Citation
The building mass control based on solar access

Material Information

Title:
The building mass control based on solar access
Creator:
Shen, Neng-Hsiang
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
60 leaves : illustrations ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Solar buildings -- Designs and plans ( lcsh )
Solar buildings -- Designs and plans -- Taiwan -- Taipei ( lcsh )
Solar buildings ( fast )
Taiwan -- Taipei ( fast )
Genre:
Designs and plans. ( fast )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Designs and plans ( fast )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Architecture, College of Architecture and Planning.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Neng-Hsiang Shen.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
24236110 ( OCLC )
ocm24236110
Classification:
LD1190.A72 1990m .S525 ( lcc )

Full Text
THE BUILDING MASS CONTROL
BASED ON SOLAR ACCESS
by
Neng-Hsiang Shen
School of Architecture and planning
University of Colorado at Denver
SPRING 1990


THESIS TOPIC rhe DIJ1 idinq mass control based on solar access
PRESENT BY
THESIS ADVISOR
ACADEMIC YEAR
Neng-Hsiang Shen
Dr. Soontorn Boonyatykarn
Fall,1989
Accepted by School of Architecture and pIanning,University of
Colorado at Denver in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for Thesis Research and programming.................Fall,1989
Present to
Thesis Committee
Adv i sor
professor. Soontorn Boonyatikarn
D i rector
professor. Robert. W. Kindig.
instructor
professor. Phi I I ip Gal legos. .


CONTEXT
1.problem statement-------------------------------------------------1
2.Scope of study and Objective--------------------------------------2
3. Criteria of achievement------------------------------------------3
4. Approach & Expected contribution---------------------------------4
5. Case study-------------------------------------------------------5
6.Solar envelop----------------------------------------------------10
7.The sample site ( Taipei .Taiwan )-------------------------------19
a. site analysis
b. weather data
c. solar envelop development
d. some concept
8. The height control development---------------------------------39
9. Design simulation---------------------------------------------54
10. Bibl i ography------------------------------------------------59


PROBLEM STATEMENT
From some historial community,such as Mesa verdo in south region
of U.S.A.,(coIorado),Acoma pueblo in NEW Mexico and pueblo Bonito
in NEW Mexico too ,We know in ancient time even though people
cJidnt know much about technology ,They also had develop out many
energy efficient residences & Its form or site is always
compatible with nature environment and cIimate.So,they can easily
get summer wind,winter sun and avoid summer sun,winter wind...etc
Now we have high technology and for the developing need,Our city
grows more and more quickly.lt seems that in many cases we can't
control the growth we I I ,So,There are many bad conditions happen
in our city.Such as,in downtown area people can't get sunlight in
winter and wind in summer easily,Every modern building has It's
own air condition system that emit heat out to warm up our street
,it makes us uncomfortable in summer.,Around high rise building
there are always irregula wind.Can we avoid all these situation?
Alough the growth of an urban not only because of cIimate,There
are many other factors,Such as cultural economic and social....
...etc.But for creating an lower energy maintenance and livable
city,we can't ignore the physical environment.So,it is necessary
for us to make our urban more compatible with nature.
I think, as ancient time, climate elements are always there even
though our city is more complicated than that of ancient. There
should be solution there comes from climate factors. It will
alleviate the promble. More over now we have more advanced
techonology than before.
My attempt ion is trying to find some guideline of building, mass
control that would prevent bad condition happen and would create
a more liveable place.
i


SCOPE OF STUDY
As we know, there are so many kinds of climate characters on
the globe that its impossible to generate only one building
mass type suitable for everywhere. Under this circumstance,I
would like to chose Taipei, a high density city, as a sample.
The work would be : The quality & the quantity of sunlight,
light,wind and visual contro1.Bui1d mass,shape and arrangement
in a block. Physical model simulation.
Once, we know how to control building mass under climate con-
dition like Taipei. We can control building mass under another
given condition.
OBJECTIVE
1. To gain understanding of environment impact from wind,light,
sunlight and building msss.......etc.
2. Learn how to control a large scale city based on nature
env i ronment.
3. set up an approach of urban design decision that makes us
don't make incorrect decision.
4. Try to set the integration between natural environment and
basic function of a place (1iving,activity) and easthetic...etc.
2


SOME PROBLEM & CONDITION OF THE SAMPLE SITE
1. Under hot and humid climate,the stress of environment is
severe.
2. Located at the core of high density down town,bui1dings are
very crowded & streets are narrow.
3. Just aside the transportation center of Taipei,peop1e is
crowded too.
4. There are going to be two high rise building come up in the
site, and an under ground shopping mall in transportation
center.
CRITERIA OF ACHIVEMENT
1. Basiclly, to generate an optimum building mass and arrangement
for that type climate( to make a place as comfortable as
possible )
2. To find the best way of combination for high-rise building and
low-rise ones, as that they wouldn't encroach to each other.
3. To create a place that prosses high quality openspace :
theoretically good & helpful to the transportation center.
A good circulation and visual comfort(view, aesthetic) to be set up.
3


APPROACH
1. Case study.
2. Analysis of typical data for Taipei city.
3. Deve1opment of design guideline based on the impact of typi-
cal c1imatic data.
4. Ana lysis of site.
5.Simulation and investigation of alternative design.
6. Deve1opment of design solution.
7. Performance evaluation of proposed solution.
8. End product.
EXPECTED CONTRIBUTION TO THE FIELD
1. Through ideal building mass control to get the greatest
advantage of natural environment.then,know how to alleviate the
problems that were caused by man made construction and to reduce
the maintenance of a city.
2. For an planner or government in a new develop land, they can
easily begin their concept or control regulation matipu1 ating.
For an urban renew plan, it could be a referance too.
3. set up a method of environment control of large scale site.


I .Case study
Citicorp Center
New York
59-storv office tower
heat co1 lector
( to the south )
doub le q lazed
reflecting glass
24-foot square column
sunken plaza (9000-squar-foot plaza)


sun liqht ao straiqht
to the d laza

1. fcie she Ited trorn noise and Dustle and allow it open
direct Iv to the subwav
2. Church -sponsored entertainment and events in good weather.
The bui Idinq couid save 42% of heat and cooling costs of
conventional bui idinq its size bv usinq double-glazed
reflectinq q lass and a root top heat collector a heat
reclamation system and low brightness fixtures.
6


battery park. City. New York
I ntroduction
1. Nearly a hundred land-til i acres adjoining the southwest
corner ot Manhattan Island.
2. Land use: Commercial and housing.
7


3.Cr iter i a :
how to knit a raw
residential atmosphere with
an old financial community.
How to solve the problem:
west side high way with 8 lanes
swif11y-moving traffic knife
between Battery Park City land
and wall street.
Solution: l.A platform lifting all pedestrian activity some 30
feet above the west side highway.
2.Bridges: Connecting Battery Park City's pedestrian
level with the financial district beyond the west
side highway.
8


2.Solar envelop
l.From so lar envelop we can
define the upper limits of
developable volume,that
would'nt cast the shadow
outside the boundary of
its property.
Adapted from:
Know les Ra Iph L .
"Sun and rhythm form"
1984 p 54-55
SUMMER
SUMMER
10


2. The suns energy is not
equally distributed
through out the day &
year .
The amount of energy that
get through the atmosphere
can be approximated by the
sine of the sun's
a 1ti tude.
3. If access were to be
determined by some fixed
percentage of avai lable
enerage "the duration time
of access (cut of time )
will change all over the
year (different cut of
time ensure different
developable volume )
11


Start the solar
enveiop above the ground
or employ other contextual
cirteria.such as allowing
the envelop to accross the
street or allowinq the
shadowinq of adjacent fire
walls or even partial
shadowing of window wall.
Adapted from:
Know les Ra lph L .
"Sun and rhythm form"
1984 p.58-60
12


4.dissimilar function
suggest different period
of so lar access.
HOUSING
13


The Bunker Hill Project
An urban design project based on
the concept of solar envelop
I.From the existing condition
(land use,building height &
function) of surrounding area
and the rule of least shadow
on housing and most on commercial
office building,a general picture
of acceptable shadows emerges ----
2.Based on these acceptable shadows
and sun position then, Develop
an ideal solar envelop.
CULTURAL
OFFICES
t;#
X ¥
/hv govfrnmfni
HOUSING /
J/ HGOVERNMEN!
>-/

HOUSING
OFFICES
OFFICES :3
iff
HOTEL

OFFICES
Diagram of acceptable shadows.
14


3 P.M., summer.
Final envelope.
15


View from east, 9 A M winter.
Solar envelope over Bunker Hill site.
Cross section at southwestern end of site
Cross section at mid-site.
17


View from south. Designer, Randall Hong. 1 P.M.
Summer; 9 AM.
11AM 3 P.M.
18


3.The sample site
(Taipei city, Taiwan)
19


LAND USE OF ADJACENT AREA
a.site analysis


IffAFFIC CONDITION


Keep main East-West axis & connect the north adiacent area to south adjacent area.


(HE FUTURE OF THE SITE
I This district wi II be the transportation center ot metro
I a i p e i .
2.Some city planning object:
. Eliminate the unbalanced growth which was caused by the
railway station inbetween the north side and south side of
it.
. To creat a place that has the symbolization of land mark
and entrance of Taipei City
. Make it a site with east-west axis charaeter.
CRITERIA
1. To achieve harmonious visual ana functional relationship with
ad jacent areas.
2. To separate pedestrian and vehicular traffic.
3. Provide the maximum amount developable floor (under present
control regu lati on: the coverage ratio is 60% and the F'.A.R. is
800% ).
4.1o provide an environment with good gualities of sunlight and
cross venti lation.
23


b.weather data
Mean Temperature of Taipei
T.
Mean Relative humidity of Taipei
24


Bioclimatic chart
During the cold months (Jan.Dec. & Nov. )we need more heat gain to improve the
weather condition(move down the comfort zone near to the lower grey area.During
the warm months (July &Aug.) we need natural ventalitation to improve the weather
condition(move up the comfort zone near the uper grey area.
25


c.solar envelop development
Solar intensity for 24 North latitude
Direct Normal
Btu/h.ft 2
400
300
200
1 00
0
In winter we have 508-60* daily heat gain from 10:00 A.M.to2:00 P.M.
758-808 dally heat gain from 9:00 A.M.to 3:00 P.M.
958-978 daily heat gain from 8:00 A.M.to 4:00 P.M.
26


Direct Normal
Btu/h.ft 2
Btu/h.ft 2
7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00
27


Solar position for 24 Deg north latitude
28


1 According to solar Intensity diagram, we know that from 10:00 A.M.-2:00P.M.there is just
50%-60% daily heat gain in it.And the ensured solar access time is totaly 4 hours. It is not
enough.So,we would not chose the cut off time (solar access time) from 10:00 A.M.-2:00 P.M.
2. If we chose the cut off time from 8:00 A.M-4:00 P.M.(option 1 ),For ensuring solar access during
the coldest months (Jan. Nov.& Dec.) the solar envelop will base on altitude 15 degree (minimum
altitude of thes months) and azimuth from to -58(the maximum range of thes months)
3. If we#chose cut off time from 9:00 A.M.-3:00P.M.(option 2) the altitude is 26 and the azimuth range
is 49* to-49*
option 1
4,For warm months, more shadows will be better.So.we don't have to ensure solar accessing.But
some architecture design solution for obstructing the summer sunlight is necessary.
29


The developable volume under solar envelop
\ \ AZI \ \ & \ \ALT \ Plot \ \ area o\ N0\ M \ 8:00-16:00 9:00-15:00 10:00-14:00

A. M /. ^ 49
\5 ri
1 1 4,657 161,425 458 % 293,500 833 %
2 16,400 347,300 882 % 724,325 1,840 %
3 10,834 140,672 540 * 296,967 1,142 %
4 1 1,407 146,960 536 % 289,151 1,056 %
5 1 0,400 67,600 270 % 130,000 520 %
6 10,880 182,920 700 % 476,640 1,380 %
7 1 4,400 122,400 354 % 155,520 595 %
Average f.a.r. 534% 1052%
30


F.A.R.
12 3 4 5 6 7 no.
8:00- 1 6:00
1 1 " 7s *
option 1 /
/ 58*
N s
If we chose option 1 the developable volume (average F.A.R.is 534%) will be much less than F.A.R.
800%(This amount had been set by city planning procedure). But if we chose option 2 Jhe developable
volume will more than 800%(average is 1052%).!twi 11 reduce a little after considering the coverage
control regulation(60%).
So, from this point of view, option 2 is better than option 1.
31


1. This is solar envelop of whole site. It ensure that in winter time all the open space can catch
the sunlight they desire. And also, as long as buildings being constructed under these envelop
,there would no shadows being cast to outside the boundry of any plot.(except the north side
plots.That's because there is a lefted up highway pass through near the site and we allow shadows
cast to the highway. But not cast over the highway and stretch into other side.
2. On the figure above any vertex on the surface means the intersection of altitude 25,azimuth 49
and altitude 26*,azimuth -49 lines and for the height of point we take the lower one.


The solar envelop before plot1&plot2 join together.
/ Noon
The solar envelop after plot 1 & plot2 join together
If joining two plot together we can get more developable volume.In this case,
For keeping sunlight accessing to the open space as much time as when they are not join
together.l insert a range of angle (undevelopable space ) to the mass.
It is an angle that prove all the winter sunlight accessing to the open space from A.fi. 9:00 to
P.M.3:00.
33


d.some concept
Arrange building mass under the solar envelop
as to get an optimum shap It Not only fit the
environmental requirement but the human scale
and aesthetics
34


Building could stretch over the public open space but not obstruct
the sunlight------- Increase the designing and solution posibility.
35


When house line an
east-west running
street.service spaces have
the desirable south
orientation on the south
row of houses & living
space have the desirable
south orientation on the
northen row of houses.
we think of the front of
our house as facing the
street,therefore.the
orientation of the house
tends to place major
living space toward the
front of street.
In the colonial town of
ancient Greek. This way
make the house oriented to
the sun & sunfront.
Adapted from:
Knowles,RaIph L.
"Sun and rhythm form"
1 984 p 54-55
mi L...IU
LJ I l LJ
SUMMER
S n
L
n n n n i
XL n _n XL
~i i----------------------------1 r
For keeping sunlight stretch deeply in a site or a
building The concept of "court" sometimes is useful.
36


there is no middle size mass in between
For achieving harmony with the adjacent areatreducing the mass difference between
high rise buildings &. low rise ones) .Some middle size mass should be put in between
high rise &. low rise buildings as that the new buildings look like growing from this area.
37


Summer sunlight
General concept of this site:
Deck--to connect north adjacent area and south adjacent area,they had been
separated by railway for a long time. And to balance the development
of thes two areas.
North part of this site has high rise buildings with big mass & south part of
this site, low rise with small mass.
North part buildings always have concave shapes tocatch winter sunlight and
obstruct summer sunlight, also.lt provide spaces for people to avoid rain falling,
(rainning season is long In Taipei.)


Ob
This the envelop based on solar access, It portaries the
developable volume of every plot in this site The shadow in
winter time would'nt cast on open space or neighbor plots.
But it is not practical,For aesthetic ,economical and design free -
-etc. It is necessary to provide some opportunity for high rise
building on the site (over the height of solar envelop ) Of
course,the high rise part should be well controlled.


Below is the analyse of high rise mass control.
Any plot of the site is permitted posessing one and only one high
rise part.Its size of plan is between 30m*30m & 50m*50m. This is
because:
1. depend the plot scale, From 30m*30m to 50m*50m is an optimum
size.Also, for commercial high rise building. It is a kind of
general scale.
2. under F.A.R. control it is a way to prevent the whole site
became the cluster of just high rise building.this would make open
space monotony,humanless and being isolated from adjacent areas.
3. from the aesthetic point of view the varity of mass is important
for making this area harmony with adjacent area.
A.THE SHADOW PATTERN OF HIGH RISE BUILDING IN DEC.
NOV & JAN INTERMS OF DIFFERENT HEIGHT AND PLAN SIZE
NOV 30M*30M
FROM 9:00 AM-3:00PM
NORTH PL0T;
.MASS ALONG NORTH SIDE
NORTH PLOT
.MASS ALONG SOUTH SIDE
40


NORTH PLOT,MASS ALONG NORTH SIDE
NORTH PLOT,MASS ALONG SOUTH SIDE
N0V40M*40M
NORTH PLOT,MASS ALONG SOUTH SIDE
NORTH PLOT,MASS ALONG SOUTH SIDE
NOV 50M*50M


NORTH PLOT,MASS ALONG NORTH SIDE
NORTH PLOT,MASS ALONG SOUTH SIDE
SOUTH PLOT,MASS ALONG NORTH SIDE
SOUTH PLOT.MASS ALONG SOUTH SIDE
DEC 30M*30M


DEC 40M*40M


SOUTH PLOT.MASS ALONG SOUTH SIDE
SOUTH PLOT,MASS ALONG NORTH SIDE
DEC 50M*50M


B.HOW TO SET A MASS CONTROL RULE
Besides shadow there are many other factors for manipulating a
mass controlling rule,such as the population density, land price
and what the people live there like----------all these factorare
changeable.so, it's a kind of undecidable work.For this reason ,1
would like to give a series of standard and set controlling rules
for each, this will more flexible for chouseing the optimum one
for their needs. These rules will come out from the shaded area
counting.
1.Count the shaded area that cast on public pedestrian and nearby
plots (skip the vehicular zon,because usually people will stay
pedestrian area longer than vehicular area,and also for getting
more developable volume).
45


2.The counting method and conclusion
a.Suppose an area 160m*100m (general block size of Taipei city)
6hr in Shadow (9:00AM-3:00PM) Its total shaded area is 100%(A*6hr=100%)
c.Acturally shaded area (M)=al*lhr+a2*lhr+a3*lhr+------an*lhr
d.Relative shaded area(R)=(M/A*6hr)*100% Its value could be 10
%,20%,30%-------(this is what I called SERIES STANDARD)
46


3.The relative shaded area(R) interms of month, plot
location(north or sourth of this site)
NOV &JAN
H (story) SOUTH SIDE ! NORTH SIDE
2 M HR ! -o 2 M HR r i
50 25902 I j 1 27% I 31750 ! 33%
40 14657 15% 1 20507 21%
30 5851 , 6% 11599 i 12%
20 0 j 1 2691 J 3%
10 0 i ; 1 i
30M*30M
DEC
i SOUTH SIDE NORTH SIDE
H (story) 2 M HR ; ; % 2 M HR ! I ; /o
50 35508 i 37% 42034 ' 43%
40 23474 ! 24% 30000 31%
30 11580 | 12% 17866 17%
20 1996 i i 2% 6535 ! 6.5%
10 0 1 t i 150 1 t
NOV &JAN
SOUTH SIDE NORTH SIDE
H (story )| 2 M HR i T 2 M HR %
50 42860 ; 45% 47408 49%
40 27246 : 28% i 31788 33%
30 12576 ! 13% 16499 17%
20 1 2370 i 2.4% 3965 4%
i 10 0 ! i I 0
40MM0M
DEC
SOUTH SIDE NORTH SIDE
H (story) 2 M HR i* 2 M HR %
50 25853 1 48% 53160 55%
40 29894 : 31% 37201 39%
t 30 14141 14.7% 21742 23%
20 1328 i 1.3% 6951 7%
10 0 200
47


NOV fcJ.VN
H (story) 50 SOI Til SIDE NORTH SIDE
> m" hr - > M~ HR %
55830 58; 57716 60%
to 37398 39; 39284 : 41%
30 21719 23; 21772 23%
20 6385 i 6.7% 6652 1 ( /o
10 0 &
50M*50M
DEC
H (story) SOUTH SIDE NORTH SIDE
o M*~- HR r 2 M HR %
50 65851 1 69% 69361 1 | 72%
40 45503 1 47% : 49013 j 51%
30 25155 26% ; 28665 I 30%
20 7977 i 8% : 10783 n%
10 0 i | 300 ! o
50M*50M
Depend on the pattern (count the shaded area ) we know that Dec.
is severer than Nov.&Jan. so, next i will just consider the condition
of Dec. once the mass is controlled to meet the requirement of Dec.
It can meet the requirement of JAN&NOV too.'
48


THE CONTROLING OF HIGH RISE
BUILDING
(story)
I. THE FIGURE WITH SHADOW MEANS: IF THE VOLUME OF HIGH RISE PART
IS SMALLER THAN OR EQUAL TO THE SHADOWED AREA THEN IT CAN BE
LOCATED ON ANYWHERE OF THE PLOT IT BELONGS
LINED AREA MEANS: THERE IS NO RESTRICTION IN THIS
AREA IF THE AREAS COVERED BY BUILDING ARE BETWEEN
30M*30M AND 50M*50M
3. IN ANY PLOT THERE MUST BE ONE AND ONLY ONE HIGH RISE PART
ITS HEIGHT IS OVER 30F(N0RTH PLOT),20F(SOUTH PLOT)
49


4.Control regulation of different standard
NORTH PLOTS SOUTH PLOTS
20F- H W 30F H < 20F 2 A<40M OK OK i i 10F< H < 20F 1 1 H < 1 OF | 30M2 30F H<40F A< 30M2 OK ! i
9 2 !
30M £A%40M SOUTH * 9
20F< H<30F; 30M 30%
H^30F OK 1 9 9
10F^H < 20F 40M i A< 40M OK
30F H ^ 40F 9 | 20F< H < 30Fi A:.30M2 OK
A< 40M OK j 9 2
30M < A< 40M SOUTH 35%
H ^ 30F OK | i 20Fj OK
40F< HC50F A< 30M2 1
30M2 < A £ 2 40M SOUTH 30F< H^ 40F! A< 30M2 SOUTH
40%
30F< H < 40F A $ 40M 20F< H < 30FI A< 40M2
9 j
40M < A $ 50M SOUTH H £ 20Fi OK
H < 30F OK
50


1 sox)
V '
(NORTH PLOTS)
I
i
(SOUTH PLOTS)
(NORTH PLOTS)
(SOUTH PLOTS)


''/X / V ; '
y'/yM Y/'/ft/ 1L 1 _ _l 1 1 1 1 1
cn
rj
(NORTH PLOTS)
(SOUTH PLOTS)
(NORTH PLOTS)
(SOUTH PLOTS)


5.For low rise part controlling
i *
a.Base on the solar envelop had been set before find the
average rise angle. It's an average angle of peak point
of solar envelop rise from middle line of northern road
or open space.
Y=aA*bB/l


E.CHOSE RELATIVE SHADED AREA (R=30%) AS CONTROL REGULATION
AND DESIGN IT.
OPEN SPACE CONCEPT
54


VEHICLE WAY
PEDESTRIAN
CIRCULATION
55


r* ^ 0 n
cn mmmjm
O) J-t S 1
<] 'i i
-, J -
WBW
CONCEPT OF IMAGE






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