THE KEYSTONE INN
A RESORT HOTEL
KEYSTONE HEIGHTS, FLORIDA
An Architectural Thesis presented to the
College o-f Design and Planning,
University o-f Colorado at Denver in
partial -ful -f i 11 ment o-f the requirements o-f
the Degree of Master of Architecture.
Richard Ross Whetsel
The Thesis o-f Richard Ross Whetsel is approved
University o-f Colorado at Denver
TABLE OF; CONTENTS
Keystone Heights, Florida
The Keystone Inn
ZONING AND BUILDINGS CODES
What is it that drives us out of our cities, away -from the
chaos and congestion, tor days or weeks at a time, to the
solitude and comfort of the country. Whatever the reason, the
need has always existed; from the baths of ancient Rome, to the
royal residences of the English monarchy, to the luxury hotels
such as the Broadmoor. Man has always needed a time and place
for himself, away from the norm, to refocus and seek new
perspect i ves.
A sixty year old resort hotel, (inn) built along the shore
of a fresh water, sandy bottom lake in Keystone Heights, Florida
offered such a place before a fire in 1954 closed the hotel down.
It could once again become a refuge, in this small rural town in
north central Florida, away from the conventions of the urban
centers that lay just one hour drive by car.
I have chosen this site, with the existing structure on it,
for it represents an opportunity to study the relationship that
architecture has with the following:
1) The perceived visualization and psychological needs and
growth a user seeks from a resort inn.
2) The integration of a new addition onto an older structure
while preserving and enhancing that which exists.
3) The element of time, and how it is percieved and understood
when the user is contained within a micro environment.
"There is a level of excitement in certain resort hotels which I
disagree. It is too overwhelming, too pretentiously glamorous
and it makes people feel uncomfortable. People are looking in
hotel surroundings for the same informality that marks the more
casual way we are living today."
People have many expectations and images of a resort inn.
One may conjure up an image of sitting under a large shade tree,
nestled against a mound of earth with a pina colada in hand while
gazing out into the distance watching the world pass by.
Providing spaces where an individual can go and feel alone away
from the activities of the building to think or meditate may
begin to address this relationship. Small niches both on the
outside and inside looking across the facility into the woods or
over the surface of the water is one way to create an atmosphere
where a person can relax and allow his or her mind to wonder.
The psychological need to relax by getting away from the
environment of a persons day today life is important. The
environment must begin to address the users preconception and
satisfy those expectations he/she have of the resort. Through
the use of vegetation, water, and forms, the resort can capture
the essence of Florida and it's history, providing the users with
an environment conducive -for their imagination.
"One thing hastens into being, another hastens out of it. Even
while a thing is in the act of coming into existence, some part
of it has already ceased to be. Flux and change are forever
renewing the fabric of the universe just as the ceaseless sweep
of time, is forever renewing the face of eternity. In such, a
running river, when there is no firm foothold, what is there for
a man to value among all the many things that are racing past
This structure represents something very unique in that
this building represents the town; for it was constructed two
years prior to the incorporation of this small community of 1,100
people. It has witnessed and been part of the changes that have
occured, both good and bad. The town has seen this structure age
over the years from neglect and misfortune, and because of it,
the outdated facility is unable to serve its use. The building
and the town have a symbiotic relationship. The town needs the
building to enhance its image as a tourist community, which is
its economic base and to provide jobs for it's younger people.
The building needs the town to maintain the significance of the
hotel site and to allow the hotel to connect two parcels of land
that have been severed by a state highway. The town needs the
building, for it represents the past, the history of the town;
the visits of J.C. Penney, Robert Frost, Molly Brown, to name a
few. The resort needs the people to manage its dining rooms,
man it's kitchens and maintain its grounds. There is a marriage
here that needs to exist, for it is symbolic of the relationship
of thousands of buildings in many communities around our country.
The most formible task is to design and modernise this
structure along with its amenities and services without
destroying its ambiance and its signifaicance to the community.
"The objective of preservation is the retention of the full
range of styles, sensations and references that record the citys
history and achievements visually and envrionmental1y to keep
them in the citys vital mainstream."
Ada Louise Huxtable
A problem of this type must address the relationship of past
and present. The past speaks of the type of individuals who were
involved in its erection, the uses the building served, and the
opinions of its community at different times. It represents the
political structure, the economic conditions, and the social
morals of the area during its history. The new addition and
renovation must recognise this and be sensitive to this issue.
The new buildings and spaces, must enhance and preserve the
feelings of the older structure, to help the user to identify
with the history of that part of the plan. The user should be
allowed to perceive the new through that of the old. The
forms and materials selected for the new addition need to
provide the imagery necessary -for the user to identity with the
thought process o-f design used in 1924 when the building was
built, and now in 1985. The spaces created by the use o-f the
solids of the old and new need to allow the user to understand
that the interaction of the parts is something special. The
scale of the new is very important and must not force itself on
that which now exists; be it the three story frame building, the
large oak trees, or the single story structures that line the
main street. The new must order itself around the existing, and
through its size bring attention to the old. Over the last
sixty years the technology in the building industry has changed
radically in the use of new materials. The new structures should
say something about the time in which it was built, just as the
existing structure tells us of it's time and conditions. The
success of the new addition with the integration of the existing
depends on how well it speaks of, and respects each period 'of
its time and place.
"The great advantage of a hotel is that
its a refuge from home life."
George Bernard Shaw
"Cashel Byrons Profession"
The stillness of the water on the lake, the motion of the
automobiles along the highway, and the arms on the clock create a
relationship here that the user will recognize. How it is
percieved will determine the quality of stay for the individual.
The nature of the resort, as identified earlier, is a place to
lay back and reach within oneself to relax and allow things just
to happen. The lake, the highway and the clock are very much a
part of this process.
The stillness of the water has an hypnotic effect on the
observer as the surface glistens from the reflection of the sun.
Suddenly, a fish is seen breaking the surface, reaching for an
insect who has flown too close to the water, disturbing the
stillness, thus forcing the individual to become aware of his
surroundings momentarily, reality enters into his sphere and he
must deal with it, until the waters stillness returns and his
thoughts can posess him once again.
The highway can act on a person in the same manner. It can
symbolize a river, the cars and trucks flowing down the road
confined to the asphalt bed, taking the path of the least
resistance which had been engineered years ago. An abnormality
is distinguished from the rhythm of the car, whether it is a slow
moving tractor or a police car with its lights and siren on.
Each with its own pace breaks the observers state of mind,
forcing reality upon the individual. Like the arms of a clock,
the lake and highway, are relative to time with occasional
movement interrupting the predominant calm. The seconds tick
by, the minutes elaspe, and in the tranquil environment of the
resort, time becomes abstract. The world revolves around at its
own rate with little consideration to us. This is the attitude
one becomes aware of when in the atmosphere of a resort with the
only time increment that you the user is aware of is that time
Reality surfaces and
between now and the time you must leave,
the clocks hands move again.
To facilitate this relationship, of time and the user, it
will be necessary to create a sense of rhythm only to be
disturbed by separating those parts responsible for the
rhythm, thus forcing the observer to become aware of his time and
place. The design should allow nature to react to it, for the
climatic conditions of the region create a sense of rhythm with
the interplay of the morning's sun and the afternoon thunderstorms.
For this design process to work I must be able to understand
the relationships at hand. I must deal with the dynamics of
weather, time of day, and the surroundings. I must incorporate
the perceptions and images of an old and a new resort hotel. I
must balance time and space. It will be necessary to create a
sense of rhythm in order to share with both the user and observer
my solution to this challenging problem.
One can enter Keystone Heights in north central Florida, by
three different routes; out of Gainesville from the south on
route 100, out of Starke, Florida from the north or from
Jacksonville on highway 21. The country side is flat with the
pastures of corn and wheat lining both sides of the highway,
giving the appearence of having been carved out from the dense
forest of southern pines. Throughout the region there are a
number of small fresh water lakes. These lakes support the
economys of many of these rural towns through tourism; with
their good fishing, swimming and boating. People throughout
northern Florida and southern Georgia, visit the area to escape
the problems of the larger cities.
The people visiting the region have few choises of where to
stay for the night. Presently, the only accomodations are the
small individually owned cabins and roadside motor courts.
Neither type of facility provides the quality or image people ctre
looking for when seeking a place to stay for holiday or vacation.
"True comfort requires more than meeting
the hotel guests physical needs. The
hotel must also satisfy deep emotional
needs as wel1. A hotel can have an
uncomfortable atmosphere even when every
physical need is met. Emotional comfort
must be achieved and a person away form
home, for whatever reason, unconsciously
expects a new experience, an emotional
Morris Lapidus, Architect
Keystone Heights has the opportunity to create a place for
attracting the tourist by providing the user with the kind of
experience Morris Lapidus has just described.
On the southwest end of town along main street stands a 60
year old, three story frame hotel. Closed since 1954, due to a
fire in one of the guest rooms on the third floor, this inn
commands the attention necessary to attract families, small
conferences, ceremonies and travelers. The dining room, once
famous in the area for its food and atmosphere, can again draw
people in from around the region for formal occasions, special
events or just Sunday brunch. The large population of retired
people who reside in and around Keystone, as well as the other
residents, can find enjoyment in the social activities that go
along with public dining.
The hotel is seen as an alternative from the beach resorts
along the Florida coast, where the visiting guest from the urban
centers nearby can find refuge from the day to day routine while
on vacation. It can also provide the local community an
alternative in dining pleasure that presently does not exist.
However, the amenities, size and conditions of the existing spaces
don't allow for this opportunity to take place. To begin to
satisfy these needs, such amenities of racquetball courts,
swimming pool, game room and etc. would be required. The guest
vacationing typically would stay at the inn for weeks at a time.
The user will have a great deal of free time. He must maintain a
degree o-f activity throughout his stay; -for people in general
feel a need to stay productive, even on vacation. The -facility
and the hotel employees must allow the user the opportunity to
fullfil this need.
The hotel is seen interacting with the numerous lakes in the
area, the state park on Lake Geneva across -from the Inn, and the
community o-f Keystone Heights, allowing the user to be exposed to
a wide variety of activities and people.
For the hotel to -finance the amenities, it will be necessary
to increase the number o-f guest rooms -from the present 22 rooms
to 60 guest rooms. This in turn requires increasing all of the
support spaces in the Inn, such as the lobby, dining room and
The success of the experience for the user will be
determined by the quality of both the interior and exterior
spaces. The integration of the new with the old will begin 'to
for these spaces and allow the guest to understand where he is
The people who will be running this facility will have a big
impact on the guest stay at the inn. The involvement of the
hotel employees with the guest is typically more direct than at
say a urban hotel. The guest will need to feel they belong and
are being taking care of. It will be the employees
responsibility to make the inn feel like "a home away from home"
to the guest. The staff will comprise of the local residents
from Keystone Heights. This will be important so as to
facilitate the intergration of the hotel with the city and the
guest with the community. The size of the staff consist of the
one general manager (typically the owner)
manager of sales, marketing and pr work
front office guest manager (1 for every
housekeeping (1 maid/15 rooms)
senior housekeeper (checks rooms and supervises)
maintenance (3groundkeepers and 3 bldg personnel)
kitchen staff 2 cooks
helper to cooks
salad and soup prep,
dining room staff
busperson per 2
wai ter/wai tresses
c 1 er k
person per shift, 3 shifts
secur i ty
per 4 to 6 tables
wai ter/wai tresses
The following study discusses the issues involved in
upgrading a 60 year old resort as an alternative to razing the
structure and building a new one.
In 1918 there was a small village called Brooklyn alongside
Road 28 (now known as SR 100) about one mile north of the present
location of Keystone Heights Florida. One might say Brooklyn was
the birthplace of Keystone Heights because it was there that John
J. Lawrence first thought about the beauty of the Lake Geneva
area and decided it should be the place for a new town.
Lawrence was originally from Pittsburgh. He came to the
area after helping George E. Sebring develop and build the town
It was in Sebring that Lawrence met a man who owned a large
amount of land around Brooklyn. His name was J.B. Zell.
Shortly, Lawrence had purchased several thousand acres of the
In those early days Brooklyn consisted of a large unpainted
building called the Brooklyn Hotel; a combination general store
and post office; and several small housese scattered about.
In 1921, the first house was built in Keystone Heights and,
very appropriately belonged to the Lawrences. The home still
exists today along the shore of Lake Geneva.
Other families moved to Keystone. However, because
construction couldn't keep pace with the influx of families and
requests for houses, some families lived in tents until their
homes were completed.
In the fall of 1922, C. Ray Lawrence and his family came to
Keystone from Conneautvi11e Penn. A civil engineer, he was hired
by the developing company of John Lawrence, to lay out the
streets and lots in the town. He made the first maps of Keystone
In late 1922, the nearest pavement was in Starke. To get to
Starke, a person drove through sand ruts, palmetto woods and
water holes. A trip to Gainesville in those days was a full
days venture, even though the trip today only takes 50 minutes.
The first pavement in Keystome Heights was Lawrence
Boulevard, which is main street even today. The black top was
replaced in 1960, when the street was widened to accommodate more
traff i c.
Base rock was originally used in lieu of pavement on SR100
from Keystone to Starke. The road was finished in June of 1929.
Prior to 1924, there were eight trains traveling daily
through Keystone Heights on the Georgia, Florida and Southern
railroad tracks. Four of these trains were passenger and four
In 1907, there were only two houses in the town of Lake
Geneva. In 1908, E.A. Kennedy built a hotel there that included
a post office and railroad office. Carpenters came by boat
across Lake Geneva from Melrose and camped at the building during
the week. Trains carrying the lumber and supplies were flagged.
Passenger trains brought many families to the lake for enjoyable
Prior to the fire, a small Clay County branch library was
housed in the Womans Club. After the fire, another library was
opened along main street and in 1964, the present library opened
next to the Municipal Building in city park.
In 1925, a charter for the town was granted by a special act
of the legislature and Keystone Heights was incorporated. Also
in 1925, the first building permits were issued. The first was
for the construction of a home for Judge Earl Mecklem, Keystone's
In 1923, the Community Church was organized. Worshipers met
in a residence on Sylvan Way until a building was erected in
1924. The Masonic Lodge was the first national organization
established in the city. In 1953, the Keystone Heights Lions
Club was chartered and first held their meetings at the Keystone
Inn. All of these organizations have added much growth to the
healthful atmosphere of the town.
Regarding utilities, Keystone Heights has truly come a long
way since 1923. In 1923 the water supply was pumped from
Keystone Lake. In 1940, some of the citizens complained to the
State Board of Health regarding the safety of the water supply.
It was still drawn from Keysone Lake in the area open to the
public. Livestock was also allowed to run loose. When inspected
it was found that the water was still safe for drinking, but
changes were needed. It was reported that "both cattle and hogs
had been along the shore." The State Board of Health suggested
that to the city that the water supply should come from the
larger lake of Lake Brooklyn. Today the water is supplied from
the deep wells that were drilled forty years ago.
The only telephone in town in 1924, was at the Keystone Inn,
from which the telephone line came from Interlachen, a town some
twenty miles away.
In 1924, electricity for the town was provided by a small
Delco plant owned by John Lawrence. Power was turned on during
the eveing hours and provided a flickering light at the best.
The operation was only a one man job but Lawrence still found it
difficult to obtain a permanent operator. However, a man by the
name of Wiggins, took over the responsibility and bought the
plant in 1925. In the next few years Wiggins was responsible for
the building of 100 miles of power lines stretching to several
of the towns in the area.
Wiggins believed electricity was essential, irregardless of
where they lived. However, to provide electricity to a growing
popultion in Keystone and other areas, money was needed to
finance expansion of more power lines and to build a larger
power plant. His firm belief that electricity should be available
to all families was met when the non-profit Clay Electric
Cooperative, Inc. was organized in late 1937. The cooperative
served only a handful of members at first. Now, the co-op serves
over 50,000 families in 12 counties.
By 1926, Keystone Heights boasted a public beach with a
pavillion, picnic grounds and a nine hole golf course. A putting
green was adjacent to the Keystone Inn. The pavillion was the
scene of many Saturday night dances.
The golf course was in use by 1926. It was strictly a sand
course and eventually given up. In 1958-59, a Golf and Country
Club was formed. A clubhouse was built and the golf course was
made usable again on the site of the original course.
In 1926, a much needed school house was erected on Academy
Way for the elementary and high school students. As years passed
many temporary buildings were added. In 1944, the high school
portion, grades 9-12 were deleted because there were few
Grades one through eight continued to be held in
Grades 9-12 were added in the 1962-63 school year. In
1974, the present junior-senior high school building
Note: The above
the 50th bi
The grand opening of the Keystone Inn took place on January
1, 1924. Within two years this three story frame structure had
made a name for itself, attracting people from as far north as
New England. The Chautauqua circuit, from the original
Chautauqua in New York state, found its way to Keystone Heights
and the musicans, speakers, and artists would stay at the inn
while they were in town. Others who had stayed or eaten in the
dining room of the inn, were such famous individuals as Robert
Frost, Molly Brown and J.C. Penney.
The inn was used on occasion by the University of Floridas
football team and by members of the state senate. The coach of
the Florida Gators, would bring the entire team to the inn to
stay the night before the big homecoming game. The coach believe
the team needed the peace and quiet away from the fans. The
members of the Florida Senate used the inn to conduct meetings
away from the choas of the senate chambers in Tallahassee.
During the war years, wives of the soldiers stationed at
nearby Camp Blanding, would fill up the rooms of the inn. The
inn provided that atmosphere conducive for the soldiers last
leave before departing for Europe.
People from the nearby towns used the inn to hold community
meetings, banquets, weddings and other gatherings. The inn
represented one of the larger structures in the lake region and
with its location near the shore of Lake Geneva, and the large
gardens and lawns which surrounded the building, the inn could
easy provide the ambiance for any affair.
Sunday dinners were a popular event at the inn. People from
as far away as Gainesville and Jacksonville, traveled for hours,
to eat in the elegant dining room that the inn provided. Some
time during the 1940s, a millionaire from New York, by the name
of F. LaMorte, visited his daughter in nearby Starke. At that
time after visiting Keystone Heights and eating at the inn, he
purchased the building for $80,000. Mr. LaMorte, immediately
invested a great deal of money into the building for renovation
of many of the rooms and its gardens.
In 1951, the city of Keystone found itself in need of money
so it negotiated a lease with Mr. LaMorte and the hotel for
rights of access to the public beach.
The Keystone Inn burned on Sunday evening, October 3, 1954.
At the time the building only had guest staying on the first
floor when the fire broke out on the third, destroying several
rooms and parts of the roof. Two volunteer firemen lost their
lives in the fire when a section of the roof gave way taking them
with it. The inn has never been re-opened since. In 1956, Mr.
LaMorte sold the building to a Mr. Paul Symthe of Gainesville
Florida, who remains the owner to date. For the last thirty
years the only changes that have occurred to the building is that
of remedial repair work and the typical wearandtear that a
building witnesses from neglect.
vjIaTIaJLaTH_ AT ^
Keystone Heights, lies 29 miles northeast o-f Gainesville and
59 miles southwest of Jacksonville. This picturesque community
is surrounded by lakes and hills and represents the highest point
in elevation at 245 feet above sea level in the state of Florida.
The site of the hotel is located on the southwest end of
Lawrence Street (main street), in the city of Keystone Heights.
Nestled between Keystone Lake and Lake Geneva, the site contains
four and a half acres (plus of minus).
The project will be treating the parcel of land the hotel
is presently sitting on and the public beach as one site. The
present owner and the city both feel that for the hotel
to function it is essential to have direct access to Lake Geneva.
Thusly, state highway 21 divides the site into two separate
The site is covered with decidous and evergreen tree types.
There are several large live oak trees that are over a hundred
years old and stand over 70 feet high dispersed throughout the
property (see property site plan). The heaviest accumilation of
trees cover the south and west half of the site. On the north
end of the site stand evidence of a neglected orange grove. A
canopy of live oak trees with Spanish moss draping down from
their limbs covers the entire public beach area.
The site gradually slopes down from the northern property
line toward the shore of Lake Geneva, with the slope increasing
as the land falls towards the lake (see contour map, this section).
The major views are south, southeast across the Lake of
Geneva, southwest into the woods and northwest towards Keystone
Lake. The muncipal building and park adjacent to the hotel site
on the east and the small one story building of main street to
the north represent the minor views.
The dense woods of the region help protect the site from the
danger of the strong winds in the area, however breezes off the
lake provide the comfort, necessary in this humid tropical area.
The direction of the winds are predominatly from the north and
Traffic along the state highway accounts for the major noise
problem to the site. This highway provides a secondary link from
Gainesville to Jacksonville, thus the traffic is occasional and
involves itself only as a safety and visual problem at this time.
CLIMATOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED STATES NO. 60
Climate of Florida
TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURES Florida, situated between latitudes 24 to 30'
and 31N. and longitudes 80 and 87 30'W., is largely a lowland pen-
insula comprising about 54,100 square miles of land area and is sur-
rounded on three sides by the waters of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf
of Mexico. Countless shallow lakes, which exist particularly on the
peninsula and range in size from small cypress ponds to that of Lake
Okeechobee, account for approximately 4,400 square miles of additional
No point in the State is more than 70 miles from salt water, and the
highest natural land in the Northwest Division is only 345 feet above
sea level. Coastal areas are low and flat and are indented by many
small bays or inlets. Many small islands dot the shorelines. The
elevation of most of the interior ranges from 50 to 100 feet above sea
level, though gentle hills in the interior of the peninsula and across
the northern and western portions of the State rise above 200 feet.
A large portion of the southern one-third of the peninsula is the swamp-
land known as the Everglades. An ill-defined divide of low, rolling
hills, extending north-to-south near the middle of the peninsula and
terminating north of Lake Okeechobee, gives rise to most peninsula
streams, chains of lakes, and many springs. Stream gradients are slight
and often insufficient to handle the runoff following heavy rainfall.
Consequently, there are sizable areas of swamp and marshland near these
Soils are generally sandy and low in natural fertility, the main ex-
ception being a large area of peat and muck soils in the Everglades.
About one-third of Florida's soils can be classified as uplands or ridge
soils that are generally well- to excessively well-drained. Soils in
the remaining two-thirds of the State, including the muck soils, gen-
erally have imperfect to very poor natural drainage. Large areas of
Florida are underlain by compact subsoils that intensify the effects of
both wet and dry weather.
GENERAL CLIMATIC FEATURES Climate is probably Florida's greatest
natural resource. General climatic conditions range from a zone of
transition between temperate and subtropical conditions in the northern
interior portion of the State to the tropical conditions found on the
Florida Keys. The chief factors of climatic control are: latitude,
proximity to the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico, and numerous inland
Summers throughout the State are long, warm, and relatively humid;
winters, although punctuated with periodic invasions of cool to occa-
sionally cold air from the north, are mild because of the southern
latitude and relatively warm adjacent ocean waters. The Gulf Stream,
which flows around the western tip of Cuba, through the Straits of
Florida, and northward along the lower east coast, exerts a warming
influence to the southern east coast largely because the predominate
wind direction is from the east. Coastal stations throughout the State
average slightly warmer in winter and cooler in summer than do inland
stations of the same latitude.
Florida enjoys abundant rainfall. Except for the northwestern portion
of the State, the average year can be divided into two seasonsthe so-
called "rainy season" and the long, relatively dry season. On the
peninsula, generally more than one-half of the precipitation for an
average year can be expected to fall during the four-month period, Jupe
through September. In northwest Florida, there is a secondary rainfall
maximum in late winter and in early spring.
TEMPERATURE Mean annual temperatures range from the upper 60s in the
northern portions of the State to the middle 70s on the southern main-
land, but reach to nearly 78 at Key West. Summertime mean temperatures
are about the same throughout the State, 81 to 82; during the coolest
months, temperatures average about 13 lower in northern than in southern
Florida. July and August temperature averages are the warmest in all
areas, and December and January temperature averages are the coolest in
the northern and central portions of the State. January and February,
on the average, are the coolest months in the extreme south and on the
Maximum temperatures during the warmest months average near 90 along
the coast and slightly above 90 in the interior; minima average in the
low 70s, but are slightly higher along the immediate coast and on the
Keys than inland. During June, July, and August, maximum temperatures
exceed 90 about two days in three in all interior areas; in May and
September, 90 or higher can be expected about one day in three in the
norhtern interior and about one day in two in the southern interior.
Extreme heat waves, characteristic of continental locations, are felt
occasionallybut in a modified formover the northern interior portions
of Florida. Temperatures of 100 or higher are infrequent in northern,
rare in central, and practically unknown in southern Florida.
The summer heat is tempered by sea breezes along the coast and by frequent
afternoon or early evening thunderstorms in all areas. During the warm
season, sea breezes are felt almost daily within several miles of the
coast and occasionally 20 to 30 miles inland. Thunderstorms, which on
the average occur about one-half of the days in summer, frequently are
accompanied by as much as a rapid 10- to 20-drop in temperature,
resulting in comfortable weather for the remainder of the day. Gentle
breezes occur almost daily in all areas and serve to mitigate further
the oppressiveness that otherwise would accompany the prevailing summer
temperature and humidity conditions. Because most of the large-scale
wind patterns affecting Florida have passed over water surfaces, hot
drying winds seldom occur.
Although average minimum temperatures during the coolest months range from
the middle 40s in the north to the middle 50s in the south, no place
on the maintland is entirely safe from frost or freezing. An occasional
severe cold wave brings minima, ranging from 15 to 20 over the northern
portions to freezing or below over the souther portions of the peninsula.
These cold waves, except in rare instances, seldom last more than two or
three days at a time. It is extremely rare for temperatures to remain
below freezing throughout the day at any place in the State.
On the first night of a cold wave, there usually is considerable wind
which, because of the continual mixing of the air, prevents marked
temperature differences between high and low ground. By the second
night, winds usually have subsided and radiational cooling under clear
skies accelerates the temperature fall after sundown. On such occa-
sions, marked differences in temperature are noticeable at places not
far apart, depending upon such factors as topography and proximity to
bodies of water. These facts are of primary concern in selecting sites
for growing plants intolerant of cold.
Some wintersoccasionally several in successionpass without wide-
spread freezing to the southern portions of the peninsula; others may
bring several severe cold waves. Winters with more than one severe cold
wave, interspersed with periods of relative warmth, are especially
distressing to the agricultural industry because the later freezes almost
always find vegetation in a tender stage of growth and highly susceptible
to additional cold damage.
Limited weather records available for the 19th century indicate that
severe freezes occurred in February 1835, January 1857, December 1870,
December 1880, January 1886, December 1894, February 1895, January 1898,
and February 1889. Probably the 1835 freeze was the most severe.
Freezes of lesser severity are also known to have occurred, but tempera-
ture records are sparse up to 1886. Noteworthly cold spells during the
20th century are: January 1905, December 1906, December 1909, February
1917, January 1928, December 1934, January 1940, February 1947, and the
freezes of the 1957-58 winter season. The freeze of December 1962 was
as severe as those in late 1890s, while the historic early freeze of
November 1970 and the long-duration freeze of January 1971 combined to
be almost as severe.
Since 1937, the Federal-State Agricultural Weather Service in Lakeland,
a cooperative venture of the National Weather Service and the State of
Florida, has been securing temperature data at a great many peninsula
stations during the winter seasons. Additional detailed information,
including temperature-duration data, is published in the annual and
periodic summary reports of the Service.
PRECIPITATION Rainfall in Florida is quite varied both in annual
amount and in seasonal distribution. Individual station annual averages
range from about 50 to 65 inches. On the Keys, annual averages are only
about 40 inches. Highest annual rainfall is measured at stations in the
extreme northwestern counties and in the southern end of the peninsula.
Rainfall varies greatly from year to year, with wet years sometimes
producing double the amounts received during a dry year. Many local-
ities have received more than 80 inches in a calendar year, and a few
stations have measured more than 100 inches. In contrast, almost all
localities have received less than 40 inches in a calendar year.
The distribution of rainfall within the year is quite uneven. In the
summer rainy season, there is close to a 50-50 change that some rain
will fall on any given day. During the remainder of the year, the
chances of rainfall are much less, with some rain being likely to fall
on one or two days in a week.
The seasonal distribution changes somewhat from north to south. In the
northwestern portions of the State, there are two high pointslate
winter or early spring and again during summerand one pronounced low
pointOctober; a secondary low point occurs in April and May. On the
peninsula, the most striking features of the seasonal distribution are
the dominance of summer rainfall (generally more than one-half of the
average annual amount falls in the four-month period, June through
September) and the rather abrupt start and end of the summer rainy
season (June average rainfall tends to be nearly double the amount of
May, and in the fall, the average for the last month of the wet season
tends to be about double the amount of the following month). October
averages as the driest month in northwest Florida, but, in general, is
among the wettest months on the southeast coast and Keys.
The start and end of the rainy season varies considerably from year to
year. According to climatic records, the season has begun as soon as
early May and has been as delayed as late June. Late September or early
October usually marks the end of the wet season, except along a narrow
strip of the entire east coast where relatively large October rainfalls
are frequently noted. The tendency for relatively large October rain-
fall diminishes quite rapidly westward.
Most of the summer rainfall is derived from "local" showers or thunder-
storms. Many stations average more than 80 thunderstorms per year, and
some average more than 100. Rain is often heavy, but usually lasts only
one or two hours, generally near the hottest part of the day. The more
severe thunderstorms are occasionally attended by hail or locally strong
winds which may inflict serious local damage to crops and property.
Day-long summer rains are usually associated with tropical disturbances
and are infrequent. Even in the wet season, the rainfall duration is
generally less than 10 percent of the time.
Because most summer rains are local in character, large differences in
monthly and annual amounts at nearby stations are common, but these
differences disappear when a comparison is made on the basis of long-
period averages. However, large differences in the long-period averages
do exist within short distances. For example, the average annual rain-
falls for Miami Beach and for the Miami Airport are about 47 and 60
inches, respectively, yet it is less than 10 airline miles distance from
the Beach to the Airport. Similar conditions undoubtedly exist else-
where along the immediate coast.
Most localities have, at one time or another, experienced 2-hour rain-
falls in excess of three inches and 24-hour amounts of near or greater
than 10 inches. Nearly all localities have had within a single month
from one-third to one-half as much rain as falls during an entire
average year. Occasionally, tropical storms produce copious rainfall
over relatively large areas. A detailed survey of the September 1950
hurricane, conducted by the U.S. Corps of Engineers Florida District,
headquartered at Jacksonville, indicated an amount close to 34 inches
fell in a 24-hour period within the vicinity of Cedar Key. The 38.70
inches of rainfall that fell during that 24-hour period at Yankeetown on
September 5-6, 1950, during this hurricane is the record 24-hour rainfall
for the Nation. Because of water disposal problems, heavy rains can be
just as serious as droughts.
DROUGHTS Florida is not immune from drought, even though annual
rainfall amounts are relatively large. Prolonged periods of deficient
rainfall are occasionally experienced even during the time of the expected
rainy season. Several such dry periods, in the course of one or two
years, can lead to significantly lowered water tables and lake levels
which, in turn, may cause serious water shortages for those communities
that depend upon lakes and shallow wells for their water supply. The
worst drought in over 40 years along the Lower East Coast Division
occurred in 1971. In that Division, the lowest 12-month rainfall of
record, 34.59 inches, occurred during the period from July 1970 to June
1971. The level of Lake Okeechobee dropped to 10.3 feet, only 0.16 of a
foot above the record minimum of 10.14 feet.
Because a large part of the State's agricultural produce is planted,
grown, and marketed during fall, winter, and spring (normally the driest
part of the year), growers of high-per-acre-value crops have long con-
cluded that it is almost mandatory to provide supplemental irrigation
for crop success. The flat topography of the area where many of these
crops are grown is well suited to subsurface irrigation by water table
control. However, heavy rains can occur during these growing seasons,
and growers have found it necessary to provide for water-removal facilities
in addition to those for irrigation.
State-wide droughts during summer are rare, but it is not unusual during
a drought in one portion of the State for other portions to receive
generous rainfall. In a few instances, individual stations have experi-
enced periods of a month or more without rainfall.
SNOW Snowfall in Florida is unusual, although measurable amounts have
fallen in the northern portions at irregular intervals, and a trace of
snow has been recorded as far south as Fort Myers.
WIND Prevailing winds over the southern peninsula are southeast and
east. Over the remainder of the State, wind directions are influenced
locally by convectional forces inland and by the land-and-sea-breeze-
effects near the coast. Consequently, prevailing directions are some-
what erratic, but, in general, follow a pattern from the north in winter
and from the south in summer. The windiest months are March and April.
High local winds of short duration occur occasionally in connection with
thunderstorms in summer and with cold fronts moving across the State in
Tornadoes, funnel clouds, and waterspouts also occur, averaging 10 to 15
in a year. Tornadoes have occurred in all seasons, but are most frequent
in spring; they also occur in connection with tropical storms. Generally,
tornado paths in Florida are short, and damage has not been extensive.
Occasionally, waterspouts come inland, but they usually dissipate soon
after reaching land and affect only very small areas.
TROPICAL STORMS Storms that produce high winds and are often destructive
are usually tropical in origin. Florida, jutting out into the ocean
between the subtropical Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico, is the most
exposed of all States to these storms. In particular, hurricanes can
approach from the Atlantic Ocean to the east, from the Caribbean Sea to
the south, and from the Gulf of Mexico to the west.
The average number has been 1.7 tropical storms in a year, but individual
years may vary from none to as many as five. The State has never gone
more than two years without a tropical storm. The longest period since
1885 without a major hurricane was nine years, from 1951 to 1959,
The chances of hurricane-force winds reaching a particular locality in
any given year varies from one in 100 at Jacksonville to one in seven at
Key West and Miami. Only 10 or 11 storms of hurricane intensity in 87
years have passed inland on the west coast in the area from Cedar Key to
Fort Myers. On the extreme northeast coast from Saint Augustine to
Jacksonville, no tropical storm of full hurricane force was recorded
until hurricane Dora on September 9, 1964. Until that time, the city of
Jacksonville had the unique distinction of being the only large city in
Florida, and indeed the only on the Atlantic coast from Boston south-
ward, that had never sustained winds of hurricane force in a tropical
storm in modern times.
The vulnerability of the State to tropical storms varies with the
progress of the hurricane season. In August and early September,
tropical storms normally approach the State from the east or southeast,
but as the season progresses into late September and October, the region
of maximum hurricane activity (insofar as Florida is concerned) shifts
to the western Caribbean. Most of those storms that move into Florida
approach the State from the south or southwest, entering the Keys, the
Miami area, or along the west coast.
The most intense hurricane of modern times to affect the State of Florida
occurred on Labor Day in 1935. The lowest sea-level pressure ever
measured in the Western Hemisphere, 26.35 inches, was recorded at that
time. Engineers have calculated that winds of between 200 to 250 m.p.h.
would have been required to account for some of the damage that was
sustained during this severe hurricane.
The highest winds of a hurricane are seldom measured because these
usually occur at isolated places where no anemometers are installed. It
seems likely that winds of 150 m.p.h., which occasionally accompany
major hurricanes, occur in Florida perhaps once in seven years, on the
Some of the world's heaviest rainfalls have occurred within tropical
cyclones. Rainfall over 20 inches in 24 hours is not uncommon! The
intensity of the rainfall, however, does not seem to bear any relation
to the intensity of the wind circulation. For example, a storm that
entered the west coast of Florida in October 1941 was never of hurricane
intensity; nevertheless, over a 3-day period, about 35 inches of rain
fell at Trenton. The 24-hour amount for this same storm was about 30
inches. Another Florida hurricane of 1947 caused a rainfall of about
six inches in one hour at Hialeah. Such extremes, however, are rela-
tively rare; the average hurricane rainfall in Florida usually does not
exceed six to eight inches in a 24-hour period.
OTHER CLIMATIC FEATURES The climate of Florida is humid. Inland areas
with greater temperature extremes enjoy slightly lower relative humidity,
especially during times of hot weather. On the average, variations in
relative humidity from one place to another are small; humidities range
from about 50 to 65 percent during the afternoon hours to about 85 to 95
percent during the night and early morning hours.
Heavy fogs are usually confined to the night and early morning hours in
the late fall, winter, and early spring months. On the average, they
occur about 35 to 40 days a year over the northern portion; about 25 to
30 days in a year over the central portion; and less than 10 days in a
year over the southern portion of the State. These fogs usually dissi-
pate or thin soon after sunrise; heavy daytime fog is seldom observed in
Florida has been called the Sunshine State. Sunshine measurements made
at widely separated stations in the State indicate the sun shines about
two-thirds of the possible sunlight hours during the year, ranging from
slightly more than 60 percent of possible in December and January to
more than 70 percent of possible in April and May. In general, southern
Florida enjoys a higher percentage of possible sunshine hours than does
northern Florida. The length of day operates to Florida's advantage.
In winter, when sunshine is highly valued, the sun can shine longer in
Florida than in the more northern latitudes. In summer, the situation
reverses itself with longer days returning to the north.
Meteorological conditions that aggravate air pollution do not often
occur at any one place in the State and are probably the least frequent
in southeastern Florida. The air over the State is usually sufficiently
unstablea condition conducive to the development of cumulus clouds and
thunderstormsto disperse pollutants. This fact, plus the relative
constancy of the easterly trade winds in southeastern Florida, greatly
reduces the general pollution problem in the State. However, community-
wide pollution, in which the cumulative effects of all sources of
pollution become significant, is becoming more prevalent as population
CLIMATE AND THE ECONOMY Florida's economy rests largely upon agri-
culture, industry, and the tourist trade, each of which has been or is
being developed in relation to the general climatic conditions found in
the State. The principal agricultural products are: citrus and other
tropical fruits; all varieties of truck crops; general farm crops such
as tobacco, corn, peanuts, cotton, and small grains; nursery products;
flowers (especially gladioli and chrysanthemums); sugarcane; sweet and
Irish potatoes; tung nuts; pecans; and honey and wax. Large areas in
the central and southern portions of the State are utilized by the
cattle industry because the long growing season allows forage production
throughout most of the year.
The State contains three distinct agricultural districts. Production in
the southern Florida district consists of many kinds of winter vegeta-
bles and those tropical fruits that will not tolerate the winter conditions
of the northern and western districts; some citrus is also grown in
southern Florida. In the northern and western districts, general farm
crops predominate, although many spring and fall truck crops are also
grown. Citrus and early spring and late fall truck crops predominate on
the central peninsula, although large areas in that portion of the
State, where soils or microclimatic conditions are not suitable for such
crops, are used for cattle grazing. Practically all truck crop production
in the northern and central portions of the State is conducted on a
calculated "climatic risk" basis where the dangers of adverse weather,
such as freezing, are weighed against the advantages of an early market.
There are some commercial crops grown in Florida in each month of the
Increasing industrial activity in the State also has climatic implica-
tions. From the standpoint of raw material production, the State's
largest industry in terms of payrollfood processingstems from a
climate favorable to the growing of fruits and vegetables. Similarly,
the paper and pulp industry has found the long growing season enables
the pine forest to renew themselves more rapidly than in more northern
latitudes. Other industries, such as chemical and aircraft, have found
that the Florida climate permits plant construction and operations to
meet both indoor and outdoor operational requirements.
OTHER FEATURES Statistics alone cannot always convey the difference
between climatic conditions in two locations. Some differences observed
by visitors to the State are the bright sunshine, sharp shadows, and
violent rainshowers. First-time Florida visitors who take pictures tend
to overexpose most of their photographs because of the bright sunlight.
The lack of middle and upper level cloudiness gives bright contrasts to
shadows, while at night, the few low-level fair-weather cumulus clouds
produce scenes around the bright moon that befit the ideal tropical
Rainfall is abundant, with most placesexcept on the Keysreceiving
over 50 inches in a year. However, the rainfall is generally in the
form of short-lived showers. The typical duration of such showers is
only about one-quarter that of similar ones in more temperate climates.
As a result, one should seldom postpone plans because it is raining at
the present time. Because of the abundance of rainfall, lush tropical
rainforest growth may be found in some areas.
One of the most popular outdoor activities is water recreation. Along
the east coast, water temperature at Miami Beach ranges from 72 in
January to 89 in July. In general, along the entire Atlantic seaboard
of Florida, the sea-surface temperature averages range from 74 in
February to 83 in August. The sea-surface temperature averages on the
west coast of Florida range from 70 in February to 84 in August.
Wintertime minimum temperatures are deceptive. While stations in
northern Florida record 10 to 20 days in a year with minimum tempera-
tures of 32 or below, there have, been only five days in the past 72
years at Jacksonville where the maximum temperature for the day has
failed to climb above freezing. This means the coat you might wear at 7
a.m. will become heavy by 10 a.m., and, if you are driving, that you may
well be in your shirt sleeves by noon.
While sunshine hours in Miami are 66 percent of possible in December as
compared to 51 percent in New York City, greater difference is reflected
in the amount of solar radiation that leads to temperature contrasts.
New York City receives only an average 116 langleys (a unit of solar
radiation) on a horizonal surface each day during December. In contrast,
Miami receives an average of 317 langleys, almost three times as much
Winter is generally a time of relatively low rainfall. There are only
rare occurrences of the overcast, drizzly days that are typical of
winters in more northern latitudes.
Summers are hot and humid in Florida. In fact, the humidity throughout
the year is so high each night that one can expect to find his car
covered with dew every morning unless it is placed under shelter. The
Temperature-Humidity-Index (THI) climbs rapidly to 79 throughout the
State in early June and stays between 79 and 81 during most of the
afternoon hours until late September. At a THI of 79, nearly all people
will feel uncomfortable; as the Index passes 80, discomfort becomes more
pronounced. However, the extensive use of air conditioning and the
informal dress of Floridians have greatly alleviated the effects of the
hot, humid summer weather. In addition, thunderstorms, which on the
average occur on about one-half of the summer days, are frequently
accompanied by a rapid drop in temperature, resulting in comfortable
weather for the remainder of the day. Thunderstorms in Florida are
nature's air conditioners.
Visitors can experience a tropical climate in Florida. A tropical
climate is defined as one in which the average temperature of the
coldest month is 64.4 or above. The climate found in Florida along the
east coast from Vero Beach southward and along the west coast from Punta
Gorda southward fits that definition.
LAKE CITY 1 E. FL
91 S6' W
PRretf n ATION TOT ALS (INCHLS;
MOKTH MIANS IXTKLMU MIAN F m UMBLK .'VS z z o Â£ -J 2 ? Ci K 4- A 5 > K < o o $NQ*.SLIIT MLAK NUMIER OF DAYS
I > i r < * ll II > C ^ sj: P X m > < Q c h 2 m < > MAX M1K Z < MJ I ? = 5 P ii < tn > fc fc- 2c CIS 2 < a i 4 a w
O ^ ;t l! ll ?! < w fe a C i > s
;an 4,4 47.9 44.9 * J7 17 14 * 0 0 0 1.97 0.14 44 4.97 69 12 . 9 1
Ft! *1.4 41.0 44.0 71 IT to* 47 24 0 0 0 >. 7.77 4* 1.90 7e 4 1
MAR 74.4 44. 41.1 00* 41 M 27* .. 2 0 0 0 1.04 4.71 TO 9.10 70 20 6 1
1 0 0 1.24 10.01 91 9.94 64 29 9 1
i i '
MAV 7.) 41.4 74.9 10W 91 M 4 1 71 9 10 0 0 4.10 tl.49 90 4.7f 74 If 4 1
JUN 10.) 7.9 70.0 109 94 10 11* 40 11 10 0 0 7.04 19.11 49 9.11 9 IT 19 2
JULY *1.4 TO. 1 O.l 00* 40 11 10 92 4 21 0 0 7.09 12.72 Tl 9.71 6 1! 2
AUC 01.0 TO, | 0.0 low 14 7 90 17 29 21 0 0 4.00 11.04 41 9.00 99 10 11 2
tin 7.7 79.1 f 4 44 47 10 0 ft t.ll 7.01 69 20 7 2
oo 1.9 M. 70.0 0*4 14 1 91* 7 21 2 0 0 2.99 0.41 96 9.19 94 4 1
MOV 71.9 41.7 41.1 l* 11 70 29 |.2 4.00 91 9.91 *7 10 4 1
DEC 07.1 *1.* -*i I_J1_ 47 10 10 42 11 0 0 0 9.44 10.24 99 9.99 64 27 1
*.l| 44.41 JO'
llOl 10 |t2 11)|
DINING ROOM (120 PERSONS) 2,160
COFFEE SHOP (30 PERSOND 480
KITCHEN 8< STORAGE 1,500
Meeting Hall 1,000
Conference Room 600
GUEST ROOMS Existing, 18 ea. 3 250 sq.ft. 4,500
Proposed, 37 ea. 3 350 sq.ft. 13,000
GUEST SUITES Existing, 1 ea. 3 500 sq.ft. 500
Proposed, 3 ea. 3 500 sq.ft. 1,500
GIFT SHOP 250
Racquetball Courts (2ea. 3 800 sq.ft.) 1,600
Tennis Shop 300
Game Room 500
Pool Equipment Room 200
PIER FACILIT ii m
Game Room 400
Locker Rooms 800
LOADING AND RECIEVING 2 spaces
PUBLIC RESTROOMS 400
15 /.circulaton 5, 159
TOTAL w/ circ. 39,549
PARKING Hotel Guest: 2 sp./ea. 3 guest rooms 36
Resturant: 1 sp./ea. 4 seats x 35'/. 10
Retail: 1 sp./ 300 sq.ft, x 35% 2
Employee: 1/2 space for ea. employee 12
- r S' r P & **' PK ** t*J n O PI c; Sr LO wr. y c.; z s r O 83 tv tv tu H
jv c H o M tJ *-3 -j t. t- &' PJ o H R z K P-
Ct 0) i. M* K H tj O tu I*. * n* fe ti Q 8
a. o r> H tv Su > o O H n o F* l*i tJ R t'l ST to o z g
r o Â£ o o x O p: O
o c r r* h M H l*i D O 1
n >- M sr Ju 13 X
r H t'l o
u r> C H o
*-i 0) l) 0> o
LOBBY (3,200 sq.ft.)
The lobby is a. place
conducive for smoking a good
cigar and si ping a snifer of
good brandy, while pondering
the problems of everyday
life. It is the heart of the
building, raditating the
ener gy of its user, allowi ng
him to observe the goings on
of the building and its
visitors. It is a meeting
place for the user, to come
to and to depart from, as he
explores the inter-reaches of
himself. It is the lobby
which "sets the mood for the
hotel". It is the
intermediate space from the
exterior to all the other
As every public space, it is
essential for this room to
provide small areas of refuge
from the traffic corridors,
thus allowing the user to be
able to watch people watching
him. At t he same t. i me,
allowing the traffic to move
thru the spaces
u.n interr up ted. It must
provide a sense of welcoming
and open itself up for the
user; for the lobby, "more
than any other space, will
create the first impression."
The lobby is to act as the
center of the facility,
holding all the other parts
together as they function
indepentent1y. Thus it is
necessary for the lobby to
read as the center, the
anchor of the facility, and
prcividing stability and
presence to its
Ser..i i c
Re sir j cted
Perceptual Clarity Loc etion
w For Hi
Flexible Expansib i11ty
w' Convert i bi 1 11v'
Vie* Out .o' Desi r at l e
Opt 3 OfiSi
View In Pesirable
Opt i or.al
111 umination Bricht
Noi se Control s Required
Mi m rr.a 1
visitors and public
DINING ROOM (2,160 sq.ft.)
No where else is it more
apparent then in the dining
room o-F the luxury o-f being
taken care of. An
environment where the user
can concentrate on the
consumption of good food and
conversation with friends and
The dining room must provide
an environment that can allow
the user to feel a sense of
privacy amongst a room full
of people. The space must be
flexible enough to allow for
a multitude of table
arrangements. The waiter
stations need to have clear
view of all the tables. The
space needs to provide a
social atmosphere, but at the
same time maintain a sense of
privacy for the customer.
For the benefit of service,
the kitchen must be within
close proximity of all the
tables. The dining room must
have a strongs connection t o
the exterior, wi t h access t e;
ui nino out side,
w&i ter and i- si tresses
hots] guest and town
r" > a i d en t s
GUESTROOM (350 SQ.FT.)
vi si tor
of home, that
much as he can
OUT DING |
Zone- V Puol1c.
&er.i -oub J i c
Perceptual Cl ri t y / Locetion
Spec l al
Convert i b: 1 Tt"v
Vlew Ou t / Desi rat-1 e
View In Deslrabl e
111umi nation F
Noise Control Renuired
the place he left behind.
Providing the privacy one
needs to collect his thoughts
without the -fear o-f being
disturbed. A room to be used
as the visitor chooses with
the com-fort o-f knowing they
S'-e being taken care o-f.
This is the room the user may
spend most o-f his time in, so
it is necessary to provide
the solitude and character
required -for the benefit of
the users mental and
physical growth. It is
important to integrate the
rooms into its surroundings;
to become an active part of
l lie place it is situated, so
as to allow the user to
identify with his place and
time. The rooms should
maintain a feeling of
individuality yet a part of a
whole or community. It is
essential that the user feel
a sense of security and
protection from the outside.
room service attendants
O O o
Zone f Ub1 1C
/ Ser. j publ l c
/ Res.tr i cte-d
Ferceptufiil Clarity Lot e i i c*r.
F or 0i
S*:ec l s 1
Flexible E j.pansi bi 1 1 ty
Ver satl1i t y
View Out v DfeS i r at 1 e
Owt 1 oriel
View In Pesirable
111umination / Trxoht
Noise Control / Required
LOUNGE (1,000 sq.ft.)
A casual and informal place
which allows an individual to
drop his defenses and become
comfortable within the social
atmosphere of the space. The
lounge is a meeting place,
| where family and friends can
: come together before
provide the -following:
-enhance the in-formality o-f
the purpose of the space.
-an environment conducive to
the users imagination of his
pi ace and time
-enhance the social aspects
of the purpose of the space
-flexible for the various
arrangements for different
si zeparti es
-allow the user to become
aware of his place
waiter and waitresses
room service attendant
CHF O LIST
2 one F'ubl1C
&f-n,j -pub 1 i c
Res t r i c te d
F E>rcepluel Locetion
Clar i t y Fc fk
Ej l on aqc
w Cor.vertibi 1 i ty
Versat i ] i t v
View Out 0* Desi r able
Op t 1 O'leti
View In De&irable
spec i al
Noise Control fcequi red
Mi n j mal
CONFERENCE ROOM(S) (1,500 sq.ft
A private environment
conducive for the producing
of ideas from a group of its
users. A space which looks
in at i tself.
A semiprivate space which
should help promote social
interaction from i t; s users.
The space should be flexible
so as to allow for a number
of different set ups of
seating arrangements. It
should be situated so as to
be used for luncheons,
lectures, conferences, and
etc. The rooms need to be
located so as to be used
without interferring with the
other parts of the hotel.
USERS ' _
genral publ c upon invite
hotel guest upon invite
waiter and waitresses
oo o 8
Zone Fubl ic
Ser.i -pub j l c
F er ceptual Clarity Localion
F o* n.
Flexible E xpansiba 1i ty
View Out Desi rable
View In Desirable
111umi nation Er i qht
spec l a i
Noise Control Rf-qui red
COFFEE 5H0P <480 sq.ft.)
"I'll tape a sweetrol 1 bowl
o-f Wheaties and a cup o-f
coffee, black please." A
place to grab something to
eat. just before going ou to
play tennis, or heading out
onto the water -for a curse in
the motor boat. It is an
informal place of eating,
requiring no reservatione, no
planning, no formal wear,
just a warm body. It is the
i informal world of the hotel.
1 COFFEE |
PUB BEST 1 SHOP 1
Small, open, well lite,
clean, with high polished
nonporious materials, to
give the feel of urgency and
quick service. The dinner
should feel singular, at home
alone, providing the same
services that a lounge
provides except all is
welcome and used during the
day rather than at night.
The feeling should be alive,
in motion, clean and fast.
waiter and waitresses
Zone X F'Ut>: 1C
'S' 1 f r'r r,
F\u*i r ; c te-J
Fer ceptueil V l or i 11 or.
Clarity F O r.
Spec i el
Flexible E osnsibi1lty
Cor.ve-tib. i lty
V Verscti1 it v
1 T> A
Vie** Out De=.J rsble
U, t) Ourj
View In r>eE : r abl e
CM i one!
111umi notion X f richt
Noise Control Requ:red
Finj fus 1
POOL AND HOT-TUB (ext. space)
A relationship exists here
with nature, the water, the
sun and the vegitation,moving
together to create an oasis
for the visitor. The heat of
the day can be tolerated by X
people when sitting along the , ,?r
edge of a pool even though
you may go in occasionally. ,;r'
One finds comfort in knowing C X*
you can cool yourself off at
anytime by jumping in. The
palms moving in the wind, the
clearness o-f the water, the
warmth o-f the sun opens up
tliis area -for a stronge
social space. l*Je come into
this world on a layer o-f
water and -find a unconciuos
attachment -for its presents.
Allow this area to speak o-f
resort and Florida; to say
something o-f the relationship
o-f water, sun, earth and man.
The pool area must respond to
the social needs of the
hotel. It must act as a
di strabution point, a place
within the whole.
hotel guest & invited guests
waiter and waitresses
3 sun 1
COFFEE | tVvL
1 lounge |
DINING I I LOCKERS
2 one F'utl 1 L
E-frf.ii -pL'b l 1 C
> fits t r j ct ed
Ferceptu] v/ lO.'rl 1 C*n
Clarity F o* n. '
Spec i al
FI exi ble tpanEibi2it>
dor.ve-'-f 11; i 11'
Ve r s a 113 11 v
View Out Pes iraMe
v" Ur12 onai
Vie* In Pes:rable
C : t a ona2
212uffii nation Prioht
spec j ai
Noise Control r\eQU2 rfD
(1,600 indoor for racquet
and 2 outdoor for tennis)
Swet pouring off the brow,
the heart racing, lungs
gasping of air, all are the
feelings experienced during
the physical workout.
Competiion allows the
competitor to push his
worries and problems away
from him, for there is no
room for such distractions;
for the game demands upmost
concentration. Your mind
requires your body to react
at a moments notice, and in
turn your body asks for
The environment should
recognize the level o-f
energy, the purpose of this
space. There is no actual
need, just a desire to
participate. It is a noisey
place and shoud be separated
from the quiet zones of the
facility. It is a. game with
a history and the space
should identify with that.
GIFT SHOP (250 sq.ft.)
The treasure of the
Caribbean, a pirates treasure
chest, a wonderland for kids,
a lifesa.ver for parents and
lovers.... a piece of Florida,
a. piece of ones experience,
The gift shop is a extention
of the lobby and should read
that way, however when one
walks into the space he or
she should be aware of the
experience. The space shoud
identify with the area. It
should break open to the
outside so that the shopper
can relate to the place and
the purpose for being with
inside the shop. The space
should entertain the shopper
and hold their attention. It
should fill their heads full
of memories of other places
and events that he or she has
visited, thus reinforcing
their purpose for being
there. The shop must satisfy
the buying experience. The
area needs to beable to be
CHCCI L 1 Â£ 7
Zone F'ubl i r
Sf-r.i -pub i i c
F erceptue.! Cl ara t y Lor at on
Flexible E .'.psnsi bi 111 >
Vereati1i t v
Vie** Out Pesi rable
View In Pesi rabl e
Opt i onal
Noise Control Reaui red
Zone s? F ubli c
Perceptual Clarity Lor etlon
Flexible Exp ansa billty
Convert itiTi" ty
Ver sat i1itv
Va ew Out Deslratlfr
Opt a on a 1
View In wr Pesirable
111uffii netlon Pra oht
s floder ate
spec i al
Noise Control 1 Requi red
GAME ROOM <500 sq.ft.)
Time to kill,it's raining
outside, the heat is
murderous, "I think I'll stay-
inside for a while." People,
young and old need to beable
to release energy, to
exercise there mental
facalities, alone or with
friends, thru the experience
of games. Games also allow
the competitive edge to be
satisfied, resulting in a
more whole experience.
The room need to be open, free
of obstacles. The are & it's
parts should be durable and
easy to clean. The size and
dimensions need to be conduc-
ive for the play of various
types of games, such as table
tennis and billards.
i nvi ted pub! ic
mai ntenance personnel
KITCHEN <3,520 sq.ft.)
People scoring about, picking
up food, droping the dirty
dishes off, preparing the
-food, the area is the heart of
the resturant, the major
service area of the back of
the house. It services the
dining, coffee shop, and
1oungearea directly, in
Zone Publi c
Perceptual L ocet i on
Clar i ty Fo*~rr
Z i onaqe
Flexible Expand bi 1 1 ty
s Versat11 itv
Vie* Out S' Desi r able
View In s' Desi rable
111 uffti nat i on S' hri cht
spec 1 el
Noise Control S' Requjred
Mi niff,a j
addition preparing the -food
for individuals guest in their
The area. must -function
perfectly. I-f there is one
room that requires the
attention necessary to
-function correctly, this is
the space. The preparation
area must work with the
storage area, the cooks area
must responded to the serving
area and etc. The kitchen
must be hygenically -free of
bacteria. The spaces must
appear and -feel clean, bright
and safe. It must be located
away -from the public areas o-f
RM SERV |
H OOF FEE I
TRASH 1 1 Rec g J
2one P'L't 1 3 C
be/. 1 -c-u.L J l c.
wr- besti ictf d
Perceptual Clari ty Locc-t ior.
i. j Cfiouf
Flexible Â£* oanaipi 111\
View Out teei rable
Uj. liU lei
View In Dee;raole
0" t 3 or.sj
Noifee Control r/ Fecjui red
M i n i ff. a 1
BRIDGE (5,000 sq.-ft.)
To transfer one individual
from one world into another.
The connector o-f the man made
environment to the world
-formed by the natural
elements. One area built and
manipulated in a course o-f 60
years and the other over
millions of billions of years.
The bridge carries the user
above the dangers of the
highway and joines the two
To provide access from one
part to the other, to enhance
the expections of the user as
he travels towards his
destination. The bridge is
the axis of the two parts of
the -facility and should
reflect its importance with
out interfering with the
visual beauty of the entry of
town from the southern end.
GUEST SUITE (500 SQ.FT.)
Honeymoon couples, corporate
presidents, 0.I.P.s are a few
of the types of individuals
who will chose this space to
fulfill their dreams. A nite
of privacy and expectations.
The distant views focusing
inward into the individual
spaces of the suite. See
program on guest rooms.
To provide privacy for the
users imagination. This will
be the most expensive room in
the hotel and thus it should
have the best views, larger
spaces, and within the quieter
area of the hotel, yet within
close accessibility of the
rest of the parts of the
hotel. See objective under
room service attendants
The parcel o-f land on the nortwest side of the state highway
is zoned C-1A, with that part adjacent to the lake is public
beach, with the hotel ownership having a 100 year lease with the
city, due to expire in the year 2051.
GENERAL BUSINESS C-1A DISTRICT
Purpose of District
THE C-1A General Business District is intended to apply to
the heart of the downtown business section of the city which
serves all the portions of the City and the metropolitan area.
It is designed to provide pedestrians with safe access to retail
stores and offices. Uses inconsistant with theses purposes and
which discourage pedestrian travel are generally prohibited.
High land values, limitations of space and public convenience and
welfare justify a greater intensity of use than in other business
Other zoning districts involved are the following:
TOURIST C3 DISTRICT
Purpose of District
The Tourist C-3 District is established in recognition of
the prominence of the tourist industry to the economy of Keystone
Heights, and is designed to apply to an area in which tourist
accomodations, convenience and activities are so located that
this aspect of the community's economic development and well-
being is continued and enhanced.
RESIDENTIAL PARKING RP DISTRICT
Purpose of District
The residential-parking buffer district is intended to apply
to property situated between residential and commercial property
or adjacent thereto in an attempt to conserve the value of
residential property while recognizing the ever-increasing need
for commercial parking facilities.
OTHER PERTINENT INFORMATION
Section 4.04 NO REDUCTION OF REQUIRED AREA
No lot, yard, setback, clearance, parking area, or other
space shall be reduced in area or dimension so as to make said
area or dimension less than the minumum required by the Zoning
Ordinance; and if already less than the minumum required by this
ordinance for a new building or use, said area or dimension shall
not be -further reduced.
Section 4.06 STREET FRONTAGE REQUIRED
Except as maybe permitted by other previsions o-f the Zoning
Ordinance, no lot shall contain any building used in whole or in
part for dwelling purposes unless such lot abuts for at least 30
feet on a street, and ther sh
family dwelling for such minimum
Section 4.07 DOUBLE FRONTAGE
Where a lot is bounded on
front yards when required shall
accessory buildings shall not be
Section 4.10 YARD ENCROACHMENTS
11 not be more than one single
two opposite sides by streets,
be provided on both streets and
located in either front yard.
Every part of every required yard shall be open and
unobstructed from the ground to the sky except as hereinafter
provided or as otherwise permitted in the Zoning Ordinance.
Sills or belt courses may project not over 12 inches into
a required yard.
Cornices, eaves, gutters or movable awnings may project
not over 2 feet into a required yard.
Fire escapes, stairways and balconies which are unroofed
and unenclosed may project not over 5 feet into a required
side yard of a multiple dwelling, hotel or motel.
Chimneys, fireplaces or pilasters may project not over 2
feet into a required yard.
Hoods, canopies or marquees may project not over 3 feet
into a required yard, but shall not extend closer than one
foot to any lot line.
Accessory parking may be located in a required side yard
if area so used for parking is properly screened by a
fence, wall or planting from contiguous private property.
SECTION 4.13 EXCLUSIONS FROM HEIGHT LIMITS
Penthouses, scenery lofts, towers, cupolas, steeples and
domes, not exceeding in gross area at maxium horizontal
section 30 per cent of the roof area, and flag poles, air
plane beacons, broadcasting towers, antennae, chimneys,
stacks, tanks and roof structures used only for ornamental
or mechanical purposes may exceed the permissible height
limit in any district by not more than 25 per cent. Para
pet wall may extend not more than 5 feet above the
allowable height of a building.
The city council is hereby given express authority to
waive or alter the height limits on any building, if,
after public hearing, in the council's considered
judgement the lot to be built upon is large enough to
allow a higher building in the district and still allow
adequate light, air, ventilation and smooth flow of
traffic in the spirit and purpose of the Ordinance.
Section 4.23 VEHICULAR DRIVEWAYS
Wherever vehicular entrances and exits are involved, the
number, size and distance apart of entrances and exits and the
specified design thereof shall comply with the established
standards and requirement of the State Road Dept. where a state
or federal highway is affected, and with the standards and
requirements of the city council in the case of all city streets.
Frontage Side set back Rear Hght.
C-l A * None None None
C-3 * None None None
RP 20' 5' 10' 70'
* Shall have a front yard in substantial conformity wi th
average front yards of those previously existing structures in
the district. Off street parking shall be required in the C-1A
diestrict, according to regulations established elsewhere in this
ord i nance.
Minimum size parking space shall be 10'-0" x 20'0"
Hotel Two parking spaces for each three guest rooms.......40
Resturant One parking space for each four seats times
Retail One parking space for each three hundred sq.ft.
times thirty-five percent..........................2
Employee One half parking space for ea employee...........8
Minimum size loading space shall .be 10'0" x 25' 0" with 14'0"
Note: The above information was obtained from the Keystone
Heights Zoning Codes dated 1982, with ordiances concerning this
project reflected. Additional information required, refer to the
Keystone Heights Zoning Codes, 1982.
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The project involves itself with -four different code types
as classified under the U.B.C.. The following information is
primarily a summary of some of the pertinent codes. Additional
information required can be found in the 1985 U.B.C..
TYPE 1Construction unlimited height and footage.
TYPE 1-Group A; Div. 3 building with an assembly room with
occupancy less than 300.
TYPE 2-Goup B; Div. 3 Open parking garages.
TYPE 2-Group B; Div. 2 all retail or wholesale.
TYPE 2-Group R; Div. 1 hotels and apartments.
GROUP R; Div. 1. Hotels and Apartments.
FLOOR AREA;.............Every dwelling unit shall have at least
one room not less than 150 sq.ft.
-Other habitable rooms shall not be less
than 70 sq.ft.
-Min. width of any habitable room other
than kitchen shall not be less than 7.
CEILING HEIGHTS........Habitable spaces shall have ceiling not
less than 7-6" except kitchens, halls or
baths where they may be 70.
HANDICAP...............Buildings containing more than 20
guestrooms shall be accessible to the
handicap. Public spaces must also be
accessible to the handicap.
In general, specific codes relate primarily to GROUP R; Div.
1. This summary focuses primarily on codes relating to Fire and
Exit requirements in the GROUP R category.
FIRE...................Fire ratings for all types is 1 hour.
-One hour rating between all rooms.
Every room above the 4th floor must have
an approved fire alarm system.
Exit is an unobstructed and continuous
means of egress to a public way.
-Occupants on floors above the second
story shall have access to not less than
-Floors and basements used exclusively
for service may have access to only one
-The maximum distance of travel -from any
point to an exit shall not exceed 150 -ft.
for unsprinkled, corridors, 200 ft. for
-Every sleeping room below the 4th floor
shall have at least one operable window;
min. clear opening 5.7 sq.ft., min.
clearance 24", not more than 44" above
the finished floor.
All doors shall swing in the direction of
-All exit doors shall be at least 3'0" x
6 -S .
All corridors must be a minimum of 44"
serving an occupant load of 10 or more.
-Minimum width is 36".
-Minimum height is 70".
-Maximum dead end is 20'.
Minimum dimension is 44" for load of 50
-Maximum rise is 7.5" by min. run of 10".
-Minimum headroom clearance is 6-6".
-Stairways must remain free of
Minimum width is 44".
-Maximum slope is 1:12.
-There must be a landing for each S'" of
r i se.
-Landings at bottom of ramp can not be
less than 6 in direction of ramp.
Note: The above building code information was obtained from the
thesis project of Nicol Bensley, jr. who's project was on an
urban luxury hotel, utilising the U.B.C..
^EiLE no. 33-A USE min. o-f 2 exits other than els. w/ occupant load more than- Occupant 1 oad f actor (sq. -ft.) access by ramp or elevator for handic ap.
Assembl v areas 50 15 yes
Garage/ Farming 30 200 yes
Dwel1ings 10 300 no
Apartments.-Hotel s 10 200 yes
Kitchen- commercial 30 200 no
0-f -f i ces 30 100 yes
Stores- basement 7 20 yes
ground 50 30 yes
upper 10 50 yes
Swimming pools 50 15 yes
Locker rooms 30 50 yes
A building represents a lot of things to a lot of
people. Memories to individuals who have used the
structure, a friend who has worked in it, a dream to one who
wishes to copy it, a time? to the person who has seen it age.
The Keystone Inn provided the challenge of adding onto it
without destroying that which it symbolized to those who
came in contact with it.
It became clear from the; start that the site; the
arrangement of the solids to the voids, and the relationship
of the old to the new was going to be the major obstacles to
this architectural problem.
The solids were used to create exterior spaces for the
user and arranged so as to allow the interiors to look out
across the site to the views that surround the site. To
organize all the parts, I used an axis that runs from the
northend of the site to the south. It. runs from the waters
of Lake Geneva, up past and severing the new facility and
the existing building, on thru the courtyard (that which
allows; the new parts to look towards the old), continuing
thru the tower and over the pool to a gazbo that became the
heart, of the recreactional facilities.
The success of the courtyard, can be found in the way
it organizes all the parts that borders it, the puncturing
of the walls; providing the user to see all that which
surrounds him and the site, and lastly the size and scale of
bothe the yard and the structures that, are adjacent to it..
The language of verticals and horizonatals, were used
ir plan and elevations to recall the gensis loci of the
area. The flat plans of the lakes and canopies of the trees
create the horizontal 1ity, and the slenderness of the trunks
of the individual trees represent the verticalness. In the
plan, the user ventures down the hallways following the
rht6ythmat.i c nature of the columns or the doorways to the
guestrooms, the piers across the landscape and out into the
water. The verticalness can be seen in the tower as; is
rises up above? the trees, in the columns along the facades,
and on the stairs as he climbs up? into the canopy of the
The problem of responding to the old thru the new,
required the interruptation and valuation of the existing
building. Breaking its parts down so as to distinguish
their meanings, allowed the answers to become clearer.
Scale, materials, color, and structure were some of these
architectural tools used. The success of failure of this
project. lies on these two aspects; 1) How well the site
has been organized with all its parts and 2) How the new
amenities and guestrooms respond to that which exists; before
it (the existing building, the views to the lakes, and the
spaces in the woods).
I wish to concluded this document, by recalling the last
paragraph in my statement.; For this design process to work
I must, be able:? to understand the relationships at hand. I
must deal with the dynamics of weather, time of day, and the
surroundings. I must, incorporate the perceptions and images
o-f an old and a new resort hotel. I must balance time and
space. It will be necessary to create a sense? of rhythm in
order to share with both the user and observer my solution
to this challenging problem.