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Colorado Station Area framework plan

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Title:
Colorado Station Area framework plan
Creator:
Community Planning and Development, City and County of Denver
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
City and County of Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

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Subjects / Keywords:
Public transit
Light rail

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Auraria Library
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Auraria Library
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Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
CONTENTS
Executive Summary..................................2
Introduction.......................................4
Guiding Principles................................11
Site Area Description and
Existing Station Area Conditions..................16
Real Estate Market Conditions.....................25
Travel Demand Management..........................34
implementation Strategies.........................36
Appendices
41


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
In response to the anticipated Light Rail Station at 1-25 and South Colorado Boulevard,
the City and County of Denver initiated the Colorado Station Area Framework Plan.
The purpose of this plan is to guide redevelopment in a manner consistent with the
Denver Comprehensive Plan, Blueprint Denver, neighborhood objectives and principles
of transit-oriented development. Opportunities identified through the public process and
techniques for implementation are addressed in the Guiding Principles through potential
land uses, urban design, economic sttategies and ttavel demand management techniques.
The goal of this plan is to create a successful Transit Oriented Development (TOD), in the
shou and long-term, that provides mixed-use development with multi-modal access to
maximize ttansit ridership at the Colorado light rail station.
This plan documents community desires obtained through stakeholder group meetings,
and describes opportunities and consttaints affecting the Colorado Station and
surrounding neighborhoods. By addressing desired effects and potential outcomes, the
study proposes a general set of Guiding Principles, which convey the community's vision.
These Guiding Principles have been developed through a community process that
identified major goals for the ultimate development plan. The Guiding Principles address
physical and economic improvements, open space enhancements with improved access,
bicycle connections and pedesttian connections. The Guiding Principles represent a tool
that can be utilized by both developers and City staff to realize and guide future
development at the Colorado Station.
Colorado Center Drive, East Evans Avenue, 1-25 and South Colorado Boulevard encase
the primary study area on the north, south, east and west, respectively. This site will be
defined as the "wedge" in future discussions.
2


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
The basic goals of the Guiding Principles are defined below: Development/Redevelopment: Create a mixed-use development for the area within the "wedge" and directly adjacent to it, which emphasizes residential uses and provides enough density to promote a high level of transit ridership for people who may live or work near the station. Transportation Autos: Create a balance between density and traffic impact on streets surrounding the station area and develop a network of streets inside the wedge, which promotes multiple access locations for vehicles. Transportation Transit: Provide a convenient alternative to driving to the station by encouraging transit, which serves the surrounding neighborhoods. Transportation Bikes & Pedestrians: Create safe and direct pedestrian and bicycle systems connecting the station to adjoining districts, neighborhoods, and transit parking, as provided by the City's pedestrian and bicycle plans. Parking: Develop a shared parking solution, which serves both development and transit and minimizes impacts to the surrounding neighborhoods. Travel Demand Management (TDM): Utilize travel demand management measures to reduce single occupant automobile demand related to development near the station. Development Tools: Planning, zoning and innovative partnerships are proposed as incentives to initiate station area development that reflects the Guiding Principles. The purpose for their inclusion is to expose property owners and developers to the array of alternatives that may aid in the successful development at the Colorado Station. Topics discussed include adjusting zoning around light rail stations to promote desirable development, regulatory incentives, and public/private partnership opportunities.
3


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
INTRODUCTION
Background on the Light Rail Station Development Program
Through Denver's Comprehensive Plan adopted in 1989 and updated in 2000, a regional
rapid transit system was identified as the primary form of transportation to address the
mobility needs of the city, while at the same time offering the greatest benefit and
protection for Denver neighborhoods. Development of a regional system was also viewed
as a unique opportunity to promote higher density, mixed-use development patterns
around rapid transit corridors and stations. Higher density is desirable in this situation to
promote higher transit ridership and reduce reliance on cars.
Following the opening of the Central Corridor in 1994 (the region's first light rail
corridor), the City established the Light Rail Station Development Program to encourage
compact, mixed-use development around existing and future light rail stations within the
City and County of Denver. Initial planning efforts focused on the Welton Street Corridor
Stations and the 1-25/ Broadway Station. The ongoing construction of the Southeast light
rail line has shifted the program's focus to the Southeast Corridor (SEC) along 1-25
between Broadway and the Denver city limits (Belleview Avenue). The initial assessment
of development opportunities in the corridor (Southeast Corridor Light Rail Station
Development Program- October 1999) identified the Colorado/I-25 station as a high
priority for development of a station area framework plan.
Transit-Oriented
Development (TOD)
As a result of increasing demand for transit, planners, developers and municipalities have
focused their attention on TOD. TOD creates a transit-supportive environment by
encouraging a land use mix that allows people to live, work and enjoy entertainment
without having to use their car. Its intent is to promote high-quality transit, bike, and
pedestrian connections while encouraging a compact, higher density mixed-use
development pattern. TOD potential and configuration is unique to every situation, and
needs to be tailored to fit the needs and goals of the City, local neighborhoods and
businesses in the area. Ultimately, it is a strategy to preserve the mobility and livability of
a region as it grows. A successful TOD links multi-modal station access by encouraging
pedestrian, bicycle, and public transportation connections to the site. Good pedestrian
access and circulation is a fundamental strategy for successful TOD areas, especially with
the increased density and mix of uses. One-quarter to one-third of a mile is considered to
be an acceptable walking distance for those who use the light rail.
The Denver Comprehensive Plan 2000 calls for TOD around the proposed light rail transit
stations in Denver. The Denver Comprehensive Plan states "Transit Oriented
Development concentrates an attractive mix of housing, retail, entertainment and
commercial development near transit stops. This enables residents to live, shop and
socialize in their immediate neighborhoods while having nearby transit access to distant
4


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
urban centers." The Denver Comprehensive Plan instructs staff to "Determine the
potential for transit-oriented development at public transit stations, and encourage such
opportunities whenever possible" (Mobility Chapter, Strategy 3-B). In addition, the
Comprehensive Plan states "Promote transit oriented development (TOD) as an urban
design framework for urban centers and development areas. Development at transit
stations should provide both high ridership to the transit system and viability and
walkability in the area" (Mobility Chapter, Strategy 5-D). Abiding by the Denver
Comprehensive Plan, the Denver Station Area Planning Program uses concepts related to
TOD as the urban design framework for development in and around the Colorado
Station. The Denver Station Area Planning Program identifies what neighborhoods,
property owners and developers can do to prepare for new development around
stations to insure quality TOD projects. A successful TOD responds to community
wishes and concerns.
Blueprint Denver Concepts
On March 4, 2002, the City Council adopted Blueprint Denver: An Integrated Land Use
and Transportation Plan as a supplement to the Denver Comprehensive Plan 2000. The
planning process for Blueprint Denver resulted in a new vision for Denver through the
year 2020. Two key concepts are a part of the citywide vision "Areas of Change" and
"Areas of Stability".
The Plan's key premise to achieve the vision is that growth should be directed to Areas of
Change, and the character of neighborhoods in Areas of Stability should be preserved and
enhanced. Blueprint Denver designated a number of areas adjacent to existing or future
rail stations and other permanent transit facilities as "Areas of Change."
The Colorado Station Area is identified as one such Area of Change. Surrounding the
light rail station area are Areas of Stability primarily residential areas to the south and
west of the Colorado Station.
Blueprint Denver also identified key regulatory components to create attractive,
pedestrian-friendly communities in these TOD Areas of Change including:
> adequate intensity, arrangement, and mix of uses to encourage transit ridership and
support adjacent land uses;
> reduced parking requirements;
> flexible shared parking; and
> design standards and guidelines
Denver's existing mixed-use zoning districts RMU (residential mixed use) and CMU
(commercial mixed-use) established a framework to encourage a compact mix of land
uses. In order to encourage desired development in these TOD Areas of Change, a new
transit mixed-use zone district (TMU) was established as part of Denver's Zoning
Ordinance.
5


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
Arvada
LINCOLN
Figure 1- Southeast Corridor Light Rail Line and Stations
6


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
Figure 2- Perspective of Colorado Light Rail Station showing station and surface parking in
cut section designed by SEC- (Source SEC Project)
Figure 3- Aerial Plan View of Colorado Light Rail Station
as designed by the SEC (Source SEC Project)
7


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
The zone district allowing the most
intensity and density TMU-30 was
adopted by City Council on November 4,
2002. Establishment of at least one
additional transit mixed-use district (TMU-
20) is currently being considered. The
TMU-20 zone district will allow lower
density and fewer land use types than the
TMU-30 zone. TMU-30 will be applied to
sites twelve acres or larger. A less intense
mix of land uses than permitted under the
TMU-30 zone district is desired at the
Colorado station, to minimize the impact
of additional traffic on already congested
roadways and intersections.
Southeast corridor Project
The Colorado Department of
Transportation (CDOT) and the Regional
Transportation District (RTD) are
scheduled to construct 19 miles of Light
Rail Transit (LRT) and improve over 16
miles of two interstate highways (1-25 and
1-225) referred to as the Southeast Corridor
(SEC). The SEC LRT line will connect to
the Central Corridor LRT line in downtown
Denver; as well as allow connections to the
Southwest Corridor LRT line, providing
service to Englewood and Littleton; and the
Central Platte Valley LRT (CPV) providing
service to the Denver Union Station
(DUS). The SEC LRT line will include
thirteen new stations. Construction will be
completed by the year 2006. The SEC
project parallels 1-25 from Broadway in
Denver to Lincoln Avenue in Douglas
County. Ligure 1 illustrates the proposed
SEC project LRT alignment and thirteen
proposed stations
As part of the SEC project, a LRT platform
and Park-n-Ride have been designed for
the Colorado Station location. The SEC
project is acquiring two land parcels
adjacent to the proposed Colorado Station
for construction of 363 surface parking
spaces. The number 363 was developed
by RTD and DRCOG through ridership
planning and parking demand projections,
figures 2 and 3 shown on page 7 illustrate
the SEC project design for the Colorado
Station. The present plan for construction
under the SEC contract is to utilize land
adjacent to the LRT platform for surface
parking. The Colorado Station Area
Framework Plan has identified
opportunities for TOD that benefit the
adjacent neighborhoods, extend ridership,
and improve access to the LRT system. In
order to realize TOD at the Colorado
Station, alternative site configurations may
need to be considered. Assumptions
fundamental to the plan include joint
development and joint parking strategies -
utilizing the RTD surface parking area to
attain desirable densities, mix of land uses
and convenient station access. The
Colorado Station presents an opportunity
to bring uses adjacent to the platform with
a shared-use parking concept to meet
redevelopment goals stated in the Denver
Comprehensive Plan 2000. The Colorado
Station Area Framework Plan evaluated
adjacent parcels to the LRT platform
location and identified a mix of land uses
to create a transit-supportive environment.
Purpose of the Colorado Station
Area Framework Plan
The purpose of this plan is to guide
redevelopment in a manner consistent
with the Denver Comprehensive Plan,
Blueprint Denver, neighborhood objectives
and principles of transit-oriented
development. This plan identifies
opportunities associated with the proposed
Colorado Station, and ways to realize
development through public and private
initiatives. Opportunities including
enhanced connections to neighborhoods
8


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
and other destinations, investment in
redevelopment, enhanced architecture, and
related right of way improvements have
been identified as key priorities. To guide
future development a series of Guiding
Principles has been developed for
adoption into the Denver Comprehensive
Plan. The Guiding Principles provide City
staff, RTD, property owners and developers
with clear guidelines to develop and/or
evaluate specific development proposals
for the area around the Colorado Station.
The Guiding Principles address land use
type and density, urban design,
transportation management access, and
parking. The Guiding Principles are
detailed in the next chapter.
Public Participation
Initiating an effort such as this required the
input and participation of many different
interest groups at several levels. The
project team relied upon the existing City
and County of Denver's Light Rail Program
Management Committee to provide
technical direction and planning
recommendations to the design team.
Additionally, a stakeholder group was
formed to represent the communities
adjacent to the Colorado Light Rail Station.
City Council recommended specific
individuals represent neighborhood,
business, and property owner's interests
by participating in the stakeholder group.
This group met monthly for over two
years, exchanging information and ideas.
The stakeholders acted as ambassadors of
information for their constituents and to
the surrounding community.
During the course of numerous
stakeholder meetings, the design team met
with the stakeholder group to present their
progress, as well as document and
incorporate the stakeholder feedback. At
each meeting, the design team presented a
new topic. Neighborhood residents,
property owners and business interests had
the opportunity to discuss their own
concerns and 'wish lists' To reach a larger
audience, the design team hosted two
public open houses during the stakeholder
planning process. In September of the year
2000, the first open house displayed
compilations of existing conditions -
including a review of the current SEC
plans, stakeholder comments, planning
and land use information and general
goals as stated by the stakeholders. A
second open house, held in mid-
November of the year 2000, presented the
design process from initial investigations
through the conceptual planning, and
highlighted the Guiding Principles.
The stakeholder meetings initially focused
on background information presented by
the design team. The last three meetings
consisted of conceptual planning exercises
guided by the stakeholder's comments.
Throughout this process, the design team
documented the stakeholder's feedback
and posted the feedback list during each
meeting. With this format, stakeholders
were able to review what had been
discussed and add to the list. Rather than
preparing a specific conceptual plan for
development, a physical plan was prepared
to help the design team test a series of
Guiding Principles for development. These
Guiding Principles capture the essence of
input and feedback from City staff and
stakeholder members. The Guiding
Principles prescribe goals that
development should incorporate. (The
Guiding Principles can be found in the
following chapter)
9


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
1. Technical Analysis The design team
collected information about land use,
zoning, neighborhood plans, area
destinations, potential build out,
pedestrian access, bus routes and bike
routes. This information was presented to
the stakeholder group for feedback.
Project
Initiation
2. Develop Conceptual Guiding
Principles A base set of Guiding
Principles was developed using the results
of the technical analysis, as well as
stakeholder and public input. These
Guiding Principles addressed critical issues
identified by the stakeholders and the
public, including traffic congestion, the
Develop
Conceptual
Guiding
Principles
Stakeholders
Committee
0
Develop Station *
Area Framework
Plan City Council
---------------- Adoption
Figure 4- Project Process
type and intensity of land use, and parking.
Utilizing this set of Guiding Principles, the
design team developed a series of
alternative development concepts to test
the viability of the Guiding Principles.
These development concepts were
presented to the stakeholder group to
obtain their feedback and refine the
Guiding Principles.
3. Develop Station Area Framework Plan
(Refined Set of Guiding Principles)
The design team, together with the
stakeholder group, finalized a set of
Guiding Principles in order that critical
goals and issues of the Colorado Station
Area Planning effort be maintained. The
Guiding Principles were developed to allow
for flexibility in implementation. The
Guiding Principles will serve as the
Colorado Station Area Framework Plan.
Figure 4 tracks the process utilized for
engaging stakeholders while gaining input
horn City staff. The theme of this effort
maximizes input in an interactive process.
The three tasks outline critical steps in
analyzing, developing and evaluating
potential alternatives. The SEC design
team provided input and assistance with
this partnering approach.
10


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
GUIDING
PRINCIPLES
Overview
The Guiding Principles provide City staff,
property owners, community residents and
developers with clear guidelines to develop
and/or evaluate specific development
proposals for the area around the
Colorado Station. The Guiding Principles
address issues critical to development
including: the type and intensity of land
use desired, transportation issues (auto,
bike, transit, and pedestrian), parking for
development and transit users, and
urban design.
These Guiding Principles were developed
from public and stakeholder group input.
The Guiding Principles are intended to
achieve the goals of transit-oriented
development.
The development of Guiding Principles
occurred in an iterative process. A number
of basic principles were derived from
stakeholder input, input from public open
houses, and the existing conditions and
market analyses documented in the plan.
These principles were used to create
conceptual development alternatives. After
receiving feedback from the stakeholder
group on the conceptual alternatives, a
refined set of Guiding Principles was
developed and used to formulate two
illustrative scenarios, which are discussed
in detail in the Technical Appendix.
The two development scenarios displayed
in the Technical Appendix present
potential development patterns -
assuming the Guiding Principles are
followed. These scenarios show alternative
physical solutions for development, and
are not intended to show a specific
development program that must be
followed by a property owner or developer.
Description of the
Guiding Principles
The Guiding Principles are separated into
categories: development/redevelopment;
and transportation including
automobiles, mass transit, bicycles and
pedestrians, and parking. For each
category, a basic goal is first described and
then a series of objectives are listed.
Development/ Redevelopment
Basic Goal:
To create a mixed-use development for
the area within and immediately adjacent
to the "wedge" that emphasizes
residential uses and provides enough
density to promote a high level of transit
ridership for people who may live or
work near the station.
Objectives:
> Attain an appropriate mix of
residential, office and retail uses that
make sense economically, and provide
transit-supporting densities.
> Ensure that the scale and design of
development (height, density, bulk,
intensity, and architecture) is
compatible with adjacent, established
neighborhoods.
> Provide retail development, which
includes desired services that reduce
off-site trips made by Colorado Station
Area residents and employees.
> Balance residential development with
commercial uses to distribute traffic
impacts and reduce parking
requirements.


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
> Focus retail development on
convenience retail, personal
services, residential support retail,
and restaurants, rather than
destination retail.
> Provide a system of plazas and
comfortable pedestrian-oriented
streets in support of the mixed-use
neighborhood. Orient residences and
active uses toward the open spaces and
streets to create safe environments.
> Provide enough revenue generating
density in the "wedge" to justify
structured parking.
> Employ Design Guidelines and/or
Zone Designations that assist TOD,
overall site design, and architecture.
> Create a Place or series of Places within
the "wedge" focused on or directly
leading to the station.
> Encourage off-"wedge" redevelopment
in support of the station.
> Redevelop the Super Block south of
East Evans Avenue between South
Colorado Boulevard, South Ash Street,
and East Warren Avenue to support the
ridership at the station.
> Encourage the continued presence of
existing business which support the
overall goal of revitalization, and
which support the economic success
of the area as an urban mixed-use,
TOD development.
> Encourage residential development,
appropriately scaled to the
neighborhood, at the terminus of the
proposed pedestrian bridge north of
1-25. Discourage transit-related
parking at this location.
> Future development at the Colorado
Station should prioritize views, open
space, and pedestrian systems oriented
toward the station.
> Encourage phasing that creates transit
ridership within the "wedge" as early
as possible in the redevelopment
process.
> Encourage redevelopment east of 1-25
adjoining South Dahlia Street, both
north and south of East Evans Avenue.
> Encourage redevelopment to utilize the
air rights over the light rail station, and
to generally improve the below grade
character of the station by stepping
back the retaining walls and
introducing active uses at or near the
train level.
12


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
Transportation-Autos
Basic Goal:
Create a balance between density and traffic congestion on streets surrounding the station area, and develop a network of
streets inside the wedge that promote alternative access locations for vehicles and pedestrians.
Objectives:
> Ensure development within the study area is sensitive to additional vehicular traffic impacts to Buchtel Boulevard and
the surrounding neighborhoods west and south of the Colorado Station Area.
> Minimize traffic impacts to South Colorado Boulevard and East Evans Avenue by balancing density with the capacity
limitations of the adjoining arterial streets and intersections, and by minimizing curb cuts.
> Avoid overloading the South Birch Street and East Evans Avenue intersection with development-generated traffic.
> Implement a travel demand management plan that reduces the reliance on parking and single-occupant vehicles, in
order to permit a wider range of development size and type.
> Consider parking ratio reductions consistent with the 25% (twenty-five percent) reduction allowed under the current
mixed-use zone disttict for any development within a quarter mile of the light rail station. The table below illusttates
typical zoning parking ratios and mixed-use zoning parking ratios for areas within a quarter mile of a light rail station.
However, reductions in parking should be considered within the context of shared-use parking in the area.
Land Use
Residential
Commercial
Office
Typical Parking Ratio
1.5 spaces per unit
5 spaces per 1000 sf ft
4 spaces per 1000 sf ft
Parking ratios @ mass transit locations
1.13 spaces per unit
3.75 spaces per 1000 sf ft
3 spaces per 1000 sf ft
t Require new land developments to include mitigation of ttaffic and parking which include multi-modal access, access
management, and TDM sttategies.
* Under the mixed-use zone disttict, any reductions in the parking requirements are at the discretion of the Zoning
Administrator who must consider the issues involved in each situation.
Transportation-Transit
Basic Goal:
Create a convenient alternative to driving to the station by encouraging transit that serves the surrounding neighborhoods.
Objectives:
> Develop a timed-transfer center at the Colorado Station.
> Integrate the schedules of connecting routes (light rail; local bus routes 21, 40, 52; B-Line; circulator; and regional
service D) to improve service.
> Improve bus service frequency to attract more riders
> Provide an off-street mass-transit center to facilitate transfers, enhance pedestrian safety, minimize ttaffic interference,
and increase design flexibility.
> Enhance local pedestrian and bicycle facilities to improve safety and access to the station.
13


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
> Develop a drculator bus that will
service the University, Warren's
University, Virginia Village, Cory
Merrill and University Park
neighborhoods and provide
convenient service to the Colorado
Light Rail Station, without the use of
private vehicles.
Transportation-Bikes & Pedestrian
Basic Goal:
Create safe and direct pedestrian and
bicycle systems connecting the station to
adjoining districts, neighborhoods, and
transit parking consistent with Denver's
pedestrian and bicycle plans.
Objectives:
> Improve sidewalks located within the
transition area as development occurs
over time.
> Retain South Steele Street and South
Dahlia Street as primary pedestrian/
bikeway corridors.
> Ensure that pedestrian connections
adequately serve the prevailing and
preferred walking trips for each
connection.
> Ensure that sidewalk improvements are
made to the South Colorado
Boulevard bridge over 1-25 as part of
the Southeast Corridor project.
> Develop additional pedestrian
improvements to the South Colorado
Boulevard bridge over 1-25 as part of
any future bridge replacement project
consistent with the width of sidewalks
on the bridges being replaced as part of
the Southeast Corridor project within
the Narrows (South Broadway to South
University Boulevard).
> Work to create another pedestrian
connection (in addition to South Birch
Street) across East Evans Avenue, south
to Warren's Statistical Neighborhood,
either by an at-grade pedestrian
crossing with a pedestrian-activated
signal, or a grade-separated crossing.
> Ensure that future transportation
improvements are consistent with
Denver's pedestrian and bicycle plans'
goals, principles, design, and routing.
> Work to create a grade-separated
crossing, west over South Colorado
Boulevard in the vicinity of the South
Colorado Boulevard/Buchtel Boulevard
intersection.
> Consider a grade-separated crossing
over 1-25 north to the Virginia Village
Statistical Neighborhood.
> Provide a more direct and comfortable
pedestrian crossing over 1-25 along the
old railroad alignment to the station
from proposed transit parking at South
Dahlia Street and East Evans Avenue.
14


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
Parking
Basic Goal:
Parking should serve both development
and transit by placing a priority on the
implementation of shared parking
alternatives, which minimize impacts on
the surrounding neighborhoods.
RTD has designated 363 surface parking
spaces adjacent to the station platform
in the "wedge". RTD will work to
incorporate private parking and transit
parking in shared parking structures, as
development proposals are submitted.
Over time, as the commuter parking
needs expand, additional parking may
be added within the service area of the
station platform. RTD may initiate
parking fees for the transit parking
facilities to encourage other modes
of travel. Flexibility will be required
to achieve adequate parking for
transit riders.
Objectives:
> Promote shared parking opportunities
that maximize parking efficiency.
> Encourage the use of parking
management strategies to reduce
vehicular impacts.
> Mitigate and manage the traffic burden
on the East Evans Avenue and South
Birch Street intersection.
> Focus on providing shared-use/transit
parking east of 1-25 at South Dahlia
Street, and at remote or satellite
locations served by neighborhood-
circulating busses.
> Provide adequate parking for
transit users.
> If necessary, encourage the
implementation of the restricted
parking program in order to prevent
light-rail commuters from parking in
the surrounding neighborhoods.
Transportation Demand
Management
Basic Goal:
Utilize travel demand management (TDM)
measures to reduce single occupant
automobile demand for development near
the station, and maximize access to the
station by transit users.
Objectives:
> Work with existing businesses in the
area to implement travel demand
management measures prior to the
opening of the light rail station. The
TDM measures utilized should be
consistent with those measures
described in Option One in Chapter 6,
the TDM element.
i Develop a more extensive TDM
program for the "wedge" area as new
development takes place. The more
extensive TDM program should
include measures consistent with
those described in Option Two the
TDM chapter.
> Coordinate and TDM efforts through
the Transportation Management
Association (TMA) covering the
Colorado Boulevard Station Area.
> Encourage participation by the office
and commercial employers and
property owners in the Colorado
Center area in TDM and TMA
strategies.
15


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
SITE AREA
DESCRIPTION
AND EXISTING
STATION AREA
CONDITIONS
Conditions
Colorado Center Drive, East Evans
Avenue, 1-25 and South Colorado
Boulevard encase the primary study
area on the north, south, east and
west, respectively. This site is defined
as the "wedge".
South Colorado Boulevard and East
Evans Avenue are major arterial roadways
that provide access to the site; however,
congestion on these two roadways and at
their intersections makes access to the
site difficult.
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Figure 5 Site Description of the "Wedge"
The proposed light rail line will be recessed
under South Colorado Boulevard, travel
south of Colorado Center Drive and under
East Evans Avenue, and return to 1-25
south of East Evans Avenue. The platform
will be located south of Colorado Center
Drive, midway between South Birch Street
and South Colorado Boulevard,
approximately two blocks east of South
Colorado Boulevard. The platform will be
recessed below existing grade level, and
stairs and elevators will provide access.
Current land use in the "wedge" consists
of a mix of light industrial, retail, service-
related, and small office uses. The largest
businesses existing during the onset of this
plan are Pier One, Freeway Ford, Public
Storage and Bell Plumbing. The Bell
Plumbing and Pier One properties have
been acquired by RTD and CDOT for LRE
alignment and parking. The existing uses,
generally, are not complementary to a light
rail transit facility. Uses such as residential,
retail, office and entertainment would
present opportunities for higher values
and densities.
Under current zoning, little incentive exists
for creative redevelopment or TOD.
However, current zoning does allow for
more density than currently exists in the
study area. Current zoning alone does not
provide a framework for pedestrian-
friendly, transit-supportive design.
Local Setting/ Character
To fully understand all factors affecting
potential redevelopment at the Colorado
Station, the study area was expanded into
adjacent statistical neighborhoods and
primary circulation areas. This larger study
area was then divided into four focus areas.
The four focus areas are described below
and illustrated in Figure 6.
16


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
t The Wedge: The first and most
concentrated focus area is the "wedge".
The "wedge" is the area that is in
closest proximity to the station and
was determined to be the area with the
most potential for redevelopment. The
"wedge" is approximately 11 acres.
> Station Area: The next focus area is
the "station area". The "station area"
includes the "wedge" and Colorado
Center. It is deemed critical that the
framework plan developed through
this planning process function and
relate to the existing and proposed
development at Colorado Center.
> Access Area: The access area is
important in terms of connections
from local neighborhoods and
commercial areas to the proposed
Colorado Station.
> Transition Area: The fourth focus area
is the "transition area". The "transition
area" was examined for long-term
redevelopment and potential
connections between the Colorado
Station and the surrounding
neighborhoods. The "transition area"
extends approximately 1/2 mile
around the light rail platform.
Q Tho Wodge
Station Area
Access Area
r Transition Area
Platform
Figure 6 Four Focus Areas
Primary Focus aroa for redevelopment
Focus area for redevelopment. includes the "wedge'
TranstLon from Ihe redevelopment area 1o the existing neighborhoods and destinations.
Connections to existing netghlxirhoods and desEnalions/orgins
Future Light Rail Platform
17


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
Study Area
Land uses within the "wedge" today
indude a mix of light industrial services,
retail, local and regional services, auto
service and small offices. Existing
destinations are shown in Figure 7. The
existing development in dose proximity to
South Colorado Boulevard, East Evans
Avenue and 1-25 generates both local and
regional trips to the area. The current
intensity of uses in the "wedge" is below
that allowed by the existing zoning.
Buildings in the "wedge" are typically
made up of single-story buildings with no
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distinct architectural character. The
business development to the north of the
"wedge", the Colorado Center, has a
unified architectural character, which is not
currently present in the "wedge".
Redevelopment in the "wedge" would
present an opportunity for using design
guidelines to establish streetscape and
architectural standards for this area.
Redevelopment should improve the
quality of the architecture, landscaping and
pedestrian connections. It is important
that redevelopment enhances all modes of
access to these areas.
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Figure 7- Destinations surrounding the LRT Station
18


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
Zoning
Under the current zoning, a wide range of
uses are permitted and could allow nearly a
doubling of the existing density.
Zoning within the Station Area
> B-4 General Business District,
B-4 with waivers
t 1-0 Light Industrial/Office District
> B-2 Neighborhood Business District,
B-2 with waivers
> B-l Limited Office District
> R-l Single Unit Detached Dwellings,
Low Density
> Planned Unit Development (PUD)
As a point of illustration, Figure 8 shows a
photo of existing conditions looking west
from 1-25 and Evans Avenue at the
Colorado Station site and Figures 9 and 10
show the potential build-out of this area
with the existing zoning. If development
were to occur today without a station area
plan and subsequent plan implementation,
these densities could be developed with
or without respect to principles of transit-
oriented development.

Mi ."'*1
Figure 8- Existing conditions at Colorado
Blvd.and Evans Avenue (looking N.W.
from 1-25 and Evans Avenue)
Figure 9- Potential "Build- out" allowed
within current zoning looking west from
1-25 and Evans Avenue

Irjrnil
* I Kil-M-W HiiIW-v M4>p
ftilrrlid H-mIIiIIiik
^MlInRhlrr-"
Figure 10- Potential heights allowed under current zoning at Colorado
Boulevard and Evans Avenue
I9


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
Neighborhoods
The proposed station is surrounded by
several statistical neighborhoods.
Neighborhood organizations registered
with the City that represent adjacent
neighborhoods include:
i Cory-Merrill
> East Colorado Avenue
Homeowner's Association
> University Park Community Council
> South Jackson Street
Neighborhood Organization
> Virginia Village/Ellis
Community Association
> Warrens University
Community Council
Neighborhood Composition
The neighborhoods surrounding the
Colorado Station primarily consist of
owner-occupied single-family houses
with a mix of multi-unit residential,
retail, office and industrial uses that line
the major arterials. All adjacent
registered neighborhood organizations
participated in the Colorado Station Area
planning process.

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S
tl
VI raid*
Village
- t
i
£> ?
t
i
I
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Figure 11 Colorado Station Neighborhood Associations
Source- City and County of Denver
20


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
stakeholder issues/Concerns
The monthly meetings with the stakeholder group were interactive workshops where key
concerns and issues were identified. Once these key concerns and issues were identified,
they provided a basis for design development and were incorporated into the Guiding
Principles. The following list represents these key discussion points.
> Questions about East Evans Avenue Widening
> Pedestrian and bicycle access at East Evans Avenue/ South Colorado Boulevard / 1-25
> Traffic / Parking serving retail
> Neighborhood Shuttle Service to the Broadway Station (during LRT Construction)
> Concerned with overspill traffic during construction of LRT
> Noise (LRT Operations)
> Maintain Neighborhood Culture / Character / Scale
> Open space planned in new proposals at station / connections
> Mixed Use / Residential, Retail, Commercial on a neighborhood scale
> Crime / Security / Safety
> Build over LRT trench
> Why not covered station or integrated with architecture
> Minimize physical negatives of trench
> Would like to see more Residential Uses
> Revitalization / Introduction of new businesses
> Existing / Integration of businesses with new plan
> What is the precedent across the country?
> Outcome of consolidating curb cuts re: traffic / circulation
> Comprehensive Planning / No piece meal planning
> Redevelopment of Evans and Colorado Boulevard
> Focus on pedestrian and bicycle access
> Pedestrian Access across 1-25
> One developer / One Comprehensive Plan
> Don't put too much parking for LRT in wedge
21


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
Pedestrian Access
Existing pedestrian access to the proposed
Colorado Station is illustrated in Figure 12.
The sidewalks in neighborhoods proximal
to the station area range from 2 feet to 5
feet in width, have limited handicap access,
and are primarily "attached walks"
constructed adjacent to the curb. As Figure
12 shows, existing pedestrian access to the
station is limited by missing links in the
sidewalk infrastructure and the barriers
posed by the high-volume roadways such
as South Colorado Boulevard and East
Evans Avenue. South Colorado Boulevard,
for example, is wide and carries a very high
volume of traffic (up to 80,000 vehicles
per day). 1-25 is also a major barrier,
effectively limiting access to the Colorado
Station from the north. The very narrow
(2 foot) sidewalk along South Colorado
Boulevard over the 1-25 Interchange,
combined with the on/off ramps exiting
and entering 1-25 in the vicinity, creates a
hostile environment for pedestrian access
to the proposed station. To maximize safe
pedestrian and bicycle circulation, existing
sidewalks need widening, missing links
need connecting, and handicap ramps
need constructing.
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f H *; <-<.- wfoCr^r
22
Figure 12- Existing Pedestrian Access to Proposed Colorado LRT
Station; Source: City and County of Denver


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
Transit Access
Local bus routes that currently serve the
"wedge" area are: 21, 40, 52, 56 and the B-
Line. Regional bus routes that run along
Interstate 25 are the D, P, T, and the W.
Bus Route Destinations
B-Line University Hills, Cherry Creek
(local shuttle)
40 Southmoor, Colorado Boulevard,
University Hills Shopping Center
of stop to origin/destination; availability at
times needed and to destinations; and
amenities at stop and on vehicle." With
this in mind, further coordination with
RTD is necessary in order to provide more
frequency and better neighborhood service.
In order to promote ridership at the
Colorado Station and reduce private
vehicle use, it will be important to provide
enhanced neighborhood access including
local bus circulators, enhanced RTD
services, and safe pedestrian and bicycle
connections.
52 Alameda, Light Rail Station,
Downtown, Old Town Arvada,
University Hills Shopping Center
21 University Boulevard, Highlands
Ranch, Southglenn Mall, York St.
Rerouting of bus service along the
Southeast Corridor is proposed, in order to
provide more frequent and more efficient
service to the Colorado Station Area. Local
and regional routes potentially subject to
rerouting include: The "21", "40", "52",
"B-Line" and regional route "D". RTD
states in RTD Network Design and
Development "Research shows that the
following features are most important to
retaining and attracting customers: on-time
performance; minimal transferring;
frequency of service; travel time; closeness
RTD Bos Route
Major Vehicular Arterial
Park/Open Space
Figure 13 Existing Bus Routes;
Source: Regional Transportation District (RTD)
23


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
Auto Access
The roadway network in the vicinity of the
project is described below:
South Colorado Boulevard
South Colorado Boulevard is a major
north/south six-lane arterial that carries
approximately 4,500 to 6,000 vehicles per
hour (vph) during the existing peak hours.
The current interchange of South Colorado
Boulevard and 1-25 consists of loop ramps
on the northeast and southwest quadrants,
while the northwest quadrant is a typical
on-ramp configuration. A frontage road,
beginning in the southeast quadrant of the
interchange, provides access to 1-25 for
vehicles traveling northbound on South
Colorado Boulevard to southbound 1-25.
East Evans Avenue
East Evans Avenue is a primary east/west
four-lane arterial that carries approximately
2,500 to 3,800 vph during the existing
peak hours. The interchange of East Evans
Avenue and 1-25 is currently a diamond
interchange with traffic signals at the ramp
intersections. In addition to the ramp
intersections, the signalized intersection of
East Evans Avenue with South Dahlia
Street was analyzed.
Buchtel Boulevard
Buchtel Boulevard is a two-lane designated
parkway and bikeway between South
Colorado Boulevard and South University
Boulevard that, until the recent
development of the Colorado Center,
terminated at South Colorado Boulevard.
It has recently been realigned with the
entrance to the Colorado Center at the
intersection of South Colorado Boulevard
and Colorado Center Drive.
South Dahlia Street
South Dahlia Street is the first signalized
intersection east of the East Evans Avenue
and 1-25 interchange. South Dahlia Street
north of East Evans Avenue leads to
residential areas, and is an alternative to
the north side frontage road for access to
East Mexico Avenue and nearby non-
residential uses. It is a two-lane roadway
carrying approximately 600 vph in both
the AM and PM peak hour.
Conclusion
Regardless of the adoption of the
Guiding Principles, further planning,
design, and programming of
transportation improvements needs to be
completed for this area. The mprovement
of bike, pedestrian and bus connections
will help minimize traffic congestion. It
is important to plan development in a
manner that may lessen the traffic impact
that can occur under existing zoning.
Traffic impacts will have to be examined
in greater detail by developers and/or
property owners proposing any new
development in the area. Anyone who is
moving forward with new development
should follow the City's guidelines for
traffic impact studies that are currently
under development. In particular, access
management, bicycle/pedestrian needs,
parking and other improvements to the
area to the west and south of the Wedge
should be detailed, particularly with
additional parking and commercial
development outside the Wedge. A
detailed traffic analysis can be found in
the Technical Appendix.
24


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
REAL ESTATE
MARKET
CONDITIONS
introduction
As part of the planning effort for the
Colorado Station area, an assessment of
market and economic conditions in the
surrounding market area was completed.
This assessment was an integral part of
overall planning, as it provided guidance
where development opportunities may
occur in both the short- (2000 to 2005)
and long-term (2005 to 2010+).
Supplemented with case study research, it
also offered empirical evidence of
development trends with respect to
resident and employment profiles,
preferred real estate product types and
characteristics typical of transit-oriented
development. Armed with this type of
assessment, the City and stakeholder group
could be assured that the land use plan
derived from this process was grounded in
market and economic reality.
Short-Term Regional Outlook
(2000 to 2005)
> The short-term outlook for the
Denver metro area is one of moderate
population growth at a compound
average annual rate of less than
2.0 percent.
> Household incomes and wealth are
expected to increase above 2000 levels
when the median household income
was $54,297 and median household
wealth was $80,785.
> Metto employment is expected to rise
by approximately 3.0 percent annually
(according to the Colorado
Department of Employment baseline
employment estimate) between year
2000 and 2010.
> Sttongest employment gains,
historically, have been realized within
the construction, advanced technology,
retail, services, communications and
tourism sectors. The service sector
remains the Denver metto area's largest
sector, employing more than 30
percent of the workforce.
> Among the fastest growing service
industties are: Information retrieval,
mutual funds, data processing &
networks, professional computer
services, CAD/CAM/CAE software,
space commerce, management
consulting, securities, cable TV and
financial services. The fastest growing
manufacturing industries include:
Printed circuit boards, space vehicle
equipment, semi-conductors and
related devices, radio <& TV
communications equipment, and
telecommunications equipment.
> Strongest occupational gains have
been in the managerial, professional,
technical and clerical sectors
indicating the created jobs have
tended toward living wage jobs in the
service sector rather than lower wage
service labor jobs.
> New jobs added in the City & County
of Denver in 1999 exceeded 10,000
with growth concenttated in the area
around DIA, the Denver Technology
Center and Downtown. The Southeast
Corridor LRT will connect the two
major front-range employment centers
- the Denver Technology Center and
Downtown Denver.
25


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
Mid-Term Regional Outlook
(2005 to 2010+)
> Metro-wide population estimates area
forecasted to rise while household size
is forecasted to drop approaching 2.0
by 2015.
> Metro employment (excluding
Boulder) is projected to grow by an
average of between 35,000 and
40,000 jobs annually over the later
part of the decade.
> Manufacturing jobs will decline further
as a percent of employment. This does
not indicate that manufacturing will
cease to be part of the economy, but
rather that the number of people
required to participate directly in
production is falling. The metro area
is projected to gain higher-tech and
value-added manufacturing while
more traditional resource- based
processing is expected to decline.
> Occupational gains will be highest in
the managerial, professional and
technical occupations, with the highest
gains in the service industries.
> The new light rail project will allow
easy linkage between suburban sub-
centers in the southeast light rail
corridor and Downtown Denver.
Market Analysis by Land use Type
Overall Market Opportunities and
Constraints
The first step in the market analysis of
various land use types was to set the
market context for both historical and
future development growth in the Denver
metropolitan area, Denver County and
ultimately, the Colorado Station Area. As
presented earlier, there are four focus areas
around the station area of influence
including the wedge, station area,
transition area and access area. Each was
considered for the purpose of projecting
future land uses. Factors posing
opportunities and constraints within this
market context were then identified and
used to form the foundation of
development projections. These
factors include:
> Construction of the Southeast line
began during the summer of 2001. The
number and type of projects entering
the market prior to completion of the
light rail line and station will influence
conclusions presented herein.
Identified opportunities reflect the
timing of demand, which occurs by
land use during the speculation period
(prior to completion of the station), as
well as during the period following
development of the line. Actual square
feet of space by use will depend on
current market demand, availability
and condition of supply, availability of
vacant and under-utilized properties
(potential for assemblages), and the
availability of financing and incentives.
> New trends show buyers of existing
homes locating closer to urban
employment centers and in
traditionally more affordable
neighborhoods to avoid traffic
congestion. Recent opportunities have
been somewhat limited for buyers in
these sectors as the number of homes
in the resale market has declined in
recent years and prices have increased.
26


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
> With continued growth in the
Southeast Suburban office market in
developments such as the Denver
Technology Center (DTC), Inverness,
Meridian and Greenwood Plaza, the
Colorado Station Area offers one of the
few remaining infill opportunities for
commercial development connected to
downtown by light rail.
> Retail in the vicinity of Colorado
Station is currently representative of
two principal categories- big box and
entertainment, both destination-
oriented. With the inttoduction of
light rail, the area's ability to
accommodate a growing destination
population will be improved.
Similarly, opportunities for
neighborhood services increase.
Residential Market Outlook
(2000 to 2010+)
Historical Development
> The flow of individuals with higher
incomes to the area, from other paUs
of the state and country, has continued
to impact residential markets
throughout the metro area, resulting
in increases in both new and existing
home sales. The move-up residential
market continues to be the most active
segment.
> During the period from 1998-1999,
construction of single-family homes
increased approximately 10 percent,
while construction of townhomes
and condominiums increased
approximately 36 percent. Housing
prices in all segments also continued
to rise, with average home prices
increasing nine percent to over
$210,000.
> During the last half of the 1990's,
average monthly rents in Denver
(City/County) increased at an annual
rate of 5 percent. Comparatively, the
metto-wide average monthly rent
increased by 3.5 percent. Much of the
City's increase was reflective of the
ttansformation of remodeled lofts and
apartments in Downtown Denver -
commanding above market rents.
> The result of rising rents and
diminished supply in lower rent ranges
has been a tightening throughout the
City and particularly in the Denver
South Centtal sub-market (which
includes the Colorado Station Area),
which finished 1999 at a 2.2 percent
vacancy rate. Overall vacancy rates
within this sub-market declined nearly
every year since 1994, while the overall
City of Denver vacancy rate increased
slightly or remained stable.
> Colorado Station (including the areas
of influence) maintains nearly 1,000
housing units. Based on the current
zoning, there is a build-out potential for
more than approximately 1,800 units.
Future Development
> Between 2000 and 2005 Denver is
expected to experience conservative
growth of approximately 10,000
households with the household size
dropping from 2.16 to 2.15. This
household formation size is expected
to drop further by 2015 to 2.0 persons
per household with an even lower
estimate within light rail areas.
> Employment ttends indicate that high
proportions of new employees will be
managerial, professional, technical and
clerical indicating that the new
households will likely have above
average incomes, characteristics
consistent with the profile of typical
station area neighborhood residents.
27


Full Text
THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
t Given a new household formation size
of 2.0 or less (no children) and higher
disposable income, future households
will pay more for less space. The value
in housing units will be driven by its
surrounding amenity package
including neighborhood services,
convenience, and access.
> Demand within the four focus areas of
the Colorado Station Area is projected
to total approximately 1,900 to 2,500
units over the next 20 years, or
approximately 5 percent of total
market share.
> The success of residential and office
products at Colorado Station will be
closely tied to the accuracy with
which developers analyze the profile
of employees and residents along the
line and match products to meet
their needs.
Office Commercial Market
Outlook (2000 to 2010+)
Historical Development
> Current office space in the South
Colorado Boulevard/ Cherry Creek
sub-market, that market which
encompasses the Colorado Station
Area, totals approximately 10 million
square feet with 755,200 square feet
vacant space. Class A office space is
listed at $22-$26 per square feet-
falling in the middle of the region-
wide average rate.
> The strongest suburban market in the
metro area continues to be the
Southeast Suburban sector, which
added 846,000 square feet of new
space in the first half of 1999 alone.
Class A space in the Southeast
Suburban sector leads the market,
accounting for all new construction
and most of the absorption. This
submarket, the second largest in the
Denver Metropolitan Area, comprises
the southeast 1-25 Corridor including
Colorado Station. Other major office
developments along the 1-25 corridor
include the Greenwood Plaza,
Inverness Business Park, and Meridian
Office Park.
> The Colorado Station Area (including
the areas of influence) maintains more
than 2.5 million square feet of
commercial space. Based on the
current zoning, there is a build-out
potential for more than 4.5 million
square feet.
Future Development
> Demand for new office space is derived
from three principal sources: expansion
of existing industry, relocation of new
companies into the market, and creation
of new firms. The first two factors are
addressed through an analysis of
employment projections by including a
factor for self-employed individuals; a
sector historically not recorded in state-
based employment calculations.
Additionally, an adjustment is made for
turnover to account for the movement
of exiting tenants into new buildings, to
arrive at total annual demand for office
square footage.
i Growth in employment in Denver will
create a need for approximately 1.5 to
2.0 million square feet of space
(speculative and build-to-suit) per year
over the near- to mid-term. Overall
demand for office space will continue
to be driven by existing local business
expansions and new market entrants
in growing industries.
> The primary driver of demand for
office space over the near- and mid-
term will be managerial, technical and
professional occupations in the
28


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
Service, FIRE (Finance, Insurance, Real
Estate) and Government sectors.
> Space needs in the service/institutional
category covers service, managerial,
professional and technical space for
health services, as well as all non-
health service employees. As discussed
earlier, those occupations
representative of residents who
frequently prefer housing choices that
offer the added convenience provided
within station area developments.
> Demand within the influence areas of
Colorado Station is projected to total
1.0 to 1.8 million square feet over the
next 20 year, representing less than 6
percent of market share, limited only
by space available for development
and redevelopment.
> The success of office and residential
products at Colorado Station will be
closely tied to the accuracy with
which developers analyze the profile
of employees and residents along the
line and match products to meet
their needs.
Retail Market Outlook
(2000 to 2010+)
Historical Development
> A profile of expenditures per
household in the City of Denver
suggests a disttibution weighted
towards leisure time purchases and
purchases influenced by levels of
disposable income. Food stores
represent 26 percent of retail
expenditures, followed by auto dealers.
Eating and drinking represent 15
percent and Apparel 13 percent.
> Increased incomes and smaller
household size indicate an increase in
disposable income per household and
a growth market for retail.
> The retail market is being addressed
currently by approximately 2,988,800
square feet on retail in the Midtown
sub-market which extends from 1-70
on the north, South Quebec Stteet on
the east, Sheridan Boulevard on the
west and East Evans Avenue on the
south. Since there is a sttong tendency
for people in this area to frequent big-
box stores at Interstate 25 and South
Colorado Boulevard and community
centers north for general merchandise
and other retail purchases, this is
considered representative of the area.
29


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
> Vacancy rates in the Midtown sub-
market were the second lowest in the
metro area at 2.9 percent at year-end
1999. Rental rates (median) fell at
the low end of the market at $10.00
triple net.
> For the purpose of this analysis,
existing commercial space includes
both office and retail land uses.
Therefore, as reported earlier, the
Colorado Station Area maintains a
supply of approximately 2.5 million
square feet of commercial space with a
build-out potential for more than 4.5
million square feet.
Future Development
> Demand for retail/service space is
based on retail expenditures and
resident spending patterns within a
trade area. Demand estimates
represent "unmet" potential as
measured by expenditures made
outside the area, as well as future
growth as determined by the potential
level of retail expenditures by
households.
> Demand within the influence areas of
Colorado Station for retail space are
projected to total 200,000 to 325,000
square feet, representing less than 5
percent of market share.
t The success of retail products at
Colorado Station will be closely tied to
an understanding of the difference in
the spending patterns among residents
and employees of station area
developments and travelers to and
through the stations. Among the
challenges are: balancing parking for
riders, patrons and residents;
programming the space for a realistic
tenant mix; integrating uses to serve
multiple audiences; and, strengthening
neighborhood connections.
> The introduction of light rail into the
area will increase its exposure as a
destination location for retail
purchases, by individuals traveling by
vehicle and train. Additional support
will be generated by existing
neighborhood residents, as well as new
residents who relocate at the area.
New "rooftops" will occur with the
increase in access provided by light
rail, as well as inevitable change in
character to a mixed-use center.
30


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
POTENTIAL FOR DEVELOPMENT
Development opportunities over the near-and long-term are summarized in the
following table:
Land Uses
Class A High-rise
Corporate Headquarters
Class B*
Incubator Space
Mixed-Use
Specialty Retail I
Entertainment Retail I
Neighborhood-Serving I
Theater* *
Fast Food/Carry-Out I
Sit-Down |
Bars I
Rental Apartments I
Rowhouse/Townhouse I
Condominiums I
Live/Work Lofts I
Affordable Housing I
* Assumes shared parking
* * Currently existing
Source: Leland Consulting Group
CASE STUDY RESEARCH
In an effort to provide additional context to the patterns of growth occurring in the
Denver area and their applicability to station area development, the consultant team
conducted a case study of station areas in similar markets, as well as a review of industry
information related specifically to real estate impacts from the introduction of rail into a
neighborhood. The results of this case study research are summarized below.
Near-Term Long-Term Not Likely
I
31


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
Demographics of
Rail-Based Housing
> The presence of rail transit draws a
higher proportion of managerial and
professional employees than exists in
surrounding areas without the transit -
among the strongest occupational
sectors in the Denver Metropolitan
Area.
> Households adjacent to ttansit are
smaller (around 1.65 to 1.9 persons)
irrespective of the surrounding area
household size. Approximately half of
the households at rail station areas
were one-person while only one
quarter of the households in
surrounding areas were one-person
households.
> Rail-based housing tends to draw two
age groups: residents between 25 and
45 and residents over 65. (33 and 10.5
percent of the metro area total and
33.3 and 13.8 percent of the city total,
respectively)
> Given that many station area
households are one-person
households, individual earnings are
higher in rail-based housing than in
surrounding areas. The majority of
households in station-based housing
made over $35,000 per household,
with from 28 to 42 percent making
over $55,000 per household (1998)
69.7 percent of metro area households
repoU an income in excess of $35,000
and 58.6 percent of city households.
> Since there are few households with
children, station-based households
have more disposable income than
their surrounding neighborhoods.
> Since Denver's goal of ttansit-oriented
development is mixed-use, mixed-
income, and affordable housing,
overall vehicles per household will
likely be lower than typical higher-
income, childless households.
> Because of its demographics, rail-based
housing is primarily upscale multi-
family rental or higher density single
family (ownership) housing.
Transit impacts on value
> Trips by ttansit are typically to and
from work. Having work destinations
at ttansit station areas and residential
uses at the origin point of the trip can
conttibute to higher ttansit use, if the
employment characteristics of
residents and the employment
opportunities are matched.
> The effect of rail transit on land
pricing is inconsistent, although there
seems to be an initial rise in price
based on speculation. In a study by
the University of North Texas, the
value of ttansit-served properties was
approximately 25 percent greater
than comparable properties not
served by transit.
> Rail ttansit can generate a seven to ten
percent increase in house unit pricing
near the station with the price effect
noted to around 1800 feet from the
station. In Portland, Oregon, a
premium of about $5,000 per unit was
noted adjacent to rail ttansit.
> Except for the provided affordable
housing, apartment rents are higher
per square feet (as much as ten
percent) in rail-based housing, but the
real value captured is in serving the
higher-end demographic market,
which prefers this location.
> Office rents appear to be higher at LRT
stations and grade down in a radius of
about 1.5 miles. In a study completed
by the University of North Texas,
commercial property rents increased
32


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
more than 47 percent over a four-year
period following the introduction of
light rail.
> Retail rents appear higher at transit
stations with the effect grading down
in a radius of about .4 mile. In
addition to rent structures, rail was
shown to positively impact occupancy
rates, with the Dallas Area Rapid
Transit (DART) case study suggesting
an 8 percent rise over a four-year
period.
> Rail-based housing tends to have a
higher density than housing in
surrounding areas, but does not rise
above normal market densities. Note:
In a survey of 27 projects, it was found
that no project was able to achieve
rents sufficient to allow densities above
26 units per acre. The reason is
attributed to the requirement for
platform or structured parking among
higher density developments, as well as
high car ownership per person among
relatively high-income individuals in
rail-based housing. Platform parking is
too costly to be supported under
existing market rent structures in mid-
rise projects, even in high-density areas
such as in San Francisco, California.
Lessons Learned
Studies at station area and transit-
supportive development contain several
conclusions regarding factors that lead to
successful transit-supportive development.
i The overall market is critical. A
stronger market for development
and in particular higher density
residential and office space will help
create the critical mass of development
at station area locations.
> The locational advantages of each
station should be carefully considered,
and development focused at those
station areas that have multiple
locational advantages, including good
auto access, as well as transit access.
> Land use and transportation planning
when coordinated at the state, regional
and local levels are most effective.
> Land use regulations must permit
higher-density residential and
commercial development at station
areas and restrict it where it is less
desirable, such as stable, single-family
residential neighborhoods.
> The public sector must be actively
involved in development partnerships
with the private sector. Public sector
actions can include investment in
pedestrian and transit improvements,
regulatory incentives, land
assemblage, site preparation and
development studies.
CONCLUSION
Transit-oriented development is market-
responsive and maintains its value. TOD
can also be effective in addressing growth
management issues. As discussed earlier,
the City and County of Denver exhibits
many of the supportive characteristics,
which could contribute to the successful
implementation of station area
developments. The challenge, therefore,
becomes less that of finding the market to
support the development and more
delivery of the development itself. As with
most forms of urban development and
redevelopment, a series of barriers exists
within the delivery system. The challenge
is to identify those barriers and then
provide strategies to overcome them.
Strategies to overcome barriers and
promote investment in Colorado Station
are discussed in more detail in Chapter 6,
the Implementation Section of this report.
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THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
______TRAVEL
DEMAND
MANAGEMENT
_______(TDM)
ELEMENT
Purpose
For the Colorado Station Area, a Travel
Demand Management (TDM) program is
recommended for maximizing the
effectiveness of redevelopment and its
interaction with the light rail station at
Colorado Center. The program is
designed to reduce employee travel to
and from the area by single-occupant
vehicles, as well as encourage residential
use of alternative modes. Participation of
existing businesses (including the office
and commercial uses in the Colorado
Center area) and of adjacent
neighborhoods will be important.
The Colorado Station
TDM Program
The Colorado Station Area TDM Program
places comprehensive standards for travel
reduction throughout the station area. For
application purposes, the Colorado Station
TDM Program is designed to serve two
options: 1) implement ttavel reduction
measures as properties redevelop
independently, and, 2) provide for a
comprehensive, station-area TDM program
if a coordinated approach involving all
station area propeuies were utilized.
Option One: Stand-Alone Travel
Reduction standards
Option One is designed to ensure ttavel
reduction and shared parking standards are
implemented when property owners
individually redevelop. This option does
not utilize an independent disttict or
association of building/property owners to
assist ttavel reduction effotts.
There are minimum ttavel reduction
standards, which must be met regardless of
redevelopment type, as well as additional
activities that are ttiggered with
redevelopment thresholds:
Minimum Travel Reduction Activities
> Meet and/or exceed ttavel reduction
goals per site
> 10% participation in alternative
ttanspottation modes and programs
prior to the opening of the Southeast
Light Rail Line
> 15% employee use of alternative
modes of ttavel after the opening of
the Southeast Light Rail Line and the
Colorado Station
> Develop and document for the City
and County of Denver, appropriate
ttavel reduction program elements for
the site (to be performed every two
years). Each property owner would be
free to implement any ttavel reduction
strategy, provided it meets the stated
goals and does not cause harm to the
travel reduction efforts of adjacent
properties. Such strategies for
consideration include:
> Parking management, preferential
parking, and pay on the way out
> Encourage shared and cooperative
parking arrangements with
adjacent properties
34


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
> Bicycle lockers, clothes lockers,
and showers
> Alternative work arrangements
> Telecommuting policies
> Alternative transportation
marketing and promotional efforts
> Carpool matching and incentives
> Discounted bus and rail passes
provided on-site
> Participation in a Transportation
Management Association (TMA)
or similar area-based organization
Additional Travel Reduction Activities
> Office uses (more than 25 employees):
Provide a designated Transportation
Coordinator to assist employees meet
travel reduction goals; meet a goal of
10% use of alternative modes prior to
opening of the Southeast Light Rail line.
> Residential uses: Provide residential
ECO passes (or similar bus/transit
passes) through an annual
homeowners fee; shared parking with
office uses would be encouraged by the
City and County of Denver.
> Retail uses: Provide discounted bus
and rail passes for employees on-site.
Option Two: Station-Area Overlay
District for Travel Reduction
Option Two is intended to provide for a
more comprehensive TDM program
throughout the Colorado Station Area.
This option includes the designation of an
overlay district or service area that would
serve to provide centralized management
of the TDM program and shared parking
facilities for transit and development.
Although the exact boundaries have yet to
be determined, the general guideline is to
include both the station and access areas
identified in Section 2.1.
Option Two provides a greater number of
opportunities than Option One, due to
TDM efforts being coordinated across all
properties for economies-of-scale. The
Option Two TDM Program would include:
> Meet and/or exceed travel
reduction goals for the entire
Colorado Station Area
> 10% participation in alternative
transportation modes and programs
prior to the opening of the Southeast
Light Rail line
> 20% employee and visitor use of
alternative modes of travel after the
opening of the Southeast Light Rail
line and the Colorado Station
> A centralized, staffed point-of-contact
for the provision of transportation
information (such as a
Commuter Store). Services to be
conducted from this location include:
> A TDM program coordinator,
serving as a shared resource to all
employers and property managers
within the station area
> Services as identified in Option
One above, however, maximized
for implementation throughout
the station area
> Sharing and management of
parking facilities serving the station
area, including pricing
> Station area membership in a
Transportation Management
Association serving the Colorado
Station Area (currently
Transportation Solutions)
35


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
IMPLEMENTATION
STRATEGIES
In order to accomplish the vision
established by the stakeholder group that is
reflected in the Guiding Principles, several
action items have been identified. These
action items are intended to address
existing development incentives as well as
the creation of new regulatory tools to
promote TOD. A proactive pursuit of the
Guiding Principles identified by the
stakeholders is critical to realizing the vision
identified for the Colorado Station Area.
Before outlining implementation strategies
for the Plan, several important
characteristics of the Colorado Station Area
Framework Plan and small area plans in
general should be noted.
First, plans themselves are advisory in
nature, provide guidance to City
decisions, and are not regulatory tools.
Plans provide a vision, which is a collective
picture of a desired future and a roadmap
for achieving that vision.
Generally, plans are not implemented
quickly, but require a number of years to
achieve the vision. Rather, plans are
implemented incrementally with the vision
and goals providing common direchon to a
multitude of public and private
undertakings. Despite this imperfect
situation, plans have proved to substantially
influence the development of a plan area.
The Comprehensive Plan requires that new
development and redevelopment of the
plan area be in conformance with plan
goals and policies, as well as with Citywide
plans, and adopted rules and regulations.
Developers are expected to meet with
neighborhood associations and with
adjacent property owners to discuss their
development and rezoning proposals
Second, the adoption of this Plan does
not change the zoning. However, zoning
is the primary land use regulatory
mechanism, and is, thus, an important tool
for implementing small area plans.
Throughout the City's development review
process, neighborhood associations and
individual citizens are provided
opportunities to provide feedback on the
development proposals and whether they
meet plan goals and policies. Traffic
impacts, the proposed density of the
project, the mix of land uses, and design
considerations will be taken into account
during the process.
Finally, the adoption of this Plan does
not automatically provide funding for
operational improvements or capital
projects for multi-modal transportation
facilities roadway, bus, bicycle and
pedestrian or for other infrastructure
systems such as storm drainage facilities.
Obviously, public funding resources
are limited.
Capital projects, such as street
improvements, can be funded by the City
through its capital improvements program,
by property owners through special
taxation districts, or by private developers
as development occurs. Funding
availability, timing, and the necessary
public land are constraints to achieving the
Plan's vision and goals with regard to
capital improvements.
36


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
The implementation action items listed
below include a description of the action
and identify whether the action is a short-
term strategy (within 1 to 3 years), a mid-
term strategy (within 3 to 5 years), or a
long-term strategy (within 5 to 15 years).
The time frames listed are provided in
terms of years from the Plan adoption date.
Time frame:
Responsibility:
Financing:
1-3 years
City (Community
Planning and
Development),
Property owners
and Developers
$
Short-Term strategies
(1 to 3 years):
S-1: Formalize Citywide
TOD Coalition
A collaborative effort between the City of
Denver, The Denver Urban Renewal
Authority and the Regional Transportation
District (RTD) is being formalized. The
TOD coalition will share information and
provide a coordinated response to
development proposals, both at the
Colorado Station and citywide.
Time frame: 1-3 years
Responsibility: City (Community
Planning and
Development/Public
Works/DURA), RTD
Financing: NA
S-2: investigate Opportunity
to Change zoning to Promote
TOD within the Station and
Transition Areas
The current mix of B-2, B-4 and 1-0 zoning
provides limited opportunity for creating
development consistent with the Guiding
Principles. Different zoning may provide
incentives for appropriate development
and reduced parking requirements. A
change in zone districts should be
developed with key property owners at this
and other station areas. Design guidelines
that coincide with a TOD overlay or a new
TOD zone district should also be strongly
considered.
S-3: Determine Conceptual Design
for East Evans Avenue between
South Colorado Boulevard and 1-25
Improvements to East Evans Avenue
between South Colorado Boulevard and
1-25 will be needed with increased
development near the Colorado Light Rail
Station. Conceptual design should address
the right-of-way required for future
improvements, priorities for bike and
pedestrian access across East Evans Avenue
and along the north and south sides of
East Evans Avenue, and preliminary cost
estimates for the proposed improvements.
Completing conceptual design of East
Evans Avenue will allow the City to pursue
a variety of funding options including
federal funds through the Denver Regional
Council of Governments (DRCOG).
Time frame:
Responsibility:
Financing:
1-3 years
Property owners &
developers
City (Public
Works/
Urban Design)
Public & private
$$$ (Public Works,
DRCOG, CIP)
37


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
S-4: Consider the Formation of an
Urban Renewal Area (URA)
Conduct a blight study to determine if a
URA is appropriate or desirable to further
TOD development in the Colorado
Station Area.
Time frame: 1-3 years
Responsibility: DURA
Financing: $ City (Public Works -
Transportation
Division)/DURA
S-5: Study the feasibility of a
circulator bus
Because of interchanges at Colorado/I-25
and East Evans Ave./I-25, the area
surrounding the station area is subdivided
into quadrants. Without circulator buses,
residents in each of theses quadrants
beyond 1/4 mile from the station will be
unable to access the station conveniently
without the use of their private vehicles.
Time frame: 1-3 years
Responsibility: RID, City (Public
Works, Community
Planning and
Development,
Transportation
Solutions)
Financing: $$$ TMA, DRCOG,
RID City (TABOR
if available)
Mid-Term strategies (3 to 5 years)
M-1: Actively Encourage New
Development in the "wedge"
The pressure for new development in the
vicinity of Colorado Boulevard and I-25 is
growing. Because of this pressure it is
advantageous to actively encourage new
development consistent with the Guiding
Principles identified in the "wedge." The
City should encourage partnerships among
existing property owners to pursue larger
development opportunities rather than
smaller ones. Additionally, the City should
require a General Development Plan from
any developer's ownership and develop the
"wedge" as a single project.
Time frame: 3-5 years
Responsibility: Property owners
& developers;
City (Community
Planning and
Development/
DURA/MOED/
Public Works)
Financing: NA
M-2: Develop New Tools to
Encourage and Preserve tod
Opportunities
Currently, there are a limited number of
tools that City has available to encourage
TOD. New tools need to be developed
which increase the probability of TOD
happening sooner rather than later at the
Colorado Station and at other existing and
proposed stations within the City. The
new tools should focus on two main areas:
shared parking and land preservation/
consolidation. For shared parking,
resources should be developed or
combined, which encourage and promote
sharing of parking between a mix of land
uses and transit commuters. Also, as
properties go on the market, the City
should devote resources to gaining control
of key land parcels near transit stations.
The City could then transfer control of
those parcels to prospective TOD
developers when the timing is appropriate.
Time frame: 3-5 years
Responsibility: City/RID
38


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
Financing:
$$$ TABOR Transit
Dollars/Other sources
to be determined
M-3: implement TDM Plan
Strongly encourage implementation of the
travel demand management (TDM) plan
developed as part of the overall planning
effort. Property owners and tenants within
the Station and Transition Areas should
implement it as development progresses.
Participation by existing employers in the
area will help to establish a pattern for
future tenants of TOD to follow and
reduce the current number of single
occupant drivers traveling to and from the
area. Existing TDM programs offer
strategies. Inclusion in a Transportation
Management Association (TMA) should be
a condition of a rezoning or development
plan approval.
Time frame:
Responsibility:
Financing:
3-5 years
Existing employers
within the Station
Area/Transportation
Solutions
$ Existing employers
and residential
neighborhoods
within the Station
and Transition Areas
M-4: improve Neighborhood
Transit Access
Neighborhood access to transit service is
inadequate. RID has started to address
this issue with its proposed timed transfer
network. However, more needs to be done
to address transit access at a neighborhood
level to reduce the need for neighborhood
residents to park at the Colorado Station.
Responsibility:
Financing:
RTD/City Council/
Neighborhood
Organizations
$$ RID
M-5: Determine Needed
Neighborhood Pedestrian
improvements on Buchtel Boulevard
between south Colorado Boulevard
and South Monroe Street
The University Park Neighborhood has
raised concerns relating to pedestrian
access across Buchtel Boulevard, between
South Monroe Street and South Colorado
Boulevard. This section of Buchtel should
be evaluated to determine what could be
done to enhance pedestrian access across
Buchtel Boulevard to better serve the
Colorado Station and the University
Park Neighborhood.
Time Frame:
Responsibility:
Financing:
Time frame:
3-5 years
3-5 years
Property owners
& developers;
City (Public Works,
Urban Design,
Community Planning
and Development),
University Park
Neighborhood,
TMA, RID
$$ Combine private
and public sources,
including DRCOG
& RID
M-6: Explore Potential for
Pedestrian Access from Colorado
Center to Station Area
Currently, the T-Rex improvements do
not include pedestrian access across the
light rail line and Buchtel/Colorado
Center Drive, from the office and theatre
complex to the north in Colorado Center.
The involved parties should explore the
39


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
feasibility and cost of a pedestrian bridge
or other structure to connect the areas.
Time Frame:
Responsibility:
Financing:
3-5 years
Property owners
& developers;
City (Public Works,
Urban Design,
Community Planning
and Development),
University Park
Neighborhood,
TMA, RID
$$ Combine private
and public sources,
including DRCOG
& RID
Long-Term strategies (5-15 years)
L-1: Examine the Feasibility for
Construction of Pedestrian Bridges
over i-25
Two pedestrian bridges over 1-25 to the
Colorado Station (one directly north of
Colorado Center and the other in a similar
alignment to the existing railroad bridge
north of East Evans Avenue) were identified
as essential to improving pedestrian
connectivity to the station. Feasibility of
these bridges should be explored.
L-2: Determine Needed
Neighborhood Pedestrian
improvements South of Evans
Pedestrian connectivity was an issue to
the Stakeholder Committee. Gaps in
sidewalks and inadequate sidewalks exist
in the neighborhood and should be
examined in more detail to determine
what types of improvements could be
made to improve pedestrian connectivity
between the neighborhoods and the
Colorado Station. This issue should also
be considered as part of the Citywide
Pedestrian Master Plan.
Time Frame:
Responsibility:
Financing:
5-15 years
TMA; City
(Transportation
Planning/Traffic
Engineering)/Warrens
University
Neighborhood
$$$ Public Works,
Developers, Sidewalk
Maintenance Program,
TMA
Time Frame:
Responsibility:
Financing:
5-15 years
Property owners
& developers;
City/RTD/CDOT
$$$$ City/
RTD/DRCOG/
CDOT, TMA,
Private sources
40


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
APPENDICES
Analysis of Development
Alternatives
This section describes the process for
creating the conceptual development
alternatives based upon stakeholder input.
The purpose of developing the conceptual
plans was to test the validity of the Guiding
Principles. The Conceptual Plans test the
Guiding Principles and apply those
principles to a physical plan. The
alternative concepts successfully achieve the
intent of the Guiding Principles. (The
Alternative Concepts can be found in the
Technical Appendix)
Process for Alternatives Development
Development on this site, including both
the light rail and highway expansion
project, has been a sensitive issue for the
established neighborhoods in the area.
Knowing this, input from the stakeholder
group was key to developing a successful
framework plan.
Upon identification and consensus of the
Guiding Principles, the design team
prepared alternative conceptual plans.
These conceptual plans were subsequently
refined with stakeholder input. Issues of
primary concern through the alternatives
development process included:
> circulation and access
> safety
> land-use
> parking
> open-space
> aesthetics
These issues were addressed in a variety of
ways, building massing, site organization,
type of land-use mix, and location of
pedestrian connections. Concepts were
prepared and presented to the stakeholders
for comments. Stakeholder input was then
used to refine key characteristics, which
were deemed most important by
stakeholder groups.
Demonstration of Guiding Principles
in Action
From the Guiding Principles a series of
conceptual plans were developed to test
and validate goals. Three conceptual plans
found in the Technical Appendix follow
the Guiding Principles (listed on pages 11-
15) and respect them with different
physical solutions. The plans honor key
similarities:
> Majority of parking on the edge of the
station area.
> Short-term parking adjacent to station.
> Length of the open trench at the LRT
line minimized.
> Grade-separated crossings of
Colorado and 1-25.
> Clear, distinct open spaces.
> Improvements to the existing
infrastructure through the creation of a
new network of streets.
> A strong landscape buffer and tiered
development between the existing
neighborhood and proposed
development.
> Provision of short-term parking
adjacent to LRT.
> Tree-lined streets with appropriately-
sized sidewalks.
> Strong landscaped connections
from surrounding community to light
rail station.
> Commercial uses lining Evans Avenue.
The plans differ in site configuration,
densities and mixture of residential,
commercial and retail development.
41


___________________THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
Glossary
Access Area
The "access area" is one of the 4 geographical focus areas of the plan. The "access area"
physically surrounds the proposed light rail "station area". The "access area" is important
in terms of connections from local neighborhoods and commercial areas to the proposed
Colorado Station (See Section 2.1).
Areas of Change
An underutilized or deteriorated area or neighborhood designated by Blueprint Denver
for redevelopment.
Areas of Stability
An existing area or neighborhood designated by Blueprint Denver for preservation and
enhancement
B-Line
A shuttle bus serving local and specialty areas.
Blueprint Denver
An integrated Land Use and Transportation Plan adopted by the Denver City Council as
an amendment to the Comprehensive Plan 2000 on March 4, 2002.
Commuter Store
A centralized, staffed point-of-contact for the provisions of obtaining transportation/
transit information.
Conceptual Alternative
A preliminary alternative design solution. A design solution alternative that illustrates
one of many possible physical forms that incorporate the Guiding Principles.
Denver's Comprehensive Plan
Plan 2000 is a policy guide for Denver in response to problems, conditions and
opportunities for the early part of the 21st Century. Hundreds of Denver residents were
involved in developing Plan 2000.
Destination-Oriented
A "place" or facility that has the ability to draw people from a large area; a place with the
characteristics or features to which people are drawn.
Destination-Location
A "place" or facility that people travel to for the sole purpose of being at the location. The
opposite type of place would be one that someone "happens upon".
42-----------------


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
Destination-Retail
Commerdal retail uses with limited competition and which draw patrons from a large
trade area; uses for which consumers are willing to travel a significant distance to
experience and patronize. Examples include: specialty retail areas, entertainment-retail,
specialty dining operations, etc.
Eco-Pass
An annual bus pass available from RTD that entitles patrons to unlimited rides on all RTD
transit services. This program is only one type of reduced fare programs offered by RTD.
Guiding Principles
The Guiding Principles prescribe minimum goals that will guide future development
planning. The Guiding Principles represent the Colorado Station Area Framework
Plan goals.
Incubator Space:
An enterprise that is set up to provide office space, equipment, and sometimes
mentoring assistance and capital to new businesses that are just getting started.
Business incubators are often set up by universities, non-profit groups, and
increasingly by venture capitalists.
Joint Use
A physical property or land use that serves multiple purposes or attains multiple goals, eg.
shared parking structure developed through a public/private partnership.
Mixed-Use
A combination of retail, commercial and residential uses in one development.
Overlay Zone District
A land use designation for a particular defined area on a zoning map, which modifies the
underlying zone districts in some specific manner. Specifications may include uses, height
of buildings, open space, pedestrian access, parking and exterior design.
Program Management Committee
The City and County of Denver organized committee of technical direction and planning
representatives to provide recommendations at LRT stations in Denver.
Rooftops
Real estate industry term for the number of households in a geographic area.
43


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
Shared Parking
A surface or structured parking lot that is intended and managed to be utilized by
different destinations, land uses or land owners simultaneously. Shared parking works
best when the various users have parking needs at different times of the day.
Stakeholder Group
A group of property owners, business owners, surrounding residents and neighborhood
liasons formed to represent community interests adjacent to the Colorado LRT station.
Station Area
The "station area" physically includes the "wedge" and Colorado Center. This area is
immediately adjacent to the platform and offers a high degree of opportunities for
redevelopment.
Timed Transfer
Transit schedules and routes developed together in order to enable an efficient transfer of
modes or routes. This enables the transit system to serve a more diverse pattern of origins
and destinations with more varied opportunities and more convenient and easy to
remember schedules.
Transit-Oriented Development (TOD)
Creates a transit supportive environment by encouraging a land use mix, which allows
people to live, work and enjoy entertainment without having to use their car. It's intent is
to promote high quality transit, bike, and pedestrian connections while encouraging a
compact, higher density mixed-use development pattern. It is also described as transit-
supportive development.
Transition Area
The "transition area" extends approximately 1/2 mile from the light rail platform. The
"transition area" was examined for long-term redevelopment and potential connections
between the Colorado Station and the surrounding neighborhoods. (See Section 2.1)
Transportation Coordinator
A coordinator to assist employees to meet travel reduction goals.
Transportation Management Association (TMA)
An organization that provides a structure for developers, property managers, employers
and public agencies to cooperatively support and promote programs that mitigate traffic
congestion, auto-oriented travel and parking.
Transportation Solutions
A Transportation Management Association (TMA) in Denver that provides alternative
mode choices within Cherry Creek and the South Colorado Boulevard corridor.
44-----------------


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
Travel Demand Management (TDM)
Describes a variety of actions that
encourage more efficient use of existing
transportation systems. Actions can
include increasing the number of persons
in a vehicle, or by influencing the time of,
or need to, travel. TDM programs rely on
incentives or disincentives to make these
shifts in behavior attractive.
T-REX/Southeast 1-25 Corridor
Transportation Expansion Project (T-
REX). An LRT and highway
improvement project on 1-25 and 1-225,
which includes a number of light rail
station including the Colorado Station.
Wedge
The primary study area. The "wedge" is
defined by East Evans Avenue on the
south, South Colorado Boulevard, on the
west, 1-25 on the east and Colorado
Center drive on the north.
Sources
City and County of Denver. Blueprint
Denver: An Integrated Land Use and
Transportation Plan
City and County of Denver. The Colorado
Station Area Framework Plan- Technical
Appendix, Denver, CO, 2001.
City and County of Denver. Denver
Comprehensive Plan 2000, Denver,
CO, 2000.
City and County of Denver. Zoning Map,
Denver, CO, 2000.
CDOT, Southeast Corridor Environmental
Impact Statement (EIS), Denver, CO, 2000.
RTD. RTD Web Site, Denver, CO, 2001.
45


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
Acknowledgements
John W. Hickenlooper,
Mayor, City & County of Denver
Denver City Council
District 1 ...............Rick Garcia
District 2.....................Jeanne Faatz
District 3 ... .Rosemary E. Rodriguez
District 4 ...........Peggy Lehmann
District 5 ...........Marcia Johnson
District 6 ...........Charlie Brown
District 7........Kathleen Mackenzie
District 8 .......Elbra Wedgeworth
District 9 ...........Judy H. Montero
District 10....................Jeanne Robb
District 11 ......Michael B. Hancock
At-Large ...............Carol Boigon
At-Large..............DougLinkhart
Denver Planning Board
William H. Hornby, Chairman
Jan Marie Belle
Lrederick Corn
Pat Cortez
Dan Guimond
Mark Johnson
Barbara Kelley
Joyce Oxberfeld
Bruce O'Donnell
Jim Raughton
Robert Wright
This publication was produced by:
City <& County of Denver
Carter-Burgess
Urban Trans Consultants, Inc.
Civitas
Leland Consulting
Program Management Committee
Bill Sirois Project Manager -
Transportation Planning, Public Works
Tom Best Community Planning
and Development (CPD)
Jim Bumanglag Colorado Department
of Transportation (CDOT)
Robert Dorroh City Southeast
Corridor Office
Ellen Ittelson Community Planning
and Development (CPD)
Marianne Ledaire Denver Urban
Renewal Authority (DURA)
Nikki Maloney Mayors Office of
Economic Development (MOED)
Carla McConnell Community Planning
and Development (CPD)
Mark Najarian Transportation
Planning, Public Works
Tony Ogboli Transportation
Planning, Public Works
Jim Ottenstein Community Planning
and Development (CPD), Graphics
Jackie Pacheco Denver Urban
Renewal Authority (DURA)
Terry Rosapep Transportation
Planning, Public Works
Chad Salli Transportation
Engineering, Public Works
Marilee Utter Regional
Transportation District (RTD)
46


THE COLORADO STATION AREA FRAMEWORK PLAN
Stakeholder Representatives
John Barnes East Colorado
Homeowner Organization
Gary Bell Bell Plumbing and Heating Co.
Dick Bjurstrom Inner Neighborhood
Corporation Group
Linda Budge Comm. Tech Services
Susan Casey Council District Office #6
Claudia Droel Wellington Square
John Gerace Welby Gardens & County Fair
Michael Gunn Heritage Club
Rod Ham Transportation Solutions
L. Frank Hare Warren's Homeowners
Chris Helvig Public Storage Properties
Michael Hicks University Park
Community Council
Karen Karl Warren's Homeowners
Mahmoud Kassir Damascus Restaurant
Chris Klauschie Schlessman YMCA
Adam Mackstaller Cory-Merrill
Julie Madden Virginia Village
Annette Maddingly Qwest
Craig Michalik
Bill Mosher Mile High Properties
John Pankoff Virginia Village
Mike Peebles Freeway Ford
Chuck Pennington Discount
Muffler <& Brake
Mike Pound Warren's Homeowners
Dan Rosser Harmon Management
Seth Rubin Transportation Solutions
Brian Shinn Harmon Management
Allison Thompson Warren's Homeowners
Phil Thompson Warren's Homeowner's
George Thorn Mile High Properties
Diane Writer South Colorado
Bloulevard Properties
Jack Zellinger Criterion
47



PAGE 1

COMMUNITYPLANNINGANDDEVELOPMENT ANDPUBLICWORKSCITY and COUNTY of DENVER SEPTEMBER, 2003 CITY and COUNTY of DENVER SEPTEMBER, 2003 COLORADOSTATIONAREAFRAMEWORKPLANCOLORADOSTATIONAREAFRAMEWORKPLAN COMMUNITYPLANNINGANDDEVELOPMENT ANDPUBLICWORKS

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Executive Summary. . . . . . . . 2 Introduction. . . . . . . . . 4 Guiding Principles. . . . . . . . 11 Site Area Description and Existing Station Area Conditions. . . . . 16 Real Estate Market Conditions. . . . . 25 Travel Demand Management. . . . . . 34 Implementation Strategies. . . . . . 36 Appendices. . . . . . . . . 41 btnfrnnnt

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btnfrnnnt rn In response to the anticipated Light Rail Station at I-25 and South Colorado Boulevard, the City and County of Denver initiated the Colorado Station Area Framework Plan. The purpose of this plan is to guide redevelopment in a manner consistent with the Denver Comprehensive Plan, Blueprint Denver, neighborhood objectives and principles of transit-oriented development. Opportunities identified through the public process and techniques for implementation are addressed in the Guiding Principles through potential land uses, urban design, economic strategies and travel demand management techniques. The goal of this plan is to create a successful Transit Oriented Development (TOD), in the short and long-term, that provides mixed-use development with multi-modal access to maximize transit ridership at the Colorado light rail station. This plan documents community desires obtained through stakeholder group meetings, and describes opportunities and constraints affecting the Colorado Station and surrounding neighborhoods. By addressing desired effects and potential outcomes, the study proposes a general set of Guiding Principles, which convey the communitys vision. These Guiding Principles have been developed through a community process that identified major goals for the ultimate development plan. The Guiding Principles address physical and economic improvements, open space enhancements with improved access, bicycle connections and pedestrian connections. The Guiding Principles represent a tool that can be utilized by both developers and City staff to realize and guide future development at the Colorado Station. Colorado Center Drive, East Evans Avenue, I-25 and South Colorado Boulevard encase the primary study area on the north, south, east and west, respectively. This site will be defined as the wedge in future discussions.

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The basic goals of the Guiding Principles are defined below: Development/Redevelopment: Create a mixed-use development for the area within the wedge and directly adjacent to it, which emphasizes residential uses and provides enough density to promote a high level of transit ridership for people who may live or work near the station. Transportation Autos: Create a balance between density and traffic impact on streets surrounding the station area and develop a network of streets inside the wedge, which promotes multiple access locations for vehicles. Transportation Transit: Provide a convenient alternative to driving to the station by encouraging transit, which serves the surrounding neighborhoods. Transportation Bikes & Pedestrians: Create safe and direct pedestrian and bicycle systems connecting the station to adjoining districts, neighborhoods, and transit parking, as provided by the City s pedestrian and bicycle plans. Parking: Develop a shared parking solution, which serves both development and transit and minimizes impacts to the surrounding neighborhoods. Travel Demand Management (TDM): Utilize travel demand management measures to reduce single occupant automobile demand related to development near the station. Development Tools: Planning, zoning and innovative partnerships are proposed as incentives to initiate station area development that reflects the Guiding Principles. The purpose for their inclusion is to expose property owners and developers to the array of alternatives that may aid in the successful development at the Colorado Station. Topics discussed include adjusting zoning around light rail stations to promote desirable development, regulatory incentives, and public/private partnership opportunities. btnfrnnnt

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rnfr Background on the Light Rail Station Development Program Through Denver s Comprehensive Plan adopted in 1989 and updated in 2000, a regional rapid transit system was identified as the primary form of transportation to address the mobility needs of the city, while at the same time offering the greatest benefit and protection for Denver neighborhoods. Development of a regional system was also viewed as a unique opportunity to promote higher density, mixed-use development patterns around rapid transit corridors and stations. Higher density is desirable in this situation to promote higher transit ridership and reduce reliance on cars. Following the opening of the Central Corridor in 1994 (the region s first light rail corridor), the City established the Light Rail Station Development Program to encourage compact, mixed-use development around existing and future light rail stations within the City and County of Denver. Initial planning efforts focused on the Welton Street Corridor Stations and the I-25/ Broadway Station. The ongoing construction of the Southeast light rail line has shifted the program s focus to the Southeast Corridor (SEC) along I-25 between Broadway and the Denver city limits (Belleview Avenue). The initial assessment of development opportunities in the corridor (Southeast Corridor Light Rail Station Development ProgramOctober 1999) identified the Colorado/I-25 station as a high priority for development of a station area framework plan. Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) As a result of increasing demand for transit, planners, developers and municipalities have focused their attention on TOD. TOD creates a transit-supportive environment by encouraging a land use mix that allows people to live, work and enjoy entertainment without having to use their car. Its intent is to promote high-quality transit, bike, and pedestrian connections while encouraging a compact, higher density mixed-use development pattern. TOD potential and configuration is unique to every situation, and needs to be tailored to fit the needs and goals of the City, local neighborhoods and businesses in the area. Ultimately, it is a strategy to preserve the mobility and livability of a region as it grows. A successful TOD links multi-modal station access by encouraging pedestrian, bicycle, and public transportation connections to the site. Good pedestrian access and circulation is a fundamental strategy for successful TOD areas, especially with the increased density and mix of uses. One-quarter to one-third of a mile is considered to be an acceptable walking distance for those who use the light rail. The Denver Comprehensive Plan 2000 calls for TOD around the proposed light rail transit stations in Denver. The Denver Comprehensive Plan states Transit Oriented Development concentrates an attractive mix of housing, retail, entertainment and commercial development near transit stops. This enables residents to live, shop and socialize in their immediate neighborhoods while having nearby transit access to distant btnfrnnnt

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urban centers. The Denver Comprehensive Plan instructs staff to Determine the potential for transit-oriented development at public transit stations, and encourage such opportunities whenever possible (Mobility Chapter, Strategy 3-B). In addition, the Comprehensive Plan states Promote transit oriented development (TOD) as an urban design framework for urban centers and development areas. Development at transit stations should provide both high ridership to the transit system and viability and walkability in the area (Mobility Chapter, Strategy 5-D). Abiding by the Denver Comprehensive Plan, the Denver Station Area Planning Program uses concepts related to TOD as the urban design framework for development in and around the Colorado Station. The Denver Station Area Planning Program identifies what neighborhoods, property owners and developers can do to prepare for new development around stations to insure quality TOD projects. A successful TOD responds to community wishes and concerns. Blueprint Denver Concepts On March 4, 2002, the City Council adopted Blueprint Denver: An Integrated Land Use and Transportation Plan as a supplement to the Denver Comprehensive Plan 2000. The planning process for Blueprint Denver resulted in a new vision for Denver through the year 2020. Two key concepts are a part of the citywide vision Areas of Change and Areas of Stability The Plan s key premise to achieve the vision is that growth should be directed to Areas of Change, and the character of neighborhoods in Areas of Stability should be preserved and enhanced. Blueprint Denver designated a number of areas adjacent to existing or future rail stations and other permanent transit facilities as Areas of Change. The Colorado Station Area is identified as one such Area of Change. Surrounding the light rail station area are Areas of Stability primarily residential areas to the south and west of the Colorado Station. Blueprint Denver also identified key regulatory components to create attractive, pedestrian-friendly communities in these TOD Areas of Change including: adequate intensity, arrangement, and mix of uses to encourage transit ridership and support adjacent land uses; reduced parking requirements; flexible shared parking; and design standards and guidelines Denver s existing mixed-use zoning districts RMU (residential mixed use) and CMU (commercial mixed-use) established a framework to encourage a compact mix of land uses. In order to encourage desired development in these TOD Areas of Change, a new transit mixed-use zone district (TMU) was established as part of Denver s Zoning Ordinance. btnfrnnnt

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btnfrnnnt Figure 1Southeast Corridor Light Rail Line and Stations

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btnfrnnnt Figure 2Perspective of Colorado Light Rail Station showing station and surface parking in cut section designed by SEC(Source SEC Project) Figure 3Aerial Plan View of Colorado Light Rail Station as designed by the SEC (Source SEC Project)

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The zone district allowing the most intensity and density TMU-30 was adopted by City Council on November 4, 2002. Establishment of at least one additional transit mixed-use district (TMU20) is currently being considered. The TMU-20 zone district will allow lower density and fewer land use types than the TMU-30 zone. TMU-30 will be applied to sites twelve acres or larger. A less intense mix of land uses than permitted under the TMU-30 zone district is desired at the Colorado station, to minimize the impact of additional traffic on already congested roadways and intersections. Southeast Corridor Project The Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) and the Regional Transportation District (RTD) are scheduled to construct 19 miles of Light Rail Transit (LRT) and improve over 16 miles of two interstate highways (I-25 and I-225) referred to as the Southeast Corridor (SEC). The SEC LRT line will connect to the Central Corridor LRT line in downtown Denver; as well as allow connections to the Southwest Corridor LRT line, providing service to Englewood and Littleton; and the Central Platte Valley LRT (CPV) providing service to the Denver Union Station (DUS). The SEC LRT line will include thirteen new stations. Construction will be completed by the year 2006. The SEC project parallels I-25 from Broadway in Denver to Lincoln Avenue in Douglas County. Figure 1 illustrates the proposed SEC project LRT alignment and thirteen proposed stations As part of the SEC project, a LRT platform and Park-n-Ride have been designed for the Colorado Station location. The SEC project is acquiring two land parcels adjacent to the proposed Colorado Station for construction of 363 surface parking spaces. The number 363 was developed by RTD and DRCOG through ridership planning and parking demand projections. Figures 2 and 3 shown on page 7 illustrate the SEC project design for the Colorado Station. The present plan for construction under the SEC contract is to utilize land adjacent to the LRT platform for surface parking. The Colorado Station Area Framework Plan has identified opportunities for TOD that benefit the adjacent neighborhoods, extend ridership, and improve access to the LRT system. In order to realize TOD at the Colorado Station, alternative site configurations may need to be considered. Assumptions fundamental to the plan include joint development and joint parking strategies utilizing the RTD surface parking area to attain desirable densities, mix of land uses and convenient station access. The Colorado Station presents an opportunity to bring uses adjacent to the platform with a shared-use parking concept to meet redevelopment goals stated in the Denver Comprehensive Plan 2000. The Colorado Station Area Framework Plan evaluated adjacent parcels to the LRT platform location and identified a mix of land uses to create a transit-supportive environment. Purpose of the Colorado Station Area Framework Plan The purpose of this plan is to guide redevelopment in a manner consistent with the Denver Comprehensive Plan, Blueprint Denver, neighborhood objectives and principles of transit-oriented development. This plan identifies opportunities associated with the proposed Colorado Station, and ways to realize development through public and private initiatives. Opportunities including enhanced connections to neighborhoods btnfrnnnt

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and other destinations, investment in redevelopment, enhanced architecture, and related right of way improvements have been identified as key priorities. To guide future development a series of Guiding Principles has been developed for adoption into the Denver Comprehensive Plan. The Guiding Principles provide City staff, RTD, property owners and developers with clear guidelines to develop and/or evaluate specific development proposals for the area around the Colorado Station. The Guiding Principles address land use type and density, urban design, transportation management access, and parking. The Guiding Principles are detailed in the next chapter. Public Participation Initiating an effort such as this required the input and participation of many different interest groups at several levels. The project team relied upon the existing City and County of Denver s Light Rail Program Management Committee to provide technical direction and planning recommendations to the design team. Additionally, a stakeholder group was formed to represent the communities adjacent to the Colorado Light Rail Station. City Council recommended specific individuals represent neighborhood, business, and property owner s interests by participating in the stakeholder group. This group met monthly for over two years, exchanging information and ideas. The stakeholders acted as ambassadors of information for their constituents and to the surrounding community. During the course of numerous stakeholder meetings, the design team met with the stakeholder group to present their progress, as well as document and incorporate the stakeholder feedback. At each meeting, the design team presented a new topic. Neighborhood residents, property owners and business interests had the opportunity to discuss their own concerns and wish lists. To reach a larger audience, the design team hosted two public open houses during the stakeholder planning process. In September of the year 2000, the first open house displayed compilations of existing conditions including a review of the current SEC plans, stakeholder comments, planning and land use information and general goals as stated by the stakeholders. A second open house, held in midNovember of the year 2000, presented the design process from initial investigations through the conceptual planning, and highlighted the Guiding Principles. The stakeholder meetings initially focused on background information presented by the design team. The last three meetings consisted of conceptual planning exercises guided by the stakeholder s comments. Throughout this process, the design team documented the stakeholder s feedback and posted the feedback list during each meeting. With this format, stakeholders were able to review what had been discussed and add to the list. Rather than preparing a specific conceptual plan for development, a physical plan was prepared to help the design team test a series of Guiding Principles for development. These Guiding Principles capture the essence of input and feedback from City staff and stakeholder members. The Guiding Principles prescribe goals that development should incorporate. (The Guiding Principles can be found in the following chapter) btnfrnnnt

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1. Technical Analysis The design team collected information about land use, zoning, neighborhood plans, area destinations, potential build out, pedestrian access, bus routes and bike routes. This information was presented to the stakeholder group for feedback. 2. Develop Conceptual Guiding Principles A base set of Guiding Principles was developed using the results of the technical analysis, as well as stakeholder and public input. These Guiding Principles addressed critical issues identified by the stakeholders and the public, including traffic congestion, the type and intensity of land use, and parking. Utilizing this set of Guiding Principles, the design team developed a series of alternative development concepts to test the viability of the Guiding Principles. These development concepts were presented to the stakeholder group to obtain their feedback and refine the Guiding Principles. 3. Develop Station Area Framework Plan (Refined Set of Guiding Principles) The design team, together with the stakeholder group, finalized a set of Guiding Principles in order that critical goals and issues of the Colorado Station Area Planning effort be maintained. The Guiding Principles were developed to allow for flexibility in implementation. The Guiding Principles will serve as the Colorado Station Area Framework Plan. Figure 4 tracks the process utilized for engaging stakeholders while gaining input from City staff. The theme of this effort maximizes input in an interactive process. The three tasks outline critical steps in analyzing, developing and evaluating potential alternatives. The SEC design team provided input and assistance with this partnering approach. btnfrnnnt Figure 4Project Process

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!rfr! nrrt Overview The Guiding Principles provide City staff, property owners, community residents and developers with clear guidelines to develop and/or evaluate specific development proposals for the area around the Colorado Station. The Guiding Principles address issues critical to development including: the type and intensity of land use desired, transportation issues (auto, bike, transit, and pedestrian), parking for development and transit users, and urban design. These Guiding Principles were developed from public and stakeholder group input. The Guiding Principles are intended to achieve the goals of transit-oriented development. The development of Guiding Principles occurred in an iterative process. A number of basic principles were derived from stakeholder input, input from public open houses, and the existing conditions and market analyses documented in the plan. These principles were used to create conceptual development alternatives. After receiving feedback from the stakeholder group on the conceptual alternatives, a refined set of Guiding Principles was developed and used to formulate two illustrative scenarios, which are discussed in detail in the Technical Appendix. The two development scenarios displayed in the Technical Appendix present potential development patterns assuming the Guiding Principles are followed. These scenarios show alternative physical solutions for development, and are not intended to show a specific development program that must be followed by a property owner or developer. Description of the Guiding Principles The Guiding Principles are separated into categories: development/redevelopment; and transportation including automobiles, mass transit, bicycles and pedestrians, and parking. For each category, a basic goal is first described and then a series of objectives are listed. Development/ Redevelopment Basic Goal: To create a mixed-use development for the area within and immediately adjacent to the wedge that emphasizes residential uses and provides enough density to promote a high level of transit ridership for people who may live or work near the station. Objectives: Attain an appropriate mix of residential, office and retail uses that make sense economically, and provide transit-supporting densities. Ensure that the scale and design of development (height, density, bulk, intensity, and architecture) is compatible with adjacent, established neighborhoods. Provide retail development, which includes desired services that reduce off-site trips made by Colorado Station Area residents and employees. Balance residential development with commercial uses to distribute traffic impacts and reduce parking requirements. btnfrnnnt

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Focus retail development on convenience retail, personal services, residential support retail, and restaurants, rather than destination retail. Provide a system of plazas and comfortable pedestrian-oriented streets in support of the mixed-use neighborhood. Orient residences and active uses toward the open spaces and streets to create safe environments. Provide enough revenue generating density in the wedge to justify structured parking. Employ Design Guidelines and/or Zone Designations that assist TOD, overall site design, and architecture. Create a Place or series of Places within the wedge focused on or directly leading to the station. Encourage off- wedge redevelopment in support of the station. Redevelop the Super Block south of East Evans Avenue between South Colorado Boulevard, South Ash Street, and East Warren Avenue to support the ridership at the station. Encourage the continued presence of existing business which support the overall goal of revitalization, and which support the economic success Encourage residential development, appropriately scaled to the neighborhood, at the terminus of the proposed pedestrian bridge north of I-25. Discourage transit-related parking at this location. Future development at the Colorado Station should prioritize views, open space, and pedestrian systems oriented toward the station. Encourage phasing that creates transit ridership within the wedge as early as possible in the redevelopment process. Encourage redevelopment east of I-25 adjoining South Dahlia Street, both north and south of East Evans Avenue. Encourage redevelopment to utilize the air rights over the light rail station, and to generally improve the below grade character of the station by stepping back the retaining walls and introducing active uses at or near the train level. btnfrnnnt

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btnfrnnnt Transportation-Autos Basic Goal: Create a balance between density and traffic congestion on streets surrounding the station area, and develop a network of streets inside the wedge that promote alternative access locations for vehicles and pedestrians. Objectives: Ensure development within the study area is sensitive to additional vehicular traffic impacts to Buchtel Boulevard and the surrounding neighborhoods west and south of the Colorado Station Area. Minimize traffic impacts to South Colorado Boulevard and East Evans Avenue by balancing density with the capacity limitations of the adjoining arterial streets and intersections, and by minimizing curb cuts. Avoid overloading the South Birch Street and East Evans Avenue intersection with development-generated traffic. Implement a travel demand management plan that reduces the reliance on parking and single-occupant vehicles, in order to permit a wider range of development size and type. Consider parking ratio reductions consistent with the 25% (twenty-five percent) reduction allowed under the current mixed-use zone district for any development within a quarter mile of the light rail station. The table below illustrates typical zoning parking ratios and mixed-use zoning parking ratios for areas within a quarter mile of a light rail station. However, reductions in parking should be considered within the context of shared-use parking in the area. Land Use Typical Parking RatioParking ratios @ mass transit locations Residential 1.5 spaces per unit 1.13 spaces per unit Commercial 5 spaces per 1000 sf ft3.75 spaces per 1000 sf ft Office 4 spaces per 1000 sf ft3 spaces per 1000 sf ft Require new land developments to include mitigation of traffic and parking which include multi-modal access, access management, and TDM strategies. *Under the mixed-use zone district, any reductions in the parking requirements are at the discretion of the Zoning Administrator who must consider the issues involved in each situation. Transportation-Transit Basic Goal: Create a convenient alternative to driving to the station by encouraging transit that serves the surrounding neighborhoods. Objectives: Develop a timed-transfer center at the Colorado Station. Integrate the schedules of connecting routes (light rail; local bus routes 21, 40, 52; B-Line; circulator; and regional service D) to improve service. Improve bus service frequency to attract more riders Provide an off-street mass-transit center to facilitate transfers, enhance pedestrian safety, minimize traffic interference, and increase design flexibility. Enhance local pedestrian and bicycle facilities to improve safety and access to the station.

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Develop a circulator bus that will service the University, Warren s University, Virginia Village, Cory Merrill and University Park neighborhoods and provide convenient service to the Colorado Light Rail Station, without the use of private vehicles. Transportation-Bikes & Pedestrian Basic Goal: Create safe and direct pedestrian and bicycle systems connecting the station to adjoining districts, neighborhoods, and transit parking consistent with Denver s pedestrian and bicycle plans. Objectives: Improve sidewalks located within the transition area as development occurs over time. Retain South Steele Street and South Dahlia Street as primary pedestrian/ bikeway corridors. Ensure that pedestrian connections adequately serve the prevailing and preferred walking trips for each connection. Ensure that sidewalk improvements are made to the South Colorado Boulevard bridge over I-25 as part of the Southeast Corridor project. Develop additional pedestrian improvements to the South Colorado Boulevard bridge over I-25 as part of any future bridge replacement project consistent with the width of sidewalks on the bridges being replaced as part of the Southeast Corridor project within the Narrows (South Broadway to South University Boulevard). Work to create another pedestrian connection (in addition to South Birch Street) across East Evans Avenue, south to Warren s Statistical Neighborhood, either by an at-grade pedestrian crossing with a pedestrian-activated signal, or a grade-separated crossing. Ensure that future transportation improvements are consistent with Denver s pedestrian and bicycle plans goals, principles, design, and routing. Work to create a grade-separated crossing, west over South Colorado Boulevard in the vicinity of the South Colorado Boulevard/Buchtel Boulevard intersection. Consider a grade-separated crossing over I-25 north to the Virginia Village Statistical Neighborhood. Provide a more direct and comfortable pedestrian crossing over I-25 along the old railroad alignment to the station from proposed transit parking at South Dahlia Street and East Evans Avenue. btnfrnnnt

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Parking Basic Goal: Parking should serve both development and transit by placing a priority on the implementation of shared parking alternatives, which minimize impacts on the surrounding neighborhoods. RTD has designated 363 surface parking spaces adjacent to the station platform in the wedge RTD will work to incorporate private parking and transit parking in shared parking structures, as development proposals are submitted. Over time, as the commuter parking needs expand, additional parking may be added within the service area of the station platform. RTD may initiate parking fees for the transit parking facilities to encourage other modes of travel. Flexibility will be required to achieve adequate parking for transit riders. Objectives: Promote shared parking opportunities that maximize parking efficiency. Encourage the use of parking management strategies to reduce vehicular impacts. Mitigate and manage the traffic burden on the East Evans Avenue and South Birch Street intersection. Focus on providing shared-use/transit parking east of I-25 at South Dahlia Street, and at remote or satellite locations served by neighborhoodcirculating busses. Provide adequate parking for transit users. If necessary, encourage the implementation of the restricted parking program in order to prevent light-rail commuters from parking in the surrounding neighborhoods. Transportation Demand Management Basic Goal: Utilize travel demand management (TDM) measures to reduce single occupant automobile demand for development near the station, and maximize access to the station by transit users. Objectives: Work with existing businesses in the area to implement travel demand management measures prior to the opening of the light rail station. The TDM measures utilized should be consistent with those measures described in Option One in Chapter 6, the TDM element. Develop a more extensive TDM program for the wedge area as new development takes place. The more extensive TDM program should include measures consistent with those described in Option Two the TDM chapter. Coordinate and TDM efforts through the Transportation Management Association (TMA) covering the Colorado Boulevard Station Area. Encourage participation by the office and commercial employers and property owners in the Colorado Center area in TDM and TMA strategies. btnfrnnnt

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btnfrnnnt rn fnrr frr! rn frr Conditions Colorado Center Drive, East Evans Avenue, I-25 and South Colorado Boulevard encase the primary study area on the north, south, east and west, respectively. This site is defined as the wedge South Colorado Boulevard and East Evans Avenue are major arterial roadways that provide access to the site; however, congestion on these two roadways and at their intersections makes access to the site difficult. The proposed light rail line will be recessed under South Colorado Boulevard, travel south of Colorado Center Drive and under East Evans Avenue, and return to I-25 south of East Evans Avenue. The platform will be located south of Colorado Center Drive, midway between South Birch Street and South Colorado Boulevard, approximately two blocks east of South Colorado Boulevard. The platform will be recessed below existing grade level, and stairs and elevators will provide access. Current land use in the wedge consists of a mix of light industrial, retail, servicerelated, and small office uses. The largest businesses existing during the onset of this plan are Pier One, Freeway Ford, Public Storage and Bell Plumbing. The Bell Plumbing and Pier One properties have been acquired by RTD and CDOT for LRT alignment and parking. The existing uses, generally, are not complementary to a light rail transit facility. Uses such as residential, retail, office and entertainment would present opportunities for higher values and densities. Under current zoning, little incentive exists for creative redevelopment or TOD. However, current zoning does allow for more density than currently exists in the study area. Current zoning alone does not provide a framework for pedestrianfriendly, transit-supportive design. Local Setting/ Character To fully understand all factors affecting potential redevelopment at the Colorado Station, the study area was expanded into adjacent statistical neighborhoods and primary circulation areas. This larger study area was then divided into four focus areas. The four focus areas are described below and illustrated in Figure 6. Figure 5 Site Description of the Wedge

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btnfrnnnt The Wedge: The first and most concentrated focus area is the wedge The wedge is the area that is in closest proximity to the station and was determined to be the area with the most potential for redevelopment. The wedge is approximately 11 acres. Station Area: The next focus area is the station area The station area includes the wedge and Colorado Center. It is deemed critical that the framework plan developed through this planning process function and relate to the existing and proposed development at Colorado Center. Access Area: The access area is important in terms of connections from local neighborhoods and commercial areas to the proposed Colorado Station. Transition Area: The fourth focus area is the transition area The transition area was examined for long-term redevelopment and potential connections between the Colorado Station and the surrounding neighborhoods. The transition area extends approximately 1/2 mile around the light rail platform. Figure 6 Four Focus Areas

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btnfrnnnt Study Area Land uses within the wedge today include a mix of light industrial services, retail, local and regional services, auto service and small offices. Existing destinations are shown in Figure 7. The existing development in close proximity to South Colorado Boulevard, East Evans Avenue and I-25 generates both local and regional trips to the area. The current intensity of uses in the wedge is below that allowed by the existing zoning. Buildings in the wedge are typically made up of single-story buildings with no distinct architectural character. The business development to the north of the wedge the Colorado Center, has a unified architectural character, which is not currently present in the wedge Redevelopment in the wedge would present an opportunity for using design guidelines to establish streetscape and architectural standards for this area. Redevelopment should improve the quality of the architecture, landscaping and pedestrian connections. It is important that redevelopment enhances all modes of access to these areas. Figure 7Destinations surrounding the LRT Station

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btnfrnnnt Zoning Under the current zoning, a wide range of uses are permitted and could allow nearly a doubling of the existing density. Zoning within the Station Area B-4 General Business District, B-4 with waivers I-0 Light Industrial/Office District B-2 Neighborhood Business District, B-2 with waivers B-1 Limited Office District R-1 Single Unit Detached Dwellings, Low Density Planned Unit Development (PUD) As a point of illustration, Figure 8 shows a photo of existing conditions looking west from 1-25 and Evans Avenue at the Colorado Station site and Figures 9 and 10 show the potential build-out of this area with the existing zoning. If development were to occur today without a station area plan and subsequent plan implementation, these densities could be developed with or without respect to principles of transitoriented development. Figure 8Existing conditions at Colorado Blvd.and Evans Avenue (looking N.W. from I-25 and Evans Avenue) Figure 9Potential Buildout allowed within current zoning looking west from I-25 and Evans Avenue Figure 10Potential heights allowed under current zoning at Colorado Boulevard and Evans Avenue

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btnfrnnnt Neighborhoods The proposed station is surrounded by several statistical neighborhoods. Neighborhood organizations registered with the City that represent adjacent neighborhoods include: Cory-Merrill East Colorado Avenue Homeowner s Association University Park Community Council South Jackson Street Neighborhood Organization Virginia Village/Ellis Community Association Warrens University Community Council Neighborhood Composition The neighborhoods surrounding the Colorado Station primarily consist of owner-occupied single-family houses with a mix of multi-unit residential, retail, office and industrial uses that line the major arterials. All adjacent registered neighborhood organizations participated in the Colorado Station Area planning process. Figure 11 Colorado Station Neighborhood Associations SourceCity and County of Denver

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btnfrnnnt Stakeholder Issues/Concerns The monthly meetings with the stakeholder group were interactive workshops where key concerns and issues were identified. Once these key concerns and issues were identified, they provided a basis for design development and were incorporated into the Guiding Principles. The following list represents these key discussion points. Questions about East Evans Avenue Widening Pedestrian and bicycle access at East Evans Avenue/ South Colorado Boulevard / I-25 Traffic / Parking serving retail Neighborhood Shuttle Service to the Broadway Station (during LRT Construction) Concerned with overspill traffic during construction of LRT Noise (LRT Operations) Maintain Neighborhood Culture / Character / Scale Open space planned in new proposals at station / connections Mixed Use / Residential, Retail, Commercial on a neighborhood scale Crime / Security / Safety Build over LRT trench Why not covered station or integrated with architecture Minimize physical negatives of trench Would like to see more Residential Uses Revitalization / Introduction of new businesses Existing / Integration of businesses with new plan What is the precedent across the country? Outcome of consolidating curb cuts re: traffic / circulation Comprehensive Planning / No piece meal planning Redevelopment of Evans and Colorado Boulevard Focus on pedestrian and bicycle access Pedestrian Access across I-25 One developer / One Comprehensive Plan Don t put too much parking for LRT in wedge

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btnfrnnnt Pedestrian Access Existing pedestrian access to the proposed Colorado Station is illustrated in Figure 12. The sidewalks in neighborhoods proximal to the station area range from 2 feet to 5 feet in width, have limited handicap access, and are primarily attached walks constructed adjacent to the curb. As Figure 12 shows, existing pedestrian access to the station is limited by missing links in the sidewalk infrastructure and the barriers posed by the high-volume roadways such as South Colorado Boulevard and East Evans Avenue. South Colorado Boulevard, for example, is wide and carries a very high volume of traffic (up to 80,000 vehicles per day). I-25 is also a major barrier, effectively limiting access to the Colorado Station from the north. The very narrow (2 foot) sidewalk along South Colorado Boulevard over the I-25 Interchange, combined with the on/off ramps exiting and entering I-25 in the vicinity, creates a hostile environment for pedestrian access to the proposed station. To maximize safe pedestrian and bicycle circulation, existing sidewalks need widening, missing links need connecting, and handicap ramps need constructing. Figure 12Existing Pedestrian Access to Proposed Colorado LRT Station;Source:City and County of Denver

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btnfrnnnt Transit Access Local bus routes that currently serve the wedge area are: 21, 40, 52, 56 and the BLine. Regional bus routes that run along Interstate 25 are the D, P, T, and the W. Bus Route Destinations B-Line University Hills, Cherry Creek (local shuttle) 40 Southmoor, Colorado Boulevard, University Hills Shopping Center 52 Alameda, Light Rail Station, Downtown, Old Town Arvada, University Hills Shopping Center 21 University Boulevard, Highlands Ranch, Southglenn Mall, York St. Rerouting of bus service along the Southeast Corridor is proposed, in order to provide more frequent and more efficient service to the Colorado Station Area. Local and regional routes potentially subject to rerouting include: The 21 40 52 B-Line and regional route D RTD states in RTD Network Design and Development Research shows that the following features are most important to retaining and attracting customers: on-time performance; minimal transferring; frequency of service; travel time; closeness of stop to origin/destination; availability at times needed and to destinations; and amenities at stop and on vehicle. With this in mind, further coordination with RTD is necessary in order to provide more frequency and better neighborhood service. In order to promote ridership at the Colorado Station and reduce private vehicle use, it will be important to provide enhanced neighborhood access including local bus circulators, enhanced RTD services, and safe pedestrian and bicycle connections. Figure 13 Existing Bus Routes; Source:Regional Transportation District (RTD)

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btnfrnnnt Auto Access The roadway network in the vicinity of the project is described below: South Colorado Boulevard South Colorado Boulevard is a major north/south six-lane arterial that carries approximately 4,500 to 6,000 vehicles per hour (vph) during the existing peak hours. The current interchange of South Colorado Boulevard and I-25 consists of loop ramps on the northeast and southwest quadrants, while the northwest quadrant is a typical on-ramp configuration. A frontage road, beginning in the southeast quadrant of the interchange, provides access to I-25 for vehicles traveling northbound on South Colorado Boulevard to southbound I-25. East Evans Avenue East Evans Avenue is a primary east/west four-lane arterial that carries approximately 2,500 to 3,800 vph during the existing peak hours. The interchange of East Evans Avenue and I-25 is currently a diamond interchange with traffic signals at the ramp intersections. In addition to the ramp intersections, the signalized intersection of East Evans Avenue with South Dahlia Street was analyzed. Buchtel Boulevard Buchtel Boulevard is a two-lane designated parkway and bikeway between South Colorado Boulevard and South University Boulevard that, until the recent development of the Colorado Center, terminated at South Colorado Boulevard. It has recently been realigned with the entrance to the Colorado Center at the intersection of South Colorado Boulevard and Colorado Center Drive. South Dahlia Street South Dahlia Street is the first signalized intersection east of the East Evans Avenue and I-25 interchange. South Dahlia Street north of East Evans Avenue leads to residential areas, and is an alternative to the north side frontage road for access to East Mexico Avenue and nearby nonresidential uses. It is a two-lane roadway carrying approximately 600 vph in both the AM and PM peak hour. Conclusion Regardless of the adoption of the Guiding Principles, further planning, design, and programming of transportation improvements needs to be completed for this area. The mprovement of bike, pedestrian and bus connections will help minimize traffic congestion. It is important to plan development in a manner that may lessen the traffic impact that can occur under existing zoning. Traffic impacts will have to be examined in greater detail by developers and/or property owners proposing any new development in the area. Anyone who is moving forward with new development should follow the City s guidelines for traffic impact studies that are currently under development. In particular, access management, bicycle/pedestrian needs, parking and other improvements to the area to the west and south of the Wedge should be detailed, particularly with additional parking and commercial development outside the Wedge. A detailed traffic analysis can be found in the Technical Appendix.

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btnfrnnnt nt n frr Introduction As part of the planning effort for the Colorado Station area, an assessment of market and economic conditions in the surrounding market area was completed. This assessment was an integral part of overall planning, as it provided guidance where development opportunities may occur in both the short(2000 to 2005) and long-term (2005 to 2010+). Supplemented with case study research, it also offered empirical evidence of development trends with respect to resident and employment profiles, preferred real estate product types and characteristics typical of transit-oriented development. Armed with this type of assessment, the City and stakeholder group could be assured that the land use plan derived from this process was grounded in market and economic reality. Short-Term Regional Outlook (2000 to 2005) The short-term outlook for the Denver metro area is one of moderate population growth at a compound average annual rate of less than 2.0 percent. Household incomes and wealth are expected to increase above 2000 levels when the median household income was $54,297 and median household wealth was $80,785. Metro employment is expected to rise by approximately 3.0 percent annually (according to the Colorado Department of Employment baseline employment estimate) between year 2000 and 2010. Strongest employment gains, historically, have been realized within the construction, advanced technology, retail, services, communications and tourism sectors. The service sector remains the Denver metro area s largest sector, employing more than 30 percent of the workforce. Among the fastest growing service industries are: Information retrieval, mutual funds, data processing & networks, professional computer services, CAD/CAM/CAE software, space commerce, management consulting, securities, cable TV and financial services. The fastest growing manufacturing industries include: Printed circuit boards, space vehicle equipment, semi-conductors and related devices, radio & TV communications equipment, and telecommunications equipment. Strongest occupational gains have been in the managerial, professional, technical and clerical sectors indicating the created jobs have tended toward living wage jobs in the service sector rather than lower wage service labor jobs. New jobs added in the City & County of Denver in 1999 exceeded 10,000 with growth concentrated in the area around DIA, the Denver Technology Center and Downtown. The Southeast Corridor LRT will connect the two major front-range employment centers the Denver Technology Center and Downtown Denver.

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btnfrnnnt Mid-Term Regional Outlook (2005 to 2010+) Metro-wide population estimates area forecasted to rise while household size is forecasted to drop approaching 2.0 by 2015. Metro employment (excluding Boulder) is projected to grow by an average of between 35,000 and 40,000 jobs annually over the later part of the decade. Manufacturing jobs will decline further as a percent of employment. This does not indicate that manufacturing will cease to be part of the economy, but rather that the number of people required to participate directly in production is falling. The metro area is projected to gain higher-tech and value-added manufacturing while more traditional resourcebased processing is expected to decline. Occupational gains will be highest in the managerial, professional and technical occupations, with the highest gains in the service industries. The new light rail project will allow easy linkage between suburban subcenters in the southeast light rail corridor and Downtown Denver. Market Analysis by Land Use Type Overall Market Opportunities and Constraints The first step in the market analysis of various land use types was to set the market context for both historical and future development growth in the Denver metropolitan area, Denver County and ultimately, the Colorado Station Area. As presented earlier, there are four focus areas around the station area of influence including the wedge, station area, transition area and access area. Each was considered for the purpose of projecting future land uses. Factors posing opportunities and constraints within this market context were then identified and used to form the foundation of development projections. These factors include: Construction of the Southeast line began during the summer of 2001. The number and type of projects entering the market prior to completion of the light rail line and station will influence conclusions presented herein. Identified opportunities reflect the timing of demand, which occurs by land use during the speculation period (prior to completion of the station), as well as during the period following development of the line. Actual square feet of space by use will depend on current market demand, availability and condition of supply, availability of vacant and under-utilized properties (potential for assemblages), and the availability of financing and incentives. New trends show buyers of existing homes locating closer to urban employment centers and in traditionally more affordable neighborhoods to avoid traffic congestion. Recent opportunities have been somewhat limited for buyers in these sectors as the number of homes in the resale market has declined in recent years and prices have increased.

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btnfrnnnt With continued growth in the Southeast Suburban office market in developments such as the Denver Technology Center (DTC), Inverness, Meridian and Greenwood Plaza, the Colorado Station Area offers one of the few remaining infill opportunities for commercial development connected to downtown by light rail. Retail in the vicinity of Colorado Station is currently representative of two principal categoriesbig box and entertainment, both destinationoriented. With the introduction of light rail, the area s ability to accommodate a growing destination population will be improved. Similarly, opportunities for neighborhood services increase Residential Market Outlook (2000 to 2010+) Historical Development The flow of individuals with higher incomes to the area, from other parts of the state and country, has continued to impact residential markets throughout the metro area, resulting in increases in both new and existing home sales. The move-up residential market continues to be the most active segment. During the period from 1998-1999, construction of single-family homes increased approximately 10 percent, while construction of townhomes and condominiums increased approximately 36 percent. Housing prices in all segments also continued to rise, with average home prices increasing nine percent to over $210,000. During the last half of the 1990 s, average monthly rents in Denver (City/County) increased at an annual rate of 5 percent. Comparatively, the metro-wide average monthly rent increased by 3.5 percent. Much of the City s increase was reflective of the transformation of remodeled lofts and apartments in Downtown Denver commanding above market rents. The result of rising rents and diminished supply in lower rent ranges has been a tightening throughout the City and particularly in the Denver South Central sub-market (which includes the Colorado Station Area), which finished 1999 at a 2.2 percent vacancy rate. Overall vacancy rates within this sub-market declined nearly every year since 1994, while the overall City of Denver vacancy rate increased slightly or remained stable. Colorado Station (including the areas of influence) maintains nearly 1,000 housing units. Based on the current zoning, there is a build-out potential for more than approximately 1,800 units. Future Development Between 2000 and 2005 Denver is expected to experience conservative growth of approximately 10,000 households with the household size dropping from 2.16 to 2.15. This household formation size is expected to drop further by 2015 to 2.0 persons per household with an even lower estimate within light rail areas. Employment trends indicate that high proportions of new employees will be managerial, professional, technical and clerical indicating that the new households will likely have above average incomes, characteristics consistent with the profile of typical station area neighborhood residents.

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btnfrnnnt Given a new household formation size of 2.0 or less (no children) and higher disposable income, future households will pay more for less space. The value in housing units will be driven by its surrounding amenity package including neighborhood services, convenience, and access. Demand within the four focus areas of the Colorado Station Area is projected to total approximately 1,900 to 2,500 units over the next 20 years, or approximately 5 percent of total market share. The success of residential and office products at Colorado Station will be closely tied to the accuracy with which developers analyze the profile of employees and residents along the line and match products to meet their needs. Office Commercial Market Outlook (2000 to 2010+) Historical Development Current office space in the South Colorado Boulevard/ Cherry Creek sub-market, that market which encompasses the Colorado Station Area, totals approximately 10 million square feet with 755,200 square feet vacant space. Class A office space is listed at $22-$26 per square feetfalling in the middle of the regionwide average rate. The strongest suburban market in the metro area continues to be the Southeast Suburban sector, which added 846,000 square feet of new space in the first half of 1999 alone. Class A space in the Southeast Suburban sector leads the market, accounting for all new construction and most of the absorption. This submarket, the second largest in the Denver Metropolitan Area, comprises the southeast I-25 Corridor including Colorado Station. Other major office developments along the I-25 corridor include the Greenwood Plaza, Inverness Business Park, and Meridian Office Park. The Colorado Station Area (including the areas of influence) maintains more than 2.5 million square feet of commercial space. Based on the current zoning, there is a build-out potential for more than 4.5 million square feet. Future Development Demand for new office space is derived from three principal sources: expansion of existing industry, relocation of new companies into the market, and creation of new firms. The first two factors are addressed through an analysis of employment projections by including a factor for self-employed individuals; a sector historically not recorded in statebased employment calculations. Additionally, an adjustment is made for turnover to account for the movement of exiting tenants into new buildings, to arrive at total annual demand for office square footage. Growth in employment in Denver will create a need for approximately 1.5 to 2.0 million square feet of space (speculative and build-to-suit) per year over the nearto mid-term. Overall demand for office space will continue to be driven by existing local business expansions and new market entrants in growing industries. The primary driver of demand for office space over the nearand midterm will be managerial, technical and professional occupations in the

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btnfrnnnt Service, FIRE (Finance, Insurance, Real Estate) and Government sectors. Space needs in the service/institutional category covers service, managerial, professional and technical space for health services, as well as all nonhealth service employees. As discussed earlier, those occupations representative of residents who frequently prefer housing choices that offer the added convenience provided within station area developments. Demand within the influence areas of Colorado Station is projected to total 1.0 to 1.8 million square feet over the next 20 year, representing less than 6 percent of market share, limited only by space available for development and redevelopment. The success of office and residential products at Colorado Station will be closely tied to the accuracy with which developers analyze the profile of employees and residents along the line and match products to meet their needs. Retail Market Outlook (2000 to 2010+) Historical Development A profile of expenditures per household in the City of Denver suggests a distribution weighted towards leisure time purchases and purchases influenced by levels of disposable income. Food stores represent 26 percent of retail expenditures, followed by auto dealers. Eating and drinking represent 15 percent and Apparel 13 percent. Increased incomes and smaller household size indicate an increase in disposable income per household and a growth market for retail. The retail market is being addressed currently by approximately 2,988,800 square feet on retail in the Midtown sub-market which extends from I-70 on the north, South Quebec Street on the east, Sheridan Boulevard on the west and East Evans Avenue on the south. Since there is a strong tendency for people in this area to frequent bigbox stores at Interstate 25 and South Colorado Boulevard and community centers north for general merchandise and other retail purchases, this is considered representative of the area.

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btnfrnnnt Vacancy rates in the Midtown submarket were the second lowest in the metro area at 2.9 percent at year-end 1999. Rental rates (median) fell at the low end of the market at $10.00 triple net. For the purpose of this analysis, existing commercial space includes both office and retail land uses. Therefore, as reported earlier, the Colorado Station Area maintains a supply of approximately 2.5 million square feet of commercial space with a build-out potential for more than 4.5 million square feet. Future Development Demand for retail/service space is based on retail expenditures and resident spending patterns within a trade area. Demand estimates represent unmet potential as measured by expenditures made outside the area, as well as future growth as determined by the potential level of retail expenditures by households. Demand within the influence areas of Colorado Station for retail space are projected to total 200,000 to 325,000 square feet, representing less than 5 percent of market share. The success of retail products at Colorado Station will be closely tied to an understanding of the difference in the spending patterns among residents and employees of station area developments and travelers to and through the stations. Among the challenges are: balancing parking for riders, patrons and residents; programming the space for a realistic tenant mix; integrating uses to serve multiple audiences; and, strengthening neighborhood connections. The introduction of light rail into the area will increase its exposure as a destination location for retail purchases, by individuals traveling by vehicle and train. Additional support will be generated by existing neighborhood residents, as well as new residents who relocate at the area. New rooftops will occur with the increase in access provided by light rail, as well as inevitable change in character to a mixed-use center.

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btnfrnnnt POTENTIAL FOR DEVELOPMENT Development opportunities over the near-and long-term are summarized in the following table: Land Uses Near-TermLong-TermNot Likely Class A High-rise Corporate Headquarters Class B* Incubator Space Mixed-Use Specialty Retail Entertainment Retail Neighborhood-Serving Theater** Fast Food/Carry-Out Sit-Down Bars Rental Apartments Rowhouse/Townhouse Condominiums Live/Work Lofts Affordable Housing *Assumes shared parking **Currently existing Source: Leland Consulting Group CASE STUDY RESEARCH In an effort to provide additional context to the patterns of growth occurring in the Denver area and their applicability to station area development, the consultant team conducted a case study of station areas in similar markets, as well as a review of industry information related specifically to real estate impacts from the introduction of rail into a neighborhood. The results of this case study research are summarized below.

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btnfrnnnt Demographics of Rail-Based Housing The presence of rail transit draws a higher proportion of managerial and professional employees than exists in surrounding areas without the transit among the strongest occupational sectors in the Denver Metropolitan Area. Households adjacent to transit are smaller (around 1.65 to 1.9 persons) irrespective of the surrounding area household size. Approximately half of the households at rail station areas were one-person while only one quarter of the households in surrounding areas were one-person households. Rail-based housing tends to draw two age groups: residents between 25 and 45 and residents over 65. (33 and 10.5 percent of the metro area total and 33.3 and 13.8 percent of the city total, respectively) Given that many station area households are one-person households, individual earnings are higher in rail-based housing than in surrounding areas. The majority of households in station-based housing made over $35,000 per household, with from 28 to 42 percent making over $55,000 per household (1998) 69.7 percent of metro area households report an income in excess of $35,000 and 58.6 percent of city households. Since there are few households with children, station-based households have more disposable income than their surrounding neighborhoods. Since Denver s goal of transit-oriented development is mixed-use, mixedincome, and affordable housing, overall vehicles per household will likely be lower than typical higherincome, childless households. Because of its demographics, rail-based housing is primarily upscale multifamily rental or higher density single family (ownership) housing. Transit Impacts on Value Trips by transit are typically to and from work. Having work destinations at transit station areas and residential uses at the origin point of the trip can contribute to higher transit use, if the employment characteristics of residents and the employment opportunities are matched. The effect of rail transit on land pricing is inconsistent, although there seems to be an initial rise in price based on speculation. In a study by the University of North Texas, the value of transit-served properties was approximately 25 percent greater than comparable properties not served by transit. Rail transit can generate a seven to ten percent increase in house unit pricing near the station with the price effect noted to around 1800 feet from the station. In Portland, Oregon, a premium of about $5,000 per unit was noted adjacent to rail transit. Except for the provided affordable housing, apartment rents are higher per square feet (as much as ten percent) in rail-based housing, but the real value captured is in serving the higher-end demographic market, which prefers this location. Office rents appear to be higher at LRT stations and grade down in a radius of about 1.5 miles. In a study completed by the University of North Texas, commercial property rents increased

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btnfrnnnt more than 47 percent over a four-year period following the introduction of light rail. Retail rents appear higher at transit stations with the effect grading down in a radius of about .4 mile. In addition to rent structures, rail was shown to positively impact occupancy rates, with the Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) case study suggesting an 8 percent rise over a four-year period. Rail-based housing tends to have a higher density than housing in surrounding areas, but does not rise above normal market densities. Note: In a survey of 27 projects, it was found that no project was able to achieve rents sufficient to allow densities above 26 units per acre. The reason is attributed to the requirement for platform or structured parking among higher density developments, as well as high car ownership per person among relatively high-income individuals in rail-based housing. Platform parking is too costly to be supported under existing market rent structures in midrise projects, even in high-density areas such as in San Francisco, California. Lessons Learned Studies at station area and transitsupportive development contain several conclusions regarding factors that lead to successful transit-supportive development. The overall market is critical. A stronger market for development and in particular higher density residential and office space will help create the critical mass of development at station area locations. The locational advantages of each station should be carefully considered, and development focused at those station areas that have multiple locational advantages, including good auto access, as well as transit access. Land use and transportation planning when coordinated at the state, regional and local levels are most effective. Land use regulations must permit higher-density residential and commercial development at station areas and restrict it where it is less desirable, such as stable, single-family residential neighborhoods. The public sector must be actively involved in development partnerships with the private sector. Public sector actions can include investment in pedestrian and transit improvements, regulatory incentives, land assemblage, site preparation and development studies. CONCLUSION Transit-oriented development is marketresponsive and maintains its value. TOD can also be effective in addressing growth management issues. As discussed earlier, the City and County of Denver exhibits many of the supportive characteristics, which could contribute to the successful implementation of station area developments. The challenge, therefore, becomes less that of finding the market to support the development and more delivery of the development itself. As with most forms of urban development and redevelopment, a series of barriers exists within the delivery system. The challenge is to identify those barriers and then provide strategies to overcome them. Strategies to overcome barriers and promote investment in Colorado Station are discussed in more detail in Chapter 6, the Implementation Section of this report.

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btnfrnnnt nt ff "f# t Purpose For the Colorado Station Area, a Travel Demand Management (TDM) program is recommended for maximizing the effectiveness of redevelopment and its interaction with the light rail station at Colorado Center. The program is designed to reduce employee travel to and from the area by single-occupant vehicles, as well as encourage residential use of alternative modes. Participation of existing businesses (including the office and commercial uses in the Colorado Center area) and of adjacent neighborhoods will be important. The Colorado Station TDM Program The Colorado Station Area TDM Program places comprehensive standards for travel reduction throughout the station area. For application purposes, the Colorado Station TDM Program is designed to serve two options: 1) implement travel reduction measures as properties redevelop independently, and, 2) provide for a comprehensive, station-area TDM program if a coordinated approach involving all station area properties were utilized. Option One: Stand-Alone Travel Reduction Standards Option One is designed to ensure travel reduction and shared parking standards are implemented when property owners individually redevelop. This option does not utilize an independent district or association of building/property owners to assist travel reduction efforts. There are minimum travel reduction standards, which must be met regardless of redevelopment type, as well as additional activities that are triggered with redevelopment thresholds: Minimum Travel Reduction Activities Meet and/or exceed travel reduction goals per site 10% participation in alternative transportation modes and programs prior to the opening of the Southeast Light Rail Line 15% employee use of alternative modes of travel after the opening of the Southeast Light Rail Line and the Colorado Station Develop and document for the City and County of Denver, appropriate travel reduction program elements for the site (to be performed every two years). Each property owner would be free to implement any travel reduction strategy, provided it meets the stated goals and does not cause harm to the travel reduction efforts of adjacent properties. Such strategies for consideration include: Parking management, preferential parking, and pay on the way out Encourage shared and cooperative parking arrangements with adjacent properties

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btnfrnnnt Bicycle lockers, clothes lockers, and showers Alternative work arrangements Telecommuting policies Alternative transportation marketing and promotional efforts Carpool matching and incentives Discounted bus and rail passes provided on-site Participation in a Transportation Management Association (TMA) or similar area-based organization Additional Travel Reduction Activities Office uses (more than 25 employees): Provide a designated Transportation Coordinator to assist employees meet travel reduction goals; meet a goal of 10% use of alternative modes prior to opening of the Southeast Light Rail line. Residential uses: Provide residential ECO passes (or similar bus/transit passes) through an annual homeowners fee; shared parking with office uses would be encouraged by the City and County of Denver. Retail uses: Provide discounted bus and rail passes for employees on-site. Option Two: Station-Area Overlay District for Travel Reduction Option Two is intended to provide for a more comprehensive TDM program throughout the Colorado Station Area. This option includes the designation of an overlay district or service area that would serve to provide centralized management of the TDM program and shared parking facilities for transit and development. Although the exact boundaries have yet to be determined, the general guideline is to include both the station and access areas identified in Section 2.1. Option Two provides a greater number of opportunities than Option One, due to TDM efforts being coordinated across all properties for economies-of-scale. The Option Two TDM Program would include: Meet and/or exceed travel reduction goals for the entire Colorado Station Area 10% participation in alternative transportation modes and programs prior to the opening of the Southeast Light Rail line 20% employee and visitor use of alternative modes of travel after the opening of the Southeast Light Rail line and the Colorado Station A centralized, staffed point-of-contact for the provision of transportation information (such as a Commuter Store). Services to be conducted from this location include: A TDM program coordinator, serving as a shared resource to all employers and property managers within the station area Services as identified in Option One above, however, maximized for implementation throughout the station area Sharing and management of parking facilities serving the station area, including pricing Station area membership in a Transportation Management Association serving the Colorado Station Area (currently Transportation Solutions) nt

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rtr n!r In order to accomplish the vision established by the stakeholder group that is reflected in the Guiding Principles, several action items have been identified. These action items are intended to address existing development incentives as well as the creation of new regulatory tools to promote TOD. A proactive pursuit of the Guiding Principles identified by the stakeholders is critical to realizing the vision identified for the Colorado Station Area. Before outlining implementation strategies for the Plan, several important characteristics of the Colorado Station Area Framework Plan and small area plans in general should be noted. First, plans themselves are advisory in nature, provide guidance to City decisions, and are not regulatory tools. Plans provide a vision, which is a collective picture of a desired future and a roadmap for achieving that vision. Generally, plans are not implemented quickly, but require a number of years to achieve the vision. Rather, plans are implemented incrementally with the vision and goals providing common direction to a multitude of public and private undertakings. Despite this imperfect situation, plans have proved to substantially influence the development of a plan area. The Comprehensive Plan requires that new development and redevelopment of the plan area be in conformance with plan goals and policies, as well as with Citywide plans, and adopted rules and regulations. Developers are expected to meet with neighborhood associations and with adjacent property owners to discuss their development and rezoning proposals Second, the adoption of this Plan does not change the zoning. However, zoning is the primary land use regulatory mechanism, and is, thus, an important tool for implementing small area plans. Throughout the City s development review process, neighborhood associations and individual citizens are provided opportunities to provide feedback on the development proposals and whether they meet plan goals and policies. Traffic impacts, the proposed density of the project, the mix of land uses, and design considerations will be taken into account during the process. Finally, the adoption of this Plan does not automatically provide funding for operational improvements or capital projects for multi-modal transportation facilities roadway, bus, bicycle and pedestrian or for other infrastructure systems such as storm drainage facilities. Obviously, public funding resources are limited. Capital projects, such as street improvements, can be funded by the City through its capital improvements program, by property owners through special taxation districts, or by private developers as development occurs. Funding availability, timing, and the necessary public land are constraints to achieving the Plan s vision and goals with regard to capital improvements. btnfrnnnt

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The implementation action items listed below include a description of the action and identify whether the action is a shortterm strategy (within 1 to 3 years), a midterm strategy (within 3 to 5 years), or a long-term strategy (within 5 to 15 years). The time frames listed are provided in terms of years from the Plan adoption date. Short-Term Strategies (1 to 3 years): S-1: Formalize Citywide TOD Coalition A collaborative effort between the City of Denver, The Denver Urban Renewal Authority and the Regional Transportation District (RTD) is being formalized. The TOD coalition will share information and provide a coordinated response to development proposals, both at the Colorado Station and citywide. Time frame: 1-3 years Responsibility: City (Community Planning and Development/Public Works/DURA), RTD Financing: NA S-2:Investigate Opportunity to Change Zoning to Promote TOD within the Station and Transition Areas The current mix of B-2, B-4 and I-O zoning provides limited opportunity for creating development consistent with the Guiding Principles. Different zoning may provide incentives for appropriate development and reduced parking requirements. A change in zone districts should be developed with key property owners at this and other station areas. Design guidelines that coincide with a TOD overlay or a new TOD zone district should also be strongly considered. Time frame: 1-3 years Responsibility: City (Community Planning and Development), Property owners and Developers Financing: $ S-3: Determine Conceptual Design for East Evans Avenue between South Colorado Boulevard and I-25 Improvements to East Evans Avenue between South Colorado Boulevard and I-25 will be needed with increased development near the Colorado Light Rail Station. Conceptual design should address the right-of-way required for future improvements, priorities for bike and pedestrian access across East Evans Avenue and along the north and south sides of East Evans Avenue, and preliminary cost estimates for the proposed improvements. Completing conceptual design of East Evans Avenue will allow the City to pursue a variety of funding options including federal funds through the Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG). Time frame: Responsibility: Property owners & developers Financing: Public & private $$$ (Public Works, DRCOG, CIP) btnfrnnnt

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S-4: Consider the Formation of an Urban Renewal Area (URA) Conduct a blight study to determine if a URA is appropriate or desirable to further TOD development in the Colorado Station Area. Time frame: 1-3 years Responsibility: DURA Financing: $ City (Public Works Transportation Division)/DURA S-5: Study the feasibility of a circulator bus Because of interchanges at Colorado/I-25 and East Evans Ave./I-25, the area surrounding the station area is subdivided into quadrants. Without circulator buses, residents in each of theses quadrants beyond 1/4 mile from the station will be unable to access the station conveniently without the use of their private vehicles. Time frame: 1-3 years Responsibility: RTD, City (Public Works, Community Planning and Development, Transportation Solutions) Financing: $$$ TMA, DRCOG, RTD City (TABOR if available) Mid-Term Strategies (3 to 5 years) M-1: Actively Encourage New Development in the wedge The pressure for new development in the vicinity of Colorado Boulevard and I-25 is growing. Because of this pressure it is advantageous to actively encourage new development consistent with the Guiding Principles identified in the wedge. The City should encourage partnerships among existing property owners to pursue larger development opportunities rather than smaller ones. Additionally, the City should require a General Development Plan from any developer s ownership and develop the wedge as a single project. Time frame: 3-5 years Responsibility: Property owners & developers; City (Community Planning and Development/ DURA/MOED/ Public Works) Financing: NA M-2: Develop New Tools to Encourage and Preserve TOD Opportunities Currently, there are a limited number of tools that City has available to encourage TOD. New tools need to be developed which increase the probability of TOD happening sooner rather than later at the Colorado Station and at other existing and proposed stations within the City. The new tools should focus on two main areas: shared parking and land preservation/ consolidation. For shared parking, resources should be developed or combined, which encourage and promote sharing of parking between a mix of land uses and transit commuters. Also, as properties go on the market, the City should devote resources to gaining control of key land parcels near transit stations. The City could then transfer control of those parcels to prospective TOD developers when the timing is appropriate. Time frame: 3-5 years Responsibility: City/RTD btnfrnnnt

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Financing: $$$ TABOR Transit Dollars/Other sources to be determined M-3: Implement TDM Plan Strongly encourage implementation of the travel demand management (TDM) plan developed as part of the overall planning effort. Property owners and tenants within the Station and Transition Areas should implement it as development progresses. Participation by existing employers in the area will help to establish a pattern for future tenants of TOD to follow and reduce the current number of single occupant drivers traveling to and from the area. Existing TDM programs offer strategies. Inclusion in a Transportation Management Association (TMA) should be a condition of a rezoning or development plan approval. Time frame: 3-5 years Responsibility: Existing employers within the Station Area/Transportation Solutions Financing: $ Existing employers and residential neighborhoods within the Station and Transition Areas M-4: Improve Neighborhood Transit Access Neighborhood access to transit service is inadequate. RTD has started to address this issue with its proposed timed transfer network. However, more needs to be done to address transit access at a neighborhood level to reduce the need for neighborhood residents to park at the Colorado Station. Time frame: 3-5 years Responsibility: RTD/City Council/ Neighborhood Organizations Financing: $$ RTD M-5: Determine Needed Neighborhood Pedestrian Improvements on Buchtel Boulevard between South Colorado Boulevard and South Monroe Street The University Park Neighborhood has raised concerns relating to pedestrian access across Buchtel Boulevard, between South Monroe Street and South Colorado Boulevard. This section of Buchtel should be evaluated to determine what could be done to enhance pedestrian access across Buchtel Boulevard to better serve the Colorado Station and the University Park Neighborhood. Time Frame: 3-5 years Responsibility: Property owners & developers; City (Public Works, Urban Design, Community Planning and Development), University Park Neighborhood, TMA, RTD Financing: $$ Combine private and public sources, including DRCOG & RTD M-6: Explore Potential for Pedestrian Access from Colorado Center to Station Area Currently, the T-Rex improvements do not include pedestrian access across the light rail line and Buchtel/Colorado Center Drive, from the office and theatre complex to the north in Colorado Center. The involved parties should explore the btnfrnnnt

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btnfrnnnt feasibility and cost of a pedestrian bridge or other structure to connect the areas. Time Frame: 3-5 years Responsibility: Property owners & developers; City (Public Works, Urban Design, Community Planning and Development), University Park Neighborhood, TMA, RTD Financing: $$ Combine private and public sources, including DRCOG & RTD Long-Term Strategies (5-15 years) L-1: Examine the Feasibility for Construction of Pedestrian Bridges over I-25 Two pedestrian bridges over I-25 to the Colorado Station (one directly north of Colorado Center and the other in a similar alignment to the existing railroad bridge north of East Evans Avenue) were identified as essential to improving pedestrian connectivity to the station. Feasibility of these bridges should be explored. Time Frame: 5-15 years Responsibility: Property owners & developers; Financing: L-2: Determine Needed Neighborhood Pedestrian Improvements South of Evans Pedestrian connectivity was an issue to the Stakeholder Committee. Gaps in sidewalks and inadequate sidewalks exist in the neighborhood and should be examined in more detail to determine what types of improvements could be made to improve pedestrian connectivity between the neighborhoods and the Colorado Station. This issue should also be considered as part of the Citywide Pedestrian Master Plan. Time Frame: 5-15 years Responsibility: TMA; City (Transportation Planning/Traffic Engineering)/Warrens University Neighborhood Financing: $$$ Public Works, Developers, Sidewalk Maintenance Program, TMA

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btnfrnnnt fr Analysis of Development Alternatives This section describes the process for creating the conceptual development alternatives based upon stakeholder input. The purpose of developing the conceptual plans was to test the validity of the Guiding Principles. The Conceptual Plans test the Guiding Principles and apply those principles to a physical plan. The alternative concepts successfully achieve the intent of the Guiding Principles. (The Alternative Concepts can be found in the Technical Appendix) Process for Alternatives Development Development on this site, including both the light rail and highway expansion project, has been a sensitive issue for the established neighborhoods in the area. Knowing this, input from the stakeholder group was key to developing a successful framework plan. Upon identification and consensus of the Guiding Principles, the design team prepared alternative conceptual plans. These conceptual plans were subsequently refined with stakeholder input. Issues of primary concern through the alternatives development process included: circulation and access safety land-use parking open-space aesthetics These issues were addressed in a variety of ways, building massing, site organization, type of land-use mix, and location of pedestrian connections. Concepts were prepared and presented to the stakeholders for comments. Stakeholder input was then used to refine key characteristics, which were deemed most important by stakeholder groups. Demonstration of Guiding Principles in Action From the Guiding Principles a series of conceptual plans were developed to test and validate goals. Three conceptual plans found in the Technical Appendix follow the Guiding Principles (listed on pages 1115) and respect them with different physical solutions. The plans honor key similarities: Majority of parking on the edge of the station area. Short-term parking adjacent to station. Length of the open trench at the LRT line minimized. Grade-separated crossings of Colorado and I-25. Clear, distinct open spaces. Improvements to the existing infrastructure through the creation of a new network of streets. A strong landscape buffer and tiered development between the existing neighborhood and proposed development. Provision of short-term parking adjacent to LRT. Tree-lined streets with appropriatelysized sidewalks. Strong landscaped connections from surrounding community to light rail station. Commercial uses lining Evans Avenue. The plans differ in site configuration, densities and mixture of residential, commercial and retail development.

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btnfrnnnt Glossary Access Area The access area is one of the 4 geographical focus areas of the plan. The access area physically surrounds the proposed light rail station area The access area is important in terms of connections from local neighborhoods and commercial areas to the proposed Colorado Station (See Section 2.1). Areas of Change An underutilized or deteriorated area or neighborhood designated by Blueprint Denver for redevelopment. Areas of Stability An existing area or neighborhood designated by Blueprint Denver for preservation and enhancement B-Line A shuttle bus serving local and specialty areas. Blueprint Denver An integrated Land Use and Transportation Plan adopted by the Denver City Council as an amendment to the Comprehensive Plan 2000 on March 4, 2002. Commuter Store A centralized, staffed point-of-contact for the provisions of obtaining transportation/ transit information. Conceptual Alternative A preliminary alternative design solution. A design solution alternative that illustrates one of many possible physical forms that incorporate the Guiding Principles. Denvers Comprehensive Plan Plan 2000 is a policy guide for Denver in response to problems, conditions and opportunities for the early part of the 21st Century. Hundreds of Denver residents were involved in developing Plan 2000. Destination-Oriented A place or facility that has the ability to draw people from a large area; a place with the characteristics or features to which people are drawn. Destination-Location A place or facility that people travel to for the sole purpose of being at the location. The opposite type of place would be one that someone happens upon

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btnfrnnnt Destination-Retail Commercial retail uses with limited competition and which draw patrons from a large trade area; uses for which consumers are willing to travel a significant distance to experience and patronize. Examples include: specialty retail areas, entertainment-retail, specialty dining operations, etc. Eco-Pass An annual bus pass available from RTD that entitles patrons to unlimited rides on all RTD transit services. This program is only one type of reduced fare programs offered by RTD. Guiding Principles The Guiding Principles prescribe minimum goals that will guide future development planning. The Guiding Principles represent the Colorado Station Area Framework Plan goals. Incubator Space: An enterprise that is set up to provide office space, equipment, and sometimes mentoring assistance and capital to new businesses that are just getting started. Business incubators areoften set up by universities, non-profit groups, and increasingly by venture capitalists. Joint Use A physical property or land use that serves multiple purposes or attains multiple goals, eg. shared parking structure developed through a public/private partnership. Mixed-Use A combination of retail, commercial and residential uses in one development. Overlay Zone District A land use designation for a particular defined area on a zoning map, which modifies the underlying zone districts in some specific manner. Specifications may include uses, height of buildings, open space, pedestrian access, parking and exterior design. Program Management Committee The City and County of Denver organized committee of technical direction and planning representatives to provide recommendations at LRT stations in Denver. Rooftops Real estate industry term for the number of households in a geographic area.

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Shared Parking A surface or structured parking lot that is intended and managed to be utilized by different destinations, land uses or land owners simultaneously. Shared parking works best when the various users have parking needs at different times of the day. Stakeholder Group A group of property owners, business owners, surrounding residents and neighborhood liasons formed to represent community interests adjacent to the Colorado LRT station. Station Area The station area physically includes the wedge and Colorado Center. This area is immediately adjacent to the platform and offers a high degree of opportunities for redevelopment. Timed Transfer Transit schedules and routes developed together in order to enable an efficient transfer of modes or routes. This enables the transit system to serve a more diverse pattern of origins and destinations with more varied opportunities and more convenient and easy to remember schedules. Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) Creates a transit supportive environment by encouraging a land use mix, which allows people to live, work and enjoy entertainment without having to use their car. It s intent is to promote high quality transit, bike, and pedestrian connections while encouraging a compact, higher density mixed-use development pattern. It is also described as transitsupportive development. Transition Area The transition area extends approximately 1/2 mile from the light rail platform. The transition area was examined for long-term redevelopment and potential connections between the Colorado Station and the surrounding neighborhoods. (See Section 2.1) Transportation Coordinator A coordinator to assist employees to meet travel reduction goals. Transportation Management Association (TMA) An organization that provides a structure for developers, property managers, employers and public agencies to cooperatively support and promote programs that mitigate traffic congestion, auto-oriented travel and parking. Transportation Solutions A Transportation Management Association (TMA) in Denver that provides alternative mode choices within Cherry Creek and the South Colorado Boulevard corridor. btnfrnnnt

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Travel Demand Management (TDM) Describes a variety of actions that encourage more efficient use of existing transportation systems. Actions can include increasing the number of persons in a vehicle, or by influencing the time of, or need to, travel. TDM programs rely on incentives or disincentives to make these shifts in behavior attractive. T-REX/Southeast I-25 Corridor Transportation Expansion Project (TREX). An LRT and highway improvement project on I-25 and I-225, which includes a number of light rail station including the Colorado Station. Wedge The primary study area. The wedge is defined by East Evans Avenue on the south, South Colorado Boulevard. on the west, I-25 on the east and Colorado Center drive on the north. Sources City and County of Denver. Blueprint Denver: An Integrated Land Use and Transportation Plan City and County of Denver. The Colorado Station Area Framework PlanTechnical Appendix, Denver, CO, 2001. City and County of Denver. Denver Comprehensive Plan 2000, Denver, CO, 2000. City and County of Denver. Zoning Map, Denver, CO, 2000. CDOT, Southeast Corridor Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), Denver, CO, 2000. RTD. RTD Web Site, Denver, CO, 2001. btnfrnnnt

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Acknowledgements John W. Hickenlooper, Mayor, City & County of Denver Denver City Council District 1 . . . .Rick Garcia District 2 . . . .Jeanne Faatz District 3 .Rosemary E. Rodriguez District 4 . . .Peggy Lehmann District 5 . . .Marcia Johnson District 6 . . .Charlie Brown District 7 . .Kathleen MacKenzie District 8 . .Elbra Wedgeworth District 9 . . .Judy H. Montero District 10 . . .Jeanne Robb District 11 . .Michael B. Hancock At-Large . . . .Carol Boigon At-Large . . .Doug Linkhart Denver Planning Board William H. Hornby, Chairman Jan Marie Belle Frederick Corn Pat Cortez Dan Guimond Mark Johnson Barbara Kelley Joyce Oxberfeld Bruce O Donnell Jim Raughton Robert Wright This publication was produced by: City & County of Denver Carter-Burgess Urban Trans Consultants, Inc. Civitas Leland Consulting Program Management Committee Bill Sirois Project Manager Transportation Planning, Public Works Tom Best Community Planning and Development (CPD) Jim Bumanglag Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) Robert Dorroh City Southeast Corridor Office Ellen Ittelson Community Planning and Development (CPD) Marianne Leclaire Denver Urban Renewal Authority (DURA) Nikki Maloney Mayors Office of Economic Development (MOED) Carla McConnell Community Planning and Development (CPD) Mark Najarian Transportation Planning, Public Works Tony Ogboli Transportation Planning, Public Works Jim Ottenstein Community Planning and Development (CPD), Graphics Jackie Pacheco Denver Urban Renewal Authority (DURA) Terry Rosapep Transportation Planning, Public Works Chad Salli Transportation Engineering, Public Works Marilee Utter Regional Transportation District (RTD) btnfrnnnt

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Stakeholder Representatives John Barnes East Colorado Homeowner Organization Gary Bell Bell Plumbing and Heating Co. Dick Bjurstrom Inner Neighborhood Corporation Group Linda Budge Comm. Tech Services Susan Casey Council District Office #6 Claudia Droel Wellington Square John Gerace Welby Gardens & County Fair Michael Gunn Heritage Club Rod Ham Transportation Solutions L. Frank Hare Warren s Homeowners Chris Helvig Public Storage Properties Michael Hicks University Park Community Council Karen Karl Warren s Homeowners Mahmoud Kassir Damascus Restaurant Chris Klauschie Schlessman YMCA Adam Mackstaller Cory-Merrill Julie Madden Virginia Village Annette Maddingly Qwest Craig Michalik Bill Mosher Mile High Properties John Pankoff Virginia Village Mike Peebles Freeway Ford Chuck Pennington Discount Muffler & Brake Mike Pound Warren s Homeowners Dan Rosser Harmon Management Seth Rubin Transportation Solutions Brian Shinn Harmon Management Allison Thompson Warren s Homeowners Phil Thompson Warren s Homeowner s George Thorn Mile High Properties Diane Writer South Colorado Bloulevard Properties Jack Zellinger Criterion btnfrnnnt