Citation
Sunan Kudus Mosque

Material Information

Title:
Sunan Kudus Mosque a preservation study of [an] early Javanese mosque
Creator:
Saraswati, Titien
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
iv, 108 leaves : illustrations (some color), map ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Mosques -- Conservation and restoration -- Java (Indonesia) -- Kudus ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Architecture and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
Titien Saraswati.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
24367030 ( OCLC )
ocm24367030
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1990 .S369 ( lcc )

Full Text
SUNAN KUDUS MOSQUE
A PRESERVATION STUDY OF
EARLY JAVANESE MOSQUE
TITIEN SARASWATI
A thesis submitted to the
Faculty of the School of Architecture and Planning
University of Colorado at Denver
in partial fulfillment of
the requirements for the degree of
Master of Architecture
1990


The thesis for the Master of Architecture degree by
Titien Saraswati
has been approved for the
Architecture Program
School of Architecture and Planning
University of Colorado at Denver
1990


ACKNOWLEDGMENT
As an Indonesian participant of USAID fellowship, I feel
deeply grateful to many people who, throughout my study at the
! School of Architecture and Planning, University of Colorado at
Denver, have given me the love and support I needed to help
make my own dreams come true :
-Mr. & Mrs. Soegiarto Padmopranoto, my parents in Indo -
nesia, who have been endless sources of encouragement,
love, and support;
- Professor Robert W. Kindig, AIA, my academic advisor,
who contributed to help this project succeed;
- The Faculty of the School of Architecture and Planning,
University of Colorado at Denver, who made it all pos -
| sible;
j - The Faculty of the YKPN School of Architecture at Yogya
1
j karta, Indonesia, who have contributed me with their
j effort in conducting data for my thesis;
| - Overseas Training Office BAPPENAS at Jakarta, Indone
sia, that made it possible for me to study in USA.
i To them my special appreciation goes.
Denver, May 1990.
Titien Saraswati.
1


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acknowledgment ............................................. i
Table of Contents .......................................... ii
I. Thesis Statement ...................................... 1
II. Context ............................................... 5
II. A. Objectives of the Study ............................ 6
II. B. Design Process ..................................... 6
II. B. 1. Objectives ...................................... 6
II. B. 2. Research & Analysis ............................. 6
II. B. 3. General Concepts ................................ 7
II. B. 4. Synthesis ....................................... 7
II. B. 5. Design Concepts ................................. 7
II. B. 6. Design Solution ................................. 7
III. The Design Process .................................... 9
III. A. Objectives ........................................ 10
III. B. Research & Analysis ............................... 10
III. B. 1. Tourism ........................................ 10
III. B. 1. a. Definition .................................. 10
III. B. 1. b. Tourism - Environment Relationship .......... 11
III. B. 1. c. Tourism in the World ........................ 13
III. B. 1. d. Tourism in Indonesia ........................ 13
III. B. 1. e. Tourism in Kudus ............................ 14
- Tourist Attraction and Activities ......... 15
- Accomodation Facilities and Services ...... 16
- Other Tourist Facilities and Services ..... 16
11


- Transportation Facilities and Services ..... 17
- Other Infrastructure ....................... 17
- Institutional Elements ..................... 17
III. B. 2. Preservation ................................... 23
III. B. 2. a. Definition .................................. 23
III. B. 2. b. Preservation Issue .......................... 24
III. B. 2. c. Choices for Preservation .................... 27
III. B. 3. Sunan Kudus Mosque Area ........................ 32
III. B. 3. a. History of the Sunan Kudus Mosque ........... 32
III. B. 3. b. Syncretism in the Sunan Kudus Mosque ........ 34
III. B. 3. c. Existing Condition of Sunan Kudus Mosque .... 41
III. B. 3. d. The Approach ................................ 42
- Based on the Existing Condition ............ 42
- Based on the Climatic Condition ............ 47
- Based on the Regulation .................... 48
III. C. General Concepts .................................. 50
III. C. 1. Tourism ........................................ 50
III. C. 2. Preservation ................................... 51
III. C. 3. Sunan Kudus Mosque Area ........................ 52
III. D. Synthesis ......................................... 53
III. E. Design Concepts ................................... 58
III. E. 1. New Construction of Selected Area .............. 58
III. E. 2. Guidelines for Preserving Sunan Kudus Mosque .... 63


III. F. Design Solution ..................................... 65
III. F. 1. New Construction of Selected Area ................ 65
III. F. 2. Guidelines for Preserving Sunan Kudus Mosque .... 84
Bibliography ................................................ 87
Glossary .................................................... 90
Appendix .................................................... 95
IV


DESIGN PROCESS
FLOW CHART
OBJ . RESEARCH & ANALYSIS GENERAL CONCEPTS SYNTHESIS DESIGN CONCEPTS DESIGN SOLUTION
PROBLEMS DATA ANALYSIS
tourism .tourist attrac . alt. policiesS. Choose facilit- Facilities req. New construct- New construci
tion&facilities i outline plans ies that meet . for inhabitant ion of selectee ion of se -
. accommodations. .environmental tourism object- . for visitors area. lected area
services consideration ives. S .facilities .site plan
. transportatioi 1.socioeconomic =J .site selectior .floor plan
.infrastructure consideration . flow/movement .elevation,
.zoning section
' .dominance . perspect iv
. distinction drawings
.climate .details
preser- .existing condi< -Choices for pre Make recommend- .environment /
focus vation tion of mosque servation : ation in pre - neighborhood
of . restoration serving the
study .extended use mosque.
.adaptive use
.extensive mo- Guide lines req. Guidelines for Guidelines
dernization preserving thi: for presery,
mosque. this mosque
.restoration (explanatioi
.maintenance of the Guidi
Sunan .history .existing con- Create design .additions / lines).
Kudus .syncretism dition manipulation alterations
Mosque .existing con- .climatic con- which can en-
area dition sideration hance the area
.regulation to be a nice
place for the
users & meet
community need. Jl i
III.A. III.B. Ill.C. III.D. III.E. Ill.F.
p. 10. pp.10-49. pp.50-52. pp.53-57. pp.58-64. pp.65-86.


Saraswati
CHAPTER I


2
. THESIS STATEMENT
Indonesia is located in the South East of Asia. The In-
donesian archipelago consists of 13,677 islands, stretches
from 9445' to 14163' E., and lies between 608' N. and
11 15' S. The most populous island is Java whose population
is 63% of 165 million Indonesia's population. The town of
Kudus is located in the north part of Central Java. The popu-
lation of Kudus is about 70,000 people.
Before the Islamic settlements were established in Cen-
tral Java, the dominant political power was the Hindu Maja -
pahit Kingdom centered in East Java. In the early 15th cen -
tury, the Majapahit Kingdom was in decline and Islamic fol -
lowers had settled along the north coast of Java. The center
of Islamic political power was established in Demak. The
first mosques in Java were constructed at Demak, Kudus, and
Jepara. And each of those three mosques was connected to a
cemetery.
It was proved, by the study of Ismudiyanto and Parmono
Atmadi, local architects of Indonesia, that Hindu and Islam
influenced toward Javanese architecture development during
the early development of Islam, formed architectural syn -
cretism on old mosque in Java. Those building elements of
mosques and cemeteries formed syncretism of Javanese, Hindu,
and Islamic architecture.


3
One of those three mosques, namely the Sunan Kudus
Mosque, is located in Kudus, Central Java. Kudus has more
, people than those of Demak or Jepara. Furthermore, Kudus has
more tourism objects, and its mosque is more unique than
that of Demak or Jepara. It is understandable that the gov -
ernment of Kudus would like to earn income from this tourism
object.
Unfortunately, this is not an easy thing to receive
income from this object, because there are many problems
such as visual quality of this building itself and also of
its surrounding. Visitors who come to pray in that mosque,
sometimes damage this area. They would like to put something,
such as stones or others from this area and bring them to
their homes. They do not think that their manner will damage
the historical value of this area. In addition, this area
sometimes is dirty because of the lack of maintenance.
Then, social problems also exist. Beggars, although not
many, are anywhere along the street, especially in the cem -
etery complex. And along this narrow street there are people
who sell their stuff. They are not organized and often dis -
turb the traffic. This condition make it the people difficult
to pass the street.
Facing those problems, it is impossible to attract visi-
i


4
tors or even tourists to visit Sunan Kudus Mosque and its
surrounding. Also it is impossible to search the historical
value in the need of study or research. To keep the communi
ty in this area become a nice place, and to protect this Su
nan Kudus Mosque and its surrounding which have historical
value, a preservation study must be conducted.


Saraswati.
CHAPTER
II


6
II. CONTEXT
II. A. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The primary focus of this study is how to solve and
design the most appropriate facilities on the selected
area that meet tourism objectives and community needs in
order to preserve early Javanese Mosque at Kudus, Cen -
tral Java, Indonesia.
II. B. DESIGN PROCESS
The process used in this project explained briefly
in the following. It expresses the different steps and
organization.
II. B. 1. OBJECTIVES
Objectives of this study is to solve and design
the most appoppriate facilities on the selected area
that meet tourism objectives and community needs in
order to preserve early Javanese Mosque at Kudus.
II. B. 2. RESEARCH & ANALYSIS
This project requires knowledge about tourism,
preservation, and architectural design theories to
approach the problems. In general, tourism conditions
in Indonesia will be discussed to make it the readers


7
II. B.
II. B.
II. B.
II. B.
understand and know about its background. Then, pre -
servation issue will be discussed and analyzed. The
last will be using architectural design theories to
analyze physically the existing condition of the pro-
ject. However, since the social problems occur, it
will be very difficult to solve all of them architec-
turally .
3. GENERAL CONCEPTS
General concepts will be determined based on the
previous analysis. They will be the development of
the objectives.
4. SYNTHESIS
At this time will dicuss in transforming the
general concepts to design concepts by using archi -
tectural design theories. However, as mentioned be -
fore, it may not solve architecturally for every so -
cial problems occured.
5. DESIGN CONCEPTS
The design concepts is the definite facilities
reguired that will be designed on the selected site.
6. DESIGN SOLUTION
The final process is to design the site based on


8
the design concepts taken. It will include site plan,
floor plan, elevation, section, perspective drawings,
and details needed.


Saraswati
CHAPTER III


10
III. THE DESIGN PROCESS
III. A. OBJECTIVES
The objectives of this study is to solve and de -
sign appropriate facilities on the selected area that
meet tourism objectives and community needs in order to
preserve early Javanese Mosque at Kudus, Central Java,
Indonesia.
III. B. RESEARCH & ANALYSIS
As mentioned before, this project requires knowl -
edge about tourism, preservation, and architectural de-
sign theories to approach the problems. Discussion of
those is in the following.
III. B. 1. TOURISM
Ill. B. 1. a. DEFINITION
From the "Oxford Advanced Learner's Diction-
ary of Current English" by A.S. Hornby, et. al.,
London : Oxford University Press, 1984, on page
915; there are the definition of :
tour ( n ) : 1. Journey out and home again during
which several or many places are
visited.
2. Brief visit to or through,
tour ( vt, vi ) : Make a tour.


11
; tourist ( n ) : Person making a tour for pleasure.
tourism ( n ) : Organized touring.
i.e. Some countries obtain large
sums of foreign exchange
from tourism.
We understand clearly about the definition
of tourism aforementioned. But, this is only a
basic definition. Actually, tourism is related to
| the temporary movement of people to destinations
outside their normal places of work and residence,
i the activities undertaken during their stay in
their destination, and the facilities created to
i provide their needs.
|
! III. B. 1. b. TOURISM ENVIRONMENT RELATIONSHIP
: According to Alister Mathieson and Geoffrey
Wall, on their book titled "Tourism; Economic,
j Physical, and Social Impacts", London : Longman
| Group Limited, 1982; the history of tourism clear-
f
i
: ly indicates that the environment of places has
i contributed to the birth and progress of tourism.
i Scenic sites, amenable climates and unique land -
i scape features have had an important influence
j upon the patronage of specific localities, regions
! or countries. The environment of the host region


12
exerts an attraction so that the tourists come.
Furthermore, they also stated that tourist
behavior patterns, although not necessarily mo -
tivated solely by environmental conditions, are
still clearly influenced by them through choice
of destination and length of stay. In other words
climatic features and newly discovered or devel -
oped natural attractions may influence tourists'
loyalty to, substitution of and behavior in tour-
ist destination.
In the absence of an attractive environment,
there would be little tourism. Ranging from the
basic attractions of sun, sea, and sand to the
undoubted appeal of historic sites and structures
the environment is the foundation of the tourist
industry.
By the study of Wall and Wright ( 1977 ) on
the impacts of recreation on the natural environ-
ment, it is stated that their monograph did not
make explicit reference to the activities of tour
ist but it can be assumed, that tourist were re -
sponsible, at least in part, for many of the en -
vironmental impact. From these statement, we can


13
try to do deliberately in tourism planning and
development, and to anticipate about the side ef-
fect of tourism.
III. B. 1. c. TOURISM IN THE WORLD
Nowadays, the majority of people from devel-
oped countries are tourist at some of their lives.
This situation also occurs in developing countries
although there are not as many as those in devel-
oped countries. Tourism now has been accepted and
accustomed, and is a part of the lifestyle of num-
ber of people in the world. Many countries earn
much money from tourism, and for some countries
tourism becomes the most important part of their
economic activities.
III. B. 1. d. TOURISM IN INDONESIA
In Indonesia, tourism is one of the important
part of increasing economic activities. There is
the Directorate General of Tourism, which is super
vised and coordinated by the Ministry of Tourism,
Post, and Telecommunication of the Republic of In-
donesia, whose main concern is tourism.
Both kinds of tourists in Indonesia, domes -
tic and foreign tourists, would like to visit Ba-


14
li island, although there are many places of in -
terest besides Bali. The second interesting des -
tination for them is Yogyakarta, a city in Central
Java, one of the foremost cultural centers in Ja-
va. Both Bali and Yogyakarta are named as "The
Gateway of Tourism" in Indonesia.
To increase income from tourism, Indonesian
Government has a policy that tourists from the
Association of the South East Asian Nations are
not collected of visa's cost. In addition, tour -
ist from Australia now can reach Denpasar in Bali
island directly, without going first to Jakarta
as the port of entry to Indonesia. It is expected
too, that the flight of the Garuda Indonesian Air-
ways which routes Jakarta Los Angeles, with its
stop at Biak, the transit place in Irian Jaya,
make it Biak an important part of tourism object.
III. B. 1. e. TOURISM IN KUDUS
According to Edward Inskeep, on his writing
titled "Tourism Planning, an Emerging Specializ -
ation", which appeared in the Journal of the
American Planning Association volume 54 no. 3,
Summer 1988, the basic components of tourism de -


15
velopment to consider in the planning process are
- tourist attractions and facilities.
- accomodation facilities and services.
- other tourist facilities and services.
- transportation facilities and services.
- other infrastructure.
- institutional elements of marketing programs,
et cetera.
Those components aforementioned are nation -
ally tourism planning process. But some of those
can be applied for fewer scope such as for the
area of the Sunan Kudus Mosgue. Some of them are
mentioned below ( existing ) :
- TOURIST ATTRACTIONS AND ACTIVITIES
There are some tourism objects in Kudus
and the area next to Kudus, such as : the Sunan
Kudus Mosque & cemetery itself, Museum Kretek /
the Cigarette Museum ( Kudus is known as a Ciga
rette City ), the Garebeg ( market that also
opens at night at the Kudus Square in order to
celebrate the fasting month for the Islamic fol
lowers ), Colo village approximately 18 km. in
distances from Kudus and in the foothill of the


16
Muria mountain. The government of Kudus earns
money from those tourism objects.
ACCOMODATION FACILITIES AND SERVICES
There are some hotels with good facilities
for tourists in Kudus. In addition, many cheap-
er accomodations also operate, such as smaller's
cheaper hotels, and inns. The facilities depend
on the kind of accomodation. The more expensive
the accomodation, the better the facilities of-
fered. Likewise with the services. So tourists
can choose the accomodations according to their
budgets and needs.
OTHER TOURIST FACILITIES AND SERVICES
Because Kudus is only a small city, the
other facilities offered are not as many as
those in a larger city. Kudus has retail shop -
ping, restaurants, medical care, and postal ser-
vice. There are also many "warung" ( booths )
that sell food and drink with cheaper prices
along the street. Some special stores sell "je-
nang Kudus", a special food from Kudus. In addi-
tion, tourist information can be found at the
government office complex. Brochures for tour -


17
ists are also available in this office. Tour
and travel operations, banking and money changer
are available in Semarang, the capital city of
Central Java Province, which is about 52 km.
from Kudus.
TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES AND SERVICES
Kudus is easy to be reached by bus from
every city / town next to Kudus, because Kudus
is located in the linkage line of the busy traf-
fic area.
OTHER INFRASTRUCTURE
Other infrastructure, including water
supply, electrical power, sewage and solid waste
disposal, drainage, are also available in the
Sunan Kudus Mosque area. Telecommunication is
available only in the Telecommunication Office
in Kudus.
INSTITUTIONAL ELEMENTS
Institutional elements, such as marketing
programs, should be done by the government of
Central Java, and of Kudus. So far, Tourism De-
velopment Project of Central Java just mentions


18
that tourism in Kudus should be developed and
the oldest mosques in Central Java should be
preserved.
Based on the existing facilities and ser -
vices above, the policy and plan formulation can
be formulated with the following considerations :
- alternative policies and outline plans in the
Sunan Kudus Mosque area.
- evaluate how well each fulfills the tourism
objectives.
And from the selected alternative outline
plan should indicate for recommendations, such
as : transportation access and internal linkage.
- zoning regulation.
- et cetera.
A basic tourism planning principle at the na -
tional and regional levels, according to Inskeep on
the same writing aforementioned, is the establish -
ment of one or more gateways ( major access points )
through which tourists enter and leave the country.
Near the gateways should be staging areas that in -
elude tourist facilities, these serve as distribution
places for tourists travelling to other areas in the
country region.


19
As mentioned on part III.B.l.d., tourists would
like to visit Bali island and Yogyakarta than any
other tourism objects in Indonesia. Bali and Yogya -
karta are known as "The Gateways of Tourism" in In -
donesia. Foreign tourists, after arriving at Jakarta
as the gateway to enter Indonesia, they can easily
go to Yogyakarta and or to Bali. From Yogyakarta,
they can go by bus, any time, to Kudus, for about
170 km. in distance to the north.
There are two important things which I think
necessary to take into considerations :
- ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
Environmental conservation can be achieved
by properly planned and controlled tourism. On
the other hand, as mentioned on part III.B.l.b.,
tourists are responsible, at least in part, for
many of the environmental impact. So it is import-
ant to be aware of two related environmental con -
cerns :
1) Conservation of important environmental features
and maintenance of the overall environmental
quality of the area.
2) Prevention or minimization of environmental pro-
blems caused by tourism. For example : air,


20
water, noise, and visual pollution, vehicular
and pedestrian congestion, ecological degrada -
tion, and land use incompatibility.
Tourist abuse of the environment by their ac-
tivities can make negative impact to the environ -
ment. Such activities must be carefully controlled
collection of the artifacts, removal of scarce
plants, and littering.
SOCIOECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS
It is possible that sociocultural impacts oc-
cur because tourism involves contact between resi-
dents and visitors. Also, socioeconomic impacts of
tourism can often be positive if the government
carefully plans and controls its environment.
An important positive sociocultural impact of
tourism is conservation of the historic and cul -
tural heritage of an area because these features
comprise major attractions for tourists. Tourism
can directly and indirectly support the cost of
conservation and maintenance. This is an important
thing for the developing countries that have limit
ed financial resources for conservation and pre -
servation.


21
On the other hand, it is possible that some
major negative sociocultural impacts occur, es -
pecially if tourism is not well guided. For example
1) Overcrowding of amenity features and transporta-
tion, shopping, and community facilities that
make it the residents cannot conveniently use
them. So it is important to control tourists who
visit the Sunan Kuuds Mosque in order to give
the residents the opportunities on praying in
this mosque.
2) Overcommercialization and loss of authenticity
of traditional customs, arts, and crafts to suit
tourists demands. It can be reduced by the coor-
dination of the sellers into one management.
3) Demonstration effect on residents, especially
young persons, who may begin to imitate the be -
havior, dress, and lifestyle patterns of tour -
ists; misunderstanding and conflict between the
residents and tourists because of differences
in languages, costums, and value systems; exacer
bation of problems of drugs, crime, and prosti -
tution, and violation of local dress and beha -
vior codes. It is very difficult to reduce such


22
impacts architecturally. The best way to reduce
them is by the institutional elements of educa-
tion and training, legislation and regulation,
and other sociocultural programs.
So planning for tourism is one of the important
considerations in this project. If planning for tour-
ism on this area is successful, more tourists will
visit the Sunan Kudus Mosque. On the other hand, if
planning for tourism on this area is not successful,
no tourists would likw to visit this mosque. So the
purpose in planning for tourism is in order to at -
tract more tourists to visit the Sunan Kudus Mosque.


23
III. B. 2. PRESERVATION
Ill. B. 2. a. DEFINITION
From the Webster's Third New International
Dictionary of the English Language ( unabridged ),
edited by Philip Babcock Gove, Ph.D., Springfield:
Merriam Webster Inc., 1986, there are the defi-
nition of :
preserve ( vb ) : 1. To keep safe from injury,
harm, or destruction : guard
or defend from evil : pro -
tect, save.
2. To keep alive, intact, in
existence, or from decay
( = an old house ).
preservation ( n ) : The act or process of pre -
serving, or keeping from in-
jury or decay; state of being
preserved.
conserve ( vt ) : To keep, guard, protect, pre -
serve, observe.
conservation ( n ) : Deliberate, planned, or
thoughtful preserving, guard-
ing, or protecting : a keep-
ing in a safe or entire state


24
preservation.
i.e. Conservation of energy.
Conservation of mass.
Conservation of momentum.
According to Marsha Glenn, on her book titled
"Historic Preservation, a Handbook for Architec -
ture Student", 1974, the definition of historic
preservation ( n ) is the act or process of pre -
serving a building, group of buildings, site or
area which is historically or architecturally
signif icant.
III. B. 2. b. PRESERVATION ISSUE
In most developing countries, historic monu-
ments are hardly subject to some kind of statu -
tory protection. The historic monuments or his -
toric buildings do not matter much if they do not
even exist. This is not because the government,
including the citizen, do not know how to honor
their ancestor. The problem is because lack of
experts who are interested in preservation and
conservation of historic buildings.
On the other hand, although in developed
countries historic buildings are subject of pre -


25
servation and conservation, there is no single
qualification on preservation. Some architecture
schools offer a conservation option at one stage
or another and a number of post-graduate courses
are available. But there is hardly posy-graduate
diploma which has established itself as an expert
in and competence in this field. All the profes -
sions' concerns with architectural conservation
of buildings tend to acquire their skills less
from their formal professional education.
Arnold L. Markowitz described what historic
preservation means on his writing titled "Historic
Preservation, a Guide to Information Sources" vol-
ume 13, 1980. According to him, historic preserva-
tion is a term which covers an old expression,
"a multitude blessings". It is concerned with the
preservation, maintenance, repair, restoration,
and sometimes the replication or reconstruction
on such elements of the human environment as build-
ings and other structures, complexes of buildings,
sites, and entire town. It is also concerned with
their description and documentation and with their
use in promoting and understanding of past cultures.
Traditionally, historic preservation has been


26
the concern of architects, antiquarians, special-
ists in building materials and building technol -
ogy, and specialists in the decorative art. More
recently, however, these ranks have grown to in -
elude landscape architects, lawyers, urban plan -
ners, socio-political activities, real estate de-
velopers, and all manner of bureaucrats.
In Indonesia, the role of architects in pre-
servation of buildings have just begun many years
ago. But there are only a few projects which have
been carried out while there are many more old
and historic buildings need to be preserved. One
of these few projects is thekestoration of the Bo-
i
robudur Temple, which is subsidized by the World
Bank. On the other hand, many architects seem to
indicate that new construction is more profitable
than historic preservation. But during periods of
economic recession when new building slows down,
preservation and recycling projects seem to in -
crease. It is hoped, by this thesis, that there
are many more architects who are interested in and
understanding about preserving old buildings, es-
pecially in Indonesia.


27
III. B. 2. c. CHOICES FOR PRESERVATION
Now I would like to mention the meaning /
definition of each term related to preservation.
From the "Restoring Old Buildings for Contempor -
ary Uses, an American Source Book for Architects
and Preservationists", by William C. Shopsin, AIA
1989; there are four choices to preserve :
- RESTORATION
To restore a building to its original con-
dition. This can mean removing later additions,
replacing lost material or parts, and making
hidden repairs. A true restoration reguires
that the buildings original function be con -
tinued or restored.
- EXTENDED USE
To continue old buildings' function. It
may requires some updating to extend their use.
This can involve alterations and repairs, some
of them major.
- ADAPTIVE USE
To provide a new function in an old build
ing. Usually extensive interior and exterior re


28
novation are necessary.
- EXTENSIVE MODERNIZATION
To furnish old building with modern elements
such as air conditioning system, lifts, tele -
phones, electrical systems. It may require a
combination of restoration, adaptive use, and
infill building in order to succeed.
Historically significant properties may be
classified under one or more of the following cat-
egories as extracted from the Federal Register,
volume 42, no. 183, September 21, 1977 page 47667,
United States Department of Interior definitions :
- DISTRICT
Is geographically definable area, urban or
rural, posessing a significant concentration,
linkage or continuity of sites, buildings,
structures, or objects which are united by past
events or aesthetically by plan or physical de-
velopment. A district may also be comprised of
individual elements which are separated geo -
graphically but are linked by association or
history.


29
SITE
The location of significant event, a pre -
historic or historic occupation or activity, or
a building or structure whether standing, ruined,
or vanished, where the location itself maintains
historical or archaelogical value regardless of
the value of any existing structures.
BUILDING
A structure created to shelter any form
human activity such as a house, barn, church,
hotel, or similar structure. Buildings may re -
fer to ahistorically related complex, such as
a courthouse and jail or a house and barn.
STRUCTURE
A work made up of interdependent and inter-
related parts in a definite pattern or organiz-
ation. Constructed by man, it is often an engin-
eering project large in scale.
OBJECT
A material thing of functional, aesthetic,
cultural, historical or scientific value that
may be, by nature or design, movable yet related


30
to a specific setting or environment.
From the definition of preservation on part
III.B.2.a. aforementioned and from the categories
above, it can be inferred that : preservation study
of the Sunan Kudus Mosque is the study of act or pro-
cess of preserving building ( the Sunan Kudus Mosque),
site or area ( its surrounding ) which is historical-
ly or architecturally significant or because of their
historic association and / or architectural character.
Historic properties and sites are also desig -
nated based on identifying characteristic of areas
of significance associated with them. Again, these
areas of significance were extracted from the afore-
mentioned Federal Register, page 47668 and are list-
ed as follow ( I do not mention all ) :
- Archaeology Prehistoric : the scientific study of
the life and culture of indigenous people before
the advent of written records.
- Archaeology Historic : the scientific study of
life and culture in the New World after the advent
of written records.
- Agriculture : farming. Livestock raising and hor -
ticulture.
- Architecture : the style and construction of build-


31
ings and structures.
- and so on.
After defining some of the meaning / definition
of each term which is related to preservation, I
have early opinion for the preservation of the Sunan
Kudus Mosque. My reason in determining this early
opinion is that firstly at the present time this
mosque is still used by people for praying. And
secondly there have been some additions and alter -
ations on this mosque. Moreover, if planning for
preservation is not successful, no visitors would
like to visit this Sunan Kudus Mosque. On the other
hand, if planning for preservation is successful,
more visitors would like to visit this mosque.
Therefore, my early opinion in preserving this
mosque is by restoration with as little as possible
in extended use.


32
III. B. 3. SUNAN KUDUS MOSQUE AREA
III. B. 3. a. HISTORY OF THE SUNAN KUDUS MOSQUE
Indonesia is located in the South East of
Asia. The Indonesian archipelago consists of
13,677 islands, stretches from 94 45' to 141 65'
E., and lies between 6 08' N. and 11 15' S. The
most populous island is Java whose population
is 63% of 165 million Indonesia's population.
Kudus is located in the north part of Cen -
tral Java. The population of KUdus is about
70,000 people. Its location is in the strategic
link in a line of transportation and communica -
tions between its eastern and western areas, and
is connected with Semarang, the capital city of
the region and the main center of activities in
the north of Central Java. Besides its function
as a connecting town, Kudus is also known as an
industrial town, especially in cigarettes "Kre -
tek" industries. Moreover, it is surrounded by
prosperous agricultural land, and adjacent to the
slope of Muria mountain.
The following is the explanation about the
history of the oldest mosgue in Kudus. Before the


33
Islamic settlements were established in Central
Java, the dominant political power was the Hindu
Majapahit Kingdom centered in East Java. The Ma -
japahit Kingdom was in decline in the early 15th
century. Then, the first Islamic followers had
settled along the north coast of Java. The earliest
Islamic cemetery in Java is located in Gresik, in
East Java. As cremation is the Hindu funeral rit-
ual, the appearance of Islamic cemeteries in Java
represents an important spiritual shift in the
Javanese culture.
Islamic influence grew during the 15th cen -
tury in the coastal area of North Java. The cen -
ter of Islamic political power was established in
Demak. By the end of the 15th century in 1478,
Islamic forces had gained political power and es-
tablished the Sultan of Demak, the first Islamic
Sultanate in Java. The first mosque in Java was
constructed in Demak at 1401, before the establish-
ment of the Sultanate. As the power and influence
of the Demak Sultanate spread, mosques were con -
structed in the town of Kudus and near the harbor
of Jepara. Each of the three mosques complexes,
namely the great mosque in Demak, the Sunan Kudus


34
Mosque in Kudus, and the mosque in Mantingan, Je-
para, was connected to a cemetery.
One of those three mosque aforementioned,
the Sunan Kudus MOsque, is located in Kudus and
is still used for praying until now. Kudus has
more people than those of Demak or Jepara. Fur -
thermore, KUdus also has more tourism objects,
and its mosque is more unique than that of Demak
or Jepara. It is understandable that the govern -
ment of Kudus would like to earn income from this
tourism object.
III. B. 3. b. SYNCRETISM IN THE SUNAN KUDUS MOSQUE
According to Ismudiyanto and Parmono Atmadi,
on their book titled "Demak Kudus Jepara
Mosques, a Study of Architectural Syncretism",
1987; the meaning of architectural syncretism is
not just the integration of concepts but also is
an amalgamation of indigenous and foreign ideas,
concepts, and forms resulting a new idea, concept,
and form as a bold architectural statement. They
first pointed out Priyotomo's definition ( 1984 )
that architectural syncretism is the integration
of traditional and foreign architectural concepts.


35
The results of this integration is a complete ar-
chitectural theory based on elements of both old
( traditional ) and new ( foreign ) concepts.Pri-
yotomo used this theory to explain the transition
of Javanese Hindu Majapahit architecture to Is -
lamic Sultanate architecture.
It was proved, by the study of Ismudiyanto
and Parmono Atmadi, local architects of Indonesia,
that Hindu and Islam influenced toward Javanese
architecture development during the early devel -
opment of Islam, formed architectural syncretism
on old mosques in Java. Those building elements
of mosques and cemeteries of the Sunan Kudus
Mosque in Kudus likewise mosques in Demak and
Jepara formed syncretism of Javanese, Hindu,
and Islamic architecture.
The syncretism of Islamic and Hindu Javanese
architecture in the Sunan Kudus Mosque, during
the early Islamic development of the north coast
of Central Java, according to those two Indone -
sian architects aforementioned, are as mentioned
below.
THE MOSQUE BUILDING


36
THE MOSQUE BUILDING
1) THE SITE AND LOCATION
The location and site of this mosque
was determined by the development of the
city center or the sacred building site pat-
tern during the era before Islam. The loca -
tion of the mosque on the western edge and
the palace on the southern edge of the Alun-
alun ( square ) is an adaptation and syn -
cretism of Hindu Javanese city center form.
This fact shows that the viability of a city
center is closely related to the ceremonial
or governmental center activities. The
mosque of Sunan Kudus follows a pattern
where the mosque is located on the western
edge of Alun-alun. The mosque and Alun-alun
that exist in the center of East Kudus formed
the center of the city during Dutch colonial-
ism, with the regency office was on the north
of the Alun-alun. This form in East Kudus
still has the Islamic Javanese city center
pattern. So architectural syncretism can be
seen clearly through :
. The application of the Javanese orientation


37
concept, such as : the orientation of a
"sentong tengah" ( at a Dalem ) to the
north direction; and that of a Javanese
Islamic grave ( in a "cungkup" of a cem -
etery complex ) to the north direction.
The application of the Hindu centralism
concept to an Islamic sacred building,
such as the vertical axis found at a mosgue
that is in the center of its site.
The spatial pattern of a Javanese-Islamic
town center, such as the location of a
mosque to the west of the Alun-alun which
is similar to the location of a Hindu
temple in a Hindu-Majapahit town center as
found at Trowulan in East Java.
The existence of Hindu gates ( i.e "padu -
raksa" and "bentar" ) in a mosque and Is -
lamic cemetery complex, as found in Sunan
Kudus Mosque.
The development of the Hindu hierarchy
concept of sanctity zones implemented to
a mosque and an Islamic Javanese cemetery.


38
2) SPATIAL ORGANIZATION
The syncretism of activities shows in -
tegrated activities in the mosque and cem -
etery that are close and simultaneous. That
is, the pilgrims do pray in the mosque as
well as in the cemetery. Spatial organiz -
ation in the mosque shows adaptation towards
the spatial pattern of Javanese building,
with wide court, having gates and a surround-
ing wall. A symmetrical building in the
middle of a wide court with the division of
public, semi private, and private areas in -
dicates a similarity to the wide court of
the mosque, with the gate as a public area,
with the washing area as the transitional
place between the profane and the sacred
places. The porch of the mosque is the
sacred place, used for various activities,
and the mosque is for praying. The mihrab,
the praying place for the leader of prayer,
is developed from the middle "sentong" of
the Javanese traditional house, which is re-
garded as the most sacred place for Sri, the
goddess of life.


39
3) BUILDING FORM ELEMENTS
Javanese traditional building elements
formed the basis of the development of mosque
elements by adapting to the function, mean -
ing, and symbol, especially of the three
piled Islamic roof form. The three layers of
"tajug" roof with a "mustoko" on the top of
it became the external characteristic of
mosque in Java. THese three layers are sup -
ported by "soko guru" columns. Islamic el -
ements add characteristic to the Islamic at-
mosphere in the mosque with Arabic calligra-
phy and other ornaments. The minaret, which
syncretized the Hindu Javanese tower form,
becomes a dominant element in the Javanese
mosque.
THE CEMETERY
1) THE SITE
The site of the cemetery is behind the
mihrab of the mosque. The different ways of
entering the site through the gates into the
mosque and cemetery show the adaptation and
syncretism of the building site.


40
2) SPATIAL ORGANIZATION
Architectural adaptation and syncretism
can be clearly seen through the concept of
hierarchy of courts, gates, and wall. The
internal spatial organization of the "cung -
kup" is the syncretism of the Javanese tra -
ditional house and Islamic orientation to
the northwest of the graves.
3) BUILDING FORM & ELEMENTS
The external "cungkup" building form,
determined by the two levels of "tajug"
roofs with the "mustoko" on the top, stress-
es the vertical axis of the building. The
syncretism of the other elements is similar
to those of the mosque.
With such many kinds of syncretism in this
mosque and cemetery, it is expected that visitors
or tourists would like to visit this mosque, es -
pecially people who are interested in history,
architecture, and religion. These kinds of people
will come not only for praying and looking at
this syncretized mosque, but also for study and
research.


41
III. B. 3. c. EXISTING CONDITION OF SUNAN KUDUS MOSQUE
From the discussion aforementioned on part
III.B.3.a., the government of Kudus would like to
earn income from the Sunan Kudus mosque as an ob-
ject of tourism. Unfortunately, this is not an
easy thing to do so, because there are many pro -
blems such as visual quality of this building it-
self and also of its surrounding. Visitors who
come to pray in that mosque, sometimes damage
this area. They would like to put something, such
as stones or others from this area and bring them
to their homes. THey do not think that their man-
ner will damage the historical value of this area
In addition, this area sometimes is dirty because
of the lack of maintenance.
Then, social problems also exist. Beggars,
although not many, are anywhere along the street,
especially in the cemetery complex. And along
this narrow street there are people who sell
their stuff. They are not organized and often
disturb the traffic. This condition make it the
people difficult to pass the street.
Facing those problems, it is impossible to


42
attract visitors or even tourists to visit the
Sunan Kudus Mosque and its surrounding. Also it
is impossible to search the historical value in
the need of study and research.
III. B. 3. d. THE APPROACH
From the discussion above, I would like to
make approach from the problems that may become
a possible design recommendation. Architectural -
ly, the approach is divided into three, the first
is based on the existing condition, the second
is based on the climatic condition, and the third
is based on the regulation.
1) BASED ON THE EXISTING CONDITION
- BEGGARS
Beggars are not allowed in this Sunan
Kudus Mosque area. Some alternatives can be
carried out to avoid beggars. Giving them
work in this area, or driving them away from
this area. However, each of these two alter-
natives has its side effect. And the decision
as to which alternatives taken as the sol -
ution must be accompanied by anticipating
the side effects.
. Giving work for them.


43
Giving work for them.
Their duties are to clean the area of the
Sunan Kudus Mosque. They can broom the
yard, water plants, mow the lawn, and
other activities. And shelters must be
available for them. On the other hand, it
is possible that giving work for them can
invite other beggars to come, or the work-
ed beggars escape from their shelters. In
addition, who would be responsible to pay
them is another problem that should be
solved socially rather than architectural-
ly.
Driving them away from this area.
It is possible that they would like to
come back again to this area. On the other
hand, driving them away from this area may
make other problems in other areas. But I
think this is the possible way to solve
the problem, since there are not more than
ten beggars. Again, beggar problems should
be solved socially rather than architec -
turally.


44
SALE ALONG THE STREET
The sellers should be coordinated and
placed in a definite area. With this coordi-
nation, it is expected that they will not
compete with each other, and will not fight
in order to claim their selling place. In
addition, the coordination of selling their
goods can avoid or reduce overcommercial -
ization of crafts in order to suit tourists'
demands.
THE TRAFFIC
With the coordination on selling the
goods of inhabitants, the traffic will not
be disturbed. So people will not find diffi-
culties to pass the street. In addition, the
traffic in this area can be planned and ar -
ranged well.
THE USERS
The users of the Sunan Kudus Mosque is
categorized into two. They are visitors and
staff. Visitors are tourists, pilgrims, stu-
dents. Each of these kinds of visitors has a
different pattern on their activities.


45
. Tourists.
They come to this mosque to see, watch,
and visit the grave / cemetery, especially
for domestic tourists. Their length of
stay may not be up to one day.
. Pilgrims.
They travel to a sacred place ( this mosque
and cemetery ) as an act of religious devo-
tion. They pray in this mosque and visit
and pray in the cemetery. Their length of
stay may be up to one day. Other pilgrims
that are not considered as travellers are
the inhabitants surrounding this mosque.
They pray in and use this mosque almost
every day.
. Students.
They come to this mosque and cemetery in
order to seek their needs of study. Their
length of stay may be more than one day.
So that they need accommodation next to
this mosque complex.
The other users of this mosque is the
staff of this mosque. Their jobs are to co -


46
ordinate and maintain all of the activities
in this mosque and its surrounding. For
example they can publish brochures, maps,
and directories of this mosque. In addition,
they can coordinate the sellers in providing
gifts / goods, food and drink, and flowers
for people who would like to visit the cem -
etery.
- THE FACILITIES
With many kinds of activities from many
different users, it is important to consider
the most possible activities that they will
likely do before preparing the facilities
for them. For the first, it can be said that
the facilities which are needed for those
activities are places for the staff of this
mosque, gift shops, cafes, flower shops, and
accommodation for the need of people who
would like to visit this mosque more than
one day, especially for students.
Since there is no policy neither from the
government of Central Java nor of Kudus about
how large the area should be preserved, so I


47
would like to make decision about that. The
consideration is based on the existing con -
dition of the area surrounding the Sunan Ku -
dus Mosque. Firstly, that should be preserved,
is this mosque itself and its cemetery. Sec -
ondly, the area surrounding this mosque should
be improved. Selected area will be the area
which has much more problems and also in a bad
condition than any other areas have. So from
that consideration, area should be improved
can be selected.
2) BASED ON THE CLIMATIC CONDITION
Indonesia is in the tropical, hot-humid
zone. The temperature range from annual high
38 C. ( 100 F. ) to low of 19 C. ( 66 F. ).
The year is divided into two seasons : hot
seasons ( April October ) and rainy seasons
( October April ). Rainfall varies but gen -
erally is heaviest in the area along the equa-
tor line, such as some areas in Sumatra, Bor -
neo, and Celebes islands. The sun shines all
the day from 06.00 a.m. to 06.00 p.m. with a
very bright and shiny rays in the mid day. The
building generally requires shading to protect


48
interior space from this very bright and shiny
sun. Moreover, the roof of the building should
be designed to allow rain water to flow down.
And also it is accustomed to design windows
and doors with the possibility to allow air to
move and change.
3) BASED ON THE REGULATION
- TRAFFIC
The traffic system in Indonesia is dif-
ferent from that of USA. People drive on the
left side of the street instead of the right.
Facing the Sunan Kudus Mosgue is Menara Str.
with its width of approximate 7.00 m., with
two way traffic system. The vehicles consist
of cars, motorcycles, bicycles, becaks, and
andongs. Due on Friday noon, the traffic is
very crowded because more people would like
to pray in that mosque.
- PARKING
Parking area for motorcycles and bi -
cycles is inside the Sunan Kudus Mosque com-
plex, at the south of this mosque, next to
the cemetery. It is used for people who visit


49
and pray in that mosque and cemetery. Usually
people also park their motorcycles along the
street. Another parking area available is
about 150*00 m. to the east from this mosque,
inside shopping retail complex. This parking
area is for cars, motorcycles, buses, becaks,
and andongs. There is no requirement and
regulation about parking and open space.
ZONING
The law and regulation about zoning in
Indonesia are only acceptable in big cities
such as in the province's capital cities. So
in Kudus, the responsibility about zoning is
upon the individual architect.
BUILDING CODE
Building Code is also only acceptable
in big cities as aforementioned. However,
it can be stated that in designing new con -
struction in this project, the height of the
building designed should be lower than that
of the Sunan Kudus Mosque, in order to em -
phasize that mosque.


50
III. C. GENERAL CONCEPTS
General concepts will be determined based on the
previous analysis, as in the following.
III. C. 1. TOURISM
Based on the analysis as mentionedfcn part III.
B. 1., it can be inferred that the general concept
for tourism in this project is : to choose facilities
that meet tourism objectives. However, since the
negative sociocultural impact of tourism occur, it
will be very difficult to reduce it architecturally.
The best way to reduce it is by the institutional
elements of education and training, legislation and
regulation, and other sociocultural programs.
The explanation of the general concept is :
- To create an interesting and nice place for tour -
ists visiting Sunan Kudus Mosgue. This place should
offer tourists' demands such as gift shops, food,
accomodation, et cetera.
- Accessibility to this place and to the Sunan Kudus
Mosgue.
- Anticipate and reduce the negative sociocultural
impacts of tourism by :
. Warn tourists not to collect the artifacts,


51
scarce plants, and littering in that area.
. Give information regularly to inhabitants about
the negative sociocultural impacts of tourism
and how to avoid and reduce them.
III. C. 2. PRESERVATION
Based on the analysis mentioned on part III.B.2.,
it can be inferred that the general concept for pre-
servation is : to make recommendation about pre -
serving the Sunan Kudus Mosque.
As mentioned on part III.B.2. that recently
preservation have grown to include many disciplines
- landscape architects, lawyers, architects, urban
planners, sociopolitical activities, real estate
developers, and all manner of bureaucrats so it is
impossible to make a straightforward decision in
this project. Every one who is concerned with pre -
servation continually confronts decisions and makes
hard choices. Persons involved in preservation pro -
cess have distinct points of view and particular in-
terest and do not necessarily agree with each other.
So the possible way which I think necessary for this
project is to recommend guidelines for preservation
of the Sunan Kudus Mosque. The purpose of the guide-


52
III. C.
lines is serve as a tool for architects and other
disciplines related in preservation. They can use
those guidelines in formulating plans for preserva -
tion.
3. SUNAN KUDUS MOSQUE AREA
Based on the analysis as mentioned on part III.
B.3., it can be inferred that the general concept is
to create design manipulation which can enhance the
area to be a nice place for the users and meet commu
nity needs. However, this concept is closely inter -
connected with the concept for tourism as mentioned
on part III.C.l.
The explanation of that general concept is :
- To create an interesting and nice place for visi -
tors and inhabitants.
- Accommodation and parking area for the users.
- The design proposed should be considered with the
climatic and natural condition such as rain, sun-
rays, temperature.


53
III. D. SYNTHESIS
Three different parts of the general concepts which
mentioned on part III.C. can be put together to form a
whole in this synthesizing part. From both tourism and
and existing condition of Sunan Kudus Mosque area point
of view will come up on the facilities and criteria re-
quired on that area. The facilities which I consider
appropriate on that area are :
- SHOPS
The shops should offer gifts, flowers, and other
tourism's demands.
- CAFE
Provides food, drink for visitors.
- PARKING AREA
Although there is a parking area for about 150.00
m. in distance from this mosque complex, a new parking
area is needed to provide enough space for visitors'
vehicles. In addition, this new parking area is also
for easy accessibility to this tourism object.
- ACCOMMODATION
Provide accommodation for visitors with limited


54
facilities, bedrooms and bathrooms only. This accom -
modation is rental room, mostly appropriate for people
in the need of study, since their length of stay is
not up of three days.
SERVICES
Include restrooms for men and women, and sitting
place. Other architectural elements can be added, such
as sidewalk, green, trash boxes, announcement boards,
et cetera.
The criteria required for those facilities are :
SHOPS
To invite people and to give open impression,
the shops should be designed with outside orientation.
CAFE
To invite people and to give open impression,
the cafe should be designed with outside orientation.
In addition, it is possible to design an open-air
eating place often partly on the sidewalk.
PARKING AREA
Accessibility to and from both the main street
and the shops. Should be placed in such area so that


55
it does not waste the space merely for parking.
RENTAL ROOMS
Those rental rooms can be considered as private
activities. So they should be placed in the closed or
non public area.
THE MOSQUE
The Sunan Kudus Mosque is the main tourist object
in this area. So in order to emphasize this object,
and to direct people to go there from the required
facilities area, the strong axis should be built from
this area to the mosque directly. Moreover, the
orientation of this area / facilities complex should
be to the mosque.
CLIMATIC CONSIDERATION
Design of the facilities required should be con-
sidered with the climatic conditions. For rain pro -
tection, the overhang of the roof should be no less
than 1.50 m. Moreover, this also can be done for sun-
rays protection. The roof should be in slope approxi-
mate 200 60 to allow rain water flowing down. Air
movement can be achieved by ventilation over the win-
dows and doors. Using natural lighting as much as
possible during the day.


56
From the preservation point of view, I would like
to recommend guidelines which can be used by the gov -
ernment or other related disciplines in preserving that
mosgue. Since there are no guidelines that can be used
in Indonesia in the purpose of preserving old mosque,
then I consider to apply the guidelines from the "Brec-
kenridge Historic District Guidelines" by Diane McGrath,
1986, with some modifications. The reasons which I think
necessary to take into considerations are that these
Breckenridge's guidelines were written to express the
standards of appropriateness, not to design buildings.
Furthermore, they provide an objective basis for the
decisions of design review.
To apply these guidelines in this project, firstly
should be taken is the criteria that may be helpful as
a means of evaluation for Historic Values, Architectural
Significance, and Physical Condition ( the criteria can
be read on the appendix ). It is necessary to somehow
combine these three categories into one composite evalu-
ation for each building. Then the second is to weigh
each category and each level of evaluation according to
their overall importance in the analysis. Suggested
weighing of numerical values that may be appropriate
can also be read in the appendix.


57
By totalling the scores for the three categories,
then a composite evaluation for each building which is
an indication of its importance as a historic resource
see.
to a community can be achieved. Again, pleasevthe ap -
pendix for grouping of the scores. The totalling scores
achieved is 12, which refers to :
Group B ( 8 12 points )
This category includes buildings which should be retain-
ed if at all possible. They are significant as a his -
toric resource and contribute to the character of the
community. Proper renovation, restoration, and / or
maintenance should be encouraged. Any alterations or
remodelling should be carefully controlled, and demo -
lition or removal from the town should be discouraged.
I


58
III. E. DESIGN CONCEPTS
Following are the design concepts that will be
drawn later.
III. E. 1. NEW CONSTRUCTION OF SELECTED AREA
- SITE SELECTION
To design facilities required, the most ap -
propriate possibility is by replacing the old con-
struction with the new ones, since there is no va-
cant area available. To do that, the selected site
should be one that considered as the most problem-
atic area.
- FACILITIES
As the replacement of the old unorganized pat-
tern of houses & shops with new construction, it
must be replaced with houses too. So the new de -
sign will still be the combination of houses and
shops. The shops can be changed to cafe whenever
needed. Since the shops or cafe will be designed
for public activities with outside orientation,
the houses should be closed for public. The in -
habitants should possess their own privacy. Park -
ing area also can be designed inside this shops
and houses complex in order to create accessibili-


59
ty for visitors. Rental rooms can be placed next
to these shops and houses, but should be consi -
dered as private activities in there. So they
should be placed in the less noisy area. Other
services can be given, such as restrooms, sitting
place. Architectural elements can be added when -
ever needed, as sidewalk, green, trash boxes, an -
nouncement boards, et cetera.
FLOW / MOVEMENT
Flow / movement should be from outside to in-
side this complex, then from inside is directed to
the mosque. So the strong axis between the mosgue
and this complex should be built.
ZONING
Place facilities that are considered public
activities next to the noisy area, and those of
private activities next to the less noisy area.


60
- DOMINANCE
To emphasize the mosque as the most dominant
building in this area, the height of the facil -
ities required should be lower than that of the
mosque. Moreover, the sequential vision between
facilities complex and the mosque should be in
scale from lower to higher.
- DISTINCTION
Different activities or function inside build-
ings can be perceived from outside by their dif -
ferences in shape, form, size, or color. Buildings
designed in this project should be considered
about that.


61
by form
by size
(height )
X X '
Y lLlL F
activity X
activity Y
-CLIMATE
The buildings should be designed with climatic
considerations, such as rain & sun rays protection,
natural ventilation,
m
m
rain.
slope of roof.
natural lighting.
overhang.


62
- ENVIRONMENT
The performance of the buildings designed
should be considered in compatibility with the
environment / neighborhood.
incompatible.
existing. new buildings.
compatible.
existing.
new buildings.


63
III. E. 2. GUIDELINES FOR PRESERVING SUNAN KUDUS MOQUE
Here I rewrite the indication of the Sunan Ku -
dus Mosque's importance as a historic resource to
the community as mentioned on part III.D.
Group B ( 8 12 points ).
This category includes buildings which should be re-
tained if at all possible. They are significant as a
historic resource and contribute to the character
of the community. Proper renovation, restoration,
and / or maintenance should be encouraged. Any al -
terations or remodelling should be carefully con -
trolled, and demolition or removal from the town
should be discouraged.
From the explanation above, then it refers to
the concepts for guidelines in preserving the Sunan
Kudus MOsque as follow :
- RESTORATION
Restoring this mosque to its original con -
dition as much as possible. Removing later addi -
tions should be carefully considered since there
have been any additions on this mosque. Replacing
lost material or parts, and making hidden repairs


64
are possible. The mosque's original function should
be continued or restored.
MAINTENANCE
Sustaining the existing form through measures
of weather resistance and structural stability.
This process is usually temporary in nature to
protect this mosque from further deterioration.
It also is usually in anticipation of major res -
toration work.
ADDITIONS AND ALTERATIONS
Mean to continue the mosque's function in
extended use approach. This can also involve re -
pairs.


65
III. F. DESIGN SOLUTION
III. F. 1. NEW CONSTRUCTION OF SELECTED AREA
All drawings are in the following pages that in -
elude :
- Map of Indonesia,
- Map of the town of Kudus,
- Existing Condition of Studied Area,
- Site Selection and Transformation of Design Concepts,
- Situation,
- Site Plan,
- Elevation,
- Plan, Elevation, and Section of Shop / Cafe and
Housing Building,
- Plan, Elevation of Rental Rooms Building and Ser -
vice Building,
- Perspective Drawings of Exterior and Interior,
Pictures of Model.




67
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84
III. F. 2. GUIDELINES FOR PRESERVING SUNAN KUDUS MOSQUE
III. F. 2. a. RESTORATION
- GUIDELINE 1
Everything that will be done to the mosque
in order to use this mosque for its original
intended purpose should be accompanied by a
reasonable effort. Alteration to the property
and its setting should be as minimum as poss -
ible.
- GUIDELINE 2
To accurately restore this mosque as it
looked at a particular time, extensive research
and knowledge of historical construction tech -
niques may be needed. Since there have been
some additions and alterations to extend the
mosque's use, the removal of them should be
carefully considered.
III. F. 2. b. MAINTENANCE
- GUIDELINE 3
In order to strengthen the structural abil-
ity of the mosque, installation of protective
mechanical systems or reinforcement should be


85
concealed whenever possible so it does not in -
trude or detract from the mosque's aesthetic
and historical qualities. Additions of mechan -
ical equipment or structural support should be
installed in the rear of the mosque and be
covered as well as possible.
- GUIDELINE 4
Before any work performed, an analysis of
the actual or anticipated threats to the mosque
should be done. An analysis of the mosque's
condition can be determined through research,
observations, and use of consultants.
III. F. 2. c. ADDITIONS AND ALTERATIONS
- GUIDELINE 5
Alterations or additions to the mosque
should not hide or overthrow any significant
historic architectural or cultural material.
The considerations of size, scale, color, ma -
terial and character of the existing mosque,
neighborhood or environment should accompany
the decision in order to achieve the compati -
bility of design. Building elements should be
compatible with those in neighborhood and in
the mosque itself.


86
GUIDELINE 6
Alterations or additions to the mosque
should be distinguishable from the original
architecture, and should be compatible with the
overall character of the historic structure.
The duplication of historic styles is strongly
discouraged. The existing architecture of the
mosque should not be imitated as this will
cause confusion to the viewer and the record of
our history. But the design should still be
compatible with the old.
GUIDELINE 7
The visual alignment and setback of the
original structure should be maintained.


Saraswati.
BIBLIOGRAPHY


88
Almack, John C. Ph.D. Research andThesis Writing. Boston :
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1930.
Area Planning Board of Palm Beach County. Historic Preservation
Study. Palm Beach, 1979.
Boucher, Keith. Global Climate. New York : Halsted Press Book,
1975.
Brace, Paul, ASLA. Archaeological Resources and Land Development
A Guide to Assess Impact, in Landscape Architectural Tech-
nical Series 7. Washington, D.C., September 1974.
Center County Planning Commission. Historic Preservation Hand -
book. 1980.
Glenn, Marsha. Historic Preservation. A Handbook for Architec -
ture Students. Institute Scholar, 1974.
Griffiths, John F. and Dennis M. Driscoll. Survey of Climatology
Columbus : Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company, 1982.
Gove, Philip Babcock, Ph.D.,ed. Webster1s Third New Internation-
al Dictionary of the English Language ( unabridged ),Spring
field : Merriam Webster Inc., 1986.
Holahan, Charles J. Environmental Psychology. New York : Random
House, 1982.
Hornby, A.S. Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current
English. London : Oxford University Press, 1984.
Ismudiyanto, and Parmono Atmadi. Demak Kudus Jepara Mosgues.
A Study of Architectural Syncretism. Yogyakarta : Gadjah
Mada University, 1987.


89
i
i
t
i
| Journal of the American Planning Association. Tourism Planning.
An Emerging Specialization, by Edward Inskeep. Summer 1988,
Vol. 54, no. 3, 360 372.
Mathieson, Alister, et. al. Tourism. Economic, Physical, and So-
cial Impact. London : Longman Group Limited, 1982.
: McGrath, Diane. Significance of Historic Preservation to the
Economy of a Community. Thesis. University Of Colorado at
Denver, 1986.
i Mills, Edward D., ed. Planning. The Architects' Handbook. 10th
i edition. London : Butterworths, 1985.
l
Packard, Robert t., AIA, ed. Architectural Graphic Standards.
7th edition. New York : John Wiley & Sons, 1981.
i Rosenow, John E., et. al. Tourism. The Good, the Bad, and the
i Ugly. Lincoln : Century Three Press, 1979.
|
i Shopsin, William C., AIA. Restoring Old Buildings for Contempor-
i ary Uses. An American Sourcebook for Architects and Preser-
j vationists. New York : Whitney Library of Design, 1989.
i
j Snyder County Planning Commission. Historic Preservation Plan.
July 1978.
Ziegler, Arthur P., Jr. Historic Preservation in Inner City Area.
A Manual of Practice. Pittsburgh : The Allegheny Press, 1971.


Saraswati
GLOSSARY


91
j
jALUN-ALUN : a square or an open space in the center of a city.
: It is used for traditional ceremonies such as Garebeg and
j
functions as a praying place on Idul Fitri and Idul Adha.
: ANDONG : a cart pulled by a horse, which the wheels are from
wood. This cart is used for transportation, and is enough
for five people inside, including the coachman.
j BECAK : is for transportation too. Small cart for only two
people inside, the coachman operate it as if he drives a
bicycle.
BENTAR : a kind of GApura used for sacred court as a transition-
al spatial hierarchy. Usually it has a simple proportion,
construction, and form without having ornaments and doors.
i
j CUNGKUP : building of the most important Javanese cemetery.
It has a soko guru and meru roof form
j
; DALEM : the main building of the traditional house divided into
three parts of rooms; emper room, dalem room, and sitting
! room.
?
i
i DALEM ROOM : the main room in the dalem building used as a living
j room and for ceremonies.
! EMPER ROOM : a room in the dalem building used a transition
i
j space between the outer space and the dalem room, usually
sitting.


92
GAPURA : a gate for entering a court with a certain type and
dimension decided by function, hierarchy of usage, and
identity of the user.
IDUL ADHA : ( festival of the sacrifice ) also known as Idul
Qurban and Lebaran Haji. This holiday acknowledges three
significant aspects of Islam. First, the date coincides
with the time that the faithful in Mecca begin their pil -
grimage around the Kaabah; second, the act of sacrificing
animals commemorates the willingness of Abraham to sacri -
fice his son Ishmael; third, in Indonesia it is a time to
visit the burial grounds, clean the grave and decorate
them with flowers. Some women bring food to the grave yard
to give to the poor.
IDUL FITRI LEBARAN : ( the Fast Ramadhan ) several days before
the holiday, the street will fill with people selling "ke-
tupat", small woven palm leaf containers in which rice is
steamed and made ready for feeding visitors. Then, at sun-
down on the last day of fasting, the roadways fill with
young people in trucks, or bikes or on foot, yelling and
beating drums in the takbir, a prayer on Idul Fitri eve.
And, on the first day of Idul Fitri, the visiting begins.
During the two days of Lebaran, inferiors go to the homes
of the superiors, young people call on their elders and
government dignitaries hold open house.


93
JOGLO FORM : a traditional form of Javanese roof construction
consisting of four main columns with the tumpangsari con -
struction.
MERU : a piled pyramid roof form, usually in odd numbers, i.e.
three, five, seven, nine, etc.
MIHRAB ( Arabic ) PANGIMAMAN ( Javanese ) : small place at the
center of the western wall of the mosque used for the Imam.
Mihrab has an Islamic arch form, candrasangkala ( tradi -
tional Javanese symbol of when the mosque was built ), and
Islamic calligraphy ornaments.
MIMBAR ( Arabic ) PANGIMBARAN ( Javanese ) : a place behind
the mihrab used by the Imam or prayer leader for preaching.
The Mimbar was made of teakwood and has Javanese tradition-
al and Islamic calligraphy carvings.
MINARET ( menara ) : the tower usually found just outside the
mosque.
MUSTOKO : ornaments on top of the meru in a mosque or cungkup
building in the form of an Indian Hindu crown.
ORIENTATION : direction of the relationship between human being
and God that is generally regarded as spiritual with a re-
ligious East West axis.
PADURAKSA : a gapura with fancy proportion, construction, and
form that is full of ornaments, and has two doors.