Citation
Denver bike boulevard design guidelines, 2013

Material Information

Title:
Denver bike boulevard design guidelines, 2013
Creator:
Department of Public Works, City and County of Denver
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
City and County of Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Bicycle lanes
City planning
Design guidelines

Record Information

Source Institution:
Auraria Library
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:


Full Text
Design Guidelines


ii:n;iiiiiimiiTl
What is a Bike BoulevardP
A bike boulevard is a street designed to give priority to non-motorized users and discourage through traffic by mo-
torized vehicles (particularly non-local cut-through traffic). A separated space in the street is not necessary because
the priority for non-motorized users is communicated through the roadway design, signage, and traffic calming mea-
sures. A bike boulevard is not a single treatment, but rather a combination of treatments used to convey the intend-
ed use of the street and provide a comfortable environment with minimal delays for bicyclists.
Key Features and Characteristics
Connectivity
Bike boulevards connect destinations such as residential neighborhoods, schools and universities, employment
centers, commercial centers, recreation facilities, transit, and other bike facilities. Bike boulevards should be long
enough to provide continuity over a typical urban bicycle trip (one to five miles), but they can also be used for short-
er distances when needed to connect other bike facilities.
Traffic Volumes
Bike boulevards have low traffic volumes. Streets with volumes less than 1,500 vehicles per day are ideal, between
1,500 and 4,000 vehicles per day is acceptable, and streets with traffic volumes exceeding 4,000 vehicles per day will
require modifications to decrease traffic volumes.
Travel Speed
Bike boulevards have low posted travel speeds to minimize the speed differential between motorists and cyclists.
Streets with travel speeds of 25 miles per hour or less are preferable for bike boulevards. Roadways with higher trav-
el speeds will likely need to be slowed to an acceptable level with traffic calming when designated as a bike boule-
vard.
Bike Boulevards in Benver Moves
Bike boulevards are typically best accomplished in neighborhoods with a gridded street network where one street is
chosen as the bike boulevard, and alternate routes for motorized traffic are readily available. Bike boulevards should
provide connectivity between neighborhoods and common destinations via low-volume streets. They can also be
created by combining a series of road and trail segments to form one continuous route.
Denver Public Works' non-motorized plan, Denver Moves (May 2011), established a proposed facility network for
bicycle travel. The Facility Map identifies locations where a variety of bicycle and multi-use facility types are recom-
mended for implementation throughout the City. Denver Moves includes 62 miles of proposed bike boulevards, all
of which are on local residential streets that generally align, or could be designed to align, with the key features and
characteristics of a bike boulevard. Bike boulevards account for nearly a quarter of the proposed bicycle network
miles recommended for implementation. The proposed bike boulevards were selected to complement Denver's
overall bicycle network, taking advantage of low traffic volume, low-speed streets that provide direct connections to
the network and key destinations. Many of the proposed bike boulevards in Denver have been identified as near-
term projects (Phase I of Denver Moves).


Bike Boulevards in Benver Moves
Bicycle Boulevard
3


DESIGN
STUDY
A design study will be conducted prior to implementation of any bike boulevards along the corridors identified in
Denver Moves or other corridors that may be considered for bike boulevards in the future. The purposes of the
design study are to gather technical data, work directly with the adjacent property owners and surrounding commu-
nity, assess the viability of the corridor as a bike boulevard, and identify appropriate bike boulevard treatments.
Data Collection
As the first step in a design study, the data collection effort will be tailored to fit the unique conditions of the subject
corridor. It will consider the following items:
Existing and future land uses, zoning, and demographics
Street cross-section(s) including dimensions of travel lanes, parking, sidewalks, etc.
Surrounding street grid
Traffic control including traffic signals, stop signs (and orientation), posted speed limits, other signs
Existing daily traffic volumes, peak period turning movement counts at major intersections
Bicycle and pedestrian counts
Signal timing
Radar speed data
Crash history (minimum three years)
Future traffic forecasts if the corridor is in or near an Area of Change, as designated in Blueprint Denver
These data will be analyzed to provide an assessment of the technical feasibility and potential benefits or trade-
offs of implementing a bike boulevard. They may also be used to understand the level to which traffic calming and/
or traffic diversion would be needed to achieve the desired conditions of a bike boulevard, as described in the Key
Features and Characteristics section.
Public Outreach Process
The transition of a street into a bike boulevard can change the appearance and function of the street. In conduct-
ing a bike boulevard design study, a public outreach process will be conducted that allows the property owners on
the study corridor and adjacent corridors and the larger community to be involved in the decision making process.
Customized to meet the needs of the specific study, outreach to the community should occur at a minimum twice
during the study:
At the onset of the study to understand the needs and concerns of the community as well as to educate the public
on the concept and purpose of a bike boulevard;
During the alternatives evaluation process, at which time the public can provide input on the alternative bike bou-
levard treatments being considered.
The outreach process will be tailored to best match the schedules and preferred communication methods of the
corridor property owners and the larger community. The following are possible tools and approaches:


Use of established neighborhood groups, bicycle advocacy groups, or other non-profit organizations that promote
non-motorized travel to engage the public, reach their constituents, and advertise public meetings;
Presentations at established neighborhood meetings;
Walking or biking tour of corridor with residents;
Door-to-door surveys to solicit input from all property owners, including those who may not be inclined to partic
ipate in community meetings;
Direct mailings to residents and businesses along or near the corridor;
Post current information on a project website, and include contact information and/or solicit input directly on the
website;
Use of social media to advertise community meetings and/or website updates
Use of an interpreter for meeting flyers and at community meetings;
Frame the discussion around overall benefits of a bike boulevard (walkability and livability) to help engage proper-
ty owners who may not be interested in cycling.
Common Concerns
Property Access and Traffic Rerouting
A common feature of bike boulevards is the discouragement of through travel by motorized vehicles. Residents and
property owners along the corridor may be concerned about the resulting impact on their access. Access to their
property by motor vehicles will be maintained; however, depending on the design, the route to access properties
by car may change for some residents, and may require some out-of-direction travel as well. Local traffic patterns
adapt to motor vehicle movement restrictions over time, and the adjacent property owners often value the resulting
reduction in through traffic. However, traffic calming or movement restrictions along a bike boulevard may induce
traffic on adjacent parallel streets; these impacts shall be considered during the design study.
Road Maintenance and Snow Removal
The design and implementation of bike boulevards will consider roadway maintenance, street sweeping, and snow
removal operations. The corridors that have been identified as proposed bike boulevards in DenverMoves are local
residential streets, most of which are not snow plow routes for Denver. Denver generally does not plow residential
streets, except in the vicinity of schools. During the design study, it will be determined whether or not the corridor is
a snow plow route; this determination may influence the design elements that are appropriate for the corridor.
Emergency services
Traffic calming elements can affect fire and emergency services because of increased response times to proper-
ties along the bike boulevard or lack of sufficient width to accommodate emergency vehicles. Design will consider
whether the corridor is a frequently used route for fire trucks (i.e., near a fire station), which may influence the
desired treatments; and compliance with emergency service standards.
5


I
OF DESIGN
ELEMENTS
Key Design Considerations
Bike boulevards are designed to provide increased convenience for non-mo-
torized users by minimizing stops and cross-traffic. Traffic calming devices
help maintain low motor-vehicle speeds while allowing a consistent pat of
travel for non-motorized users. The types of traffic calming devices used in
each bike boulevard vary depending on adjacent land use context and com-
munity desires.
Careful consideration is given to bike boulevard crossings of arterials. If
inadequate gaps are available, additional engineering treatments could be
required to facilitate safe crossings of the arterial, otherwise the arterial
may function as a barrier, limiting the local street's usefulness for non-mo-
torized travel.
INTERSECTION TREATMENTS
A variety of tools are available to achieve the desired characteristics of a
bike boulevard. The tools in this guidebook have been organized into five
general categories, as follows:
Prioritize Bicycle Travel
Signage
Intersection Treatments
Crossing Treatments
Traffic Calming
Specific treatments in each of these five categories are described in the
following sections. The selection of appropriate treatments for use on a
particular bike boulevard should consider the context of the street, adjacent
land uses, and community desires. Each bike boulevard in Denver may be a
unique combination of design elements aimed at:
Reducing or maintaining low traffic volumes
Reducing or maintaining low motor vehicle speeds
Creating a logical, direct, and continuous bike route with access to de-
sired destinations
Creating comfortable and safe intersection crossings for bicyclists
Reducing cyclist delays
Design of a bike boulevard in Denver will be done in coordination with the
corridor property owners, Traffic Engineering Services, the Street Mainte-
nance, Emergency Services, the Police Department, and the general public.


Bike Boulevards At a Glance
---------1
Traffic Calming
Signage
Prioritize Bicycle Travel
Crossing Treatments
intersection Treatments


Pavement Markings Bike Blvd. Marking in Minneapolis
Design elements that prioritize bicycle travel help
to remind roadway users that the street is intend-
ed as a bicycle throughway and create conditions
that minimize delays for cyclists.
Pavement Markings
Description and Purpose
(Figure 1) Pavement markings can be used to sup-
plement wayfinding and identification signage.
They serve as a reminder to cyclists and motorist
that streets heavily used by bicycle travel and
have frequent markings act as trailblazing/wayfin-
ding for cyclists.
Design Considerations
Must comply with Manual on Uniform Traffic
Control Devices (MUTCD).
Develop specific pavement markings for bike
boulevard.
Contraflow Bike Lanes
Description and Purpose
(Figure 2) A designated bicycle facility that allows
cyclists to travel against the flow of traffic on a
one-way street. They can provide direct access
and improve cyclist connectivity, reducing cyclist
travel time by eliminating out-of-direction de-
tours and unauthorized wrong-way riding. Use of
contra-flow lanes is context sensitive and often
limited to a short segment of the overall bike
boulevard corridor.
Design Considerations
May need a separate signal control at inter-
sections to provide safe crossing at intersections
where bicyclists are not expected on the left side
of the street.
May require elimination of parking on one side
of the street.
8


Stop Control
Description and Purpose
Stop controls increase cycling time and energy ex-
penditure due to frequent starting and stopping,
leading to non-compliance by cyclists and motor-
ists alike, and/or use of other routes. Bicyclists
should be able to travel continuously for the en-
tire length of the bike boulevard with a minimum
of stops. Modification of stop sign control could
be re-orientated from the bike boulevard to the
side street, or conversion from 4-way to 2-way
stop control.
Design Considerations
Re-orientation of stop signs or conversion from
4-way to 2-way stop condition should be coupled
with traffic calming to prevent speeding along a
bike boulevard.
Consider Denver policy and procedure for
re-orientation of two-way stop control at inter-
section.
To convert multi-way stop control to 2-way stop
condition in the context of a bike boulevard, the
existing policy and procedure in multi-way stop
control will need to be modified or new policy
and procedure will need to be developed.
Stop Control Marion Pkwy. and Dakota Ave. Denver
9


Distinctive signage can be used to inform all
roadway users that the street is a bicycle bou-
levard, to create a unique identity for the bike
boulevard, and to convey to users how the
street is expected to be used.
Residential Speed Limit
Description and Purpose
(Figure 3) Discourage motorists from traveling
through residential neighborhoods by posting
the residential speed limit of 25 mph. Speed
limit signs are generally posted following a traffic
control device such as a signal or stop sign, or
where conditions change (e.g., in a school zone).
Design Considerations
Signs must comply with MUTCD.
Speed limits must comply with Denver's ordi-
nance for residential local streets that requires
residential local streets to have a minimum 25
mph speed limit (except in school zones).
Changes in posted speed limit may be based
on an engineering design or speed study.
Identification Signs
Description and Purpose
(Figure 3) Identification signs can be used to
passively market the bike boulevard network.
They may be an enhancement to help brand the
corridor.
Design Considerations
Ensure visibility of signs for both bicyclists and
motorists.
Colors reserved by the MUTCD for regulatory
and warning signs are not applicable.
Denver street signs must include the address.
Bike boulevard signs could be supplemental,
possibly between the two street name signs.
Materials, colors and configuration for bike
boulevard signs will be established by Denver.


Wayfinding Signs
Description and Purpose
Wayfinding signs provide cyclists with direction and distance to destinations including commercial districts, transit
stations, schools and universities, and other bikeways.
Design Considerations
Colors reserved by the MUTCD for regulatory and warning signs are not applicable.
Wayfinding signs along bike boulevards shall tie into Denver's overall wayfinding system.
Warning Signs
Description and Purpose
Alert motorists and cyclists of road condition changes including end of bike boulevard, upcoming traffic calming fea-
tures, and traffic control devices.
Design Considerations
Must comply with MUTCD.
Figure 3 Examples of various Bike Blvd. signage
-------Identification Signs
Bike boulevard sign for rep-
resentation purposes only.
Denver bike boulevard signage
still under development for
, approval and adoption.
Residential Speed limit


Activated Signals Leading Intervals Bannock St.
Improvements along bike boulevards can in-
clude intersection treatments at crossings with
major roadways to enhance cyclist safety by
raising awareness of potential areas of conflict
between motorists and cyclists, and to reduce
delay for cyclists.
Activated Signals Bicycle Detection
Description and Purpose
(Figure 4) Allows a cyclist to trigger a green
signal phase through the use of loop detection
or push-button. Bicycle detection may reduce
cyclist delay and discourage red-light running by
cyclists.
Design Considerations
Bicycle detection is appropriate on designated
bikeways (e.g., bike lanes, bike boulevards, etc.)
where the bikeway is a secondary roadway.
Denver is testing detection devices at many
intersections to choose successful technology.
Activated Signals Leading Intervals
Description and Purpose
A leading interval stops all vehicle movement
and allows cyclists and pedestrians to cross. A
leading interval can be an exclusive phase for bi-
cyclists and pedestrians or it can be an advance
phase that provides bicyclists and pedestrians
a head start in their path of travel across the
intersection.
Design Considerations
Could be used in combination with bike boxes
and/or bicycle detection.
Most appropriate at arterial street crossings.


Bike Boxes/Advanced Stop Bar
Description and Purpose
(Figure 5) This treatment helps to reduce "right-
hook" conflicts. It gives cyclists priority at the
intersection by allowing cyclists to position
themselves for through movements or left turns.
Design Considerations
Could be used in conjunction with bike lead-
ing interval.
Most appropriate at arterial street crossings
with a relatively low volume of right turning
traffic.
Right turns on red must be prohibited; may
not be appropriate at intersections with high
volumes of right turning vehicles.
Activated Signals TOUCAN
Description and Purpose
(Figure 6) A TOUCAN (TwO GroUps CAN cross)
signal facilitates pedestrian and cyclists at
marked crosswalks. They restrict motor vehicle
through movements on the minor street ap-
proaches, allowing only right turns to and from
the major street by motor vehicles. Motorists
on the major street receive a green signal until
the signal is activated for a bicycle/pedestrian
crossing interval.
Design Considerations
The TOUCAN is in the experimental phase with
FHWA to be included in a future edition of the
MUTCD.
Bike Box Cleveland PI. Denver
Figure 5 Bike Box
TOUCAN Signal Tucson, AZ
Figure 6 TOUCAN Signal


Crossing Island
Figure 7 Crossing Island & Off-Set Intersection Crossing
Enhanced crossing treatments can be used to
improve motorists' awareness of potential for bi-
cyclists and pedestrians. They can also improve
safety by provide a refuge for cyclists and/or by
increasing motorists and cyclists' awareness of
potential conflicts.
Crossing Islands
Description and Purpose
(Figure 6) Crossing islands provide space in the
center of a roadway for bicyclists and pedestri-
ans to wait for gaps in traffic.
Design Considerations
Mountable curb may be required to accom-
modate emergency and fire vehicles.
Crossing island design should consider inte-
grating progressive storm water management
features and low maintenance vegetation to
improve the visual quality.
Denver Fire Department requires a minimum
clear width of 16 feet from flow-line to flow-line
on residential; minimum of 25 feet including
parking commercial mixed-use environment.
Off-Set Intersection Crossing
Description and Purpose
(Figure 7) Off-set intersections are created when
the "legs" of an intersection do not line up.
Several striping configurations are available to
enhance bicycle crossing at these intersections
including a two-way center left turn and a medi-
an left turn pocket.
Design Considerations
Most appropriate for directing bicyclists to
follow a particular route (e.g., encourage them
to make a left turn).
Pavement marking treatment may be a con-
cern when snow is on the ground; drivers would
not expect a bike located to the left of the travel
lane.


Crosswalk/Crossbike Tucson, AZ
Curb Extension along 14 St. Denver
Traffic calming is intended to reduce the speeds
of motor vehicle traffic to be closer to cyclists'
travel speeds. Traffic calming may include de-
sign elements that restrict certain movements
for motorized travel to discourage the use of
the corridor for through travel by automobiles.
Although traffic calming is not used everywhere
in Denver, utilization on Bike Boulevards is pos-
sible.
Crosswa I k/Crossbi ke
Description and Purpose
(Figure 7) Reduces motor vehicle speeds and
create a visibly prominent crossing location for
bicyclists and pedestrians.
Design Considerations
Differentiate the crosswalk with enhanced
pavement materials or markings, as raised
crosswalks are a major concern for snow remov-
al, street sweeping and overlays/maintenance
activities.
Brick pavers must meet HS-20 load require-
ments for emergency and fire vehicles and may
become loose over time as a result of weather
and traffic loads; stamped concrete may be a
preferable treatment.
Curb Extensions
Description and Purpose
(Figure 8) Curb extensions (also referred to as
"bulb outs") extend the sidewalk or curb face
into the parking lane at an intersection. This
visually narrows the roadway and reduces the
width of the crosswalk, shortening bicyclist and
pedestrian crossing distance. Additionally, curb
extensions can be used for reducing stormwater
pollution and runoff.
Design Considerations
The radius of the curb extension shall be de-
signed to allow snow plows and street sweepers
to effectively maneuver adjacent to the curb.
A storm sewer inlet may be needed at the
midpoint of the radius.


Chicane Berkeley, CA
Figure 9 Traffic Circle and Chicane
Denver Fire Department requires a minimum
clear width of 16 feet from flow-line to flow-line
on residential; minimum of 25 feet including
parking commercial mixed-use environment.
Chicanes
Description and Purpose
Raised curbs that create serpentine, horizontal
shifting of the travel lanes along a roadway. The
shifting lanes reduce speeds by limiting long
stretches of straight roadway where motorists
can pick up speed.
Design Considerations
May require elimination of some parking
spaces
Chicane design should consider integrating
progressive storm water management features
and low maintenance vegetation to improve the
visual quality.
Landscaping of chicanes would require main-
tenance; consider district-based maintenance.
Denver Fire Department requires a minimum
clear width of 16 feet from flow-line to flow-line
on residential; minimum of 25 feet including
parking commercial mixed-use environment.
Traffic Circles
Description and Purpose
Traffic circles are raised circular islands located
in the center of intersection. They can result in
a slight reduction in traffic speeds by requiring
vehicles to maneuver around the center island
circulating in a counter-clockwise direction. By
eliminating the need for stop signs, they can
reduce bicycle delays.
Design Considerations
Width of approaching streets may affect feasi-
bility of traffic circle.
Design radius or Mountable curb may be
required to accommodate emergency and
fire vehicles, as well as snow plows and street
sweepers.


Landscaping of traffic circles would require
maintenance; consider district-based mainte-
nance.
Traffic circle design should consider inte-
grating progressive storm water management
features and low maintenance vegetation to
improve the visual quality.
Non-Motorized Crossings
Description and Purpose
(Figure 10) Non-motorized crossings allow for
pedestrian and bicycle connectivity otherwise
limited or not accessible by motor vehicles. This
reduces out-of-direction travel for pedestrians/
bicycles and reduces automobile volumes.
Partial non-motorized crossings eliminate some
motor vehicle movements at intersections,
forcing motorists to turn off of and/or restricting
turns onto the minor road. Fully non-motorized
only crossings can be achieved by short off-
street path connections or use of raised/vertical
barriers.
Design Considerations
Consider only where a bike boulevard inter-
sects a higher functional classification street
such as an arterial or dead-end streets.
Potential impacts to neighboring streets need
to be considered.
Consider impacts to emergency vehicles; can
be designed to accommodate emergency access.
Non-Motorized Crossing San Luis Obispo, CA
Figure 10 Non-Motorized crossing
17


MUTCD
NACTO Urban Bikeway Design Guide
AASHTO Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities
Fundamentals of Bicycle Boulevard Planning & Design
18


The work that provided the basis for this publication was supported by funding under an award with the U.S.
Department of Transportation Tiger II Planning Grant. The substance and findings of the work are dedicated to
the public. The author and publisher are solely responsible for the accuracy of the statements and interpretations
contained in this publication. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publi-
cation are those of the Author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Federal Government.


Full Text



PAGE 1

1 Design GuidelinesBIKE BOULEVARD DENVER

PAGE 2

2 INTRODUCTIONA bike boulevard is a street designed to give priority to non-motorized users and discourage through tra c by motorized vehicles (par cularly non-local cut-through tra c). A separated space in the street is not necessary because the priority for non-motorized users is communicated through the roadway design, signage, and tra c calming measures. A bike boulevard is not a single treatment, but rather a combina on of treatments used to convey the intended use of the street and provide a comfortable environment with minimal delays for bicyclists. What is a Bike Boulevard?Bike boulevards connect des na ons such as residen al neighborhoods, schools and universi es, employment centers, commercial centers, recrea on facili es, transit, and other bike facili es. Bike boulevards should be long enough to provide con nuity over a typical urban bicycle trip (one to ve miles), but they can also be used for shorter distances when needed to connect other bike facili es.Key Features and CharacteristicsConnec vityBike boulevards have low tra c volumes. Streets with volumes less than 1,500 vehicles per day are ideal, between 1,500 and 4,000 vehicles per day is acceptable, and streets with tra c volumes exceeding 4,000 vehicles per day will require modi ca ons to decrease tra c volumes.Tra c VolumesBike boulevards have low posted travel speeds to minimize the speed di eren al between motorists and cyclists. Streets with travel speeds of 25 miles per hour or less are preferable for bike boulevards. Roadways with higher travel speeds will likely need to be slowed to an acceptable level with tra c calming when designated as a bike boulevard.Travel SpeedBike boulevards are typically best accomplished in neighborhoods with a gridded street network where one street is chosen as the bike boulevard, and alternate routes for motorized tra c are readily available. Bike boulevards should provide connec vity between neighborhoods and common des na ons via low-volume streets. They can also be created by combining a series of road and trail segments to form one con nuous route. Denver Public Works non-motorized plan, Denver Moves (May 2011), established a proposed facility network for bicycle travel. The Facility Map iden es loca ons where a variety of bicycle and mul -use facility types are recommended for implementa on throughout the City. Denver Moves includes 62 miles of proposed bike boulevards, all of which are on local residen al streets that generally align, or could be designed to align, with the key features and characteris cs of a bike boulevard. Bike boulevards account for nearly a quarter of the proposed bicycle network miles recommended for implementa on. The proposed bike boulevards were selected to complement Denvers overall bicycle network, taking advantage of low tra c volume, low-speed streets that provide direct connec ons to the network and key des na ons. Many of the proposed bike boulevards in Denver have been iden ed as nearterm projects (Phase I of Denver Moves).Bike Boulevards in Denver Moves

PAGE 3

3 Bicycle BoulevardBike Boulevards in Denver Moves

PAGE 4

4 BIKE BOULEVARDData CollectionAs the rst step in a design study, the data collec on e ort will be tailored to t the unique condi ons of the subject corridor. It will consider the following items: Exis ng and future land uses, zoning, and demographics Street cross-sec on(s) including dimensions of travel lanes, parking, sidewalks, etc. Surrounding street grid Tra c control including tra c signals, stop signs (and orienta on), posted speed limits, other signs Exis ng daily tra c volumes, peak period turning movement counts at major intersec ons Bicycle and pedestrian counts Signal ming Radar speed data Crash history (minimum three years) Future tra c forecasts if the corridor is in or near an Area of Change, as designated in Blueprint Denver These data will be analyzed to provide an assessment of the technical feasibility and poten al bene ts or tradeo s of implemen ng a bike boulevard. They may also be used to understand the level to which tra c calming and/ or tra c diversion would be needed to achieve the desired condi ons of a bike boulevard, as described in the Key Features and Characteris cs sec on. A design study will be conducted prior to implementa on of any bike boulevards along the corridors iden ed in Denver Moves or other corridors that may be considered for bike boulevards in the future. The purposes of the design study are to gather technical data, work directly with the adjacent property owners and surrounding community, assess the viability of the corridor as a bike boulevard, and iden fy appropriate bike boulevard treatments.Public Outreach ProcessThe transi on of a street into a bike boulevard can change the appearance and func on of the street. In conducting a bike boulevard design study, a public outreach process will be conducted that allows the property owners on the study corridor and adjacent corridors and the larger community to be involved in the decision making process. Customized to meet the needs of the speci c study, outreach to the community should occur at a minimum twice during the study: At the onset of the study to understand the needs and concerns of the community as well as to educate the public on the concept and purpose of a bike boulevard; During the alterna ves evalua on process, at which me the public can provide input on the alterna ve bike boulevard treatments being considered. The outreach process will be tailored to best match the schedules and preferred communica on methods of the corridor property owners and the larger community. The following are possible tools and approaches: Small group workshop(s) with the corridor property owners; Public open house(s);DESIGN STUDY

PAGE 5

5 Use of established neighborhood groups, bicycle advocacy groups, or other non-pro t or ganiza ons that promote non-motorized travel to engage the public, reach their cons tuents, and adver se public mee ngs; Presenta ons at established neighborhood mee ngs; Walking or biking tour of corridor with residents; Door-to-door surveys to solicit input from all property owners, including those who may not be inclined to par c ipate in community mee ngs; Direct mailings to residents and businesses along or near the corridor; Post current informa on on a project website, and include contact informa on and/or solicit input directly on the website; Use of social media to adver se community mee ngs and/or website updates Use of an interpreter for mee ng yers and at community mee ngs; Frame the discussion around overall bene ts of a bike boulevard (walkability and livability) to help engage property owners who may not be interested in cycling.Common ConcernsA common feature of bike boulevards is the discouragement of through travel by motorized vehicles. Residents and property owners along the corridor may be concerned about the resul ng impact on their access. Access to their property by motor vehicles will be maintained; however, depending on the design, the route to access proper es by car may change for some residents, and may require some out-of-direc on travel as well. Local tra c pa erns adapt to motor vehicle movement restric ons over me, and the adjacent property owners o en value the resul ng reduc on in through tra c. However, tra c calming or movement restric ons along a bike boulevard may induce tra c on adjacent parallel streets; these impacts shall be considered during the design study.Property Access and Tra c Rerou ngThe design and implementa on of bike boulevards will consider roadway maintenance, street sweeping, and snow removal opera ons. The corridors that have been iden ed as proposed bike boulevards in DenverMoves are local residen al streets, most of which are not snow plow routes for Denver. Denver generally does not plow residen al streets, except in the vicinity of schools. During the design study, it will be determined whether or not the corridor is a snow plow route; this determina on may in uence the design elements that are appropriate for the corridor.Road Maintenance and Snow RemovalTra c calming elements can a ect re and emergency services because of increased response mes to properes along the bike boulevard or lack of su cient width to accommodate emergency vehicles. Design will consider whether the corridor is a frequently used route for re trucks (i.e., near a re sta on), which may in uence the desired treatments; and compliance with emergency service standards.Emergency services

PAGE 6

6 SIGNAGE TRAFFIC CALMING CROSSING TREATMENTS INTERSECTION TREATMENTS PRIORITIZE BICYCLE TRAVEL TOOLBOXKey Design ConsiderationsBike boulevards are designed to provide increased convenience for non-motorized users by minimizing stops and cross-tra c. Tra c calming devices help maintain low motor-vehicle speeds while allowing a consistent pat of travel for non-motorized users. The types of tra c calming devices used in each bike boulevard vary depending on adjacent land use context and community desires. Careful considera on is given to bike boulevard crossings of arterials. If inadequate gaps are available, addi onal engineering treatments could be required to facilitate safe crossings of the arterial, otherwise the arterial may func on as a barrier, limi ng the local streets usefulness for non-motorized travel. A variety of tools are available to achieve the desired characteris cs of a bike boulevard. The tools in this guidebook have been organized into ve general categories, as follows: Priori ze Bicycle Travel Signage Intersec on Treatments Crossing Treatments Tra c Calming Speci c treatments in each of these ve categories are described in the following sec ons. The selec on of appropriate treatments for use on a par cular bike boulevard should consider the context of the street, adjacent land uses, and community desires. Each bike boulevard in Denver may be a unique combina on of design elements aimed at: Reducing or maintaining low tra c volumes Reducing or maintaining low motor vehicle speeds Crea ng a logical, direct, and con nuous bike route with access to desired des na ons Crea ng comfortable and safe intersec on crossings for bicyclists Reducing cyclist delays Design of a bike boulevard in Denver will be done in coordina on with the corridor property owners, Tra c Engineering Services, the Street Maintenance, Emergency Services, the Police Department, and the general public. OF DESIGN ELEMENTS

PAGE 7

7 Prioritize Bicycle Travel Signage Traf c Calming Crossing Treatments Intersection Treatments Bike Boulevards At a Glance

PAGE 8

8 Design elements that priori z e bicycle travel help to remind roadway users that the street is intended as a bicycle throughway and create condi ons that minimize delays for cyclists.Pavement MarkingsDescrip on and Purpose (Figure 1) Pavement markings can be used to supplement way nding and iden ca on signage. They serve as a reminder to cyclists and motorist that streets heavily used by bicycle travel and have frequent markings act as trailblazing/way nding for cyclists. Design Considera ons Must comply with Manual on Uniform Tra c Control Devices (MUTCD). Develop speci c pavement markings for bike boulevard. Contra ow Bike LanesDescrip on and Purpose (Figure 2) A designated bicycle facility that allows cyclists to travel against the ow of tra c on a one-way street. They can provide direct access and improve cyclist connec vity, reducing cyclist travel me by elimina ng out-of-direc on detours and unauthorized wrong-way riding. Use of contraow lanes is context sensi ve and o en limited to a short segment of the overall bike boulevard corridor. Design Considera ons May need a separate signal control at intersec ons to provide safe crossing at intersec ons where bicyclists are not expected on the le side of the street. May require elimina on of parking on one side of the street. PRIORITIZE BICYCLE TRAVELPavement Markings Bike Blvd. Marking in Minneapolis Figure 1 Pavement Markings Sharrows

PAGE 9

9Stop ControlDescrip on and Purpose Stop controls increase cycling me and energy expenditure due to frequent star ng and stopping, leading to non-compliance by cyclists and motorists alike, and/or use of other routes. Bicyclists should be able to travel con nuously for the enre length of the bike boulevard with a minimum of stops. Modi ca on of stop sign control could be re-orientated from the bike boulevard to the side street, or conversion from 4-way to 2-way stop control. Design Considera ons Re-orienta on of stop signs or conversion from 4-way to 2-way stop condi on should be coupled with tra c calming to prevent speeding along a bike boulevard. Consider Denver policy and procedure for re-orienta on of two-way stop control at intersec on. To convert mul -way stop control to 2-way stop condi on in the context of a bike boulevard, the exis ng policy and procedure in mul -way stop control will need to be modi ed or new policy and procedure will need to be developed.Contra ow Bike Lane Bal more Stop Control Marion Pkwy. and Dakota Ave. Denver Figure 2 ContraFlow Bike Lane

PAGE 10

10 SIGNAGE Dis nc ve signage can be used to inform all roadway users that the street is a bicycle boulevard, to create a unique iden ty for the bike boulevard, and to convey to users how the street is expected to be used.Residen al Speed LimitDescrip on and Purpose (Figure 3) Discourage motorists from traveling through residen al neighborhoods by pos ng the residen al speed limit of 25 mph. Speed limit signs are generally posted following a tra c control device such as a signal or stop sign, or where condi ons change (e.g., in a school zone). Design Considera ons Signs must comply with MUTCD. Speed limits must comply with Denvers ordinance for residen al local streets that requires residen al local streets to have a minimum 25 mph speed limit (except in school zones). Changes in posted speed limit may be based on an engineering design or speed study.Iden ca on SignsDescrip on and Purpose (Figure 3) Iden ca on signs can be used to passively market the bike boulevard network. They may be an enhancement to help brand the corridor. Design Considera ons Ensure visibility of signs for both bicyclists and motorists. Colors reserved by the MUTCD for regulatory and warning signs are not applicable. Denver street signs must include the address. Bike boulevard signs could be supplemental, possibly between the two street name signs. Materials, colors and con gura on for bike boulevard signs will be established by Denver.Iden ca on Sign Bike Boulevard Way nding Sign South Bend, Indiana Residen al Speed Limit Denver: 25 mph

PAGE 11

11Way nding SignsDescrip on and Purpose Way nding signs provide cyclists with direc on and distance to des na ons including commercial districts, transit sta ons, schools and universi es, and other bikeways. Design Considera ons Colors reserved by the MUTCD for regulatory and warning signs are not applicable. Way nding signs along bike boulevards shall e into Denvers overall way nding system.Warning SignsDescrip on and Purpose Alert motorists and cyclists of road condi on changes including end of bike boulevard, upcoming tra c calming features, and tra c control devices. Design Considera ons Must comply with MUTCD. Identi cation Signs Residential Speed Limit Bike boulevard sign for representa on purposes only. Denver bike boulevard signage s ll under development for approval and adop on.Figure 3 Examples of various Bike Blvd. signage

PAGE 12

12 Improvements along bike boulevards can include intersec on treatments at crossings with major roadways to enhance cyclist safety by raising awareness of poten al areas of con ict between motorists and cyclists, and to reduce delay for cyclists.Ac vated Signals Bicycle Detec onDescrip on and Purpose (Figure 4) Allows a cyclist to trigger a green signal phase through the use of loop detec on or push-bu on. Bicycle detec on may reduce cyclist delay and discourage red-light running by cyclists. Design Considera ons Bicycle detec on is appropriate on designated bikeways (e.g., bike lanes, bike boulevards, etc.) where the bikeway is a secondary roadway. Denver is tes ng detec on devices at many intersec ons to choose successful technology. Ac vated Signals Leading IntervalsDescrip on and Purpose A leading interval stops all vehicle movement and allows cyclists and pedestrians to cross. A leading interval can be an exclusive phase for bicyclists and pedestrians or it can be an advance phase that provides bicyclists and pedestrians a head start in their path of travel across the intersec on. Design Considera ons Could be used in combina on with bike boxes and/or bicycle detec on. Most appropriate at arterial street crossings. INTERSECTION TREATMENTS Ac vated Signals Leading Intervals Bannock St. Ac vated Signals Bicycle Detec on Figure 4 Ac vated Signals Bicycle Detec on

PAGE 13

13 Bike Boxes/Advanced Stop BarDescrip on and Purpose (Figure 5) This treatment helps to reduce righthook con icts. It gives cyclists priority at the intersec on by allowing cyclists to posi on themselves for through movements or le turns. Design Considera ons Could be used in conjunc on with bike leading interval. Most appropriate at arterial street crossings with a rela vely low volume of right turning tra c. Right turns on red must be prohibited; may not be appropriate at intersec ons with high volumes of right turning vehicles.Ac vated Signals TOUCANDescrip on and Purpose (Figure 6) A TOUCAN (TwO GroUps CAN cross) signal facilitates pedestrian and cyclists at marked crosswalks. They restrict motor vehicle through movements on the minor street approaches, allowing only right turns to and from the major street by motor vehicles. Motorists on the major street receive a green signal un l the signal is ac vated for a bicycle/pedestrian crossing interval. Design Considera ons The TOUCAN is in the experimental phase with FHWA to be included in a future edi on of the MUTCD.Bike Box Cleveland Pl. Denver TOUCAN Signal Tucson, AZ Figure 5 Bike Box Figure 6 TOUCAN Signal

PAGE 14

14 Enhanced crossing treatments can be used to impr ov e motorists awareness of poten al for bicyclists and pedestrians. They can also improve safety by provide a refuge for cyclists and/or by increasing motorists and cyclists awareness of poten al con icts.Crossing IslandsDescrip on and Purpose (Figure 6) Crossing islands provide space in the center of a roadway for bicyclists and pedestrians to wait for gaps in tra c. Design Considera ons Mountable curb may be required to accommodate emergency and re vehicles. Crossing island design should consider integra ng progressive storm water management features and low maintenance vegeta on to improve the visual quality. Denver Fire Department requires a minimum clear width of 16 feet from ow-line to ow-line on residen al; minimum of 25 feet including parking commercial mixed-use environment.O -Set Intersec on CrossingDescrip on and Purpose (Figure 7) O -set intersec ons are created when the legs of an intersec on do not line up. Several striping con gura ons are available to enhance bicycle crossing at these intersec ons including a two-way center le turn and a median le turn pocket. Design Considera ons Most appropriate for direc ng bicyclists to follow a par cular route (e.g., encourage them to make a le turn). Pavement marking treatment may be a concern when snow is on the ground; drivers would not expect a bike located to the le of the travel lane. CROSSING TREATMENTS O -Set Intersec on Crossing Crossing Island Figure 7 Crossing Island & O -Set Intersec on Crossing

PAGE 15

15 Tra c calming is intended to reduce the speeds of mot or vehicle tra c to be closer to cyclists travel speeds. Tra c calming may include design elements that restrict certain movements for motorized travel to discourage the use of the corridor for through travel by automobiles. Although tra c calming is not used everywhere in Denver, u liza on on Bike Boulevards is possible.Crosswalk/CrossbikeDescrip on and Purpose (Figure 7) Reduces motor vehicle speeds and create a visibly prominent crossing loca on for bicyclists and pedestrians. Design Considera ons Di eren ate the crosswalk with enhanced pavement materials or markings, as raised crosswalks are a major concern for snow removal, street sweeping and overlays/maintenance ac vi es. Brick pavers must meet HS-20 load requirements for emergency and re vehicles and may become loose over me as a result of weather and tra c loads; stamped concrete may be a preferable treatment.Curb ExtensionsDescrip on and Purpose (Figure 8) Curb extensions (also referred to as bulb outs) extend the sidewalk or curb face into the parking lane at an intersec on. This visually narrows the roadway and reduces the width of the crosswalk, shortening bicyclist and pedestrian crossing distance. Addi onally, curb extensions can be used for reducing stormwater pollu on and runo Design Considera ons The radius of the curb extension shall be designed to allow snow plows and street sweepers to e ec vely maneuver adjacent to the curb. A storm sewer inlet may be needed at the midpoint of the radius. TRAFFIC CALMING Curb Extension along 14 St. Denver Crosswalk/Crossbike Tucson, AZ Figure 8 Crossbike/Crosswalk and Curb Extensions

PAGE 16

16 Denver Fire Department requires a minimum clear width of 16 f ee t from ow-line to ow-line on residen al; minimum of 25 feet including parking commercial mixed-use environment.ChicanesDescrip on and Purpose Raised curbs that create serpen ne, horizontal shi ing of the travel lanes along a roadway. The shi ing lanes reduce speeds by limi ng long stretches of straight roadway where motorists can pick up speed. Design Considera ons May require elimina on of some parking spaces Chicane design should consider integra ng progressive storm water management features and low maintenance vegeta on to improve the visual quality. Landscaping of chicanes would require maintenance; consider district-based maintenance. Denver Fire Department requires a minimum clear width of 16 feet from ow-line to ow-line on residen al; minimum of 25 feet including parking commercial mixed-use environment.Tra c CirclesDescrip on and Purpose Tra c circles are raised circular islands located in the center of intersec on. They can result in a slight reduc on in tra c speeds by requiring vehicles to maneuver around the center island circula ng in a counter-clockwise direc on. By elimina ng the need for stop signs, they can reduce bicycle delays. Design Considera ons Width of approaching streets may a ect feasibility of tra c circle. Design radius or Mountable curb may be required to accommodate emergency and re vehicles, as well as snow plows and street sweepers. Tra c Circle Long Beach, CA Chicane Berkeley, CA Figure 9 Tra c Circle and Chicane

PAGE 17

17 Landscaping of tra c circles would require maintenance; consider district-based maintenance. Tra c circle design should consider integra ng progressive storm water management features and low maintenance vegeta on to improve the visual quality.Non-Motorized CrossingsDescrip on and Purpose (Figure 10) Non-motorized crossings allow for pedestrian and bicycle connec vity otherwise limited or not accessible by motor vehicles. This reduces out-of-direc on travel for pedestrians/ bicycles and reduces automobile volumes. Par al non-motorized crossings eliminate some motor vehicle movements at intersec ons, forcing motorists to turn o of and/or restric ng turns onto the minor road. Fully non-motorized only crossings can be achieved by short o street path connec ons or use of raised/ver cal barriers. Design Considera ons Consider only where a bike boulevard intersects a higher func onal classi ca on street such as an arterial or dead-end streets. Poten al impacts to neighboring streets need to be considered. Consider impacts to emergency vehicles; can be designed to accommodate emergency access. Non-Motorized Crossing San Luis Obispo, CA Figure 10 Non-Motorized crossing

PAGE 18

18 DESIGN RESOURCES MUTCD NACTO Urban Bikeway Design Guide AASHTO Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facili es Fundamentals of Bicycle Boulevard Planning & Design

PAGE 19

19 The work that provided the basis for this publica on w as supported by funding under an award with the U.S. Department of Transporta on Tiger II Planning Grant. The substance and ndings of the work are dedicated to the public. The author and publisher are solely responsible for the accuracy of the statements and interpreta ons contained in this publica on. Any opinions, ndings, and conclusions or recommenda ons expressed in this publica on are those of the Author(s) and do not necessarily re ect the views of the Federal Government.

PAGE 20

20