Citation
Downtown multimodal access plan, 2005

Material Information

Title:
Downtown multimodal access plan, 2005
Creator:
Fehr & Peers
Zimmer Gunsul Frasca Partnership
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
City and County of Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
City planning
Public transit

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Source Institution:
Auraria Library
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Sponsoring Agencies:
City and County of Denver
Regional Transportation District
Colorado Department of Transportation
Denver Regional Council of Governments
Downtown Denver Business Improvement
District
Consultant Team:
Fehr & Peers
Zimmer Gunsul Frasca Partnership
Nelson/Nygaard
PTV America
Matrix Design Group
Design Collaborative
Ron Straka
Pat Noyes & Associates
Intermountain Corporate Affairs
Governmental Agency Project Team (GAP)
Mark Najarian, CCD
Ellen Ittelson, CCD
Tyler Gibbs, CCD
David Weaver, CCD
Catherine Cox-Blair, CCD
John La Sala, CCD
Mark Upshaw, CCD
Dave Hollis, RTD
Robert Rynerson, RTD
Myron Swisher, CDOT
Gregg Mugele, CDOT
Jennifer Edwards, DRCOG
John Desmond, DDP
Brendon Harrington, DDP


Table of contents
Preface........................................................4
Historic Overview and Timeline................................ 6
Current Conditions.............................................8
Principles Guiding Downtown Transportation Decisions..........12
Transportation Recommendations............................... 16
Implementation................................................26


Trolley service in the 1940s
preface
As Downtown Denver continues to grow and change, the
transportation system must also grow and change. To ensure
this evolution is timely, efficient and cost effective, the City
and County of Denver (CCD), the Regional Transportation
District (RTD), the Colorado Department of Transportation
(CDOT), the Downtown Denver Business Improvement District
(BID), and the Denver Regional Council of Governments
(DRCOG) initiated the Downtown Multimodal Access
Plan (DMAP).
The main goal of the DMAP is an integrated plan for vehicular,
freight (primarily delivery services), pedestrian, bicycle and
transit access into and throughout Downtown Denver over the
next 20 to 25 years. Key elements of plan development are
the relationship between land use and transportation, major
infrastructure improvements and the important urban design
role streets play in creating quality connections between
destinations, people, individual land uses and surrounding
neighborhoods.
The importance of DMAP is illustrated with several observations
and trends:
Over the past several decades, Downtown has shifted
from being a 9-to-5 office employment center to being
an all day educational center, residential neighborhood,
cultural and entertainment center and transit hub, as
well as an office employment center.
Rail transit has re-emerged as a significant mode.
The passage of FasTracks in November 2004 indicates
a significant shift away from the auto-related
improvements that dominated the previous 50 years.
Public streets, sidewalks and alleys comprise about 40
percent of the land area of Downtown, so the rights-of-
way have a major impact on the perception of Downtown
as a vital and attractive place.
The public right-of-way is finite, and many uses compete
for this limited spacedaily movements of pedestrians,
automobiles, bicycles, buses, trains and delivery
vehicles; access to private properties; commercial
activities such as outdoor cafes and street vendors; and
occasional public activities such as parades, festivals
and demonstrations.
Downtown is no longer separated from surrounding
neighborhoods by seas of unattractive surface parking
lots. As Downtown and neighborhoods have grown
together through infill development, the expectation of
safe and convenient pedestrian access across perimeter
arterial streets has increased.
Downtown has been and must continue to be the heart
of Denver, the metropolitan area, and the entire Rocky
Mountain region.
The plan is based upon extensive public input over a two-and-one-
half-year period. The public process consisted of a series of open
houses, topics based workgroups, newsletters, public forums and
meetings with individual stakeholder groups and neighborhood
organizations. Information obtained through this process was
fundamental to the development of the plan at every stage.
4
The DMAP is designed to both complement and build on previous and current planning efforts...


The DMAP is Designed to Complement
Previous & Current Planning Efforts, including:
Downtown Area Plan
Comprehensive Plan
Central Denver Transportation Study
Northeast Downtown Plan
Blueprint Denver
Parks Game Plan
FasTracks
HOT Lanes (1-25)
Denver Union Station
Civic Center District Plan
Metro Vision 2030 & Regional Transportation Plan
Neighborhood Plans
Bicycle Master Plan
Pedestrian Master Plan
Regional & Downtown Travel Demand Management
DMAP is not a stand alone document. It is designed to complement
and build on previous and current planning efforts. Likewise, it
is expected that DMAP will be incorporated into future planning
efforts.
The plan document that follows includes an overview of Downtown
land use and transportation, a summary of current conditions
for the six primary modes of transportation, principles guiding
Downtown transportation decisions, recommendations, and
implementation priorities.
17th Street today
16th Street Mall shuttle
Downtown Denver has maintained its position as the cornerstone for the region...
5


Historic Overview and Timeline
Between 1950 and 2000, the Denver Metropolitan regional
population grew from slightly more than 600,000 to 2,400,000.
Despite this phenomenal growth, especially in many of the
outlying areas, Downtown Denver has maintained its position as
the cornerstone for the region.
The timeline below shows many of the events and transportation-
related projects that have enabled Downtown to grow and flourish.
The 1950s saw the emergence of the automobile as the dominant
travel mode. The Downtown streets and the Broadway/Lincoln
corridor were converted to a one-way system and the Valley
Highway opened. The conversion of the Downtown streets from
Last Denver street car line closed
Downtown streets converted to 1-way
system & "Barnes' Dance" implemented
1950
1960
Valley Highway (1-25) opened
through central Denver
Broadway & Lincoln converted
to 1-way pair
6
The 1950s saw a significant emergence of the automobile as the dominant
two-way to one-way traffic flow facilitated the innovative concept
of halting all traffic at an intersection and allowing pedestrians
to cross in any direction, including diagonally. This concept was
instituted by Henry A. Barnes and later became known as the
"Barnes' Dance."
In the 1960s, the Denver Tramway Company closed and the
Colorado General Assembly created the Regional Transportation
District. The 1970s saw the planning and design begin for the
16th Street Mall. Urban Renewal efforts in the 1970s also resulted
in widening of several streets and narrowing of many sidewalks.
Other noteworthy accomplishments included the Denver City
Council authorizing the creation of a citywide bicycle network as
well as the start of the Platte River Greenway projects.
Denver City Council authorized creation
of a bicycle network
Dedicated bus lanes at
to Broadway & Lincoln
1970
1980
RTD created by Colorado
general assembly


The 16th Street Mall as well as both the Civic Center and Market
Street Stations opened in the early 1980s. Denverstarted replacing
the functionally obsolete viaducts that connected Downtown to
1-25 and Highlands. The first project involved replacing the
Larimer and Lawrence viaducts with Auraria Parkway. This project
had secondary benefits. It removed a major thoroughfare through
the middle of the Auraria Campus, allowing the campus to become
more pedestrian oriented. In addition, the volume of traffic
through Larimer Square decreased dramatically, allowing Larimer
Street to be narrowed to two through lanes and the sidewalks
widened. The replacement of the viaducts was completed in the
late 1990s, resulting in higher capacity roadways with quality
pedestrian connections between Downtown and the neighborhoods
to the west.
16th Street Mall opened
ided
couplet
Downtown Area Plan completed
Denver began replacing
functionally-obsolete viaducts
connecting Downtown
The 1990s saw a significant increase in transit capacity to
complement the increase in vehicular capacity. The first light
rail transit (LRT) line opened in Downtown, followed by the North
1-25 High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) project known as the
Downtown Express. The buildout of the high capacity transit
system continued into the 2000s with the opening of the
Southwest LRT line, construction starting on the Southeast LRT
line, the opening of the Central Platte Valley LRT line, and the
extension of the 16th Street Mall.
The completion of the Southeast Line (TREX), Union
Station improvements, and the passage of the
FasTracks initiative ensure Downtown growth will be
well-served by the transportation system well into
the 2000s. In the context of these investments, Downtown
Denver is defining a new vision for transportation over the next
50 years.
Central Platte Valley LRT line opened &
16th Street Mall extended
Central Corridor LRT line opened
FasTracks passed
2010
Southeast LRT Opens
Denver Union Station Purchased
Southwest LRT line opened
Downtown Express
(1-25 HOV) opened
The 1990s saw a significant increase in transit capacity, setting the stage for FasTracks...
7


Current Conditions
Downtown outdoor plaza
There are six primary components of the existing transportation
system. These are Regional Access, Downtown Street Network,
Downtown Transit Services, Bicycle Facilities, Parking, and
Pedestrian Facilities.
Regional Access
Currently 519,000 vehicles travel into and out of the Downtown
area on an average weekday. Slightly over seven percent of
these vehicles (39,000) travel during the AM peak hour (8:00
- 9:00am). Sixty-nine percent of the AM peak hour vehicles
are entering Downtown and 33 percent are leaving Downtown.
Approximately nine percent of the daily total (45,000) travels
during the PM peak hour (5:00 6:00pm). Sixty-two percent are
leaving Downtown and 38 percent are entering Downtown.
The existing roadway system
serving Downtown consists
of a total of 118 lanes,
comprising over 40% of the
total land area. Fifty-seven
lanes are into Downtown and 61
lanes are out of Downtown. To
determine the existing roadway's
performance, the capacity of each street was compared to the
existing peak hour volumes. The results of this analysis indicate
slightly more than 60 percent of the total street capacity is used
in the peak hours. In the AM peak hour, three locations are
at capacity (20th Street, Speer Boulevard and Lincoln Street)
and the volume exceeds the capacity at one location Auraria
Parkway. In the PM peak hour, one location is at capacity (Colfax
118 Roadway Lanes
fiaoaa
Vehicles Into & Out of Downtown, by Hour
Trail crossing under
Speer Boulevard
19000
10000
9000
0-J
i
i
8
519,000 vehicles travel into and out of the Downtown area on an average weekday...


Avenue) and the volume exceeds the capacity at one location
- 20th Street in the Central Platte Valley. It should be noted
this type of comparative analysis only gives a general indication
of the adeguacy of the street system. Some streets have levels
of congestion during portions of the peak hour that can only be
identified using more sophisticated analysis tools.
Downtown Street Network
The Downtown, for purposes of this study, is bounded by Lincoln
Street, Colfax Avenue, Speer Boulevard, the Platte River and
20th Street. Within this area, there are 24 miles of streets. The
majority of the street system consists of one-way couplets with
usually three through-lanes in each direction. There are a few
instances where streets have two-way traffic flow. All of these
streets, with two exceptions, are located in either the Lower
Downtown or the Central Platte Valley. The lone exceptions are
Glenarm Place and Cleveland Place.
The existing street system generally handles the peak hour traffic
efficiently and effectively. Based on an analysis of each signalized
intersection, only three intersections were identified as problem
locations. These intersections are Speer Boulevard and Auraria
Parkway, Speer Boulevard and Champa Street, and Colfax Avenue
and Bannock Street. All other intersections operate at acceptable
service levels.
Downtown Transit Services
Downtown Denver is served by a variety of transit services. There
are 275 buses and 20 trains entering the Downtown in the AM
peak hour with more than 9,700 passengers. In the PM peak
hour, 255 buses and 20 trains leave Downtown with slightly less
than 9,500 passengers. Eighty percent of the peak hour ridership
is focused in three areas North, Southwest, and Southeast. The
North includes the 20th Street High Occupancy Vehicle lanes; the
Southwest includes the LRT Central Corridor; and the Southeast
includes the Broadway and Lincoln corridor.
Downtown transit stop
When compared to the other "modes" or ways to get
into and out of Downtown, 25 percent of all people
coming into and out of Downtown in the peak
hours are using some form of transit. It should
be noted this "mode split" is for all trips. The
mode split for the Downtown work trip likely
will be higher. In fact, a recent survey by the
Downtown Denver Partnership showed 46 percent
of Downtown employees use some form of transit to
get to and from work.
25% Transit
75% Auto
Within the Downtown, the 16th Street Mall Shuttle is the
cornerstone of the system. Approximately 60,000 passengers
board the shuttle each weekday. Local bus service is concentrated
on Broadway, Colfax, 15th and 17th streets. These routes carry
roughly 80 percent of the bus traffic Downtown.
Approximately 60,000 passengers board 16th Street Mall Shuttle each day...
9


Bicycle Facilities
The bicycle facilities serving the Downtown area consist of regional
multi-use trails, bike lanes and various types of bike routes. In
the Downtown core, bicycle lanes are either planned or provided
on 18th, 19th, Glenarm, Lawrence, Arapahoe, and Wynkoop Streets.
Bicycles also are allowed on all streets, except for the 16th Street
Mall.
Parking
There are a total of approximately 64,500 parking spaces in the
Downtown area. Seventy-four percent of the spaces are classified
as off-street public; 20 percent are classified as off-street private;
and the remaining six percent are classified as on-street. Of the
total off-street spaces, 60 percent are located in parking structures
and 40 percent are in surface lots. When the parking supply is
compared to existing office and retail sguare footage Downtown,
it computes to 1.9 spaces per 1,000 sguare feet of development.
This parking ratio falls within the national range (1.6-2.0) of
peak-parking reguirements in a downtown with Denver's current
level of transit usage.


Pedestrian Facilities
ALL streets in the Downtown have sidewaLks on both sides. The
widths range from eight feet to 22 feet per side. The typicaL and
desirabLe width is 16 feet.
SeveraL streets Like the 16th Street MaLL, Stout, CaLifornia, Curtis
(from 14th to 16th), Wazee and Wynkoop, as weLL as Larimer Square
,have been enhanced with speciaL pedestrian amenities. In
addition, many signaLized intersections provide an aLL-pedestrian
waLk phase, which is commonLy referred to as the "Barnes'
Dance."
11


Principles Guiding Downtown
Transportation Decisions
Any successful planning process starts with a clearly defined
purpose and need. For the DMAP, representatives from the City
and County of Denver (CCD), the Regional Transportation District
(RTD), the Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT),
the Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG) and
the Downtown Denver Partnership (DDP) met to define why a
Downtown transportation study should be conducted and what
it should try to accomplish. The following vision statement is a
culmination of their work.
Vision Statement
Downtown Denver is the heart of the region. Its transportation
system serves those who live, work, shop and visit with seamless,
secure, attractive, worry-free multimodal choices that support a
vibrant pedestrian environment.
From this vision for Downtown, a series of goals and principles
were identified to guide the development and evaluation of
future transportation scenarios and to frame complex trade-off
decisions.
12
Any successful planning process starts with a clearly-defined
Goal #1
The system should form a comprehensive network that conveniently
connects all subareas within Downtown to each other and to the
various surrounding neighborhoods.
& need...


Goal #2
The system should complement the current and emerging development
patterns in Downtown by serving pedestrian generators and destinations
with direct and enhanced pedestrian facilities.

The DMAP principles guide the
Goal #3
The system should complement and serve appropriate institutional,
cultural and recreational assets in Downtown.
& evaluation of future downtown transportation options...
13


Goal #4
The system should reinforce the unique physical characteristics of
Downtown's urban form, including the pattern of streets, parks,
parkways and plazas, as well as cherished corridor views.
14
Goal #5
The system should complement current and future high-capacity transit
services with enhancements that benefit both pedestrians and transit
users and address the need for "seamless connectivity between modes."


Goal #6
The system Should incorporate existing corridors that have been
enhanced for pedestrians, such as the 16th Street Mall and segments
of California, Stout, Curtis, Larimer, Lawrence, Wynkoop and
Wazee Streets.
Guiding Principles
The following guiding principles inform the specific recommendations of
the plan.
Downtown is a destination for employment, cultural, educational
and transit-related uses.
Downtown will continue to be a major employment center in the
foreseeable future.
Downtown streets should be defined by good urban design
incorporating a sense of place and an acknowledgment of all the
uses of the public right of way and not solely by the number of
vehicles moving through them.
Downtown streets are a vital focus of city life and must balance
the needs of pedestrian, bicycles, transit and the automobile in
creating a vibrant and attractive urban center.
An abundance of people and activities is a fact of life in successful
downtowns.
Downtown streets must continue to accommodate a reasonable level
of automobile and truck traffic and the existing street grid system
is an effective way of distributing traffic throughout Downtown.
Streets should be safe and easy for pedestrians to cross and should
facilitate strong connections between Downtown and adjacent
neighborhoods.
Curbside parallel parking buffers pedestrians from vehicular traffic
and facilitates economic activity.
Retail and residential activity is essential to Downtown's economic
vitality and adeguate sidewalks are critical to retail and residential
viability.


Transportation
RECOMMENDATIONS
Downtown Denver has a diverse mix of land uses, including 25.7
million square feet of office space, 2.6 million square feet of retail
space, more than 6,300 housing units, 80 acres of parks and open
space, and various cultural, sports and entertainment venues.
Currently, 110,000 people are employed in the Downtown area.
In 2025, Downtown employment is expected to reach 148,000,
which represents a 31 percent increase over existing levels. The
number of households is expected to grow to 22,800, which
represents a 262 percent increase when compared to existing
levels.
As a result, the 2025 peak hour person trips into and out of
Downtown are forecast to increase by 42 percent over existing
trips. No single mode of travel will be able to accommodate this
forecasted demand. Rather, the existing transportation facilities
must be managed to maximize their efficiency, and additional
multimodal capacity should be added when needed. The challenge
is to give appropriate weight to all modes of travel to ensure a
balanced multimodal system. Within this framework, numerous
transportation-related recommendations have been developed.
Each recommendation is described in this plan. The technical
analysis and background information that provides the basis
for these recommendations are contained in separate technical
memoranda available at the City and County of Denver web site. In
addition, a set of innovative multimodal simulation models were
created for study area transportation analysis. The VISUM and
16
No one mode of travel will be able to accommodate the forecasted demand for
Technical Memoranda
Supporting Recommendations:
Existing Conditions Technical Memorandum
Cordon Line Study Technical Memorandum
HOT Lane Analysis Technical Memorandum
Transit Alternatives Technical Memorandum
Downtown Circulation Study
Technical Memorandum
Background Streetscape Technical Memorandum
Framework Analysis Technical Memorandum
Streetscape Standards Technical Memorandum
Analytical Tools
Supporting Recommendations:
Downtown Synchro Model
Downtown VISUM Model
Downtown VISSIM Model


VISSIM models are sensitive to pedestrian, transit, and vehicular
interactions and include over 160 Downtown intersections. These
models guided many of the plan recommendations and can be
used as a tools for future Downtown multimodal analysis.
Streets Into and Out of Downtown
There are a total of 118 roadway lanes leading into and
out of Downtown. The ability of these lanes to handle 2025
forecasted volumes was analyzed with buildout of the FasTracks
improvements. The results indicate these lanes will be capable of
accommodating future travel demand with only isolated problems.
Conseguently, no new general-purpose lanes are recommended
for streets into and out of downtown. While widening is not
proposed, operational changes that enhance capacity and
improve traffic flow are encouraged. The Downtown grid system
limits the amount of traffic that can use the existing 19th/20th
High Occupancy Vehicle lanes. Any new high capacity vehicle
access would have to be placed in another corridor such as Colfax,
Speer, or Broadway. Connectivity, impacts to adjacent land uses,
traffic operations, safety, and compatibility with neighborhood
plans are but a few of the issues that would have to be addressed
before any widening project could be initiated.
Existing PM Capacity
Existing AM Caparity
AM Peak Hour
PM Peak Hour
While roadway widening is not proposed, operational changes that enhance capacity and improve traffic flow are encouraged...
17


Streets Bordering Downtown
Five streets form the general boundary for the Downtown core
(20th, Broadway/Lincoln, Colfax, Speer and Wewatta). Because
of the width of these streets and the volume of traffic they
carry, these streets are perceived as barriers between Downtown
and adjacent neighborhoods. This problem is compounded for
Broadway/Lincoln and Colfax where the street grids "clash"
creating large and sometimes confusing intersections for both
pedestrians and motorists. The following recommendations are
intended to either mitigate or eliminate these barriers.
Broadway between 20th Street and Blake Street
Add a raised median in Broadway to visually reduce the
width of the street and to provide a pedestrian refuge
area.
Reconfigure the intersection of Broadway, 20th and
Welton
Reconfigure the intersection of Broadway, 21st and
Champa/Stout.
18
Streets on the edges of Downtown are perceived as barriers to the adjacent neighborhoods...


Colfax Avenue between Broadway and Speer Boulevard
Speer Boulevard between Colfax Avenue and Wewatta Street
Consider addition of a leading pedestrian interval phase
to the traffic signal at both the Colfax and Lincoln and
the Colfax and Broadway intersections.
Reconfigure the intersection of Glenarm, 12th and
Colfax.
Reconfigure the intersection of Tremont, 13th and
Colfax.
It should be noted these recommendations are also
included in the Civic Center District Master Plan.
Intersection concept for
13th/Tremont/
CoLfax/DeLaware
Provide a wide, inviting below grade pedestrian and
bicycle crossing of southbound Speer Boulevard between
Larimer and Lawrence. This would be an extension of
the current below grade crossing of northbound Speer
Boulevard at Creekfront Park.
Wewatta Street between Speer Boulevard and 20th Street
Extend 18th Street into the Central Platte Valley so there
are multiple routes to access Downtown.
It should be noted this recommendation is also included
in the Denver Union Station Master Plan.
20th Street between Blake Street and Broadway
Provide enhanced pedestrian facilities along Blake,
Larimer and Arapahoe Streets linking the Curtis Park and
Northeast/Ballpark neighborhoods to Downtown.
Pedestrian Crossing Enhancements
Enhance pedestrian crossings that link adjacent
neighborhoods and major attractions to Downtown.
Consider signal timing changes such as Barnes' Dance,
leading pedestrian interval, and countdown signals.
It should be noted some of these signal recommendations
would require additional traffic operations analysis.
Consider design treatments such as high visibility
crosswalk markings, advance stop lines, pavers, colored
concrete, additional signage, and in-pavement or sign
mounted flashers.
Broadway at 18th Street
Fiscal Note:
Recommendations
included in this study
require further technical
analysis. Implementation
of recommendations will
require funding that
must be prioritized in
conjunction with other
City needs.
Intersection improvements and pedestrian crossing enhancements are needed to address the "dash" of the grid systems...
19


20
The one-way street system will accommodate future vehicular travel
Streets Within Downtown
There are eight numbered streets (e.g. 14th, 15th, 16th) and 16 named
streets (e.g. Larimer, Lawrence, Arapahoe) providing access to the
Downtown land uses. The majority of these streets are designed for
one-way traffic flow. Based on public input, various combinations of
two-way traffic flow on both the named streets and the numbered streets
were analyzed using sophisticated travel demand and traffic simulation
tools. The results indicate the predominantly one-way circulation
system should be maintained to efficiently and effectively accommodate
future vehicular travel demands. In addition, the results indicate that
the numbered one-way streets and most of the named streets outside
of Lower Downtown should maintain three lanes of travel (e.g. three
general purpose lanes or two general purpose and one exclusive transit
lane, etc). Streets that currently have four lanes of travel (e.g. Larimer),
are candidates for narrowing to provide wider sidewalks.
The right-of-way for most Downtown streets is 80 feet. Within this
width, 32 feet is devoted to sidewalks, leaving a curb-to-curb width
of 48 feet. This width is adeguate to accommodate the three travel
lanes and on-street parking, loading zones and turn lanes at select
intersections.


Transit
With the completion of TREX and FasTracks, transit ridership is forecast
to increase by 129 percent when compared to existing ridership. Much of
this increased ridership will be destined for Denver Union Station. 2025
forecasts indicate that approximately 16,000 people will be traveling to
Denver Union Station in the peak hour. Of these people, 39 percent will
have destinations outside of Downtown and will transfer to other transit
routes. The remaining 61 percent will have destinations within Downtown.
The adjacent pie chart illustrates how the people with Downtown
destinations will complete the last leg of their trip. Based on the
demand for transit within downtown, a new shuttle system is needed to
complement the 16th Street Mall shuttle and the local bus network.
16th Street Mall Shuttle
2800
29%
A new circulator shuttle is needed to complement the 16th Street Mall Shuttle and local bus network...
21


22
The proposed Circulator route connects Denver Union Station, the
The figure to the left shows the recommended route for the proposed
Downtown Circulator. This route was chosen over numerous other
routes for the following reasons:
Two-way transit service on both 14th and 18th Streets causes
numerous traffic operational problems and therefore is not
viable.
One-way shuttle service on 14th and 15th competes with the
16th Street Mall shuttle because of its close proximity.
The 16th Street Mall shuttle has adeguate capacity to serve
both the 16th Street Mall and 14th Street markets.
One-way shuttle service on 17th and 18th also competes with
the 16th Street Mall. Placing the shuttle on 18th and 19th,
however, starts to mitigate the overlap and would directly
serve 55% of the employment in Downtown.
The proposed route, in conjunction with the 16th Mall shuttle,
can efficiently serve major destinations, including DenverUnion
Station, the cross-mall light rail line, Civic Center Station and
the Cultural Complex.
-mall light rail, Civic Center Station, and the Cultural Complex...


As shown, the new shuttle will leave Denver Union Station and
travel to 19th Street via Wynkoop Street in a general travel lane.
Once on 19th Street the shuttle will proceed to Broadway in an
exclusive transit lane. At Broadway, the shuttle will proceed
south in a general travel lane to Colfax Avenue and then in the
existing bus lane to a bus turn around area at 12th Avenue and
Acoma Street. The shuttle will return to Denver Union Station
via 12th Avenue to Lincoln and then Lincoln to 18th Street. The
shuttle will be in a general travel lane on both 12th Avenue and
Lincoln and then in an exclusive transit lane on 18th Street.
The vehicles for this new route will have similar performance to
the 16th Street Mall shuttle. Accordingly, the new shuttle will be
capable of meeting the following performance criteria.
High-amenity shuttle buses with low floors
Capable of operating every 75 seconds
Stops every 2 to 3 blocks
Legible service that is easy to understand and use
Travel times comparable to the 16th Street Mall shuttle
It should be emphasized the existing and proposed Downtown
transit system has adeguate capacity to meet the 2025 forecasted
travel demands. The proposed shuttle route, however, does not
preclude other at-grade or below-grade rail routes operating
in Downtown beyond 2025, should they be needed. In fact,
the exclusive shuttle lanes on 18th and 19th Streets could be
converted to rail if Downtown service is expanded.
Bicycles
The Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 recommended the strategic
placement of bicycle lanes on Downtown streets. The following
list contains the principles contained in the Plan Update that
guided the decision to stripe bicycle lanes on Downtown streets:
The effort to place bicycle lanes on Downtown streets
is in recognition of traffic conditions in the Downtown
area; the predominantly one-way street system, the mix
of vehicle types and double turn lanes which can be
intimidating to many bicyclists;
Bicycle lanes on Downtown streets can encourage
bicycling for commuting and other transportation needs
in the Downtown area;
Better provision for bicycling on streets can serve to
reduce unlawful bicycling on Downtown sidewalks which
creates conflicts with pedestrians;
Bicycle lanes should not lead novice or family riders into
unsafe conditions; and
The bicycle lanes should create a system that provides
circulation to and through Downtown and safe access
from the Cherry Creek Trail, the Platte River Trail and
the designated bicycle routes in the surrounding
neighborhoods.
The graphic at the right shows the recommended bicycle lanes and
routes in Downtown Denver. All of the previously stated street
and transit recommendations in this document maintain and
ft
ft
V_________J
The proposed bicycle system provides circulation to and through Downtown with safe connections to trails and neighborhoods...
23


Cyclist on the Cherry
Creek Trail
complement the Bicycle MasterPlan Update 2001 recommendations
for Downtown. The bike lanes on 18th and 19th Streets will be
incorporated into the shuttle lanes. This treatment is preferable
to a typical 12' shared bike and transit lanes since the 15'-16'
width will be able to accommodate a dedicated bike lane. In
addition, a new connection should be considered between the
bike lanes on 18th and 19th Streets and Sherman Street, which
serves as a distributor for the 16th, 19th, and 20th Avenue bike
routes.
Pedestrians
There are several streets in Downtown Denver that have been
enhanced for pedestrians. Unfortunately, they are scattered and
do not form a complete and coherent system. In order to bring
all sidewalks up to a consistent standard, it is recommended that
all Downtown streets have a minimum of a 16-foot wide sidewalk
on both sides. This recommendation meets criteria for pedestrian
environments described in Denver's Pedestrian Master Plan. It
also accommodates space for through-pedestrian circulation that
is consistent with national pedestrian standards.
The 16 feet is reguired to accommodate the four basic linear
zones of an urban sidewalk. Starting at the building/property
line, the zones are the merchant zone, the through pedestrian
zone, the furnishing zone and the curb zone. The diagram below
illustrates how these zones are arranged in a typical blockface.


The Merchant Zone is where the adjacent building or private
property meets the public sidewalk. This zone is typically 2.5
feet wide. The Through Pedestrian Zone is the primary functional
area of the sidewalk for the safe passage of pedestrians along
the street edge. This zone for Downtown Denver should be 7.5
feet. The Furnishing Zone locates all of the apparatus necessary
for the function of the street for all modes. This zone is typically
5 feet wide. The Curb Zone establishes a safety clearance for
vertical objects from moving vehicles in the roadway. It also
provides an open area for passengers to get out of vehicles or
deliveries to be unloaded. This zone commonly is 1 foot wide.
Additionaldesign recommendationsforthe pedestrian environment
are included in the Streetscape Design Guidelines, which were
prepared in concert with this plan.
Through Pedestrian Zone
Curt Zone
25


implementation
The new Circulator Shuttle is
needed by 2013
Plan visions are just that a collective picture of a more desirable
future. There are few, if any, circumstances in the complex milieu
of cities in which the planning, design, ownership, financing and
political resources align to implement a plan's visions and goals
quickly and simultaneously. As a result, by necessity, plans are
implemented incrementally with the vision and goals providing
common direction to the multitude of public and private
undertakings. Part of the City process is to evaluate each of these
large and small, public and private undertakings in light of the
plan's vision and goals, the current situation, and the available
resources. Despite this imperfect situation, plans have proven to
have substantial influence on the future direction of a plan area
over a period of five, 10 or 20 years.
Blueprint Denver identifies three categories of implementation
strategies: regulatory, infrastructure, and partnerships. The
Regulatory category includes ordinances promulgated by City
Council and rules and regulations adopted by City agencies.
Infrastructure strategies are based on funding through capital
improvements and other public and private investment.
Partnerships are those areas where city government cannot or
should not act unilaterally. Instead, community organizations,
businesses orindividual citizens partnerwith government agencies
to achieve the goals and recommendations.
For DMAP, early action items were identified that follow the above
implementation strategies. These action items were categorized
by where they fall within the overall implementation process.
Construction
1. New Circulator Shuttle All of the FasTracks projects
are expected to be complete by the year 2016. The
timeline on the next page shows the seguence of transit
related improvements. Based on ridership forecasts, the
new Downtown circulator shuttle must be operational
by 2013. This infrastructure project will include an
exclusive concrete lane on both 18th and 19th Streets,
shuttle stop improvements, bus turn-around at 12th
Avenue and Acoma Street and Denver Union Station, and
acguisition of the buses. The implementation of this
project will reguire a close working relationship between
various city departments, affected neighborhoods, and
the Regional Transportation District.
Design
2. 14th Street Streetscape Design Project There are a
number of developments proposed along 14th Street.
The Downtown Denver Business Improvement District
is supporting the implementation of streetscape related
improvements to unify the street. The basis for any
recommended improvements should be the DMAP and
the companion Streetscape Plan.
26


3. Colfax Avenue/12th Street and Colfax Avenue/13th
Street Intersection Improvements The Justice Center
project has budgeted funds for select improvements to
Colfax Avenue. Both intersections should be improved
to meet the goals of both the DMAP and the Civic Center
District Master Plan.
4. Streetscape Design Guidelines These guidelines
will ensure a higher, consistent level of pedestrian
environment on all Downtown streets and vibrant
pedestrian and transit public spaces, in balance with the
vehicular and parking needs. The Streetscape Design
Guidelines should be used as a City review document to
influence future public and private projects as they are
undertaken. This document was developed concurrently
with and in the overall context of the DMAP process.
Plans
5. Civic Center Station Plan The Civic Center District
Plan recommends master planning for the Civic Center
Station as an enhanced multimodal connection point.
This effort would complement the Denver Union Station
Master Plan and define the vision for a secondary transit
hub downtown, providing for enhanced connections to
the east and the south.
14th Street streetscape im-
provements will continue as
redevelopment progresses
A Civic Center Station Plan
will incorporate enhanced
connections to the east and south
Fiscal Note:
The early action items listed
here are intended to provide
priority with respect to the
recommendations of this plan.
The actual funding amount and
timing will be accomplished
through the City's capital
funding prioritization process,
which considers all of the City's
capital needs and any external
funding sources.
27


Downtown Implementation Timeline
2006
2007
1-25 High Occupancy Toll Lana Opans
Mom traffic entering arxt exiting LoOa
Nerw signal at likMWfltkoap
Southeast Una Opans (T-Rex)
Sgnificantiy more LigW Waff Trans* service into DUS
Regional and Express Bus service reduced
West Line Opens; Downtown Circulator Opens; DUS LRT Opens
We iv Light Ral Transit service frcm Ifre Htesf into DUS
Sierra1 timing changes along Circulator route transit slop improvements,
turnaround n Civic Center, and cross section changes to some segments
East Line Opens; US 36 Line Opens; OUS Commuter Rail Opens
Net* ran transit service to the east and northeast
Improvements focused on Denver Union Station (DUS)
2014
28


2015
Nortt Metro Une Opens: Gold Une Opens
New ran transit seme to the north and northwest
Rak system in Central Platte Valley complete, aB FasTracks ran connections
into OUS complete
US 36 Bus Rapid Transit Opens; Central Corridor Improvements
More buses entering and exiting LoDo and the 19th and 20th corridors
Signal timing changes along BRT route In Downtown, quad track LRT
improvements in Central Corridor
2016-17
2025
Beyond FasTracks
CwwWBfsTiefls include additional rak or fixed gwdeway transit connections
to the south and east, increased transit service in FasTracks corridors, and
an additional HOV connection into Downtown from I-2S
29




Full Text

PAGE 1

Denver, ColoradoDecember 2005

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AcknowledgmentsSponsoring Agencies: City and County of Denver Regional Transportation District Colorado Department of Transportation Denver Regional Council of GovernmentsDowntown Denver Business Improvement District Consultant Team:Fehr & PeersZimmer Gunsul Frasca PartnershipNelson/Nygaard PTV AmericaMatrix Design GroupDesign CollaborativeRon StrakaPat Noyes & AssociatesIntermountain Corporate AffairsGovernmental Agency Project Team (GAP):Mark Najarian, CCDEllen Ittelson, CCDTyler Gibbs, CCDDavid Weaver, CCDCatherine Cox-Blair, CCDJohn La Sala, CCDMark Upshaw, CCDDave Hollis, RTDRobert Rynerson, RTDMyron Swisher, CDOTGregg Mugele, CDOTJennifer Edwards, DRCOGJohn Desmond, DDPBrendon Harrington, DDP

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Table of ContentsPreface....................................................................................... 4 Historic Overview and Timeline......................................................... 6 Current Conditions......................................................................... 8 Principles Guiding Downtown Transportation Decisions.......................... 12 Transportation Recommendations..................................................... 16 Implementation........................................................................... 26

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4 Preface As Downtown Denver continues to grow and change, the transportation system must also grow and change. To ensure this evolution is timely, efcient and cost effective, the City and County of Denver (CCD), the Regional Transportation District (RTD), the Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT), the Downtown Denver Business Improvement District (BID), and the Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG) initiated the Downtown Multimodal Access Plan (DMAP).The main goal of the DMAP is an integrated plan for vehicular, freight (primarily delivery services), pedestrian, bicycle and transit access into and throughout Downtown Denver over the next 20 to 25 years. Key elements of plan development are the relationship between land use and transportation, major infrastructure improvements and the important urban design role streets play in creating quality connections between destinations, people, individual land uses and surrounding neighborhoods.The importance of DMAP is illustrated with several observations and trends: Over the past several decades, Downtown has shifted from being a 9-to-5 ofce employment center to being an all day educational center, residential neighborhood, cultural and entertainment center and transit hub, as well as an ofce employment center. Rail transit has re-emerged as a signicant mode. The passage of FasTracks in November 2004 indicates a signicant shift away from the auto-related improvements that dominated the previous 50 years. Public streets, sidewalks and alleys comprise about 40 percent of the land area of Downtown, so the rights-of-way have a major impact on the perception of Downtown as a vital and attractive place. The public right-of-way is nite, and many uses compete for this limited spacedaily movements of pedestrians, automobiles, bicycles, buses, trains and delivery vehicles; access to private properties; commercial activities such as outdoor cafes and street vendors; and occasional public activities such as parades, festivals and demonstrations. Downtown is no longer separated from surrounding neighborhoods by seas of unattractive surface parking lots. As Downtown and neighborhoods have grown together through inll development, the expectation of safe and convenient pedestrian access across perimeter arterial streets has increased. Downtown has been and must continue to be the heart of Denver, the metropolitan area, and the entire Rocky Mountain region.The plan is based upon extensive public input over a two-and-one-half-year period. The public process consisted of a series of open houses, topics based workgroups, newsletters, public forums and meetings with individual stakeholder groups and neighborhood organizations. Information obtained through this process was fundamental to the development of the plan at every stage. The DMAP is designed to both complement and build on previous and current planning efforts...Downtown street circa 1930Trolley service in the 1940s

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5 The DMAP is Designed to Complement Previous & Current Planning Efforts, including: Downtown Area Plan Comprehensive Plan Central Denver Transportation Study Northeast Downtown Plan Blueprint Denver Parks Game Plan FasTracks HOT Lanes (I-25) Denver Union Station Civic Center District Plan Metro Vision 2030 & Regional Transportation Plan Neighborhood Plans Bicycle Master Plan Pedestrian Master Plan Regional & Downtown Travel Demand ManagementDMAP is not a stand alone document. It is designed to complement and build on previous and current planning efforts. Likewise, it is expected that DMAP will be incorporated into future planning efforts.The plan document that follows includes an overview of Downtown land use and transportation, a summary of current conditions for the six primary modes of transportation, principles guiding Downtown transportation decisions, recommendations, and implementation priorities. Downtown Denver has maintained its position as the cornerstone for the region...17th Street today16th Street Mall shuttle

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6 1950 19 6 019701980 Last Denver street car line closed Downtown streets converted to 1-way system & Barnes Dance implemented Broadway & Lincoln converted to 1-way pair Valley Highway (I-25) openedthrough central Denver RTD created by Coloradogeneral assembly Denver City Council authorized creation of a bicycle network Dedicated bus lanes added to Broadway & Lincoln couplet Historic Overview and TimelineThe 1950s saw a signicant emergence of the automobile as the dominant travel mode... Between 1950 and 2000, the Denver Metropolitan regional population grew from slightly more than 600,000 to 2,400,000. Despite this phenomenal growth, especially in many of the outlying areas, Downtown Denver has maintained its position as the cornerstone for the region.The timeline below shows many of the events and transportation-related projects that have enabled Downtown to grow and ourish. The 1950s saw the emergence of the automobile as the dominant travel mode. The Downtown streets and the Broadway/Lincoln corridor were converted to a one-way system and the Valley Highway opened. The conversion of the Downtown streets from two-way to one-way trafc ow facilitated the innovative concept of halting all trafc at an intersection and allowing pedestrians to cross in any direction, including diagonally. This concept was instituted by Henry A. Barnes and later became known as the Barnes Dance. In the 1960s, the Denver Tramway Company closed and the Colorado General Assembly created the Regional Transportation District. The 1970s saw the planning and design begin for the 16th Street Mall. Urban Renewal efforts in the 1970s also resulted in widening of several streets and narrowing of many sidewalks. Other noteworthy accomplishments included the Denver City Council authorizing the creation of a citywide bicycle network as well as the start of the Platte River Greenway projects.

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7 199020002010 Denver began replacing functionally-obsolete viaducts connecting Downtown Southwest LRT line opened Downtown Express (I-25 HOV) opened 16th Street Mall opened Central Corridor LRT line opened FasTracks passed Central Platte Valley LRT line opened & 16th Street Mall extended Southeast LRT Opens Dedicated bus lanes added to Broadway & Lincoln couplet The 1990s saw a signicant increase in transit capacity, setting the stage for FasTracks... The 16th Street Mall as well as both the Civic Center and Market Street Stations opened in the early 1980s. Denver started replacing the functionally obsolete viaducts that connected Downtown to I-25 and Highlands. The rst project involved replacing the Larimer and Lawrence viaducts with Auraria Parkway. This project had secondary benets. It removed a major thoroughfare through the middle of the Auraria Campus, allowing the campus to become more pedestrian oriented. In addition, the volume of trafc through Larimer Square decreased dramatically, allowing Larimer Street to be narrowed to two through lanes and the sidewalks widened. The replacement of the viaducts was completed in the late 1990s, resulting in higher capacity roadways with quality pedestrian connections between Downtown and the neighborhoods to the west.The 1990s saw a signicant increase in transit capacity to complement the increase in vehicular capacity. The rst light rail transit (LRT) line opened in Downtown, followed by the North I-25 High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) project known as the Downtown Express. The buildout of the high capacity transit system continued into the 2000s with the opening of the Southwest LRT line, construction starting on the Southeast LRT line, the opening of the Central Platte Valley LRT line, and the extension of the 16th Street Mall.The completion of the Southeast Line (TREX), Union Station improvements, and the passage of the FasTracks initiative ensure Downtown growth will be well-served by the transportation system well into the 2000s. In the context of these investments, Downtown Denver is dening a new vision for transportation over the next 50 years. Denver Union Station Purchased Downtown Area Plan completed Cherry Creek bike lanes opened

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8 118 Roadway Lanes57 In61 Out Vehicles Into & Out of Downtown, by Hour Current Conditions There are six primary components of the existing transportation system. These are Regional Access, Downtown Street Network, Downtown Transit Services, Bicycle Facilities, Parking, and Pedestrian Facilities. Regional Access Currently 519,000 vehicles travel into and out of the Downtown area on an average weekday. Slightly over seven percent of these vehicles (39,000) travel during the AM peak hour (8:00 9:00am). Sixty-nine percent of the AM peak hour vehicles are entering Downtown and 33 percent are leaving Downtown. Approximately nine percent of the daily total (45,000) travels during the PM peak hour (5:00 6:00pm). Sixty-two percent are leaving Downtown and 38 percent are entering Downtown. The existing roadway system serving Downtown consists of a total of 118 lanes, comprising over 40% of the total land area. Fifty-seven lanes are into Downtown and 61 lanes are out of Downtown. To determine the existing roadways performance, the capacity of each street was compared to the existing peak hour volumes. The results of this analysis indicate slightly more than 60 percent of the total street capacity is used in the peak hours. In the AM peak hour, three locations are at capacity (20th Street, Speer Boulevard and Lincoln Street) and the volume exceeds the capacity at one location Auraria Parkway. In the PM peak hour, one location is at capacity (Colfax 519,000 vehicles travel into and out of the Downtown area on an average weekday...Downtown outdoor plazaTrail crossing under Speer Boulevard

PAGE 9

9 25% Transit75% Auto Avenue) and the volume exceeds the capacity at one location 20th Street in the Central Platte Valley. It should be noted this type of comparative analysis only gives a general indication of the adequacy of the street system. Some streets have levels of congestion during portions of the peak hour that can only be identied using more sophisticated analysis tools. Downtown Street Network The Downtown, for purposes of this study, is bounded by Lincoln Street, Colfax Avenue, Speer Boulevard, the Platte River and 20th Street. Within this area, there are 24 miles of streets. The majority of the street system consists of one-way couplets with usually three through-lanes in each direction. There are a few instances where streets have two-way trafc ow. All of these streets, with two exceptions, are located in either the Lower Downtown or the Central Platte Valley. The lone exceptions are Glenarm Place and Cleveland Place.The existing street system generally handles the peak hour trafc efciently and effectively. Based on an analysis of each signalized intersection, only three intersections were identied as problem locations. These intersections are Speer Boulevard and Auraria Parkway, Speer Boulevard and Champa Street, and Colfax Avenue and Bannock Street. All other intersections operate at acceptable service levels. Downtown Transit Services Downtown Denver is served by a variety of transit services. There are 275 buses and 20 trains entering the Downtown in the AM peak hour with more than 9,700 passengers. In the PM peak hour, 255 buses and 20 trains leave Downtown with slightly less than 9,500 passengers. Eighty percent of the peak hour ridership is focused in three areas North, Southwest, and Southeast. The North includes the 20th Street High Occupancy Vehicle lanes; the Southwest includes the LRT Central Corridor; and the Southeast includes the Broadway and Lincoln corridor.When compared to the other modes or ways to get into and out of Downtown, 25 percent of all people coming into and out of Downtown in the peak hours are using some form of transit. It should be noted this mode split is for all trips. The mode split for the Downtown work trip likely will be higher. In fact, a recent survey by the Downtown Denver Partnership showed 46 percent of Downtown employees use some form of transit to get to and from work.Within the Downtown, the 16th Street Mall Shuttle is the cornerstone of the system. Approximately 60,000 passengers board the shuttle each weekday. Local bus service is concentrated on Broadway, Colfax, 15th and 17th streets. These routes carry roughly 80 percent of the bus trafc Downtown. Approximately 60,000 passengers board 16th Street Mall Shuttle each day...Downtown transit stop

PAGE 10

10 Bicycle Facilities The bicycle facilities serving the Downtown area consist of regional multi-use trails, bike lanes and various types of bike routes. In the Downtown core, bicycle lanes are either planned or provided on 18th, 19th, Glenarm, Lawrence, Arapahoe, and Wynkoop Streets. Bicycles also are allowed on all streets, except for the 16th Street Mall. Parking There are a total of approximately 64,500 parking spaces in the Downtown area. Seventy-four percent of the spaces are classied as off-street public; 20 percent are classied as off-street private; and the remaining six percent are classied as on-street. Of the total off-street spaces, 60 percent are located in parking structures and 40 percent are in surface lots. When the parking supply is compared to existing ofce and retail square footage Downtown, it computes to 1.9 spaces per 1,000 square feet of development. This parking ratio falls within the national range (1.6-2.0) of peak-parking requirements in a downtown with Denvers current level of transit usage.

PAGE 11

11 Pedestrian Facilities All streets in the Downtown have sidewalks on both sides. The widths range from eight feet to 22 feet per side. The typical and desirable width is 16 feet.Several streets like the 16th Street Mall, Stout, California, Curtis (from 14th to 16th), Wazee and Wynkoop, as well as Larimer Square ,have been enhanced with special pedestrian amenities. In addition, many signalized intersections provide an all-pedestrian walk phase, which is commonly referred to as the Barnes Dance. unimproved sidewalk

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12 Principles Guiding Downtown Transportation Decisions Any successful planning process starts with a clearly dened purpose and need. For the DMAP, representatives from the City and County of Denver (CCD), the Regional Transportation District (RTD), the Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT), the Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG) and the Downtown Denver Partnership (DDP) met to dene why a Downtown transportation study should be conducted and what it should try to accomplish. The following vision statement is a culmination of their work. Vision Statement Downtown Denver is the heart of the region. Its transportation system serves those who live, work, shop and visit with seamless, secure, attractive, worry-free multimodal choices that support a vibrant pedestrian environment.From this vision for Downtown, a series of goals and principles were identied to guide the development and evaluation of future transportation scenarios and to frame complex trade-off decisions. Any successful planning process starts with a clearly-dened purpose & need... Goal #1 The system should form a comprehensive network that conveniently connects all subareas within Downtown to each other and to the various surrounding neighborhoods.

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13 The DMAP principles guide the development & evaluation of future downtown transportation options... Goal #2 The system should complement the current and emerging development patterns in Downtown by serving pedestrian generators and destinations with direct and enhanced pedestrian facilities. Goal #3 The system should complement and serve appropriate institutional, cultural and recreational assets in Downtown.

PAGE 14

1 4 Goal #4 The system should reinforce the unique physical characteristics of Downtowns urban form, including the pattern of streets, parks, parkways and plazas, as well as cherished corridor views. Goal #5 The system should complement current and future high-capacity transit services with enhancements that benet both pedestrians and transit users and address the need for seamless connectivity between modes.

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15 Guiding Principles The following guiding principles inform the specic recommendations of the plan. Downtown is a destination for employment, cultural, educational and transit-related uses. Downtown will continue to be a major employment center in the foreseeable future. Downtown streets should be dened by good urban design incorporating a sense of place and an acknowledgment of all the uses of the public right of way and not solely by the number of vehicles moving through them. Downtown streets are a vital focus of city life and must balance the needs of pedestrian, bicycles, transit and the automobile in creating a vibrant and attractive urban center. An abundance of people and activities is a fact of life in successful downtowns. Downtown streets must continue to accommodate a reasonable level of automobile and truck trafc and the existing street grid system is an effective way of distributing trafc throughout Downtown. Streets should be safe and easy for pedestrians to cross and should facilitate strong connections between Downtown and adjacent neighborhoods. Curbside parallel parking buffers pedestrians from vehicular trafc and facilitates economic activity. Retail and residential activity is essential to Downtowns economic vitality and adequate sidewalks are critical to retail and residential viability. Goal #6 The system Should incorporate existing corridors that have been enhanced for pedestrians, such as the 16th Street Mall and segments of California, Stout, Curtis, Larimer, Lawrence, Wynkoop and Wazee Streets.

PAGE 16

1 6 Transportation Recommendations Downtown Denver has a diverse mix of land uses, including 25.7 million square feet of ofce space, 2.6 million square feet of retail space, more than 6,300 housing units, 80 acres of parks and open space, and various cultural, sports and entertainment venues. Currently, 110,000 people are employed in the Downtown area.In 2025, Downtown employment is expected to reach 148,000, which represents a 31 percent increase over existing levels. The number of households is expected to grow to 22,800, which represents a 262 percent increase when compared to existing levels.As a result, the 2025 peak hour person trips into and out of Downtown are forecast to increase by 42 percent over existing trips. No single mode of travel will be able to accommodate this forecasted demand. Rather, the existing transportation facilities must be managed to maximize their efciency, and additional multimodal capacity should be added when needed. The challenge is to give appropriate weight to all modes of travel to ensure a balanced multimodal system. Within this framework, numerous transportation-related recommendations have been developed. Each recommendation is described in this plan. The technical analysis and background information that provides the basis for these recommendations are contained in separate technical memoranda available at the City and County of Denver web site. In addition, a set of innovative multimodal simulation models were created for study area transportation analysis. The VISUM and Technical Memoranda Supporting Recommendations: Existing Conditions Technical Memorandum Cordon Line Study Technical Memorandum HOT Lane Analysis Technical Memorandum Transit Alternatives Technical Memorandum Downtown Circulation Study Technical Memorandum Background Streetscape Technical Memorandum Framework Analysis Technical Memorandum Streetscape Standards Technical Memorandum No one mode of travel will be able to accommodate the forecasted demand for travel... Analytical Tools Supporting Recommendations: Downtown Synchro Model Downtown VISUM Model Downtown VISSIM Model

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17 VISSIM models are sensitive to pedestrian, transit, and vehicular interactions and include over 160 Downtown intersections. These models guided many of the plan recommendations and can be used as a tools for future Downtown multimodal analysis. Streets Into and Out of Downtown There are a total of 118 roadway lanes leading into and out of Downtown. The ability of these lanes to handle 2025 forecasted volumes was analyzed with buildout of the FasTracks improvements. The results indicate these lanes will be capable of accommodating future travel demand with only isolated problems. Consequently, no new general-purpose lanes are recommended for streets into and out of downtown. While widening is not proposed, operational changes that enhance capacity and improve trafc ow are encouraged. The Downtown grid system limits the amount of trafc that can use the existing 19th/20th High Occupancy Vehicle lanes. Any new high capacity vehicle access would have to be placed in another corridor such as Colfax, Speer, or Broadway. Connectivity, impacts to adjacent land uses, trafc operations, safety, and compatibility with neighborhood plans are but a few of the issues that would have to be addressed before any widening project could be initiated. inboundinboundoutboundoutboundWhile roadway widening is not proposed, operational changes that enhance capacity and improve trafc ow are encouraged...

PAGE 18

18 Streets Bordering Downtown Five streets form the general boundary for the Downtown core (20th, Broadway/Lincoln, Colfax, Speer and Wewatta). Because of the width of these streets and the volume of trafc they carry, these streets are perceived as barriers between Downtown and adjacent neighborhoods. This problem is compounded for Broadway/Lincoln and Colfax where the street grids clash creating large and sometimes confusing intersections for both pedestrians and motorists. The following recommendations are intended to either mitigate or eliminate these barriers. Broadway between 20th Street and Blake Street Add a raised median in Broadway to visually reduce the width of the street and to provide a pedestrian refuge area. Recongure the intersection of Broadway, 20th and Welton Recongure the intersection of Broadway, 21st and Champa/Stout. Colfax AvenueStreets on the edges of Downtown are perceived as barriers to the adjacent neighborhoods...

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19 Speer Boulevard between Colfax Avenue and Wewatta Street Provide a wide, inviting below grade pedestrian and bicycle crossing of southbound Speer Boulevard between Larimer and Lawrence. This would be an extension of the current below grade crossing of northbound Speer Boulevard at Creekfront Park. Wewatta Street between Speer Boulevard and 20th Street Extend 18th Street into the Central Platte Valley so there are multiple routes to access Downtown. It should be noted this recommendation is also included in the Denver Union Station Master Plan. 20th Street between Blake Street and Broadway Provide enhanced pedestrian facilities along Blake, Larimer and Arapahoe Streets linking the Curtis Park and Northeast/Ballpark neighborhoods to Downtown. Pedestrian Crossing Enhancements Enhance pedestrian crossings that link adjacent neighborhoods and major attractions to Downtown. Consider signal timing changes such as Barnes Dance, leading pedestrian interval, and countdown signals. It should be noted some of these signal recommendations would require additional trafc operations analysis. Consider design treatments such as high visibility crosswalk markings, advance stop lines, pavers, colored concrete, additional signage, and in-pavement or sign mounted ashers. Colfax Avenue between Broadway and Speer Boulevard Consider addition of a leading pedestrian interval phase to the trafc signal at both the Colfax and Lincoln and the Colfax and Broadway intersections. Recongure the intersection of Glenarm, 12th and Colfax. Recongure the intersection of Tremont, 13th and Colfax. It should be noted these recommendations are also included in the Civic Center District Master Plan.Broadway at 18th StreetIntersection concept for 13th/Tremont/Colfax/DelawareIntersection improvements and pedestrian crossing enhancements are needed to address the clash of the grid systems... Fiscal Note:Recommendations included in this study require further technical analysis. Implementation of recommendations will require funding that must be prioritized in conjunction with other City needs.

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20 Streets Within Downtown There are eight numbered streets (e.g. 14th, 15th, 16th) and 16 named streets (e.g. Larimer, Lawrence, Arapahoe) providing access to the Downtown land uses. The majority of these streets are designed for one-way trafc ow. Based on public input, various combinations of two-way trafc ow on both the named streets and the numbered streets were analyzed using sophisticated travel demand and trafc simulation tools. The results indicate the predominantly one-way circulation system should be maintained to efciently and effectively accommodate future vehicular travel demands. In addition, the results indicate that the numbered one-way streets and most of the named streets outside of Lower Downtown should maintain three lanes of travel (e.g. three general purpose lanes or two general purpose and one exclusive transit lane, etc). Streets that currently have four lanes of travel (e.g. Larimer), are candidates for narrowing to provide wider sidewalks. The right-of-way for most Downtown streets is 80 feet. Within this width, 32 feet is devoted to sidewalks, leaving a curb-to-curb width of 48 feet. This width is adequate to accommodate the three travel lanes and on-street parking, loading zones and turn lanes at select intersections. Typical section for streets within DowntownThe one-way street system will accommodate future vehicular travel demands...

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21 Transit With the completion of TREX and FasTracks, transit ridership is forecast to increase by 129 percent when compared to existing ridership. Much of this increased ridership will be destined for Denver Union Station. 2025 forecasts indicate that approximately 16,000 people will be traveling to Denver Union Station in the peak hour. Of these people, 39 percent will have destinations outside of Downtown and will transfer to other transit routes. The remaining 61 percent will have destinations within Downtown. The adjacent pie chart illustrates how the people with Downtown destinations will complete the last leg of their trip. Based on the demand for transit within downtown, a new shuttle system is needed to complement the 16th Street Mall shuttle and the local bus network. 16th Street Mall Shuttle280029%Walk390039%Local Bus5005%New Shuttle260026% A new circulator shuttle is needed to complement the 16th Street Mall Shuttle and local bus network...

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22 Typical section on 18th and 19th Streets The gure to the left shows the recommended route for the proposed Downtown Circulator. This route was chosen over numerous other routes for the following reasons: Two-way transit service on both 14th and 18th Streets causes numerous trafc operational problems and therefore is not viable. One-way shuttle service on 14th and 15th competes with the 16th Street Mall shuttle because of its close proximity. The 16th Street Mall shuttle has adequate capacity to serve both the 16th Street Mall and 14th Street markets. One-way shuttle service on 17th and 18th also competes with the 16th Street Mall. Placing the shuttle on 18th and 19th, however, starts to mitigate the overlap and would directly serve 55% of the employment in Downtown. The proposed route, in conjunction with the 16th Mall shuttle, can efciently serve major destinations, including Denver Union Station, the cross-mall light rail line, Civic Center Station and the Cultural Complex. The proposed Circulator route connects Denver Union Station, the cross-mall light rail, Civic Center Station, and the Cultural Comple x...

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23 As shown, the new shuttle will leave Denver Union Station and travel to 19th Street via Wynkoop Street in a general travel lane. Once on 19th Street the shuttle will proceed to Broadway in an exclusive transit lane. At Broadway, the shuttle will proceed south in a general travel lane to Colfax Avenue and then in the existing bus lane to a bus turn around area at 12th Avenue and Acoma Street. The shuttle will return to Denver Union Station via 12th Avenue to Lincoln and then Lincoln to 18th Street. The shuttle will be in a general travel lane on both 12th Avenue and Lincoln and then in an exclusive transit lane on 18th Street. The vehicles for this new route will have similar performance to the 16th Street Mall shuttle. Accordingly, the new shuttle will be capable of meeting the following performance criteria. High-amenity shuttle buses with low oors Capable of operating every 75 seconds Stops every 2 to 3 blocks Legible service that is easy to understand and use Travel times comparable to the 16th Street Mall shuttleIt should be emphasized the existing and proposed Downtown transit system has adequate capacity to meet the 2025 forecasted travel demands. The proposed shuttle route, however, does not preclude other at-grade or below-grade rail routes operating in Downtown beyond 2025, should they be needed. In fact, the exclusive shuttle lanes on 18th and 19th Streets could be converted to rail if Downtown service is expanded. Bicycles The Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 recommended the strategic placement of bicycle lanes on Downtown streets. The following list contains the principles contained in the Plan Update that guided the decision to stripe bicycle lanes on Downtown streets: The effort to place bicycle lanes on Downtown streets is in recognition of trafc conditions in the Downtown area; the predominantly one-way street system, the mix of vehicle types and double turn lanes which can be intimidating to many bicyclists; Bicycle lanes on Downtown streets can encourage bicycling for commuting and other transportation needs in the Downtown area; Better provision for bicycling on streets can serve to reduce unlawful bicycling on Downtown sidewalks which creates conicts with pedestrians; Bicycle lanes should not lead novice or family riders into unsafe conditions; and The bicycle lanes should create a system that provides circulation to and through Downtown and safe access from the Cherry Creek Trail, the Platte River Trail and the designated bicycle routes in the surrounding neighborhoods.The graphic at the right shows the recommended bicycle lanes and routes in Downtown Denver. All of the previously stated street and transit recommendations in this document maintain and The proposed bicycle system provides circulation to and through Downtown with safe connections to trails and neighborhoods...

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2 4 all sidewalks up to a consistent standard, it is recommended that all Downtown streets have a minimum of a 16-foot wide sidewalk on both sides. This recommendation meets criteria for pedestrian environments described in Denvers Pedestrian Master Plan. It also accommodates space for through-pedestrian circulation that is consistent with national pedestrian standards.The 16 feet is required to accommodate the four basic linear zones of an urban sidewalk. Starting at the building/property line, the zones are the merchant zone, the through pedestrian zone, the furnishing zone and the curb zone. The diagram below illustrates how these zones are arranged in a typical blockface. complement the Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 recommendations for Downtown. The bike lanes on 18th and 19th Streets will be incorporated into the shuttle lanes. This treatment is preferable to a typical 12 shared bike and transit lanes since the 15-16 width will be able to accommodate a dedicated bike lane. In addition, a new connection should be considered between the bike lanes on 18th and 19th Streets and Sherman Street, which serves as a distributor for the 16th, 19th, and 20th Avenue bike routes. Pedestrians There are several streets in Downtown Denver that have been enhanced for pedestrians. Unfortunately, they are scattered and do not form a complete and coherent system. In order to bring Cyclist on the Cherry Creek TrailDowntown streets should have a minimum of a 16-foot sidewalk on both sides...

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25 The Merchant Zone is where the adjacent building or private property meets the public sidewalk. This zone is typically 2.5 feet wide. The Through Pedestrian Zone is the primary functional area of the sidewalk for the safe passage of pedestrians along the street edge. This zone for Downtown Denver should be 7.5 feet. The Furnishing Zone locates all of the apparatus necessary for the function of the street for all modes. This zone is typically 5 feet wide. The Curb Zone establishes a safety clearance for vertical objects from moving vehicles in the roadway. It also provides an open area for passengers to get out of vehicles or deliveries to be unloaded. This zone commonly is 1 foot wide.Additional design recommendations for the pedestrian environment are included in the Streetscape Design Guidelines, which were prepared in concert with this plan.

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2 6 Implementation Plan visions are just that a collective picture of a more desirable future. There are few, if any, circumstances in the complex milieu of cities in which the planning, design, ownership, nancing and political resources align to implement a plans visions and goals quickly and simultaneously. As a result, by necessity, plans are implemented incrementally with the vision and goals providing common direction to the multitude of public and private undertakings. Part of the City process is to evaluate each of these large and small, public and private undertakings in light of the plans vision and goals, the current situation, and the available resources. Despite this imperfect situation, plans have proven to have substantial inuence on the future direction of a plan area over a period of ve, 10 or 20 years.Blueprint Denver identies three categories of implementation strategies: regulatory, infrastructure, and partnerships. The Regulatory category includes ordinances promulgated by City Council and rules and regulations adopted by City agencies. Infrastructure strategies are based on funding through capital improvements and other public and private investment. Partnerships are those areas where city government cannot or should not act unilaterally. Instead, community organizations, businesses or individual citizens partner with government agencies to achieve the goals and recommendations. For DMAP, early action items were identied that follow the above implementation strategies. These action items were categorized by where they fall within the overall implementation process. Construction 1. New Circulator Shuttle All of the FasTracks projects are expected to be complete by the year 2016. The timeline on the next page shows the sequence of transit related improvements. Based on ridership forecasts, the new Downtown circulator shuttle must be operational by 2013. This infrastructure project will include an exclusive concrete lane on both 18th and 19th Streets, shuttle stop improvements, bus turn-around at 12th Avenue and Acoma Street and Denver Union Station, and acquisition of the buses. The implementation of this project will require a close working relationship between various city departments, affected neighborhoods, and the Regional Transportation District. Design 2. 14th Street Streetscape Design Project There are a number of developments proposed along 14th Street. The Downtown Denver Business Improvement District is supporting the implementation of streetscape related improvements to unify the street. The basis for any recommended improvements should be the DMAP and the companion Streetscape Plan. The new Circulator Shuttle is needed by 2013The Streetscape Plan applies throughout Downtown

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27 3. Colfax Avenue/12th Street and Colfax Avenue/13th Street Intersection Improvements The Justice Center project has budgeted funds for select improvements to Colfax Avenue. Both intersections should be improved to meet the goals of both the DMAP and the Civic Center District Master Plan. 4. Streetscape Design Guidelines These guidelines will ensure a higher, consistent level of pedestrian environment on all Downtown streets and vibrant pedestrian and transit public spaces, in balance with the vehicular and parking needs. The Streetscape Design Guidelines should be used as a City review document to inuence future public and private projects as they are undertaken. This document was developed concurrently with and in the overall context of the DMAP process. Plans 5. Civic Center Station Plan The Civic Center District Plan recommends master planning for the Civic Center Station as an enhanced multimodal connection point. This effort would complement the Denver Union Station Master Plan and dene the vision for a secondary transit hub downtown, providing for enhanced connections to the east and the south. 14th Street streetscape im-provements will continue as redevelopment progressesA Civic Center Station Plan will incorporate enhanced connections to the east and south Fiscal Note:The early action items listed here are intended to provide priority with respect to the recommendations of this plan. The actual funding amount and timing will be accomplished through the Citys capital funding prioritization process, which considers all of the Citys capital needs and any external funding sources.

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28 Downtown Implementation Timeline 2006200720132014

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29 20152016-172025