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16th Street Mall, Denver, Colorado, ULI panel report

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AN ADVISORY SERVICES PANEL REP
16th Street Mall
Denver, Colorado
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16th Street Mall
Denver, Colorado
Building on Success
May 11-16,2008
An Advisory Services Panel Report
ULI-the Urban Land Institute
1025 Thomas Jefferson Street, N.W.
Suite 500 West
Washington, D.C. 20007-5201


About ULI-the Urban Land Institute
The mission of the Urban Land Institute is to
provide leadership in the responsible use of
land and in creating and sustaining thriving
_____communities worldwide. ULI is committed to
Bringing together leaders from across the fields
of real estate and land use policy to exchange
best practices and serve community needs;
Fostering collaboration within and beyond
ULIs membership through mentoring, dia-
logue, and problem solving;
Exploring issues of urbanization, conservation,
regeneration, land use, capital formation, and
sustainable development;
Advancing land use policies and design prac-
tices that respect the uniqueness of both built
and natural environments;
Sharing knowledge through education, applied
research, publishing, and electronic media; and
Sustaining a diverse global network of local
practice and advisory efforts that address cur-
rent and future challenges.
Established in 1936, the Institute today has more
than 40,000 members worldwide, representing the
entire spectrum of the land use and development
disciplines. Professionals represented include
developers, builders, property owners, investors,
architects, public officials, planners, real estate
brokers, appraisers, attorneys, engineers, financiers,
academics, students, and librarians. ULI relies
heavily on the experience of its members. It is
through member involvement and information
resources that ULI has been able to set standards
of excellence in development practice. The Insti-
tute has long been recognized as one of the worlds
most respected and widely quoted sources of
objective information on urban planning, growth,
and development.
2008 by ULI-the Urban Land Institute
1025 Thomas Jefferson Street, N.W.
Suite 500 West
Washington, D.C. 20007-5201
All rights reserved. Reproduction or use of the whole or any
part of the contents without written permission of the copy-
right holder is prohibited.
Cover photo I. M. Pei and Partners.
An Advisory Services Panel Report


About ULI Advisory Services
The goal of ULIs Advisory Services Program
is to bring the finest expertise in the real
estate field to bear on complex land use plan-
_____ning and development projects, programs,
and policies. Since 1947, this program has assem-
bled well over 400 ULI-member teams to help
sponsors find creative, practical solutions for
issues such as downtown redevelopment, land
management strategies, evaluation of develop-
ment potential, growth management, community
revitalization, brownfields redevelopment, mili-
tary base reuse, provision of low-cost and afford-
able housing, and asset management strategies,
among other matters. A wide variety of public,
private, and nonprofit organizations have con-
tracted for ULIs Advisory Services.
Each panel team is composed of highly qualified
professionals who volunteer their time to ULI.
They are chosen for their knowledge of the panel
topic and screened to ensure their objectivity.
ULIs interdisciplinary panel teams provide a
holistic look at development problems. A re-
spected ULI member who has previous panel
experience chairs each panel.
The agenda for a five-day panel assignment is
intensive. It includes an in-depth briefing day
composed of a tour of the site and meetings with
sponsor representatives; a day of hour-long
interviews of typically 50 to 75 key community
representatives; and two days of formulating
recommendations. Long nights of discussion
precede the panels conclusions. On the final day
on site, the panel makes an oral presentation of its
findings and conclusions to the sponsor. A written
report is prepared and published.
Because the sponsoring entities are responsible
for significant preparation before the panels visit,
including sending extensive briefing materials
to each member and arranging for the panel to
meet with key local community members and
stakeholders in the project under consideration,
participants in ULIs five-day panel assignments
are able to make accurate assessments of a spon-
sors issues and to provide recommendations in a
compressed amount of time.
A major strength of the program is ULIs unique
ability to draw on the knowledge and expertise of
its members, including land developers and own-
ers, public officials, academics, representatives of
financial institutions, and others. In fulfillment of
the mission of the Urban Land Institute, this
Advisory Services panel report is intended to
provide objective advice that will promote the re-
sponsible use of land to enhance the environment.
ULI Program Staff
Marta V. Goldsmith
Senior Vice President, Community/
Education Provost
Thomas W. Eitler
Vice President, Advisory Services
Matthew Rader
Manager, Advisory Services
Caroline Dietrich
Panel Associate, Advisory Services
Gwen McCall
Administrative Manager, Education and Community
Nancy H. Stewart
Director, Book Program
Laura Glassman, Publications Professionals LLC
Manuscript Editor
Betsy VanBuskirk
Creative Director
Martha Loomis
Desktop Publishing Specialist/Graphics
Kim Rusch
Graphics
Craig Chapman
Director, Publishing Operations
Denver, Colorado, May 11-16, 2008
3


Acknowledgments
On behalf of the Urban Land Institute, the
panel thanks the Downtown Denver Part-
nership, the Downtown Denver Business
______Improvement District, the Regional Trans-
portation District, and the city and county of Den-
ver. The panel sends special thanks to Mayor
John Hickenlooper, John Desmond, Tami Door,
Cal Marsella, and Cassie Milestone for their hard
work in preparing for the panel and responding to
the panels requests for information.
Finally, the panel thanks the more than 120 com-
munity members who shared their time, insights,
and hopes during the interview process. Everyone
who participated in the panel process provided
vital insight and demonstrated the civic dedication
that makes the 16th Street Mall an outstanding
place to live, work, and play.
4
An Advisory Services Panel Report


Contents
ULI Panel and Project Staff 6
Foreword: The Panels Assignment 7
Market Potential 10
Design Principles 19
Design Recommendations 22
Connectivity and Mobility 24
A Walk around the Urban Village 29
Implementation 33
Conclusion 37
About the Panel 38
Denver, Colorado, May 11-16, 2008
5


ULI Panel and Project Staff
Panel Chair
Ray Brown
Principal Designer
Self Tucker Architects, Inc.
Memphis, Tennessee
Panel Members
Christine Burdick
President
Tampa Downtown Partnership
Tampa, Florida
Paul Chapel
Principal
BOKA Powell
Dallas, Texas
Thomas Curley
Principal
Thomas Curley Associates LLC
Ossining, New York
Clarence Eng
Planning/Design Principal
Renaissance Planning Group
Tampa, Florida
Scott Hall
Senior of Business Development Manager
City of Chesapeake Economic Development
Chesapeake, Virginia
Scott Schuler
Consultant
Schuler Consulting
Arnold, Maryland
Michael Stem
Principal
Strada
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Tamara Zahn
President
Indianapolis Downtown, Inc.
Indianapolis, Indiana
ULI Project Staff
Matthew Rader
Manager, Advisory Services
Caroline Dietrich
Panel Associate, Advisory Services
Charles DiRocco
Managing Director, Real Estate Industry/Finance
6
An Advisory Services Panel Report


Foreword: The Panels Assignment
Denver, the Queen City of the West, has his-
torically been a place where people seek a
life unavailable anywhere else. Early pio-
______neers settled here to create a better life for
themselves and their families. Prospectors found
their fortunes here, only to lose them and then
make them all over again. Denver is a center of in-
novation, a place where people love the natural
beauty that surrounds them, and a place where
making a living in the arid high plains demands
creativity and courage.
Today, Denver ranks among Americas premier
cities, a destination for the creative class of
knowledge-based workers who can live wherever
they choose. They settle in Denver for its qual-
ity of life, rich experiences, pleasant climate, and
recreational lifestyle. Symbolic of those qualities,
the 16th Street Mall hosts a melange of vibrant
restaurants and watering holes, chic cafes, a lively
mix of pedestrians and transit vehicles, specialty
shops, and authenticity that appeals to visitors
and residents who enjoy city life.
16th Street Mall
The 16th Street Mall is one of Americas most dis-
tinctive, well-known, and well-loved urban streets
and one of the longest pedestrian/transit malls in
the world. It serves twin roles as the citys busiest
transit artery and a premier public space. Over
the Malls 25-year existence, its popularity and
economic success, like those of Denver itself, have
ebbed and surged with changes in the local and
national economy.
The FREE MallRide, a very high frequency free
shuttle service, runs the length of the Mall, from
Union Station in the west to Civic Center Station
in the east. (For the purposes of this study, the
Downtown Denver Partnership, or DDP, asked
the panel to refer to the 16th Street Mall as an
east-west corridor, with Civic Center Station in
the east and Union Station in the west. All cardi-
Location map, above.
Regional map, left.
nal directions referenced in the report follow this
convention.)
Today, the 16th Street Mall offers a distinctive
potpourri of urban experiences that provide
Denver, Colorado, May 11-16, 2008
7


The 16th Street Mall is something for almost everyone. National retailers
Denvers iconic civic (for example, Barnes & Noble, Banana Republic,
design remains attractive and functional. How-
ever, 25 years of use and repeated freeze-thaw cy-
cles have taken a toll on the Malls infrastructure.
Transit-way pavers frequently break free from
their mortar beds and require costly replacement.
Light fixtures show signs of wear. Underground
irrigation and drainage systems no longer function
at their optimum level. The Regional Transpor-
tation District (RTD) and Downtown Denver
Business Improvement District (BID) invest over
$1 million annually to maintain the Malls paving
surfaces.
The Panels Assignment
The DDP, the BID, the RTD, and the city initi-
ated the 16th Street Plan in response to the Malls
infrastructure challenges. The 16th Street Plan
is a comprehensive effort to evaluate the Malls
successes and challenges and plan for the next
25 years. The plan will explore opportunities for
reconstructing the transit ways in a more durable
fashion, reevaluating the original lighting to
enhance illumination and reduce operating costs,
resurfacing the sidewalks to improve walkability,
and reconfiguring the sidewalks to accommo-
date both safe pedestrian passage and space for
sidewalk cafes and passive sitting areas out of the
traffic flow.
The DDP sponsored a ULI Advisory Services
panel to explore these issues in detail. The DDP
defined the panels study area as the entire Mall,
from Wewatta Street to Civic Center Station, in-
space.
and Ann Taylor Loft), hybrid retail/entertain-
ment venues (for example, Niketown and ESPN
Zone), and mid-priced stores (for example, Ross
Dress for Less and Dress Bam) coexist with chain
drugstores and tourist-oriented shops. Recent
additions include the Malls first boutique food
storeCooks Fresh Marketwhich opened in
the newly renovated 1600 Glenarm Place residen-
tial tower.
Challenges
The Mall derives its character and personality in
part from its unique design, created by Henry N.
Cobb, an architect with I. M. Pei & Partners (now
Pei Freed Cobb & Partners). Cobbs distinctive
eluding one-half block north and south of the Mall.
Specifically, the partnership asked the panel to
Explore the Malls audience and recommend
retail and nonretail uses that will support a
lively urban environment, including options for
repositioning the Tabor Center and Denver
Pavilions;
Suggest ideas for improving the Malls retail
mix, including incentives to encourage property
owners to enhance their retail spaces and strat-
egies to market the Mall to potential retailers;
Evaluate the desirability of dividing the Mall
into subdistricts with distinct characteristics
and boundaries, and suggest opportunities to
8
An Advisory Services Panel Report


reshape the Mall to better connect and energize
adjacent streets, sidewalks, and open spaces;
Advise on infrastructure upgrades and technol-
ogy to enhance the Malls success and sustain-
ability over the next 25 years; and
Recommend changes to current land use, zon-
ing, and urban design requirements to enhance
the Malls pedestrian environment and realign-
ment of responsibilities among the city, the
DDP, and the RTD for funding revitalization
activities and managing the Mall.
The Panels Findings
Denver is an undeniably great city that surrounds
and identifies with a truly great urban street
the 16th Street Mall. Denver benefits from a
pervasive optimistic attitude. This can-do, utterly
American, very western attitude will propel
Denver and the Mall toward a future that offers
incoming residents and businesses greater oppor-
tunity, greater satisfaction, and an even greater
city in which to live, work, shop, play, and learn.
The Malls original plan delineated seven goals:
Stimulate continued economic growth in the
central business district, and encourage in-
creased commercial and business activity.
Create a people-oriented environment that
stimulates participation in the activity on and
adjacent to 16th Street.
Clear the congested traffic conditions on 16th
Street, and return the street to the public for its
prime purposeshopping and human interaction.
Create a place of civic identity, and serve as a
major focal point and unifying element for all of
Downtown Denver.
Provide access to the central business district
and the Mall with a clear and improved trans-
portation system.
Stimulate a sense of civic pride in Denver resi-
dents and visitors through sensitivity to design,
detail, scale, and activity.
Denver should be proud that the Mall accom-
plished these goals over the last 25 years. The
current planning effort poses an opportunity to
raise these accomplishments to the next level and
expand the Malls potential to shape a livable,
vibrant, sustainable Downtown at the heart of
a vibrant city. The following sections detail the
panels recommendations.
Reduce the effect of the automobile in the
central business district and associated noise
and air pollutants, and provide nonconflicting
public transportation service for the activities in
Downtown Denver.
Denver, Colorado, May 11-16, 2008
9


Market Potential
Downtown must be special and offer retail,
residential, and street environments dis-
tinct from every other neighborhood in the
------city. Downtown has the infrastructure and
market to continue to grow and should remain the
heart of the city and the key to Denvers global
identity. The 16th Street Mall and other parts of
Downtown offer dynamic, viable markets for con-
tinued retail, office, hotel, and residential growth.
An impressive transportation network connects
Downtowns subdistricts and links Downtown to
the larger city and region.
Downtowns demographics support a lively
commercial real estate market. According to the
2007 Downtown Area Plan, Downtown currently
hosts 110,000 daily workers and more than 50,000
students on the nearby Auraria Higher Education
Center Auraria Campus. By 2030, the plan pro-
jects that Downtown will host an additional 35,000
workers and 25,000 residents. Today, Downtown
features an affluent and well-educated population:
average household income is $64,000,8 percent
higher than for Denver as a whole, and nearly one-
third of residents hold at least a bachelors degree.
The panel offers these additional observations on
the local demographics:
Downtowns demographics support many retail,
office, dining, and entertainment experiences,
especially those that cater to office workers and
those along the 16th Street Mall.
Downtown should identify new opportunities to
serve Denvers strong Hispanic and Asian com-
munities and encourage the growth of ethnically
diverse retail and entertainment offerings.
Successful integration of diverse cultures will
enhance Denvers attractiveness to tourists,
residents, and corporations.
Office Market
Denvers office market has seen many changes
since the Downtown Development Plan of 1986.
Volatility in the energy and technology sectors
dramatically slowed office market growth in the
late 1980s. Since then, the office market has again
strengthened as Denvers economy diversified.
Denver has experienced 16 consecutive quarters
of positive absorption, and national brokerage
firms remain optimistic for continued growth.
Nine projects planned or under construction will
add 3.1 million square feet to Downtowns office
inventory. Denvers average office lease rate
remains very affordable and ranks third lowest
among the nations 15 most competitive markets
(CB Richard Ellis, first quarter 2008 market view).
Downtowns high-rise, Class A office buildings are
clustered at the east end of the 16th Street Mall.
Most projects planned or under construction are
located at the western end, closer to Lower Down-
town, known locally as LoDo, and the planned
regional transit hub at Union Station. Local stake-
holders told the panel they do not expect new of-
fice projects to cause negative absorption because
of continuing job growth and the conversion of
several high-rise office buildings to residential
use. Expansion of the regional light-rail system
under FasTracks will continue to bolster Down-
town as a convenient, accessible business hub.
The panel offers the following findings regarding
Denvers office market:
A continued supply of smaller spaces will sup-
port small business development, a crucial step
in sustaining the local economy. A strong office
market should not create an over-reliance on
high-rise, Class A product.
Shared office operations on the periphery
of Downtown could diversify the businesses
10
An Advisory Services Panel Report


and people supporting the economy. Shared
office space especially helps generate inter-
national business prospects and incubate
startup businesses.
Redevelopment and adaptive use of office space,
particularly along the 16th Street Mall, could
attract studios for performing and visual art-
ists that would add a new dynamic to Denvers
Downtown experience.
Hospitality Market
The hospitality market plays a major role in
Downtowns economic vitality. A 2006 tourism
study by Longwoods International showed that
travel and tourism spending in Denver exceeded
$2.76 billion and Downtown hotels sold over 1.5
million room-nights in 2006. Downtown hosts
nearly 20 percent of the Denver metropolitan
statistical areas total hotel rooms. Downtown
hotels have seen substantial annual increases in
occupancy rates and room revenues, attributable
primarily to the success of the Colorado Conven-
tion Center.
Figure 1
Denver Demographics
Denver Residential Denver City National
Total Population 63,000 560,036 301,825,750
Female 43.0% 49.1% 50.7%
25-55 Years 47.0% 46.0% 42.2%
Under 15 Years - 22.1% 20.2%
White 78.0% 74.5% 74.5%
African American 4.0% 9.2% 12.0%
Hispanic/Latino 12.0% 35.7% 15.1%
Figure 2
Denver Office Market
Central Business District
Net Rentable Area 23.4 million square feet
Vacancy Rate 9.0%
Availability Rate 13.4%
Average Lease Rate $26.67 per square foot
Denver Market
103.6 million square feet
12.5%
17.2%
$20.44 per square foot
The strong Downtown hospitality market also
helps support retail, dining, and entertainment
uses. Business travelers spend, on average, $96
per day on nonhotel expenses, and leisure guests
spend $93. The food and beverage category ($713
million) tops the spending list, followed by retail
sales ($430 million), and recreation and entertain-
ment ($215 million). The most popular shopping
area for visitors to Denver is the 16th Street Mall.
Investments made in Downtown attractions reap
significant ongoing dividends. According to the
DDP, nearly 30 million people patronized such
facilities as the ballparks and stadiums, the Civic
Center Cultural Complex, the Denver Perform-
ing Arts Complex, and the Colorado Convention
Center in 2006. That same year, the Colorado
Convention Center provided a net economic boost
of $521 million for Downtown.
Net Absorption 16,783 square feet 71,737 square feet
Downtowns high-rise
office buildings cluster
near Civic Center Station.
Hospitality market prospects look bright. Pro-
jected convention bookings will bring 740,000
attendees and generate another 1.5 million room-
nights through 2011. The DDP reports six major
Denver, Colorado, May 11-16, 2008
11


LoDos residential build- hotel projects in planning that will create 1,300
ings include historic additional rooms. The new projects feature hotel
structures and sensitive brands (for example, Four Seasons and W) that
new construction. will significantly raise Denvers competitiveness
as a high-end lodging market.
The panel offers the following comments on the
Downtown hospitality market:
Denvers meeting and convention market
should continue to grow for the foreseeable
future. Because meetings and conventions
provide a self-regenerating market for retail,
dining, and entertainment, priority should be
placed on developing new hotels and maintain-
ing existing properties at the highest possible
levels. Hospitality and customer-service train-
ing programs should be a target industry.
Although Denver has become one of the top
convention and meeting destinations in the
country, its convention and visitors bureau and
local hotels should work together to provide
adequate room blocks for potential conventions
to help maintain its competitive advantages.
Residential Market
Economic prosperity and an excellent quality of
life will continue to drive Denvers population
growth. Although the citys population is project-
ed to increase by only 1.8 percent by 2012, Down-
towns growth will exceed that rate by attracting
new residents from throughout the region who are
looking for a more urban lifestyle.
Downtown currently offers more than 16,000
housing units within a half-mile radius of the
intersection of the 16th Street Mall and Glenarm
Place. In Downtown and surrounding neighbor-
hoods, rental apartment development historically
exceeded for-sale unit development. This trend
peaked in 2006 when nearly 2,000 new apartments
entered the market. In 2007, the number of new
apartments slowed to 156. The DDP reports 7,400
new residential units planned or under construc-
tion, evenly split between for-sale and rental
properties.
Residential sale prices range from $420 per
square foot in LoDo to $535 per square foot in the
commercial core. The average monthly rent for
Downtown apartments is $1,200, up from $625
in 1995. The panel heard that residential rents in
the commercial core average about $2 per square
foot. Apartment vacancy rates for 2007 averaged
7 percent, a slight increase from the 1995 annual
vacancy rate of 4 percent.
The panel offers the following comments for
Downtown residential development:
Local developers remain optimistic about
Downtowns residential market. Although the
national housing and credit crunches are slow-
ing residential development nationally, Down-
town should remain a steady market for both
for-sale and rental units. Close attention should
be paid, however, to developing trends to avoid
overbuilding the Downtown market.
New residential development should be strate-
gically placed to complement developing Down-
town activity centers, including the Theater
12
An Advisory Services Panel Report


District, Union Station, LoDo, and the panels
proposed urban village.
The DDP should expand its current marketing
efforts to attract new residents.
Retail Market
Downtowns retail market is in a significant
transition period. Several million square feet of
new mixed-use projects have been announced,
and most include new retail space. Regionally,
4.5 million square feet of retail space is in the
construction pipeline, and most new projects
are experiencing strong preleasing activity (CB
Richard Ellis, first quarter 2008 market view).
Regional retail vacancy rates stand at a ten-year
historic average of 6.7 percent, but year-to-year
comparison investment sales fell by half in the
first quarter of 2008. Retail lease rates average
$17.11 per square foot citywide.
Downtowns retail market stands strong when
compared to the region and the city. Lease rates
on the 16th Street Mall corridor average $25 per
square foot with instances of $40 to $60. Down-
towns central business district and LoDo offer
3.5 million square feet of leasable space. Signifi-
cant resident, daytime workforce, and visitor
populations support Downtown retail, including
approximately 63,000 residents within 1.5 miles,
110,000 daily workers, 50,000 students, and thou-
sands of hotel guests. Hotel occupancy is strong,
with an average guest stay of three days.
Downtown demographics provide particular
marketing and branding opportunities. One
major market is professionals/executives and
service employees working in Downtown offices.
Another major market is young consumers, given
that one in five city residents are under 15 years
of age. Downtown could also better serve Den-
vers strong ethnic communities, especially the
Hispanic/Latino population.
The panel offers the following general observa-
tions on the Downtown retail market:
Downtown Denvers retail market is diverse
and dynamic. Downtown is the heart of the city
and does not need to rely on suburban shoppers.
Downtown employees and visitors provide a re-
tail market with considerable buying power and
a constant infusion of new shoppers throughout
the year.
Marketing efforts should build on the Elevate
Your Urban campaign and promote Downtown
as a safe, exciting place to live, work, and play.
Image is everything; the citys long-term suc-
cess largely depends on Downtowns ability to
expand the workforce, convention market, and
retail and entertainment offerings.
Downtown must provide space for small, di-
verse retailers that offer a unique experience. A
vibrant downtown offers surprises along every
block. Opportunities exist for exciting new local
retail shops, including ethnic and culturally
diverse experiences.
16th Street Mall Retail Conditions
The 16th Street Malls layout shares character-
istics with a suburban shopping center: long and
linear with large anchors at both ends. In the 16th
Street Mall, the Denver Pavilions anchors the east
end, and the Writer Square/Larimer Square/LoDo
node anchors the west. Seven blocks of streetfront
retail connect the anchors. The Malls long-term
plans must consider the retail collections in the
two anchor areas, and from now on their merchan-
dising strategies must be integrated. Their status
as anchors warrants understanding them at the
outset.
East Anchor: Denver Pavilions
Denver Pavilions is a planned shopping center
in an urban setting. It occupies most of two city
blocks on the south side of the 16th Street Mall,
between Tremont Place and Welton Street. The
project forms a rough horseshoe extending off
the Mall and contains three merchandised levels,
the upper two bridging Glenarm Place. Comer
Bakery Cafe and Barnes & Noble anchor the
east end, which also contains such noteworthy
tenants as Talbots and Ann Taylor. Hard Rock
Cafe and Niketown occupy the two comers of
the 16th Street Mall and Glenarm Place. A large
Virgin Megastore anchors the west end, which
also includes Express, Gap, Banana Republic, and
Brighton Collectibles.
Denver, Colorado, May 11-16, 2008
13


Festive lights and signage
distinguish the Pavilions
interior court.
Good design and care-
ful maintenance create a
pleasant environment in
Larimer Square.
The Mall offers a wide
variety of retail tenants.
The Pavilions also offers a significant mix of
entertainment and dining options. In addition to
the iconic Hard Rock Cafe, Lucky Strike Lanes
and the 15-screen United Artists theaters attract
destination visitors. As destinations, these tenants
succeed on the third level and bring considerable
life to Downtown at night. As for the restaurants,
the Corner Bakery Cafe and Maggianos Little
Italy both succeed here. Maggianos is one of the
highest-volume restaurants in Denver. The panel
does not view the failure of the Wolfgang Puck
restaurant as a failure of the market to support
high-end dining.
Denver Pavilions has established itself as a retail,
dining, and entertainment magnet and will play an
important role in Denvers future. The Pavilions
will and should affect leasing in its immediate
neighborhood and cause the entire east end of
the Mall to serve the lifestyle and entertainment
shopper. Marlowes, Earls, and Paramount Cafe
are examples of nearby restaurants that serve
this market.
West Anchor:
Writer Square/Larimer Square/LoDo
At the west end of the 16th Street Mall lie Lar-
imer Square, Writer Square, and LoDo. LoDos
historic buildings and expanse of funky charm
attracted urban pioneers to settle Downtown in
the 1980s. The city recognized the neighborhoods
architectural, historical, and societal value by des-
ignating the Lower Downtown Historic District
in 1988, and a year later, the LoDo District, Inc.,
formed to nurture and promote the neighborhood.
Just east of LoDo, Larimer Square and Writer
Square stand out as individual developments that
complement the historic neighborhood.
LoDo, Larimer Square, and Writer Square of-
fer retail, restaurants, art galleries, residences,
offices, and hotels in rehabilitated historic loft
buildings and new construction. Higher-income
residents have replaced the early population of
local artists. LoDo has emerged as a hot office and
residential district and continues to see new mid-
and high-rise projects. Its success spawned devel-
opment in the adjacent Central Platte Valley.
Retail areas in and around LoDo offer unique
retail, dining, and entertainment options. Larimer
Square, a mixed-use retail and office development
adjacent to LoDo, offers an impressive collection
of independent retail businesses, such as Cry
Baby Ranch, Dream Gallery, and The Bent Lens.
The Denver-born, nationally recognized, indepen-
dent Tattered Cover bookstore opened its second
14
An Advisory Services Panel Report


location in LoDo, responding to public demand to
open somewhere, anywhere, besides the original
Cherry Creek location. Although LoDo offers
few national chain retailers, it is home to national
chain restaurants, including PF Changs, Mor-
tons, and The Capital Grille. Sports fans value
LoDos restaurants for their convenience to Coors
Field and the Pepsi Center.
LoDo and Larimer Square are Downtowns center
for eclectic, experiential, and edgy retailing and
atmospheric and enjoyable dining. Unlike other
parts of Downtown, LoDos activity centers face
the named streets, rather than the numbered
streets. Most businesses face Larimer, Blake,
Wazee, Market, or Wynkoop. LoDo is the only
neighborhood along the 16th Street Mall for which
the Mall is not the central activity spine. LoDo
relies on the 16th Street Mall for transit, not as a
retail or restaurant hub.
Tabor Center
Located at the western end of the Mall, the Tabor
Center is less successful than neighboring retail
areas and may require a new strategy to succeed.
The Shops at Tabor Center opened in 1984 as an
unanchored, multilevel enclosed Mall connected
to office space and a hotel. When it opened, the
Tabor Center made a significant splash, but its un-
anchored configuration and single-loaded upper-
floor retail spaces soon proved a challenge.
Redevelopment of the Cherry Creek Shopping
Center exacerbated Tabor Centers difficulties.
Cherry Creek became DenveFs premier fash-
ion address and attracted Brooks Brothers and
comparable retailers away from the Tabor Center.
The Tabor CentePs fortunes faded. The retail mix
has degenerated and offers few clothing, electron-
ics, or other comparison-shopping opportunities.
The panel heard that the centePs current manage-
ment is considering converting the second level to
office space.
Although the Tabor Center likely cannot survive
in its present state, location, and merchandising, it
has had some successes. The Cheesecake Factory
remains one of the most successful restaurants
in the market. The ESPN Zone also generates
significant traffic, adding to the Tabor Centers
increased reliance on food and entertainment to
sustain itself.
Streetfront Retail
The Malls mile-long length alone prevents it from
being effectively managed as one retail district.
Downtown patrons, often office workers on a
short lunch break, are unlikely to walk the Mall,
primarily because of its length. The FREE Mall-
Ride helps make the Mall more accessible by al-
lowing shoppers to conveniently access the entire
16-block stretch without exhausting themselves.
A one-mile retail district presents very difficult
challenges and should not be managed with a
one-shot revitalization plan. Instead, the revital-
ization plan should focus on different elements of
the Mall, coordinated to take advantage of exist-
ing and emerging market realities. Downtown
serves several shopper groups; the Mall is long
enough to offer different clusters of retail space
designed to satisfy the demands of Downtowns
various clienteles.
The Malls seven central blocks, between Welton
and Larimer streets, house a diverse mix of retail
tenants. The competence, capitalization, and qual-
ity of retailers vary greatly. The variation creates
weak links that hurt the Mall and limit its ability
to serve its various markets. In some cases, ten-
ants occupy spaces because they have the credit
and capitalization to pay the rent, but their busi-
nesses damage the Malls overall quality. One can
empathize with landlords who make deals simply
to avoid carrying vacant space, but their decisions
compromise the Malls success.
The panel heard that discount retailers thrive on
the Mall. Large discount and budget-minded chains
(for example, Ross Dress for Less, TJ.Maxx,
Payless Shoesource, and Dress Bam) are located
on the Mall and serve lower-paid and entry-level
workers. To remain the true heart of the city,
Downtown must guard against the temptation
to weed out non-high-end retailers. Most people
in the city, and most people Downtown, need
budget-minded retailers. In the long ran, these
retailers could move from the Mall to other Down-
town streets as the retail area grows to include
14th and 17th streets.
Denver, Colorado, May 11-16, 2008
15


The large spaces offered
by 17th Street could
house anchor retailers in
the future.
The Sage Building can
complement the Pavil-
ions retail mix.
The Paramount Theatre
is one of many distin-
guished buildings near
the Pavilions.
In closing this section, the panel would like to
make two additional observations:
The 16th Street Mall contains virtually all of
Downtowns retailing: 14th, 15th, and 17th
streets contain sparse retailconvenience
retail, business services, and restaurants
and lack the pleasant pedestrian environment
required for a thriving urban retail district.
Cross streets along the Mall are not extensively
merchandised. The panel dubbed these streets
ribs in relation to the spine, the 16th Street
Mall. Although a few cross streets contain excit-
ing architectural treasures and some wonderful
retailers, tenants prefer to stay as close to the
16th Street Mall as possible.
Revitalization Strategy
The panel recommends taking advantage of three
immediate opportunities to improve retail Down-
town:
Encourage continued development of the Denver
Pavilions and the Writer Square/Larimer Square/
LoDo node as retail anchors for Downtown.
Focus releasing and retail enhancement efforts
on the seven blocks of the Mall between Lar-
imer Street and Welton Street and on the cross
streets in this stretch.
Consider long-term opportunities for grow-
ing retail on 14th and 17th streets to broaden
Downtowns retail area.
Strategies for the Eastern Anchor:
Denver Pavilions
The Pavilions should focus on lifestyle retailing
that caters to Downtown workers, residents, and
hotel guests. It should not seek to attract subur-
ban visitors as a staple customer base. Retailers
like Ann Taylor, Talbots, and Chicos already
serve women in the target lifestyle market. The
Pavilions may not offer enough room to house a
critical mass of mens stores, but retail on sur-
rounding blocks could be reprogrammed to serve
this important market. Entertainment venues
should stay but should not be expected to bolster
retail sales, given that their peak hours will be
during the evening. More destination restaurants
like Maggianos will also work well.
The Pavilions understands that it cannot compete
directly with Cherry Creek Shopping Center
and Cherry Creek North, Denvers destination
for couture retail. Cherry Creek offers Neiman
16
An Advisory Services Panel Report


Marcus and Saks Fifth Avenue and a recently
opened Nordstrom. Tiffany, Polo Ralph Lauren,
Burberry, and other prestigious names jostle for
space here, or, failing that, for space in the adja-
cent Cherry Creek North neighborhood with its
300-plus shops and restaurants, including Crate
& Barrel, Betsey Johnson, Marmi, and Whole
Foods. The panel believes that any attempt by the
Pavilions to compete directly with Cherry Creek
for the couture customer will be fruitless.
New opportunities abound for the Pavilions and
the surrounding area. The Pavilions appears
headed for new ownership, although a public
announcement has not yet been made. (Follow-
ing the panels visit, the Pavilions was indeed
acquired by a new owner.) New ownership will
offer the opportunity to reposition the Pavilions as
an even more effective anchor for the 16th Street
Mall by attracting new tenants. The nearby Sage
Building should expand the Pavilions retail and
restaurant mass and serve a similar market.
Strategies for the Western Anchor:
Writer Square/Larimer Square/LoDo
LoDo is progressing nicely and should continue
doing what it is doing now. It is not a finished
product, but to the extent that anything is easy
in the retail world, LoDo will have the easiest
time in the overall Downtown retail scheme. LoDo
owns its reputation as an entertainment district,
home of the hip, and place to see and be seen.
Retailers and restaurant owners seek out spaces
in LoDo, and LoDos landlords exhibit a palpable
understanding of what LoDo is and what it needs
to be. Landlords and landowners should hold the
course when it comes to leasing.
LoDo continues to see intense office and resi-
dential development that targets the same hip
urbanites attracted to the neighborhoods retail-
ers and restaurants. Larimer Square and Writer
Square serve similar customers and will remain an
important part of LoDos retail scene. Newly de-
veloped residential space in LoDo and the Central
Platte Valley increases the need for neighborhood
retailing.
The western anchor area may offer an opportunity
to introduce the supermarket Downtown shoppers
want. Such a store could serve both Downtown
residents and office workers who can shop or buy
prepared foods on their way home. A system for
making office and home deliveries will strengthen
the stores market position. The panel recom-
mends locating a supermarket as close to LoDo
as possible. Possible sites could include the Tabor
Center or, in the long term, the Market Street
Station site. In any case, the supermarket site
must be directly on the 16th Street Mall; the panel
heard that potential supermarket operators may
refuse other locations.
Revitalizing Streetfront Retail
The 16th Street Malls streetfront retail will
evolve more organically than that of the two an-
chor areas. The panels recommendations focus on
three different streetfront retail areas: the Malls
core blocks, from Welton to Larimer streets;
cross streets along this stretch; and 14th and
17th streets. The panel recommends enhancing
streetfront retail along the Mall and growing the
Market Street Station
could offer a site suf-
ficient for an anchor
retailer.
Underused spaces could
house new tenants.
Denver, Colorado, May 11-16, 2008
17


retail district along the cross streets and parallel
numbered streets.
Spaces on the Malls core blocks are ripe for retail
leasing, one deal at a time. The retail mix should
grow organically because of the Malis length and
diverse property ownership. Leasing strategies
should respond to the market and be less prescrip-
tive than strategies for the anchor areas. Ross
Dress for Less and Dress Bam are satisfactory
uses for the time being and serve an important
market. In general, the panel encourages building
owners and leasing agents to lease space to well-
run, competent, adequately capitalized tenants
who will abide by any adopted facade guidelines
and complement the overall retail mix.
Recapturing leases offers an opportunity to
enhance the Malls retail mix. During the panels
interviews, few local stakeholders discussed the
possibility of recapturing space occupied by exist-
ing tenants. The panel encourages stakeholders to
reframe their view; the leasing effort for a space
should not end simply because a tenant currently
occupies the space. Sometimes, good tenants
become available who would be excellent candi-
dates for a space currently occupied by another
user. Buying back the leases from tenants deemed
unsatisfactory in favor of a better tenant is a
legitimate business practice. In other cases, the
existing tenants can be relocated.
The panel highly recommends expanding Down-
towns retail district to the Malls cross streets
and 14th and 17th streets to provide diversely
priced and sized retail spaces that can house a
mix of retailers who serve Downtowns varied
audiences. Currently, the 16th Street Mall is
Downtowns only main street and offers the
majority of shopping and dining opportunities.
Its length and space limitations limit expansion
of Downtown retail.
Expansion of the retail district could help mitigate
the Malls high retail rents. Rents often exceed
the reach of many retailers, especially the expe-
riential, creative, clever, and cool independent
stores that help bring character to Downtown.
The panel observed some of these retailers on
East Colfax and in Capitol Hill. Expansion of the
retail district onto the cross streets could provide
smaller, cheaper spaces for such tenants.
Expansion of the retail district onto 14th and
17th streets could provide more affordable retail
space for budget-minded retailers such as Ross
Dress for Less, Dress Bam, and TJ.Maxx. As the
Mall evolves, these retailers current spaces will
become more valuable and therefore less suitable
for more price-driven stores. Lower rents allow
these stores to keep their prices more affordable.
Budget-minded and discount retailers may work
better on adjacent blocks with lower rents and
convenient access to office workers.
In response to many requests, the panel wishes
to note that traditional department stores are
not likely to locate in Downtown. The panel also
heard frequent requests for a Downtown Target.
Target is a high-quality operation that does well
in upscale markets and has developed a successful
urban format. The panel recommends pursuing a
Target for Downtown. To find ample space, Tar-
get might need to locate a block off of 16th Street
where large parcels are available. If such parcels
can be assembled on 16th Street or within a
block of it, ideally near either of the anchor areas,
Target should be a major success and should help
arouse intense retailer and restaurant interest in
Downtown.
18
An Advisory Services Panel Report


Design Principles
The original design concept that shaped the
16th Street Mall promised its success as
Denvers vital, multiuse main street. To-
_____day, as then, the 16th Street Mall depends
on the quality of its design and the diversity of
the urban neighborhoods it serves. The panel pro-
poses ten core principles to guide future design
and development decisions that affect the 16th
Street Mall. The principles grow from the civic
spirit of the Malls origins and provide concrete
guidance for understanding and evaluating future
opportunities.
Honor the Original Design
The panel encourages all stakeholders to honor
the legacy of the original I. M. Pei & Partners de-
sign for the 16th Street Mall. Denvers residents
view the Mall with great affection and pride as a
powerful image of their city. The Mall is a unified
concept and public art of the highest international
quality, not merely an assemblage of elements.
The lighting, landscaping, and paving all form
part of a single unit. Any changes must be made
cautiously and with full respect for the original
design. Any change could fundamentally alter the
success of the space and deny this legacy to future
generations. The panel recognizes the need to ad-
dress challenges posed by deferred maintenance
and failed construction technologies; nevertheless,
upgrades and repairs should be made with full
respect for the original design.
Introduce Neighborhood
Improvements
The panel recommends new programs and design
solutions to reinforce neighborhood cross connec-
tions and promote development. Close-in estab-
lished and emerging neighborhoods and major
event venues surround Downtown. Most of these
are within a ten-minute walk of the Mall, and
many are within a five-minute walk. Among them,
the Denver Performing Arts Complex, the Colo-
rado Convention Center, the Civic Center, the
Auraria Campus, Coors Field, the Central Platte
Valley, and Arapahoe Square form a Downtown
nexus of sports, education, governance, recreation,
and culture that make urban living enjoyable.
The few blocks that separate the Mall from these
assets should be upgraded with streetscape, land
use, and transit improvements on the strategically
selected streets identified in the 2007 Downtown
Area Plan and discussed later in this report.
Improve the Terminations of the Mall
The Malls terminations, from Market to Wyn-
koop streets in the west and from Tremont Place
to Broadway in the east, should be upgraded.
Much of the enjoyment of the urban journey is the
anticipation of reward at the end. At the west end,
the transit way opens into a poorly defined urban
street environment from Market to Wynkoop
streets. The Market Street Station bus staging
area further compromises this experience. Before
the RTD releases Market Street Station for devel-
opment, all stakeholders should agree on a master
plan that calls for development and streetscape
improvements appropriate to LoDos gateway.
At the eastern end, FREE MallRide movements
and uncoordinated plazas and open spaces greatly
diminish the quality of the gateway from the Civic
Center. In partnership with the city, building
owners, and the RTD, the DDP should undertake
a unified master plan to upgrade this environment
so that it equals the design standards set by the
I. M. Pei & Partners plan. These improvements
should create a beautified view from the 16th
Street Mall to the State Capitol.
Maintain Vitality
Currently, office workers, tourists, convention
visitors, and residents support the Malls retail,
Denver, Colorado, May 11-16, 2008
19


Both ends of the Mall
could be enhanced to
offer a sense of arrival
restaurant, and entertainment venues. Every
effort should be made to maintain that customer
base for the businesses along the Mall. Improve-
ments could include better security at night and
upgraded north-south connections to nearby
neighborhoods.
Enhance the Street Network
The 16th Street Mall should be included in a
comprehensive street network of movement and
address. The city must modify its network of one-
way streets to provide better mobility for traffic
and transit. Coupled with Downtowns large block
structure, the one-way street system requires
long travel distances through many intersections
to circulate to destinations within Downtown.
This network reduces shopping trips and thwarts
accessibility to storefronts. The 16th Street Malls
prohibition on traffic exacerbates the problem be-
tween 15th and 17th streets. Two-way movements
must be introduced within this zone to promote
commerce and vitality.
Create a Space for Everyone
The Mall must welcome and provide for all
Denvers citizens. From an economic point of
view, monoculture environments are fragile. The
healthiest cities allow everyone to participate, en-
courage experimentation and invention, and con-
tinuously reinvent themselves. Denver is a young
city, positioned geographically, demographically,
economically, and culturally to become a bigger
and better one. Doing so will require energetic
and patriotic participation from as many human
resources as it can muster and as many sectors of
its population as it can embrace.
Promote Pedestrian-Friendly Streets
A great city is fundamentally a walking city. The
sidewalks of the city street are where the citys
people, buildings, and experiences greet one an-
other face to face. Loss of these encounters dimin-
ishes the sense of shared culture, limits enjoyment
of diversity, and restricts the chance for surprises
that educate and entertain. Most important, poor
pedestrian environments diminish residents sense
of personal responsibility for the civic realm.
Connect Streets with Open Space
Downtown streets should connect a network
of parks and open spaces that are truly public.
For Denver, pedestrian-friendly streets should
integrate seamlessly with major public spaces,
including Skyline Park, Civic Center Park, and
even office building plazas. These spaces should
serve as areas of repose, recreation, event, and as-
sembly. In tandem with the street network, such
spaces should be managed as the realm where
democracy reigns, where none are excluded and
all are respected. This overall network should
feature the latest communication technologies,
including interactive signage and advertising in
select areas.
20
An Advisory Services Panel Report


Involve the Public Realm
The city and county of Denver are ultimately
responsible for the 16th Street Malls vitality. The
DDP, the BID, the RTD, and property owners
have done a superb job maintaining the Mall as
the citys premier open space but cannot afford
the full cost of moving forward. The Mall is a
civic space that belongs in the hands of the public
realm. The city should allocate any financial and
human resources it can afford to keep the Mall as
an amenity for residents and visitors alike.
Provide a Feasible Vision
Downtown stakeholders need to define a feasible,
near-term vision for the area around the 16th
Street Mall. The panel proposes an urban village
that provides an urban lifestyle with neighbor-
hood convenience retail and specialty shopping,
all within walking distance of Downtowns great
resources. Such a development, done on a manage-
able scale, could be the seed of a great new Down-
town neighborhood. Although recent development
activity in the commercial core has rewarded Den-
vers successful Downtown efforts, land resources
close to the 16th Street Mall remain underused.
The city should apply incentives and leadership to
jump-start development in the urban village.
Denver, Colorado, May 11-16, 2008
21


Design Recommendations
The Mall and its transit system have been
workhorses for positive change in Down-
towns growing economy since 1982. Time
_____and use have taken a toll. Today, almost 26
years since the Malls opening, the Malls infra-
structure is near the end of its life span. In par-
ticular, some of the Malls below-grade infra-
structure is failing and requires reconstruction.
Meanwhile, paving repair and maintenance costs
continue to grow. The panel agrees with the pre-
vailing opinion that a major reconstruction is
needed.
Reconstruction efforts must honor the original
design. The original design provides sufficient
flexibility to accommodate future transit solutions
and maintain the Malls role as Denvers most
prominent public space. Maintaining and reusing
the existing granite pavers offers a sustainable
solution and one that preserves the original public
investment and unique sense of place. Reconstruc-
tion planning, design, and execution will be a
complex process that must be done carefully and
with appropriate expertise.
Paving System Solutions
The Malls original paving system is a unique pat-
tern of cut granite blocks set in mortar. The fields
of pavers are precisely organized around light fix-
tures, tree wells, granite curbs, and intersections.
The amazingly high level of design execution is
one of the Malls hidden treasures and often goes
unrecognized by the casual observer. As stated in
the preceding design principles, the reconstruc-
tion planning process must honor the quality of
this design.
The paving system needs to be studied and recon-
structed. Years of freeze-thaw cycles, marginal
drainage, and maintenance caused the granite
paving system to fail in several areas. Currently,
repairs to the granite are costly and must be
performed during off hours because of the Malls
intensive and extended hours of use. Although
repairs use a construction technique similar to
the original, they create a patchwork of differing
mortar colors and joint widths that detracts from
the Malls appearance and design integrity.
The panel heard extensive discussion about solu-
tions for the paving system. Many stakeholders
suggested using a sand-set paving system, similar
to one used by the city for other recent projects. A
sand-set system may not be able to match the tol-
erances used in the original design because sand-
setting usually requires a wider tolerance. Paving
experts should be retained to find an installation
solution that can preserve the original tolerances.
The discussion should move from paving options
to strategies for mitigating the freeze-thaw cycle
entirely. Two possibilities offer promise. Under-
sidewalk snow-melting technologies could offer a
solution. Another option could be a rooftop solar
energy system that would heat water for a de-
icing loop. The latter option could be a model for
sustainable design. Annual savings on operation
costs and snow removal could offset the initial
costs of either system. Pedestrians, property
owners, and the RTD would likely view a snow-
melting system as a high-quality amenity.
The reconstruction should also take steps to make
the granite paving system safer for pedestrians
and transit operators. Two possible strategies are
(a) reflaming the existing granite pavers to recap-
ture their original slip-resistant texture before
replacement and (b) adding grooves to the top of
the existing granite curbs for improved tactile
warning and safety at the transit lanes.
Landscape Solutions
The panel recommends rehabilitating areas of the
Mall where trees have been lost and not replaced.
These areas may offer opportunities to add new
landscape areas by converting modest-sized areas
22
An Advisory Services Panel Report


of underused paved median into new planting
zones. The intent is to add additional greenery to
the Mall and reduce the visual clutter of street
planters. The design for these areas must be
studied carefully to create a safety refuge outside
the transit lane without disrupting mid-block
pedestrian crossings. This improvement should be
designed to honor and enhance the Malls original
design.
The panel also recommends improvements to
the Malls water systems. Failing underground
landscape irrigation infrastructure should be
reconstructed to promote healthy tree growth.
In addition, the Malls subsurface drainage and
stormwater systems should be repaired and up-
graded as necessary.
Lighting and Electrical Infrastructure
Solutions
The panel recommends preserving the original
light fixtures and upgrading the electrical infra-
structure. The existing light fixtures should be
removed, inspected for structural failures at the
rusting base areas, and reconditioned as needed.
They should then be coated with a high-quality
finish and reinstalled. All existing electrical wires,
controls, and conduit that serve the lighting
fixtures should be replaced. New power outlets
should be added along the Mall to accommodate
vendor needs and tree lighting. The panel also
recommends studying the benefits and location for
new unpopulated underground conduits to sup-
port future improvements such as a public music
system or Wi-Fi.
Denver, Colorado, May 11-16, 2008


Connectivity and Mobility
he panel evaluated the 2007 Downtown Area
Plan and the Downtown Multimodal Ac-
cess Plan (DMAP) as part of its work and
determined that these plans provide a com-
prehensive strategy for Downtown development.
The panel believes that the 2007 Downtown Area
Plan should put additional focus on the 16th Street
Malls role as a visitor attraction and civic icon.
The panel recommends the following enhance-
ments to the 2007 Downtown Area Plan to better
support the Malls second renaissance as Denvers
premier great street and the anchor of a grow-
ing network of great streets Downtown:
Develop a network of primary and secondary
great streets that knits together Downtowns
districts and offers a wide range of desired ad-
dresses and real estate for new development.
Position local transit as a critical tool for sup-
porting new development Downtown and
promoting the vitality of the 16th Street Mall
and other Downtown areas.
Improve transit connectivity throughout
Downtown by creating a Downtown Circula-
tor on 14th and 18th/19th streets. (The panel
understands that this idea was considered and
dismissed during the DMAP planning process
but encourages stakeholders to revisit it.)
Create a Downtown Transit Fare-Free Zone
and operate the Downtown Circulator as a free
service that supports growth and enhances
mobility.
Transform one-way streets into high-quality
two-way streets.
Design all streets as high-quality pedestrian
environments with on-street parking, wide
sidewalks, and streetscape improvements.
Enhancing Downtowns Transporta-
tion Network
Downtowns automobile, transit, bicycle, and
pedestrian transportation network provides
regional accessibility and local mobility. Diverse
transportation choices connect visitors, commut-
ers, and residents to different Downtown districts
and amenities. As Downtown grows, the trans-
portation system will need to serve increasing
automobile, transit, pedestrian, and bicycle traffic.
The system must balance efficient service and
overall livability to achieve Downtowns long-term
sustainability.
The 16th Street Mall is DenveFs premier civic
street, a spine linking Downtowns government,
office, retail, entertainment, and recreation areas.
It is also Downtowns principal transit artery.
Downtowns transportation system must evolve
to enable the 16th Street Mall to work in concert
with other key streets to connect neighborhoods
and activity nodes throughout Downtown.
The panels vision for a successful Downtown
interweaves the 16th Street Mall, 14th Street, and
17th Street with key perpendicular named streets
to form Downtowns connective tissue. All these
corridors must provide an excellent pedestrian
environment and support local transit, bicycle, and
pedestrian needs.
Regional Transportation
Downtown serves as a regional hub for major
highways, arterial roadways, and transit service.
Currently, regional buses terminate at Market
Street and Civic Center stations. The FREE
MallRide links these two stations and distributes
regional visitors throughout Downtown.
FasTracks buildout will change Downtowns
regional transportation patterns by shifting the
24
An Advisory Services Panel Report


Key
1 Coors Field 6 Civic Center Station
2 Pepsi Center 7 Union Station
3 Denver Center for the Performing Arts 8 Market Street Station
4 Colorado Convention Center 5 Civic Center Park 9 Light-Rail Station
at
Five-Minute Walk from a Transit Hub
Major Street
Connector Street
regional transportation hub to Union Station
and by increasing the number of jobs and transit
riders in Downtown. Downtown transit service
will need to change in response. Major changes
include increasing capacity and providing easy
local connections to regional transit services at
Union Station.
Local Transportation
The 16th Street Mall performs well as Down-
towns principal transit artery. Its existence is
owed in large part to its success as a transit cor-
ridor. With three peak travel periods per day, the
Malls ability to provide the majority of Down-
town transit connections is remarkable. With
the projected addition of more than 35,000 new
workers and 25,000 new residents, local transit
service will need to be enhanced to connect the
major activity centers and to serve all Downtown
transit riders.
The FREE MallRide should continue to operate
and connect the major transit centers at Union
Station and Civic Center Station to retail and
commercial activity directly along the Mall. Local
cross-town bus, and potentially streetcar, service
Denver, Colorado, May 11-16, 2008
25


should be expanded to provide connections be-
tween Downtown and adjacent neighborhoods.
A Downtown Circulator should be established
along 14th Street, Broadway/Lincoln Street, and
18th/19th streets to connect major activity nodes,
including Coors Field, the commercial core, the
Civic Center, the art and cultural museums, the
Colorado Convention Center, and Downtowns
neighborhoods. The panel understands that this
idea was discarded during the DMAP planning
process but encourages the stakeholders to
revisit it.
The panel recommends creating a Downtown
Transit Fare-Free Zone to enable transit to serve
the Downtown area as an amenity, distinct from
its function as a regional connector. The Fare-
Free Zone will support development by encourag-
ing in-town transit use, reducing the projected
overdemand of the FREE MallRide, and enabling
transit riders to make easy connections to activity
centers throughout Downtown.
To fully enhance the Downtown living, work-
ing, and entertainment environment, Downtown
should introduce additional mobility options to
supplement fixed-route transit service and auto
dependency. Car-sharing services; bicycles; reli-
able Downtown taxi service; designated scooter,
motorcycle, and bicycle parking; and other
personal transportation devices (for example, Seg-
ways) for short, local trips will support develop-
ment of and access to various services from all the
Downtown neighborhoods.
Creating Great Streets
Downtowns street grid can provide mobility for
all transportation modes. To achieve this goal,
the panel recommends transforming Downtowns
street grid into a network of great primary and
secondary streets that complement the 16th
Street Mall. The great streets network will cre-
ate new residential, office, institutional, and retail
development opportunities by establishing many
desirable addresses, pedestrian-friendly street
environments, and easy connections throughout
Downtown. On great streets, all street and build-
ing design focuses on creating a safe, pleasant, and
lively pedestrian environment.
As a general note, the panel recommends abandon-
ing Downtowns current one-way street system.
Most Downtown streets are one way, between two
and four lanes wide, and lacking streetscape. The
one-way street system requires long travel dis-
tances through many intersections to circulate to
destinations within Downtown. The panel recom-
mends opening all streets to two-way traffic and
transforming the current streets by introducing
trees, wide sidewalks, unified sidewalk paving, and
on-street parking. All Downtown streets should be
considered pedestrian-oriented streets.
26
An Advisory Services Panel Report


Opportunity sites in the
proposed urban village.
Key
1 Coors Field 5 Civic Center Park
2 Pepsi Center 6 Civic Center Station
3 Denver Center for the Performing Arts 4 Colorado Convention Center 7 Union Station
Great Primary Streets
Mixed-Use Opportunity Site
Major Venue
Great Primary Streets
The panel recommends creating a network of
great primary streets to improve pedestrian
movement and multimodal access. The primary
streets should include the following:
16th Street Mall, Denvers greatest civic and
retail street;
14th Street civic/cultural corridor;
17th Street corporate/commercial corridor;
Larimer Street, the rib connecting the Auraria
Campus, LoDo, and Coors Field;
Curtis Street, the rib connecting the Denver
Performing Arts Complex to the emerging
Arapahoe Square arts neighborhood;
California Street, the rib connecting the Colo-
rado Convention Center to the commercial core;
and
Tremont Place, the rib connecting the com-
mercial core to the Silver Triangle and Civic
Center.
Denver, Colorado, May 11-16, 2008
27


Existing wayfinding
devices are an example
of great pedestrian
amenities.
ings on the primary streets that will ensure that
new developments reinforce the character and
activity along these key neighborhood corridors.
Great Secondary Streets
Great secondary streets are neighborhood cor-
ridors that help Downtown function. Secondary
streets present opportunities for developments
not requiring prime street addresses; enable
service access to primary street properties, pro-
viding access for city services; and offer space for
enhanced transit and bicycle service. The char-
acter of the secondary streets should reflect the
pedestrian-oriented environment of the primary
streets with wide sidewalks, street trees, and
unified sidewalk paving. Design guidelines on sec-
ondary streets should be less stringent but should
remain consistent with the Downtown neighbor-
hood character. Important secondary streets
include 15th, 18th, and 19th streets.
Great primary streets should be transformed
into two-way streets with on-street parking and
bicycle lanes, where possible. They should include
boulevard-type streetscape treatments with wide
sidewalks, street trees, unified sidewalk paving,
and well-designed facades. The panel recommends
establishing urban design guidelines for all build-
28
An Advisory Services Panel Report


A Walk around the Urban Village
The panel recommends focusing development
efforts on creating a mixed-use, pedestrian-
friendly, civic, cultural, and residential urban
____village at the heart of Downtown and the
center of the 16th Street Mall. The urban village
will surround the core blocks of the 16th Street
Mall and fill the area bounded by 14th, 17th, and
Market streets and Glenarm Place. The new
neighborhood will fill a hole in the center of Down-
town with new development on currently vacant
or underused sites.
The urban village should extend the vitality of the
16th Street Mall to the cross streets and through a
walkable neighborhood that links LoDo, the Silver
Triangle, the Auraria Campus, and Arapahoe
Square. New residents in compact, mid-rise, and
high-rise residential buildings will support further
development on the Mall and throughout Down-
town. As LoDo did, the urban village will become
a new neighborhood with a unique identity. The
following sections give the reader an opportunity
to explore the urban village and understand its
particular urban character.
The new urban village should be a mixed-use
district that houses the full diversity of urban life
but retains a residential focus. A residential focus
promotes development of a true neighborhood
character that, in turn, will attract new residents
and development. Local developers told the panel
that development in LoDo and the Union Sta-
tion area is driven by tenants who want LoDos
lifestyle and ambience in their workplace. The
same can happen in the urban village. Increased
residential population will also support upgraded
retail on the 16th Street Mall and its cross streets.
Buildings Oriented to Great Streets
Major buildings and ground-floor retail in the
urban village should face the north-south primary
great streetsLarimer, Curtis, California, and
Tremont. These streets will spread vitality from
the Mall through the urban village and an entire
network of human-scaled neighborhoods, espe-
cially for retail development. Buildings through-
out the urban village should locate local, unique,
or neighborhood-serving retail on their ground
floors, facing the named streets.
Continuing to serve its current role, 15th Street
should function primarily as a service street.
Service frontage and access points should be mini-
mized and oriented toward 15th and nonprimary
named streets. Garage and service entrances
should be discreetly located in the mid-block areas
to minimize interruption of the facade and retail
streetscape.
High-density buildings
support street life and
retail.
Denver, Colorado, May 11-16, 2008
29


Key
1 Coors Field 5 Civic Center Park
2 Pepsi Center 6 Civic Center Station
3 Denver Center for the Performing Arts 7 Union Station
4 Colorado Convention Center
Major Street
Neighborhood Street
Urban Village
Major Venue

Higher Densities Where Appropriate
Building design in the urban village should create
pedestrian-friendly streets, enable high densi-
ties, and preserve the views valued in Denvers
high-rise residential buildings. The panel believes
that podium buildings with taller point towers will
achieve all three goals. Vancouver, Portland, and
other cities have used this model to successfully
create higher-density, highly livable neighbor-
hoods. The podium structure can be two to four
stories and contain parking, retail, and service
functions. The point towers, which sit atop the
podium, can be configured around rooftop gardens
to maximize views and sunlight.
The panel recommends locating higher-density,
taller buildings north of the Mall, along 14th and
15th streets. This location will help new devel-
opment conform to the sunlight preservation
ordinance. Clustering the taller buildings along
the north side of the Mall will also create a hub of
activity between the 14th Street cultural corridor
and the 16th Street Mall.
30
An Advisory Services Panel Report


Pedestrian-Friendly Streetscapes
The urban village should feature pedestrian-
friendly streets with consistent streetscapes
that foster a comfortable pedestrian experience.
Street trees, planting areas, planter boxes along
buildings, wide sidewalks, ornamental paving,
on-street parking, and sidewalk bump-outs at
crosswalks will all help create a pedestrian-
friendly environment.
Lively ground-floor uses and animated building fa-
cades further enhance the pedestrian experience.
The panel recognizes that Downtown cannot sup-
port retail in all ground-floor spaces. Retail is not
the only way to enliven streets. Buildings in the
urban village should maintain a lively and inviting
ground-level street facade skillfully articulated
with entrances, stoops, recessed courtyards, and
other features.
Buildings should align with the build-to lines to
establish street facade continuity. Setbacks from
the property line should be used only in condi-
tions where sidewalks are excessively narrow.
Street wall continuity is critical to creating the
continuity of storefronts needed for a strong
retail environment.
Appropriate Parking and Circulation
The urban village should feature on-street park-
ing on all streets other than the 16th Street Mall.
On-street parking increases short-term parking
for retail and visitors and makes pedestrians feel
safer by slowing traffic in adjacent travel lanes
and providing a physical and psychological buffer
between pedestrians and traffic.
The urban village should not include surface
parking. Surface parking will not contribute to the
desired high-density neighborhood environment.
The large supply of structured parking at the
Colorado Convention Center, Denver Performing
Arts Complex, and other Downtown locations will
provide supplemental parking. Maximum parking
counts should be established for each new project
based on land use and shared parking strate-
gies; no minimum should be set. Parking garages
should be located underground or be wrapped
with other uses to screen them from public view.
Two-way travel should be permitted on most, if
not all, streets within the urban village. Two-way
traffic enhances mobility and connectivity while
simplifying wayfinding for visitors and residents
alike. It also tends to calm traffic and reduce
speeds.
Open Space and Green Design
The urban village should feature green urban
landscapes at every scale. Developers and public
leaders should use extensive public and private
landscapes and gardens to transform the area
from a rather barren, concrete environment.
Street trees, planter boxes, garden courts, roof
gardens, pocket parks, and other private and
publicly accessible landscapes will be assets.
Privately controlled gardens and landscapes will
contribute to the streetscape if they are visible to
the public even if they are not publicly accessible.
Streetscapes should link to existing open spaces,
such as Skyline Park, that will become neighbor-
hood parks for the urban village.
All buildings and landscapes in the urban village
should meet high standards for sustainable devel-
opment. New landscapes should feature water-
sensitive design and native plants that conform
to the citys Greenprint strategy. For buildings,
the urban village should go beyond the minimum
standards of LEED (Leadership in Energy and
Environmental Design) to enhance the overall
sustainability of the district. Every opportunity
for reducing the neighborhoods carbon footprint
should be explored, including green infrastruc-
ture, green streets, energy-efficient technology,
Planters enhance the
pedestrian environment.
Denver, Colorado, May 11-16, 2008
31


and recycled and locally produced products.
Stakeholders should set a goal of making the
urban village carbon-neutral.
Design Controls for High-Quality
Development
The panel recommends implementing a publicly
managed and administered design review process
for the urban village to ensure high-quality build-
ing, landscape, and urban design. Stakeholders
should create urban design guidelines, based on a
comprehensive urban design plan for the neigh-
borhood. The guidelines and plans should identify
the urban village as a separate neighborhood
within the Downtown area in the same way that
design guidelines distinguish LoDo, Arapahoe
Square, and the Civic Center. All new projects
public or privatemust conform to the design
guidelines. Projects can then be reviewed and ap-
proved through the normal process administered
by the Department of Community Planning and
Development.
32
An Advisory Services Panel Report


Implementation
To provide business continuity and minimize
business interruption during reconstruction
of 16th Street, the city will need to manage
_____multiple programs and incorporate relevant
requirements in the construction contracts, fund-
ing provisions, and maintenance standards.
Mitigation Strategies for the Recon-
struction Process
Advance planning for the reconstruction process
will minimize disruption to transit services and
retailers on the Mall. The construction schedule
should break the construction process into man-
ageable phases. The panel recommends imple-
menting the work one block and one half of the
street at a time. Inefficient construction or poor
sequencing will add calendar days and costs to the
construction budget.
The BID should work with the contractor to
ensure access to businesses throughout the
reconstruction process. Several steps can help
provide access. Project staging should be designed
to provide access to businesses and minimize
business interruption. Access to businesses and
transit should be maintained while trenching and
subsurface preparation work occur. Pavement
preparation and installation should take place in
coordination with a specifically oriented plan.
The construction contract must contain a re-
quirement to minimize vehicular, transit, and
pedestrian traffic interruptions and to provide
notice promptly of required traffic interruption
and rerouting schemes. The most disruptive work
should occur overnight, avoiding business hours
and weekend days to enable the Mall to function
as a right-of-way.
Selecting the Right Construction Partner
The project will require a resourceful general con-
tractor. The city should draft a detailed request
for qualifications and carefully evaluate the re-
sponses to find the right construction partner for
this project, not the lowest-cost contractor. Key
qualifications will include the contractors ability
to communicate with retailers and stakeholders,
experience with high-quality public infrastructure
projects, capacity to manage public stakeholders,
and ability to organize a highly complex proj-
ect. The city may consider a bonus incentive for
work completed ahead of schedule to reduce the
financial effects on retailers and tax collections.
This approach has worked well for completing
major infrastructure projects in other areas of the
country, keeping them on time and on budget with
minimal disruption of services.
Stakeholder Communications
The contractor must communicate progress;
changes to the schedule; upcoming construc-
tion movements; and other issues to retailers,
transit officials, and other stakeholders on an
ongoing basis. The construction contract should
require the contractor to designate a liaison who
will be immediately and continuously available
to mitigate unforeseen construction issues that
affect business operations. The liaison should host
weekly construction schedule and program update
meetings and immediately communicate schedule
The community engage-
ment process should
continue throughout
implementation.
Denver, Colorado, May 11-16, 2008
33


changes that affect businesses. The liaison will be
responsive directly to businesses to address day-
to-day concerns and issues.
Financial Assistance
Planning should consider the financial effects of
reconstruction on retailers and the city. Retailers
may need subsidies if construction causes them
to go dark for any time longer than a few days. In
addition, reduced retail sales will reduce sales tax
collections. Downtown stakeholders should plan
for both of these financial needs.
A mitigation fund should be established as
part of the construction budget. These funds
will be used for public relations and awareness
building, as well as to provide a contingency for
business interruption funding. The city and the
BID should also consider providing incentives
for facade improvements immediately following
the pavement work.
Public Relations and Awareness Building
The BID should retain a public relations team
to build and maintain interest in the reconstruc-
tion project and ensure continuing business and
retail activity. The teams job will be to develop
a themed campaign to build awareness for and
celebrate the ongoing event of the project and
its anticipated outcomes. Campaign features can
include the following activities:
Website and Web-based communications that
provide continuous updates on the renovation
process and progress;
A joint advertising campaign, funded coopera-
tively by businesses and the mitigation fund,
that highlights special events, individual promo-
tions, merchandise opportunities, and merchant
incentive programs;
Distinctive on-site signage to direct cus-
tomers through detours and to parking and
affected stores;
A multimedia advertising and promotion
program that continuously broadcasts changing
traffic and parking strategies before and during
the reconstruction; and
Regular coordinated progress coverage by
all media.
The campaign will be expensive. All parties in-
volved in the rehabilitation process must commit
to making the project as painless and as efficient
as possible. Cooperative effort will allow the 16th
Street Mall to emerge better and more beautiful
for all who enjoy it.
Parking
If the reconstruction disrupts transit access to
the Mall or vehicular access near the Mall, the
BID might consider creating and promoting
dependable, accessible parking with fee reduc-
tion, merchant validation, and other inconvenience
offsets. This strategy could help draw customers
who might otherwise be discouraged by the recon-
struction activities.
Funding
Fortunately, the 16th Street Mall has benefited
from the commitment, investment, and resources
of many. With acknowledged public sector funding
pressures, successful public/private partner-
ships will become increasingly critical to the Mall
and Downtown Denvers future success. At the
projects outset, the public/private team should
prepare detailed capital, maintenance, and operat-
ing pro formas for the entire Mall. The pro formas
should consider all costs associated with the Malls
rehabilitation, retail development, maintenance,
programming, and marketing.
The panel recommends preparing a comprehen-
sive funding strategy. The strategy should be
imaginative and forward thinking to capitalize on
all and any funding sources that can be used. In
developing the funding plan, stakeholders should
Strategize about funding sources, to include the
city, RTD, DURA, BID, and other cultural and
economic development partners;
Evaluate state and federal funding sources;
Identify corporate sponsorships and not-for-
profit/foundation grants;
Explore revenue potential from parking income,
vending operations, programming, special
34
An Advisory Services Panel Report


events, advertising, and other alternative op-
portunities; and
Package a maintenance endowment with the
capital budget, whenever possible, to create a
permanent funding stream.
The DDP and the BID can and must continue to
assume a leadership role in improving and manag-
ing Downtown and the 16th Street Mall. The DDP
and the BID may require new revenue to achieve
the enhanced economic development, mainte-
nance, programming, and marketing envisioned
for the Mall. New commercial development within
the BID will generate additional income. The
DDP should evaluate the feasibility of establish-
ing a community improvement district, downtown
development authority, or other district mecha-
nism to capture additional revenue. It may be
advantageous to overlay an appropriate district
mechanism to achieve the necessary results. The
BID could also solicit voluntary contributions
from residential properties, individuals, and other
currently nonassessed users.
Retail Enhancement Strategies
The DDP and the BID recently initiated the Re-
tail Development Plan to retain and recruit retail-
ers to Downtown, with special focus on the 16th
Street Mall between Welton and Curtis streets.
This plan seeks to improve the appearance and
consistency of storefronts and exterior signage
through a facade improvement program, enhance
window displays and interior signage through a
merchandising program, promote Downtowns
retail amenities through a marketing program,
and provide lease and buildout subsidies through
an incentive program. The DDP is currently tak-
ing steps to secure $2 million to $3 million to fund
those activities.
To achieve desired results, the panel recommends
hiring a dedicated staff person to keep data,
prospect, show available space, and liaise with
property owners of available spaces. Experience
from other cities indicates that having a trained
individual focused on retail retention and recruit-
ment is essential. In addition, the panel suggests
the following efforts to enhance the Retail Devel-
opment Plan:
Establish a merchandising plan to identify pre-
ferred uses and locations.
Establish and enforce facade and storefront
design guidelines to raise the bar and guide
development.
Provide design assistance to assist property
owners in creating attractive, effective store-
front designs.
Pilot Portlands Block by Block program, and
begin by working with the new Pavilions own-
ers and other proposed new developments.
Develop a retail incubator program to identify,
nurture, and grow small businesses, including
ethnic entrepreneurs, artisans, and emerging
talents.
The panel recommends reserving grants, loans,
and other services for property owners and
tenants who comply with the 16th Street Mall
merchandising plan and design guidelines. These
efforts can be expanded to other areas along the
Mall as desired.
Maintenance
Managing a popular and heavily used public space
requires a never-ending commitment to the high-
est standards of maintenance. This responsibility
necessitates dedicated and resourceful personnel,
Distinctive signage and
facade design create a
lively retail streetscape.
Denver, Colorado, May 11-16, 2008
35


equipment, and funding. It is especially impor-
tant for the 16th Street Mall, Denvers living
room. The BID, the DDP, the city, and the RTD
have demonstrated a collaborative and effective
approach in maintaining the Mall to date. This ap-
proach will be even more critical in the future.
Design considerations must continue to address
and incorporate long-term maintenance factors.
Involving maintenance expertise in the design
team can save dollars in the future. As part of the
paver solution, ongoing maintenance and cleaning
requirements and realities must be balanced with
aesthetic and cost preferences.
The BID and the RTD now use many green
practices in cleaning and operations. Their green
strategies include using environmentally friendly
cleaning solutions and materials, reclaiming and
reusing excess water, using vehicles and tools
powered by alternative sources, and using native,
low-maintenance plantings. Future opportuni-
ties could include using environmentally friendly
power sources such as solar-heated water for
sidewalk snow melting, capturing ambient noise
(crowd farms) to power LED lighting, and other
technologies yet to emerge.
The panel observed that the Malls management
agencies do not universally agree on the division
of future maintenance and operation responsibili-
ties, funding, and the status of existing contracts.
These or new agreements need to be researched,
clarified, and negotiated to be as effective and ef-
ficient as possible.
36
An Advisory Services Panel Report


Conclusion
he panel believes that Denver will get the
city it wants. Nevertheless, effective change
will require Denvers leaders to want change
badly enough to rally the collective civic will
to bring about such change. Change requires the
vision to see what others cannot, the conviction to
inspire others to follow that vision, and the persis-
tence of will to do what is required to achieve the
vision. By creating the 2007 Downtown Area Plan,
Denver has taken a bold step into its own future.
Clearly, Denver has proven repeatedly that it
possesses the collective will to make big things
happen to the benefit all of Denvers citizens.
Renewing the 16th Street Mall area is the next
big thing. It will require close cooperation,
constant communication, inspired and visionary
leadership, and a willingness to understand that
individual concerns must sometimes give way to
a sense of desire, dedication, and commitment to
that which best serves the interests of the entire
Denver community. The panel believes that Den-
ver has all the elements it needs to soar into its
future place as a world-class city.
Denver, Colorado, May 11-16, 2008
37


About the Panel
Ray Brown
Panel Chair
Memphis, Tennessee
Brown offers architectural and urban design ser-
vices to Memphis architectural firms for individ-
ual projects. He specializes in projects that have
the potential to improve quality of life for urban
residents by reinventing neighborhoods into more
livable communities.
Brown directed the design and construction of
AutoZone Park in Memphis, a crown jewel in
Memphiss downtown renaissance. As vice presi-
dent for development of the Memphis Center
City Commission, Brown set the framework for
the downtown urban design plan, facilitated new
development, recruited new businesses, and
administered design standards.
For 26 years, Raymond Brown Architect
specialized in providing municipal and private
clients with architectural and urban design proj-
ects, focused on downtown redevelopment and
planning. Before establishing his own practice,
Brown was downtown planner for the city of
Dayton, Ohio. He taught architectural design at
the University of Cincinnati and the University
of Memphis.
He is a member of ULI, the Congress for New
Urbanism, and the American Society of Architec-
tural Illustrators. He serves on the board of the
Memphis Regional Design Center and Memphis
Heritage, Inc. He chairs the Mayors Committee
on Land Use and Development for the Sustainable
Shelby County Initiative. He has participated in
11 ULI Advisory Services panels, chairing three
of them.
Brown holds a BS in architecture from the Uni-
versity of Cincinnati.
Christine Burdick
Tampa, Florida
With more than 30 years experience in retailing
and urban development, Burdick was chosen as
the president of the Tampa Downtown Partner-
ship in April of 2002. For the past five years, she
and the partnerships leadership have taken a
lead role in planning for the transformation of the
regions largest urban core, working to further de-
velop the sense of community in downtown Tampa
and to bring exciting new projects to the area.
With more than $2.2 billion in recent and cur-
rent construction, the redevelopment of Tampas
downtown is well underway.
Burdick came to Tampa from Chicago, where
she worked first with Mayor Richard Daley and
then as an independent consultant, creating strat-
egies for revitalization and economic development
in urban commercial settings. For the city of
Chicago, she served as an assistant commissioner
in the Department of Planning and Develop-
ment, overseeing the implementation of the
State Street Vision Plan, and was the liaison to
key community groups representing developers,
retail and property owners, and cultural and aca-
demic institutions involved in the redevelopment
process in downtown Chicago. From 1993 to 1997,
she initiated and was president of the Lincoln
Road Partnership, an organization representing
the interests of the business and cultural commu-
nities directing the revitalization of Lincoln Road
in Miami Beach.
Burdick has been a member of ULI since 1990
and has served as a participant on Advisory
Panels, MayoFs Forums, and District Councils in
two states. She was elected chairman of the In-
ternational Downtown Association for 1996-1997
and also served as the interim president in 1997.
She is a member of the International Council of
Shopping Centers, the International Economic
38
An Advisory Services Panel Report


Development Council, and Lambda Alpha, a land
economics society. Locally, Burdick is a trustee of
the University of Tampa and a board member of
the Greater Tampa Chamber of Commerce, the
Tampa Bay Convention and Visitor Bureau, the
Florida Aquarium, and the Homeless Coalition of
Hillsborough County.
Paul Chapel
Dallas, Texas
Chapel is a leader for BOKA Powells growing
architecture practice based in Dallas. He has
over 26 years of experience in the architecture
profession and has successfully guided several
complex architectural projects through redevel-
opment initiatives.
During his tenure at BOKA Powell, Chapel has
gained extensive experience in design/planning on
a wide variety of project types, including mixed-
use, hospitality, retail, housing, corporate, sports,
municipal, industrial, and medical facilities, both
domestically and internationally. Currently, he is
involved in several large private redevelopment
projects in both urban and suburban locations
and actively supports the city of Dallass efforts
to redevelop the Dallas Farmers Market District
Downtown.
He is a proponent of sustainable design solutions
and encourages a consensus-building approach
with stakeholders. Chapel holds a bachelor of ar-
chitecture design option from Texas Tech Univer-
sity. He is also registered as an architect for the
states of Texas and Oregon and holds a LEED-
accredited professional certification. The recipi-
ent of several notable awards, Chapel holds the
American Institute of Architects (AIA) Portland
Award for Outstanding Service to the Profession
and received the city of Portland MayoFs Com-
mendation of Excellence. His work has received
design award recognition by both the AIA and
the construction community for its excellence,
sensitivity, and practicality.
Chapel is a member of the National Council of
Architectural Registration Boards, the AIA, the
Texas Society of Architects, the Urban Land
Institute, and the International Council of Shop-
ping Centers. In the past, he has chaired the
Portland AIA Design Awards/Architecture Week
programs, served on its board of directors, and
facilitated workshops on transit-oriented develop-
ment. He has also been involved with mentoring
architectural students through online Design
Studio critiques and led practice-exam workshops
on site development.
Thomas Curley
Ossining, New York
Curleys projects can be found on six continents
for clients as diverse as the Walt Disney Com-
pany, the Guggenheim Museum, the city of New
York, the U.S. Air Force Academy, the National
Capital Planning Commission, the city of Wash-
ington, D.C., the New Jersey Nets, and the Smith-
sonian Institution. He has designed new towns
in the Philippines, China, Australia, and India
and provided a submission for the 2008 Olympic
Village in Beijing. He was the lead designer for
EuroDisney in Marne-la-Vallee, and he provided
strategic planning for 9,000 acres of Disney prop-
erty south of the Disney World Resort in Florida.
Curley provided the master plan for the recon-
struction of downtown Beirut, for which he won
an international design award for excellence from
the Congress for New Urbanism.
At the national level, Curley was one of the
authors of the Washington Legacy Plan for the
National Capital Planning Commission, and he
just completed a 25-year master plan for Congress
for Capitol Hill. In New York, he was the master
planner for a new community of 1,600 units and
half a million square feet of commercial develop-
ment for the city of New York on one of the citys
last large landholdings. Curley believes that to be
called to service on public projects is the highest
honor an architect can achieve.
Curley graduated from the Southern California
Institute for Architecture with graduate degrees
in architecture and urban design. He is a regis-
tered architect in the state of New York and is a
LEED-accredited professional.
Denver, Colorado, May 11-16, 2008
39


Clarence Eng
Tampa, Florida
Eng is a practice leader for design and planning
and a senior project manager with extensive
experience directing complex land use, transpor-
tation, and economic revitalization projects in
urban and large redevelopment areas. His experi-
ence in strategic planning, town planning, public
involvement, public policy, urban design, and
sustainable development provides a breadth and
depth of understanding throughout the planning
and development process. Notable national and
international examples of his work include U.S.
Housing and Urban Development-China Minis-
try of Construction model housing communities,
redevelopment planning for Washington, D.C.s
South Capitol Street corridor, and new urbanism
town master plan concepts for London and in the
United States.
Eng is a National Charrette Institute certified
charrette leader with over ten years of experi-
ence conducting public design charrettes. He has
received numerous national awards, including
a Congress for New Urbanism Charter Award
for a transit-oriented development plan in the
Washington, D.C., region. He was a vice chair
for the American Planning Associations Urban
Design and Preservation Division (1999-2006), is
a member of the Congress for New Urbanism and
the Urban Land Institute, and is a Fellow of the
Institute for Urban Design.
He is a regular speaker at national conferences on
community planning and urban design for Main
Street revitalization, new town plans, small area
plans, brownfields, and corridor planning. He
holds dual masters degrees in planning and urban
design from the University of Southern California
and a bachelors in landscape architecture from
the University of Montreal.
Scott Hall
Chesapeake, Virginia
Hall is the senior business development manager
for the city of Chesapeake, Virginias Department
of Economic Development. He has 12 years of ex-
perience as an economic development professional,
including research, small business development,
business assistance, marketing, and planning. Hall
has also served as research director for the Vir-
ginia Peninsula Economic Development Alliance,
a regional public/private economic development
marketing organization.
While with Chesapeake, a city of 225,000 residents
in the Hampton Roads region of Virginia, Hall has
gained experience in international marketing, En-
terprise Zone administration, comprehensive land
use planning, and redevelopment planning.
A native of West Virginia, Hall received his BA
in political science from Marshall University in
1985 and his master of urban studies degree from
Old Dominion University in 1999. He served as
a commissioned officer in the U.S. Navy before
entering the field of economic development. He
is a member of the Urban Land Institute, the
International Economic Development Council,
the Southern Economic Development Council, the
International Council of Shopping Centers, the
Brazilian/American Chamber of Commerce, the
Virginia Economic Developers Association, and
C2ER (formerly ACCRA).
Scott Schuler
Arnold, Maryland
Schuler has been active in the commercial and
retail real estate market for 32 years. Seventeen
years in the Rouse Companys Research and Site
Strategy department provided extensive experi-
ence in retail and commercial analysis, consumer
research, and retail positioning. In 1993, he
established Schuler Consulting, providing a range
of retail research for public and private sector
clients. Included in his menu of client services are
retail market feasibility studies, market threshold
analyses, sales projections, site opportunity stud-
ies, market and site screening, competitive sales
and performance analyses, consumer research,
and the development of merchandising and leasing
plans. Recent emphasis has favored creating mar-
ket positioning and repositioning programs along
with strategies aimed at merchant attraction and
retention, primarily for struggling retail districts
and shopping centers.
40
An Advisory Services Panel Report


He has conducted research throughout the United
States and in Canada, South America, and the
Middle East, involving markets of all sizes. To
date, he has completed more than 300 retail
market studies, of which more than 80 focused on
downtown districts or on individual downtown
properties.
Schuler is active in the Urban Land Institute,
the International Downtown Association, and the
International Council of Shopping Centers.
Michael Stern
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Stem has been involved in aspects of urbanism,
city building, and public landscapes throughout
his professional career. The focus of his work has
always been the search for successful ways to im-
prove the quality of urban environments through
the practical application of sound design principles
rooted in traditional values of urbanism. He has
worked on a broad range of urban projects from
urban garden design to planning new edge cities.
His professional experience in the New York
firms of Cooper, Robertson & Partners and Quen-
nell Rothchild Associates gave him broad training
in the multiple aspects of planning, design, and
construction of private and public urban precincts
and landscapes. Subsequently, his teaching and
research while a full-time faculty member at the
School of Architecture, University of Virginia,
focused on understanding the changing nature of
urban form and organization in the face of new
technologies and economies.
Stems practice in Pittsburgh has been involved
in many of the citys major urban design and
planning efforts. He served as the project director
and urban designer for the Department of City
Planning on the Pittsburgh Downtown Plan, the
first comprehensive master plan for the greater
downtown area in 35 years. Other recent projects
include the Pittsburgh Regional Parks Master
Plan; the Downtown Bedford Revitalization Plan;
a downtown revitalization plan for Washington,
Pennsylvania; and the plan for the revitalization
of Pittsburghs Fifth and Forbes retail district.
Stem has lectured widely and published and
edited numerous articles and journals on urban
design and landscape design theory.
Stem received a masters of landscape architec-
ture from the Harvard Graduate School of Design
and a BA in anthropology from Grinnell College.
He is a member of the Urban Land Institute, the
American Society of Landscape Architects, Pitts-
burgh Chapter of the American Institute of Archi-
tects, and the Congress for the New Urbanism.
Tamara Zahn
Indianapolis, Indiana
Zahn is president of Indianapolis Downtown, Inc.
(IDI), a not-for-profit organization strategically
focused on developing, managing, and market-
ing downtown Indianapolis. Since forming IDI in
1993, Zahn has been instrumental in the revital-
ization of downtown Indianapolis, including the
opening of Circle Centre and the introduction of a
number of innovative security, parking, business
improvement, and marketing programs. Under
her watch, $4.5 billion of development has been
completed. More than 80 projects totaling $3.2 bil-
lion are underway, including 1,900 new downtown
homes and six cultural districts.
Before forming IDI, Zahn was a principal of Zahn
Associates, her own consulting firm specializ-
ing in urban development. She has consulted in
downtowns throughout the United States. Clients
include Simon Property Group, the Rouse Com-
panys American City Corporation, and the New
York Port Authority.
Zahn serves on the boards of numerous organiza-
tions, including the International Downtown Asso-
ciation (IDA), the Urban Land Institute, the Indi-
ana District Council, the Indianapolis Convention
and Visitors Association, the Childrens Museum,
and the Coalition for Homelessness Intervention
and Prevention. She was recognized as one of the
first 40 under 40 and Most Influential Women
in Indianapolis. Zahn is a recipient of the states
most prestigious Sagamore of the Wabash award
as well as awards from IDA and the International
Council of Shopping Centers.
Denver, Colorado, May 11-16, 2008
41


ULI-the Urban Land Institute
1025 Thomas Jefferson Street, N.W.
Suite 500 West
Washington, D.C. 20007-5201
Printed on recycled paper.


Full Text

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AN ADVISORY SERVICES PANEL REPORT1 6th Street Mall Denver, Col orado

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16th Street Mall Denver, Colorado Building on SuccessMay 11–16, 2008 An Advisory Services Panel Report ULI–the Urban Land Institute 1025 Thomas Jefferson Street, N.W. Suite 500 West Washington, D.C. 20007-5201

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An Advisory Services Panel Report2 The mission of the Urban Land Institute is to provide leadership in the responsible use of land and in creating and sustaining thriving communities worldwide. ULI is committed to Utˆ}ˆ} œ}i…i i>`i vœ“ >Vœ …i vˆi` of real estate and land use policy to exchange best practices and serve community needs; Uœiˆ} Vœ>Lœ>ˆœ ˆ…ˆ >` Liœ` ULI’s membership through mentoring, dialogue, and problem solving; Urœˆ} ˆ'i œv 'L>ˆ>ˆœ] Vœi>ˆœ] regeneration, land use, capital formation, and sustainable development; U`>Vˆ} >` 'i œˆVˆi >` `iˆ} >Vtices that respect the uniqueness of both built and natural environments; U-…>ˆ} Žœi`}i …œ'}… i`'V>ˆœ] >ˆi` research, publishing, and electronic media; and U-'>ˆˆ}> `ˆii }œL> iœŽ œv œV> practice and advisory efforts that address current and future challenges. r>Lˆ…i` ˆ £™] …i ˆ'i œ`> …> “œi than 40,000 members worldwide, representing the entire spectrum of the land use and develop ment disciplines. Professionals represented include developers, builders, property own ers, investors, architects, public officials, plan ners, real estate LœŽi] >>ˆi] >œi] i}ˆii] vˆ>Vˆi, academics, students, and librarians. ULI relies heavily on the experience of its members. It is through member involvement and information resources that ULI has been able to set standards of excellence in de velopment prac tice. The Insti'i …> œ} Lii iVœ}ˆi` > œi œv …i œ` most respected and widely quoted sources of objective information on urban planning, growth, and development. About ULI–the Urban Land Institute2008 by ULI–the Urban Land Institute 1025 Thomas Jefferson Street, N.W. Suite 500 West Washington, D.C. 20007-5201 All rights reserved. Reproduction or use of the whole or any part of the contents without written permission of the copyright holder is prohibited. Cover photo I. M. Pei and Partners.

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Denver, Colorado, May 11–16, 20083 The goal of ULI’s Advisory Services Pro gram is to bring the finest expertise in the real estate field to bear on complex land use planning and development projects, programs, >` œˆVˆi -ˆVi £™{] …ˆ œ}>“ …> >i“bled well over 400 ULI-member teams to help sponsors find creative, practical solutions for issues such as downtown redevelopment, land management strategies, evaluation of development potential, growth management, community iˆ>ˆ>ˆœ] Lœvˆi` i`iiœ“i] “ˆˆtary base reuse, provision of low-cost and affordable housing, and asset management strategies, among other matters. A wide variety of public, ˆ>i] >` œœvˆ œ}>ˆ>ˆœ …>i Vœtracted for ULI’s Advisory Services. r>V… >i i>“ ˆ Vœ“œi` œv …ˆ}… '>ˆvˆi` professionals who volunteer their time to ULI. /…i >i V…œi vœ …iˆ Žœi`}i œv …i >i topic and screened to ensure their objectivity. ULI’s interdisciplinary panel teams provide a …œˆˆV œœŽ > `iiœ“i œLi“ i‡ spected ULI member who has previous panel experience chairs each panel. The agenda for a five-day panel assignment is in tensive. It includes an in-depth briefing day composed of a tour of the site and meetings with spon sor representatives; a day of hour-long ˆiˆi œv ˆV> x œ x Ži Vœ““'ˆ representatives; and two days of formulating recommendations. Long nights of discussion precede the panel’s conclusions. On the final day œ ˆi] …i >i “>Ži > œ> ii>ˆœ œv ˆ findings and conclusions to the sponsor. A written re port is pre pared and published. tiV>'i …i œœˆ} iˆˆi >i iœˆLi for significant preparation before the panel’s vis it, including sending extensive briefing materials to each member and arranging for the panel to “ii ˆ… Ži œV> Vœ““'ˆ “i“Li >` >Ži…œ`i ˆ …i œiV '`i Vœˆ`i>ˆœ] participants in ULI’s five-day panel assignments >i >Li œ “>Ži >VV'>i >i“i œv> œsor’s issues and to provide recommendations in a compressed amount of time. A major strength of the program is ULI’s unique >Lˆˆ œ `> œ …i Žœi`}i >` iiˆi œv its members, including land developers and owners, public officials, academics, representatives of financial institutions, and others. In fulfillment of the mission of the Urban Land Institute, this Advisory Services panel report is intended to pro vide objective advice that will promote the respon sible use of land to enhance the environment.ULI Program StaffMarta V. Goldsmith Senior Vice President, Community/ r`'V>ˆœ *œœ /…œ“> 7 rˆi Vice President, Advisory Services Matthew Rader Manager, Advisory Services Caroline Dietrich Panel Associate, Advisory Services Gwen McCall `“ˆˆ>ˆi >>}i] r`'V>ˆœ >` nœ““'ˆ Nancy H. Stewart fˆiVœ] tœœŽ *œ}>“ Laura Glassman, Publications Professionals LLC >'Vˆ r`ˆœ ti 6>t'ŽˆŽ Creative Director Martha Loomis fiŽœ *'Lˆ…ˆ} -iVˆ>ˆ>…ˆV Kim Rusch Graphics Craig Chapman Director, Publishing Operations About ULI Advisory Services

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An Advisory Services Panel Report4 On behalf of the Urban Land Institute, the >i …>Ž …i fœœ fii *>i…ˆ] …i fœœ fii t'ˆi Improvement District, the Regional Transportation District, and the city and county of Deni /…i >i i` iVˆ> …>Ž œ >œ œ… ˆVŽiœœi] œ… fi“œ`] />“ˆ fœœ] Cal Marsella, and Cassie Milestone for their hard œŽ ˆ i>ˆ} vœ …i >i >` iœ`ˆ} œ the panel’s requests for information. ˆ>] …i >i …>Ž …i “œi …> £" Vœ“munity members who shared their time, insights, >` …œi `'ˆ} …i ˆiˆi œVi riœi who participated in the panel process provided vital insight and demonstrated the civic dedication …> “>Ži …i £… -ii > > œ'>`ˆ} >Vi œ ˆi] œŽ] >` > Acknowledgments

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Denver, Colorado, May 11–16, 20085 ULI Panel and Project Staff 6 œiœ`\/…i*>iˆ}“i >Ži*œiˆ> £ fiˆ}*ˆVˆi £™ Design Recommendations 22 Connectivity and Mobility 24 7>Ž>œ'`…i1L>6ˆ>}i "™ “i“i>ˆœ nœV'ˆœ Lœ'…i*>i n Contents

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An Advisory Services Panel Report6Panel Chair,> tœ Principal Designer -iv /'VŽi V…ˆiV] V Memphis, TennesseePanel Membersn…ˆˆi t'`ˆVŽ President Tampa Downtown Partnership />“>] œˆ`> Paul Chapel Principal t" *œi Dallas, Texas Thomas Curley Principal Thomas Curley Associates LLC "ˆˆ}] i 9œŽ n>iVi r} Planning/Design Principal Renaissance Planning Group />“>] œˆ`> Scott Hall -iˆœ œv t'ˆi fiiœ“i >>}i nˆ œv n…i>i>Ži rVœœ“ˆV fiiœ“i n…i>i>Ži] 6ˆ}ˆˆ> Scott Schuler Consultant Schuler Consulting Arnold, Maryland Michael Stern Principal Strada Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Tamara Zahn President Indianapolis Downtown, Inc. Indianapolis, IndianaULI Project StaffMatthew Rader Manager, Advisory Services Caroline Dietrich Panel Associate, Advisory Services Charles DiRocco >>}ˆ} fˆiVœ] ,i> r>i `'ˆ>Vi ULI Panel and Project Staff

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Denver, Colorado, May 11–16, 20087 Denver, the Queen City of the West, has hisœˆV> Lii> >Vi …ii iœi iiŽ> ˆvi '>>ˆ>Li >…ii ii r> ˆœneers settled here to create a better life for themselves and their families. Prospectors found their fortunes here, only to lose them and then “>Ži …i“ > œi >}>ˆ fii ˆ> Vii œv ˆnovation, a place where people love the natural beauty that surrounds them, and a place where “>Žˆ}> ˆˆ} ˆ …i >ˆ` …ˆ}… >ˆ `i“>` creativity and courage. /œ`>] fii >Ž >“œ} “iˆV> i“ˆi cities, a destination for the “creative class” of Žœi`}i‡ L>i` œŽi …œ V> ˆi …iii they choose. They settle in Denver for its quality of life, rich experiences, pleasant climate, and recreational lifestyle. Symbolic of those qualities, the 16th Street Mall hosts a mlange of vibrant restaurants and watering holes, chic cafs, a lively mix of pedestrians and transit vehicles, specialty shops, and authenticity that appeals to visitors and residents who enjoy city life.16th Street MallThe 16th Street Mall is one of America’s most disˆVˆi] i‡ Žœ] >` i‡ œi` 'L> ii and one of the longest pedestrian/transit malls in the world. It serves twin roles as the city’s busiest transit artery and a premier public space. Over the Mall’s 25-year existence, its popularity and iVœœ“ˆV 'VVi] ˆŽi …œi œv fii ˆiv] …>i ebbed and surged with changes in the local and national economy. /…i ,rr >,ˆ`i]> i …ˆ}… vi'iV vii shuttle service, runs the length of the Mall, from Union Station in the west to Civic Center Station ˆ …i i> œ …i 'œi œv …ˆ '`] …i fœœ fii *>i…ˆ] œ ff*] >Ži` the panel to refer to the 16th Street Mall as an east-west corridor, with Civic Center Station in the east and Union Station in the west. All cardinal directions referenced in the report follow this convention.) Today, the 16th Street Mall offers a distinctive potpourri of urban experiences that provide Foreword: The Panel’s AssignmentLocation map, above. Regional map, left. 70 76 25 80 80 70 25 80NEW MEXICO OKLAHOMA KANSAS TEXAS ARIZONA UTAH NEBRASKA WYOMINGCOLORADO Denver Cheyenne Colorado Springs Pueblo Lakewood Centennial Fort Collins Boulder Denver 138 160 160 160 160 24 24 285 285 287287 34 34 34 350 36 36 385 385 385 40 40 40 50 50 50 550 666 84 160 191 285 56 64 64 64 64 666 84 163 191 40 191 287 30 85 64 160 36 40 50 56 26 26 30 30 34 385 385 6 287 385 54 87 85 36 70 76 25 8080 80 70 25 80 NEW MEXICO OKLAHOMA KANSAS TEXAS ARIZONA UTAH NEBRASKA WYOMINGCOLORADOHarding Sandoval Mora Dallam Hansford Sherman Colfax T aos T exas Cimarron Union Apache San Juan Rio Arriba Stevens Morton Conejos Archuleta La Plata Montezuma Baca Costilla Grant Stanton Alamosa Las Animas Rio Grande Dolores Mineral San Juan Huerfano Hinsdale San Miguel Hamilton Kearny Otero Bent Custer Prowers Ouray Saguache San Juan Crowley Pueblo Kiowa Montrose Fremont Wichita Greeley Cheyenne El Paso TELLER W allace Logan Chaffee Delta Gunnison Mesa Pitkin Lake Grand P ARK Lincoln ELBER T DOUGLAS Thomas Sherman Kit Carson ARAPAHOE CLEAR CREEK DENVER JEFFERSON Summit Eagle GILPIN ADAMS Rawlins Cheyenne BROOMFIELD Garfield Rio Blanco BOULDER Hitchcock Dundy W ashington Y uma GRAND MORGAN Chase Hayes Phillips Uintah Larimer Daggett Sedgwick Logan Moffat Jackson Routt Perkins WELD Deuel Kimball Lincoln Keith Cheyenne Laramie Banner Arthur McPherson Scotts Bluff Morrill Garden Hooker Grant Sweetwater Albany Carbon Platte Goshen Colorado Springs Pueblo Lakewood Centennial Fort Collins Boulder Denver

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An Advisory Services Panel Report8 something for almost everyone. National retailers vœ i>“i] t>iE œLi] t>>> ,i'LˆV] and Ann Taylor Loft), hybrid retail/entertain“i i'i vœ i>“i] ˆŽiœ >` r-* Zone), and mid-priced stores (for example, Ross fi vœ i >` fi t> Vœiˆ ˆ… V…>ˆ drugstores and tourist-oriented shops. Recent additions include the Mall’s first boutique food œipnœœŽ i… >Žip…ˆV… œii` ˆ the newly renovated 1600 Glenarm Place residential tower. ChallengesThe Mall derives its character and personality in part from its unique design, created by Henry N. nœLL] > >V…ˆiV ˆ… *iˆE *>i œ *iˆ ii` nœLLE *>i nœLL `ˆˆVˆi design remains attractive and functional. Howii] "x i> œv 'i >` ii>i` viii‡ …> VVi …>i >Ži> œ œ …i > ˆv>'V'i />ˆ‡ > >i vi'i Li>Ž vii vœ“ their mortar beds and require costly replacement. Light fixtures show signs of wear. Underground irrigation and drainage systems no longer function at their optimum level. The Regional Transportation District (RTD) and Downtown Denver t'ˆi “œi“i fˆˆV tf ˆi œi $1 million annually to maintain the Mall’s paving surfaces. The Panel’s Assignment/…i ff*] …i tf] …i ,/f] >` …i Vˆ ˆˆˆated the 16th Street Plan in response to the Mall’s infrastructure challenges. The 16th Street Plan is a comprehensive effort to evaluate the Mall’s successes and challenges and plan for the next 25 years. The plan will explore opportunities for reconstructing the transit ways in a more durable fashion, reevaluating the original lighting to enhance illumination and reduce operating costs, i'v>Vˆ} …i ˆ`i>Ž œ ˆ“œi >Ž>Lˆˆ] >` iVœvˆ}'ˆ} …i ˆ`i>Ž œ >VVœ““œdate both safe pedestrian passage and space for ˆ`i>Ž V>vj >` >ˆi ˆˆ} >i> œ' œv …i traffic flow. The DDP sponsored a ULI Advisory Services panel to explore these issues in detail. The DDP defined the panel’s study area as the entire Mall, from Wewatta Street to Civic Center Station, inV'`ˆ} œi‡ …>v LœVŽ œ… >` œ'… œv …i > -iVˆvˆV>] …i >i…ˆ >Ži` …i >i œ Urœi …i > >'`ˆiVi >` iVœ““i` retail and nonretail uses that will support a lively urban environment, including options for repositioning the Tabor Center and Denver Pavilions; U-'}}i ˆ`i> vœ ˆ“œˆ} …i > i>ˆ mix, including incentives to encourage property owners to enhance their retail spaces and strati}ˆi œ “>Ži …i > œ œiˆ> i>ˆi Ur>'>i …i `iˆ>Lˆˆ œv `ˆˆ`ˆ} …i > into “subdistricts” with distinct characteristics and boundaries, and suggest opportunities to The 16th Street Mall is Denver’s iconic civic space.

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Denver, Colorado, May 11–16, 20089 i…>i …i > œ Lii VœiV >` ii}ˆi >`>Vi ii] ˆ`i>Ž] >` œi >Vi U`ˆi œ ˆv>'V'i '}>`i >` iV…œogy to enhance the Mall’s success and sustainability over the next 25 years; and U,iVœ““i` V…>}i œ V'i >` 'i] œing, and urban design requirements to enhance the Mall’s pedestrian environment and realignment of responsibilities among the city, the ff*] >` …i ,/f vœ v'`ˆ} iˆ>ˆ>ˆœ activities and managing the Mall.The Panel’s FindingsDenver is an undeniably great city that surrounds and identifies with a truly great urban street— the 16th Street Mall. Denver benefits from a pervasive optimistic attitude. This can-do, utterly American, very western attitude will propel Denver and the Mall toward a future that offers incoming residents and businesses greater opportunity, greater satisfaction, and an even greater Vˆ ˆ …ˆV… œ ˆi] œŽ] …œ] >] >` i> /…i > œˆ}ˆ> > `iˆi>i` ii }œ>\ U Stimulate continued economic growth in the central business district, and encourage increased commercial and business activity. U Create a people-oriented environment that stimulates participation in the activity on and adjacent to 16th Street. Uni> …i Vœ}ii` >vvˆV Vœ`ˆˆœ œ £… Street, and return the street to the public for its prime purpose—shopping and human interaction. Uni>i> >Vi œv VˆˆV ˆ`iˆ] >` ii >> major focal point and unifying element for all of Downtown Denver. U *œˆ`i >VVi œ …i Vi>l business district and the Mall with a clear and improved transportation system. U ,i`'Vi …i ivviV œv …i >'œ“œLˆi ˆ …i central business district and associated noise and air pollutants, and provide nonconflicting public transportation service for the activities in Downtown Denver. U -ˆ“'>i> ii œv VˆˆV ˆ`i ˆ fii iˆdents and visitors through sensitivity to design, detail, scale, and activity. Denver should be proud that the Mall accomplished these goals over the last 25 years. The current planning effort poses an opportunity to raise these accomplishments to the next level and expand the Mall’s potential to shape a livable, vibrant, sustainable Downtown at the heart of a vibrant city. The following sections detail the panel’s recommendations.The Mall’s high-quality design elements contribute to its success. Left: Active use and lively retail attest to the Mall’s success.

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An Advisory Services Panel Report10Office Marketfii œvvˆVi “>Ži …> ii “> V…>}i ˆVi …i fœœ fiiœ“i *> œv £™n Volatility in the energy and technology sectors `>“>ˆV> œi` œvvˆVi “>Ži }œ… ˆ …i >i £™n -ˆVi …i] …i œvvˆVi “>Ži …> >}>ˆ strengthened as Denver’s economy diversified. Denver has experienced 16 consecutive quarters œv œˆˆi >Lœˆœ] >` >ˆœ> LœŽi>}i firms remain optimistic for continued growth. Nine projects planned or under construction will >`` £ “ˆˆœ '>i vii œ fœœ œvvˆVi inventory. Denver’s average office lease rate i“>ˆ i >vvœ`>Li >` >Ž …ˆ` œi >“œ} …i >ˆœ £x “œ Vœ“iˆˆi “>Ži nt ,ˆV…>` rˆ] vˆ '>i "n “>Ži ˆi Downtown’s high-rise, Class A office buildings are clustered at the east end of the 16th Street Mall. Most projects planned or under construction are located at the western end, closer to Lower Downœ] Žœ œV> > œfœ] >` …i >i` i}ˆœ> >ˆ …'L > 1ˆœ ->ˆœ œV> >Žiholders told the panel they do not expect new office projects to cause negative absorption because of continuing job growth and the conversion of several high-rise office buildings to residential 'i r>ˆœ œv …i i}ˆœ> ˆ}…‡ >ˆ i“ '`i >/>VŽ ˆ Vœˆ'i œ Lœi fœtown as a convenient, accessible business hub. The panel offers the following findings regarding fii œvvˆVi “>Ži\ U Vœˆ'i` ' œv “>i >Vi ˆ 'port small business development, a crucial step in sustaining the local economy. A strong office “>Ži …œ'` œ Vi>i > œi‡ iˆ>Vi œ high-rise, Class A product. U -…>i` œvvˆVi œi>ˆœ œ …i iˆ…i of Downtown could diversify the businesses Downtown must be special and offer retail, residential, and street environments distinct from every other neighborhood in the city. Downtown has the infrastructure and “>Ži œ Vœˆ'i œ }œ >` …œ'` i“>ˆ …i …i> œv …i Vˆ >` …i Ži œ fii }œL> identity. The 16th Street Mall and other parts of fœœ œvvi `>“ˆV] ˆ>Li “>Ži vœ Vœtinued retail, office, hotel, and residential growth. ˆ“iˆi >œ>ˆœ iœŽ VœiV fœœ 'L`ˆˆV >` ˆŽ fœœ œ the larger city and region. Downtown’s demographics support a lively Vœ““iVˆ> i> i>i “>Ži VVœ`ˆ} œ …i 2007 Downtown Area Plan, Downtown currently …œ ££] `>ˆ œŽi >` “œi …> x] '`i œ …i i>L '>ˆ> ˆ}…i r`'V>ˆœ nii '>ˆ> n>“' t "] …i > œ‡ iV …> fœœ ˆ …œ > >``ˆˆœ> x] œŽi >` "x] iˆ`i /œ`>] fœœ vi>'i > >vv'i >` i‡ i`'V>i` œ'>ˆœ\ average household income is $64,000, 8 percent higher than for Denver as a whole, and nearly onethird of residents hold at least a bachelor’s degree. The panel offers these additional observations on …i œV> `i“œ}>…ˆV\ Ufœœ `i“œ}>…ˆV 'œ “> i>ˆ] office, dining, and entertainment experiences, iiVˆ> …œi …> V>i œ œvvˆVi œŽi> ` those along the 16th Street Mall. Ufœœ …œ'` ˆ`iˆv i œœ'ˆˆi œ serve Denver’s strong Hispanic and Asian communities and encourage the growth of ethnically diverse retail and entertainment offerings. Successful integration of diverse cultures will enhance Denver’s attractiveness to tourists, residents, and corporations. Market Potential

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Denver, Colorado, May 11–16, 200811 and people supporting the economy. Shared office space especially helps generate international business prospects and incubate startup businesses. U ,i`iiœ“i >` >`>ˆi 'i œv œvvˆVi >Vi] particularly along the 16th Street Mall, could attract studios for performing and visual artists that would add a new dynamic to Denver’s Downtown experience.Hospitality Market/…i …œˆ>ˆ “>Ži >> “>œ œi ˆ Downtown’s economic vitality. A 2006 tourism study by Longwoods International showed that travel and tourism spending in Denver exceeded $2.76 billion and Downtown hotels sold over 1.5 million room-nights in 2006. Downtown hosts nearly 20 percent of the Denver metropolitan statistical area’s total hotel rooms. Downtown hotels have seen substantial annual increases in occupancy rates and room revenues, attributable primarily to the success of the Colorado Convention Center. /…i œ} fœœ …œˆ>ˆ “>Ži >œ helps support retail, dining, and entertainment 'i t'ˆi >ii i`] œ >i>}i] f™ per day on nonhotel expenses, and leisure guests i` f™ /…i vœœ` >` Lii>}i V>i}œ f£ million) tops the spending list, followed by retail >i f{ “ˆˆœ] >` iVi>ˆœ >` ii>ˆment ($215 million). The most popular shopping area for visitors to Denver is the 16th Street Mall. Investments made in Downtown attractions reap significant ongoing dividends. According to the ff*] i> “ˆˆœ iœi >œˆi` 'V… v>Vˆˆˆi > …i L>>Ž >` >`ˆ'“] …i nˆˆV Center Cultural Complex, the Denver Performing Arts Complex, and the Colorado Convention Center in 2006. That same year, the Colorado Convention Center provided a net economic boost of $521 million for Downtown. œˆ>ˆ “>Ži œiV œœŽ Lˆ}… *œiVi` Vœiˆœ LœœŽˆ} ˆ Lˆ} {] attendees and generate another 1.5 million roomnights through 2011. The DDP reports six major Figure 2 Denver Office Market Central Business District Denver Market Net Rentable Area 23.4 million square feet 103.6 million square feet Vacancy Rate 9.0% 12.5% Availability Rate 13.4% 17.2% Average Lease Rate $26.67 per square foot $20.44 per square foot Net Absorption 16,783 square feet 71,737 square feet Figure 1 Denver Demographics Denver Denver Residential City National Total Population 63,000 560,036 301,825,750 Female 43.0% 49.1% 50.7% 25–55 Years 47.0% 46.0% 42.2% Under 15 Years – 22.1% 20.2% White 78.0% 74.5% 74.5% African American 4.0% 9.2% 12.0% Hispanic/Latino 12.0% 35.7% 15.1%Downtown’s high-rise office buildings cluster near Civic Center Station.

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An Advisory Services Panel Report12 …œi œiV ˆ >ˆ} …> ˆ Vi>i £] additional rooms. The new projects feature hotel L>` vœ i>“i] œ' -i>œ >` 7 …> will significantly raise Denver’s competitiveness >> …ˆ}…‡ i` œ`}ˆ} “>Ži The panel offers the following comments on the fœœ …œˆ>ˆ “>Ži\ U fii “iiˆ} >` Vœiˆœ “>Ži should continue to grow for the foreseeable v''i tiV>'i “iiˆ} >` Vœiˆœ œˆ`i> iv‡ i}ii>ˆ} “>Ži vœ i>ˆ] dining, and entertainment, priority should be placed on developing new hotels and maintaining existing properties at the highest possible levels. Hospitality and customer-service training programs should be a target industry. U …œ'}… fii …> LiVœ“i œi œv …i œ convention and meeting destinations in the country, its convention and visitors bureau and œV> …œi …œ'` œŽ œ}i…i œ œˆ`i >`i'>i œœ“ LœVŽ vœ œiˆ> Vœiˆœ to help maintain its competitive advantages. Residential MarketrVœœ“ˆV œiˆ >` > iVii '>ˆ œv life will continue to drive Denver’s population growth. Although the city’s population is projected to increase by only 1.8 percent by 2012, Downtown’s growth will exceed that rate by attracting new residents from throughout the region who are œœŽˆ} vœ> “œi 'L> ˆvii Downtown currently offers more than 16,000 housing units within a half-mile radius of the intersection of the 16th Street Mall and Glenarm Place. In Downtown and surrounding neighborhoods, rental apartment development historically exceeded for-sale unit development. This trend i>Ži` ˆ …i i> "] i >>“i iii` …i “>Ži "] …i '“Li œv i apartments slowed to 156. The DDP reports 7,400 new residential units planned or under construction, evenly split between for-sale and rental properties. Residential sale prices range from $420 per '>i vœœ ˆ œfœ œ fxx i '>i vœœ ˆ …i commercial core. The average monthly rent for Downtown apartments is $1,200, up from $625 ˆ £™™x /…i >i …i>` …> iˆ`iˆ> i ˆ the commercial core average about $2 per square foot. Apartment vacancy rates for 2007 averaged iVi]> ˆ}… ˆVi>i vœ“ …i £™™x >'> vacancy rate of 4 percent. The panel offers the following comments for fœœ iˆ`iˆ> `iiœ“i\ U œV> `iiœi i“>ˆ œˆ“ˆˆV >Lœ' fœœ iˆ`iˆ> “>Ži …œ'}… …i national housing and credit crunches are slowing residential development nationally, Downœ …œ'` i“>ˆ> i>` “>Ži vœ Lœ… for-sale and rental units. Close attention should be paid, however, to developing trends to avoid œiL'ˆ`ˆ} …i fœœ “>Ži U i iˆ`iˆ> `iiœ“i …œ'` Li >igically placed to complement developing Downtown activity centers, including the Theater LoDo’s residential buildings include historic structures and sensitive new construction. The Mall’s retail includes national chains and independent retailers.

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Denver, Colorado, May 11–16, 200813 District, Union Station, LoDo, and the panel’s proposed urban village. % /…i ff* …œ'` i>` ˆ V'i “>Žiˆ} efforts to attract new residents. Retail Marketfœœ i>ˆ “>Ži ˆ ˆ> ˆ}ˆvˆV> transition period. Several million square feet of new mixed-use projects have been announced, and most include new retail space. Regionally, 4.5 million square feet of retail space is in the construction pipeline, and most new projects >i iiˆiVˆ} œ} ii>ˆ} >Vˆˆ nt ,ˆV…>` rˆ] vˆ '>i "n “>Ži ˆi Regional retail vacancy rates stand at a ten-year historic average of 6.7 percent, but year-to-year comparison investment sales fell by half in the first quarter of 2008. Retail lease rates average $17.11 per square foot citywide. fœœ i>ˆ “>Ži >` œ} …i compared to the region and the city. Lease rates on the 16th Street Mall corridor average $25 per square foot with instances of $40 to $60. Downtown’s central business district and LoDo offer x “ˆˆœ '>i vii œv i>>Li >Vi -ˆ}ˆvˆV> iˆ`i] `>ˆ“i œŽvœVi] >` ˆˆœ populations support Downtown retail, including >œˆ“>i ] iˆ`i ˆ…ˆ £x “ˆi] ££] `>ˆ œŽi] x] '`i] >` …œ'sands of hotel guests. Hotel occupancy is strong, with an average guest stay of three days. Downtown demographics provide particular “>Žiˆ} >` L>`ˆ} œœ'ˆˆi "i “>œ “>Ži ˆ œviˆœ>iiV'ˆi >` iˆVi i“œii œŽˆ} ˆ fœœ œvvˆVi œ…i“>œ“>Žiˆœ'}Vœ'“i]}ˆi that one in five city residents are under 15 years of age. Downtown could also better serve Denver’s strong ethnic communities, especially the Hispanic/Latino population. The panel offers the following general observaˆœ œ …i fœœ i>ˆ “>Ži\ U fœœ fii i>ˆ “>Ži ˆ `ˆii and dynamic. Downtown is the heart of the city and does not need to rely on suburban shoppers. Downtown employees and visitors provide a re>ˆ “>Ži ˆ… Vœˆ`i>Li L'ˆ} œi >` a constant infusion of new shoppers throughout the year. U >Žiˆ} ivvœ …œ'` L'ˆ` œ …i ri>i Your Urban” campaign and promote Downtown >> >vi] iVˆˆ} >Vi œ ˆi] œŽ] >` > Image is everything; the city’s long-term success largely depends on Downtown’s ability to i>` …i œŽvœVi] Vœiˆœ “>Ži] >` retail and entertainment offerings. U fœœ “' œˆ`i >Vi vœ “>] `ˆverse retailers that offer a unique experience. A vibrant downtown offers surprises along every LœVŽ "œ'ˆˆi iˆ vœ iVˆˆ} i œV> retail shops, including ethnic and culturally diverse experiences.16th Street Mall Retail ConditionsThe 16th Street Mall’s layout shares characterˆˆV ˆ…> 'L'L> …œˆ} Vii\ œ} >` linear with large anchors at both ends. In the 16th Street Mall, the Denver Pavilions anchors the east end, and the Writer Square/Larimer Square/LoDo œ`i >V…œ …i i -ii LœVŽ œv iivœ retail connect the anchors. The Mall’s long-term plans must consider the retail collections in the two anchor areas, and from now on their merchandising strategies must be integrated. Their status as anchors warrants understanding them at the outset. East Anchor: Denver PavilionsDenver Pavilions is a planned shopping center in an urban setting. It occupies most of two city LœVŽ œ …i œ'… ˆ`i œv …i £… -ii >] between Tremont Place and Welton Street. The project forms a rough horseshoe extending off the Mall and contains three merchandised levels, the upper two bridging Glenarm Place. Corner t>Ži n>vj >` t>iE œLi >V…œ …i east end, which also contains such noteworthy i> > />Lœ >` />œ >` ,œVŽ n>vj >` ˆŽiœ œVV' …i œ Vœi œv the 16th Street Mall and Glenarm Place. A large Virgin Megastore anchors the west end, which >œ ˆV'`i ri] >] t>>> ,i'LˆV] >` tˆ}…œ nœiVˆLi

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An Advisory Services Panel Report14 life to Downtown at night. As for the restaurants, …i nœi t>Ži n>vj >` >}}ˆ>œ ˆi Italy both succeed here. Maggiano’s is one of the highest-volume restaurants in Denver. The panel `œi œ ˆi …i v>ˆ'i œv …i 7œv}>} *'VŽ i>'> >> v>ˆ'i œv …i “>Ži œ 'œ high-end dining. Denver Pavilions has established itself as a retail, dining, and entertainment magnet and will play an important role in Denver’s future. The Pavilions will and should affect leasing in its immediate neighborhood and cause the entire east end of the Mall to serve the lifestyle and entertainment …œi >œi] r>] >` *>>“œ' n>vj are examples of nearby restaurants that serve …ˆ “>Ži West Anchor: Writer Square/Larimer Square/LoDoAt the west end of the 16th Street Mall lie Larimer Square, Writer Square, and LoDo. LoDo’s …ˆœˆV L'ˆ`ˆ} >` i>i œv v'Ž V…>“ attracted urban pioneers to settle Downtown in …i £™n /…i Vˆ iVœ}ˆi` …i iˆ}…Lœ…œœ` architectural, historical, and societal value by designating the Lower Downtown Historic District ˆ £™nn] >`> i> >i] …i œfœ fˆˆV] V] formed to nurture and promote the neighborhood. Just east of LoDo, Larimer Square and Writer Square stand out as individual developments that complement the historic neighborhood. LoDo, Larimer Square, and Writer Square offer retail, restaurants, art galleries, residences, offices, and hotels in rehabilitated historic loft buildings and new construction. Higher-income residents have replaced the early population of local artists. LoDo has emerged as a hot office and residential district and continues to see new midand high-rise projects. Its success spawned development in the adjacent Central Platte Valley. Retail areas in and around LoDo offer unique retail, dining, and entertainment options. Larimer Square, a mixed-use retail and office development adjacent to LoDo, offers an impressive collection of independent retail businesses, such as Cry t>L ,>V…] fi>“ >i] >` /…i ti i /…i fii‡ Lœ] >ˆœ> iVœ}ˆi`] ˆ`ii`i />ii` nœi LœœŽœi œii` ˆ iVœ` The Pavilions also offers a significant mix of entertainment and dining options. In addition to …i ˆVœˆV >` ,œVŽ n>vj] 'VŽ -ˆŽi >i and the 15-screen United Artists theaters attract destination visitors. As destinations, these tenants succeed on the third level and bring considerable Festive lights and signage distinguish the Pavilions’ interior court. Good design and careful maintenance create a pleasant environment in Larimer Square. The Mall offers a wide variety of retail tenants.

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Denver, Colorado, May 11–16, 200815 increased reliance on food and entertainment to sustain itself. Streetfront RetailThe Mall’s mile-long length alone prevents it from being effectively managed as one retail district. fœœ >œ] œvi œvvˆVi œŽi œ> …œ 'V… Li>Ž] >i 'ˆŽi œ >Ž …i >] ˆ“>ˆ LiV>'i œv ˆ i}… /…i ,rr >,ˆ`i …i “>Ži …i > “œi >VViˆLi L >lowing shoppers to conveniently access the entire £‡ LœVŽ iV… ˆ…œ' i…>'ˆ} …i“ii A one-mile retail district presents very difficult challenges and should not be managed with a œi‡ …œ iˆ>ˆ>ˆœ > i>`] …i iˆ>ˆ>ˆœ > …œ'` vœV' œ `ˆvvii ii“i œv …i >] Vœœ`ˆ>i` œ >Ži >`>>}i œv iˆˆ} >` i“i}ˆ} “>Ži i>ˆˆi fœœ serves several shopper groups; the Mall is long enough to offer different clusters of retail space designed to satisfy the demands of Downtown’s various clienteles. /…i > ii Vi> LœVŽ] Liii 7iœ and Larimer streets, house a diverse mix of retail i> /…i Vœ“iiVi] V>ˆ>ˆ>ˆœ] >` '>ity of retailers vary greatly. The variation creates i>Ž ˆŽ …> …' …i > >` ˆ“ˆ ˆ >Lˆˆ œ ii ˆ >ˆœ' “>Ži œ“i V>i] iants occupy spaces because they have the credit >` V>ˆ>ˆ>ˆœ œ > …i i] L' …iˆ L'ˆnesses damage the Mall’s overall quality. One can i“>…ˆi ˆ… >`œ` …œ “>Ži `i> ˆ“ to avoid carrying vacant space, but their decisions compromise the Mall’s success. The panel heard that discount retailers thrive on the Mall. Large discount and budget-minded chains (for example, Ross Dress for Less, T.J.Maxx, *>i -…œiœ'Vi] >` fi t> >i œV>i` on the Mall and serve lower-paid and entry-level œŽi /œ i“>ˆ …i 'i …i> œv …i Vˆ] Downtown must guard against the temptation to weed out non-high-end retailers. Most people in the city, and most people Downtown, need budget-minded retailers. In the long run, these retailers could move from the Mall to other Downtown streets as the retail area grows to include 14th and 17th streets. location in LoDo, responding to public demand to open somewhere, anywhere, besides the original n…i niiŽ œV>ˆœ …œ'}… œfœ œvvi few national chain retailers, it is home to national V…>ˆ i>'>] ˆV'`ˆ} n…>}] œton’s, and The Capital Grille. Sports fans value LoDo’s restaurants for their convenience to Coors ˆi` >` …i *iˆ nii LoDo and Larimer Square are Downtown’s center for eclectic, experiential, and edgy retailing and >“œ…iˆV >` iœ>Li `ˆˆ} 1ˆŽi œ…i parts of Downtown, LoDo’s activity centers face the named streets, rather than the numbered ii œ L'ˆii v>Vi >ˆ“i] t>Ži] 7>ii] >Ži] œ 7Žœœ œfœ ˆ …i œ neighborhood along the 16th Street Mall for which the Mall is not the central activity spine. LoDo relies on the 16th Street Mall for transit, not as a retail or restaurant hub. Tabor CenterLocated at the western end of the Mall, the Tabor Center is less successful than neighboring retail areas and may require a new strategy to succeed. /…i -…œ > />Lœ nii œii` ˆ £™n{ > > unanchored, multilevel enclosed Mall connected to office space and a hotel. When it opened, the Tabor Center made a significant splash, but its unanchored configuration and single-loaded upperfloor retail spaces soon proved a challenge. ,i`iiœ“i œv …i n…i niiŽ -…œˆ} Center exacerbated Tabor Center’s difficulties. n…i niiŽ LiV>“i fii i“ˆi v>…ˆœ >``i >` >>Vi` tœœŽ tœ…i >` comparable retailers away from the Tabor Center. The Tabor Center’s fortunes faded. The retail mix has degenerated and offers few clothing, electronics, or other comparison-shopping opportunities. The panel heard that the center’s current management is considering converting the second level to office space. …œ'}… …i />Lœ nii ˆŽi V>œ 'ˆi in its present state, location, and merchandising, it …> …>` œ“i 'VVii /…i n…iiiV>Ži >Vœ remains one of the most successful restaurants ˆ …i “>Ži /…i r-* <œi >œ }ii>i significant traffic, adding to the Tabor Center’s

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An Advisory Services Panel Report16 Vœˆ} …ˆ iVˆœ] …i >i œ'` ˆŽi œ “>Ži œ >``ˆˆœ> œLi>ˆœ\ U /…i £… -ii > Vœ>ˆ ˆ'> > œv fœœ i>ˆˆ}\ £{…] £x…] >` £… streets contain sparse retail—convenience retail, business services, and restaurants— >` >VŽ …i i>> i`iˆ> iˆœ“i required for a thriving urban retail district. U nœ ii >œ} …i > >i œ iiˆi merchandised. The panel dubbed these streets “ribs” in relation to the “spine,” the 16th Street Mall. Although a few cross streets contain exciting architectural treasures and some wonderful retailers, tenants prefer to stay as close to the 16th Street Mall as possible. Revitalization Strategy/…i >i iVœ““i` >Žˆ} >`>>}i œv …ii immediate opportunities to improve retail Downœ\ U rVœ'>}i Vœˆ'i` `iiœ“i œv …i fii Pavilions and the Writer Square/Larimer Square/ LoDo node as retail anchors for Downtown. U œV' ii>ˆ} >` i>ˆ i…>Vi“i ivvœ œ …i ii LœVŽ œv …i > Liii >imer Street and Welton Street and on the cross streets in this stretch. U nœˆ`i œ}‡ i“ œœ'ˆˆi vœ }œing retail on 14th and 17th streets to broaden Downtown’s retail area. Strategies for the Eastern Anchor: Denver PavilionsThe Pavilions should focus on lifestyle retailing …> V>i œ fœœ œŽi] iˆ`i] >` …œi }'i …œ'` œ iiŽ œ >>V 'L'ban visitors as a staple customer base. Retailers ˆŽi />œ] />Lœ] >` n…ˆVœ >i>` ii œ“i ˆ …i >}i ˆvii “>Ži /…i Pavilions may not offer enough room to house a critical mass of men’s stores, but retail on surœ'`ˆ} LœVŽ Vœ'` Li iœ}>““i` œ ii …ˆ ˆ“œ> “>Ži ri>ˆ“i i'i should stay but should not be expected to bolster i>ˆ >i] }ˆi …> …iˆ i>Ž …œ' ˆ Li during the evening. More destination restaurants ˆŽi >}}ˆ>œ ˆ >œ œŽ i The Pavilions understands that it cannot compete `ˆiV ˆ… n…i niiŽ -…œˆ} nii >` n…i niiŽ œ…] fii `iˆ>ˆœ vœ Vœ''i i>ˆ n…i niiŽ œvvi iˆ“> The Paramount Theatre is one of many distinguished buildings near the Pavilions. The large spaces offered by 17th Street could house anchor retailers in the future. The Sage Building can complement the Pavilions’ retail mix.

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Denver, Colorado, May 11–16, 200817 >V' >` ->Ž ˆv… i'i >`> iVi opened Nordstrom. Tiffany, Polo Ralph Lauren, t'Li] >` œ…i iˆ}ˆœ' >“i œi vœ space here, or, failing that, for space in the adjaVi n…i niiŽ œ… iˆ}…Lœ…œœ` ˆ… ˆ ‡ ' …œ >` i>'>] ˆV'`ˆ} n>i E t>i] tii œ…œ] >“ˆ] >` 7…œi œœ` /…i >i Liˆii …> > >i“ L …i *>ˆˆœ œ Vœ“ii `ˆiV ˆ… n…i niiŽ for the couture customer will be fruitless. New opportunities abound for the Pavilions and the surrounding area. The Pavilions appears headed for new ownership, although a public >œ'Vi“i …> œ i Lii “>`i œœing the panel’s visit, the Pavilions was indeed acquired by a new owner.) New ownership will offer the opportunity to reposition the Pavilions as an even more effective anchor for the 16th Street Mall by attracting new tenants. The nearby Sage t'ˆ`ˆ} …œ'` i>` …i *>ˆˆœ i>ˆ >` i>'> “> >` ii> ˆ“ˆ> “>Ži Strategies for the Western Anchor: Writer Square/Larimer Square/LoDoLoDo is progressing nicely and should continue doing what it is doing now. It is not a finished product, but to the extent that anything is “easy” in the retail world, LoDo will have the easiest time in the overall Downtown retail scheme. LoDo owns its reputation as an entertainment district, home of the hip, and place to see and be seen. ,i>ˆi >` i>'> œi iiŽ œ' >Vi in LoDo, and LoDo’s landlords exhibit a palpable understanding of what LoDo is and what it needs to be. Landlords and landowners should hold the course when it comes to leasing. LoDo continues to see intense office and residential development that targets the same hip urbanites attracted to the neighborhood’s retailers and restaurants. Larimer Square and Writer Square serve similar customers and will remain an important part of LoDo’s retail scene. Newly developed residential space in LoDo and the Central Platte Valley increases the need for neighborhood retailing. The western anchor area may offer an opportunity œ ˆœ`'Vi …i 'i“>Ži fœœ …œi want. Such a store could serve both Downtown iˆ`i >` œvvˆVi œŽi …œ V> …œ œ L' prepared foods on their way home. A system for “>Žˆ} œvvˆVi >` …œ“i `iˆiˆi ˆ i}…i …i œi “>Ži œˆˆœ /…i >i iVœ““i` œV>ˆ}> 'i“>Ži > Vœi œ œfœ as possible. Possible sites could include the Tabor nii œ] ˆ …i œ} i“] …i >Ži -ii ->ˆœ ˆi > V>i] …i 'i“>Ži ˆi must be directly on the 16th Street Mall; the panel …i>` …> œiˆ> 'i“>Ži œi>œ “> refuse other locations. Revitalizing Streetfront RetailThe 16th Street Mall’s streetfront retail will evolve more organically than that of the two anchor areas. The panel’s recommendations focus on …ii `ˆvvii iivœ i>ˆ >i>\ …i > Vœi LœVŽ] vœ“ 7iœ œ >ˆ“i ii cross streets along this stretch; and 14th and 17th streets. The panel recommends enhancing streetfront retail along the Mall and growing the Market Street Station could offer a site sufficient for an anchor retailer. Underused spaces could house new tenants.

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An Advisory Services Panel Report18 retail district along the cross streets and parallel numbered streets. ->Vi œ …i > Vœi LœVŽ >i ˆi vœ i>ˆ leasing, one deal at a time. The retail mix should grow organically because of the Mall’s length and diverse property ownership. Leasing strategies …œ'` iœ` œ …i “>Ži >` Li i iVˆtive than strategies for the anchor areas. Ross fi vœ i >` fi t> >i >ˆv>Vœ uses for the time being and serve an important “>Ži }ii>] …i >i iVœ'>}i L'ˆ`ˆ} owners and leasing agents to lease space to well'] Vœ“ii] >`i'>i V>ˆ>ˆi` i> who will abide by any adopted facade guidelines and complement the overall retail mix. Recapturing leases offers an opportunity to enhance the Mall’s retail mix. During the panel’s ˆiˆi] vi œV> >Ži…œ`i `ˆV'i` …i possibility of recapturing space occupied by existˆ} i> /…i >i iVœ'>}i >Ži…œ`i œ reframe their view; the leasing effort for a space should not end simply because a tenant currently occupies the space. Sometimes, good tenants become available who would be excellent candidates for a space currently occupied by another 'i t'ˆ} L>VŽ …i i>i vœ“ i> `ii“i` unsatisfactory in favor of a better tenant is a legitimate business practice. In other cases, the existing tenants can be relocated. The panel highly recommends expanding Downtown’s retail district to the Mall’s cross streets and 14th and 17th streets to provide diversely ˆVi`>`ˆi`i>ˆ>Vi…>V>…œ'i> mix of retailers who serve Downtown’s varied audiences. Currently, the 16th Street Mall is Downtown’s only main street and offers the majority of shopping and dining opportunities. Its length and space limitations limit expansion of Downtown retail. r>ˆœ œv …i i>ˆ `ˆˆV Vœ'` …i “ˆˆ}>i the Mall’s high retail rents. Rents often exceed the reach of many retailers, especially the experiential, creative, clever, and cool independent stores that help bring character to Downtown. The panel observed some of these retailers on r> nœv> >` ˆ n>ˆœ ˆ r>ˆœ œv …i retail district onto the cross streets could provide smaller, cheaper spaces for such tenants. r>ˆœ œv …i i>ˆ `ˆˆV œœ £{… >` 17th streets could provide more affordable retail space for budget-minded retailers such as Ross fi vœ i] fi t>] >` /> …i Mall evolves, these retailers’ current spaces will become more valuable and therefore less suitable for more price-driven stores. Lower rents allow …ii œi œ Žii …iˆ ˆVi “œi >vvœ`>Li t'`}i‡ “ˆ`i` >` `ˆVœ' i>ˆi “> œŽ Lii œ >`>Vi LœVŽ ˆ… œi i >` Vœiˆi >VVi œ œvvˆVi œŽi In response to many requests, the panel wishes to note that traditional department stores are œ ˆŽi œ œV>i ˆ fœœ /…i >i >œ heard frequent requests for a Downtown Target. Target is a high-quality operation that does well ˆ 'V>i “>Ži >` …> `iiœi`> 'VViv' urban format. The panel recommends pursuing a Target for Downtown. To find ample space, Tar}i “ˆ}… ii` œ œV>i> LœVŽ œvv œv £… -ii where large parcels are available. If such parcels can be assembled on 16th Street or within a LœVŽ œv ˆ] ˆ`i> i> iˆ…i œv …i >V…œ >i>] Target should be a major success and should help arouse intense retailer and restaurant interest in Downtown.

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Denver, Colorado, May 11–16, 200819 The original design concept that shaped the 16th Street Mall promised its success as Denver’s vital, multiuse main street. Today, as then, the 16th Street Mall depends on the quality of its design and the diversity of the urban neighborhoods it serves. The panel proposes ten core principles to guide future design and development decisions that affect the 16th Street Mall. The principles grow from the civic spirit of the Mall’s origins and provide concrete guidance for understanding and evaluating future opportunities. Honor the Original Design/…i >i iVœ'>}i > >Ži…œ`i œ …œœ …i i}>V œv …i œˆ}ˆ> *iˆE *>i `isign for the 16th Street Mall. Denver’s residents view the Mall with great affection and pride as a powerful image of their city. The Mall is a unified concept and public art of the highest international quality, not merely an assemblage of elements. The lighting, landscaping, and paving all form part of a single unit. Any changes must be made cautiously and with full respect for the original design. Any change could fundamentally alter the success of the space and deny this legacy to future }ii>ˆœ /…i >i iVœ}ˆi …i ii` œ >`dress challenges posed by deferred maintenance and failed construction technologies; nevertheless, upgrades and repairs should be made with full respect for the original design. Introduce Neighborhood ImprovementsThe panel recommends new programs and design solutions to reinforce neighborhood cross connections and promote development. Close-in established and emerging neighborhoods and major event venues surround Downtown. Most of these >i ˆ…ˆ> i‡ “ˆ'i >Ž œv …i >] >` “> >i ˆ…ˆ> vˆi‡ “ˆ'i >Ž “œ} …i“] the Denver Performing Arts Complex, the Colorado Convention Center, the Civic Center, the '>ˆ> n>“'] nœœ ˆi`] …i ni> *>i Valley, and Arapahoe Square form a Downtown nexus of sports, education, governance, recreation, >` V''i …> “>Ži 'L> ˆˆ} iœ>Li /…i vi LœVŽ …> i>>i …i > vœ“ …ii assets should be upgraded with streetscape, land use, and transit improvements on the strategically selected streets identified in the 2007 Downtown Area Plan and discussed later in this report.Improve the Terminations of the Mall/…i > i“ˆ>ˆœ] vœ“ >Ži œ 7‡ Žœœ ii ˆ …i i >` vœ“ /i“œ *>Vi œ tœ>`> ˆ …i i>] …œ'` Li '}>`i` Much of the enjoyment of the urban journey is the anticipation of reward at the end. At the west end, the transit way opens into a poorly defined urban ii iˆœ“i vœ“ >Ži œ 7Žœœ ii /…i >Ži -ii ->ˆœ L' >}ˆ} >i> v'…i Vœ“œ“ˆi …ˆ iiˆiVi tivœi …i ,/f ii>i >Ži -ii ->ˆœ vœ `iiœ“i] > >Ži…œ`i …œ'` >}ii œ> “>i plan that calls for development and streetscape improvements appropriate to LoDo’s gateway. …i i>i i`] ,rr >,ˆ`i “œi“i >` 'Vœœ`ˆ>i` >> >` œi >Vi }i> diminish the quality of the gateway from the Civic Center. In partnership with the city, building œi] >` …i ,/f] …i ff* …œ'` '`i>Ži a unified master plan to upgrade this environment so that it equals the design standards set by the *iˆE *>i > /…ii ˆ“œi“i should create a beautified view from the 16th Street Mall to the State Capitol. Maintain Vitalityn'i] œvvˆVi œŽi] œ'ˆ] Vœiˆœ visitors, and residents support the Mall’s retail, Design Principles

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An Advisory Services Panel Report20 i>'>] >` ii>ˆ“i i'i ri effort should be made to maintain that customer base for the businesses along the Mall. Improvements could include better security at night and upgraded north-south connections to nearby neighborhoods. Enhance the Street NetworkThe 16th Street Mall should be included in a Vœ“i…iˆi ii iœŽ œv “œi“i >` >``i /…i Vˆ “' “œ`ˆv ˆ iœŽ œv œi‡ way streets to provide better mobility for traffic >` >ˆ nœ'i` ˆ… fœœ >}i LœVŽ structure, the one-way street system requires long travel distances through many intersections to circulate to destinations within Downtown. /…ˆ iœŽ i`'Vi …œˆ} ˆ >` …> accessibility to storefronts. The 16th Street Mall’s prohibition on traffic exacerbates the problem between 15th and 17th streets. Two-way movements “' Li ˆœ`'Vi` ˆ…ˆ …ˆ œi œ œ“œi commerce and vitality.Create a Space for EveryoneThe Mall must welcome and provide for all fii Vˆˆi œ“ > iVœœ“ˆV œˆ œv view, monoculture environments are fragile. The healthiest cities allow everyone to participate, encourage experimentation and invention, and continuously reinvent themselves. Denver is a young city, positioned geographically, demographically, economically, and culturally to become a bigger and better one. Doing so will require energetic and patriotic participation from as many human resources as it can muster and as many sectors of its population as it can embrace.Promote Pedestrian-Friendly Streets }i> Vˆ ˆ v'`>“i>> >Žˆ} Vˆ /…i ˆ`i>Ž œv …i Vˆ ii >i …ii …i Vˆ people, buildings, and experiences greet one another face to face. Loss of these encounters diminishes the sense of shared culture, limits enjoyment of diversity, and restricts the chance for surprises that educate and entertain. Most important, poor pedestrian environments diminish residents’ sense of personal responsibility for the civic realm.Connect Streets with Open Spacefœœ ii …œ'` VœiV> iœŽ œv >Ž >` œi >Vi …> >i ' 'LˆV œ fii] i`iˆ>‡ vˆi` ii …œ'` integrate seamlessly with major public spaces, ˆV'`ˆ} -Žˆi *>Ž] nˆˆV nii *>Ž] >` ii œvvˆVi L'ˆ`ˆ} >> /…ii >Vi …œ'` serve as areas of repose, recreation, event, and asi“L >`i“ ˆ… …i ii iœŽ] 'V… spaces should be managed as the realm where democracy reigns, where none are excluded and > >i iiVi` /…ˆ œi> iœŽ …œ'` feature the latest communication technologies, including interactive signage and advertising in select areas. Both ends of the Mall could be enhanced to offer a sense of arrival.

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Denver, Colorado, May 11–16, 200821Involve the Public RealmThe city and county of Denver are ultimately responsible for the 16th Street Mall’s vitality. The ff*] …i tf] …i ,/f] >` œi œi have done a superb job maintaining the Mall as the city’s premier open space but cannot afford the full cost of moving forward. The Mall is a civic space that belongs in the hands of the public realm. The city should allocate any financial and …'“> iœ'Vi ˆ V> >vvœ` œ Žii …i > > > >“iˆ vœ iˆ`i >` ˆˆœ >ˆŽiProvide a Feasible Visionfœœ >Ži…œ`i ii` œ `ivˆi> vi>ˆLi] near-term vision for the area around the 16th Street Mall. The panel proposes an urban village that provides an urban lifestyle with neighborhood convenience retail and specialty shopping, > ˆ…ˆ >Žˆ} `ˆ>Vi œv fœœ }i> resources. Such a development, done on a manageable scale, could be the seed of a great new Downtown neighborhood. Although recent development activity in the commercial core has rewarded Denver’s successful Downtown efforts, land resources close to the 16th Street Mall remain underused. The city should apply incentives and leadership to jump-start development in the urban village. The Mall provides an excellent model for new pedestrian-friendly streets.

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An Advisory Services Panel Report22 The Mall and its transit system have been œŽ…œi vœ œˆˆi V…>}i ˆ fœœ }œˆ} iVœœ“ ˆVi £™n" /ˆ“i >` 'i …>i >Ži> œ /œ`>] >“œ years since the Mall’s opening, the Mall’s infrastructure is near the end of its life span. In particular, some of the Mall’s below-grade infrastructure is failing and requires reconstruction. Meanwhile, paving repair and maintenance costs continue to grow. The panel agrees with the prevailing opinion that a major reconstruction is needed. Reconstruction efforts must honor the original design. The original design provides sufficient flexibility to accommodate future transit solutions and maintain the Mall’s role as Denver’s most prominent public space. Maintaining and reusing the existing granite pavers offers a sustainable solution and one that preserves the original public investment and unique sense of place. Reconstruction planning, design, and execution will be a complex process that must be done carefully and with appropriate expertise. Paving System SolutionsThe Mall’s original paving system is a unique pati œv V' }>ˆi LœVŽ i ˆ “œ> /…i vˆi` œv >i >i iVˆi œ}>ˆi` >œ'` ˆ}… vˆtures, tree wells, granite curbs, and intersections. /…i >“>ˆ} …ˆ}… ii œv `iˆ} iiV'ˆœ ˆ one of the Mall’s hidden treasures and often goes 'iVœ}ˆi` L …i V>'> œLii >i` ˆ the preceding design principles, the reconstruction planning process must honor the quality of this design. The paving system needs to be studied and recon'Vi` 9i> œv viii‡ …> VVi] “>}ˆ> drainage, and maintenance caused the granite paving system to fail in several areas. Currently, repairs to the granite are costly and must be performed during off hours because of the Mall’s intensive and extended hours of use. Although repairs use a construction technique similar to …i œˆ}ˆ>] …i Vi>i> >V…œŽ œv `ˆvviˆ} mortar colors and joint widths that detracts from the Mall’s appearance and design integrity. The panel heard extensive discussion about soluˆœ vœ …i >ˆ} i“ > >Ži…œ`i suggested using a sand-set paving system, similar to one used by the city for other recent projects. A sand-set system may not be able to match the tolerances used in the original design because sandsetting usually requires a wider tolerance. Paving experts should be retained to find an installation solution that can preserve the original tolerances. The discussion should move from paving options œ >i}ˆi vœ “ˆˆ}>ˆ} …i viii‡ …> VVi entirely. Two possibilities offer promise. Underˆ`i>Ž œ‡ “iˆ} iV…œœ}ˆi Vœ'` œvvi> solution. Another option could be a rooftop solar energy system that would heat water for a deicing loop. The latter option could be a model for sustainable design. Annual savings on operation costs and snow removal could offset the initial costs of either system. Pedestrians, property œi] >` …i ,/f œ'` ˆŽi ˆi> œ‡ melting system as a high-quality amenity. /…i iVœ'Vˆœ …œ'` >œ >Ži i œ “>Ži the granite paving system safer for pedestrians and transit operators. Two possible strategies are (a) reflaming the existing granite pavers to recapture their original slip-resistant texture before replacement and (b) adding grooves to the top of the existing granite curbs for improved tactile warning and safety at the transit lanes.Landscape SolutionsThe panel recommends rehabilitating areas of the Mall where trees have been lost and not replaced. These areas may offer opportunities to add new >`V>i >i> L Vœiˆ} “œ`i‡ ˆi` >i> Design Recommendations

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Denver, Colorado, May 11–16, 200823 of underused paved median into new planting œi /…i ˆi ˆ œ >`` >``ˆˆœ> }iii œ the Mall and reduce the visual clutter of street planters. The design for these areas must be studied carefully to create a safety refuge outside …i >ˆ >i ˆ…œ' `ˆ'ˆ} “ˆ`‡ LœVŽ pedestrian crossings. This improvement should be designed to honor and enhance the Mall’s original design. The panel also recommends improvements to …i > >i i“ >ˆˆ} '`i}œ'` landscape irrigation infrastructure should be reconstructed to promote healthy tree growth. In addition, the Mall’s subsurface drainage and stormwater systems should be repaired and upgraded as necessary.Lighting and Electrical Infrastructure SolutionsThe panel recommends preserving the original light fixtures and upgrading the electrical infrastructure. The existing light fixtures should be removed, inspected for structural failures at the rusting base areas, and reconditioned as needed. They should then be coated with a high-quality finish and reinstalled. All existing electrical wires, controls, and conduit that serve the lighting fixtures should be replaced. New power outlets should be added along the Mall to accommodate vendor needs and tree lighting. The panel also recommends studying the benefits and location for new unpopulated underground conduits to support future improvements such as a public music i“ œ 7ˆ‡ ˆ Precision detail defines the paving system.

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An Advisory Services Panel Report24Enhancing Downtown’s Transportation NetworkDowntown’s automobile, transit, bicycle, and i`iˆ> >œ>ˆœ iœŽ œˆ`i regional accessibility and local mobility. Diverse transportation choices connect visitors, commuters, and residents to different Downtown districts and amenities. As Downtown grows, the transportation system will need to serve increasing automobile, transit, pedestrian, and bicycle traffic. The system must balance efficient service and overall livability to achieve Downtown’s long-term sustainability. The 16th Street Mall is Denver’s premier civic ii]> ˆi ˆŽˆ} fœœ }œi“i] office, retail, entertainment, and recreation areas. It is also Downtown’s principal transit artery. Downtown’s transportation system must evolve œ i>Li …i £… -ii > œ œŽ ˆ VœVi ˆ… œ…i Ži ii œ VœiV iˆ}…Lœ…œœ` and activity nodes throughout Downtown. The panel’s vision for a successful Downtown interweaves the 16th Street Mall, 14th Street, and £… -ii ˆ… Ži ii`ˆV'> >“i` ii to form Downtown’s connective tissue. All these corridors must provide an excellent pedestrian environment and support local transit, bicycle, and pedestrian needs. Regional TransportationDowntown serves as a regional hub for major highways, arterial roadways, and transit service. n'i] i}ˆœ> L'i i“ˆ>i > >Ži -ii >` nˆˆV nii >ˆœ /…i ,rr >,ˆ`i ˆŽ …ii œ >ˆœ >` `ˆˆL'i regional visitors throughout Downtown. >/>VŽ L'ˆ`œ' ˆ V…>}i fœœ regional transportation patterns by shifting the The panel evaluated the 2007 Downtown Area Plan and the Downtown Multimodal AcVi *> f* > > œv ˆ œŽ >` determined that these plans provide a comprehensive strategy for Downtown development. The panel believes that the 2007 Downtown Area Plan should put additional focus on the 16th Street Mall’s role as a visitor attraction and civic icon. The panel recommends the following enhancements to the 2007 Downtown Area Plan to better support the Mall’s second renaissance as Denver’s premier “great street” and the anchor of a growˆ} iœŽ œv }i> ii fœœ\ U fiiœ> iœŽ œv ˆ“> >` iVœ`> }i> ii …> Žˆ œ}i…i fœœ districts and offers a wide range of desired addresses and real estate for new development. U *œˆˆœ œV> >ˆ >> VˆˆV> œœ vœ 'porting new development Downtown and promoting the vitality of the 16th Street Mall and other Downtown areas. U “œi >ˆ VœiVˆˆ …œ'}…œ' Downtown by creating a Downtown Circulaœ œ £{… >` £n…£™… ii /…i >i understands that this idea was considered and dismissed during the DMAP planning process L' iVœ'>}i >Ži…œ`i œ iˆˆ ˆ U ni>i> fœœ />ˆ >i‡ ii <œi and operate the Downtown Circulator as a free service that supports growth and enhances mobility. U />vœ“ œi‡ > ii ˆœ …ˆ}…‡ '>ˆ two-way streets. U fiˆ} > ii > …ˆ}…‡ '>ˆ i`iˆ> iˆœ“i ˆ… œ‡ ii >Žˆ}] ˆ`i ˆ`i>Ž] >` iiV>i ˆ“œi“i Connectivity and Mobility

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Denver, Colorado, May 11–16, 200825 regional transportation hub to Union Station and by increasing the number of jobs and transit riders in Downtown. Downtown transit service will need to change in response. Major changes include increasing capacity and providing easy local connections to regional transit services at Union Station. Local TransportationThe 16th Street Mall performs well as Downtown’s principal transit artery. Its existence is owed in large part to its success as a transit corˆ`œ 7ˆ… …ii i>Ž >i iˆœ` i `>] …i Mall’s ability to provide the majority of Downœ >ˆ VœiVˆœ ˆ i“>Ž>Li 7ˆ… …i œiVi` >``ˆˆœ œv “œi …> x] i œŽi >` "x] i iˆ`i] œV> >ˆ service will need to be enhanced to connect the major activity centers and to serve all Downtown transit riders. /…i ,rr >,ˆ`i …œ'` Vœˆ'i œ œi>i and connect the major transit centers at Union Station and Civic Center Station to retail and commercial activity directly along the Mall. Local cross-town bus, and potentially streetcar, service IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII II 14th Street 16th Street Mall 17th Street 20th StreetWewatta Street Larimer Street Curtis Street California Street Tremont Place1 2 3 4 5 6 7 89Corporate Corridor 1 Coors Field 2 Pepsi Center 3 Denver Center for the Performing Arts 4 Colorado Convention Center 5 Civic Center Park 6 Civic Center Station 7 Union Station 8 Market Street Station 9 Light-Rail Station Five-Minute Walk from a Transit Hub Major Street Connector Street Key NGreat Civic and Retail Street Arts and Entertainment CorridorComprehensive transit creates a walkable downtown.

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An Advisory Services Panel Report26 should be expanded to provide connections between Downtown and adjacent neighborhoods. A Downtown Circulator should be established >œ}£{…-ii]tœ>`>ˆVœ-ii]>` £n…£™…iiœVœiV“>œ>Vˆˆœ`i] ˆV'`ˆ}nœœˆi`]…iVœ““iVˆ>Vœi]…i Civic Center, the art and cultural museums, the Colorado Convention Center, and Downtown’s neighborhoods. The panel understands that this idea was discarded during the DMAP planning œViL'iVœ'>}i…i>Ži…œ`iœ revisit it. The panel recommends creating a Downtown />ˆ >i‡ ii <œi œ i>Li >ˆ œ ii the Downtown area as an amenity, distinct from ˆ v'Vˆœ >> i}ˆœ> VœiVœ /…i >i‡ ii <œi ˆ 'œ `iiœ“i L iVœ'>}ing in-town transit use, reducing the projected œi`i“>` œv …i ,rr >,ˆ`i] >` i>Lˆ} >ˆ ˆ`i œ “>Ži i> VœiVˆœ œ >Vˆˆ centers throughout Downtown. /œ v' i…>Vi …i fœœ ˆˆ}] œŽing, and entertainment environment, Downtown should introduce additional mobility options to supplement fixed-route transit service and auto dependency. Car-sharing services; bicycles; reliable Downtown taxi service; designated scooter, “œœVVi] >` LˆVVi >Žˆ} >` œ…i personal transportation devices (for example, Segways) for short, local trips will support development of and access to various services from all the Downtown neighborhoods.Creating Great StreetsDowntown’s street grid can provide mobility for all transportation modes. To achieve this goal, the panel recommends transforming Downtown’s ii }ˆ` ˆœ> iœŽ œv }i> ˆ“> >` secondary streets that complement the 16th -ii > /…i }i> ii iœŽ ˆ Viate new residential, office, institutional, and retail development opportunities by establishing many desirable addresses, pedestrian-friendly street environments, and easy connections throughout Downtown. On great streets, all street and building design focuses on creating a safe, pleasant, and lively pedestrian environment. As a general note, the panel recommends abandoning Downtown’s current one-way street system. Most Downtown streets are one way, between two >` vœ' >i ˆ`i] >` >VŽˆ} iiV>i /…i one-way street system requires long travel distances through many intersections to circulate to destinations within Downtown. The panel recommends opening all streets to two-way traffic and transforming the current streets by introducing ii] ˆ`i ˆ`i>Ž] 'ˆvˆi` ˆ`i>Ž >ˆ}] >` œ‡ ii >Žˆ}  fœœ ii …œ'` Li considered pedestrian-oriented streets. Light rail provides connections throughout the region, above. Union Station will become the hub of a major regional transit system, right.

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Denver, Colorado, May 11–16, 200827 U >ˆ“i -ii] …i ˆL VœiVˆ} …i '>ˆ> n>“'] œfœ] >` nœœ ˆi` U n'ˆ -ii] …i ˆL VœiVˆ} …i fii Performing Arts Complex to the emerging Arapahoe Square arts neighborhood; U n>ˆvœˆ> -ii] …i ˆL VœiVˆ} …i nœœrado Convention Center to the commercial core; and U /i“œ *>Vi] …i ˆL VœiVˆ} …i Vœ“mercial core to the Silver Triangle and Civic Center.Great Primary Streets/…i >i iVœ““i` Vi>ˆ}> iœŽ œv great primary streets to improve pedestrian movement and multimodal access. The primary ii …œ'` ˆV'`i …i vœœˆ}\ U £… -ii >] fii }i>i VˆˆV >` retail street; U £{… -ii VˆˆVV''> Vœˆ`œ U £… -ii Vœœ>iVœ““iVˆ> Vœˆ`œ IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII II N 14th Street 16th Street Mall 17th StreetWewatta Street Larimer Street Curtis Street California Street Tremont Place1 2 3 4 5 6 71 Coors Field 2 Pepsi Center 3 Denver Center for the Performing Arts 4 Colorado Convention Center 5 Civic Center Park 6 Civic Center Station 7 Union Station Great Primary Streets Mixed-Use Opportunity Site Major Venue Key 20th Street Corporate Corridor Great Civic and Retail Street Arts and Entertainment CorridorOpportunity sites in the proposed urban village.

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An Advisory Services Panel Report28 ings on the primary streets that will ensure that new developments reinforce the character and >Vˆˆ >œ} …ii Ži iˆ}…Lœ…œœ` Vœˆ`œGreat Secondary StreetsGreat secondary streets are neighborhood corridors that help Downtown function. Secondary streets present opportunities for developments not requiring prime street addresses; enable service access to primary street properties, providing access for city services; and offer space for enhanced transit and bicycle service. The character of the secondary streets should reflect the pedestrian-oriented environment of the primary ii ˆ… ˆ`i ˆ`i>Ž] ii ii] >` 'ˆvˆi` ˆ`i>Ž >ˆ} fiˆ} }'ˆ`iˆi œ iVondary streets should be less stringent but should remain consistent with the Downtown neighborhood character. Important secondary streets ˆV'`i £x…] £n…] >` £™… ii Great primary streets should be transformed ˆœ œ‡ > ii ˆ… œ‡ ii >Žˆ} >` bicycle lanes, where possible. They should include boulevard-type streetscape treatments with wide ˆ`i>Ž] ii ii] 'ˆvˆi` ˆ`i>Ž >ˆ}] and well-designed facades. The panel recommends establishing urban design guidelines for all buildExisting wayfinding devices are an example of great pedestrian amenities.

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Denver, Colorado, May 11–16, 200829 the Mall through the urban village and an entire iœŽ œv …'“>‡ V>i` iˆ}…Lœ…œœ`] iiVˆ> vœ i>ˆ `iiœ“i t'ˆ`ˆ} …œ'}…out the urban village should locate local, unique, or neighborhood-serving retail on their ground floors, facing the named streets. Continuing to serve its current role, 15th Street should function primarily as a service street. Service frontage and access points should be mini“ˆi` >` œˆii` œ>` £x… >` œˆ“> named streets. Garage and service entrances …œ'` Li `ˆVii œV>i` ˆ …i “ˆ`‡ LœVŽ >i> œ “ˆˆ“ˆi ˆi'ˆœ œv …i v>V>`i >` i>ˆ streetscape. The panel recommends focusing development efforts on creating a mixed-use, pedestrianfriendly, civic, cultural, and residential urban village at the heart of Downtown and the center of the 16th Street Mall. The urban village ˆ 'œ'` …i Vœi LœVŽ œv …i £… -ii Mall and fill the area bounded by 14th, 17th, and >Ži ii >` i>“ *>Vi /…i i neighborhood will fill a hole in the center of Downtown with new development on currently vacant or underused sites. The urban village should extend the vitality of the 16th Street Mall to the cross streets and through a >Ž>Li iˆ}…Lœ…œœ` …> ˆŽ œfœ] …i -ˆi Triangle, the Auraria Campus, and Arapahoe Square. New residents in compact, mid-rise, and high-rise residential buildings will support further development on the Mall and throughout Downtown. As LoDo did, the urban village will become a new neighborhood with a unique identity. The following sections give the reader an opportunity to explore the urban village and understand its particular urban character. The new urban village should be a mixed-use district that houses the full diversity of urban life but retains a residential focus. A residential focus promotes development of a true neighborhood character that, in turn, will attract new residents and development. Local developers told the panel that development in LoDo and the Union Station area is driven by tenants who want LoDo’s ˆvii >` >“LˆiVi ˆ …iˆ œŽ>Vi /…i same can happen in the urban village. Increased residential population will also support upgraded retail on the 16th Street Mall and its cross streets.Buildings Oriented to Great StreetsMajor buildings and ground-floor retail in the urban village should face the north-south primary great streets—Larimer, Curtis, California, and Tremont. These streets will spread vitality from A Walk around the Urban Village High-density buildings support street life and retail.

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An Advisory Services Panel Report30 functions. The point towers, which sit atop the podium, can be configured around rooftop gardens œ “>ˆ“ˆi ˆi >` 'ˆ}… The panel recommends locating higher-density, taller buildings north of the Mall, along 14th and 15th streets. This location will help new development conform to the sunlight preservation ordinance. Clustering the taller buildings along the north side of the Mall will also create a hub of activity between the 14th Street cultural corridor and the 16th Street Mall. Higher Densities Where Appropriatet'ˆ`ˆ} `iˆ} ˆ …i 'L> ˆ>}i …œ'` Vi>i pedestrian-friendly streets, enable high densities, and preserve the views valued in Denver’s high-rise residential buildings. The panel believes that podium buildings with taller point towers will achieve all three goals. Vancouver, Portland, and other cities have used this model to successfully create higher-density, highly livable neighborhoods. The podium structure can be two to four œˆi >` Vœ>ˆ >Žˆ}] i>ˆ] >` iˆVi IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII II 14th Street 16th Street Mall 17th Street 20th StreetWewatta Street Larimer Street Curtis Street California Street Tremont Place1 2 3 4 5 6 7 N1 Coors Field 2 Pepsi Center 3 Denver Center for the Performing Arts 4 Colorado Convention Center 5 Civic Center Park 6 Civic Center Station 7 Union Station Major Street Neighborhood Street Urban Village Major Venue Key “Great streets” network and the urban village.

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Denver, Colorado, May 11–16, 200831 Two-way travel should be permitted on most, if not all, streets within the urban village. Two-way traffic enhances mobility and connectivity while simplifying wayfinding for visitors and residents >ˆŽi >œ i` œ V>“ >vvˆV >` i`'Vi speeds.Open Space and Green DesignThe urban village should feature green urban landscapes at every scale. Developers and public leaders should use extensive public and private landscapes and gardens to transform the area from a rather barren, concrete environment. Street trees, planter boxes, garden courts, roof }>`i] œVŽi >Ž] >` œ…i ˆ>i >` publicly accessible landscapes will be assets. Privately controlled gardens and landscapes will contribute to the streetscape if they are visible to the public even if they are not publicly accessible. -iiV>i …œ'` ˆŽ œ iˆˆ} œi >Vi] 'V… > -Žˆi *>Ž] …> ˆ LiVœ“i iˆ}…Lœ…œœ` >Ž vœ …i 'L> ˆ>}i All buildings and landscapes in the urban village should meet high standards for sustainable development. New landscapes should feature watersensitive design and native plants that conform œ …i Vˆ iiˆ >i} œ L'ˆ`ˆ}] the urban village should go beyond the minimum >`>` œv rrf i>`i…ˆ ˆ ri} >` rˆœ“i> fiˆ} œ i…>Vi …i œi> '>ˆ>Lˆˆ œv …i `ˆˆV ri œœ'ˆ for reducing the neighborhood’s carbon footprint should be explored, including green infrastructure, green streets, energy-efficient technology, Pedestrian-Friendly StreetscapesThe urban village should feature pedestrianfriendly streets with consistent streetscapes that foster a comfortable pedestrian experience. Street trees, planting areas, planter boxes along L'ˆ`ˆ}] ˆ`i ˆ`i>Ž] œ>“i> >ˆ}] œ‡ ii >Žˆ}] >` ˆ`i>Ž L'“‡ œ' > Vœ>Ž ˆ > …i Vi>i> i`iˆ>‡ friendly environment. Lively ground-floor uses and animated building facades further enhance the pedestrian experience. /…i >i iVœ}ˆi …> fœœ V>œ 'port retail in all ground-floor spaces. Retail is not …i œ > œ iˆi ii t'ˆ`ˆ} ˆ …i urban village should maintain a lively and inviting }œ'`‡ ii ii v>V>`i Žˆv' >ˆV'>i` with entrances, stoops, recessed courtyards, and other features. t'ˆ`ˆ}…œ'`>ˆ}ˆ……iL'ˆ`‡œˆiœ i>Lˆ…iiv>V>`iVœˆ'ˆ-iL>VŽvœ“ the property line should be used only in condiˆœ…iiˆ`i>Ž>iiViˆi>œ Street wall continuity is critical to creating the continuity of storefronts needed for a strong retail environment.Appropriate Parking and Circulation/…i 'L> ˆ>}i …œ'` vi>'i œ‡ ii >Žing on all streets other than the 16th Street Mall. "‡ ii >Žˆ} ˆVi>i …œ‡ i“ >Žˆ} vœ i>ˆ >` ˆˆœ >` “>Ži i`iˆ> vii safer by slowing traffic in adjacent travel lanes and providing a physical and psychological buffer between pedestrians and traffic. The urban village should not include surface >Žˆ} -'v>Vi >Žˆ} ˆ œ VœˆL'i œ …i desired high-density neighborhood environment. /…i >}i ' œv 'V'i` >Žˆ} > …i Colorado Convention Center, Denver Performing Arts Complex, and other Downtown locations will œˆ`i 'i“i> >Žˆ} >ˆ“'“ >Žˆ} counts should be established for each new project L>i` œ >` 'i >` …>i` >Žˆ} >i}ˆi œ “ˆˆ“'“ …œ'` Li i *>Žˆ} }>>}i should be located underground or be wrapped with other uses to screen them from public view. Planters enhance the pedestrian environment.

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An Advisory Services Panel Report32 and recycled and locally produced products. ->Ži…œ`i …œ'` i> }œ> œv “>Žˆ} …i urban village carbon-neutral.Design Controls for High-Quality DevelopmentThe panel recommends implementing a publicly managed and administered design review process for the urban village to ensure high-quality buildˆ}] >`V>i] >` 'L> `iˆ} ->Ži…œ`i should create urban design guidelines, based on a comprehensive urban design plan for the neighborhood. The guidelines and plans should identify the urban village as a separate neighborhood within the Downtown area in the same way that design guidelines distinguish LoDo, Arapahoe Square, and the Civic Center. All new projects— public or private—must conform to the design guidelines. Projects can then be reviewed and approved through the normal process administered by the Department of Community Planning and Development.

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Denver, Colorado, May 11–16, 200833 for qualifications and carefully evaluate the responses to find the right construction partner for this project, not the lowest-cost contractor. Key qualifications will include the contractor’s ability œ Vœ““'ˆV>i ˆ… i>ˆi >` >Ži…œ`i] experience with high-quality public infrastructure œiV] V>>Vˆ œ “>>}i 'LˆV >Ži…œ`i] >` >Lˆˆ œ œ}>ˆi> …ˆ}… Vœ“i œect. The city may consider a bonus incentive for œŽ Vœ“ii` >…i>` œv V…i`'i œ i`'Vi …i financial effects on retailers and tax collections. /…ˆ >œ>V… …> œŽi` i vœ Vœ“iˆ} major infrastructure projects in other areas of the Vœ'] Žiiˆ} …i“ œ ˆ“i >` œ L'`}i ˆ… minimal disruption of services. Stakeholder CommunicationsThe contractor must communicate progress; changes to the schedule; upcoming construction movements; and other issues to retailers, >ˆ œvvˆVˆ>] >` œ…i >Ži…œ`i œ > ongoing basis. The construction contract should require the contractor to designate a liaison who will be immediately and continuously available to mitigate unforeseen construction issues that affect business operations. The liaison should host iiŽ Vœ'Vˆœ V…i`'i >` œ}>“ '`>i meetings and immediately communicate schedule Tœ œˆ`i L'ˆi Vœˆ'ˆ >` “ˆˆ“ˆi business interruption during reconstruction of 16th Street, the city will need to manage multiple programs and incorporate relevant requirements in the construction contracts, funding provisions, and maintenance standards. Mitigation Strategies for the Reconstruction ProcessAdvance planning for the reconstruction process ˆ “ˆˆ“ˆi `ˆ'ˆœ œ >ˆ iˆVi >` retailers on the Mall. The construction schedule …œ'` Li>Ž …i Vœ'Vˆœ œVi ˆœ “>ageable phases. The panel recommends imple“iˆ} …i œŽ œi LœVŽ >` œi …>v œv …i street at a time. Inefficient construction or poor sequencing will add calendar days and costs to the construction budget. /…i tf …œ'` œŽ ˆ… …i Vœ>Vœ œ ensure access to businesses throughout the reconstruction process. Several steps can help provide access. Project staging should be designed œ œˆ`i >VVi œ L'ˆii >` “ˆˆ“ˆi business interruption. Access to businesses and transit should be maintained while trenching and 'L'v>Vi i>>ˆœ œŽ œVV' *>i“i i>>ˆœ >` ˆ>>ˆœ …œ'` >Ži >Vi ˆ coordination with a specifically oriented plan. The construction contract must contain a re'ˆi“i œ “ˆˆ“ˆi i…ˆV'>] >ˆ] >` pedestrian traffic interruptions and to provide notice promptly of required traffic interruption >` iœ'ˆ} V…i“i /…i “œ `ˆ'ˆi œŽ should occur overnight, avoiding business hours >` iiŽi` `> œ i>Li …i > œ v'Vˆœ as a right-of-way. Selecting the Right Construction PartnerThe project will require a resourceful general contractor. The city should draft a detailed request Implementation The community engagement process should continue throughout implementation.

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An Advisory Services Panel Report34 U Regular coordinated progress coverage by all media. The campaign will be expensive. All parties involved in the rehabilitation process must commit œ “>Žˆ} …i œiV > >ˆi >` > ivvˆVˆi as possible. Cooperative effort will allow the 16th Street Mall to emerge better and more beautiful for all who enjoy it.ParkingIf the reconstruction disrupts transit access to the Mall or vehicular access near the Mall, the tf “ˆ}… Vœˆ`i Vi>ˆ} >` œ“œˆ} `ii`>Li] >VViˆLi >Žˆ} ˆ… vii i`'Vtion, merchant validation, and other inconvenience offsets. This strategy could help draw customers who might otherwise be discouraged by the reconstruction activities.Fundingœ'>i] …i £… -ii > …> Liivˆi` from the commitment, investment, and resources œv “> 7ˆ… >VŽœi`}i` 'LˆV iVœ v'`ˆ} pressures, successful public/private partnerships will become increasingly critical to the Mall and Downtown Denver’s future success. At the project’s outset, the public/private team should prepare detailed capital, maintenance, and operating pro formas for the entire Mall. The pro formas should consider all costs associated with the Mall’s rehabilitation, retail development, maintenance, œ}>““ˆ}] >` “>Žiˆ} The panel recommends preparing a comprehensive funding strategy. The strategy should be ˆ“>}ˆ>ˆi >` vœ>` …ˆŽˆ} œ V>ˆ>ˆi œ all and any funding sources that can be used. In `iiœˆ} …i v'`ˆ} >] >Ži…œ`i …œ'` U ->i}ˆi >Lœ' v'`ˆ} œ'Vi] œ ˆV'`i …i Vˆ] ,/f] f1,] tf] >` œ…i V''> >` economic development partners; U r>'>i >i >` vi`i> v'`ˆ} œ'Vi U `iˆv Vœœ>i œœ…ˆ >` œ‡ vœ‡ profit/foundation grants; U rœi ii'i œiˆ> vœ“ >Žˆ} ˆVœ“i] vending operations, programming, special changes that affect businesses. The liaison will be responsive directly to businesses to address dayto-day concerns and issues.Financial AssistancePlanning should consider the financial effects of reconstruction on retailers and the city. Retailers may need subsidies if construction causes them œ }œ `>Ž vœ > ˆ“i œ}i …>> vi `> addition, reduced retail sales will reduce sales tax VœiVˆœ fœœ >Ži…œ`i …œ'` > for both of these financial needs. A “mitigation fund” should be established as part of the construction budget. These funds will be used for public relations and awareness building, as well as to provide a contingency for business interruption funding. The city and the tf …œ'` >œ Vœˆ`i œˆ`ˆ} ˆViˆi for facade improvements immediately following …i >i“i œŽPublic Relations and Awareness Building/…i tf …œ'` i>ˆ> 'LˆV i>ˆœ i>“ to build and maintain interest in the reconstruction project and ensure continuing business and retail activity. The team’s job will be to develop a themed campaign to build awareness for and celebrate the ongoing “event” of the project and its anticipated outcomes. Campaign features can ˆV'`i …i vœœˆ} >Vˆˆˆi\ U 7iLˆi >` 7iL‡ L>i` Vœ““'ˆV>ˆœ …> provide continuous updates on the renovation process and progress; U œˆ >`iˆˆ} V>“>ˆ}] v'`i` Vœœi>tively by businesses and the mitigation fund, that highlights special events, individual promotions, merchandise opportunities, and merchant incentive programs; U Distinctive on-site signage to direct cusœ“i …œ'}… `iœ' >` œ >Žˆ} >` affected stores; U “'ˆ“i`ˆ> >`iˆˆ} >` œ“œˆœ program that continuously broadcasts changing >vvˆV >` >Žˆ} >i}ˆi Livœi >` `'ˆ} the reconstruction; and

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Denver, Colorado, May 11–16, 200835 U r>Lˆ…> “iV…>`ˆˆ} > œ ˆ`iˆv iferred uses and locations. U r>Lˆ… >` ivœVi v>V>`i >` œivœ design guidelines to raise the bar and guide development. U *œˆ`i `iˆ} >ˆ>Vi œ >ˆ œi owners in creating attractive, effective storefront designs. U *ˆœ *œ>` tœVŽ L tœVŽ œ}>“] >` Li}ˆ L œŽˆ} ˆ… …i i *>ˆˆœ œers and other proposed new developments. U fiiœ> i>ˆ ˆV'L>œ œ}>“ œ ˆ`iˆv] nurture, and grow small businesses, including ethnic entrepreneurs, artisans, and emerging talents. The panel recommends reserving grants, loans, and other services for property owners and tenants who comply with the 16th Street Mall merchandising plan and design guidelines. These efforts can be expanded to other areas along the Mall as desired.MaintenanceManaging a popular and heavily used public space requires a never-ending commitment to the highest standards of maintenance. This responsibility necessitates dedicated and resourceful personnel, events, advertising, and other alternative opportunities; and U *>VŽ>}i> “>ˆi>Vi i`œ“i ˆ… …i capital budget, whenever possible, to create a permanent funding stream. /…i ff* >` …i tf V> >` “' Vœˆ'i œ assume a leadership role in improving and managing Downtown and the 16th Street Mall. The DDP >` …i tf “> i'ˆi i ii'i œ >V…ˆii the enhanced economic development, mainte>Vi] œ}>““ˆ}] >` “>Žiˆ} iˆˆœi` for the Mall. New commercial development within …i tf ˆ }ii>i >``ˆˆœ> ˆVœ“i /…i DDP should evaluate the feasibility of establishing a community improvement district, downtown development authority, or other district mechanism to capture additional revenue. It may be advantageous to overlay an appropriate district mechanism to achieve the necessary results. The tf Vœ'` >œ œˆVˆ œ'> VœˆL'ˆœ from residential properties, individuals, and other currently nonassessed users. Retail Enhancement Strategies/…i ff* >` …i tf iVi ˆˆˆ>i` …i ,itail Development Plan to retain and recruit retailers to Downtown, with special focus on the 16th Street Mall between Welton and Curtis streets. /…ˆ > iiŽ œˆ “œi …i >i>>Vi >` consistency of storefronts and exterior signage through a facade improvement program, enhance window displays and interior signage through a merchandising program, promote Downtown’s i>ˆ >“iˆˆi …œ'}…> “>Žiˆ} œ}>“] and provide lease and buildout subsidies through > ˆViˆi œ}>“ /…i ff* ˆ V'i >Žˆ} i œ iV'i f" “ˆˆœ œ f “ˆˆœ œ v'` those activities. To achieve desired results, the panel recommends …ˆˆ}> `i`ˆV>i` >vv iœ œ Žii `>>] prospect, show available space, and liaise with œi œi œv >>ˆ>Li >Vi riˆiVi from other cities indicates that having a trained individual focused on retail retention and recruitment is essential. In addition, the panel suggests the following efforts to enhance the Retail Develœ“i *>\ Distinctive signage and facade design create a lively retail streetscape.

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An Advisory Services Panel Report36 powered by alternative sources, and using native, œ‡ “>ˆi>Vi >ˆ} ''i œœ'ˆties could include using environmentally friendly power sources such as solar-heated water for ˆ`i>Ž œ “iˆ}] V>'ˆ} >“Lˆi œˆi Vœ` v>“ œ œi rf ˆ}…ˆ}] >` œ…i technologies yet to emerge. The panel observed that the Mall’s management agencies do not universally agree on the division of future maintenance and operation responsibilities, funding, and the status of existing contracts. These or new agreements need to be researched, clarified, and negotiated to be as effective and efficient as possible. equipment, and funding. It is especially important for the 16th Street Mall, Denver’s living œœ“ /…i tf] …i ff*] …i Vˆ] >` …i ,/f have demonstrated a collaborative and effective approach in maintaining the Mall to date. This approach will be even more critical in the future. Design considerations must continue to address and incorporate long-term maintenance factors. Involving maintenance expertise in the design team can save dollars in the future. As part of the paver solution, ongoing maintenance and cleaning requirements and realities must be balanced with aesthetic and cost preferences. /…i tf >` …i ,/f œ 'i “> }ii practices in cleaning and operations. Their green strategies include using environmentally friendly cleaning solutions and materials, reclaiming and reusing excess water, using vehicles and tools

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Denver, Colorado, May 11–16, 200837 Renewing the 16th Street Mall area is the next big thing. It will require close cooperation, constant communication, inspired and visionary leadership, and a willingness to understand that individual concerns must sometimes give way to a sense of desire, dedication, and commitment to that which best serves the interests of the entire Denver community. The panel believes that Denver has all the elements it needs to soar into its future place as a world-class city. The panel believes that Denver will get the city it wants. Nevertheless, effective change will require Denver’s leaders to want change badly enough to rally the collective civic will to bring about such change. Change requires the vision to see what others cannot, the conviction to inspire others to follow that vision, and the persistence of will to do what is required to achieve the ˆˆœ t Vi>ˆ} …i fœœ i> *>] fii …> >Ži> Lœ` i ˆœ ˆ œ v''i Clearly, Denver has proven repeatedly that it œii …i VœiVˆi ˆ œ “>Ži Lˆ} …ˆ} …>i œ …i Liivˆ > œv fii Vˆˆi Conclusion

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An Advisory Services Panel Report38Ray BrownPanel Chair Memphis, Tennessee tœœvvi>V…ˆiV'>>`'L>`iˆ}ivices to Memphis architectural firms for individ'>œiViiVˆ>ˆiˆœiV…>…>i the potential to improve quality of life for urban residents by reinventing neighborhoods into more livable communities. tœ`ˆiVi`…i`iˆ}>`Vœ'Vˆœœv 'œ<œi*>Žˆi“…ˆ]>Vœiiˆ Memphis’s downtown renaissance. As vice president for development of the Memphis Center nˆnœ““ˆˆœ]tœi…iv>“iœŽvœ the downtown urban design plan, facilitated new development, recruited new businesses, and administered design standards. œ i>] ,>“œ` tœ V…ˆiV iVˆ>ˆi` ˆ œˆ`ˆ} “'ˆVˆ> >` ˆ>i clients with architectural and urban design projects, focused on downtown redevelopment and >ˆ} tivœi i>Lˆ…ˆ} …ˆ œ >VˆVi] tœ > `œœ >i vœ …i Vˆ œv Dayton, Ohio. He taught architectural design at the University of Cincinnati and the University of Memphis. He is a member of ULI, the Congress for New Urbanism, and the American Society of Architectural Illustrators. He serves on the board of the Memphis Regional Design Center and Memphis Heritage, Inc. He chairs the Mayor’s Committee on Land Use and Development for the Sustainable Shelby County Initiative. He has participated in 11 ULI Advisory Services panels, chairing three of them. tœ …œ`> t- ˆ >V…ˆiV'i vœ“ …i 1ˆversity of Cincinnati.Christine BurdickTampa, Florida 7ˆ… “œi …> i> iiˆiVi ˆ i>ˆˆ} >` 'L> `iiœ“i] t'`ˆVŽ > V…œi > the president of the Tampa Downtown Partner…ˆ ˆ ˆ œv "" œ …i > vˆi i>] …i >` …i >i…ˆ i>`i…ˆ… >i >Ži> lead role in planning for the transformation of the i}ˆœ >}i 'L> Vœi] œŽˆ} œ v'…i `ivelop the sense of community in downtown Tampa and to bring exciting new projects to the area. With more than $2.2 billion in recent and current construction, the redevelopment of Tampa’s downtown is well underway. t'`ˆVŽ V>“i œ />“> vœ“ n…ˆV>}œ] …ii …iœŽi`vˆˆ…>œ,ˆV…>`f>i>` then as an independent consultant, creating strati}ˆivœiˆ>ˆ>ˆœ>`iVœœ“ˆV`iiœ“i ˆ 'L> Vœ““iVˆ> iˆ} œ …i Vˆ œv Chicago, she served as an assistant commissioner in the Department of Planning and Development, overseeing the implementation of the State Street Vision Plan, and was the liaison to ŽiVœ““'ˆ}œ'iiiˆ}`iiœi] retail and property owners, and cultural and academic institutions involved in the redevelopment œViˆ`œœn…ˆV>}œœ“£™™œ£™™] she initiated and was president of the Lincoln ,œ>`*>i…ˆ]>œ}>ˆ>ˆœiiiˆ} the interests of the business and cultural commuˆˆi`ˆiVˆ}…iiˆ>ˆ>ˆœœvˆVœ,œ>` ˆˆ>“ˆti>V… t'`ˆVŽ …> Lii> “i“Li œv 1 ˆVi £™™ and has served as a participant on Advisory *>i] >œ œ'“] >` fˆˆV nœ'Vˆ ˆ two states. She was elected chairman of the Ini>ˆœ> fœœ œVˆ>ˆœ vœ £™™q£™™ >` >œ ii` > …i ˆiˆ“ iˆ`i ˆ £™™ She is a member of the International Council of -…œˆ} nii] …i i>ˆœ> rVœœ“ˆV About the Panel

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Denver, Colorado, May 11–16, 200839 Development Council, and Lambda Alpha, a land iVœœ“ˆV œVˆi œV>] t'`ˆVŽ ˆ> 'ii œv the University of Tampa and a board member of the Greater Tampa Chamber of Commerce, the />“> t> nœiˆœ >` 6ˆˆœ t'i>'] …i œˆ`> '>ˆ'“] >` …i œ“ii nœ>ˆˆœ œv Hillsborough County.Paul ChapelDallas, Texas n…>i ˆ> i>`i vœ t" *œi }œˆ} architecture practice based in Dallas. He has over 26 years of experience in the architecture profession and has successfully guided several complex architectural projects through redevelopment initiatives. f'ˆ} …ˆ i'i > t" *œi] n…>i …> gained extensive experience in design/planning on a wide variety of project types, including mixeduse, hospitality, retail, housing, corporate, sports, municipal, industrial, and medical facilities, both domestically and internationally. Currently, he is involved in several large private redevelopment projects in both urban and suburban locations and actively supports the city of Dallas’s efforts œ i`iiœ …i f>> >“i >Ži fˆˆV Downtown. He is a proponent of sustainable design solutions and encourages a consensus-building approach ˆ… >Ži…œ`i n…>i …œ`> L>V…iœ œv >chitecture design option from Texas Tech University. He is also registered as an architect for the >i œv /i> >` "i}œ >` …œ`> rrf‡ accredited professional certification. The recipient of several notable awards, Chapel holds the American Institute of Architects (AIA) Portland Award for Outstanding Service to the Profession and received the city of Portland Mayor’s Com“i`>ˆœ œv rViiVi ˆ œŽ …> iViˆi` design award recognition by both the AIA and the construction community for its excellence, sensitivity, and practicality. Chapel is a member of the National Council of V…ˆiV'> ,i}ˆ>ˆœ tœ>`] …i ] …i Texas Society of Architects, the Urban Land Institute, and the International Council of Shopping Centers. In the past, he has chaired the *œ>` fiˆ} >`V…ˆiV'i 7iiŽ programs, served on its board of directors, and v>Vˆˆ>i` œŽ…œ œ >ˆ‡ œˆii` `iiœment. He has also been involved with mentoring architectural students through online Design -'`ˆœ Vˆˆ'i >` i` >VˆVi‡ i>“ œŽ…œ on site development. Thomas CurleyOssining, New York Curley’s projects can be found on six continents for clients as diverse as the Walt Disney Company, the Guggenheim Museum, the city of New 9œŽ] …i 1- ˆ œVi V>`i“] …i >ˆœ> Capital Planning Commission, the city of Washington, D.C., the New Jersey Nets, and the Smithsonian Institution. He has designed new towns in the Philippines, China, Australia, and India and provided a submission for the 2008 Olympic 6ˆ>}iˆ tiˆˆ} i > …i i>` `iˆ}i vœ r'œfˆi ˆ >i‡ >‡ 6>ji] >` …i œˆ`i` >i}ˆV >ˆ} vœ ™] >Vi œv fˆi œi œ'… œv …i fˆi 7œ` ,iœ ˆ œˆ`> Curley provided the master plan for the recon'Vˆœ œv `œœ tiˆ'] vœ …ˆV… …i œ an international design award for excellence from the Congress for New Urbanism. At the national level, Curley was one of the authors of the Washington Legacy Plan for the National Capital Planning Commission, and he just completed a 25-year master plan for Congress vœ n>ˆœ ˆ i 9œŽ] …i > …i “>i planner for a new community of 1,600 units and half a million square feet of commercial develop“i vœ …i Vˆ œv i 9œŽ œ œi œv …i Vˆ last large landholdings. Curley believes that to be called to service on public projects is the highest honor an architect can achieve. Curley graduated from the Southern California Institute for Architecture with graduate degrees in architecture and urban design. He is a regisii` >V…ˆiV ˆ …i >i œv i 9œŽ >` ˆ> rrf‡ >VVi`ˆi` œviˆœ>

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An Advisory Services Panel Report40Clarence EngTampa, Florida r} ˆ> >VˆVi i>`i vœ `iˆ} >` >ˆ} and a senior project manager with extensive experience directing complex land use, transpor>ˆœ] >` iVœœ“ˆV iˆ>ˆ>ˆœ œiV ˆ urban and large redevelopment areas. His experience in strategic planning, town planning, public involvement, public policy, urban design, and sustainable development provides a breadth and depth of understanding throughout the planning and development process. Notable national and ˆi>ˆœ> i>“i œv …ˆ œŽ ˆV'`i 1- Housing and Urban Development–China Ministry of Construction model housing communities, redevelopment planning for Washington, D.C.’s South Capitol Street corridor, and new urbanism town master plan concepts for London and in the United States. r} ˆ> >ˆœ> n…>ii ˆ'i Viˆvˆi` charrette leader with over ten years of experience conducting public design charrettes. He has received numerous national awards, including a Congress for New Urbanism Charter Award for a transit-oriented development plan in the Washington, D.C., region. He was a vice chair for the American Planning Association’s Urban fiˆ} >` *ii>ˆœ fˆˆˆœ £™™™q"] ˆ a member of the Congress for New Urbanism and …i 1L> >` ˆ'i] >` ˆ> iœ œv …i Institute for Urban Design. i ˆ> i}'> i>Ži > >ˆœ> VœviiVi œ community planning and urban design for Main -ii iˆ>ˆ>ˆœ] i œ >] “> >i> plans, brownfields, and corridor planning. He holds dual master’s degrees in planning and urban design from the University of Southern California and a bachelor’s in landscape architecture from the University of Montreal.Scott HallChesapeake, Virginia Hall is the senior business development manager vœ …i Vˆ œv n…i>i>Ži] 6ˆ}ˆˆ> fi>“i œv rVœœ“ˆV fiiœ“i i …> £" i> œv iperience as an economic development professional, including research, small business development, L'ˆi >ˆ>Vi] “>Žiˆ}] >` >ˆ} > has also served as research director for the Vir}ˆˆ> *iˆ'> rVœœ“ˆV fiiœ“i ˆ>Vi] a regional public/private economic development “>Žiˆ} œ}>ˆ>ˆœ 7…ˆi ˆ… n…i>i>Ži]> Vˆ œv ""x] iˆ`i in the Hampton Roads region of Virginia, Hall has }>ˆi` iiˆiVi ˆ ˆi>ˆœ> “>Žiˆ}] rterprise Zone administration, comprehensive land use planning, and redevelopment planning. >ˆi œv 7i 6ˆ}ˆˆ>] > iViˆi` …ˆ t in political science from Marshall University in £™nx >` …ˆ “>i œv 'L> '`ˆi `i}ii vœ“ "` fœ“ˆˆœ 1ˆiˆ ˆ £™™™ i ii` > a commissioned officer in the U.S. Navy before entering the field of economic development. He is a member of the Urban Land Institute, the i>ˆœ> rVœœ“ˆV fiiœ“i nœ'Vˆ] …i -œ'…i rVœœ“ˆV fiiœ“i nœ'Vˆ] …i International Council of Shopping Centers, the t>ˆˆ>“iˆV> n…>“Li œv nœ““iVi] …i 6ˆ}ˆˆ> rVœœ“ˆV fiiœi œVˆ>ˆœ] >` n"r, vœ“i nn,Scott SchulerArnold, Maryland Schuler has been active in the commercial and i>ˆ i> i>i “>Ži vœ i> -iiii years in the Rouse Company’s Research and Site Strategy department provided extensive experience in retail and commercial analysis, consumer ii>V…] >` i>ˆ œˆˆœˆ} £™™] …i established Schuler Consulting, providing a range of retail research for public and private sector clients. Included in his menu of client services are i>ˆ “>Ži vi>ˆLˆˆ '`ˆi] “>Ži …i…œ` analyses, sales projections, site opportunity studˆi] “>Ži >` ˆi Viiˆ}] Vœ“iˆˆi >i and performance analyses, consumer research, and the development of merchandising and leasing plans. Recent emphasis has favored creating marŽi œˆˆœˆ} >` iœˆˆœˆ} œ}>“ >œ} with strategies aimed at merchant attraction and retention, primarily for struggling retail districts and shopping centers.

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Denver, Colorado, May 11–16, 200841 He has conducted research throughout the United States and in Canada, South America, and the ˆ``i r>] ˆœˆ} “>Ži œv > ˆi /œ `>i] …i …> Vœ“ii` “œi …> i>ˆ “>Ži '`ˆi] œv …ˆV… “œi …> n vœV'i` œ downtown districts or on individual downtown properties. Schuler is active in the Urban Land Institute, the International Downtown Association, and the International Council of Shopping Centers.Michael SternPittsburgh, Pennsylvania Stern has been involved in aspects of urbanism, city building, and public landscapes throughout …ˆ œviˆœ> V>ii /…i vœV' œv …ˆ œŽ …> always been the search for successful ways to improve the quality of urban environments through the practical application of sound design principles rooted in traditional values of urbanism. He has œŽi` œ> Lœ>` >}i œv 'L> œiV vœ“ urban garden design to planning new edge cities. ˆ œviˆœ> iiˆiVi ˆ …i i 9œŽ vˆ“ œv nœœi] ,œLiœE *>i >` +'inell Rothchild Associates gave him broad training in the multiple aspects of planning, design, and construction of private and public urban precincts and landscapes. Subsequently, his teaching and research while a full-time faculty member at the School of Architecture, University of Virginia, focused on understanding the changing nature of 'L> vœ“ >` œ}>ˆ>ˆœ ˆ …i v>Vi œv i technologies and economies. Stern’s practice in Pittsburgh has been involved in many of the city’s major urban design and planning efforts. He served as the project director and urban designer for the Department of City Planning on the Pittsburgh Downtown Plan, the first comprehensive master plan for the greater `œœ >i> ˆ x i> "…i iVi œiV ˆV'`i …i *ˆL'}… ,i}ˆœ> *>Ž >i *> …i fœœ ti`vœ` ,iˆ>ˆ>ˆœ *> > `œœ iˆ>ˆ>ˆœ > vœ 7>…ˆ}œ] *i>ˆ> >` …i > vœ …i iˆ>ˆ>ˆœ œv* ˆL'}… ˆv… >` œLi i>ˆ `ˆˆV Stern has lectured widely and published and edited numerous articles and journals on urban design and landscape design theory. Stern received a master’s of landscape architecture from the Harvard Graduate School of Design >`> t ˆ >…œœœ} vœ“ ˆi nœi}i He is a member of the Urban Land Institute, the American Society of Landscape Architects, Pittsburgh Chapter of the American Institute of Architects, and the Congress for the New Urbanism.Tamara ZahnIndianapolis, Indiana Zahn is president of Indianapolis Downtown, Inc. f]> œ‡ vœ‡ œvˆ œ}>ˆ>ˆœ >i}ˆV> vœV'i` œ `iiœˆ}] “>>}ˆ}] >` “>Žiing downtown Indianapolis. Since forming IDI in £™™] <>… …> Lii ˆ'“i> ˆ …i iˆ>ˆ>ˆœ œv `œœ `ˆ>>œˆ] ˆV'`ˆ} …i opening of Circle Centre and the introduction of a '“Li œv ˆœ>ˆi iV'ˆ] >Žˆ}] L'ˆi ˆ“œi“i] >` “>Žiˆ} œ}>“ 1`i her watch, $4.5 billion of development has been Vœ“ii` œi …> n œiV œ>ˆ} f" Lˆˆœ >i '`i>] ˆV'`ˆ} £]™ i `œœ homes and six cultural districts. tivœi vœ“ˆ} f] <>… >> ˆVˆ> œv <>… œVˆ>i] …i œ Vœ'ˆ} vˆ“ iVˆ>ˆing in urban development. She has consulted in downtowns throughout the United States. Clients include Simon Property Group, the Rouse Company’s American City Corporation, and the New 9œŽ *œ '…œˆ <>… ii œ …i Lœ>` œv '“iœ' œ}>ˆ>tions, including the International Downtown Association (IDA), the Urban Land Institute, the Indiana District Council, the Indianapolis Convention and Visitors Association, the Children’s Museum, and the Coalition for Homelessness Intervention >` *iiˆœ -…i > iVœ}ˆi` > œi œv …i first “40 under 40” and “Most Influential Women in Indianapolis.” Zahn is a recipient of the state’s most prestigious Sagamore of the Wabash award as well as awards from IDA and the International Council of Shopping Centers.

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