Pedestrian oriented street at Wynkoop Street, lower downtown, Denver

Material Information

Pedestrian oriented street at Wynkoop Street, lower downtown, Denver
Effendi-Yasin, M. Prasetiyo
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
University of Colorado Denver
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
1 v. (various pagings) : ill. ; 29 cm.


General Note:
College of Architecture and Planning

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Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
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Resource Identifier:
40689752 ( OCLC )

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ivi. ridsetiyo Effendi-Yasin
Pedestrian Oriented Street
at Wynkoop Street, Lower Downtown, Denver
College of Architecture & Planning
University of Colorado at Denver

NA9074 .E44 1996
Effendi-Yasin. M. Prasetiyo
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at WynkooD Street, lower
downtown, Denver
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Pedestrian Oriented Street
at Wynkoop Street, Lower Downtown, Denver
AURARIA library
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
Acknowledgments iv
Chapter 1. Introduction. 1-1
Chapter 2. The Pedestrian Oriented
Streets. 2-1
Chapter 3. Pedestrian Street
Benefits. 3-1
3.1 Pollution. 3-1
3.2 Vacant lot development and residen-
tial space spin off. 3-5
3.3 Historic preservation. 3-5
3.4 Balance transportation modes. 3-6
3.5 More pedestrian and economic
rebound. 3-6
Chapter 4. Considerations. 4-1
4.1 Walkways network. 4-1
4.2 Pedestrian availability. 4-2
4.3 Parking, traffic and
accessibility. 4-4
4.4 Historic district character. 4-6
4.5 The existing trolley, canoe and
Sixteenth Street Mall extension plan. 4-7
Chapter 5. The Union Station
Pedestrian Street Guidelines. 5-1
Chapter 6. The Pedestrian Street
Design. 6-1
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
I would like to thank you and
express my deep appreciation to my advi-
sors for their patience to guide me finishing
this thesis. It is not only knowledge and
standard that they gave to me but also the
beautiful value of teacher and student rela-
tionship.This inspired me to deal with oth-
ers in the professional as well as in the aca-
demic environment.
I also would like to record my
thanks to Nana Lea at the Colorado Center
for Community Development, University of
Colorado at Denver, for her permission to
use GIS software even though I could not
continue using it due to the lack of elec-
tronic data of Lower Downtown, to Madie
Martin at Planning Office City & County
of Denver for her generosity giving me
data related to Lower Downtown, and
finally to Kim Grant, Executive Director
of Lower Downtown District Inc.for hav-
ing me to discuss conditions and problems
of Lower Downtown, Denver.
Finally my thanks is for my wife
Rita and my daughters Hanan and Nada
who give me joy and support to finish this
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, at
Wynkoop Street, Lower Downtown, Denver.
by M. Prasetiyo EfFendi-Yasin
This Thesis is part of the requirements to complete
the Master of Urban Design degree program at The
University of Colorado, at Denver.
Main Advisor, Co-advisor,
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
Chapter 1. Introduction
Streets, public-right-of-ways, control
over 25% to 35% of developed urban areas.
It presents public realm more than any
other single use.1 So, it seems very reason-
able to conclude that if attention to be given
to the design of streets, it will give a signif-
icant impact to the over all urban design of
the city. One of those concerns is a pedes-
trian oriented street. Denver already has a
successfully pedestrian oriented street,
Sixteen Street Mall at the main of Central
Business District (CBD), however, it is less
than enough to serve approximately 1.9
million of Denvers population.2 More
pedestrian oriented streets are needed to
make downtown Denver the place for
Lower downtown (LoDo) historic
district, adjacent to the CBD, is designated
area for pedestrian strolling. It needs more
amenities and saves environment for pedes-
trian to make the plan work. An alternative
of a pedestrian oriented street is also worth
considering. For the long run, the pedestrian
street can become a symbolic focus of the
lower downtown historic district area
which is an important factor in promoting
the area to the public and tourists.
The Union Station Pedestrian
Oriented Street case study is one of those
efforts. This report will include a study of
pedestrian oriented street and application
at Wynkoop Street, lower downtown,
Denver. Wynkoop Street is chosen as an
alternative of pedestrian street due to sever-
al factors : the potentiality of generating
other developments and linking to other
urban structure, the lower impact to the
existing traffic, and the availability of using
Union Station as a unique symbolic focus.
Wynkoop is the least developed
street in the Lower downtown historic dis-
trict. Many lots remain undeveloped at
blocks North side of Wynkoop. The recent
growing area of Central Platte Valley,
North of Lodo historic district, is also
almost an empty space.
University of Colorado at Denver

James Blank
Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
Denver is located on
the plains next to the
Rocky mountains at
an elevation of 5,280
Thousands came to
Denver with high
hopes of gold mines
in the mid 1800s.
Around 1858, an
area along Cherry
creek was organized
as the town of
Denver. It was na-
med for James
William Denver, for-
mer governor of
Kansas Territory.
Denver at the time
was part of Kansas
Arapaho and
Cheyenne Indians
lived along the Platte
river and Cherry
creek before white
settlers arrived, (top
right picture).
Denvers population
reached 4,749 in
1860. There were no
churches, hospitals
or public schools,
however there were
31 saloons to service
the miners.
In the 1870s Denver
grew significantly
after the rail road
connected it to major
cities such as
Chicago and Saint
Most of the develop-
ment took place on
the East side of
Cherry creek while
the Central Platte
Valley is North and
West of where devel-
opment took place,
was left behind. The
developed area is re
cently preserved as
Lower Downtown
(LoDo) histone district.
More pedestrian
walkways are worth
considering as a
means of uniting
both the LoDo area
and the Central
Platte Valley.

II II 11 r* i
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University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
The aerial photo map
was taken before the
ballpark development
on September 1993.
The overpass bridge
as shown in the aeri-
al photo at Sixteenth
Street also had been
The proposed pedes-
trian oriented street
will be on Wynkoop
Street which stretch-
es from block I
through block VI. The
pedestrian street dis-
tant will be approxi-
mately 2,800 feet
length with average
width of 40 feet. The
public open spaces
are also proposed as
part of this pedestri-
an street. Those are
the Cherry Creek
Amphitheater (A),
The Union Station
Public Plaza(B) and
the Ballpark Plaza
Wynkoop Street is on
the North edge of
Lower Downtown
(LoDo) historic dis-
trict agglomeration. It
has more undevel-
oped lots than other
LoDo historic district
sections. The vacant
lots are approximate-
ly 450,000 sq.ft. The
proposed pedestrian
street hopefully will
spin off the vacant
lots development
including those in the
Central Platte Valley,
North of LoDo.
Top pictures from the
left to the right are
recent parking lots at
Cherry creek and
Wynkoop (A), left
wing parking lot of
Denver Union Station
(B), and ballpark
parking area (C).
The map, below the
aerial map, is devel-
oped based on the
data from the
Planning Office City
County of Denver.
The street name and
the block number are
used for reference in
the later discussion.
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
The purpose of this
study is as follows:
-To study the pedes-
trian oriented street
with application to
Wynkoop Street in
Denvers Lower
Downtown historic
-To link Downtown
Denver to the Central
Platte Valley by using
pedestrian walkways
and a main pedestri-
an oriented street as
a transitional space.
-To enhance the
image of LoDo his-
toric area by allowing
people to experience
the space on the
pedestrian scale.
Diagram below
shows the prospect
of the Union Station
pedestrian oriented
street providing link-
age to connect the
commercial, recre-
ational and sport
facilities around
Wynkoop Street.
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
The proposed pedestrian street at
Wynkoop hopefully will spin off those
undeveloped areas. Due to the vacant lots
along Wynkoop, the new development is
possible. A careful planning and design
might result in the unique pedestrian street
environment as a LoDo historic district sym-
bolic focus.
Some segments of Wynkoop Street
are in the historic district boundary and some
of them are inside the Central Platte Valley
boundary. Wynkoop Street became a transi-
tion space. The South side is CBD and LoDo
while the North side is Central Platte Valley.
All streets from North to South across
Wynkoop link above mentioned areas.
However more links of pedestrian walkways
are needed.
There are three proposed major
public spaces along the pedestrian street.
Those are the amphitheater at Wynkoop and
Cherry creek vacant lot, Union Station open
space and the ballpark plaza at the East end
of the street. Ballpark plaza will act as a
node to link the LoDo area to the future
pedestrian active area at Delgany and
Chessnutt.3 The Denver Union Station pub-
lic space will link LoDo to the future pedes-
trian active at Rockmont plaza and multi
modal terminal. The Cherry creek amphithe-
ater and open space will also link the exist-
ing pedestrian and bicycle trails along
Cherry creek to LoDo area as well as the
Central Platte Valley.4
Wynkoop Street is considered one of
the less busier streets in LoDo historic dis-
trict, so that the closure of part or whole
Wynkoop Street will not badly affect the
existing traffic pattern. It is not a major con-
necting road because the Wynkoop Street
terminates at both the East and West sides.
The recent activities include loading and
unloading on several warehouses, drive
through to the several offices and off street
parking to the several pubs and retails.
The next benefit of choosing the
Wynkoop Street is Denver Union Station. It
is important historic landmark in Denver. It
used to be the hub in which Denver became
a big city. The important role of Denver
Union Station for Denver is also proven in
the Denverites effort to make big renova-
tions in 1894 and 1915. Even though
recently the role is not as important as
used to be, enhancing Union Station with
public open space and using it as the pro-
posed pedestrian street name will raise the
origin of old Denver memorabilia.
Hopefully the Union Station Pedestrian
street will become a LoDo Historic district
symbolic focus.
The design and modeling of three
proposed pedestrian urban spaces are
important in this case study. It will simu-
late a place for pedestrian to experience and
obtain their dignity in the humanized urban
space. Those three urban spaces will anchor
the pedestrian street and firmly link to other
urban structures.
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
The arrival of the rail
road in 1870 made
Denver a Boom
Town. "The District
grew into a whole-
sale and warehouse
area. The rail road
arrival also brought
the availability of new
building materials
such as cast iron
component, store-
front columns, cor-
nices and window
hoods. The majority
of the buildings in
LoDo were built
between 1870 to
1940. During the
Great Silver Boom in
1881 to 1893, the
Denver Union depots
was built ensuring
the future of LoDo as
a warehouse and dis-
tribution center. This
construction encour-
aged Warehouse
row along Wynkoop
Street from Cherry
creek to 19th street.
The LoDo dominance
as an industrial area
begin to decrease in
the 1940's and 50s.
It was because more
goods are transport-
ed by truck.
Two times major
changes of Denver
Union Terminal have
occurred within 35
years. It shows the
significant role of the
building among
Denverites. The origi-
nal building (top) was
from 1880 to 1894.
The second form
(middle) is from 1894
to 1915.The last big
renovation was done
in 1915. (bottom).
The picture above
shows one of the
recent details of
Denver Union

Courtesy Denver Public Library, Western History Department, J.Collier

Courtesy Denver Public Library, Western History Department.
Courtesy Denver Public Library, H estem History Department.
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
1 Jacobs, Allan B. City Street and Their
Contexts, in The Tenth annual Pedestrian
Conference Proceedings.
Boulder: City of Boulder, 1989.
2Marlin, John Tepper. The livable Cities
Almanac. New York: Harper Collins Publisher,
3Planning and Community Development Office.
Central Platte Valiev Urban Design Guidelines.
Denver: City and County of Denver, October
4Planning Office. 1993 Denver Bicycle Master
Plan. Denver: City and County of Denver,
August 1993
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
Chapter 2. The Pedestrian Oriented Streets
By definition, a pedestrian street is
one kind of traffic free zones considered as
an urban area where priority has been given
to the pedestrian movements and public
transportation instead of private motor vehi-
cle.1 Other types of free zones are pedestri-
an districts, transit ways, semi malls, and
enclosed malls. In North America the pedes-
trian mall name is popularly used instead of
pedestrian street.
The pedestrian mall concept was
developed in American suburbs after the
World War II. It was used to describe areas
where all vehicles have been prohibited
from main streets except for police cars,
emergency vehicles, maintenance and ser-
vice. This concept was used also to revitalize
the old downtown that suffered from the lack
of customers due to the success of suburban
shopping malls. The urban pedestrian mall is
an effort to facilitate favored inner city
shopping conditions.
In Europe, pressure for the streets
closure to motor traffic usually came from
the commercial side. This is the opposite
phenomena to many towns in Britain and
North America where the pressure came
from local authorities to improve the street
for pedestrian benefit.2
Alfred A Wood reported that
Limbeckerstrasse in Essen, Germany, was
closed to vehicular traffic as long ago as
1927. Hohestrasse and Schildergasse,
which is nearby Cologne, were converted
to foot streets on a limited time basis.
After World War II in 1949 those streets
were restored as traffic free zone. In the
early 1960s Limbeckerstrasse and
Kettwigerstrasse in Essen were developed
as a major pedestrian area .
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
Recently more than 350 towns and cities in
West Germany have traffic free central areas.
It means that almost every German city of
over 100.000 population has a major part
devoted to pedestrian use.
The same trend happened in Britain
after the 1960s. According to Wood,
Norwich was the first city in Britain to cre-
ate pedestrian street in 1967. Ten years later
there were about 130 British towns with
pedestrian street.
In Japan the trend to create a pleasant
pedestrian space arose after 1965. The rea-
son of the tendency is a little bit different
from Europe and North America. The need
of human public space is more dominant
than economical, conservation, or conges-
tion reasons.
That need is becoming strong due to
the rapid of economic growth while sacrific-
ing the environmental beauty.
. When we entered the latter twenty years
we gradually came to notice that we had
sacrificed environmental beauty for our phe-
nomenal economic growth, putting too much
value on hardware of living and neglecting
the software we were forced to admit the
want of humane elements in highly industri-
alized city life,3
After 1972 the Japanese planners and
government were ready to see urban envi-
ronment as another form of man made
resource to be given attention and maintain
its level. In the Urban design concern, they
took up pedestrian space to start with.
There are several important pedestri-
ans free zone successes that affected the
rapid pedestrian free zone acceptance among
the government and citizens. Those are the
first Heiwadori shopping mall in Asahikawa
Hokkaido in 1972, Basamichi street shop-
ping mall in Yokohama 1973, Isezaki Mall
in 1978, etc. The municipal Yokohama
was the first among other local govern-
ments to set up an urban design section
dedicated to restore pedestrian space and
refreshing townscape.4
In The U S. A. the idea of pedestrian
free zones was rapidly arose after the World
War II. One of the oldest streetscapes for
pedestrian in the U.S.A. is Elfraths alleys
in Philadelphia. It is preserved as a historic
landmark. The first American city to
approach the legal issue concerning the
conversion of city street into pedestrian
space was Kalamazoo pedestrian mall in
Michigan in 1959.5
The dominant reason of pedestrian
mall development in the U.S.A. is econom-
ical. In the sixties, downtown area experi-
enced the decline of customers due to the
popularity of suburban shopping malls.
Responding to that problem, the Federal
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
Urban Renewal Program encouraged the
developments of some pedestrian malls dur-
ing 1960s. The success of pedestrian mall
developments were copied later in several
cities throughout the U.S.A.
According to Levinson, there are
approximately 100 pedestrian environments
in North American cities. He categorized the
pedestrian environment as follows: City
Streets, Streetscape Environments, Bus-
Mall, Pedestrian Streets, Pedestrian
Precincts, Urban Places or Plazas, Enclosed
Urban Centers, Sky Ways, Water Front
Development, Urban Park and Path Ways,
Conservation/preservation, Pathways New
communities and Recreational environ-
Recently the acceptance of the
pedestrian importance over automobiles is
world wide. The new concepts such as:
Walkable cities; Pedestrian pockets by Peter
Calthorpe; The New Urbanism; Environ-
mental management which concern to
reduce the environmental impact due to the
traffic, represent the acceptance of the
importance of pedestrian in the humanistic
urban environment. Recently, in many
European cities, the hierarchy of considera-
tions to make decision regarding the trans-
portation is changing. The first is what are
the needs of pedestrians? The second is what
are the needs of bicyclist? and the last is
what are the general needs of motorized
vehicles? 7
1Wood, Alfred A Putting the City on its feet,
in The sixth annual Pedestrian Conference
Proceedings. Boulder: City of Boulder, 1985.
2 Wood, Alfred A, Idem, p. 11.
3Takahashi, Shiohiko. Urban pedestrian
space in Japan, in The sixth annual
Pedestrian Conference Proceedings. Boulder:
City of Boulder, 1985
4Takahashi, Shiohiko, Idem, 58-62
5Brambilla, Roberto. For Pedestrian only.
Planning Design and Management of traffic-
free zones. New York: Whitney Library of
Design, 1977, p.126.
6Levinson, Herbert S. Improving the walking
Environment, in The Fifth annual Pedestrian
Conference Proceedings. Boulder: City of
Boulder, 1984
7Weidenhoeft, Ronald, Ph.D. Whlkable cities:
New Approach to Environmental
Management, in The Sixth Annual Pedestrian
Conference Proceedings. Boulder: City of
Boulder, 1985, p.25.
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
Chapter 3. Pedestrian Street Benefits
Pedestrianization continues to grow
because it is a useful means of stimulating
commerce, removing blight, encouraging
historic preservation, and generally restor-
ing urban centers and sub centers.1 The ben-
efit considerations of pedestrian streets will
depend on who will get the benefits. In gen-
eral the one who will be effected is the
municipality, private sector, and communi-
ty. To calculate the pedestrian street more
accurately Haserot analyzes the benefits
into four categories as follows : Functional,
Economic, Environmental /Safety and
Community or Social benefit. He tried to
present these benefits with clear unit mea-
surement so that they are more quantifiably
than qualitative.2 The sum of his analysis
can be seen in the table of pedestrian bene-
fit. However, those lists of benefits might
be applied or fit differently at different
pedestrian street locations.
In the case of Union Station pedes-
trian street at Lower Downtown (LoDo),
the major benefits can be expected from
cases such as the concern of Denvers pol-
lution, the vacant lot developments and res-
idential loft spin off, historic preservation,
better balanced transportation, more
pedestrians and economic rebound.
3.1 Pollution
For more than 20 years Metro
Denver has violated national air quality
standard. According to the federal Clean
Air Act, the region has another five years
to obey all health guidelines.3 Motor traf-
fic reduction at pedestrian oriented streets
can help reducing air and noise pollution
levels. This should be a concern for a
LoDo area which is planned for the home
of a downtown Denver resident. LoDo
which is adjacent to the Central Platte
Valley is critical to the pollutant accumu-
Geographically, the Central Platte
Valley (CPV) bordered by hill at the North
side creates a spatial confinement. This
spatial confinement slows the dispersion
of air pollutants which came from the
South. According to the data, the strong
wind usually comes from the South and
the South South West.
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
The following listing is intended to provide ore detailed guidance This guide is a beginning point. From here on, decisions oust be
on the evaluation of nail benefits. The list is comprehensive, but not exhaus- made as to which among the wide range of possible benefits it is most useful
live, and It includes type of benefit by category, beneficiaries, unit of and possible to calculate, tailored to specific local needs, daca sources ant
measurement and methodology for evaluation. budget allocations.
Type of Benefit Beneficiary Unit of Measurement Methodoloav
upgrade land values landowner dollars Change in market values or sales prices for land In the project area be- fore and after mall improvements; appraisals, comparative sales
upgrade value of in- pro veaent s adjacent to nail owner, government dollars Compute construction costs and subtract from them the market value of im- provements prior to project execution; change in before/after market value
new business attracted government, business community number, dollars Survey businesses attracted and obtain data on gross sales or market value of property
old business retained government, business comimml t y number, dollars Survey existing business to determine which stayed because of mall develop- ment; calculate market values of property
decrease In vacancy rates owner, government, business community percent, number Change in vacancy rates before and after mall development
Increase In Jobs (total Income) Individuals, government number, percent (dollar Income) Estimate jobs created for each type of space use by use of recognized ratios (estimate incomes)
Increase in property tax revenue government, citizens dollars Change in assessments (considering change in tax rates)
Increase in gross retail sales merchant dollars Estimate change in gross sales by projection of market area demand and expenditures
Increase in sales tax and other business tax revenues government, clt izens dollars Estimate change In gross sales and apply sales tax rate
increase in number of customers merchant number Change In number of charge accounts number of transactlona; traffic counts
spin-off in surrounding area (see above Items) merchant, public, government all of above See methods above; use of comparable situations
Increase In parking revenues owner, government dollars Estimate additional number of cars parking in mall area In pay lota at given rate scale
attraction of tourists business, government numbers, dollars Survey of businesses, hotel records, other business records
increase In transit revenues transit operator dollars Change in number of riders (from transit records) at a given rate scale
Improved land use public dollars, space Summary of all economic factors
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver

Type of Benefit Beneficiary Unit of Measurement Methodology
ease of eoployee/customer commuting
parking employer, employee number of spaces, customers Estimate utilization of space, turnover rates; attitudes survey; relate number of spaces provided to projected demand by activity (square feet)
impact of use on existing transpor- tation systems transportation system, public number of riders, Change in ridership figures; "comparables"
travel time and costs business, public time, dollars Teat drives, Interviews, changes In average driving speeds
ease of walking public time, attitude Observation, attitudes survey; assess reduction of hazards, traffic voltimt
provision for special groups (elderly, handi- capped, etc.) special groups, business numbers, dollars Observation, attitudes survey of special groups
ease of delivery business time, dollar value of time Test run of delivery times before and after mall development; aurvey of businesses
weather protection business, public attitude Observation, public attitudes survey
Improved tra9h disposal, servlclng bus iness perceived cleanliness, dollars Observation, evaluate change in arrangements; business survey
improved emergency access bus iness time, dollar value of t ime Test run of response to call time before and after mall development
improved policing/security business, public crime rate, attitude Change in actual crime rates; change in response time to calls; public attitudes survey; "comparables"
improved maintenance business, public subjective ratings Observation, public attitudes survey
improved efficiency of businesses business, public sales per square foot, attitude Survey of businesses
decrease In air pollution public types and quantity of pollutants Estimate change in levels of air pollutants measure against local, state and Federal standards and reduction in number of vehicles and smoother flow
decrease in noise Impact of motor vehicles public decibel criteria Housing and Urban Development's graphic noise assessment guidelines, sound level metering, public attitudes survey
conservation of fuel re- sources business, public, govern- ment dollars, other Estimate change in usage of auto fuel, electric power
reduction in accidents public accident rate or number, dollars Change in actual numbers and severity of accidents
improved visual appearance business, public attitude Public attitudes survey (after development or present site plans, perspectives, etc. before development)
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
Type of Benefit Benef ic iarv Unit of Measurement Methodology
increase in open space and landscaping public area (acreage) See maps, site plans, direct measurement
improve litter control maintenance business, public subjective rating Public attitudes survey
upgrade structural con- ditions of buildings adjacent to mall owner, tenant, public building code standards fire insurance rates property value Change in fire Insurance rates; change in conformance to codes; change in property values
Community pride, cohe- siveness public, business subjective rating Public attitudes survey; press reports
Compatibility with neighborhood public attitude, property values (dollars) Physical compatibility: observation; social compatibility: public attitudes survey; both: property values change
Increase in community activities, promotion business, public number, expenditures, pedestrian counts Change in numbers, types, frequency of activities and active Interest of promoters
Spin-off for future de- velopment plans business, public dollar value of planned Improvements Interest In viability and implementation of adjacent development plans
Increase In housing, numbers and quality in downtown owner, public number, rating of con- dition, number of house- holds served Change in number of sound dwelling units
Preservation of archi- tecturally or histori- cally valuable site or building public number of visitors (tourists), attitude, number of buildings Change in number of visits; creation of new uses for old buildings; restoration and rehabilitation of sites or buildings
Improved reputation as a desirable community public, business number of visitors, new residents, new businesses Change in level of Interest of potential residents, businesses, visitors as shown by inquiries, development plans; public and business attitudes survey
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
An attempt to cope with those prob-
lems has been planned such as the green
park allocation in CPV along Platte Valley
river as stated in the Central Platte Valley
Urban Design Guidelines. The future land-
scape of CPV, North side of LoDo, will act
as a filter to reduce pollutants from the
air. The less polluted pedestrian street at
Wynkoop becomes a transition space from
the CBD occupied cars area at the South
and the green area at the North.
3.2 Vacant lot development and residen-
tial space spin off.
Recently, there is approximately
450,000 sq.ft, vacant lots along Wynkoop
Street. These open lots used for parking
become an eyesore for the LoDo neighbor-
hood. Converting Wynkoop into a pedestri-
an oriented street will raise the property
value which will encourage the develop-
ment of vacant lots into more productive
The new Ballpark development at
the East end of Wynkoop, opened in April
1995, has not only has boosted the growing
restaurants but also the loft developments.
Many buildings along Wynkoop are con-
verted into lofts in the third and upper
floors while keeping the ground floors for
mixed uses. This is a good sign of LoDo
growing economic.
Another development of pedestrian
street might lead to the mixed use devel-
opments spin off at LoDo and CPV. This
is especially true due to the future Pepsi
arena development at the immediate West
end of Wynkoop Street across the Speer
Boulevard. The proposed pedestrian street
will become a major link of Pepsi arena
and Ballpark stadium.
3.3 Historic preservation.
Denver has the biggest historic building
agglomeration in Colorado. This must be a
valuable asset to exploit historic heritage
so that it also will enhance the Denver
character as a city of the West. The city
adopted historic preservation as an inte-
gral planning element in the Downtown
Area Plan in 1986. This plan recommend-
ed LoDo as a protected historic district
designation. Two years later, the LoDo
Historic District Ordinance was approved
for a 20-block district in 1988. Since then,
historic preservation had taken greater
prominence in city wide planning policy as
expressed in the 1989 Denver
Comprehensive Plan.4
Historic structures and places are impor-
tant to Denver. They distinguish Denver
from the suburbs and other cities and pro-
mote a sense of place. Historic preservation
enhances the citys cultural, social, political
and economic heritage. The City Beautiful
movement and the importance of parks,
parkways and placement of civic buildings;
railroading, mining and agriculture; the
western influences such as the street grid
and street trees; and eclectic architectural
styles such as bungalows or Denver
Squares are still a major part of the charac-
ter of the city today.
To encourage historic preservation and
appreciation by the public is not enough by
just amending the historic district designa-
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
tion and widening the sidewalks in LoDo.
The main pedestrian street is needed. The
recent efforts are only beginning to send out
a strong message: that pedestrians are wel-
come in the district. The pedestrian street or
corridor is very important, not only as a
pedestrian walkway but rather as the central
and the most important part of a system of
routes and places for people on foot.5
3.4 Balance transportation modes
Denver is one of the cities which
has very poorly balanced transportation
modes. This fact is based on Kenworthys
and Newmans study on the International
comparison of urban transportation, land
use, and gasoline consumption among 32
cities.6 A balanced urban transportation sys-
tem, according to Ken worthy and Newman,
is a condition in which the automobile does
not dominate, so trains, buses, pedestrians
and bicyclists also perform major roles in
the total transportation system. The problem
of Denvers transportation balance can be
measured by gasoline consumption. Denver
is among the highest gasoline consumer per
capita. It is higher than Los Angeles and
New York. According to Kenworthy and
Newman, there are several major factors
which are responsible for that condition as
follows: lower land use intensity, lower ori-
entation to non-automobile modes, lower
level of traffic restraint, lower degrees of
centralization and the need for more public
transportation performance. The character-
Table Gasoline use per capita in 32 cities, 1980
City Gasoline Use City Gasoline Use
(MJ per capita) (MJ per capita)
US Cities F.urooean cities
Houston 74.510 Hamburg 16,671
Phoenix 69.908 Frankfurt 16,093
Detroit 65,978 Zurich 15,709
Denver 63,466 Stockholm 15,574
Los Angeles 58,474 Brussels 14,744
San Francisco 55,365 Paris 14,091
Boston 54,185 London 12,426
Washington 51,241 Munich 12,372
Chicago 48,246 West Berlin 11,331
New York 44,033 Copenhagen 11,106
Vienna 10,074
Average 58,541 Amsterdam 9,171
Australian cities Average 13,280
Perth 32,610
Brisbane 30,653 Asian citfes
Melbourne 29,104 Tokvo 3,488
Adelaide 23,791 Singapore 6,003
Sydney 27,986 Hong Kong 1,987
Average 29,829 Average 5,493
Canadian cities USSR city
Toronto 34,813 Moscow 380
istics of transportation, land use and the
co-existence of transportation modes in the
principal world cities can be seen at
Kenworthys and Newmans table. It
shows that the excellent and very
good categories of balanced transporta-
tion modes are mostly in European and
Asian cities, while the United States cities
are ranked as very' poor to good.
The proposed pedestrian street will
definitely improve the balanced transporta-
tion modes. It intensifies the LoDo popula-
tion; adds the pedestrian street besides
Sixteenth Street Mall; provides more traf-
fic restraint area; and centralizes the
pedestrian activity along Wynkoop Street.
3.5 More pedestrian and economic
The pedestrian oriented street usu-
ally brings more people and increases the
retail sales. From the survey of pedestrian
mall in 20 cities in North America,
Erikson reported that 19 cities increased
in sales after mall development.
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
Factors and variables
Category of city
Very poor balance between
transportation modes
(Automobile dominated -
almost no role for
public transportation,
walking and cycling)
Some balance between
transportation modes
(Minor though significant
role for public trans-
portation, walking
and cycling
Good balance between
transportation modes
(Important role for
public transportation,
walking and
Very good balance between
transportation modes
Public transportation,
walking and cycling
on equal fooling
with automobiles.
Excellent balance belwct
transportation modes
(Public transportation,
walking and cycling
more important
than automobiles)
[l and use intensity
Urban density tpcrsons/lu) 12.2 15.4 42.1 58.0 117.3
Employment density (jobs/lui) 6,0 7.3 23.9 32.9 53 9
Outer area density (porsons/ha) 10.7 12.8 32.8 48.7 83.9
Outer area em|>)oymcnt density (jobv/ha) 4.3 5.0 12 5 IBS 28.5
Inner area density tpersons/ha) 23.7 43 1 81.7 830 331.4
Inner area employment density (tobs/hn) 19.5 37.2 65.4 67.1 211.3
(Orientation to non-autornobile modes I
Total vehicles per 1000 people 684 570 422 366 254
Cars per 1000 people 5J9 479 367 318 192
Per capita car passenger kins 12.822 11359 7384 5.185 2.966
Per capita public transportation passenger kins 362 887 1,664 1,890 2319
Proportion of passenger kms on public transportion (%) 2.9 7.4 186 27.2 49.2
Proportion of workers using public transportation (%) 8.6 193 320 33.3 52.5
Proportion of workers using private transportation (%) 87.2 74.4 51.7 45.4 237
Proportion of workers using loot and bicycle (%) 4.2 63 163 21.3 23.8
| Level ot traffic restraint 1
Length ot road per person tin) 8.8 57 3.0 1.9 l.l
Parking spaces per 1000 CI31) jobs 514 208 160 185 137
Vehicles per km of road 91 105 159 193 247
Car kms per km of road 1.068,857 1364,838 1,723.132 1,725,693 1,665,405
1 Decree o! centralisation 1
CUD population density tpersons/ha) 14.2 456 787 89.2 158.6
Profxution of population in CUD (%) 0.3 0.7 1.5 3 9 3.9
Proportion of jobs in CM) (?) 114 150 184 20.7 19.8
(Public transportation periormance |
Vehicle krns per person 29.6 47.9 74.1 66.6 86.1
Passenger trips per person 46 1 1063 229 6 3243 371.4
Passenger trips per vehicle k/n 1.5 23 33 3.9 4.4
System average speed (km/h) 24.0 313 30,8 30.9 31.5
Energy use per passenger km (MJ) 2-12 1.13 088 0 58 052
Proportion public transport passenecr krns on trains(7e) 13.3 53.9 54 9 510 51.4
i energy
v conservation status
Very poor
Generally poor but a few
Significant conservation
Strongly conserving
Very strongly conserving
positive features
(Gasoline use per capita (M)) 53,049 44355 22346 12.445 8,588
Cities in each category and their cluster scores based Cities Cluster scores Cities Cluster score Cities Cluster score Cities Cluster score Cities Cluster see
on all factors. Phoenix 92 Washington 255 Toronto 433 Amsterdam 574 Munich 641
1 louslon 95 Melbourne 302 New York 464 Frankfurt 585 Singapore 643
Denver 145 Boston 310 Copenhagen 496 West Berlin 598 Paris 648
Detroit 151 Chicago 349 Hamburg 549 Vienna 605 1 long Kong 694
Perth 168 San Francisco 357 Zurich 567 London 612 Tokyo 721
Adelaide 208 Sydney 361 Brussels 570 Stockholm 614
Los Angeles 221
Brisbane 723
Transportation and land use characteristics and tlie co existence of transportation modes in principal world cities (1980)
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
In another research done by New Yorks
office of Midtown Planning and Develop-
ment for the Madison mall project, it was
found that 39 pedestrian malls experienced
retail increases after mall completion. This
study had been conducted among 40 cities
with malls, semi-malls and transitways in
the United States, Canada and Europe.7
Currently, LoDo Denver experi-
enced economic growth due to the ballpark
development. The City of Denver reported
$56.3 million in taxable sales of goods and
services in LoDo through the first half of
1995. It means more than combined sales
for all 1991, 1992, and 1993.8 The pro-
posed pedestrian street hopefully will also
evenly spread the recent economic growth
in the Lower Downtown historic district.
1Wiedenhoeft, Ronald Ph D., Walkable cities:
New approach to Environmental Management,
in The Sixth annual Pedestrian Conference
Proceedings, Boulder. 1985, p22.
2Haserot, Phyllis W, AIP, Calculating Benefits:
What Malls accomplish? in The Downtown
annual Review Vol. 12. ed. Lawrence A
3Obmascik, Mark, Air study clouds arena plan.
Denver Post, 31 July 1995, p.1A.
4Hammer,Siler, George Associates with
National Center for Preservation Law Winter &
Company, Denver Historic Preservation
Program Evaluation". Denver. June 1991, p.3.
5Hinshaw, Mark L, AIA, AICP, Transforming a
Suburb, in The Tenth Annual Pedestrian
Conference Proceedings. Boulder, 1989, p.89.
6 Kenworthy, Jeffrey R and Newman, Peter
W.G., Learning from the best and the worst:
Transportation and Land Use Lessons from
Thirty two International Cities with Implications
for Gasoline use and Emissions. School of
Environmental and Life Sciences Murdoch
University Perth, Western Australia, in The
Eight Annual Pedestrian Conference
Proceedings, Boulder. 1987, p.29-32
7Erikson, Robert D, A Report on Mall Results
Nationwide, in The Downtown Malls an Annual
Review Vol.1. Ed. Lawrence A. Alexander, The
Downtown Research & Development Center,
1975, p.50.
8Parker, Penny, Eateries survive pennant
loss, dire predictions". Denver Post. 7 April
1996, p.1G.
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
Chapter 4 Considerations
There are several major factors that
should be considered in conjunction with
the proposed Union Station pedestrian
street. These are as follows: walkways net-
work, pedestrian sources, traffic parking
and accessibility, activities, historic district
character, existing 16th street mall, and
existing proposed trolley and Punt canoe
4.1 Walkways network.
The Union Station Pedestrian street
which stretches from 14th Street to 20th
Street should be seen as a center of pedes-
trian activity in LoDo. Therefore it should
be considered as part of a pedestrian system
route of LoDo and Central Platte Valley.
LoDo historic district has been designated
for pedestrians with recommended side-
walks of 16 feet width.1 The sidewalks, the
mid-block connections, the plazas and the
parks are the route components that link the
LoDo area, The Union Station pedestrian
street and the Central Platte Valley area.
The existing sidewalks at LoDo will
link the proposed pedestrian street to the
famous places such as Larimer Street,
Writer Square, Tabor Center and others.
However several pedestrian walkways are
still needed to link the proposed pedestrian
street to the recreation facilities at North
side such as Elitchs parks, future Pepsi
arena, future parks and other active ground
Poors at CPV. These walkways include:
the pedestrian bridges and bicycle trail
extensions along both sides of Cherry
creek from Wynkoop to the CPV; the 16th
Street Mall extension and the 18th Street
pedestrian underpass to the future Multi
modal terminal. The pedestrian underpass
of 20th Street had been built to accommo-
date the ballpark fans from CPV parking
place (Prospect and Commons plaza sub-
areas) to the Ballpark. It was designed to
deal with 800-1,000 baseball parkers who
walk to LoDo.2
4.2 Pedestrian Availability
The pedestrian availability is one
of the important factors in the successful
pedestrian street.
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
The Elitch's Park
tower (far left) is
seen nearby Cherry
creek on the pro-
posed amphitheater
lot (A). The pedestri-
an active access to
Elitchs Park (far
right) was built under
the Speer Boulevard
bridge (B).
The map (right)
shows the active
ground floor uses
(Commercial, Retail,
according to the
Central Platte Valley
Urban Design
Guidelines. The dot
The pedestrian
access to the Cherry
creek use ramp built
on the Wynkoop
Street (middle left).
The pedestrian walk-
ways and the bicycle
trails also was built
on both sides along
the river from
Wynkoop to the
Central Platte Valley.
lines are the pro-
posed pedestrian
walkways network.
The 16th St. Mall and
the proposed Union
Station pedestrian
street become main
pedestrian corridor in
the walkways net-
work system.
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
One important factor
that makes a pedes-
trian street success-
ful is prospective
users. The map
below shows the pos-
sible sources of
During games, the
ballpark will draw
around 50,000 fans,
it is a neighborhood
ballpark, meant to be
accessed on foot.
The new pedestrian
oriented street will
provide more ameni-
ties for the pedestri-
The success of the
16th Street Mall,
which draws around
90,000 pedestrians
using the shuttle bus
daily, will help the
success of the new
pedestrian street by
linking a pedestrian
or shuttle bus route.
The existing Elitchs
Park, the future of
Pepsi Arena and
Central Platte Valley
public parks closed
to the Wynkoop
Street are also
prominent pedestri-
ans sources.
The proposed pedes-
trian street is the
best transition space
for pedestrian which
ties LoDo to the
Central Platte valley
recreation facilities.
This pedestrian street
should enhance the
historic character of
LoDo, so that the
new pedestrian street
will become an alter-
native in addition to
the existing 16th
Street Mall.
The existing plan of
extending the exist-
ing historic trolley line
from Central Platte
Valley to the ballpark
will bring more peo-
ple to the proposed
pedestrian street. In
1993, 52,292 riders
used the trolley.
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
The new loft will be
built behind the old
Union Pacific Freight
House and adjacent
to the Denver Chop
House (left). This
project will include
7,000 sq.ft, retail
space at the old
Freight house.
The Waterside con-
dominium will also
be built at Wewatta
near Cherry creek
(right). It will provide
24 luxurious condo-
The pedestrian availability can be catego-
rized into permanent and temporary. The
permanent pedestrian users include the
LoDo residents who will be expected to use
the pedestrian street 24 hours a day and the
employees who work in LoDo. Lower
Downtown District Inc. (L.D.D.I.) reported
that apartment and loft units increased
230% from 1990 to 1993.3 The residential
population has expanded by approximately
459 residents. The number of resident and
loft developments also increased since the
ballpark opening in 1995. Currently more
than 370 units were planned to be built.4
This means that there will be approximately
555 new LoDo residents. The number of
residents is projected to double from 1,500
to 3,000 during the next three years.5
The new lofts and condominiums
located nearby or adjacent to the proposed
pedestrian street are as follows: the Chop
House which will include new loft with the
most expensive ever LoDo loft of $1.15
million penthouse at Wynkoop; the newly
renovated Ice House for lofts and retails at
Wynkoop; the Mercantile Square which
includes new mixed use retails, restaurants,
lofts at Wynkoop, and the future Waterside
Place condominiums development at
Wewatta Street adjacent to Cherry creek.6
The increase in LoDo population is one of
important keys to the success of the pro-
posed pedestrian street.
The location of the proposed pedes-
trian street at Wynkoop has a potential ben-
efit in regards to the pedestrian sources.
The first source is the Ballpark destination
at the East end of the street and the second
is the Elitchs Park and future Pepsi arena
which is across Speer Boulevard at the
West end of the street. The new 50,000 seat
stadium has drawn more than 3.4 million
people in 1995.7 The number one reason to
visit is baseball and the second reason is
restaurants. However, the number of
downtown visits consumers also increased
in 1995.8
The future development of Pepsi
arena as the house of Denver Nuggets
Basket ball and Colorado Avalanche ice
hockey is important to bring pedestrians in
all year round. The $ 150 million Pepsi cen-
ter facility is planned to accommodate
19.000 Nuggets fans, 18,200 Colorado
Avalanche fans and 2000 club seats.9
Those fans are also prospective pedestri-
ans who will fill the pedestrian street dur-
ing the winter season when baseball is in
off season. The pedestrian routes are
needed to link the Pepsi arena facility to
the pedestrian street. It is to be hoped that
this will encourage the Elitchs Park visi-
tor to stroll to the proposed pedestrian
4.3 Parking, Traffic and accessibility.
It is important for the pedestrian
street to have parking available and conve-
nient distant from parking to the destina-
tion. According to the Downtown
Ballpark Development Committee
Recommendations on parking, there is no
need to build massive new parking struc-
tures for the new ballpark. Ballpark devel-
oper have stated that 7-8000 parking
spaces are needed within 1/2 mile radius
of the ballpark. In this radius, nearly
16.000 parking spaces are available.10
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
According to the 1993
Lower Downtown Dis -
trict (LDDI) parking
study, there is no sig-
nificant shortage in the
The Downtown
Ballpark Development
Committee Recom-
mendations in 1992
show that it is not nec-
essary to build mas-
sive parking to deal
with the new ballpark.
Parking spaces for
7-8000 cars are need-
ed within a 1/2 mile
radius of the ballpark.
However, nearly
16,000 parking spaces
are already available
in this zone.
The proposed base-
ment parking and
structure at this pe-
destrian street antici-
pates a new demand
due to the new deve-
lopment. However,
this is not very crucial
because there are
plenty of spaces
North of Wynkoop
Street which are
zoned as parking
facilities according to
the Central Platte
Valley Urban Design
Some traffic flow
changes are propo-
sed to accommodate
the pedestrian street.
Block land 6 are for
pedestrian only while
block 2,3,4, and 5 of
Wynkoop Street are
for semi-pedestrian
where cars are
allowed. The pedes-
trian underpass is
proposed at 18th
Street to connect the
future Multi modal ter
minal, North of
Union Station, to the
street. The pedestri-
an walkway is
already provided at
20th Street as part
of ballpark develop-
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
Ballpark stadium (top
left) draws 3.4 million
fans in 1995. The loca-
tion is adjacent to the
East end of Wynkoop.
The closed distance to
the pedes than street
will encourage fans to
use it.
The Pepsi arena will
also be build (right).
It will accommodate
39,200 seats for
Denver Nuggets bas-
ket ball and Colorado
Since the ballpark is also in the area of
Wynkoop Street it is reasonable to assume
that there is no critical of parking problem
regarding the new proposed pedestrian area.
This is true especially because the peak
usage of the pedestrian street will be closely
related to the ballpark and Pepsi arena
events. However, the new developments on
the vacant lots along pedestrian street
should also provide parking to serve the
new functions. These developments are: the
proposed amphitheater at vacant lots on the
West end of Wynkoop and Cherry creek;
the Denver Union Station Public Plaza on
the existing parking lots; and the Ballpark
Plaza on the recent ballpark parking lot at
The new parking structure is recom-
mended at the Balpark Plaza area to accom-
modate the new mixed use Ballpark Plaza
and current parking space. This also will
improve the convenience. The general rule
for a convenience distance from parking to
the point of destination is the closer the
better and the longest distance is approxi-
mately 300 feet.11 Concentrating parking
space in a few large facilities is usually bet-
ter than scattering them. The reasons are
convenience, good pedestrian linkages,
security and maintenance.12
The streets from North bound across
the proposed pedestrian street are 15th
Street and 20th Street. Possible transit
stops should be provided at the Wynkoop
Street crossing or closer. The Boulder-
Denver commuter buses cross the pedestri-
an street through the 15th street. A transit
stop at the crossing should be provided.
This may lead the passenger to use the pe-
destrian street to enter LoDo. The cars will
be restricted from driving on Wynkoop to
allow pedestrian traffic. However, access to
the Denver Union Station should be provid-
ed to allow the train passengers to be
dropped off and picked up. The street seg-
ments from 15th Street to 19th Street would
still carry car traflfic.The proposed traffic
direction changes are shown on the parking
and traffic map.
The accessibility for pedestrian and
other activities is important. Even though
the street is dedicated to pedestrian and
handicapped traffic, other activities should
be considered. These activities include
loading and off loading goods shipments,
utility maintenance service, police, fire
fighter, ambulance, trash disposal and col-
lection, and snow removal.
Currently, some of the buildings at
Wynkoop Street use the alley between
Wynkoop and Wazee Street for their load-
ing and off loading activities. This will
also be recommended for all buildings on
the pedestrian street. If for some reason it
is impossible to do so, a strict loading and
off loading time should be applied to avoid
the pedestrian obstruction. For the police
and emergency cars, the requirements of
accessibility should be considered. This
will include the street width, turning radii,
vertical clearance, Ladder clearance to
upper floors, maneuvering room, and low,
mountable curbs.13
4.4 Historic District Character
Preserving the historic heritage is one of
Denvers policies as stated in the Denver
Comprehensive Plan.
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
The most prominent
historic building along
Wynkoop is Denver
Union Terminal
(DUT), because of its
size, character and
material, (top left) The
use of Colorado
white stone made it
unique among the
brick used by most
historic building. It
was built first in 1880
and then had a major
renovation in 1894.
The recent DUT
building is totally
new, built in 1915.
One of the latest his-
toric building built
along Wynkoop is the
brick building of the
Ice house at the right
side of DUT. (top eft)
This building was list-
ed in the national
register. Many build-
ings along Wynkoop
considered as con-
tributing building
rather than registered
such as warehouse
building nearby the
proposed amphithe-
ater area, (top right).
The most critical fac-
tor to be maintained
is a uniform height of
building facing the
pedestrian street.
According to the
study, it is more
important than mater-
ial, color and other
factors. The small
windows in the thick
walls could be
repeatedly applied.
Exceptions could be
maid to avoid monot-
onous facades, how-
ever, careful design
is needed to maintain
J !
=cn j
0 D

Bj D=3
i = HIM IfkC- ii
d r
OW 100
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
The historic buildings
character includes
the use of buck, the
different treatment of
pedestal, body and
capital. The picture
(top left) taken at the
Ice House entrance
shows the different
material for the
pedestal. The differ-
ent treatment for the
capital can be seen
at the Chop House
building, nearby the
stadium, (top, right)
The existing historic
light both pedestrian
light type B (top left)
and the over head
light type C (top hght,
will also be used.
On the proposed pedestrian street,
the historic buildings are vital. They are
important aggregates to create a unique
pedestrian street which will represent a
symbolic focus of the LoDo historic dis-
trict. The historic buildings character
along the pedestrian street should be pre-
served and enhanced in the new develop-
ments. Hopefully the pedestrians can have a
unique experience in the historic environ-
ment which will be different from the exist-
ing Sixteenth Street Mall.
There are regulatory controls pro-
tecting the historic buildings as stated by
Federal, State, and local Law. These regula-
tions are found in the National register of
historic places at the federal level, The
State Register of historic places at the state
level, and the Denver Landmark
Preservation Ordinance at the city level.14
The LoDo historic district and landmark
buildings are shown in the LoDo historic
district map.
The National Register of Historic
places, created in 1935 and expanded in
1966, protects buildings listed in the
National Register. The National Register
protect buildings if they are threatened by a
federal undertaking. These undertakings
include any projects receiving federal
funds, requiring a license or permit from
the federal government, or occurring on
federal land. This law has stopped large
scale demolition due to the interstate and
other free way construction in urban areas.
The State register of historic places
was created in 1975. Buildings listed in the
national register are also included in the
state register. The state register of historic
places will protect any state registered
buildings from state actions.
In 1967 the Denver Landmark
Preservation Ordinance was adopted. It
gave the Landmark Preservation Commi -
ssion the power to delay demolition of des-
ignation buildings for 90 days. It is also
required that a building permit for new con-
struction be obtained prior to the demoli-
tion. Besides protection of the each land-
mark buildings, the city also recognized the
importance of historic districts. Historic dis-
tricts are grouping of buildings that together
are more significant to the city than each
buildings. In 1974, the City Council and
Mayor amended the ordinance to give the
Landmark Preservation Commission
power to reject the demolition of con-
tributing buildings located in the historic
The LoDo historic district itself
was created by the City Council in the
Spring 1988. It was part of the integrated
program of economic incentives to stimu-
late rehabilitations, and developments in
the LoDo area. The incentives are also
available for registered buildings from the
federal, state or City in conjunction with
each registered buildings category.15
4.5 The existing Trolley, Canoe and
Sixteenth Street Extension Plan
There are three important existing
plans which will contribute to the success
of the proposed pedestrian street: the
extension of existing historic trolley
through Wynkoop; the development of
Canoe Punt facility at Cherry creek from
Larimer to the CPV; and the extension of
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
The $65 million
Colorados Ocean
Journey (left) will be
built in the Central
Platte Valley. The
extension of Denver
histone trolley rail will
connect this recre-
ation facility to the
proposed pedestrian
street and to the
existing 16th St. Mall.
The 16th St. Mall is
one of the successful
pedestrian malls in
the country (right). It
has approximately
90,000 visitor daily.
sion of Sixteenth Street Mall to the CPV.
These are incorporated in the proposed
Union Station pedestrian street.
The historic trolley was reopened in
1989 by the Denver Rail Heritage society
volunteers. Currently, the trolley has board-
ing stops at important facilities such as Mile
High stadium, the Children Museum and
15th St. at Confluence Park. According to
the data, there were 52,292 riders in 1993.16
The recent expansion plan includes segment
A, B, C and D as shown on the Denver
Trolley expansion feasibility study map. It
will cost approximately $48 million.
Segment A and B will connect the Mile
high stadium sport complex, the Children
Museum, the future $65 million Ocean
Journey, Elitchs Park, and Coors Field and
will run along the proposed pedestrian
street. It is important for pedestrians to have
a variety of choices of transportation modes
to reach the recreation facilities beyond the
convenience walking distant. It also will
bring more pedestrians from LoDo to CPV
and vice versa.
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
The diagram below
shows important
events and activities
around Wynkoop
Street. It is a helpful
map to see the
pedestrian active
Coors Field will be
active around 115
days games a year,
including 82 baseball
games and possibly
another 30 summer-
time events.
A rock music festival
is held on the Union
Station parking lot. It
uses the Ice House
building wall (on the
right side of Union
Station) as a stage
backdrop and tempo-
rary fences to guide
visitors to the ticket
gate. An amphithe-
ater at the end of
Wynkoop Street on
Cherry creek is pro-
posed to accommo-
date this activity,
holding more fans in
a better facility
The Brewing festival
is held in the
Wynkoop Brewing
Company building.
They also use the
Union Station parking
lot as an extension.
This pub, which is
always busy, is one
of the best in Denver.
The Union Station
tree lighting is held
on December first.
The celebration
begins with music
inside the main lobby
of Denver Union
Terminal before the
40-foot Christmas
tree is turn on. The
fire works and enter-
tainment is also held
during the new year
The Tattered Cover
book store, one of
the largest in the
U.S., overs varieties
of program such as
book fairs, confer-
ences, story telling
for children and
author appearances.
a in ina
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
This map approxi-
mately shows the
existing functions
along Wynkoop
Street. A mixed use
lofts with others func-
tion such as retails,
offices, restaurant
are prominent. There
have been significant
changes in the LoDo
activities since the
ballpark opening in
1995. The following
are some facts
reported in The
Denver Post on April
-There were 33 art
galleries prior to ball-
park and recently
there are 24.
- More than 25
restaurant were
opened in 1993,
there are currently 60
restaurants in LoDo.
- There were four
brewpubs before
baseball; now there
are nine.
- Before baseball,
there are 270 units:
recently there are
340 units and more
than 370 units are
There are loft and
condominium will be
built closed to
Wynkoop Street.
These are loft adja-
cent to the Chop
house building (A)
and Westside condo-
minium project at
Wewatta Street and
Cherry creek (B).
It was expected that
more people will live
in LoDo. The mix
use neighborhood
attract people to live
in LoDo.
The future facility
dedicated to pedestri-
ans such as the pro-
posed pedestrian
street and pedestrian
open spaces on
Wynkoop Street will
add more amenities
to attract people.
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riiiix fiiiiiiHI w l IF
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
The recent development of boat to
be used on Cherry creek called a Punt will
enrich the activity around the pedestrian
street. This $1.5 million plan will allow
people to paddle the small lock boats from
Larimer to Delgany.17 Each punt can
accommodate four passengers and a punt
guide will explain the importance of the
area in Denvers history. This plan will be
included in the proposed public space at
Cherr>' creek. The Denver history mural
will be accommodated in the public space
where the main punts loading dock will
also be provided.
The existing plan to extend 16th
Street Mall to the CPV is helpful to pro-
vide pedestrians convenient access to the
new pedestrian street. It is also important to
extend the existing 16th St. mall shuttle
route to the CPV so that it will link transit
at Market Station to the proposed pedestrian
street. Currently, there are 90,000 pedestri-
an daily on the 16th St.Mall.18 The exten-
sion plan will encourage the 16th street
pedestrians to experience the unique his-
toric character of new pedestrian street.
4.6 Activities
To promote the pedestrian street
year around activities should be provided.
There are several activities along Wynkoop
Street as shown on the activity map. One
important existing activity is a once a year a
rock music festival on the Denver Union
Station parking lot. It draws thousands of
people to LoDo. However, a better facility
is needed to accommodate this event. For
this purpose, an amphitheater is proposed in
the new public space at Wynkoop and
Cherry creek. This facility will mix gal-
leries, food court, restaurant and possible
movie theater and lofts. Other activities at
the Denver Union station includes: Union
Station tree lighting on every December 1st;
first night of Colorado and fire works on
every January' 1st; the opening of National
Western Stock Show parade; and LoDo
Brewing Festival. These activities will be
kept in Union Station, however a better
Union Station public space is needed
instead of parking lots.
Another important activity is base-
ball. The ballpark stadium at the East end
of Wynkoop Street needs a public plaza.
This Ballpark Plaza will help the fans to
orient themselves to the main pedestrian
open space. This might encourage fans to
stroll or ride the historic trolley through
the pedestrian street and to other recre-
ational facilities either in LoDo or CPV.
The current Mercantile Square
development at Wynkoop and Sixteenth
Street will includes retails, restaurants,
lofts, a Tattered Cover book store and K-
12 charter public school.19 The book store
itself already draws approximately 500
people daily. It provides a variety of activ-
ity such as author appearances, poetry
readings, seminars, story time for children,
conferences and book fairs. The stores
hours from 9:30 a.m. to 11:00 p.m.also
will help the pedestrian street stay alive
day and night.
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
Chapter 5. The Union Station
Pedestrian Street Guidelines
The pedestrian street guidelines are
an important means to formulate ideas as
well as pedestrian street design modeling.
However, they should not be seen as a final
result, rather than the initial process to
invent the best design possible. The process
of pedestrian street design approval is the
most important. It should be as inclusive as
possible to encourage participation from
many parties involved. Those are the offi-
cials, the professionals, the owners, the
neighborhood community, and private orga-
nizations. This process is an effort to find
the solutions that are beyond regulations
and artist drawings and more toward local
The Planning office City and
County of Denver have already adopted the
design review and approval process as well
as the demolition approval process.
However, a more detailed process that re-
quires wide ranges participation is needed.
The following parties are might be
involved in the process: LoDo Community,
LoDo Design Review Board, The landmark
Preservation Commission, Lower
Downtown District Inc. (LDDI), Historic
Denver Inc., Downtown Denver
Partnership, Planning and Community
Development Office, Denver Rail Heritage
society, Greenway Foundation, The great
Denver Chamber Commission, Denver
Renewal Authority (DURA), Downtown
Denver Business Improvement District,
Regional Transportation District, Trillium
Corp., Mercantile Square, Colorado
Rockies Baseball Club, A1P, and AlA.
There are two possibilities of city
involvement in the pedestrian street imple-
mentation. The first is straightly lead the
process and implementation and the second
is facilitate the process without leading it.
University of Colorado at Denver

Planning Office City & Counts- of Denser
Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
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The first case is demonstrated by the
Design and Development office of
Belleveu, Washington Seattle for the project
of Belleveu pedestrian corridor. The city
was involved since the inception. The roles
were as follows:1 the inventory of open
spaces, the set up of the International com-
petition, the integration downtown transit
into the Pedestrian Corridor, the establish-
ment of a Design Review Process and so
on. It seems that there is little public
involvement in the process as shown in the
following quotation: Public notice is giver;
through mailings (to property owners and
tenants within 400feet of the site) and a
large signs placed on the property. The
public can look at the plans and discuss
them with staff but public hearings are not
held. 2
The second role is as a facilitatory
as explained by the Georgia Urban Design
Committee.?The City and County official
organized the Urban Design Committee to
include a group of community leader, city
and county representative, the chamber of
commerce, civic representative, property
University of Colorado at Denver

Planning Office City & County of Dei
Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
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owners and other business interest. This
committee studies the methods and proce-
dures for implementing proposals for rede-
velopment of center city areas. The com-
mittee roles are as follows: set up meet-
ings, identify areas to be studied, define
basic goals, establish priorities, select quali-
fied persons to help analyze problems,
organize citizen participation, complete the
program, create a Design Review Board
and give leadership for continuing problem
solving action.
Combination of both approaches
might be the best. The strong involvement
of the city will help to create a strong pub-
lic policy. It is necessary to provide a clear
vision to the public.4 The strong public par-
ticipation will help to produce a pedestrian
street implementation which represents the
local spirit.
The design process approval is the
most important. It means that the urban
designer can ignore some of the guidelines
as far as approved through the Design
review and approval process. The following
table is the Union Station Pedestrian street
guidelines to help the urban designer to
start the design project.
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
The Union Station Pedestrian Street Guidelines
Zoning All blocks along Wynkoop except blocks from sixteenth to twentieth at north side of Wynkoop are part of B-7 zoning district. Varieties of land uses are permitted in the B-7 zoning ordinance. The new residential development is encouraged to add to the density of Lower Downtown population. The following are some uses permitted at B-7 zoning which may attract pedestrian. a. Entertainment or amusement. b. Art gallery including studio c. Food court, Brew pub, delicatessen store, bakery. d. Fruit store need not be enclosed e. Multi media store, theater f. Renting hall for social occasion. g. Retails i. Offices.
Floor Area Ratio (F.A.R.) In B-7 zoning three types of floor area are excluded from the calculation of gross floor area. Those are street level retails, residen- tial, and unused floor area transformed from contributing buildings. Those premi- ums can increase the FAR ratio to approxi- mately 7.4:1. The floor area premiums are calculated as follows: a. Low height: Building 60 feet or less in height may add FAR to 1:1 b. Residential development: For each sq. ft. of residential space, an additional sq.ft.of The following configuration is an example of maximum using of those exemptions. 2.0 : 1 Base FAR 2.0 : 1 Premium FAR 0.4 : 1 Retail 2.0 : 1 Residential 1.0 : 1 T.D.R. 7.4 : 1 Total gross FAR > < Wl/V Hanning Ollice City & County of IX'nver Transfer Development Right can be applied within LoDo historic district.
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
floor area for any allowed use may added up to a maximum of a 2:1 FAR. c.Parking: For each sq.ft, of underground parking (the parking surface should be at least 5 below grade) an additional sq.ft of floor area may be added up to 2:1 FAR.
Height and Set back. This minimum guide line is based on ordi- nance no 109, 1988. It is designed to encourage the compatibility of new devel- opment with the existing lower downtown (LoDo) historic buildings. At Wynkoop street, the same building height should be maintained. According to the research the same building height at the pedestrian street is very important. It is more important than material, color, and other factors.5 Some exception may apply to the special designed focal point or landmark a. Building height may not exceed 85. The maximum height of 130 should be approved through design consultation process. b. First two stories must be build to proper- ty line at street. Height is ranged between 20 to 60. c. Building height over 60 must set 15 back from property line. d. Building height over 85 must set 25 back along the front zone line. t t 1 j 1 25' 1 b i j 1 ~: IS 1 I 1 In t l l 1 I 5 Li \'3= J Li Planning Office City County of Denver
Facade, Fenestration, and Materials. The goal of facade, materials, and fenestra- tion uses should be to enhance and comple- ment the existing structures and to avoid distraction. Natural color in material is usu- Fenestration and articulation a. Maintain up to a four lot development pattern with vertical elements such as columns, doorways, windows.
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
ally more successful than highly artificial color.6 Special federal green color to be applied on metal surface to conform with LoDo Streetscape Design Guidelines. b. Set in windows at least one brick width from the exterior facade. Materials a. Materials should be harmonious and com- plement the colors, and scale of existing traditional building materials, c Reflective glass, black, bronze are not permitted.
Pedestrian paving. Simple pattern and color is recommended to avoid confusion. The use of level changes is an effective townscape device to have different view of the scene.7 The fol- lowing feature could be manipulated, stairs, platforms, terraces and ramps. However attention must be given to the handicapped accessibility. Elements to be used in the out side are usually be a little larger than the same elements employed in the interior. An exterior step might be 9 in rise which is little higher than an interior step. a. Apply possible varieties of street level using stairs, ramp, platform, etc. b. Handicapped access should be provided along the stairs and at all street intersec- tions. c. Apply the existing pattern at all intersec- tions to conform with the LoDo streetscape guide lines. d. Use simple pattern with natural color for paving to enhance the existing pavement.
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
Emergency access. The emergency access will be used by police cars, ambulances, fire engines. Some times building construction also needs the access for renovation or maintenance. Minimum 12 feet access is recommended. a. Provide the emergency access with mini- mum 12 feet width. b. Ensure the paving strength is adequate for those vehicles.
Sitting and sit- table space. Sittable space is very important for pedes- trians. This is the only factor that shows the closest relation between the sittable space and the number of people based on the research at eleven plazas in New York.8 Other factors, such as the amount of space, the sun, the aesthetic, show a positive but no clear relationship with the number of people. However, these factors with other factors such as wind, should be considered. The best plaza provide the sitting space between 6%-10% of the total open space. People sit at any place between 1 foot to 3 feet height. However, White said that 17 height is probably the optimum.The research also shown that movable sitting is preferable to fixed sitting. Microclimate a. Create sittable spaces which has sun traps. The enclosed three sides is preferable to get a contained sittable space. Temperature at 70 degrees F is the best for people to find the sun traps. b. Use trees or other devices to avoid expose to winds. Chairs and benches a. Provide sittable space in the amount of 6% to 10% of the total open space or one linear foot of sitting space for every 30 sq.feet of plaza. b. Movable chairs are preferable than fixed chairs c. Provide arm chair at least 5% of total chairs.
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
d. Bench is a good feature to exploit, the height of approximately 17 and width of 30 is probably best for sitting. e. Use flat surface possible do double duty as table top or seat.
Lighting Pedestrian street should be used safely day and night. Good lighting can help to fulfill those need besides its aesthetic function. There are two types of lighting : general lighting and pedestrian lighting. Other type such as spotlight can enhance the important building or sculpture. According to the LoDo Streetscape Design Guideline 1991, the existing historic lights should be use. They are used as features to create a dis- tinct historic area. These are: the intermedi- ate light (type A), the pedestrian light (type B), and the overhead light (type C). For specific information on all aspect of light- ing consult the Transportation Division of the Department of Public Works, the Public Service Company, and the Standards of the Illuminating Engineering society of North America. a. Use the overhead light and intermediate light on each intersection at the four street corners. b. Use at least a couple pedestrian light row at the pedestrian side walk. c. Provide three overhead lights at each block. d. Provide four intermediate lights (A) for each block face spaced on an average of 53 feet. Adjust it to curb cuts, alleys, building entrances and other special conditions. e. Provide four to six pedestrian lights (B) per block face, spaced on average of 72 feet adjusted as needed. f. Provide special pedestrian lights with height approximately 8-10 feet to enhance the pedestrian scale. g. Use federal green color for finished paint. , t ^ ' s 5 X Q
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
Trees and Planters Trees are the most important elements in the pedestrian streets. They functionas as aesthetic elements, pollution filters, wind screens, and they control glare and reflec- tions as well as supply shade and greenery The general factors to be considered are as follows:9 -Orientation to the wind intensity and sun -Available drainage and soil characteristic -Size and shape when full grown -Year around experience -Maintenance requirement -Ability to withstand, size and shape -Exposure to vandalism There are three basic shapes of tree which might be applied differently. Those are oval, columnar, and pyramidal. Portable planters are other useful elements They can be arranged for createing immedi- ate aesthetic improvement within urban pedestrian space Size10 a. The public ROW trees should large enough at the time of planting. It should be 3 inch caliper minimum. b. The height should be appropriate to the height of buildings on the street. c. The branching height of mature trees on the traffic side should be no less than 12 feet above the street. d. The branching height of mature trees on pedestrian sidewalks should be no less than 8 feet above sidewalk. Location11 a. Place trees so that their trunks make a stright line along the street side, even the sidewalks width varies. b. Plant trees at 30 to 40 feet intervals along the street. Reduced spacing is possible to make appropriate in certain cases. c. Trees should not be planted closer than 20 feet from projected property' line at all intersections and street corners to maintain visual clear zone. d. Locate trees more or less 36 inches from ; Ash (Fraxinus americana cv.) Mature Form: Oval Mature height: 40 -60 Spacing,Tree lawn:35- 40' Spacing, Grates: 25 -30 Growth rate: Moderate/ rapid. Root system: deep. Characteristic: dark green,shiny foliage. Withstands extremes in soil;tolerates salt,drought w \ f w Columnar Norway Maple (Acer platanoides columnar) Mature form: Columnar Mature height: 50-60'
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
the nearest curb and minimum 5 feet from
Spacing, Tree lawn 30-
the apron of the nearest drive or alley to
Spacing,Grates: 25-30'
maintain a visual clear zone.
e. Locate trees more or less 25 feet from the
Growth rate: moderate
Root System : shallow
nearest utility pole or street light. They can
be adjusted for smaller trees species and
special site conditions.
Characteristic: Dark
green leaves in summer
yellow in fall, withstand
extremes in
soil.Tolerates air pollu-
Planters and soil requirements12
a. Large trees T-10, inside diameter and
soil depth is 3.5, 4.
b. Small trees 4-6, inside diameter and
soil depth is 2.5,3
c. Medium size shrubs 2.5,4, inside diam-
eter and soil depth is 2,2.5
b. Small shrubs 1.5-2, inside diameter and
soil depth is 1.5,T
b. Ground covers, soil depth is 8-12 inch.
Redmon Linden (Tilia x
euchlora redmond)
Mature form: Pyramidal
Mature height: 45-50
Spacing.Tree lawn: 30-
Spacing, grates: 25 -30
Growth rate: Moderate.
Root System: Deep
Characteristic: Large
dark green leaves, pyra-
midal form with ascend-
ing branches,dense,
prefers moist fertile soils
but will tolerate with dry.
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
Pools & foun- tains The pools and fountain are placed at all three public spaces (at Cherry creek and Wynkoop, Union Station and Ballpark Plaza). These features have recently become a standard in contemporary envi- ronmental design. They add the pleasing sound of falling water. There are several factors to be considered as follows:13 -Scale: The pool and fountain scale is very important. Therefore, the size and volume should be proportionally designed to the overall spatial environment. -materials: Numerous materials can be used such as concrete, stone, brick, tile, metal and plastics. However, concrete and brick or tile is the most popular due to the low cost and flexibility. -detailing: The right detailing is very cru- cial. The following elements should be studied further : appropriate waterdepth, reliable waterstop, reliable manufacture component, mechanical room size and loca- tion, and possible vandalism and safety. a. Provide pools and fountains for recre- ational features in three major public spaces. b. Avoid fountain drench to the passerby due to in appropriate size or cross wind. The rule of thumb for vertical water display is that the fountain height should be one- half the diameter of the pool basin. c. A pools depth of 24 is recommended. d. If wading is possible the following should be evaluated: waterdepth, ledges, changes in pool levels, material slipperiness, chlori- nation.
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
Banner pools Banner pools might be placed at Cherry Creek public space and Ballpark Plaza. The inclusion of banner pools add the visual excitement of color and movement. They become important design elements which add vertical dimension. The poles height should be in scale with the space, build- ings, and other surrounding design ele- ments. There are two major types of banner.14 Poles with banners permanently attached require periodic maintenance with overhead lift equipment. Poles with banners temporary attached are easily raised and lowered. The last one is cheaper to main- tain than the previous one. a. Include banner poles on appropriate space. b. The height should be in scale with the buildings and other adjacent design ele- ments. c. The distant between poles should be related to the banners size. This is to avoid snagging and tearing due to in appropriate distant. d. The banner poles placement should not obstruct the pedestrian movements. e. Steel or alumunium might be used. However, the design should have elements that relate to the existing historic design elements such as light poles. f. Use the federal green color as finished paint
Drinking foun- tains There are two types drinking fountains: the frost proof and non-frost proof. The non- frost proof is limited to spring, summer and fall uses. The quality fountain drinking is initially expensive but it will less costly on the long run.15 a. Provide drinking fountains in modular distant, along the pedestrian street. b. Drinking fountains should be accessible to handicapped. c. Use the style that fit to the whole pedes- trian street design. d. Provide a quality products which have less maintenance.
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
Trash recepta- cles A litter control is a major problem in any urban areas. To reduce these problems, trash receptacles at strategic places are required. They must be designed as part of integral pedestrian street design. In general, receptacles should have smooth, non porous finishes, especially on interior surfaces. The receptacle design should be distinct enough from other design elements so that they will be easily recognized. a. Provide trash receptacles at obvious and strategic places. b. The receptacles design should be part of integral pedestrian street design. c. Drain holes for rain water should be pro- vided. d. It is possible to use the existing LoDo trash receptacle style.
Bollards Bollards have multi functions such as barri- er to vehicle, seat, sign and light support.This element can enhance the unity if they are repetitively used. They should be located where pedestrian and vehicular traffic are to be separated or as an indication of conflicting uses. Bollards usu- ally extend 1.5-3 below finish grade.16 The height and diameter should be appro- priate to their function. a. Provide bollards to separate pedestrians and vehicular or to separate a conflicting function areas. b. Several materials can be used, such as concrete, metal or wood but concrete and metal are recommended c. Bollards should extend 2.5-3 below fin- ish grade. d. Use Bollards as multiple uses such as sit- ting place, lighting feature,etc.
Shelters and Kiosks Shelters and kiosks are build to protect pedestrians from rain, sun, wind and snow. The design variations of this feature are limitless. However, they should be comple- a. Provide shelters or kiosks at strategic places. b. The shelter or kiosk design should be part of integral pedestrian street design.
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
mentary to the surrounding facilities. Several facilities usually included in this place such as information displays, clock, drinking fountain, telephone, emergency equipment and toilet. c. A variety materials can be used such as wood, concrete, metal, or plastic. However, material that have been used for other pedestrian street furniture should be consid- ered. It includes federal green metal which should be repeated in the kiosk design.
Graphic and Signage A comprehensive pedestrian street graphic design program includes four areas of sig- nages: Traffic sign, Commercial sign, Infor mational sign and Mall identity sign.17 Traffic sign includes routes marker, street name, stop sign, directional sign, parking sign, sign devices at crossing etc. Good coordinated commercial signs will improve overall pedestrian street. It is important to encourage merchants to work together with graphic designers. The information sign should help pedestrian to find their needs. It could be the information display features with map, directory or free informational leaflet. The pedestrian street logo is very important. It is not only help the pedestrian customized the facility within LoDo but also as a means for promotional activity. The signages below should be provided: a. District gateway sign at every street intersection on the perimeter of LoDo his- toric district. b. Traffic signs to conform with the feder- als manual of uniform traffic control devices. c. Commercial sign should be appropriate, in scale with pedestrian and respect to existing architecture. d. Information sign should visually distinc- tive from traffic sign. It should help pedes- trians to find important destination such as parking, telephone, toilet, shopping, enter- tainment, restaurant, and historic building. e. Create a unique logo for the Union Station pedestrian street. k F I* k / \
Historic District Gateway Sign DHM 1991
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Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
1Hinshaw, Mark L, AIA, AICP. Transforming
Suburb, in The Tenth Annual Pedestrian
Conference. Boulder, 1989, p.41-90.
2Hinshaw, idem p.89.
3The Georgia Urban Design Committee. The
Urban Design Implementation Process,, in the
Downtown Mall Annual & Urban Design report
Vol.4. ed. Alexander, Laurence A, p.77-80
4Hinshaw, idem, p.90.
5Jacobs, Alan B.City Street and Their
Contexts, in The Tenth Annual Pedestrian
Conference. Boulder, 1989, p,44.
6Wood, Alfred A. Putting the city on its feet, in
the Sixth Annual Pedestrian Conference
Proceedings. Boulder. 1985, p.14.
7Wood, idem, p.14
8White, William H. The social life of Small
Urban Spaces. Washington DC: The
Conservation Foundation, 1980, p.24-43.
90Meal, N David, AlA.The Pedestrian Mall as
a Downtown Solution, in The Downtown Mall
annual & Urban Design Report Vol 4.
Ed. Laurence A Alexander
1 City & County of Denver. Lower Downtown
Streetscaoe Design Guidelines. Denver. 1991,
11City & County of Denver, idem, p.23-29.
12Bachtle, Edward R & Associate,Design
Criteria for Development of Pedestrian Areas,
in The Downtown Mall Annual & Urban Design
Report Vol.4. Ed. Laurence A Alexander, p.35.
13Bachtle, Edward R & Associate, idem, p.43-
14Bachtle, Edward R & Associate, idem, p.40-
15Bachtle, Edward R & Associate, idem, p.38.
16Bachtle, Edward R & Associate, idem, p.40.
17Turner, Tracy,Establishing a Graphic Design
Program for Your Downtown Mall, in the
Downtown Malls an Annual Review Vol. 2.
ed. Laurence A Alexander, p.75.
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Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
Chapter 6. The Pedestrian Street Design.
The following chapter is the Union
station pedestrian street design and model-
ing. In this design, the proposed new func-
tions will accommodate the recent and the
possible future activities as indicated in the
tendency of growing activity such as restau-
rant, brew pubs, lofts, and retails. These are
discussed in the chapter 4. The understand-
ing of expected activities that occur in the
pedestrian street is very important for the
success of pedestrian street. It is also cheap-
er if the design facilitates the predicted
activity from the beginning than after the
pedestrian street completion.
The aesthetic considerations of
design such as Mass, Unity, Scale,
Proportion, Rhythm and Balance are impor-
tant. Color and Texture should complement
the existing brick buildings. Other impor-
tant elements such as light, either natural
or artificial, are critical to create shadows.
Sound is another element to be considered
to create a unique pedestrian street environ-
The Union Station has three basic
forms. These are curved openings on the
main entrance facade and a combination of
sloped and flat roof. These basic curve,
slope and fiat elements are employed in the
design either on building mass or plans.
As indicated by White, the most
important design elements on the pedestriar
street or public space to invite people are
Sun, Sitting Space, Trees and Water, Food.
These are included by providing three
major public spaces where sitting spaces,
trees, water, food courts or vendors and sun
traps are easily arranged.
The design includes the existing
proposed canoe Punt and the extension of
the historic trolley track into the Ballpark.
The major Canoe punt docking is provided
in the public space at Wynkoop and Cherry
creek. The historic trolley will have two
shelter stops. The first stop at Wynkoop anc
15th Street and the last stop at the Ballpark
The design is not intended to pro-
vide final or detailed solutions, but rather
schematic. It will provide the architects
enough room for their creativity to investi-
gate the unique solution for each places.
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
The pedestrian street
is designed along 6
blocks of Wynkoop.
It is anchored by
three proposed main
public spaces. The
Cherry Creek
Amphitheater and the
Ballpark Plaza on
either end of the
strip and the Union
Station Public Plaza
in the middle.
New buildings should
be limited to approxi-
mately 65 feet to 85
feet and built to the
side walk to conform
with existing historic
The proposed pedes-
trian steel bridge on
Cherry creek is an
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
This diagram (below)
shows the proposed
main uses.
Lofts (2-8 stories)
Offices (2-3 stories)
Mixed gallery &
retails (2-3 stories)
Block I Plan.
1. Mixed uses of
gallery, retail, office
and lofts.
2. Existing mixed use
3. Existing parking lot.
4. Outdoor sculpture
5. Amphitheater
6. Backstage & storage
7. Punt Canoe Creek
8. Playground
9. Viewing place
Block I of Wynkoop is
designed for pedestri-
an and bicycle only.
However, emergency
vehicles and police
cars have access to
this area.
There are five pedes-
trian levels: the river
& stage the street,
the first floor roof, the
second floor roof and
third floor roof.
The highest building
in this area is 14 sto-
ries to allow the pre-
mium benefit due to
the low level of
amphitheater. It also
to accommodate
possible Transfer
Development Right
allowed within LoDo
Historic District.
However, it must be
set back far from
Wynkoop Street.
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
New activity in this
dead end of the
street is important to
attract people and
make this area liv-
able. The facility
includes an amphi-
theater, gallery, retail,
possible movie the-
ater, food court, and
play ground. A mural
of Denver history will
be placed along the
curved wall of Cherry
This area becomes
a point of interest for
bicyclists and pedes-
trians from Cherry
creek trail, which may
lead to the Ballpark
and Sixteenth Street
Mall through the pro-
posed Union Station
pedestrian oriented
The unused histone
bridge is elevated to
a regional landmark
by building a new
bold pedestrian steel
The history of Denver
curved mural wall.
Block 1 perspective
from Speer boulevard
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
Unlike block I, this
section is designed
for pedestrian and
cars. However, The
pedestrian sidewalks
are dominant in size.
The one-story addi-
tion on the front of
the bulky office build-
ing gives more
pedestrian scale. The
repeated dominant
column and transpar-
ent wall is used for
the same purpose.
The use of an inner
court will reduce the
bulky mass of the
building and give
better day lighting.
The proposed new
function of this build-
ing is : retails and the
department stores on
the ground floor; The
New College of
Architecture and
Planning on the sec-
ond floor; and lofts
on the third to the
sixth floors.
The first trolley stop
shelter at this pedes-
trian street is provid-
ed in the front of the
Post Office building
closed to play
ground. The play
ground will be used
for the future K12
School as planned by
the Mercantile
Square. Bollards will
be provided to sepa-
rate both functions.
Block II
I .Renovated existing
union station.
2. Proposed inner court.
3. Gallery/Gift store
4. Food court, play
5. Fxisting mixed uses

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
The existing of
Denver Historic
Trolley extension
plan is incorporated
in this design. The
trolley established in
the 1890s. The trol-
ley began operating
again in 1989. There
were 52,292 riders in
The trolley will stop
and link the
McNichols Arena,
Childrens Museum,
the future Colorado
Ocean Journey,
Elitch's Park, the pro-
posed pedestrian
street, Sixteenth
Street Mall and the
Ballpark. This linkage
will allow more peo-
ple to come into the
proposed pedestrian
The general function
of the trolley will be
an urban tourist or
pedestrian connector,
an event" shuttle
and an historic and
recreational attrac-
Perspective of the
second block of
Wynkoop Street.
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
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University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented street, LoDo Denver
The front area of
Union Station is one
of the most important
spaces for celebrat-
ing the pedestrian,
(the others are on
two both ends of
Wynkoop street, the
proposed Ballpark
Plaza and Cherry
Creek Amphitheater).
These specially
designed spaces will
anchor the pedestri-
an street along
Block III & IV Plan
1. Proposed new build-
2. Existing Union
3. Existing Sunken gar-
The Wynkoop Street
segments on block III
and IV are designed
as semi pedestrian
oriented street. Cars
can drive through the
20 feet width street to
allow train passen-
gers to be picked up
and dropped off.
An arcade designed
along the new build-
ings and Union
Station lead the
pedestrian to parks
on the left and right
Union Station wings.
The new building
height is 65 feet to
define the street and
95 feet set back. The
arcade and glassing
provide transparency
to the street wall.
However, the careful
design of the glass
wall maintains the
harmony with adja-
cent historic build-
The new function is
mixed-use retail,
gallery, and food court
on the ground to the
third floors, and
offices on the other

University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
Perspective of Block
III & IV (middle), the
Union Station left and
right wings infill.
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
Block V Wynkoop
section is designed
as semi-pedestrian
street. Cars from
19th street can go to
the Union Station. It
will also allow cars to
find the parking area
North of Wynkoop
Street. Block VI is
designed as pedestri-
an island. The
Ballpark Plaza can
be reached from
many sides through
pedestrian alleys.
The new functions
include retail, gallery,
restaurant, cafe, pub,
office, loft, and park-
ing structure.
Hopefully, many of
50,000 base ball fans
can take advantage
of this plaza before or
after games.
The trolley shelter is
provided for pedestri-
ans who want to ride
to the recreation
facilities in either
Central Platte Valley
or LoDo. The circular
elevated platform is
designed at the cen-
ter of the plaza to
accommodate a tem-
porary performance
to attract pedestrians
Block V & VI Plan
L New mixed uses
2. New parking struc-
3. Existing restaurant
4. Future tofts
5. Trolley shelter
6 Ballpark stadium
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
Encouraging the
development of resi-
dential lofts is part of
the LoDo policy.
Currently, the loft
development has
become a growing
business. The
emphasis on lofts,
together with mixed-
use retail in this area
is also meant to
guarantee 24 hour
livable here.
Mixed uses of
retail, gallery,
Residents are impor-
tant to help keep the
pedestrian street
Even though parking
is available around
Lo Do, the new
sixstory parking
structure is important
to help people
access the Ballpark
Paza as well as the
pedestrian street.
Parking struc-
restaurant. m ffices 'V
cafe, and con-
venient store. Lofts


University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
The Ballpark Plaza
(center) is part of the
pedestrian island cre-
ated from 19th Street
to 20 Street adjacent
to the ballpark stadi-
um. The bird eye
view was taken from
Wynkoop toward
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
The bottom left pic-
ture (7) was taken
from the second floor
of B building. Part of
the second floor
platform will connect
the building A, B, C,
D and parking struc-
ture (E).
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
The last trolley shel-
ter stop is provided in
the Ballpark Plaza.
This facility may
encourage the ball-
park fans to ride and
go to the several
recreation facilities
either in LoDo or
Central Platte Valley.
University of Colorado at Denver

Union Station Pedestrian Oriented Street, LoDo Denver
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University of Colorado at Denver