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A comparative study of microphone configurations for classical music

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Title:
A comparative study of microphone configurations for classical music
Creator:
Stillman, Fallon Elizabeth
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English
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x, 58 leaves : illustrations ; 28 cm +

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Subjects / Keywords:
Microphone arrays ( lcsh )
Microphone ( lcsh )
Sound -- Recording and reproducing ( lcsh )
Microphone ( fast )
Microphone arrays ( fast )
Sound -- Recording and reproducing ( fast )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaf 58).
General Note:
Five CDs in pocket at end.
General Note:
College of Arts and Media
Statement of Responsibility:
by Fallon Elizabeth Stillman.

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Auraria Library
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Auraria Library
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All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
268785798 ( OCLC )
ocn268785798
Classification:
LD1193.A70 2008m S74 ( lcc )

Full Text
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MICROPHONE CONFIGURATIONS FOR
CLASSICAL MUSIC
By
Fallon Elizabeth Stillman
B.A., University of Memphis, 2006
A portfolio submitted to the
University of Colorado at Denver
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Recording Arts
2008
1


A portfolio for the Master of Recording Arts
degree by
Fallon Elizabeth Stillman
has been approved
by
V
I
Leslie Gaston
i
Sam McGuire
Bob Burnham
klu-u 26,2008
--^--------
Date
2


Stillman, Fallon Elizabeth (M.A., Recording Arts)
A Comparative Study of Microphone Configurations for Classical Music
Portfolio directed by Assistant Professor Leslie Gaston
ABSTRACT
A Comparative Study of Microphone Configurations for Classical Music contains
multiple classical recordings made with varying microphone techniques and
types of microphones. This portfolio consists of recordings made by the author as
well as other professional recording engineers along with the recording
documentation noting the microphone techniques. This compilation serves to
provide an audience with examples of certain recording techniques in order to
demonstrate the possible outcomes of microphone selection and placement for
orchestral music while exhibiting a sample of model classical recordings by the
author.
This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidates portfolio. I
recommend its publication.
Signed
Leslie Gaston
3


DEDICATION
I dedicate this portfolio to my parents, who gave me the appreciation for learning,
the strength for perseverance, and watched my dog, Cordell, while I was
recording.
IV


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to thank my advisor, Leslie Gaston, for her insight, support and
contribution to my portfolio. I would also like to thank Bob Burnham for his tour of
the Colorado Symphony Recording facilities, Ron Streicher for his microphone
comparison samples, Sam McGuire for participating in my jury, and Chris Larkin
for the samples of the Memphis Symphony Orchestra as well as his
documentation. Finally, I would like to thank the rest of my portfolio committee for
reviewing my project.
v


CONTENTS
Figures...............................................viii
Tables...................................................x
CHAPTER
1. LIVE CLASSICAL PERFORMANCE RECORDING..................1
Acoustics, Ambience, Microphones, and Placement....1
An Introduction to the Purpose, Methods,
And Recordings in this Portfolio.............1
Microphone Selection.........................1
Microphone Techniques Demonstrated.................3
Distant Placement v. Close Placement.........3
2. LIVE CLASSICAL RECORDING TECHNIQUE
COMPARISON...............................................6
The Orchestras, Ensembles, and
Acoustic Spaces....................................6
A Description of the Source..................6
Comparative Examination of Recordings.............12
The Stereo Pair.............................12
The Decca Tree..............................16
The Use of Flanking Microphones.............17
Wind Pairs..................................19
Spot Microphones............................20
vi


3. LIVE CLASSICAL PERFORMANCE RECORDING
22
Defense of Final Recording Techniques..........22
American Academy of Conducting
at Aspen.................................22
Brentano String Quartet..................24
Sinfonia.................................25
Vladamir Feltsman........................25
4. DEDUCTIONS OF QUINTESSENTIAL CLASSICAL
RECORDING TECHNIQUES...............................26
Conclusion.....................................26
Final Conclusion of Ideal Configurations.26
APPENDIX
A. STAGE PLOTS......................................28
B. MICROPHONE PLACEMENT SPREADSHEETS................35
C. MICROPHONE SPECIFICATIONS........................38
D. AUDIO DISK TRACK LISTS...........................53
BIBLIOGRAPHY.............................................58
vii


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure
1 HARRIS HALL ..................................7
2 THE CANON CENTER..............................8
3 THE CANON CENTER FLOOR PLAN...................9
4 THE FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH..............10
5 THE GERMANTOWN PERFORMING ARTS CENTER........11
6 THE BENDICT MUSIC TENT.......................23
7 HARRIS HALL STAGE............................24
8 AACA STAGE PLOT..............................28
9 AACA BASS CONCERTO PLOT......................29
10 BRENTANO PLOT HARRIS HALL....................30
11 SINFONIA PLOT................................31
12 FELTSMANPLOT.................................32
13 GPAC PLOT....................................33
14 CANON CENTER PLOT............................33
15 COLORADO SYMPHONY PLOT.......................34
16 AKG414.......................................38
17 AKG SPECIFICATION............................38
18 AKG SPECIFICATIONS, CONT.....................39
viii


19 MKH20..........................................40
20 MKH 40 SPECIFICATIONS..........................41
21 KM 184.........................................42
22 KM184 SPECIFICATIONS...........................42
23 KM 183 SPECIFICATIONS..........................44
24 KMD............................................45
25 KMD SPECIFICATIONS.............................46
26 EARTHWORKS TC30................................47
27 EARTHWORKSZ SPECIFICATIONS.....................47
28 RODE NT4.......................................48
29 RODE NT4 SPECIFICATIONS........................48
30 TLM 150....................................... 49
31 TLM 150 SPECIFCATIONS..........................49
32 CCM4V..........................................50
33 COM 4 SPECIFICATIONS...........................50
34 MK21...........................................51
35 MKK21 SPECIFICATIONS...........................51
36 MK41...........................................52
37 MK41 SPECIFICATIONS............................52
IX


LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
Colorado Symphony Microphone Placement ........................35
American Academy of Conducting at Aspen Placement..............36
Sinfonia Microphone Placement..................................36
Brentano String Quartet Microphone Placement...................37
Vladamir Feltsman Microphone Placement.........................37
x


CHAPTER 1
LIVE CLASSICAL PERFORMANCE RECORDING
Acoustics, Ambience. Microphones,
and Placement
An Introduction to the Purpose. Methods,
and Recordings for this Portfolio
Introduction. The following document will describe and defend certain
recording methods I used for classical music performances in Aspen, Colorado in
the summer of 2007. These recordings will be compared with other classical
performances professionally recorded at alternate venues. The methods chosen
will be supported and analyzed using The New Stereo Soundbook by Ron
Streicher. Multi-tracking enabled the possibility of comparatives from a singular
performance, which will be examined to explore the usage of multiple
microphones and configurations for capturing live orchestral performances. This
portfolio contains recordings of small and large ensembles, halls, churches, and
large tent venues. The microphone placements are recorded and included in the
second section of this portfolio.
Microphone Selection
Importance of Microphone Selection. Microphone capabilities vary
depending on construction quality, transducer type, directional response,
frequency response, output characteristics, and transient response. It is
imperative for an engineer to review and consider the noted specifications of
microphones to ensure complete artistic control of the recordings sonic qualities.
The specification of the microphones utilized in the recordings made for this
portfolio have been included in Appendix C. The following is a description of
microphone characteristics and their possible effect on classical recordings.


Microphone Design. The transducer type of a microphone may be
Dynamic, Ribbon, or Condenser. These names describe the method which the
microphone converts acoustic energy into corresponding electric voltages.
Condenser systems use an electrostatic principle by converting sound
pressure variations into electrical energy with a capacitor made by two plates,
one movable and one static, in the diaphragm. The distance between the plates
and the substance, air, between them determines the charge of the capacitor.
The plates are electrically charged so that sound pressure variations may cause
distance variations between the plates that change the capacitance, passing a
changing voltage through a resistor, which becomes the microphones output
signal. Condensers with high maximum SPL specifications are ideal for
capturing loud sounds without distortion. Condensers, due to their transient
response, are also ideal for capturing the detail of extended high frequency
content,
Dynamic systems use electromagnetic induction to produce an output by
suspending a voice coil of wire within a magnetic field. This magnetic field is
disturbed when sound pressure passes through the diaphragm and the coil is
displaced. This change in the magnetic field is converted into an analogous
electrical signal.
Ribbon systems use electromagnetic induction by suspending a
corrugated metal ribbon attached to the diaphragm in a magnetic field, which
moves due to sound pressure variations. The moving ribbon disturbs the
magnetic flux lines and an analogous electric signal is created.
Directional Response. The directional response is indicated by a
microphones polar pattern and refers to the microphones sensitivity to sound at
various angles of incidence in reference to the front of the microphone (on-axis).
Microphones may be Directional (pressure gradient), responding to a portion of a
360-degree area of axis, or Omnidirectional (pressure operating), responding to
all areas within 360 degrees of its axis. Omnis are ideal for capturing room
acoustics, ambience, offer a flat bass response, and reduced handling and wind
noise. Directional microphones are ideal for boosted bass frequencies at close
distances and reduced leakage from other elements. Bidirectional microphones,
like most ribbon microphones, have a figure of eight polar pattern.
Frequency Response. Microphones have both an on-axis and off-
axis frequency response which is a representation of the output level by
2


frequency range. A frequency response curve is available for microphones used
in this portfolio. A microphone that reacts the same to all frequencies is described
as having a flat response. Most microphones will react differently off-axis,
demonstrating a separate frequency response.
Transient Response. A microphones reaction to the inception of an
acoustic wavefront is described and charted by a transient response. This
characteristic differs greatly by diaphragm size and microphone design. A
condenser microphone most accurately charts a wavefront because the
diaphragm is light and resists the wavefront the least. A ribbon diaphragm is also
light so it may react faster than that of a dynamic microphone. The dynamic
microphone reacts the slowest and offers the most rugged, gutsy" (Huber, 105)
sound.
The accurate transient response of the condenser diaphragm guided
many of my microphone selections for classical pieces. The smooth content of
the orchestral pieces combined with the far distance of the hanging positions lent
itself to a condenser diaphragm.
Microphone Techniques Demonstrated
Distant Placement vs. Close Placement.
Distant microphone placement is a position greater than 3 feet from the
source, which offers a larger pick-up area and is ideal for capturing ensembles
and orchestras. Placing the microphones at a distance that is equal to the sound
source size may often create a tonal balance. Distant miking also captures the
ambience of the environment. (Huber, 111) It is important to consider the critical
distance when placing microphones far away. This is the distance where one
may place the microphone in order to achieve a desirable balance between the
sources reflected sounds and the direct sound.
Close placement is within 1-3 ft. from the source and ideal for isolation,
clarity of specific elements, and presence. Directional microphones help achieve
isolation further with this method of miking to avoid leakage and image smear.
3


Accent Placement. To avoid imbalance in miking an ensemble, placement
that is not too far, but closer than distant, may be used to capture a section and
preserve the tonal balance. According to Huber, A good accent mic should only
add presence to a solo passage and not stick out as separate, identifiable
pickup. (Huber, 117)
Ambient Placement. The goal of ambient miking is to capture more room
ambience than direct sound and usually involves a stereo or bidirectional
microphone. This technique is often used for live concert recordings to recapture
ambience lost by close placement, capture audience noise, or provide some
natural acoustics in studio recordings.
The Blumlein Technique. This coincident stereo technique consists of two
figure-8 pattern microphones placed together with their principal axes 90 degrees
to one another, making each principal axis aim at the others null point. This
technique is rarely used because of the rear ambience pickup which is only
desirable in a limited amount of circumstances (well-behaved audience, ideal
acoustic space). Also, large spaces may lend themselves to a hollow or phasey
sound caused by cancellation from delayed waves from the direct source hitting
the side lobes.
The Decca Tree. This configuration should be placed a few meters behind
and about 8 ft. above the conductors head. It entails three omnidirectional
microphones placed on a T shaped fixture with 2 meters separating the side
channel microphones and one microphone placed 1.5 meters in front of the two
sides. The closeness of the side microphones employs intensity cues for stereo
imaging and the middle microphone ensures a solid center image. The T-shape
design of the Decca Tree was meant to benefit from the Law of the First Wave
Front, which states that the first sound reaching the listeners ears will appear to
have traveled the most direct path and sound clearer than other noises heard
slightly after. This ensures a strong center image. The side microphones are
distanced so they are positioned closely over the first violins and cellos when the
configuration is hung directly above the conductor or at the edge of the stage.
The ORTF Technique. The ORTF Technique is named for its creation by
the French National broadcasting agency, Office de Radiodiffusion-Television
Frangaise. It consists of two cardioid pattern microphones placed 17 cm. apart at
a 110 degree angle to mimic the auditory reception of the human head. This
technique causes few phase problems and demonstrates intensity difference
between the two stereo channels, creating a desirable stereo image.
4


The Mid-side Technique. Also known as M/S, the Mid-side technique uses
two microphones, one cardioid capsule for a center (mid) channel and one
bidirectional capsule for the side channels. The signals are split within a matrix
that flips the phase of one side of the figure-of-eight pickup pattern to form an
accurate stereo image that is mono compatible.
XY Stereo Technique. The XY Stereo configuration consists of a
coincident pair of two cardioid polar pattern microphones angled between 60
degrees and 135 degrees. The angle determines the stereo image width. An
expansive stereo image results from the uniform frequency response up to 90
degrees off-axis, which is characteristic of cardioid pattern capsules. According
to The New Stereo Soundbook, in coincident pair techniques, the angular fidelity
of the pickup closely matches the original source. (p. 7.12, Streicher).1
Spaced Pair (A-B Stereo). The Spaced Pair microphone configuration
utilizes two omni-directional microphones placed at an appropriate distance from
the sound source so the direct sound is greater than the ambient noise and the
distance between the microphones does not cause phase problems. The spaced
pair technique does not yield itself to proximity effect, the artificial boost of low
frequency content at close distances to the source.
1 Streicher, Ron, and F. Alton Everest. The New Stereo Soundbook ( 2nd ed./ Pasadena:
Audio Engineering Associates, 1998.
5


CHAPTER 2
LIVE CLASSICAL PERFORMANCE RECORDING
TECHNIQUE COMPARISON
The Orchestras. Ensembles, and Acoustic Spaces
A Description of the Source
The American Academy of Conducting at Aspen Recordings The
American Academy of Conducting Orchestra consists of approximately 38
members. The July 10th concert at the Benedict Music Tent featured three
pieces, Gli ucelli (The Birds), by Respighi, Bass Concerto in F-Sharp minor, op.
3, by Koussevitzky, and Symphony No. 4 in A major, op. 90, Italian Allegro
vivace, by Mendelssohn.
The venue, The Benedict Music Tent, is an enclosed outdoor tent that
seats 2, 050 people. The ceiling is a dome shape that reflects the sounds from
the stage outward onto a public lawn meant for free concert listening. The dome
is enclosed partially by reflective surfaces meant to brighten the overall sound of
the venue. The seating area is 13, 076 square feet and the stag is 3, 531 square
feet.
6


The Brentano String Quartet. The Brentano String Quartet recording was
performed in Harris Concert Hall in Aspen, Colorado. A photo of the venue is
featured below in Figure 1.
The Memphis Symphony Orchestra. The Memphis Symphony Orchestra
has approximately 73 members and performs primarily in three venues; The
Canon Center, The First Congregational Church, and the Germantown
Performing Arts Center. The recording engineer for the included performances is
Christopher Larkin.
The Canon Center is a music hall with a stage that is approximately 40x50
ft. See Figure 2 for a picture of the facilities. See Figure 3 for a picture of the
canon center floor plan.
2 Stanford University, http://www.stanford.edu/~fruchter/inside.qif. 2007.
7


I
3 The Canon Center for the Performing Arts, http://www.thecannoncenter.com/. 2007.
8


J
h
X
1-2) 10-Person Dressing Rooms
3-6) 4-Person Dressing Rooms
7-8) 10-Person Dressing Rooms
9) Ushers' Locker Room s
10) House Manager /
11) Wardrobe Room
12) Crew Locker Room
13) Light Control
14) Sound Control
15) VIP Broadcast Room 4
16) Storage
17) Storage
Entry Concourse Below

Figure 3 THE CANON CENTER FLOOR PLAN4
4 The Canon Center for the Performing Arts, http://www.thecannoncenter.com/. 2007.
9


The engineer at the First Congregational Church venue chose to place a
Rhode NT4 Stereo XY microphone 10 ft. in the air and 15 ft. in front of the
orchestra. The venue is shown in Figure 4 below. Please refer to the microphone
plot in Appendix A.
Figure 4 THE FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH
10


Two omnidirectional microphones were placed 3 ft. apart and 15 ft. above
the conductors head at the Germantown Performing Arts Center, pictured below
in Figure 5.
Figure 5 GERMANTOWN PERFORMING ARTS CENTER


Comparative Examination of Recording Techniques
NOTE TO READER: The listening samples provided are excerpts from
professional orchestra recordings. Some of these samples contain audio files
that are added after the beginning of the track to demonstrate the differences in
the recording when another pickup is added or omitted. If the text indicates there
will be additive audio, an announcer will designate the entrance point within the
track. For effective comparison purposes and aesthetics of the sample
recordings, entrance points are not located at uniform time spots.
The Stereo Pair
Description. The use of two microphones to capture a performance is
called a stereo pair technique. The placement of the microphones, spaced pair or
coincident, will shape the stereo image,
The exclusive use of a stereo pair to capture an entire orchestra may
narrow the stereo image and reduce ambience and spaciousness. Spaced pair
stereo pickups may also lend themselves to comb filtering, an effect caused by
two spaced microphones picking up the same signal at different times. Comb
filtering causes audible distortion.
Coincident Stereo Techniques. The benefits of using coincident stereo
techniques to capture an ensemble are angular fidelity and lack of comb filtering
due to the close proximity of the two capsules. These techniques are mono
compatible which is ideal for broadcasters who must consider listeners with
monophonic listening stations. The disadvantages of coincident stereo pairs are
mainly lack of spaciousness and ambience.
XY. An example of the narrow image caused by exclusive use of a
coincident stereo pair may be heard in the sample recording from the Memphis
Symphony Orchestra at the First Congregational Church. The orchestra was
recorded with a Rhode Stereo NT4 microphone placed 10 ft. above and 15 ft. in
front of the orchestra.
12


Please listen to Comparison Disk 1, Track 1. Notice that the violins are
placed almost at a 45 degree angle in the left stereo field instead of being
spread wide. The stereo image is concentrated in at the 90 degree angle
(center) and the harpsichord image shifts from right to left center. Overall,
the stereo image is stacked vertically and undefined.
Another example of the 90-degree cardioid XY coincident pair microphone
technique is offered by recording engineer Ron Streicher and the 2004 Edgar
Stanton Audio Institute. The microphone used was a Soundfield MK-V. A wider
110 -degree XY technique was also demonstrated with the same microphone
and performance. Unlike the previous sample that was performed in a church,
this next sample was recorded in a large outdoor music tent. This performance
was recorded with multiple microphone techniques, so that it may be compared
directly to a full stereo mix recording of the same performance. The full stereo
mix comparison consists of a TLM 50 Decca Tree, wind MS pair, and flanks.
Please listen to the 90 degree angle XY version on Comparison Disk 1, Track
2. The soloist at 50 seconds appears distant and at a 35 degree angle. The
stereo image is defined, as one may localize the high string plucks to the left
and low strings placed to the right. The lower strings appear buried and often
are covered by other high frequency parts. The harp also appears to be right
beside the soloist, which is confusing and incorrect.
Please listen to the 110-degree angle XY version on Comparison Disk 1, Track
3. Immediately, one may notice the opening and widening of the stereo image
from the 90-degree angle. The low strings and horns are also separated in
space. The low-mid frequency range is also diminished slightly and the violin
soloist appears closer to the listener.
Please listen to the stereo mix decca tree version on Comparison Disk 1, Track
4. Notice the immediate increase in ambience present. The horns sound much
more powerful and wide. The violin soloist is closer to the listener and
positioned wider left in the stereo image. The low strings are more present, due
to extended bass response of the omnidirectional microphones. The harp
sounds further behind the violin soloist as well.
13


XY Conclusion. The information drawn from this comparison
supports that 90 degree XY stereo does depict a LEFT-RIGHT stereo image, but
the use of a full array is preferable for including ambience and instrument section
separation. The XY technique has proven effective at producing a more
constricted stereo image, making it ideal for stereo depiction of a preferably
isolated section, such as percussion or winds, to avoid leakage. The 110-degree
XY technique aids the narrow and dry stereo image by including some ambience
and section separation.
Blumlein Technique. The 2004 Comparative AACA session included a
sample of a Blumlein pair of Coles 4038 Ribbon microphones.
Please listen to the Blumlein Technique example on Comparative Disk 1, Track
5. There is a wide stereo image as well as definitive side channels. The side
channels are more detailed and separated than in the XY samples. The image
of the horns was also further right than in the XY technique. The center image
is slightly thin and the rear ambience noise of coughs and program page turns
is more audible. The string sound has a clarity and definition that is not found
in the XY samples, due to transient response. Thus, this technique is ideal for
spaces with low offensive ambient noises like coughs, air handlers, and
outdoor noise. Also, Blumlein should be implemented for pieces with a lot of
side section detail, like the basses for example. Predominant wind and
Near Coincident Techniques. Near coincident techniques are still
dependent on intensity differences for stereo cues but the near-spaced
placement gives a sense of ambience not present in coincident pairs. The
ambience or space is created by phase anomalies like comb filtering that are
caused by time of arrival differences between the spaced microphones.
The ORTF Technique. The first sample of ORTF to be examined is a
Mozart piece played by the American Academy of Conducting at Aspen
orchestra and was recorded in Aspen by Fallon Stillman at the Benedict Music
Tent. The Neumann Solution D ORTF Pair was placed approximately eight ft.
above the conductors head angled down towards the orchestra.
14


Please play Track 6 on Comparative Disk 1. Notice the wide stereo image and
sense of reverberation and ambience. The transient response compliments the
string sound well. The mix seems to possess airiness from slight phase issues.
The bass image shifts occasionally, due to a lack of section spot miking and the
horns sometimes disappear in the mix. Dynamic variations often shift the image.
Please play Track 7 on Comparative Disk 1. This is a full stereo mix of the
flanking microphones, wind pair, main ORTF, and all spot microphones. The
microphone plot is available in Appendix A. Notice the stereo image seems more
balanced and sections are anchored in their field. The stereo image sounds
slightly wider as well and more natural reverberation and airiness is present. The
wind pair is more audibly centered in the stereo image as well.
The next comparable ORTF sample features the Memphis Symphony
Orchestra and was recorded at the Canon Center by Chris Larkin with the pair
placed 30 ft. in the air and 30 ft. away from the orchestra.5
Please play Track 8 on Comparative Disk 1. There is an apparent narrow image
due to the wind introduction and far distance of the microphones. The center
content is the loudest, dominating the stereo image. There is a lot of
reverberation present and the high frequency content is hard to discern. The
stereo imaging as a whole is poor and smeared by reverberation. The far
distance is detrimental to the recording.
Another use of the ORTF pair in the Benedict Music Tent is demonstrated
by Ron Streicher with Neumann Km140s and AACA 2004.
Please play Track 9 on Comparable Disk 1. The wide stereo image is apparent
and airiness present. The center image sometimes shifts right and left with the
wind section. The soloist sounds more defined with some desirable natural
reverberation than with the previous XY sample.
An ideal use for ORTF stereo pairs is in the recording of ensembles in
music halls. The specially designed acoustics of most halls and compact nature
of a small ensemble may be sonically complimented by the angular fidelity and
5 Larkin, Chris. Interview by Fallon Stillman. Denver, CO, 2007.
15


airy qualities of ORTF. The next sample was recorded by Fallon Stillman and
Eugene Sinew at Harris Concert Hall in Aspen, Colorado. The main ORTF pair of
KM 84D microphones hung 8ft. in the air.
Please play Track 10 on Comparable Disk 1. The close proximity of the
microphones narrow the stereo image a bit. Some reverberation is present but the
cardioid polar pattern neglects most ambient noise. The small ensemble is well
captured by this array.
ORTF Conclusion. The sole use of an ORTF pair to capture an
entire orchestra narrows the stereo field but includes some ambience not audible
in an XY configuration. It is important to place the pair within the critical distance
to avoid the source sounding too far away, as it did in the Canon Center sample.
Using only an ORTF pair for a string quartet or small ensemble in a hall is
adequate because of the source size.
Spaced Omnidirectional Microphones. Another near-coincident technique
is the spaced omni configuration, which is ideal for music with a lot of low
frequency content. The following sample was provided by engineer Chris Larkin
and The Memphis Symphony Orchestra. The two Earthworks TC30
omnidirectional microphones were hung 3 ft apart and 15 ft. above the
conductors head.
Please play Track 11 on Comparable Disk 1. Notice the extended low frequency
noise present and the weak high frequency response. The stereo image is also
undefined and most elements seem to be focused in the center of the stereo
field. The ambience present and reverberation compliments the piece and
venue.
This sample is testament to the possibility of low frequency dominance when
solely using omnidirectional microphones. The close placement of the
microphones when capturing a large orchestra can smear the image, cause
distortion, and cause comb filtering due to slight time of arrival differences.
The Decca Tree
The Decca Tree is considered a near-coincident technique. It is
demonstrated by Ron Streicher and AACA 2004 at the Benedict Music Tent.
16


Please play Track 12 on Comparable Disk 1. The decca tree is constructed
with 3 Nuemann TLM 50s placed 8ft. above the conductors head. The stereo
image is wide but somewhat skewed. The center image is more robust
compared to the representation from a pair of spaced omnis. The winds shift
from mid-left to mid-right a bit and the soloist appears more in a center position
than it does when compared to an XY pair.
To compare this to the XY, play Track 2 on the Comparable Disk 1. The
frequency response is complimentary to the low end and does not exhibit any
linqering low noise. The ambience and reverberation present are also
The Use of Flanking Microphones
Purpose. According to Ron Streicher, The primary purpose of these
microphones (flanking) are to extend the breadth of the stereo image and to lend
support to the main stereo pickup. (Streicher, 9.14) The spacing between them
is so large that comb filtering does not occur. They should be symmetrically
placed at the sides of the main pair and at the same distance from the orchestra
as the main pickup.
The following examples will demonstrate the performance of flanking
microphones and their addition to the stereo image.
Small Ensembles. In music halls with small ensemble performances,
some may argue that only a main stereo pair is necessary. However, the
following example recorded by Fallon Stillman at the Harris Concert Hall will
disprove this theory. This recording was made with a main pair in ORTF and an
omni flanking pair of KM183s spaced 5 ft. away from the main pickup.
17


Please play Track 13 on Comparison Disk 1. The track will begin with the main
pair solo and the entrance of the flanks will be announced at 47 seconds. Notice
the increased bass frequency content, the widening of the stereo image, and
the movement of the special separation of the string quartet.
Please play Track 14 on Comparable Disk 1 to hear another example of additive
flanking on a string quartet. The stereo image breadth is expanded. The
addition of flanks also enhances the listeners immersion in the recording. To
further demonstrate the role of flanking in a hall as well as its compliment to the
main stereo pair, a sample of just omni flanks, KM 183s was included of the
same string quartet.
Please play Track 15 on Comparable Disk 1. An announcer will indicate the
entrance of the main pair. The stereo image begins wide with little center
definition. The main pair addition helps localize the low frequency content and
build the mix vertically by including more central elements in the stereo field and
defining the positions of center sonic occurrences.
Solo piano. Also recorded in Harris Hall by Fallon Stillman, Vladamir
Feltsmans Liszt demonstrates the widening of a solo piano performance with the
entrance of flanks.
Please play Track 16 on Comparison Disk 1. The flank entrance will be
announced at 20 seconds. The audible expansion of the stereo image is
obvious. The low frequency representation is also enhanced, as is the ambient
noise.
Large Ensembles. The addition of flanks for large orchestras can add
necessary ambience as well as width to the stereo image. The extended bass
response of the omnidirectional flank also helps bring out the side bass section.
The first example was recorded by Fallon Stillman at the Benedict Music Tent.
The announcer will indicate the entrance of the flanks at 14 seconds.
18


Please play Track 17 on Comparable Disk 1. Notice the addition of flanks adds
some reverberation, lateral growth of the stereo image, and detail of bass parts
and low frequency content.
Please play Track 18 on Comparable Disk 1. The same orchestra playing fast
tempo high frequency content music also benefits laterally from the flank
addition.
Please play track 19 on Comparable Disk 1. The Mozart piece seems to lack
depth until the entrance of the flanks, the low strings particularly are fattened by
their addition. The image expands laterally and ambient noise is increased.
Flank Significance. The conclusive evidence from this comparison is that
the addition of omnidirectional flanks benefits both small and large ensembles,
expanding the lateral stereo image, adding ambience, enhancing bass frequency
content, and increasing the localization ability of the listener.
Wind Pairs
The use of a wind pair can anchor the center portion of the stereo field in
an orchestral recording. It can add depth as well as bring out definition in a
recording. The following samples were recorded in the Benedict Music Tent by
Fallon Stillman. The entrance of the wind pair will be announced in the recording.
19


Please play Track 20 on Comparable Disk 1. The wind pair enters at 1:14
seconds. Before their entrance, notice the lack of definition in the winds and their
sense of distance. The wind pair is an XY stereo pair of KM 184s, which were
placed to neglect side string leakage. The wind pair adds clarity, most noticeably
to the flute. The horns are also brought out, which is very obvious around 2:07.
Play Track 21 on Comparable Disk 1. This piece features a solo wind part, which
makes the clarity added by wind pair addition very clear. The XY KM 184 pair is
used here as well. The flute emerges once the pair is added and favorable
definition if achieved.
Wind Pair Conclusion. The addition of a wind pair can clarify and anchor
the center of the stereo image and separate the winds from the side stereo
channels. Other orchestras, most notably the Colorado Symphony, use a
spaced pair of omnidirectional microphones placed high above the section, which
differs from the techniques demonstrated in this portfolio.
Spot Microphones
The use of spot microphones in classical music helps define the spatial
representation and overall clarity of the recording. The distant microphones
adequately depict the overall ensemble but may lack necessary frequency
content of certain instruments. Solo instruments may especially call for spot
miking. The following samples demonstrate the applicability of spot microphones.
Please play Track 22 of Comparable Disk 1 to hear the use of a condenser
Nuemann KM184 harp spot. Notice the presence and location detail that the
snot mioronhone adds whan introduced
20


Please play Track 23 of Comparable Disk 1 to hear a bass spot. The entrance is
announced at 46 seconds. The bass spot was a Nuemann U87 set to a cardioid
pattern aimed at the first three basses at the F-hole level. The emergence brings
presence and definition to the buried bass section. It helps the bass section
compete with the multitude of high frequency content in the left stereo field and
balance the overall image.
Please play Track 24 of Comparable Disk 1 to hear a percussion spot. The
entrance is announced at 18 seconds. The powerful percussion part becomes
more centered in the stereo image and there is a much needed increase in bass
frequency representation.
Spot Microphone Conclusion. The use of spot microphones in classical
music may help reduce the loss of frequency detail and localization through
appropriate panning and gain settings.
21


CHAPTER 3
LIVE CLASSICAL PERFORMANCE RECORDING
Defense of Final Recording Techniques
AACA
I chose a multi-microphone configuration for this orchestra because of the
large venue and solo parts. The Bass Concerto called for a spot microphone on
the bass soloist, placed down stage right. The percussion, in the rear of the
stage, were captured with two Sennheiser MK21 microphones. A full
microphone plot may be seen in Appendix A. The mic placement and selection
chart is included in Appendix B. The harp and celesta were also spot miked to
anchor their position in the left stereo field and ensure they were represented
appropriately in the final mix. The use of omnidirectional flanks was implemented
to widen the lateral image if the orchestra and add ambience to the final mix. A
wind pair helped define the center image of the mix as well.
Please listen to the contents of Disk 2 recorded at the Benedict Music Tent. A
full track listing is included in Appendix D.
22


FIGURE 6 THE BENDICT MUSIC TENT
23


The Brentano String Quartet
The Brentano String Quartet was recorded with a main stereo ORTF pair
of Schoeps MK21 cardioids placed 8 ft above the quartet in the Harris Concert
Hall. Please refer to the Mic plot in Appendix A as well as the selection and
placement chart in Appendix B. The ORTF configuration was chosen to provide
angular fidelity that would be widened by the omnidirectional flanks, spaced 9 ft.
apart. The flanks add ambience and breadth.
Please listen to Disk 3 for the final product of the Brentano Recordings. A full track
listing is provided in Appendix D.
FIGURE 7 Harris Hall Stage
24


Sinfonia
For the Sinfonia show, I chose to use a main pair of Solution D
microphones set to a cardioid pattern in ORTF. The wind pair chosen were 2
Schoeps MK 41 Super cards to isolate the section from the timpani directly
behind them. For flanks, I used 2 omnidirectional MK 2s so I could capture as
much of the multiple setups for the show which included solo singers, piano
players, and possible guitars and drum kits.l chose to spot the harp, percussion,
and celesta. For a piano spot, I used two Neumann KM 184s in XY for stereo
representation with isolation.
Special Event With Vladamir Feltsman
The Feltsman recording took place in Harris Hall. The concert was played
continuously and featured a string quartet for one piece. Please see the
Microphone Plot in Appendix A and the Concert Information chart in Appendix B.
The quiet nature of the recording made ambience an important factor which was
brought out by the KM 183 flanks. The low frequency content was also enhanced
by the omnidirectional flanks.
Please Listen to Disk 4 to hear the full Feltsman Concert. A full Track listing is
included in Appendix D.
25


CHAPTER 4
DEDUCTIONS OF QUINTESSENTIAL CLASSICAL RECORDING
TECHNIQUES
Conclusion
Final Conclusion of Ideal Configurations
When recording classical music, an engineer must consider the ensemble
size, performance space, and microphones available. These factors will decide
the color of the recording, stereo breadth, dimension, and sonic fidelity. The goal
of the recording should be to achieve an accurate and aesthetically pleasing
sonic representation of the performance that captures the natural ambience of
the performance space as well as the full frequency range of the instruments.
Regardless of ensemble size, the engineer may expand the stereo field
horizontally by implementing matched flanking microphones on the same plane
as the main stereo pair. The use of a sole stereo pair does provide LEFT-RIGHT
stereo imaging, but may lack ambience and precise instrument placement within
the field.
Large Ensemble Recommendations. For large ensembles, an engineer
should be careful to record all elements in the orchestra, maintain a stereo image
true to the performance, and capture a tasteful amount of ambience. Flanking
microphones help to include sections placed in the far right and left areas of the
stage as well as ambience, which is demonstrated by Audio Examples 16, 17,
and 18 on the Comparable Disk. Larger ensembles benefit from the use of spot
microphones, which prevents loss of frequency detail and increases localization
with proper panning. Solo instruments and bass sections should be spotted
especially. This is evident in the harp spot example on Track 22 of the
Comparable Disk. Main pairs may be XY or ORTF, but, when using XY, a wider
image can be achieved with a 110- degree angle rather than a 90-degree angle.
ORTF depicts a wider stereo image than the XY configuration. XY is an ideal
configuration for a wind pair because the pick-up angle may be adjusted to taste
in order to portray a stereo image with limited leakage of outer section sources.
26


Small Ensemble Recommendations. Small ensembles may be recorded
with a main pair of XY or ORTF, like a large orchestra. In contrast, the main pair
should have a narrower angle and be placed closer to the source. Flanks, usually
omnidirectional, may capture favorable low frequency content and hall ambience.
This is demonstrated in Tracks 13 and 14 of the Comparable Disk, which feature
the addition of flanking microphones to record a solo piano and string quartet.
Closing Statement. The recordings provided in this portfolio are exemplary
of the methods explored in the second chapter of the document. All
configurations were planned according to ideal microphone design in relation to
the acoustic environment, ensemble type, and music performed.
27


Appendix A
Microphone Stage Plots

C
c
ft
c
e
ha
a
c
a
c
u
C

Ui
FIGURE 8 AACA STAGE PLOT
28


FIGURE 9 AACA PLOT BASS CONCERTO


Harris Concert Hall
Ensemble: J3/eatftno Aspen Music Festival 2007
Date:
FIGURE 10 BRENTANO STAGE PLOT HARRIS HALL
30


PlllllO #.
FIGURE 11 SINFONIA PLOT


Ensemble: Fe.tefKX'Tl
Date: J Fbnk
3
Harris Concert Hall
Aspen Music Festival 2007
^ X
sO(iTIy' X
i* y
FIGURE 12 FELTSMAN PLOT


FIGURE 13 GPAC PLOT
FIGURE 14 CANON CENTER PLOT
33


FIGURE 15 COLORADO SYMPHONY PLOT6
6 Burnham, Robert. Interview by Fallon Stillman. Denver, CO, 2007.
34
Sample Colorado Symphony Plot


APPENDIX B
Concert Microphone Placement Spreadsheets
Table 1 Colorado Symphony Microphone Placement
Concert
Date
Orchestra Size
Location
Music
Colorado Symphony Orchestra
Seasonal
Approx. 85
Boettcher Concert Hall
Varies
Microphone Selection
2-Nuemann KM 184
2-Nuemann KM 100
2-Nuemann KM 184
2-MKH 20
AT 849
KM 184
Pick up Pattern
Cardioid
Omnidirectional
Cardioid
Omnidirectional
STEREO BOUNDARY
Cardioid
Instrument/Position
Main Pair-ORTF
Winds, Spaced Omni
Rear Flanks, Spaced
10 ft. apart
Flanks, 15 FT. from
main pair
Piano Spot-XY
Percussion Spot
35


Table 2 American Academy of Conducting at Aspen Placement
Concert Date Orchestra Size Location Music AACA Concert 3 7/10/07 Approx. 38 Benedict Music Tent
Microhphone
Selection Pick up Pattern Instrument/Position Preamp Gain Setting
2-Solution D Cardiod Main Pair-ORTF Sol D 43 dB
2-Nuemann KM 184 Hyper Cardiod Wind Pair-XY Grace 41.5 dB
2-Neumann KM 183 Omnidirectional Flanks Grace 41.5 dB
2-Schoeps MK21 Supercardiod Percussion Spot Grace 40 Db
2-Nuemann KM 184 Cardiod Piano Spot-XY Grace 38 dB
AKG 414 Cardioid Celesta Spot Grace 38 dB
AKG 414 Cardioid Harp Spot Grace 38 dB
Neumann U87 Cardioid Bass Spot Aphex
Neumann U87 Cardioid Bass Solo Aphex
Table 3 Sinfonia Microphone Placement
Concert Sinfonia
Date 8/1/07
Orchestra Size Approx. 40 Benedict Music
Location Music Tent
Microhphone Selection Pick up Pattern Instrument/Position Preamp Gain Setting
2-Solution D Cardiod Main Pair-ORTF
2-Schoeps MK 41 Super Cardiod Wind Pair-XY Grace 37.5 dB
2-Schoeps MK2 Omnidirectional Flanks Grace 33 dB
Schoeps MK41 Supercardiod Percussion Spot Aphex 42 dB
2-Nuemann KM 184 Cardiod Piano Spot-XY Grace 33 dB
AKG 414 Cardiod Celesta Spot Grace 33 dB
AKG 414 Cardiod Harp Spot Aphex 36 dB
36


Table 4 Brentano String Quartet Microphone Placement
Concert
Date
Ensemble Size
Location
Music
Brentano String Quartet
7/11/07
1/5/04
Harris Hall
Microphone Selection
Schoeps MK 21
2-Neumann KM 183
Pick up Pattern
Cardioid
Omnidirectional
Instrument/Position
Main Pair-ORTF 8 FT
ABOVE QUARTET
Flanks, 8 FT ABOVE
QUARTET, 9 FT APART
Table 5 Vladamir Feltsman Microphone Placement
Concert Vladamir Feltsman
Date
Ensmeble Size Approx. 38
Location Harris Hall
Music
Gain
Microhphone Selection Pick up Pattern Instrument/Position Preamp Setting
MKH 40 Cardiod Main Pair-ORTF Grace 40.5 dB
2-Nuemann KM 183 Omnidirectional Flanks Grace 40.5 dB
37


APPENDIX C
Microphone Specification
AKG C 414-XLS Specifications
Photo:
Microphone:
Polar Patterns:
Sensitivity:
Frequency Range:
Electrical Impedance:
AKG C 414 B-XLS
Omnidirectional, wide cardioid, cardioid,
hypercardioid, figure eight
23 Mv/Pa (-33dB).5dB
20-20,000 Hz
<200 ohms
Recommended Load
Impedance: >2,200 ohms FIGURE 16
AKG 414
Bass Cut Filter slope:
Preattenuation pads:
Equivalent noise level
(CCIR 4682):
Signal to Noise Ratio
(A-Weighted):
Maximum SPL for .5%
THD:
Dynamic Range:
Powering:
Current Consumption:
Connector:
Dimensions:
Net Weight:
Frequency Response
OmnidiractioMl
12 dB/octave at 40 Hz and 80 Hz, 6 dB/octave at 160
Hz
-6dB, -12 dB, -18 dB, switchable
20 dB (0 dB Preattenuation)
88 dB
0/-6/-12/-18 dB)
134 dB minimum
48 V phantom Power to DN/IEC
approx. 4.5 mA
3-pin XLR to IEC
50x36x160 mm
300 g
FIGURE 17 AKG SPECIFICATIONS
38


Factory Preferred Applications: Backing Vocals, Acoustic Guitar, Double Bass,
Violin, Cello, Grand Piano, Organ, Trumpet, Trombone, French Horn, Tuba,
Saxophone, Flute, Clarinet, Bass Drum
39


Sennheiser MKH 407
Photo:
Microphone:
Polar Pattern:
Sensitivity:
Frequency Range:
Electrical Impedance:
Recommended Load
Impedance:
Equivalent noise level
(CCIR 4682):
Maximum SPL:
Powering:
Current Consumption:
Connector:
Dimensions:
Net Weight:
Sennheiser MKH 40
Cardioid
25 Mv/Pa1dB
40-20,000 Hz
150 ohms
1,000 ohms
21
134 dB at 1 kHz
48 V phantom Power4 V
2 mA
3-pin XLR to IEC
.98x6.02
3.52 oz
FIGURE 19 MKH40
7 Sennheiser USA. http://www.sennheiserusa.com/newsite/. 2007.
40


Frequency Response/Polar Pattern:
.fc.i ft
FIGURE 20 MKH40 SPECIFICATIONS8
8 Sennheiser USA. http://www.sennheiserusa.com/newsite/. 2007.
41


Neumann KM 184 Specifications9
Photo
Microphone:
Polar Patterns:
Sensitivity:
Frequency Range:
Electrical Impedance:
Recommended Load
Impedance:
Equivalent noise level
(CCIR 4682):
Signal to Noise Ratio
(A-Weighted):
Maximum SPL for .5%
THD:
Powering:
Current Consumption:
Connector:
Dimensions:
Net Weight:
Frequency Response
Neumann KM184
Cardioid
15 Mv/Pa
20-20,000 Hz
50 ohms
1,000 ohms
FIGURE 21 KM 184
22 dB (0 dB Preattenuation)
81 dB
138 dB
48 V phantom Power 4 V
3.2 mA
XLR 3F
22x107 mm
80 g
KM
184
FIGURE 22 KM 184 SPECIFICATIONS
9 Neumann USA. http://www.neumannusa.com/. 2007.
42


Factory Recommended Uses: XY, ORTF Stereo Pair, announcer voice, spot
mic/overhead, close mic for strings, winds, percussion, Leslie speakers, guitar
amps.
43


Neumann KM 183 Specifications10
Microphone:
Polar Patterns:
Sensitivity:
Frequency Range:
Electrical Impedance:
Recommended Load
Impedance:
Neumann KM183
Omnidirectional
12 Mv/Pa
20-20,000 Hz
50 ohms
1,000 ohms
Equivalent noise level
(CCIR 4682):
Signal to Noise Ratio
(A-Weighted):
Maximum SPL for .5%
THD:
Powering:
Current Consumption:
Connector:
Dimensions:
Net Weight:
Frequency Response
24 dB
81 dB
140 dB
48 V phantom Power 4 V
3.2 mA
XLR 3F
22x107 mm
80 g
FIGURE 23 KM 183 SPECIFICATIONS
Factory Recommended Uses: AB Stereo Pair, main room acoustic microphone,
spot mic or piano, wind instruments, or choir.
10 Neumann USA. http://www.neumannusa.com/. 2007.
44


Neumann KMD Specifications11
Photo
Microphone: Neumann KMD
Interface AES 42
FIGURE 24 KMD
Polar Patterns: Omnidirectional, cardioid, Hypercardioid
Sensitivity: 12 Mv/Pa
Frequency Range: 20-20,000 Hz
Electrical Impedance: Recommended Load 50 ohms
Impedance: Equivalent noise level 1,000 ohms
(CCIR 4682): Signal to Noise Ratio 24 dB
(A-Weighted): Maximum SPL for .5% 81 dB
THD: 140 dB
Powering: 48 V phantom Power
Current Consumption: 3.2 mA
Connector: XLR3F
Dimensions: 22x107 mm
Net Weight: Remote Control 80 g
Functions: Polar Pattern; Low Cut Filter: Flat, 40, 80, 160 Hz; Preattenuation: 0, -6, -12, -18dB; Gain: 0-63 in 1 dB steps, Test signal: 1 kHz, white noise, pink noise; Parametric Compressor/Limiter; Independent Peak Limiter; Soft Mte; Phase Reverse, Signal lights.
A/D Conversion: Digital Signal Neumann Process (patented) 28 bit internal word length
Processing: Fixed Point, variable internal word length 28 to 60 bits
11 Neumann USA. http://www.neumannusa.com/. 2007.
45


Synchronization: AES 42-Mode 2, Mode 1 (synchronous),
Asynchronous operation (free running), basic
frequency accuracy: 25 ppm
Frequency Response:
Km184D
FIGURE 25 KMD SPECIFICATIONS
46


Earthworks TC30 Specifications.12
Photo:
Microphone:
Polar Patterns:
Sensitivity:
Powering:
Frequency Range:
Peak Input:
Connector:
Noise:
Minimum Output Load:
Product Weight:
Earthworks TC30
Omnidirectional
8Mv/Pa
48 V Phantom Power
9-30,000 Hz
150 dB SPL
XLR
27 dB SPL
600 ohms
225 g.
Polar Pattern and Frequency Response:
FIGURE 26
EARTHWORKS TC 30
r
FIGURE 27 EARTHWORKS SPECIFICATIONS
12 Earthworks Precision Audio, http://www.earthworksaudio.com. 2007.
47


RODE NT413
Photo:
Microphone:
Polar Pattern:
Sensitivity:
Frequency Range:
Dynamic Range:
Electrical Impedance:
Equivalent noise level
(CCIR 4682):
Maximum SPL:
Powering:
Current Consumption:
Connector:
Dimensions:
Net Weight:
Rode NT4
2 Cardioid
12 Mv/Pa1dB
20-20,000 Hz
Greater than 128 dB
200 ohms
1
FIGURE 28 RODE NT4
Less than 16dB
134 dB at 1 kHz
48 V phantom Power4 V 9V Battery
2 mA
3-pin XLR to IEC
32mmx232mm
480g
FREQUENCY RESPONSE
TOUW WOTEBN

M
| M 1M
* "
FIGURE 29 RODE NT4 SPECIFICATIONS
13
RODE Microphones. http://www.rodemic.com/downloads/NT4 InstMan.pdf. 2007.
48


TLM 150 Specifications14
Photo
Microphone:
Interface
Polar Patterns:
Sensitivity:
Frequency Range:
Electrical Impedance:
Recommended Load
Impedance:
Equivalent noise level
(CCIR 4682):
Signal to Noise Ratio
(A-Weighted):
Maximum SPL for .5%
THD:
Powering:
Current Consumption:
Connector:
Dimensions:
Net Weight:
Frequency Response:
Neumann KMD
AES 42
Omnidirectional
12 Mv/Pa
20-20,000 Hz
50 ohms
1,000 ohms
26 dB
68 dB
136 dB
48 V phantom Power
3 mA
XLR 3F
56x145 mm
490 g
FIGURE 30 TLM 150
FIGURE 31 TLM 150 SPECIFICATIONS
14
Neumann USA. http://www.neumannusa.com/, 2007.
49


Schoeps CCM 4V Specifications15
Photo
Microphone:
Polar Patterns:
Sensitivity:
Frequency Range:
Shoeps CCM 4V
Cardioid
13 Mv/Pa
40-20,000 Hz
FIGURE 32 CCM 4V
Equivalent Noise evel:
Signal to Noise Ratio
(A-Weighted):
Maximum SPL for .5%
THD:
Powering:
Connector:
Frequency Response/Polar Pattern:
CIR 24 Db/14 Db A-Weighted
80 dB
132 dB
48 V phantom Power
XLR 3F
FIGURE 33 CCM 4 SPECIFICATIONS
15 Schoeps Mikrofone, http://www.schoeps.de/home.html. 2008.
50


Schoeps MK 21 Specifications
Photo
Shoeps MK 21
Wide Cardioid
13 Mv/Pa
30-20,000 Hz
FIGURE 34MK2116
CIR 25 Db/15 Db A-Weighted
79 dB
132 dB
48 V phantom Power
3 mA
XLR3F
Frequency Response/Polar Pattern:
10 : : -rh: r-T'..
4m 4-Aj-P 4- - : j _
j I ;;;; l *. u, j j L*.
20 SO tOO 200 SCO Ik 2k Sk tOk 20kHi
frequency response curve MK 21 + CMC 6, CCM 21
fromouto
to inner
i*>tx>2kHz
polar diagram
FIGURE 35 MK 21 SPECIFICATIONS
Microphone:
Polar Patterns:
Sensitivity:
Frequency Range:
Equivalent Noise Level:
Signal to Noise Ratio
(A-Weighted):
Maximum SPL for .5%
THD:
Powering:
Current Consumption:
Connector:
16 Schoeps Mikrofone, http://www.schoeps.de/home.html. 2008.
51


Schoeps MK 41 Specifications17
Photo
Microphone:
Polar Patterns:
Sensitivity:
Frequency Range:
Shoeps MK 41
Super Cardioid
13 Mv/Pa
40-20,000 Hz
%/
FIGURE 36 MK 41
Equivalent Noise evel:
Signal to Noise Ratio
(A-Weighted):
Maximum SPL for .5%
THD:
Powering:
Connector:
CIR 24 Db/16 Db A-Weighted
78 dB
132 dB
48 V phantom Power
XLR 3F
Frequency Response/Polar Pattern:
FIGURE 37 MK 41 SPECIFICATIONS
17 Schoeps Mikrofone, http://www.schoeps.de/home.html, 2008.
52


APPENDIX D
Track Listings of Supplementary Audio Compact Disks
Disk...................................................Comparable Disk 1
Artist:...AACA, AACA 2004, Vladamir Feltsman, Ying Quartet, Aspen Sinfonia
......................Brentano String Quartet, Memphis Symphony Orchestra
Performance Date.......................................Varied 2004-2007
Venue.................Benedict Music Tent, Harris Hall, Canon Center, GPAC,
.......................................................1st Congo Church
Track Artist Name
1 MSO
2 AACA 2004
3 AACA 2004
4 AACA 2004
5 AACA 2004
6 Sinfonia
7 Sinfonia
8 MSO
9 AACA 2004
10 Ying Quartet
11 MSO
12 AACA 2004
13 Feltsman
14 Ying
15 Ying
16 Feltsman
17 AACA
18 AACA
19 Sinfonia
20 Sinfonia
21 AACA
22 AACA
23 AACA
24 AACA
1st CONGO XY
XY90
XY110
Decca Stereo Mix
Coles 4038
Mains ortf
Mozart
Canon Center ORTF
KM 140 ORTF
ORTF Mains
Spaced Omni
Decca Tree
Add Flanks
Add Flanks
Add Main Pair
Add Flanks Liszt
Add Flanks Prelude
Add Flanks Vivace
Add Flanks
Add Wind Pair
Add Wind Pair
Add Harp Spot
Add Bass Spot
Add Percussion Spot
53


Disk
2
Artist:.................American Academy of Conducting Orchestra at Aspen
Performance Date............................................July 10, 2007
Venue.................................................Benedict Music Tent
Track
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Composer Piece/Movement
Respighi Gli ucelli (The Birds) (1928)
Prelude
The Dove
The Hen
The Nightingale
The Cuckoo
Koussevitzky Bass Concerto in F-Sharp minor, op.3
(before 1905)
Allegro
Andante
Allegro
Mendelssohn Symphony No. 4 in A major, op. 90
Italian
Allegro vivace
Andante con moto
Con Moto Moderato
Saltarello: Presto
54


Disk ...................................................................3
Artist:.............................................Brentano String Quartet
Members..........................Mark Steinberg, violin; Serena Canin, violin;
...................................Misha Amory, viola; Nina Maria Lee, cello
Performance Date.............................................July 11,2007
Venue...................................................Harris Concert Hall
Track
1
2
3
4
Composer Piece/Movement
Monteverdi/ Four Madrigals, Book VI (1614/2007)
Mark Steinberg
Lasciatemi morire
Ohime il bel viso
Ditelo voi
Zefiro torna
5
Sessions Canons to the Memory of Igor
Stravinsky (1971)
Bartok
6
7
8
9
String Quartet No. 6, BB 119 (1939)
Mesto-Vivace
Mesto-Marcia
Mesto-Burletta:Moderato
Mesto
Brahms
10
11
12
13
14
String Quartet in C minor, op.51, no. 1
(1865-73)
Allegro
Romanze: Poco adagio
Allegretto mo;to moderato
e comodo
Allegro
55


Disk
4
Artist:..........
Members..........
Performance Date
Venue............
............Sinfonia
....Aspen Sinfonia
....August 1,2007
Benedict Music Tent
Track
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Composer Piece/Movement
Mozart Symphony No. 39 in E-flat major
K. 543 (1788)
Adagio
Andante con moto
Menuetto
Finale: Allegro
Mendelssohn Symphony No. 4 in A major,
Op. 90, Italian (1833)
Allegro vivace
Andante con moto
Con moto moderato
Saltarello Presto
56


Disk ......................................................................5
Concert:................................Special Event with Vladamir Feltsman
Players........Vladamir Feltsman; Alexander Kerr, violin; Cornelia Heard, violin;
.....................................Masao Kawasaki, viola; Jaehee Ju, cello
Performance Date...............................................July 07, 2007
Venue....................................................Harris Concert Hall
Track Composer Piece/Movement
Liszt Tre sonetti di Petrarca, LW A55/4-6 (1838-61)
1 Sonetto 47
Sonetto 104
Soneto No. 123
Wagner/Silvestrov
Postludia (1882/2001)
2 Schnittke Piano Quintet (1976)
Moderato
In Tempo di Valse
Andante
Lento
Moderato pastorale
3 Silvestrov Messenger (1996)
57


BIBLIOGRAPHY
Burnham, Robert, Colorado Symphony. Interview by Fallon Stillman. Denver,
CO, 2007.
The Canon Center for the Performing Arts, http://www.thecannoncenter.com/. 2007.
Earthworks Precision Audio, http://www.earthworksaudio.com. 2007.
Huber, David Miles. Modern Recording Techniques (5th ed.). Boston: Focal
Press, 1997.
Larkin, Chris, Memphis Symphony. Interview by Fallon Stillman. Denver, CO, 2007.
Neumann USA. http://www.neumannusa.com/. 2007.
Rimsky-Korsakov. 2004, Sheherazade, op.35 [Recorded by Ron Streicher and ESARI 2004],
On Grand Mic Experiment 2004 [CD]. Aspen, AMFS. (2004).
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