Citation
Application of shading devices as thermal control in buildings design in Indonesia

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Title:
Application of shading devices as thermal control in buildings design in Indonesia
Creator:
Oenardi, Peter
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
40 leaves : illustrations ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Architecture -- Details -- Indonesia ( lcsh )
Buildings -- Thermal properties -- Indonesia ( lcsh )
Canopies, Architectural -- Indonesia ( lcsh )
Architecture -- Details ( fast )
Buildings -- Thermal properties ( fast )
Canopies, Architectural ( fast )
Indonesia ( fast )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Architecture and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Peter Oenardi.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
24367005 ( OCLC )
ocm24367005
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1990 .O365 ( lcc )

Full Text
APPLICATION OF SHADING DEVICES
AS THERMAL CONTROL
IN BUILDINGS DESIGN
IN INDONESIA
by
PETER OENARDI
THESIS SUBMITTED
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE
POST PROFESSIONAL PROGRAM
SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE AND PLANNING
UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT DENVER
SPRING 1990


INTRODUCTION
Indonesia, laying between 6 degree North and 11 degree South latitude, is a tropical
country having 2 seasons, hot and wet seasons, in a year. This country gets high intensity
of solar radiation which impact to the architectural buildings in term of thermal comfort.
In fact, however, many new architectural buildings, especially in the big cities in Indonesia
were built with the wide spread use of large areas of unshaded glass in the building's
facade. This is one of the influences of modem architecture in Indonesia which is not
appropriate to be applied in terms of thermal comfort and architectural expression.
Many architects have wrong appreciations that the using of reflective glass gives excellent
solution to eliminate the solar heat gain through fenestrations. The fact that the reflective
glass cannot protect the window entirely from excessive direct solar radiation and it cut
down the daylighting in the clear sky as well as in the overcast condition when there is no
direct solar radiation gives the conclusion that their application should be avoided as much
as possible.
Any direct sunlight permitted to fall onto a glazed surface, regardless of whether it is
double glazing or reflective glass or has internal Venetian blinds, will consume an
enormous quantity of cooling energy, increase the initial cost of the building and the annual
maintenance cost for the life of the building. In the past decades, this fact has been tolerated
because there was not wide acceptance that energy resources are finite. In the future,
however, architects have to apply their design abilities towards reducing the energy
consumption of their buildings. This must be considered to be both a finance and an ethical
responsibility.
Controlling solar radiation at the building's surface is one of the most effective methods for
reducing heat gain from the sun. When considering the building envelope relative to solar
radiation, window and other exposure surface which hold an important role in thermal
transfer should be highly considered. Because they account for the greatest amounts of heat
entering the building, shading them offers the greatest solution.
The amount of solar radiation that penetrates the window or the other exposed surface of
the building is many time greater than that which penetrates an equal area of the ordinary
wall. Thus, solar radiation transmitted through glass of the window creates interior thermal
imbalance. "Its effect is usually felt directly and instantaneously with no appreciable time
lag and it could be the greatest solar heat gain which influences the building's indoor
thermal conditions" L
Shading devices can be the best solution where the building's facade orientation cannot
exclude excessive solar radiation. Shading device affects the quantity of incident radiation
and hence modifies both the heat flow to the interior and the indoor temperatures. "With
carefully designed, considering on the climate, latitude, orientation of the facade, time of
day, shading device can eliminate the solar heat gain penetrating through glass of the
window and the other exposure more than 90 % of the effect of solar radiation" 2-
Many different types of internal, external, and integral shading methods, techniques, and
devices are available with a great number of architectural shapes and geometric
configurations. They can be fixed, adjustable, or retractable and either manually operated or
motorized.


"Shading devices can affect daylight illumination and glare, view and natural ventilation,
acoustic, structure, architectural expression, maintenance, operating and economic factors"
3 Consequently, their existence cannot be separated from the building integration.
Shading devices should be integrally designed as an entity of the building and as
formgivers for architecture. They shouldn't be considered as the sun control machines but
as the elements of facade and architecture. The relative importance of these factors varies
under different climatic conditions and in various situations. The associated forms and
devices should be conceived as an integral part of the architectural design to achieve
aesthetically and functionally successful shading devices in buildings design.
Therefore, this thesis is intended to give the ideas and considerations on application of
shading devices in building design especially in Indonesia, where the role of shading
shading devices is considered to be the major formgivers for regional architecture leading to
the appropriate shading devices at the certain orientation to exclude direct solar radiation
falling on the fenestrations.


THE APPROACH
Many different types of shading devices can be applied into buildings design with a great
number of architectural shapes dan geometrical configurations. But to perform successfully
as spatial insulators against solar radiation they have to be considered from many aspects as
design integration. One of them is the impact of orientations to define appropriate
applications of shading devices. Therefore, in this thesis, the function of shading devices to
maintain relative thermal balance of radiation and shading relating to the orientations of the
observation facade becomes focus of this study and investigations. Observation point
chosen is Indonesia at latitude 6 degree South Latitude. The other aspects of design
integration will be discussed briefly, to give the whole considerations of the shading
devices design as an entity in practical design.
"Shading devices affect the quantity of incident radiation and hence modify both heat flow
to the interior and the indoor temperatures. Depending on the location of the shading with
respect to the glass, they also can affect daylight, glare, view, and ventilation" 4-
Shading devices can perform several functions: controlling solar heat gain either constantly
or selectively (protecting the window from solar radiation during overheated period without
cutting off significant radiant energy in the underheated period (except for the certain
buildings such as office building, school, where direct sunshine is avoided at any time).
The effectiveness of a shading device depends on the optimal satisfaction with which it
protects a certain exposure in certain conditions. Consequently, the efficiency of a device
should be judged on its yearly performance as a constant control or on the relative balance
between its shading performance and heating efficiency as a selective control.
In Indonesia, where the overheated period occurs almost at any time of the year, direct
solar radiation is relatively avoided in building design. For certain types of buildings such
as housing, however, penetration of direct solar radiation in certain spaces may be expected
in the early morning. Conversely, in the office building, school, penetration of sunshine is
avoided at any time of the year. Generally, in Indonesia, where the underheated period
never exists, shading devices are functioned to exclude direct solar radiation at any angles.
This fact become the stand point of the investigation in this study.


SHADING DEVICES:
In this part of study, different types of shading devices will be discussed and completed
with the investigation of the advantages and disadvantages of their application in Indonesia.
Based on their position, shading devices can be categorized into three types which have
different thermal performances and applications in buildings design:
I. External Shading Devices :
1. Fixed External Shading Devices
A. Horizontal Shading Devices
B. Vertical Shading Devices
C. Combination Shading Devices
2. Movable External Shading Devices :
A. Horizontal Shading Devices
B. Vertical Shading Devices
C. Combination Shading Devices
3. Retractable
II. Internal Shading Devices :
1. Adjustable Internal Shading Devices
2. Retractable Internal Shading Devices
III. Integral Shading System (Between Double Glazing)
External Shading Devices
When the solar radiation impings to the external shading devices, part of solar radiation is
reflected outwards, part is reflected inwards and the remainder is absorbed elevating the
temperature of the shading devices. They are including a variety of shutters, awnings,
overhangs, louvres.
"If constructed properly, the external shading devices could intercept more than 90 % of
direct solar radiation and a considerable amount of the diffuse solar radiation, and only 5 %
of solar radiation is expected to enter into the indoors" 5- They can protect the windows or
the other exposures from unwanted solar radiation during the overheated period. As the
result, the cooling energy used for maintaining indoor thermal control can be reduced and
effect the operation cost of the building in the long period of time.
"The effectiveness of external shading devices increases as the color is darker, when the
windows are closed" 6. With opened windows, the effect of color of shading devices
depends on their orientation regarding to the wind direction. For example, dark colored
shading devices on the windward of the building may have heat gain effect to the indoors
when the wind blows over them. Conversely, dark colored shading devices on the leeward
of the building have less heat gain effect as the wind passing over them flows away from
the building.
1


The advantages of application of external shading devices in Indonesia :
1. External shading devices offer excellent performance in terms of thermal control
especially in tropical climate such as Indonesia where the overheated period occurs
almost in all days in a year (to control the heat gain constantly). This is because of their
capability to intercept die solar radiation at the right place before it penetrates the glass or
other exposure of the building's facade. Especially in the large scale building using air
conditioner to maintain indoor thermal comfort, the application of external shading
devices will considerably reduce the cooling energy.
2. If constructed properly, heat obstructing by external shading devices can be dissipated
into outside air. This is the optimal solution to keep the building away from the
greenhouse effect.
3. External shading devices can also be utilized to protect the window from direct rain fall
so there is a possibility to open the window in the wet season in order to get natural
ventilation.
4. External shading devices play significant roles in regional architectural expression. They
create the shade and shadow which will strongly impact the tropical expression of the
building regarding to the climate and natural environmental in Indonesia..
The disadvantages of application of external shading devices in Indonesia :
1. For the high-rise building, external shading devices may increase the wind load which
need carefully consideration in building's structure design.
2. Maintenance service of window cleaning for the high-rise building may be more difficult
because of application of external shading devices and therefore they need special
consideration and solution in the design.
3. Because of the climate in Indonesia having high intensity of solar radiation in the hot
season and much rain in the wet season, external shading devices have to be well
constructed from durable material. Other wise, they will suffer from the sudden
changing of the climate.
4. When the shading devices are of large scale, such as concrete shading devices, their
heating effect may continue long after sunset. Therefore, they have to be considered in
determining the forms and structures of the shading devices in the design.
1. Fixed External Shading Devices:
Fixed shading devices, by definition, can not be adjusted according to the variations of
sun's position and movement, or the functional requirements which may vary at different
hours and months. They are permanently mounted at a fixed angle or orientation.
Therefore, the effectiveness of the devices in preventing solar radiation is determined by
the relationship between the geometrical configuration of a given orientation and the annual
& diurnal patterns of the sun.
Fixed external shading devices can be designed in innumerable forms and configurations,
but there are a few basic forms discussed afterwards.
l.A. Fixed Horizontal Shading Devices
Horizontal shading devices are the major elements of shading devices in building design
and are efficient to minimize radiant heat gain in the overheated period. "The shading effect
of the horizontal shading devices is indicated as semi-circular segment showing the vertical
angle of the edge of the horizontal shading devices in the plane normal to the reference
2


point locating at the bottom center of the glass area. The form of shading mask is
independent of the size, orientation of the window or the latitude of the observation point"
7 In Indonesia, they are often widely applied in the variation shapes of roof overhang and
balconies.
SECTION
N
S
N
O;
N
e.;6'
CUT OFF ANGLE
SHADED TIME OF WINDOW
SHADING MASK
SHADING MASK
SHADING MASK
Figure 1. Typical Fixed Horizontal Shading Devices
The advantages of application of fixed horizontal shading devices in
Indonesia:
1. Horizontal shading devices work very well to control solar heat gain as well as to give
protection to the window from the rainfall. So we may be able to open the window in
rainy condition to get natural ventilation. This function is very important in the place
having the climate such as Indonesia.
2. In the yearly performance, based on the experimentation, horizontal shading devices
perform best at South and North orientation when the profile angle is considerably high,
(see the result of experimentation: graphic 1,15)
At North West orientation, they perform well on December 22-nd, but they turn out to
be less effective on June 22-nd. (see the result of experimentation: graphic 5)
3. In Indonesia where the glare becomes serious problem in the building design, horizontal
shading devices are best to be applied to control the glare level as well as to reduce solar
heat gain.
4. They obstruct less view compare with the vertical shading devices, therefore their
application is popularly used in enormous type of architectural buildings.
5. Horizontal shading devices can be applied in the wide range of architectural shapes and
configurations such as balcony, veranda, extension of roof overhang, which can enrich
3


the tropical expression of the buildings regarding to the climate and natural
environmental in Indonesia.
The disadvantages of application of fixed horizontal shading devices in
Indonesia:
1. Horizontal shading devices perform less effectively in the early morning and late
afternoon at any orientation, when the profile angle is very low (see the result of
experimentation at every hour and at different orientations). To be effective in this time,
horizontal shading devices have to be very long and impractical to be applied.
2. When the profile angle changes at any time, the fixed horizontal shading devices suffer
from this changing. As the result when the profile angle is getting low in the early
morning and the late afternoon they cannot prevent direct solar radiation penetrating
through the window (in many cases, penetration of direct solar radiation in the early
morning may be allowed in most of buildings, because the outside temperature is
relatively still low after cool temperature at night, conversely in the afternoon, the
temperature is getting higher causing accumulation of outside high temperature and
intensity of solar radiation).
1.2. Fix Vertical Shading Devices
Vertical shading devices are simplest and most effective when acting as supplements to
horizontal shading devices when the profile angle is relatively too low to be prevented by
horizontal shading devices. If vertical shading devices are used alone, the rapidly changing
direction in the sun's bearing angle will require constant adjustment if they are to remain
effective.
"The shading effect of the vertical shading devices is indicated as radial lines emanating
from the reference point locating at the bottom center of the glass area" 8. This form of
shading mask is independent of the size, orientation of the window or the latitude of the
observation point.
4


PLAN
PLAN
SHADING MASK SHADING MASK
Figure 2. Typical Fixed Vertical Shading Devices
The advantages of application of fixed vertical shading devices in
Indonesia:
1. Fixed vertical shading devices work very well as supplemental to the horizontal shading
devices, especially in the early morning and the late afternoon when the profile angle is
very low to be preventing by horizontal shading devices.
2. Generally they are effective at West, South West, South East orientation on June 22-nd,
when declination is at + 23.5 degree (see graphic 8, 12, 18) and North West, North East
orientation on December 22-nd, when declination is at 23.5 degree, (see graphic 6, 28)
The disadvantages of application of fixed vertical shading devices in
Indonesia:
1. Fixed vertical shading devices relatively obstruct the view of occupants of the buildings,
therefore, their application are not preferred, if better solution is available.
2. Fixed vertical shading devices are suffer from the constant changing of sun's bearing
angle. As the result, when the surface solar azimuth is near to 0 degree (almost
perpendicular to the observation facade) they can not prevent the window from direct
solar radiation. In this case, vertical shading devices require constant adjustment if they
are to remain effective (see the result of experimentation).
3. "In general, when direct sunlight falls to the vertical shading devices, they always
downward the sunlight which impact to the distribution and illumination in the interior
when the reflection is preferred as far as possible to get uniform illumination" (Aladar
Olygay: Solar Control and Shading Devices). Generally, they give less contributions to
the daylighting control.
4. When the vertical shading devices are used alone, they can not be used to protect the
window from the rain fall, especially in the wet season when there is a lot of rain fall. As
a result we cannot open the window to get natural ventilation.
5. At North and South orientation, they cannot obstruct solar radiation in the afternoon
when the solar surface azimuth is 0 degree (see graphic 1, 15). And they are less
effective at West, South West, South East on December 22, when declination is 23.5
5


degree (see graphic 10, 14, 20) and North West, North East on June 22, when
declination is + 23.5 degree.(see graphic 4, 26).
1.3. Fix Combination Shading Devices
Combination shading devices which are the combination of the horizontal and vertical
shading elements can be used effectively to control solar radiation if they are carefully
designed relating to sun angles during critical times of the day. "The shading effect of the
Fixed combination shading devices is are represented by superimposing the shading masks
of both horizontal and vertical elements (combination of a semi-circular line and radial
lines)" 9 .
Fixed combination shading devices are widely used in hot climates region but in the other
regions they may not allow seasonal variation in critical shading angles, and may obstruct
radiation penetration in winter when heating is needed. They can be designed at any size,
ranging from very small elements to the floor height elements used as important elements of
the design of building's facade.
SHADING MASK
Figure 3. Typical Fixed Combination Shading Devices
The advantages of application of fixed combination shading devices in
Indonesia:
1. Fix combination shading devices are suitable to be applied in Indonesia, because they
can work well to exclude direct solar radiation (combination advantages of horizontal
and vertical shading devices especially in the early morning and late afternoon). They are
effective at North, South orientation at any time of the year and North West, North East
on December 22; and West, East, South West, South East on June 22. (see the result of
experimentation)
2. Fix combination shading devices perform as thermal control as well as rainfall
protection. This is a good solution to exclude direct solar radiation when we still can get
natural ventilation in the rainy / wet season.
6


The disadvantages of application of fixed combination shading devices in
Indonesia:
1. Although generally fixed combination shading devices are suitable to be applied in
Indonesia, they are less effective at North West and North East orientation on June 22-
nd, when declination is at + 23.5 degree and South West, South East orientation on
December 22-nd, when declination is at 23.5 degree. Because at this time, the profile
angle is very low, and surface solar azimuth is closed to 0 degree.
2. To be effective in all orientations and at any times, the combination shading devices have
to be constantly adjusted to follow the rapidly changing direction of sun's angle.
Otherwise, they will not be able to precept the solar radiation at certain time, when the
profile angle is very low and almost perpendicular to the observation facade, (see the
result of experimentation)
2. Movable External Shading Devices:
Movable external shading devices, by definition, can be adjusted either manually or
automatically regarding to dynamic movement of the sun. In the certain type of buildings
such as office building, they are more effective to be automatically controlled. On the other
hands, for the housing buildings, they can be manually controlled according to the
occupants desire.
2.A. Movable Horizontal Shading Devices
Movable horizontal shading devices have high performance and allow the flexibility of
changing shading characteristic through positioning. They can be either manually or
automatically adjusted to fulfill changing requirement regarding to the constant changing of
sun's position at any time.
7


SHADING MASK SHADING MASK
Figure 4. A Typical Movable Horizontal Shading Devices
The advantages of application of movable horizontal shading devices in
Indonesia:
1. Basically movable horizontal shading devices have similar advantages with fixed
horizontal shading devices, but they have higher performance giving the flexibility of
shading mask because of their capability to intercept direct solar radiation at the right
angle regarding to sun's position at any time.
2. They are effective, especially when the profile angle is very low in the early morning and
late afternoon as well as at the certain orientations where the fix horizontal shading
devices cannot perform well.
3. In overcast sky condition, when there is no direct solar radiation falls to the window,
movable horizontal shading devices are likely the best to be utilized to control either the
glare or indoor illumination as optimal as possible without cutting off too much natural
daylighting.
The disadvantages of application of movable horizontal shading devices in
Indonesia:
1. To be effective, movable horizontal shading devices have to be automatically adjusted to
conform dynamic movement of sun's position at any time. Therefore, application of
high-technology is badly needed to control the shading devices (impact to the initial cost
of the building construction).
8


2. Because they are movable, it implies that the shading devices have to be made from light
material which might be as not durable as the fixed ones. This should be highly
considered because of the tropical climate in Indonesia having high humidity and much
rain fall.
2.B. Movable Vertical Shading Devices
Movable vertical shading devices perform very well regarding to the constant changing of
sun's position and movement. Either manually or automatically controlled vertical shading
devices are available with a great number of shapes and configurations.
HAN
Figure 5. A Typical Movable Vertical Shading Devices
The advantages of application of movable vertical shading devices in
Indonesia:
1. Movable vertical shading devices give the wide flexibility to prevent the solar radiation
with shading efficiency from 0 % to 100 % because of their capability to conform with
the sun's movement at any angle depending on the time.
2. Movable vertical shading devices perform much better than fixed vertical shading
devices. They can replace the failure of using of fixed vertical shading devices when the
solar surface azimuth is very low especially at West, South West, South East orientation
on December 22-nd (see graphic 10, 14, 20) and North West, North East orientation on
June 22-nd. (see graphic 4, 26)
The disadvantages of application of movable vertical shading devices in
Indonesia:
1. Because movable vertical shading devices are effective if they are automatically
controlled by photosensitive sensor, this implies that they are made from the light
9


hardware materials which may need regular maintenance and retrofit because of decisive
effects of heavy rainfall and high humidity in Indonesia.
2. Especially when they automatically controlled, because of the application of high
technology, the initial cost of building construction relatively higher than those of fixed
ones.
2.C. Movable Combination Shading Devices
Movable combination shading devices perform dynamically according to the profile angle
and solar surface azimuth of the sun. Either horizontal or vertical elements may be movable
and either may be angled sideways or downwards to provide more precise control toward
the sun's position and movement. They give several advantages and perform better at any
orientations and times compare with the application of fixed combination shading devices.
E
. i /
p
CUT OFF ANGLE
SHADED TIME OF WINDOW
Figure 6. A Typical of Movable Combination Shading Devices
The advantages of application of movable combination shading devices in
Indonesia:
1. Movable combination shading devices give better thermal performance compare with the
fixed combination shading devices because of their capability to be adjusted according to
the sun's position.
2. Movable combination shading devices can eliminate sun penetration in worst condition
especially at North West, North East orientation on June 22-nd (see graphic 3, 4) and
SHADINGMASK


South West, South East orientation on December 22-nd when the profile angle is very
low and surface solar azimuth is near to 0 degree, (see graphic 13, 14, 19, 20)
The disadvantages of application of movable combination shading devices
in Indonesia:
1. They are tend to be built from less durable material, therefore they are much influenced
by the climatic condition in Indonesia, requiring well construction and regular
maintenance.
2. To be effectively used, photosensitive sensor is needed to control the devices movement
automatically following the sun's position. Of course, the initial cost of the building is
higher than that of the conventional methods.
3. Retractable External Shading Devices
Retractable external shading devices have high performance in term of thermal control.
They have high flexibility to be adjusted to cut off solar radiation. But relating with the
application Indonesia, their advantages and disadvantages should be judged.
CUT OFF ANGLE
SECTION
SECTION
N
N
-O; W-
SHADED AREA OF WINDOW
CUTOFF ANGLE
CUT OFF ANGLE
SHADED AREA OF WINDOW
SHADING MASK
SHADING MASK
Figure 7. A Typical Retractable External Shading device


The advantages of application of retractable external shading devices in
Indonesia:
1. Retractable external shading devices are effective to cut off penetration of solar radiation.
They have flexibility in shading efficiency ranging from 0 % to 100 %.
2. They can be operated depending on the needs of shading and desire of occupants.
The disadvantages of application of retractable external shading devices in
Indonesia:
1. In the windy condition in Indonesia, the retractable external shading devices affect
unexpected influences and therefore their application are not preferred in this condition.
2. When the retractable shading devices are in the low position, they considerably obstruct
the view of occupants. Also, in the disorderly manner, they are not things of visual
interest.
3. They are tend to be built from light material, therefore they have less durability effecting
to their performances.
II. Internal Shading Devices:
If internal shading devices are used alone, direct solar radiation will be transmitted through
the glass before interception. The solar radiation absorbed into the shading material is re-
released to the interior and almost all of the heat remains within the space because the
shortwave turning out to long-wave radiative is trapped in the space (the characteristic of
the opaqueness of the glass that prevents the long-wave radiative heat dissipation).
Internal shading devices generally sacrifice very little in terms of thermal performance,
compared with the external shading devices. Therefore, relating with the application in
Indonesia they are preferred to be as supplemental rather than be primary shading devices.
They are including a variety of draperies, Venetian blinds, roller shades.
"The efficiency is determined by the texture and reflective properties of the materials which
increases as the color is lighter, and depends on the amount of incoming solar radiation
reflected back to the glass, the amount of solar radiation absorbed and held by material of
internal shading devices"10-
The advantages of application of internal shading devices in Indonesia:
1. The internal shading devices are giving people the possibility to control the devices from
inside, which can be closed or opened as needed.
2. Because they are located in the protection of the building, they are less influenced by the
decisive effects of climate. Therefore, they need less cleaning service and maintenance
(except for the damages caused by careless of the building's occupants.
The disadvantages of application of internal shading devices in Indonesia:
1. The effectiveness of internal shading devices on the whole is much less than those of
external shading devices and depends on its ability to reflect incoming solar radiation
back through the fenestration before it can be absorbed and converted into heat within
the building.
2. They don't make effective use of exterior reflections, nor do they reduce heat gain as
well as the exterior shading devices.


3. Solar radiation which is blocked by internal shading devices after penetrating the glass
of window turns out to be the long wave radiation known as heat creating the
greenhouse effect and interior thermal imbalance.
4. Furthermore, the part absorbed in the shade material is almost fully dissipated
subsequently into the interior and added to the heat gain.
II. 1. Adjustable Internal Shading Devices
Generally, the internal shading devices can be adjusted according to the occupants needs.
Adjustable internal shading devices are widely used in many buildings in Indonesia. They
can be either adjustable vertical or horizontal devices (Venetian blinds).
Figure 8. A Typical Adjustable Internal Shading Device
The advantages of application of adjustable internal shading devices in
Indonesia:
1. They are very convenient to be controlled by occupants from inside the building
depending on their need.
2. In Indonesia, where the glare become serious problem, adjustable internal shading
devices are widely used to eliminate this decisive influence.
3. Adjustable internal shading devices are often needed for privacy of occupants,
controlling undesired view as well as for controlling the glare.
The disadvantages of application of adjustable internal shading devices in
Indonesia:
1. Although they can be adjusted, they are not effective to eliminate the heat gain (because
the solar radiation turned out to be short waves and is trapped in the interior known as
greenhouse effect).
2. Internal shading devices are not things of beauty or visual interest when they were used
in disorderly manner. Also, they would be conspicuous from the exterior and impact to
the appearance of the building.
11.2. Retractable Internal Shading Devices
Retractable internal shading devices are also widely used in many buildings. They can be
lifted, rolled or drawn back from the window. The advantages and disadvantages of
application of retractable internal shading devices are more or less similar with the
adjustable internal shading devices.


SECTION
Figure 9. A Typical of Retractable Internal Shading Devices
III. Integral Shading Systems (Between Double Glazing)
The integral shading systems are the latest ones introduced in building design as an energy
conservation feature. They are basically constructed of double glazing with the Venetian
blinds, pleated paper, or roller shades between them which can either be manually or
automatically operated from internal" n. "Air spaces between the glasses can interrupt the
path of heat conduction and significantly reduce the rate of heat flow. Therefore, the width
of the air space affects its thermal performance. Because the heat flow across double
glazing is substantially reduced, the temperature of glazing facing the room is much closer
to room temperature that that is case with single / ordinary glass"11 .
"The application of integral shading devices can be improved as an air-flow envelope
having high thermal performance. The use of adjusted Venetian blinds in the air-flow cavity
provides excellent direct solar radiation control in terms of heat gain and daylighting
control, heat utilization, heating and cooling reduction to achieve the better indoor thermal
comfort condition" 12
1 4


SECTION
Figure 10. A Typical Integral Shading System
The advantages of application of between double glazing shading devices in
Indonesia:
1. If they are applied in the high-rise building, they perform better than those with the
reflective glasses.
2. The usual problems of maintenance and durability are minimized by enclosing the
shading devices between the glass and within a service walkway. They need less
maintenance and make the window cleaning easier.
The disadvantages of application of between double glazing shading
devices in Indonesia:
1. Because of their scale, Venetian blinds or the other small elements between double
glazing are subject to relatively obstruct the view of occupants.
2. The architectural expression of the building using these shading devices does not reflect
the tropical expression as the natural environment and climate in Indonesia.
15


THE IMPACT OF SCALE OF SHADING DEVICES ON ARCHITECTURAL
EXPRESSION
Large Scale Shading Devices
The large scale called architectural scale shading devices are being dominant features of
architecture that offer better performances in architectural and structural integration.
Because of these characteristics, the application of architectural scale shading devices are
likely to be major architectural formgivers.
The advantages of application of large scale shading devices in Indonesia:
1. Because of their scale, architectural shading devices can be integrally designed with
structure systems having more durability and therefore they are invulnerable from
decisive influences of climate in Indonesia.
2. They need less frequent support and have relatively larger width of span regarding to the
occupants of a building, module, structural systems and to overall building integration.
3. Architectural scale shading devices are considered to be relatively more suitable to be
employed on building's exterior facade. They are being an integral part of configuration
of building's exterior forms arising from the needs and activities of occupants. They also
can be combined with other elements which are being a part of the initial building design
concept.
4. When the architectural scale shading devices is applied in building design, they will
frame the facade and obstruct less view of occupants of the building.
5. In Indonesia, application of large scale shading devices give strong impact to the tropical
expression of the building and therefore their application is considered to be major
formgivers to architectural design.
The disadvantages of application of large scale shading devices in
Indonesia:
1. The large scale shading devices tend to restore much radiant energy long after sunset.
Therefore, the heat convection and conduction are being serious heat transfer into the
building if the shading devices are not well designed.
2. The large scale shading devices tend to be fixed on the facade, therefore their application
is less reasonable to be adjusted.
Small Scale Shading Devices
Small scale shading devices are more effectively if used as supplementary shading.
Because of this reason, the use of architectural scale shading devices are preferred for
primary sun control, where they can be constructed more durably and easily to maintain
than those of the hardware scale ones.
The advantages of application of small scale shading devices in Indonesia:
1. Small scale shading devices can be added at any stage in construction process without
affecting the building structure.
2. The small scale shading devices are usually applied to the movable shading devices
(which need relatively small and light devices, so they are easy to be adjusted).
3. Their scale is appropriate to be applied in interior of the building, therefore they are
widely used as an elements of interior.


The disadvantages of application of small scale shading devices in
Indonesia:
1. Small scale shading devices offer less performance regarding to architectural and
structural integration (where the shading devices are considered very significant in
architectural design in Indonesia which needs certain level of design integration).
2. Small scale shading devices are unrelated to human scale and tend to be built from less
durable materials and best located within the protection of the building envelope. This
also implies that any solar radiation intercepted will become heat in the interior of the
building creating greenhouse effect.
3. Small scale shading devices obstruct view of the occupants, therefore their application is
avoided especially at the facade requiring certain opening.
4. The small scale shading devices relatively more complicated in the construction,
maintenance, and make more difficulties in conducting the window cleaning.
SHADING DEVICES AS FORMGIVERS FOR ARCHITECTURE
The aesthetically successful use of shading devices in buildings requires the associated
forms and devices be conceived as an integral part of the architectural design, as much as
floors, walls, and beams that would enhance the exterior and interior appearance of a
building. They are different with the small scale shading devices solution which can merely
be added at any stage. Therefore, the scale, proportional, and rhythm of exterior shading
devices should contribute to the whole building expression and are important to be
considered in relation to successful achievement as the formgivers for architecture.
As a part of facade and architecture, shading devices shouldn't be considered as solar
machines control, but as formgivers for architectural design, especially in Indonesia where
the effects of natural environmental and climatic conditions much impact to the whole
appearance and expression of the building. If it is highly considered, the shading devices
are going to be the new idea of architecture forms and development in the future.
Many types of shading devices can be applied on the certain facade of a building. The
shading devices which function as thermal control and formgivers for architecture are the
parts that cannot be separated from the whole building facade. If it weren't done, the
building wouldn't be considered as an entity system and it would create unbalanced
architectural expression.
As discussed before, architectural scale shading devices are more reasonable to be
employed on the exterior facade of a building to function as formgiver for architecture.
With this scale, they have more capability to keep the function of shading devices as solar
control and architectural elements in the design of the facade. In other words, they are
likely to be major architectural formgivers.
To achieve above purpose, architectural scale shading devices should dominate the whole
building facade where the shading are needed. Their scale, forms, as well as proportion
and rhythm are to impress strongly what their function are, to express the role they play as
an unique appearance of reliable solar control elements, and as an entity of a building. It
will lead the appearance of the building to the new idea in architectural design in Indonesia.


INTEGRATED DESIGN OF SHADING DEVICES.
As the element of a facade and the part of architecture, shading devices should be highly
integrated design. There are many considerations that should be taken into account when
designing or selecting a certain shading device:
I. Thermal Performance
II. Daylighting and Glare Control
III. Architectural Expression
IV. Structure
V. View
VI. Natural Ventilation
VII. Acoustic
VIII. Economic, Maintenance and Operation
I. The Function of Shading Devices as Thermal Control
As discussed in the prior part of this thesis, the most significant contribution of shading
devices in building design in Indonesia is to achieve satisfactorily the building's thermal
performance. The function of shading devices is to constantly control the effect of the solar
radiation at almost any time in the whole of the year. Once again, is the effectiveness of a
shading device determined by its successfulness in interfering the solar radiation to
minimize the heat gain and reduce the cooling energy used to maintain certain thermal
comfort condition.
II. Utilizing Shading Devices As Daylighting and Glare Control
In Indonesia, where the high illumination of daylighting is available almost in the whole of
the year, the shading devices can be utilized to control the quantity and quality of daylight
in the interior space of the building. This purpose is suggested in order to take advantages
from natural environment providing comfort without relying on artificial lighting which
consume energy. Also, direct sunlighting is rarely useful in Indonesia for direct task
illumination because it can result in excessive glare on work surface.
Daylighting and glare control are having parallel problems and objectives with thermal
control, as energy conscious design. Therefore the application of shading devices should
be integrally designed to achieve both visual and thermal comfort. These purposes require
the control of the instantanenous effects of direct sunlight to reduce the effects of excessive
glare and solar radiation, redistribute the visible light and infrared heat to illuminate the
room optimally and keep comfortable room temperature as much as possible.
The types and positions of shading devices are holding important roles regarding to the
daylighting and glare control. A high average illumination level is not efficient if it is not
well distributed. Horizontal shading devices can be effectively used to either redirect or
reflect the sunlight. "Horizontal shading devices of any finish are basically glare free as
long as the reflecting surface are above see level. They also can eliminate the contrast of
brightness coming from the window. In general, vertical shading devices are not good


sources of lighting, because they always downward the sunlight falling on them, therefore
their application to control the natural daylighting are not preferred"13
The use of photosensitive controls to automatically adjust horizontal shading devices
provides uniform distribution of illumination and eliminate energy consumption used for
lighting. This will be the future feature of application of shading devices in Indonesia in the
future when high technology needed is widely applied.
III. The Impact of Shading Devices on Architectural Expression
Integrated design of shading devices can be utilized to optimize best external and internal
visual esthetic regarding to the tropical expression which is widely preferred to apply in
Indonesia. In this case, the scale of shading devices are very essential to impact the exterior
and interior architectural image. The architectural scale shading devices are likely to frame
the facade giving certain impact of tropical expression of building design in Indonesia.
The shades and shadows creating by shading devices are likely enhance the appearance of
the building in Indonesia. They also strongly impress three dimensional forms of the facade
by performing dynamic rhythm of shades and shadows which are dynamically changing
according to the suns position and movement. The play of dark and light of the facade by
using the shading devices is likely giving the unique expression of the building.
1. External Visual Effect:
One would expect most internal shading devices to have no effect on the exterior
architectural image. Because the light colored internal shading devices which are often
arranged in a disorderly manner tend to be conspicuous on the exterior facade. It is
practically solved by applying deep exterior shading devices which will perform deep
shadows to conceal this disorder as much as for reduction in cooling loads.
The shading devices should be visually pleasing to observer both during the day and at
night. "The forms, scale, proportional, rhythm, and textural qualities of shading devices
can aid the articulation of the facade" 14. The building's appearance can be enhanced by
applying artificial lighting at night.
The deep shadow creating by exterior shading devices can conceal the interior shading
devices using the internal shading which are usually arranged disorderly and aren't being
the things of beauty or visual interest.
In application in Indonesia, they can clearly express the tropical architecture which reflect
their function as passive design regarding to climatic and natural environment. As the
result, they may signify the function and character of shading systems at the right place.
2. Internal Visual Effect:
The esthetic appeal of shading system impact the whole character of a room. The
directional character, proportion, rhythm, texture can perceptibly enhance the appearance of


the interior. The interior shading devices have the greatest impact, but some exterior
shading devices are maybe visible from the inside, therefore, their effect should also be
considered.
A variety of internal shading devices are widely used not only to function as shading
elements, but they also play multiple functions. They can be utilized to achieve certain level
privacy of the space and as one of aesthetic elements in interior design.
IV. Shading Devices as a Part of Structural Systems
Shading devices can be integrally designed to increase efficiency of structural systems. For
instance, certain external shading devices can be used for lateral bracing, shear stiffening or
also can be function as cantilevers. In this case, the scale of shading devices is playing
important role to determine what the level of design integration is, in relation to structural
systems. The weight of shading devices, what kind of support its offer the building
structure, however, should also be considered in the design.
Conversely, the structural elements can also be employed to function as shading devices.
The floor can be extended to create horizontal shading devices, and column or wall can also
be functioned as vertical shading devices. Therefore, we can conclude that shading devices
can be applied in building design not only as dead load, but their function can be integrally
designed increasing the efficiency and effectivity of their application.
V. The Effect of Shading Devices on View
The types and scale of shading devices are very essential to determine the quantity and
quality of view giving to the occupants of the building. The architectural scale shading
devices preferring in application in Indonesia, as discussed before, frame the view rather
than break it up. On the other hand the small scale shading devices relatively tend to disrupt
the view. Therefore, their application is preferred to be seconder function which is less
dominating the entire facade of the building.
The view are less interrupted by horizontal shading devices compare with vertical shading
devices. Even, they can be utilized to frame certain view. For panoramic views, therefore,
vertical shading devices shouldn't be used if it can be avoided. These characteristics can be
utilized to control unwanted view and maximize valuable view.
VI. The Effect of Shading Devices on Natural Ventilation
The locations and types of shading devices which are used for solar control have several
impacts on wind patterns. Careful considerations on the design should be conducted or the
value of natural ventilation may be considerably reduced.
20


"Basically, the wind forces at the windward should be balanced to divert the wind pattern
downward" 15 In this case, horizontal and vertical shading devices can be functioned to
control the wind direction and capture more air flow to interior of a building.
VII. Effects of Shading Devices on Acoustic
Shading devices may result various impacts on quantity and quality of acoustic. The
function of external shading devices can be as sound barrier between the source of noise
outside the building and the interior of the building which may need certain privacy level.
External shading devices can be utilized to eliminate noise level coming from outside the
building by its ability to deflect the noise away from the fenestration. But it must be
carefully designed, because "the noise may also deflect onto the glass's surface while some
external shading devices can create structure-borne noise within the building" 16 .
Several internal shading devices may also be utilized to create sound reflection, absorption
depending on the function and certain purposes of the room. They also may effect either
sound dispersion or reverberation.
VIII. Economic, Maintenance, and Operation Factors of Shading Devices
The level and maintenance requirement of various shading devices are considerably
diversity. Some shading devices require certain periodically maintenance when the others
only need regular cleaning service. The shading devices especially the small scale shading
devices often make difficulties on exteriors windows cleaning where they almost cover
the facade completely and only give a tiny space for cleaning service.
There are two ways to clean exterior window glass equipped with exterior shading devices.
Either the devices are removable to facilitate the use of a window cleaning scaffold both
horizontally and vertically operated or the shading itself are used as platform during the
cleaning service. Therefore, the maintenance factor should be judged in shading devices
design whether the shading devices are practically to be applied or not.
The economic balance of application of shading devices can be represented by comparing
the cost of an unshaded building to the cost of a shaded one plus the cost of shading
devices. With this method, the break even point and payback period of the building cost
can be calculated.
For the design process, this method can be reversed. Knowing the amount of solar heat
gain penetrating through the window and the cost of cooling energy necessary to counter
balance this amount, we can determine the cost of shading devices which will break even
economically.


EXPERIMENTATION
An evaluation of the expected performance of a planned shading type and its geometrical
characteristics, prior to actual construction, is thus significant for satisfactory thermal
performance of the building.
Several methods available for such examination, one of them is by constructing the scaled
model and testing it with the solar machine using artificial lighting / irradiation conditions
regarding to the sun's position at certain time and latitude.
This method was used in this study to show the relationship between the position &
dynamic movement of the sun and the performance of different types of shading devices.
The main purpose of this experimentation is to represent the performance of horizontal,
vertical and combination shading devices at the different orientations, different hours in a
day in Indonesia, on June 22 and December 22 when the sun is on its solstice path.
The result of this experimentation is expected to give the contribution to the building design
in Indonesia, where the role of shading devices are significantly needed to eliminate the
excessive solar radiation intensity.
Afterwards, the result of the experimentation will be presented:
22


% = SHADED AREA OF WINDOW
X LENGTH OF SHADING DEVICE
GRAPHIC 1
RESULT OF EXPERIMENTATION AT 6 DEGREE SOUTH LATITUDE
HORIZONTAL SHADING DEVICE
NORTH ORIENTATION
JUNE 22
06.15 07.X 08.X 09.00 10.X 11X 12X 13X 14.X 15.X 16.X 17.X 17.45
TIME
X LENGTH OF SHADING DEVICE
GRAPHIC 2
RESULT OF EXPERIMENTATION AT 6 DEGREE SOUTH LATITUDE
VERTICAL SHADING DEVICE
NORTH ORIENTATION
JUNE 22
23


SHADED AREA OF WINDOW % s SHADED AREA OF WINDOW
06.15
07.00 08.00 09.00
10.00 11.00 12.00
TIME
13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00
17.00
17.45
X LENGTH OF SHADING DEVICE
GRAPHIC 3
RESULT OF EXPERIMENTATION AT 6 DEGREE SOUTH LATITUDE
HORIZONTAL SHADING DEVICE
NORTH WEST ORIENTATION
JUNE 22
ii
06.15 07.00 08.00 09.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 17.45
TIME
X LENGTH OF SHADING DEVICE
GRAPHIC 4
RESULT OF EXPERIMENTATION AT 6 DEGREE SOUTH LATITUDE
VERTICAL SHADING DEVICE
NORTH WEST ORIENTATION
JUNE 22
24


SHADED AREA OF WINDOW
06.00 07.00 08.00 09.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18-00
TIME
X LENGTH OF SHADING DEVICE
GRAPHICS
RESULT OF EXPERIMENTATION AT 6 DEGREE SOUTH LATITUDE
HORIZONTAL SHADING DEVICE
NORTH WEST ORIENTATION
DECEMBER 22
X LENGTH OF SHADING DEVICE
GRAPHIC 6
RESULT OF EXPERIMENTATION AT 6 DEGREE SOUTH LATITUDE
VERTICAL SHADING DEVICE
NORTH WEST ORIENTATION
DECEMBER 22
25


SHADED AREA OF WINDOW
TIME
X LENGTH OF SHADING DEVICE
graphic?
RESULT OF EXPERIMENTATION AT 6 DEGREE SOUTH LATITUDE
HORIZONTAL SHADING DEVICE
WEST ORIENTATION
JUNE 22
TIME
X LENGTH OF SHADING DEVICE
GRAPIHC 8
RESULT OF EXPERIMENTATION AT 6 DEGREE SOUTH LATITUDE
VERTICAL SHADING DEVICE
WEST ORIENTATION
JUNE 22
26


SHADED AREA OF WINDOW %= SHADED AREA OF WINDOW
06.00 07.00 06.00 09.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00
TIME
X LENGTH OF SHADING DEVICE
GRAPHIC ?
RESULT CF EXPERIMENTATION AT 6 DEGREE SOUTH LATITUDE
HORIZONTAL SHADING DEVICE
WEST ORIENTATION
DECEMBER 22
06.00 07.00 08.00 09.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00
TIME
X LENGTH OF SHADING DEVICE
GRAPHIC 10
RESULT OF EXPERIMENTATION AT 6 DEGREE SOUTH LATITUDE
VERTICAL SHADING DEVICE
WEST ORIENTATION
DECEMBER 22
27


SHADED AREA OF WINDOW
06.15 07.00 08.00 09.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 17.45
TIME
X L£NGTH OF SHADING DEVICE
GRAPHIC n
RESULT OF EXPERIMENTATION AT 6 DEGREE SOUTH LATITUDE
HORIZONTAL SHADING DEVICE
SOUTH WEST ORIENTATION
JUNE 22
06.15 07.00 08.00 09.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 17.45
TIME
X LENGTH OF SHADING DEVICE
GRAPHIC 12
RESULT OF EXPERIMENTATION AT 6 DEGREE SOUTH LATITUDE
VERTICAL SHADING DEVICE
SOUTH WEST ORIENTATION
JUNE 22
28


SI1ADFD AREA OF WINDOW <*, = SHADED AREA OF WINDOW
TIME
X LENGTH OF SHADING DEVICE
GRAPHIC 13
RESULT OF EXPERIMENTATION AT 6 DEGREE SOUTH LATITUDE
HORIZONTAL SHADING DEVICE
SOUTH WEST ORIENTATION
DECEMBER 22
TIME
X LENGTH OF SHADING DEVICE
GRAPHIC 14
RESULT OF EXPERIMENTATION AT 6 DEGREE SOUTH LATITUDE
VERTICAL SHADING DEVICE
SOUTH WEST ORIENTATION
DECEMBER 22
29


% = SHADED AREA OF WINDOW
100
SOUTH ORIENTATION
DECEMBER 22
% = SHADED AREA OF WINDOW
x
9
£


SHADED AREA OF WINDOW
06.15 07.X 08.X 09.X 10X 11.00 12.X
TIME
13X 14.X 15.X 16X 17X 17.45
X LENGTH OF SHADING DEVICE
GRAPHIC 17
RESULT OF EXPERIMENTATION AT 6 DEGREE SOUTH LATITUDE
HORIZONTAL SHADING DEVICE
SOUTH EAST ORIENTATION
JUNE 22
ii
06.15 07X 08X 09.X 10X ll.X 12X 13.X 14X 15X 16X 17.X 17.45
TIME
X LENGTH OF SHADING DEVICE
GRAPHIC 18
RESULT OF EXPERIMENTATION AT 6 DEGREE SOUTH LATITUDE
VERTICAL SHADING DEVICE
SOUTH EAST ORIENTATION
JUNE 22
31


% = SHADED AREA OF WINDOW % = SHADED AREA OF WINDOW
TIME
X LENGTH OF SHADING DEVICE
GRAPHIC 19
RESULT OF EXPERIMENTATION AT 6 DEGREE SOUTH LATITUDE
HORIZONTAL SHADING DEVICE
SOUTH EAST ORIENTATION
DECEMBER 22
06.00 07.00 08.00 09.00 10.00 11.00 1Z0O 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00
TIME
X LENGTH OF SHADING DEVICE
GRAPHIC 20
RES ULT OF EXPERIMENTATION AT 6 DEGREE SOUTH LATITUDE
VERTICAL SHADING DEVICE
SOUTH EAST ORIENTATION
DECEMBER 22
32


SHADED AREA OF WINDOW
ii
06.15 07.00 08.00 09.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 17.45
TIME
X LENGTH OF SHADING DEVICE
GRAPHIC 21
RESULT OF EXPERIMENTATION AT 6 DEGREE SOUTH LATITUDE
HORIZONTAL SHADING DEVICE
EAST ORIENTATION
JUNE 22
£
i
S
§
ii

TIME
X LENGTH OF SHADING DEVICE
GRAPIHC 22
RESULT OF EXPERIMENTATION AT 6 DEGREE SOUTH LATITUDE
VERTICAL SHADING DEVICE
EAST ORIENTATION
JUNE 22
33


SHADED AREA OF WINDOW % = SHADED AREA OF WINDOW
06.00 07.00 08.00 09.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00
TIME
X LENGTH OF SHADING DEVICE
GRAPHIC 23
RESULT OF EXPERIMENTATION AT 6 DEGREE SOUTH LATITUDE
HORIZONTAL SHADING DEVICE
EAST ORIENTATION
DECEMBER 22
06.00 07.00 08.00 09.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00
TIME
X LENGTH OF SHADING DEVICE
GRAPHIC 24
RESULT OF EXPERIMENTATION AT 6 DEGREE SOUTH LATITUDE
VERTICAL SHADING DEVICE
EAST ORIENTATION
DECEMBER 22
34


% SHADED AREA OF WINDOWj % SHADED AREA OF WINDOW
06.15
08.00 09.00 10.00 11.00 12.00
13.00 14.00
15.00 16.00 17.00
17.45
TIME
X LENGTH OF SHADING DEVK3-
GRAPHIC 25
RESULT OF EXPERIMENTATION AT 6 DEGREE SOUTH LATITUDE
HORIZONTAL SHADING DEVICE
NORTH EAST ORIENTATION
JUNE 22
TIME
X LENGTH OP SHADING DEVICE
GRAPHIC 26
RESULT OF EXPERIMENTATION AT 6 DEGREE SOUTH LATITUDE
VERTICAL SHADING DEVICE
NORTH EAST ORIENTATION
JUNE 22
35


SHADED AREA OF WINDOW
06.00 07.00 08.00 09.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 1800
TIME
X LENGTH OF SHADING DEVICE
GRAPHIC 27
RESULT OF EXPERIMENTATION AT 6 DEGREE SOUTH LATITUDE
HORIZONTAL SHADING DEVICE
NORTH EAST ORIENTATION
DECEMBER 22
X
06.00 07.00 08.00 09.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00
TIME
X LENGTH OF SHADING DEVICE
GRAPHIC 28
RESULT OF EXPERIMENTATION AT 6 DECREE SOUTH LATITUDE
VERTICAL SHADING DEVICE
NORTH EAST ORIENTATION
DECEMBER 22
36


CONCLUSION:
1. In order to design the buildings in Indonesia which precisely respond to direct radiation,
the designer must be able to establish the dynamic sun's position and movement for any
time of the day and any day of the year (to constantly minimize excessive solar radiation
penetrating to the buildings through fenestrations). Knowing exactly how the sun strike
the window of a building leads the possibility to precisely calculate and determine the
shapes and configurations of shading devices.
2. Positions and orientations of the windows have to be considered in the design process
because they strongly impact to the needs, types, shapes, dimensions, and
configurations of shading devices.
3. In Indonesia, where the climatic and natural environmental conditions play significant
contributions in building design, the application of shading devices is highly
recommended to be functioned as thermal control and architecture elements.
4. The impacts of different orientations to the needs of shading concluded from the
experimentation:
North: Fixed horizontal shading devices perform well in the middle day at this
orientation but they can not precept direct solar radiation well in the early
morning and late afternoon, when the profile angle is considerably very
low. (see graphic 1,2)
Suggested solution at this orientation:
* Application of movable horizontal shading devices.
* Application of fixed combination shading devices.
* Application of movable combination shading devices with either
horizontal or vertical devices can be adjusted.
North-West: On June 22nd, when declination is at + 23.5 degree, fixed horizontal
shading devices perform well at this orientation, but they don't perform
well in late afternoon, (see graphic 3) Their performance is badly needed
at this time to eliminate solar heat gain when outside temperature (after
being radiated in the whole day) is accumulating with intensity of solar
radiation affecting the heat gain to the building.
On December 22-nd, when declination is at 23.5 degree, fixed
horizontal shading devices are more effective to be applied since the
profile angle is higher than that on June 22. They are effective almost at
any time in the day. (see graphic 5) The facade facing at this orientation
only receives direct solar radiation from 13:15 to 18:15.
On June 22-nd fixed vertical shading devices are not effective to be
applied at this orientation because the surface solar azimuth is very low
at any time in the day. (see graphic 4)
On December 22-nd fixed vertical shading devices can precept direct
solar radiation perfectly since the profile angle is considerably high, (see
graphic 6)
37


Suggested solution at this orientation:
* Application of movable horizontal shading devices.
* Application of movable combination shading devices with either
vertical or horizontal shading devices can be adjusted.
West: On June 22-nd, when declination is at+ 23.5 degree, fixed horizontal
shading devices can effectively protect the window from direct solar
radiation in the middle day. But in the late afternoon, they are relatively
not effective because the profile angle is considerably very low. (see
graphic 7)
On December 22-nd, when declination is at 23.5 degree, fixed
horizontal shading devices perform slightly better than those on June
22-nd, but they also are not able to protect the window in the late
afternoon, when the profile angle is considerably very low. (see graphic
9)
On June 22-nd although fixed vertical shading devices do not work
perfectly well in this orientation, they represent uniform performance at
any time of the day. (see graphic 8)
On December 22-nd fixed vertical shading devices also represent
uniform performance at any time in the day, but they are slightly more
effective than those on June 22-nd. (see graphic 10)
Suggested solution at this orientation:
* Application of movable horizontal shading devices.
* Application of movable vertical shading devices.
* Application of movable combination shading devices with either
horizontal or vertical devices are adjusted.
South West: On June 22-nd, when declination is at + 23.5 degree, fixed horizontal
shading devices work well, but not in the late afternoon, (see graphic
11).
On December 22-nd, when declination is at 23.5 degree, fixed
horizontal shading devices can prevent direct solar radiation in the
middle day, but they can not perform well in the late afternoon because
the profile angle is very low. (see graphic 13)
On June 22-nd, fixed vertical shading devices perform perfectly well,
(see graphic 12)
On December 22-nd, fixed vertical shading devices turn out to be not
effective to be applied, because the surface solar azimuth is very low.
(see graphic 14)
Suggested solution at this orientation:
* Application of movable horizontal shading devices.
* Application of movable combination shading devices with either
vertical or horizontal shading devices can be adjusted.
38


South : Fixed horizontal shading devices perform excellent and better at this
orientation in the middle day compare with those at the North
orientation. But like the other type of shading devices, they can not
prevent direct solar radiation at the low profile angle in the late
afternoon, (see graphic 15)
Fixed vertical shading devices perform conversely to the fixed
horizontal shading devices. They work very well in the early morning
and late afternoon, but not in the middle day. Therefore we can conclude
that fixed vertical shading devices can be functioned as supplemental to
horizontal shading devices.
Suggested solution at this orientation:
* Application of movable horizontal shading devices
* Application of fixed combination shading devices with horizontal
shading devices as major elements.
* Application of movable combination shading devices with either
horizontal or vertical shading devices can be adjusted.
South East: The treatment of shading devices at this orientation is similar to those at
the South West orientation. The difference is at the effect of the solar
radiation which is considered to be less than that at South West
orientation. This is because the facade facing to this orientation gets the
morning sunshine, when the outside temperature is relatively low after
cool temperature at night.
Suggested solution at this orientation:
* Application of movable horizontal shading devices
* Application of fixed combination shading devices with horizontal
shading devices as major elements.
* Application of movable combination shading devices with either
horizontal or vertical shading devices can be adjusted.
East: The application of shading devices at this orientation is similar to those
at the West orientation.
Suggested solution at this orientation:
* Application of movable horizontal shading devices.
* Application of movable vertical shading devices.
* Application of movable combination shading devices with either
horizontal or vertical devices are adjusted.
North East: The treatment of shading devices at this orientation is similar to those at
North West orientation.
Suggested solution at this orientation:
* Application of movable horizontal shading devices.
* Application of movable combination shading devices with either
vertical or horizontal shading devices can be adjusted.


5. From the summary mentioned above, we can conclude that there is no fixed shading
devices can prevent direct solar radiation at yearly performance. Because the dynamic
movement of sun position have to be followed by constant and dynamic movement of
shading devices. Therefore, to prevent direct solar radiation perfectly at any time of the
day or the year, the best solution is to apply the movable shading devices.
6. In design practice, the determination of shading time is very important to define
appropriate application of shading devices. Because practically, when the building is not
occupied at certain hour of the day, the efficiency of shading devices can be deducted as
to reduce the construction cost and the over shading time which in facts can be
eliminated.
40


BIBBLIOGRAPHY:
1. ASRAE Fundamental Handbook. 1989
2. B., Givoni. Man, Climate, and Architecture. London: Applied Science Publishers Ltd.
1976.6. Harkness, Edward L. Solar Radiation Control in Buildings. England:
Applied Science Publishers Ltd.
3. Lam, William M.c. Sunlighting as Formgiver for Architecture. New York: Van
Nostrand Reinhold Company. 1986.
4. Lippsmeier, Georg. Tropenbau: Building in the Tropics. Munchen: Callway. 1980.
5. Olygay, Aladar. Shading and Sun Control. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
1976.
6. Olygay, Aladar. Solar Control and Shading Devices. Princeton: Princeton University
Press. 1976.
7. Olygay, Victor. Architecture and Climate. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
1957.
8. The American Institute of Architects, Architect's Handbook of Energy Practice,
Analysis: Energy Analysis. Washington, D.C. 1982.
9. The American Institute of Architects, Architect's Handbook of Energy Practice,
Design: Shading and Sun Control. Washington, D.C. 1982.
10. The American Institute of Architects, Architect's Handbook of Energy Practice,
Design: Shading and Sun Control. Washington, D.C. 1982.
11. Watson, Donald. An Architectural Record Book: Energy Conservation Through
Building Design. USA: Me. Graw Hill Book Company. 1979.


1 The American Institute of Architects, "Architect's Handbook of Energy Practice",
Shading and Sun Control, 1981, 3.
2 B. Givoni, Man, Climate and Architecture, 1976, 239
3 The American Institute of Architects, Shading and Sun Control, 3.
4 The American Institute of Architects, Shading and Sun Control, 3.
5 The American Institute of Architects, Shading and Sun Control, 3.
6 B. Givoni, Man, Climate and Architecture, 240
7 B. Givoni, Man, Climate and Architecture, 205-206.
8 B. Givoni, Man, Climate and Architecture, 204.
9 B. Givoni, Man, Climate and Architecture, 208.
10 B. Givoni, Man, Climate and Architecture, 233.
11 The American Institute of Architects, Shading and Sun Control, 28.
12 Soontom Bonyatikam, Performance of An Air-Flow Envelope.
13 William M. C. Lam, Sunlighting as Formgiver for Architecture, 1986, 109.
14 The American Institute of Architects, Shading and Sun Control, 13.
15 Energy Inform, Wind :Natural Ventilation, 1986,71
16 The American Institute of Architects, Shading and Sun Control, 13.


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