Citation
Climate analysis and design implications for architecture in the Denver Metropolitan region

Material Information

Title:
Climate analysis and design implications for architecture in the Denver Metropolitan region
Creator:
Fletcher, Lisa Kristiane
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
192 leaves : illustrations ; 28 cm

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Architecture and climate -- Colorado -- Denver Metropolitan Area ( lcsh )
Architecture and climate ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver Metropolitan Area ( fast )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 190-192).
General Note:
College of Architecture and Planning
Statement of Responsibility:
by Lisa Kristiane Fletcher.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
48460847 ( OCLC )
ocm48460847
Classification:
LD1190.A72 2001m .F53 ( lcc )

Full Text
Climate Analysis and Design Implications for Architecture
in the Denver Metropolitan Region
by
Lisa Kristiane Fletcher
B.S., Arizona State University, 1981
A thesis submitted to the
Graduate School of Architecture and Planning
of the University of Colorado at Denver
in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Architecture
1996


This thesis for the Master of Architecture
degree by
Lisa Kristiane Fletcher
has been approved
by
a
7-5-flr
Date


CONTENTS
THESIS STATEMENT.......................................1
REEXAMINING THE CLIMATE................................2
Overview............................................2
Previous Climate Models..............................3
The Search for a New Climate pattern................9
Profiling the Days..................................16
WINTER: CLEAR DAY CLIMATE CHART...................18
WINTER: CLEAR NIGHT CLIMATE CHART.................19
WINTER: STORMY DAY CLIMATE CHART..................20
WINTER: STORMY NIGHT CLIMATE CHART................21
SPRING: Clear Day Climate Chart...................22
SPRING: Clear Night Climate Chart.................23
SPRING: Stormy Day Climate Chart..................24
SPRING: Stormy Night Climate Chart................25
SUMMER: CLEAR Day CLIMATE CHART...................26
SUMMER: CLEAR NIGHT CLIMATE CHART.................27
SUMMER: STORMY DAY CLIMATE CHART..................28
SUMMER: STORMY NIGHT CLIMATE CHART................29
SUMMER: THUNDERSTORM DAY CLIMATE CHART............30
SUMMER: THUNDERSTORM NIGHT CLIMATE CHART..........31
FALL: Clear day Climate Chart.....................32
FALL: Clear Night Climate Chart...................33
FALL: STORMY DAY CLIMATE CHART....................34
FALL: STORMY NIGHT CLIMATE CHART..................35


DESIGN IMPLICATIONS....................................36
Overview............................................36
Consolidating the Types of Days......................36
Generation of Objectives.............................37
Architectural Responses for Typical days.............40
WINTER: CLEAR DAY ARCHITECTURE CHART...............48
WINTER: STORMY DAY ARCHITECTURE CHART..............49
WINTER: NIGHT ARCHITECTURE CHART...................50
SPRING/FALL: CLEAR DAY ARCHITECTURE CHART..........51
SPRING/FALL: STORMY DAY ARCHITECTURE CHART.........52
SPRING/FALL: NIGHT ARCHITECTURE CHART..............53
SUMMER: CLEAR/THUNDERSTORM DAY ARCHITECTURE CHART..54
SUMMER: STORMY DAY ARCHITECTURE CHART..............55
SUMMER: CLEAR/THUNDERSTORM NIGHT ARCHITECTURE CHART .... 56
SUMMER: STORMY NIGHT ARCHITECTURE CHART............57
Seasonal Summaries...................................58
CONCLUSION.............................................60
APPENDIX...............................................64
REFERENCES............................................190


THESIS STATEMENT
Climate analysis for the purposes of architectural design has in the past
typically consisted of compiling monthly average high and low
temperatures and humidities for a given location. This information could
then be graphed and compared to the human comfort zone to determine
the way that architecture should respond to the climate. While this
method provides some general understanding of Denvers regional
climate, it does not describe it in sufficient detail to design
appropriately. In order to better understand the climate of the Denver
metropolitan area, and in turn design for it, it is necessary to look at
more than just the averages, since Denvers climate is defined more by
its variation than its uniformity. A clear spring day is completely
different from a stormy spring day. Rather than looking at only an
average spring day, of which there are very few, the different types of
spring days must be considered. The different types of days will be
profiled and then it will be possible to determine the appropriate
architectural responses to each. Design objectives will be generated for
each type of day. Architectural strategies which respond to each climate
objective will be determined. The design strategies will be geared toward
small, skin-dominated buildings such as residences, in which the interior
comfort is closely tied to the exterior conditions. These strategies could
also be used for other small buildings in which a greater responsive to
the environment is desired. This procedure of profiling the typical days
and then determining the appropriate design strategies for each typical
day will allow the architecture to be fine tuned to Denvers specific
climate instead of responding to only its generalities.
1


REEXAMINING THE CLIMATE
This thesis contains two major components, one devoted to climate and
the other to design. This first section will provide an in-depth analysis of
the Denver regional climate, in an effort to distill new insights from
available weather data. The second will take this information and
consider its implications for architectural design.
The climate research portion of this thesis will attempt to analyze our
climate in a new way. Rather than simply looking at average high and
low temperatures, analysis will begin with raw weather data. For each
season, the actual climate statistics will be examined in order to
ascertain the degree of variability from the norm. This is not to consider
only the extremes, but to instead determine the times of the year when
weather parameters regularly fall out of the normal range. It will then be
possible to discern new patterns which take into account the different
types of days rather than just the statistically average day for each
season. Using this concept of typical days instead of averages leads to
a better understanding of the climate which can be used to design more
effectively.
The weather data used is from the National Center for Atmospheric
Research (NCAR) from Stapleton International Airport, Denver,
Colorado for the period 1950-1959. This time period was used because
it was the largest block of consecutive recent years with hourly
2


observations. This was necessary to view the pattern of weather over the
course of a day. Charts showing the values of the key weather
parameters used for all years are presented in graphic charts in the
Appendix.
Previous Climate Models
The first step in analyzing our climate is to consider the failings of the
previous methods. One of the usual methods of climate analysis is to
plot average high and low temperatures and humidities on a bioclimatic
graph, comparing them to a human comfort zone. When this is done for
Denver, the result indicates a climate that is mostly well below the
comfort zone, with only July and August extending above the comfort
level. Figure 1 illustrates that this method indicates Denver is a very
cold climate and will be in a heating mode for as much as ten months.
This analysis leads to an architecture heavily oriented toward heat gain: a
closed, compact architecture meant to minimize heat loss through the
building envelope, allowing for solar gain from the south.
3


100
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90
80
70
30
20
10
__________I_________I_________I__________I_________I_________I_________I__________I_________I__________
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
RcUtive Humidity (%)
Figure 1
In fact, Denvers weather is much more complicated than this. Through
most of the year, the local climate pattern consists of alternating periods
of colder than average days when storm fronts move through and warmer
4


than average mostly sunny days between storm systems. Day time high
temperatures regularly reach into the 60s and even 70s in all months of
the year. Summer can be very hot; spring and fall are considered by
many residents to be the most comfortable times of the year.
This apparent inconsistency can be resolved by looking at "raw" data
instead of the averages typically used to describe a local climate. The
most noticeable quality of Denvers climate is its variability, i.e. the
temperatures are often well above or below the "normals" for a particular
day, especially in the fall, winter, and spring. In fact, in the winter the
temperatures are outside the normal range as often as they are inside of
it. While there are some very cold days that bring the overall averages
down, there are also quite a few comfortable days. For example, in
1993, which had a yearly average temperature slightly below normal,
there were 177 days, almost one of every two days, when the high
temperature was above 65. In the summer the highs are mostly well
above this and in the winter 65 is considered very temperate. This
indicates that even though the nights may cool down, on almost half the
days of the year it is warm enough to open the building envelope to allow
fresh air inside during the daytime. Therefore, an architecture that is
primarily compact and closed in on itself does not seem to be
appropriate.
One example of this problem with using only averages can be seen by
examining data on wind direction. The commonly held belief is that the
wind around Denver comes from the south in the summer and from the
north in the winter. However, weather data indicate that the average
5


wind direction is from the south during every month of the year
including winter months. The wind actually comes from different
directions much of the time all year, but since it comes from the south
more than any other direction, the average is south. When this is looked
at more carefully, the weather data will show that there is more of a
difference in wind direction between day and night than between
summer and winter.
Another way to compare average statistics to actual occurrences is to
compare daily temperatures to the normal (or average) temperature
range. Figure 2 plots observed temperatures for 1959 against the
normal temperature range. Temperatures above normal are shown in
pink, within the normal range are colored green, and below normal are
shown in blue. This chart illustrates how through most of the year the
temperatures swing from well above normal to well below normal. In
fact, for the three seasons of fall, winter, and spring this is the case.
Summer, on the other hand, is much more stable and predictable, with
temperatures within normal most of the time.
Figure 3 views the same year in a slightly different manner. Daily highs
and daily lows are each plotted and compared to expected highs and
lows. When the high or low temperature is above normal, the difference
from normal is indicated in pink. When the temperature is below
normal, its difference is indicated in blue. This chart displays the
magnitude of variation from normal, again showing large variability in
fall, winter and spring and more regularity in summer. Graphs of other
years showing this pattern can be found in the Appendix.
6


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Temperature (Degrees F.)
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1959 Temperatures vs. Normal High & Low


8
1959 High & Low Temperatures vs. Normal


The amount of variability from normal can be determined statistically.
The high temperature of each day can be compared to the normal for
that day of the year. These differences are then used to determine how
far the temperatures fluctuate by calculating the standard deviation of
actual temperatures from normal. When this is done for the ten years
1950-1959, the standard deviation for winter days is 15 degrees while
the standard deviation for summer days is approximately 7. The
standard deviation describes the variation from normal within which half
the data points lie. In other words, on half the winter days the high
temperature is within 15 degrees of normal, and outside that window on
the other half. So for a typical January day where the average high is
around 43 degrees, half the days will have highs between 28 and 58
degrees, and half the days will have high temperatures either above or
below that range. This is clearly a very wide range. On the other hand,
the average high for July is 88 degrees. Half the daily highs will be
between 81 and 95, and the other half will be outside of this window.
This demonstrates that summer days vary statistically much less from
their normal than do winter days.
The Search for a New Climate Pattern
The previous examples illustrate the main problem with using averages to
define our climate: by averaging too much, the character of Denvers
climate is lost. Of course, every single day cannot be considered
separately. It is necessary to generalize to some degree to use the
information at all effectively for architectural design.
9


The continuous swing of winter days between above and below normal
temperatures leads to the concept of types of days. Residents of
Colorado know that the clear, warm winter days and the cold, stormy
winter days are completely different. Similarly, the architecture
appropriate to each type of day would be different. If the days can be
grouped into types, then they can be described in climatic terms such as
temperature, humidity, cloud cover, wind speed and direction, and
precipitation.
This section will demonstrate how the days have been grouped into
typical days and how the weather data was then distilled to form a
profile of that typical day. As an example, the winter of 1959 will be
considered. Figure 4 shows a plot of weather parameters for January of
1959. The chart contains quite a lot of valuable information. The first
graph plots hourly temperatures and humidity for the month. The next
shows cloud coverage, with 100% indicating that the sky is entirely
covered. After this come the wind charts, one for wind direction and
one for wind speed in miles per hour. The wind direction is plotted in
degrees, 0 through 360, starting at North and moving clockwise. 90
degrees represents an easterly wind, 180 degrees a southerly wind, 270
degrees a westerly wing, and 360 degrees represents a northerly wind. A
wind direction of 0 signifies calm (no wind). The last chart shows
precipitation. Each line shows a different type of precipitation, e.g.
snow, rain, hail, etc.
10


Wind direction Cloud Cover % Humidity & Temperature
Year = 1959
January
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-1- snow, snow pellets, ice crystals
-r snow showers, snow squalls, snow grains
-r sleet, sleet showers, hail
-r fog, blowing dust, blowing sand
-r smoke, haze, dust, blowing snow
Figure 4
11


When a months weather parameters are considered in this graphical
format, it is easier to see patterns, both across each graph and between
different graphs at the same time. Viewing the second plot, which shows
cloud cover for the entire month, the contrast between clear and
completely overcast days is very evident. The periods of time when the
sky is completely covered with clouds in general last from one to two
days. Other times are mostly clear, generally for longer lengths of time.
There are very few instances of cloud cover in the 50-90% range which
last for any significant length of time.
The temperature curve, colored in red on the first graph, shows its own
patterns. The day and night swings of temperature repeat fairly regularly
on many of the days, being especially clear from January 5th through
January 13th. At other times in the month, the temperature shows little
or no daytime increase and generally decreases for one to several days
(for example, January 2nd to 3rd and January 19th to 20th.) Comparing
these two graphs shows that the days of falling temperatures correspond
to blocks of time with 100% cloud cover. Days with a pronounced day
to night temperature curve align with predominantly clear days. Relative
humidity, is shown in blue on the first graph with temperature. Relative
humidity follows a curve that is generally reciprocal to temperature,
though it is not as smooth.
The next graph, wind direction, appears at first to have little pattern or
organization. The most obvious trend is the predominance of data
points around 180 degrees equating to a southerly wind. When wind
direction is compared to the graph of cloud cover directly above, strong
12


breaks in the generally southerly winds correspond to blocks of time with
100% cloud cover. At these times the wind comes from mostly 45 to 90
degrees, or 360 degrees, indicating a trend of northerly to north-easterly
winds. It was not possible to find a pattern in the wind speed shown in
the next graph, which varies apparently randomly from 0 to 20 miles per
hour.
All types of precipitation are shown in the last graph. Each line does not
show quantity of precipitation, which was not available, but rather the
value of the precipitation parameter stored in the weather database, with
each value corresponding to a different type of precipitation. The fourth
line from the top shows times when snow, snow pellets, and ice crystals
were observed. A key to all the precipitation types and associated values
in included in the Appendix. What can be seen from scanning this last
graph is that in general the times of observed precipitation are associated
with the times of maximum cloud cover.
For winter, spring, and fall the trend is the same periods of mostly
complete overcast and often precipitation alternate with extended
periods of very clear skies and pronounced temperature curves. The
summer months, on the other hand, look much different. Figure 5
shows the weather data for July, 1959.
One of the first noticeable differences is that the temperature curve is
much more regular. All days show a definite increase in daytime
temperatures. Additionally, the range between daily highs and lows is
fairly constant throughout the month. As with January, the humidity
13


Wind speed Wind direction Cloud Cover % Humidity & Temperature
Year = 1959
July
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Figure 5
14


curve is generally opposite the temperature curve, but slightly less
regular.
The cloud cover shows a very different pattern. There are very few days
of mostly clear or continuous cloud cover. Many days show a time with
little or no clouds as well as a spike of cloud cover reaching 90% to
100%. The graphs plots days consisting of 24 hours starting at midnight.
The peak in cloud cover usually occurs in the second half of this period,
or between noon and midnight. There are only a couple totally clear
days (July 8 and 9) and there is only one day of steady overcast (July 26.)
It is harder to detect a pattern in the wind direction graph. As with
January, there is a concentration of data points around 180 degrees, or
south. The breaks from 180 are less well-defined and do not appear to
correlate to either cloudiness or precipitation below. Wind speed is the
most difficult and no pattern is noticeable when the data is viewed this
way.
The graphs of precipitation for this month show occurrences of
thunderstorms, rain, and hail. Since this data only indicates that a given
form of precipitation was occurring at the time of the weather data
recording, there could be significantly more precipitation than this chart
indicates. When many years are combined in the next section, this
information will be a little more useful. Charts such as these for all the
years considered are included in the Appendix.
15


Profiling the Days
By looking at charts like these and plots of days at a much finer
resolution, each day was categorized as to its type. The days were
broken down into twelve hour periods from 6 a.m. to 5 p.m. and from 6
p.m. to 5 a.m. and then categorized as clear, stormy, or afternoon
thunderstorm (for the summer months.) This allowed for a greater
degree of accuracy in separating the days since naturally they do not
change from one type to another precisely at midnight. Even with this
there were still periods that were clearly transition times from one type
to another, such as a day that starts completely clear and when a storm
rolls in the second half of the day is totally overcast. On this type of day,
the temperature would climb following a clear day pattern and then drop
off rapidly with the storm. These days were marked as transition days
and not included in either type. Finally, there were a few odd days that
did not fit any of these patterns, such as a day that was around 50%
clouds throughout the whole day. It could not be classified as clear,
stormy, or even afternoon thunderstorm (which may average 50% clouds,
but contains both clear and 90%-100% cloud cover.) These days were
not included in the standard types since the objective is to parameterize
the most common types of days.
Using this process, each day and night of the years was categorized.
They were divided based first on season and then on weather conditions.
For each season there is a clear and a stormy day type. Additionally, in
summer a third weather pattern occurs frequently, the afternoon
16


thunderstorm. This day generally starts as a clear day and by afternoon
the clouds have increased to cover the majority of the sky. There are
often thunderstorms and sometimes rain. The days and nights of similar
type and season were combined from all the years. Data from all these
times was then grouped and analyzed to come up with a typical profile
for that day. There are nine climate categories that were grouped and
profiled, with separate days and nights for each type:
Clear Stormy Thunderstorm
Winter Day / Night Day / Night
Spring Day / Night Day / Night
Summer Day / Night Day / Night Day / Night
Fall Day / Night Day / Night
The following charts display the average temperature, humidity,
and cloud cover for each type of day or night. Precipitation is
grouped into snow, rain, and thunderstorm. Wind diagrams show
the frequency that the wind comes from each direction at two
hour increments.
17


Notes:
All graphs show averages for each hour for this type
of day/night.
Precipitation is broken down into type: snow, rain,
thunderstorm. The percentage of days with each
type of precipitation at the given hour is shown.
The wind diagrams indicate which direction the wind
comes from at each hour. The graph incidates the
percentage of the time the wind comes from each
of the sixteen directions.
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Notes:
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Notes:
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Notes:
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Precipitation is broken down into type: snow, rain,
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25


100
Notes:
All graphs show averages for each hour for this type
of day/night.
Precipitation is broken down into type: snow, rain,
thunderstorm. The percentage of days with each
type of precipitation at the given hour is shown.
The wind diagrams indicate which direction the wind
comes from at each hour. The graph incidates the
percentage of the time the wind comes from each
of the sixteen directions.
6am 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5pm
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rain
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100
Notes:
All graphs show averages for each hour for this type
of day/night.
Precipitation is broken down into type: snow, rain,
thunderstorm. The percentage of days with each
type of precipitation at the given hour is shown.
The wind diagrams indicate which direction the wind
comes from at each hour. The graph incidates the
percentage of the time the wind comes from each
of the sixteen directions.
Wind Direction by Hour:
6:00 p.m. N 8:00 p.m. N
6pm 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5am
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Notes:
All graphs show averages for each hour for this type
of day/night.
Precipitation is broken down into type: snow, rain,
thunderstorm. The percentage of days with each
type of precipitation at the given hour is shown.
The wind diagrams indicate which direction the wind
comes from at each hour. The graph incidates the
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4:00 p.m. N
28


Notes:
All graphs show averages for each hour for this type
of day/night.
Precipitation is broken down into type: snow, rain,
thunderstorm. The percentage of days with each
type of precipitation at the given hour is shown.
The wind diagrams indicate which direction the wind
comes from at each hour. The graph incidates the
percentage of the time the wind comes from each
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Wind Direction by Hour:
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Notes:
All graphs show averages for each hour for this type
of day/night.
Precipitation is broken down into type: snow, rain,
thunderstorm. The percentage of days with each
type of precipitation at the given hour is shown.
The wind diagrams indicate which direction the wind
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Notes:
All graphs show averages for each hour for this type
of day/night.
Precipitation is broken down into type: snow, rain,
thunderstorm. The percentage of days with each
type of precipitation at the given hour is shown.
The wind diagrams indicate which direction the wind
comes from at each hour. The graph incidates the
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Notes:
All graphs show averages for each hour for this type
of day/night.
Precipitation is broken down into type: snow, rain,
thunderstorm. The percentage of days with each
type of precipitation at the given hour is shown.
The wind diagrams indicate which direction the wind
comes from at each hour. The graph incidates the
percentage of the time the wind comes from each
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33


Notes:
All graphs show averages for each hour for this type
of day/night.
Precipitation is broken down into type: snow, rain,
thunderstorm. The percentage of days with each
type of precipitation at the given hour is shown.
The wind diagrams indicate which direction the wind
comes from at each hour. The graph incidates the
percentage of the time the wind comes from each
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34


Notes:
All graphs show averages for each hour for this type
of day/night.
Precipitation is broken down into type: snow, rain,
thunderstorm. The percentage of days with each
type of precipitation at the given hour is shown.
The wind diagrams indicate which direction the wind
comes from at each hour. The graph incidates the
percentage of the time the wind comes from each
of the sixteen directions.
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35


DESIGN IMPLICATIONS
Overview
This section of the thesis will explore design strategies that respond to
the findings of the climatological research and analysis section. With a
better understanding of the climate, it is possible to define objectives
that the architectural responses should achieve. The days and nights can
also be grouped together where the design objectives are the same for
different types of days. Design strategies which satisfy these objectives
will then be chosen to respond to particular types of days and aspects of
our climate, rather than to an entire season or year.
Consolidating the Types of Days
Initially, the profiles from the previous section were compared and
similar kinds of days were combined together where appropriate. For
example, Winter Clear Nights and Winter Stormy Nights are somewhat
different in temperature, cloud cover and precipitation. However,
because both types of days are underheated and cloud cover is much less
important at night, the architectural response to them is similar and they
can be combined into a composite Winter Night type. In a similar
fashion, the temperature curves for Fall and Spring are slightly different,
yet the response objectives are similar so they can be combined.
Grouping days and nights in this manner will achieve a more manageable
number of typical days to consider. In some cases the climate profiles
differ enough that they cannot be combined with any others.
36


A comparison of the climate profiles yielded the following composite
types of days for which architectural strategies will be generated.
Composite Typical Day Derived From
Winter Clear Day Winter Clear Day
Winter Stormy Day Winter Stormy Day
Spring/Fall Clear Day Fall Clear Day Spring Clear Day
Spring/Fall Stormy Day Spring Stormy Day Fall Stormy Day
Summer Clear/Thunderstorm Day Summer Clear Day Summer Thunderstorm Day
Summer Stormy Day Summer Stormy Day
Winter Night Winter Clear Night Winter Stormy Night
Spring/Fall Night Spring Clear Night Fall Clear Night Spring Stormy Night Fall Stormy Night
Summer Clear/Thunderstorm Night Summer Clear Night Summer Thunderstorm Night
Summer Stormy Night Summer Stormy Night
Generation of Objectives
After the different types of days were profiled and consolidated, the
corresponding architectural objectives were generated. The building
envelope can be thought of as a semi-permeable membrane between the
indoor and outdoor environments, allowing different climatic elements to
either pass through or be blocked. The basis for the objectives is to
achieve a level of human comfort in the interior, as well as using the
exterior when feasible.
37


The first elements to consider are those coming from the exterior to
interior. The sun contains both heat and light. Outside air has a
temperature, speed (wind), and humidity. Rain and snow are two other
elements that impact the skin of a building. These elements can be
admitted, blocked, amplified, or augmented by the skin of the building
as shown below.
38


Elements of the interior can also pass through the membrane of the
building. The interior elements to consider are heat and humidity.
These elements can be retained in the interior, expelled, augmented, or
stored for later use. The following diagram illustrates these possibilities.
Using these concepts, objectives based on selectively allowing elements
to pass through the skin of the building can be determined. When all
environmental elements are considered in this way, each typical day will
include both negative aspects of the climate to be overcome and positive
aspects which are opportunities to exploit. The generated objectives will
be correlated with the architectural strategies which can achieve them in
the next section.
39


Architectural Responses for Typical Days
For each composite typical day, climate objectives have been specified.
A chart for each typical day coordinates the specific architectural design
strategies which are useful in achieving each climate objective. These
architectural concepts are grouped into four major categories: site,
form, openings, and components.
Site:
This covers all aspects of how the building relates or interfaces to its
environment. Included are ideas such as exposure to the elements,
relation to ground, orientation, and landscaping.
Form: *
This category includes aspects relating to the overall form of the
building. Ideas include shape, massing, compactness, and roof shape.
Openings:
This group is composed of all ideas related to openings in the building
envelope. These openings can be for light, air, sun, or human access in
or out. Control of the openings, such as shading, is also included here.
Components:
This group includes ideas relating to parts of the building. Materials,
insulation, thermal mass, and similar areas are included.
40


The charts on the following pages illustrate the climate objectives for
each typical day cross-referenced with symbols representing the specific
architectural strategies which respond to the given objective. In order to
follow the individual charts, the architectural symbols and their
meanings will be described preceding the presentation of the charts,
since each concept may apply to different types of days or seasons.
The following lists provide information about the architectural response
icons and their meanings. General information about each one and its
importance to Denvers climate is also included. A separate list of
architectural concepts is provided for each of the four major strategy
categories from the following charts: site, form, openings, and
components. The following descriptions provide a brief synopsis of the
strategies and how they apply toDenvers climate. They are included to
facilitate understanding the charts but not to fully explain each concept.
There has been a great quantity of information written about these
topics which can provide explanations greater detail than the space here
allows.
Site Design Strategies
Earth Sheltering berming the earth up
around the sides and even sometimes onto
the roof of a building allows the fairly
constant temperature of the ground to heat
the building in the winter and cool it in the
summer.
41


East-West Orientation buildings aligned
this way will capture more sun for heating
and also both north and south breezes.
North-South Orientation buildings aligned
this way are less susceptible to north and
south winds, but receive less southern
(winter) sun and more western (summer) sun.
Shade Trees trees in the landscape can
block the sun from unwanted windows in the
summer. Deciduous trees have the added
benefit of providing more shade in the
summer when it is needed most.
ID
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Ground Plane Reflectivity a reflective
ground plane provides additional solar
radiation to the building. Winter snow
provides large amounts of additional
radiation.
Vegetative Wind Collection trees and
shrubs can be placed to divert prevailing
breezes into building openings.
Windbreak trees and shrubs can deflect the
wind above the building, particularly if there
are several rows of increasing heights.
Outdoor Water Features when placed
where winds can pass over or through them,
these can provide natural evaporative cooling.
42



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777777777-777
Exposure to Sunlight allowing the building
to receive sunlight by not being in the
shadow of a hill or another building.
Form Design Strategies
Compact Form this conserves the most
heat by providing the least surface area for
transmission of energy.
Small Size a smaller size building will
require less energy to heat or cool than a
larger one.
Low Profile prevents the building from
catching excessive amounts of wind and
taking heat away from the building.
Roof Extended Near Ground allows the
wind to be deflected over the building rather
than to catch on the roof and be directed
toward the buildings windward side.
Sloped Roof or Other Water Removal -
provides for the removal and possibily the
collection of rain water and melted snow.
Large Overhangs used to shelter open
windows from rain. They can also be
extended to provide covered outdoor living
areas.
43


Jp
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Still Air Space minimizes transfer of heat
away from the building. Can be
accomplished in different ways including ivy
growing against a wall.
Wing Walls extensions of the building can
be placed so as to divert breezes into the side
of the building for ventilation and cool when
openings are not on the windward side.
Layering of Spaces providing spaces to act
as a temperature buffer zone. Typically
spaces that can afford a greater temperature
swing such as circulation or storage areas.
Zoned Spatial Arrangement arranging
spaces to be in warmer or colder areas of the
building depending on their time and purpose
of use.
Narrow Rooms allows for greater cooling
and daylighting, but permits increased heat
loss in winter due to increased exposed
surface area.
Openings Design Strategies
Glazing placement of windows, noted by
side as MAX-imize or MIN-imize when
important to achieve climate objective.
w
777777777/77777
Allow Solar Radiation permit the sun to
enter the building.
44


77777777777777
Clerestory Windows high windows used to
provide daylighting.
7777777777777
Skylights indicates glazing in the roof to
allow light for daylighting. Also allows the
associated heat from the direct solar
radiation.
TTTTTTTTT'TTTT
Light Shelves horizontal areas which reflect
additional light into the building for
daylighting.
77777777777777r
Blinds / Shutters used to filter or direct the
light entering the building.

Movable Insulated Window Coverings -
used to cover windows and decrease heat
transfer, particulary at night.
I '
////////////
Shade Windows prevent solar radiation
from entering the building by providing
overhangs or other methods of blocking the
sun.
Ventilation provide openings allowing air to
pass through. Indicated by direction which
side(s) should be opened.
Induced Ventilation / Leeward Opening -
inducing cross-ventilation by opening the
leeward side of the building which pulls the
air out the back in addition to pushing it into
the windward opening.
45


Induced Ventilation / High Opening -
inducing cross-ventilation by providing a low
intake opening and a high exhaust opening,
where the warm air will naturally move to.
Stack Ventilation very high openings in
which rising warm air leaving causes cooler
air to be drawn in even without significant
exterior wind.
Entrances Away From Wind placing the
entrances away from the wind minimizes the
amount of infiltration of colder air each time
the entrance is used.
Vestibule Entrances limits the amount of
outside air admitted in to the volume of the
vestibule when the exterior door is closed
before the interior door is opened.
Open to Outdoor Living Area provide a
connection to the outdoors and extend the
living area.
Component Design Strategies
Insulation the greater the insulation, the
less the loss of heat through the building
envelope. In superinsulated buildings
provisions must be made for sufficient fresh
air exchange.
Thermal Mass massive building materials
that take a long time to heat up or cool down
can store heat for night time use in winter or
keep a building cool in the summer.
46


Reflective Roof allows additional solar
radiation to enter the building for both
heating and lighting purposes.
')7> >);?)
Indoor Water Features provide additional
humidity to the air.
Indoor Plants provide additional humidity
to the air.
Evaporative Cooling cooling the air by
passing it.through water.
The following charts are based on the daily profiles, combined when
possible into composite day-types. The climate response objectives are
listed and cross-referenced with the appropriate design strategies to
accomplish those objectives.
47


Notes:
All graphs show averages for each hour for this type
of day/night.
Precipitation is broken down into type: snow, rain,
thunderstorm. The percentage of days with each
type of precipitation at the given hour is shown.
The wind diagrams indicate which direction the wind
comes from at each hour. The graph incidates the
percentage of the time the wind comes from each
of the sixteen directions.
Wind Direction by Hour:
.. snow
rain
thunderstorm
s
u
M
M
E
R
DAY
THUNDERSTORM
30


Winter, Clear Day Climate Objectives And Design Responses
Summary Of
Most Important
Design Strategies
48


Winter, Stormy Day Climate Objectives And Design Res|>onses
49


Winter Night Climate Objectives And Design Responses
50


Spring/Fall, Clear Day Climate Objectives And Design Responses


Spring/Fall, Stormy Day Climate Objectives And Design Responses
52


Spring/Fall Night Climate Objectives And Design Responses
Summary Of
Most important
Design Strategies
I


Summer, Clear/Thunderstorm Day Climate Objectives And Design Responses
Summary Of
Most Important
Design Strategies


Summer, Stormy Day Climate Objectives And Design Responses
Objective Site Form Openings Components
Utilize Daylighting riP cx nf 77/77777777777 /////'/ //>/')
Provide Ventilation
Shelter From Rain jt
Summary Of
Most Important
Design Strategies
55


Summer, Clear/Thunderstorm Night Climate Objectives And Design Responses
Objective Site Form Openings Components
Decrease Air Temp v\ --J * 1 1 1 1
Store Cold JOL
Expel Heat and Provide Ventilation, South Wind r t!?
THUNDERSTORM ONLY: Shelter From Rain A ^
Summary Of
Most Important
Design Strategies
56


Summer, Stormy Night Climate Objectives And Design Responses
Objective Site Form Openinqs Components
Store Cold 11
Provide Ventilation, North and South Winds Bj eEF J m) ^
Shelter From Rain ji w />h77*rr
Summary Of
Most Important
Design Strategies
57


Seasonal Summaries
Winter
Both winter days and winter nights are underheated and therefore the
design strategies focus on keeping heat in and preventing infiltration of
cold air. Clear winter days can use additional strategies related to solar
heating and the use of thermal mass to store heat for nighttime use.
Avoiding the wind is important to retain heat. During stormy weather
the wind from the north must be deflected. Heat loss through glass
should be minimized. On clear winter nights, which can be very cold,
the southern wind must also be avoided. Earth sheltering is also useful
in keeping a more uniform temperature compared to the much colder air
present in the winter.
Spring/Fall
Spring and fall nights are similar to winter in that they are both
underheated, but to a lesser degree. The main design strategies concern
keeping the heat in and limiting infiltration and heat loss due to
exposure to wind. On stormy nights, the wind from the north to
northeast must be avoided. On clear nights, the wind from the south
must also be avoided. Stormy days are similar to stormy nights,
requiring conservation of heat energy by the same methods. Clear days
on the other hand start out cool, but warm into the high 60s to low 70s.
On these days, outdoor living areas that are on the warm side and
sheltered can be used, as well as ventilation of indoor areas. Solar
58


radiation admitted during these days should be stored for nighttime use
but will not be needed during the day except in the very early hours.
Summer
Summer is the most regular season of all. Most days follow a very
regular pattern and many have a buildup of afternoon clouds and
possible rain or thunderstorms. In general the strategies for all summer
days include preventing overheating by blocking solar radiation and
allowing or inducing ventilation for cooling purposes. The wind comes
from all directions during the day and predominantly from the south to
south west at night. Earth sheltering and thermal mass are both useful
in tempering the extremes of summer.
59


CONCLUSION
In ancient times, architecture responded to climate out of necessity.
Today, many architects are again striving make their designs work with
the climate rather than against it. The benefits of architecture designed
to respond to the regional climate fall into two general categories. The
first relates to ecology and the conservation of natural resources, which
are rapidly being exhausted. A building which responds to the climate
uses whatever natural systems are available, thereby relying much less
heavily on conventional heating and cooling, and the non-renewable
resources which power them. To create a lasting, sustainable
architecture, the climate must be integrated into design.
The second area relates to the human experience. When architecture
responds to climatic conditions, there is a greater connection between
the indoor and outdoor environments. This is increasingly more
important to people who feel isolated and disconnected from the natural
world. A climate responsive building feels more integrated with nature
and provides a more harmonious experience for the inhabitants.
Additionally, it provides a cultural link to a more regional architectural
since climates vary from one place to another.
Examining the climate data for Denver shows that simply using average
high and low temperatures is not sufficient to describe the complex
nature of the climate. The large degree of variability in Denvers climate
is lost when only monthly or seasonal averages are used. The weather
60


data needs to be further refined to better represent the variety of days.
Only then can the architectural design respond effectively.
When the data was examined in greater detail, additional climate
patterns emerged. These patterns indicated that the different types of
days in a given season have very different characteristics. Using this
concept of typical days, similar days were grouped and then each was
described in terms of its weather parameters. Typical days that had
similar characteristics were combined to simplify the architectural
responses. In the end, there is no one clear answer as to how to design
for Denver, but there are some conclusions that can be drawn from this
study.
A couple of design strategies can be found in many types of days, namely
the use of earth sheltering and of thermal mass. Both of these strategies
are useful in tempering the extremes of the climate. The earth is warmer
than the air in winter and cooler than the air in summer. Thermal mass
can be used to even out the day to night temperature swings, providing
heat in the winter nights and cooling in the summer days. In general, a
building must gather heat in the winter and resist heat in the summer
and these two strategies assist in this objective.
The use of other design strategies is not so clear. Many of the other
objectives and corresponding design strategies are conflicting either
within a season and between different seasons. On a clear winter day, a
building should be closed to the cold air, but allow in the southern sun.
On a stormy winter day, it should be closed to all the elements. On a
61


clear summer day, it should be sheltered from the sun, but allow the air
through for ventilation. To some degree this can be accomplished
through careful placement of windows and shading, relying on the
differing seasonal solar angles.
Responding to the wind is more difficult. As shown in the profiles of
different types of days, the belief that winter winds are from the north
and summer winds are from the south is false. In the winter, the
building must be sheltered both from the north winds on stormy days
and the south winds on clear nights. In the summer, the building should
be exposed to both the south wind on clear nights and the wind from
every direction at other times.
The ideal building massing is another area that is contradictory. In order
to retain heat, a compact form is best in the winter. In the summer,
however, a narrow, more spread out form is best for cooling and
ventilation.
One way to resolve these competing strategies is to prioritize them based
on the overall nature of the climate. In this case, while there are both
cold days and hot days, more of the time is characterized by being
underheated. Therefore, the general nature of the building, the site and
form as they have been referred to here, could respond to those
objectives. The smaller scale and movable strategies included in
openings and components could then be used to modify or add to the
basic building to respond to the secondary issue of cooling.
62


Movable components, such as insulated window coverings, blinds, doors
and operable windows, can be used to allow manual control and
switching between open and closed configurations. Additionally, there
are elements that switch automatically between two states such as
deciduous trees and carefully placed overhangs that can shade in the
summer only.
A building in Denver has to be like a chameleon, changing to adapt to
current conditions, opening and closing to the elements as required.
While this may give the impression that it is impossible to respond to
Denvers climate, that is far from the truth. These strategies for
accomplishing climate responsive design are just like other factors that
the architect must resolve. Each one needs to be considered in the
context of any given project to see how it can be integrated with the
other site and programmatic issues. In any design there are competing
and conflicting objectives. Through skillful design, the architect can take
these separate pieces and synthesize them into a unified whole, leading
to a more comfortable, efficient, satisfying, and harmonious built
environment.
63


APPENDIX
Weather data from 1950 to 1959, obtained from the National
Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), is presented. Graphs
comparing daily temperatures to normal for each year are
presented first. Monthly graphs of all weather parameters used in
the analysis section are included next.
Most of the weather parameters graphed contain a numeric value.
The precipitation data indicates the occurrence of a given type of
precipitation and sometimes its severity. Additionally, similar
types of precipitation are stored in one variable. This data is
graphed as it was received from NCAR and not broken down. The
following lists the units and a key to the values of the weather data
presented monthly in this Appendix.
Temperature: Degrees Fahrenheit
Humidity: Relative Humidity (0-100%)
Cloud Cover: Percentage of Opaque Sky Cover (0-100%)
Wind Direction: Degrees(0=Calm, 90=E, 180=S, 270=W, 360=N)
Wind Speed: Miles Per Hour
Precipitation:
Thunderstorms:
0 = None
1 = Thunderstorm
2 = Heavy or Severe Thunderstorm
3 = Tornado
4 = Light Squall
5 = Moderate Squall
6 = Heavy Squall
64


Rain, Rain Showers, Freezing Rain:
0 = None
1 = Light Rain
2 = Moderate Rain
3 = Heavy Rain
4 = Light Rain Showers
5 = Moderate Rain Showers
6 = Heavy Rain Showers
7 = Light Freezing Rain
8 = Moderate Freezing Rain
9 = Heavy Freezing Rain
Rain Squalls, Drizzle, Freezing Drizzle:
0 = None
1 = Light Rain Squalls
2 = Moderate Rain Squalls
3 = Heavy Rain Squalls
4 = Light Drizzle
5 = Moderate Drizzle
6 = Heavy Drizzle
7 = Light Freezing Drizzle
8 = Moderate Freezing Drizzle
9 = Heavy Freezing Drizzle
Snow, Snow Pellets, Ice Crystals:
0 = None
1 = Light Snow
2 = Moderate Snow
3 = Heavy Snow
4 = Light Snow Pellets
5 = Moderate Snow Pellets
6 = Heavy Snow Pellets
7 = Light Ice Crystals
8 = Moderate Ice Crystals
9 = Heavy Ice Crystals
Snow Showers, Snow Squalls, Snow Grains:
0 = None
1 = Light Snow Showers
2 = Moderate Snow Showers
3 = Heavy Snow Showers
65


4 = Light Snow Squall
5 = Moderate Snow Squall
6 = Heavy Snow Squall
7 = Light Snow Grains
8 = Moderate Snow Grains
9 = Heavy Snow Grains
Sleet, Sleet Showers, Hail:
0 = None
1 = Light Sleet or Sleet Showers
2 = Moderate Sleet or Sleet Showers
3 = Heavy Sleet or Sleet Showers
4 = Light Hail
5 = Moderate Hail
6 = Heavy Hail
7 = Light Small Hail
8 = Moderate Small Hail
9 = Heavy Small Hail
Fog, Blowing Dust, Blowing Sand:
0 = None
1 = Fog
2 = Ice Fog
3 = Ground Fog
4 = Blowing Dust
5 = Blowing Sand
66


Temperature (Degrees F.) Temperature (Degrees F.) Temperature (Degrees F.)
1951 Temperatures vs. Normal High & Low
1952 Temperatures vs. Normal High & Low
J-----------1----------1__________I__________I__________I___________I__________I__________I l l
67


Temperature (Degrees F.) Temperature (Degrees F.) Temperature (Degrees F.)
1953 Temperatures vs. Normal High & Low
l l l____________________________________________________________________1________________________L
1954 Temperatures vs. Normal High & Low
J___________I__________I__________I___________I I
68


Temperature (Degrees F.) Temperature (Degrees F.) Temperature (Degrees F.)
1956 Temperatures vs. Normal High & Low
1958 Temperatures vs. Normal High & Low
J___________I__________I__________I___________I__________I__________I__________I I
69


Wind speed Wind direction Cloud Cover % Humidity A Temperature
Year = 1950
January
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
-r thunderstorms
-r rain, rain showers, freezing rain
-r rain squalls, drizzle, freezing drizzle
-r snow, snow pellets, ice crystals
-r snow showers, snow squalls, snow grains
-r sleet, sleet showers, hail
Jr fog, blowing dust, blowing sand
-r smoke, haze, dust, blowing snow
70


Wind speed Wind direction Cloud Cover % Humidity & Temperature
Year = 1950
February
-r thunderstorms
-r rain, rain showers, freezing rain
-r rain squalls, drizzle, freezing drizzle
-r snow, snow pellets, ice crystals
-h snow showers, snow squalls, snow grains
-r sleet, sleet showers, hail
-r fog, blowing dust, blowing sand
-r smoke, haze, dust, blowing snow
71


Wind speed Wind direction Cloud Cover % Humidity & Temperature
Year = 1950
March
360
180 -

ffixifri XI__I I 4L*I- yffi*i
i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i r
i i iir
i i i i i i
"i i i i i i i i i i r
lil
i i i i i i i i i i
i i i i
_L
I I I I I I I I I
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 3132
-r thunderstorms
-r rain, rain showers, freezing rain
-r rain squalls, drizzle, freezing drizzle
-r snow, snow pellets, ice crystals
J snow showers, snow squalls, snow grains
-r sleet, sleet showers, hail
-** fog, blowing dust, blowing sand
-r smoke, haze, dust, blowing snow
72


Wind speed Wind direction Cloud Cover % Humidity & Temperature
Year = 1950
April
I I I I I I I l~T [' I I I'' 1 f I I I I i i i i i I I I I I I
-r thunderstorms
-r rain, rain showers, freezing rain
-r rain squalls, drizzle, freezing drizzle
-r snow, snow pellets, ice crystals
snow showers, snow squalls, snow grains
-r sleet, sleet showers, hail
-1 fog, blowing dust, blowing sand
-r smoke, haze, dust, blowing snow


Wind speed Wind direction Cloud Cover % Humidity A Temperature
Year = 1950
May
12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 3132
-r thunderstorms
-r rain, rain showers, freezing rain
-r rain squalls, drizzle, freezing drizzle
-r snow, snow pellets, ice crystals
-r snow showers, snow squalls, snow grains
-r sleet, sleet showers, hail
-h fog, blowing dust, blowing sand
-r smoke, haze, dust, blowing snow
74


Wind speed Wind direction Cloud Cover % Humidity & Temperature
Year = 1950
June
I I I I I I I I I I I I I. I i l l i i l i [ i .............................................
1 2 3 4 J 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
h thunderstorms
-r rain, rain showers, freezing rain
-r rain squalls, drizzle, freezing drizzle
-r snow, snow pellets, ice crystals
-r snow showers, snow squalls, snow grains
-r sleet, sleet showers, hail
-r fog, blowing dust, blowing sand
-r smoke, haze, dust, blowing snow


Wind speed Wind direction Cloud Cover % Humidity A Temperature
Year = 1950
July
I I II I I T
i i r
h A ju ft ji A / \ / A / \S'\ k n fif
\yyvv !y jHjfc i Ui/f i \
pm M* if '
| \ s i M , 1 ; i i
i \ A h t j I } : i j j f i i
:) : t i i V \ I vr l i * ji ! : {
A /! i

\i\i\f\n
i i / ij; f. i i|j
V 1 '
J__L
I I I I
l l l l l l

12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

I *1*1 XI
C X 1C, ,^X X * it
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
-r thunderstorms
-r rain, rain showers, freezing rain
-1- rain squalls, drizzle, freezing drizzle
-r snow, snow pellets, ice crystals
-r snow showers, snow squalls, snow grains
-r sleet, sleet showers, hail
fog, blowing dust, blowing sand
-r smoke, haze, dust, blowing snow
76


Wind speed Wind direction Cloud Cover % Humidity A Temperature
Year = 1950
August
too

1&> i ''* '*T "n Vg J i'****1 tf L
* x x c, / * x x xfc * x x
X JCM T* XL. ^ JjfaSrjOft|pOfcX ** XC^XXg* jx X XiA
aiJnBcr*JScA,*jr'eifT* V xinucr#?K/vWJKtl
^ v ~ Scjc*x x x3?xx xk J'xx x *< mT yjtK
x icfx x 5 xx, x JF* *, ., ** #* xxc v X jcxyx x & xi
0lli*i iKifijp i *t < i^gi m%$\$ *i __l£j iST^i* i *i iEI
180 -X
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 3132
-r thunderstorms
-r rain, rain showers, freezing rain
-r rain squalls, drizzle, freezing drizzle
J~ snow, snow pellets, ice crystals
-r snow showers, snow squalls, snow grains
J~ sleet, sleet showers, hail
-1" fog, blowing dust, blowing sand
-r smoke, haze, dust, blowing snow


Wind speed Wind direction Cloud Cover % Humidity & Temperature
Year = 1950
September
too -
I I I I
t */!.
f'J
T" Art 1 1 l"l \ iA h p TTTT 1 4 n ns TT .Vi "TT" 1 1 i r
\l l; V /i i!r u . A J ; 4 1 i r h /; i f\f\ iO ll )
1/ w IfU ^ flW ; : I. t W U' 1/ \j\( Ia \f r li
!!-S !a
' i i fi IM ni i\ r\ i K .. 'A IK Aa IiH M iVJ r X [ i 1 U U 8 8 1 8 C
i / it H ; ii ^ J \JU , ' vy I v/ij i! Hi iWi M i \j n/y
i f u i i i ? 1 f v V y j / ii i i r \\ \f 1 j \i j j j iinn 1
-1 i; \f s I i y v i/ ii v
I l l I I l l l I l l l l l l l I_______________I 1.1. J..-L
l i i

12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
360 pm
X
* >rs x * * xx *
v v rtv v ^ v. V. .
^ it XJC*X X
1801#? fifttej V & x £ ?
*
55*7 iT)6? Ik x>£ ft xxj? 5Sjfx x I *
!! I I.Xil I
5i xi ii i^i-y-
JL x
fo xm jc
XX xx
XI *1.^1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
-r thunderstorms
-r rain, rain showers, freezing rain
-h rain squalls, drizzle, freezing drizzle
-r snow, snow pellets, ice crystals
-r snow showers, snow squalls, snow grains
r sleet, sleet showers, hail
-r fog, blowing dust, blowing sand
-r smoke, haze, dust, blowing snow
78


Wind speed Wind direction Cloud Cover % Humidity A Temperature
Year = 1950
October
-r thunderstorms
-r rain, rain showers, freezing rain
-r rain squalls, drizzle, freezing drizzle
-1 snow, snow pellets, ice crystals
-r snow showers, snow squalls, snow grains
-r sleet, sleet showers, hail
-r fog, blowing dust, blowing sand
-r smoke, haze, dust, blowing snow


Wind speed Wind direction Cloud Cover % Humidity & Temperature
Year = 1950
November
-r thunderstorms
-r rain, rain showers, freezing rain
-r rain squalls, drizzle, freezing drizzle
-r snow, snow pellets, ice crystals
-r snow showers, snow squalls, snow grains
-1- sleet, sleet showers, hail
-r fog, blowing dust, blowing sand
-r smoke, haze, dust, blowing snow
80


Wind speed Wind direction Cloud Cover % Humidity & Temperature
Year = 1950
December
100
o
360
180
0
-r thunderstorms
-r rain, rain showers, freezing rain
-1" rain squalls, drizzle, freezing drizzle
-r snow, snow pellets, ice crystals
-r snow showers, snow squalls, snow grains
-r sleet, sleet showers, hail
-r fog, blowing dust, blowing sand
-r smoke, haze, dust, blowing snow
81


Wind speed Wind direction Cloud Cover % Humidity A Temperature
Year = 1951
January
thunderstorms
rain, rain showers, freezing rain
-r rain squalls, drizzle, freezing drizzle
-r snow, snow pellets, ice crystals
-r snow showers, snow squalls, snow grains
-r sleet, sleet showers, hail
fog, blowing dust, blowing sand
-r smoke, haze, dust, blowing snow 82


Year = 1951
February
-r thunderstorms
rain, rain showers, freezing rain
*" rain squalls, drizzle, freezing drizzle
-r snow, snow pellets, ice crystals
-r snow showers, snow squalls, snow grains
-r sleet, sleet showers, hail
-r fog, blowing dust, blowing sand
-r smoke, haze, dust, blowing snow


Wind speed Wind direction Cloud Cover % Humidity & Temperature
Year = 1951
March
360
TO
X X

J 'kTT^r-k* I \ Kfc
irv*,** JP ***X XylfJ'K X wX*
i^k illfe* ix i *!**! i*xxi^i ixfl&xf*! V*
I I I I
I I I I I I IIIIITT
I I I II I I I
___(UJ-L
1 I I I 1 I I I I I
I I I____________________________________I I 1 I I
1111
1 2 3 4 3 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 13 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
-r thunderstorms
-r rain, rain showers, freezing rain
-r rain squalls, drizzle, freezing drizzle
-r snow, snow pellets, ice crystals
-r snow showers, snow squalls, snow grains
-r sleet, sleet showers, hail
-* fog, blowing dust, blowing sand
smoke, haze, dust, blowing snow
84


Wind speed Wind direction Cloud Cover % Humidity & Temperature
Year = 1951
April
I I I 1 11 I II I I I II I I 1 '"T~T I I 7T 'l I i 1 I I i
-r thunderstorms
-r rain, rain showers, freezing rain
-r rain squalls, drizzle, freezing drizzle
-r snow, snow pellets, ice crystals
-r snow showers, snow squalls, snow grains
-r sleet, sleet showers, hail
-r fog, blowing dust, blowing sand
-r smoke, haze, dust, blowing snow


Wind speed Wind direction Cloud Cover % Humidity & Temperature
Year = 1951
May
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 'I I"1 TT I I I I I I I
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 3132
-r thunderstorms
-r rain, rain showers, freezing rain
-r rain squalls, drizzle, freezing drizzle
-r snow, snow pellets, ice crystals
-r snow showers, snow squalls, snow grains
-p sleet, sleet showers, hail
-r fog, blowing dust, blowing sand
-r smoke, haze, dust, blowing snow
86


Wind speed Wind direction Cloud Cover % Humidity A Temperature
Year = 1951
June
-h thunderstorms
-r rain, rain showers, freezing rain
-1 rain squalls, drizzle, freezing drizzle
-r snow, snow pellets, ice crystals
-r snow showers, snow squalls, snow grains
-r sleet, sleet showers, hail
-r fog, blowing dust, blowing sand
-r smoke, haze, dust, blowing snow


Wind speed Wind direction Cloud Cover % Humidity &. Temperature
Year = 1951
July
100
180
V $ J* Ks/ v>V w X x X XxX
h w?Mk £i
>0<
*1 I
<1 i ^ A jCj/ j/ ^
*< l*KXl£l*
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
-r thunderstorms
-r rain, rain showers, freezing rain
-r rain squalls, drizzle, freezing drizzle
-r snow, snow pellets, ice crystals
-r snow showers, snow squalls, snow grains
-r sleet, sleet showers, hail
-1" fog, blowing dust, blowing sand
-r smoke, haze, dust, blowing snow
88


Wind speed Wind direction Cloud Cover % Humidity & Temperature
Year = 1951
August
*%%**$>
a. -v x>o * x \ x ,? ic, jocjc''x"'3*: x xi
*> i f i i i i iiir
i i i ii i i inir
20 -
n i i i r
TT
i i i i I i r
i i i i i r
JLl
JLfL^c.
J.
I__l
I I I I_______________________I I I I________________________L
I I 1 I I I 1 1 I
_L
J__I__I__I_I I I I
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 3132
-r thunderstorms
*r rain, rain showers, freezing rain
-r rain squalls, drizzle, freezing drizzle
-r snow, snow pellets, ice crystals
-r snow showers, snow squalls, snow grains
-r sleet, sleet showers, hail
-r fog, blowing dust, blowing sand
-r smoke, haze, dust, blowing snow
89


Wind speed Wind direction Cloud Cover % Humidity & Temperature
Year = 1951
September
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 3 1 32
-r thunderstorms
-r rain, rain showers, freezing rain
-r rain squalls, drizzle, freezing drizzle
-r snow, snow pellets, ice crystals
-r snow showers, snow squalls, snow grains
-r sleet, sleet showers, hail
-r fog, blowing dust, blowing sand
-r smoke, haze, dust, blowing snow


Wind speed Wind direction Cloud Cover % Humidity & Temperature
Year = 1951
October
-r thunderstorms
*" rain, rain showers, freezing rain
-1 rain squalls, drizzle, freezing drizzle
-r snow, snow pellets, ice crystals
-r snow showers, snow squalls, snow grains
-r sleet, sleet showers, hail
-1- fog, blowing dust, blowing sand
J~ smoke, haze, dust, blowing snow


Wind speed Wind direction Cloud Cover % Humidity &. Temperature
1001-
Year =1951
November
-r thunderstorms
-1" rain, rain showers, freezing rain
-r rain squalls, drizzle, freezing drizzle
-r snow, snow pellets, ice crystals
-r snow showers, snow squalls, snow grains
-r sleet, sleet showers, hail
-1" fog, blowing dust, blowing sand
smoke, haze, dust, blowing snow
92


Wind speed Wind direction Cloud Cover % Humidity & Temperature
Year = 1951
December
I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I i i i i ) i i l l i i
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
-r thunderstorms
-r rain, rain showers, freezing rain
-r rain squalls, drizzle, freezing drizzle
-r snow, snow pellets, ice crystals
-r snow showers, snow squalls, snow grains
-r sleet, sleet showers, hail
-r fog, blowing dust, blowing sand
-1 smoke, haze, dust, blowing snow
93


Year = 1952
January
1
i*
i
u
s 360 persnrTBnrr
.6 ^ XX xf i
i 1
^ 1801-
I _
* nk< i < i if i i *i i i i n i
i i r
i i r
i i i i i i r
i i i i i i i r
U
thru
1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
I I I I 1 I I I
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 3132
-* 1 thunderstorms
-r rain, rain showers, freezing rain
-r rain squalls, drizzle, freezing drizzle
-r snow, snow pellets, ice crystals
-r snow showers, snow squalls, snow grains
-1" sleet, sleet showers, hail
-1 fog, blowing dust, blowing sand
-r smoke, haze, dust, blowing snow
94


Wind speed Wind direction Cloud Cover % Humidity & Temperature
Year = 1952
February
I II I | HI I I I I
_I1
-r thunderstorms
rain, rain showers, freezing rain
-r rain squalls, drizzle, freezing drizzle
-r snow, snow pellets, ice crystals
-r snow showers, snow squalls, snow grains
*" sleet, sleet showers, hail
-r fog, blowing dust, blowing sand
h smoke, haze, dust, blowing snow 95


Wind speed Wind direction Cloud Cover % Humidity & Temperature
Year = 1952
March
i i i i "i~ i ii i i i i i ii ii i ii i m "i "r~r~T"n~r
-r thunderstorms
-r rain, rain showers, freezing rain
-r rain squalls, drizzle, freezing drizzle
-r snow, snow pellets, ice crystals
-r snow showers, snow squalls, snow grains
-r sleet, sleet showers, hail
-1- fog, blowing dust, blowing sand
-r smoke, haze, dust, blowing snow
96