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Working while in middle school

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Title:
Working while in middle school student perceptions of school climate and connectedness
Creator:
Miller, Sabrena ( author )
Language:
English
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1 electronic file (34 pages). : ;

Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Doctorate ( Doctor of Psychology )
Degree Grantor:
University of Colorado Denver
Degree Divisions:
School of Education and Human Development, CU Denver
Degree Disciplines:
School Psychology
Committee Chair:
Harris, Bryn
Committee Members:
Crepeau-Hobson, Franci
Hohnbaum, Colette

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Youth -- Employment -- United States ( lcsh )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

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Thesis:
Thesis (Psy.D.)--University of Colorado Denver.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographic references
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System requirements: Adobe Reader.
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School of Education and Human Development
Statement of Responsibility:
by Emma Moss Tanner.

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University of Colorado Denver
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Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
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952103678 ( OCLC )
ocn952103678

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Full Text
WORKING WHILE IN MIDDLE SCHOOL: STUDENT PERCEPTIONS OF
SCHOOL CLIMATE & CONNECTEDNESS
by
SABRENA MILLER
B.A., University of Colorado Boulder, 2011
A thesis submitted to the
Faculty of the Graduate School of the
University of Colorado in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Psychology
School Psychology Program
2016


This thesis for the Doctor of Psychology degree by
Sabrena Miller
11
has been approved for the
School Psychology Program
by
Bryn Harris, Chair
Franci Crepeau-Hobson
Colette Hohnbaum
March 28, 2016


Ill
Miller, Sabrena (PsyD, School Psychology)
Working While in Middle School: Student Perceptions of School Culture &
Connectedness
Thesis directed by Assistant Professor Bryn Harris
ABSTRACT
Does working during the school year result in lowered perceptions of school
climate and connectedness for middle school students? According to outcomes from a
Rocky Mountain Region School Districts (RMRSD) school climate survey, 20% of
their middle school student population works during the school year. Existing
literature on youth employment points out the correlation between lower high school
graduation rates and lowered perceptions of; a welcome school environment, personal
academic success, school safety, and connections with adults at school. Other earlier
studies focused on study participants over age 14. This study searched for correlations
between students age 11 to 14 years old. Results show that middle school students in
RMRSD who work during the school year have little difference in their perceptions
of school climate and connectedness when compared to their non-working peers.
Though statistically significant at p < .01, Chi Square analyses showed very small
effect sizes. Unknown variables such as hours worked and type of employment are
proposed next steps for future studies. Particular attention is also paid to participation
groups, students who are involved in clubs, student government, or athletics, and how
their perceptions of school climate compare to their working counterparts.
The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication.
Approved: Bryn Harris


DEDICATION
To my family. You go above and beyond for me. I am the luckiest wife,
daughter, and sister.


V
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Thank you to my husband, Troy, for still deciding to marry me two-weeks
into graduate school. You never complained about my unpredictable hours, and were
so loving in the things you did to calm my nerves (a clean house means a happy wife,
right?). I love your guts.
Mom and Dad, I would never get my Capstone turned in by the deadline if I
took the time to write all the ways I am grateful for you both. -Endless gratitude. I
love you so much.
Respect and thanks goes to my Ed.S. and Psy.D. cohort members and friends.
For the countless hours spent on the phone, in email threads, in coffee shops, and in
each others homes, always offering helpful thoughts, and all around comradery, I
will be forever grateful.
My deepest admiration and appreciation to Dr. Franci Crepeau-Hobson, Dr.
Bryn Harris, and the rest of the incredibly bright and committed professors I had the
honor of learning from throughout this program. With your guidance, I found the
student inside that I never knew existed.
And of course, acknowledgement must be paid to Cadence for being my trusty,
furry, side-kick and never allowing me write this alone.


VI
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION..................................................1
II. LITERATURE REVIEW.............................................5
III. METHOD.......................................................11
Survey Format and Distribution.........................11
Participants...........................................11
Procedures.............................................12
Data Analysis..........................................14
IV. RESULTS......................................................15
Descriptive
Statistics.............................................15
Chi Square
Analysis...............................................17
V. DISCUSSION...................................................19
Limitations............................................19
Findings and Implications for Future Research..........20
Conclusion.............................................24
REFERENCES........................................................25


vii
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
1. School Climate Perceptions by Employment Status............................17
2. School Climate Perceptions by Participation Groups.........................18
3. Chi Square Analysis Working v. Non-working Students School Climate
Perceptions...............................................................19


1
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
The focus of this paper is perceptions of middle school students who work in addition to
going to school. The student perceptions studied were narrowed down with the consideration of
current school climate and school connectedness research, along with studies focused on
working students and correlated problem behaviors and research looking at how involvement in
extracurricular activities impact students perceptions of school connectedness. Specific
perceptions of the middle school student data studied for this paper were narrowed down to five
areas of focus; students feeling welcomed at school, students feeling safe at school, students
feeling positive about school, students feeling support from adults at school, and students feeling
like they have skills to handle difficult emotions at school, specifically anger. Work was
somewhat difficult to operationalize. Several sources are discussed, and both state and federal
level definitions of permissible jobs for middle school aged students are offered for consideration.
Because there is not a nationally recognized standard for the assessment of school climate,
literature that connects itself to the region discussed in this research is utilized and reported as a
way to describe regionally recognized school climate factors. For the purposes of local
dissemination, results from one Rocky Mountain Region school districts (RMRSD) 2015 school
climate survey will be discussed and its data will be utilized for analyses specific to the groups of
interest.
School climate is a widely used term. Its meaning encompasses aspects that involve both
positive and negative experiences as they relate to a students perceived school involvement.
According to the National School Climate Center (NSCC) (2015), school climate refers to, the
quality and character of school life. Cohen, McCabe, Michelli, & Pickeral (2009), wrote that


2
school climate is based on patterns of peoples experiences of school life and reflects norms,
goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and organizational
structures. The NSCC (2015) recommends district-wide assessments for all students that focus
on four major areas; Safety, Relationships, Teaching and Learning, and the External
Environment. These perceptions are best captured by surveying students themselves. Because
school climate is an important component of student success across all grade levels, school
climate evaluations should be carried out among all students, kindergarten through 12th grade
(CSEE, NCLC &ECS, n.d.). But, for the purposes of this paper, age level discussion will be
limited to the RMRSD middle school specific data along with relevant school climate literature
speaking to both middle school and high school aged students.
School climate interest can be tracked back 100 years, with scientific studies beginning in
the 1950s (Zullig, Koopman, Patton, & Ubbes, 2010). The connections between student success
and school climate were discussed as early as the late 1970s, and state, district, and school-wide
surveys began their dissemination some time in the late 1980s and early 1990s (Zullig et al.,
2010). Since the early scientific interests, numerous studies across K-12 grade levels have been
conducted on various crucial features of school connectedness, school culture, academic success,
and student employment outside of school (CDCP & USDHHS, 2009; Healthy Schools BC,
2014; Jones, 2015; NSCC, 2015; Pickeral, Evans, Hughes, & Hutchinson, 2009; Staff, Osgood,
Schulenberg, Bachman, & Messersmith, 2010; Staff & Uggen, 2003; Thapa, Cohen, Guffey, &
Higgins-DAlessandro, 2013; Zaff, Moore, Papillo & Williams, 2003; Zullig et al., 2010).
However, some links between these factors are less commonly studied, particularly regarding
youth in middle school, grades 6, 7, and 8. While there is a multitude of published research
speaking to the topic of adolescent employment and its correlation with school connectedness,


3
deviance, and academic success, there is very little looking at youth under the age of 14. Still, the
majority of middle school students in the United States are age 14 or younger (United States
Census Bureau [USCB], 2014). According to the 2014 USCB data, the majority of students
enrolled in grades 6 through 8 range from age 9 to age 14. Ninety-five percent of respondents
who indicated they were enrolled in middle school were age 11, 12, 13, or 14 years old. With the
results of the RMRSDs 2015 school climate survey showing that just over 20% of middle
school students consider themselves a student with a job during the school year, it leaves the
questions; what jobs are these young students working, and how do they impact their school
climate perceptions?
The aim of the present study is to answer the question: Do middle school students, age 11
to 14, who work during the school year experience significantly different school connectedness
as compared to their non-working counterparts? And how do working middle school students
survey responses compare to the responses of their peers involved in extracurricular activities?
Prior to the initiation of this study, while this researcher was routinely reviewing the RMRSDs
2015 school climate data, the category, Job During the School Year, stood out. With a total of
1328 middle school students indicating they were employed during the school year, the category
was valid, yet surprising to this researcher. When students with jobs were compared to their
counterparts without jobs and to groups involved in extracurricular activities, percentile results
looked quite striking. This researcher began to wonder how perceptions of middle school
students school climate might be impacted by employment. Based on existing literature that
speaks to connections between lower academic standings, increased delinquency rates, missed
opportunities for connection with teachers, and school connectedness in high school aged
students, it is proposed that early indicators and experiences impact younger students in a similar


4
vein, positing that a significant difference between the perceptions of school connectedness as
experienced by non-working middle school students and middle school students who work,
thereby losing time for involvement in other school activities, schoolwork, and connection with
adults, does exist (Staff et al., 2010; Staff, & Uggen, 2003; Thapa et al., 2013). Based on this,
and the existing research presented below, this researcher hypothesizes that employed middle
school students likely experience lowered perceptions of; school safety, positivity about school, a
welcoming school environment, supportive learning through teacher attention, and the ability to
control difficult emotions. To better understand how outside employment while in middle school
correlates to students perceptions of school connectedness, relevant literature speaking to
previous research on; youth employment and deviance, youth employment and school
connectedness, school connectedness as it relates to extracurricular involvement, and climate
survey structure is explored.


5
CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW
School connectedness is a strong protective factor that decreases childrens risk of
adverse educational outcomes. When students perceive their school community as supportive
and positive, their social and emotional competence is strengthened, leading to a higher chance
of prospering in their present and future lives (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and
the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [CDCP & USDHHS], 2009). When students
experience engagement with their school community, it leads to heightened motivation and
increased trajectories towards high school graduation (CDCP & USDHHS, 2009; Healthy
Schools BC, 2014). There is convincing support for youths active participation in extra-
curricular school activities as a protective factor that leads to decreased problem behaviors for
students of all ages, even those with significantly more risk factors present in their lives (Office
of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention [OJJDP], 2010). Risk factors such as; poor
parent involvement and monitoring, high emotional distress, diminished economic opportunities,
and crime exposure or behavior, can be offset by the direct opposition of protective factors, such
as school connectedness (CDCP, 2015; OJJDP, 2010). In fact, antisocial behaviors, sexual
activity, and drop out rates have shown to decrease when students are involved in
extracurriculars (Zaff et al., 2003). School-based extracurriculars, when compared to other
outside school activities, have been shown to have the strongest effect on adolescent academic
achievement (Zaff et al., 2003).
Existing publication is somewhat divided regarding youth employment, and whether it
acts as a protective, or risk, factor (OJJDP, 2010; Staff et al., 2003). Some risk factors that are
potential situational reasons for youth employment include: economic deprivation, low


6
commitment to school, and low parental college expectations for student (OJJDP, 2010).
Protective factors that have shown to be built in part by youth employment include: social
competencies and problem solving skills (OJJDP, 2010). Theories of crime also differ regarding
findings that adult-like work (e.g. longer working hours, more mature responsibilities) impacts
adolescent delinquency rates. Some suggest that early entry into mature work increases ones
risk for youth delinquency while opponents suggest that more demanding work fosters a sense of
responsibility resulting in lowered delinquency rates (Staff & Uggen, 2003). Over several
existing studies, delinquency and problem behaviors were found to increase for adolescents
working more than 20 hours per week (Staff & Uggen, 2003; Staff et al., 2010). Interestingly,
Staff and Uggen (2003) reported that some types of early work experience have widespread
benefits for both the physical and mental health of adolescents. However, their publication
suggests that social connections to both school and family are weakened with more adult-like
work, due to missed opportunities for social connectedness. This was further explored by Staff et
al. (2010) when they looked at specific outcomes on schooling (e.g. grade point average, test
scores, and educational aspirations) and the lowered connectedness experienced by students as a
result. They wrote that teenagers enrolled in secondary school who work longer hours (over 20
hours per week) have a tendency to spend less time on their homework, in extracurricular
activities, and are more likely to drop out of high school. When adolescents are engaged in safe
and structured activities beyond the school day, opportunities for positive, mentoring
relationships with adults are made available, which has been shown to effect areas closely
connected to school climate (Zaff et al., 2003). Employment that provides little in the way of
learning new things may actually socialize adolescent workers into poor work habits, as they
attempt to emulate unmotivated and under-supervised coworkers (Staff & Uggen, 2003).


Opposite to their extensively working peers, adolescent employment at less than 20 hours per
week has shown to reduce rates of high school dropout, and increase involvement in
extracurricular activities (Staff & Uggen, 2003).
7
Staff et al.s 2010 study examined students innate draw to intensive work hours (over 20
per week) versus moderate work hours (less than 20 per week). Rather than only polling students
on their actual work status, they surveyed their preference for intensive or moderate work. Youth
participants who reported actually working intensively, not simply preferring to do so, were
found to have the lowest degree of overall school connectedness (Staff et al., 2010). Interestingly,
even youth who were jobless, but reported a preference for more intensive work had significantly
less; interest in academics, motivation towards performing well, and overall enjoyment in school
as compared to other jobless youth who reported a preference for moderate hours of work. It may
then be that middle school aged youth1 who are predisposed to an interest in the money and
autonomy that intense work provides are less inclined to desire engagement with extracurricular
school activities. Or, it could be that this predisposition stems from earlier risk factors, such as
low parental income and diminished economic opportunities, encouraging the drive for income
of their own.
More focused literature, studying middle school aged youth allows for further connected
consideration. In 2004, Zierold, Garman & Anderson published their research on the topic of
working, middle school aged youth. They wrote,
There is a common misperception that middle school children, aged 10-14 years, are not
working in the United States. However, the results of our study show that over half of
middle school students surveyed were working during the summer, and the majority of
the students worked the same job during the school year. (p. 520)
1 Staff et al.s (2010) sample consisted of youth in the 8th grade and above, therefore a correlation
between their study and this articles group of interest should be considered with care.


8
In fact, of the students surveyed in six different urban and suburban Midwestern school
districts by Zierold et al. (2004), sixty percent reported they worked the same job once they
returned to school. The number of hours they worked ranged from less than 5 hours per week, to
more than 40 hours per week, but the majority of students worked less than 10 hours per week. A
majority of the 8th grade students in Staff et al.s (2010) study were found to work moderate
hours, or wish to do so. Just 5% of their peers reported working more than 20 hours per week.
With firm child labor laws in the United States, middle school aged students are limited
in their employment options. Specific to the RMRSD studied, permissible occupations for
minors are defined, starting at age 9, with a statement that, minors under the age of 9 cannot
generally be employed (CDLE, 2011). United States child labor laws restrict children younger
than age 14 to work outside of school hours, but jobs that are informal (e.g., delivering
newspapers, working in a family business, babysitting) are not held to the same standards
(United States Department of Labor Wage and Hour Division [USDL-WHD], 2013). While
middle school students could choose more than one job category in the Zierold et al. (2004)
study, the majority of respondents (49%) indicated that at least one form of their work fell in the
category of, Employed by an individual for services at his/her home [e.g. babysitting, lawn
care] (p. 520).
In the RMRSD studied, a minor is defined as, any person under the age of 18, except a
person who has received a high school diploma or a passing score on the general educational
development (GED) examination (CDLE, 2011). Based on compulsory school attendance laws
in RMRSD, it can be assumed that most minor students who identify as having a job in middle
school are those aged 14 and younger and in 6th to 8th grade (National Center on Education
Statistics [NCES], 2015). Permissible occupations for minors, as recorded in state records, are


broken down into four age groups. Occupations for youth aged 9 or older are listed as the
following;
9
delivery of handbills and advertising, shoe shining, gardening and care of lawns
involving no power-driven lawn equipment, cleaning of walks involving no power-driven
snow-removal equipment, casual work usual to the home of the employer, caddying on
golf courses, and other similar occupations (CDLE, 2011).
Occupations for youth age 12 or older also include; sale and delivery of periodicals, door-
to-door selling and delivery of merchandise, babysitting, gardening and care of lawns and
cleaning of walks, non-hazardous agricultural work, and other similar occupations (CDLE, 2011).
Additional work listed, but exempt from youth employment protections are; schoolwork and
supervised educational activities, home chores, work done for a parent or guardian except where
the parent or guardian receives any payment therefore, newspaper carriers, actors, models, and
performers (CDLE, 2011). Permissible occupations are continued for youth over age 14, but are
not included here for the purposes of keeping focus on youth age 11 to 14 years old.
While the RMRSD school climate survey data provides a clear breakdown of youth who
work, and those who do not work, it does not do the same when listing favorable responses from
youth who are involved in other school activities. Therefore, it is not clear if students who work
in RMRSD also participate in extra-curricular activities. Results from descriptive statistics
between groups will still be provided, but analyses looking specifically at youth who work
compared to youth who do not can be considered most relevant to the literature discussed above.
Certain demographic information about the RMRSD middle school survey respondents is
unknown. Respondents were not asked to list the type of job(s) they work, or how many hours
they work per week. For those reasons, and due to limited amounts of existing research focused
on middle school students who are employed, the Zierold et al. (2004) study, along with the
RMRSD state youth labor law categories, will be considered the most relevant in terms of overall


10
characteristics of youth who work, for this paper.


11
CHAPTER HI
METHOD
Survey Format and Disbursement
In March of each school year, the RMRSDs Planning and Assessment Department asks
students to complete a survey that measures the overall climate of its schools. The surveys are
delivered to each school and are administered in individual classrooms, during one single class
period, where teachers act as proctors while their students fill out the machine-readable,
multiple-choice formatted paper forms in pencil. Although completion of the survey is optional,
directions do not include this information. The standardized test requires proctors to read each
item aloud, one by one, in a universal manner. These directions are currently formatted in both
English and Spanish only.
The 2015 version of their school climate survey also included initial multiple choice
prompts that included identifying questions about student demographics including; grade,
gender, self-identified ethnicity, participation in athletics, clubs, student government, and
employment. The total survey included 60 items measuring school climate perceptions, with the
first question omitted due to its designation as a practice question. If Total N < 10 for any single
prompt, the results were not included in the publication. A final participation rate of 92% was
totaled.
Participants
The majority of demographics were obtained from the RMRSD website. These included
graduation rates, of which RMRSD has a 90% 4-year high school graduation rate. Just over 29%
of students qualify for free and reduced lunch in RMRSD. Male and female students are split
evenly in the district, at approximately 50% each. Gender diverse student populations are not


12
listed. Seventeen percent of students qualify for Special Education services. Twenty percent of
students are in the Talented and Gifted program. Just over 13% of students are English Language
Learners. Six percent of students have American with Disabilities Act 504 plans. Just under 3%
of students open enroll from out of district. Racial demographics accumulate to; 64% white, 23%
Hispanic, 6% Asian, 4% two or more races, 1% African-American, <1% American Indian, and
0% Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (Matching figures may not add up to 100% due to rounding of
fractions). Additional relevant descriptive information was obtained from ProximityOne (2016),
an information resource company that provides access to geographic, demographic, and
economic data. The mean household income for families in RMRSD is $92,123 (ProximityOne,
2016). Fifty-two percent of families in RMRSD pay 35% or more of their household income as
gross rent (ProximityOne, 2016). The largest group of people living below poverty in RMRSD is
families with single female householders (ProximityOne, 2016).
All students in the RMRSD were surveyed, with no defined exemptions from
participation. Participants for this study included all 6,482 sixth-, seventh- and eighth-grade
students who completed the survey from the 19 public middle schools in RMRSD. The final
investigative sample for this research looked exclusively at the self-identified participation
groups asked about in the survey.
Procedures
Publically available school climate survey data was retrieved from an internet search
engine. The RMRSDs school climate survey questions appear to be comprised of a combination
of prompts similar to what is found on multiple school climate survey website resources (e.g.
NSCC, 2015; NCLB, 2015; SCSS, 2015, and IBS, 2010). The four primary areas related to
school climate, as identified by the NSCC (2015) are comprised of; safety, interpersonal


13
relationships, teaching and learning, and the institutional environment. Safety, as defined by
NSCC (2015), includes clear rules and norms about violence, abuse and harassment. It also
offers a sense of physical safety and social-emotional security (NSCC, 2015). Therefore, the
prompt, I feel safe at school, was a clear choice for analysis of middle school students
perceptions on the RMRSD school climate survey. Learning, as described by NSCC (2015), is
supported positively by the development of independent thinking, individual attention, and
dispositions including; personal responsibility, conflict resolution, and self and emotional
regulation. The decision to use the prompt, I feel positive about school, as a way to study
learning was made based on the NSCCs (2015) definition, and also because the prompt was
placed under the Learning section in the RMRSDs final published data set for middle school
students 2015 school climate survey results. Interpersonal relationships, as defined by NSCC
(2015), include respect for diversity, and support from adults and peers. The NSCC (2015)
speaks specifically to the importance of mutual adult-student respect and displayed patterns of
support and caring from adults towards students. High expectations, a willingness to listen to
students as individuals, and demonstration of personal concern for students and their problems
are also important interpersonal relationship indicators (NSCC, 2015). Therefore, I am not
ignored by teachers, stood out as a prompt that not only falls in line with the interpersonal
relationships category as published by NSCC (2015), it also stood out as an area more strikingly
divided between perceptions of middle school students in RMRSD who work as compared to
those who do not. More of this discrepancy is discussed below. The fourth domain, as set forth
by NSCC (2015), a schools institutional environment, is defined by school connectedness,
school engagement, and the physical structure of the school. Access to suitable resources and
materials, as well as buy in to a schools norms, are also listed by NSCC (2015) as important


14
factors in school climate. For those reasons, I feel welcomed at school, was chosen as the
appropriate prompt to assess middle school students perceptions of institutional environment
and how it relates to school climate in RMRSD. The fifth prompt drawn for this study, I know
how to deal with anger at school, was added based on existing literature connecting youth
employment and higher levels of delinquency. In addition to literature published by school
climate organizations, all five categories were chosen with previously obtained knowledge
surrounding the impact of youth employment on deviance, and school connectedness.
Data Analysis
Using Chi Square analyses, independent variables (students with jobs, students without
jobs) were measured against dependent variables (I feel welcome at school, I feel safe at
school, I feel positive about school, I am not ignored by teachers, and I know how to deal
with anger at school) to determine whether there are significant differences between the school
climate perceptions of middle school students in the RMRSD, age 11 to 14, who work during the
school year as compared to their non-working counterparts.
Comparisons between the working group and students who are involved in extra-
curricular school activities (students involved in student government, involved in school
athletics, and involved in school clubs) are discussed using descriptive statistics only, due to the
high likelihood of crossover between groups. That is to say, students who work might also be in
student government, school clubs, or school athletics, and any other number of combinations
between groups. A descriptive, side by side comparison of the working group versus the non-
working group is also provided. Descriptive statistics were utilized as a way to study magnitude
differences between groups.


15
CHAPTER IV
RESULTS
Descriptive Statistics
Table 1 lists the sample size and percentage of RMRSD middle school students who
marked a favorable response to the five studied survey prompts. Participants in this sample are
divided into two groups: Working (7V=1328), which make up 20% of the sample, and Not
Working (77=5154), which make up 80% of the sample. Across all five climate survey prompts,
middle school students who work indicate less favorable perceptions as compared to their non-
working counterparts. Most striking is the difference of 15 percentage points between groups for
the category, I am not ignored by teachers. Restated, students who do not work feel they
receive attention from teachers more than students who do work, 71% and 54%, respectively.
The smallest spread between percent favorable is found for the prompt, I feel welcomed at
school. Here, an 8 percent spread between groups is revealed.
Table 1
School Climate Perceptions by Employment Status
Employment Status
Survey Question Job (n = 1328) (%) No Job (n = 5154) (%)
I feel welcomed at school 983 (74) 4226 (82)
I feel safe at school 916 (69) 4123 (80)
I feel positive about school 757 (57) 3505 (68)
I am not ignored by teachers 744 (56) 3659(71)
I know how to deal with anger at school 969 (73) 4226 (82)


16
In Table 2, participants were categorized into one or more of the following; Student
Government (N=993), School Athletics (A-4062), School Clubs (A-3324), and Job During
School Year (7V=1328). Groups are not exclusive, and cross-over between groups likely exists.
Therefore, percentiles should be viewed with some manner of caution. Table 2 is useful because
it shows the number of students, from the overall sample of 6,482, that are involved in each of
the participation groups. Sixty-three percent of middle school student respondents report
involvement in some form of school athletics. School clubs see the second highest rate of
participation, with 51% of respondents indicating they are a member in at least one club.
Working students make up the next largest category, with 20% of middle school students
reporting a job outside of school. Participation in student government shows the smallest number
of students, at 15%. It should be noted that, across all five survey questions studied, the
frontrunner group, showing the highest percentage of favorable responses, varies between sports
and clubs. Of the students with jobs, positive responses are lowest across all categories. The
statement I feel positive about school, has the widest range of results between middle school
respondents who; participate in student government, in school athletics, in school clubs, or who
work outside of school. Here, 57% (=757) of students who work, 66% (n=655) of students
involved in student government, 66% (n=2681) of student athletes, and 70% (//=2327) of
students involved in clubs respond favorably to the prompt.


17
Table 2
School Climate Perceptions by Participation Groups
Participation Groups
Survey Question Student Government (n = 993) (%) School Athletics (n = 4062) (%) School Clubs (n = 3324) (%) Job (n = 1328) (%)
I feel welcome at school 794 (80) 3331 (82) 2726 (82) 983 (74)
I feel safe at school 755 (76) 3250 (80) 2626 (79) 916 (69)
I feel positive about school 655 (66) 2681(66) 2327 (70) 757 (57)
I am not ignored by teachers 665 (67) 2762 (68) 2393 (72) 744 (56)
I know how to deal with anger at school 794 (80) 3290 (81) 2759 (83) 969 (73)
Chi Square Analysis
Chi Square analyses were used in comparing working versus non-working groups and
their perceptions of the five studied prompts. The working and non-working groups are
independent of each other, therefore the assumption of independence is met. With over 1000
students in each group, Chi Squares goodness of fit for a large sample size is met as well. The
critical value for the Chi Square distribution at 2 degrees of freedom, with a p-value of < .01, is
9.210. All five analyses exceed this Chi Square value (Table 3) and, though effect size Phi is
small across all school climate survey categories, the difference between groups is statistically
significant. Two survey prompts, I feel safe at school, and I am not ignored by teachers,
have small effect sizes, .107 and .130, respectively, while the remaining three categories fall
beneath the small effect size Phi of .100.


18
Table 3
Chi Square Analysis Working v. Non-working Students School Climate Perceptions
Student Perception Job No Job d[ 2 4
I feel welcome at school 983 4226 2 42.54 .081
I feel safe at school 916 4123 2 74.10 .107
I feel positive about school 757 3505 2 56.76 .094
I am not ignored by teachers 744 3659 2 108.61 .130
I know how to deal with 969 4226 2 54.08 .091
anger in school


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CHAPTER V
DISCUSSION
The present study was conducted to determine whether working while in middle school
results in lower perceptions of school climate and connectedness in a Rocky Mountain Region
School District. From this study, given all working situations, results show no meaningful
difference in terms of middle school students who work versus those who do not work. The
reasons why require further attention. There is not enough descriptive information provided on
the RMRSD school climate survey to determine what additional variables are missing that would
offer statistically significant answers to the research question. As a result of statistical analyses
performed, the null hypothesis is accepted. This does not mean that school supports cannot be
pointed towards supporting working students as a result of findings. Implications for future
research are discussed below, but first, limitations to the study.
Limitations
Likely cross-over between the four participation groups made potential for additional
statistical analyses unreliable. Significance between groups involved in extra-curricular activities
and those who work were not calculated or reported for this reason. Descriptive statistics offer
some insight into group differences, but obtaining the number of students who work in addition
to partaking in extracurricular activities would open up more possibilities for correlational data
analyses. A second significant limitation to this study was the simplicity of categorical
designations. In the RMRSD climate survey, students who are employed are not asked how
many hours they work, whether they have regular employment or sporadic jobs, and descriptive
job categories are unreported.
Generalizability of these results is limited. Before applying findings to other school


20
districts, and 11 to 14 year olds across settings, attention should be paid to the demographics of
survey respondents from RMRSD. Non-comprehensive demographic information is listed in the
Methods section. The definition of a minor, and permissible occupations for them, vary from
state to state. This too should be cautioned as a possible impedance towards generalizability.
Findings and Implications for Future Research
Perhaps effect size results are small because middle school students work fewer hours
than the older adolescent populations studied in prior research on this topic, where students who
worked more than 20 hours exhibited increased problem behaviors and lower high school
graduation rates (Staff & Uggen, 2003; Staff et al., 2010). Small effect sizes could also be related
to differences in variables, such as; consistency of work, type of work, onset of employment, and
length of continued employment. One implication for future research is clear. Gathering these
details will not only allow for future studies considering school climate and connectedness for
working middle school students, results from such studies will enable school districts, in this
case RMRSD, the opportunity to reach out to student respondent subsets that show substantially
larger effect sizes regarding their perceptions of school connectedness. The impact of finding
statistically strong subsets of working students who feel disconnected from school as compared
to non-working peers could be meaningful. Together with their children, parents and guardians
could make informed decisions about what type of work, how many hours, and when their
students should commit to a job for the first time. With the proper multi-tiered supports and
pointed interventions in school, behavior referrals could go down, high school graduation rates
could go up, and the overall climate of schools could improve for a larger population of students.
One specific area of focus in this study was whether a lower number of middle school
students who work feel an inability to control anger in the school setting. This prompt, I know


21
how to deal with anger in school, was studied due to existing literature that points to increased
deviant behavior in youth who work while attending school. A statistically significant difference
(p < .01) for RMRSD middle school students who work as compared to their non-working peers
was found. Due to the fact that this study found such a small effect for controlling anger, it is
curious whether the deviant behavior reported in earlier studies is correlated not only with
working youth, but, importantly, the older adolescent age. Perhaps employment in middle school
does not have a strong impact on ones ability to control their anger. Could it be that prolonged
employment as a youth has a larger effect? Longitudinal studies comparing the deviance
expressed by youth who begin working in middle school, as compared to those who start
working in high school might shed light on a significant onset factor.
The prompt, I feel welcomed at school, showed the smallest effect size in a Chi Square
analysis between the working and non-working groups. Though a p-value of less than .01 shows
strong significance, the small effect size suggests that the weight of working while in middle
school plays very little, if at all, into students perceptions of a welcome school environment.
Perhaps the infrastructure of a school carries the same weight no matter the number of extra
hours a student does, or does not, spend in the building. Maybe the welcoming environment is
perceived upon entry, and working outside of school has no bearing on the feel when present in
the building.
I feel positive about school, was also statistically significant for differences between
the working and non-working groups. With another very small effect size, having a job does not
appear to have an impact on RMRSDs middle school students positive perceptions of school.
The question itself allows room for a vast array of interpretations by survey respondents.
Whether their interpretation stems from a consideration of individual micro-level experience or


22
school-wide macro level experiences, or from contemplation of present-day experience to a
consideration of their school-long history, this question might serve more useful if split into
several, more specific questions for students. Breaking it down into questions about positive
classroom culture, positive feelings about ones academic standing, positive feelings about ones
social standing, and so on, could provide additional, perhaps more helpful information about
student experiences.
Another statistically significant but small effect size was found for working middle who
do not feel safe as compared to their non-working counterparts. If future studies find a stronger
correlation between not feeling safe and working in this younger population, it would likely be
due to a myriad of factors. Perhaps, in studies showing an impact on employed youth, time taken
away from school events that take place after school, before school, and on weekends pulls
students from opportunities to connect and gain a greater sense of security related to their school.
Young students who work might also feel a stronger sense of community, and therefore safety,
with coworkers and their place of employment. But, this study, completed with the data available
in RMRSD, does not show a strong effect of working on middle school students sense of safety
at school.
Relative to the four other climate survey prompts studied, with an effect size 60% larger
in magnitude than the smallest effect size of the studied prompts, I am not ignored by teachers,
had an effect size of .130. The relative magnitude of this effect size weakly suggests that
working students perceive themselves being ignored by teachers, more than their non-working
counterparts. Though small, the results are connected to an important theme in school climate
and connectedness. Students who feel they have a trusted adult in their school building have
strong perceptions of school connectedness (CDCP & USDHHS, 2009). Heightened awareness


23
of adult connection and communication when working with middle school students could be part
of a targeted process within schools if future studies find that these working students are
impacted by other variables.
Involvement in extracurricular activities plays a role in heightened overall school
connectedness perceptions (CDCP & USDHHS, 2009), but how much exactly cannot be
interpreted by the results of this study due to likely cross-over between groups. Perhaps students
who are predisposed to seeking a connection to adults and peers have a higher tendency to
participate in extracurricular activities. Could it be that students who work are less pulled to
school-centered activities, and thus would not be inclined to join, regardless of whether or not
they have a job? A restructured school climate survey is suggested for RMRSD, where students
indicate whether they participate in more than one activity. Separate employment related
questions are also suggested for future school climate surveys, where additional variables are
identified. Potential researchers looking at middle school students who work are encouraged to
find school climate surveys with this, more meaningful structure, allowing them to look closely
at separate participant groups. This could help pinpoint important differences and correlations
amongst specific occupations and activities, and lead to targeted school connectedness
interventions for struggling student populations.
Other considerations for previous findings on lower school connectedness perceived by
youth who work may include the sleep habits of students working during the school year.
According to Wolfson and Carskadon (1998), adolescents who had later bedtimes, resulting in
less than 7 hours of sleep per night, had worse grades and increased daytime sleepiness, behavior
problems, and depressive mood. Negative factors increased for youth who had a, large weekend
bedtime delay, which meant that the student had a sleep routine that differed by more than 120


24
minutes on the weekend when compared to their weekday routines. Perhaps, working after
school and on weekends increases a youths risk for this irregular sleep pattern. If so, it would be
appropriate to assume that deviant behaviors and academic consistency would show decline for
students who have any commitment that keeps them from sleeping at least 7 hours a night,
regardless of employment or extracurricular status. Future research may consider the added
variable of sleep when looking at school connectedness.
Conclusion
There is an increased need for research related to middle school aged students who work,
and implications for school connectedness are warranted. Results from this study will be
disseminated among teachers and administration in RMRSD. The researcher is hopeful that
added attention to middle school students who work, particularly looking to find students who
work over 20 hours per week, will lift perceptions of school climate and connectedness among
that group. In addition, it is hopeful that a deeper analysis of the school climate survey format
will result in changes that not only expose more nuanced areas of study, but also serve students
in a more focused manner.


25
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Full Text

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WORKING WHILE IN MIDDLE SCHOOL: STUDENT PERCEPTIONS OF SCHOOL CLIMATE & CONNECTEDNESS by SABRENA MILLER B A University of Colorado Boulder 2011 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Psychology School Psychology Program 2016

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! ii This thesis for the Doctor of Psychology degree by Sabrena Miller has been approved for the School Psychology Program by Bryn Harris, Chair Franci Crepeau Hobson Colette Hohnbaum March 28, 2016

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! iii Miller, Sabrena (PsyD, School Psychology) W orking While in Middle School: Student Perceptions of School Culture & Connectedness Thesis directed by A ssistant Professor Bryn Harris ABSTRACT Does working during the school year result in lower ed perceptions of school clim ate and connectedness for middle school students ? According to outcomes from a Rocky Mountain Region School D istrict's (RMRSD) school climate survey, 20% of their middle school student population works during the school year. Existing literature on youth employment points out the correlation between lower high school graduation r ates and lower ed perceptions of ; a welcome school environment, personal academic success, school safety, and connections with adults at school Other e arlier studies focus ed on study participants over age 14 This study searched for correlations between students age 11 to 14 years old R esults show that middle school students in RMRSD who work during the school year have little difference in their perceptions of school climate and connectedness when compared to their non working peers. Though statistically significant at p < .01, Chi Square analyses showed very small effect sizes. Unknown variables such as hours worked and type of employment are proposed next steps for future studies Particular attention is also paid to participation groups, students who are involved in clubs, student government, or athletics, and how their perceptions of school climate compare to their working counterparts. The form and content of this abstract are approved. I recommend its publication. Approved: Bryn Harris

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! iv DEDICATION T o my family. You go above and beyond for me. I am the luckiest wife, daughter, and sister.

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! v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T hank you to my husband Troy for still deciding to marry me two weeks into graduate school. You never complained about my unpredictable hours, and were so loving in the things you did to calm my nerves (a clean house means a happy wife, right?). I love your guts. M om and Dad, I would never get my Capst one turned in by the deadline if I took the time to write all the ways I am grateful for you both. Endless gratitude. I love you so much. Respect and thanks goes to m y Ed S and Psy D cohort members and friends For the countless hours spent on the phone, in email threads, in coffee shops, and in each other's homes, always offering helpful thought s and all around c omradery, I will be forever grateful. My deepest admiration and appreciation to Dr. Franci Crepeau Hobson Dr. Bryn Harris, and the rest of the incredibly bright and committed professors I had the honor of learning from throughout this program. With your guidance, I found the student inside that I never knew existed And of course, acknowledgement must be paid to Cadence for being my trusty furry, side kick and never allowing me write this alone.

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! vi TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. INTR ODUCTION. 1 II. LITERATURE REVIEW .. 5 III. METHOD .. .11 Survey Format an d Distribution...11 Participants ...11 Pro cedures12 Data An alysis...14 IV. RESULTS 15 Descriptive Statistics .. .1 5 Chi Square An alysis17 V. DISCUSSION ..19 Limitations... 19 Findings and Implications for Future Research... 20 Conclusion... 24 REFERENCES 2 5

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! vii LIST OF TABLES "#$%& 1. School Climate Perceptions by Employment Status .. 17 2. School Climate Perceptions by Participation Groups .. 18 3. Chi Square Analysis Working v. Non working Students' School Climate Perceptions .. .. 19

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! 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The focus of this paper is perceptions of middle school students who work in addition to going to school The student perceptions studied were narrowed down with the consideration of current school climate and school connectedness research along with studies focused on working students and correlated problem behaviors and research look ing at how involvement in extra curricular activities impact students' perceptions of school connectedness Specific p erceptio ns of the middle school student data studied for this paper were narrowed down to five areas of focus; students feeling welcomed at school, students feeling safe at school, students feeling positive about school, students feeling support from adults at school, and students feeling like they have skills to handle difficult emotions at school, specifically anger "Work" was somewhat difficult to operationalize. Several sources are discussed, and both state and federa l level definitions of permissible jobs for middle school aged students are offered for consideration. Because there is not a nationally recognized standard for the assessment of school climate, literature that connects itself to the region discussed in th is rese arch is utilized and reported as a way to describe regionally recognized school climate factors. For the purpos es of local dissemination, results from one Rocky Mountain Region school district 's (RMRSD) 2015 school climate survey will be discussed and i ts data will be utilized for analyses specific to the group s of interest. School climate is a widely used term. Its meaning encompasses aspects that involve both positive and negative experiences as they relate to a student's percei ved school involvement. According to the National School Climate Center (NSCC) (2015), school climate refers to, "the quality and character of school life." Cohen, McCabe, Michelli, & Pickeral (2009), wrote that

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! 2 school climate is "based on patterns of peop le's experiences of school life and reflects norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and organizational structures." The NSCC (2015) recommends district wide assessments for all students that focus on four major areas; "Safety, Relationships, Teaching and Learning, and the External Envi ronment These perceptions are best captured by surveying students themselves. Because school climate is an important component of student success across all grade levels, school climate evaluations should be carried out among all students, kindergarten through 12 th grade ( CSEE, NCLC &ECS, n.d ). B ut for the purposes of this paper, age level discussion will be limited to the RMRSD middle school specific data along with rele vant school climate literature speaking to both middle school and high school aged students. School climate interest c an be tracked back 100 years with scienti fic studies beginning in the 195 0s ( Zullig, Koopman, Patton, & Ubbes, 2010). The connections between student success and school climate were discussed as early as the late 1970s, and state, district and school w ide surveys began their dissemination some time in the late 1980s and early 1990s (Zullig et al., 2010). Since the early scientific interests, n umerous studies across K 12 grade levels have been conducted on various crucial features of school connectedness school culture, academic success and student employment outside of school ( CDCP & USDHHS, 2009; Healthy Schools BC, 2014; Jones, 2015; NSCC, 2015; Pickeral, Evans, Hughes, & Hutchinson, 2009; Staff, Osgood, Schulenberg, Bachman, & Messersmith, 2010; Staff & Uggen, 2003 ; Thapa, Cohen, Guffey, & Higgins D'Alessandro 2013 ; Zaff, Moore, Papillo & Williams, 2003; Zullig et al., 2010 ) However, some links between these factors are less common ly studied particularly regarding youth in middle school grades 6, 7, and 8 Whi le there is a multitude of published research speaking to the topic of adolescent employment and its correlation with school connectedness,

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! 3 deviance, and academic success, there is very little looking at youth under the age of 14. Still the majority of middle school students in the United States are age 14 or younger ( United States Census Bureau [USCB], 2014 ) According to the 2014 USCB data, the majority of students enrolled in grades 6 through 8 range from age 9 to age 14 N inety five percent of respondents who indicated they were enrolled in middle school were age 11, 12, 13, or 14 years old. With t he results of the RMRSD's 2015 school climate survey show ing that just over 20% of middle school students consider themselves a student with a job during the school y ear it leaves the question s ; what jobs are these young students working, and how do they impact the ir school climate perceptions? The aim of the present study is to answer the question: D o middle school students age 11 to 14, who work during the school year experience significantly different school connectedness as c ompared to their non workin g counterparts? And how do working middle school student s survey responses compare to the responses of their peers involved in extracurricular activities ? Prior to the ini tiation of this study, while this researcher was routinely reviewing the RMRSD's 2015 school climate data, the category, "Job During the School Year," stood out. With a total of 1328 middle school students indic ating they were employed during the school year, the category was valid, yet surprising to this researcher. W hen students with jobs were compared to their counterparts without jobs and to groups involved in extracurricular activities percentile results looked quite striking. This researcher began to wonder how perceptions of middle school students' school climate might be impacted by employment. Based on existing literature that speaks to connection s between lower academic standings, increased delinquency rates, missed opportunities for connection with teachers, and school connectedness in high school aged students, i t is proposed that early indicators and experiences impact younger students in a similar

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! 4 vein, p ositing that a significant difference between the perceptions of school connectedness as experienced by non working middle school students and middle school students who work thereby losing time for involvement in other school activities, schoolwork and connection wit h adults does exist ( Staff et al., 2010; Staff, & Uggen, 2003 ; Thapa et al., 2013 ) Based on this, and the existing research presented below, t his researcher hypothesizes that e mployed middle school students likely experience lowered perceptions of ; school safety, positivity about school a we lcoming school environment, supportive learning through teacher attention and the ability to control difficult emotions To better understand how outside employment while in middle school correlates to students perceptions of school connectedness, relevant literature speaking to previous research on; youth employment and deviance, youth employment and school connectednes s, school connectedness as it relates to extracurricular involvement, and climate survey structure is explored.

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! 5 CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW School connectedness is a strong protective factor that decreases children's risk of adverse educational outcomes. When students percei ve their school commu nity a s supportive and positive, their soci al and emotional competence is strengthened, leading to a higher cha nce of prospering in the ir present and future lives ( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [CDCP & USDHHS], 2009 ) When students e xperience engagement with their school community, it leads to heightened motivation and increased trajectories towards high school gradu ation (CDCP & USDHHS, 2009 ; Healthy Schools BC, 2014 ). There is convincing support for youth's active participation in extra curricular school activities as a protective factor that leads to decreased problem beha v i ors for students of all ages even those with significantly more risk factors present in their lives ( Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention [OJJDP ] 2010 ). Risk factors such as; poor parent involvement and monitoring, high emotional distr ess, diminished economic opportunities and crime exposure or behavior can be offset by the direct opposition of protective facto r s, such as school connectedness ( CDCP, 2015; OJJDP, 2010 ) In fact, antisocial behaviors, sexual activity, and drop out rates have shown to decrease when students are involved in extracurriculars ( Zaff et al. 2003). School based extracurriculars, when compared to other outside school activities, have been shown to have the strongest effect on adolescent academic achievement (Zaff et al., 2003). Existing publication is somewhat divided regarding youth employment, and whethe r it acts as a protective, or risk factor (OJJDP, 2010; Staff et al., 2003) Some risk factors that are potential situational reasons for youth employment include: economic deprivation, low

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! 6 commitment to school and low parental college expectations for student ( OJJDP, 2010). Protective factors t hat have shown to be built in part by youth employment include: social competencies and problem solving skills (OJJDP, 2010). Theories of crime also differ regarding findings that adult like work ( e.g. longer working hours, more mature responsibilities) impacts adole scent delinquency rates. S ome suggest that early entry into mature work increases one' s risk for youth delinquency while opponents suggest that more demanding work fosters a sense of responsibility resulting in lowered delinquency rates ( Staff & Uggen, 2003). Over several existing studies, d elinquency and problem behaviors were found to increase for adolescents working more than 2 0 hours per week (Staff & Uggen 2003; Staff et al. 2010). Interestingly Staff and Uggen (2003) reported that some types of early work experie nce have widespread benefi ts for both the physical and mental health of adolescents. However their publication suggest s that social connections to both school and family are weakened with more adult like work, due to missed opportunities for social connectedness This was further explored by Staff et al. (2010) when they looked at specific outcomes on schooling (e.g. grade point average, test scores a nd educational aspirations) and the lowered connectedness experienced by students as a result. They wrote that teenagers enrolled in secondary school who work longer hours (over 20 hours per week ) have a tendency to spend less time on their homework, in extracurricular a ctivities, and are more likely to drop out of high school. When adolescents are engaged in safe and structured activities beyond the school day, opportunities for positive, mentoring relationships with adults are made avai lable, which has been shown to e ffect areas closely connected to school climate ( Zaff et al. 2003 ). Employment that provides little in the way of learning new things may actually socialize adolescent workers into poor work habits, as they attempt to emulate unmotivated and under supervi sed coworkers (Staff & Uggen, 2003).

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! 7 Opposite to their extensively working peers, adolescent employment at less than 20 hours per week has shown to reduce rates of hi gh school dropout, and increase involvement in extracurricular activities (Staff & Uggen, 2003) Staff et al. 's 2010 study examined stu dent s innate draw to intensive work hours (over 20 per week) versus moderate work hours (less than 20 per week). Rather than only polling students on the ir actual work status, they surveyed their preference for intensive or moderate work. Youth participants who reported actually working intensively, not simply preferring to do so, were found to have the lowest degree of overall school connectedness (Staff et al., 2010). Interestingly, even y outh who were jobless, but reported a preference for more intensive work had significantly less ; interest in academics, motivation towards performing well, and overall enjoyment in school as compared to other jobless youth who reported a prefer ence for mod erate hours of work It may then be that middle school aged youth 1 who are predisposed to an interest in the money and auton omy that intense work provides are less inclined to desire engagement with extra curricular school activities. Or, it could be that this predisposition stems from earlier risk factors, such as low parental income and diminished economic opportunities, encouraging the drive for income of their own. More focused literature, studying middle school aged youth allows for further c onnected consideration. In 2004 Zierold, Garman & Anderson published their research on the topic of working middle school aged youth. They wrote, There is a common misperception that middle school children, aged 10 14 years, are not working in the United States. However, the results of our study show that over half of middle school students surveyed were working during the summer, and the majority o f the students worked the same job during the school year. (p. 520) !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Staff et al.'s (2010) sample consisted of youth in the 8 th grade and above, therefore a correlation between their study and this article's group of interest should be considered with care

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! 8 In fact, of the students surveyed in six different urban and suburban Midwestern school districts by Zierold et al. (2004) s ixty percent reported they worked the same job once they returned to school. The number of hours they worked ranged from less than 5 hours per week, to more than 40 hours per week, but the majority of students work ed less than 10 hours per week A majority of the 8 th grade stu dents in Staff et al.'s ( 2010 ) study were found to work moderate hours, or wish to do so. Just 5% of their peers reported working more than 20 hours per week. With firm child labor laws in the United States middle school aged students are limited in their employment options. Specific to the RMRSD studied, permissible occupations for minors are defined, starting at age 9, with a statement that, "minors under the age of 9 cannot generally be employed (CDLE, 2011). United States c hild la bor laws restrict children young er than age 14 to work outside of school hours but jobs that are informal (e.g., delivering newspapers, working in a family business, babysitting) are not held to the same standards ( United States Department of Labor Wage and Hour Division [ USDL WH D ] 2013) While middle school students could choose more than one job category in the Zierold et al. (2004 ) study, the majority of respondents (49%) indicated that at least one form of their work fell in the category of, "Employed by an individual for services at his/her home [e.g. babysitting, lawn care] (p. 520)." In the RMRSD studied, a minor is defined as, "any person under the a ge of 18, except a person who has received a high school diploma or a passing score on the general educational development (GED) examination (CDLE, 2011)." Based on compulso ry school attendance laws in RMRSD, it can be assumed that most minor students who identify as having a job in middle school are those aged 14 and younger and in 6 th to 8 th grade (National Center on Education Statistics [NCES] 2015) Permissible occupations for minors, as recorded in state records, are

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! 9 broken down into four age groups. Occupations for youth aged 9 or older are listed as the following; delivery of handbills and advertising, shoe shining, gardening and care of lawns involving no power driven lawn equipment, cleaning of walks involving no power driven snow removal equipment, casual work usual to the home of the employer, caddying on golf courses, and other similar occupations (CDLE, 2011). Occupations for youth age 12 or older also include; sale and delivery of periodicals, door to door s elling and delivery of merchandise, babysitting, gardening and care of lawns and cleaning of walks, non hazardous agricultural work, and other similar occupations (CDLE, 2011). Additional work listed, but exempt from youth employment protections are; schoo lwork and supervised educational activities, home chores, work done for a parent or guardian except where the parent or guardian receives any payment therefore, newspaper carriers, actors, models, and performers (CDLE, 2011). Permissible occupati ons are co ntinued for youth over age 14 but are not included here for the purposes of keeping focus on youth age 11 to 14 years old. While the RMRSD school climate survey data provides a clear breakdown of youth who work, and those who do not work, it does not do the same when listing favorable responses from youth who are inv olved in other school activities. Therefore, it is not c lear if students who work in RMRSD also participat e in extra curricular activities. Results from descriptive statistics between groups w ill still be provided, but analyses looking specifically at youth who work compared to youth who do not can be considered most relevant to the literature discussed above. Certain demographic information about the RMRSD middle school survey respondents is u nknown. Respondents were not asked to list the type of job (s) they work, or how many hours they work per week. For those reasons, and d ue to limited amount s of e xisting research focused on middle school students who are employed the Zierold et al. (2004) study, along with the RMRSD state youth labor law categories, will be considered the most relevant in terms of overall

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! 10 characteristics of youth who work for this paper.

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! 11 CHAPTER III METHOD Survey Format and Disburse ment In March of each school year, the RMRSD's Planning and Assessment Department asks students to complete a survey that measures the overall climate of its schools. The survey s are delivered to each school and are administered in individual classrooms, during one single class period, where teachers act as proctor s while their students fill out the machine readable, multiple choice formatted paper forms in pencil. Although completion of the survey is optional, directions do not include this information. The standardized test requires proctors to read each item aloud, one by one, in a universal manner. These directions are currently formatted in both English and Spanish only. The 2015 version of their school climate survey also i ncluded initial multiple choice prompts that included identifying questions about student demographic s including; grade, gender, self identified ethnicity, participation in athletics, clubs, student government, and employment. The total survey included 60 items mea suring school climate perception s with the first question omitted due to its designation as a practice question If Total N < 10 for any single prompt, the results were not included in the publication. A final participation rate of 92% was to taled. Participants The majority of d emographic s were obtained from the RMRSD website. These include d graduation rates, of which RMRSD has a 90% 4 year high school graduation rate. J ust over 29 % of students qualify for free and reduced lunch in RMRSD Male and f emale students are split evenly in the district at approximately 50% each. Gender diverse student populations are not

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! 12 listed. Seventeen percent of students qualify for Special Education services. Twenty percent of students are i n the Talented an d Gifted program. Just over 13% of students are English Language Learners. Six percent of students have American with Disabilities Act 504 plans Just under 3% of students open enroll from out of district. R acial demographics accumulate to; 64% white, 23 % Hispanic, 6% Asian, 4% two or more races, 1% African American, <1% American Indian, and 0% Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (Matching figures may not add up to 100% due to rounding of fractions) Additional relevant d escriptive information was obtained from Pro ximityOne (2016), an information resource company that provides access to geographic, demographic, and economic data The mean hous ehold income for families in RMRSD i s $ 92,123 (ProximityOne, 2016) Fifty two percent of families in RMRSD pay 35% or more of their household income as gross rent (ProximityOne, 2016) The largest group of people living below poverty in RMRSD is families with single female householders (ProximityOne, 2016) All students in the RMRSD were surveyed, with no defined exemptions from participation. Participants for this study included all 6,482 sixth seventh and eighth grade students who completed the survey from the 19 public middle schools in RMRSD. The final investigative sample for this research looked exclusively at the self identified "participation" groups asked about in the survey Procedures Publically available school climate survey data was retrieved from an internet search engine. The RMRSD's school climate survey q uestions appear to be compri sed of a combination of prompts similar to what is found on multiple school climate survey website resources (e.g. NSCC, 2015; NCLB, 2015; SCSS, 2015, and IBS, 2010). The f our primary areas related to school c limate as identified by the NSCC (2015) are comprised of ; safety interpersonal

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! 13 relationships teaching and learning, and the institutional environment Safety, as defined by NSCC (2015), includes clear rules and norms about violence, abuse and harassment. It also offers a sense of physical saf ety and social emotional security (NSCC, 2015). Therefore, the prompt, "I feel safe at school," was a clear choice for analysis of middle school students' perceptions on the RMRSD school climate survey. L earning, as described by NSC C (2015) i s support ed positively by the development of independent thinking, individual attention, and dispositions including; personal responsibility, conflict resolution, and self and emotional regulation. The decision to use the prompt, "I feel positive about school," as a w ay to study learning was made based on the NSCC's (2015) definition, and also because the prompt was placed under the "Learning" section in the RMRSD's final published dat a set for middle school students' 2015 school climate survey results Interpersonal r elationships, as defined by NSCC (2015) include respect for diversity, and support from adults and peers. The NSCC (2015) speaks specifically to the importance of mutual adult student respect and displayed patterns of support and caring from adults toward s students High expectations, a willingness to listen to students as individuals, and demonstration of personal concern for students and their problems are also important i nterp ersonal relationship indicators (NSCC, 2015). Therefore, I am not ignored by teachers, stood out as a prompt that n ot only falls in line with the interpersonal r elationships category as published by NSCC (2015) it also stood out as an area more strikingly divided between perceptions of middle school students in RMRSD who work as compared to those who do not. More of this discrepancy is discussed below. The fourth domain, as set forth by NSCC (2015) a school's institutional e nvironment is defined by school connectedness, school engagement, and the physical structure of the school Access to suitable resources and materials, as well as buy in to a school's norms, are also listed by NSCC (2015) as important

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! 14 factors in school climate. For those reasons, "I feel welcomed at school," was chosen as the a ppropriate prompt to assess middle school students' perceptions of institutional environment and how it relates to school climate in RMRSD. The fifth prompt drawn for this study, "I know how to deal with anger at school ," was added based on existing literature connecting youth emplo yment and higher levels of delinquency In addition to literature published by school climate organizations, all five categories were chosen with previously obtained knowledge surrounding the impact of youth employment on deviance, and school connectedness Data Analysis Using Chi Square analyses, i ndependent variables (students with jobs, students without jobs) were measured against d ependent variables ("I feel welcome at school," "I feel safe at school," "I feel positive about school," "I am not ignored by teachers," and "I know h ow to deal with anger at school ") to determine whether there are significant differences between the school climate percepti ons of middle school students in the RMRSD age 11 to 14, who work during the school year as compared to their non workin g counterparts. Comparisons between the working group and students who are involved in extra curricular school activities ( students involved in student government, involved in school athle tics, and involved in school clubs) are discussed using descriptive statistics only, due to the high likelihood of crossover between groups. That is to say, student s who work might also be in student government sc hool clubs, or school athletics, and a ny other number of combinations between groups. A descriptive, side by side comparison of the working group versus the non working group is also provided. Descriptive statistics were utilized as a way to study magnit ude differences between groups.

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! 15 CHAPTER IV RESULTS Descriptive Statistics Table 1 lists the sample size a nd percentage of RMRSD middle school students who marked a favorable response to the five studied survey prompts Participants in this sample are divided into two groups: Working ( N =1328), which make up 20% of the sample, and Not Working ( N =5154), which make up 80% of the sample Across all five climate survey prompts, middle sc hool students who work indicate less favorable perceptions as compared to their non working counterparts. Most striking is the difference of 15 percentage points between groups for the category, "I am not ignored by teachers. Restated, students who do not work feel they receive attenti on from teachers more tha n students who do work, 71% and 54%, respectively. The smallest spread between percent favorable is found for the prompt, "I feel welcomed at school." Here, an 8 percent spread between groups is revealed Table 1 School Climate Perceptions by Employment Status Survey Question Employment Status Job (n = 1328) (%) No Job (n = 5154) (%) I feel welcomed at school 983 (74) 4226 (82) I feel safe at school 916 (69 ) 4123 (80 ) I feel positive about school 757 (57) 3505 (68) I am not ignored by teachers I know how to deal with anger at school 744 (56) 969 (73) 3659 (71) 4226 (82)

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! 16 In Table 2 participants were categorized into one or more of the following; Student Government ( N =993), School Athletics ( N =4062), School Clubs ( N =3324), and Job During School Year ( N =1328). Groups are not exclusive, and cross over between groups likely exist s Therefore, percentiles should be viewed with some manner of caution. Table 2 is useful because it shows the number of students, from the ove rall sample of 6,482, that are involved in each of the participation groups. Sixty three percent of middle school student respondents report involvement in some form of school athletics. School clubs see the second highest rate of participation, with 51% o f respondents indicating they are a member in at least one club. Working students mak e up the next largest category, with 20% of middle school students reporting a job outside of school. Participa tion in student government shows the smallest number of students, at 15%. It should be noted that, across all five survey questions studied, the frontrunner group showing the highest percentage of favorable responses, varies between sports and clubs. Of the students with jobs, positive responses a re lowest across all categories. The statement "I feel positive about school," has the widest range of results between middle school respondents who; participate in student government, in school athletics, in school clubs, or who work outside of school. Here, 57% ( n= 757) of students who work, 66% ( n =655) of students involved in student government, 66% ( n =2681) of student athletes, and 70% ( n =2327) of stud ents involved in clubs respond favorably to the prompt.

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! 17 Table 2 School Climate Perceptions by Participation Groups Survey Question Participation Groups Student Government (n = 993) (%) School Athletics (n = 4062) (%) School Clubs (n = 3324) (%) Job (n = 1328) (%) I feel welcome at school 794 (80) 3331 (82) 2726 (82) 983 (74) I feel safe at school 755 (76) 3250 (80) 2626 (79) 916 (69) I feel positive about school 655 (66) 2681 (66) 2327 (70) 757 (57) I am not ignored by teachers 665 (67) 2762 (68) 2393 (72) 744 (56) I know how to deal with anger at school 794 (80) 3290 (81) 2759 (83) 969 (73) Chi Square Analysi s Chi Square analyses were used in comparing working versus non working groups and their perceptions of the five studied prompts The working and n on working groups are independent of each other therefore the assumption of independence is met With over 1000 students in each group Chi Square 's goodness of fit for a large sample size is met as well. The critical value for the Chi Square distribution at 2 d egrees of freedom, with a p value of < .01 is 9.210. All five analyses exceed this Chi Square value (Table 3) and, though effect size Phi is small across all school climate survey categ ories, the difference between groups is statistically significant. Two survey prompts, "I feel safe at schoo l," and "I am not ignored by teachers," have small effect sizes, .107 and .130, respectively while the remaining three categories fall beneath t he small effect size Phi of .100.

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! 18 Table 3 Chi Square Analysis Working v. Non working Students' School Climate Perceptions Student Perception Job No Job df 2 I feel welcome at school 983 4226 2 42. 54 .081 I feel safe at school 916 4123 2 74.10 .107 I feel positive about school 757 3505 2 56.76 .09 4 I am not ignored by teachers 744 3659 2 108.61 .130 I know how to deal with anger in school 969 4226 2 54.08 .091

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! 19 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION The present study was conducted to determine whether working while in middle school results in lower perceptions of school climate and connectedness in a Rocky Mountain Region School District. From this study, given all working situations, results show no meaningful difference in terms of middle school students who work versus those who do not work. The reason s why require further attention There is not enough descriptive information provi ded on the RMRSD school climate survey to determine what additional variables are missing that would offer statistically significant answers to the research question As a result of statistical analyses performed, the null hypothesis is accepted. This does not mean that school supports cannot be pointed towards supporting working students as a result of findings. Implications for future research are discussed below but first, limitations to the study Limitations Likely c ross over between the four participation groups made potential for additional statistical analyses unreliable. Significance between groups involved in extra cu rricular activities and those who work were not calculated or reported for this reason. Descriptive statistics offer some insight into group differences, but o btaining the number of students who work in addition to partaking in extracurr icular activities would open up more possibilities for correla tional data analyses A second significant limitation to this study was the simplicity of categorical designations In the RMRSD climate survey, s tudents who are employed are not asked how many hours they work, whether they have regular employment or sporadic jobs, and descriptive job categories are unreported. Generalizability of these results is limited. Before applying findings to other school

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! 20 districts, and 11 to 14 year olds across settings, attention should be paid to the demographics of survey respondents from RMRSD Non comprehensive demographic information is listed in the Methods section The definition of a minor, and permissible occupations for them, vary from state to state. This too should be cautioned as a possible impedance towards generalizability. Findings and Implications for Future Research Perhaps effect size results are small because middle school students work fewer hours than th e older adolescent populations studied in prior research on this topic, where students who worked more than 20 hours exhibited increased problem behaviors and lower high school graduation rates (Staff & Uggen, 2003; Staff et al. 2010) Small effect sizes could also be relat ed to differences in variables such as ; consistency of work, type of work, onset of employment and length of continued employment One implication for future research is clear. Gathering these details will not only allow for future studies considering school climate and connectedness for working mid dle school students results from such studies will enable school districts, in this case RMRSD, the opportunity to reach out to student respondent subsets that show substan tially larger effect size s regarding their perceptions of school connectedness The impact of finding statistically strong subset s of working students who feel disconnected from school as compared to non working peers could be meaningful Together with their children, parents and g uardians could make informed decis ions about what type of work, how many hours and when their student s should commit to a job for the first time With the proper multi tiered supports and pointed interventions in school, behavior referrals could go down, high school graduation rates could go up, and the overall climate of school s could improve for a larger population of students. One specific area of focus in this study was whether a lower number of middle school students who work feel an inability to control anger in the school setting This prompt, "I know

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! 21 how to deal with anger in school," was studied due to existing literature that points to increased deviant behavior in youth who work while attending school. A statistically significant difference (p < .01 ) for RMRSD middle school students who work as compared to their non working peers was found Due to the fact that this study found such a small effect for controlling anger it is curious whether the deviant behavior reported in earlier studies is correlated not on ly with working youth, but, importantly, the older adolescent age. Perhaps employment in middle school does not have a strong impact on one's ability to control their ange r. Could it be that prolonged employment as a youth has a larger effect? Longitudinal studies comparing the deviance expressed by youth who begin working in middle school, as compared to those who start working in high school might shed light on a signific ant onset factor. The prompt, "I feel welcomed at school," showed the smallest effect size in a Chi Square analysis between the working and non working group s Though a p value of less than .01 shows strong significance, the small effect size suggests that the weight of working while in middle school plays very little if at all, in to students' perceptions of a welcome school environment. Perhaps the infrastructure of a school carries the same weight no matter the number of extra hours a studen t does, or does not, spend in the building. Maybe the welcoming environment is perceived upon e ntry, and working outside of school has no bearing on the feel when present in the building. "I feel positive about school," was also statistically significant f or differences between the working and non working groups. With another very small effect size, having a job does not appear to have an impact on RMRSD's middle school students' positive perceptions of school. The question itself allows room for a vast array of interpretations by survey respondents. Whether their interpretation stems from a consideration of individual micro level experience or

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! 22 school wide macro level experiences or from contemplation of present day experience to a considerat ion of their school long histor y, this question might serve more useful if split into several, more specific questions for students Breaking it down into questions about positive classroom culture, positive feelings about one's academic s tanding, positive feelings about one' s social standing, and so on, could provide additional, perhaps more hel pful information about student experiences. Another statistically significant but small effect size was found for working mi ddle who do not feel safe as compared to thei r non working counterparts. I f future studies find a stronger correlation between not feeling safe and working in this younger population, it would likely be d ue to a myriad of factors. P erhaps, in studies showing an impact on employed youth, time tak en away from school events that take place after sc hool, before school, and on wee kends pull s students from opportunities to connect and gain a greater sense of security related to their school. Young s tudents who work might also feel a stronger sense of community, and t herefore safety, with coworkers and their place of employment But, this study, completed with the data available in RMRSD, does not show a strong effect of working on middle school students' sense of safety at school. Relative to the four other climate survey prompts studied, with an effect size 60% larger in magnitude than the smallest effect size of the studied prompts, "I am not ignored by teachers," had an effect size of .130 The relative magnitude of this effect size weakly suggests that working students perceive themselves being ignored by teachers more than their non working counterparts Though small, the results are connected to an important theme in school climate and connectedness. Students who feel they have a trusted adult in their school building have strong perce ptions of school connectedness (CDCP & USDHHS, 2009). Heightened awareness

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! 23 of adult connection and communication when working with middle school students could be part of a targe ted process within schools if future studies find that these working students are impacted by other variables. Involvement in extracurricular activities play s a role in heightened overall school connectedness perceptions (CDC P & USDHHS, 2009) but how much exactly cannot be interpreted by the results of this study due to likely cross over between groups Perhaps students who are predisposed to seeking a connection to adults and peers have a higher tendency to participate in extracurricular activities. Could it be that students who work are les s pulled to school centered activities, and thus would not be inclined to join, regardless of whether or not they have a job? A restructured school climate survey is suggested for RMRSD, where students indicate whether they participate in more than one act ivity. Separate employment related questions are also suggested for future school climate surveys, where additional variables are identified P otential researchers looking at middle school students who work are encouraged to find school cli mate surveys with this, more meaningful structure, allowing them to look closely at separate participant groups This could help pinpoint important differences and correlations amongst specific occupations and activities and lead to targeted school connectedness interventions for struggling student populations. Other considerations for previous findings on lower school connectedness perceived by youth who work may include t he sleep habits of students working during the school year. According to Wolfson and Carska don (1998), adolescents who had later bedtimes, resulting in less than 7 hours of sleep per night, had worse grades and increased daytime sleepiness, behavior problems, and depressive mood. Negative factors increased for youth who had a, "large weekend bed time delay," which meant that the student had a sleep routine that differed by more than 120

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! 24 minutes on the weekend when compared to their week day routine s Perhaps, working after school and on weekends increases a youth's risk for this irregular sleep pattern. If so, it would be appropriate to assume that deviant behaviors and academic consistency would show decline for students who have any commitment that keep s them from sleeping at least 7 hours a night, regardless of employment or extracurricular status Future research may consider the added variable of sleep when looking at school connectedness. Conclusion There is an increased need for research related to middle school aged student s who work, and implications for school connectedness are warranted. Results from this study will be disseminated among teachers and administration in RMRSD The researcher is hopeful that added attention to middle school students who work, particularly looking to find students who work over 20 hours per week, will lift perceptions of school climate and connectedness among that group. In addition, it is hopef ul that a deeper analysis of the school climate survey format will result in changes that not only expose more nuanced areas of study but also serve students in a more focused manner.

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! 25 REFERENCES Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Violence Prevention (CDCPDVP) (2015). Youth violence: Risk and protective factors [Webpage]. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/youthviolence/riskprotectivefactors.html Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP) and the U.S. Depar tment of Health and Human Services (USDHHS) (2009). School connectedness: Strategies for increasing protective factors among youth. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/protective/pdf/connectedness.pdf Center for Social and Emotional Education (CSEE), National Center for Learning and Citizenship (NCLC) & Education Commission of the States (ECS) (n.d.). The school climate challenge narrowing the gap between school climate research and school climate policy, practice guidelines and teacher educat ion policy Retrieved from http://www.schoolclimate.org/climate/documents/school climate challenge.pdf Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence (CSPV), at the Institute of Behavioral Science. (2015). Climate [Webpage]. Retrieved from http://www.colorado.edu/cspv/schoolclimate.html Cohen, J., McCabe, L., Michelli, N. M., & Pickeral, T. (2009). School climate: Research, policy, practice, & teacher education. Teacher's College Record, 111 (1), 180 213. Colorado Department of Labor and Em ployment (CDLE) (2011). Colorado y outh l aw [Fact sheet ]. Retrieved from https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/sites/default/files/YouthLawFactSheet.pdf Healthy Schools BC. (2014). School connectedness. What does the evidence say? Retrieved from http://healthyschoolsbc.ca/media/21257/school_connectedne ss_evidence_summary_oct_ 2014 .pdf Jones, V. (2015, March 26). Because I'm happy an intriguing study notes a correlation between a student's level of happiness and GPA. Usable Knowledge, Connecting Re search to Practice. Retrieved from http://www.gse.harvard.edu/news/uk/15/03/because i'm happy Mil ler, J. J. (2004). Citizenship education policy at the school district level. Issue Paper. Education Commission of the States (NJ1) National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2015). Compulsory school attendance law, minimum and maximum age limits for required free education, by state [Fact sheet]. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/programs/statereform/tab5_1.asp National Schoo l Climate Center (NSCC). (2015). School climate. Retrieved from NSCC website http://www.schoolclimate.org/climate/

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! 26 National School Climate Center (NSCC). (2015). The 12 Dimensions of School Climate Measured. Retrieved from http://www.schoolclimate.org/pro grams/documents/dimensions_chart_pagebars.pdf Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) prepared by Development Services Group, Inc. (2010). Protective factors. Retrieved from http://www.ojjdp.gov/mpg/litreviews/Protective%20Factors.pdf Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) prepared by Development Services Group, Inc. (2010). Risk factors. Retrieved from http://www.ojjdp.gov/mpg/litreviews/Risk%20Factor s.pdf Pickeral, T., Evans, L., Hughes, W. & Hutchinson, D. (2009). School climate guide for district policymakers and educational leaders. New York, NY: Center for Social and Emotional Education ( www.schoolclimate.org) ProximityOne. (2016). Children's demographics & K 12 education i nfrastructure demographic economic geographic data & analysis [Fact sheet]. Retrieved from http://proximityone.com/sddmi.htm Staff, J., Osgood, D. W., Schulenberg, J. E., Bachman, J. G., & Messersmith E. E. (2010). Explaining the relationship between employment and juvenile delinquency. Criminology, 48 (4), 1101 1131. Staff, J & Uggen, C. (2003). The fruits of good work: early work experience and adolescent deviance. Journal of Research in Crime an d Delinquency, 40 (3), 263 290. Thapa, A., Cohen, J., Guffey, S., & Higgins D'Alessandro, A. (2013). A review of school climate research. Review of Educational Research 83 (3), 357 385. United States Census Bureau (USCB) (2014). Enrollment Status of the Population 3 Years Old and Over by Sex, Age, Race, Hispanic Origin, Foreign Born, and Foreign Born Parentage: October 2014 [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/hhes/school/data/cps/2014/tables.html United States Department of Labor Wage and Hour Division (USDLWHD) (2013). Child labor bulletin 101 WH 1330, c hild labor provisions for nonagricultural occupations under the fair labor standards act. Retrieved from http://www.dol.gov/whd/regs/compliance/childlabor101_text.htm Wolfson, A. R., & Carskadon, M. A. (1998). Sleep schedules and daytime functioning in adolescents. Child Development, 69 (4), 875 887. Doi: 10.2307/1132351 Zaff, J. F., Moore, K. A., Papillo, A. R., & Williams, S. (2003). Implications of extracurricular

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! 27 activity participati on during adolescence on positive outcomes. Journal of Adolescent Research.18 (6), 599 630. Doi: 10.1177/0743558403254779 Zierold, K. M., Garman, S., & Anderson, H. (2004). Summer work and injury among middle school students, aged 10 14 years. Occupational & Environmental Medicine, 61 (6), 518 522. doi:10.1136/oem.2003.010546 Zullig, K. J., Koopman, T. M., Patton, J. M., & Ubbes, V. A. ( 2010). School climate: Historical review, instrument development and school assessment. Journal of Psychoeducational Asses sment, 28 (2), 139 152. Doi: 10.1177/0734282909344205