr. Atwoods beautiful building that little
attention was given to, and less expected from, the national art sections then gradually assuming shape within its portals.
Only later the visitors realized that here was gathered artistic wealth from all the world; not only the exceptional products
of the painting and sculpture of our own time, tut the most characteristic types of architecture and the^arts utilized in the
embellishment of structures in earlier periods. The vast collection of sculptural and architectural reproductions contributed by
the Government of Francein part a gift to the people of the United States, to find a place in a public museumillustrated
the development of the fine arts in that country during the medieval and renaissance period. In the East Court of the Art
Palace were grouped huge portals, galleries, tombs, columns, pilasters and architectural details, enriched by ornaments and
sculptured figures. At the east end of the court, facing the center, was the central portal and part of the west front of the
Abbey Church of St. Gillesperhaps the finest example of Romanesque architecture dating from the Xllth century. From the
center of the court rose the great gothic portal of the north transept of the Cathedral of Bordeaux, one of the most artistic
examples of the XVth century. Facing the latter, at the west end of the court, was the reproduction from the famous gallery
of the Cathedral of Limoges, one of the most interesting types of French renaissance of the XVIth century. Thus, in chrono-
logical order, were placed examples of the three great dominating styles of French architecture, placed so that comparison readily
could be madecomparison which a few years ago only could be made through drawings or engravings and miles of travel.
There is temptation to write at length of these great works; of the simplicity and dignity of the Romanesque portal; the
splendor of the gothic, and the delicacy and refinement of the detail of the renaissance gallery. The latter illustrates very clearly
the freedom granted the imagination of the artist-designer in this period. The limited space devoted to this introduction makes
it quite impossible even to enumerate the great number of rare examples of sculpture and ornament grouped in this one court.
Passing from the architecture and sculpture of earlier periods to our own time, the most interesting section to many was
the galleries assigned to the Japanese exhibits. For the first time in the history of international exhibitions, Japan a country
of artistswas given a place in the Department of Fine arts. In this section the student found that art was classified in a
simple manner. The word Art is given by these Eastern people a broader meaning than we of the West accord-it. In Japan
everything based upon the principles of artistic design becomes a work of art. The man of genius devotes himself as conscien-
tiously to the expression of his ideas in wood or iron as does his brother artist of the West to works on canvas or in marble.
In studying the various works displayed in this section, it was refreshing to note their freedom from borrowed ideas.
Of all the expositions which have gone before, no one has come so near the ideal of an international exposition, in the
wealth of its artistic features, as this. All the greater and lesser countries of the world entered into the work. Grouped in the
pavilionswhich afforded space for the twenty different national sections of the Department of Fine Artswere the products of
every school and branch of art, which, arranged in adjacent galleries, afforded the student an opportunity for comparative study.
The strongly characteristic work of the Norwegian and Swedish schools, with their faithful rendition of color values, gave to
our people a new idea of the standing of the Scandinavian artists. Russian art was shown for almost the first time. English
pictures, of which too little is known by Americans, were presented in a way to convey a just idea of the beauties of the
British school. The French, Dutch, German, Belgian, Italian, Austrian and Spanish sections contained rare examplessome of
which are reproduced in this workcontributed by the leading artists or sent from national museums.
The contributions of American artists, whether displayed in the galleries assigned to the United States section or in the
decoration of the buildings, have asserted their right to be considered among the artistic achievements of the time. They are
on the same high plain as the best works of our architects, as exemplified in the great exhibit buildings.
In preparing this work for the reader it has been the aim of the publisher to present to the individual who has not been
fortunate enough to have visited the Fair a brief history and description of its varied beauties. It has been the ambition of the
publisher also to present the work in so truthful a form as to preserve the Exposition in its artistic aspects in the mind of
every one who visited Chicago in 1893.
Chief Department of Fine Arts.
THE ADMINISTRATION BUILDING.This structure nobly sustained the expectations o^ the public, and held a sovereign position among all the wonders of the Fair. It was
designed by Robert M. Hunt, of New York, and, beside serving as headquarters for the chief officers of the Exposition, its spacious rotunda offered a favorite meeting-place
for friends, and was thronged early and late by admirers of the beautiful and impressive in architecture. Four square edifices (called pavilions) of the general height of the
principal facades of the Exposition, were placed at the corners of a quadrangular square of two hundred and fifty feet, and from the inner corners of the roofs of these edifices
rose the beautiful French, octagonal dome, which, in addition to its gilding, bore a conspicuous outer ornamentation in relief. Between each pavilion was a space about
ninety feet square, making the entrances to the rotunda that is, the main entrancesabout that far from the outer lines of the building. The whole design was in three
stages: the first was the four pavilions, and carried the height sixty-five feet, to a level with the facades of 'che Court of Honor; the next stage was a central one, forty feet
high ; the third stage was the dome itself. The first stage was Doric; the second Ionic, with a colonnade of great dignity, as viewed from its loggia ; the third was the
ribbed dome, with its sculptural panels, and reached a height of two hundred and sixty feet from the floor below. The rotunda was ornamented with panels that bore the
names of nations and celebrated men, with didatic inscriptions; and in the upper part of the vault were Dodges allegorical paintings. At night the dome was lighted with
incandescent bulbs so as to define its panels, and a corona shone on its crest, making a memorable illumii ationthe chief beauty of the Fair. The total cost was $650,000.
THE WOMANS BUILDING.Great interest attached to the fact that Congress authorized a Board of Lady Managers and gave them a Womans Building. The erection
of this novel structure was entrusted to Miss Sophia Hayden, architect, of Boston. It is considered noteworthy that the female sex, celebrated for its love of ornament, placed
in Jackson Park the plainest of its buildings. The style is called Italian Renaissance, and the ungainly central feature is a skylight which, however, produced an interior
effect of uncommon beauty and utility. The grand hall of this edifice was a popular meeting-place, and the whole fabric was thronged with prominent people. The loggias
were attractive and impressive, and commanded fine views. There were caf^s at each end of the roof, covered with Orieutal awnings. The statuary on the building was
modeled by Miss Alice Rideout, of California, and represented Sacrifice, Charity, Virtue and Wisdom. One of the paintings herein exhibited was the work of the lamented
Marie Bashkirtseff; and the wife of MacMonnies, who made the c^hief fountain, was one of the principal interior decorators. The last nail was a golden one, presented to
Mrs. Potter Palmer, President of the Board of Lady Managers, by \he ladies of Montana, and it was driven in May, with a hammer presented by the ladies of Nebraska. The
golden nail, when drawn, served as the principal piece of a brooch, which became the property of Mrs. Palmer, who had wielded the hammer. Dimensions of the Womans
Building, one hundred and ninety-nine by three hundred and eighty-eiglit feet, sixty feet or two stories high. Cost, $138,000
iTP1 ,m 'TTiTlimram
THE PERISTYLE .This magnificient colonnade takes its name from a projected, peristyle of columns that was to have encircled the harbor of the Fair, but was happily
abandoned for this simplier and more beautiful form. Through this portal came all visitors by lake, and it was by this entrance alone that the architecture of the
Exposition could be effectively judged. The colonnade in which this portal was centrally placed contained forty-eight great Corinthian columns, and connected the Casino on
the south with the Music Hall on the north. The States and Territories of the Union were symbolized in the columns. Placed upon the arch of triumph, in the most
distinguished position, stood the Columbus quadriga, or four-horse chariot, designed by the sculptors French and Potter, completed at a cost of $15,000. On pedestals at the
right and left of the portal are groups representing the Genius of Navigation, the creations of Bella G. Pratt, of New York. Heroic figures stand in double row on the
balustrade, representing Eloquence, Music, Navigation, Fisherman and Indian, and fill the spaces between the two terminal structures. The promenade beneath its colonnade
at night, under the incandescent lights that ornamented as well as illuminated its high spaces, was much frequented, especially by visitors who were watching the display of
fireworks. The inscriptions on the Peristyle were suggested by President Eliot of Harvard University. It will be noted that other explorers beside Columbus are honored in
this classic structure. The cost of the Peristyle, Music Hall and Ca* no was $200,000, and the architect was C. B. Atwood, of Chicago.
THE GOLDEN DOORWAY OF THE TRANSPORTATION BUILDING.The position of this remarkable portal may be ascertained by reference to the picture of the
Transportation Building itself, on another page of this volume, and in a study of these shining arches it is necessary to know that the structure which they adorn has been
purposely made severe in aspect, in order that by contrast this central feature might gain the greater distinction. The architects of the building have called its vari-colored
effects Wagnerian, and we may accept their ideas so far as to name this entrance the wedding-march of a Lohengrin in other words, an unquestionably beautiful feature
in an ensemble that is purposely devoid of entertainment and delight. It may be inferred that the architects, in producing these rich geometrical effects, were inspired by
Wagners music. But whether there be or be not any practical relation between music and decoration, the people gave the seal of approval to the Golden Doorwaywhich
was rather silvern than golden and Wagnerians who spoke in riddles, and the masses, who used shorter words, alike admired and praised the work. In its essence it is
Asian, relieved by the beautiful tablets, or bas reliefs of John J. Boyle, the sculptor, which give, on either side, a touch of free art to the circles and foliations of the Orient.
Quotations from Bacon and Macauly are inscribed over the doorway. The gilding was done experimentally, and occupied many months, with prodigious expense.
THE TRANSPORTATION BUILDING.This structure was remarkable in the group of greater buildings through the fact that it was painted with various colors, mainly red
while the other enclosures were white. The angels which are seen on the facades were cut in linen, and glued to the exterior, and the decoration generally was m
geometrical lines, with something of an Oriental expression and effect. This bizarre appearance was creditably relieved by the commanding beauty of the Golden Door, which
is seen at the center, and is further illustrated and described in this volume, The style of the Transportation Building was called Romanesque, and it was erected by
Adler &. Sullivan, the architects of the Auditorium and the Schiller Theatre in Chicago, where the same peculiarities of beautiful increasing arches and subtending straight
lines may be studied. Broad as was the area of the structure, it counted but eighteen acres, annex and all, and was but fourth among the great edifices. The trains
of cars and the locomotives stood on tracks that ran into the annex from the rear, and made a display that was distinctively American, and very flattering to national pride.
The arrangement of this department was made with a view to history, and over two thousand feet of track were used in a single exhibit showing the evolution of the
locomotive. The Chief of Transportation was Willard A. Smith. Dimensions: two hundred and fifty-six by six hundred and ninety feet; annex, four hundred and twenty-five
by nine hundred feet. Cupola: one hundred and sixty-six feet high, and reached by an exhibit of eight elevators. The statuary to be seen at the side of the building was
the work of John J. Boyle, of Philadelphia, and represented four modes of transportationair, water, electricity and land. Cost of all, $370,000.
HORTICULTURAL HALL. This building has been called a capitol at Washington, for the government of roses and sweet violets a splendid flowery fane. The building
and the Wooded Island were to be observed at one and the same time. The island spread before the gorgeous hot-house, as the grounds of Versailles before her Trianons,
or the trees of Sclionbrun before the palaces of the Austrian Kaiser. The architect was W. L. B. Jenney, of Chicago, and he covered a site nine hundred and ninety-eight
feet long by two hundred and fifty feet wide. In the center he built a large dome, one hundred and eighty feet high, which dominated the northern grounds until the
domes of the Government and Illinois Buildings so far oertopped it. Supporting the central pavilion, at a distance, on each side, was a rectangular pavilion of good size,
and these three structures were connected by curtains or galleries, in front and rear, which left two large open inner courts. In the southern of these was the building called
The Kaisers Wine Cellar, where the wine-growers of Germany, by beautiful panoramic scenes, portrayed the wine-growing regions and cities of the Fatherlaud. The
style of Horticultural Hall was called Venetian Renaissance, and the meaning of that description may best be noted in the fagades and roofs of the terminal pavilions, where
the hip-roof is observed. The building was decorated with a sculptural frieze and six single figures, all by Loredo Taft, of Chicago, a gentleman who, as a public lecturer
and demonstrator, has become widely known for his eloquence, learning and wit. The total cost was $300,000. The sculptors also used this building in 1892.
THE COLUMBIAN FOUNTAIN.Frederick MacMonnies was entrusted with the design and construction of the central fountain at the Fair, and $50,000 were placed at his
disposal for the purpose. Of this amount, it is said that the ardent lover of sculpture actually expended fully $48,000 in bringing his great conception to successful
completion. The fountain shows Columbia sitting aloft on the Barge of State, heralded by Fame at the prow, oared by the Arts and Industries, guided by Time at the helm,
and drawn by the sea-horses of Commerce. The prow of the barge is ornamented with an eagles beak; its sides are bordered with dolphins in relief; and horns of plenty
pour their abundance over the gunwales. The pedestal on which Columbia sits, bears a national shield in front, and the throne is supported by four kneeling children, who
also bear heavy garlands. A torch at rest is in Columbias hand. The rowers on the right are Music, Architecture, Sculpture and Painting ; on the left, Agriculture, Science,
Industry and Commerce. Time has improvised a helm by using his scythe. This barge stands in the center of a circular basin, one hundred and fifty feet in diameter, which
at its eastern periphery flows in circular cascade in many falls to the surface of the Grand Basin of the Exposition, twelve feet below. In the basin of the fountain, four pair
of sea-horses, mounted by riders who represent modern intelligence, draw the barge. Near the semi-circular balustrade which guards the rear of the fountain, dolphins send
streams upward, and mermaids and tritons at various places add to the fleecy display of high-thrown water. The general effect of the MacMonnies fountain was marvelously
beautiful, and thousands of visitors gained their chief enjoyment in sitting near by and enjoying this principal scene. It was said to be'the largest fountain in the world.
THE CONVENT OF LA RAB1DAThe Exposition of 1893 gained over all other Worlds Fairs because of its commemoration of Columbus, a worlds hero. No spirit of
national pride was hurt, and several European peoples were flattered by the extraordinary demonstration at Chicago. Chief among the honors paid to Columbus was the erection
at Jackson Park of a reproduction of the Convent of La Rabida, at Palos, Spain, in which Columbus took refuge, and where he matured his plans of sailing due westward
into the Ocean Sea. This reproduction was the idea of William E. Curtis, then the director of the Bureau of American Republics, in the State Department of the nation, and
though viewed at first with some disfavor, was in the end admitted to have been the crowning feature of the Exposition. The building, made in faithful imitation of its
originaleven to the setting of exotic plants in the little interior court, was filled with such a collection of relics as may never again be seen together, and these relics were
jealously guarded by United States regular soldiers, continually on duty, who were under orders to speak to nobody, except in the way of duty. His Holiness the Pope and the
Duke of Veragua, whose name is Christopher Columbus, were the chief patrons of the undertaking, loaning to the^collection the original letters of Columbus and the maps
and documents which are in possession of the Vatican. The influence of the Arabic may be seen in the beautiful script which Columbus wrote. The portraits of Columbus made
a remarkable display, and proved that nobody knows just how their original really looked.
THE BRAZILIAN BUILDING.Rising out of the foliage of the old park, more ornate aud by general opinion more beautiful than any of its fellows, stood the Brazilian Build-
ing, a fine example of thj^French Renaissance architecture which took America by storm between 1850 and 18S0, and perished with the introduction of steel construction and
Philadelphia pressed brick. One reason for the abandonment of these beautiful forms was the smoke and dust of manufacturing cities, which not only gathered rapidly
in the thousand interstices of these facades, but served to keep out some of the meagre portion of sunlight that was let through the smoke-laden air. But there was no
smoke in Jackson Park; its engines ran with kerosene, its lights were electric; here the Brazilian Building was perfect the expression of the generosity, pride, and spirit-
uality of a people worthy of a better fortune than to be torn with civil war and harassed with news of siege, battle, and revolution. This two-story palace was built with
four wings extending from a central dome. ^The dome was forty-three feet in diameter and forty-three feet high, its crest being one hundred and twenty feet from the floor
of the rotunda. The halls of the building were one hundred and forty-eight feet long. On the four pavilions were as many campaniles, seventy feet high, with observatories,
which were often sought by visitors, and presented a very attractive appearance on the broad avenue near by. The lower floor was filled with a great display of Brazilian
coffee, and the upper floor was furnished with luxury, taste, and splendor excelling the interior of any other structure. Cost, $90,000.
NIGHT AND MORNING.These medallions hung on either side of the entrance to the Denmark section, in the Art Palace. They were of pure white marble, and valued at
$760 each. They were by the famous sculptor, Dausch. They represent the sculptors realization of the poets dreams, for probably the subjects of Night and Morning have
inspired more beautiful thoughts than any other of the mere inanimate phenomena of nature. Of course, the human heart is the source of the greater part of true literature
for instance, when the learned Dr. Canini, of Rome, undertook to translate examples of the poetry of two hundred and fifty languages and dialects, he wisely chose the
text of Love, that sublime and eternal pastoral, symphony, and tragedy. But Night and Morning are worthy of the sculptors art and the poets song. We have in Night the
veiled figure, and the awe and silence of the hour. Silence accompanied, cries John Milton, for beast and birdthey to their grassy couch, these to their nests, were
slunk, all but the wakeful nightingale; she all night loug her amorous descant sung; silence was pleased. How glowed the firmament with living sapphires; Hesperus, that
led the host, rode brightest, till the moon, rising in clouded majesty, at length apparent queen unveiled her peerless light, and oer the dark her silver mantle threw. Nor
was the unrivaled enthusiast less prodigal with praise of Morning: Innumerable as stars of morning, dew-drops which ths sun impearls on every leaf and every flower,
he says. Till Morn, he writes, perhaps most beautifully of all mortalstill Morn, waked by the circling hours, with rosy hand unbarred the gates of light.
PSYCHE.This painting was the work of Paul Thaumann, and was hung in the German section of the Art Palace. The story of Psyche
is related by Apuleius, a Latin author of the second century who lived on the African coast near Carthage. Psyche was the youngest of
three daughters of a king and queen, and Cupid fell in love with her. She was so beautiful that the people worshiped her as a second
Venus, much to the chagrin of that goddess, who called her son Cupid, and ordered him to inspire Psyche with a passion for some abject
and loathsome wretch. Meantime other dangers menaced the beautiful creature, for her father, guided by an oracle, placed her on a rock
to perish because she had never gained a suitor for her hand. Cupid removes her on a zephyr to the palace in which the painting reveals
her, and then the sorrows of the pair begin, with the sisters betraying Psyche, and Venus pursuing her through the world, and even sending
her to the infernal regions to visit Proserpina. In the end, however, Cupid makes bold to sue at the feet of Jupiter on Olympus, all is forgiven,
Psyche is immortalized, Venus is reconciled, and a wedding with extraordinary festivities follows in the skies. It is not difficult to espy the
general machinery of Cinderella in this plot, and doubtless both stories had the same source. The beauty of the tale of Psyche, as
told by Apuleius, has been much admired, ami many separate editions have been issued.
MARTINYS CERES.It is to be remembered that, when the architects of the Agricultural Building placed the charge of their sculpture iu the hands of Philip Martiny,
the "pupil of St. Gaudeus, it was left to him to operate as best he could. In less than a years time he was to cover the long-stretching cornices and facades of the
Agricultural Building with the richest ornamentation ever seen in America. To accomplish so much, and to secure a harmony of design, he must himself make the plan,
and invent the groupsor, at least,-decide upon their character, while a whole school of sculptors under his direction must labor incessantly, and with a certain kind of
originality, to vanquish the stubborn element of time, and enliven the wide spaces of the south side of the Court of Honor with the company of statues on which the
search-lights afterward shone at night. Mr. Martiny proved that wealth and grandeur of sculpture can be attained by the duplication of ideas iu similar architectural
positions, for although all his important groups appear several times on the fronts Of Agricultural Hall, yet the very unity of appearance assures the observer that sculpture
was here used iu its true, subordinated relationthat is, it was the Agricultural temple as a whole which was to be admired. The figures that support this shield of Ceres
in our engraving are remarkable for uncommon beauty of feminine contour, and betray the refined eye of the great designer.
THE FOUR RACES. The conspicuous groups of statuary on each corner of the Agricultural Building were called The Four Races,
or the Horoscopes. While they were the most prominent objects, excepting the brazen Diana on the central dome, they did not offer
the best example of Martinys originality, for a visit to the crescent of the French Building, where the views of Paris were fastened to the
wall, revealed a fountain near the Trocadero Palace, on which four figures supported a zodiacal band of the same design in the same
manner. But the figures of the Parisian fountain were by no means so elegant in form as was the Horoscopes at Chicago, and no
building in the world, possibly, ever boasted corner decorations more satisfying to the eye. The frame-work of a sphere, on which was
outlined the zone of the zodiac, was upheld by four nude female figures, personifying the four quarters of the globe. As our engraving
shows, the harmony of form in the figure of the foreground is almost ideal, and the same charm of characterization appertained to each of
the others. A Japanese symbolized Asia, and the diminutive stature of the subject only served to illustrate the resources of Martinys art.
LOOKING EAST FROM THE FERRIS WHEEL Seated in a car of the Ferris Wheel, the scene ot the circuit par excellence, was offered as the spectator rose gently above
the Midway Plaisance, looking eastward. Here the panorama was essentially as is represented in the engraving, except that in the latter days the famous street was never to
be espied so nearly bare of people, and there were times, as on October ninth, or Chicago day, when the picture was pitch black with people. From the eyrie of the Ferris
Wheel the mountainous significance of the Manufactures Building became apparent, and it was found that nothing whatever could belittle the chief structure of the Exposition.
The stupendous disappointments covered in the abandonment of the Steele Mackaye Spectatorium were to be noted on the left (just out of range of the picture) in a half-built
pile of timber and staff that frowned over the Fair. The domes of the Government and Illinois buildings competed for the attention of the eye. On the left, the secrets of
the German Village were broken open, and the straw roofs of the Java Village beyond warned Chicagoans of the danger of fire, and hinted of a calamity that never happened.
The circular building ou the right, below, held the panorama of the Bermese Alps', and the circular roof and chimney on the left, beyond the first viaduct across the Plaisance,
was over the Libby Glass Works. Two viaducts are seen, both of which seriously marred the vista. The Midway at night was bewildermgly bright and exciting.
THE PERSIAN SWORD=DANCE .The engraving presents two public entertainers who, with saber and shield, and in the presence of a referee, pass, posture and belay each
other to the music of drum and pipe. The costumes of the pair, while retaining in the portraits much of their novelty and picturesqueness, are heightened in actual life by
vivid colors and sharp contrasts. The civilized Caucasian finds but small satisfaction in the efforts of the Asian to be interesting and entertaining. The juggler alone really
captivates his audience, for prestidigitation has become a western art. But the dances and music of the Far East went begging on Midway Plaisance. The reason was easily
found in the monotony and ear-piercing nature of the music to which all dancing must be done. It may be admitted that there w s a peculiar rhythm to the Turkish drums,
and a certain minor roulade in the pipe-tuues; but the unceasing repetition of these sounds, with the attendant misery to the hearer of an increasing tempo as the dance
progressed, drove away the Christian, and kept him at a wise distance. In watching this saber-dance, the spectator had the feeling that the combatants were much more
likely to pat out his eye than to hurt each other; and, indeed, to study the faces and actions of the performers, was only to add force to this unhappy thought. Still, the
saber-dance was considered more agreeable than the dance du ventre of the young women, wherein Western people might see how the head of St. John Baptist was lost
THE HEROIC STATUE OF THE REPUBLIC.The ancients delighted in heroic statues, such as the Colossus of Rhodes, the Egyptian Sphinx
and Memnon, and the statues of Jupiter at Athens and Olympia, which made the fame of Phidias. But the moderns, until the day of Bartholdi,
did not undertake great effigies, and the success of Daniel C. French in creating the figure of a woman for the central statuary of the Fair, was
owing to the general resemblance of his figure to humanity, and not because it offered a model of form or fashion. Indeed, it is impossible to
determine whether the figure is too short or is too tall, as the judgment will surely be formed according to the distance of the eye from the
pedestal. This statue is sixty-five feet high. Portions of the skirt, while they stood in the Forestry Building, looked like a front of the New York
Building; nor could any uniformed person opine what might be the use to which the pieces could be put. The work was done in the early spring
and summer of 1892, in a room cut off at the north end of the Forestry Building. The working model was itself sixteen feet high, or larger than
Carl Rohl-Smiths Franklin, in the south hemicycle of the Electricity Building. The sculptor received $8,000 for his services, and when it
came to the gilding of the statuefor it appears as a golden image, after the methods of Phidiasit was found that no less than $1,400 worth
of gold-leaf was required for the labor. The total cost was about $25,000. The face is fifteen feet long, the little fingers a yard. The total
height from the water is one hundred feet.
THE WESTERN VENICE BY MOONLIGHT.It is the crowning glory of Carlyle that he wrote Sartor ResartusThe Tailor Mended. In that wonderful book, which it is
held that only a few can understand, he deals, first, with the masks and conventions afforded by clothes. After he has indulged his fancy, satire and ridicule with the power
of fine clothes, and the effect of rags, he passes to the more serious and poetic treatment of his subject, which is to show that even as a mans clothes are but the covering
of his body, so his words, his acts, his life, and his hopes, are but a leaping down orally from Adam of some thoughts, beliefs, ideas and emotions toward which he is like
the man in the hippodrome who holds the hoop, or helps the performance along. The truth of this dictum was to be felt in Jackson Park, especially in the moonlight, where
it would be apparent to the thoughtful visitor that the scene could not have existed had not Venice previously existed; Hither had leaped, across the centuries, across the
seas, all that was beautiful and sacred in the Bride of the Adriatic. The corpse, the body, the mask of murders, wars, conspiracies and torture had stayed behind ; the music
of the oars, the white shining arches of the palaces, the columns of St. Mark, the gondoliers, the blue sky and glistening waters, in the midst of three hundred millions of the
worlds wealth piled round about, was here, a Venice resurrected from its crimes and glorified.
THE ILLINOIS BUILDING.The gift of Illinois to^the Exposition was $800,000, and of This sum, $250,000 were expended on the ambitious structure (one of the fifteen so-called
main buildings) which is portrayed on this page. I The architect was W. W. BoyingtonA The presence of two tower-like domes so near together as were the superstructures of
the Illinois and Government, greatly increased the criticism which fell on each, particularly to the lot of the State edifice, and it is certain that the heavy colors and tall
lantern of the Illinois dome did much to prejudice against it all admirers of the classic forms. The body of the building, however, was impressive, and could some small city
have boasted a hall so stately, its pride might easily have been pardoned. Added to the general animadversions of the friends of the Art Palace, which was curtained by our
Prairie States headquarters, was the additional dissatisfaction that Illinois had no home parlors for her people. The building was for exhibits. Its display was beautiful
and often unique, but the multitude, on Illinois Day, ate its lunch outside. There was the bell presented to the Kaskaskia Church by the King of France; the grotto, fish-ponds
aud water-fall, and above all, the grain-picture, which was taken to the Mid-winter Fair at San Francisco, and many exhibits which belonged in the Horticultural,
Ethnological, Agricultural and Manufactures Buildings. The authorities were always at war with the directory of the Exposition, and maintained their entire independence to,
the last.f The big dome was two hundred feet high, and the rotunda contained a notable rustic fountain. The greatest length of this building was four hundred and fifty feet.
THE WONDERFUL GRAIN PICTURE. In the western part of the Illinois Building, covering a large expanse of wall, was a highly colored mosaic of grains and grasses
made in the semblance of a vast framed painting. It was designed by Mr. Fursinan. The frame was largely composed of sections of yellow corn-ears, making disks of
various sizes. Within this frame, which was very deep, was the scene an ideal Illinois prairie farm of one hundred and sixty acres. Farm-house, barns, and stock-sheds
were represented by the ingenious treatment of corn-husks, and a picket fence surrounded the homestead. Stock and poultry were clustered in the barnyard, and a country
road passed before the prosperous place. The perspective showed growing fields of grain and grass, with fallow pasturage and sky effects. The picture was high in its lights,
deep in its shadows, and vivid in its colors; yet in the entire sweep of the great scene not a pigment nor an element of construction was used, save the natural grasses,
grains, berries and leaves indigenous to Illinois. A curtain of great width partly veiled the scene, and was also composed in the same clever way. This curtain was caught
up by a cunningly-wrought rope, the tassels of which were made of yellow corn. The heroic size of this picture, its convenient setting as a mural decoration in an agricul-
tural exhibit, and the artistic value of its effects operated to attract vast numbers of admirers.
THE FERRIS WHEEL.The chief wonder of the Fair of 1893 was the work of George Washington Gale Ferris, a man born west of
Chicago. At a Saturday afternoon club dinner, in a city chop-house, while the Fair was building, Mr. Ferris conceived the idea of the
wheel. He there, on the moment, fixed on the size, the construction, the number of cars at thirty-six, the number of seats in each car,
the admission fee, the plan of stopping six times in the first revolution to load, and another revolution without stopping, and these details,
as then instantly recorded on paper, were never altered. This offers one of the most remarkable births of completed ideas to be found in
the realms of psychology. The characteristic of the Ferris Wheel is its tension spokesthat is, the spokes that are really in use are
always stretched, and only the spokes below the axle are in use; by holding up the lower arc of the wheel, they support the upper arc,
making a perpetual arched bridge. The object of the Ferris Wheel is merely pleasure. The sight-seer is elevated two hundred and fifty
feet above the ground. The movement is gentle and nearly noiseless. There are cogs on the edges of the vast double wheel, and these
cogs work by chains into the cogs of a train of lesser wheels, so that the device is like a clock-train. The axle was forged under the
Bethlehem hammer, whose model was shown in the Transportation Building. This axle is forty-five feet long, thirty-two inches in
diameter, and seventy tons in weight. It is the largest piece of steel ever forged. The steel towers on which this axle rest are one
hundred and forty feet high, and are put into the earth thirty-five feet deep. The wheel cost Â§380,000, and had earned its entire cost on
September 1, 1893, when it forwarded to the Exposition $23,000 as royalty on the first profits,
AXLE OF THE FERRIS WHEEL.As the principle of the Ferris Wheel was tension in its lower spokes, the upper spokes hanging on the arch that was supported by the
lower spokes, it followed that the axle of the wheel must be of uncommon size, integrity and strength. To be certain that his wheel would not fall, Mr. Ferris made this
axle large enough and strong enough to bear a burden six times as great as the weight of the cantilever bridge across the Ohio River at Cincinnati, which structure is computed
to weigh about as much as the Ferris Wheel. With an axis six times as stout as he might need, the mechanician was safe to proceed, for he has had a wholesome fear of
accident, realizing that one bad disaster at the beginning would destroy all hopes of financial success. Two men and a boy, under the big hammer at Bethlehem, the model or
which was a central feature of the Transportation Building, forged the piece of hammered steel, and it arrived safely at Chicago and was handled in the coldest weather.
The shaft was solid, and forty-five feet long; it was thirty-two inches in diameter, and weighed as much as a heavy locomotivethat is seventy tons. It was and is the
heaviest piece of steel ever forgedcertainly outside of Krupps works at Essen. It is seen in the engraving as it began its ascent to the sockets that were to receive it on
top of the towers, one hundred and forty feet upward, and after it was in place the hubs that catch all the tension spokes were fitted to hold their burden of two thousand tons.
NEW HAMPSHIRE IN AGRICULTURAL HALL. The pavilion of New Hampshire in the Agricultural Building was south of the main east and west aisle, and resembled the
State Building in the simplicity of its architectural effects. Visitors learned of New Hampshire that it is considered by its sons and daughters to be the Switzerland of
America, au inviting place for summer visitors, and a land of liberty. The chief object of interest at this display, and one that drew sight-seers to the entire Agricultural
Building, was a large wooden plow, on which was the sign: This plow was made by Daniel Webster, and was used by him on his Marshfield estate. In the case, in the
rear of the house, were shelves of maple syrup, and scattered about in the outer area were rustic benches, an ancient churn, and a spinning-wheel such as became the
emblems of matronly economy, loyalty and industry in the homes of the young nation. There is, perhaps, more satisfaction in the study which a picture offers than in
beholding with a casual eye the medley of incongruous structures reared by sovereign and oft-times willful States in close proximity with each other. Again, the camera sees
*11it looks steadilyleaving the reminiscent eye to fill its owner with regret that he did not examine with more care when he had the opportunity. The State officers at the
Fair were Charles H. Amsden, of Penacook, President; George F. Page, of Concord, Vice-President; Thomas J. Walker, of Plymouth, Secretary; Frank M. Rollins, of Manchester,
Treasurer; and Elijah M. Shaw, of Nashua, Executive Commissioner.
GLADSTONES AX. In the center of the Forestry Building stood a pyramid of wooden disks and blocks, which was remarkable because each piece came from a different
country. But the chief attraction was to be seen in a glass case labeled Gladstones Ax, which contained a well-attested implement from the home of the British statesman.
The larger of the upper two documents, seen as white paper iu the case, is an original letter of Henry White to F. S. Shurick, president of the Ritchie Lumber Company, of
Marietta Ohio, informing him that his request for an ax has been laid before Mr. Gladstone. The smaller of the upper documents is a letter of Mr. Herbert Gladstone, M. I\,
son of the Premier, to Mr. White, stating that the ax will soon be sent. The tag on the ax-helve is the ordinary express address to Mr. White. Under the ax, at the left, is
a printed card, in various types, declaring that the ax here exhibited was used by William Ewart Gladstone in felling trees on his estate at Hawarden ; and that after the
Exposition it will be presented to one of the Lumber Trade Associations of the United States, to be kept as a memento of the Grand Old Man. The great block is half a
disk from a California redwood. The large placard declares that when Columbus landed in America this tree was four hundred and seventy-five years old, and had then
reached a girth here indicated by the arrow. The large disk on the right is Mississippi burr oak; the three pieces first in front of the big piece are, from the left, Wisconsin
white pine, Russian oak and Kentucky burr oak. Extraordinary bamboos are seen crossing over all. These extended seventy feet into the air, and were from Japan.
NEW YORKS BUILDING. For a long time it appeared that the State of New York, having failed to obtain the permission of Congress to locate the Columbian Exposition
within its borders, would be unable to support the idea of holding the Fair elsewhere, especially at Chicago. The directors of the Western local corporation, hoping to escape the
scandal of New Yorks final refusal, cluug to the belief that the Empire State would relent, and at the eleventh hour the chief commonwealth accepted the conspicuous site
accorded to it, and erected the magnificent structure which, outside and in, reflected the wealth, culture, and progress of the metropolis and its government. The engraving
shows the ornate character of the exterior, and its harmony with festal uses and midsummer occupation. Beautiful as was this view in the daytime as seen in the picture, the
scene was euliauced iu attractiveness at night, when, flanked by the similar illuminations of the Pennsylvania house, the region blazed with light and echoed the music
of the worlds best-loved composers. The banquet-hall of this structure was the most ornate and highly finished of the large interiors, and perhaps exceeded all but the
Tiffany Cathedral in splendor of effects. The firm of architects which built the-Agricultural Hall, composed of McKim. Meade & White, was entrusted with this work, and the
sculpture, mural decoration, mosaics, plants, and lights which were bounteously spread upon the exterior, with the gorgeous furnishings within, easily sustained the pride and
testified the power of New York. The area was 142 x 214 feet, and the cost $77,000.
THE PENNSYLVANIA BUILDING This was one of the handsomest and most attractive buildings erected by the States. It stood beside New York, opposite the main
entrance of the Art Palace, on one of the best sites. Its elegant and thorough finishings within, its broad verandas without, and the presence at its doorway of Liberty Bell,
all conspired to make it a favorite meeting and resting place, when not itself given over to the particular festivities of the Keystone State. Our picture represents the fine
structure as it looked on its proudest day, when Pennsylvania celebrated in Jackson Park, September 7, 1893. There were forty thousand Pennsylvanians on the grounds, and
Governor Pattison was attended by Governor Flower, of New York, and Governor Altgeld, of Illinois. The front of the Pennsylvania Building was a reproduction of Inde-
pendence Hall, at Philadelphia, having its entrances and tower. The ground area was one hundred and ten by one hundred and sixty-six feet. The front corners were
quarter-circled in, and over the veranda was a balcony protected by balustrade. Above the pediment over the front doors was a sculptural State coat-of-arms, and on one
side the statue of Penn, and on the other of Franklin, f The outer walls were of pressed brick, and the building was made so that it could be moved out of the Park and
serve as a public museum. ^At the concave corners stood groups of statuary on the left Mines and Manufactures; on the right, Arts and Sciences. Native marbles
and woods were used in the rich interior finishings. Eight hundred electric lights made the structure brilliant at night. Cost, $60,000.
LIBERTY BELL IN ORANGES.We cannot blame the Philadelphians who ruefully behold new Liberty Bells, and warn Chicagoans to take none but the genuine, yet
Liberty Bell is not yet without its loyal lovers, as was shown in one of the western curtains of the Horticultural Building, where on a platform, raised over four feet from the
floor, hung a full-sized effigy of Independence Bell, as shown in the engraving, with the famous crack ou the side, as plainly to be seen as if it were in the old bell that was
guarded so zealously in the doorway of Pennsylvanias magnificent building. The fruit growers of San Diego, California, arranged this multifarious exhibit of lemons, oranges,
shaddocks and grape fruit, which, particularly in the early months of summer threw out an exquisite and delicate aroma. On the side tables were arrangements of oranges
from Ventura Count}, and citrus fruits from San Bernardino County, including Redlands and Riverside. At the end, near the southern door, were displays of olives, olive oil
and preserved limes from National City, and oranges and lemons from Pasadena and Pomona. There was a showing of Sultana grapes in jars and Sultana raisins in boxes.
The Californians set sixteen hundred plates, holding seven varieties of oranges, five of lemons, and two of limes. They also displayed twenty-seveu varieties of fruits and
seven of vegetables in jars, and these bottled specimens were probably the largest seen at the Exposition.
HEHICYCLE OF THE ELECTRICITY BUILDING. This pylon,-which fronted on the Administration plaza, was the one relieving feature
of a building that perhaps failed to meet -.the- requirements of its surroundings. But, in itself, it is quite likely that there was nowhere
else on the grounds a portal so grand and beautiful. By far the best statue in the park the heroic effigy of Benjamin Franklin, looking
toward heaven ere he set loose his kite to catch the lightnings stood on a high pedestal, a monument not only of the great father of the
republic whom it counterfeited, but a testimony as well of the genius of Carl Rohl-Smith, the Danish sculptor, whose other Chicago work,
The Indian Massacre, may be seen in bronze near the Pullman residence, at Eighteenth street. The colors in the vault of the Hemicycle
were yellow and greenish-blue. Corinthian pillars and pilasters may be seen, and over them part of the Latin epgram of Mirabeau, the
French orator, on Franklin: Eripuit caelo fulmen sceptrumque tyrannisthat he had wrenched the thunderbolt from heaven and the
sceptre from tyrants, thus referring at once to his genius and patriotism, and offering the most remarkable encomium ever bestowed on
man by man. Of the statuary, beside the pedimental group, the figures above the consoles and on the sides of the pylon are fifteen feet
high, and represent Electricity in its applied forms.
THE ELECTRICITY BUILDING. This structure, seen from the northeast, presented a charming view to the visitor, either from the waters of the lagoou or the Wooded Island
However attractive the Electricity appeared to the visitor, it was, perhaps, still more beautiful during tne period of its erection, when fts sharp arch-holders were net-worked
against the sky. The architects, Messrs. Van Brunt & Howe, of Kansas City, were given a site that fronted on the MacMonnies fountain at the south, and the Wooded
Island at the north. The area was six hundred by three hundred and forty-five feet, making itlarge as it here seems (and it contained over five acres)the smallest of the
twelve major structures. The architects,.-displaying^ the independence of the West, abandoned the classic forms and centered their attention_-Qn the middle lines of the_
building. With a noble treatment of these great spaces, they endeavored to satisfy the eye at the corners with insufficient cupolas and ornaments that lacked In'cl'im'eirSibn.
At the time of building, it was held that the projected nocturnal illuminations compelled this sacrifice of beauty, but there were no extraordinary lightings of this edifice on
the exterior. On the evenings during which the interior was alight, and the machinery moving, these floors offered the rarest entertainment of the Exposition, with wonders
too numerous to name. /The exhibitory space covered eight acres of area, and the cost was $4io,oooV
THE MINES AND MINING BUILDING.The $265,000 which were scent hv t).-.,. +Vl . ...
(interior steel construction, which was the principal-characteristic of the palace lit was one of the e'arHesf11 t* 6 th Wefe !? 3.afge measure> bestowed on the enduring
Chief, F. J. V. Skiff, of Denver, was the only one of the Director Generali HeULT> , k a the gr0unds ; lts steel Plllars were first ia P>ace; and its
had about nine acres of floor space, including a gallery extending entirely a on^d Tn 111 1 f rif * ^ ^ 3 diSp!ay Dear!y coP!ete The Mines Building
express other than the material worth and endurance of its architecture W SCUlptUre Q itS PylonS r P-iIions- nor did Portals
the Mines Building, probably, by its lines of stately simplicity, redeemed the sc^ne Ind kent t^3^ 7 , *7 TraasPortatlon and the e
and the ingenious exhibit of Baron Stumm, the favorite o EmpTror Wllam made! a^rsfromJook10g worse. A skylight ran the whole length of the building,
continuous ^gueue of people, and the Montank silver statue^weSX fiTe thTukanf nonnds P " . HT* T the ZuUS washed diamnds before a
; r a , weigmug nve tnousand pounds, was seen by millions. Mexico showed a golden castle of ChanulteDec In the
gallery was a nugget of gold worth jS4i,ooo, and a meteorite might be seen that weighed one thousand and fifteen pounds. Nuggets of gold and crystallized silver were
wondrously plentiful, and always the objects of popular attention. Area, seven hundred by three hundred and fifty feet S y W6re
MICHIGANS SECTION IN THE MINES BUILDING.This costly and elegant arch stood at the northeast corner of the central place in the Mines Building, and was the(
portway to one of the most instructive exhibits of the building. The work was of sandstone and marble, typifying the resources of the lake quarries. The summit of the
arch was decorated with a group of statuary, wherein the genius of industry crowned the miners through whose labors the wealth of the State has been so much enhanced.
On the inner walls of the enclosure was a series of panoramas, showing the local sceneslake ports, mines, hilly scenery, mills, forests and islands. A copper globe, twelve
feet iu diameter was, perhaps, a noticeable object in the collection, but by far the most remarkable thing was the display of copper-working tools which were found by white
pioneers in the mines of the northern peninsula. The reader may know that the North American Indian was a Stone Age man of the neolithic periodthat is, he had
advanced to considerable skill in dealing with implements of flint and stone; he had not reached the bronze age in civilization; he knew absolutely nothing of copper or
bronze. But buried in these long-abandoned mines were the copper tools of a forgotten race of men who had belonged to the bronze age, and these tools were here shown.
There were also lumps of copper, weighing eight thousand five hundred and six thousand pounds.
OHIOS TEMPLE IN THE AGRICULTURAL BUILDING.The pavilion of the Buckeye State in the Agricultural Building stood in the southeast group of commonwealths, on
the right side of a main aisle, going east. It presented another view than the one seen in the engraving, and from its rear appeared as a circular enclosure. Its front, as
here presented, was an ingenious and faithful reproduction of an Athenian templeapproximately the Parthenon, and the taste and invention displayed, for instance, in its
pediment, cannot be too highly extolled. The pillars of the peristyle simulated grain jars of glass, and cereals were everywhere to be seen under the glare of these
remarkable columns. The classic effects were marred by sheaves of wheat at the corners, with cereal finials, and a central sheaf on the summit. A plow dominated the scene,
and over the temple hung the banner of Ohio. Two terraced rows of show-cases defended the front of the temple, and on the walls of its loggias were, simply but beautifully
arranged the multifarious grasses, food-plants, mosses and vines that are cultivated by the husbandmen of Ohio. On other sides were long rows of large oval-topped glass
'ars containing cereals. These jars, common in the Exposition, especially in chemical and agricultural displays, were filled from the bottom and there sealed, presenting the
hermetical appearance of ancient glass packages. The square front was the handsomest portion of this remarkable structure.
THE EMERGENCY CREW. The engraving shows the prize boat F. D. Millet, manned by the celebrated Emergency Crew, which was the latest addition to the Color
Department, and performed many heroic deeds during the latter months of the Fair, especially after the institution of nocturnal parades, swimming contests, and fireworks. On
one occasion a raft on which the pyrotechnists were at work broke from its moorings and put to sea in a gale. Three helpless men were then rescued from a situation that
was regarded as one of extreme peril; and on other days and nights work that was both noble and daring was assigned and accredited to them. The crew was composed of
able seamen, and besides Jimmy Hunt, the Captain, reckoned in its numbers Jerry Burns, Pat Welch, George Maloney, James Gallagher, Harry Hill, John Smith, Jack
Wanhope, Tom Eckelston, James Scott, and Charles McCarthy. They were skilled climbers and swimmers, provided with life buoys, tarpaulins, ropes, and ladders, and were
ready at call to climb to the highest point on the grounds, or to jump into the lagoon, which they patrolled at night. They were drilled in fire duty, and worked with great
enthusiasm. The boat in which they appear was named in honor of the painter Millet, who, after performing, good work in his art, acted as Chief of the Color Department,
and in the end took charge of the out-door amusements.
THE ELECTROLIERS OF THE MANUFACTURES BUILDING.Not only were tliirty-one acres to be lighted in the colossal building of
the Exposition, but the unusual height of the hall was to be added to the difficulties of the problem of illumination. When we usually
look at a candelabra or gasolier, we see a number of lights, and though the general effect may be one of splendor, the points of light are
small; but here one lustre was made of arc lamps, and a double circle of these powerful candles extended around a periphery of one
hundred and eighty feet, or sixty feet across. This vast apparatus hung on a steel shaft, seventy feet below the roof and one hundred and
forty feet above the floor. The shaft was fastened to a bridge crossing the middle of the circle, and down the shaft was a ladder and
around the double circle a wide foot path with railing. Seventy-six arc lamps hung on these circles in pairs, the pairs balancing each other
over insulated pulleys. In the day-time the men who served as cleaners passed entirely around these circles, replenishing the carbon
candles. There were four electroliers like this one, and a central fixture to which no less than one hundred lamps were hung, the diameter
of the outer circles being over seventy-five feet. The summer and autumn passed ; these five electroliers were kept in condition by visits
down the ladders from the roof, and no accident marred their history. In this way, and in this way alone, it was believed could the
electrical engineers deal with the difficulties of shadows from the cupolas, pavilions and exhibits that varied the great scene. Yet with all
this light, it cannot be maintained that the great building was ever sufficiently illuminated.
THE MOVABLE SIDEWALK.The earlier stages of construction in Jackson Park saw, between the Illinois Building and the Womans Building, a large circular and
unseemly inclosure, on the summit of which ran the working model of a movable sidewalk, and it was supposed that this apparatus was to ramify the grounds in 1893. Certain
it is, that the need of such an adjunct of travel was pressing, and that the Fair will go down into history as the most fatiguing region of the world. The visitor walked over
half a mile to enter the Manufactures Building, and it was about half a mile long when he reached it. There was absolutely 110 means of transport cheaper than a push-chair
at seventy-five cents an hour, which in turn discommoded almost every pedestrian whom it met. The Movable Sidewalk, however, did not meet with great favor from the friends of the
push-cliairs, and after narrowly escaping expulsion from the park, the system, was exiled to the region outside the so-called Peristyle, where the pier, as here shown, extended
for 2500 feet into Lake Michigan. On this endless platform, by paying five cents for a seat, the tired visitor might ride as long as he pleased, uuder a shed which protected
him from the sun or the rain. In hot days, after the machine'was in order, which was not early in the summer, hundreds of tired men and women might be seen asleep on
these moving chairs, sometimes with their shoes off, resting their feet from the hardships of the day. During the last of the warm months the pier was crowded with people.
BURNING OF THE COLD-STORAGE WAREHOUSE .At the southwest corner of the improved portion of Jackson Park stood a large cold-storage warehouse, covered
with staff, and bearing the typical appearance of an Exposition building, save that it was without windows, except on a line near the cornice. The structure was. severely
rectangular in its ground plan, and in the center there rose a square tower, made of wood, from the middle of which a sheet-iron smoke-stack protruded, and belched black
smoke over the grounds. It was destined that the ill-omened, ill-built, and doubly-dangerous house (for its upper floor was intended to be used as a skating-rink) should
furnish the calamitv of the Fair of 1893. Shortly after noon of Monday, the 10th of July, fire was discovered in the top of this tower, and about twenty-five of Chicagos
bravest and most experienced firemen were soon on the platform of observation that had been built near the summit. No sooner had they reached this elevation, however,
than flames broke forth beneath them; and, as the tower was made of pine and plaster, which had been dried both by sun outside and hot sheet-iron chimneys within, it
burned fiercely. A moment later, and in the presence of at least fifty thousand horrified spectators, an explosion of gases followed, the roof heaved and gave way, the men
leaped over the bulwarks, and sixteen perished almost instantly, falling into a pit of gaseous flame. About $100,000 were subscribed for the families of the victims, and the
committee was criticised for the deliberation with which this money was apportioned.
MAKING THE ANGELS.It may interest the visitor to the Fair, who gazed aloft on the angels that sat at each corner of the Administration heights, to look, as it were,
into the secrets of the Forestry Building, early in 1892, where, under forms of great exclusivenessonly persons of influence being admittedthe sculptors labored upon their
huge tasks in iron, wood and plaster. Mr. Karl Bitter, the manager, had in his employ the sculptors Carl Biel, W. Anton, Wuertz, Max Mauch, P. Wielile, J. A. Blankenship,
Gustavus Gerlach and E. Saille, and these made all the figures on the Administration Building. Although these groups did not appear to be large when stationed under the
dome of the noble edifice which they ornamented, their true proportions may be gained by contrast with the sculptors who stand beside their work. The barrels of staff may be
seen, and on the right, under the boys right arm, the curious reader may catch a sight of the model from which these men are now working. The figure will be called
Industry. The one on the left will be called Art. There were no less than twenty of these heroic groups on the two stages of the Administrationtwelve below and eight
at the base of the dome. The leading motive of these groups, said Mr. Bitter, writing from New York, his home, was to display a most charming interruption to the
architectural masses. On their lofty thrones these angels appeared no larger than the sculptors in the pictures.
EASTERN PORTAL OF MACHINERY HALL.The engraving affords a detailed view of great value, which will prove the general
excellence of this structure by showing a comparatively small elementary part. The architects, Messrs. Peabody ami Stearns, of Boston,
made a Palace of Mechanic Arts, and while the variety of its treatment would seem to preclude the possibility of a harmonious form, it
was still true that the edifice remained unique, original, and beautiful in distant aspect. This portal was made in order to give accent to
the ends of three rows of heavy iron arches, the central row being here hidden by the back wall of the fine Corinthian porch. Let the eye
note the gondolas in the South Canal; the horses by E. C. Potter, sculptor; the ascent of steps and the columns to the pediment; the
eagles; the celebrated sculptural group called Columbia, who is the central figure, enthroned, with Honor standing on her left, Genius
receiving a reward, and Wealth pouring riches forth; at the ends of the pediment, lions held enmeshed by babesall presenting a bold
relief, rarely to be equaled. Above stands the row of heroic figures, each thirteen feet high ; in the center, Science, with Air, Earth, Fire
and Water. In the left cupola we see the chime of bells which was played so often and so discordantly. The treatment of the steeple is
distinct, and finally we have the copper Victory on the apex, a remarkable achievement, which was permanently successful. All this
sculpture was by M. A. Waagen.
DETAILS OF THE HORTICULTURAL DOME. The engraving offers to the reader and student a searching view of the central one of three pavilions in Horticultural Hall.
The curtains at right and left lead to large but less impressive features of the structure. The rich sculptural garniture of this building was the work of Professor Lorado Taft,
the accomplished art lecturer and sculptor. Some figures are also to be seen in groups and over the Ionic columns. The sculpture of Taft is like the genius of the man
smooth rather than notable rich, pleasing, but conventional, although on the best models. The padding to protect the gondolas may be seen at the landing, and the
spacious ascent to the quay. The great dome springs up from four small but ornate hemispheres, with by far the broadest expanse of any of the similar constructions in
this rich field of domes. The fidelity of the sculptural decorations is certified on every frieze, stanchion, balustrade, and on the corona that recalls the summit of the
Administration dome. This was doubtless the largest hot-house ever erected. It was to fulfil its office as a conservatory and yet stand creditably among the colossal halls
which were required for the display of the worlds industries. Its diameter was one hundred and eighty feet and its height one hundred and fourteen feet. Its crystal
construction, and its happy angular posture in the great aquatic vista, were noted with relief by the most critical, and praised by all. Rarely has there been a more success-
ful adjustment to necessities than was shown in this proud home of flowers.
INTERIOR OF THE HORTICULTURAL DOME .The engraving has a historical value, as it discovers to the reader the methods by which even the tallest palms and
bamboos were carried toward the vault of the high crystal dome. Within the wooden construction on which the upper plants rest, was arranged a grotto, reproducing a cave
in the Black Hills country. The prismatic sheathing of this cave had been torn away and was transferred to the walls of this wooden cavern, there to gaily reflect the many
electric lights that relieved the passage from its gloom. Between the outer palms and the upper platform a rapid ascent was made and covered with moss and vines. In
front of the caverns door ran a brook, and to reach the entrance, the visitors used stepping-stones across the brook, and began a serpentine journey to the hall of stalactites.
At first this entrance was free; then, as the crowds increased, the fees began, until at last, like nearly all other similar exhibitions on the grounds, the charges became the
most wonderful things that the dark unfathomed cave or the visitor had to bear. The Department of Floriculture was the scene of a constant clash of authority during the
Fair The Chief, John Thorpe, who arranged all the effects and raised the small flowers, was in open rebellion against Chi^f Samuels, of Horticulture, and no sooner did the
gates of the Exposition close than Thorpe indignantly took his leave. His fame as a botanist is very great.
THE CHINESE JOSS-HOUSE. The engraving presents a scene in the exhibit of the Wah Mee Exposition Company at the west end of Midway Plaisance. The company
built a theatre, temple, and bazaar, which was kept open during the continuance of the Fair, but went into the hands of a receiver before the summer was half over. It is prob-
able that, if the Ferris Wheel had been placed further westward on the Plaisance, the Chinese exhibit and the panorama of the Hawaiian volcano would have fared better, for
both were instructive, entirely novel to most people, and rarely to be seen with safety in the ordinary course of living. The Chinese are so little known to Americans that an
attempt to describe their theology, iconography, or ecclesiasticism must nearly always descend to the ridiculous. It is, however, believed to be established that, in the
operation of their religion in American cities like New York and Chicago, the right to be priest or sexton is sold at auction each year at a sum less than one thousand
dollars. The sexton obtains a certain monopoly of joss candles, incense-sticks, paper, oil, tea and punk. He also makes a weekly call at the laundries and stores of his
people, collecting small joss-sums, usually twenty-five cents. In addition, when a worshipper changes his religion, the sexton gives him a personally-conducted tour in the
joss-house, for which perhaps a dollar is exacted. It is understood by Americans, at least, that the idols are often reviled and scourged, in cases where they have not
obviously changed the luck of their devotees.
THE COLUMBIAN GUARD. Our picture shows very, truthfully the details, and very nearly the color, of the uniform worn by that small army of men which faithfully
guarded the three huudred millions of goods in Jackson Park during 1S93. The number of these soldiers at one time reached two thousand five hundred, and during that
period the smallest clerk had sentries at his door, to ask for a card, or invite the caller to one of those feats of patience that made the Fair a nightmare to business men
whose engagements called them thither. It was held in 1891, whether wisely or not, that the city police would be inadequate to the extraordinary situation, and. to fill the
ranks of the new organization, college students and militia men were sought or favored. The result, as attained in May, 1893, was one highly satisfactory to property owners
and at first as highly unsatisfactory to the mere visiting public, which looked on the military aspect of the park with almost universal prejudice. The Columbian Guard was
commanded by Col. Edmund Rice, of the United States Army, under orders from architect Burnham, the Director of Works, and practical executive of the local directors and
trustees, as contradistinguished from the titular National Commission. In great crowds, the Columbian Guards, through lack of the city policemans bulk and experience,
were of no avail, yet as the summer wore on, and the good nature of the American people triumphed, even the young martinets became genial, and at last popular.
THE RUINS OF UXMAL.Probably the most remarkable ruins in the world stand in Central America, and, perhaps, principally in
Yucatan. Often buried under the luxuriant growth of tropical forests, these ancient palaces and temples, when uncovered or exhumed,
expose a vast area of inscriptive sculpture, little or none of which is as yet legible to the scholarship of modern times. The Aztec calendar
has given some import to hieroglyphs that were a part of the Maya calendar, but it remains that a people lived in Central America who
were advanced in arts and ceremonies that were Egyptian and Phoenician, and yet not one written thing is known about them, although
thousands of their pictures and monuments remain, having been erected in the belief that language inscribed on rocks could not perish.
The first book i i this great subject was written by Stevens, in two volumes, and is now rare, but its pictures have been copied into many
subsequent- books of Americana. At the inception of the Exposition, Edward H. Thompson, United States Consul to Yucatan, under
direction tf Chief Putnam, of the Ethnological Department, went into the jungles of Uxmal, Labua, and Copan, and at the risk of death
by fever, made papier-mache molds of many of the tablets and ruins of the region. Cast into staff in Jackson Park, and garnished with
tropical plants, these reproductions offered to the people of America their first opportunity for profound study. The tablets were shown
in the Anthropological Building. No doubt the reading of the alphabet will follow as a direct result.
AN AFRICAN BIMBA .The engraving faithfully represents an exhibit which was situated in the east gallery at the north end of the Transportation Building. It was
constantly surrounded by visitors, who could only with difficulty believe that it had been used as a canoe in an African river. There was no caulking, nor did it appear
that any effort had even been made to keep the water from entering the boat, though the drying out of the small logs may have made a change in the sea-wortbiness of the craft.
It was labeled A Bimba, or Canoe, from Banguella, Africa. On the railing in the rear was a large crayon picture of a naked African propelling his bimba on a broad
stream of water, much as any ordinary paddler would handle his boat. It is well held by the philosophers that where man sleeps under a banana tree, to be awakened for
his dinner by the fall of a banana into his lap, he lets it go at that, and invents no helio-telephone to speak across space with the suns ray, builds no Campania steamship
to lash the ocean into a storm, nor girdles the earth in forty seconds with his telegraph. Yet why these negroes should build a log canoe when they might use a wool-skin
or dug-out does not appear, either; and amid kyaks of Labrador, caiques of the Dardanelles, gondolas of Venice, bragazzas of the Adriatic, phcenix-boats of Japan, bateaux of
French pioneers, dug-outs, wool-skins and what-not, this bimba seemed to be the worst boat at the Worlds Fair.
THE VIKING SHIP. The celebration of the discoveries of Christopher Columbus did not pass without a feeling, in Norway, that the world had not sufficiently honored a
previous visitor to America. But the poems about the Vikings had been generally discredited, aud when there was dug from a kitchen-midden in Norway a real Viking
vessel a thousand years old, reproducing the pictures that had alone remained to tell their tale, the people of Norway, with almost one accord, set out by popular subscription
to make a remarkable test of the truth of their traditions. With a fund gathered from every village in Norway, a replica of the ancient Viking vessel was made, and the
Norwegian Commissioners took sail as the crew. Under Captain Magnus Andersen, the proud Norsemen put across the Atlantic in his small craft, and came to anchor by way
of New York and the lakes at Jackson Park about five oclock of Wednesday, July 12, 1893. The late Mayor Harrison went aboard at Racine, up the lake, and took command
for the rest of the voyage, assuring all hands in good Norwegian, that he himself was descended from the sea-kings, which the good Norsemen might well believe. The
scene on the lake was that day the most animated of the whole season, and it was generally held to be well-proved that Columbus, who had gone to Iceland in his earlier
days, might easily have there learned of the discoveries of Lief Ericsson at Vinland, Marklaud, and Helleland, on the coast of Massachusetts.
THE HUNTERS CABIN.At the south end of Wooded Island was a log house with clay floor and stick chimney which was built by Theodore Roosevelt, of New York, a
lover of huntsmans sports, as a museum and memorial in honor of Daniel Boone and Davy Crockett. A rope divided the large room of the building into a public and a
private compartment. On chilly days a fire blazed in the broad fireplace, and in that regard the interior exactly resembled the houses of pioneers in timbered regions forty
years ago. Otherwise the furnishings were more comfortable than those enjoyed in northern Indiana when Pierce and Buchanan were in the White House. The skins of
wild animals covered the floor, and beds and settees were made of stretched skins. A double-bunk afforded two wide and easy couches. A stool was made out of a section
of log, and primitive cooking apparatus and tin dishes and candles gave a realistic appearance to the domicile. To complete this picture, a hunter in long hair and wide-
brimmed felt hat made his home in the cabin and answered the questions of many visitors, for there was a charm about the premises, pioneers loving to recall the vanished
days, and younger inquirers seeming pleased to see before them the picture so often drawn in the tales of their grandsires and this chapter of their romances. Between the
Hunters Cabin and Marie Antoinettes bed-chamber in the French section was a wide divergence.
CONNECTICUT IN THE AGRICULTURAL BUILDING.Connecticut occupied a central position in the southwest quarter of the main structure, and erected one of the most
creditable enclosures in that region of surprises. The effects were somewhat similar to those produced with cereals in the Wisconsin exhibit, near by. There was a gallery in
the way of the builder, and he again used it as a canopy, inweaving panels, garlands, shields, and devices that evoked the constant applause of beholders. The cleverest
thing about this display was a wigwam made with corn-stalks, and beautifully simulating an Indians tent. The usual agricultural abundance of wheat, corn, oats, barley,
grasses, in every stage of production, with glass jars, pyramids and cases, went to increase that great but glorious monotony which declared the agricultural resources of
America in these almost interminable spacesthemselves the smallest symbols of almost interminable spaces, climates and zones that go to make all North America. Among
the Connecticut officials at the Fair, the Hon. Thomas M. Waller, of New London, was, perhaps, most often noted by Western people as early and late the friend of the Fair.
His colleague as National Commissioner was the Hon. Leverett Brainard, of Hartford, and the Alternate Commissioners were Charles F. Brooker, of Torrington, and Charles R.
Baldwin, of Waterbury. Mrs. Isabella Beecher Hooker, of Hartford, was one of the Lady Managers from Connecticut.
ONTARIO IN THE HORTICULTURAL BUILDING It was a favorite route of visitors who passed from Midway Plaisance to the Court of Honor to go through the west
curtains of the Horticultural Building, and it may be well to explain the position of these curtains. The architects of Horticultural Hall built three pavilions a large
central one and two terminal ones. In order to inclose two courts, one on each side of the central dome, galleries ran from centre to ends on both the front and
the rear lines of the building. It was in the galleries or curtains of the rear or western side that the rich and odorous horticultural displays of the Worlds Columbian
Exposition were made, while the floral exhibition occupied the great rotunda and the eastern curtains. On entering these halls of apples, pears, grapes, berries,
oranges, lemons, limes, peaches, plums, cherries, currants and canned goods, not only did the fragrance of great masses of choice fruit delight the senses, not only
did the exceeding beauty of the scene vanquish the eye, but a deep impression of the bounty of nature and the wealth of the land was made on the most casual
observer. In these displays the people of Canada, notwithstanding the disadvantages of their latitude, offered an exhibition more creditable than the showings of
commonwealths better favored with population, wealth, and climate. While not foremost, still the Canadian section, as portrayed in the picture, was typical, hospitable,
and memorable. No one who entered these curtains will forget the aroma of grapes, oranges and peaches that gladdened the precincts.
EAST PORTAL OF THE ADillNlSTRATION BUILDING .Almost every visitor to the Fair saw the spectacle presented in this engraving, though other scenes might be
neglected. Here the music was rarely silent; here the fountains unfurled their waters, long pennons of crystal, and airy clouds of mist. Here, whether there were but
50,000 people, as in May, or 300,000, as in October, the many sat and admired, or met and planned, in the heart of the festival, at tile centre of the Worlds atten-
tion. The prominent and handsome figure of Columbus, which stood in the portal, was the work of Miss Mary T. Lawrence, and represented the landing of Columbus,
and the planting of the Spanish flag in the colonies of the New World. The groups at each side of the portal typify Water. On the right is Water, Uncontrolled.
Here great Neptune, trident in hand, tramples ruthlessly on his victims, who sink lamenting to their fate. On the other side is Water, Controlled. Man, aided by his
invention of the sea-boat, rides the waves, and rescues his sister from the grasp of death. The reader will here take more notice of these groups than did the ordi-
nary visitor, for the purpose and meaning of the sculpture could ouly be grasped from a distance; and, to the people sitting below, the heroic figures presented only
a confused appearance of gigantic forms. Karl Bitter was the sculptor. The historical inscription over the arch may be read in the picture.
OKLAHOMAS PAVILION IN THE AGRICULTURAL BUILDING.As may be seen at a glance in the engraving, the new Territory of
Oklahoma erected one of the most peculiar and characteristic pavilions to be found among the oddities and fancies of the cereal architects
in Chief Buchanans large domain. This section was situated prominently in the first aisle away from the west wall, at the southwest corner
of the main building. Sorghum and corn served as the principal materials of the builder, and canopied many other displays. From the
ceiling depended great bunches of grasses, and a pyramid of jars formed the central feature of the exhibit. Cane, cereals and vegetables
were displayed with a profusion that led the visitor to marvel upon the swift march of agriculture across the Great American Desert,
which was a central tract in all school geographies of Lincolns time. The Territory of Oklahoma was settled while the last Worlds Fair
was' in the midst of its splendor at Paris, in 1889, and sat here among sister States in 1893 as visible as were they, occupying as much
space, courting as much attention, receiving as many visitors, hoping to gain as many new residents. The National Commissioners of
Oklahoma were Pthniel Beeson, of El Reno, and Frank R. Gammon, of Guthrie; the Alternate Commissioners were John Wallace, of
Oklahoma City, and Joseph W. McNeal, of Guthrie. Mrs. Guthrie was one of the Lady Managers, and Mrs. Beeson was her colleague.
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STATUES ON MACHINERY HALL.The statues on the pediments of Machinery Hall were notable for their grace and beauty, being in nearly all cases the figures of
women. The angels on the spires were less becoming, while probably the most daring examples of modern architectural display. Mr. M. A. Waagen modeled the figure
called Victory, of which thirteen casts were made in copper by W. H. Mullins, of Salem, Ohio, and Robert Krau* made a second Victory, of which the same founder
cast four copper replicas. These were the angels that defied the southwest gales of the Windy City, and not a single statue blew off. The female figures for the pediments
were by Mr. Waagen, and were modeled by Mr. Waagen in the spring of 1892, in the Forestry Building. They represented ten of the Sciences, and were thirteen feet high.
The making of a thirteen-foot angel, wrote Paul Hull at the time, who will look as graceful and airy as a hundred-pound girl, is about as poetic a task as the mining of a
ton of coal. Her limbs are made of two-by-four scantlings; her spinal column is a wrought iron rod. Her bosom and head are made of broken pieces of lath, and her wings
are steel netting. Hereafter, the main factors in the creation of a beautiful plaster goddess are a common kitchen dishpan and an every-day wood-shed hatchet.** The
creation of heroic statuary at Jackson Park in the winter of 1892 and 189J was on a scale probably never before undertaken, and any but the most rapid methods must have
MACHINERY HALL.The Palace of Mechanic Arts of 1893 is here portrayed as it looked on its two exhibitory facades, and it is doubtful if a more original or beau-
tiful building was ever erected. Its remarkable features were undoubtedly the figures of flying angels just alighting on its many spires with laurel wreaths of victory,
and the eye will detect these visitors all over the structure, and in postures most airy and inspiring. The company of heroic figures that seemed to assemble at each
portal, too, gave force and interest to those needfully accentuated points, and the great loggias were the largest and most ornate of all those which fronted on the
Court of Honor. This building had one, perhaps, necessary fault. It was under three roofs. These roofs drained together, and when avalanches of snow slid down
the arches, there was no place for the accumulations to escape except upon the floor below. A picture of the eastern portal occupies a page of this volume, and the
statuary may there be fully inspected. Machinery Hall was the creation of Peabody & Stearns, of Boston. The long facade which we see, measured eight hundred and
forty-two feet; the shorter one four hundred and ninety-two feet. There was an annex, four hundred and ninety by five hundred and fifty feet. The floor area
was thus spread to twenty-three acres without gallery, and the amount of money expended was $1,200,000. The style of architecture was called Spanish Renaissance,
but it should be named more justly after its ingenious and adventurous authors.
THE CALIFORNIA BUILDING. The great structure erected by California stretched along the western side of Jackson Park, beginning just north of the Womans
Building, and but a short distance west of the Illinois. Its area was four hundred and thirty-five by one hundred and forty-four feet, with three stories, a Moorish
dome one hundred and thirteen feet high, and a roof-garden which was decorated with semi-tropical plants. On the whole, the eye came to admire the sombre and
impressive mission-house idea which was represented in this edifice. Its southern porch was classic, but there was no other architectural inconsistency apparent to the
laymans eye. Of all the buildings in Jackson Park, staff best became the Spanish ones. The stucco of this fabric, and of Rabida, and of the Spanish Building,
looked right; and, looking right, there resulted a certain beauty not to be denied. Let but a company of monks in cowls come from these low portals, and the illu.
sion had been complete. Catholic missions at Santa Barbara, San Luis Rey and San Luis Obispo furnished to Mr. P. Brown, the architect of San Francisco, the
characteristic features of a native building, and the gorgeous displays and generous distributions of fruit within, contrasted as strongly as possible with the exterior
humility of the proud and wealthy State, thus offering to the Eastern visitor the manners and atmosphere of the Golden Gate. This house, like the Illinois and
Washington Buildings, was devoted to State exhibits, and was always full of visitors, who looked with interest on many curious, useful, and beautiful things. Cost,
STATUE OF CALIFORNIA. The beautiful picture on this page represents one of the most artistic scenes at the Worlds Fair. The
statue of California stood on the apex of a pyramid of semi-tropical plants, a bear guarding licr footsteps, a garlanded banner in her
hand, a token of peace exteuded, the star of empire upon her crown, the look of wealth upon her mature and stately person. Possibly
no other statuary of the Fair, into which modern decoration had dared to venture, composed a whole so praiseworthy and refreshing
to the eye. About this centre-piece the counties of California may be seen, like States in the Agricultural Building. In fact, here
was a Horticultural and Agricultural Building combined, and if the visitor should fail to see the fifteen thousand oranges in the orange-
tower of Los Angeles, or its Liberty Bell with four thousand five hundred oranges, then here, not far from this statue he would
find the globe of six thousand five hundred oranges erected by the same countv, and mayhap he might be presented with all the
grapes, or pears, or oranges that he could carry home. Never before was fruit from California so plentiful, or cheap outside the
park as in 1S93. Besides the luscious fruits there was a striking and rich display of Pampas plumes and mosses, and odd and in-
genious figures in prunes, raisins, and beans. Marshalls gold-nugget was shown here, and the reader may see several of the large
landscape paintings that adorned the walls above the gallery.
jr i rnmi
THE ESQUIMAU VILLAGE.In the fall of 1892, there arrived at Chicago a colony of Esquimaux, taken from a point as far south in Labrador as Esquimaux could be
found, and labeled as denizens of a laud as far north as could be reached. But southerners as they might be, in Labrador, it was feared they would do ill in Chicago,
where great heats prevail in July; hence a whole winter was allowed to them for acclimatization. In order to give them a supposed advantage, the colonists were admitted to
Jackson Park proper, where they were allowed to build a stockade and charge an admission fee. No sooner did summer appear than dissensions arose; the fur coats were
thrown aside, whereas the public desired to see the customary habiliments of the North, and at last ten of the twelve tribes set up a kingdom elsewhere, claiming that they had
been deceived by the contractor who had taken them from home. Our picture shows the nearly deserted settlement as it appeared after the revolt, and the northmen at the
game they constantly played with black snake whips. One of their semi-sp*kerical huts may be seen at the left of the native on our left, and the meager attendance of
visitors is representative of the small patronage that rewarded their exhibition. Had the Esquimaux settled on Midway Plaisance and held together, their remarkable
ethnological character would have received earnest public attention.
THE OSTRICHES.-Oq the northern side of Midway Plaisance, far beyond the Ferris Wheel, beyond Old Vienna, and in that region which appeared to hurry outgoing
visitors toward the exits, was the inclosure in which a learned lecturer, standing among a company of twenty-three full-grown Californian ostriches, expatiated on the habits
of his great birds with undiminishing success. His solemn statements concerning the high development of female rights in ostrich communities were a never-ending source of
satisfaction to the ladies and a matter of profound astonishment to all husbands. The self-forgetfulness of Ostrich, the pater fatnilias, in building the riest, obtaining food,
setting on the eggs a stretch of sixteen hours, while the mother sets but eight, and other subjugations of the male were recounted with a fidelity which was deemed to be
dangerously near to treachery by all prudent men. The trot of the ostrich is perhaps the most ridiculous motion made by any living creature, for it is accompanied by a
seemingly dainty attempt to be graceful, and the visitors were always eager to see the flock go from one end of the grounds to the other showing their plumes. Many of the
birds were named after famous menJim Blaine, General Grant, Old Abe, Grover Clevelandand one, seen at the left, had his neck mended in a way that left it crooked
laterally. It cost but ten cents to see these wonderful birds, and learn their history.
THE COURT OF HONOR .This splendid scene, the triumph of the Columbian year, has evoked unfeigned praise from the very heart of civilization. Whether we look upon
this spectacle by day, under a blue sky that is clarified by the reflection of the limpid waters of Lake Michigan ; or by night, when fretted with fires that out-spangle the
vault of heaven, with flying fountains bathed in floods of rainbow lights, and overlooking domes bejeweled with glittering crowns, and waters resounding with choral song or
echoing the soft splash of Venetian oarswe feel that the dream of hope has come true. The victory of Art and Soul over the moods of tempestuous Nature is bulletined on
every architrave and joyously proclaimed from the mouths and the trumps of a thousand heroes and angels. Nowhere else in the modern world have the skill and genius of
sculptor and architect been so prodigally bestowed. The Court of Honor is itself a fabulous fountain, curbed with high palaces and colonnades, on whose fronts are marshaled
the army of Arts kingdom. Along these friezes, pediments, facades, springing with every arch, sitting high on every column, holding office at each portal, may be seen
some memorable groups that came from the sculptors brain in obedience to the confident call of a glorious nation that was to invite the Elder Hemisphere to its august
festival. Brooched on the bosom of the scene is the MacMonnies Fountain, which cost #50,000, and was made in Paris. On the right is the Agricultural Building, remarkable
for the wealth and beauty of the sculptor Martinys statuaryhis Zodiacs and bovine groups, his Four Races, bearing their armillary spheres.. In the Basin towers the golden
statue of the Republic, sixty feet high, by Daniel C. French. In the distance is the Peristyle, so-called, and on the left the mountainous Manufactures Building, the
largest structure so far erected within historical times.
THE GERMAN CASTLE.This faithful specimen of South German architecture stood in the German Village, on Midway Plaisance, and was surrounded by a small foss
and a moat. It led mauy Americans to wonder why, when the Germans came to America in millions, they did not import some of their tasteful ideas of building, rather
than to accept the inane and uniform cottages of Chicago and all western cities. This is an example of the methods which are enriched in tlie German House, on the lake
shore, where the Imperial Commissioners had their offices. It was used as a museum for a large collection of antique armor, to behold which an extra fee of admission was
charged. It was one of mauy buildings in the village, and testified that the word Castle goes for less in Germany, where there are castles, than in America, where there
were none except on Midway Plaisance. Visitors entered a free gate (until late-in the season), and came on a village green, with sports such as a horse-shoe-shaped bowling
alley, and other contrivances. There was beer for sale, and anon the Castle invited the curious. Beyond was the real attraction, a bandstand, with musicians from the principal
regiments of Berlin, and an orchestra that kept its hold on Germans until the close of the Fair. The restaurant employed a French cheft and was praised early in the season.
The engraving shows the progress of construction, late in April, 1893.
THE AUSTRIAN PORTAL. By reason of the promptitude of the Austrians in erecting their facade on Columbia avenue, it is possible that the beautiful Austrian portal
received an undue share of attention, for its picture was everywhere copied because it was the only one the photographers could obtain. Our engraving shows it on
the day of the opening of the exhibit, early in May. A more discouraging scene than then presented itself in the great building could not be conceived, for it was
weeks before the splendid displays of the leading American exhibitors, the Russians, Danes and the Norwegians were prepared for public inspection. The Austrian
Section of Manufactures was placed next north of Germany, on the same side of Columbia avenue, and as both countries are practically German, there was much to
commend in their union. The offices of the Commissioners were at each .side of the grand entrance. There was a consolidated exhibit of thirty-five Vieuua manu-
factories of amber, meerschaum, pearl, ivory and metal goods. Gifts of corporations to the Emperor and a woven silk portrait of his Majesty were here shown, and a
reproduction of the salon of the Princess Metternich vied with the handsomest furnishings in the French aud Italian Sections. Looking down from the west galleries
into the Austrian inclosure, the eye was arrested by the great display of colored glassware, and in the wire-spun glass with golden embossings these manufacturers lead
the world. The display of porcelain was also notable.
BIRD*S=EYE VIEW OF THE AUSTRIAN SECTION.The engraving offers an excellent study of a part of the interior of the Greatest Building that Ever Was, and the
reader should note that it is only the inner hall of arches which responds to his eyesight. Large as this hall seems, it was only about four hundred feet wide out
of eight hundred feet of floor width, and only about twelve hundred feet long out of seventeen hundred feet of total length. Beyond the arches were two hundred feet of
space on each side of the building, and two hundred and fifty feet at each end. It was within this hall that the audience of one hundred and fifty thousand sat on
Dedication Day, October 21, 1892. There were twenty-six arches, of which about eighteen are here in view, the rest being cut off at the left of the picture. We stand in the
western gallery, near the Italian overflow exhibit, and gaze directly down on the Austrian exhibit, which was, perhaps, the only one to be all ready on Opening Day. The time
is the last week in April, 1893. The first large structure is the Austrian portal, illustrated in this volume; the next is Germanys portal; the column is on Tiffany and
Gorhams pavilions; the largest monument is the clock-tower, and the drab-colored steeple is over Denmark. All these projections are 011 Columbia avenue, in the center
of the big building. At the left, the elevators rise two hundred feet sheera perilous ride to the roof. Here, below, was exhibited the finest glassware of the Exposition*and
the great number of exhibits is a testimony of the popularity of Hungarian and Bohemian goods in this country.
ON THE SOUTH LAGOON.The engraving, beside giving a study of the four-oared swan-beaked gondola (there were usually but two oarsmen to each boat) depicts the eastern
termination of the South Screen or Colonnade, and the western facade of the Agricultural Building. We barely see the circular base of the obelisk and liou-fountain which
accentuated this region, and besides looking through the columns on the Live Stock Amphitheatre, may note garlanded Corinthian pillars at the end of the Colonnade and
their rich effect, as if decked for a triumph. It was from the Colonnade that colored lights were thrown on the MacMonnies* Fountain. The Agricultural Building may be
profitably observed. Here was a Corinthian porch, Pilio Pediment and Ceres bas-relief, with mural painting. Between the arches may be seen two of the sixty
Zodiacs, holding their signs. Under the upper cornice are two of the sixty copies of Abundance, as caryatides. On the corner is one of four copies of the Four Races.
Lower, at the left, is one of four copies of the Four Seasons; and further at the left are copies of the four groups each of a man with oxen, and a man with horses. All
these were made under direction of Philip Martiny. At the water-side are two of E. C. Potters bulls. The admirable manner in which exotic plants were grouped in corners,
and otherwise placed, should be remarked.
THE SOUTHERN COLONNADE. The architectural device portrayed in this picture was presented to the eye of the visitor for the purpose of shutting from view the
car-yards, packing-case houses, and stock pavilions of the Exposition. Looking from the porch of the Art Palace, this south screen was the end of things; the north
and west sides of the park lacked a similar dignity. It must be said that though the blue and illimitable lake was the eastern boundary of the Fair, its west and its
north was a board fence a stockade no better and less excusable than the walls of Camp Douglas or Andersonville. This Southern Colonnade, the exemplar of
future outside walls for Worlds Fairs, connected, or nearly connected, Machinery Hall with the Agricultural Building. Its columns were Corinthian, and some of them
were further enriched with success. The archway offered an entrance to the amphitheatre in which were displayed the worlds thorough-bred beasts, and a station of
the Intramural Railroad offered to those visitors who stopped at this point not only the greatest vista of the Exposition, but, at night, an advantageous point from
which to remark the play of rainbow-lights on sparkling waters, and the other illuminations which elicited the praise of mankind. Both chariot-groups on high, and
the lion below, were by M. A. Waagen; the jaguars were by Kemeys and Proctor. The architect of the Colonnade was C. B. Atwood, of Chicago.
STATUE OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC. At the edge of Columbia avenue, the street of nations in the Manufactures Buildinga
thoroughfare, under roof, that had many resemblances to Midway Plaisancea short distance south of the central clock-tower, on the east
side, as the visitor entered by the main portal of the French facade, he came directly upon the heroic statue which is portrayed in
the engraving. It was cast in the bluish bronze which is favored by the sculptors of northern Europe, and represented France com-
manding, by moral force, the respect of the world for the Rights of Man, but prepared by the sword she held in reserve to protect
that sacred ordinance, which was written on the tablet in her arms. Few patriots saw this noble monument without sentiments of
gratitude to the nation which confirmed Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, James Monroe and James Madison in their love of liberty,
equality, and fraternity, and by the tragedies of a century liberated mankind from the seignorial rights of the middle ages. To see the
French Republic freed from the veto-power, ruled by representatives elected by the people, and responsible to them; and to see that people,
the makers of this most splendid exhibit, so true to the principles that have been the dream of poets and philosophers since Buddhathese
things, seen in Chicago by the freest de facto people of the world, and promising de facto freedom in France, were among the most notable
sights of the Exposition.
VICTORIA HOUSE.The building erected by Great Britain at Jackson Park did not commend itself favorably to either the taste or the pride of Americans. It was thought
that the mother-country might wisely have made a more imposing if less enduring monument of her good-will; and it is not likely that the feelings thus aroused, and
heightened in the striking contrasts afforded by Germany, strengthened the bonds of friendship which were felt by the English Commissioners, for Victoria House got the
name of being an exclusive place, where the public hours were short, and the public itself somewhat unwelcome. The structure, which is here elegantly illustrated, was a
red-brick half timber cottage in the style of Henry VIII, designed by Col. Edis. In front was the Albert Memorial group, elsewhere portrayed. Lake Michigan is seen
beyond the building, showing that it stood very near the granite-paved beach. Upon entering at the front door, a line of ropes pushed the visitor through a fine library,
along the side of a luxuriously furnished room whose furniture was for sale, and directly to the side door from which visitors are seen issuing, having passed but a few
moments in the interior. Offices of the Commissioners occupied the portions of the house not opened to the public, and Sir Henry Trueman Wood was the dignitary of most
consequence who appeared in the British visitation. Area, one hundred and twenty by sixty feet. Cost, $80,000.
THE ALBERT MEMORIAL.In London, on the south side of the Kensington Gardens, at the west end of the city, stands the colossal
monument erected by Her Majesty, Queen Victoria, and a grateful people, in memory of Prince Albert, her husband. In order to properly
understand the engraving on this page, the reader is to know that an iron fence surrounds the monument, and two stages of marble steps
ascend pyramidally to the gothic canopy. The canopy rises on four columns with many finials to a total height of perhaps one hundred
feet and the final spire ends in a cross one hundred and seventy-five feet above the ground. At each pillar of the canopy is a large group
of statuary, and on the ground below, at each corner of the iron enclosure, stands a block of stone surmounted by a group typifying one
of the four quarters of the earthEurope, Asia, Africa and America. In front of Victoria House, the British Building, at Chicago,
was the reproduction of America portrayed in the engraving. It was fittingly conceived as at once a generous gift to Chicago and a
memorial of Prince Albert, who, among modern rulers and consorts, occupies a station that philosophers might envy. The sculptor represent
Liberty or Civilization, her breast emblazoned with the stars of our States, extending her empire over the Indian and the wild buffalo.
This group was cast by the Doultons, and offered to visitors at the Fair an opportunity to study at least one of four continental ideas in
sculpture that have captivated the imagination of the world.
THE GERMAN BUILDING.Easily foremost among the forei'n structures at the Exposition stood the German Building, on a choice
site, with the waves of Lake Michigan beating over the granite-paved strand not fifty feet away. The German Building preserved the
peculiarities of architecture in the Fatherland, as was done at the German Village, on Midway Plaisance; but there was added to the
imperial edifice at the lake shore, a grace and a beauty that all were swift to admire and praise. The German House was poetical; it
had a hundred delicacies of color and ornament that gladdened the hours in Jackson Park. It cost $250,000, so t'. at the light and airy in
architecture does not appeal to economy. There hung in its tall belfry a set of the deepest and sweetest bells that ever came West,
and they were returned to the Church of Mercy, in Berlin, which was erecting in memory of the late Empress Augusta. The ground area
was one hundred and fifty by one hundred and seventy-five feet. The cupola rose to one hundred and fifty feet. The notable things
were the Swiss verauda, the Gothic bays, the high colors, and the ingenious adjustment of the Exposition plaster or staff to the
South German methods of castle-building. The main pDrtion of the fabric simulated a chapel, and by the inner timbering and
furnishings of sacred figures, organs, candles and bibles, bore out the ecclesiastical idea. The right-hand region of the raftered and
galleried house was filled with rare displavs of books, and the visitor might there behold, often for the first time, a full set of Tauchnitzs
volumes, or Handels, Bachs and Mozarts complete works.
UNDER THE ADniNISTRATION DOME.The scene before us is that which was presented from the upper promenade on the Administration Building, bes de the eight
angelic groups that trumpeted the victory of peace, and above the Ionic colonnade of the second stage. The picture is principally valuable for two things: It distinctly
describes the gas-torches which made the flamboyant lights at night surrounding the base of the golden dome, and it gives an impor.ant relative view of the Ferris
Wheel, showing the real magnitude of that tremendous machine. Rising above petty things, over the roofs of all buildings whose heights were not themselves sublime,
the wheel rolled its motions, like Miltons lines. The heroic statues of Karl Bitter may here be seen in place, and the cherubs are, found to be as large as the persons
who are looking out over \he Transportation Building. The architect placed these angels as far out of line as possible to break the lines of vision, and. after they were
seated no harm came to them. In raising, perhaps, this very Victory, however, she fell to the ground, and her wing stuck in the frozen ground a foot deep. The work
was a ruin, leaving only its frame for the angry sculptors. After the conflagration of July loth, whereby sixteen firemen lost their lives at the Cold Storage Warehouse,
the stairways leading to this eyrie were closed to the public, and only privileged p ople were allowed to go aloft.
THE COLUMBIAN ILLUMINATIONS.The photograph recalls to the minds of all who witnessed the illuminations of 1893, the splendors of the Administration Building
and its environs in the Court of Honor. In the eye of the camera there is detailed, with thrilling fidelity, the balustrade of the first stage, the Ionic colonnade of the second
stage, and the festoons and panels of the dome; but for the fires that burned their tiny points, or the flambeaux that flaunted their broader flames, or the arc-lights that
made a thousand suns, we here must introduce a poor white background; and for the misty voyaging clouds that sailed upon the sapphire vault of Heaven, we here must
hang a heavy sable pall. The octagonal dome, thus lit, was the particular beauty of the Fair; its corona realized some religious dream of diadems in paradise. On the
strands of a gleaming lake, over the groves and the meadows, cheating the nightingale and the whippoorwills, undulating in the fragrant air of harvest eves, hastening the
midnight time with speed too swift, this vision dwelt like butterfly upon a summer hour, and fled from out our world into the welcome recollections of grateful poets and
faithful bards. And, while it burned at night, then Edison, the wizard who had summoned this same scene from out the hidden realms of nature he came and looked
across the waters and across the groves, and heard his own heart beating loud, and, mjyhap, felt the love of men for him, and sorrow, too, that such a thing should pass away.
THE GRAND BASIN FRO/T THE PERISTYLE.This view is from the Columbus Quadriga, on the Colonnade at the harbor, and gives a nearly complete photograph
of the Basin. We obtain here a right sense of the width of the lower plazas, between the balustrades of the Basin and the balustrades nearer the buildings. The
admirable drapery of the sixty-five foot statue of the Republic is displayed, showing that French was a master of the arithmetic of his art, for nobody could judge of
the total effect of this work until it was put together on a thirty-five foot pedestal. The entrance to the statue is seen at the foot of the pedestal, and, doubtless,
men are standiug in the door. Thus we may be guided to measure the height of the wonderful effigyperhaps the most successful of its kind that has ever been
moulded. On the right is the Manufactures, next the Electricity and next the Mines. In front is the Administration, which but partly hides the Terminal Station.
On the left is the Agricultural and, further off, Machinery Hall, whose central northern spires are seen to break the facade line of the Court of Honor, as this square
was called. The sea-horses and Barge of State of the MacMonnies Fountain are but dimly discerned behind the sprays of water. E. C. Potters bulls and horses are
seen at the boat landings on either side of the Basin. The angels on the Administration Building, with all their heroic size, have dwindled to the appearance of
tropic plants, and smaller statues barely show at all. Greatest length of Basin, thirteen hundred feet; width, three hundred feet.
ACROSS THE GRAND PLAZA, NORTHWARD. We have in this engraving much interesting detail of the scene around the MacMonnies Fountain, and down the
vista to the Art Palace, nearly a mile away. First we may see the elk, by Kemeys and Proctor, next the arrangement of sea-horses in the basin of the fountain,
which is not overflowing, the hour probably being very early or on Sunday. Beyond the fountain is a rostral column with a figure of Neptune, by Johannes Gelert,
and this was one of six copies hereabouts; on the bridge just beyond are bears by Kemeys and Proctor again; beside the Barge of State in MacMonnies Fountain are
the two columns that bore eaglesa part of MacMonnies scheme; and in the hemicycle of the Electricity Building, which is the main object in the picture, stands
Carl Rohl-Smiths statue of Franklin. This statue is here indicated in order to inform the reader that the sculptor believed the authorities raised his work upon a
pedestal too high for the best effects. The seats which are seen in quite plentiful numbers were secured by the public only after months of denial, in the interest
of the chair-renters, who flourished under each of the band-stands, the northern one of which stands in front of the Electricity. John Thorpes arrangement of potted
plants may be noted upon the balustrade. Between the elks, steps led to a stone-paved lower level. Across this plaza blew clouds of macadam dust, testifying to the
folly of those who thus paved the grounds.
THE JOHN BULL TRAIN.As the New York Central Railroad exhibited a replica of its first train the DeWitt Clinton engine and cars therefore the Pennsylvania lines,
whose model depot was just across the avenue, went a step further, and brought to Chicago its first locomotive and train, dating from 1831 a genuine working relic of
Camden & Amboy days. This train is portrayed with great detail in the engraving, but its dimensions are possibly exaggerated to the eye. Contrasted with the big modern
locomotives, whose boilers sit high over the tall drive-wheels, the John Bull was a toy, and was used all summer by the people as a pet plaything. On every successful day
of the Fair it went puffing in and out of the Terminal Station, giving stop-over tickets to the passengers, and sounding its sharp little whistle for the delectation of the
people especially railroad men. On October 12, 1893, William Finlayson, eighty-one years old, conductor of the first passenger train run in America, on the Nova Scotian
road, commanded the John Bull excursions around the yards, and ten trips were made that day, accommodating a thousand travelers. The aged pioneer stood at the steps of
the old cars aud aided the ladies to board the train, as he had done fifty-four years before on the initial journey of his road. The journey of the John Bull train from
Jersey City to Chicago, iu April, 1893, was made in triumph, aud it returned to the Hast with added eclat.
LORD OF THE ISLES.The engraving shows one of the most highly celebrated locomotives in the world, which was to be seen in the Transportation Building. It is the
Lord of the Isles, and was built for the Great Western Railway Company and exhibited as the chief wonder of the first Worlds Fair, held at Loudon. This locomotive
made the fast time of the world, on the way daily betweeen London and Bath; and as every European of prominence goes to London, and ouce in London usually visits
Bath, it follows that the Lord of the Isles has drawn nearly every well-known man of the last forty years. The reasons which were alleged for the famous speed of this
engine in the days when American mechanism could not compete with it were the superb steel and stone permanent way, and the broad gauge of the Great Western
Railway, which permitted a size of boiler not attained by the Americans until they were brave enough to hoist their boiler clear of the drive-wheels. This engine was, in
1S51, what No. 600 was at the Centennial, and what The Director General and No. 999 were to the Columbian Exposition. Examination of the No. 999 of the
New York Central, which ran at the rate of one hundred miles an hour, shows that our mechanics are approaching the general appearance of the Lord of the Isles, except
in the matter of the drive-wheels. There is a look of solid and polished steel about our best engines, and a rapid abandonment of the paint and color of past decades.
THE JAVAN SETTLEMENT.By far the most instructive ethnological exhibit on Midway Plaisance was that made by the Javan Company, and when, in the latter days of
the Exposition, the management closed its gates because of the exactions of the directors of the Fair, there was a cry of dismay from friends and enemies of the Fair alike.
It is very truly alleged that the Javan Settlement should not have been exiled in Midway. It was essentially an anthropological display. The voice of the recommender was
never heard in these quiet places. The little people were the antipodes of the noisy and sordid Turks and vicious-looking Egyptians who crowded the street. The engraving
before us gives a picture of the northern end of the village near the large theatre. The cottages were built on stilts to discourage the visits of serpents and other creeping
things, and to avoid the dampness of a tropic soil. At night the little Javans sat on their door-steps and played their low instruments, while the sonorous notes of their
orchestra, within the theatre, deepened the sadness of the night. The great Wheel beyond might glitter with its five hundred lights, the Midway masses might go by in joy
under the white arc lamps, but the scene where the onglongs played was always far offcontinents and seas away, with but a step to go. To sit on the veranda of the Javan
coffee-house, and let the hour grow lateit was the only truly poetic thing offered by the World's Columbian Exposition.
THE JAVANESE ORCHESTRA.On Midway Plaisance stood a large Javanese settlement, and, if we except the Ferris Wheel, furnished the best, most instructive, and least |
sordid entertainment of the celebrated street. Centrally in the settlement was a large native structure, made of bamboo, with thatched roof, from which continuously issued E
the deep sounds of strange instruments, sad in tone and monotonous, but always liquid and harmonious. It was said truly that the deepest note of the Fair was touched in |
the Javanese Theatrea boom that impressed the hearer at a distance as if it were the vibration of some great musical string. The engraving reveals to the reader the |
methods by which this strange music was made. The orchestra was called a gamelung, or gong band, and it was organized and maintained by Mr. Kirkhovan, a wealthy /
Dutch planter. Ihe main instruments are not the single stringed viol, seen in frout, for this is low and soft, but a series of hollow-sounding music-box-like xylophones, or *
dulcimers, which are accompanied by beatings on a bronze gong more than six feet in diameter, and on drums, which are seen at the right. The marionettes of the play are |
stacked at the left. There was something very sad and sweet in the little Javan people, and they were lovers of this music, which soon became wearisome to an American ;
who paid close attention to it. As a distant accompaniment of conversation, however, it would produce lasting memories in the minds of the visitor. :
THE FIFTY SAW-LOGS. At tlie Centennial Exposition a load of saw-logs was shown that numbered twenty-five. The Michigan lumbermen determined to outdo this
deed of logging, and, with that intent put thirty-six thousand feet of lumber on a sled and drew it down an incline for a quarter-mile with a single span of horses.
The weight was one hundred and forty-five tons, or twenty-one tons more than the Krupp gun. The load was hauled to the Ontonagon River by the Nester Brothers,
of Baraga, and although the logs were all piled on one sled, nine flat-cars were required for their transportation to Chicago. This prodigious burden was in view front
the trains of the Intramural Elevated Railroad, and evoked expressions of amazement and incredulity from millions of people. Whether necessarily or not, the logs are
so placed as to enlarge the bulk of the load. The Loggers Camp, of which this exhibit formed a part, was intended to typify the methods by which the pine lumber
of the West has beeu furnished to commerce. There was a log cabin seventy by twenty feet, in which lumbermen lived on johnny-cake, pork and beans, and black
coffee. The tools of lumbermen were exhibited in chronological order, and near by was a large saw-mill two hundred by one hundred and twenty-five feet in area, with
the latest appliances for handling timber. Here nearly all the pieces displayed in the Forestry Building were sawn into their peculiar shapes, and here a machine
firfiÂ£Â§Â£d a log upstairs and kicked it overboard in almost human manner. Band saws were used.
THE PICTURESQUE WIND=MILLS. We have before us the worlds wind-mills. The spectacle which they presented on the windy days for which Chicago is famous
was indeed charming to the eye. Nor was the scene within one of the larger houses less interesting. In fact, no person unacquainted with the uses of the wind on
land could fail to be astonished in seeing a great room alive with machinery, and dozens of cunning workmen and artisans busy at machines of every kind. Here a
force-pump heaved its waters to all parts of the farm; a lathe turned the implements of wood; a sheller separated the corn from its cob; a grindstone turned its
wearying evolutions; a fanning-mill rattled; a sewing-machine hummed; a cutter rocked the feed in pieces; these and other appurtenances of labor-saving toil were all
in operation at once, moved by the great river of air, free to the millionaire or the small farmer alike. The exhibitors of wind-mills could not have been more fortu-
nate had they selected their own site for the Exposition, for probably no other great city has as many windy days as Chicago. The exhibit bordered the pond south of
the Agricultural Building, and even the old Dutch style may be seen represented in the group. Each manufacturer claimed some superiority; here a wheel would open
to get more wind or shut against too much; one would go swiftly in the lightest breeze; another would work slowly in a hurricane. The visitor listened respectfully,
but he loved better to stand at a distance and see the sun glint at a thousand angles.
THE WESTERN SIDE OF THE MANUFACTURES BUILDING ON CHICAGO DAY. Inasmuch, as it is not known that seven hundred and fifty thousand American people
have ever before gathered in a region no larger than Jackson Park, and as it is here desired to portray the buildings of the Fair in all their aspects, several pages of this
volume will be devoted to the illustration of the masses who surrounded the lagoons and buildings on that memorable day, the anniversary of another event entirely without
parallel in history. On October 9, 1871, the city of Chicago, in its commercial center and its northern residential and suburban quarters, was razed to the ground by fire. Over
one-third of its actual geographical area was covered with ashes and ruins. In memory of that frightful day, and because Chicago had risen from that awful fate to be a
rival of the leading cities of the world, it became the ambition of the West to so crowd Jackson Park on October 9, 1893, as to outdo the greatest attendance ever chronicled
at a fair in the history of the world. To do this, three hundred and ninety-seven thousand one hundred and fifty admissions were needed, while the Fourth of July and
Illinois Day had fallen far short of the high-water mark. On Sunday night, October 8th strangely enough, the days of the week tallied with the days of the week in
jg^r__streets of Chicago showed that the greatest of crowds had come. The next day a body of visitors five times larger than could sit in the Manufactures Building
when it was clear of exhibits, entered Jackson Park.
THE SILVER COLUMN OF ATLAS.The engraving shows the northwestern interior of the Mines Building a few hours before the opening, on May I, 1893, and this was
the only display, other than the Floral and Aquaria (much smaller) that was fit for the eye of the public at that time. Like all its exhibits, the mining display of New
South Wales challenged the efforts of the greatest States and nations. The silver column, bearing Atlas upon its capital, was the most conspicuous object in its region. Nor
were the towers of iugots and pigs the only wonders of the place, for gold nuggets worth $50,000 vied with the treasures of the Western States. The vista down the line
shows Canada next to New South Wales, then Great Britain, and in the foliated iron projections the German workmanship of Baron Stumm, who doubtless made his great
display at the behest of the German Kaiser. Mechanics will be likely to note the steel structure of the Mines Building, as here shown, which was peculiar; the arching
arms did not spring across the building, but were so balanced on the main pillars that they were cut away to receive a higher skylight at the crest of the roof. The three
rows of glass may be seen on the west side; and so well constructed was this edifice that it withstood the snows and waterspouts of a most inclement year, from May i, 1892,
until May i, 1S93, when good weather set in and lasted all the summer.^ Chief Skiff was credited with getting this department so promptly under way.
PENNSYLVANIAS PAVILION IN AGRICULTURAL HALL.Many of the commonwealthsparticularly Pennsylvania, Iowa, Ohio and the Northwestern Statesvied with each
other in the erection of original, typical and attractive pavilions in the Agricultural Building, and the picture represents the much-admired structure or inclosure ot the
Keystone State. In all things pertaining to the Exposition, Pennsylvania, especially through her chief city of Philadelphia, was magnanimous and exemplary. Having given
the Centennial Exposition, the State was not envious of Illinois; having sacrificed and labored in a similar cause, Philadelphia sympathized with Chicago, a fellow-feeling
making her wondrous kind. Everything that Pennsylvania undertook was thus supported with bountiful purse, and offered with such a grace as made the gift thrice
welcome. Thus, this pavilion was the cynosure of neighboring eyes in the purview of Chief Buchanan. One might admire the skill of the builder in dealing so profusely
with Pennsylvanian insignia and working them out in cereals, keeping agriculture rather than architecture in view; or he might enter aud behold the Liberty Bell, cast In
an amalgam of cereals; or, yet again, study the grain-dials that represented the sun. The agricultural products of Pennsylvania were here lavishly displayed, nor were they
less eloquently praised by the sons of 'William Penn, who wisely held that they advanced their State and nation when they abetted the civic ambition of Chicago, and
Battered the pride of the West.
A DISPLAY OF FRENCH FURNITURE .When the portals of the French section in the Manufactures Building were opened to the public, which was not until June,
exclamations of delight and gratitude began, and continued through the season. It was to be seen that in the elegant things of life the French had no rival except Italy,
the mother of modern art; and Italy was so slow to accept space at Chicago that her wares were divided, crowded, and practically ruined for exhibitory purposes. The
engraving depicts one of the many displays of rich and beautiful household furniture which came to Chicago from Paris. The French had the southeastern corner, at the
central clock-tower, and their exhibit was to be seen from Columbia avenue, the main aisle, without entering the section. Nothing has yet exceeded the grace and beauty of
the paintings on satin, the tapestry-work, and the treatment of rosewood and gilded metals, which are the principal attractions of Parisian furniture; but it may be justly
averred that chairs on which valuable paintings are exposed, which must be kept covered forever, and must be soiled with the first occasion of their use, have risen out
of the true sphere of utility, and are truly beautiful only in museums and exhibitions. Nevertheless, the impressions received on a visit to the French section were those of
respect for France and admiration for her laborious and artistic people. The French displays were a sore reflection on the cultures of America, whose section of
show-cases spread northward near by.
THE BEDROOM OF MARIE ANTOINETTE. One may easily judge that hou^e-decoration has made no progress for many centuries;
otherwise it would be impossible to re-iutrjduce ihe styles of Henry VIII., Louis XIV., XV. and XVI. The scene on this page represents
a reproduction of Queen RIarie Antoinet.es bedroom at the Little Trianon, in Versailles, which was shown in the French section of the
Manufactures Buildi g by MM. Alavoine, leading manufacturers of Paris. All of this work on textiles was done l>y hand in silk, and the
skill and patience displayed by ihe French workman must evoke astonishment. Even to the picture on the wall, all is the p-oduct of
needlework. From this luxurious room, thick carpeted, perfumed, and beautified with every ingenuity, the French Queen, dragged by
fishwomen, who called her the bakers wife, the Austrian she-wolf, was transferred to the Tuilleries, and later translated to the
prison of the Temple, where the head of her dearest friend, the Princess de Lunballe. was shown on a pike at the window. Then, aft r the
b headal of her husband, the king, she left her two children, a widow, to undergo mock trial before Judge Fouquier-Tinville, to be
sentenced, aud to mend her tattered garments with needle at the prison of the Conciergerie, in order to go decently to the scaffold in a
lepublicau cart. We look upon this one of her many palace-rooms, and contemplate her dizzy and dreadful fall,
THE ART PALACE.This building has been regarded with great critical and popular favor, because the architect, Mr. C. B. Atwood, of Chicago, has adjusted a roof and dome
to the pure form of the ancient Greek temple. But for the presence of the Illinois Building, with its more conspicuous dome, the Art Palace would have dominated the
northern vista of the Fair. This vast Ionic structure, seen here from the south, is joined with an eastern and western annex, and is built with a view to permanence, of
brick and steel, at a cost of *670,000. The dimensions are three hundred and twenty by five hundred feet, with two annexes each one hundred and twenty by two hundred
feet. Total floor area, over five acres; total wall area for picture-hanging, over one hundred and forty-five thousand square feet. A nave and transept intersect the building,
and are on? hundred feet wide and seventy feet high. Height of dome, one hundred and twenty-five feet; diameter, sixty feet. A figure of Victory surmounted the dome,
but was removed. The great success of Martiny in decorating the Agricultural Building led to his further engagement at the Art Palace, and the stairway on the exterior
is by him. The lions guarding the doorways are by Theodore Bauer and A. P. Proctor. Here were gathered the treasures of twenty nations, with statues by Aube, Bartholdi,
Gelert, Donoghue, Rogers, St. Gaudens, Kretschmar and hundreds of other sculptors; and paintings by Meissonnier, Lenbach, Kellar, Makart, Corrodi, Tadema, Millet
Whistler, Bonnat, Dubufe, Perrault, and thousands of other artists of universal fame. There were over one hundred and forty rooms in the Art Palace, and the displays by
France, Germany, Austria, England, and the United States were exceedingly fine.
TOMB OF LOUIS DE BREZE IN THE CATHEDRAL OF ROUEN. This cast stood in alcove 90, of the east court of the Art Palace in
Jackson Park, and represented the tomb of the High Seneschal of Nortnaudy, who died in 1531. In the original the body, of alabaster, lies on r.
sarcophagus of black marble. The widow, Diana of Poitiers, mourns at the head, and the Blessed Virgin bearing the Child st aids consolingly at
the feet. This beautiful sculptural creation was the work of Jean Cousin and Jean Goujon. The height is abmt twenty-two feet. The central
object on this tomb is the effigy of De Breze, in complete panoply, moving into action on his war-horse, and the boldness of the lateral treatment,
which shows four equally large, or larger, caryatides supporting the coronal entablature, may be noted as the most significant lesson to be here
learned. It is certain that the eye goes to the scene of glory rather than to the end of man be'ow, and he was a great artist who permitted so much
effect on each side of his successful central figure. These caryatides represent Victory, Faith, Prudence and Glory, (beginning at the left). On
the upper entablature is reared a miniature work of similar skill and commemorative of the cou-age of De Breze. Inscriptions in Latin appear
on the pedestals, and on the' ablets, which decorate the main walls of the monument, the virtues of the dead husband are recounted on black marble.
GALLERY 57, ART PALACE.We here look toward the south and east walls of gallery 57, in the French section, east annex, of the Art Palace at Jackson Park, and the
picture, perhaps, offers a novel demonstration of the actual truth of modern photographic art. By this means we may recall the pictures and locate them on the walls. As
we enter the portal and turn to our left, we have the large painting of Ernest Bordes, of Paris, called Le Laminoer, a vivid scene in a steel mill, which many will
remember. Beneath are three pictures,on the the left, The Last Rays, by Emile Dardois; in the center, Prunes, by Madame Madeline Lemaire; on the right, The
Valley of the Loire at Chateaudun, by Prosper Galerneall Parisian works. The great picture on the next, or right wall, is Flowery Spring, by P. Frank Lamy, of Paris.
On the left, in the upper row of smaller pieces, is first the Sea Birds and Waves of Delacroix, and next, to the right, Fonvielles Eclipse of the Moon; beneath, on the
left, is Rene Gilberts Fisherman, and Paul Grollerons Capture in 1793. We now turn our eyes on that portion of the east wall to the left, or north of the portal, and
see another large picture of Spring, offering a notable comparison with the scene on the south wall. This is by Albert Fourie. The three pictures beneath, beginning at
the left, are Allegres Old Port at Marseilles, Gueldrys City Laboratory, Paris, and Courants Coming Storm. All the painters are Parisians.
FRENCH SCULPTURE IN THE ART PALACE.-The engraving gives a view looking north in the north court of the main building, Art Palace, in Jackson Park The
interior construction of this massive edifice may also be studied. Statues, more than paintings, and both to a discouraging degree, suffer from miscellaneous grouping One
statue, arresting the vision, may seem inspiring and instructive; a hundred or a thousand may confuse the mind and disturb a willing appreciation. Nevertheless, the only
method so far devised of advancing the interests of men of art and soul, is by exhibitions of which the engraving is a portrayal. Room for study is afforded about each effigy,
and no work was admitted to these distinguished halls lest it had met the approval of eminent and skilled authorities. Notice is perhaps first drawn to Bartholdi's bronze
group of Washington and Lafayette, on the left, which was the object of chief popular interest hereabouts. Nearer, and to the right, is a cast of Massoulles Ancestor, the
original of which, in bronze, belongs to the city of Paris. Before the portal, centrally in the distance, stands Lamis First Transgression, a plaster cast of the marble
statue which is in the National Museum, at Paris. The first murderer bears his murdered brother to a place of concealment. In front of the pillar at the left, is Choppins
bronze statue of a Volunteer of 1776. On the extreme left is Houdains Faun, a marble statue.
FAMOUS SCULPTURE FROM CATHEDRAL OF NOTRE DAME.In the Trocadero collection of casts, in the east court of the main
structure of the Art Palace, was the tympanum of the west portal of Notre Dame, as portrayed iu our engraving, iu the principal exhibit. This
represents sculpture of the early part of the thirteenth century. The tympanum is divided into three stages. Over the lintel three prophets on
one side unroll a long scroll; on the other side three kings sit, sceptre in hand. In the ceuter is a reliquary, guarding a small statue of the
Blessed Virgin. The second stage enacts the entombment of the Blessed Virgin. At each end of the bier an angel holds the shroud in which she
lies, while over her form the Saviour inclines, pronouncing a blessing. Behind him range the Twelve Apostles, some of them seated at the ends.
The artistic posing of this group is very good. At the summit is represented the scene of the coronation of the Blessed Virgin, who is seated
before the Saviour. From above an angel reaches down with a crown, while on each side a heavenly acolyte bears a holy taper to light the sacred
drama. These figures are all statues, executed in detached form. The cast of an original hinge of wrought iron, seven feet in length, made in
the thirteenth century, was also exhibited at this portal. It came from a door in the west front of the celebrated cathedral.
THE PORTAL OF ST. GILLES.In the Trocadero collection of architectural casts, alcove 85, Art Palace, placed as is seen in the engraving, was a large reproduction of the
central portal and part of the west front of the Abbatial Church of St. Gilles at Gard, France, carved in stone in the twelfth century. The tympanum is now partly
destroyed. It originally contained a central bas-relief surrounded by the symbolical animals of the Evangelists. This facade and portal secure a highly ornate effect
through the treatment of long and short columns and pilasters, the shorter pillars standing in pairs on sculptured pedestals; the shorter pilasters separating panels or niches
where Apostles stand. In the arcade, at each side, are two draped Apostles with halos, standing on lions that devour men and animals. Above this work is the sculptured
frieze, a laborious design, with the money-changers fleeing from the temple on the left, the resurrection of Lazarus, and the Saviour prophesying Peters denial; on the lintel
is the last supper; to the right are Peter and Malchus, the kiss of Judas, the Saviour before Pontius Pilate, and the flagellation. This, in flue, is the history of the holy passion.
Iu the iconography of the Church, the people, who could not read, here beheld the sacred recitals of the gospel. We may imagine how joyously the masses gathered before
this storied church, and studied these holy scul tures.
GALLERY FROM THE CATHEDRAL OF LIMOGES .This delicate and beautiful piece of ecclesiastical architecture and sculpture is to be found in the Cathedral at Limoges,
and its cast was among the exhibits iu the Trocadero collection in the Art Palace, at Chicago. The original was executed in marble by an unknown artist in 1533-4, for Jean
de Langeac, Bishop of Limoges, Ambassador of France to Rome. This ornament is chiefly rema kable for the grace of its balustrade and the richness of its pendent arches.
In the centre is a wide door-way, under an elliptical arch. Passing from left to right it is to be noted that the ornate arches abruptly terminate, leaving a square and unfilled
pla~e. The columns are carved in many ways, and between them pilasters, niches, and brackets increase the bewildering but dainty detail. These niches once held
statues and there remain in bas-relief the figures of angels carrying symbols of the holy passion. Between the arches under the balustrade are mu'ilated statues in bas-relief,
speaking of the sacrilege of the revolutionary times. It is believed that these statues represented Faith, Hope and Charity on one side, and Justice, Prudence and
Temperance on the other. As though the foliations, carvings, arches, pendents, brackets, pilasters and balusters were not sufficiently ornate, the designer has added the
conspicuous bracket-like ornament at the cornice, which even increased the grace and airiness of the work.
YOUNG GIRLS GOING TO THE PROCESSION.-A notable ceremony of the Catholic Church, honored in all Latin countries, is a procession of the clergy and people in
formal march, visiting some church in state, either to give thanks or implore special dispensation. There are also processions of the host or sacr meiit, of our Saviour to
Mount Calvary, of the Rosary, and other forms. These ceremonies have taken a strong hold on the faith and senses of the people, and have served potently to hold societv
together and assuage bloodshed. Contrasted with these peaceful walks across the odorous fields by happy damsels, the alarms and crimes of war became intolerable, and
gradually lessen. It is said that St. Chrysostom, the unrivaled orator of Constantinople, was the first to introduce processions from Pagan customs into the Christian Church.
The followers of Arius, being forced to hold their meetings out of the city, went forth together, singing anthems; and Chrysostom (Golden-Mouth) in ord.r to overcome this,
organized the orthodox clergy and people into counter-processions, carrying crosses and flambeaux by night. The painter of this beautiful picture, which was exhibit.d in the
French section of the Art Palace, at Chicago, Jules Adolphe Aime Louis Breton, is one of two celebrated brothers, born at Courrieres, France. Jules is renowned for work of
which this is a type, sometimes entering with a sterner skill into the pathetic aspects of life among the lowly. The brother, Emile, excels with snow scenes and moonlight.
ON THE YACHT NAHOUNA.A painting by Jules Stewart, exhibited in the United States section, and loaned by Mrs. Henry P. Borie, of Philadelphia. The extraordinary
increase of wealth in English-speaking countries with its accompanying activity in ocean commerce, has given rise, during the present century, and particularly toward its
close, to the sport, science and pastime of yachting, perhaps the most costly diversion which peoples or nations ever indulged. It is said that $50,000 a year, as the expense
of keeping a fine yacht, is now a common item in the personal accounts of the millionaires; and in the race for social eminence and the formation of exclusive coteries,
certaiuly the yacht is au effective measurement of both financial ability and docility and loyalty to the conventions of fashion. One of two things is probable, if we
consider the party of tnen and women who while away the summer hours on this yacht Namouna, Either they did not earn the money which is here being spent at the rate
of a thousand dollars a week, or, if they did earn it, there is a certain martyrdom in the ennui of fashionably spending it. We cannot imagine Peter Girard, John Jacob
Astor, and Cornelius Vauderbilt, the Commodore, thus using the time which made their lives so valuable to them. But the second < r third generation finds the method
satisfactory. The elite of Great Britain possess 3,000 of these yachts, and America over 1,200; there are a half dozen annual publications which record their history.
THE OVERTHROW. This painting by Rosa Bonheur, was exhibited in the French section of the Art Palace, and is possibly also called Cows and Sheep in a Narrow Road.
It is one of the works which placed its author at the head of the woman painters of her time, and takes rank with her Horse Fair and Three Musketeers. Rosa Bonheur,
whose great fame rests on her success in portraying the dome tic animals, was born at Bordeaux, France, in 1822, and was the pupil of her father, who taught all of his
three children, Rosa, Auguste, and Isidore, the sculptor, how to become famous. At an early ace, like Kemeys and Proctor, whose works adorned the bridges of Jackson
Park, Rosa learn d that the animals themselves were the only models that the true artist needed. Against the art-canons of her day, she labored to outline the uncomely
cattle of France as they appeared in nature, and a'though the critics might be slow to praise her. the people were as swift to express their pleasure. Thereupon, as is usual,
the .Supreme Court of Criticism reviewed its rulings, reversed its decision, and ,in 1850 crowned her painting of The Nivernais Ploughing with the full approval of the
world of art. This painting, her masterpiece, now hangs in the gallery of the Luxembourg, in the southern part of Paris. The paintings of Rosa Bonheur are French. She
is not a Raphael ; her cattle are not universal c .ttle, but French cattle.
THE COSSACKS ANSWER.This grand picture by Elias Evimovicht Rapine is the property of the Emperor of Russia and was purchased by him at a cost of $20,000. The
story toid is, that the King of Poland sent word to the estimable gentlemen, whose characters are so legibly drawn on the canvas, to the effect that unless they sent their
tribute by a certain time, with hostages as security for future good faith, and a contingent to aid in fighting the Kings battles, he would forthwith wipe his correspondents
from the face of the earth. The degree of terror which this war-like missive did not inspire in their hearts is the subject of the artists brush. To frame a reply sufficiently
insulting in return, is the literary task to which these given spirits have now devoted themselves. As ideas more and more hostil take form, and taunts at first uuthought
of are found to be in harmony with the labors of the clerk and li erary man, the savage merriment increases. These nomads are the best riders in the world. The Baron de
Tott, in his celebrated memoirs, out of which the derisive Munchausen papers partly grew, describes the peculiar character of the Cossack villages. There is but one street,
which may however be two miles long. The riding of the Cossacks, in the arena outside Jackson Park on Sixty-first street, at Chicago, was viewed with astonishment by
the people of all nations. There are about five million people in Russia who are nomadsScythians, sons of the Magog of Tenth Genesis.
PORTAL OF THE NORTH TRANSEPT OF THE CATHEDRAL OF BORDEAUX.This cast, from the Trocadero collection at Paris, stood in alcove 83, east court, of the
Art Palace at Jackson Park. The principal decoration divides the portal, where Bertrand de Got, Archbishop of Bordeaux, elected Pope in 1305 as Clement V., stands arrayed
in chasuble, with gloved hands and tiara on his head, imposing the Apostolic benediction on the flocks which he has honored in the church. But there is more of Clement V.
than this beautiful picture of local fame. It was he who aided Philip le Bel, the king, in his burning of De Molay, the Templar, and the persecution of the crusaders* order
by treacherous means, aud the innovation by which Clement V. removed the chair of St. Peter from Rome to Avignon was one of the most serious difficulties of the Roman
hierarchy. At the sides of the portal are six bishops in their robes, and the arcliivaults are filled with statuettes of angels, the Twelve Apostles, and various prophets and
patriarchs. The tympanum conforms to a manner of sculptors, and holds three stages. It is probable that the sculptor was guided by the utilitarian idea of offering to the
people (who could not read) as much instruction as possible. In the lower row is the Last Supper; next above, the Apostles behold the ascension of the Saviour; above, the
Saviour is seated in heaven.
STATUARY IN CEflENT.As pottery plays the leading part in historythat is, as the art and culture, even the trace of man, may be deduced from the pottery which he has made
it is not impossible that future ages will read of the people of 1900 as the cement-makers. There will be a distinctive character to statues that were not chiseled. If this Venus of Milo,
here represented, shall turn to stone as hard as the Idaho petrefactions, so that no sculptor could, by the most patient toil, overcome its resistance; or if the mounds of the future
shall deliver to the Schliemanns of that time this Venus of Medici, or this Bacchante, or Gambrinus, or Penelope; or this noble lion or his mate, the lioness, or the
Emperor Frederick, it cannot fail that the scientists will discern the potters rather than the sculptors art. These statues are all cast in cement. When the sculptors shall
discover a material that will harden into ivory-Carrara marble we shall then have reached the height of this potters age, and may hope to pose as people of the highest
civilization before the coming generations. Everything here is cement; and because all is not made with artistic love and patience, we see the highest thoughts of art
consorting with the meanest forms. Because the base aud the comic were easy to make and quick to sell, we see them here, casting disrepute on cheap but beautiful Milo
and Medici. As in the statue of Germania, Portland cement was used for these figures.
THROWING THfc FIRST STONE.This statue, teaching the most impressive lesson of charity, was the work of Professor Rodolpho
Bernardetti, of Brazil. But Jesu V* says St. John the Evangelist, went uuto the Mount of Olives. And early in the morning he came
again into the Temple, and all the people came unto him ; and he sat down and taught them. And the Scribes and the Pharisees bring a
woman taken in adultery; and having set her iu the midst, they say unto him, Master, this woman hath been taken in adultery, in the
very act. Now in the law, Moses commanded us to stine such: what then sayest thou of her? And this they said, t.mpting him, that.,
they might have whereof to accuse him. But Jesus stooped down, and with his finger wrote on the ground. But when they continued*
asking him, he lifted up himself and said unto them, He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her. And again he
stooped down, and with his finger wrote on the ground. And they, when they heard it, went out one by one, beginning from the eldest,
2ven un o the last; and Jesus was left alone, and the woman, where she was, in the m:dst. And Jesus lifted up himself and said unto
her, Woman, where are they? Di l no man condemn thee? And she said, No man. Lord. And Jesus said, Neither do I condemn thee:
50 thy way, from henceforth sin uo more.
II I I I
TOMB OF THE CHILDREN OF CHARLES VIII.Three times in the history of the French monarchy the king has died without male issue, and his two brothers have
followed him on the throne, also dying without similar heirs. The cast of the tomb here portrayed was in the Trocadero collection, in alcove 92 of the east court of the
Palace at Jackson Park. It commemorated the death of the two children of Charles VIII., son of the celebrated Louis XI., of France. The tomb was finished in 1506, by
Jean Juste, and was placed in the Church of St. Martin, at Tours, but now stands in the cathedral of that city. It is in marble, a little over four feet high. The
figures lying in state on the sarcophagus are two in number, and the robes in which they are invested are embroidered with fleur-de-lis and dolphins. Supporting the
cushions at the head are cherubims, and other cherubims hold shields at the feet. The main decoration of the tomb is a shield bearing the arms of the dauphins or crown
princes of France, between cherubims, and all the work except the figure-drawing is tastefully and successfully done, the figures only showing the effect of conventional rule
on a mind and eye naturally controlled by artistic effect. Nor is the cover of the sarcophagus less elegantly carved. Here the conflict of Hercules with the hydra, the
struggle of Hercules and Alcestes, and Samson bearing the pillar of Gaza, are dwarfed into humble comparison with the royal infants below.