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Using video lessons and gaming to teach Spanish commands woith participant interaction in social media

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Title:
Using video lessons and gaming to teach Spanish commands woith participant interaction in social media
Creator:
Wahls, Naomi Leah ( author )
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 electronic file (130 pages) : ;

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Subjects / Keywords:
Spanish language -- Study and teaching ( lcsh )
Educational games ( lcsh )
Social media ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Review:
This article examines the use of social media, video lessons, and game based learning to teach Spanish commands over the course of 2 weeks in an online course in Canvas. The study was performed twice with entry-level Spanish students. Forty-five second languages learners (L2) completed the pretest and 38 completed the posttest between the two semesters. The students in the experimental group received instruction through explicit instruction via video lessons on Spanish commands used in Latin dance instruction; game based learning activities using implicit feedback; and student interaction in Facebook and YouTube.
Thesis:
Thesis (M.A.)--University of Colorado Denver.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographic references.
System Details:
System requirements: Adobe Reader.
General Note:
Department of Modern Languages
Statement of Responsibility:
by Naomi Leah Wahls.

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Source Institution:
|University of Colorado Denver
Holding Location:
|Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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951746777 ( OCLC )
ocn951746777

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Full Text
USING VIDEO LESSONS AND GAMING TO TEACH SPANISH COMMANDS
WITH PARTICIPANT INTERACTION IN SOCIAL MEDIA
by
NAOMI LEAH WAHLS
B.A., University of Colorado Denver, 2007
M.A., University of Colorado Denver, 2012
A thesis submitted to the
Faculty of the Graduate School of the
University of Colorado in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Masters of Arts
Spanish Program
2015


2015
NAOMI WAHLS
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


This thesis for the Master of Arts degree by
Naomi Leah Wahls
has been approved for the
Spanish Program
by
Alyssa Martoccio, Chair
Devin Jenkins
Maria Thomas-Ruzic
November 20, 2015


Wahls, Naomi Leah (M.A., Spanish)
Using Video Lessons and Gaming to teach Spanish Commands with Participant
Interaction in Social Media
Thesis directed by Assistant Professor Alyssa Martoccio
ABSTRACT
This article examines the use of social media, video lessons, and game based
learning to teach Spanish commands over the course of 2 weeks in an online course in
Canvas. The study was performed twice with entry-level Spanish students. Forty-five
second languages learners (L2) completed the pretest and 38 completed the posttest
between the two semesters. The students in the experimental group received instruction
through explicit instruction via video lessons on Spanish commands used in Latin dance
instruction; game based learning activities using implicit feedback; and student
interaction in Facebook and YouTube.
Keywords
Spanish, social media, game based learning, video lessons, second language acquisition,
commands, explicit instruction
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication.
Approved: Alyssa Martoccio
m


This work is dedicated to my son LeonFelipe and my parents, Rick and Maxine Wahls.
IV


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This research was performed under supervision of a thesis advisor who provided
guidance through the research process and research documentation, enabling this project
to really take shape.
v


TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION..............................................................1
II. LITERATURE REVIEW FINDINGS................................................6
Explicit Instruction and Informal Spanish Commands.......................7
Teaching Culture.........................................................9
Digital Game Based Learning.............................................11
Student Improvement through Quizzes.....................................14
Video Lessons...........................................................15
Educational Implications of Social Media Tools..........................16
YouTube...............................................................16
Facebook..............................................................17
Gap in Literature.......................................................19
Summary of Literature Review............................................20
III. METHODOLOGY..............................................................22
Research Questions and Hypotheses.......................................22
Participants..........................................................22
Site selection and sampling...........................................25
Data collection instruments...........................................25
Data Analysis Plans...................................................26
Schedule..............................................................27
Tasks...................................................................28
Website...............................................................28
Online courses........................................................28
Pretest...............................................................29
Posttest..............................................................30
Explicit grammar instruction videos...................................31
Implicit feedback: the games..........................................33
Facebook and cultural materials.......................................34
Comic Strips..........................................................35
Procedure...............................................................36
Advertisement stage...................................................36
T reatment stage......................................................37
Analysis stage........................................................38
IV. RESULTS..................................................................41
Background..............................................................41
Quantitative Data Analysis Method.......................................41
Pretest...............................................................42
Posttest..............................................................43
vi


Comparison of pretest and posttest results...........................45
Game Level 3.........................................................45
Results of YouTube video lessons on commands.........................46
Facebook student presence and culture..............................49
Qualitative Data Analysis Method.......................................53
Pretest comments.....................................................53
Thoughts on gaming...................................................53
Thoughts on learning through culture.................................53
Thoughts on social media.............................................53
Posttest comments....................................................54
Student feelings towards gaming after the study......................55
Student feelings towards learning through culture after the study....56
Student feelings towards social media after the study................57
Student reported interaction in social media.........................58
Social media results.................................................59
V. DISCUSSION.............................................................60
Research Question 1....................................................60
Research Question 2....................................................62
Research Question 3 Part A and B.......................................64
Research Question 3 Part C.............................................65
Limitations and directions for future research.........................69
Summary................................................................75
VI. CONCLUSION.............................................................76
ENDNOTES......................................................................79
REFERENCES....................................................................84
APPENDICES....................................................................89
Appendix A PreTest...................................................89
Part 1 Vocabulary..................................................91
Part 2 Comprehension...............................................93
Part 3 Written Production..........................................94
Appendix B Comic Strips for Control Group............................95
Intro Comic..........................................................95
Celia Cruz...........................................................95
Gloria Estefan.......................................................96
Julieta Venegas......................................................96
Carlos de Nicaragua..................................................97
Appendix C YouTube Videos............................................97
Appendix D Game......................................................99
Game Level 1 Vocabulary............................................99
Game Level 2 Comprehension........................................101
Game Level 3 Production...........................................102
vii


Appendix E Facebook Page...........................................102
Appendix F Posttest................................................103
Part 1 Vocabulary...............................................103
Part 2 Comprehension............................................105
Part 3 Written Production.......................................106
Appendix G Website.................................................109
Appendix H Canvas course...........................................110
Appendix I Pretest Results.........................................110
Appendix J Posttest Results........................................112
Appendix K Table: Facebook Fans by Country.........................114
Appendix L Grading Sample..........................................116
Appendix M McGraw hill Education Study Abroad Quest Game Explanation.118
viii


LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
1. Age Range of Participants.....................................23
2. Language Spoken...............................................24
3. Social Media Tools used by Participants.......................24
4. Data Analysis Plans...........................................26
5. Schedule......................................................27
6. Pretest Semester Comparison...................................43
7. Posttest Semester Comparison..................................44
8. Pretest and Posttest Comparison...............................45
9. Game Level 3 Comparison.......................................46
10. Videos and Views.............................................47
11. Facebook Fan Likes per Month.................................50
12. Video Names and Descriptions.................................97
13. Pretest Both Semesters' Results.............................110
14. Posttest Both Semesters' Results............................112
15. Facebook Fans by Country....................................114
16. Part 1 Vocabulary Grading Sample............................116
17. Part 2 Comprehension Grading Sample.........................116
18. Part 3 Written Production Grading Sample....................117
IX


LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE
1. Facebook Likes and Shares per Month............................51
2. Facebook Views by Post per month...............................51
3. Facebook Total Reach by Month..................................52
4. Facebook Page Views............................................52
5. Pretest........................................................89
6. Comic Strip Introduction.....................................95
7. Comic Strip Celia Cruz.......................................95
8. Comic Strip Gloria Estefan...................................96
9. Comic Strip Julieta Venegas..................................96
10. Comic Strip Carlos de Nicaragua.............................97
11. Game Level 1 Vocabulary.....................................99
12. Game Level 2 Comprehension.................................101
13. Game Level 3 Production....................................102
14. Facebook Page................................................102
15. Posttest.....................................................103
16. Website......................................................109
17. Canvas Course................................................110
18. McGraw Hill Connect Game Study Abroad......................118
X


LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
ABBREVIATION
1. Second Language Learner (L2)............................................3
2. Digital Game-based learning (DGBL)......................................4
3. Total Physical Response (TPR)...........................................7
4. English as a Second Language (ESOL).....................................9
5. Mechanics, dynamics, and aesthetics (MDA)...............................12
6. Universal Design (UD)...................................................69
7. Information Learning Technologies (ILT).................................79
xi


CHAPTERI
INTRODUCTION
In our era, students are finding that learning can take place using nontraditional
methods. Newer methods are great for those that multitask and for commuters that use
public transportation travel time for their education. Online instruction and virtual game
based learning bring new learning options to language learners. The use of online
instruction and social media enables students to access information almost anywhere.
They can utilize their phones and tablets to learn and socialize with peers at the same
time. Utilizing online instruction to teach Spanish commands through cultural video
lessons and gaming on dance and music, as this current study did, brings information and
other opportunities to engage in activities and interactions through the second language to
students in a more readily accessible format.
With a B.A. in International Studies, I am deeply attracted to culture topics1. As
an instructor, I like to teach culture in addition to grammar and literature. I see teaching
culture as a means of teaching society what is current behavior and what is changing.
Dating someone from another culture is more commonplace now and learning to respect
other cultures is very important in life and I would even say an essential part of learning a
foreign language. Many second language learners date people in other ethic backgrounds
than their own. When I embarked on the journey of learning a second language, I never
imagined how much my views would change and how much more understanding I would
become of the cultures of others. Ive offended some of my closest of friends and vice
versa for simple cultural misunderstandings. My experiences have taught me that culture
is needed in even the first level Spanish courses.
1


Because of this passion for culture, I chose to teach Spanish through culture. I
love music and dance, which I feel, is a huge part of culture. I myself learned Spanish by
immersing myself with the Spanish culture and language, thus why I used music and
dance to teach Spanish in this study. While there is a wide range of Spanish music, I
focused on the most common dance and music styles: Salsa, Cumbia, and Bachata. These
are dance styles that students can find locally in metropolitan cities in the U.S. and
receive dance lessons in Spanish or English.
While I visited my brother in Japan, I went salsa dancing and listened to the
Japanese instructor teach salsa in Japanese. For fun my friend and I took the class to learn
Japanese. We learned basic numbers, directional, and some commands. This is where I
realized that students in first level Spanish could easily take a dance lesson in Spanish
and learn commands at the same time. Observation is a big part of the active learning. Its
immersion in action and in a fun way.
Teaching students Spanish commands in a dance setting enables them to interact
with locals and feel comfortable with something that is no longer common in the U.S.:
dancing. My grandparents remember weekly dances in town and learning steps in school.
Many of my friends and myself included are not exposed to a dance culture. Some of my
friends considered Latin dance as exotic and not appropriate. Some people are afraid to
try something new and learn dance.
Because of my technical background, I have a strong interest in online learning as
well. With my Masters in Information Learning Technologies, I design online learning
environments. Students can learn culture, grammar, and literature online.
2


Growing up I was a big computer gamer. I enjoy making learning fun. Teaching
through virtual games is still fairly new. At one community college I was asked to design
the course as a game. I thoroughly enjoyed doing this. I learned it is best to create and run
the online course for about 1-2 years before designing it as a game to ensure content
delivery and student learning outcomes. For this reason, the course in this study was not a
game based learning environment, but games were used as the feedback2 in the study.
In my company I managed social media. I enjoyed doing this for a time and
thought that using social media could be used in education. I also found several articles
supporting the use of social media in education. For this reason, I decided to use social
media as the area where students would participate and interact. There were however
many pros and cons to social media that I had not considered and were not mentioned in
the articles and I discuss them later.
Spanish commands forms are typically taught in the first semester of Spanish. For
example, the textbook used for this study teaches formal commands at chapter 7 in the
first semester of Spanish and then teaches informal commands at chapter 12 in the second
semester (McGraw Hill). Teaching formal commands first shows the desire to teach
respect and enforce a more formal speech pattern to second language learners (L2s).
When they interact with their peers, they will most commonly be using informal speech.
For this particular study, the researcher decided to focus on informal commands so that
students could interact with peers and attend local dance instruction courses in Spanish
where they would more commonly hear informal commands in the Midwestern states in
the U.S.A.
3


Teaching commands through dance instruction can help to expose students to
culture while also teaching them this important grammar and communicative concept and
communicative function. Most adult learners already have a grasp of commands and
directives in their native language and need guidance on grasping those concepts in their
L2. New to English speakers is the informal versus formal usage of commands.
The intent of this research was to determine whether first level Spanish students
could improve their learning of commands in Spanish through virtual active learning,
digital materials video lessons (Appendix C) and games (Appendix D), and interacting
with one another on social media, particularly Facebook (Appendix E) and YouTube
(Appendix C). Improvement was measured by comparing the pretest (Appendix A) and
posttest (Appendix F) responses. Social networking connects people in a new community
and this study sought to determine how students participate in social media.
The Spanish commands were taught through an online course in Canvas3, which
was advertised through social media and 2 online Spanish 1010 courses. The learners
opted into the study. They were able to sign up through the website by completing the
pretest and consenting to be in the study. The lessons were in a Latin dance setting.
Previous research on video lessons, Digital Game Based Learning (DGBL), and guiding
student interaction in social media for educational purposes were all-important for this
study.
The goal of my study was to enable students to take a dance class in Spanish and
feel comfortable with the basic commands. Many students travel to Central and South
America for their spring and summer breaks and its a perfect time to pick up more of the
language. I saw online learning through the video lessons and gaming to be something
4


very natural in our current era and considered social media to be an outlet that students
would enjoy trying out.
The research questions were:
Do first semester second language learners (L2s) of Spanish whose first language
is English learn informal commands in Spanish in a virtual cultural setting, after
receiving instruction through video lessons and feedback through the use of an
online game?
Do participants that use a game as a practice activity and watch video lessons
score better than students who read comic strips in Spanish only (the control
group)?
What do available metrics say about the usage of social media? In what ways do
the students interact with the social media tools available? What do they self-
report feeling about the use of the social media tools utilized?
This study contributes to the current literature greatly by utilizing more
technology in the field of language learning. When I first started working for an online
department years ago, the department head was anxious to get the language department to
teach a few courses online. Years later there still were not many online courses offered
for language learners. Only 1 university in the U.S. offered Master level Spanish courses
online while I was in my program. There may be more now since it has been about 2
years. Still, that is such a small number of Master level Spanish online courses. Knowing
what tools to use to teach language courses is essential in designing and running online
language courses successfully. This study used quite a bit of technology and I was able to
evaluate more tools for online language learning than other studies have previously done.
5


CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW FINDINGS
Literature was reviewed on teaching commands, defining explicit instruction,
teaching culture, using game based learning, student improvement through testing, using
video lessons, and using social media. Only one published study has been done on
(Digital Game Based Learning) DGBL involving learning languages and it was
performed by Franciosi (1). Video lesson research typically involved the media tool
YouTube. Little research has been done on video lessons and social media to teach
Spanish, let alone on student learning improvement through the use of social media.
Educational social media groups are groups that focus on particular topics that enable
students to learn more about their interests, stay up to date with the latest news, network,
and interact with peers.
Only one study performed by Shalini and Nitin Upadhyay in 2007 looked at test
scores before and after mobile learning (Upadhyay). Most of the studies (Kabilan,
Ahmad, and Abidin, 1-7; Mendez, Curry, Mwavita, Kennedy, Weinland, and Bainbridge;
and Woodley and Meredith 1-5) involved comparing student writing over time within one
social media tool and Shuters study involved student participation and interaction within
one social media tool.
Some recent research has looked at mobile learning, with a focus on students
using mobile devices such as their phones or tablets. Studies performed by Blattner and
Fiori (2009, 1-12); Kabilan, Ahmad, and Abidin (1-7); Mendez, Curry, Mwavita,
Kennedy, Weinland, and Bainbridge; and Woodley and Meredith (1-5) utilized Facebook
for educational purposes to interact with students and a few mentioned Twitter
6


(Greenhow and Gleason; Kassens-Noor 9-21; Shuter 219-237). Gibson and Sherman
suggested the use of YouTube, in tandem with other social media (Gibson; Sherman). In
fact, both Sherman and Gibson recommend that professors use multiple tools and at least
try one social media tool. Snyder and Burke outlined how to use YouTube, which is still
not commonly utilized in online courses (Snyder and Burke Apr. 2008).
Research suggests that students learn differently in online communities4 and
gaming than through traditional learning methods (Bogost 125 and 136; Donlan 2012).
Previous research has indicated that students may learn in a different manner when they
use social media because social media is designed for community learning and student
controlled learning (Donlan, 574-575). The student can control what they ignore or read
and thereby control what they learn or retain. While some of the studies implied that
community learning and active learning occurred after student interaction and writing
occurred, they did not always directly mention it. This may be because it is assumed that
social media learning involves active or community learning or because community
learning has not been fully defined for online learning through social media.
Explicit Instruction and Informal Spanish Commands
Little research was done on Spanish commands in general (Asher, Kusudo, and
De La Torre 24-32) and tended to group other topics like indirect questions and the use of
que (Gathercole, Virginia, Eugenia Sebastian, and Pilar Soto), or negative commands for
Spanish speaking children learning English (Gathercole et al.). One article did come very
close to this study in the aspect of teaching commands through action (Asher, Kusudo,
and De La Torre 24-32). It focused on Total Physical Response (TPR) as a teaching
method where students were asked to be silent, a command was given then the instructor
7


acted the command out (Asher, Kusudo, and De La Torre 24). The study references
learning Japanese commands, German commands, and finally Spanish commands. Their
latest study focused on learning Spanish commands and found positive results of the use
of TPR (Asher, Kusudo, and De La Torre 24).
Commands are the imperative form of verbs, and they enable a person to tell
another what to do or to understand when someone wants them to do something. In order
to dance, the dance partner must follow the commands of the leader. The commands in
the current study were in the informal you form, and were positive and affirmative.
The instruction of commands is based on Chapter 12 of the textbook Instructor's
edition: Puntos departida, an invitation to Spanish by Dorwick et al. (357-362). For
example, salta jump tells the person to whom you are directly speaking to jump. It is
positive because the command tells someone to do something rather than telling him or
her not to do something. Another example of an informal command in dance is when an
instructor says, turn right. (For more details, see English command and formal Spanish
command examples5.)
Explicit teaching is an instructional strategy used by teachers to meet the needs
of their students and engage them in unambiguous, clearly articulated teaching
(Teaching AC English). For this study, students in the instructed group were instructed
how to perform the dance steps and how to conjugate the verbs into the imperative form
of the verb. Students were taught informal commands because they are more likely to use
them more with peers and in local dance classes.
8


Teaching Culture
Dubreil helps to define cultural knowledge as being needed to perform in a
language, both background knowledge of popular culture, for example, and socio-
pragmatics (Dubreil). According to Mitchells study with language students in an
English as a Second Language (ESOL) program, students reported that cultural learning
is an unexpected and interesting motivation for joining Facebook (471-493). Learning
culture can therefore be an incentive to join private social media groups and perhaps
bring more interest to the students.
Culture is something that can be taught even to lower level Spanish students since
it requires no prior language knowledge. In a Pakistani study on lower lever English
students learning English as a second language, they found that students needed to learn
about the culture and current topics of English speaking countries (Akhtar 541). In
another study (Blattner and Fiori), it was said that the subject of culture should be taught
in lower level courses.
Consequently, there is an urgent need to include some cultural teaching at the
lower division and not wait to convey such essential elements to language learners
at a later stage of acquisition (Blattner and Fiori 2011, 26).
In Blattner and Fioris study, they found that culture was not commonly taught at
entry-level language courses yet culture was considered an essential part of language
learning by the students (Blattner and Fiori 2009, 7). In the current study, Facebook and
YouTube were utilized to teach culture in addition to the Spanish commands used in
dance instruction.
The current study attempted to replicate this previous research in teaching
Spanish lingo related to dance and music by providing vocabulary and articles about
9


dance and music in Facebook posts. Two videos were posted to teach greetings in
Spanish Buenos dias: Spanish Greeting Song by kidsimmersion (kidsimmersion) and
Learn Spanish (Greeting + Introduction) Leme Spanisch (BegriiBung) Aprende
Espanol by LinguaTV.com (LinguaTV.com). Goodbyes and abbreviations were not
used in this study.
None of the previous studies have used social media to intentionally teach culture,
although learning culture was an outcome. In Mitchells study, students were also able
to improve their English ability and cultural competency by using the site (Mitchell,
485)." Shuters study also found that students were able to improve their cultural
competence by discerning which questions to ask by connecting with international
students, even over the Internet and at a faster pace than those who were not in the study;
thereby creating virtual international exchanges (219-237). That particular study
reviewed several languages, including Spanish.
Studies on internet-mediated second language learning suggest that on-line
international exchanges accelerate language acquisition and intercultural
competence. Chun (2011) found that on-line contact between ... university
students learning one anothers languages significantly increased their cultural
awareness and intercultural communication skills. Belz (2005) reported that
internet-mediated language learning between ... (students) dramatically improved
the participants ability to use questions to ascertain cultural information.... While
investigating the effect of blogs on second language learning for Spanish and
American students, Elola and Oskoz (2008) discovered that blogging in newly
acquired languages improved both groups intercultural competence (Shuter 227-
228).
Social media is the next stage in intercultural communication. Students need to
learn how to use these tools effectively and, in the case of language learners, how to
communicate with these tools in more than one language. As Shuter mentions,
10


Intercultural new media studies promise to expand our understanding of
intercultural communication in a new media age and (social media) is, truly, the
next frontier in intercultural communication (Shuter 233).
Social media therefore can expand a students knowledge of culture by exposing them to
intercultural communication. Facebook has become an information dumping ground and
you can find data and information on nearly every topic and native speakers converse on
those topics, enabling entry-level students to see culture in action in a very informal way
outside of formal education.
In the current study, Spanish commands were taught through dance and students
were exposed to the culture of Latin dance and music through the video lessons. Students
were asked to find videos and articles about salsa dance through the Facebook
community described above. This gave the participants an opportunity to express their
own diversity by selecting music and dance videos and articles that relate to them while
also showing the diversity of the Hispanic culture (Langer de Ramirez).
Digital Game Based Learning
While there has been one study done on gaming based learning in language
learning (Franciosi) there have not been any done on virtual games as feedback and video
lessons as instruction for Spanish commands, a focus of the current study. Research has
been done on how to create an educational game and what gaming can do for literacy
(Gee 17-44; Hunicke, LeBlanc, and Zubek 1-5). This study built on previous research,
with a focus on teaching informal Spanish commands.
DGBL is new to language instruction. Franciosi did a study on the perceptions of
learning through DGBL in Japanese higher education and found that it is likely that
11


students can learn through games, but that little research has been done in language
learning with DGBL (1). Franciosi explains that DBGL are not utilized as much as they
could be because they are new to instructors. The research suggests this new field of
instructional design and game programming is just entering the educational field and still
needs more exploration.
Digital games are not currently perceived as educational tools because instructors
lack sufficient information regarding the theoretical and empirical connection
made between DGBL and learning. In other words, there are no cultural values
or beliefs, or endemic deficiencies with the physical infrastructure that would
render DGBL an unworkable approach in this educational context. In fact, since
the issue of learner motivation is particularly salient in FL (foreign language)
instruction in this educational context, the attraction of DGBL is potentially high.
Therefore, provided that the informational deficit is addressed adequately, and
that developers and or support personnel can provide a highly user-friendly
interface and guidance for instructors, DGBL could potentially enjoy considerable
popularity among FL instructors in Japanese higher education (Franciosi 142-
143).
According to Hunicke, LeBlanc, and Zubek, games are designed based on MDA
(mechanics, dynamics, and aesthetics) (1). The concept is that there need to be rules, then
a system, and then fun. Mechanics correspond to the rule writing of the game and must be
done first before moving on to the dynamics of the game, which is the system. Ultimately
the aesthetics are designed with the consumer fun in mind (Hunicke, LeBlanc, and Zubek
2-3).
Juul defines a game as:
1. a rule-based formal system;
2. with variable and quantifiable outcomes;
3. where different outcomes are assigned different values
4. where the player exerts effort in order to influence the outcome;
5. the player feels emotionally attached to the outcome;
6. and the consequences of the activity are optional and negotiable (Juul 6-7).
12


According to Juul, there is no one-sentence description of what makes all games
fun; different games emphasize different types of enjoyment and different players may
even enjoy the same game for entirely different reasons (19). Juul explains that players
learn skills through playing the game:
Though games may be different in structure, a player approaches every game with
whatever repertoire of skills he or she has, and then improves these skills in the
course of playing the game. To play a game is to improve your repertoire of skills,
and the challenge of game design is to work with the skill set of the player
through the game (Juul 5).
Although little research has been done in learning games for Spanish, McGraw
Hill (McGraw Hill Connect), the publisher of the textbook that was used for the Spanish
course in this study and for the students in the study taking their first semester Spanish
course created a very complex animated game that focused on study abroad quests6
(Appendix M). The game has vocabulary sections and quests where students can walk
around an animated environment to replicate real life study abroad scenarios. The game
was complex and utilized a rigid system and game design as described by Bogost7,
Hunicke, LeBlanc, Zubek, and Juul. Students were unable to complete level 1. The
researcher noted issues that students had with the complexity and created simplified
games to see if students would be able to complete the games.
In the current study, 3 small games were created (Appendix D). These games
were not as complex as Bogost, Hunicke, LeBlanc, Zubek, or Juul describe because the
focus of this study was more on instruction through video lessons than learning through
gaming. Since the feedback portion of this study was games, the games were built to
provide a practice area and provide feedback to the student in a fun way. Future versions
of this study would include a more elaborate game design.
13


Student Improvement through Quizzes
Most of the previous studies using social media either looked at student
improvement, presence, or involvement, but not all of these aspects. Student
improvement studies examined how the student improves in a particular skill over time.
Previous research on social media for learning purposes has mainly looked at student
improvement with a focus on improvement in writing after using social media (Kabilan,
Ahmad, and Abidin, 1-7; Mendez, Curry, Mwavita, Kennedy, Weinland, and Bainbridge;
and Woodley and Meredith 1-5). In these studies, student work was analyzed through
their blogs, posts, and replies. These researchers compare writing samples from the start
of a study to those at the end of the study, which generally showed quality improvement
in writing skills that was attributable in part to students uses of social media.
One study by Shalini and Nitin Upadhyay in 2007, focused on student
improvement through quizzes with a pretest and posttest in the study. The Upadhyays
performed a study in which students in India took quizzes on English grammar through
their mobile devices (Upadhyay). The study found that students enjoyed their learning
experience and claimed to learn more effectively on mobile devices.
...Indian students found mobile technique(s) for language learning effective and
easy as the mobile device is quite a popular gadget; language learning through
games generate(s) interest and makes the process simple; mobile learning
techniques involve the principle of anytime anywhere... (Upadhyay).
Mobile learning is similar to learning in social media because social media tools
allow students to access the content on their mobile devices, are not in person and are
asynchronous. Since there have been no other studies performed on quizzes in social
media, the current study will use the Upadhyays study as an example (Upadhyay). Social
media can be accessed on mobile devices, as can all online courses now. For this reason,
14


mobile learning and online learning studies can reflect upon one another and learn from
one another. This study utilizes the classic pretest posttest design from Leow (49-68).
Video Lessons
Video lessons provide an excellent opportunity for faculty to create short lessons
for students to watch from home so that students can discuss topics more in class. This
new format is called a flipped classroom. In this format of teaching, on-campus courses
can utilize digital learning similar to teaching a hybrid8 course, only the students meet
weekly on campus as well. In a Chinese language instruction study, the students were
taught through lectures outside the on-campus course and the activity was done in class,
which is a flipped classroom (Egbert, Herman, and Chang, 1-10). This study showed
success in that the students showed improvement. Imagine being able to play, rewind or
back up, or pause a lecture whenever you want to. Students dont have to ask a classmate,
What did he/she just say? Instead, they can go back and listen again to just that one
portion. That is what video lessons give to students. Students who have difficulty
understanding a topic or who perhaps need more time to understand a topic can listen to a
lecture as many times as they want. Such course formats provide flexibility for student
schedules while also giving students the ability to meet their instructor and peers on
campus in a traditional setting.
According to the previous research with Snyder and Burke, students are interested
in videos that pertain to their course in such outlets like YouTube yet at the same time
faculty are new to making the videos (Apr. and Nov. 2008). According to surveyed
students, online courses have a greater need for video lectures, but hybrid courses also are
using videos so that students can interact more with the class material (Snyder and Burke
15


(Apr. 2008). Some hybrid instructors video themselves in their on-campus courses and
use those videos for their online courses.
The current study utilized video lessons (Appendix C) posted to YouTube to
replace lectures. No additional instruction was provided beyond the video lessons. In
online learning, lectures can be both written and video/audio.
Educational Implications of Social Media Tools
Recently, more and more social media tools are becoming available and are being
used in educational settings. Most of the previous research only covered the use of one
tool, yet in reality, one social media tool is often utilized in conjunction with another tool.
For the current study, YouTube and Facebook were used.
YouTube
YouTube is a great resource for faculty to create video content to be released to
students through a web link or embedded in an online, hybrid, or flipped classroom
course shell. Despite the apparent usefulness of YouTube education, few studies have
been carried out on the effectiveness of using YouTube in education in language learning.
However, Shonna L. Snyder and Sloan Christine Burke have written two articles both in
2008 about the use of YouTube in classrooms. The authors indicate that posting YouTube
videos online gives students a resource that they are already familiar with for learning the
class material. Most students use YouTube for personal topics and are comfortable with
the tool.
Creating content for YouTube also allows students to develop a deeper
understanding of the course material as students are engaging in new, innovative
technology applications as well as processing content (Snyder and Burke, Apr.
2008).
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Snyder and Burke provide a step-by-step guide to creating lessons in YouTube, complete
with a rubric for the lesson (Apr. 2008).
Snyder and Burke indicated that students are ready and willing to watch faculty
created content on YouTube that pertains to their course (Nov. 2008). Snyder and
Burkes study showed that students felt their learning was enhanced through YouTube
videos.
The results of this study reveal that students are using YouTube at a high rate.
They feel that it is easy to use and they are using it for personal but public
viewing. Additionally, they feel that YouTube enhances their learning and want
professors to use it in their courses. (Snyder and Burke, Nov. 2008).
Over the course of six years, Snyder and Burke found that surveyed students
reported that they would have liked more videos in their online and/or hybrid courses
(Nov. 2008). Students want more content that enables them to interact with the course
content in more ways than reading. On-campus students talk and listen in class while
online and hybrid students read and write at home. YouTube videos enable students to
listen and watch, which adds another learning style to the mix for online and hybrid
students.
Facebook
The current study focused on student improvement through the pretest (Appendix
A) and posttest9 (Appendix F), but also included a small component of student presence
through Facebook10 interactions (Appendix E). Student presence considered the students
interaction with peers and with the instructor and it defined who the student was
publicly11. Facebook is currently a tool that most students have heard of and quite often
use on a regular basis. It is a tool that many use to keep in touch with friends and family.
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While Facebook was initially created for students to interact with one another, it is now
public to everyone and academic groups are being created to grow virtual academic
connections. Users can share images, message one another, post status updates, share
links and videos, and like photos, videos, links, and posts shared by other users.
Facebook has also been used in studies (Blattner and Fiori 2009, 1 and 2011, 1, 1;
Kabilan, Ahmad, and Abidin 1-7; Mendez, Curry, Mwavita, Kennedy, Weinland, and
Bainbridge; and Woodley & Meredith 1-5), which have shown that Facebook could be
used in a variety of ways, improve student GPAs, connect with their teachers, and even to
improve student retention in the program. Previous research has found that those students
who connect with faculty and peers are likely to have higher GPAs. Social media such as
Facebook is an excellent way for students to connect more with these groups and more
importantly follow topics that their instructors are following. In the study of Jesse P.
Mendez, John Curry, Mwarumba Mwavita, Kathleen Kennedy, Kathryn Weinland, and
Katie Bainbridge in 2009, they found that students who utilized Facebook had a slightly
higher cumulative self-reported GPA than those who did not. The students who used
Facebook were connecting with professors and instructors outside of class work. "Those
few students who have professors or instructors as friends have been found to have higher
self-reported GPAs compared to those who dont (Mendez et al).
Facebook also enables students to get live practice in the target language. The
students can learn how to communicate over electronic means.
The students' positive views and opinions regarding FB as an environment to
facilitate English language learning can be explained by the fact that online
platforms, such as FB, provide authentic interaction and communication that the
students might not have experienced before. Such positive experience could then
lead to 'increased confidence in language acquisition and a sense of
connectedness' among the students (Wang and Chen 6). The positive views of the
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students can also be explained by Lave, and Wengers (Lave and Wenger) notion
of learning as a form of participation in a social world, and how people learn
better in social settings and through authentic and relevant social interactions
(Kabilan, Ahmad, and Abidin 183).
Only one study involved general announcements and event information in social
media. In Woodley and Merediths study, they found that in order to get students to
participate, they had to advertise the study on campus through different means. Students
were notified of the study in classrooms, program orientations, and posters on campus.
The content in the Facebook study contained many topics (1-5). They found that ... the
site must contain pertinent, current information about the university, courses, exams,
support services, transport, and the like (Woodley and Meredith 1-5). The study also
found Facebook to be a cost-effective way of creating a community to support student
retention. In addition to the content on Spanish culture, the current study included event
announcements on campus and new course information for the upcoming semester.
Gap in Literature
There are many gaps in the current literature that are filled by the current study.
Previous study on social media is new and few articles have been written about the use of
social media in education. Specifically language learning research and more important to
this study, Spanish language learning research is very new to social media. Only three of
the reviewed articles, those of Blattner and Fiori in 2009 and 2011 and Mitchell in 2012
discussed above, included Spanish-speaking students in their studies.
Digital Game Based Learning opens up a new field for educators and little
research has been done on the creators of the games and their connection to the Subject
Matter Experts. No research has been done on the games designed by instructional
19


designers12 versus game programmers in the language-learning field. Very little research
has been done on game based learning in language learning.
Previous research shows limited studies performed on teaching culture through
virtual means. Additionally limited research has been done on the use of YouTube videos
as lectures in language learning. This study begins to fill those gaps, although further
research could be done more extensively in each area.
None of the studies that focused on YouTube looked at how many views each
video received or how many comments were posted to a particular video. Nor did any of
the studies involve using multiple social media tools. The current study will be the first
study that utilized data from YouTube in conjunction with Facebook, to my knowledge,
which is different from most other studies, which utilize only one social media tool at a
time.
Summary of Literature Review
There are many gaps that the current study fills, especially in regards to social
media. Instructors express legitimate concerns of the use of social media in education and
previous research attempted to dispel those concerns. The current study addresses many
of those concerns in a new light. This study and many future studies are more than
warranted due to the cutting edge technology that is present in current society. While
some tool can be used in education, not all have educational purposes.
Previous research has been done on the use of explicit instruction, Spanish learner
improvement, computerized assisted learning and different types of feedback (Leow, 49-
68). The research done provided examples of how to test students before and after the
20


study (Leow, 49-68). Previous research suggests that students want to learn more about
culture through social media interactions.
In light of the previous research, the current study sought to teach first level
Spanish students to understand and use basic commands utilized in dance and dance
instruction. Lastly, this study sought to create a peer community through social media
where students can network with other students and interact beyond the bare
requirements of the study. While social media was a portion of this study, the focus of
this study was on whether the students learned Spanish commands through digital
learning via gaming and video lessons.
21


CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY
Research Questions and Hypotheses
The purpose of this research was: (1) to see if the learners improved in their
vocabulary, comprehension, and written production of Spanish commands after learning
them through video lessons and practicing with them through gaming; (2) to see if
learners score higher through virtual tools like video lessons and games; and (3) to
research how students use social media in an educational setting.
The following research questions guided the design of the study:
Do first semester second language learners (L2s) of Spanish whose first language
is English learn informal commands in Spanish in a virtual cultural setting, after
receiving instruction through video lessons and feedback through the use of an
online game? Learning was measured in terms of improvement in vocabulary,
comprehension, and written production on participants posttest scores as
compared to their pretest scores. Comprehension was measured by participants
selecting answers to questions about informal commands and written production
was measured by students filling in the blanks with their own answers to complete
sentences.
Do participants that use a game as a practice activity and watch video lessons
score better on a vocabulary, comprehension, and written test than students who
read comic strips in Spanish only (the control group)?
What do available metrics say about the usage of optional social media
component? In what ways do the students interact with the social media tools
available? What do they self-report feeling about the use of the social media tools
utilized?
Participants
Forty-six students completed the pretest and forty-two completed the posttest
online.9 Twenty-four students participated from the Fall 2014 semester and twenty-one
students participated from the Spring 2015 semester. Three people not enrolled in classes
22


joined through Facebook and completed the pretest but did not complete the posttest. One
person from the Fall 2014 semester who was taking a Spanish course completed the
pretest but not the posttest13.
There was a large range in ages of the participants: 7 were between 18-21, 11
between 22-26, 15 between 27-35, and 4 between 36-45, 1 between 46-55 and 3 between
56-65. Participants were not asked their gender. Participants were from all around the
world: Afghanistan, Morocco, New Zealand, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and various states in
the U.S. Participants reported having learned Spanish at varying ages, from birth to age
65 and some reported that they were still learning. Thirty-four participants learned
English at birth, while 8 participants learned English after 1 and ranged in ages up to 24.
Fifteen participants had been studying Spanish for about 1 semester, 20 participants said
they had been studying Spanish for 1 year, while the others ranged from 2 years to 7
years. See Table 1 for the age ranges of the participants and see Table 2 for the number of
languages reported to be spoken by the participants in the study.
Table 1: Age Range of Participants
Age Range Control Group 2014 Instructed Group 2014 Control Spring 2015 Instructed 2015 Overall Average
18-21 1 1 2 1 7
22-26 4 4 0 3 11
37-35 4 6 2 3 15
36-45 1 1 0 2 4
46-55 1 0 0 0 1
56-65 2 1 0 1 3
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Table 2: Language Spoken
Language/s #of Participants
English only 31
Bilingual Spanish/English 5
Bilingual English/Other European Language 2
Bilingual English/Other Language 2
Trilingual 1
Quad-lingual 1
Most of the participants were familiar with Facebook and YouTube, and only 4
participants had never used any online social media tool before. This information was
obtained through the first page of the pretest survey. See Table 3 for which social media
tools the participants had already utilized before this study took place.
Table 3: Social Media Tools used by Participants
Tool used # of students that have used the tool
Facebook 38
YouTube 33
Pinterest 17
Google + 11
Other 2
None 4
Of the YouTube viewers 100% of the participants identified themselves as
women. 6.8% were in the age range of 18-24. 92% were in the age range of 25-34. 1.1%
was in the age range of 35-44.
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The Facebook fans included the participants in the study and other people as well
since the page is public. An announcement on the page explains that if they like the page,
they are agreeing to be in the study, if nothing more than to release their data for the
study. The Facebook page was created on: November 13, 2013, and no one was invited
until Fall of 2014. As of October 14, 2015, there are 1,304 likes to the Facebook page.
The majority of the Facebook fans are women between the ages of 18-24. A large
majority of the fans are located in Egypt (611), the U.S.A (160), and India (85). (See
Appendix K for further details about other countries.) The study was advertised in the
U.S.A. only and due to the courses being online, 1 student was in the Ukraine and another
in Morocco. The rest of the locations listed above are from people who found the page
through Facebook, not from the study advertisement or the online course connected to
this study.
Site selection and sampling
Students participated in the social media by self-selecting. The data samplings
were student grades on the pretest and posttest surveys, student participation in Facebook
and YouTube, student participation in the online course, and the results of the 3rd game in
Canvas completed by the students.
Data collection instruments
Students were surveyed before and after the social media interaction. The survey
contained Likert-scale questions in addition to open-ended opinion questions and fill-in-
the-blank questions.
The data was collected through Canvas, Google Forms, Facebook, YouTube, and
25


Weebly (website described below). The students also provided opinions via short answers
in a post-survey.
Data Analysis Plans
Data was analyzed from the current study and compared to the results of previous
studies done by the researcher and previous studies done by other researchers. The data
was analyzed through categorization and coding as described by Koshy (86). Table 4
shows the research questions and their primary data sources:
Table 4: Data Analysis Plans
Research Question Primary Data Source
Research Question Primary Data Source
Do first semester second language learners (L2s) of Spanish whose first language is English learn informal commands in Spanish in a virtual cultural setting, after receiving instruction through video lessons and feedback through the use of an online game? Quantitative Data: Pretest before, Posttest after
Do participants that use a game as a practice activity and watch video lessons score better on a vocabulary, comprehension, and written test than students who read comic strips in Spanish only (the control group)? Quantitative Data: Pretest before, Posttest after, Scores on Game Level 3
What do available metrics say about the usage of optional social media component? In what ways do the students interact with the social media tools available? Quantitative Data: YouTube metrics of number (#) of times videos were watched, # of minutes watched; Facebook # of Facebook Fans, # of posts likes, # of posts shares
What do they self-report feeling about the use of the social media tools utilized? Qualitative Data: Posttest comments Self-reported feelings
26


Schedule
Table 5 shows the schedule for this study. The following schedule was followed
for the research:
Table 5: Schedule
Action Time Frame
Contact advisor to discuss thesis topic Fall 2012
Explore thesis topic through literature review Spring 2013
Decide lesson & select vocabulary Spring 2013
Decide activity for connection & tools Spring 2013
Build lesson plan & Rubric Fall 2014
Notify students via syllabus August 2014
Allow students into Facebook to test tool September 2014
Complete Draft of Action Research14 Proposal with Data Collection Methods Fall 2014
Receive feedback on Draft of Action Research Proposal with Data Collection Methods Fall 2014 and Spring 2015
Update survey questions as needed Fall 2014
Draft email to students; finalize survey questions Fall 2014
Update Action Research Proposal with Data Collection Methods Fall 2014 and Spring 2015
Advertisement Stage Pretest sent to students before study Fall 2014 and Spring 2015 2 weeks before the study
Treatment Stage Materials given to students in their online courses depending on the group they were assigned (control or instructed) 2 weeks during Oct. 2014 for Fall 2014 groups and 2 weeks during Mar. 2015 for Spring 2015 groups
Conduct literature review Spring 2013-Fall 2015
Posttest sent to students after study Fall 2014 and Spring 2015 2 weeks after the study
27


Action (Table Continued) Time Frame (Table Continued)
Write Draft Literature Review Spring 2013
Receive feedback on literature review Summer 2013
Complete Final Draft Literature review Fall 2014
Analysis Stage Collect data from pretest and posttest Spring 2015
Analysis Stage Compile & Analyze data Summer 2015
Write Data Analysis Fall 2015
Receive feedback and update as needed October 20, 2015
Draft of Action Research Report October 21, 2015
Defend Thesis November 4, 2015
Complete Final Action Research Report November 18, 2015
Electronically Submit Thesis November 20, 2015
Tasks
Website
Students were provided with a link to a presentation of the study, which contained
an explanation of the study and a link to the consent form and pretest. Students were
advised about the tools that would be utilized in the study. They were informed how to
participate in the study and requested to join the study. Results of the study were
published on this website, after the thesis completed. The website was created through
Weebly and is located here: www.noemiwahls.com. (See Appendix G).
Online courses
The online Canvas course links (Appendix H) were provided to the students via
email and via their group page in their Spanish 1010 university course depending on
28


which group they were in: control or instructed. Participants from both groups who
completed the pretest received the password to the their applicable online course so that
they could log in to the course to carry out the study, according to their group. For the
instructed group, the course had 3 parts, which is described below: Lessons (explicit
instruction), the Game (practice activity and feedback), and the Posttest (testing for
student improvement). The course had a time-released link to the posttest, which was
opened 2 weeks after the study began. For the control group, students had access to the
Comic Strips (explained below).
Pretest
The pretest (Appendix A) was located on the above mentioned website, which
was the researchers personal website to advertise the study. The first page of the pretest
was the consent form. If the students consented to be in the study, then they continued on
to the pretest. Participation on both the pretest and posttest was optional, but completion
of the pretest was required in order to access the lessons and game. The pretest was worth
29 points.
Students were asked to identify themselves on the second page of the study so that
their participation in the social media study could be compared to their survey
scores. The second page included questions about the participants for research purposes
explained above: their age, how long they had been learning Spanish and English, where
they were from, etc. The second page of the pretest consisted of questions about student
opinions on the use of social media (specifically how students feel about learning in
social media), learning culture (specifically learning through music and dance), and
Spanish commands.
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On pages 3-5, the pretest focused on understanding and using (in writing)
commands in a dance setting. There were three stages of the testing: vocabulary was on
page 3 (the 10 verbs from the study) worth 10 points, comprehension was on page 4
worth 10 points, and written production was on page 5 worth 9 points. Vocabulary was
tested by participants correctly selecting the English equivalent from a list of options in a
chart form.
Comprehension was first tested by correctly identifying the command that was
written by selecting the correct answer from options provided which then complete the
sentence. The questions were similar to the following: Select the correct command from
the drop down list: (Deslizar).lospies.. .(A, B, C, or D). The same 10 verbs from part
1 vocabulary were tested here. Written production was tested by typing the correct
answer to fill in the blank and complete a sentence. There were a total of 10 questions.
Example: Type the correct command: (Deslizar)....los pies.
Posttest
The pre and posttests were nearly identical so that any changes in score or opinion
could be noted. The posttest (Appendix F) skipped the questions about the participant
because those questions were already responded to in the pretest and then moved on to
the same opinion questions described above from the second page of the pretest. New to
that page for the posttest, participants were able to self-report their hours of participation
in the social media portion, as determining that would be outside of the reporting scope of
the study. The second page of the posttest was the 3rd page of the pretest without any
changes. The third page of the posttest was the 4th page of the pretest without any
30


changes. The fourth page of the posttest was the 5th page of the pretest without any
changes.
The posttest was used to monitor student improvement over time. For the Fall
2014 groups, students were given the pretest and posttest later in the semester than the
Spring 2015 groups. The groups were compared to see if there was a difference in scores
between the groups. The posttest was worth 29 points: 10 for vocabulary, 10 for
comprehension, and 9 for written production.
Explicit grammar instruction videos
Video lessons (Appendix C) were the main source of information and instruction
shared through the online course and they were posted in Canvas as modules. There was
1 specifically on informal commands and 5 lesson videos using dance to teach
commands. The lessons, containing explicit grammar information, were hosted on the
social media tool YouTube and participants were able to comment on the videos in
YouTube as well as rate the videos. This content, provided to the instructed group, was
on Spanish commands in a stand-alone practice course.
The purpose of the command lessons was to teach informal commands to the
students, so that they would be able to take a dance class in a Spanish speaking setting
and they would be able to go dancing and understand basic moves. Students learned 17
commands commonly used to teach dance.
The 17 verbs that were taught were:
1. salta-jump
2. brinca hop
3. gira a la derecha turn to the right
4. gira a la izquierda turn to the left
5. desliza los pies slide your feet
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6. dale vuelta o volteate spin
7. mueve la cabeza move your head
8. mueve los hombros move your shoulders
9. sueltate let go
10. agarrate las manos hold hands
11. quebrala get down
12. pon las manos arriba put your hands up
13. pon las manos abajo put your hands down
14. un paso hacia atras take a step back
15. un paso hacia al frente take a step forward
16. cruza el cuerpo cross-body lead
17. baila en tu lugar dance in place
Only 10 of these verbs were tested and they were:
1. salta
2. brinca
3. gira a la derecha
4. gira a la izquierda
5. desliza los pies
6. dale vuelta
7. mueve la cabeza
8. mueve los hombros
9. sueltate
10. agarrate las manos
The videos were separate from one another and each lesson went over 3-5 verbs
or phrases in a dance setting. The informal commands video started off the study before
the video lessons. The commands were taught explicitly, using a brief grammar
explanation for each command. Then the dance steps were taught, the vocabulary was
reviewed and finally the dance was shown with the command word being given before
the action took place. The video lessons were the treatment or instruction in this study.
The videos that were created focused on teaching Spanish commands through
Latin music and dance. For this project Camtasia, Adobe Captivate, and iMovie from
Apple, were utilized in addition to using a video camera and a cameraman. iMovie was
used for editing the video lessons after downloading the video from the camera onto the
researchers computer. Audacity was used to record and edit the songs selected for the
32


videos for the video credits to override the commands given. The audio was uploaded as
an .MP3 file into iMovie and timing was selected as to when the songs would release.
With iMovie, the researcher was able to take screenshots of images besides the video and
use those to organize the videos. Camtasia was used to edit one of the videos before
uploading it to iMovie.
Implicit feedback: the games
Participants in the instructed group were given feedback on Spanish commands
by playing games (Appendix D) in the online course. In the games, when students
selected an answer, they received feedback, either positive or negative depending on if
their response was correct or incorrect. Two games were created in Adobe Captivate and
uploaded to Canvas as an Mp4 file. The third game was a quiz in Canvas that utilized
short video clips from the video lessons. A total of 28 videos were published to YouTube
and utilized within the games. Participants were able to play the games from within the
online course, because this was the only way to limit the game participants to those in the
study.
The first level was an exploration of the vocabulary related to actions, so there
were no right answers. Participants found the vocabulary list and when they selected a
word, they heard the command and then saw the action take place. The videos for the
lessons were cut down to cover just one command and these videos were utilized for the
games. The user could repeat the vocabulary list as many times as they would like and
they could leave the game whenever they wished. Level 1 completion was dependent
upon the participant selecting at least 1 command to explore.
33


In the second level, participants were give a command and asked to select the
correct verb, showing their comprehension of the vocabulary. The feedback given to the
student was implicit in that the participants were not told if they were wrong; however,
they were directed to view the lesson video on the command and then directed back into
game scenarios where they could try again and correct their mistake, quit the game, or
move on. They could exit the game at any point.
The third level of the game was a quiz in Canvas where participants saw a video
and then selected the vocabulary word from a list of options. For each question, the
participant watched a video and then selected which command was used. Similar to level
2, participants received feedback implicitly. Once they completed the quiz they could
view their results and receive feedback.
Facebook and cultural materials
The instruction focused on three dance styles: Salsa, Bachata, and Cumbia (to
help narrow down the topic of culture a little more). By the end of the fall semester there
were several YouTube videos to serve as short lesson videos involving the three dance
styles. In addition to teaching Spanish informal commands, the third purpose of this study
was to monitor the usage of the optional social media component of the study. A
Facebook page (Appendix E) was used and it is still a public page where both the
instructed and control groups can interact with the general public; anyone with a
Facebook account can like the page and participate. Posts included:
Link to sign up for the study
Word/phrase of the day
Fun facts about culture (music and dance)
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Useful links for Spanish students
Songs
Tools for self-review of Spanish essays
Articles about dance and music (unrelated to the study)
Social media was utilized to help participants and allow any interested students to
create a community. It was the only place that participants were able to make comments
or discuss the topics as well as the only place participants could talk to one another.
Participants were able to post comments in social media to share their ideas. This
portion of the study was optional to the student and the researcher could not tell who
participated in this part unless they posted a comment. The focus of the culture portion of
the study was salsa music and dance. The researcher provided articles and videos and
posted them in Facebook. Participants were invited to post verifiable articles and videos
about salsa music and dance. Resource links were provided for tools that students would
be able to use while writing their papers and useful ways to critique their own papers.
Additionally, the researcher provided vocabulary related to music and dance by posting
an image with a word and definition.
Comic Strips
The control group received access to comic strips (See Appendix B) on the
cultural topics of dance and music in Spanish and 1 hit song or song playlist from
YouTube about the artist or group in the comic strip. Vocabulary was utilized from their
textbook so that they would not learn any new words. Images were added to the comic
strip to help them identify the music artist or group more easily. The control group did
not receive access to the online video command lessons or the video games. The control
group had 2 weeks to view the comic strips and YouTube songs which was the same time
35


as the instructed group had to access the YouTube video lessons and the Games.
Procedure
Learner improvement was determined through the use of a pretest/posttest format,
in which scores from the posttest were compared to those from the pretest. A control
group was also given the pretest and posttest and they were also given access to the social
media tool. The control group had access to the online course, which for the instructed
group had the treatment (instructional videos) and feedback (virtual game) portions of the
study, but their version of the online course contained only the 7 comic strips described
above. Students were advised about the online tools that would be utilized so that they
could follow the study. Students were pretested 2 weeks before the study and post tested
2 weeks after the study.
Advertisement stage
The study began with an advertisement stage in which participants from
introductory level Spanish courses in the Fall 2014 and Spring 2015 semesters were
solicited to join the study through the website link initially provided with the consent
form and link to the pretest via an email with a link to the website (which also contained
a link to the pretest). The advertisement stage lasted 2 weeks. Additionally three people
joined the study from Facebook. Participants were asked to complete the pretest before
the study began. During the advertisement stage Facebook was used to help advertise the
study.
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At the close of the advertisement stage, the researcher looked at the pretest results
to see which students completed the pretest and thereby committed them to the study. In
the first semester students were randomly selected in a group setting in Canvas into either
the instructed or control group. In the first semester the instructed students were emailed
a password to the online course because the control group had their content in the group
page in their Spanish 1010 course within the universitys Canvas course shell. For the
second semester, both the control group and the instructed group had online courses
shells therefore the control group also received a separate online course with their control
content only contrary to the first semester control group which only received their content
within their group page in their university course. In the second semester, the students
were randomly selected by the researcher according to who completed the pretest first
and then they were emailed the link to their groups online course. For example, the first
person to complete the study was placed into the instructed group, the second was placed
in the control group, then the third in the instructed group, etc. Participants were advised
when the online course would open (within 24 hrs.).
Treatment stage
After the initial 2 weeks for advertisement, the treatment stage began. During the
two weeks of the treatment stage, participants in the instructed group had access to the
lesson videos and game for 2 weeks starting. This was done by the students in the
instructed group viewing video lessons on Spanish commands used in Latin dance
instruction. Since the videos were published on YouTube as unlisted videos, only
students were able to view the videos and YouTube tracked when the students viewed
each video. After the students viewed the first video, the second video was released, and
37


so forth. The control group had access to the comic strips about music artists and song
videos from these artists.
The game was accessible throughout the 2 weeks of the study for the instructed
group, so participants could practice the game whenever they wanted during the study.
The games could be replayed at any level and each level could be replayed provided that
the participant reached the level before the current level. For example, participants were
not be able to access level 3 until they completed level 2. The first level of the game
released after the last video lesson was watched.
Both the control group and the instructed group had access to the social media
portion of the study. The study content in the online courses was then locked after 2
weeks while the Facebook page remained open. The posttest was provided to both
student groups online in the course via a course announcement with a link to the posttest
and via an individual email invitation, to ensure that participants knew when to take the
posttest.
Facebook student interaction
The researcher scheduled 2-3 social media posts in Facebook for daily release
during the study. The posts then appeared in the participants notifications page and
newsfeed (unless they selected to disable it). A small number of posts were liked and
some posts were opened and clicked on.
Analysis stage
At the close of the study, the researcher reviewed the posttest scores and
compared them to the pretest. Correct answers received 1 point. The pretest and posttest
38


were broken down into 3 parts: Part 1 Vocabulary, Part 2 Comprehension, and Part 3
- Written Production. A perfect score was 29: Part 1 was worth 10 points, Part 2 was
worth 10 points, and Part 3 was worth 9 points (because 1 command verb was utilized
twice in the other parts but with different vocabulary).
For Part 1, no errors were allowed except for the following: Hop and Jump. If the
student selected Hop instead of Jump, then the student was given .5 points and visa
versa. This exception was allowed because native speakers will utilize hop and jump
interchangeably. No other exception was allowed.
For Part 2 and Part 3, a score of .5 point was given if they (See Appendix L):
missed the accent mark
used the formal command instead of the informal command
made minor spelling mistakes such as using an s instead of z, again since
this is an error that many native speakers make
included a space when it was not needed
More errors were allowed in Part 2 and 3. This is simply because Part 1 did not give the
students options to have errors on each word or phrase. It only gave them the option to
select between all the other vocabulary words.
The scores were given in a column next to the answer provided and then a total
score for Part 1 was calculated by the Excel spreadsheet SUM calculation. The same
occurred for Part 2 and Part 3. Another column then added up the score automatically for
Part 1, 2, and 3 with the SUM calculation in Excel. The researcher then used the copy
tool and pasted the results into the tables here in the study in order to prevent error.
Group tables were then created from the tables in Excel and all calculations were from
the SUM or AVG (average) calculations in Excel.
39


The researcher reviewed the YouTube channel where all the lesson videos and
short video clips for the games were published as unlisted videos (specific to this study)
and pulled the number of views and number of minutes viewed. Facebook has reporting
tools under insight where the researcher pulled the number of post likes, post shares, and
Facebook Fans. The researcher reviewed each post to see if anyone commented to the
page or replied to a post.
40


CHAPTER IV
RESULTS
The following section provides information on how the data was created, what
methods were utilized to retrieve the data, what was found in the data, and the reliability
and validity15 of the data retrieved.
Background
The goal of this research project was to determine if students could identify and
reproduce Spanish commands learned through the digital means of video lessons and
short video games (research questions 1 and 2) and to monitor the usage of the optional
social media component (research question 3). The online course for the instructed group
in the current study was comprised of video lessons on each informal Spanish command
found in the pretest and posttest and the virtual games, which were practice activities that
provided participants with feedback. The study was advertised for 2 weeks where
students could join the study by completing a pretest. The pretest was closed at the end of
the 2nd week. The online course was then open for 2 weeks. At the close of the course,
participants were given the posttest, which repeated the questions from the pretest.
Quantitative Data Analysis Method
Two surveys, Facebook like and share interaction, and the YouTube videos made
up the quantitative portion of the data analysis16. All three-research questions were
addressed with the quantitative data:
Do first semester second language learners (L2s) of Spanish whose first language
is English learn informal commands in Spanish in a virtual cultural setting, after
41


receiving instruction through video lessons and feedback through the use of an
online game? (Please see the Pretest and Posttest sections).
Do participants that use a game as a practice activity and watch video lessons
score better on a vocabulary, comprehension, and written test than students who
read comic strips in Spanish only (the control group)? (Please see the Pretest,
Posttest, and Game Level 3 sections.)
What do available metrics say about the usage of optional social media
component? In what ways do the students interact with the social media tools
available? What do they self-report feeling about the use of the social media tools
utilized? (Please see the Facebook and YouTube sections.)
Pretest
The control group 2014 scored an average of 17.65 out of a total of 29 possible
points on the pretest (Appendix I) while the instructed group scored an average of 14.461.
For 2015, the control group scored an average of 21.1 while the instructed group scored
12.281. The overall average of the pretest scores in both groups for both semesters was
15.489.
For Part 1 Vocabulary, the control group 2014 scored an average of 7.2 while
the instructed group 2014 scored an average of 4.153 out of 9. For 2015, the control
group scored 8.667 and the instructed group scored 5.768. The instructed group utilized
the I dont know option more frequently with a total of 11 times while the control
group only utilized it 2 times.
For Part 2 Comprehension, the highest possible score was 10. The control group
of 2014 scored 7.05 and the control group of 2015 scored 8.4 while the instructed group
2014 scored 6.230 and the instructed group 2015 scored 5.688.
42


Part 3 Written Production, the highest possible score was 9. The control group
of 2014 scored 3.4 and the control group of 2015 scored 6.7 while the instructed group
2014 scored 4.076 and the instructed group 2015 scored 2.875.
Pretest Results
See Table 6 for the comparison of the pretest results between both semesters.
Table 6: Pretest Semester Comparison
Group Part 1 Vocabulary Average Score (out of 10) Part 2 Comprehension Average Score (out of 10) Part 3 Written Production Average Score (out of 9) Overall Average Score (out of 29)
Control Group Fall 2014 7.2 7.05 3.4 17.65
Instructed Group Fall 2014 4.153 6.23 4.076 14.461
Control Group Spring 2015 9 8.4 6.7 24.1
Instructed Group Spring 2015 4.344 5.688 2.875 12.281
Overall Instructed Group 4.249 5.959 3.476 13.37
Overall Control Group 8.1 7.725 5.05 20.86
All student average 5.466 6.466 3.784 15.489
Posttest
Two semesters compared yosttest
See Table 7 for the comparison between the two semesters for the posttest17.
43


Table 7: Posttest Semester Comparison
Group Part 1 Vocabulary Average Score (out of 10) Part 2 Comprehension Average Score (out of 10) Part 3 Written Production Average Score (out of 9) Overall Average Score (out of 29)
Control Group Fall 2014 8.9 7.05 4.65 20.6
Instructed Group 2014 8.318 7.818 6.909 23.045
Control Group 2015 8.222 7.5 5.889 21.611
Instructed Group 2015 8.438 7.625 4.375 20.69
Overall Control Group 8.561 7.275 5.27 21.11
Overall Instructed Group 8.379 7.722 5.642 21.87
All student average 8.474 7.5 5.539 21.566
Compared to the pretest, the instructed group improved the most in terms of quiz
scores. The highest possible score for the pretest and posttest was 29. The control group
went from an average of 20.86 for the pretest to an average of 21.11 for the posttest out
of 29. The instructed group went from an average of 13.37 for the pretest to an average of
21.87 for the posttest out of 29. This shows that the instructed group learned from the
video lessons and games and improved their average score. Both groups in 2014 and the
instructed group from 2015 however showed improvement thereby showing that more
exposure to language does increase your knowledge even if the student is not instructed
how to use the language. The control group 2015 did show a decrease in the scores after
the exposure to the comic strips only.
44


Comparison of pretest and posttest results
See Table 8 for the comparison between the pretest and posttest results.
Table 8: Pretest and Posttest Comparison
Group Pretest Average Score (out of 29) Posttest Average Score (out of 29) Highest Possible Score Points improved from pretest Improvement in %
Control Group Fall 2014 17.65 20.6 29 2.95 16.71%
Instructed Group Fall 2014 14.46 23.05 29 8.59 59.41%
Control Group Spring 2015 24.1 21.61 29 -2.49 -10.33%
Instructed Group Spring 2015 12.28 20.69 29 16.72 68.49%
Overall Control Group 20.86 21.11 29 .25 1.20%
Overall Instructed Group 13.37 21.87 29 8.50 63.58%
Overall student 15.489 21.566 29 6.074 39.23%
Game Level 3
The game was only provided to the instructed groups. Not all students completed
the Game level 3 (Appendix D). In the Fall 2014, only 3 students completed it and they
all scored 100%. Game level 3 was worth 40 points. In the Spring of 2015, 6 students
scored 40 (100%), 2 scored 35 and 1 scored 20. See the table 9 below for details on the
comparison between the students who completed the Game Level 3 and those who did
not.
45


Table 9: Game Level 3 Comparison
Group Pretest Average Score (out of 29) Posttest Average Score (out of 29) Highest Possibl e Score Points improved from pretest Improve ment in %
Instructed Group That DID complete the Game Level 3 10.25 22.6 29 9.2 120.49%
Instructed Group That did NOT complete the Game Level 3 13.74 21.857 29 8.117 59.08%
Overall Control Group 20.86 21.11 29 .25 1.20%
Overall Instructed Group 13.37 21.87 29 8.50 63.58%
Overall student 15.489 21.566 29 6.074 39.23%
Results of YouTube video lessons on commands
During the timeframe of the study, there were 60 views of lesson videos and short
game video clips with a total of 99 minutes having been watched. Only 5 of the videos
were liked. Its not possible to see who liked or viewed the videos, so these numbers are
from various participants in the study. The general public cannot get to these videos. The
Master Thesis Video lessons (the video lessons) were the most popular. (See Appendix C
for details on the video lessons).
There were 310 views of lesson videos and the videos for games and an estimated
of 348 minutes of the videos were watched all from within the United States. The average
viewing duration was 1:07. See Table 10 for the breakdown of the views and likes for the
videos.
46


Table 10: Videos and Views
Video Total times video was viewed Total # of Minutes video was watched Total # of likes
Informal Commands 8 33 1
Master thesis video lesson 1 16 26 1
Master thesis video lesson 2 5 16 1
Master thesis video lesson 3 5 18 1
Master thesis video lesson 4 4 20 1
Master thesis video lesson 5 7 16 0
Sueltate las manos command 1 0 0
Agarrate las manos command 2 0 0
Brinca command 1 0 0
Cruzando el cuerpo command 0 0 0
Mueve los hombros command 1 0 0
Salta command 0 0 0
Gira a la derecha 2 0 0
Gira a la izquierda 1 0 0
Baila en tu lugar 1 0 0
Un paso hacia al frente 0 0 0
Mueve la cabeza 1 0 0
Quebrala 0 0 0
Un paso hacia atras 1 0 0
Desliza los pies 1 0 0
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(Table Continued) Video # of views # of Mins. Watched # of likes
Pon las manos abajo 1 0 0
Pon las manos arriba 1 0 0
Quiz 3 question 1 0 0 * 0
Quiz 3 question 2 0 0 * 0
Quiz 3 question 3 0 0 * 0
Quiz 3 question 4 5 0 * 0
Quiz 3 question 5 1 0 * 0
Quiz 3 question 6 1 0 * 0
Quiz 3 question 7 3 0 * 0
Quiz 3 question 8 10 0 * 0
Master Thesis Project video (released to control group after study completed) 5 0 0
Note: The researcher did change out the version of the several video lessons, but is
lumping those results together since its the same lesson.
* These videos are not even a minute long and thus their estimated minutes watched is
marked as zero since it is less than one.
Ninety-seven percent of the participants replayed the video in a separate window
in YouTube instead of watching the embedded video in Canvas. 91% watched the videos
on a computer with an estimated minutes watched of 268, 5.2% on mobile phones with
an estimated minutes watched of 19, and 4.2% on tablets with an estimated minutes
watched of 62.
48


Students accessed the video from within the Canvas modules or lessons (61%), by
opening the video in YouTube (23%), and by selecting the exact file page within Canvas
(2.6%) amongst other sources.
Facebook student presence and culture
The results of the Facebook page interaction (Appendix E) have been generalized
and not individualized due to the limitations of Facebook reporting. However, as
described above, those study participants who also participated in the Facebook portion
of the study were asked about their opinions of its usefulness on the posttest. The
Facebook page was not used to create a cultural knowledge base as previously hoped due
to lack of student participation. Participants could have helped add to the content by
posting articles and videos to the Facebook page, but chose not to participate.
While people were reached, no one left comments or replies. These results were
slightly surprising to see. The researcher had anticipated seeing participants make
comments. Even more surprising was that the participants reported having participated in
social media. Liking a post was apparently activity for them. Its unclear which
participants viewed the posts or interacted with the posts. The Facebook page went live to
the public at the beginning of October to encourage participants to the study. By the end
of October there were 80 likes to the page and by the end of the study there were 100
likes to the page. In March of 2015, there were 243 likes to the page. Most participants
came to the Facebook page through Canvas or the researchers website, although the page
is searchable in Facebook and a small number joined through Facebook friends, family,
or if they performed a general search. Most views were to the timelines where the posts
49


are located. Essentially this study found that the student presence was non-existent
although students reported having a presence.
More fans were online Sundays, Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays than other
days of the week. More fans were online between 11 AM and 3 PM local times, followed
by 6 AM to 10 AM local time. Below is a list of how many likes per month that the page
has had. Only 1 person posted to the page and they were not part of the study. See Table
11 for the number of likes per month, which are considered to be the Fans of the
Facebook page.
Table 11: Facebook Fan Likes per Month
Month # of Likes
October 2014 62
November 2014 74
December 2014 83
January 2015 85
February 2015 111
March 2015 244
April 2015 674
May 2015 1,147
June 2015 1,269
July 2015 1,308
August 2015 1,313
September 2015 1,308
October 2015 1,308
Below are the number of likes and shares (since there are no comments) for the
Facebook posts. It can be clearly seen that no interaction took place after the first course
completed and after the last course completed. See Figure 1 for the number of likes an
shares of various posts per month for the Facebook page.
50


Figure 1: Facebook Likes and Shares per Month
Likes Comments Shares
s
Below is a chart on the number of people that viewed a single post at a time. What
is clear is that there are more people viewing each post in the second study than in the
first study because none of the participants were removed from the page or asked to
dislike the page. The highest amount was a post in April with nearly 40 people having
viewed that single post. See Figure 2 for the number of views by post per month for the
Facebook page.
Figure 2: Facebook Views by Post per month
Dec Feb Mr An- Jun Jl4 Aug Sep Oct
2314. 2D*C
51


Many more people were reached through Facebook than in the study because as
the students liked and shared the posts, their friends viewed the posts and page as well.
The total number of people reached by month is in the chart below. The most active
month was April with over a hundred people being reached by the posts that month. See
Figure 3 for the total number of people reached by month for the Facebook page.
Figure 3: Facebook Total Reach by Month
'0
\£> Jii
2015
The page and various tabs were viewed less than the posts themselves. In the
chart below, the blue is when anyone viewed the page, the yellow when anyone looked at
reports (likely the researcher), and the purple when anyone checked out the info tab about
the page. See Figure 4 for the number of page views for the Facebook page.
Figure 4: Facebook Page Views
Timeline Photos Tab Info Tab insights Others
52


The external referrers (where the likes of the page came from if it was not within
Facebook) were from the course in Canvas. One video published to the site reached 74
people and had 16 views.
Qualitative Data Analysis Method
The Qualitative Data Analysis Section addresses the research question 3 part B
listed below.
What do they self-report feeling about the use of the social media tools utilized?
Pretest comments
In Part 1 Vocabulary, the participants expressed feeling just above neutral for
their certainty of their answers at 3.3. Only 1 student made a comment at the end of the
pretest: I knew the words for head, hand, feet, left and right but not much else!
Thoughts on gaming
When they were asked how they felt about learning a language via a game,
participants preference was slightly higher, at 3.7.
Thoughts on learning through culture
When participants were asked how they feel about learning about dance, the
average response was 3 neutral.
Thoughts on social media
Finally, when participants were asked how they felt about using social media to
learn a language, the average response was 2.9 neutral.
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Posttest comments
For Part 1 Vocabulary of the posttest, the participants in both groups responded
feeling fairly confident in their responses with 4 out of 5 confidence in their responses for
this Part of the posttest. For the Part 2 and 3 of the posttest, students were not asked their
certainty of their answers. Below are some comments from the instructed group about
their confidence level.
I remember some body parts and directions but am not 100% positive, I'm
matching the English words with the Spanish words I know without knowing all the
Spanish words in the statements, I am confident in my answers. I have seen and learned
these terms in various places. Interestingly enough there is no mention of the video
lessons or the games, but the comment about having seen and learned the terms could
imply that the participant learned from the video lessons and games.
Some comments from the control group about their confidence level were: given
the information learned from the comic strips, I am confident that my answers are
correct and I can remember them from earlier. These are very interesting comments
from the control group since they only received the comic strips and they did not have
access to any of the video lessons or games with the instruction on the commands. The
students also did not have any instructions on commands prior to or during the study. One
comment made the most sense for the control group: though I came into this class with a
good deal of knowledge of the Spanish language I have found that not only did I not
know everything, but I also found that I have a weakness as it relates to verb
conjugation.
54


Student feelings towards gaming after the study
Both the control and instructed groups did show a slightly higher than average
interest in learning about dance at 3.24. The instructed group had a slightly higher interest
at 3.27 and the control group average score was a 3.21. This could possibly be due to the
exposure of the dance instruction in the video lessons.
Those that expressed a lack of interest in dance made comments about their
concerns of them learning dance due to their personal comfort level in dance or concern
in their ability to learn to dance. In future studies, it should be clarified that the
participants are not dancing themselves, but rather watching others dance and learning by
watching not by dancing. Only 1 participant said they were uninterested in dance
altogether. One comment expressing a lack of interest in learning through dance was I
feel like I would need lots of practice still before I understood dance instruction without
taking time to see it and translate it mentally. One student was specific about how they
felt learning Spanish through dance would work for them: Unless I am learning
something concrete (i.e. body parts, places in a room, on a map, etc.). I do not think that
learning Spanish through dance would be helpful or useful.
Those that expressed interested in dance said they liked the idea of learning while
exercising, and that they wanted to learn how to dance salsa. Only 1 identified that they
like watching the videos of dance. Several said that dance would help them learn more.
One supporting comment was Yes, dancing is a fun way to exercise. It is interesting to
learn about dancing and other cultures. Another comment was I grew up dancing, so it
always interests me. One student rated learning through Spanish with a 4 and said
Because some of the videos we used to identify commands were very short (seconds), it
55


was difficult to fully observe the correct dance steps and associate a command with the
step, thus longer videos could increase interest in dance. The last comment was I am
not a dancer normally, but the Spanish dance culture is very interesting to me. I would
like to expand my knowledge on Spanish dance culture. The student clearly identifies
Latin dance as learning culture and part of the language learning experience.
Student feelings towards learning through culture after the study
Both the groups showed the most interest in learning via games with an average
score of about 4. The instructed group showed a slightly lower interest with an average of
3.89 while the control group was 4. Overall the comments were favorable to game based
learning: Learning a language seems to come easier when you can learn by playing a
game. It doesn't seem like you are studying, which is helpful for many students, I like
to play games. Because of my ADHD I find that games hold my attention and often help
me concentrate, It is fun to have alternate ways of learning and If it's easier than
traditional learning.
Some of the comments from the instructed group who received the game based
learning materials reflected the student approval of the games utilized in the study and
who scored game based learning with a 4 or 5 said: I like the kind of game presented in
this study as opposed to virtual games like "The Sims", I thought it was a cool way to
learn and interesting, I really enjoyed using the game. I thought it put everything very
straightforward and by having three parts to it, it really embedded the information into
my mind. Especially in addition to the videos, Learning through games helped me.
Trial and error is very effective, and I like the visual/game based approach. It's more
engaging than just reading, writing and flash cards. Further comments were It would be
56


a good way to reinforce whats learned and help students remember. From a student in
the control group: Using a game that is functional and logical would help me to learn
and retain Spanish. From my experience in this course thus far, it is possible to learn a
language through games and through the Internet. However, unless one immerses
themselves in a language it is very difficult to fully become fluent in non-native
language. I think that by using games to learn we have a great way to "trick" ourselves
into retaining and using what we observe. A game is a great way to help retain what you
have learned as well as make the learning part fun. I think that would be an interesting
way to learn! Games are a good way to learn.
Only 1 student stated that they would rather listen to lectures. There were
expressed concerns over the type of game and the technology involved: It would depend
on what type of game, No. I don't do as well on games especially on my laptop,
perhaps if it was the right game and did not require much previous gaming experience,
and I think a game is a good idea but it has to be almost flawless technically. Learning a
second language is frustrating enough without the system getting stuck.
Student feelings towards social media after the study
Both groups showed a neutral opinion of learning through social media at 3.24.
The instructed group again showed more interest with an average of 3.28 while the
control groups average was 3.21. Participants provided fewer comments overall in this
category. There was one request to only use YouTube. The negative comments were
simple no or not sure. The positive comments included Yes! It helps to see terms as
frequently as possible, Sure! It gives you an opportunity to connect with more people,
I use social media daily, so seeing Spanish daily has help me grasp the material, and I
57


think reading articles that are relevant would be helpful in learning a new language. 4
participants reported only having used Facebook, 4 reported using Facebook and
YouTube, 3 reported having used Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube, 2 reported having
used Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Pinterest, 3 reported having used Facebook,
Twitter, YouTube, Pinterest, and Google+, 1 reported having used Facebook, YouTube,
and Google+, 4 reported using Facebook, YouTube, and Pinterest, and 1 reported to only
have used Google+.
In the Spring 2015 semester a few participants in the control group mentioned that
they saw no benefit to using social media in a class and felt it had no part in the
classroom. Their counterparts in the instructed group had slightly more positive feelings
towards social media but made fewer comments. Overall students had an interest in social
media.
Student reported interaction in social media
All but 2 participants viewed the social media component of the study. Although
there were no comments made in social media, 19 participants reported having
participated in social media with their peers. There were likes and shares of the posts in
addition to some people having clicked the posts open to view them so it is possible that
the participants viewed these actions as participating. 4 preferred not to comment on their
participation level in social media. 12 reported having participated in social media once a
week, 4 reported having participated in social media every 3rd day, 5 reported having
participated every other day, 10 reported having not having participated at all, 3 reported
not remembering, 2 preferred not to say, and 1 reported daily interaction.
58


Of those that participated, 10 reported to feel that social media helped created a
community with their peers, 15 said maybe it did, and 6 said that it did not. 12
participants felt that they learned Spanish commands via the social media although no
lessons included Spanish commands on social media. 8 reported not having learned any
Spanish commands through social media and 14 werent sure if they did or not. 14
participants reported that social media helped them participate, 7 said maybe, and 13 said
it did not.
2 participants from the instructed group commented favorable on the videos
These moves were simple for me to comprehend (probably because of the videos I'm a
visual learner) so I'm almost 100% sure they are correct and I learned a lot of the dance
vocabulary and demonstrations by the professor and some of the verbs have slight
cognates to English.
Social media results
No one commented on the page from the study, nor did they reply to any posts.
No one made a comment to any of the videos.
59


CHAPTER V
DISCUSSION
The following section consists of a comparison between the data results and the
literature review, the limitations of the data retrieved, and a data collection summary.
Below are the research questions with results from the data collection connected to the
results and literature review.
Research Question 1
Do first semester second language learners (L2s) of Spanish whose first language
is English learn informal commands in Spanish in a virtual cultural setting, after
receiving instruction through video lessons and feedback through the use of an online
game? It was found that first semester second language learners (L2s) of Spanish whose
first language is English did learn informal commands in Spanish in a virtual cultural
setting, after receiving instruction through video lessons and feedback through the use of
an online game. Overall the instructed group showed improvement in the posttest from
the pretest.
There is a difference in the scoring in the instructed group of Fall 2014 and Spring
of 2015. This is likely due to the fact that the Fall 2014 semester students received the
study materials later in the semester, after they completed the first 5 chapters of the book,
whereas the Spring 2015 semester students received the materials earlier on in the
semester and had only completed the first 2 chapters before starting the study. Therefore
it was found that students who received the video lessons earlier on in their studies
improved more than those that received the lessons later on. This shows that language
60


exposure perhaps and mainly to verb conjugation, may have helped prepare some of the
students more in the Fall 2014 semester.
Explicit instruction was utilized in this study to clearly explain informal Spanish
commands and how to conjugate them. This type of instruction produced effective
improvements in scoring with the instructed group improvement from the pretest to
posttest being just over 68%. Students in the control group that did not receive explicit
instruction did show slight improvement and may have benefited from language
exposure, but any such benefit was minimal considering their improvement score was
less than 2%.
This study showed that learning culture enabled students to perform in the
language through the retention of vocabulary, comprehension, and written production in a
dance setting. Learning culture to perform in the language was similar to the definition of
cultural knowledge by Dubreil. To further the study, students could be tested on their
knowledge of the artists or music genres. Very similar to Asher, Kusudo, and De La
Torre, this study found that the students did learn through Total Physical Response (TPR)
(30). Contrary to their study though, TRP was virtual and students could mimic in the
privacy of their own homes.
This study did find that the students can learn culture at lower division courses,
similar to what Blattner and Fiori (Blattner and Fiori 2009, 7) found. While their study
found that students could learn social media and electronic lingo, the current study found
that students did not participate enough to compare to their study in this area (7-8). While
Spanish lingo18 was presented in this study, the pretest did not test on knowledge of
culture topics or lingo learned in social media. Contrary to previous studies (Shuter 219-
61


237; Blattner and Fiori 2009 7-8), students did not produce writings to compare in this
study.
This study found that students do want video lessons and learned from them,
similar to Snyder and Burkes findings (Nov. 2008). Similar to Egbert, Herman, and
Chang, this study showed student improvement (1-10). Students showed interest in
viewing video lessons and requested more videos. Students who watched the video
lessons (the instructed group) scored higher than those that did not (the control group).
Research Question 2
Do participants that use a game as a practice activity and watch video lessons
score better on a vocabulary, comprehension, and written test than students who read
comic strips in Spanish only (the control group)? Participants that used a game as a
practice activity and watched lesson videos scored better than students who did not (the
control group). The video lessons seemed to have low views overall considering the
number of students in the groups. This could be due to a lack of description of the video
lesson before viewing the lesson.
Similar to Franciosi (1), this study found that there was interest in learning
through games and that students can learn through virtual games. While I taught in an
online Spanish course, I found the textbook provided an animated game that was too
complex for students to follow and thus why I ruled complex gaming out for language
learners. Learning a language is already complex, but learning how to move a character
around and learning gaming as a whole was too much for many students. It would be
ideal to create a more elaborate game after running a basic game first, similar to what I
did, and then compare the results of the scores based on the type of game created. I found
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that the students had more positive responses to the games in this study than the complex
video game connected to the textbook, although I did not ask students about the complex
video game simply because I had to eliminate the use of it when the majority of the
students couldnt complete the first level which was simply walking around the city and
meeting people.
This study did not utilize an elaborate game format described by Hunicke,
LeBlanc, Zubek, Juul, and Bogost, but instead utilized a simplified game for this initial
study. I would suggest that Digital Game Based Learning in language learning can be less
elaborate and focus on enabling the student to have a practice area that is basic yet
functional in a fun setting. I propose a more new definition of learning games for
language learning than what the Juul presented. I propose the following:
1. a rule-based formal system;
2. a simplified and easy to use environment;
3. with variable and quantifiable outcomes;
4. where different outcomes are assigned different values;
5. where the player exerts minimal effort in order to influence the outcome;
6. and the consequences of the activity are optional and negotiable.
A complex game design may be too much for learners to become accustomed to
while also learning complex subject matter such as a second language. The game needs to
be easy to use. While a complex game can be fun, learning how to play in addition to
learning subject matter may dispel any fun in the process in addition to learning.
The pretest and posttest format of this study enabled the researcher to find that the
scores did improve after the explicit instruction and feedback were given to the students.
Udahyays technique of testing through virtual means enabled students to be tested before
and after the study and for their results to be compared similar to Loews study. Students
who completed the Game Level 3 improved more than those who did not complete the
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Game Level 3. Those that completed the Game Level 3 improved their score by 120.49%
whereas those did not have access to the game improved by 59.08%. The control group
did not have access to any of the games and only improved by 1.2%. It was not possible
to see how many participants completed Game Levels 1 or 2.
Research Question 3 Part A and B
What do available metrics say about the usage of optional social media
component? In what ways do the students interact with the social media tools available?
The usage of the social media was a big surprise in this study. The researcher was
expecting more interaction between students. Students however, used social media to
access materials instead of interacting with one another. Previous research did not focus
on the metrics of the usage of the social media tools, but instead focused on the work
produced by the students. Contrary to previous research, this study focused on the usage
of social media to explore how students are currently using social media in educational
settings.
The metrics of the Facebook page were more robust than what is offered in the
Facebook groups. It was clear that students did access the materials and reviewed them.
Students liked and shared Facebook posts. There were more Facebook Fans of the page
than students in the study.
Woodley and Meredith had to advertise through various means to get student
interaction (1-5). This study only advertised through Facebook and through an email
announcement in 2 online courses. Perhaps additional means would produce more
interaction between students.
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YouTube provides excellent metrics on knowing whether or not students view
videos and for how long they watch a video. Students in the study also liked and viewed
the YouTube Lesson Videos in their course. While Snyder and Burke discuss usage in
their studies, they surveyed their participants on the usage of YouTube and did not use
metrics from YouTube. Their studies though were focused on how faculty used YouTube
not on how students use YouTube.
Research Question 3 Part C
What do they self-report feeling about the use of the social media tools utilized?
According to Oztok and Brett, a definition of social presence has yet to be determined
and students self-report their social presence. Participants who used the optional social
media component reported that they did not feel a sense of community with their peers.
Participants who used the optional social media component reported that they felt it aided
them in learning. For those that felt social media aided them, they did not participate
more in social media, but did report that they felt more of a sense of community than
those who did not.
Student presence in social media was non-existent which was a huge
disappointment, but also a major learning curve. Students didnt reply to posts or create
new posts in social media and need much more encouragement and perhaps
accountability to do so. Perhaps examples from other studies might help. The public
Facebook page also seemed to be too open for the students comfort level although no
students reported wanting more privacy; being too public seemed to discourage the
participation and interaction. Likely a private group would have done better.
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Students did not participate in an open public Facebook page to learn Spanish.
The researcher would definitely use a closed or secret group in future studies although
there isnt a reporting tool in Facebook for groups. While there are many opportunities to
network, students need to learn how to network, how networking can help their careers,
and who or what should they be connecting with. The students had many questions on
how to participate in social media and where it was. It would have been better to have
more video and PDF instructions on how to interact and perhaps provide that about 1-2
weeks before the study started.
While social media tools enable community building to take place, they do not
ensure that it will. Students can be encouraged to interact, but it is up to the students to
decide if they will feel a community has been created for them. More importantly,
students can choose to continue a community after the study completes. Students reported
interacting in social media, yet didnt post comments or replies. Contrary to previous
research from Donlan (578-584) where students self-reported participating in social
media, students in this study didnt participate much in social media. However, similar to
Donlan, the students were did not share resources that they potentially found.
While several students reported using Facebook to discuss university work,
particularly in the context of group assignments, there was some resistance to
notions of collaboration and collectivism in terms of sharing resources, with
students feeling protective over the resources they had identified (Donlan 585).
Donlan further suggests that students need re-education on how to use Facebook to create
community learning (585). This study supports that finding.
Since networking is a key feature of social media and language learners need a
strong community, it seemed like a perfect blend for this course. Although Facebook was
originally created for students to network with one another, it is now being used for
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educational purposes and even for employers to check applicants before hiring
them. Social presence is important nowadays. Students need assistance with developing
their social presence to prepare for their careers and social media will help students
advance their careers, in addition to helping them with academic improvement.
One previous study focused on social presence and how the students networked.
The students ... discussed finding value in viewing other learners profiles, but they also
expressed concerns with regards to appropriately representing themselves online and
correctly understanding other students actions (Veletsianos and Navarrete). In that
study, students were asked to post a picture and talk about themselves to introduce
themselves to one another in the social media, thereby initiating their social presence.
The students found the activity useful, yet felt reserved about how to communicate.
Knowing how to interact online with other students is critical to the learning experience.
Students can offend one another or misunderstand one another if they do not learn how to
communicate online.
Creating ones social presence can be daunting for students who are new to online
learning. While initial studies assumed students would want to have higher levels of
privacy to protect their social interaction, the previous studies in this area have found that
students cared less about their privacy and preferred to have a more open interaction
which didnt necessarily mean that students networked more. In fact, students were more
likely to have lower privacy settings and not friend their peers in previous studies.
Students control their networking and their level of interaction with other
students. Several studies have shown that students do not use as many privacy settings as
instructors assumed students would want. Students can choose to friend whomever they
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wish or choose not to friend their peers in the study. Facebook allows students to interact
with one another without necessarily friending them; they can get to know someone
first. In Mitchells study, they found that students select friends based on whom they
know, not whom they dont (Mitchell, 474). Facebook also allows students to expand
their network through their current interests and program studies Facebook pages when
they are ready.
As Knobel et. al. (1998) state: It is important to recognize that learning networks
are much more than mere infrastructures: they are also relationships. What makes
for a computer-learning network is both the existence of hardware and software
wired together, and the coming together of people in learning relationships
mediated by the network as infrastructure (Blattner and Fiori 2009, 2).
In the current study, it was found that students do care about privacy. While
previous studies talk about how students have the ability to continue to interact with one
another, few have been successful in creating a long lasting connection. Perhaps this is
because other studies used Facebook for a single course and the studies were focused on
individual improvement, not just what the community can create together. One of the
previous studies mentions that further research in Facebook should include how to use
the tools, this includes helping students learn how to use the community based learning
style of social media. "Rigorous and systematic research into online learning is needed to
enlighten educators as to how to best integrate and utilize tools and applications from
Facebook in language curriculum (Blattner and Fiori 2009, 8)."
None of the students mentioned the content on the Facebook page. Some of the
articles although in English were very in depth and could have been supported with
additional lessons or content to better understand them and their relevance. Articles may
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be best shared in courses only with an exception to possibly graduate school level
students.
Limitations and directions for future research
It was the intention to post all videos in closed captions, but that unfortunately
didnt happen due to time constraints with childcare for the researcher. Universal Design
(UD) is defined as "the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to
the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design (The
Center for Universal Design 2). UD is intentional design of content for students with
disabilities such as being deaf or blind to have access to the same materials as the rest of
the course.
There were many lessons that I learned as the researcher both personally and
professionally. This study was limited to online courses only but the materials could be
used in a hybrid courses or flipped classrooms to supplement course materials. This study
leads the way for other future online studies. During my research so far, I found that there
were many things that I would like to do in future online studies simply because one
study is limited to a few aspects and this study was packed with studies. The project
overall engulfed many areas of expertise and it would likely be best to narrow it down in
the future to limit the scope of the project. There were too many components that could
impact learning (video lessons and gaming) and yet not everything was tested on (content
from Facebook) in order to create a more robust picture of the study.
While the focus of this study was on learning through videos, future studies could
focus more on social media interaction between students in a department, new Spanish
students interacting with senior Spanish students in social media, native Spanish speakers
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interacting with Spanish students in social media, video games on various topics, use of
comic strips, blogging, and other digital materials. The free version of Canvas does not
have a robust reporting tool and the groups within the paid version of Canvas have no
reporting capability.
Facebook presented an unexpected challenge that has lead the researcher to
believe it is best not to use it for the sole educational purpose of one course and likely not
as a page but as a closed or secret group. Classes would be best in a secret group because
some members may not want other Facebook users to know they are in the group. A
future study could involve private versus public space and the separation between life and
education.
Something that the researcher had not considered was the possible desire to
separate personal life from educational life especially during divorces, separations, and
death. A future study could be done on private versus personal space in education
technologies. Facebook pulls pictures, videos, and posts for members to recall memories
and reshare them. While Facebook does enable users to ignore such posts in their
newsfeed and notifications page, the very location that the class public page or private
groups notifications would be as well, if someone is going through a divorce or
separation, potential friends and family of theirs may post, comment, and share pictures
that can be overwhelming for students emotionally who desire a place such as work or
school to get away from personal life. Facebook has quickly become where you post
successful family pictures, which is not a conducive area for learning while going
through divorce, separation, or possible death of a loved one. While many other social
media tools allow for a person to maintain privacy in some fashion, Facebook does not.
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Seeing the need for more privacy and separation of personal emotional issues from
education, the researcher would avoid Facebook in the future for any educational project,
but would use YouTube and perhaps other social media tools such as Edmodo that does
not force students to interact with their friends and family daily.
As with any social media tool, users develop their own communication patterns
and lingo. Blattner & Fiori found that Spanish language students successfully learned
how to use electronic lingo in Spanish.
...we anticipated that the students would comment on language in relation to the
electronic context (development of multiliteracy skills) and hoped that they would
comment on the ways in which language was used in authentic contexts by group
participants (the sociopragmatic elements). Ultimately, the study attempts to share
a context in which language learning and technology can be most effectively
interwoven making multiliteracy and sociopragmatic skills development an
important focus of the (second language learner) L2 curriculum (Blattner and
Fiori, 2011,28).
Students started using the new Spanish lingo within their study. This study did not test on
lingo learned in the social media tools. Due to the lack of student interaction with one
another, it is unlikely that new lingo would have been learned.
Technology affects language and can alter the way that people express
themselves, such as when users shorten their speech in texting and when using Twitter
abbreviations. An example discussion post in a course might look like this: @Sarah, I
agree with your post because it addresses the main topic of #Commands and... Shuters
study on intercultural communication found that new technology and media, such as the
latest social media tools, affect communication on a global scale (219-237). Twitter
abbreviations are now being seen in other social media tools and this type of
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communication is becoming more commonplace and is expected to be used in Facebook
and YouTube comments.
Although there are limited data on the impact of new media on many of these
intercultural areas, the available research suggests that new media plays a major
role in the ebb and flow of intercultural encounters, conceivably augmenting
twentieth- century theories on communication across cultures (Shuter 221).
The current study attempted to mirror the dialect instruction through Facebook by
teaching the different styles of dance and providing content on dialects but did not test on
any of this. Future studies could benefit greatly from studying the changes in a language
and see how new language learners pick up on those language changes.
Facebook can be used to support student retention by creating a community for
new students and enabling their peers to respond to questions. Woodley and Meredith
performed a study on Facebook to see if the use of social media could assist with student
retention and the transition for new students into the undergraduate program in that they
were more likely to continue the program (1-5). They did find Facebook to be a useful
tool in connecting the students and more specifically they found that:
Early signs of a student struggling were picked up in formal and informal
contributions . and early interventions meant that students were provided with
support and help before it was too late (46). Madge et al. (2009) also note that
Facebook is an important tool used ... to aid transition to university (Woodley
and Meredith 4).
Woodley and Meredith suggest a departmental usage of Facebook19 and this study
suggests that Facebook pages are best for more public usage such as a department instead
of a course (1-5). Departments could encourage student retention as suggested by
Woodley and Meredith by publicizing upcoming courses and guest speakers similar to
their study (1-5). This study sought to provide students with an online social presence
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where they could network with their peers, instructors, tutors, and professional contacts
and was unsuccessful likely due to privacy concerns.
Here is a list of social media post ideas for a Facebook page: upcoming courses,
guest speaker announcements, tutor information, positive comments from graduates of
the program, local Spanish speaking and culture events in town, and other such non-
graded information. Suggestions for closed groups would be job opportunities for
graduates from the program, pen pals, native speakers, one conversation practice for the
week, and other such non-graded activity. Courses could possibly use secret groups,
however, I would not suggest secret groups since courses are often daily activities and
there are legitimate reasons to not be active in Facebook daily.
Many of the language studies that I read involved reviewing student participation
to see improvement in the language. "Lastly, future studies on culture and new media
should focus more on generating intercultural theories on the social uses of new media
(Shuter 232)." Social media has its own culture already. Future studies would include
learning the Spanish cultural norms in social media.
Another possible future study is the use of blogging at the entry level Spanish
course. It would be an interesting study to see if entry-level Spanish students could create
material to add to a portfolio and if a portfolio program would retain more students and
also provide more potential job opportunities. Blogging topics would be basic and slowly
expand with time and skill.
In an Australian study, students used Bebo (similar to Facebook, but with a focus
on blogging). They had to blog 3 times a week and receive feedback from peers and their
instructor. That Australian study found that students wrote more when they used the
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social media tool.
It is important to question what benefits the novelty of technology use may have
in terms of engaging students. ... Students were often found to write far more on
their blogs than they were required to in order to complete the assignment, both in
terms of the frequency and the length of blogs composed. As mentioned above,
more than 40% of students composed a larger number of blogs than the minimum
required for assessment. Comparatively few students would write more than the
minimum word length required for an essay. (Morofushi and Pasfield-Neofitou
82)
They were then tested on the content they created in Bebo in weekly quizzes, which were
later added to their portfolios (Morofushi and Pasfield-Neofitou 67). Portfolio building is
another newer concept for online learning and some social media tools enable the users to
build portfolios.
Since faculty can reuse the videos for multiple courses and keep a reservoir of
unlisted video materials for future courses on YouTube, the same video can reach many
students. For this reason, faculty can create a content web page about the video and how
it pertains to the course or study. Also students need to understand what the faculty wants
them to learn from the video and how to use the knowledge. Watching a video is not
always intuitive, mainly because students are watching the videos outside of the class and
they cannot ask immediate questions. A content web page helps create a community for
the intended audience20 and can answer some of the audiences questions, but also,
students need an area where they can ask questions about the video lesson. Students can
be quizzed on content from videos created in YouTube by using a content web page that
connects the video to quizzes in another tool. For this reason, the videos used in this
study will be used in future courses
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Summary
The current study found that L2s were able to learn through video lessons and
Digital Game Based Learning (DGBL) activities. Students showed higher improvement
in their scores when the study was given earlier in the semester than later in the semester.
This is likely due to them already having a better understanding of Spanish. The
Facebook page was too public for educational purposes. There are future options for
social media in education but they should be pursued with caution.
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CHAPTER VI
CONCLUSION
Previous research has not been done on testing improvement in vocabulary,
comprehension, and written production over time on Spanish commands in an online
study format. This study helped fill the current gap in research to find if students can use
what they already find familiar in social media, gaming, and virtual video to help them
learn Spanish commands.
Research Question 1: Do first semester second language learners (L2s) of Spanish
whose first language is English learn informal commands in Spanish in a virtual cultural
setting, after receiving instruction through video lessons and feedback through the use of
an online game? Overall this study showed that students learned through digital media
such as game based learning, video lessons, and social media. The instructed students
scored higher on the posttest than their counterparts in the control group. Some student
comments reflected the desire to learn virtually through videos and games. One student
emailed the researcher on the side and said that the video lessons and games were better
than the rest of his online course and he wanted to see more instruction like that. Students
were able to learn culture and they were able to learn commands through virtual Total
Physical Response.
Both the control group and the instructed group showed improvement in posttest
scores. The instructed group that was explicitly instructed on informal Spanish
commands showed an improvement of 64.58% compared to the overall control group,
which showed an improvement of 1.20%. Exposure to language can potentially enable
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students to learn, even when they are not explicitly instructed on the grammar lesson,
although there is much greater improvement through explicit instruction.
Research Question 2: Do participants that use a game as a practice activity and
watch video lessons score better on a vocabulary, comprehension, and written test than
students who read comic strips in Spanish only (the control group)? Students who
followed the video lessons, games, and social media scored higher on the posttest than
those who received only comic strips to read. Students reacted positively to the digital
resources and even mentioned that they were the highlight to the online course they were
taking. The researcher released the digital resources to all students after the study and the
control group students provided positive feedback as well to the video lessons that the
instructed group had. More students completed the basic games created for this study
than the virtual game created to go with the online textbook6.
Research Question 3: What do available metrics say about the usage of optional
social media component? In what ways do the students interact with the social media
tools available? What do they self-report feeling about the use of the social media tools
utilized? The metrics showed that the students did access the social media components.
Student interaction showed that students shared and liked posts in Facebook and viewed
and liked videos in YouTube. Students self-reported that they participated and that they
learned through social media. The pretest and posttest did not test on any knowledge
learned through social media and it is not possible to fully see all the possible
interferences through this study. Since the social media component was optional, students
were not accountable for their participation in social media and could contribute heavily
to lack of comments or replies in either social media tool. While the participants reported
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interacting in social media, it is clear in this study that the participants need more
direction on the use of social media in education and perhaps need a more private space
or tool. The information given to students through Facebook was somewhat scaffolded in
that vocabulary was given through images, videos were provided on various culture
topics, and articles were provided. Content that performed best was videos and images,
which is common for social media.
This study only touched the beginning of what could be studied in video lessons,
Digital Game Based Learning, and social media. Future studies could go more in depth
on each subject and it would be suggested to narrow down the study to isolate variables.
Certainly in the current technical era, many more technologies can be utilized in online
courses or hybrid or supplement on campus courses, but should be used with caution.
Students show an interest in learning through social media, Digital Game Based
Learning, and video lessons, but need guidance, structure, and encouragement to interact
with one another.
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ENDNOTES
1. The topic is relevant to the researcher because I was a Master student in the
eLearning department at the School of Education, thus why I was and still am so
heavily involved with eLearning and virtual tools. My studies provided me with
exposure to various eLearning tools and enabled me to see tools in action before
utilizing them in classrooms with students. My undergraduate was in International
Studies, thus explaining somewhat my interest in Intercultural competency (a key
part of my research in 2010), but more emphasizing the need to virtually connect
with international peers. I am a student in the Spanish Master program, thus why I
am focused on Spanish. During my study I was an online teacher for a U.S.
Midwestern community college, thus why I am interested in teaching Spanish.
I have a passion for eLearning, teaching, intercultural competence, and
connecting students with their international peers. In my final semester of my
Masters in Information and Learning Technologies (ILT), I took a research
course that guided me through my ILT research in Spring 2011. Although the
researcher is still fairly new to research, this research is the thesis for the Spanish
Masters and the faculty board that will be the scholarly support to assist through
all the necessary stages of research.
The researcher has a passion for online learning and Spanish, which spurs on the
desire to use social media for discussion and for advertisement of a game based
learning environment to teach Spanish commands through a virtual dance setting.
The researchers background is in online learning, which encourages new
methods of teaching and interacting with students. Connecting students through
virtual means is another interest of the researcher.
2. Feedback ... describes what the learner did and did not do in relation to her goals.
It is actionable information, and it empowers the student to make intelligent
adjustments when she applies it to her next attempt to perform (Wiggins).
3. For more information on Canvas, see the Canvas website:
www.canvas.instructure.com.
4. Communities of practice are formed by people who engage in a process of
collective learning in a shared domain of human endeavor: a tribe learning to
survive, a band of artists seeking new forms of expression, a group of engineers
working on similar problems, a clique of pupils defining their identity in the
school, a network of surgeons exploring novel techniques, a gathering of first-
time managers helping each other cope. In a nutshell: Communities of practice are
groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and
learn how to do it better as they interact regularly (Wegner and Wegner-Trayner
1).
5. Although commands exist in English, the native language of the participants in
this study, there are two differences between imperative forms in English and in
Spanish. For example, jump in English implies that the person who is with the
speaker should jump, although it is not stated who should jump in the verb. That
is, who should do the action is not marked in an informal or formal way in
English, although the second person you is understood. English speakers can use
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the same command sentence for any person, president, student, elderly, children,
manager, etc. In Spanish, there is a formal command that is used when addressing
those in authority, with an older age, with higher education, and sometimes even
within a marriage to show respect for age, position, or educational level. Informal
commands are used with peers, younger people, children, etc. For example, the
command jump in Spanish is salta or salte depending on who you are talking to;
salta for informal uses and salte for formal uses.
6. McGraw Hill created a virtual game that was released the same semester the
researcher released her study. She was unaware of the game that was going to be
released until a month before the course went live. For this reason, the researcher
did not add a comparison of the games into the study.
In the first semester of the study, the researcher assigned the game from McGraw
Hill as part of the course, but found that very few students were able to even
access the game and complete level 1. Due to the complexity of the game, the
researcher had to eliminate the game from the course work. In the second
semester of the study, the researcher left the game as optional and not one student
completed level 1.
7. According to Ian Bogost, procedural rhetoric is a key element in game based
learning that he compares to contemporary methods of learning. He explains that
in a standard learning module, ideas are explicitly expressed, whereas with games,
ideas are taught through actions and procedures. He furthers this idea by
explaining that procedures are not just visuals on a screen, they include the rules,
models, and programming in the game. Instruction is thus part of programming, a
new field for programmers and instructors in which teaching is procedural
rhetoric.
Procedural rhetoric is a general name for the practice of authoring arguments
through processes. ... (P)rocedural rhetoric entails persuasionto change opinion
or action. ... (P)rocedural rhetoric entails expressionto convey ideas
effectively. .. .its arguments are made not through the construction of words or
images, but through the authorship of rules of behavior, the construction of
dynamic models. In computation, those rules are authored in code, through the
practice of programming (Bogost 125).
Therefore, game based learning involves more than visual, audio, and oral
methods. Gaming involves processes. Essentially, it includes many methods of
learning all in one and in a fun way.
Procedural rhetoric affords a new and promising way to make claims about how
things work. ... (V)ideo games can make claims about the world. But when they
do so, they do it not with oral speech, nor in writing, nor even with images.
Rather, video games make argument with processes. Procedural rhetoric is the
practice of effective persuasion and expression using processes (Bogost 125).
Procedural rhetoric also forces the programmer to either work very closely with
the subject matter or to actually be an expert in both programming and teaching in
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order to create instruction through processes like rules and systems (such as the
background, scene/setting, characters, and character interaction/storyline).
8. While online courses are completed entirely online, hybrid classes are typically
60% or more online, such as Platt College in Colorado where a hybrid course is
defined as: A blended (hybrid) course is designed to integrate face-to-face (60%)
and online activities (40%) so that they reinforce, complement, and elaborate one
another (Platt College). UC Denver had a similar definition, but now defines
hybrid courses as only 50% online and 50% on campus: Hybrid courses blend
both traditional classroom instruction with the flexibility of online learning. So
typically, half of your course is on campus and the other half is online (CU
Online) Thus it depends on the universitys hybrid course format regulations.
Many hybrid courses offer articles and other reading assignments online and
require students to discuss topics or turn in assignments online, but watching
lectures online is still fairly new to even hybrid courses.
9. Student names were omitted in this paper to preserve anonymity.
10. For more information on Facebook, see the Facebook website:
www.facebook.com.
11. Another study, by Oztok and Brett (2011), explained that a definition of social
presence has yet to be determined. They found that social presence is determined
by the individual and in this case, the student themselves as they self-report it. It
is the individual who makes an online environment a productive space in which
collaboration and social learning practices occur. Therefore, the contemporary
social presence research focuses on individuals within online learning
communities (Oztok and Brett, 2011). In order to have students self-report on
their social presence, they should also report on their culture and social norms
outside of an online learning environment to help establish what their social
presence truly is online.
Grounded in social practice, the conceptualization of social presence should
include how social and cultural dynamics manifest themselves in individuals
practices and affect perceptions of presence. Such perspectives may provide more
holistic ways to understand individuals in a mediated environment and better
support collaborative learning practices in online educational contexts (Oztok and
Brett, 2011).
12. Instructional Design as a process: Instructional Design is the systematic
development of instructional specifications using learning and instructional theory
to ensure the quality of instruction. It is the entire process of analysis of learning
needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs. It
includes development of instructional materials and activities; and tryout and
evaluation of all instruction and learner activities.
Instructional Design as a Discipline: Instructional Design is that branch of
knowledge concerned with research and theory about instructional strategies and
the process for developing and implementing those strategies (The University of
Michigan).
13. Ethics Procedure All participation in social media tools was optional. All data
received from the student pretest and posttest, student participation, and surveys
remained anonymous. Participation in the surveys was voluntary and a statement
81


of consent (in English) of the use of the data from the survey was provided to the
students before they complete the survey. The surveys enabled the students with
the opportunity to share their opinion on their experience in the social media.
Students were asked to complete a consent form granting permission or denying
permission to use the data collected from the student participation and student
grades while keeping anonymity of the students.
No names of the student participants were shared at any point, although the
researcher knows the students names. The name of the university was
confidential.
14. Research is about generating new knowledge. Action research creates new
knowledge based on enquiries conducted within specific and often practical
contexts (Koshy 3).
15. Checks for Rigor Not only the perspectives of all the students were heard in the
data collection, but also those with negative opinions of gaming, learning through
culture, and through social media. The student opinions were treated equally in
this data findings report and represent the diverse case analysis as described by
Stringer (Stringer). In order to use triangulation, the researcher compared the
survey responses from this study to that of the exchange study the researcher
performed back in 2012 and in 2009. Additionally, the researched compared her
findings to other studies through the literature review (Stringer).
Unfortunately the researcher ran out of time to create a blog to observe the
interaction in social media. The researcher did make a list of things the researcher
wanted to add to social media to create more interactions as well as a list of
announcement and support videos for future social media interactions. The
creation of the Limitations and directions for future research section show a
persistent observation of the discussion (Stringer). Through the Limitations and
directions for future research section, the researcher has created data that is
transferable for future studies and interactions with other peers (Stringer).
Throughout the research project, the instructor interacting with the students had
access to the data at all times, along with the literature review information. All of
the data collected resides in Google Documents with easy access for the
researcher and thesis. The surveys are in Google Documents, as is the draft of this
research document. This easy access to the data provides for confirmablility in
that the instructor can comment on the data that is found and easily obtain
information about the research project at any time (Stringer).
16. In addition to the video lessons and games, for the Spring 2015 control and
instructed group there was an extra section on various documents used to support
grammar teaching in the Spanish department. One of the documents included a
practice activity and the researcher converted that to an online quiz called
Conectores en Espanol worth 8 points. The online course was scored based on the
instructed groups score on game level 3 and the Conectores en Espanol quiz while
the control group score was based on the Conectores en Espanol quiz only.
Online course The online course grades for the instructed group 2014 were: 1
student scored 100%, 2 scored 90% or higher, and 2 scored 60% or higher. In the
instructed group 2015, overall 3 students scored 90 or better in the course while 2
82


scored above 80%, and 1 at 50%. In the control group 2015, one student scored
100%, 2 80% or above, and 2 70% or above.
For the online quiz called Conectores en Espanol worth 8 points in the control
group of 2015, one student scored 8, 1 scored 6.75, 1 scored 6.55, 1 scored 6.25,
and 1 scored 6.1. In the instructed group, 1 student scored 6.9, 1 scored 6.75, 2
scored 6.61, and 1 scored 5.51.
On October 28th, there were 8 participants and 58 page views. On March 2nd,
there were 10 participants and 117 page views. On March 14th, there were 3
participants and 83 page views. On March 10th, there were 91 page views alone.
On March 30th, there were 2 participants and 161 page views.
17. Three participants took the posttest (Appendix J) twice, once in November and a
second time in December. Two of the participants were from the control group
and 1 was from the instructed group. All 3 participants changed answers and
showed improvements in their scores. The 3 participants that joined through
Facebook outside of the campus online courses did not complete the posttest.
18. Facebook can also reveal other dialects to the students through peer interaction. In
the same study from Blattner and Fiori, students were exposed to various dialects
online. Students were able to appreciate the differences and identify them. This
exposure to different dialects enables students to have a touch of culture through
communication.
Vocabulary selection in the Spanish language as in many other languages is
frequently linked to countries or regions. This sociopragmatic aspect of any
foreign language is often briefly discussed in certain textbooks, but rarely
developed. Consequently, lexical variation became an interesting new
phenomenon to observe for the students who participated in this study. They
noted several words, expressions and forms of address that they were able to
associate with a particular group of Hispanophones... (Blatnner & Fiori, 2011).
19. Most studies were tied to at least one or more courses; however, Woodley and
Merediths study was the only study to involve an entire department. Because
previous research involved just one course, general announcements about the
department and future course marketing were not studied. Woodley and
Merediths study stands apart from the reviewed articles by incorporating general
announcements about the department and future courses and thereby were able to
tie increase in student retention to their study. While this current study did
incorporate advertising future courses, the researcher did not compare student
retention to other course sections at the university (1-5).
20. The intended audience was: (1) faculty committee for the Spanish thesis; (2) other
faculty members interested in using social media, Digital Game Based Learning,
and video lessons in language courses; (3) a colleague in Central Mexico with
whom the researcher plans to co-author research articles regarding the research
performed on the topic of virtually connecting peers and community based
learning; and (4) board of faculty for entrance into doctoral program in Boulder
where the researcher hopes to continue research on virtually connecting students
from the U.S. and students from Mexico by creating virtual language games and
video lessons.
83


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