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Roles and perceptions of five stakeholder groups in a high school program that exemplified second-order change

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Roles and perceptions of five stakeholder groups in a high school program that exemplified second-order change
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Slotta, OliveAnn Davis
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xvi, 199 leaves : illustrations ; 28 cm

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High schools -- Case studies -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
Educational change -- Case studies -- Colorado -- Denver ( lcsh )
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High schools ( fast )
Colorado -- Denver ( fast )
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Includes bibliographical references (leaves 193-199).
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School of Education and Human Development
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by OliveAnn Davis Slotta.

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University of Colorado Denver
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Full Text
ROLES AND PERCEPTIONS OF FIVE STAKEHOLDER GROUPS IN A HIGH
SCHOOL PROGRAM THAT EXEMPLIFIED SECOND-ORDER CHANGE
by
OliveAnn Davis Slotta
B.A., Hiram College, 1963
M.A., University of Colorado, 1992
A thesis submitted to the
University of Colorado at Denver
in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
Educational Leadership and Innovation
1999


Copyright by OliveAnn Davis Slotta
All rights reserved.


This thesis for the Doctor of Philosophy
degree by
OliveAnn Davis Slotta
has been approved by
Lyn Taylor, Chdrfperson
Ellen Stevens
Marie Wirsing
f-

William ^uraschek
Maurice Holt
&/*/29, &?9


Slotta, Olive Ann (Ph.D., Educational Leadership and Innovation)
Roles and Perceptions of Five Stakeholder Groups in a High School Program That
Exemplified Second-Order Change
Dissertation directed by Associate Professor Lyn Taylor
ABSTRACT
This dissertation provides a historical, descriptive case study of a successful
high school reform program. The intent of this study is to illustrate by example what
has been described by Michael Fullan (1991) and others (Cuban, 1988; Elmore, 1988;
Sarason, 1990) as second-order, transformational change and to carefully assess the
roles played in one such program. The actions, attitudes, relationships and ideas of
these five stakeholder groups were examined: students, participating parents,
teachers, building administrators, and advisors. Emphasis is given to the different
perceptions that characterize the different groups, and to the elements of the
curriculum perceived by each group as being the most significant or useful. Also
examined are the planning process of the program and the philosophies and
assumptions articulated in its documents of initiation. Coded comments from
participant interviews are presented in table formatone table for each of the
stakeholder groups and two master tables. Findings include agreements and
differences among stakeholders on the role of the other groups as well as key aspects
of the curriculum process used.
l v


Such an extensive characterization of the reform process will inform future
curriculum and program design efforts. Ultimately, the purpose of this dissertation
study is to understand why some efforts at school reform fail while others do not.
This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidate's thesis. I
recommend its publication.
Signed.
Lyn Taylor
v


DEDICATION
To Emily Anne Gilmore Slotta, my first grandchild, who was bom during the writing
of this document, in the hope that her generation of American children will have the
opportunity to learn within the context of a peaceful planet.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work represents the cumulative learning of 30 years of professional
experiences: experience as a high school mathematics teacher in a traditional urban
high school in the 60s, experience working as a full-time volunteer with a social
agency and its practical processes of educational transformation, and experience
working with a teaching team to design and implement one comprehensive program of
urban high school reform. Additionally and fortunately, these professional
experiences happened in tandem with the reality grounding of parenting.
I would like to acknowledge those who, in the midst of these experiences,
provided the foundational knowledge, investigative processes, academic guidance,
and inspiration to proceed with this academic endeavor.
All of the members of my doctoral committee-Lyn Taylor, William Juraschek,
Marie Wirsing, Ellen Stevens and Maurice Holt. I could not have assembled a more
dedicated or demanding group of academicians to guide my research and writing.
Thanks, Lyn, for being my doctoral advisor; your thoughtful and continuous
mentoring have kept me on this pathway. Thanks, Bill; your penchant for
mathematical and academic rigor has inspired mine. And thanks, Marie; your shared
love of the discipline of philosophy has provided great colleagueship.


The members of the two Imaginal Education teams with whom I have worked most
closely. In Chicago, Keith and George Packard, Karen Troxel Snyder, and Kristine
Valdes, have worked tirelessly to design the Learning Lab format that provides
practical direction toward new forms of image-based instruction. In Denver, Karen
Bueno, and Buma and David Dunn, provided the consultant work that set the stage
for the action research project documented here, and offered ongoing support for my
work on this final product.
My two friends and coaches-Michael OConnor and RosaLee Mitchell. Your
creative and endless support kept me on the writing track.
My former colleagues at the Fred N. Thomas Career Education Centerteachers Lou
Ann Fishering (now Townsend), Gordon Heaton, Eleanor Moller, Marc Nutter, Mel
Spurlin (deceased), Sonya Pederson, and Carol Webb; and administrators Sharon
Johnson, Tom Muman, and Tom Stevens. It was their personal tenacity and
dedication to reform that resulted in the implementation of a new plan, revised with
great creativity and care, on an ongoing basis. Thank you for being willing to learn
from the future.
Finally, and of great importance, I would like to thank my family.
James G. Slotta, husband of thirty-six years, who encouraged both this study and the
action research it documents. Your practical love for me and my work makes it
possible on a daily basis. I have been truly blessed with wonderful offspringtwo
daughters, women of determination who are now excelling in technical fields, and


two sons who are thriving, with me, in the field of education. They have grounded
my wild creativity in the worlds of real people and their professional prowess often
diminishes my own. Thank you to each of themto Elizabeth Ann Slotta, for sharing
her precious personhood and computer expertise with me; to James Davis Slotta,
whose doctoral studies preceded and now exist in concert with mine, for his practical
support and academic inspiration; to Jon William Slotta, whose education studies
coincided in time with mine, for his high energy and interest in education; and to
Karen Ann Larson, foster daughter, for demonstrating that high expectations and a
strong sense of family are worthwhile.


CONTENTS
Figures........................................................xv
Tables.........................................................xvi
CHAPTER
1. INTRODUCTION..................................................1
First and Second-Order Change..............................2
Examples of Second-Order Change............................3
Systemic Approach to Studying Second-Order Change..........5
Historical and Social Context of This Study................6
The State of School Reform-Concerns About Standards........7
The State of the Nation's YouthMalaise of Meaning..8
General Malaise Among Youth.........................8
Programs Intended as Solutions Oblivious to
Comprehensive Student Needs.........................9
A Case Study of the Academic Program
in the Denver Public Schools..............................12
Non-Traditional Features of the Academic Program...14
Foundations and Assumptions of the Program.........16
Curriculum Design Included Intended Student Experiences.. 17
Procedural Underpinnings...........................18
Success Indicators........................................26
Summary...................................................29
x


2. LITERATURE REVIEW................................................31
The Stakeholder Roles.........................................32
Students...............................................32
Parents................................................34
Teachers...............................................35
Administrators.........................................36
Summary of Stakeholder Research...............................37
Foundational Works............................................39
Two Action Researchers.................................39
Image-Based Learning...................................40
3. METHODOLOGY......................................................46
Case Study Analysis...........................................46
Study Design and Procedures...................................47
Student and Parent Interviews.................................49
Selection Criteria and Procedures......................49
Selection Process......................................49
Selection Criteria for Students........................50
Selection Criteria for Parents.........................51
Selection of Teacher, Administrator, and Advisor Interviewees.52
The Study Participants........................................53
Student-Parent Teams...................................53
Teachers...............................................53
Administrators.........................................53
xi


Advisors
54
Interview Approach..................................54
Comment Coding Method...............................55
Tables..............................................58
Image Analysis Method...............................58
Summary.............................................60
4. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION.......................................62
Participants and Their Comments............................63
The Student-Parent Teams............................63
Table 4.1: Student Comments.........................65
Table 4.2: Participating Parent Comments............68
The Teachers........................................71
Table 4.3: Teacher Comments.........................72
The Administrators..................................76
Table 4.4: Administrator Comments...................77
The Advisors........................................80
Table 4.5: Advisor Comments.........................81
Table 4.6: Discussion......................................84
Table 4.6: Master Comments Table....................84
Stakeholder Role Findings..................................88
Curriculum & Program Findings ......................89
Discussion of Curriculum and Program Findings.......90
Findings Based on Agreements and Differences Data...93
Xll


Results-Oriented Curriculum...........................94
Discussion of Findings About Agreements and
Differences...........................................94
Table 4.7: Image Analysis Table.............................95
Findings on the Stakeholder Roles Based on Images
Held by Each Stakeholder Group About the Others.......95
Images Held by Each Stakeholder Group About Itself...99
Findings on Curriculum and Program Based on Images
Held by Each Stakeholder Group.......................100
5. IMPLICATIONS...................................................103
Implications for Stakeholders..............................104
Empowered Students...................................104
Trusting Administrators (of Teachers)................106
Proactive Teachers...................................107
Who's Guarding the Treasure..........................107
Insights About the Nature and Design of Curriculum.........110
Two Different Types of Objectives....................112
Image-based Planning.................................112
A Project Theme Each Semester........................113
Other Connections..........................................116
Central Park East Secondary School...................116
Motivational Nature..................................117
Learning Community...................................118
Implications for Further Research..........................120
Concluding Ruminations.....................................123
Xlll


APPENDIXES
A. PROGRAM-INITIATING ARTIFACTS..................127
B. PROJECT ARTIFACTS.............................136
C. CURRICULUM DESIGN MATERIALS...................176
D. ADVISORY BOARD ARTIFACTS......................179
E. QUANTITATIVE STUDY RESULTS....................185
BIBLIOGRAPHY..........................................193
xiv


FIGURES
Figure
1.1 A team of students researches a project sub-topic..................22
1.2 Students and guests listen to project team reports.................23
5.1 Wheel of transformational change...................................109
XV


TABLES
Table
3.1 Number of Stakeholders Interviewed by Role....................48
3.2 Number of Coded Comments by Stakeholder Groups................57
4.1 Student Comments.........................................66
4.2 Participating-Parent Comments.................................69
4.3 Teacher Comments..............................................73
4.4 Administrator Comments........................................78
4.5 Advisor Comments..............................................82
4.6 Master Comments Table.........................................86
4.7 Images Based on Interview Comments............................98
xvi


CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
This dissertation provides a historical, descriptive case study of a successful
high school reform program. The intent of this study is to illustrate by example what
has been described by Michael Fullan (1991) and others (Cuban, 1988; Elmore, 1988;
Sarason, 1990) as second-order, transformational change and to carefully assess the
roles played in one such program. I examine the actions, attitudes, relationships and
ideas of five stakeholder groups: students, participating parents, teachers, building
administrators, and advisors. Emphasis is given to the different perceptions that
characterize the different groups, and to the elements of the curriculum perceived by
each group as being the most significant or useful. I also examine the planning
process of the program and the philosophies and assumptions articulated in its
documents of initiation. Such an extensive characterization of the reform process will
inform future curriculum and program design efforts as well as implementation.
Ultimately, the purpose of this dissertation is to understand why some efforts at
school reform fail while others do not.
The program under study was designed in 1986 to rescue at-risk high school
juniors and seniors who were failing in traditional school settings, but succeeding in
the more intense, hands-on approach of this career magnet school. The site was the
1


Fred N. Thomas Career Education Center1 (CEC) in the Denver Public Schools
(DPS).
As one of the four original teachers who worked with advisors to design the
program, I maintained the documentation of the participants' demographics as well as
the instructional processes and their effects. When the teacher in that position retired
in 1988,1 became the team leader, remaining with the program throughout its nine-
year duration (1986 to 1995). Nearly seven hundred students were enrolled during
that period of time. The curriculum was problem-oriented, community-situated and
project-based. The program became known district-wide as CEC's Academic
Program and received national recognition in 1991 through the Disney Company's
American Teacher Awards.
The following, more specific questions framed my work: a) How do the five
stakeholder groups, or "doers of educational change" (Fullan, 1991) describe their
own and the others' roles in second-order change? b) Are any identified agreements
or differences in perspective significant to future reform applications? c) How do the
stakeholder groups recall and describe the problem-posing project that was the
curriculum centerpiece? and d) How were the intentional processes used in planning
both the initial program and its ongoing curriculum design related to its success?
First and Second Order Change
In his 1991 book, The New Meaning of Educational Change. Michael Fullan
states that "sustained action over a number of years will be required if teachers are to
.' The Fred N. Thomas Career Education Center was dedicated in Denver in 1976 as a magnet school
where students from all ten high schools would explore career interests and learn technical and
vocational skills.
2


work together in joint planning and adapting of teaching strategies to effect
transformational change" (p. xiii). He cites Sarason (1990) in delineating change
efforts into two types: first-order and second-order. By this definition, first order
changes are those that set out to improve efficiency and effectiveness in present
approaches. First-order changes "can be legislated and spell out objectives and
competencies" (p. 287). Historical examples of such first-order reforms are the junior
high school, intended to prevent underachieving pupils from dropping out, and the
mainstreaming of disabled children, intended to encourage children with physical,
mental and emotional disabilities to feel more a part of their school society. In each of
these examples, a solution was adopted in response to a particular need; in each case,
visible changes occurred in schools and districts as these programs were
implemented, though new problems soon emerged as the systems reacted to the
remedy.
Second-order changes are defined as those that set out to alter the fundamental
ways of doing things. Fullan defines such transformational change as "changes which
seek to alter the fundamental ways in which organizations are put together, including
new goals, structures, and roles." Second-order changes require the altering of "the
patterns and practices of individuals" (p. 287). In a later work, Fullan (1993)
explains the difficulties of implementing second-order change and cautions that such
efforts usually fail.
Examples of Second Order Change
This concept of transformational change is hardly new. Reformers of the
Progressive Era in the early part of this century sought to remodel schooling to deal
with the growth of industrialization, crime, and massive immigration (Tyack &
3


Cuban, 1995). John Dewey advocated for change in the fundamental ways of doing
things (second-order change) when he suggested that schools must set up conditions
that arouse and guide students' curiosity rather than hushing them up when they asked
questions (Dewey, 1933).
Another example of such second-order "change agentry" is found in the work
of The Institute of Cultural Affairs2 (ICA). The ICA began its work with image
identification and analysis in the early 1960s in order to occasion radical change in
how people viewed themselves and their neighborhoods. ICA researchers applied
Kenneth Boulding's image-change concepts to meet community development needs in
line with the organization's stated mission (Griffith 1992). Eventually this focus on
changing images in order to effect change in a broad context became institutionalized
within the ICA as "Imaginal Education." For example, in a West side Chicago
neighborhood project known as Fifth City, image analysis led staff from the ICA's
precursor organization, the Ecumenical Institute, to conclude that the most debilitating
image operative at that time was that of the black male self-image. Influenced by
welfare practices and ghetto-like environments, male family members experienced
uselessness and hopelessness. The staff of about fifteen people spent three years
studying the issues before creating new community programs. When the new
programs were started, one of the tactics used by the research team was the crafting of
a small iron statue termed "The Iron Man" based on Old Testament poetry from the
prophet Jeremiah. This small, black iron symbol was carried by volunteers walking
2 The Institute of Cultural Affairs (ICA) is a private, not-for-profit organization whose mission is
research, training, and demonstration of participatory methods. The ICA's curriculum work
articulates both measurable and existential objectives and intends for each student, empowered mental
models. The agency's Imaginal Education work was substantially influenced by Boulding, Bruner,
Montessori, and Piaget.
4


the blocks within the boundaries of Fifth City and the narrative of the resilient Iron
Man was retold many times. Results were observed and documented; new community
economic and political leadership emerged over the next few years, which was widely
thought to be a result of this and related efforts. This story serves to illustrate both the
complexity of second-order change and the role that image strategy played in this
particular implementation.
The educational component of this comprehensive effort eventually was
replicated in a global network of preschools in primarily Third World environments
(Cooperrider & Srivastva, 1987; Institute of Cultural Affairs, 1976).
Systemic Approach to Studying Second-Order Change
The progressive reformers who were affiliated with the Fifth City Project, and
their strategies toward fundamental, second-order change provide a historical link to
current change debates and to this study of one such episode. Fullan (1991) suggests
that discussions about implementing successful transformational change should focus
on the "work" of the "doers": what is required to achieve such change by the teachers,
the principals, the students, the district administrators, the consultants, the parents,
and the community. Fullan devotes a chapter to each of these groups. It is this query
that drives the present study of CEC's Academic Program.What did each
stakeholder group in the school community do, and how were their actions perceived
by the others?
Fullan's is a systemic approach that is consistent with that of Gregory
Bateson. Bateson (1972), purports that it is futile to work only on parts of a system
when change is intended, since the system always functions to conserve itself.
5


Further, when something new is introduced into a complex system, the system is
disturbed and seeks to self-correct.
The results of the present study are discussed both in terms of Fullan's
definition of second-order change and such assumptions of a systemic understanding.
This research discusses the impact of embedding a community-oriented project within
the curriculum and social fabric of the school itself. To date there has been no such
comprehensive study of the "system" as it was involved in a successful education
reform episode.
Historical and Social Context of This Study
Change where it counts mostin the daily interactions of teachers and
studentsis the hardest to achieve, and the most important.
(Tyack & Cuban, 1995, p. 10)
Schools, as social institutions, do change in response to changes in the larger
society. For example, during this century the number of persons in the 5-19 age range
who are enrolled in school has shifted fr.om 50% in 1900 to 90% in 1995 (Tyack &
Cuban, 1995). Schools change in response to new technologies, to new employment
demands, and to new understandings of human cognitive development. In the past
three decades, great efforts have been made to change our schools and their programs
in response to actual and anticipated social and economic mandates. We have gained
some clarity about the nature of successful reform, but are still striving for definitive
knowledge. Meanwhile, the needs of the students have escalated, partly as a result of
this very climate of change. The following two arenas of concernschool reform and
6


the state of our youth catalyzed the inception of the Academic Program and provide a
historical context to the present study.
The State of School ReformConcerns About Standards
While the political and social climate in the United States is ripe for educational
reform, we cannot yet generalize about the ideal school community that we should be
moving toward nor to what one model should prevail. The decade of the 1980s
witnessed an explosion in public awareness regarding the need for education reform.
In 1984, two booksJohn Goodlad's A Place Called School and Theodore Sizer's
Horace's Compromise-reached best- seller lists and provided Americans of all social
strata the opportunity to view the classrooms of their childhood memories from an
adult/leadership perspective. In the 1990s, the nation's attention to education has
increased even more. The annual Bracey reports (Bracey, 1997) published by Phi
Delta Kappan, (1990-1998) critique the crisis-orientation of the media and provide a
more objective review of student achievement data. Education issues have become the
focus of political elections as well as the frequent subject of conversations in coffee
shops and on talk shows.
Reformers today do not share the same goals about our schools and students.
The standards movement, which began in specific discipline areas in the 1980s, is the
driving force behind most reform efforts today. Standards advocates would have us
believe that if the learning objectives are rigorous enough, the schools will be renewed
and students will succeed at their next level of instruction. Others are troubled by the
"impersonality" of this approach and advocate for a person-centered approach, or a
"humane framework for the kinds of education required in a technological society"
7


(Greene 1988). Sadly, it seems easier for particular constituencies to reach agreement
about the standards in a specific discipline area, than for the community of education
reformers to agree about how we might arrive at excellence and who we want our
students to become.
The State of the Nation's YouthMalaise of Meaning
Urban youth. Chaos from the greater society always affects the well-being of
our young. For example, teachers today cannot assume that students' general health
and welfare needs are met before they enter the classroom. This is especially true in
urban school districts. Thirty percent of our nation's urban children lived in poverty in
1990; 23% had neighborhood clinics as their only source of health care; 46% had
changed schools more than once since first grade; and only 68% resided in a two-
parent family (National Center for Educational Statistics, 1996). Many related
physical and psychological spin-offs of these conditionssuch as short attention
spans, poor nutrition, and lack of motivation-affect the classrooms daily, influencing
the learning of all the students there (Maeroff, 1998). In Colorado, the percentage of
children living in poverty rose from 11.5 % in 1979 to 15 % in 1989, an increase of
30.4 %. Rates among minority and urban groups were much higher, triple those cited
above (The Denver Post, 1992, p. 3A).
General Malaise Among Youth
Due to substantive changes in the larger society, "typical" youth activities like
proms, football games, marching bands, and pep rallies have lost their adolescent
following, resulting in a void of meaning and fun, and fostering within our youth a
8


general sense of confusion and malaise. During the industrial era, a spirit of
competition had been the assumed mode of operation in all social strata. Today, gang
activities and fear of violence may prevent or minimize large student gatherings
beyond the regular school day. Once, military enlistment held out to our young people
both a noble cause and a viable career option. Now, an anti-military, post-
"M.A.S.H." (Movie and TV series) consciousness and a balanced-federal-budget
mindset have converged to minimize this vocational pathway. Today's high school
students exist in a present that lacks enthusiasm, eventfulness, and a positive vision of
the future.
Programs Intended As Solutions Oblivious to
Comprehensive Student Needs
Reform efforts responding to the needs recognized as growing out of these
circumstances include some impressive and ambitious efforts:
Professional associations such as the National Council of Teachers of
Mathematics (NCTM) took aggressive measures to study and reform their own
disciplines, and by the end of the 1980s NCTM's Curriculum and Evaluation
Standards for School Mathematics was published (NCTM, 1989).
In 1987, The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS)
was established. It has formulated a volunteerism-based strategy for credentialing
master teachers nationwide (NBPTS, 1994).
In 1989, President Bush announced a set of eight new national education
goals to be met by the year 2000. They included the goals to be first in the world in
math and science; to have all children start school ready to leam; to increase high
school graduation rates to at least 90%; and to have students leave designated grades
9


with demonstrated competencies in challenging subject matter (Goals 2000: Educate
America Act).
In 1992, President Clinton reaffirmed "Education 2000." They were adopted
into law in 1994 as "Goals 2000: Educate America Act."
In 1993, the Colorado legislature passed HB 93-1313 which mandated specific
subject-by-subject content standards with uniform, correlated assessments to
follow. The Colorado Model Content Standards (1995) were written by
committees from across the state, in implementation of the bill.
In 1997, supported by the nations' governors and accompanied by substantial
funding, President Clinton again renewed commitment to the Education 2000
goals.
New, more rigorous educational standards have been adopted in thirty-seven
states.
Reform efforts in education have focused primarily on two areas:
1) curriculum, along with its complement, alternative assessment; and 2) teacher
quality, as measured by pre-determined norms. Yet as various reform efforts and
public debates intensify, it is important to assess the overall understanding of
curriculum reform, whether these efforts are truly making helpful progress, and
whether we are even asking the right questions.
Some initial critiques have suggested the need for a more deliberate study of
the reform process based on points such as the following:
Implementing the NBPTS plan for teacher certification will be expensive.
President Clinton recently asked Congress for $105 million dollars for 1998-
2002 operations, designed to put 100,000 teachers into the applicant process


and yield at least 35,000 teachers with National Board Certification over a five
year period. The application fee for each teacher or for their district is $1000.
There are additional costs indirectly, to the students. The substantial time
required by both the volunteer teachers, and by the ambitious teachers who
apply for certification translates directly to time away from lesson planning
and student nurture.
While standards advocate "high-level substance", the related planning process
begins with content; the "positivist-realist" nature of this approach regarding
what constitutes knowledge ignores the student as inquirer in the process.
I have observed that virtually all major school reform efforts to date (1998)
seek to commit all educators to one best way of educating all youth. They
suggest uniform, predetermined, objectified, measurable, and discrete content
and outcomes.
Finally, we must be cautious not to think of school "reform" as a matter of
tuning up the existing system. Improving student scores on national
standardized tests is often viewed as the end to which all means should be
directed. True reform will move beyond test scores and benchmarks to a
totally new understanding of what it means to educate our nation's children
reform defined as "second-order change" (Fullan 1991).
These two stated areas of concernthe state of standards-driven school
reform, the state of youth in the midst of turmoil-affirm the need for
transformational, second-order change. The situation suggests that high schools
should include, in addition to the usual mastery of technical and academic skills and
knowledge, novel structures that can meet the needs of all students for meaning and


well-being, supported by an inclusive and interrelated approach to the curriculum.
Schools are complex systems made up of people, curriculum, and all of the realities
present in the larger society. Accordingly, educational change is complex. It "cycles
and evolves" as professionals "tinker with and alter the hypotheses into hybrids"
(Tyack & Cuban, 1995, p. 60). Tyack, Cuban, Fullan, and others concerned with
lasting change focus on the educational constituencies. They discuss and analyze the
stakeholder groups, the curriculum, and the various milieus, separately. In contrast,
the present case study seeks to carefully explore the interrelations among all of the
various constituencies and curriculum components found in one episode of school
reform.
A Case Study of the Academic Program
in the Denver Public Schools
The Academic Program at CEC was planned in response to the needs of urban
high school students of the 80s and 90s, according to such an interactive and
interrelated approach. It was implemented by four master academic teachers as a pilot
program in the fall of 1986. During the spring 1986 semester, prior to the adoption of
the image-based planning approach, all of the CEC teachers and administrators
worked to identify the academic knowledge required for success in each of the career
classes. The task of "covering" such a skill-based curriculum was eventually deemed
impossible and the more student-centered, community-oriented, project-approach was
then bom. When this was recognized, CEC students were included in the curriculum
planning through a workshop entitled "The Essential Elements of the Academic
Program" (see Appendix A). This process-approach to the curriculum design became
its hallmark; custom-made planning materials were developed and consistently used.


The program continued as a pilot, being evaluated and modified each semester
for the next three years. In 1989, the Academic Program model became a formal DPS
program and functioned as such for the following six years. Due to school and district
reorganization, the program was closed down in January of 1995; at that time,
however, it entered a replication phase with major components being adapted for use
in other locations, district-wide. The following factors may have contributed to the
Academic Programs closure at CEC: 1) The high student energy level that was
generated by the project's learning activities was viewed as disruptive by some school
personnel; 2) All three of the school's principals, including the two who helped
conceptualize the program in 1986, left for a different reason in June of 1994. The
new principal was less than supportive of the program, and with no advanced notice
to parents, teachers, or studentsincluding graduating seniorsannounced its
immediate termination in January of 1995; 3) There was no official commitment to the
Academic Program beyond the school site.
An academic program with a more traditional instructional approach was
reinstated at the school in the fall of 1995 and, at the time of this writing, school
administrators are working to again re-define important curriculum components,
making them more interactive. However, there is no evidence of efforts to understand
the original Academic Program curriculumits comprehensive learning intents or
unique planning processes.


Non-Traditional Features of the Academic Pros ram
An examination of Academic Program artifacts indicates that this program
differed from that of a traditional high school in these significant ways (see "Three
Systems of Learning Chart" in Appendix A):
Curriculum presentation format. Traditional high schools generally present
curriculum in "Carnegie Units" delivered in forty-five minute periods and
using a district scope-and-sequence format. Such a stringent plan is often a
disincentive to individual student learning motivation (Carroll, 1994). In
contrast, the Academic Program used time creatively and flexibly in periods
never less than one hour long.
Student involvement. Traditional high schools offer "extracurricular" activities
designed to provide social skills and student leadership opportunities. Some
choose to join clubs or do volunteer work within the high school setting.
Certain studentsgenerally those already possessing good social skillsare
selected by teachers and peers for a finite number of leadership positions.
Sadly, the majority of young people are not included in many of these
interesting and formative activities. Students with family-support
responsibilities, with part- or full-time jobs, with low motivation, or with
debilitating self-images, generally "fall though the cracks." In contrast, the
Academic Program was designed to include all students at all levels. It was
designed with "academically disinclined" 11th and 12th grade students in mind
and required them all to investigate project issues and share responsibilities.
Focus on student uniquenesses. In most high schools, individual potential is
seldom challenged and students' overall learning is rarely a category for


analysis or evaluation (Tyack & Cuban, 1995). Many students' talents and
potential are consequently lost to the school community as well as to society.
In contrast, the Academic Program implemented an academically rigorous and
non-traditional approach to high school instruction, focusing on each
individual's unique profile of learning strengths and relative weaknesses.
A team approach to planning and assessment. The four teachers planned all
curricula and provided all academic instruction. A teacher team leader provided
coordination with the larger magnet school. Although each individual teacher
had established grading policies, the interactive curriculum components-
orientation and the selected projectwere assessed by rubrics and portfolios.
Students evaluated their project teammates (see Appendix B) on project work.
Teachers were provided two additional hours of common planning time each
week, making possible the ongoing, interdisciplinary curriculum design.
Assessment of individual student progress and any needed adaptation of the
curriculum plans to assure maximum interest and effectiveness occurred
during that time.
Multiple forms of assessment. Students participated in a team-based and self-
assessment format for all project work (one class period per day), and an end-
of-semester portfolio featured sections for learning achievements from all
aspects of the CEC program. Academic teachers selected their own method for
their other two classes. Course syllabi with clear expectations for grades and
levels of achievement was sent home prior to each new semester.


Foundations and Assumptions of the Program
The mental image as fundamental to learning behavior. The model for the
Academic Program was initially inspired by Kenneth Boulding, educator and
economist. His theoretical treatise, The Image. (1956) states that a) much of human
beings' thinking and behavior is based on their mental images; b) verbal, visual, or
experiential messages form the images; and c) images affect behavior, which offers
clues to the images. Finally, the images can be changed by strategic messages.
Teachers and planners in the CEC program also later at various times studied the work
of Peter Senge (1990) who presents a similar cognitive account, but uses the
terminology of "mental models" and "actions" where Boulding uses "images" and
"behavior". Senge's work reinforced and enhanced this understanding of the
relationship between the students' images and their learning behavior.
Curriculum design based on image theory. The strategy of connecting
curriculum to students' mental models or images was foundational in the design of the
Academic Program. The curriculum was created by the Academic Program teachers
and administrators with the assistance of two consultants from the Institute of Cultural
Affairs (ICA) during the summer of 1986. The model was further significantly
influenced by two conference events which took place at about this same time: a) the
July 1986 Teachers' Institute at Spelman College in Atlanta, Georgia, an event that
was sponsored by the Imaginal Education Program of the ICA and involved an
international group of master teachers; and b) the June 1987 Education Summit at
George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia, an event that was co-sponsored by the
ICA, New Horizons for Learning, a Seattle-based education think-tank, and others.
Among the featured speakers at this gathering of prestigious political and education


leaders were Robert Aldrich, Barbara Clark, Reuven Feuerstein, Howard Gardner,
Malcolm Knowles, David Perkins, and Edward Zigler. Information presented by
these edge thinkers in their areas of research was shared with all of the teachers and
consultants who were working with the Academic Program during its pilot phase.
Curriculum Design Included Intended Student Experiences
In addition to naming an image change or image to be shaped by each major
curriculum component, Academic Program teachers also identified what they wanted
these high school students to experience in these components (see Appendix C). This
facet of the planning process served a "how-to" function in the learning plans, and
encouraged comprehensiveness and creativity in teacher planning. It was always an
intent of the program that students experienced success in academic achievement,
positive personal interactions, and significant involvement in group decision-making.
Specific Agreements and Assumptions. The following agreements and
assumptions guided the early planning of the Academic Program. Together the nine
items represent a foundational belief that the experience of each separate part of a
learning community is significant and that each affects the experience of each of the
other parts as well as that of the whole (see Appendix A).
1. The studentstheir interests and needsare the center or focus of the
educational process.
2. Time is set at the present, i.e., while teachers planned somewhat with the
nature of their students' future workplace in mind, learning activities were
always delivered within the context of the present.
3. Work is presented as the pathway to life fulfillment.


4. All students are valued equally (in contrast to the common school practice of
prioritizing the students from bad to good).
5. Teachers' time and students' time are considered to be of equal value.
6. Grades are used as symbols representing student achievement, to maintain
continuity across the district. However, real-world project victories are the
primary motivators and therefore better signs of actual achievement.
7. The interests and skills represented in each particular student body are always
included in planning.
8. Teachers model effective teamwork, believing that more and better work can
be done by an effective team than by individual efforts.
9. The larger Denver community is used to situate learning, providing an integral
source of general information and learning project topics.
Procedural Underpinnings
Image-based curriculum. Curriculum planning for the program began by
analyzing probable student images of themselves, their school, and the community,
and then describing desirable images in each category. Each of the three semester
schedule segments was defined by these desired images/image changes (see Appendix
C), and these definitions guided further planning. During the first two weeks of
school, student activities delivered messages designed to effect specific changes in
student images. Image of self was encouraged to change from an "unsuccessful
learner" to a "curious or successful learner," and from "high school kid" to "young
adult." Image of school was encouraged to change from "a place to play" to "a place
to work," from "a place where passive endurance is rewarded" to "a place where


passive endurance results in failure," and from an "inaccessible, pre-determined
program" to "a learning community that requires everyone's participation." Image of
community was encouraged to change from "a sometimes hostile and closed group of
elected officials" to "particular, dedicated people working on special causes."
The mid-semester project targeted different image changes: Image of self from
"disengaged high school student" to "effective, practical problem-solver"; Image of
school from "a place where facts are dispensed in classrooms" to "a community
resource center where problems are solved"; and Image of community from
"inaccessible, scattered groups of people in unknown buildings" to "coherent groups
of people whose causes need everyone's care". During the portfolio compilation and
sharing sessions, these image changes were intended: Image of self from "student of
facts" to "creator of products"; Image of school from "dispenser of rewards in
segmented grades" to "acknowledger of learning accomplishments"; and Image of
Community from "a place where luck is needed to succeed" to "a world in which the
future is accessible" and "a source of resume recognition." Planning curriculum using
this approach takes into account all of the ways messages are given and received
including verbal, visual, and experiential (p. 14). Comprehensive planning processes
were followed at each level, defining desired student images, measurable learning
objectives, and experiential aims (see Appendix C).
The project approach. The project approach adopted by the Academic Program
is of special interest due to its motivational nature and capacity to involve all
stakeholders. It was the primary strategy to address the students' negative images of
the community and school. While many educators would agree that a project-based
curriculum provides a good way for students to learn (Valdes, 1998), research on the


topic has been situated mainly in the domains of science and social studies. The
Academic Program employed curriculum projects that connected the four disciplines
of English, math, science, and social studies, specifically to the 32 career classes
offered at CEC at that time. These projects involved both students and teachers in
problem-posing and problem-solving.
Key in framing the project was the semester schedule of learning-related
events, designed with this rhythm: project topic, academic concepts, student research
on the project, and synthesis activities. Before the beginning of each term, the
teachers (with administrator consultation) selected a high-media-profile, issue-oriented
topic that provided a real-world connection for academic studies and problem-solving,
project-based applications. Teachers and admininstrators building-wide were
encouraged to suggest possible project themes with interesting learning extensions,
making for a highly creative and lively process. The topic was eventually consensed
upon by the academic teaching team during an all day planning meeting that was held
at least one month prior to the beginning of the next term.
The first two weeks of each semester were devoted to assessing the profile of
learning uniqueness and the personal strengths or gifts of each student. At this time, a
career exploration pathway was identified for each student.
Next, guest speakers from the community who had in-depth knowledge about
the project topic frequently provided first-hand information and field trips were
scheduled as appropriate. All learning activities were designed to send intentional and
positive messages about school (as a place of resources), about the community (as a
locus of care and creativity) and about the individual student (as possessing unique
gifts and learning preferences).
20


Mid-semester, students worked in teams for two weeks, first to research the
issues and then to make recommendations for a solution to the project challenge
(Figure 1.1).
Community agency representatives with whom the student teams had worked,
as well as administrators and parents, were invited to attend a final reporting session
in which results were shared and a consensus was reached regarding the challenge
topic (Figure 1.2) (Snodgrass & Slotta 1992). At the end of the semester, student
portfolios included at least one final product from the project team's work. Students
wrote evaluative comments summarizing both their own learning and the contributions
of their teammates.


Figure 1.1 A team of students researches a project sub-topic.
22


Figure 1.2 Students and guests listen to project team reports.
The Project Approach motivated students to create solutions to problem
situations that affected their community and world. In so doing, they applied already-
mastered academic and practical skills, eliminating the all-too-familiar question,
"When will I ever need to know this?" The process was formally termed "The Project
Approach" by ICA consultant David Bums (pseudonym) at its inception.
The project topic frequently became the focus for monthly enrichment
activities. Projects usually had a global dimension; they always had a local aspect that
could be effectively problem-solved. Samples of project themes were: "Water
Conservation on a Desert Plateau"; "Remembering the Rainforests"; "Exploring
Another Continent" (Africa); "Drop-out Prevention"; "The Gulf WarBlood for Oil?";
"Our Global Neighborhood"; "Destination White House"; "Immigration-Crowded
23


Shores, Closed Doors"; and "Health Care 2000." (The curriculum and results of the
Fall 1994 project on immigration entitled, "Crowded Shores, Closed Doors," is found
in Appendix B.)
Many of the project topics naturally incorporated a fund-raising component for
one of the teams. During the rainforest project, students on one of the teams worked
with a local agency, Denver Digs Trees, to obtain and then plant trees along an
eroding water canal; students on a different team raised money to adopt an acre of
rainforest land in Central America. During the "Summer of Violence" (1993in
Denver) project students learned about the AFSC and other local agencies that teach
conflict resolution skills; during the project on Africa, student teams learned about and
raised money for the Wildlife Foundation (endangered animal species), the Sierra
Club, and UNICEF. These activities all took place during one, one-hour class period
for three weeks.
The Project Approach was designed to model and encourage these educational
reform practices: teamwork and cooperation, as students experienced the mandate to
design common solutions; lifelong learning, as students watched teachers learn about
new and current topics; individual motivation, as students struggled to meet real
deadlines; connected learning and academic affirmation, as students applied academic
skills to real situations; and the rewards of volunteering, as students worked on behalf
of the larger community's needs (Slotta, 1993).
Students. The Academic Program accommodated up to 100 students for up to
four semesters. Six hundred eighty-five students participated in the program during its
nine year duration. In general, the student body consisted of active learners who had
not succeeded at their home high schools. Student mix was representative of the


population of the city of Denver in ethnicity and gender and often contained children
of notable Denver area educators. Over 60% of these students worked full- or part-
time (Spampanato, Becker & Johnson, 1991). Second-year students were required to
provide leadership for small groups and for project teams. They were also encouraged
to enroll in community college courses or to schedule career-related internships in
tandem with their academic schedules.
Staff and advisors. Eight different teachers provided instruction in teams of
four per contract year, each representing one of the disciplines of English, math,
science, and social studies. One of three building administrators coordinated the staff
and oversaw the learning activities. The original teachers were four master teachers,
having come to the CEC from positions of leadership in their former school
assignments. They were all parents of grown children.
In the fall of 1994, a board of advisors for the Academic Program was formed
with representation from former students, and from parents, teachers, and
administrators, as well as from both university and ICA advisors. One member, the
parent of a former student, had also been a member of the DPS school board. This
advisory board brought a comprehensive and informed perspective to the program,
supported the students' project work, and sought to expand the program's influence
within educational networks across the state (see Appendix D).
25


Success Indicators
The Academic Program at CEC is worth analyzing because it was widely
deemed "successful" and it is an example of second-order change. But how can we
provide some tangible measure of this success?
The following three criteria are suggested by Tyack and Cuban (1995) as a
valid measure of success in educational reform settings: a) Fidelity to original design;
b) Effectiveness in meeting pre-set outcomes and c) Longevity (pp. 61-63). Each of
these factors was reflected in the success of the Academic Program and will be
considered here. In addition, informal reports from students, teachers, and
administrators provide testimony to success. Finally, a prior quantitative study of
student achievement will be briefly revisited.
Fidelity to original design. While the Academic Program was modified each
semester in small yet significant ways (p. 12), the original schedule, intentions, and
curriculum designs were never modified (see Appendix A).
Effectiveness in meeting pre-set outcomes. The image-shaping strategies
which directed learning activities toward the students' images of self, school, and
community, were documented by a quantitative study (Slotta, 1991). This study
indicated that students who had participated in the Academic Program exceeded
normal expectations of young people in that age group in community involvement,
had completed their high school education, and had not received public assistance of
any kind. (See Appendix E).
Longevity. The Academic Program enjoyed a nine-year duration, six years
past the pilot phase. The fact that this is long for an education innovation is not
necessarily an indicator of success, as innovations can change over time and create
26


new problems within systems. The fact that replication was intended when the
program was closed at the Career Education Center is of more significance. District
administrators had intended the basic structure and schedule of the program was to be
a model for at-risk and alternative programs at other secondary school sites.
Student, teacher, and administrator reports:
The CEC programs were evaluated each semester for the administrators by the
students. Results of these evaluations were always extraordinarily
complimentary of this particular program.
Throughout the program, CEC professionals reported unusually high
motivation and achievement from the Academic Program students. Teachers
and administrators regularly noted significant, observable changes in the
student participants' attitudes.
The Academic Program was sufficiently recognized and respected to be
presented at several conferences, including the Colorado Council of Teachers
of Mathematics' (CCTM) annual conference in 1989, and ICA West's annual
meeting in 1992.
The Project component has been a featured topic of ICA Chicago's Learning
Lab3' a two-week summer training program for teacher teams. "The Project" is
3 The Learning Lab is an intensive, two week laboratory developed by The Institute of Cultural
Affairs (ICA) Chicago in 1991. It features instruction, demonstration, and practice in image-based
curriculum design and delivery. Labs have been sponsored in Chicago by the Golden Apple Program
and attended by Golden Apple Scholars and Chicago Public School teachers. In 1996 a Learning Lab
was held in San Jose, California; it was co-sponsored by the ICA, a River Alliance of five science
magnet schools of San Jose Unified School District, San Jose State University, and Joint Venture
(business-education) Silicon Valley. One of the five participating schoolsJohn Muir Middle
School-was honored later in 1996 by President Clinton as the site for his education address.
27


frequently mentioned on teachers' final evaluations as their Learning Lab
program highlight.
Requests for presentations and instruction regarding the Academic Program
have come to the CEC from school districts across the country.
The program received four Public Education Coalition grants and several
federal title grants for particular project components (Slotta, 1991).
Although the program was consensus-based and non-competitive in nature,
students regularly received recognition in outside competitions during high
school.
Graduates of the program have succeeded in university work, earning
baccalaureate and graduate degrees; others have excelled in post-high school
careers. One former student in the Academic Program is now teaching the
CEC career class he attended during high school.
While some of the above items are based primarily on casual teacher and
school reports and on local contest documents, interview comments from the present
qualitative study do support these claims.
Quantitative study of student achievement. In fulfillment of part of a master's
degree requirement at the University of Colorado at Denver, I designed and conducted
a quantitative study of Academic Program student achievements (Slotta, 1991)(see
Appendix E). The inquiry was conducted at the end of the first four years of the CEC
Academic Program. In order to determine whether image change had actually
occurred, former students were surveyed after leaving high school. The following
three facets of intended image formation or change were examined: image of school
(measured by school completion), image of community (measured by degree of
28


political or community involvement), and image of self (measured by degree of
economic self-sufficiency).
Results from this earlier study clearly indicated the success of the program.
Approximately 87% of the at-risk students who had ever entered the program
graduated from high school; an additional 9% had earned their GED. This compares
with 78% for the district overall. (No graduation rate for At-Risk Students Only
category was available.) Thirty-eight percent were registered voters, as compared
with 3% of this same age group in the same county during the same time frame. Over
half had attended college or technical school, and 95% were economically self-
supporting. (No data for economic self-sufficiency were available for this selected age
group. )(Slotta, 1991)
Summary
This is not a study about whether change is needed in schools today; rather, it
assumes that schools need constant renewal in both content and process so that our
students may "learn from the future." Neither does this study seek to recommend one
major reform strategy over another; it assumes that teachers and administrators at an
educational site will utilize the courses, schedules, and learning events that best meet
student learning needs at a local site.
Rather, this is a study about second-order change. It is a study that scrutinizes
one local team of doersteachers, administrators, and advisors, together with
representative students and their parentswho represent all the stakeholders in a
reform process whose aim was to respond to their school community's perceived
needs. It is a study that analyzes the comments of those who created this successful
reform program and maintained ongoing documentation, buoyed up by its many
29


victories along the pathway. This study examines artifacts, documents, and persona]
experiences, and captures the significant attitudes, actions, and thoughts of the
stakeholders in this particular reform episode. In short, metaphorically, it is a case
study that examines both the actors and their script, plus the producers, the audience,
the critics, and the reviewers.
If the journey from reform to transform requires radically altered organization
then it must also require intentional model-building and experimentation. Such action
research can only happen by including classroom laboratories that try, showcase, and
carefully document reform efforts. This study is an analysis of one such programthe
Academic Program at Denver's Career Education Center. It expands on the substantial
quantitative documentation done after the first three years of the programs
implementation (Slotta, 1991).
This study aligns the Academic Program's various features and
accomplishments with recent definitions of second-order change. An important
premise of both the case and this study is that students, parents, teachers,
administrators, and advisors all have unique and important perspectives to contribute.
This premise is supported by a second: There are appropriate and important
philosophical assumptions and planning approaches that, when incorporated into the
curriculum design process, produce meaningful and maximized learning experiences
that prepare students for lifelong learning in this, the Information Age.


CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
The stated intent of this historical descriptive case study is to illustrate by
example how the stakeholder roles and program elements in one successful high
school reform episode were exemplified. Substantive changes such as those in the
case, i. e. changes in the patterns and practices of teaching and learning, have been
described as second-order change (Cuban, 1988, Fullan, 1991). As the present study
examines the roles and expectations of the various stakeholders, it will be helpful to
review what the existing research literature has to say about each constituency.
Because the present study will focus on relationships between groups, including
images of each group held by the others, special interest will be given to any research
that explores interactions between two or more constituencies. Because an image-
based curriculum design was integral to the study (see Appendix B), it will also be
important to review existing literature on the relationship between images and
learning. This chapter therefore examines previous research, with specific claims or
findings relating to (a) the roles and perceptions of the stakeholders and (b) image-
based instruction.
3 1


The Stakeholder Roles
Students
The primary theme in the literature regarding the role of the student is
engagement. Fullan (1991) has argued that students need to see themselves as having
some meaningful role in the classroom, yet more work has focused on student
activities than on student images. Much of this research on student activities and
learning outcomes has been in the domain of science education. For example,
Minstrell (1996) has developed an innovative approach to guiding student learning of
physical science through reference to conceptual benchmarks (e.g., Minstrell and
Stimpton, 1996). Further, Kuhn (1989, 1993) has suggested that students benefit
from instruction that includes scientific reasoning and argumentation. Songer (1993)
has offered activities that lead to such scientific inquiry in her "Kids as Global
Scientists" project.
Substantially less work has explored students' attitudes, beliefs and goals in
the classroom, relating to the present issue of image analysis. The effects of
classroom activities on student perspectives and performance has been studied
(Stevenson, 1990, Phelan, Davidson, & Cao, 1992, Hojacki & Grover, 1992,
Keller-Cogan, 1995, Joyner, 1996). For example, students representing three
different achievement levels were interviewed about the nature of classrooms and
activities that engaged their interests (Stevenson, 1990). Results of this study suggest
that students are not engaged by trivial tasks, but by cognitively-challenging tasks
such as interpreting, analyzing, and manipulating information. Phelan, Davidson and
Cao (1992) investigated student perspectives on learning and found them to be
remarkably similar to those of teachers. By asking questions like, "What is important


to students about schools and classrooms?", these researchers determined that
students from all achievement levels and backgrounds want to succeed and understand
that it is important to be in an environment that will support their success. Keller-
Cogan (1995) investigated student perceptions of instructional and assessment
strategies in traditional and alternative settings, but found only that the alternative
settings seemed more effective from the student perspective.
Some research has focused on the interactions between students and their
peers, as well as the development of technologies to support peer collaboration (e.g.,
Scardamalia and Bereiter, 1991; Brown and Campione, 1994). This work as a whole
suggests that classrooms are best considered as a community of learners. Other
researchers have explored the interactions between students and teachers or other
constituencies. Lucas (1996) examined the effects of teacher and assistant principal
roles on student motivation. This work, together with that of Matthews and Brown
(1976, 1988) establishes connections between the influences of these constituencies
and student achievement. Boyle (1993) compared the perceptions of student and
teacher groups in two schools regarding their classroom climates and use of cognitive
strategies. This quantitative study involved over a thousand students and nearly a
hundred teachers, and employed diverse measures. Results of the study found that
learning is improved in contexts where teachers and their students have similar
perspectives on learning. Researchers at the Learning Research and Development
Center (LRDC) at the University of Pittsburgh worked in cooperation with the
American Federation of Teachers (AFT) to organize the "Thinking Mathematics
Project" (Hojacki & Grover, 1992). The study involved sixty-five classes at five
schools and monitored student and peer groups against affective and cognitive


changes. Teacher self-reported data showed that teachers who were involved in the
program perceived empowering changes in their students in problem-solving abilities
and attitudes toward math.
All of these studies point to the primary role of student engagement in the
learning process and to the interactive nature of learning activities as key to
improvement.
Parents
The parent role is "where the most powerful instrument for improvement
resides" (Fullan, 1991, p. 227). Fullan cites studies by Epstein (1988) and Mortimore
(1988) that document the importance of parental involvement in general as it affects
student achievement. Findings indicate that parents require the school's assistance to
become knowledgeable partners in their children's education. An examination of the
literature indicates that the role of the parent in the education literature is generally
presented in relationship to other factors or stakeholders. The fact that no known
correlation has been found between parental involvement in governance and student
achievement (Gibson, 1991) implies that the focus of parental involvement should
always be on educational activities if increased student learning is the intended
outcome.
Gibson (1991) also looked at how parental involvement affects teacher and
administrator attitudes. His findings most relevant to this present study were: a) all
parents want to be involved in the education of their children; b) teachers held the
primary influence over whether or not parents were productive partners in the school;
34


and c) parental involvement improves the school's image within the larger
community.
Teachers
The question of what makes great teachers great is embedded in the culture of
many current teacher recognition programs, such as the American Teacher Awards
and the Presidential Award for Excellence. The qualities of great teachers are also the
subject of many teacher education courses and textbooks. An example of a recent and
innovative text that involved teachers in the field in the articulation of successful
approaches and philosophical positions is Becoming a Teacher (Parkay & Stanford,
1992). In addition to widely publicized programs, professional advocate organizations
regularly analyze the state of the teachers and administrators. Phi Delta Kappan
annually polls teachers on the status of the public schools.
It is widely recognized that teachers perform many functions beyond those of
instruction. Research findings agree that teaching is "a never-ending mixture of
satisfying and stressful experiences" (Fullan, 1991, p. 123). It is within such a milieu
that the art of teaching must necessarily take place. The study of the teacher role and
qualities is therefore frequently qualitative. Simmers-Wolpow (1995) explored the life
histories of three great teachers who had also been trauma victims, to identify possible
ways in which their recovery may inform their pedagogical approaches. More
specifically, this study looked for the subtle ways in which these professionals' own
despair-to-hope stories may have positively affected their primary instructional
message.
3 5


The subject of teacher involvement in science and mathematics curriculum
reform was the focus of a 1997 longitudinal study (Esterle). As attention in the reform
community continues to focus on math and science literacy for all students, this study
included observations of staff activities and events in one such programthe
California Academy of Math and Science. It became necessary when teacher
collaborations were not occurring, to refocus the study onto what was actually
blocking the modification of instructional practices.
It is also recognized that the teacher, together with the principal, plays a major
role in student motivation and achievement (Lucas, 1996; Hojacki & Grover, 1992;
Matthews & Brown, 1976, 1988). Holt & Juraschek (1998) observed a teacher
delivering an inquiry lesson to an eighth grade mathematics class, noting the
engagement of the students, the culture of the classroom, and the practical activity of
the teacher. Their conclusions were: a) good teaching cannot be reduced to
prescriptions; b) a systems perspective is desirable; and c) significant teacher
experience is essential. These findings substantiate the artfulness of the teacher's task,
and the systemic nature of the outcomes. We have substantial information and still
want to learn more about how the teacher becomes "an artisan who transforms
students" (Fullan, 1991, p. 142).
Administrators
The difficult nature of the principal's role is also well established; it is a role
that has been widely studied. The majority of a principal's time is spent on personal
encountersphone calls, meetings, negotiations (Fullan, 1991). Fullan cites Martin
(1981) who found that only 17% of a principal's day is spent on instructional matters.
36


The importance of the principal's role to student learning is implicit. Lucas
(1996) established connections between the roles of teacher and principal and student
achievement. Hunderfund (1992) interviewed students and caregivers in a Long
Island, New York, community of 13,000 residents, to identify common factors that
influence the relation between care-giving and care-receiving among supervisors,
teachers, and students. Results indicated that school leaders played a critical role in the
shaping of dominant cultural values within the school settings studied. Particularly,
there was evidence to support the powerful influence of the principal on the nature of
the schools caring ethos.
The perceptions and strategies of principals for dealing with academically
deficient students was explored by Wheaton (1994). She examined a body of students
that is often overlookedthose who are not "special education," and students who
have no attendance or behavior problems. In her expansive study, Wheaton found
that while the principals recognized the needs of these students, they had difficulty in
providing effective strategies that would help work through their complicated
problems.
Beerman (1996) investigated the effects of programmatic change on
principals' roles and responsibilities. Her quantitative evaluation of nine "High
Schools That Work" pilot sites in Indiana sought to identify both the programmatic
changes and the administrative responsibilities at each school. She identified the tasks
of site coordinator, initiator, facilitator, supporter, and problem-solver, and concluded
that when structural change accompanied programmatic change, the role of the
principal assumed a different supporting status.
37


Summary of Stakeholder Research
In summary, researchers seem to have learned that making one change in a
high school situation is accompanied by other, sometimes unanticipated, changes
elsewhere in the system. Changing a curriculum component changes the principal's
role (Beerman, 1996); increasing the involvement of the parent alters the teacher role
and increases student achievement (Gibson, 1991). This persuasive reality is
articulated by Fullan (1991): "We are not only dealing with a moving and changing
target; we are also playing this (change) out in social settings. Solutions must come
through the development of shared meaning. The interface between individual and
collective meaning and action in everyday situations is where change stands or falls"
(p. 5). Fullan devotes chapters in the book to each of these roles: student, teacher,
principal, building administrator, district administrator, parent and community, and
school boards, as they interrelate; several studies are cited, each of which discusses
one or two of the eight roles. Thus, while Fullan considers systemic change as it is
reflected in each of the various sociological roles, the studies he cites, as well as his
own approach, only examine one or two roles at a time. The approach adopted by
both the current case study as well as this review of the literature is to focus on the
interactions with multiple roles whenever possible (Lucas, 1996; Hojacki, 1992;
Hunderfund, 1992; Boyle, 1993).
The following common themes with direct relevance to this study are
identifiable:
The role of the principal was named as instrumental in establishing school
culture (Hunderfund, 1992).
38


The students' self-perceptions (self images) were a powerful influence on their
abilities to adapt to instructional improvement strategies (Lucas, 1996).
Parent involvement had a smoothing and facilitating effect on school-
community relations (Gibson, 1991).
Student-teacher perceptions, when aligned, produced optimal learning results
(Boyle, 1993, Phelan, Davidson & Cao, 1992).
Challenging curriculum was seen as the most engaging kind of classroom
activity (Stevenson, 1990, Hojacki & Grover, 1992).
While several of the studies examined more than one of the roles or
perceptions of the stakeholder groups, no study has investigated .the interactions of all
five selected roles, either in general, or in a particular reform event.'A case study of
how these five roles are related is therefore extremely worthwhile, as it will provide
important information for future research and reform practitioners.
Foundational Works
Two Action Researchers
Howard Gardner (1991) defines the desired school of the future in terms of
stakeholder roles, but ignores their interactions. His descriptions provide an image of
qualities of each of the stakeholder groups, but do not say how they might interrelate.
The school he describes is one in which teachers are well-trained and absorbed in their
work, parents support and defend the philosophy of the school, the community is
hospitable to students who want to learn, and the students themselves are sufficiently
motivated and responsible and make the most of opportunities as they are presented.
In such a school, new roles would serve all participantsroles like "student-
39


curriculum broker," "school-community broker," and "master teacher" (pp. 10-11).
The present study moves to the next step of detailing how a high school program
successfully and routinely "brokered" the school and community.
The Central Park East Secondary School (CPESS) Project in New York City
(Meier 1995) involved the district administrators, parents, and teachers in working
closely with students' learning and personal issues. Meier attributes the program's
success to the following factors:
What has allowed this to happen is a combination of imaginative public policy
initiated by a few brave, well-situated individuals who made the experiment
even possible; reproducible ways of organizing schools and of getting
teachers, students, and families to work together; a small crew of teachers
who were ready to take the risks and seize the opportunities; and a group of
families either desperate enough or eager enough to give it a chance. Our
singular success depended on complementary efforts...(p. 17).
The several striking similarities between CEC's Academic Program and
CPESS will be discussed in greater detail in Chapter 4.
Image-Based Learning
The notion that humans learn by creating, adjusting, and changing mental
models to correspond to information received through their senses is neither new nor
radical. The concept of image has appeared in academic writing for centuries. Polak
(1973 translation) describes its background and progression as follows: the general
theory of images may be thought of as "eidetics," derived from the Greek eidelon,
meaning "image." Plato, Epicurus, and Democritus used the term to refer to
knowledge and the learning process. Francis Bacon also later made reference to it.
The term eidetisch appears in the writings of German psychologists, especially E.R.
40


Jaensch, who specialized in research on children between the ages of thirteen and
fifteen. Jaensch related certain types of eidetic endowments to physical constitution
(.Korperbau) and to personality type. On the basis of this, he outlined a theory of the
development of culture (p.12).
John Dewey describes thought as having three formsan automatic, unrelated
flow; imagination; and the third which is synonymous with beliefs. Dewey (1933)
describes a belief as "a mental picture of something not actually present; thinking is
the succession of such pictures" (p. 5).
During the latter part of this century, the influence of mental images on
thinking and learning began to appear more frequently in academic literature
(Boulding, 1956; Polak, 1973; Piaget, 1952, 1969). Details of Bouiding's account
are as follows: human beings operate through mental images; messagesverbal,
visual or experientialform the images; images affect behavior, which offers clues to
the images; and images can be changed by strategic messages. Messages may be
designed which address both the desired and undesired mental models of students.
A related body of literature is composed of the cognitive theorists (Vygotsky,
1934/1978; Brooks, J.G. & Brooks, M. G 1993; Dewey, 1902/1915/1938) who
purport that the learner constructs her/his own concepts and specific elements of
student thinking affect learning success. Vygotsky cites German psychologists
Narciss Ach & Franz Rimat as he defines stages of concept development. Concepts
arise or are "constructed through a goal-directed process composed of several
operations that function as means for solution of a basic task" (p. 124). Boulding
(1956) and Vygotsky (1978, translation) both purport that images have individual and
social aspects and affect both the individual and his/her culture.


Jean Piaget (1969) viewed the human mind as a dynamic set of cognitive
structures that help us make sense of what we perceive. His premise is that "all
knowledge has to do with structures" which may be either "figurative" (perceptions or
mental images) or "operative" (action or operation) (p. 356). He further cautions that
it is not always wise to distinguish between the two types of knowledge. He uses
Klein's work with transformative geometry as an example in which both aspects are
mutually indispensable at some level. According to Piaget, the subject of operational
intelligence considers experience to be a progressive restructuring, rather than a
simple recording of information, and deduction to be a coordination of operations,
rather than simply an exercise in logic (p. 358).
As learners make connections among experiences, messages of theory,
personal study, and creative dialogue, such restructuring occurs. When several
aspects of a situation are consciously identified in the learning process, there is
potential for meaningful learning. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics'
(NCTM) Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics (1989)
(hereafter referred to as the Curriculum Standards) views students and teachers as
partners in a new classroom dynamic of developing ideas and problem-solving.
The formation of stable concepts or images is enhanced by meaningful
learning activities. Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger, and Tarule (1986) document
preferable approaches to affect connected and inclusive learning. Throughout their
book, Women's Wavs of Knowing, are examples of the importance of the learner
understanding herself as a retainer of information and as a sharer of truth. The young
women participating in their study who consciously tried to make connections were


identified at the fifth level, or perspective of knowing, that of "constructed
knowledge" (p. 225).
Taylor, Stevens, Peregoy, & Bath (1991) discuss Indian learning in a
meaningful mode and as connected to cultural and family roots. The culturally relevant
mathematical experiences of middle school American Indian students in a summer
math program appeared to facilitate their developing positive attitudes toward math
(Taylor, 1997, p. 169).
John Dewey's progressive education movement in the early part of the century
examined the nature of the school, and introduced the idea that schools could be
student-centered and expansive beyond the building itself with formal connections to
the community (Dewey, 1902, 1933,1938). In his critique of traditional education
Dewey (1938) describes its greatest failure as its inability to "secure the active
cooperation of the pupil in construction of the purposes involved in his studying" (p.
67). Jacqueline Grennon Brooks and Martin Brooks (1993) state that we should
concern ourselves with getting thinking and rethinking installed into our high school
culture by moving from "imitative behavior" to that which results in students "deep
thinking" (p. 16).
While most of these authors agree on the intent and general direction of
learning activities, we are still searching for a comprehensive planning process that
delivers such results. The present historical case study provides definitive
information on one new approach.
Research in the cognitive literature has explored mental models (Johnson-
Laird, 1995; Slotta, J., 1997). Senge (1990) defines an image as a "mental model"
which is a "deeply ingrained assumption, generalization, or even picture or image that


influences how we understand the world or how we take action" (p. 8). He further
defines this phenomenon:
Mental models can be simple generalizations such as "people are
untrustworthy," or they can be complex theories, such as my assumptions
about why members of my family act as they do. Mental models are deeply
ingrained assumptions, generalizations, or even pictures or images that
influence how we understand the world or how we take action. Very often,
we are not consciously aware of how we understand the world or how we
take action (p. 175).
Recently, the role of image in curriculum development has been discussed
(Brooks, J. G. & Brooks, M. G. 1993; Posner, Strike, Hewson, & Gertzog, 1982;
Slotta, J., 1997). Slotta's premise is that
The general goal of learning or cognitive research has be'dn to develop a
cognitive theory of instruction which provides a detailed description of
learning in terms of a student's initial knowledge and how that knowledge
interacts with an instructional message. Teachers and curriculum designers
must first discern whether a concept is likely to have been ontologically
misplaced by a student, then proceed with a two-phased approach: first, train
the student in target ontology, which amounts to providing some knowledge
of the relevant attributes of concepts of this type; second, provide instruction
which relates the concept to these attributes while completely avoiding any
connection with faulty ontology (p. 1).
Johnson-Laird (1994, 1995) writes of the connection between mental models
or images and thinking or probabilistic reasoning. "They construct mental models,
which each correspond to an infinite set of possibilities."
The important cognitive issue of math-reluctant students is directly linked to
the subject of image theory. Taylor (1996) comments that "you can never have an
experience that is 100% affective or entirely cognitive, for the two are always
intertwined. While one experience may be primarily cognitive, it still has an affective
component and, inversely, while another experience is primarily affective, it still has a
44


cognitive component. Furthermore, one's actions relate to these cognitions and
feelings" (p. 62).
A related learning theory is that of situated cognition (Lave, & Wenger, 1991).
These theorists purport that "activities, tasks, functions, and understandings do not
exist in isolation; they are part of broader systems of relations in which they have
meaning... To ignore this aspect of learning is to overlook the fact that learning
involves the construction of identities" (p. 53).
In conclusion, all school experiences involve image work on the part of the
stakeholders. The task is to clarify and intentionalize the use of images in learning.
Cognitive theorists agree that the learner forms mental models through his or her
active experience. These cited authors mention multiple variables in this practice,
including the student's interest in the topic, cooperative approaches, initial
knowledge, the degree of entrenchment, and the student's emotions or receptivity.
Such multiple variables imply that a strategy of image-based learning is not a simple
one. However, with much academic attention focused on the cognitive process, and
much political and media attention focused on the processes of education and
instruction, the role of images in learning will continue to be a focus for research
attention. The present study contributes to that new knowledge.


CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY
This chapter describes the research methods used in this case study of the
Academic Program at the Fred N. Thomas Career Education Center (CEC). It
describes the study design and procedures, the selection criteria used for each
stakeholder group, the study participants (both in general and individually), the
interview approach, and the coding method. It describes as well the process of image
analysis used to summarize categories of coded comments for each stakeholder group.
Case Study Analysis
A case study approach was chosen to focus on this second-order change
program, because it allows the various elements of the context and its situated nature
to be included in the documentation. By definition, case studies are "bounded by a
particular program, institution, time period, or set of events. Within the defined
boundaries, whatever is the focus of attention is described in perspective of the
context surrounding it" (Krathwohl, 1993, p. 347). In this case, elements of the
context included each of the five stakeholder groups of students, participating parents,
teachers, building administrators, and advisors; CECthe school in which the
Academic Program took place; the structural design of the programthe daily,
weekly, and semester schedule; the curriculum design, including the problem-solving
project; and the planning processes used by the teachers and advisors. One stated
intent of this study (p. 5) is to identify any references made to the project-based
46


component of the curriculum during the participant interviews. The case study lends
itself to such specific linkages. LeCompte & Preissle (1993) state that "case study
analysis is appropriate for intensive, in-depth examination of one or a few aspects of a
given phenomenon" (p. 33). This study examines the case of one specific reform
episode as it connects to key roles in the general educational reform context.
As an historical, descriptive study, data in the form of coded interview
comments were collected after-the-fact. Gathered artifacts represent a nine year time
span and were not intended as documentation for causality. All decisions regarding
participant selection and study design recognized the historical concerns of complete
and multiple sources of evidence (Krathwohl, 1993). v.
This chapter specifically addresses the details of the qualitative research design
used in this case study of the high school program. (A related study done earlier by
this researchera quantitative longitudinal study that documented the post-high school
engagement patterns of a random sample of the program's student participantscan be
found in Appendix E.)
Study Design and Procedures
The central research question focused on the extent to which the perceptions of
the five stakeholder groupsstudents, their parents, teachers, school administrators,
and advisorsagree or differ on key aspects of a high school learning experience that
embodies second-order change. Such an analysis may reveal important patterns to
inform our understanding of systemic reform.
The initial phase of this qualitative research took place during the fall of 1995
with the interviews of the student and parent groups. The interviews of the teachers,


school administrators and advisors were held during the summer of 1997. The same
interview procedures and interview questions were used with all five groups;
comments were coded, using the same procedures across all five groups, and then
compared. Interview questions were open-ended, to encourage the participants to
speak freely about their recollections and insights regarding the program. The three
interview questions were: 1) "As you think back to your (sons or daughter's)
experience with CEC's Academic Program, what stands out for you?"; 2) "What
matters most to you?"; and 3) "What would you change?".
Three former students, three participating parents (one parent of each of the
students interviewed), three former teachers, two former administrators, and two
advisors were interviewed. The number of students and parents interviewed was
limited to three per group, so that the pool of stakeholder groups' comments would be
similar in size, and to keep the amount of generated data manageable.
Ta lie 3.1 Number ol ' Stakeholders Interviewed by Role
Students Parents Teachers Administrators Advisors
3 3 3 2 2
Each person was interviewed individually. Each of the interviews lasted from
one to two hours, permitting sufficient time for a wide discussion of the three
questions. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcriptions
were coded for language that indicated the significant aspects about the program
targeted by the study. Pseudonyms were used for all participants.
48


Student and Parent Interviews
Selection Criteria and Procedures
It was important to the study to interview parents who had been sufficiently
involved in the Academic Program to speak knowledgeably about its educational
components. It was also important that the students who were to be interviewed
possessed some awareness of the program's structure and intents. The need to
combine these two requirements into a student-parent pair necessitated that selection
be done by criteria and not by random sample. It was also important to the study that
participants represent the program in its entire duration. That is, it was important that
study participants not simply represent one especially successful^school year or the
experience of the most exciting project. Therefore, the criterion-based student/parent
teams would represent three different program eras-the pilot phase, the
implementation phase, and the last three years.
Two former Academic Program teachers identified possible student-parent
teams to be interviewed using these selection criteria. Three students judged to be
aware of the curriculum/program design and whose parents were active in school
functions were invited to be interviewed.
Selection Process
The teachers examined the nine years of student registration lists and identified
potential parent-student teams. Selection criteria, defined below for parents and
students, were carefully articulated to elicit valid and informative data. Teachers were
asked to suggest student and parent teams who, at the time of their participation in the
program, were aware of the program intents and components. They represented the


entire nine year program time span, and included all levels of success. The teachers
were cautioned not to simply select "the most involved and enthusiastic parents" or
"the most ambitious students."
Selection Criteria for Students
The following specific values were assigned to the teachers choosing a list of
the students eligible to be interviewed in order to assure that the basic criteria were
met:
Experienced project team leadership-indicating an understanding of the
thematic and teamwork components
Demonstrated substantial academic improvementindicating an alignment with
the motivation, incentives, and personalization components of the program
Participated for more than one semesterassuring that they would have the
option to generalize among more than one set of experiences
Provided peer leadershipimplying that responsibility was taken
In addition, the selection team was asked to make sure their list was balanced
regarding gender and minority representationproviding equity and options
for future examination of data along those lines.
50


Selection Criteria for Parents
The following specific criteria were used by the team in the selection of the
parents eligible to be interviewed in student-parent teams:
Involved in the program on-site, through the Collaborative Decision Making
Committee4 (CDM), School Improvement Accountability Councils (SIAC)5 or
through other significant volunteer participationindicating an understanding
of the overall program organization and its intents
Attended project reporting sessionsindicating an understanding of the
interdisciplinary curriculum and its interactive nature
Conferenced with teachers on offsprings learning developmentsuggesting an
understanding of the teaching team's operating style and effectiveness
Attended parent orientation sessionsindicating an understanding of both the
overall organization and of the teaching team's approach
Seemed to care about the future of the studentdocumenting that attention was
paid to overall program operations
And, as with the student list, the parent list was balanced in gender and
minority representation
Ten pairs of student-parent names were identified and prioritized against these
criteria. They included a team from the first year of the program and one from the last
4 Collaborative Decision-making Committees (CDMs) were established in the Denver Public
Schools by the governor of Colorado during a labor negotiation in 1991. Composition of the
committees is specified and includes parent, teacher, administrator, and business representation. The
CDMs have broad policy-making power and may form subcommittees for tasks such as personnel,
planning, or student discipline.
5 The School Improvement and Accountability Councils (SIACs) were established in Colorado in
1971 by legislative action. Each SIAC reports to the Colorado Department of Education annually
regarding goals and accomplishments. In Denver Public Schools, SLACs could optionally be replaced
by CDMs in 1991.


full year of its operation. The families included students who had self-selected out of
the program, returning to their home high schools before graduation. I telephoned and
invited first the parent, then the student participation in the study; all of the first three
parent-student teams contacted accepted the invitation to participate. The criteria for
balanced gender and minority representation held. A follow-up letter was sent to
confirm the time and location of each interview.
Selection of Teacher. Administrator, and Advisor Interviewees
The selection of participants from the teacher and administrator constituencies
was indicativethat is, all available representatives of these stakeholders were
interviewed, bar none. Four of the seven other contract teachers who worked with the
program for more than one year were still alive and residing in the state of Colorado.
Three of them agreed to participate; the fourth had moved and could not be reached in
a timely manner. The three represented all four of the academic disciplines interacting
in the curriculum-math, science, English, and social studies (One teacher taught two
subjects.) Each of the two administrators who worked with the program during the
nine years was interviewed.
A board of advisors had become active during the last year of the program;
two persons from that boardwho had worked closest with the program and who
were not interviewed as either a former teacher, administrator, or parentwere
interviewed.


The Study Participants
Student-Parent Teams
Two of the former students were female and one was male. The parents
consisted of two mothers and one father; they paired as mother-daughter, mother-son
and father-daughter. Two of the former students were of African-American heritage;
the third student plus all of the interviewed parents were white. Of the black students,
one had been adopted by white parents; the second had a black father, who was not
interviewed. Pseudonyms were used on all written materials.
Teachers
All of the three teachers interviewed were at the apex of their teaching careers
when they were with the program. All three were white; one was male, and two were
female. Of the total of eight teachers assigned to the program in its nine-year existence
(1986-1994), one was a beginning teacher, and the rest were master teachers. There
were three men and five women. Of the eight, one had a doctorate, six had master's
degrees, and one had a bachelor's degree. The project's allocated paraprofessional
staff position was used to help balance ethnicity and gender whenever possible; only
one of the eight teachers was from a member of a minority group.
Administrators
The same two school administratorsthe school principal and the assistant
principal in charge of instructionsupervised the initial design of the Academic
Program and guided its evolution until they left their building positions, each for


different reasons, in June of 1994. The principal was female, the assistant principal
male; both were white.
Advisors
Two Institute of Cultural Affairs (See p. 8) consultants led the image-based
instruction-planning process for the Academic Program during the summer of 1986.
That initial and substantial design effort was the only formal consultant work with the
program until the formation of a board of advisors in 1994. (The two consultants and
other interested academic acquaintances frequently dropped by the school for visits
and in response to invitations to major project events.) The decision to interview two
advisorsone of the initial consultants and a university-based member of the advisory
boardprovided two different perspectives and maintained numerical consistency with
the number of participants from the other four stakeholder groups.
Interview Approach
I personally conducted all the interviews. Interviews of the student-parent
teams were all held in the same room, not on the school site, and under similar
conditions. These interviews began as mini-reunions, since I had not seen most of the
students or parents since their graduation celebration, which in one case had been nine
years earlier! The first few minutes of time, before the official interview process
began, was typically spent catching up on news and sharing any exciting future plans.
This also allowed the actual interview to remain focused on the three research
questions. In the case of the parents it was a time to become better acquainted.
54


For the formal interview process, each participant was alone in the room with
me, without interruption, except for one of the students, Cloud Parson. Because
Cloud attended a university in another town, transportation logistics mandated that she
and her mother be interviewed in consecutive time slots and Vi Parson joined
daughter, Cloud, for the latter portion of her interview. The different but informative
dialogue which ensued was identified and preserved in the transcription and included
in the results.
Interviews of the teachers, administrators, and advisors took place in their
personal office or home, with the interviewer traveling to that site. As with the
students and parents, the three open-ended questions were asked and unlimited time
given to each participant to respond.
Comment Coding Method
Interviews were transcribed for coding and analysis of comments. An open
coding process was used with phrase-by-phrase analysis, generating a large volume
of data and unanticipated categories (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). Comparing the
interview comments across all five constituencies produced clear reference categories
with identifiable agreements and differences. The students' comments fell into the
following major groups: a) student in relationship to others; b) program and
curriculum design; and c) student's personal freedom and empowerment. The parents'
comments fell into these categories: a) pro-active communication practices, b)
rigorous, interactive curriculum experiences, and c) student ownership of learning
experiences. Major groups of comments were also identified for teachers,
administrators, and advisors that correlated with these three basic dimensions: a)


communication between stakeholder groups; b) program and curriculum design; and
c) student empowerment. Generalizing these category names across all five
stakeholders, determined the framework of: 1) Social, 2) Pedagogical, and 3)
Personal comments. These three basic arenas provide a consistent framework and
order for all findings and discussions in this study.
I was the primary coder in the analysis of the thirteen participants' comments.
A secondary coder was later engaged to determine coding reliability. The second
coder read and coded one of the three interview questions from a student,
administrator, and advisor interview. A comparison by the primary and secondary
coders indicated a 91 % correlation.
Krathwohl (1993) states that "where multiple responses are allowed, the most
common patterns can often usefully be assigned single codes" (p. 388). Within this
context, the following two-phase process was used to code the interview comments:
Phase I of coding. 1) Read and underline descriptive phrases of each
transcription; 2) Re-read the underlined phrases to assure accuracy and relevance,
numbering each phrase; 3) Assign either a color or a symbol to each numbered item;
4) Group the comments by like colors or symbols. For example, the symbol <0> may
have been assigned to each numbered item that referred to teacher planning time, and
the symbol <+> to each numbered item mentioning academic rigor, etc. 5) Establish a
set of major categories to subsume all categories from all interviews, and name them.
A total of 789 comments were finally identified from the thirteen interviews using this
process; there were 82 comments from the transcriptions of student interviews, 74
from those of the parents, 285 from teachers, 160 from building administrators, and
188 from the advisors interviews.
56


Table 3.2 Number of Coded Comments by Stakeholder Groups
Students Parents Teachers Administrators Advisors
82 74 285 160 188
As soon as possible into this first phase of analysis, I established a set of
comprehensive categories for each interview transcription. These categories consisted
of comments that referenced similar program elements, phenomena, or stakeholder
roles. Any single interview contained from fifteen to twenty-five different comment
categories.
Phase II of coding. During the second phase in the coding process, I sorted all
categories from interviews within any given stakeholder group, and determined a
resultant set of "core categories" that contained the pooled comments from this group.
These categories were then named in order to capture their theme or reference. For
example, two core categories which emerged from pooled student comments were
"Experiencing Personal Choice" and "Being Known." The names at the top of each
category or column in the tables are my own; the names of the groups comprising
each category generally used vocabulary from participants' comments (Strauss &
Corbin, pp. 67-69).
An example of the second coding phase is as follows: in the coded transcripts
of the three teacher interviews, there were twenty, twenty-three, and twenty-eight
different comment categories identified, respectively. During the second phase of the
coding process, I sorted this total of seventy-one categories into a final set of thirteen
core categoriescategories which contained the 285 separate, numbered comments
made by the three teachers during their interviews. By examining these thirteen
categories and those of the student interviews, I determined the major program
57


framework described earlier. The core categories of teachers, as well as students,
were clearly related to one of the three major framework dimensions: Social
(interactions between stakeholder groups), Pedagogical (relating to curriculum and
program design), and Personal (relating to student empowerment).
Tables
A table format organizes the data from the coded comments. Tables 4.1-4.5
hold all 789 interview comments identified and coded from the transcripts of the
thirteen interviews, with one table devoted to a stakeholder group. In each table, the
numerals to the left of each phrase are the number of comments of a similar nature.
The columns of comments are arranged in order by size from top to bottom. Each of
the five tables features a "holding image" (or images) for each column. These images
represent my interpretation of the foundational images of each stakeholder group,
based on their comments, and provide an interesting way to summarize the data.
Table 4.6 is a "master table" of comments, regrouping the 789 total comments
and designating them as made "by" a participant from one of the stakeholder groups,
and "about" another of the stakeholder groups; comments may also have been made
"about" curriculum, the program, or school in general. These data also clustered into
the Social, Pedagogical, and Personal categories that guided the naming of the
columns in Tables 4.1-4.5.
Image Analysis Method
A method of analyzing images was used in planning the Academic Program. I
also used it in two different parts of this study to summarize findingsin the
58


identification of a common image thought to be behind stakeholder comments (or
messages) in particular columns of Tables 4.1-4.5, and to identify the possible image
or images a stakeholder group held about itself and the others in table 4.7. The images
so identified in this study are found both at the base of each of the five stakeholder
comment tables(4.1-4.5) and in Table 4.7. The "messages" or data are found in the
top portion of each column and the identified image or images are directly beneath in
that same column or category.
The process of identifying a possible image, or mental model, is to first
identify common, key assumptions (Senge, 1990, p. 186); in this study I used the
coded comments from interviews as my information source for such assumptions. I
used the following three steps to identify common images: 1) Examine the coded
comments, and hypothesize a possible image; 2) Re-read the comments, testing the
hypothetical image; 3) Make adjustments in language, restating the possible image
more succinctly. For example, in table 4.1, examining the phrases used to describe
groups of coded student interview comments in the category of "Program and
Curriculum Design" the words "interactive," "participative," "field trips," and
"spontaneity" suggest that the students interviewed held an image of the curriculum as
active. Re-reading the comments in that category includes examining the other four
groups (those above named represent only 20 of the 29 original coded comments in
the category) to assure that there are no contradictory comments. Since the other
groups in this example mainly detail other aspects of the program curriculum, like
mastery outcomes and teacher and administrator style, the image of curriculum as
active still holds.
59


Analyzing comments for possible common assumptions or images is similar to
the processes of dialoguing with the data that occur in the discussion of findings in an
academic study. When examining tables 4.1-4 .5 to identify the images, I posed the
mental question, "What image or images does this category of comments suggest?".
Similarly, Table 4.7 holds images in response to the mental question, "What images
do (the teachers) comments suggest they hold about (the students)?".
There are three reasons why the process of image analysis offers advantages
in the summative phase of research: a) Mental models or images are a powerful tool in
human communication (Senge, 1990, p. 175; b) By examining a shared and crucial
mental model, next steps are clarified; and c) An identified image can promote
dialogue, either because an agreed-upon image provides a single foundational
position, or because two people may not "see" the same thing in the same way. In the
latter instance the image is discarded or a consensed-upon modification follows.
The image-analysis process is clearly subjective and collaborative in nature
and the reader should so interpret that portion of the data tables.
Summary
Data from tables 4.1-4.6 were compared and agreements and differences
between stakeholder groups noted. Themes in the coded responses were identified. It
may be argued that the number of former students and parents interviewed represented
too small a sample for valid conclusions. A follow-up, quantitative survey of a larger
group from this constituency would provide comparison and validation data of the
coded comments.
60


The image analysis in Table 4.7 presents an additional summary of findings
using the process described above and with the acknowledged weakness.
All background data for both this and the earlier quantitative study have been
archived and are available for examination by anyone interested in pursuing further
work. Related documents are available in appendixes A E.


CHAPTER 4
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
What makes curriculum reform succeed in some cases and fail in others? This
case study was conducted to gain insight into that broad question. The intent of this
study was to provide a thorough characterization of the Academic Program, including
the stakeholders' perceptions of both their own role and the roles of others, of the
curriculum (including the project component) and of the image-based processes that
were involved in the reform episode. It examined the actions, attitudes, relationships,
and ideas of the students, participating parents, teachers, building administrators, and
advisorswith an emphasis on the agreements and differences found among the
perceptions of the various stakeholder groups that characterized them (p. 5).
This chapter synthesizes the findings from coded interview data. The roles and
curriculum findings will be discussed separately, as will the agreements and
differences. The chapter features a description of each participant, the coded interview
comments in table format, devoting one table to each of the five stakeholder groups
(Tables 4.1 4.5). An analysis of each table of data and comparison of results among
the five tables (Table 4.6) is provided for each of the aspects of roles and curriculum.
6 2


Participants and Their Comments
The Student-Parent Teams
1. Teresa Spring-Andrews (daughter) and Rob Spring (father)
Teresa Spring-Andrews Teresa's memories of the program were already a decade
old at the time of her interview. She attended the academic program for two semesters
during its first pilot year in 1986-87. Teresa stands out in my memory as a very
talented young woman, but with a high level of resistance to mathematics. Her
resistance to school provided early on an appropriate challenge for both the image-
based instruction and motivational techniques featured in the Academic Program.
Teresa recently completed her student teaching at the Denver Public Schools'
Montessori School.
Rob Spring, Teresa's father Both of Teresa's parents were very interested in her
progress, visiting the school regularly. Teresa's resistance to instruction at her regular
high school had caused concern, and they had actively searched for a different
environment for her high school work, finally choosing the Academic Program at
CEC. Rob is a self-employed educational consultant with a background in English
language and ESL. His work includes international consultancies.
2. Cloud Parson(student) and Vi Parson (mother)
Cloud Parson My personal memories of Cloud include her first application
interview. She arrived wearing her career class auto mechanic overalls, which were
covered with grease. Her demeanor was slightly hostile. At that time she had just
returned to high school, having dropped out and run away from home her freshman
year. Cloud had been educated primarily in private schools; a brief conversation
63


revealed her high intelligence as well as high levels of mistrust and hostility. She
attended the Academic Program for four consecutive semesters, entering as a second
semester sophomore, and in the winter of 1992, during her senior year, leaving to
attend classes at the community college. This was necessary because college
admission language and science course requirements were unavailable at CEC. At this
writing she is a recent graduate from the University of Colorado at Boulder, with a
degree in chemical engineering.
Vi Parson Vi was one of the program's most supportive parents. When Cloud was
a senior Vi began a two-year period of service as chairperson of CEC's SIAC (School
Improvement and Accountability Council), representing the school at the state level.
Professionally, Vi is the controller for a local corporation and still mentors CEC career
class students as interns at her company.
3.. W.C. Jeffreys (son) and Jennifer Boll (mother)
W. C. Jeffreys W. C. had the most recent experience with the program. He attended
the Academic Program for four consecutive semesters, receiving his diploma in 1994.
As a student, he provided substantial and consistent leadership to the program. During
his senior year he represented the school in world issues seminars in state level
competitions. He is currently working as a printer at a local company.
Jennifer Boll Jennifer was an interested parent, frequently attending open houses
and special events. The Jeffreys family had two sons participating in the program-
one who had experienced success (W.C.), and Bobbie, the elder son who had been
dropped for failing to meet attendance requirements his first semester. W.C. began the
following year and completed high school from CEC. Jennifer has consequently had
64


two very different parental experiences with the program. She is the executive director
of a local agency and operates her own business.
Table 4.1: Student Comments
Eighty-two comments were gleaned from the three student interview
transcriptions (Table 4.1). Comments fell into three column-title categories: Student
in Relation to Others (Social, 29 comments), Program and Curriculum Design
(Pedagogical, 29 comments), and Student's Personal Freedom and Empowerment
(Personal, 24 comments). The Pedagogical comments were given the distinction of
the center column; there were eight different kinds of comments in this arena and they
differ in nature from the other two more subjective arenas that frame them. The
students' comments about the curriculum and program design reveal an image of
curriculum and learning as active.
The right column of the table reveals the clear theme of freedom found in the
student comments, balanced by accountability and responsibility in the column to the
left. The students' comments in the right column reveal an image of the self as
empowered', comments in the left column, regarding the self in relation to others,
suggest an image of the school environment as safer {than their previous schools},
caring, welcoming, and accepting of diversity.
65


Table 4.1 Slotta 1998 Important CEC Academic Program Components Identified by Former Students
Social Student in Relationship to Others Pedagogical Program and Curricului Design | Personal l Personal Freedom and Em posverment
IS comfortable communicating with others 4 felt saferno fights 3 felt cared for and about 2 diverse learning styles honored 2 two-way (student-teacher) discussions interactive seminars 6 participative process 4 field trips and work 'days 3 active sale of administrators 3 spontaneity of activities 2 longer class periods 2 mastery of outcomes 2 student-oriented teachers 7 choices in stud}' topics 5 Fridays off 4 personal freedom 3 gamed confidence 3 leadership experience 2 peer tutonng experience
These student comments suggest the following set of common, dominant images.
Safer, caring, welcoming, and accepting of diversity school environment Active curriculum/learning Empowered self
Numbers indicate the frequency of the response which follows.
The coded comments were grouped into categories and named; the largest
categories-those with the most coded comments compiling them- in all three
columns in the student comment table were: comfortable communicating with others
(18), interactive seminars (7), choices of study content (7), participative process (6),
and Fridays off {5). The remaining fourteen groups represent fewer comments and are
mentioned in the student protocol either (4), (3), or (2) times.
Typical of the kind of student comments represented in the center column,
"Program and Curriculum Design," is the following one by Cloud:
It wasn't just the teacher talking in class. It was ideas... we would break up
into groups and work on different things. It's that process. I wanted.. .to
participate. People were interested in what I had to say and I was interested in
what other people had to say and there was an actual outcome to me
participating-I really liked that a lot.... My favorite classes in college are
when I have that sort of thing.


The left and right columns of Table 4.1 have to do with the effects of the
program on the studentsas the student relates to others in the program, and as the
student relates to him/herself. There were eighteen such comments categorized as
comfortable communicating with others, in the column of social commentsthe
highest number in a category. This comment by W.C. is representative of the left, or
Social column: "I'm grateful for having learned all the {discussion} methods. I can
hold conversations with my friends at work that are from other countries, discuss
their politics as opposed to just mine. Further on he states, "We had every race and
person you could want and we all got along. That was the weird thing... I never saw
a fight."
Michael Fullan has written extensively about the roles of the constituencies in
second-order educational change, and continues to monitor this topic in the research
literature. His insights on both the roles of the stakeholders and the nature of second-
order change have been used to align the interview comments in this study. A 1978
longitudinal study (Eastabrook & Fullan, 1978) on the role of students in forty
Ontario classrooms identified lack of communication among students as one of four
specific issues. In that study, the students interviewed reported that in their traditional
school "there was virtually no communication inside or outside class with the vast
majority of other students, (i.e., outside one's own small friendship group)"(p. 173).
Results from student interview comments in this present study indicate that lack of
extensive communication was not an issue in the Academic Program.
67


Table 4.2: Participating Parent Comments
There were 74 different parent comments identified in the coding process
(Table 4.2). Their comments clustered into three categories for column titles:
Rigorous, Interactive Curriculum Experience (Pedagogy, 34 Comments}; Pro-active
Communication Practices (Social, 16 Comments); and Student Ownership of
Learning Experience (Personal, 24 Comments). Again, the Pedagogical column takes
the center position, with 34 comments in eight different categories. Proactive
Communication Practices was the largest comment group, with ten comments;
Interactive Curriculum was next in size, with eight comments. The aspects mentioned
most frequently were: effective communication/input between home & school (10),
interactive curriculum (8), experiential classes (6), parents and students trusted
teachers (5), and mastery of competencies (5).
An analysis of the parents' coded comments indicates an image of the
Academic Program curriculum as interactive, engaging, and community-oriented.
Their comments also revealed an image of the parent as significant and included in the
process, and an image of the student as empowered, trusted, and known by staff.
68


Table 4.2 Slotta 1998 Important CEC Academic Program Components Identified by Parents of Former Students
Social Proactive Communication Practices Pedagogical Rigorous, Interactive Curriculum Experiences Personal Student Ownership of Learning Experience
10 effective communication/input between home and school 4 teachers worked and communicated as a team 2 firm and caring administrative involvement 8 interactive curriculum 6 experiential classes 5 mastery of competencies 4 focus on processes 4 inspired love of learning 3 off-campus trips and competitions 2 problem-solving and reflective activities 2 opportunities to do something for someone else 5 parents and students trusted teachers 4 freedom to speak and make decisions 3 self-sufficiency encouraged; career and goal-oriented 3 smaller classes 3 students known by all staff 2 students had say in course and topic choices, including college prep needs 2 positive environment 2 students motivated by positive incentives
These parent comments suggest the following set of common, dominant images.
an image of the parent as significant and included in the process an image of the curriculumyiearning as interactive, engaging and community-oriented an image of the students as empowered, trusted and known b\ staff
Numbers indicate the frequency of the response which follows.
Some parent comments reference the teachers directly-comments like
"teachers worked and communicated as a team", and "parents and students trusted
teachers". Jennifer Boll, W.C.'s mother, describes communication practices:
No one worried about calling us when it was time to call us and let us know
what was happening. I am so appreciative of that whole feeling that came out
of CEC and I think looking back, as far as high school goes, that is what I
absolutely appreciate the most... {As parents} we give our children to teachers
for 6-8 hours a day and my feeling is that we have to trust, we have to know
enough, stay closely involved enough with the teachers to know that the
discipline is going to be appropriate and then let them do it. We can't get in the
way. If we get in the way, we send bad messages.
69


Fullan (1991) begins his discussion on the role of parents by affirming that
research indicates with "remarkable consistency that the closer the parent is to the
education of the child, the greater the impact on child development and educational
achievement." He continues that certain forms of involvement seem to have good
results while others can be-"wasteful or counterproductive" (p. 227). Instructionally-
related involvement, in which parents found their way into the classrooms as aides,
visitors or volunteers, is related to academic success. In Fullan's study, the most
effective schools involved parents in the academic function of the classroom in a
systematic way. Interview comments confirm that the parents in this study appreciated
proactive communication with the school (16 comments), had clear memories about
the pedagogy (34 comments), and appreciated the ownership their student had of the
program (24 comments).
The center column of Table 4.2, "Pedagogical", points to the parents'
perspective of learning activities as "rigorous and interactive." Representative of the
comments coded into this column is this story from the home front shared by Vi
Parish. It is a story that complements her daughter's story:
We would get current events conversations going. She wouldn't come and
say, "We were talking about this at school." But we would be watching the
news and she would pitch in with a discussion about what she knew about
that or how... what was interesting was what she thought about it. I think that
one of the values of the school was that they concentrated a lot on process
maybe more than on end-product-so you could see the churning
information.
There are more similarities than differences in a comparison of parent and
student data. Both Tables 4.1 and 4.2 are anchored by a curriculum (Pedagogical)
column in the center; both have an individual growth theme in the Personal column
and a self-in-relation-to-others theme in the Social column.


Comparisons of these two stakeholder groups may be further facilitated by
converting the number of comments represented by the six column titles of Tables 4.1
and 4.2 to percentages. Apparent commonalities in the column titles between the two
tables suggest the following interesting analysis. Program and Curriculum Design
comments made up 35% of the total student comments and 49% of the parents'
comments dealt with Rigorous, Interactive Curriculum Experiences. Student Personal
Freedom and Empowerment contained 29% of the comments in their table. Similarly,
parents affirmed Student Ownership of the Learning Experience^, with 31% of their
comments on that subject. Both tables feature a relational title on the left. The student
table features a Student-In-Relationship-To-Others at 35%, and the parent table had
Pro-Active Communication Practices at 21%.
The Teachers
1. Lisa Caron, English teacher, came to the CEC Academic Program the same year as
this researcher, attracted by the challenge of creating a new approach. During her
outstanding public school teaching career she had served as an English department
chairperson at one of Denver's ten traditional high schools; she had also worked with
the district's Shakespeare Festival. Lisa is the mother of two grown children. She saw
this CEC assignment as an appropriate professional service before retirement. Upon
her retirement, Lisa joined the Academic Program's advisory board.
2. Zachary Heston, social studies teacher, came to the Academic Program in its third
year, his first assignment back in the classroom after serving six years as president of
the Colorado Education Association. His passion for American History provided a


significant contribution to the project each semester. Zachary is the father of two
grown children and three young children; the younger ones were all bom during his
years at CEC. He served on the school's CDM (Collaborative Decision Making
Committee). After the Academic Program at CEC closed down he returned to a
traditional high school, where he is currently teaching advanced placement American
History.
3. Cassidy Weber, math and science teacher, came to the Academic Program at CEC
from a physical science position at a neighboring traditional high school. She held a
master's degree in astronomy from the University of California at Berkeley which
helped her provide many interesting and different project applications for the students.
At CEC she also regularly taught an applied physics course called Principles of
Technology, and Applied Mathematics.
Table 4.3: Teacher Comments
The teacher interview transcriptions produced the greatest number of coded
comments (Table 4.3). Two hundred eighty-five comments were identified and
coded. The three column titles in the teacher table are: Roles & Qualities Identified for
Various Constituencies (Social, 94 Comments); Program Components Identified and
Described (Pedagogical, 154 Comments); and Individualized Student Emphasis
(Personal, 37 Comments). The center column,. Program Components Identified and
Described, had the greatest number of comments, shared the greatest number of
comment categories (ten) with the Social columns, and featured the category
(Expansive, Collaborative Learning Projects) holding the most comments.
72


Tabic 4.3 Important CEC Academic Program Components Identified Former Teachers Slotta 1998 by
Social Pedagogical Personal
Roles & Qualities Identified for Program Components Individualized Student Emphasis
Various Constituencies Identified and Described
23 teachers knew and 28 expansive, collaborative learning 15 teachers
advocated for students; projects included interesting, thematic pushed for each
counseled needy students topics student's success
7 learning community of 25 unique, college-like program design 9 students
students, teachers, administrators 18 community connections through known by
& advisors projects included global and realistic teachers
2 administrators let teachers do it; contexts 8 student
teachers pushed district limits 16 student care and comfort for special uniquenesses
9 parents grateful and supportive needs honored and
in most cases 15 school-wide relationships through strengths
9 teaching team effectively organization and narrative required " played to"
functioned amidst diverse attention 5 students given
perspectives and disciplines 15 teachers experienced enough time room to grow and
7 student achievement praised for planning and student staffing realize potential
and celebrated 11 active, alternative learning
6 student esprit de corps helped experiences matter field trips.
school; students returned outdoor education, hands-on classroom
frequently 10 eventful and fun learning activities
6 teachers, inspired by students. 9 integration of career interest &
loved the experience academic skills
3 teachers worked hand; also 7 teachers participated in choice of
raised money team composition, affecting role models
2 advisors protected against and effective work
political assault
These teacher comments suggest the following set of common, dominant images:
advisors as protectors against an image of the program as an an image of
district turmoil expansive, rigorous, dynamic learning these students.
teachers as proactive. community which was responsive to acknowledged by
effective, inspired and hard- students and staff the system as
working an image of the program as needy, as
administrators as flexible and thornughlv planned to be a hands-on. capable, unique.
supportive project-based approach to learning and filled with
parents as grateful and supportive students as cooperative and enthusiastic poienlutl
Numbers indicate the frequency of the response which follows.
73


An analysis of the comments in that column suggests that the teachers' image of the
program was two-fold: 1) that of an expansive, rigorous, dynamic learning
community which was responsive to students and staff and 2) that it was thoroughly-
planned, hands-on, and with a project-based approach to learning.
An analysis of the teacher comments in the left column,. Roles and Qualities of
Various Constituencies, produced these four basic images: an image of the advisors
as protectors against district turmoil, an image of the teachers as proactive, effective,
inspired, and hard-working', an image of the administrators as flexible and supportive',
and an image of the students as cooperative and enthusiastic. Teacher comments in the
right column, Individualized Student Emphasis, indicate that they saw the students as
acknowledged by the system as needy, and as capable, unique, and filled with
potential.
The teachers, like the parents, noted repeatedly that the students were known
by the staff. They referenced the fun and spirit built into the program with comments
like, "student achievement praised and celebrated," and "eventful and fun learning
activities." Cassidy Weber, science teacher, articulated these several important
features:
The ability to do a lot of different things and not be constrained; to do
whatever curriculum we really liked in most cases was the big point; field trips
were fun, we did a lot of unique things; integrated learning; interdisciplinary
(curriculum); .. .we could interact with the whole school, so had whole school
projects, is a point. I haven't seen anything like that for a long time....
Lisa Caron, English teacher, made comments that complement Cassidys and
point to expanding the students' contexts or perspectives:
I think it (the Academic Program) was opening a lot of doors that hadn't been
[opened] before-[things like the] Shakespearean movies, [and] all the outdoor
programs we did were wonderful because a lot of these individuals had never
been to the mountains and had never been outdoors very much and in a


situation like that they bonded with each other.... They came from broken
homes and broken families; they hadn't had any sense of belonging or identity
before and suddenly they did! ...We did get them to be concerned about some
things. They were concerned about the consumption of water after we took
them all on the water board outings; we did {the project on} population
growth and they suddenly became aware of overpopulation. They became
advocates for the different [semester] issues we had talked about; this wasn't
part of their world before the program.
Zachary Heston, social studies teacher, also referenced "the projects" several
times, saying, "I think the projects we did brought some focus to the program for
everybody at the same time." However, the following comment, from this highly
recognized, master teacher is most notable:
What stands out for me was the fun I had teaching;.. .it remains for me the
highlight of my teaching career. Because I changed. I became a different
teacher than I had been previously. I think maybe those methods were in me
all the time but just never had a chance to come out.... I really liked myself as
a teacher; I felt that I had done some of my best teaching {there}.
Cassidy summarized teacher affects in this way:
We evolved continuouslywe were never the same. You don't want to get
into a pattern where you can't change; we had the ability to flow and evolve.
We could change the time around; we could change what we're going to do
around; we could take the whole group someplace. We could choose our
teachers {who joined the team}.... The projects were a lot of fun...it pushed
those kids in a frantic kind of way into new levels of what they could doin
finding out who they were and how to work in teams. I think teamwork was
very important there.
One of Fullans (1991) key findings on the role and function of teachers in the
change process concerned such teacher interaction around innovations:
Teacher isolation and its oppositecollegialityprovide the best starting point
for considering what works for the teacher. There is a positive, and a dark
side. Commonality of values and beliefs as well as a monitoring for increases
in imagination are signs of teachers making change happen (p. 135). The more
teachers can interact concerning their own practices, the more they will be able
to bring about improvements that they themselves identify as necessary (p.
132).


Fullan cites Cuban (1988) in defining these teacher qualities as they interact
with studentsthe teacher as technical actor vs. moral actor. "The technical or
bureaucratic image conceives of teachers as giving knowledge and following and
applying rules. The moral actor as artisan and craftsperson sees teaching as
transforming students" (p. 142). In this study, the coded comments of both the
teachers and the administrators clearly reflect this latter understanding.
The Administrators
1. Ann Stevenson was the principal of the Career Education Center the year the
Academic Program was initiated and until one year before it ended. Her background
as a teacher in business education gave her the perspective and skills needed to secure
outside resources and manage this large magnet school. At the time of the interview
she was an assistant to the superintendent of schools, working at the district office, a
position she still holds at this writing.
2. Theo Withos was an assistant principal at CEC and the supervisor of the Academic
Program until one year before it ended. His vision for an innovative, integrated
curriculumboth among the disciplines in the Academic Program and between the
academic and career classeswas one of the primary motivators for starting the
program. He came to CEC from a traditional high school the same year as Ann, and
retired the year she received a promotion to the district office. He was the last person
to be interviewed, having been out of the country for an extended period of time.


Table 4.4: Administrator Comments
From the administrators' interview transcripts (Table 4.4), 160 comments
were identified. The coded comments were sorted into three column titles: (a) Roles
and Qualities Demonstrated by the Constituencies; (b) Evolving, Pioneering,
Curriculum Plan; and (c) Classroom Environment. A large number of comments by
this constituency fall into the Social category, descriptive of the roles and qualities,
and found in the left column position (73 comments). Forty-seven comments were
concerned with Pedagogical themes and forty with Personalin this case, including
the classroom. The administrators credited the dedication and talent of the teachers
with much of the program's success. Their comments indicated that they as
administrators perceived themselves to be supportive of the teachers, providing them
with direction and leadership. The administrators also noted the involvement of the
students at all levels from planning to program ownership.
77


Table 4.4 Slotta 1998 Important CEC Academic Program Components Identified by Former Administrators
Social Pedagogical Personal/Other
Roles & Qualities Demonstrated by Evolving, Pioneering The Results Classroom Environment
the Constituencies Curriculum Plan
14 multi-talented teachers did the 14 innovative curriculum 12 school-wide
program design design momentum affected
9 students affected positively by 7 students involved in program
personal success planning 9 students
8 student freedom/ownership of 6 schoolwide, performance- demonstrated
program based curriculum academic mastery
8 dedicated, driven teachers 6 collaborative project as 7 non-academic
7 respected administrators demonstrated program centerpiece skills celebrated and
vision and ability 6 career and academic class made significant
7 intentional administrative leadership integration 7 healthy
6 teachers supported by administrators 5 up-front, academic rigor dependency
6 school-wide faculty support 3 activities integrated 5 student
6 students demonstrated responsibility students lives, community, involvement at
2 parental commitment and academics multiple levels
These administrators comments suggest the following set of common, dominant images:
An image of the teachers as An image of the An image of the
dedicated, multi-talented and trustworthy curriculum as innovative. classrooms as
An image of the students as mastery-based, and rigorous and
responsible, empowered and on a fast track collaborative engaging
Numbers indicate the frequency of the response which follows.
Administrators' comments revealed (a) their image of the teachers as
dedicated, multi-talented and trustworthy, and (b) an image of the students as
responsible, empowered, and on a fast track. In the Pedagogy arena, administrators'
comments pointed to (a) an image of curriculum as innovative, mastery-based, and
collaborative, and (b) an image of classrooms as rigorous and engaging.


Ann Stevenson, principal of the school during the academic program's design and
implementation, details her perspective of successful components:
I think you have got to have a dedicated, caring staff who are multi-talented;
you've got to have staff who are not married to a traditional style of teaching; I
think that is very, very critical; you've got to have staff who are not only not
married to it, but they have to be fairly innovative. They've got to be the kind
of staff who can see two or three or four or five different ways of attacking the
problem. I think this is real critical. If you remember, when we started out,
the only direction I gave the staff was "I don't really care how you do it, just
make it different."
Tom Withos, the assistant principal who supervised the program for eight
years, alludes to this passion for change, and for being willing to risk in order not to
repeat what doesn't work. He recalls, "There were a lot of times when I thought we
were standing out there on a limb all by ourselvesthat if we didn't move very
cautiously it would collapse."
Fullan (1991) is very direct regarding the primacy of the principal's role in
effecting second-order change. "Serious reform is changing the culture and structure
of the school.... It should be self-evident that the principal as head of the organization
is crucial" (p. 169). He also has this comment about principals as successful change
agents: ".. .they all figured out ways of reducing the amount of time spent on
administrative matters. They made sure that change had equal priority" (p. 168).
Further on, he states that "effective principals talked with teachers.. .planning with
them, helping them get together, being knowledgeable about what was happening."
These comments describe the teacher-principal relationships in the Academic
Program.
A comparison of the comments in the present study of the two on-site
professional constituencies, the teachers and the building administrators, is in order
79


and is facilitated by the use again of percentages for the six columns in Tables 4.3 and
4.4. The category of Program Components was represented by 54% of the teachers'
commentstheir highest number, while 29% of the administrators comments dealt
with this Pedagogical arenaan Evolving, Pioneering Curriculum Plan. The Social
column, regarding the role and qualities of the various constituencies, contained 33%
of the teachers' comments. The greatest number of administrators' comments, 46%,
was in this Social column, titled Roles and Qualities Demonstrated by the
Constituencies. The least number of comments by both of these professional groups
was in the Personal arena with 13% of the teachers' comments referencing
Individualized Student Emphasis and 25% of the administrators mentioning The
Classroom Environment. A comparison of these percentages with those of the
student-parent tables suggests that there is less alignment between the teacher-
administrator perceptions than between those of the students and their parents.
The Advisors
1. David Bums was one of the two Institute of Cultural Affairs consultants who
worked with this researcher during the summer of 1986 to design a curriculum and
time rhythm for the first full year of the Academic Program. He coined the term
"Project Approach" to define and describe the way in which curriculum units or
modules would integrate into an overall theme. David was one of the first
professionals to be interviewed as he was departing for several months of work with
agencies and educators in the republics of Bosnia and Herzegovina where he still is
serving at the time of this writing. It is of particular interest and relevance that this
Project Approach has been used successfully by one of the former members of the
80


Academic Program's advisory board to involve high school-aged Bosnian young
people in the restoration of their communities.
2. Rae Tennyson is an internationally recognized mathematics educator who is an
associate professor at the University of Colorado at Denver. Her interest in the
Academic Program focused on the problem-solving nature of the projects and the
complex math inquiries that they inspired. She was a member of the Academic
Program's advisory board and attended several project reporting sessions.
Table 4,5: Advisor Comments
From the transcripts of the advisor interviews (Table 4.5), 188 comments
were identified. The Pedagogy column in this data set is titled Well-defined,
Intentional Curriculum Design (95 comments). To its right is Effective, Focused and
Productive Teachers and Students (Personal, 53 comments); to its left, Roles,
Qualities and Interactions of Parents, Administrators and Advisors (Social, 40
comments). The advisors' comments indicated a keen awareness of the way the roles
were played out in the Academic Program, evidenced by the fact that this table
features two of the three columns dealing with the topic of "roles." The advisors,
perhaps because of this constituency's unique outside position and inclination to
compare among similar programs in other schools and districts, commented more
frequently on the levels of intense engagement on the parts of students, parents and
teachers.
The image analysis of the advisors' comments identified six images. In the
Pedagogical arena, the category with the largest number of coded comments, the
advisors hold two images of curriculum: 1) carefully planned and formally connected


to the whole school, and 2) project-based, real-world, and formally connected to the
community.
Table 4.5 Slotta 1998 Important CEC Academic Program Components Identified by Former Advisors
Social Roles, Qualities & Interactions of Parents, Administrators & Advisors Pedagogical Well-defined. Intentional Curriculum Design Personal Effective, Focused & Productive Teachers & Students
12 advisors were active, visited site 10 advisors learned from and replicated program 9 administrators watched for and guarded successful educauonal programs 4 there is a need to document this learning approach 3 parents attended student presentations as learners 2 administrators were responsive to system failures 35 distinct, well-understood curriculum design 20 overall, results-oriented curriculum design with semester rhythm & schedule 17 multiple & creative uses of space 15 community orientation encouraged real-world, connected learning 4 image-based instructional strategics 2 creative use of instructional environment 2 school-wide support of program 15 highly productive, engaged students 13 personally diverse, invested, collaborative teachers 11 students regularly demonstrated pride in learning accomplishments 9 students involved as researchers and presenters 5 motivated teachers worked hard to involve parents & advisors in the curriculum process
These advisors comments suggest the following set of common, dominant images:
An image of the advisors as active and responsible participants in the learning community An image of the administrators as guardians and protectors of success An image of the curriculum as carefully planned, and formally connected to the whole school An image of the curriculum as project-based, real-world, and formally connected to the community An image of the students as successful and productive An image of the teachers as hard at work to involve all players in a collaborative process
Numbers indicate the frequency of the response which follows.
The next largest category of comments by advisors was Personal and revealed an
image of the students as successful and productive and an image of the teachers as
hard-at-work to involve all players in the process. A group of advisors' comments
placed in the Social column are tided Roles, Qualities, and Interactions of Parents,
Administrators and Advisors. The comments in this column identify an image of
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advisors as active and responsible participants in the learning community, and an
image of administrators as guardians and protectors of success.
Rae Tennyson, mathematics educator from the University of Colorado at
Denver, and member of the Academic Program's advisory board, readily shared her
significant memories:
I think the students' attitudes and the educational process-that they were really
learning how to do research and how to present-you saw how things fit
together. And the enthusiasm of the kids! And the pride of the kids! What
they accomplished in their presentations was very noticeable.... It was very
interesting to talk to them. You could see their confidence. Some of them were
shyer than others, but they really felt good about having something to offer
and to say to the adults who were floating around to interview them at their
project presentation tables.
David Bums, one of the two consultants who first worked with me in 1986 to
conceptualize the program, described the work he observed on the part of the teachers:
You were working on planting some new images that they (the students) were
able to make initiatives to learn, that what they were going to be learning was
going to be very interesting, and useful and extremely pertinent. I saw it took
huge amounts of energy for you to do thatto invest in that image change
work. But I saw the kids enthusiastic...and engaged in learning.
David summarized what he believes were the keys to the program's success: "1) team
teaching; 2) team learning; 3) participatory process; 4) in the community; 5)
demonstrated products; and 6) celebration."
Fullan predicts that as "norms of collaboration and continuous improvement
become embedded in more schools, seeking assistance to solve complex problems
will be perceived as a source of strength and wisdom rather than as a sign of
weakness" (p. 226). Academic Program advisors' comments indicate that they were
more deeply involved in complex problems of curriculum than were the advisors
described by Fullan (The New Meaning of Educational Change, chapter 11). He
83


describes the operative consultant dilemma as one of scope vs. intensity, driven by
limited time and energy. The interview comments of the two CEC advisors reveal
focused energy that seemed to be derived from the progress of the program itself.
Table 4.6: Discussion
Table 4.6 is organized to facilitate comparisons of participant comments across
the five stakeholder groups. The data is the same as that in Tables 4.1-4.5, but merges
all of the coded interview comments into one matrix; it is an entirely different sort of
the data.
Table 4.6: Master Comments Table
Table 4.6 organizes the numbered interview comments that were made by a
person in one of the stakeholder roles about another role or program component. Of
the 789 total comments, 388 were descriptive of one of the roles or constituencies,
while 401 referenced the school, program, or curriculum. This latter group, I called,
"comments about." Of the comments that were descriptive of, or about the
constituencies, the greatest number referenced the students (172). The next largest,
from highest to lowest, discussed the teachers (128), the building administrators (41),
the advisors (28) and the parents (19). A coded comment made by one of the
stakeholders I termed "comment by" and may be found in the horizontal boxes across
from that title.
The matrix design of Table 4.6 matches the horizontal column labels
("comments about") with the vertical listing of the stakeholder groups ("comments
by") top to bottom. For example, to learn what was commented by students about the
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Full Text

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ROLES AND PERCEPTIONS OF FIVE STAKEHOLDER GROUPS IN A HIGH SCHOOL PROGRAM THAT EXEMPLIFIED SECOND-ORDER CHANGE by OliveAnn Davis Slotta B.A. Hiram College, 1963 M.A., University of Colorado, 1992 A thesis submitted to the University cf Colorado at Denver partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Educational Leadership and Innovation 1999

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Copyright by OliveAnn Davis Slotta rights reserved.

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Date This thesis for the Doctor of Philosophy degree by OliveAnn Davis Slotta has been approved by Ellen Marie Wirsing William Maurice Holt

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Slotta OliveAnn (Ph D., Educational Leadership and Innovation ) Roles and Perceptions of Five Stakeholder Groups in a High School Program That Exemplified Second-Order Change Dissertation directed by Associate Professor Lyn Taylor ABSTRACT This dissertation provides a historical descriptive case study of a successful high school reform program. The intent of this study is to illustrate by example what has been described by Michael Fullan (1991) and others (Cuban, 1988 ; Elmore 1988; Sarason 1990 ) as second-order transformational change and to carefully assess the roles played in one such program. The actions attitudes, relationships and ideas of these five stakeholder groups were examined: students, participating parents teachers building administrators, and advisors. Emphasis is given to the different perceptions that characterize the different groups, and to the elements of the curriculum perceived by each group as being the most significant or useful. Also examined are the planning process of the program and the philosophies and assumptions articulated in its documents of initiation. Coded comments from participant interviews are presented in table format --one table for each of the stakeholder groups and two master tables. Findings include agreements and differences among stakeholders on the role of the other groups as well as key aspects of the curriculum process used. IV

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Such an extensive characterization of the reform process will inform future curriculum and program design efforts Ultimately the purpose of this dissertation study is to understand why some efforts at school reform fail while others do not. This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidate's thesis. I recommend its publication. Lyn Taylor Signed v

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DEDICATION To Emily Anne Gilmore Slotta my fust grandchild who was born during the writing of this document in the hope that her generation of American children will have the opportunity to learn within the context of a peaceful planet.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work represents the cumulative learning of 30 years of professional experiences : experience as a high school mathematics teacher in a traditional urban high school in the 60s experience working as a full-time volunteer with a social agency and its practical processes of educational transfonnation and experience working with a teaching team to design and implement one comprehensive program of urban high school refonn. Additionally and fortunately these professional experiences happened in tandem with the reality grounding of parenting. I would like to acknowledge those who in the midst of these experiences, provided the foundational knowledge, investigative processes academic guidance, and inspiration to proceed with this academic endeavor. All of the members of my doctoral committee--Lyn Taylor William Juraschek Marie Wirsing Ellen Stevens and Maurice Holt. I could not have assembled a more dedicated or demanding group of academicians to guide my research and writing. Thanks Lyn, for being my doctoral advisor; your thoughtful and continuous mentoring have kept me on this pathway Thanks, Bill ; your penchant for mathematical and rigor has inspired mine. And thanks Marie ; your shared love of the discipline of philosophy has provided great colleagueship.

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The member s of the two Imaginal Education team s w ith whom I have worked mo s t closel y Chicago Keith and George Packard Karen Troxel Snyder, and Kr is tine Valdes, have worked tirelessly to de s ign the Learning Lab format that provide s practical direction toward new forms of image-based instruction Denver Karen Bueno and Burna and David Dunn pro v ided the consultant work that set the s tage for the action research project documented here and offered ongoing support f or m y work on this final product. My two friends and coachesMichael O Connor and RosaLee Mitchell. Your creative and endless support kept me on the writing track. My former colleagues at the Fred N Thomas Career Education Center--teacher s Lou Fishering (now Townsend), Gordon Heaton Eleanor Moller Marc Nutter Mel Spurlin (deceased) Sonya Pederson and Carol Webb; and administrators Sharon Johnson Tom Murnan and Tom Stevens. was their personal tenacity and dedication to reform that resulted in the implementation of a new plan revised with great creativity and care, on an ongoing basis. Thank y ou for being willing to learn from the future. Finally, and of great importance I would like to thank my family. James G. Slotta husband of thirty-six years who encouraged both this study and the action research it documents. Your practical love for me and my work makes it possible on a daily basis I have been truly blessed with wonderful offspring--two daughters women of determination who are now excelling in technical fields and

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two sons who are thriving, with me in the field of education. They have grounded my wild creativity in the worlds of real people and their professional prowess often diminishes my own. Thank you to each of them--to Elizabeth Slotta for sharing her precious personhood and computer expertise with me; to James Davis Slotta whose doctoral studies preceded and now exist in concert with mine, for his practical support and academic inspiration; to Jon William Slotta, whose education studies coincided in time with mine, for his high energy and interest in education; and to Karen Larson, foster daughter, for demonstrating that high expectations and a strong sense of family are worthwhile.

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CONTENTS Figure s ................... .......... .. .............. .................... ....... ...... xv Tables ...... .................. .................................................... xvi CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION .. .. .. ................ ... ........... ... ........... ........... 1 First and Second-Order Change .......................................... 2 Examples of Second-Order Change ....................................... 3 Systemic Approach to Studying Second-Order Change ................ 5 Historical and Social Context of This Study .............. ...... .. ...... 6 The State of School Reforrn--Concerns About Standards ........ .. 7 The State of the Nation's Youth--Malaise of Meaning ......... 8 General Malaise Among youth .. ........... .. .............. .. 8 Programs Intended as Solutions Obli vious to Comprehensive Student Needs ......... ........................ 9 A Case Study of the in the Denver Public Schools ............... ............................... 12 Non-Traditional Features of the .. ....... 14 Foundations and Assumptions of the Program ....... ........ 16 Curriculum Des ign Included Intended Student Experiences .. 17 Procedural Underpinnings .. ................................ ..... 18 Success Indicators ................................ .. .. .. .. ..... .. ......... 26 Summary ............ .. .. .. .. ........................ .. ................... 29 x

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2. ............. ................. ..... .... ........... 31 llhe Stakeholder Ro les .. ........ ......................... ..... .......... 32 Student s ............... .. .................... .. ...... .. ......... 32 Parent s .......... ... .. .... ... ...... .. ................. .. ...... 34 lleachers .. .. .. . ....... ......... .. ........ ........ ............ .. 35 Admini s trator s ....... ...... .. .. .. .............. .. ...... ....... .. 36 Summary of Stakeholder Re s earch ......... .. ..... ........... .. .. .. .. 37 Foundational .. . ................. ............. .. ............ 39 llwo Action Researchers ......... .. ...... .. ...................... 3 9 Image-Based ...... .......... .. .. .. ................... .40 3 ...................... .. .. ... .. ................... ........ 46 Case Stud y Analysis .. ..................... .. ................ .. ... .. .. 46 Study Design and Proc edures .................. ........ .. ...... .. .... 47 Student and Parent Interviews ..... ........ ... .. ..................... .. 49 Selection Criteria and Pr ocedures .... ............................ 49 Sel ectio n Proces s ...... ........................... ............. .49 Selection Criteria for Student s ............. .. ................. .. 50 Selection Criteria for Parents .. .. .......... ..... .. .......... ..... 51 Selection of lleacher Administrator and Advisor Interviewees ...... 52 llhe Stud y Participant s ....................... ................. .. ........ 53 Student Parent lleams ............... ..... ........ .. .. .......... 53 lleachers ....... ...... .. .. .. ................. .......... .............. 53 Administrators .. .......... .. ....... .............. ................. 53 xi

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Advisors ................ ...... .. ........... .. .................. 54 Interview Approach .............................................. 54 Comment Coding Method ............... ...................... 55 Tables ................. ...... ....... ............ ... ............... 58 Image Analysis Method ......................................... 58 Summary ... ..................... ... ............... ............ ... 60 4. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION ............................................ 62 Participants and Their Comments ...... ... ...................... ....... 63 The Student-Parent Teams ........................ .............. 63 Table 4 1 : Student Comments .. ... ........ ................ ... 65 Table 4.2 : Participating Parent Comments ..................... 68 The Teachers ........................................ .. ........... 71 Table 4 3 : Teacher Comments ...... ................... ..... ... 72 The Administrators .. .. .. ... ................................ 76 Table 4.4: Administrator Comments ........ ... ...... ........... 77 The Advisors ..... .. .. ...... ............................. ... 80 Table 4 5 : Advisor Comments .................................. 81 Table 4 6 : Discussion ....... ....... .. .. ............. ..................... 84 Table 4.6: Master Comments Table ............................. 84 Stakeholder Role Findings ............ .... .......... ......... ........ ..... 88 Curriculum Program Findings ........ ....................... 89 Discussion of Curriculum and Program Findings ............ 90 Findings Based on Agreements and Differences Data .. ...... 93

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Re sults-Oriented Curriculum ................. .. ............. 9 4 Dis cussion of Finding s About Agreement s and Differences ........................... ...... .. .. ....... .. .. ... 94 Table 4 7 : Image Anal y si s Table .. ...... .................. ............... 95 Finding s on the Stakeholder Role s Based on Images Held b y Each Stakeholder Group About the Others .......... 9 5 Image s Held b y Each Stakeholder Group About Itself. ...... 9 9 Finding s on Curriculum and Program Based on Image s Held b y Each Stakeholder Group .............................. 100 5 IMPLICATIONS ............................ .. ....... ........................ 103 Implications for Stakeholders ..... ......... ...... .. .. .......... .. .. 104 Empowered Students ..................... ... ... ...... ..... 104 Trusting Administrators (of Teachers ) ........ ................ 106 Proactive Teachers ...................................... .. ...... 107 Who s Guarding the Treasure ................... ............. .. 107 Insights About the Nature and Design of Curriculum ..... ........ 110 Two Different Types of Objectives .. ......... .. ........... .. 112 Image-based Planning ............ ... ... ... ....... .. .. ......... 112 A Project Theme Each Semester ........... ............ .. ..... 113 Other Connections .. ........... ......................................... 116 Central Park East Secondary School .......... .. ....... .. .... 116 Motivational Nature ...... ....... ... .... ........... ... .... .... 117 Learning Community ............. .. . .. .. ................. 118 Implications for Further Research ...................................... 120 Concluding Ruminations ......... ........ ............................. 123

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................... . ......... 1 2 7 C MATERIALS ........ .. ........ ... ...... .... ... 176 .... .. .......... ...... . .......... .. 179 .............. .. ........ ...... .................. ...... . .. .. ...... ................................ 19 3

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FIGURES Figure 1 1 A team of students researches a project s ub-topic .. ................... 22 1.2 Students and guests listen to project team reports ....................... 23 5 1 Wheel of transformational change ... .............................. ....... 109

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TABLES Table 3 1 Number of Stakeholders Interviewed by Role ........................... 48 3 2 Number of Coded Comments by Stakeholder Groups ......... ........ 57 4 1 Student Comments ..... .... ...... ........... .... ... .................. .... 66 4 2 Participating-Parent Comments ........ . .. ....... . ...... ........ 69 4.3 Teacher Comments ...... ............. ...... ... ........... .. ........ . 73 4.4 Administrator Comments .. .............. ......................... ... ... .. 78 4 5 Advisor Comments .. .. .................................................... 82 4 6 Master Comments Table ........... ................ ......................... 86 4 7 Images Based on Interview Comments ........ .. ..................... 98

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION This dissertation provides a historical, descriptive case study of a successful high school reform program. The intent of this study is to illustrate by example what has been described by Michael Fullan (1991 ) and others (Cuban 1988 ; Elmore, 1988; Sarason 1990) as second-order transformational change and to carefully assess the roles played in one such program. I examine the actions attitudes, relationships and ideas of five stakeholder groups: students, participating parents teachers, building administrators and advisors. Emphasis is given to the different perceptions that characterize the different groups, and to the elements of the curriculum perceived by each group as being the most significant or useful. I also examine the planning process of the program and the philosophies and assumptions articulated in its documents of initiation. Such an extensive characterization of the reform process will inform future curriculum and program design efforts as well as implementation. Ultimately, the purpose of this dissertation is to understand why some efforts at school reform fail while others do not. The program under study was designed in 1986 to rescue at-risk high school juniors and seniors who were failing in traditional school settings but succeeding in the more intense hands-on approach of this career magnet school. The site was the 1

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Fred N. Thomas Career Education Center! (CEC) in the Denver Public Schools (DPS). As one of the four original teachers who worked with advisors to design the program I maintained the documentation of the participants' demographics as well as the instructional processes and their effects. When the teacher in that position retired in 1988 I became the team leader remaining with the program throughout its nineyear duration (1986 to 1995). Nearly seven hundred students were enrolled during that period of time. The curriculum was problem-oriented community-situated and project-based The program became known district-wide as and received national recognition in 1991 through the Disney Company's American Teacher Awards. The following, more specific questions framed my work : a) How do the five stakeholder groups, or "doers of educational change" (Fullan, 1991) describe their own and the others roles in second-order change? b) Are any identified agreements or differences in perspective significant to future reform applications? c) How do the stakeholder groups recall and describe the problem-posing project that was the curriculum centerpiece? and d ) How were the intentional processes used in planning both the initial program and its ongoing curriculum design related to its success? First and Second Order Change his 1991 book The New Meaning of Educational Change, Michael Fullan states that "sustained action over a number of years will be required if teachers are to 1 The Fred N Thomas Career Education Center was dedicated in Denver in 1976 as a magnet school where students from all ten high schools would explore career interests and learn technical and vocational skills. 2

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work together in joint planning and adapting of teaching strategies to effect transfonnational change" (p. xiii) He cites Sarason (1990) in delineating change efforts into two types: first-order and second-order. By this definition, first order changes are those that set out to improve efficiency and effectiveness in present approaches. First-order changes "can be legislated and spell out objectives and competencies" (p. 287). Historical examples of such first-order refonns are the junior high school intended to prevent underachieving pupils from dropping out, and the mainstreaming of disabled children, intended to encourage children with physical mental and emotional disabilities to feel more a part of their school society. In each of these examples, a solution was adopted in response to a particular need ; in each case visible changes occurred in schools and districts as these programs were implemented, though new problems soon emerged as the systems reacted to the remedy. Second-order changes are defined as those that set out to alter the fundamental ways of doing things. Fullan defines such transfonnational change as "changes which seek to alter the fundamental ways in which organizations are put together including new goals, structures, and roles." Second-order changes require the altering of "the patterns and practices of indivi duals" (p. 287). In a later work, Fullan (1993) explains the difficulties of implementing second-order change and cautions that such efforts usually fail. Examples of Second Order Change This concept of transfonnational change is hardly new. Refonners of the Progressive Era in the early part of this century sought to schooling to deal with the growth of industrialization crime and massive immigration (Tyack 3

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Cuban, 1995). John Dewey advocated for change in the fundamental ways of doing things (second-order change) when he suggested that schools must set up conditions that arouse and guide students' curiosity rather than hushing them up when the y asked questions (Dewey 1933). Another example of such second-order change agentry" is found in the work of The Institute of Cultural Affairs(ICA). The ICA began its work with image identification and analysis in the early 1960s in order to occasion radical change in how people viewed themselves and their neighborhoods ICA researchers applied Kenneth Boulding s image-change concept s to meet community development need s in line with the organization's stated mission ( Griffith 1992) Eventually this focus on changing images in order to effect change in a broad context became institutionalized within the ICA as "Imaginal Education." For example in a West side Chicago neighborhood project known as image analysis led staff from the ICA's precursor organization the Ecumenical Institute to conclude that the most debilitating image operative at that time was that of the black male self-image. Influenced by welfare practices and ghetto-like environments male family members experienced uselessness and hopelessness. The staff of about fifteen people spent three years studying the issues before creating new community programs. When the new programs were started one of the tactics used by the research team was the crafting of a small iron statue termed The Iron Man based on Old Testament poetry from the prophet Jeremiah This small, black iron symbol was carried by volunteers walking 2 The Institute of Cultural Affairs ( ICA ) is a private, not-for profit organization w hose mission i s research training, and demonstration of participatory methods The ICA s curriculum work articulates both measurable and existential objectives and intends for each student, empowered mental models. The a g ency's Imaginal Education work was substantiall y influenced b y Boulding Bruner Montes s ori and Piaget. 4

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the blocks within the boundaries of and the narrative of the resilient Iron Man was retold many times Results were observed and documented ; new community economic and political leadership emerged over the next few years, which was widely thought to be a result of this and related efforts. This story serves to illustrate both the complexity of second-order change and the role that image strategy played in this particular implementation. The educational component of this comprehensive effort eventually was replicated in a global network of preschools in primarily Third World environments (Cooperrider Srivastva, 1987 ; Institute of Cultural Affairs 1976). Systemic Approach to Studying Second-Order Change The progressive reformers who were affiliated with the Fifth City Project, and their strategies toward fundamental, second-order change provide a historical link to current change debates and to this study of one such episode. Fullan (1991) suggests that discussions about implementing successful transformational change should focus on the "work" of the "doers": what is required to achieve such change by the teachers the principals, the students, the district administrators the consultants, the parents and the community. Fullan devotes a chapter to each of these groups. is this query that drives the present study of CEC's did each stakeholder group in the school community do and how were their actions perceived by the others? Fullan s is a systemic approach that is consistent with that of Gregory Bateson. Bateson (1972), purports that it is futile to work only on parts of a system when change is intended since the system always functions to conserve itself. 5

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Further when something new is introduced into a complex system the system i s disturbed and seeks to self-correct. The results of the present study are discussed both in terms of Fullan s definition of second-order change and such assumptions of a systemic understanding. This research discusses the impact of embedding a community-oriented project within the curriculum and social fabric of the school itself. To date there has been no such comprehensive study of the "system" as it was involved in a successful education reform episode Historical and Social Context of This Study Change where it counts most--in the daily interactions of teachers and students--is the hardest to achieve and the most important. (Tyack&Cuban, 1995 p 10 ) Schools as social institutions, do change in response to changes in the larger society. For example, during this century the number of persons in the 5-19 age range who are enrolled in school has shifted fr.om 50% in 1900 to 90% in 1995 (Tyack & Cuban 1995). Schools change in response to new technologies, to new employment demands, and to new understandings of human cognitive development. the past three decades, great efforts have been made to change our schools and their programs in response to actual and anticipated social and economic mandates. We have gained some clarity about the nature of successful reform but are still striving for definitive knowledge. Meanwhile, the needs of the students have escalated, partly as a result of this very climate of change. The following two arenas of concem--school reform and

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the state of our youth-catalyzed the inception of the and provide a historical context to the present study. The State of School Reform -Concems About Standards While the political and social climate in the United States is ripe for educational reform, we cannot yet generalize about the ideal school community that we should be moving toward nor to what one model should prevail. The decade of the 1980s witnessed an explosion in public awareness regarding the need for education reform. In 1984, two books--John Goodlad's and Theodore Sizer's bestseller lists and provided Americans of social strata the opportunity to view the classrooms of their childhood memories from an adult/leadership perspective. In the 1990s the nation's attention to education has increased even more. The annual Bracey reports (Bracey, 1997 ) published by Phi Delta Kappan, (1990-1998) critique the crisis-orientation of the media and provide a more objective review of student achievement data Education issues have become the focus of political elections as well as the frequent subject of conversations in coffee shops and on talk shows. Reformers today do not share the same goals about our schools and students The standards movement which began in specific discipline areas in the 1980s, is the driving force behind most reform efforts today. Standards advocates would have us believe that if the learning objectives are rigorous enough the schools will be renewed and students will succeed at their next level of instruction Others are troubled by the "impersonality" of this approach and advocate for a person-centered approach or a "humane framework for the kinds of education required in a technological society" 7

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(Greene 1988). Sadly, it seems easier for particular constituencies to reach agreement about the standards in a specific discipline area than for the community of education reformers to agree about how we might arrive at excellence and who we want our students to become. The State of the Nation's Youth--Malaise of Meaning Urban youth. Chaos from the greater society always affects the well-being of our young. For example, teachers today cannot assume that students' general health and welfare needs are met before they enter the classroom. This is especially true in urban school districts. percent of our nation's urban children lived in poverty in 1990; 23% had neighborhood clinics as their only source of health care; 46% had changed schools more than once since first grade; and only 68% resided in a two parent family (National Center for Educational Statistics 1996) Many related physical and psychological spin-offs of these conditions--such as short attention spans, poor nutrition and lack of motivation--affect the classrooms daily influencing the learning of all the students there (Maeroff, 1998). Colorado, the percentage of children living in poverty rose from 11.5 % in 1979 to 15 % in 1989, an increase of 30.4 % Rates among minority and urban groups were much higher, triple those cited above (The Denver Post 1992 p 3A ) General Malaise Among Youth Due to substantive changes in the larger society "typical" youth activities like proms football games marching bands and pep rallies have lost their adolescent following, resulting in a void of meaning and fun, and fostering within our youth a 8

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general sense of confusion and malaise. During the industrial era a s pirit of competition had been the assumed mode of operation in all social strata Today, gang activities and fear of violence may prevent or minimize large student gatherings beyond the regular school day. Once military enlistment held out to our young people both a noble cause and a viable career option Now, an anti-military post "M.A.S.H." ( Movie and TV series) consciousness and a balanced-federal-budget mindset have converged to minimize this vocational pathway Today's high school students exist in a present that lacks enthusiasm, eventfulness and a positive vision of the future. Programs Intended As Solutions Obliviou s to Comprehensive Student Needs Reform efforts responding to the needs recognized as growing out of these circumstances include some impressive and ambitious efforts : Profe ssional associations such as the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) took aggressive measures to study and reform their own disciplines, and by the end of the 1980s NCTM's was published (NCTM, 1989). In 1987 The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) was established. has formulated a volunteerism-based strategy for credentialing master teachers nationwide (NBPTS, 1994). 1989 President Bush announced a set of eight new national education goals to be met by the year 2000 They included the goals to be fIrst in the world in math and science ; to have all children start school ready to leam; to increase high school graduation rates to at least 90%; and to have students leave designated grades

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with demonstrated competencies in challenging subject matter (Goals 2000: Educate America Act). In 1992, President Clinton reaffirmed Education 2000." They were adopted into law in 1994 as "Goals 2000: Educate America Act." In 1993 the Colorado legislature passed HB 93-1313 which mandated specific subject-by-subject content standards with uniform, correlated assessments to follow The Colorado Model Content Standards ( 1995) we r e written by committees from across the state, in implementation of the bill. In 1997 supported by the nations' governors and accompanied by substantial funding President Clinton again renewed commitment to the Education 2000 goals. New more rigorous educational standards have been adopted in thirty-seven states. Reform efforts in education have focused primarily on two areas: 1) along with its complement, alternative assessment; and 2) as measured by pre-determined norms. Yet as various reform efforts and public debates intensify it is important to assess the overall understanding of curriculum reform, whether these efforts are truly making helpful progress and whether we are even asking the right questions. Some initial critiques have s ug gested the need for a more deliberate study of the reform process based on points such as the following: Implementing the NBPTS plan for teacher certification will be expensive. President Clinton recently asked Congress for $105 million dollars for 19982002 operations, designed to put 100,000 teachers into the applicant process

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and yield at least 35 000 teachers with National Board Certification over a five year period. The application fee for each teacher or for their district is $1000. There are additional costs indirectly to the students The substantial time required by both the volunteer teachers, and by the ambitious teachers who apply for certification translates directly to time away from lesson planning and student nurture. While standards advocate "high-level substance" the related planning process begins with content; the "positivist-realist" nature of this approach regarding what constitutes knowledge ignores the student as inquirer in the proces s I have observed that virtually all major school reform efforts to date (1998) seek to commit all educators to one best way of educating all youth They suggest uniform predetermined objectified, measurable, and discrete content and outcomes. Finally, we must be cautious not to think of school reform" as a matter of tuning up the existing system Improving student scores on national standardized tests is often viewed as the end to which all means should be directed. True reform will move beyond test scores and benchmarks to a totally new understanding of what it means to educate our nation s childrenreform defined as "second-order change" (Full an 1991) These two stated areas of concem--the state of standards-driven school reform the state of youth in the midst of turmoil--affirm the need for transformational second-order change. The situation suggests that high schools should include in addition to the usual mastery of technical and academic skills and knowledge novel structures that can meet the needs of all students for meaning and

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well-being, supported by an inclusive and interrelated approach to the curriculum Schools are complex systems made up of people curriculum and all of the realitie s present in the larger society Accordingly educational change is complex. cycles and evolves" as professionals tinker with and alter the hypotheses into hybrids" (Tyack Cuban, 1995 p. 60). Tyack, Cuban Full an and others concerned with lasting change focus on the educational constituencies. They discuss and analyze the stakeholder groups, the curriculum and the various milieus separately. contrast the present case study seeks to carefully explore the interrelations among all of the various constituencies and curriculum components found in one episode of school reform. A Case Study of the in the Denver Public Schools The at CEC was planned in response to the needs of urban high school students of the 80s and 90s, according to such an interactive and interrelated approach. It was implemented by four master academic teachers as a pilot program in the fall of 1986 During the spring 1986 semester prior to the adoption of the image-based planning approach, all of the CEC teachers and administrators worked to identify the academic knowledge required for success in each of the career classes. The task of "covering" such a skill-based curriculum was eventually deemed impossible and the more student-centered, community-oriented project-approach was then born. When this was recognized, CEC students were included in the curriculum planning through a workshop entitled "The Essential Elements of the (see Appendix A) This process-approach to the curriculum design became its hallmark; custom-made planning materials were developed and consistently used. 12

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The program continued as a pilot, being evaluated and modified each semester for the next three years. 1989, the model became a formal DPS program and functioned as such for the following six years. Due to school and district reorganization the program was closed down in January of 1995; at that time however, it entered a replication phase with major components being adapted for use in other locations, district-wide. The following factors may have contributed to the closure at CEC: 1) The high student energy level that was generated by the project s leaming activities was viewed as disruptive by some school personnel ; 2) All three of the school's principals, including the two who helped conceptualize the program in 1986 left for a different reason in June of 1994. The new principal was less than supportive of the program and with no advanced notice to parents, teachers, or students--including graduating seniors--announced its immediate termination in January of 1995 ; 3) There was no official commitment to the beyond the school site. academic program with a more traditional instructional approach was reinstated at the school in the fall of 1995 and at the time of this writing, school administrators are working to again re-define important curriculum components making them more interactive. However there is no evidence of efforts to understand the original curriculum--its comprehensive learning intents or unique planning processes. 13

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Non-Traditional Features of the An examination of artifacts indicates that this program differed from that of a traditional high school in these significant ways (see "Three Systems of Learning Chart" in Appendix A): Curriculum presentation format. Traditional high schools generally present curriculum in "Carnegie Units" delivered in forty-five minute periods and using a district scope-and-sequence format. Such a stringent plan is often a disincentive to individual student learning motivation (Carroll 1994). contrast the used time creatively and flexibly in periods never less than one hour long. Student involvement. Traditional high schools offer "extracurricular" activities designed to provide social skills and student leadership opportunities. Some choose to join clubs or do volunteer work within the high school setting. students--generally those already possessing good social skills--are selected by teachers and peers for a finite number of leadership positions. Sadly, the majority of young people are not included in many of these interesting and formative activities Students with family-support responsibilities with partor full-time jobs with low motivation, or with debilitating self-images, generally "fall though the cracks." contrast the was designed to include students at all levels. was designed with "academically disinclined" 11th and 12th grade students in mind and required them all to investigate project issues and share responsibilities. Focus on student uniquenesses. most high schools, individual potential is seldom challenged and students' overall learning is rarely a category for 14

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analysis or evaluation ( Tyack Cuban 1995 ). Many students' talents and potential are consequently lost to the school community as well as to society contrast the implemented an academically rigorous and non-traditional approach to high school instruction focusing on each individual's unique profile of learning strengths and relative weaknesses A team approach to planning and assessment. The four teachers planned all curricula and provided all academic instruction A teacher team leader provided coordination with the larger magnet school. Although each individual teacher had established grading policies the interactive curriculum componentsorientation and the selected project--were assessed by rubrics and portfolios. Students evaluated their project teammates (see Appendix B ) on project work. Teachers were provided two additional hours of common planning time each week making possible the ongoing interdisciplinary curriculum desi g n Assessment of individual student progress and any needed adaptation of the curriculum plans to assure maximum interest and effectiveness occurred during that time. Multiple fonus of assessment. Students participated in a team-based and self assessment format for all project work ( one class period per day ), and an end of-semester portfolio featured sections for learning achievements from all aspects of the CEC program. Academic teachers selected their own method for their other two classes Course syllabi with clear expectations for grades and levels of achievement was sent home prior to each new semester. 15

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Foundations and Assumptions of the Program The mental image a s fundamental to learning behavior. The model for the was initially inspired by Kenneth Boulding educator and economist. His theoretical treatise The Image, (1956) states that a ) much of human beings thinking and behavior is based on their mental images ; b ) verbal, visual or experiential messages form the images ; and c ) images affect behavior which offers clues to the images Finally, the images can be changed by strategic messages. Teachers and planners in the CEC program also later at various times studied the work of Peter Senge (1990) who presents a similar cognitive account but uses the terminology of "mental models" and "actions" where Boulding uses "images" and "behavior". Senge's work reinforced and enhanced this understanding of the relationship between the students' images and their learning behavior. Curriculum design based on image theory. The strategy of connecting curriculum to students mental models or images was foundational in the design of the The curriculum was created by the teachers and administrators with the assistance of two consultants from the Institute of Cultural Affairs ( ICA ) during the summer of 1986 The model was further significantly influenced by two conference events which took place at about this same time : a) the July 1986 Teachers' Institute at Spelman College in Atlanta Georgia an event that was sponsored by the Imaginal Education Program of the ICA and involved an international group of master teachers ; and b ) the June 1987 Education Summit at George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia, an event that was co-sponsored by the rCA New Horizons for Learning a Seattle-based education think-tank and others. Among the featured speakers at this gathering of prestigious political and education 1 6

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leader s were Robert Aldrich Barbar a Clark Reu ven Feuerstein Howard Gardner Malcolm Knowles David Perkins and Edward Zigler. Information presented b y these edge thinkers in their areas of research was shared with all of the teachers and consultants who were working with the during its pilot phase. Curriculum Des ign Included Intended Student Experience s In addition to naming an image change or image to be shaped b y each major curriculum component teacher s al s o identified what they w anted these high school students to in the s e components ( see Appendix C ) Thi s facet of the planning process served a "how-to function in the learning plans and encouraged comprehens i veness and creativity in teacher planning. It was alwa ys an intent of the program that students experienced success academic achievement positive personal interactions and significant involvement in group decision-making. Specific Agreement s and Assumptions The following agreements and assumptions guided the early planning of the Together the nine items represent a foundational belief that the experience of each s eparate part of a learning community is significant and that each affects the experience of each of the other parts as well as that of the whole ( see Appendix A ) 1 The students--their interest s and needs--are the center or focus of the educational process. 2 Time is set at the present, i e. while teachers planned somewhat with the nature of their students' future workplace in mind learning activities were always delivered within the context of the present. 3. Work is presented as the pathway to life fulfillment. 1 7

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4 All students are valued equally ( in contrast to the common school practice of prioritizing the students from bad to good) 5. Teachers time and students' time are considered to be of equal value 6 Grades are used as symbols representing student achievement to maintain continuity across the district. However real-world project victories are the primary motivators and therefore better signs of actual achievement. 7. The interests and skills represented in each particular student body are always included in planning 8. Teachers model effective teamwork believing that more and better work can be done by an effective team than by individual efforts. 9. The larger Denver community is used to situate learning, providing an integral source of general information and learning project topics Procedural Underpinnings Image-based curriculum Curriculum planning for the program began by analyzing probable student images of themselves their school, and the community and then describing desirable images in each category. Each of the three semester schedule segments was defined by these desired imageslimage changes (see Appendix C ), and these definitions guided further planning. During the first two weeks of school, student activities delivered messages designed to effect specific changes in student images. was encouraged to change from an "unsuccessful learner" to a "curious or successful learner," and from "high school kid" to "young adult." was encouraged to change from "a place to play" to "a place to work," from "a place where passive endurance is rewarded" to "a place where 1 8

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passive endurance results in failure," and from an "inaccessible pre-determined program" to "a learning community that requires everyone s participation." was encouraged to change from "a sometimes hostile and closed group of elected officials" to "particular dedicated people working on special causes The mid-semester project targeted different image changes: seljfrom "disengaged high school student" to "effective practical problem-solver"; from "a place where facts are dispensed in classrooms" to "a community resource center where problems are solved" ; and from "inaccessible, scattered groups of people in unknown buildings" to coherent groups of people whose causes need everyone's care". During the portfolio compilation and sharing sessions, these image changes were intended : "student of facts" to "creator of products"; from dispenser of rewards in segmented grades" to "acknowledger of learning accomplishments"; and from "a place where luck is needed to succeed" to "a world in which the future is accessible" and "a source of resume recognition." Planning curriculum using this approach takes into account of the ways messages are given and received including verbal, visual and experiential (p. 14). Comprehensive planning processes were followed at each level, defIning desired student images, measurable learning objectives, and experiential (see Appendix C). The project approach. The approach adopted by the is of special interest due to its motivational nature and capacity to involve stakeholders. was the primary strategy to address the students negative images of the community and sc hool. While many educators would agree that a project-based curriculum provides a good way for students to learn (Valdes, 1998), research on the 19

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topic has been situated mainly in the domains of science and social studies The employed curriculum projects that connected the four disciplines of English, math, science and social studies, specifically to the 32 career classes offered at CEC at that time. These projects involved both students and teachers in problem-posing and problem-solving. Key in framing the project was the semester schedule of learning-related events designed with this rhythm: project topic, academic concepts student research on the project, and synthesis activities. Before the beginning of each term, the teachers (with administrator consultation) selected a high-media-profIle, issue-oriented topic that provided a real-world connection for academic studies and problem-solving, project-based applications. Teachers and admininstrators building-wide were encouraged to suggest possible project themes with interesting learning extensions making for a highly creative and lively process. The topic was eventually consensed upon by the academic teaching team during an all day planning meeting that was held at least one month prior to the beginning of the next term The fust two weeks of each semester were devoted to assessing the profIle of learning uniqueness and the personal strengths or gifts of each student. At this time a career exploration pathway was identified for each student. Next, guest speakers from the community who had in-depth knowledge about the project topic frequently provided fust-hand information and field trips were scheduled as appropriate. All learning activities were designed to send intentional and positive messages about school (as a place of resources), about the community (as a locus of care and creativity) and about the individual student (as possessing unique gifts and learning preferences). 20

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Mid-semester, students worked in teams for two weeks, first to research the issues and then to make recommendations for a solution to the project challenge (Figure 1.1). Community agency representatives with whom the student teams had worked as well as administrators and parents were invited to attend a final reporting session in which results were shared and a consensus was reached regarding the challenge topic (Figure 1.2 ) (Snodgrass Slotta 1992). At the end of the semester student portfolios included at least one final product from the project team's work Students wrote evaluative comments summarizing both their own learning and the contributions of their teammates. 21

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Figure 1 1 A team of students researches a project sub-topic. 22

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Figure 1.2 Students and guests listen to project team reports. The Project Approach motivated students to create solutions to problem situations that affected their community and world. so doing they applied already mastered academic and practical skills, eliminating the all-too-familiar question, "When will I ever need to know this?" The process was formally termed "The Project Approach" by ICA consultant David Burns (pseudonym) at its inception. The project topic frequently became the focus for monthly enrichment activities Projects usually had a global dimension; they always had a local aspect that could be effectively problem-solved Samples of project themes were: "Water Conservation on a Desert Plateau" ; "Remembering the Rainforests"; "Exploring Another Continent" (Africa); "Drop-out Prevention"; "The GulfWar--Blood for Oil?" ; "Our Global Neighborhood"; "Destination White House" ; "Immigration--Crowded 23

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Shores Closed Door s"; and "Health Care 2000." ( The curriculum and result s of the Fall 1994 project on irrunigration entitled "Crowded Shores Closed Doors," i s found in Appendix B. ) Many of the project topics naturally incorporated a fund-raising component for one of the teams. During the rainforest project students on one of the teams worked with a local agency Denver Digs Trees to obtain and then plant trees along an eroding water canal ; students on a different team raised money to adopt an acre of rainforest land in Central America During the "Summer of Violence (l993--in Denver ) project students learned about the AFSC and other local agencies that teach conflict resolution skills ; during the project on Africa student teams learned about and raised money for the Wildlife Foundation ( endangered animal species ), the Sierra Club, and UNICEF. These activities all took place during one one-hour class period for three weeks The Project Approach was designed to model and encourage these educational reform practices: as students experienced the mandate to design common solutions ; as students watched teachers learn about new and current topics; as students struggled to meet real deadlines ; as students applied academic skills to real situations ; and as students worked on behalf of the larger community's needs (Slotta, 1993). Students. The accommodated up to 100 students for up to four semesters Six hundred eighty-five students participated in the program during its nine year duration. general the student body consisted of active learners who had not succeeded at their home high schools. Student was representative of the 24

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population of the city of Denver in ethnicity and gender and often contained children of notable Denver area educators Over 60 % of these students worked fullor part time (Spampanato Becker Johnson 1991). Second-year students were required to provide leadership for small groups and for project teams. They were also encouraged to enroll in community college courses or to schedule career-related internships in tandem with their academic schedules. Staff and advisors Eight different teachers provided instruction in teams of four per contract year, each representing one of the disciplines of English math science, and social studies. One of three building administrators coordinated the staff and oversaw the learning activities. The original teachers were four master teachers having come to the CEC from positions of leadership in their former school assignments. They were all parents of grown children the fall of 1994, a board of advisors for the was formed with representation from former students and from parents, teachers and administrators, as well as from both university and lCA advisors. One member the parent of a former student had also been a member of the DPS school board. This advisory board brought a comprehensive and informed perspective to the program, supported the students project work, and sought to expand the program's influence within educational networks across the state (see Appendix D). 25

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Success Indicators The at CEC is worth analyzing because it was widely deemed "successful" and it is an example of second-order change. But how can we provide some tangible measure of this success? The following three criteria are suggested by Tyack and Cuban (1995) as a valid measure of success in educational reform settings: a) Fidelity to original design ; b ) Effectiveness in meeting pre-set outcomes and c) Longevity (pp. 61-63). Each of these factors was reflected in the success of the and will be considered here. In addition informal reports from students, teachers and administrators provide testimony to success. Finally a prior quantitative study of student achievement will be briefly revisited Fidelity to original design While the was modified each semester in small yet significant ways (p. 12), the original schedule, intentions and curriculum designs were never modified (see Appendix A). Effectiveness in meeting pre-set outcomes. The image-shaping strategies which directed learning activities toward the students' images of self, school, and community, were documented by a quantitative study (Slotta, 1991). This study indicated that students who had participated in the exceeded normal expectations of young people in that age group in community involvement, had completed their high school education and had not received public assistance of any kind. (See Appendix E). Longevity. The enjoyed a nine-year duration six years past the pilot phase. The fact that this is long for an education innovation is not necessarily an indicator of success, as innovations can change over time and create 26

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new problems within systems. The fact that replication was intended when the program was closed at the Career Education Center is of more significance. District administrators had intended the basic structure and schedule of the program was to a model for at-risk and alternative programs at other secondary school sites Student, teacher. and administrator reports : The CEC programs were eval uated each semester for the administrators by the students Results of these evaluations were always extraordinarily complimentary of this particular program. Throughout the program, CEC professionals reported unusually high motivation and achievement from the students. Teachers and administrators regularly noted significant observable changes in the student participants' attitudes. The was sufficiently recognized and respected to be presented at several conferences, including the Colorado Council of Teachers of Mathematics' (CCTM) annual conference in 1989, and ICA West's annual meeting in 1992. The Project component has been a featured topic of ICA Chicago's Learning Lab3 a two-week summer training program for teacher teams. tiThe Project" is 3 The Learning Lab is an intensive two week laboratory developed by The Institute of Cultural Affairs (ICA ) Chicago in 1991. It features instruction, demonstration and practice in image-based curriculum design and delivery. Labs have been sponsored in Chicago by the Golden Apple Program and attended by Golden Apple Scholars and Chicago Public School teachers In 1996 a Learning Lab was held in San Jose California; it was co-sponsored by the ICA, a River Alliance of five science magnet schools of San Jose Unified School District, San Jose State University, and Joint Venture (business-education) Silicon Valley. One of the five participating schools--John Muir Middle School--was honored later in 1996 by President Clinton as the site for his education address. 27

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frequently mentioned on teachers' final evaluations as their Learning Lab program highlight. Requests for presentations and instruction regarding the have come to the CEC from school districts across the country. The program received four Public Education Coalition grants and several federal title grants for particular project components (Slotta, 1991). Although the program was consensus-based and non-competitive in nature students regularly received recognition in outside competitions during high school. Graduates of the program have succeeded in university work earning baccalaureate and graduate degrees; others have excelled in post-high school careers. One former student in the is now teaching the CEC career class he attended during high school. While some of the above items are based primarily on casual teacher and school reports and on local contest documents, interview comments from the present qualitative study do support these claims. Quantitative study of student achievement. In fulfillment of part of a master's degree requirement at the University of Colorado at Denver, I designed and conducted a quantitative study of student achievements (Slotta, 1991)(see Appendix E). The inquiry was conducted at the end of the first four years of the CEC In order to determine whether image change had actually occurred, former students were surveyed after leaving high school. The following three facets of intended image formation or change were examined: image of school (measured by school completion), image of community (measured by degree of 28

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political or community involvement) and image of self ( measured by degree of economic self-sufficiency ) Results from this earlier study clearly indicated the success of the program Approximately 87% of the at-risk students who had ever entered the program graduated from high school; an additional 9 % had earned their GED. This compares with 78 % for the district overall. (No graduation rate for At-Risk Students Only category was available ) Thirty-eight percent were registered voters as compared with 3 % of this same age group in the same county during the same time frame Over half had attended college or technical school, and 95% were economically self supporting. (No data for economic self-sufficiency were available for this selected age group.)(Slotta 1991) Summary This is not a study about whether change is needed in schools today; rather it assumes that schools need constant renewal in both content and process so that our students may "learn from the future." Neither does this study seek to recommend one major reform strategy over another; it assumes that teachers and administrators at an educational site will utilize the courses schedules, and learning events that best meet student learning needs at a local site. Rather this is a study about second-order change It is a study that scrutinizes one local tearn of administrators, and advisors together with representative students and their parents--who represent all the stakeholders in a reform process whose was to respond to their school community's perceived needs. is a study that analyzes the comments of those who created this successful reform program and maintained ongoing documentation buo yed up by its many 29

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victories along the pathway This s tudy examine s artifact s, documents and per s onal experiences and captures the significant attitudes actions and thought s of the stakeholders in this particular reform episode In short, metaphorically it is a case stud y that examines both the actors and their s cript plus the producers the audience the critics and the reviewers. the journey from to requires radicall y altered organization then it must also require intentional model-building and experimentation. Such action research can only happen by including classroom laboratories that try showcase and carefully document reform efforts This study is an analysis of one such program--the at Denver s Career Education Center. It expands on the substantial quantitative documentation done after the first three years of the program's implementation ( Slotta 1991). This study aligns the various features and accomplishments with recent definitions of second-order change important premise of both the case and this study is that students parents teachers, administrators, and advisors all have unique and important perspectives to contribute This premise is supported by a second: There are appropriate and important philosophical assumptions and planning approaches that, when incorporated into the curriculum design process, produce meaningful and maximized learning experiences that prepare students for lifelong learning in this the Information Age 30

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW The stated intent of this historical descriptive case study is to illustrate by example how the stakeholder roles and program elements in one successful high school reform episode were exemplified. Substantive changes such as those in the case i e. changes in the patterns and practices of teaching and learning have been described as second-order change (Cuban, 1988, Fullan, 1991) As the present study examines the roles and expectations of the various stakeholders, it will be helpful to review what the existing research literature has to say about each constituency. Because the present study will focus on relationships between groups including images of each group held by the others, special interest will be given to any research that explores interactions between two or more constituencies. Because an image based curriculum design was integral to the study (see Appendix B), it will also be important to review existing literature on the relationship between images and learning. This chapter therefore examines previous research with specific claims or findings relating to (a) the roles and perceptions of the stakeholders and (b) image based instruction. 3 1

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The Stakeholder Roles Students The primary theme in the literature regarding the role of the student is engagement. Fullan (1991) has argued that students need to see themselves as having some meaningful role in the classroom yet more work has focused on student activities than on student images. Much of this research on student activities and learning outcomes has been in the domain of science education. For example Minstrell (1996 ) has developed an innovative approach to guiding student learning of physical science through reference to conceptual benchmarks (e.g. Minstrell and Stimpton, 1996). Further, Kuhn (1989 1993) has suggested that students benefit from instruction that includes scientific reasoning and argumentation Songer (1993 ) has offered activities that lead to such scientific inquiry her "Kids as Global Scientists" project. Substantially less work has explored students' attitudes beliefs and goals in the classroom, relating to the present issue of image analysis. The effects of classroom activities on student perspectives and performance has been studied (Stevenson, 1990 Phelan, Davidson, Cao 1992, Hojacki Grover 1992, Keller-Cogan, 1995, Joyner 1996 ) For example students representing three different achievement levels were interviewed about the nature of classrooms and activities that engaged their interests (Stevenson, 1990). Results of this study suggest that students are not engaged by trivial tasks, but by cognitively-challenging tasks such as interpreting analyzing and manipulating information. Phelan Davidson and Cao (1992) investigated student perspectives on learning and found them to be remarkably similar to those of teachers. By asking questions like "What is important 32

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to students about schools and classrooms?", these researchers determined that students from all achievement levels and backgrounds want to succeed and understand that it is important to be in an environment that will support their success. Keller Cogan (1995) investigated student perceptions of instructional and assessment strategies in traditional and alternative settings, but found only that the alternative settings seemed more effective from the student perspective. Some research has focused on the interactions between students and their peers, as well as the development of technologies to support peer collaboration (e.g., Scardamalia and Bereiter, 1991; Brown and Campione, 1994) This work as a whole suggests that classrooms are best considered as a community of learners. Other researchers have explored the interactions between students and teachers or other constituencies. Lucas (1996) examined the effects of teacher and assistant principal roles on student motivation. This work, together with that of Matthews and Brown (1976, 1988) establishes connections between the influences of these constituencies and student achievement. Boyle (1993) compared the perceptions of student and teacher groups in two schools regarding their classroom climates and use of cognitive strategies. This quantitative study involved over a thousand students and nearly a hundred teachers, and employed diverse measures Results of the study found that learning is improved in contexts where teachers and their students have similar perspectives on learning. Researchers at the Learning Research and Development Center (LRDC) at the University of Pittsburgh worked in cooperation with the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) to organize the "Thinking Mathematics Project" (Hojacki Grover, 1992). The study involved sixty-five classes at five schools and monitored student and peer groups against affective and cognitive 33

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changes. Teacher self-reported data showed that teachers who were involved in the program perceived empowering changes in their students in problem-solving abilities and attitudes toward math. All of these studies point to the primary role of student engagement in the learning process and to the interactive nature of learning activities as key to improvement. Parents The parent role is "where the most powerful instrument for improvement resides" (Fullan 1991, p. 227). Fullan cites studies by Epstein (1988) and Mortimore (1988) that document the importance of parental involvement in general as it affects student achievement. Findings indicate that parents require the school's assistance to become knowledgeable partners in their children's education examination of the literature indicates that the role of the parent in the education literature is generally presented in relationship to other factors or stakeholders. The fact that no known correlation has been found between parental involvement in governance and student achievement (Gibson, 1991) implies that the focus of parental involvement should always be on educational activities if increased student learning is the intended outcome. Gibson (1991) also looked at how parental involvement affects teacher and administrator attitudes. His findings most relevant to this present study were: a) all parents want to be involved in the education of their children; b) teachers held the primary influence over whether or not parents were productive partners the school; 34

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and c ) parental involvement improves the school's image within the larger community Teachers The question of what makes great teachers great is embedded in the culture of many current teacher recognition programs such as the American Teacher Awards and the Presidential Award for Excellence. The qualities of great teachers are also the subject of many teacher education courses and textbooks. example of a recent and innovative text that involved teachers in the field in the articulation of successful approaches and philosophical positions is Becoming a Teacher (Parkay Stanford 1992). addition to widely publicized programs professional advocate organizations regularly analyze the state of the teachers and administrators. Phi Delta Kappan annually polls teachers on the status of the public schools. It is widely recognized that teachers perform many functions beyond those of instruction. Research fmdings agree that teaching is "a never-ending mixture of satisfying and stressful experiences" (Pullan 1991, p 123). is within such a milieu that the art of teaching must necessarily take place. The study of the teacher role and qualities is therefore frequently qualitative. SimmersWolpow (1995) explored the life histories of three great teachers who had also been trauma victims to identify possible ways in which their recovery may inform their pedagogical approaches More specifically, this study looked for the subtle ways in which these professionals' own despair-to hope stories may have positively affected their primary instructional message. 35

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The subject of teacher involvement in science and mathematics curriculum reform was the focus of a 1997 longitudinal study (Esterle). As attention in the reform community continues to focus on math and science literacy for all students, this study included observations of staff activities and events in one such program--the California Academy of Math and Science. became necessary when teacher collaborations were not occurring to refocus the study onto what was actually blocking the modification of instructional practices. is also recognized that the teacher, together with the principal plays a major role in student motivation and achievement (Lucas 1996; Hojacki Grover 1992; Matthews Brown, 1976, 1988) Holt luraschek (1998) observed a teacher delivering an inquiry lesson to an eighth grade mathematics class, noting the engagement of the students, the culture of the classroom, and the practical activity of the teacher. Their conclusions were: a) good teaching cannot be reduced to prescriptions; b) a systems perspective is desirable; and c) significant teacher experience is essential. These fmdings substantiate the artfulness of the teacher's task, and the systemic nature of the outcomes. We have substantial information and still want to learn more about how the teacher becomes "an artisan who transforms students" (pullan, 1991, p. 142). Administrators The difficult nature of the principal's role is also well established; it is a role that has been widely studied. The majority of a principal's time is spent on personal encounters--phone calls, meetings negotiations (Fullan, 1991). Fullan cites Martin (1981) who found that only 17% of a principal s day is spent on instructional matters. 36

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The importance of the principal s role to student learning is implicit. Lucas ( 1996) established connections between the roles of teacher and principal and student achievement. Hunderfund (1992) interviewed students and caregivers in a Long Island, New York community of 13,000 residents to identify common factors that influence the relation between care-giving and care-receiving among supervisors teachers, and students. Results indicated that school leaders played a critical role in the shaping of dominant cultural values within the school settings studied Particularly there was evidence to support the powerful influence of the principal on the nature of the school's caring ethos. The perceptions and strategies of principals for dealing academically deficient students was explored by Wheaton (1994 ) She examined a body of students that is often overlooked--those who are not "special education and students who have no attendance or behavior problems her expansive study Wheaton found that while the principals recognized the needs of these students they had difficulty in providing effective strategies that would help work through their complicated problems Beerman (1996) investigated the effects of programmatic change on principals' roles and responsibilities. Her quantitative evaluation of nine "High Schools That Work" pilot sites in Indiana sought to identify both the programmatic changes and the administrative responsibilities at each school. She identified the tasks of site coordinator initiator facilitator supporter and problem-solver and concluded that when structural change accompanied programmatic change, the role of the principal assumed a different supporting status. 37

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Summary of Stakeholder Research summary, researchers seem to have learned that making one change in a high school situation is accompanied by other, sometimes unanticipated changes elsewhere in the system Changing a curriculum component changes the principal's role (Beerman 1996); increasing the involvement of the parent alters the teacher role and increases student achievement (Gibson 1991). This persuasive reality is articulated by Pullan (1991 ) : "We are not only dealing with a moving and changing target ; we are also playing this (change) out in social settings. Solutions must come through the development of The interface between individual and collective meaning and action in everyday situations is where chfJ1ge stands or falls" (p. 5) Pullan devotes chapters in the book to each of these roles : student, teacher principal building administrator district administrator parent and community and school boards, as they interrelate ; several studies are cited, each of which discusses one or two of the eight roles. Thus while Pullan considers as it is reflected in each of the various sociological roles, the studies he cites, as well as his own approach, only examine one or two roles at a time. The approach adopted by both the current case study as well as this review of the literature is to focus on the interactions with multiple roles whenever possible (Lucas 1996 ; Hojacki 1992 ; Hunderfund 1992; Boyle, 1993). The following common themes with direct relevance to this study are identifiable: The role of the principal was named as instrumental in establishing school culture (Hunderfund, 1992). 38

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The students' self-perceptions (s elf images ) were a powerful influence on their abilities to adapt to instructional improvement strategies (Lucas 1996). Parent involvement had a smoothing and facilitating effect on schoolcommunity relations ( Gibson 1991 ) Student-teacher perceptions, when aligned produced optimal learning results (Boyle 1993 Phelan Davidson Cao 1992). Challenging curriculum was seen as the most engaging kind of classroom activity (Stevenson, 1990 Hojacki Grover, 1992). While several of the studies examined more than one of the roles or perceptions of the stakeholder groups, no study has investigated-:.the interactions of all five selected roles, either in general or in a particular reform event. A case study of how these five roles are related is therefore extremely worthwhile as it will provide important information for future research and reform practitioners. Foundational Works Two Action Researchers Howard Gardner (1991) defines the desired school of the future in terms of stakeholder roles but ignores their interactions. His descriptions provide an image of qualities of each of the stakeholder groups, but do not say how they might interrelate. The school he describes is one in which teachers are well-trained and absorbed in their work, parents support and defend the philosophy of the school, the community is hospitable to students who want to learn and the students themselves are sufficiently motivated and responsible and make the most of opportunities as they are presented In such a school, new roles would serve all participants--roles like "student-39

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curriculum broker "school-community broker," and master teacher" ( pp. 10-11 ) The present study moves to the next step of detailing how a high school program successfully and routinely "brokered" the school and community. The ( CPESS ) Project in New York City ( Meier 1995 ) invol v ed the district administrators parents and teachers in workin g closely with students learning and personal issues. Meier attribute s the pro g ram's success to the following factors : What has allowed this to happen is a combination of imaginative public polic y initiated by a few brave well-situated individuals who made the experiment even possible ; reproducible ways of organizing s chools and of getting teachers students and families to work together ; a smalt.crew of teachers who were ready to take the risks and seize the opportuniu es ; and a group of families either desperate enough or eager enough to give it a:' chance. Our singular success depended on complementary efforts .. ( p 17) The several striking similarities between CEC's and CPESS will be discussed in greater detail in Chapter 4. Image-Based Learning The notion that humans learn by creating adjusting and changing mental models to correspond to information received through their senses is neither new nor radical. The concept of image has appeared in academic writing for centuries Polak (1973 translation ) describes its background and progression as follows: the general theory of image s may be thought of as derived from the Greek eidelon meaning "image." Plato Epicurus and Democritus used the term to refer to knowledge and the learning process. Francis B acon also later made reference to it. The term appears in the writings of German psychologists especially E .R. 40

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Jaensch, who specialized in research on children between the ages of thirteen and fifteen Jaensch related certain types of eidetic endowments to physical constitution and to personality type. On the basis of this he outlined a theory of the development of culture ( p.l2). John Dewey describes thought as having three forms--an automatic unrelated flow; imagination ; and the third which is synonymous with Dewey (1933) describes a belief as a mental picture of something not actually present; thinking is the succession of such pictures" (p 5). During the latter part of this century the influence of mental images on thinking and learning began to appear more frequently in literature (Boulding 1956; Polak 1973 ; Piaget, 1952, 1969 ) Details of Boulding's account are as follows: human beings operate through mental images; messages--verbal visual or experiential--form the images ; images affect behavior which offers clues to the images ; and images can be changed by strategic messages. Messages may be designed which address both the desired and undesired mental models of students. A related body of literature is composed of the cognitive theorists (Vygotsky 193411978; Brooks, J.G. Brooks, M. G., 1993; Dewey 19021191511938) who purport that the learner constructs herlhis own concepts and specific elements of student thinking affect learning success Vygotsky cites German psychologist s Narciss Ach Franz Rimat as he defines stages of concept development. Concepts arise or are "constructed through a goal-directed process composed of several operations that function as means for solution of a basic task" ( p 124). Boulding (1956) and Vygotsky (1978 translation ) both purport that images have individual and social aspects and affect both the individual and hislher culture. 41

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Jean Piaget (1969 ) viewed the human mind as a dynamic set of cogniti ve structures that help us make sense of what we perceive. His premise is that all knowledge ha s to do with structures" which may be either figurati ve" ( perceptions or mental images ) or "operative" ( action or operation ) ( p. 356 ) He further cautions that it is not alway s wi s e to distinguish between the two types of knowledge. He uses Klein's work with transformative geometry a s an example in which both aspect s are mutually indispensable at some le v el. According to Piaget the subject of operational intelligence considers experience to be a progressive restructuring rather than a simple recording of information and deduction to be a coordination of operations, rather than simply an exercise in logic ( p 358). As learners make connections among experiences, messages of theory personal study and creative dialogue such restructuring occurs When several aspects of a situation are consciously identified in the learning process, there is potential for meaningful learning. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics (1989 ) (hereafter referred to as the Curriculum Standards) views students and teachers as partners in a new classroom dynamic of developing ideas and problem solving. The formation of stable concepts or images is enhanced by meaningful learning activities Belenky Clinchy Goldberger and Tarule (1986 ) document preferable approaches to affect Throughout their book, Women's Ways of Knowing, are examples of the importance of the learner understanding herself as a retainer of information and as a sharer of truth The young women participating in their study who consciously tried to make connections were 42

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identified at the fifth level or perspective of knowing, that of "constructed knowledge" ( p. 225). Taylor, Stevens, Peregoy, Bath (1991) discuss Indian learning in a meaningful mode and as connected to cultural and family roots. The culturally relevant mathematical experiences of middle school American Indian students in a summer math program appeared to facilitate their developing positive attitudes toward math (Taylor, 1997 p 169). John Dewey's progressive education movement in the early part of the century examined the and introduced the idea that schools could be student-centered and expansive beyond the building itself with f<{rmal connections to the community (Dewey, 1902, 1933 1938) In his critique of traditional education Dewey (1938) descri b es its greatest failure as its inability to "secure the active cooperation of the pupil in construction of the purposes involved in his studying" (p. 67). Jacqueline Grennon Brooks and Martin Brooks (1993) state that we should concern ourselves with getting thinking and rethinking installed into our high school culture by moving fr o m "imitative behavior" to that which results in students "deep thinking" (p. 16). While most of these authors agree on the intent and general direction of learning activities we are still searching for a comprehensive planning process that delivers such results. The present historical case study provides definitive information on one new approach Research in the cognitive literature has explored mental models (Johnson Laird, 1995; Slotta, 1., 1997). Senge (1990) defines an image as a "mental model" which is a "deeply ingrained assumption, generalization, or even picture or image that 43

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influences how we understand the world or how we take action (p. 8) He further defines this phenomenon : Mental models can be simple generalizations such as "people are untrustworthy," or they can be complex theories, such as my assumption s about why members of my family act as the y do Mental model s are deepl y ingrained assumptions generalizations, or even pictures or ima ges that influence how we understand the world or how we take action Very often we are not consciously aware of how we understand the world or how we take action (p. 175). Recently the role of image in curriculum development has been di sc u ss ed ( Brooks G Brooks M. G. 1993 ; Posner Strike Hewson Gertzog 1982; Slotta, 1997). Slotta's premise is that The general goal of learning or cognitive research has bCep to develop a cognitive theory of instruction which provides a detailed description of learning in terms of a student's initial knowledge and how that knowledge interacts with an instructional message Teachers and curriculum designers must first discern whether a concept is likely to have been ontologicall y misplaced by a student, then proceed with a two-phased approach: first train the student in target ontology which amounts to providing some knowledge of the relevant attributes of concepts of this type ; second, provide instruction which relates the concept to these attributes while completely avoiding any connection with faulty ontology ( p. 1). lohnson-Laird (1994, 1995 ) writes of the connection between mental model s or images and thinking or probabilistic reasoning. They construct mental models, which each correspond to an infinite set of possibilities The important cognitive issue of math reluctant students is directly linked to the subject of image theory. Taylor (1996) comments that "you can never have an experience that is 100 % affective or entirely cognitive for the two are always intertwined While one experience may be primarily cognitive it still has an affective component and inversely, while another experience is primarily affective, it still has a 44

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cognitive component. Furthermore one's actions relate to these cognitions and feelings" (p. 62 ) A related learning theory is that of situated cognition (Lave Wenger 1991). These theorists purport that activities tasks functions and understandings do not exist in isolation; they are part of broader systems of relations in which they have meaning ... To ignore this aspect of learning is to overlook the fact that learning involves the construction of identities" ( p 53 ) In conclusion, all school experiences involve image work on the part of the stakeholders. The task is to clarify and intentionalize the use of images in learning Cognitive theorists agree that the learner forms mental models his or her active experience. These cited authors mention multiple variables in this practice including the student's interest the topic, cooperative approaches, initial knowledge, the degree of entrenchment, and the student's emotions or receptivity Such multiple variables imply that a strategy of image-based learning is not a simple one. However, with much academic attention focused on the cognitive process, and much political and media attention focused on the processes of education and instruction, the role of images learning will continue to be a focus for research attention. The present study contributes to that new knowledge. 45

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CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY This chapter describes the research methods used in thi s case study of the at the Fred N Thoma s Career Education Center (CEC). It describes the study design and procedures the selection criteria used for each stakeholder group the study participants (both in general and individually ) the interview approach and the coding method It describes as well the process of image analysis used to summarize categories of coded comments for stakeholder group. Case Study Analysis A case study approach was chosen to focus on this second-order change program, because it allows the various elements of the context and its situated nature to be included in the documentation. By defInition case studies are "bounded by a particular program, institution time period or set of e v ents. Within the defmed boundaries whatever is the focus of attention is described in perspective of the context surrounding it" ( Krathwohl, 1993 p 347 ) this case elements of the context included each of the fIve stakeholder groups of students participating parents teachers building administrators, and advisors; CEC--the school in which the took place ; the structural design of the program--the daily weekly and semester schedule; the curriculum design, including the problem-solving project; and the planning processes used by the teachers and advisors One stated intent of this study (p 5) is to identify any references made to the project-based 46

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component of the curriculum during the participant interviews. The case study lends itself to such specific linkages. LeCompte Preissle ( 1993) state that "case study analysis is appropriate for intensive, in-depth examination of one or a few aspects of a given phenomenon" (p. 33). This study examines the case of one specific reform episode as it connects to key roles in the general educational reform context. As an historical, descriptive study, data the form of coded interview comments were collected after the-fact. Gathered artifacts represent a nine year time span and were not intended as documentation for causality. All decisions regarding participant selection and study design recognized the historical concerns of complete and multiple sources of evidence (Krathwohl, 1993). This chapter specifically addresses the details of the qualitative research design used in this case study of the high school program (A related study done earlier by this researcher--a quantitative longitudinal study that documented the post-high school engagement patterns of a random sample of the program's student participants--can be found in Appendix E.) Study Design and Procedures The central research question focused on the extent to which the perceptions of the five stakeholder groups--students, their parents, teachers school administrators, and advisors--agree or differ on key aspects of a high school learning experience that embodies second-order change Such an analysis may reveal important patterns to inform our understanding of systemic reform The initial phase of this qualitative research took place during the fall of 1995 with the interviews of the student and parent groups. The interviews of the teachers 47

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school administrators and advisors were held during the summer of 1997. The same interview procedures and interview questions were used with all five groups ; comments were coded using the same procedures across all five groups and then compared. Interview questions were open-ended to encourage the participants to speak freely about their recollections and insights regarding the program The three interview questions were: 1) "As you think back to your (son's or daughter's ) experience with CEC's what stands out for you?" ; 2 ) "What matters most to you? ; and 3) "What would you change?" Three former students three participating parents (one parent of each of the students interviewed) three former teachers two former and two advisors were interviewed. The number of students and parents interviewed was limited to three per group so that the pool of stakeholder groups' comments would be similar in size and to keep the amount of generated data manageable. Table 3 1 Number of Stakeholders Interviewed by Role Students !parents Teachers !Administrators Advisors 3 3 3 2 2 Each person was interviewed individually. Each of the interviews lasted from one to two hours, permitting sufficient time for a wide discussion of the three questions. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcriptions were coded for language that indicated the significant aspects about the program targeted by the study Pseudonyms were used for all participants. 48

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Student and Parent Interviews Selection Criteria and Procedures It was important to the study to interview parents who had been sufficiently involved in the to speak knowledgeably about its educational components. It was also important that the students who were to be interviewed possessed some awareness of the program's structure and intents. The need to combine these two requirements into a student-parent pair necessitated that selection be done by criteria and not by random sample was also important to the study that participants represent the program in its entire duration. That is, it was important that study participants not simply represent one especially successful .. school year or the experience of the most exciting project. Therefore the criterion-based student/parent teams would represent three different program eras--the pilot phase the implementation phase, and the last three years. Two former teachers identified possible student-parent teams to be interviewed using these selection criteria. Three students judged to be aware of the curriculurnJprogram design whose parents were active in school functions were invited to be interviewed. Selection Process The teachers examined the nine years of student registration lists and identified potential parent-student teams. Selection criteria defined below for parents and students were carefully articulated to elicit valid and informative data. Teachers were asked to suggest student and parent teams who, at the time of their participation in the program, were aware of the program intents and components They represented the 49

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entire nine year program time span and included all levels of success. The teachers were cautioned not to simply select "the most involved and enthusiastic parents" or "the most ambitious students." Selection Criteria for Students The following specific values were assigned to the teachers choosing a list of the eligible to be interviewed in order to assure that the basic criteria were met: Experienced project team leadersbip--indicating an understanding of the thematic and teamwork components Demonstrated substantial academic improvement--indicating an alignment with the motivation, incentives, and personalization components of the program Participated for more than one semester--assuring that they would have the option to generalize among more than one set of experiences Provided peer leadersbip--implying that responsibility was taken addition, the selection team was asked to make sure their list was balanced regarding gender and minority representation--providing equity and options for future examination of data along those lines. 50

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Selection Criteria for Parents The following specific criteria were u s ed by the team in the selection of the eligible to be interviewed in student-parent teams : Involved in the program on-site, through the Collaborati ve Decision Making Cornmittee4 ( CDM ), School Improvement Accountability Councils (SIAC) 5 or through other significant volunteer participation--indicating an understanding of the overall program organization and its intents Attended project reporting sessions--indicating an understanding of the interdisciplinary curriculum and its interactive nature Conferenced with teachers on offspring's learning an understanding of the teaching team's operating sty Ie and effectiveness Attended parent orientation sessions--indicating an understanding of both the overall organization and of the teaching team's approach Seemed to care about the future of the student--docurnenting that attention was paid to overall program operations And, as with the student list, the parent list was balanced in gender and minority representation Ten pairs of student-parent names were identified and prioritized against these criteria. They included a team from the first year of the program and one from the last 4 Collaborative Decision-making Committees (CDMs) were established in the Denver Publi c Schools by the governor of Colorado during a labor negotiation in 1991. Composition of the committees is specified and includes parent, teacher administrator and business representation The CDMs have broad polic y-making power and may form subcommittees for tasks such as personnel planning or student discipline. 5 The School Improvement and Accountability Councils (SIACs) were established in Colorado in 1971 by legislative action. Each SIAC reports to the Colorado Department of Education annually regarding goals and accomplishments. Denve r Public S c hools SIACs could optionally be replaced by CDMs in 1991. 5 1

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full year of its operation. The families included students who had self-selected out of the program, returning to their home high schools before graduation. I telephoned and invited fIrst the parent then the student participation in the study ; of the fIrst three parent-student teams contacted accepted the invitation to participate. The criteria for balanced gender and minority representation held. A follow-up letter was sent to confIrm the time and location of each interview Selection of Teacher. Administrator. and Advisor Interviewees The selection of participant s from the teacher and administrator constituencie s was indicative--that is available representati ve s of these were interviewed bar none. Four of the seven other contract teachers who worked with the program for more than one year were still alive and residing in the state of Colorado Three of them agreed to participate ; the fourth had moved and could not be reached in a timely manner. The three represented four of the academic disciplines interacting in the curriculurn--math science, English, and social studies ( One teacher taught two subjects. ) Each of the two administrators who worked with the program during the nine years was interviewed A board of advisors had become active during the last year of the program; two persons from that board--who had worked closest with the program and who were not interviewed as either a former teacher administrator or parent--were interviewed 52

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The Study Participant s Student-Parent Team s Two of the former students were female and one was male. The parent s consisted of two mothers and one father ; they paired as mother-daughter mothers on and father-daughter. Two of the former students were of African-American heritage ; the third student plus all of the interviewed parents were white. Of the black s tudents, one had been adopted b y white parents; the second had a black father who was not interviewed. Pseudonyms were used on all written materials. Teacher s All of the three teachers interviewed were at the apex of their teaching career s when they were with the program. All three were white ; one was male and two were female. Of the total of eight teachers assigned to the program in its nine-year existence ( 1986-1994 ), one was a beginning teacher and the rest were master teachers There were three men and five women. Of the eight one had a doctorate s i x had master 's degrees and one had a bachelor s degree. The project s allocated paraprofessional staff position was used to help balance ethnicity and gender whenever possible; onl y one of the eight teachers was from a member of a minority group }\dministrators The same two school administrators--the school principal and the assistant principal in charge of instruction--supervised the initial design of the and guided its evolution until they left their building positions each for 53

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different reasons, in June of 1994. The principal was female the assistant principal male; both were white Advisors Two Institute of Cultural Affairs (See p. 8) consultants led the image-based instruction-planning process for the during the summer of 1986. That initial and substantial design effort was the only fonnal consultant work with the program until the fonnation of a board of advisors in 1994 (The two consultants and other interested academic acquaintances frequently dropped by the school for visits and in response to invitations to major project events.) The deci?ion to interview two advisors--one of the initial consultants and a university-based member of the advisory board--provided two different perspectives and maintained numerical consistency with the number of participants from the other four stakeholder groups. Interview Approach I personally conducted all the interviews. Interviews of the student-parent teams were all held in the same room, not on the school site and under similar conditions. These interviews began as mini-reunions, since I had not seen most of the students or parents since their graduation celebration which in one case had been nine years earlier! The fIrst few minutes of time, before the official interview process began, was typically spent catching up on news and sharing any exciting future plans. This also allowed the actual interview to remain focused on the three research questions. the case of the parents it was a time to become better acquainted 54

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For the formal interview process each participant was alone in the room with me, without interruption except for one of the students Cloud Parson Because Cloud attended a university in another town transportation logistics mandated that she and her mother be interviewed in consecutive time slots and Vi Parson joined daughter, Cloud, for the latter portion of her interview. The different but informative dialogue which ensued was identified and preserved in the transcription and included in the results Interviews of the teachers, administrators, and advisors took place in their personal office or home with the interviewer traveling to that site. As with the students and parents the three open-ended questions were asketand unlimited time given to each participant to respond Comment Coding Method Interviews were transcribed for coding and analysis of comments. open coding process was used with phrase-by-phrase analysis, generating a large volume of data and unanticipated categories (Stra uss Corbin 1990) Comparing the interview comments across five constituencies produced clear reference categories with identifiable agreements and differences. The students comments fell into the following major groups: a) student in relationship to others; b) program and curriculum design ; and c) student's personal freedom and empowerment. The parents' comments fell into these categories : a) pro-active communication practices, b) rigorous, interactive curriculum experiences and c) student ownership of learning experiences. Major groups of comments were also identified for teachers, administrators, and advisors that correlated with these three basic dimensions: a) 55

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communication between stakeholder groups ; b) program and curriculum design ; and c ) student empowerment. Generalizing these category names across all five stakeholders, determined the framework of: 1) Social 2) Pedagogical, and 3 ) Personal comments These three ba s ic arenas provide a consistent framework and order for all fmdings and discussions in this study I was the primary coder in the analysis of the thirteen participants' comment s A secondary coder was later engaged to determine coding reliability The second coder read and coded one of the three interview questions from a student administrator and advisor interview. A comparison by the primary and secondary coders indicated a 91 % correlation Krathwohl (1993 ) states that where multiple responses are allowed the most common patterns can often usefully be assigned single codes" ( p 388) Within this context, the following two-phase process was used to code the interview comments: Phase I of coding 1 ) Read and underline descriptive phrases of each transcription; 2 ) Re-read the underlined phrases to assure accurac y and relevance, numbering each phrase; 3 ) Assign either a color or a symbol to each numbered item ; 4 ) Group the comments by like colors or symbols For example the symbol <0> may have been assigned to each numbered item that referred to teacher planning time and the symbol <+> to each numbered item mentioning academic rigor etc. 5 ) Establish a set of major categories to subsume all categories from all interviews, and name them A total of 789 comments were fmally identified from the thirteen interviews using this process; there were 82 comments from the transcriptions of student interviews, 74 from those of the parents 285 from teachers 160 from building administrators and 188 from the advisors interviews 56

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T bl 3 2 N b f C d d C a e urn ero o e t b Stak h ld G ommen s e 0 er roups Students !parents Teachers i\drrUnistrators jJ\dvisors 82 285 160 188 soon as possible into this first phase of analysis I established a set of comprehensive categories for each interview transcription These categories consisted of comments that referenced similar program elements phenomena or stakeholder roles. My single interview contained from fifteen to twenty-five different comment categories. Phase II of coding. During the second phase in the coding process I sorted all categories from interviews within any given stakeholder group, determined a resultant set of "core categories" that contained the pooled comments from this group These categories were then named in order to capture their theme or reference. For example, two core categories which emerged from pooled student comments were "Experiencing Personal Choice" and "Being Known." The names at the top of each category or column in the tables are my own; the names of the groups comprising each category generally used vocabulary from participants comments (Strauss Corbin, pp 67-69). }\n example of the second coding phase is as follows: in the coded transcripts of the three teacher interviews, there were twenty, twenty-three, and twenty-eight different comment categories identified, respectively. During the second phase of the coding process, I sorted this total of seventy-one categories into a final set of thirteen core categories--categories which contained the 285 separate, numbered comments made by the three teachers during their interviews. By examining these thirteen categories and those of the student interviews I determined the major program 57

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framework described earlier. The core categories of teachers as well as students were clearly related to one of the three major framework dimensions : Social ( interactions between stakeholder groups ), Pedagogical (relating to curriculum and program design), and Personal (relating to student empowerment). Tables A table format organizes the data from the coded comments. Tables 4.1-4.5 hold 789 interview comments identified and coded from the transcripts of the thirteen interviews with one table devoted to a stakeholder group. In each table, the numerals to the left of each phrase are the number of comments .Q.f a similar nature. The columns of comments are arranged in order by size from top to bottom. Each of the five tables features a "holding image" (or images) for each column. These images represent my interpretation of the foundational images of each stakeholder group, based on their comments and provide an interesting way to summarize the data Table 4.6 is a "master table" of comments regrouping the 789 total comments and designating them as made "by" a participant from one of the stakeholder groups, and "about" another of the stakeholder groups; comments may also have been made about" curriculum, the program, or school in general. These data also clustered into the Social, Pedagogical and Personal categories that guided the naming of the columns in Tables 4 1-4.5. Image Analysis Method A method of analyzing images was used in planning the I also used it in two different parts of this study to summarize fmdings--in the 58

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identification of a common image thought to be behind stakeholder comments (or messages) in particular columns of Tables 4.1-4 5 and to identify the possible image or images a stakeholder group held about itself and the others in table 4.7. The images so identified in this study are found both at the base of each of the five stakeholder comment tables(4.1-4.5) and in Table 4.7. The "messages" or data are found in the top portion of each column and the identified image or images are directly beneath in that same column or category The process of identifying a possible image or mental model is to fir s t identify common key assumptions (Senge, 1990 p. 186); in this study I used the coded comments from interviews as my information source for assumptions I used the following three steps to identify common images: 1 ) Examine the coded comments, and hypothesize a possible image; 2) Re-read the comments testing the hypothetical image; 3) Make adjustments in language restating the possible image more succinctly. For example in table 4.1, examining the phrases used to describe groups of coded student interview comments in the category of "Program and Curriculum Design" the words "interactive "participative "field trips and "spontaneity" suggest that the students interviewed held an image of the curriculum as Re-reading the comments in that category includes examining the other four groups (those above named represent only 20 of the 29 original coded comments in the category) to assure that there are no contradictory comments. Since the other groups in this example mainly detail other aspects of the program curriculum like mastery outcomes and teacher and administrator style the image of curriculum as still holds. 59

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Analyzing comments for possible common assumptions or images is similar to the processes of dialoguing with the data that occur in the discussion of findings in an academic study. When examining tables 4 1-4 5 to identify the images I posed the mental question "What image or images does this category of comments suggest? Similarly Table 4.7 holds images in response to the mental question "What images do (the teachers) comments suggest they hold about ( the students )?" There are three reasons why the process of image analysis offers advantages in the summative phase of research: a) Mental models or images are a powerful tool in human communication (Senge 1990 p. 175 ; b ) By examining a shared and crucial mental model, next steps are clarified; and c ) An identified can promote dialogue, either because an agreed-upon image provides a single foundational position or because two people may not "see" the same thing in the same way. the latter instance the image is discarded or a consensed-upon modification follows. The image-analysis process is clearly subjective and collaborative in nature and the reader should so interpret that portion of the data tables. Summary Data from tables 4.1-4.6 were compared and agreements and differences between stakeholder groups noted Themes in the coded responses were identified It may be argued that the number of former students and parents interviewed represented too small a sample for valid conclusions. A follow-up, quantitative survey of a larger group from this constituency would provide comparison and validation data of the coded comments 60

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The image analysis in Table 4 7 presents an additional summary of findings using the process described above and with the acknowledged weakness. All background data for both this and the earlier quantitative study have been archived and are available for examination by anyone interested in pursuing further work. Related documents are available in appendixes A -61

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CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION What makes curriculum reform succeed in some cases and fail in other s? This case study was conducted to gain insight into that broad question. The intent of thi s study was to provide a thorough characterization of the including the stakeholder s perceptions of both their own role and the roles of others of the curriculum (including the project component ) and of the image-based processes that were involved in the reform episode It examined the actions relationships and ideas of the students participating parents teachers building administrators and advisors--with an emphasis on the agreements and differences found among the perceptions of the various stakeholder groups that characterized them (p. 5). This chapter synthesizes the fIndings from coded interview data The roles and curriculum fIndings will be discussed separately as will the agreements and differences. The chapter features a description of each participant the coded interview comments in table format, devoting one table to each of the fIve stakeholder groups (Tables 4.1 4.5). analysis of each table of data and comparison of results among the fIve tables (Table 4.6 ) is provided for each of the aspects of roles and curriculum 62

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Participants and Their Comments The Student-Parent Teams Teresa's memories of the program were already a decade old at the time of her interview. She attended the academic program for two semesters during its fIrst pilot year in 1986-87. Teresa stands out in my memory as a very talented young woman, but with a high level of resistance to mathematics. Her resistance to school provided early on an appropriate challenge for both the image based instruction and motivational techniques featured in the Teresa recently completed her student teaching at the Denver Schools Montessori School. Teresa's father Both of Teresa's parents were very interested in her progress, visiting the school regularly Teresa's resistance to instruction at her regular high school had caused concern, and they had actively searched for a different environment for her high school work, fInally choosing the at CEC. Rob is a self-employed educational consultant with a background in English language and ESL. His work includes international consultancies. My personal memories of Cloud include her fIrst application interview. She arrived wearing her career class auto mechanic overalls, which were covered with grease. Her demeanor was slightly hostile. At that time she had just returned to high school, having dropped out and run away from home her freshman year. Cloud had been educated primarily in private schools; a brief conversation 63

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revealed her high intelligence as well as high levels of mistrust and hostility. She attended the for four consecutive semesters entering as a second semester sophomore, and in the winter of 1992, during her senior year, leaving to attend classes at the community college. This was necessary because college admission language and science course requirements were unavailable at CEe. At this writing she is a recent graduate from the University of Colorado at Boulder with a degree in chemical engineering. -Vi was one of the program s most supportive parents. When Cloud was a senior Vi began a two-year period of service as chairperson of CEC's SIAC ( School Improvement and Accountability Council) representing the scho?,l at the state level. Professionally Vi is the controller for a local corporation and still mentors CEC career class students as interns at her company. e. -e. had the most recent experience with the program. He attended the for four consecutive semesters, receiving his diploma in 1994. As a student, he provided substantial and consistent leadership to the program. During his senior year he represented the school in world issues seminars in state level competitions He is currently working as a printer at a local company. -Jennifer was an interested parent, frequently attending open houses and special events. The Jeffreys family had two sons participating in the programone who had experienced success and Bobbie the elder son who had been dropped for failing to meet attendance requirements his fIrst semester. W.e. began the following year and completed high school from CEe. Jennifer has consequently had 64

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two very different parental experiences with the program. She is the executive director of a local agency and operates her own business. Table 4 .1: Student Comments Eighty-two comments were gleaned from the three student interview transcriptions ( Table 4 1). Comments fell into three column-title categories: Student in Relation to Others (Social 29 comments ), Program and Curriculum Design ( Pedagogical, 29 comments ), and Student's Personal Freedom and Empowerment (Personal 24 comments). The Pedagogical comments were gi v en the distinction of the center column ; there were eight different kinds of comments in this arena and they differ in nature from the other two more subjective arenas that frame them. The students' comments about the curriculum and program design reveal an image of curriculum and learning as The right column of the table reveals the clear theme of freedom found in the student comments balanced by accountability and responsibility in the column to the left. The students comments in the right column reveal an image of the self a s comments in the left column regarding the self in relation to others suggest an image of the school environment as {than their previous schools} 65

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Table Slotta 1 998 Important CEC Ac ademic Program Components Identified b y Former Students Student in Relations ir Program and Curriculullt Personal Freedom alld to Others Design Empowerment 18 .:om forrable -int eractive s e min ars -choices in srud;.-' topics cOlm nlUllcating I vid l odl ers 6 participa tive pro cess 5 Fridays off felt safer-no fights 4 field trips and wo r k 'days 4 per sona l f r eedom 3 felt cared for a n d about 3 active style of admimsrrato r s 3 gained conf i dence 2 di\ 'erse learning styles 3 s p ontaneity of a c tivities 3 leadership experience honored 2 l o nger cla s s peri ods 2 peer rutoring experien c e fl.vo-way (srudem-teacher) 2 m aste r y of o ut co m es discussions ') student-orie nt ed teachers TIlese srudent comments suggest me following set of common, dormnant i m ages, .-1 cu self sc /aool environment N um bers llldicate dle frequency of me respo n se whIch tollows. The coded comments were grouped into categories and named ; the largest categories--those with the most coded comments compiling them-in all thre e columns in the student comment table were: ( 7 ) (7) and The remaining fourteen groups represent fewer comment s and are mentioned in the student protocol either ( 4) ( 3 ), or ( 2 ) times. Typical of the kind of student comments represented i n the center column Program and Curriculum Design," is the following one b y Cloud : It wasn t just the teacher talking in class. It was ideas ... we would break up into groups and work on different things. It's that process. I wanted ... to participate People were interested in what I had to say and I was interested in what other people had to say and there was an actual outcome to me participating--I reall y liked tha t a 10L .. M y favorite classes in college ar e when I have that sort of thin g. 6 6

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The left and right columns of Tabl e 4 1 have to do with the effects of the program on the students--as the student relates to others in the program and as the student relates to himlherself. There were eighteen such comments categorized as in the column of social comments--the highest number in a category This comment by W.e. is representative of the left, or Social column: "I'm grateful for having leamed all the {discussion} methods I can hold conversations with my friends at work that are from other countries discu ss their politics as opposed to just mine." Further on he states "We had every race and person you could want and we all got along That was the weird thing ... I never saw a fight." Michael Fullan has written extensively about the roles of the constituencies in second-order educational change and continues to monitor this topic in the research literature. His insights on both the roles of the stakeholders and the nature of second order change have been used to align the interview comments in this study A 1978 longitudinal study (Eastabrook Fullan 1978 ) on the role of students in forty Ontario classrooms identified lack of communication among students as one of four specific issues. that study the students interviewed reported that in their traditional school "there was virtually no communication inside or outside class with (i.e., outside one's own small friendship group)" (p. 173). Results from student interview comments in this present study indicate that lack of extensive communication was not an issue in the 67

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Table 4.2: Participating Parent Comments There were 74 different parent comments identified in the coding process (Table 4.2). Their comments clustered into three categories for column titles: Rigorous Interactive Curriculum Experience (Pedagogy 34 CommentsL Pro-active Communication Practices (Social 16 Comments); and Student Ownership of Learning Experience (Personal, 24 Comments). Again the Pedagogical column takes the center position, with 34 comments in eight different categories. Proactive Communication Practices was the largest comment group, with ten comments ; Interactive Curriculum was next in size with eight comments. The aspects mentioned most frequently were: (8), (6), (5), An analysis of the parents' coded comments indicates an image of the curriculum as Their comments also revealed an image of the parent as and an image of the student as 68

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Table 4 2 Slotta 1998 Important CEC Academic Program Components Identified by Parents of Former Students Proactive HJgorous,Interactive Student Ownership of Learning Communication Curriculum Experience Practices Experiences 10 effective 8 interactive cuniculum 5 parents and students trusted teachers communication/i nput 6 experiential classes 4 freedom to speak and make decisions between home and 5 mastery of competencies 3 self-sufficiency encouraged ; career school 4 focus on processes and goaI-oriented 4 teachers worked and 4 inspired love of learning 3 smaller classes communicated as a 3 o ff -<:ampus trips and 3 s tudents known by all staff team competitions 2 s tudents had sa y in course and topic 2 finn and carin g 2 problem-solving and choices including college prep needs administrati ve renective activities 2 positive environment involvement 2 opportunities to do 2 s tudents motivated by positive s omething for someone else incentives These parent comments suggest the following set of common dominant images an image of the parent an image of the an image of the students as as curriculumIJearning as Numbers indicate the frequency of the response which follow s Some parent comments reference the teachers directly-comments like "teachers worked and communicated as a team" and "parents and students trusted teachers". Jennifer Boll W.C.'s mother, describes communication practices : No one worried about calling us when it was time to call us and let us know what was happening. I am so appreciative of that whole feeling that came out of CEC and I think looking back, as far as high school goes that is what I absolutely appreciate the most .. {As parents} we give our children to teachers for 6-8 hours a day and my feeling is that we have to trust, we have to know enough, stay closely involved enough with the teachers to know that the discipline is going to be appropriate and then let them do it. We can t get in the way. we get in the way, we send bad messages. 69

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Fullan (1991) begins his discussion on the role of parents by affirming that research indicates with "remarkable consistency that He continues that certain forms of involvement seem to have good results while others can be "wasteful or counterproductive" (p. 227 ) Instructionallyrelated involvement, in which parents found their way into the classrooms as aides visitors or volunteers is related to academic success In Fullan s study the most effective schools involved parents in the academic function of the classroom in a systematic way Interview comments confmn that the parents in this study appreciated proactive communication with the school (16 comments} had clear memories about the pedagogy (34 comments), and appreciated the ownership their student had of the program (24 comments ) The center column of Table 4.2, "Pedagogical" points to the parents perspective of learning activities as "rigorous and interactive Representative of the comments coded into this column is this story from the home front shared by Vi Parish. It is a story that complements her daughter's story: We would get current events conversations going She wouldn't come and say, "We were talking about this at school." But we would be watching the news and she would pitch in with a discussion about what she knew about that or how .. what was interesting was what she about it. I think that one of the values of the school was that the y concentrated a lot on processmaybe more than on end-product--so you could see the churning information. There are more similarities than differences in a comparison of parent and student data. Both Tables 4.1 and 4.2 are anchored by a curriculum (Pedagogical) column in the center; both have an individual growth theme in the Personal column and a self-in-relation-to-others theme in the Social column. 70

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Comparisons of these two stakeholder groups may be further facilitated by converting the number of comments represented by the six column titles of Tables 4.1 and 4.2 to percentages. Apparent commonalities in the column titles between the two tables suggest the following interesting analysis. Program and Curriculum Design comments made up of the total student comments and of the parents comments dealt with Rigorous Interactive Curriculum Experiences. Student Personal Freedom and Empowerment contained of the comments in their table. Similarly, parents affIrmed Student Ownership of the Learning Experience.,. with of their comments on that subject. Both tables feature a relational title on the left. The student table features a Student-In-Relationship-To-Others at 35%, and the parent table had Pro-Active Communication Practices at The Teachers English teacher came to the CEC the same year as this researcher, attracted by the challenge of creating a new approach. Durin g her outstanding public school teaching career she had served as an English department chairperson at one of Den ver's ten traditional high schools; she had also worked with the district's Shakespeare Festival. Lisa is the mother of two grown children. She saw this CEC assignment as an appropriate professional service before retirement. Upon her retirement, Lisa joined the advisory board. social studies teacher, came to the in its third year, his fIrst assignment back in the classroom after serving six years as president of the Colorado Education Association. His passion for American History provided a 7 1

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significant contribution to the project each semester. Zachary is the father of two grown children and three young children; the younger ones were all born during his years at CEC. He served on the school's CDM (Collaborative Decision Making Committee) After the at CEC closed down he returned to a traditional high school, where he is currently teaching advanced placement American History. math and science teacher came to the at CEC from a physical science position at a neighboring traditional high school. She held a master's degree in astronomy from the University of California at Berkeley which helped her provide many interesting and different project applications for the students. At CEC she also regularly taught an applied physics course called Principles of Technology, and Applied Mathematics Table 4.3: Teacher Comments The teacher interview transcriptions produced the greatest number of coded comments (Table 4.3). Two hundred eighty-five comments were identified and coded The three column titles in the teacher table are: Roles Qualities Identified for Various Constituencies (Social, 94 Comments); Program Components Identified and Described (Pedagogical 154 Comments); and Individualized Student Emphasis (Personal 37 Comments). The center column". Program Components Identified and Described, had the greatest number of comments, shared the greatest number of comment categories (ten) with the Social columns, and featured the category (Expansive, Collaborative Learning Projects) holding the most comments. 72

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Table 4 3 Slotta 1998 Important CEC Academic Program Components Identified by Former Teachers Roles Qualities Identified for Constituencies 23 teachers knew and advocated for students; counseled needy students 7 learning community of students. teachers. administrators advisors 2 administrators let teachers do it; teachers pushed district limits 9 parents grateful and supportive in most cases 9 teaching team effectively functioned amidst diverse perspectives and discipline s 7 srudent achievcmcnt praised and celebrated 6 student helped school: students returned frequently 6 teachers. inspired by students. loved the experience 3 teachers wonced hard : also raised money advisors protected against political assault Components Identified BDd Described expansive. c ollaborative leaming projects included interesting. thematic topic s unique. college-like program design 18 community connections through projects included global and realistic contexts student care and comfort for s peci al needs school-wide relationships through organization and narrati v e required attent i on teachers cxpcrienced enough t i me for planning and student staffing 11 activc alternative leaming experiences matter: field trips outdoor education. hands-on dassroom eventful and fun leaming activities 9 intcgration of career intercst academic skill s 7 teachers part ici pated in choice of team composition. affecting role and effecti ve work lndividualized Student Emphasis teachers pushed for each s tudent'S success 9 students known b y teachers 8 s rudent uniq ucne sses honored and s trrn gths .. playcd to" 5 stude nts g ivcn room to g.row and realizc potcntial -------_._-_-_._-_. -_ __ ----_ ._-------_. These teacher comments suggest the following se t of common. dominant advisors as teachers as administrators as parents as students as an imagc of thc program as an which was an image of the program as to be a Numbers indicate the f requency of the response which follows 73 :10 Imagc of these students, acknowledged by the "ystem as nccdv

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analysis of the comments in that column suggests that the teachers image of the program was two-fold: 1) that of an and 2) that it was An analysis of the teacher comments in the left column". Roles and Qualities of Various Constituencies, produced these four basic images: an image of the advisors an image of the teachers as an image of the administrators and an image of the students as Teacher comments in the right column, Individualized Student Emphasis, indicate that they saw the students as and as The teachers, like the parents, noted repeatedly that the students were known by the staff. They referenced the fun and spirit built into the program with comments like, "student achievement praised and celebrated," and "eventful and fun learning activities." Cassidy Weber, science teacher, articulated these several important features: The ability to do a lot of different things and not be constrained; to do whatever curriculum we really liked in most cases was the big point; field trips were fun, we did a lot of unique things ; integrated learning; interdisciplinary (curriculum); .. we could interact with the whole school, so had whole school projects, is a point. I haven't seen anything like for a long time .... Lisa Caron, English teacher, made comments that complement Cassidy's and point to expanding the students' contexts or perspectives: I think it (the Academic Program) was opening a lot of doors that hadn't been [opened] before--[things like the] Shakespearean movies, [and] all the outdoor programs we did were wonderful because a lot of these individuals had never been to the mountains and had never been outdoors very much and in a 74

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situation like that they bonded with each other.. .. They came from broken homes and broken families; they hadn't had any sense of belonging or identity before and suddenly they did ... We did get them to be concerned about some things They were concerned about the consumption of water after we took them all on the water board outings ; we did {the project on} population growth and they suddenly became aware of overpopulation. They became advocates for the different [semester] issues we had talked about; --this wasn't part of their world before the program Zachary Heston, social studies teacher also referenced "the projects" several times, saying, "I think the projects we did brought some focus to the program for everybody at the same time." However the following comment from this highly recognized master teacher is most notable: What stands out for me was the fun I had teaching; .it remains for me the highlight of my teaching career. Because I changed. I became a different teacher than I had been previously. I think maybe those methods were in me all the time but just never had a chance to corne out.. .. I really liked myself as a teacher; I felt that I had done some of my best teaching {there}. Cassidy summarized teacher affects in this way: We evolved continuously--we were never the same. You don't want to get into a pattern where you can t change; we had the ability to flow and evolve. We could change the time around; we could change what we're going to do around; we could take the whole group someplace. We could choose our teachers {who joined the team} .... The projects were a lot of fun ... it pushed those kids in a frantic kind of way into new levels of what they could do--in [mding out who they were and how to work in teams I think teamwork was very important there. One of Fullan's (1991) key [mdings on the role and function of teachers in the change process concerned such teacher interaction around innovations: Teacher isolation and its opposite--collegiality--provide the best starting point for considering what works for the teacher. There is a positive, and a dark side. Commonality of values and beliefs as well as a monitoring for increases in imagination are signs of teachers making change happen (p. 135) The more teachers can interact concerning their own practices, the more they will be able to bring about improvements that they themselves identify as necessary (p. 132 ) 75

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Pullan cites Cuban (1988 ) in defining these teacher qualities as they interact with students--the teacher as technical actor vs. moral actor. "The technical or bureaucratic image conceives of teachers as giving knowledge and following and applying rules. The moral actor as artisan and craftsperson sees teaching a s transforming students" ( p. 142). In this study, the coded comments of both the teachers and the administrator s clearly reflect this latter understanding The Administrator s was the principal of the Career Education Center the year the was initiated and until one year before it ended. Her background as a teacher in business education gave her the perspective and skills needed to secure outside resources and manage this large magnet school. At the time of the interview she was an assistant to the superintendent of schools working at the district office a position she still holds at this writing was an assistant principal at CEC and the supervisor of the until one year before it ended His vision for an innovative integrated curriculum--both among the disciplines in the and between the academic and career classes---was one of the primary motivators for starting the program. He came to CEC from a traditional high school the same year as Ann and retired the year she received a promotion to the district office. He was the last person to be interviewed having been out of the country for an extended period of time. 76

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Table 4.4 : Administrator Comments From the administrators' interview transcripts (Table 4.4), 160 comments were identified. The coded comments were sorted into three column titles: (a} Role s and Qualities Demonstrated by the Constituencies ; (b ) Evolving Pioneering Curriculum Plan ; and (c) Classroom Environment. A large number of comments by this constituency fall into the Social category descriptive of the roles and qualities and found in the left column position (73 comments). Forty-seven comments were concerned with Pedagogical themes and forty with Personalin this case including the classroom. The administrators credited the dedication and talent of the teacher s with much of the program's success Their comments indicated that they as administrators perceived themselves to be supportive of the teachers, providing them with direction and leadership The administrators also noted the invol v ement of the students at all levels from planning to program ownership. 77

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Table 4.4 Slotta 1998 Important CEC Aca demic Program Components Identified by Former Administrators Roles Qualities Demonstrated by the Constituencies 14 multi talented teacher s did the program design 9 st udents affected po sitively by personal s uccess 8 s tudent freedom/ownership of program 8 dedicated, driven teacher s 7 re spected a dmini s trator s demonstrated v i si on and ability 7 intentional admini s trative leadership 6 teacher s s upported by administrators 6 sch ool-wide faculty s upport 6 s tudent s demon s trated re s ponsibilit y 2 parental commitment Evolving, Pioneering Curriculum Plan 14 innovative curriculum design 7 s tudents i nvolved in planning 6 sc hoolwide perfonnance based curriculum 6 collaborative project as program cen t e rpie c e 6 career and academic class integration 5 up-front. academic rigor 3 activities integr a ted s tudents' live s c ommunit y and academic s The ResultsClassroom Environment 12 s chool-wide momentum affected program 9 s tudent s demon strated academic mastery 7 non -academic skills celebrated and made significant 7 healthy dependenc y 5 s tudent involvement at multiple levels These admini s trator s' c omment s s uggest the following set o f common dominant images : An image of the teachers as An image of the students as An image of the curriculum as Numbers indicate the frequency of the response which follows An image of the classrooms as Administrators comments revealed (a) their image of the teachers as and (b) an image of the students the Pedagogy arena, administrators' comments pointed to ( a ) an image of curriculum as innovative mastery-based, and collaborative, and (b) an image of classrooms as rigorous and engaging 78

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Ann Stevenson principal of the s chool during the academic program 's design and implementation details her perspecti v e of successful components: I think you have got to have a dedicated caring staff who are multi-talented ; you've got to have st aff who are not married to a traditional style of teaching ; I think that is very, very critical ; you've got to have staff who are not only not married to it but they have to be fairly innovative. They've got to be the kind of staff who can see two or three or four or five different ways of attacking the problem. I think this is real critical you remember when we started out the only direction I gave the staff was "I don't really care how you do it, just make it different." Tom Withos, the assistant principal who supervised the program for eight years alludes to this passion for change and for being willing to risk in order not to repeat what doesn 't work. He recalls There were a lot of times when I thought we were standing out there on a limb all by ourselves--that if we didn t move very cautiousl y it would collapse. Fullan (1991) is very direct regarding the primacy of the principal's role in effecting second-order change. "Serious reform is changing the culture and structure of the schooL .. It should be self-evident that the principal as head of the organization i s crucial" (p. 169). He also has this comment about principals as successful change agents : ... they all figured out ways of reducing the amount of time spent on administrative matters. The y made sure that change had equal priority" ( p. 168 ) Further on, he states that "effective principals talked with teachers .. planning with them helping them get together being knowledgeable about what was happening." These comments describe the teacher-principal relationships in the A comparison of the comments in the present study of the two on-site professional constituencies the teachers and the building administrators is in order 79

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and is facilitated by the use again of percentages for the six columns in Tables 4.3 and 4.4 The category of Program Components was represented by 54% of the teachers comments--their highest number, while 29% of the administrators' comments dealt with this Pedagogical arena--an Evolving Pioneering Curriculum Plan The Social column regarding the role and qualities of the various constituencies, contained 33% of the teachers comments The greatest number of administrators' comments 46%, was in this Social column, titled Roles and Qualities Demonstrated by the Constituencies. The least number of comments by both of these professional groups was in the Personal arena with 13% of the teachers' comments referencing Individualized Student Emphasis and of the administrators mentioning The Classroom Environment. A comparison of these percentages with those of the student-parent tables suggests that there is less alignment between the teacher administrator perceptions than between those of the students and their parents The Advisors was one of the two Institute of Cultural Affairs consultants who worked with this researcher during the summer of 1986 to design a cuniculum and time rhythm for the fIrst full year of the He coined the term "Project Approach" to defme and describe the way in which cuniculurn units or modules would integrate into an overall theme David was one of the fIrst professionals to be interviewed as he was departing for several months of work with agencies and educators in the republics of Bosnia and Herzegovina where he still is serving at the time of this writing It is of particular interest and relevance that this Project Approach has been used successfully by one of the former members of the 80

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advisory board to involve high school-aged Bosnian young people in the restoration of their communities. is an internationally recognized mathematics educator who is an associate professor at the University of Colorado at Denver. Her interest in the focused on the problem-solving nature of the projects and the complex math inquiries that they inspired. She was a member of the advisory board and attended several project reporting sessions. Table 4.5: Advisor Comments From the transcripts of the advisor interviews (Table 4 5), 188 comments were identified. The Pedagogy column in this data set is titled Well-defmed Intentional Curriculum Design (95 comments). To its right is Effective, Focused and Productive Teachers and Students (Personal, 53 comments); to its left, Roles, Qualities and Interactions of Parents, Administrators and Advisors (Social 40 comments). The advisors' comments indicated a keen awareness of the way the roles were played out in the evidenced by the fact that this table features two of the three columns dealing with the topic of "roles The advisors perhaps because of this constituency s unique outside position and inclination to compare among similar programs in other schools and districts commented more frequently on the levels of intense engagement on the parts of students, parents and teachers The image analysis of the advisors' comments identified six images. In the Pedagogical arena, the category with the largest number of coded comments, the advisors hold two images of curriculum: 1) 8 1

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and 2) Table 4.5 Siotta 1998 Important CEC Academic Program Components Identified b y Former Advisors Roles Qualities Interactions of Parents, Administrators & Advisors 12 a dvisor s were active. visited site adviso r s learned from and replicated program 9 ad mini stra t ors watched for and g uard ed s u ccessful educational program s there is a need to documenc this learning approach 3 parents a tt ended s tudent presentations as learncrs 2 admini s tr ators were responsive to sys tem fail ure s Well-defined, Intentional Curriculum Design 35 di s tinct. well-understood curric ulum de sig n 20 ove rall. results-oriented c urriculum design with se m es ter rhythm s chedule 17 multiple & c r eative u ses of s pace IS community orientation encouraged real -w orld. connected learning image-based instructional strategies 2 c reat ive us e of instructional environment 2 sc hool-wide s upport of program Effective, Focused Productive Teachers & Students 15 highly product ive. engaged s tudent s personally di ve r se. invested collaborative teachers 11 s tud e nts regularly demonstrated pride in learning a ccompli s hments 9 s tudents involved as researchers and presenters 5 motivated teachers worked to i n volve parents advisors in the c urriculum proce ss These a d visors comme nt s s uggest the following set of com mon dominant images: An image of the advisors as An image of th e administrators as An image of the curriculum as A n image of the curriculum as Numbers i ndicate the f requ ency of the response which foll ows An image of the students as An image of the teachers as The next lar g est catego ry of comments advisors was Personal and revealed an image of the students as and an image of the teachers as A group of advisors' comments placed in the Social column are titled Roles Qualities and Interactions of Parents Administrators and Advisors. The comments in this column identify an image of 82

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advisors as and an image of administrators as Rae Tennyson, mathematics educator from the University of Colorado at Denver and member of the advisory board readily shared her significant memories: I think the students' attitudes and the educational process--that they were really learning how to do research and how to present--you saw how things fit together And the enthusiasm of the kids! And the pride of the kids! What they accomplished in their presentations was very noticeable .... It was very interesting to talk to them You could see their confidence. Some of them were shyer than others, but they really felt good about having something to offer and to say to the adults who were floating around to interview them at their project presentation tables. David Bums, one of the two consultants who first worked with me in 1986 to conceptualize the program, described the work he observed on the part of the teachers: You were working on planting some new images that they (the students) were able to make initiatives to learn that what they were going to be learning was going to be very interesting and useful and extremely pertinent. I saw it took huge amounts of energy for you to do that--to invest in that image change work. But I saw the kids enthusiastic ... and engaged in learning. David summarized what he believes were the keys to the program's success: "1) team teaching; 2) team learning; 3) participatory process; 4) in the community ; 5 ) demonstrated products; and 6) celebration. Fullan predicts that as "norms of collaboration and continuous improvement become embedded in more schools seeking assistance to solve complex problems will be perceived as a source of strength and wisdom rather than as a sign of weakness" (p. 226). advisors' comments indicate that they were more deeply involved in complex problems of curriculum than were the advisors described by Fullan (The New Meaning of Educational Change, chapter 11) He 83

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describes the operative consultant dilemma as one of scope vs. intensity, driven by limited time and energy. The interview comments of the two CEC advisors reveal focused energy that seemed to be derived from the progress of the program itself. Table 4.6: Discussion Table 4.6 is organized to facilitate comparisons of participant comments across the five stakeholder groups. The data is the same as that in Tables 4.1-4.5, but merges all of the coded interview comments into one matrix; it is an entirely different of the data. Table 4.6: Master Comments Table Table 4 6 organizes the numbered interview comments that were made by a person in one of the stakeholder roles about another role or program component. Of the 789 total comments 388 were descriptive of one of the roles or constituencies while 401 referenced the school, program or curriculum. This latter group I called comments about." Of the comments that were descriptive of, or the constituencies, the greatest number referenced the students ( 172). The next largest, from highest to lowest, discussed the teachers (128), the building administrators (41), the advisors (28) and the parents (19). A coded comment made by one of the stakeholders I termed "comment by" and may be found in the horizontal boxes across from that title. The matrix design of Table 4.6 matches the horizontal column labels ("comments about") with the vertical listing of the stakeholder groups ("comments by") top to bottom. For example, to learn what was commented by students about the 84

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student constituency locate the word "student" in both the horizontal column and the vertical list. 85

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Table 4.6 Interview Comments Descriptive of Five Constituency Groups, Siotta 1998 Curriculum, and Program Students Participating Teachers Building Advisors Curriculum Program! Parents Administrators School 18 comfort 2 two-way 3 administrative 7 interactive 7 choices in Students communicating student-teacher style seminars study topic with others discussion 6 participative 5 Fridays off 4 personal 2 unique process 4 fell safer-no freedom teacher qualities 4 field trips fight 3 fell cared for and work day 3 leadership and about 3 spontaneity experience 3 gained confi-of activities 2 longer class dence 2 honoring of periods diverse learning 2 peer tutoring styles experience 2 mastery of outcomes 4 freedom to 5 parents and JO effective 2 firm and 8 interactive 4 focus on Participating speak and students trusted communicationl caring curriculum proccss Parents make teachers input betwecn administrative 6 experiential 3 off-campus decisions home and involvement classes trips and 3 selfschool 5 mastery of competitions sufficiency 4 teachers competencies 3 smaller encouraged; worked and 4 inspired love classes career and communicated of learning 2 positive goal-oriented as a team 2 problemenvironment 3 students solving and 2 opportunities known by all reflective to do staff activities something for 2 students someone else motivated by positive incentives 2 students had a say in course and study topics. including college prep needs 16 student care 9 parents 23 teachers 2 advisors 28 expansive. 25 unique. Teachers and comfort for grateful and knew and administrators protected collahorati ve college-I i ke special needs supportive in advocated let teachers do against learning program design 9 students most cases for students it district assault projects 15 school wide known by 15 teachers included relationships teachers pushed for each interesting. thethrough 8 student student's matic topic organization uniquenesses success 18 community and narrative honored and 9 teaching connections required strengths team through attention "played to" effectively projects 15 teachers 6 student functioned included global experienced amidst diverse and realistic enough time helped school; perspectives context for planning students and disciplines 17 learning and student returned 7 teachers parcommunity of staffing frequently ticipated in students. 7 student 5 students choice of team teachers. achievement given room to composition administrators praised and grow and affecting role and advisors celebratcd realize potential models and II active. effective work alternative 6 teachers. learning inspired by -experiences students, loved mattered: field the experience trips. outdoor 3 teachers education. worked hard; hands on also raised classroom money JO eventful teachers and fun pushed district learning limits activities 9 integration of career interest and academic skills Numbers indicate the frequency of the response which follows. Table 4 6 continues on the followtng page.

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Table 4.6 Interview Comments Descriptive of Five Constituency Groups, Slotta 1998 (Contin ) Curriculum, and Program '::.. Students Pa rticipating Teachers Building Advisors Curriculum Programl Parents Administrators School 9 students 2 parental 14 multitalented 7 intentional 14 innovative 12 schoolBuilding affected commitment teachers did the administrative curriculum wide Administrators positively program design leadership design momentum by personal 8 dedicated, 7 respected 6 school-wide, affects success "driven" administrators performanceprogram 9 students teachers demonstrated based 7 nonacademic demonstrated 6 teachers vision and curriculum skills academic supported by ability 6 collaborative celebrated and mastery administrators project as made 8 student program centersignificant freedom and piece 6 school-wide ownership of 6 career and faculty support program academic class 7 healthy integration dependency 5 up front, 7 students academic rigor involved in 3 activities planning integrated 6 students students' demonstrated lives, responsibility community and 5 student academics involvement at multiple levels 15 highly 3 parents 13 personally 9 12 advisors 35 distinct, 20 overall, Advisors productive, attended diverse administrators active/visited well-understood results-oriented engaged student invested and watched for site curriculum curriculum students presentations collaborative and guarded 10 ,advisors design design with students as learners teachers successful learned from 17 multiple semester regularly 5 motivated educati onal and replicated and creative rhythm and demonstrated teachers worked pr o grams program uses of space schedule pride in learning hard to involve 2 4 there is a 15 community 2 school-wide accompl ishment parents and administrators need to orientation support of 9 students advisors in the responsive to document this encouraged program involved as curriculum system failures learning real-world, researchers and process approach connected presenters learning 4 image-based instructional strategies 2 creative use of instructional environment Numbers indicate the frequency of the response which follows.

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Stakeholder Role Finding s Examining Table 4.6 simply for noticeable language patterns and empty spaces, one notices the following : Only the comments by the teachers and the advisor s mentioned all five constituency groups The administrators did not mention advisors Students did not mention parents or advisors ; parents did not mention advisors. The teachers as might be expected, had the most to say about the category of curriculum (93 comments) as well as about the program and school (62 ) The administrators less expected had the greatest number of comments about the students (51 comments). is interesting that the adrr1!nistrators did not mention the advisors although admin i strators typically supervise consultant work. In the arena of least number of comments, parents had only two comments about the administrators, and administrators had the same number about the parents. The stakeholders in general consistently made the most number of comments about the student constituency--the number of comments each constituency the students ranged from 14 ( parents ) to 51 (administrators) The advisor category had the most empty boxes in the table matrix. The role of the advisor in curriculum reform is frequently an "invisible" role which may account for the few references A review of the horizontal role categories in Table 4.6 and of the comments in the columns beneath indicate the following stakeholders perceptions regarding valued characteristics of such a program : 88

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Students need to have their uniquenesses recognized to have their accomplishment s honored and to feel comfortable and safe in the school environment. They should be engaged in s uccessful learning acti v itie s that include research and presentations and s hould experience a feeling of ownership of the program. Parents need to trust the teachers and support the events and activitie s of the program Teachers must communicate effectivel y with parents. The y should collaborate and function effecti v ely as a team. Teacher s need to be empowered to make choices regarding team configuration The teaching teaIll:should be personally diverse, and multi-talented in the skills of program design. Teachers should advocate for students. Administrators need to provide intentional leadership demonstrating v i sion and ability They are respected They should let the teachers do it" ( teacher comment) Advisors should be active on site. They should learn from replicate and protect successful programs Curriculum and Program Findings Some further discussion of the interview comments regarding the curriculum of the CEC is suggested by the sheer volume of comments in that arena. Four hundred one of the 789 comments were not concerned with the roles of the constituencies but with some aspect of the school climate and activities. An experiential vs. envisioned aspect of change factors could also help to explain the high 89

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number of program and curriculum references (401)--the observable and "real" aspects of school reform Of the 401 comments 359 are found in groups in the center or Pedagogy column of Tables 4 1-4.6 The five titles given to the center column of those tables are : (a) Program and Curriculum Design (student comments); (b) Rigorous Interactive Curriculum Experiences (parents); (c) Program Components Identified and Described (teachers); (d) Evolving, Pioneering Curriculum Plan (administrators); and (e) Well-defined, Intentional Curriculum Design (advisors) Seventy-two (28%) of the comments coded into the curriculum category referenced the community-based problem-solving projects. was referenced directly by all but the student constituency. An additional 69 comments across five constituencies spoke of a project-related quality--the "interactive," or "experiential" nature of the learning activities. The two largest clusters of comments regarding the curriculum came from the advisors, with 35 comments about a "distinct, well-understood curriculum design The teachers made 28 comments describing "expansive, collaborative learning projects" including "interesting thematic topics Discussion of Curriculum and Program Findings The Project Approach accounts for many of the memories about the curriculum activities. An advisory board member whose job was to implement the SCANS (Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) outcomes across the state of Colorado, noted in a chance conversation that of the articulated tasks of SCANS were implemented in just one of the project events. The eventful nature of 90

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this curriculum component and its ability to engage all of the students in community issues were significant factors in the overall program's success ( see Figures 1.1-1.3). Teachers in the reported that students experienced being "driven" by the urgency of the problem itself ; because of the intentionally limited time they had to call on or even invent critical thinking skills. Because they were working under the gaze ofthe larger community, they needed to confirm the use of correct content information. The students experienced having their personal skills and talents both needed and used; they learned about the dynamics of teamwork by experiencing firsthand for example, how it feels to be "let down" by a teammate. Their interview comments as well as earlier recorded quotations revealed that felt the responsibility of having to "pick up the ball" if necessary, and when all went well they experienced the power and joy of being a part of an effective team They always experienced the richness of the resources available outside of school walls--in museums, libraries, agencies of the city and in the arts. Jeffreys has this memory of the last election project: I remember when one of Bill Clinton's advisors came into the school right before the election and that just got us all psyched up about the election and everything and we got to go see the President [to be]. That was pretty cool, that our school [program] got to go do that... was almost like talking to the President. Of all of the categories there were more coded comments in the Curriculum column of Table 4.6 than in any other. The data in the columns of Curriculum and of Program Design suggest that those designing curricula in second-order change programs may want to consider these following qualities or components: (a) distinct, well-understood designs ; (b) innovative expansive and collaborative learning projects with thematic topics; (c ) community projects with realistic contexts and real-world 9 1

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connections ; (d) multiple and creative uses of space ; and (e) active meaningful learning experiences. Such programs of innovative change effort may be delivered in learning communities of students, parents teachers administrators and advisors. Based on this study, one can conclude that high schools that intend second order change may want to consider: (a) a results-oriented curriculum design with a semester rhythm and schedule; (b) a college-like program design ; ( c) school-wide relationships and momentum ; (d) enough planning time for teachers; (e) time enough allotted for teachers to "staff' students; and (f) student choices in study topics. Less-frequently mentioned aspects of the that also provide clues to second-order change learning environments are : (a) image-based instructional strategies; (b) career integration; (c) strong recognition of academic achievement ; (d) participative processes; and (e) celebration of non-academic personal skills. Also noteworthy is the relatively small number of comments made by the study participants when queried on the weaknesses of the (See Chapter 3). The tenor of the responses on the audiotapes implied that when asked the interviewees strained to fInd a weakness. For example, compared with the positive 82 student and 78 parent comments on the overall program, there were a mere 4 weaknesses mentioned by students and 7 by the parents. Weaknesses mentioned by students were: the "no hat" policy, few class choices, no bridge or structural help for students returning to their traditional school environment and no student parking lot. Parents mentioned weaknesses such as limited curriculum, distance from school (2 items), bus transportation, lower expectations of some students, students who were distracting, change in administrators, and counselors who didn't buy into the program's philosophy 92

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Findings Based on Agreements and Differences Data The fmdings just reviewed are based on repetitive patterns in coded interview comments. A discussion of the significant agreements and differences found among the stakeholder groups follows. Agreements regarding students role Students parents teachers, and administrators all mentioned some aspect of freedom and program ownership given to the students; administrators and advisors observed student success as key ; both the student and teacher groups referenced students as cared for; demonstration of success by students was a theme for administrators and advisors--demonstration of pride in accomplishments, of academic mastery and of responsibility; te.gtchers and advisors agreed that an energy or spirit was observable in the student group:' Regarding teachers. Both students and parents mentioned communication as a significant aspect of the teacher role ; students and administrators observed that teachers possessed unique/multi-talents; parents teachers and advisors noticed that the teachers functioned as a team (perhaps this was just too obvious to the administrators who always referred to them as "the Academic Team"); teachers, administrators, and advisors alike said the teachers worked hard using terms like "driven," and "motivated. Differences regarding parents There was no common theme regarding the parent role; each of the groups saw parent involvement in a different way and the students did not mention the parents at all. Regarding administrators. Little agreement was apparent regarding specifics of the administrative role. The students described their encouraging style, the parents saw them as firm and caring, the teachers appreciated that the administrators left them 93

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alone (were trusting), administrators saw themselves as intentional and supportive, and advisors described them as responsive and acting as guardians Their role was helpful and not restrictive of creativity. Results-Oriented Curriculum Students parents administrator s and advisors all mentioned the importance of a learning outcome of the curriculum" or a "product" (Tables 4 1 through 4 6). These groups commented on the merits of "results-oriented learning" whereas teachers did not. is possible that the teachers were simply not stating the ob vi ous, focusing on other unique attributes like integration of topics," "collaborative learning projects," "realistic contexts," alternative Ie mung experiences etc (from Table 4 3). This agreement between stakeholder groups identifies the curriculum as requiring evidence of mastery as well as student engagement. Discussion of Findings About Agreements and Differences It is widely recognized that involving students in the education process increases academic success and that motivated hard working teachers are a key to classrooms that work. This study confirmed those findings. However the v ery different perspectives of each stakeholder group regarding the parent and administrator roles identified in this study were surprising. Further insights may be gained in the disc u ssion of Table 4 7, which is an "image analysis of the data presented as Tables 4.1 through 4.6. 94

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conclusion, the analyses of Tables 4.1-4.6 have provided some descriptive information based on the perceptions of the key players in CEC's an episode of transformational change. Findings were informed by high incidence items from Table 4.6 with several identified as key. The at CEC was the creation of a group of teachers administrators, advisors and students in one urban high school. It was neither government-mandated nor objectives-driven. It was the visionary response to a desire for meaningful, connected learning--a vision that began in a classroom, not in a boardroom The analysis in this section has identified several personal and structural qualities as significant in this event of transformational change The next section presents the fmdings from the same coded interview comments analyzed a third time and in yet a different way--that of image analysis Table 4.7: Image Analysis Table Table 4.7 contains the results of the third complete analysis of the interview comments--an analysis of the participants' images. The table provides a different perspective on the 789 comments, interpreting them as 24 images across five groups and then across the curriculum and program categories. Because Table 4.7 represents a totally new review of the data observable repetition from the other six tables would be expected Findings on the Stakeholder Roles Based on Images Held by Each Stakeholder Group About the Others By examining the identified images of each group as perceived by the others, several surface observations emerge. Of the five roles, the teacher role was clearest to 95

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all constituencies indicated by the total of seven different defined images about teachers. Teachers also held the greatest number of images about all of the other roles, with 13 different images identified from teachers comments examination of the advisor and administrator comments reveals that ten images were articulated by each of those two groups regarding the other four roles The boxes under the advisors column are the most empty with only the teachers and advisors themselves expressing any image of that role, suggesting less consciousness of the advisor role than of all the other groups contrast, the student interview comments held the least number of identifiable images. As the most important of all the constituencies (students are after all education's customers or clients), they were the least aware of the pedagogical and curricular details The images held by parents and administrators and by the students themselves students, indicate that the students felt empowered, safe and involved Parents felt included in the educational process, and detailed this experience as they saw it for both themsel ves and their student. Parental experiences held emotional overtones as well as general impressions. That the teachers held an image of parents as grateful lends authenticity to this above interpretation. Of all the stakeholders the teachers seemed clearest about their own role and about that of the students It is interesting that teachers aligned with the advisors as wary of district political turmoil. Also of interest is that the teachers perceived that the administrators trusted them, the administrators perceived that the teachers were trustworthy, but the teachers did not image the administrators as trustworthy. The teachers uniquely described the students as "capable and needy--" 96

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affrrrning, perhaps their own mission as well as reflecting their familiarity with demographic data from school records and their familiarity with the students. 97

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Table 4.7 Images of Five Constituency Groups, Slotta Curriculum, and Program Students Participating Teachers Building Advisors Curriculum Program! Parents Administrators School ',1\>", Image of the [none] Image of the [insufficient [none] Image of Image of the Students self as teacher as comments] curriculum! school environ learning as ment as active Image of the Image of the Image of the Image of [none] Image of the Image of the students as parent as teachers as administrators curriculum/ school environ-Parents learning as ment as Image of the Image of the Image of the Image of Image of Image of the Image of the students as parents as teachers as a administrators advisors as curriculum program as as Image of these students (acknowledged by the system Image of the as needy) as teachers as Image of curriculum as Image of the program as Image of curriculum as Image of Image of the Image of the Image of the Image of [none] Image of the Image of the Building students as parents as teachers as administrators curriculum as program as Administraas tors Image of administrators as Image of Image of the learning classrooms as activities as Image of the program as Image of the Image hn.age of the !mageof Image of the Image of the Image or-the Advisors students as parents as teachers as admi nistrators advisors as curriculum as program as as Image of the curriculum as Image of the teachers as Image of the curriculum as

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As previously stated, the building administrators imaged the students as empowered, making a total of three constituencies that applied that term to student images. Administrators held complimentary images of their teachers, seeing them as multi-talented and dedicated Administrators, advisors and the teachers all described the teachers as hard-working and dedicated. Both advisors and teachers recognized the need to protect fragile reform success. However the advisors assumed that the administrators would do it, while the teachers saw it as the advisors' responsibility That the advisor's role in thi s reform effort was least recognized or acknowledged, may imply that their work should be made more visible or intensified. Or if the credit for ultimately must go to the other constituencies perhaps this transparency of the advisor's role should simply be affirmed. In either case, Table 4.7 reveals that both of the advisors in this study maintained an interest in the program but remained in the background Images Held by Each Stakeholder Group About Itself Until now, the discussion of Table 4.7 data has focused on how the five stakeholder groups differ in their perceptions of the other groups and in their overall understanding of the learning process they had experienced. Of equal interest is how this table reveals the perception each of the stakeholders had about its own role Reading the matrix diagonally from the top left to the bottom right we fmd the following seven key images: the image the students have of the students, the parents of the parents and the teachers of the teachers and

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the administrators of the administrators, and advisors of advisors, Findings on Curriculum and Program Based On Images Held by Each Stakeholder Group The findings regarding the stakeholder roles have been discussed in three different ways: 1) as patterns agreements and differences based on coded comments; 2) as similarities of images; and 3) as differences of images between how each group saw itself versus how it was seen by the others. This study set Qut to carefully assess the roles played in second-order, transformational change. Another of the stated intents of the study is the identification of the elements of the curriculum perceived by each stakeholder group as being the most significant or useful. The curriculum and program columns of images identified by each of the groups (Table 4.7) is important to this intent. The participants' comments implied the largest number of in the curriculum column (ten images). The teachers and advisors each held three different images about curriculum. The teachers images of curriculum were: an image as and an image The advisors identified the curriculum as and The administrators saw the curriculum as and an image as Finally students 100

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saw the curriculum as and parents saw curriculum as The Project was intended by the planners to provide realworld connections and meaningful learning for students. This is consistent with reform literature that stresses that to be permanent and meaningful curriculum must be presented in a connected and real world format ( NCTM 1989). Culturally relevant experiences and meaningful academic connections make significant differences in learning motivation with reluctant learners ( Taylor Stevens Peregoy and Bath 1991 ) The projects at CEC presented interactive and meaningful learning activities in a replicable and dramatic way. The following comment by W. c.'s mother Jennifer Boll reflects this particular curriculum aspect: "The way the science and English in particular were built into absolutely everything ... I felt that writing skills were expected to be good [and] I felt that the science part of life was made apparent. Another parent, Ron Spring poi n ts to the curriculum's experiential nature: She (daughter, Teresa) has a block in math. We came over several times and sat in on classes. We thought that the approach was wonderful. We were ecstatic. We are both educators ourselves and are experiential educators and we were very positively disposed toward the experiential approach adopted by CEC. conclusion I have described the agreements and differences identified by comparing stakeholder comments and possible images of their own and others' roles And I have described stakeholders comments regarding the curriculum of the The data tables and summaries hold insightful information about the actors, the stage and the script for planning second-order educational change. Different portions of the findings will have significance for different educational 101

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audiences Chapter 5 I interpret these findings within the context of this study and in terms of informing and requiring future research. 102

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IMPLICATIONS The stated intent of this historical, descriptive case study is to examine closely one meaningful high school reform program and to identify the commonalities and differences found in the ways students and their parents together with their teachers, school administrators, and advisors, perceived its important components Thi s study examines interview comments, artifacts documents and personal experiences and captures the significant attitudes, actions and thoughts of the steholders in this particular reform episode. Metaphorically, it examines both the actors and their script plus the producers, the audience, the critics and the reviewers ( Chapter 1). This study began with the premise that a significant and successful episode of second-order reform happened ; it purported that reform literature would be enhanced with a clearer understanding of how the roles of the five key stakeholder groups had been acted out (Chapter 2); finally it found that the way in which the project curriculum component of the program fit into the overall design to increase student motivation and interest was significant (Chapter 4). The image analysis method that was used in the initial design of the program provides a second summary of participants comments ( Table 4.7). This chapter synthesizes the findings as implications for stakeholders in the reform process, as insights about the nature and design of curriculum, and as implications for further research. 103

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Implications for Stakeholders Comparing and contrasting these stakeholder perceptions produces many correlations, but it is the disjunctions that most inform the questions of this study. This discussion draws from [mdings presented throughout Chapter 4, with a focus on important disjunctions or agreements and their implications; Tables 4.6 4.7 are primary references The stakeholders perceptions of their own roles may be read from the diagonal of Table 4.6 (in the form of coded comments) and Table 4 7 ( in the form of corresponding images). These perceptions can be compared with the findings of Tables 4.1 through 4.5, which focused on specific aspects of the reform process (e.g. interactive curriculum, supportive parents etc. ) Empowered Students all the summaries of parent comments (Table 4.2), administrator comments (Table 4.4), and advisor comments (Table 4.5) students were seen as empowered and involved in the at several levels. That the teachers and the students themselves did not describe the students with this quality (Tables 4.1 and 4.3) may be explained by the fact that this outcome was unintended but significant. Initial Program Guidelines described Chapter 1 (p. 21) and provided in Appendix A (program initiating artifacts) do not specifically mention the objective of student empowerment although this is clearly an implicit goal. Because students and teachers, including those who participated in this study were well aware of program goals we might expect the observed absence of explicit statements about the student role Still, the clear disjunction noted above suggests that parents, administrators and 104

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advisors perceived student empowerment as an important component of the All educational communities are well advised to talk to the students. The included students in the initial planning process and always placed them in project leadership roles Dewey (1938) suggests that "there is no defect in traditional education greater than its failure to secure the active cooperation of the pupils in the construction of the purposes involved in his (or her) studying" (p. 67) The frequent mention of personal freedom and the responsibility of choice by both students and their parents implies that The students interviews had this to say about this aspect of the experience : I had never accepted ownership of my life {before the Academic Program}. It was kinda like, well, whatever happens, we ll see. But at that point I I realized that actually it was me that makes things happen in my life. I wanted to do something with my life I would have to do that. To have to make those decisions. My life is up to me. Teresa Spring-Andrews The best thing that CEC did for me was to change my attitude and to let me know that if things weren't really going well that I could go and find something else--like how I took college classes before I graduated ... I know if I'm failing or not doing well it might not be me--it might be me in the wrong situation Cloud Parson While one might argue that this insight on the part of Cloud may mean that she retreats from personal struggle, the at-risk nature of adolescents is often a product of a no-win struggle of some sort and in the words of the song, "to know when to fold 'em", or even that "folding 'em" can be a self-conscious decision is a true victory. 105

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References in Table 4.1 to personal freedom such as "c hoices in study topic s", "leadership experience" and "gained confidence" and in Table 4.2 as problem solving activities and "opportunities to do something for someone else" point to what Maxine Greene calls "public spaces" ( Greene p. 13 ). her theologically-oriented discussion of the topic of freedom, she calls for empowering students by creating in schools, "spaces of dialogue in their classrooms spaces where they can take initiatives and uncover humanizing possibilities." the accomplished this it would be important to probe further into the "how" of that particular curriculum design. Trusting Administrators (of Teachers ) Administrators perceived themselves as trusting the teachers and the teachers perceived that the administrators trusted them (from Tables 4.6 and 4.7) However there is no indication anywhere in the tables that the teachers perceived the administrators as trustworthy While these data represent a time span of several years of a creative working relationship between these teachers and administrators it appears that the positive experiences were not sufficient to overcome tensions and prejudices on the part of the teachers doubtlessly derived from past disappointments and political battles This implies that 106

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Proactive Teachers Administrators agreed that they "should let the teachers do it," acknowledging that teachers are multi-talented and dedicated (from Table 4.4). Similarly teachers saw their own role as effective and inspired ( from Table 4.7). This agreement implies that Who's Guarding the Treasure? Reform always takes place in a reality of limited resources and competition. Whom should we assume will guard and protect a young and fr'tgile program from damage or destruction by political tampering? While several of the coded comments pointed to an awareness of this need, there was no agreement from the stakeholders as to whose responsibility it ought to be. Advisors thought the administrators were responsible while the teachers saw the advisors as being responsible (Tables 4 5 and 4.7). Administrators and parents failed to identify the need for this guardian function. N one of the stakeholders identified their own role as that of "program guardian," and no one suggested that the parents might contribute to this role. any single finding from this study could be seen as illustrative of the reasons for the closing of the it would be this one. When it came time for a decision about the future of the there was no responsible guardianship dynamic in place. Thus, in any transformational reform effort, 107

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This study has identified particular qualities among the key players who are involved in a transformational change process. What final form might the findings and insights of this study regarding the stakeholders take? Tables 4 1-4 6 are informative featuring numerical analyses of comments titles of columns and even the visual drama of empty table cells. They represent a synthesis of hundreds of pieces of identifiable data and of comments and images regarding what worked. Table 4.7 is a unique and less verifiable presentation of the stakeholders' comments It is one person's suggestion of the possible mental models (or images ) that lie behind the stakeholders' comments (or messages ) This image analysis product is included in this document because it provides additional insights into the operating assumptions of the stakeholders. the identified qualities of these five constituencies and their inter-relatedness do hold keys to successful systemic reform a metaphor more appropriately encapsulates these insights Many cultures throughout history have found utility and beauty the wheel. Its elegant simplicity ancient roots and futuric formats make it a unique archetype and appropriate symbol for transforming education The spokes of the wheel in this symbol would be: and becomes the hub. Action begins as the wheel turns on daily student learning experience with the point of contact community agencies on the grounded real-world. When this wheel of transformation rolls into any school or district, it must have all five spokes a solid structure, and more than kinetic energy it! 108

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Insights About the Nature and Design of Curriculum Today our national goals and state standards are symbolic of the subject orientation and knowledge-as-subdivided-pieces philosophy that drives much of educational reform. In school districts across the nation standards are written in a language of what teachers will teach (benchmarks ), what the students will know and be able to do and how students will be assessed on that knowledge. The planners of the intended their model of second-order change to be something quite different--change from the traditional high school with subject matter divided into Carnegie units and a knowledge-driven curriculum-coverage approach. By examining the documents of initiation (see Appendix A ) and the<.curriculum design methods (see Appendix C) it is clear that they intended a discovery : :based pragmatic approach to maximized learning They intended interactive instruction, inspired by the needs of the community; they intended that the students would learn from the future. It is curious that, in the objectives-oriented school climate of the 1980s the administrators had the most to say about the students (Table 4.4) while the teachers had the most to say about curriculum (Table 4.3). Three hundred fifty-nine of the 401 non-role coded comments had to do with pedagogy and curriculum and 28% of the coded comments were about only curriculum One might not expect to find as a central focus of the perceptions. It may be concluded from these analyses of the data that the curriculum of the was understood by everyone engaging and collaborative, and was connected to the real world. When these aspects are included in a reform event, second-order change is intended and enabled It would be less likely to find agreement between young adults and their parents on a question like "what worked high school?" The central position that learning holds in the 110

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comment tables however reveals the memorable nature of the learning activitie s in the delivery model. What exactly do we know about the curriculum of the This study has detailed many of the curriculum strategies implemented throughout the program as well as the weekly and daily practices of the staff. From archival documents related to the planning phase (see Appendix A ) as well as from program artifacts, several important values relating to the sys temic nature of reform can be identified: ( a ) a student's time is equal in value to a teacher 's time ; (b) action takes place and for the present --not just for the future; and ( c ) the community of learners as a whole has both needs and experiences, and must be cared f2r. These recurring values imply an awareness by the planners that serious reform involves changing a complex dynamic system whose whole is greater than the sum of its parts. In addition to the above esoteric framework the examination of artifact s revealed that the curriculum operated with these three foundational pieces (see Appendixes A C) : Each unit project and course leaming plan had two different objectives statements--a "rational ( or measurable ) objective" and an existensial (sic)( or experiential ) ( The second form may have contributed to the stated sense of freedom and empowerment on the part of the students.) The program plan and many of the project s and units were framed "desired images" about school, community and self A project theme delivered curriculum units over a semester of time and situated the needs of the larger community made learning meaningful. Let us examine each of these three aspects of the curriculum further.

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Two Different Types of Learning Objectives Each major unit and lesson plan of the curriculum of the featured two types of learning objectives --a measurable objective and an experiential aim. While the measurable objectives are customary in instructional planning, a consideration of what experiences might enhance the learning objectives is a unique approach. The experiential component served to inform the "how" of lesson plan delivery and encouraged continuity of student experience. John Dewey writes of worthwhile educational experiences, or continuity of experiences: "Experiences in order to be educative must lead out into an expanding world of subject matter a subject matter of facts, or information and of ideas .... a contilluous process of reconstruction of experience" (Dewey, 1938 p. 87). Dewey's mandate would seem enabled by this two-part planning approach and is consistent with Alfred North Whitehead's (1949) concept of "occasions of experience." Image-Based Planning This lesson planning strategy takes into account not only the major concepts and skills intended for mastery, but also the key assumptions brought by the stakeholders, generally the students, into the classroom Previous applications of this approach have been documented in the area of community development; further action research in the field of education is implied by the findings of this study. As demonstrated in the there are at least these two additional applications for the methodology in education: 1). Teachers and advisors can use this method to formally articulate a desired image and design strategic curriculum messages that may produce it, much as a commercial message is beamed to a 112

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television audience ; 2 ) Teachers can use image analysis to gain insights into the habits and behaviors of a problematic student ; (Example: "Do his resistant actions or statements indicate a negative image of algebra class or a negative image of hi s own math abilities?" this latter case student comments and beha vi or s are the clues to hypothesizing the image. ) Once a possible negative image has been identified the teacher can deliver strategic messages to that particular student. A Project Theme Each Semester The curriculum of the was community-situated and deliberative (Chapter 1). The frequency and nature of references ... by interviewees to the project component of the curriculum design have implications for encouraging active connected learning and for the role of the larger community in overall high school design. Throughout nine years of project activities I observed students collaborating with others on root causes of community issues eventually formulating recommendations. As the math teacher on the original team of four teachers, I can witness to the amazing impact that these projects had on students of all backgrounds and abilities. During the "water project," for example, I watched in amazement as urban high school students got worked up over the effects of water policy on rural farmers surprising themselves as much as the faculty. general the intensity of the projects motivated underachievers to excel and significated the talents of the gifted; the team assignments provided teachers with a way to structure intentional peer influence while the teamwork itself provided an opportunity for latent leadership to flourish The project products or solutions provided the community with a smorgasbord of possible solutions to real and troublesome problems The project quickly took on an

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instructional life of its own It provided for the students an experience of vocational usefulness, a curriculum attribut e that is difficult to achieve yet critical for the young of our time. The descriptions of the community-wide components of the are consistent with the descriptions Dewey (1902 ) made of community linkages for schools. John Dewey is widely recognized as a great innovator in education. His writings have taken on a timele ss quality. His reflection s on student behaviors and teacher propen sities seem often to refer to situations of the 1990s as well as the 1890s when they were fIrst written He recognized the need for synthesis of the social the psychological and the philosophical elements s chooling His pragmatic approach was a natural combination of inquiry and relatedness It was at odds with the artifIcial pedagogy of most classrooms Instead, he called for "a mode of activity on the part of the child which reproduces or runs parallel to some form of work carried on in social life ( p 132). The subject matter of the studies must be re connected to the experience from which it has been abstracted. "It needs to be psychologized turned over translated into the immediate and individual experiencing within which it has its origin and signifIcance" (p. 22). The project component of the curriculum served this function each semester. Reid (1992 ) purports that deliberation of many groups perspectives are important in the curriculum process. Teachers students subject matter milieus and curriculum-making are all important and unique sources of knowledge that need to be given equal weight in deliberation. He further laments that in our time few are trying to establish a common interest. 114

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These interactive pedagogical practices are what education literature tenns (Knoblauch Brannon, 1993). These authors define such teaching as being" ... about the willingness of people to inquire and change and make changes, to accommodate themselves to differences and to read the social world, in its complexity, for the promises it makes about the qualities of its members li ves and the extent to which it delivers on its promises" (p. 49) They further cite Pamela Annas in O Malley's Politic s in Education as saying: "Radical teachers believe theory and practice are not separable" (p. 48). That the teachers practiced this approach was evidenced by teacher Cassidy Weber's description of the learning environment created by the projects: was a learning process for all of us ... there was a big contrast. {The students} had probably never been in a school where they did that kind of thing before .. [There was] a combination of their academics in a novel way they could bring their career skills into the classroom when we did the projects so they could see a practical use for what they were doing and how it all intertwined Is the Project Approach as a process of engaging any student anywhere in his/her community's future replicable? Probably not in its entirety It is the creative response of one group of master teachers to the needs of one group of high school students in one particular urban school. The at CEC did have as its story and impetus that it was important for students to respond to perceived needs in their community and world. The specifics of each particular project provided a context or narrative for the English, math, science and social studies investigations that tenn. Such a process of devising a community-based active learning experience with relevant ties to the future could certainly be every school's goal. 115

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Other Connection s Central Park Eas t Secondary School In addition to the three aspect s of the curriculum detailed above three other related aspects bear further comment. One cannot help but notice the marked parallels between the (CPESS ) and the While the planning team of CEC's program was not aware of its counterpart in the New York Harlem neighborhood the two were programmatically alike in these ways: a) date--CEC's began in 1986 CPESS began in 1985; b) size--Class size s and staff sizes were about the same--both averaged about 100 total at a time; CPESS having a slightly lower student-teacher ratio ; c) entrance requirement s --None ; both were eager to serve a microcosm of society ; d ) culture--both sought to create a caring learning community with celebrations and mournings ; e ) philosophy--both subscribed to the progressive schools approach inspired by John Dewey (1938 ) ; f) experimental--both saw themselves as doing action research on behalf of the larger reform movement ; g) demographics--both were urban-based with high minority enrollments In addition to the above striking similarities, there were also these major differences : a) CPESS was initiated by a school district incentive and with university advisors while CEC's was initiated by teachers and administrators with research agency advisors ; (University advisors became involved at a later time.) b) urban Denver is less affected by drastic social and economic factors than is east Harlem ; c ) CPESS took place at multiple sites while CEC is one unique magnet school; d) CPESS had an elementary program which preceded it; CEC's 116

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was always only at the secondary level and primarily with 11 th and 12th graders. In light of these similarities and differences, one wonders how significant an ongoing information exchange would have been between these two programs, had they known of each other's work. is also worth noting that participants referenced learning activities as interesting, not boring, (Tables 4.1,4.2, 4 3). This may be a product of the planning methods used, or a simple decision to view learning in a different way Curriculum theorist Holt in his 1996 article "Casablanca and the of Curriculum," details the roles and tasks required in the making of an engaging movie and applies this understanding to curriculum-making. Using the characters and plot of Warner Brothers' 1942 film as his illustration Holt says, we suppose that, in curriculum terms the analog of the movie and its story is the narrative that unfolds in the classroom, then teachers developing a curriculum assume at various times the role of writer director and part producer of the movie. In the process of curriculum, teachers and students become both contract players and beneficiaries of the experience The principal's role has production aspects ... (p. 5) It may be assumed that the task of writing a movie script would be undertaken with different intents and expectations from that of writing a lesson plan and that these very intents have everything to do with the final product and its effects. 11 7

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Learning Finally, a sense of was both an internal and external reality for the The program itself became a learning community; though this was not stated as an initial intent student interview comments defined and highlighted it. Within the school community all students had important tasks for which they were responsible. Second year academic students (s eniors ) valued leadership assignments The importance of social context to learning is detailed by Lave and Wenger (1991) Their theory of social practice claims that learning thinking, and knowing are relations among people who participate in activity in, with and arising from the socially and culturally structured world ( p. 51). Further on they ___ conclude that "Activities tasks functions and understandings do not exist in isolation; they are part of a broader system of relations in which they have meaning ... To ignore this aspect of learning is to overlook the fact that learning involves the construction of identities" 53). In Democracy and Education (1916), John Dewey states "The measure of the worth of the administration curriculum and methods of instruction of the school is the extent to which they are animated by a social spirit ... In the first place the school must itself be a community life" ( pp. 415-416) The at CEC intended and accomplished meaningful, connected learning and a spirited community of learners evolved. Further interview comments illustrate this. For example, Cloud reflected on her experience of this learning community aspect: It's not that I said "Oh! I want to be a leader, and I want to have leadership skills and so this is what I'm going to do. It was just a natural thing that--in that environment--that it would come out. ... Everybody could be a leader because they would always be able to bring something that nobody else would have.

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Assistant principal Theo Withos commented during his interview that "we did a whole lot .. to integrate the academics to make them come together--through the projects and the midterm session." Advisor Rae Tennyson recalled primarily th e "students' attitudes and the educational process {in which} they were really learning how to do research and how to present--how to integrate and thing s were connected." Curriculum reformers advise that meaningful curriculum experiences have an element of deliberation in them. William Reid defInes thi s as a method of inquiry that is applied cases where the problem to be solved i s a practical pne (p. 78 ) Holt (1996) cites Reid: "The key to an effective curriculum for schooling is the question of all the experience represented by teachers, students, subject matter and the milieus can be brought together to yield a workable plan that solves problems faced by curriculum in both its institutional and its practical aspects" (p. 2). The planner s teachers and students of the accomplished this conclusion perhaps the last word the curriculum section should go to the teachers How do the teachers explain their understanding o f themselves and their success? Caron: "You have to have a compatible bunch of people who are creative together ; we could choose new teachers ( to the team); you have to understand {that} the background and philosophy of what we were doing was important" (Weber): "We had time ( extended planning period-112 day on Fridays ) to evaluate the kids, [plus] it gave us time to get together and plan. Heston: "We talked every week and every day about those kids; we were accountable to those kids ; I loved the Fridays--it was a time to confer with the kids in a different kind of way." 119

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Implications for Further Research Specific education communities may want to peruse the findings of this study for insights relevant to their particular interests and for further investigations For example: should pay close attention to the teacher administrator relationship findings Also of relevance to these groups are the learnings about successful reform practices (pro-active teachers, and empowered students) Both stakeholder groups should be aware as well of the learnings about the importance of the community in creating meaningful and motivatjonallearning experiences. The community is an interesting learning environment;the community needs the energy and support of its young, and the young need realistic and encouraging experiences with many diverse community groups. have the daily responsibility of planning for change--the image-change strategies used by the advisors could be investigated and practiced. Of special interest to this community may be the references to the "guardian role." The advisors may want to examine the findings on all of the stakeholder roles, their interactions, and the disjointed pieces. Further research into the history and development of the image-based instructional methods that are cited and documented by this study may be of interest. make first-order reform decisions as regular practice. They might ponder how to encourage teacher-selected strategically-planned local change initiatives. They might consider the social situation in its entirety as well as the 120

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improvement of instructional strategies. Where second-order change is needed in our schools, they might address school-wide structures individual students needs parents' perspectives and values, and previously-mandated curriculum content. They must recognize that mandates for structural changes must include resources and options for comprehensive implementations as well as agreed-upon program assessment procedures. There is no quick fix or common reform approach that works for everyone. Those involved with programs--both pre-service and in-service program instructors and agencies--should have interest in the findings about the teacher-administrator relationship, about pro-active teachers, .... and about results oriented curriculum. Also of special relevance to this entity are the instructional planning techniques. This study has shown that image-based planning and instructional methods help to frame second-order change. It has also documented a curriculum design process that includes a stated experiential objective--that of desired student experience. Further investigation into these two methodologies would seem advisable. What if there were to be developed a formal (interdisciplinary) between the schools of education and the departments of cognitive psychology at the university level? Fullan (1993) strongly suggests that those who are involved in teacher education not recommend things that they themselves do not practice and this particular interdisciplinary link seems an advisable and informative one for parties -researchers professors, and teachers in the field in charge of deciding to which education innovations precious resources should go, may want to examine this study s findings about 121

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stakeholder groups and channel money into programs with components of "empowered students," "included parents," "pro-active teachers, trusting administrators," and "active advisors." School districts and other educational communities work hard to innovate plan comprehensively and disseminate large sums of money equitably and efficiently. The findings of this study provide a framework within which to work smarter and budget wisely. are interested in all aspects of the reform process especially those related to instructional methodologies and societal impacts. this case, the frequency of interview comments about the project component of the curriculum suggests the need for further investigation into that Plocess. The fmdings of this study suggest that the community representatives who were involved with the projects in the have important insights needing documentation. Volunteers from the social agencies, political campaigns, elected officials and special interest groups who came into the school for presentations or worked with student teams during the two weeks of problem-solving have learned something about what it really means for the community to become more involved in the schools at the classroom and instructional levels. What were the benefits and costs to these individuals and groups? What formal, structural links would enable regular involvements with the student population in the future? We must continue to seek out new and efficient ways to link the schools with the larger community, to engage students in learning that is both rigorous and connected. We must continue to struggle with this larger research question: "culture shapes mind ; what we resolve to do in school only makes sense when considered in the broader context of what the society 122

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intends to accomplish through it s educational investment in the yo ung (Bruner 1996 ix). Concluding Rumination s Why do some reform programs s ucceed and others do not ? While the question persists there may never be a defInitive answer as multiple variablespeople, curriculum, local politics national goals and policies, available funding technologies and warring philosophies and perspectives ebb and flow acros s historical time. However, this study has identifIed several markers that do seem to point towards success. This study began with the examination and comparison of the fIve constituencies of students participating parents teachers bllilding administrators and advisors produced detailed matrices that allowed the comparisons of interview comments. The fmdings provide extensive data about the roles of the fIve groups and the effective instructional approaches and planning processes used. The stakeholder fIndings are some of these success markers as are the specifIc planning processes The signifIcation of academic learning--worthwhile tasks by imbedding of the subject matter in the community--is another. There are many impressive and noteworthy reform programs worth further investigation and this research focus should continue. Are the standards--not yet a reality when the was in placea piece of this puzzle ? Another marker perhaps? There is no question that high school graduates should know essential cultural information and be able to perform those tasks required for success in society Yet standards do not address the "w hy" question; they do not take into account the human factor. Philosophical assumptions unanticipated at the start of this study were built into the curriculum design and eventually emerged as signifIcant. The existentialist position grounded in the 123

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experience of existence influenced the project and lesson planning by design. A s teachers considered what they wanted the students to experience in order to master a particular concept they were encouraged to include the needs of the student in the planning. It may help to account for the many comments about freedom and responsibility that comprise the columns in Tables 4.1-4.5. The relational aspects between the stakeholder groups and with the curriculum has been described and discussed. This relational aspect of stakeholder roles has also been examined and discussed at length by others Fullan (1991 pp 133-134) cites a study by S. Rosenholtz (1989) that links a collaborative work culture with successful schools. Rosenholtz found that: Where teachers request from and offer technical assistance to each other and where school staff enforces consistent standards for student behavior, teachers tend to complain less about students and parents Further where teachers collaborate, where they keep parents involved and informed about their children's progress, where teachers and principal work together to consistently enforce standards for student behavior, and where teachers celebrate their achievements through positive feedback from students, parents principal colleagues and their own sense, they collectively tend to believe ... their instructional practice (p. 137) Rosenholtz according to Fullan (1991, p. 134) further found that "teacher certainty and ... commitment feed on each other. .. increasing motivation to do even better. of these factors served to channel energy toward student achievement." The at CEC accomplished both collaboration and celebration, which enabled the participants to meet further goals that were enormously complex. Such relating among stakeholder groups might become a clear and simple goal for reform. The word curriculum derives from the Latin verb curro (currere) "a verb that stresses process (Reid, 1992, p. 15). Examples of the processes used to plan and 124

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implement the provided substantial data for this ca se study. But just what process? A branch of philosophy called process philosophy, whose most famous writer is Alfred North Whitehead, defines human experience in terms of "occasions of experience". A contemporary process writer states that "a process consists of integrated series of connected developments unfolding in conjoint coordination in line with a definite program" (Rescher, 1996 p. 38 ) John Dewey was a pragmatist in his approach to education, but his metaphysic was that of a processist (Rescher, 1996) Process philosophy holds that "what exists is not just originated and sustained by processes but is in fact ongoingly and inexorably by them" (p. 8). Because the same coulp be said of the it may be described as processist as well. Curriculum design was a biannual process (the semester project). The process of image-analysis guided the curriculum design and was used weekly to staff and counsel students. The experience of the whole learning community was always considered in the planning as well as in the guiding of the individual players (see Appendix A). These factors imply that process philosophy plays a role in the conceptualization of second-order change and meaningful learning. is clearly a radically different way to plan for learning. Philosopher and educator Maxine Greene envisions a "humane framework" for the kinds of education that will be required in the technological, 21st Century My hope aligns with hers, which she describes as "reminding people what it means to be alive among others, to achieve freedom in dialogue with others for the sake of personal fulfillment and the emergence of a democracy dedicated to life and decency" (Greene, 1988, p. xii). 125

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Driven by a yearnin g to provide interesting and effective s chool s for the children of the emerging generation we might do well to remember these several final insights: brood on what it means to be alive among others ; plan for the experience of the whole learning community ; and recognize the related narure of the stakeholders. Let the wheel of transformational change roll on 126

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APPENDIX A PROGRAM-INITIATING ARTIFACTS Program Design Booklet Student Input Workshop Results Program Promotional Brochure

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Oli veAnn Slotca DEfIHmOO ASSUKPTIOHS HOTIVATIOH TRREl!: STsnxs Of UWtHIHC Copyvr ite CURRENT .TRADITlOHAL
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. .., "," t ."

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o e W -" ... .. .5 .J ... n : _u W Wl! .. a -= .. II_ .! : w e 8 e I: 5 w v:s w IHlalU' NIH o 00 Uw .. ::a "I" '.0 ow g .. o o u 2 e ..... a i" 03 0llH 1111U /.1= .. NIH W o ... .. W .e.x .. c o r i t! o I 'lHOllno CONTENTS Contextual Statement: How does this work function to take the Career Education Center's Academic Core Program to the the next step (A School Within A School) 1986-87 Schedules for the School Within A School 1986-87 Project Schedule Weekly Schedule Orientation Week Schedule Chart Six Steps of "Project Building" Chart Six Phases of Projec t Learning Resources & Back-up Materials File (not included with this document: "Walkabout" by Haurice Gibbons 3 Systems of Learning Chart by Oliveann Slotta Chart Student' s Perspective (ProjectBased Approach) Chart Teacher' s Perspective (ProjectBased Approach) CEC Career Classes -Academic Content Analysis Four charts by CEC faculty Imaginal Education: History and Relevance ... '. to Cur'rrent Directions in DPS by Burna Dunn ... Implementation Models: .Orientation Week: Plans and Daily Procedures Orientation Week Schedule Form Balarat Retreat Plan Student Project Selection Worksheet o

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tAlIII .bllCAflOll t1I!!f'I 00 .... h ...... .. l. oJe",.s ......... .,,, lAflGIIAl. otJletln, .1 ...... -1 ... forn f Ihlt tho reI ., .. _I to 't ...... oaf ... 140 tM I.t,.b. t .. ch,,,.:',. n4.rUan' It,ll cu"hd". u,.tleft ..... II .... 1 rec .... 1" ..... tfhhh h "M,fIIl wit" uv'tRU' ''If,,Ult. UllfUrtaL .111, l.,,.,,,. ''',W.'' CM.i-te .. ,.rhfttt the ,1'4 eru,hl I.lt ., L I.O tN.OUOI DI.eO'I.' I Llrl ,aOell1 Otuk, ,LAI LAUICIt lIlA .. 0111, 0lIl1.0 fill IUCi OUt rAtULn fLAMMI"O ,IOJIc:T DlrtllllOll hut It.tr.1t tlOII II.,. 15,1&) tiC J IIttaUf PAontt IItfOR" ... AlIAi, 0 C J I '...,.,14 ",latloa -n.. Muchn AI" c .c/o, 0 I I I 1'0. W I I lIrl..-l nAl.UAtlOll IllLU .. ALIIII n.n.lO CIC(fIH IUreal 1'11 ... rHVIl "IIDaI1 n". 1 '" L', e I DilL I .. J" .. cat.lllAflOll PROJICT IIfOlTI .! .... '.hol Wlthl h 1 "UOJICTI" DA' WlOMUOAl ,1 ,,'0 C I I Itu'.ntl .tt ... r 1 r I ...... .. 1:,1 I Lt_I .. ; ... II ...... 10.1 (Do,.h "" OVIlYllW .OIIDUL ... W .. 1,,<1 'n."" 11141 C C L to LI.lu ... nllltl .. (Do,'h (1'" .... e A a I I. C A I I I I 1 0 COli cu.sl, CIC : IIlD-SlUIOII COli cu.sll "',ICln rlcu .. n e C" I I. C LA I I, 1 o' I I I 0 COli CLASII CEC ... 11 CORI cu.n, : ... rlclD Ihc.f, lo,lloh HDnIIOt l?" 1ft, .. C, ... ,. PAOllCT tv.H HEIflIC

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Pizza Downtown Celebration Guin!: Outsidc Alut Individual Validity FPcer Student Project Teams Guest Spcaker Newspaper Pany Outside in the Snow CEC Spurts Identity Video for T V [? J b.\y] '.CHI: 1\ Tc:tms in Schuol Cuntpctitions A :C'Di'lJiFDJt All!!..:!:: tiJ: D (;:0: Not '\ctiH ror whole schuol ( Cuntrnrtable S Fur Guinj! To Schuol Sol\'C a IIi:.: rroj!lcm Coopl'ralion Stodl'ol ,,\: TC:ldtn t : ,lk tn each uther Learnill): at O\\'n P'lce I Oil I Lillie pressure ,1J1'lJ Te:tcher ll'cnp1c Lau):hio): Nu fiells Whole S.:hool Evellts 13= Fnryonc 11:,s ----------------------------t l'Wl' r c op Il' d ),,"' 1 I'ush Y"u 1 1 llil T : Oirf.:rent front o lher Schools Tea.:her want III kant Friendly Teacher.; Awards Car.:cr p.:ricllI.:e Facili l y Progress &:8 Resource SySI.:m Fund Raiser as a "mjcel Collao.:ralion 132 Special "Jolinn \'aril' d l)iailxluc I<.:spons ih iii I Y Sm:dl Ci:"scs ,\ Ch :IlIt'C Slart U ,'r Individual Iklp Dilkrcllt W;'Y '0 Learn

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1\ DURING SEPTEMBER SEPTEMBER 25 26 AFTER SEPTEMRER 26 IMAGE Take ., survcy Summarize the Write a "what is this summary para\.:raphs SUPPORT Stullents l1Ieet oX mailltain CUl1Il1IlIlIlcat Iun Read the Summary Tutal refine Ilitu nn d a I I ale III a s)'lIIhul oX leclde, .. IIUl1le I'articlpaliun Stullent s l;c Il's h l'i r 11111 v I IIII;C I leal'lIllI:: ::uals To d ecide In \.:0 10 lIalal'ai Research other Usc projl!Cts oX Ollgoill:: I'arll.:ipallllil schullls' mlldels spedal activllies priv.atc and In keep InilO'vallve, ell', v n

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2. 3 4 5 7 9. 10. 11. 19 20 22 25 26 134

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Field Trips Internships Guest Speakers 15 Hours of Credit is not what you say to people that counts, it is what you have them do." -Weingartner This participatory academic program is designed for non traditional students who like to learn about themselves and their world through discov ery, hands-on experi ence, and community contact. The impor tance of recogni7.ing diverse learning styles has made it necessary to develop new ap proaches to teaching_ The unique learning style of each student is identified and teaching strategies adapted to the student's needs and the semester theme. in You can learn at your own rate and participate in projects you propose, Each semes ter, you can find chal lenges and integrate Classes are si7.ed so you will get personal attention and have the opportunity to share your insights Throughout the four-'semester program, you will have opportunities to take traditional classes in areas like During many group activities, students will work together and help one another. You will: Be treated as an adult Enjoy learning what you need and what you want Participate in com munityactivities Work with enthusias tic teachers Participate in extracurricular activities Take excursions Be involved in individual and group activities Develop leadership responsibility Although the program stresses cooperation above competition, students are often recogni7.ed for aca demic excellence and community service during high school and they excel in future education and careers. a

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APPENDIXB PROJECT ARTIFACTS Project Summary Chart Sample Project Document s and Artifact s Immigration Project Sample Student Team Reports 136

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W Fr"d N 1' hurn .. C u cl:r t-'duull.,n etnlrr l),up OUI PUwcnl iu n C ... u nd $ .. n J Ihnul All P"II ... II" n li d S ... I U lluH U S "Clldenlhl Eleellon C nlp, l n ",vcc .. WIIU Con .. ",,,lo,, un D.u" '''\t.u -T H"lId Of Hot Uulld -(Tw. t-'OfU Dim) nle Conl lnenl of A',lu E plo,l"n l Anoll'lu C"II .. ,t F,II 1919 .. 11m P,oducllon R d lo "ru.duHIIII .. tln,lnl lIullh n d W,llnUI P,ln,lnl PhoIOl"ph, Scclturl. 1 AUlo Medutllc (StnI lon.} TV "oduellon (ubi.) Comm."hl An Ouphlc ooliin (All Cuter chuel npu.un'o d jO .UiW-. In tho 1.Clo,h' ulle,o) Aim pr.ducUon f'r lntlpl ..TuMol ., P "nlln, CEC Cuhutli A_."nu.1 D., FHm p .. dI,lCIIOII Oclobcr. 1990 CRUUPS un'1:t t:-:-::-_--;-;:-:-.!'::-N,:-VO,,'':-,v'''r'''''!... -----+--------------1 Opinion '011 Duil n 10 DtM" 1111'" $chOOJh OtO, 0"'1 nui lltCi D o p o ... p,ty&lllion o(flu, t',upOUI Wlilln, Dtn,," P\.bllc Sd'looh Wo, h h .. p UClI ,1I ONI Abuu Altnc, : tluc l .. n., O",U ... n l AhuI'tllI" t Sdllw h Ch
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Student NaI}le Project Team Selection Worksheet Fall 1994 Career Class: Directions: listed below are the teams that we need to carry out our two week problem-solving project on immigration. We are formally calling this project "Crowded Shores, Closed Doors". While we need 3 5 persons on each of these teams, we would like to give you the opportunity to indicate your interest in a 1st, 2nd and 3rd choice manner. Please put a "1" beside your first preference for a team, a "2" beside your second choice, etc. Please read the specifics and consider carefully where your career and perSonal skills might be most helpful in making recommendations to our regarding this important issue. The following teams represent of the important "players" involved in the immigration issue as well as some of the special interest groups by category. u.S. Congressional Committee on lmmigration-This project will focus on a report to this committee. a member of this team you will organize and host a committee hearing where each team will present their perspective to CEC. INS ItDmigration and Naturalization Services -This agency enforces immigration law and national quotas in all states. Interview someone from this office. What are their opinions on our national policy? What do they like/dislike about their job? You will "be" the INS. The U.N. Office of High Commissioner for Refugees Monday, Oct 24 is UN day. Visit the local UN office and obtain information about the UN's work on refugee issues globally. What are the ethical and practical issues involved? The organization of Eastern Caribbean States What does this organization do and why does it exist? What are the member nations? represent its position at the hearing on the last day. *Russia -For the flrst time in nearly 100 years citizens of the USSR are permitted to emigrate. Many Russians have come to this nation because of religious persecution-primarily Jews and Orthodox Christians. (Remember BOris?) What are their pressing needs? #Cuba In recent months approx 19,000 Cubans per month have been arriving in Miami in small boats illegally immigrating. You represent this group of people. What should our nation's policy be on such situations and why? #*Mexico -214,000 Mexican nationals were admitted to this country legally as immigrants in 1992. From the perspective of this NAFrA country, should we increase or decrease this number. Why? *Viemam -78,000 Vietnamese nationals were admitted to this country legally as immigrants in 1992. Why are immigrants from this Asian nation welcome here at this time when others aren't? Defend theml *Dominican Republic 42,000 D.R. nationals were admitted to this country legally as immigrants in 1992. Why are immigrants from this Caribb .ean nation welcome here at this time(vs others)? Represent their position.

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*Philippines 61,000 Philippian nationals were admitted to this country legally as immigrants in 1992. Why are immigrants from this nation welcome here at this time? The nation of Panama has recently offered to house 10,000 Cubans for six months. Why did they do this? Their position is your position for our project. Colorado Welfare Office What is the connection between new arrivals into our state and nation and the various welfare programs available? Who pays for these costs? "Colorado Cares" Health Plan This long term health care coalition will be concerned with the costs to taxpayers of providing health care services to immigrant and refugee populations. Colorado Aids Project Serves the needs of persons that are diagnosed HN positive. This team would represent a position of whether or not persons so diagnosed should be permitted to enter country legally and so strain our already inadequate health care system California More than 2 million illegal aliens already live in CA and an estimated 2000 more cross the border each day. A ballot initiative, Proposition 187 would bar children of illegal aliens from attending public schools (300,000 children). Florida Boat loads of illegal aliens arrive on Florida southern shores every week. Agencies in Miami exist to deal solely with this problem, costing both the state and city millions of dollars annually Texas Texas shares well over a hundred miles of border with the country of Mexico. Border towns are the sites of frequent border crossings -both legal and illegal. This state has the third highest immigrant population in the US and all of the system impacts that accompany it. New York This state has always been a gateway for immigrants. the past, it has been proud that our symbol, the Statue of Uberty, is located in its harbor and that the Ellis Island has been the "first stop" for European immigrants. __ Lutheran Immigration Services Deals with resettlement issues and policies for primarily protestant populations. Catholic Immigration Services -Deals with resettlement issues and policies for primarily Roman Catholic populations. Jewish Immigration Service Recent warming of relations with the USSR has permitted immigration of Russian Jews into this nation for the first time in nearly 100 years. Entirely new systems need to be created for this population. Refugee Women and Children Refugees are those who flee a dangerous situation in hopes of starting over in a new location. This team will represent the perspective of the all-too-common global refugee phenomena of women and children who arrive in a new country in desperate need with little or no resources. 139

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Haiti Boat People This team will represent the perspective of survivors of a dangerous boat trip from the troubled nation of Haiti. Why take the risk? From what did you flee? What are your special needs? What should the US policy on refugees from Caribbean nations be and what makes your situation special? 140

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Fall Semester 1994 Project Learning Objectives Crowded Shores, Closed Doors For in-house use only Primary Images to be Shaped: Our uniqueness as a nation of immigrants Complexity of the situation Rational (Measurable) Objectives Which U.S. states are impacted Affects of global social change on immigration U.S. Immigration Policy-how and when changed Present immigration images vs historic Role of immigration in terms of socio-economic Role of immigration terms of the labor force Role of immigration terms of welfare costs Role of immigration terms of social values--emphasis health-and health care Role of immigration in terms of politics Ethical issues Budget processes What is a green card? Geography of the Caribbean Native American impact What i s the difference (technical) between an immigrant and a refugee? Contributions of immigrants-culture, science. etc. How to read charts and graphs Immigrant advocate positions vs INS Uniqueness of American historical perspectivefoundations Experiential Objectives Experience the tension between our proud history as an immigrant nation vs the present situation and causes of the turmoil Gifts of cultural diversity Pain of hard choices for impact states Empathy with the refugees

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Date: Monday, November 7 To: All persons and constituencles appearing at the Immigration Reform Hearing Re: Details Today is your final setup and prep time. Tomorrrow at 9 :55 be prepared to present a 2 minute report and respond to questions, All team displays must be set up by the end of 2nd session today A map showing the exact location of your dispbiy will be distribruted shortly .! Be sure to display research material you' used articles, etc as well as all .' products from your research and YOl, tr.position paper Photos and video tapes taken of the reports Rease dress appropriately ...... .. :. -. ..... Several guests will be present at the re.ports: Ignore them .. Other Project Events: .... During 1st and 2nd sessions tomorrow the career classes have been invited to drop by your displays. Talk openly with them about what your team1s responsibilities were and what you learned sure that your display is Dmannedlpersonedduring both sessions. You may miss your career class on Tuesday for this purpose necessary ThiS Is your academic class assignment for Tuesday. About the Carnival: A special team has been planning a Caribbean Carnival in rooms 219 and 221 where the country and state teams will have the i r displays. There will be music things to see and do and Food Ftease consider selling something at your team table with the proceeds to go to the Pomar fund There will be a bazaar table as well with small i tems from the Caribbean, so bring some money of own to spend. So What? So why are we doing this? Remember the serious nature of this issue needs to be resolved this nation to have a viable future. AND SO ... on Wednesday during midsession your teachers have arranged for a facilitator to come and help us process all that you have learned This implies TAKE NOTES O,N TUESDAY so you get the necessary info from all of the teams The results of the Wednesday workshop will be your recommendations on immigration reform and will be sent to Pat Schroedersoffice for delivery to the Congressional Subcommittee on Imini grati on 144

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ACK,,"WlEDGEMENTS Ihe many, career class leachers who willingly gave Iheir lime an.t expenise to Ihe fulhime slUdents LeI's nOl forgel all Ihe learn work Ihal was PUI into Ihis program. could nOl been done wilhoUI you! Thank You!! Cuihhun Camiv41 Katie Royce Devin Wickham Coyer peSil:D Anders Olsen Wminl: Resource CeDle[ Cathy Jackson Lee Cordova Susan Gilbert Claudia Filch Mrs Sharon Johnson Mr. Bill Smilh Ms. Debbie Williams Mrs. Palricia Johnson Mr. Pete Hergenreter Ckrical Sta(( Meg Blair Carol Carpenter Rene Coronado JoAnn del Hierro Judy Morr Sachi Nagata Ceci Wells &;adcmic Teachers Gordon Heaton Sonja Pederson Carol Webb OlivcAnn Siolla fanel PresenlCll Rep Patricia Schroeder Alice Huppert Barbara Kenla Slevens Academic Malh Volumec[ Michelle Agnew WELCOME TO TilE U.S. CONGRESSIONAL HEARING ON NOVEMBEU II, 199 ..

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II. S SlIhCflllllllillee till Immlgratifln lIusted by: Commission 01t IIIIIOigralion Reform IO:OU .10. 11:00 nt W mt ...... .... ... ......... .. Iohn.than Moore Modtr.lor ..... ........... ... ... yv ... e De L. Cruz Order of Preselltations U S Cllngressional C011lmillee all Imm igra l ioll Cruz, Valchalll, Chris H aney, Priscilla Bueno) 2) "'Iexico Francisco lIuizar, Ad an Santillan) 3) Russia Shawn Weitzel. Caleb Braaten, Ryan Carver) 4) Panama (Gtl1nip/tu Ed Lewis, Devin Wickham) 5) Ecumenical Immigration Services (Andy Lehman. Anders Olsen. Isaiah Garcia) 6) Colorado AIDS Marlha Bailey. Damon Exum) 7) California (1\ Holly S co tt) 8) New York Anna Lee Gray. n,,,""" Immitralion Forum tomnrrow, Wednesd.y November 9 We w ill process the results of the teOln repurts and write CEC's recom. mClldations (or submission t o the ICA Facilitator, linda lanes 9) Texas (Jas oll Saul sbe rry H enry Martinez, Erne slo Ocalla, Karsten Wynn s ) Co lorad o Welfare Chris Garcia) II) Refugee Women Paul i\l oya, Lisa Fit ch) 12) Ilailian Baal People John Delhman, Vincenl Bailey, Brian Carter) I INS Immigration and Naturalization Se r vices (Nicole Anthony Rimbert. Bryan Stacks) 14) Organization of Caribbean States J ohn Mahoney. Margaret Martin) Note : Names in italics are leam leaders

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24. 8 1 5 147

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November 10, 1994 PROJECT EVALUATION Dear full-time student, The academic teachers want to thank you for your involvement in the "Crowded Shores, Closed Doors" project. We would appreciate your honest answers on this evaluation so that we can plan for future projects. How well you complete this evaluation will partially determine your final project grade. Thank you for your hard work and dedication to this program. N ame ________________ Project Team _______ Project Team Teacher: Midsession Credit: L Please list all of the things you personally did during this project. 1. 6. 2 7. -3. 8. 4. 9. 5. 10. ll. Please rate each of the following items by checking the appropriate column 1. Immigration Video shown in August 1994 "Waiting at the Gate", narrated by Walter Chronkite. The Panel with Rep. Patricia Schroeder. Barbara Carr and Kenta Stevens on October 24, 1994. 3. Carnival 4. US Congressional Hearing on Immigration Policy (reporting session), Tuesday, November 8, 1994. Excellent Good Fair

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VII. List the three most important things you learned during the project, either personal or factual. 1. 3. VIII. List a report and a display, other than your own that you were most impressed with. 1. IX. Describe one application of an academic skill that you were required to use. x. What skills learned your career courses were you able to apply? XI. Describe the most memorable learning experience from your team's work on the project. XII. OVERALL PROJECf EVALUATION In two or three sentences please give your reaction to working on the Immigration project. XIIT. Anything else you would like to share?

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5. Workshop to process research and make recommendations. Wednesday November 10, 1994. ID. We worked during these two weeks in fourteen teams, primarily of our own choice two or three sentences give your reaction to the experience o f working with your team. V Using letter grades of B, C, D and F rate each member of your team according the his/her performance in each of the following categories. N arne Attendance Dependability Creativity Leadership 2. 3. 4 5 VI. List ten things about Immigration that you did not know before 1. 6 2. 7 3. 8. 9. 5. 10.

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'Tll)S"Ji TE.-\i\I REPORTS

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Our findings on immigration in TEXAS suggest that illegal immigration causes alot of problems for the state of TEXAS because of: 1. When an illegal immigrant comes from Mexico or a different country and somehow gets hurt, the state of TEXAS pays for their health care. 2. When come from neighboring countries, they usually have no place to stay. Therefore, the state of TEXAS has to provide them with a place to stay at the cost of the taxpayers. 3. Should the state of TEXAS give free education to illegal immigrant? Presently they dOalthough there has already been a court case reqarding this issue. The education of illegal immigrants also costs the taxpayers of the state millions of dollars. 4. Illegal immigrants take jobs from legal citizens of the state of TEXAS. 5. Illegal immigrants make it hard on' people who take the legal way to come to the United States. We, as the TEXAS team, feel that more action should be taken with the illegal irrunigrant problem because it is costing more and more money to deal with the problems of illegal immigrants; money which we feel could be better spent on things such as education for the legal citizenry. We are sure alot of people agree with this statement. Here is a VERY IMPORTANT QUESTION. How can the United States take more action in stopping illegal immigration? Nobody knows, except the illegal immigrants. Somehow we must work together to solve this very complicated problem. 154

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Russia currently undergoing massive reform in terms of government, economy, a socially. The people of Russia and it's republics are being posed with problems such as gelling food, health care, and political righ ts. Currently only two percent of im migrants ad mitted to the United States are of Russian origin, within the next year the projected percentage is expected to be at Jive percent. Most o( which can be considered either political or econqmic refugees. The main dilemma placed in the Russian governments hands are the regearing of the economy away from weapons and defense, and government research, and more towards an efficient mercantile economy, and the harvesting of natural resources to generate surplus and revenue through the international trade market that up until now they have been disconnected from. And acquiring the modern medical technologies that the Russian public have not had access to. The United States and several other capable nations are providing what ever aid they can to assist the redevelopment of Russia and the former Soviet States. But the estimated time for these lands to r.each the so called "I nternational A verage" will rake two or three generations of solid progress. Through all the research that we have been doing in regaurds to this project I personaly attempted to get through the telephone com putor system of the I.N. S to have quetions answered in regaurds to Russian immigration and virtualy got lost. After a half hour of directionless button pushing and enduring redundant recoreded messages 1 was finaly able to reach a real human being. Unfortunatly much to my dismay this person seemed to know nothing on the topic of which her profession de It with and seemed that she has never and maybe will never master the english language. All in all she was very uncooperative, offered no direction in which 1 could get helpful information. I attempted to ask several questions, all of which were responded to with patronizing overtone. A t the end of our conversation I asked for a phone nu mber that I may get a hold of a real person that might have the info. 1 needed, she said no. I fUrthered my search in the Denver branch of the National Censu s Bureau. There I was able to talk to a real person right of the bat. whom was very cooperative in traking down a phone number of the I.N. S in Washington D.C. She gave me a number that turned out to be the number of the I.R.S. When 1 got in touch with the m and finally got the nu m ber I was Looking for. I called directly into the I.N. S ain office and had the privlage to speek with someone who actually knew her job. went out of her way to get the

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info, I needed. and managed t o be polite and refer me to people that could answer the questions that she could not. I would like to suggest that these government agencies strongly reevaluate there employees, and the manor of which the general public can get in louch with the employees, And possibly e ven consider dumping the phone computor and teaching the operators about the topics they where hired to deal with. I feel nothing but sorrow for the immigrant who needs info. on becoming a citizen. especialy if they don't know english very well. 1 5 8

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164

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Whet ebout illegel immigrants and their children who use public hospitals and schools, receive welfare and other government ben e fit s nNe w Yo rk? The cos t 0 foIl l his i s p c ked up by the Americen toxpoyer. Solutions The government needs to take control end put e stop to the Immigratfon problem This notion occepts more foreigners then the rest of tile world combined We've hod 0 rnultl-billion dollor deficit 3 years In 0 row ond yet we continue to pay for these immigrents. We toke better care 0 f thern than we do our own, yet immi gren ls account for I In every 5 inmates in federal prisons. When there's a problem In the world, people come here to New York. The U.S. needs to control our borders ond crock down on irnmigrotion-iJeceuse were bursting at the seoms. 165

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IMMIGRATION AND WELFARE On wensday, Thursday November 2.3rd, paul and I went to the Colorado Division of Welfare,by this we received little or no help from them. Although they did refer us to a company the name of C R.I.S P. Colorado,Refugie and Immigration service Program. They treated us like children watching our every move. they really didn't want to waste there time on helping us so they sent us to there library to try and scrape up as much information as we possibly could. We had a time getting around a place like that with no idea where to start we begin to search. We first found out that 27-31 %of the newly arrived refugees go on welfare So to be eligible for SSI, an individual must be either a citizen of the united states or a legal alien, but immigrants Are more likely to receive welfare than natives. a span of three years Colorado spent 5,584,632$ on Cash Assistance for immigrants.The use of welfare by immigrants is still increasing today. So as the numbers increase and more and more people continue to enter the U.S.A. the money tends to shorten. Native's in America who need welfare have less chance for the help they need, simply because peoplC? from another country have a better chance at getting welfare, We both agree that there needs to be a tighter cap on who can come to the U.S. and who cant. I think that it is best for our country. BY Chris Garcia Paul Moya, 1 6 6

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Over the years the laws on Immigration have gotten stricter and the other countries' problems have gotten worse. Also, the worse economic and political situations get worldwide, the more refugees and Immigrants thatcome to the United States. Nowadays people don't care about the laws. They just leave and hide out. Most of the time people don't have time to think about what will happen if they get caught. All they are worrying about is getting out of their country Our recomendation to the problem is that we should have a limit on the number of people we let in each year for each country. Also, if we're going to let Cubans, Hispanics, and Asians into the United States then we should allow Haitians in too. Now, we understand about the problem with a lot of them having A.I.D.S. but can't we have tests. For the women and children is to educate the women when they get here so they can get a job. Set up financial aid and health care until they are stable. Also, if the husband and the wife get separated we should try to reunite them in the U.S. THANK YOU!!!!!

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0 0 35

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POSITION PAPER: IIA ITIAN BoRT PEOPLE t, 171

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Your huddled masses shore. to me, 173

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174

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APPE IDIXC DESIGN TERIALS Planning orksheet Image-changing Su-ategies Chart 175

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Message R .tiona! Objecljve Aim Mood Audience Uniquen ... Symbol! Opening Movement I Movement II Movement Conclusion Postur .. Stori .. eumpl 1mag .. : t:= ___ J

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CIIANGING IMAGES !.Q: E!:Qm: !.Q: (}"1X.(l 2wukJ ACADEMIC SEMINARS Bnalhh Studio, Scienco A COMMUNITY PROJBCT An A scan 01 2 weeks ACADEMIC SEMINARS Studies ScIonce 6weeb PERSONAL PORTFOLIO 1(: lctS se!;Vl1fflll'l.l 01 01.

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APPE 1 IDIXD ADVISORY BOARD ARTIFAO'S

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MINUTES ACADEMIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE OCTOBER 7, 1994 Present: Absent: Loyal Darr Burna Dunn, Claudia Fitch, Dorothy Gottlieb Gordon Heaton, Victoria Lucero. Sonja Pederson, Tom Murnan, Oliveann Slona, Dr. Lynn Taylor Carol Webb, Debbie Williams Jeff Fields. Tanya Hope. Slierrie Schneider, Eleanor Moller, Nonna ZarJow, Senator Don Mares, Karen Troxel Committee members first found their folders distributed around the table. 01iveann Siotta greeted committee members and gave opening remarks. All participants then introduced themselves as follows: Lynn Taylor has been a tenured associate professor at UCD for seven years and is excited about the CEC Academic Program. Carol Webb, science teacher. Claudia Fitch began working at CEC 1983 and has a daughter who is presently a student here. Loyal Darr supervises ten student teachers as part of the Teacher Education program at DU. He knew about the interdiscipinary nature of the CEC program from having been employed by DPS. Gordon Heaton, social studies teacher Victoria Lucero is attending Metro and plans to become either an English or social studies teacher. She feels the CEC program keeps students from "falling through the cracks Nonna Zarlow, Community College. is a believer in non-traditional delivery of instruction and helped guide the integration project. Tom Murnan came to CEC in 1986 and introduced the interdisciplinary, performance-based program aid CEC students who were experiencing difficulty at their home schools. Burna Dunn went to a teacher training program in 1986 at Spellman College in Atlanta and returned to develop Kaleidoscope Learning Strategies, which Oliveann invited her to implement here. Burna's daughter attended CEC her senior year. Burna has been in attendance a1 several project presentations. Dorothy Gottlieb i s a former school board member and initiated a statewide newspaper about education She l earned of the CEC Academic 17 9

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Program in 1988 and feels that i t saved two of her three children s academic lives ." Debbie Williams, CEC A.P reported that students here like the program and that it is meeting their needs. Oliveann then talked about the committee members who were unable to be present. Sonja Pederson, English teacher and scribe for this meeting. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION OIiveann then presented the structure of the Academic Program Four teachers, one para, and one counselor work with approximately one hundred students in a performance-based curriculum. Mrs. Siotta explained that the team works with students on self-iQ1age and on changing student assumptions about their images of self, school and community. She explained the orientation process. Focusing on the term project, she explained placemcnt in mid -semester to help maintain students' interest. The end-of-the-semester portfolio defines whether or not students learned what they said they were going to learn. Discussing enrollment, Mrs. Siotta informed the group that present enrollment is down partly due to block scheduling at home high schools. The program has a two to one boy/girl ratio. Sixty-eight per cent of the students have jobs; thirteen have full-time jobs. Mrs. Slotta requested that members of the advisory board return on Tuesday. November 8, at 9:50 a.m in 212 to hear the Immigration and Naturalization project reports. IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION PROJECT Gordon Heaton explained how and why the project functions explaining that the teachers select the topic and that students participate in it during their midsession The project topic is selected early in the semester so that references can be made to it and information amassed throughout the semester. He gave historical references to past projects. Students' responsibilities are to work together as a team to produce and present a product; students are expectcd to draw from what they are learning in their career classes to aid in their presentations. Students will evaluate each other as well as themselves. Built into the project is the opportunity to do volunteer work. Victor i a Lucero recalled that she worked during her project at Head Start.

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ADYISORY BOARD MEMBER INVOLVEMENT Members were asked to write down two to three ways that an advisory board could be of service and to select their top choice. Suggestions were grouped into categories: funding, curriculum. community networking, visibility in promoting program beyond Denver and Colorado and project resource. Above process was repeated answering "Where do you see yourself in this kaleidoscope? What will you do?" Norma ZarJow assumed that this is a unique program and needs to be advertised. "You are on the cutting edge for schools of the future.," adding that the secret is solely here. RESPONSES Loyal Darr observed that a program is only as good as its members. Dorothy Gottlieb was interested in accountability so that the concept of performance-based education and CEC can survive and can be justified. She wants these programs' out in the other schools and noted that we might revive the old humanities units. Carol Webb closed with the question. "What do you hope for education in the future?" Queried Tom Murnan. "How do we measure it?" Norma ZarIow suggests a value system that helps students respect their community and realize that they are part of a larger community. Take the best from what exists and apply it. CLOSING Members were asked make corrections on the membership roster. Oliveann reminded group of future meetings and of upcoming events. tours and open house.

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Workshop Notes October 7, 1994 Topic: "Ways in Which Advisory Board Can Be of Assistance" Give Input for Curriculum Content Program Enhancement Ideas Brainstorm Enhancements (Creativity) Program Evaluation Planning Annoy (positively) -I.E Question Keep learning interactive for students Suggestions for educational change Supporting staff in implementing of concepts. ideas. etc. Whatever you most need -esp. program quality and growth Visibility for program across the state Tell the community about us Network share Visibility to -promote the program national and interstate "Advertise" and promote to the community Networking and sharing curriculum resourcing and Community resource referrals Resource and technical assistance Educational laison and financial resources In school student support Student advocate Talk to friends in foundations Funding sources Strategies for getting students Recruiting Recruiting Support for teams Refugees to talk toVolags to talk to Support for projects

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Mission Statement of the career magnet school the Fred N. Thomas Career Education Center (CEC) in which the was situated

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The Career Education Center, as an extended campus of the Denver Public Schools, has as its mission to provide secondary school students with basic and advanced, specialized and diverse career education preparation which assures up-co-date job entry-level skill achievement and/or fulfills entrance requirements to continu. e education. The Career Education Center shall be performa.nce based, achievement oriented, with individual success by each student its major concern. The Career Education Center instructional system and facility shall be designed with the greatest possible degree of flexibility to meet new and changing needs. The Career Education Center shall blend academic. art and occupational experiences into meaningful educational programs. The Career Education Center shall e.'<:tend educational opportunities through cooperative arrangements with business, industry, labor, dvic organizations and agencies, and post-secondary institutions. The Career Education Center offerings shall complement and extend the high school educational programs. The Career Education Center shall provide resources to meet the special needs of students. The Career Education Center shall maintain a positive learning climate. The Career Education Center shall encourage staff, student and community involvement in tile decision making process. The Career EducatIon Center shall seek the cooperation of the Denver School Board and administration and urge (hem to utilize their leadership and decision making autilOrity CO bring about complete articulation with the home school enable all high school students the opportunity to pursue their career goals by attending the Career Education Center. 184

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APPENDIXE QUANTITATIVE STUDY RESULTS 185

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The Instrument Three Systems of Learning--an Academic Program Planning Analysis and Description 1991 Quantitative Study Methodology. The instrument was in questionnaire format and comprised two sides of a single page It contained eight sections. Six of the sections elicited eight short answers by checking boxes ; two asked for written comments. Students required approximately 10 minutes to complete it. The question of student outcomes was addressed by these five sections: High school completion; Continuing education at a college or technical school; Community volunteer work; Activity in the political process--was the student registered to vote and had they voted and ; Self-sufficiency--had the student received public assistance money or food stamps. Study Design The study collected the objective data detailed above regarding former students' accomplishments and community involvement. Comparing this data with community norms measured whether or not immersion in community issues and participation in 186

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successful solutions during their formal high school years had transferred into participatory adult patterns. Subject Selection Three hundred seven students had completed at least one semester in the academic program at CEC during the four years of Fall 1986 through Spring 1990 Of these three hundred seven, addresses were available for all but ninety-three August of 1990 the questionnaire was mailed with a stamped, return envelope to these two hundred and fourteen former students (hereafter referred to as program alumni ) Forty-three or 20 % returned the questionnaire by mail or in pers on Results from these forty-three are referred to as the "motivated responses Forty-three additional names were randomly drawn by number from the remaining one hundred seventy-one program alumni and surveyed by telephone. If a telephone number had been disconnected the number of that student was returned to the drawing pool and another student's number drawn. Forty-three additional students were documented in this manner. Questionnaires were filled out for them by the researcher and results compiled. These results are referred to as the "unmotivated responses." This study compares these two bodies of data and then combines them for a valid representation of participatory patterns of the young adults who as high school youth experienced the "Project Approach" as a part of their curriculum By comparing the combined results with official, related statistics of Denver county residents in this same age group (18 24 yrs .*) conclusions can be drawn about the impact of the CEC Academic Program. ( The 1990 program alumni would be at least 18 years old 187

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and the 1986 alumni not older than 24 years Student s in the DPS m ay remain in school until the age of20 increasing our s pan to 18 -24 y r s.) Re s ults Motivated Re s ult s Following are the respon ses to each question by percentages. Question 1 ) High school completion: Forty -tw o or 98% graduated from one of Denver's ten hi g h schools. The remaining one has received a GED. Question 2) Continuing education : Twenty-three or 53% of these past students have attended a college or techni cal program since graduation Four others or 9% are in the military service. Que sti on 3) Community volunteer work: Thirteen or 30% said "y es" and four-did not re s pond Question 4 ) Voted: Twenty-one or 49% have voted. Three did not respond. Question 5 ) Self-sufficiency : Forty-one have not received public assistance or 95% are s elf sufficient. Unmotivated Results Question 1) High school completion: Thirty-one or 72% graduated from one of Denver's ten high schools. Seven have received a GED. Question 2) Continuing education: Sixteen or 37% of these past students have attended a college or technical program since graduation. Two others are in the military service. Question 3 ) Community volunteer work: 33% responded "yes" Question 4 ) Voted: Twelve or 28% have voted. Five did not respond Question 5 ) Self-sufficiency: Forty have not received public assistance of whom four are under eighteen for an 84 % self-sufficient rate. 188

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Combined Result s An arithmetic combination of the motivated and unmotivated data correlate with available comparison statistics as follows: Que stion 1) High school completion: Seventy-three of the eighty-six total respondents have graduated from high school. Eight of the remaining thirteen have received GED s and two are still enrolled in school for an 87% graduation rate. Eleven of our eighty-four did receive a diploma for a drop-out rate of 13%. (figure 4) Que stion 4) Voted: Thirty-three respondents or 38% hav e voted (figure 5) Question 5) Self-sufficiency: Seventy seven of the eighty-six have not received public assistance or 90 % are self sufficient. (figure 6) Five respondents or 6 % have received public Comparison to Community Data For comparison purposes statistics were obtained from Colorado state and Denver county agencies. By question, results follow: Que stion 1) Denver Public Schools lists a drop out rate of 14.5% for 11th graders and 8.7% for 12th graders or a loss of 21.9 students per hundred %) during the 1989-90 school year. Question 2) No statistics available Question 3) No statistics available. Question 4) Voting: 1,284 of Denver county's 45,880 18 24 year olds or 3% are classified as active voters. Que stion 5) Self-sufficiency: 5,270 of Denver county's 45,880 18 24 year olds or 11 % received public assistance money in 1990. The following three figures illustrate the combined results. 189

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Figure 4 1 Graduation data 190

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Figure 4 2 : Program alumni v oting statistics o

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4 .65% 5 81 % 89.53%

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Adler, M (1982 ). The paideia proposal. New York: Macmillan. Barber B (1992). An aristocracy of everyone. New York: Oxford University Press Bateson, G. (1972) Step s to an ecology of mind New York: Ballantine Books. Beerman, S (1996) Indiana high schools that work" s chool-improvement pilot sites: Effects of programmatic change on administrative roles and responsibilities. Unpublished doctoral dissertation Ball State University Muncie Indiana. Belenky, M.F. Clinchy, B M., Goldberger, N. R. and Tarule J. M. (1986 ) Women's ways of knowing New York: Basic Books, Inc: Boulding, K. (1956) The image. Arbor: University of Micbigan Press Boyle J (1993). Comparison s of student and teacher perceptions relative to classroom climate and cognitive learning at two secondarv schools. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas A M University, College Station. Bracey G. (1997) The seventh Bracey report on the condition of public education. Phi Delta Kappan, 79 (3), 120-136. Brookfield, S.D. (1987). Developing critical thinkers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Brooks, J. G. Brooks M. G. (1993). The case for constructivist classrooms. Alexandria VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development Brown Campione, J. C. (1994). Guided discovery in a community of learners. In K. McGilly (Ed ), Classroom lessons: Integrating cogniti ve theory and classroom practice, ( pp. 229-270) Cambridge MA: MIT Pres sIB radford Books Brown, S. (1996) Mathematics, pedagogy, and secondruy teacher education:posing mathematically. Portsmouth NH: Heinemann. Bruner, J. (1996) The culture of education Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Carroll J. M. (1994). The Copernican plan evaluated : The evolution of a revolution. Phi Delta Kappan, 760), 105-113. 193

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