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Denver Union Station master plan supplement

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Title:
Denver Union Station master plan supplement
Creator:
Denver Union Station Executive Oversight Committee
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
Denver Union Station Executive Oversight Committee
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Language:
English

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Subjects / Keywords:
Union Station (Denver, Colo.)
Historic preservation
Public transit
Railroad stations

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Auraria Library
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Auraria Library
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Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
FINAL JUNE 30, 2008


DENVER UNION
STATION


Dear Fellow Citizens and Interested Readers:
The Denver Union Station Executive Oversight
Committee is proud to present the Denver Union
Station Master Plan Supplement. This document
has been developed with the help of the community,
te Union Station Advisory Committee, and the
partner agencies (City and County of Denver,
Colorado Department of Transportation, Denver
Regional Council of Governments, and the Regional
Transportation District) that have been involved in
the Denver Union Station process over the last four
years since the 2004 Master Plan. Their continued
support of this project and their time commitment has
been essential to the development of this supplement.
All four agencies adopted the plan supplement during
the Spring of 2008.
The original vision for Denver Union Station has
been maintained and strengthened in this supplement.
The station will be "a multimodal transportation hub
of international signi^.cance, and a prominent and
distinctive gateway to Downtown and Denver and
the region.The Master Plan supplement increases
the reach of the station by creating a transit district
around the station so that the inAience of the station
is more than just the 19.5 acre $ite.
Dcnver Union Station is a unique project that will
bring together many different transportation modes
along with new private development to create a truly
special place in Denver that connects the city, region
and state in one central location. The historic Denver
Union Station building will be the focal point of the
project, will be rehabilitated and give new life to the
transportation hub.
Clarence W. Marselta
General Manager
Regional Transportation District
Peter I*
Manager, Community Planning and Development
City and County of Denver
Colorado Department of Transportation Denver Regional Council of Governments
3
This Master Plan Supplement turns the page to the
next generation of transportation at Denver Union
Station. It gives a clear and implcmentable road map
for how the transportation components should be
organized and how the overall transit district should
be developed to create a truly exciting destination in
Denver and a regional transportation hub that will
increase mobility, boost the economy, and provide
easy connections to the entire slate.
MASTER PLAN
SUPPLEMENT


DENVER UNION
STATION


Denver Union Station Master Plan Supplement
Table of Contents
I. Executive Summary...............................6
II. Introduction..................................13
A. Denver Union Station Master Plan (2004).......14
1 Why Union Station?..........................15
2.Why is a Supplement Needed?.................15
Denver Union Station Related Studies......15
Denver Union Station Events and Studies...16
B. Vision and Goals..............................18
1. Transportation/Multimodal Center..........18
2. Urban Design and Neighborhood Integration.18
3. Historic Preservation.....................19
4 Development Feasibility...................19
5. Implementation and Governance.............19
6. Sustainability............................19
C. Benefits and Expectations for the Transit
District.......................................19
III. The Multimodal Transportation Program........21
A. Transit District Plan and Transportation
Elements.......................................24
1. Passenger Rail............................24
2. Light Rail Transit........................25
3. RTD Express and Regional Bus..............26
4. RTD Local Bus.............................26
5. 16th Street Mall Shuttle and Downtown
Circulator.................................26
6. Commercial Bus and Private Carrier........27
7. Public Parking............................27
B. Transportation Program Phasing, Costs, and
Funding.......................................28
C. Circulation...................................28
1. Pedestrian Connections....................28
2. Bicycle Connections.......................30
3. Private and Service Vehicles..............31
IV. The Development Program.......................33
A. Neighborhood Context..........................34
1. Lower Downtown............................34
2. Commons Neighborhood......................34
B. Private Development at Denver Union Station....35
C. Historic Station Building.....................35
D. Public Spaces.................................35
1. Wynkoop Plaza.............................37
2. 17th Street Promenade.....................37
3. 18th and Wewatta Plaza....................38
4. Pedestrian Deck over Passenger Rail.......38
5. The Outdoor Train Room....................38
E. Principles of Urban Form......................38
1. Public Space..............................38
2. Pedestrians...............................38
3. Bicycles..................................39
4. Vehicle Access and Parking................39
5. Multimodal Connections....................39
6. Building Form and Placement...............39
7. Historic Preservation.....................39
8. Sustainability............................39
F. Regulatory Framework for Denver Union
Station.......................................39
1. Zoning....................................40
2. Landmark Designation......................41
3. General Development Plan..................42
4. Design Standards and Guidelines...........42
5. Design Review Process.....................42
6. Governance................................43
5
V. Sustainability as an Overarching
Principle....................................47
1. Colorado Department of Transportation....48
2. City and County of Denver................48
3. Regional Transportation District.........49
4. Denver Regional Council of Governments..49
MASTER PLAN
SUPPLEMENT


6
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Vision Statement
Denver Union Station will be a multimodal
transportation hub of international significance and
a prominent and distinctive gateway to downtown
Denver and the region.
Denver Union Station (DUS) will bring critical
elements ofpublic and private local, regional,
statewide, and national transportation systems,
existing and planned, together with private
development and inspiring civic features.
Denver Union Station will create an exciting
setting that will improve the connections between
all transportation modes, respect the character
and historical significance of the station and its
adjacent neighborhoods, and provide a stimulating
environment for public activity and economic
vitality.
Vision Statement for Denver Union Station,
developed by the Executive Oversight
Committee and the Union Station Advisory
Committee, 2002
The Denver Union Station Vision Statement since
2002 has guided the planning process for the rebirth
of the historic Denver Union Station as a regional
and statewide multimodal transportation center. The
vision statement articulates the partner agencies and
communitys high aspirations for the redevelopment
of the station. Planning efforts have seen significant
progress since the Regional Transportation District
(RTD) with assistance from the partner agencies
purchased the 19.5 acre Denver Union Station site
in 2001. These efforts also have had to respond to
changes in assumptions related to the FasTracks
corridors, agency requirements, and funding realities.
This Denver Union Master Plan Supplement
DENVER UNION
STATION
(Supplement) reviews the accomplishments since
adoption of the 2004 Master Plan, describes a
new element, the Denver Union Station Transit
District, and includes updated information about the
transportation and private development components.
The Supplement adjusts the Master Plan vision
and set of expectations and how they will be
accomplished. The significant changes between
the 2004 Master Plan and the Supplement are: the
reorganization of the transportation elements, the
updated transportation program, and the addition of
the Transit District to the overall plan. The majority
of elements featured in the 2004 Master Plan remain
intact and are not repeated in the Supplement. The
accomplishments and additions discussed in the
Supplement were possible as a result of extensive
community involvement.
It is important to understand terms related to partner
agencies and organizations used in the Supplement.
The Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) refers
to the formal entity formed by the partner agencies
in 2001 through an intergovernmental agreement
between the Regional Transportation District (RTD),
the City and County of Denver (CCD), the Colorado
Department of Transportation (CDOT), and the
Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG)
to pursue a common interest in Denver Union Station.
The Historic Station refers to the Denver Union
Station Terminal Building, and includes the existing
Train Room and wings as they exist today.
Architectural concept of the outdooor Train Room above the Passenger Rail station


The acronym DUS and the term site refer
to the Denver Union Station site, which is the
19.5 acres encompassing most of the area from
Wynkoop to Wewatta streets and 15th to 20th
streets, including the Historic Station. This is the
area RTD purchased in 2001, and it is the only
property included in the 2004 Master Plan.
The Transit District is geographically defined
as the area from Wynkoop Street to the
Consolidated Main Line (CML) railroad tracks,
and from 16th to 18th streets, also extending
south and north to include the areas between
15th and 20th streets from the track side of the
Historic Station to Wewatta Street. The Transit
District includes Denver Union Station and some
of the surrounding property involved in the master
planning efforts documented in this Supplement.
The Transit District encompasses the set of public
and private improvements within the Transit
District that are presented in the Supplement. These
transportation, public space, and private development
improvements will make Denver Union Station
into the multimodal transportation hub of regional
Denver Union Station Transit District
significance that was envisioned in 2002. The 2004
Master Plan and the Supplement will be used to guide
decisions on how to incorporate future transportation
elements the Transit District.
Elements of the Transit District
Historic Station
The Historic Station, the symbol of the project, will
be the heart and soul of the Transit District. The
exterior and interior of the Historic Station will be
restored and rehabilitated to its historic prominence
as a major transportation gateway to Denver. The
interior Train Room will connect the east and west
sides of the site and serve as a passenger waiting
area. The plan envisions that the Historic Station
will provide space for transportation and regional
information, ticketing, rental car and airline counters,
retail shops, the stationmasters office, and public
uses. The north and south wings will be used for
transportation support functions, such as baggage
and check-in facilities, and for retail, restaurant, and
office uses, much as they have been in the past.
Passenger Rail
Passenger rail includes both RTD regional passenger
rail services and intercity heavy rail, such as Amtrak
and Ski Train. The passenger rail facility will be
located at-grade, adjacent to the Wewatta Street
side of the Historic Station. The facility includes
eight passenger rail tracks, plus a storage track
for Amtrak and four passenger platforms and one
service platform. The facility will accommodate RTD
commuter rail, Amtrak, and the Ski Train, and will
provide surplus capacity for future service or special
trains. Platforms will be accessed several ways:
at-grade from 16th Street, below grade from the
Regional Bus Facility, or above from the pedestrian
deck adjacent to the buildings along 18th Street.
Track 1, which will be closest to the Historic Station,
MASTER PLAN
SUPPLEMENT


8
will accommodate the East Corridor Line to Denver
International Airport (DIA), and will be accessed
directly from the station.
Light Rail
The light rail station will be located at-grade adjacent
to the Consolidated Main Line and will be aligned
with the terminus of 17th Street. The light rail station
will have two tracks and platforms, with space to add
one more track and platform when needed. All trains
will arrive from and depart to the south. Arriving
passengers will have a clear view of the Historic
Station as an immediate orienting feature and will
have easy access to the Mall Shuttle and Downtown
Circulator for connections to the Historic Station or
downtown destinations.
RTD Regional Bus Facility
The Regional Bus Facility, which will replace RTDs
Market Street Station, will be located under 17th
Street between the light rail station and the Historic
Station. The facility will provide 22 bus bays serving
RTD regional and express buses, the Downtown
Circulator, and commercial buses. The facility will
be climate-controlled and will connect pedestrians
on moving walkways between the light rail platforms
and the Historic Station and the passenger rail
platforms.
16th Street Mall Shuttle and the Downtown
Circulator
The 16th Street Mall Shuttle and the Downtown
Circulator will provide the main distribution means
for passengers to and from downtown. The Mall
Shuttle will be extended to provide a convenient
connection adjacent to the light rail station,
passenger-rail platforms, and the Historic Station.
The Downtown Circulator will use 18th Street
to access the Regional Bus Facility and connect
the Transit District with the rest of downtown.
Downtown Circulator stops will be provided at
each end of the Regional Bus Facility to provide
convenient access to and from light rail and
passenger rail.
Public Space
The primary public spaces for the Transit District
are Wynkoop Plaza, located on the east side of the
Historic Station, and the 17th Street Promenade on
the west.
Wynkoop Plaza will be used as circulation space,
outdoor eating and vending, and as a gathering
space for small groups or events. This public space
will provide views of the Historic Station facade as
well as the facades of the historic structures across
Wynkoop Street. It will enhance the Historic Stations
setting, and create a vibrant and attractive pedestrian
amenity that links the Historic Station and Transit
District with the Lower Downtown Historic District
(LoDo). To ensure that Wynkoop Plaza becomes a
lively public space, it will have active uses along the
plaza edges, along 16th and 18th streets, and within
the plaza itself.
The major public circulation space will be along the
17th Street Promenade. As the spine of the Transit
District, the 17th Street Promenade provides a visual
and physical connection between the Historic Station,
major buildings, and all the major transportation
modes. The promenade will be a busy circulation
space, providing opportunities for small retail shops,
cafes, and transportation services. Spaces along the
Major Transportation Components of the Denver Union Station Transit District
DENVER UNION
STATION


promenade will be designed at appropriate scales
and will provide interesting elements for pedestrians
making transit connections or traversing the site.
The 17th Street Promenade will be anchored by
two plazas-one just to the west of the passenger rail
platforms, and the other just east of the light rail
platforms-both with connections to the Regional Bus
Facility.
The deck above the passenger-rail area, another
important public space, will be used as a transfer area
for pedestrians making key connections to passenger
rail, Wewatta Street, and parking.
A large public space in front of the Light Rail Station
at the terminus of 17th Street will provide an area for
passengers to make connections from light rail to the
Mall Shuttle and the Downtown Circulator.
Another smaller public space will be provided at the
northeast comer of 18th and Wewatta streets. This
smaller plaza will be the counterpart to a new plaza
that will be developed on the opposite comer of the
intersection. It also will provide the main access for
pedestrians over the passenger rail tracks from 18th
Street, and will serve as the main connection to the
public parking structure from the west side of Denver
Union Station.
Private Development
There are six development parcels on the Denver
Union Station site. The intent of the Transit District
is to accommodate a dynamic and complementary
mix of residential and commercial uses in buildings
of the highest quality. The Transit District will
include buildings with active ground floor uses
fronting Wynkoop, Wewatta, and 16th, 17th, and
18th streets. The Transit District Plan reinforces
the architectural character and scale of the Historic
Station and provides an area of transition in urban
design from LoDo to the Commons Neighborhood.
For example, the site zoning allows for varying
amounts of development under different height limits
and setbacks.
Pedestrian Circulation and Connection
The 17th Street Promenade is the Transit Districts
primary orienting and connecting spine. At street
level, the 160-foot-wide boulevard provides a
clear connection between the Historic Station and
passenger rail, regional bus, and light rail services.
The Regional Bus Facility will be located beneath
the 17th Street Promenade, providing the choice of
an open-air stroll along the Promenade or a weather-
protected connection with moving walkways below
street level. The Promenade also includes escalators
and elevators for vertical circulation from the bus
concourse to all the street-level amenities, including
connections to rail services, taxis, limousines, and
shuttles.
Simple-to-navigate pedestrian routes connect the site
internally and with the surrounding neighborhoods,
featuring safe and comfortable pedestrian street
crossings within and at the perimeter of the Transit
District. Careful consideration of pedestrian safety
will be needed at the intersection of Wewatta and
17th streets, near the train shed and the below-grade
bus facility, because of the especially high volume
of people and vehicles. Pedestrians will access the
site at 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th, Wynkoop, and Wewatta
streets. The 16th Street corridor is now connected to
the Highland neighborhood via three pedestrian/bike
bridges over the Consolidated Main Line, the South
Platte River, and Interstate-25 (1-25).
Bicycles
The Transit District maintains the areas bicycle
access to and from the regional and local bike trail
system, and provides bicycle access to the at-grade
light rail and passenger rail platforms, as well as
convenient access to the Regional Bus Facility.
9
The plan will improve bicycle flow between the
Millennium Bridge and Wynkoop Street. Ample
bicycle racks and lockers, situated at key locations,
will be provided to encourage people to arrive at the
site on bicycles but also to dismount before entering
areas congested with pedestrians. Though the Transit
District does not identify a location for a bike station
where bicyclists could service their bikes, one is
envisioned in the Historic Train Building, on the
right-of-way, or elsewhere within the footprint of
the Transit District. Like pedestrians, bicyclists can
access the site on the street network at 16th, 17th,
18th, 19th, Wynkoop (dedicated lanes), and Wewatta
streets, as well by the new bridges connecting 16th
Street to the Highland neighborhood. A future
bicycle connection is planned at 18th Street, over the
Consolidated Main Line.
Automobile Access and Parking
Automobile access within the Transit District will be
provided on Wynkoop, 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th, and
Wewatta streets and Chestnut Place. Expansion of
16th Street will allow for through movements of the
Mall Shuttle and new general purpose lanes that will
improve connections to LoDo and the Commons
Neighborhood, and will provide local traffic access
to Denver Union Station. Primary drop-off zones for
taxis, limousines, and private vehicles will be along
Wynkoop and Wewatta Streets.
This Supplement outlines the parking needed for
on-site private development uses, as well as some
additional public parking. Each private development
building will provide its own parking. However,
because the passenger rail runs beneath the building
on 18th and Wewatta streets, some of that buildings
parking will be located in a structure between 18th
and 19th streets. The market rate public parking
also will occupy approximately 150 spaces in that
structure.
MASTER PLAN
SUPPLEMENT


Sustainability
In the few years since the adoption of the
2004 Master Plan, global events have focused
significant attention on environmental
sustainability. It is anticipated that sustainable
technology will improve markedly in the near
future. The Supplement documents the current
goals and policies of each of the partner agencies
as aspirations for the design and construction of
the Transit District.
Project Costs and Funding Sources
The partner agencies have identified funding
sources for up to $477 million in RTD, federal,
and local dollars to construct the public elements
of the Transit District. This matches the most
recent cost estimate, and has given the partner
agencies and Master Developer the confidence to
move forward with the final design and approval
processes.
if I.
j
Denver Union Station Transit District
Benefits
The Transit District will accommodate light rail,
passenger rail, and regional bus, as well as other
public and private transportation services. The
layout of the transportation components, public
space, and development components creates clear
and intuitive routes for pedestrians walking from
one mode to another or from one destination
to another. Perhaps most important, all of the
transportation elements can be constructed at
the same time, before the FasTracks stations
become operable. This single phase of construction
also allows for immediate public space construction
and eliminates barriers to private development, such
as the prospect of future underground construction
activity. Benefits of the Transit District will be
realized throughout the city, metropolitan region, and
Outdoor Train Room from the end of the passenger rail platforms
state. The transportation hub will promote economic
vitality by providing better access to housing, jobs,
and commerce, and by improving connections for
business, education, recreation, tourism, and services.
Connections within the Transit District also will help
people who are young, elderly, or disabled access
transportation more independently.


11
MASTER PLAN
SUPPLEMENT




Introduction


14
DENVER UNION
STATION
An illustration of the Denver Union Station Transit District, submitted by the Union Station Neighborhood
Company, renders a vision for public and private site improvements
INTRODUCTION
The purpose of the Denver Union Station Master Plan
Supplement is to update the 2004 Master Plan by:
Reviewing the accomplishments of related
planning efforts since adoption of the 2004
Master Plan;
Reiterating the major elements of the 2004
Master Plan that have not changed;
Describing the Denver Union Station Transit
District; and
Updating the transportation and development
programs.
Denver Union Station Master Plan (2004)
The Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) was
formed in 2001 through an intergovernmental
agreement between the Regional Transportation
District (RTD), the City and County of Denver
(CCD), the Colorado Department of Transportation
(CDOT), and the Denver Regional Council of
Governments (DRCOG) to pursue a common interest
in Denver Union Station (DUS). After RTD with
assistance from the partner agencies purchased
Denver Union Station in 2001, RTD, CCD,
CDOT, and DRCOG jointly initiated the Denver
Dcnvi.r Union Station Mr -
2004 Denver Union Station Master Plan
Union Station Master Plan process. With extensive
community involvement, the Executive Oversight
Committee created a vision to guide redevelopment
and serve as the basis for preparing the environmental
impact statement (EIS), zoning the property,
achieving historic landmark designation, and other
future implementation actions.
In September 2004, the four partner agencies adopted
the Master Plan vision, framework, and practical
guidelines to transform the Historic Station and
the 19.5-acre site into a multimodal transportation
center serving the Denver region and the state
of Colorado. The multimodal concept intended
to bring together many means of transportation
in one place with logical, safe, and convenient
transfers. It was anticipated that the concurrent
design and construction of the sites transportation
and development elements would provide mutual
advantages and efficiencies.
The 2004 Master Plan detailed the benefits and
complexities of combining all of the regions ground
transportation modes at one hub. It created the
opportunity for Denver Union Station to enhance
the value of local, metropolitan region, state, and
federal investments in highways, high-occupancy
vehicle (HOV) lanes, light rail, passenger rail, buses,
parking, bike paths, and pedestrian networks. The


multimodal hub concept also allowed for expanding
the transportation network statewide through private
bus and rental car services and internationally by
linking to Denver International Airport (DIA). The
2004 Master Plan envisioned restoring Denver
Union Station as a gateway to downtown Denver, the
metropolitan region, and the state of Colorado.
Why Denver Union Station?
Denver is the primary intersection of transportation
modes and corridors serving the region and the state.
State and regional road and rail networks, interstate
highways, light rail, and bike paths all converge
in or near Downtown Denver. The city and its
transportation infrastructure create the gateway to
the metro region, the state, and the Rocky Mountain
West.
In the 1980s, as the Denver region studied light rail
and passenger rail, planners identified the need for a
central point of connection. The best location for this
hub soon came into focus: Denver Union Station.
Located in the states geographic heart and its capitol
city, as well as its busiest downtown, Denver Union
Station enjoys:
existing rail lines that allow easy access for new
lines,
convenient highway connections,
a Historic Station building prime for more active
use,
adjacent sites for complementary transit-
supportive development,
a central location near the regions major
entertainment venues and densest employment
center,
a location within a highly walkable downtown,
and
proximity to an extensive bicycle network,
including the South Platte River Greenway and
Cherry Creek bike path systems.
Through extensive study, planning, design, and public
feedback gathered during the 2004 Master Plan
preparation process, the Denver Union Station site
was confirmed as the best location for a multimodal
facility that takes advantage of its geography and
transportation infrastructure.
Why is a Supplement Needed?
While much of the 2004 Master Plan remains
relevant, subsequent events and studies related to
the Denver Union Station site indicated the need to
update information about the proposed treatment of
various transportation and development elements and
to extend the geographic scope of the plan to include
the areas along 17th Street to the Consolidated Main
Line.
Denver Union Station Related Studies
Colorado Department of Transportation
Studies
1-25 HOT Lanes: CDOT and the Colorado Tolling
Enterprise (CTE) changed the operations of the 1-25
HOV lanes to high-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes on
June 1, 2006. The change allows single occupant
vehicles (SOVs) to use the HOV lanes for a fee.
Existing users, including carpools, vanpools, and
buses, continue to use the facility free of charge. As
a result of the conversion from HOV to HOT lanes,
these lanes, which end at 19th Street, now potentially
carry more traffic, which could increase travel time
and the number of visitors to Denver Union Station.
Public Benefits and Costs Study: Front Range rail
passenger service is dependent on the relocation
of north/south through-freight-rail movements
out of the Denver metro area. CDOT completed
a Public Benefits and Costs Study in May 2005,
which explored opportunities to relocate freight
operations so Denver Union Station could become
more accessible for future passengers. The study
15
considered an Eastern Plains bypass rail line for
Wyoming-to-Texas coal traffic, and found a wide
range of public benefits, as well as private benefits for
the Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad and the
Union Pacific Railroad. These benefits included the
opportunity to use the current Front Range rail line
for future passenger services.
Colorado Railroad Relocation Implementation Study:
In 2007, CDOT began a follow-up study, currently
underway, to better understand the steps needed to
form partnerships, define a project scope, and identity
possible funding and financing for relocating railroad
lines. The study also is assessing how to secure
environmental clearances to relocate significant
freight rail movements away from the congested
communities along the Front Range.
Rocky Mountain Rail Authority: In 2007, CDOT
awarded funds to the Rocky Mountain Rail Authority
(RMRA), an intergovernmental authority created to
conduct a high-speed passenger rail feasibility study
for the 1-25 and Interstate-70 (1-70) corridors. The
high-speed rail feasibility study is analyzing how
a new rail service would interface with the Transit
District.
Downtown Multimodal Access Plan (DMAP)
The CCD, working with RTD and CDOT, adopted
the Downtown Multimodal Access Plan (DMAP) in
December 2005. This plan identifies improvements
needed for the downtown Denver transportation
system to complement FasTracks. Among other
recommendations, DMAP highlights the need for
a Downtown Circulator on 18th and 19th streets
to supplement the 16th Street Mall Shuttle and
improve the movement of people between Denver
Union Station, employment concentrations in mid-
downtown, and the Civic Center.
MASTER PLAN
SUPPLEMENT


16
Downtown Area Plan
In 2006, the Downtown Denver Partnership and the
CCD initiated a new Downtown Area Plan process
to replace the highly successful 1986 Downtown
Area Plan. This most recent Downtown Area Plan
was adopted in July 2007. Recommendations
include refurbishing the 16th Street Mall, focusing
more attention on the named streets as important
connectors across downtown, capitalizing on
the Downtown Circulator as an important public
investment in the heart of downtown, and adding
more jobs, residents, retail, and visitors to downtown.
The plan recognizes the importance of Denver Union
Station as the regional transit hub, and advocates for
developing it consistent with the vision, goals, and
principles of the 2004 Master Plan.
FasTracks Corridor Environmental Studies
All of the FasTracks corridors are in various stages
of planning and completing environmental impact
studies. As project plans have developed, some
aspects of the 2004 FasTracks Plan, such as refined
alignments, station locations, and in some cases
modes, have changed in some corridors. The most
significant change for the Transit District was
establishing the Gold Line as commuter rail, rather
than light rail. These proposed improvements were
described and evaluated in the Denver Union Station
Draft Environmental Impact Statement (Draft EIS).
Sustainability
Since adoption of the 2004 Master Plan, each of
the partner agencies has adopted or updated their
sustainability goals. Though these goals are not
requirements, they will serve as aspirations for the
design and construction of the Transit District.
Denver Union Station Events and Studies
Executive Oversight Committee
Since adoption of the 2004 Master Plan, the EOC,
DENVER UNION
STATION
FasTracks Corridor Plan
the EOC has continued to seek and secure funding
to monitor refinements to the transportation program
and the environmental impact assessment process,
and to oversee public involvement and developer
solicitation processes. These efforts have provided
new information, which has changed the assumptions
for the Master Plan Supplement.
FasTracks
In November 2004, the Denver metro regions voters
approved a sales tax increase to fund the FasTracks
regional transit plan. FasTracks provided part of the
funding required to constmct the public elements
of the 2004 Master Planspecifically funding for
construction of transit improvements that would
make Denver Union Station function as a regional
multimodal transportation hub.
_ Jl'id jR^.r5T: d£W__
BP PS
Project for Public Spaces 2005 Wynkoop Plaza Report
The Rebirth of Union Station: A Vision for the
Plaza
Following adoption of the 2004 Master Plan,
rezoning the site for transit mixed-use (T-MU-30)
development, and achieving landmark designation
for the Historic Station and its environs, a consortium
including CCD and Friends of Union Station
contracted with Project for Public Spaces, Inc. (PPS)
and Civic Results to undertake a public process to
explore potential uses of Wynkoop Plaza. PPS led
a public workshop in April 2005 to elicit ideas for
a vibrant and attractive new public space that also
supports the practical functions of the transportation
facility and planned development, as laid out in the
2004 Master Plan. The PPS report, The Rebirth of
Union Station: A Vision for the Plaza, was released
in August 2005.
A summary statement in the report suggests the
potential of the Denver Union Station Plaza to:


attract a wide range of users, from commuters
and visitors to families with children, with an ever-
changing cavalcade of events and activities, in a
space designed to be adaptable, green and shady.
Workshop participants envisioned a place where
people can retreat, meet friends, eat a take-out lunch,
or read a book while waiting for a train, as well
as a place with more active uses such as markets,
fairs, performances, and sport-related activities.
The buildings surrounding the plaza should provide
an active edge a frontporch with uses that spill
out into the plaza -from which diners and shoppers
can observe and participate in the life of the plaza.
The plaza space should feel like it extends across
Wynkoop Street and, on weekends or for special
events, the street could even be closed to traffic.
17
Master Developer Selection
Early on, the Executive Oversight Committee
recognized that the 2004 Master Plan was a long-
term effort that would take many years to implement
fully. The EOC engaged a private development
entity to reduce the implementation time for
transportation elements and to help fund the effort.
The EOC also recognized the benefit of including a
private developer in the process as important design
decisions were made.
.0H STATION
" NEIGHBORHOOD^.
* CQNTINIUM EAST WEST ~ PARTNERSHIP
In November 2006, after an extensive solicitation
process, Continuum Partners, LLC, East-West
Partners, and their development team were selected
as the Master Developer to begin exclusive
negotiations with the Executive Oversight
Committee. The EOC made this selection because
the Continuum/East-West proposal outlined a way
to accomplish the transportation and development
goals of the 2004 Master Plan in a single phase, using
the concept of a Transit District. The Transit District
concept also enabled development to begin sooner,
resulting in a viable transportation and development
asset much earlier than expected with the 2004
Master Plan. Continuum and East West formed the
Union Station Neighborhood Company (USNC) to
undertake the design, construction, and development
of Denver Union Station and the Transit District.
USNC entered into a letter of intent agreement with
the EOC outlining specific commitments to construct
the transportation components by late 2012.
MASTER PLAN
SUPPLEMENT


Letter of Intent
In January 2008, the EOC and USNC entered into
a Letter of Intent (LOI) agreement that outlines the
responsibilities and arrangements for the partner
agencies and Master Developer. The LOI allows the
Master Developer to proceed with the contract and
design work needed to build the project. The major
elements covered in the LOI include:
A definition of deadlines and deliverables for a
30 percent design package.
A description of the required elements of a
design-build contract, including provisions
for development of transit and other public
improvements, such as plazas, walkways,
pedestrian connections, and renovation of the
Historic Station.
A determination of appropriate master developer
fees and a payment schedule.
Timelines for the appraisals and sale of surplus
Denver Union Station land, and Market Street
Station and subsequent construction timelines.
A statement that architectural design and public
spaces for this important project will include
finishes commensurate with the expectations of
the partner agencies and the community.
Expectations for the renovation of the Historic
Station.
Next steps for
-completing the final environmental impact
statement (FEIS);
-establishing legal structures for issuing debt and
executing and managing the design-build
contract;
-determining agreements for creating a
Downtown Development Authority, a structure
for use and ownership of the Historic Station,
formal development agreements, and bond
documentation.
Vision and Goals
The 2004 Master Plan Vision and Goals statements
were created to guide the future redevelopment
of Denver Union Station. These statements were
prepared jointly by the Executive Oversight
Committee, the Union Station Advisory Committee,
and the Technical Advisory Committee. The
vision and goals remain valid for this Master Plan
Supplement and are reiterated here exactly as they
appear in the original 2004 Master Plan.
Denver Union Station Vision Statement
Denver Union Station will be a multimodal
transportation hub of international significance and
a prominent and distinctive gateway to downtown
Denver and the region.
Denver Union Station will bring critical elements
of the public and private local, regional, statewide,
and national transportation systems, both existing
and future, together with private development and
inspiring civic features.
Denver Union Station will create an exciting
setting that will improve the connections between
all transportation modes, respect the character
and historical significance of the station and its
adjacent neighborhoods, and provide a stimulating
environment for public activity and economic vitality.
Denver Union Station Goals Statement
Transportation/Multimodal Center
Develop a public transportation facility that will:
Serve as the hub of the regional transportation
system.
Ensure that all modes function together to
optimize efficiency for each mode and the whole
system.
Provide connections for all transportation modes
into and throughout the Denver region.
Increase transit ridership and use of other
forms of public and private transportation and
alternative transportation modes.
Provide more ground transportation options.
Accommodate all ground passenger modes, both
public and private, to the greatest extent feasible
on the site.
Create a system of orientation and transfer
between transportation modes that allows for
simple and efficient connections for travelers.
Support the regions major activity centers
and destinations by providing easy access and
seamless connections.
Provide transportation options and uses that are
consistent with the Metro Vision Plan.
Provide the opportunity for connections to and
between local, regional, statewide, and national
transportation systems and networks.
Urban Design and Neighborhood Integration
Develop a plan with pedestrian-friendly urban
design elements that:
Ensure the mass, scale, orientation, and
architecture of the redeveloped Denver Union
Station site and private development are
harmonious with the Historic Station and the
surrounding neighborhoods.
Encourage a mix of land uses on the site that
creates appropriate densities of development
compatible with neighborhood plans and
concepts.
Connect downtown, the Central Platte Valley,
and the adjacent neighborhoods, emphasizing
pedestrian and bicycle connections to and
through the development, easy access to
transportation, and an active, attractive
environment.
Create a positive user experience for the Denver
Union Station multimodal transportation center
and related on-site development.
Provide for the creation of public spaces.


Historic Preservation
Develop a plan that:
Provides for the preservation of the Historic
Station building.
Regarding new development, complements the
form, architecture, and character of the Historic
Station and the surrounding neighborhoods.
To the greatest extent feasible, physically and
functionally incorporates the Historic Station
into the multimodal transportation hub.
Development Feasibility
Develop a plan that maximizes the opportunities
for public/private development that supports
transportation ridership, serves neighborhood
needs, functions as a regional and statewide
amenity, generates project revenues to help
offset costs, and enhances the downtown
environment.
Develop a financing package that optimizes the
use of funding from federal, state, local, and
private sources.
Integrate transportation and development in an
economically sustainable phasing and build-
out strategy that takes advantage of available
funding and public/private partnerships.
Implementation and Governance
Develop a plan that provides for governance of
the Denver Union Station site that is appropriate
for a public/private facility, that does not put
undue risk and burden on the taxpayers, and that
provides opportunities for private partners and
users.
Ensure that the long-term ownership and
governance structure for the Denver Union
Station site incorporates strict standards for
quality and cost-effectiveness regarding
facility design, workmanship, operations, and
maintenance.
Sustainability
Meet the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to
meet their own needs.
Use approaches that have net-positive effects
on the local environment, social well-being, and
economic health.
Benefits and Expectations for the Denver
Union Station Transit District
As described below, the transportation and private
development elements of the Denver Union Station
Transit District will benefit the city, metropolitan
region, and state. The transportation hub will
promote economic vitality by providing citizens
better access to housing, jobs, and commerce, and
improved connections for business, recreation,
tourism, and services. Connections within the Transit
District also will benefit the young, the elderly, and
the disabled by helping them access employment,
shopping, and leisure activities more independently.
Some of the Denver Union Station Transit District
benefits are that it:
Aligns major transportation elements on the 17th
Street axis for easy wayfinding and passenger
orientation.
Allows all major transportation components
light rail, regional bus, and passenger railto be
constructed in a single phase, thereby opening
the site for private development and avoiding the
long-term disruption future construction of these
elements would cause.
Establishes new high-quality public spaces for
the enjoyment of transit users and central Denver
residents and visitors, and allows Wynkoop Plaza
to be constructed in its final form early in the
construction phase.
Creates simple and convenient access to and
connections between transportation modes,
thereby increasing transportation choices and
enhancing time effectiveness and traveler
19
comfort for tens of thousands of regional
commuters, residents, and visitors every day.
Re-establishes Denver Union Station as a major
transportation hub for downtown Denver, the
metropolitan area, and the state, with the restored
historic building as the icon and central orienting
feature.
Facilitates seamless, efficient connections among
urban centers throughout the region, expanding
workforce mobility, housing options, and access
to essential services, entertainment venues,
and shopping for people of all ages, needs, and
means.
Links the important values of historic
preservation, transportation efficiency, and
economic development by enhancing the use of
the Historic Building, creating jobs, generating
tax revenues, and attracting tourists and travelers
to the Denver metropolitan area.
Provides space for new economic activity, a
variety of jobs, and a range of housing types and
prices. In doing so it provides thousands of on-
site jobs through office, retail, and transportation
uses, and provides construction jobs through
multimillion dollar investments in development,
historic rehabilitation, transportation, and
infrastructure.
Provides new pedestrian and bicycle links to
connect LoDo and the Commons Neighborhood
through the site.
The Transit District meets and reinforces the vision
and goals established in the 2004 Master Plan. It
provides the greatest benefit for all aspects of the
endeavor, balancing the needs of transportation,
private development, and the pedestrian environment.
1914 Station
Mizpah on Welcome Arch
MASTER PLAN
SUPPLEMENT




Multimodal Transportation Program


THE MULTIMODAL TRANSPORTATION
PROGRAM
The multimodal hub will blend many different
transportation modes in one place with convenient
transfers and connections. This critical mass of
transportation services will encourage dynamic
redevelopment and give the regions residents and
visitors an array of transportation choices. The
transportation program aims to serve a large number
of visitors.
Understanding how large the number of transit
riders will be is important to effective circulation.
A common measurement of visits to the
site reflects the total level of transportation
activity expected from all modes. A visit is
DENVER UNION
STATION
1 TO 1
Mode I Ped | I Mall | Circ Reg ./Exp. LRT CRT Total
Ped 211 10 28 49 679
Mall 79 mm 20 66 120 275
Circ 79 10 31 66 186
Ren /Fxn 167 228 200 140 206 1.340
E 1 RT 681 1 666 909 76 200 600 4.020
g CRT 1 966 8 072 1 688 126 610 400 7 160
LL. Total 2.271 5.518 3.031 440 1.060 1.340 13.660
PM Peak Hour Tic insit Transfers and Throuah Trios at DUS 2030 Build
Ltd I
M Mode I Ped I I Mall I Circ I Req./Exp. I LRT I I CRT I I Total I
Source: RTD
WO TRANSIT MODE
ACCESS i'EGR£S5=200
ACCESS1 EG RES S=4 00
Pedestrian Flow Diagram showing general passenger flow
between modes


Transportation Program
Revised 1/17/08
COMMUTER RAIL 18 Number of reqd tracks/ Platform
track! Track No. /share with Lenqth Freauencv
Amtrak 1 req / track #4 /track #5 1115 2/day
Ski Train 1 req/track#5/track#4 1115 2/day (seasonal)
East Corridor 1 req/track #1 / NA 985 4/hr.
Northwest Corridor 1 req/track#8/NA 985 4/hr.
Gold Line 2 req/track #6 and #7/NA 6157500 8/hr.
North Metro 1 req/track#2 500 4/hr.
Future Commuter Rail Capacity Track #3 615
Intercity Rail (North Front Range) TBD TBD 2/hr.
Intercity Rail (South Front Range) Additional Capacity at non-peak times TBD TBD 2/hr.
LIGHT RAII, (2 Track)
Light Rail West Corridor 1 req/all 400 12/hr.
Light Rail SE/SW Corridors 1 req / all 400 8/hr.
Platte Valley Trolley REGIONAL BUS (22 Bavsl NA No. of Bays NA
RTD Regional Bus 16 (10) 45 bays, (6) 65 bays
Commercial Bus 2 (2) 45 bays
Downtown Circulator 4 (4) straight bays
OTHER BUS
Local Bus None None
16th Street Mall Shuttle (@DUS) 8 (4 EB/4WB) 45 slips
16th Street Mall Shuttle (@LRT) 4 45 slips
Tour Buses (Interstate) Share w/Commercial Bus 45slips 1/day
Charter Buses COMMERCIAL CARRIERS Share w/Commercial Bus No. of Bavs
Taxi 15 positions
Rental Car 30 parking spaces
Vans and Shuttles 3 positions
Ski Area Shuttles 1 dedicated bay
Van Pool Drop off area
Limo Designated loading zone
Courier Services Designated loading zone
Taxi & Private Vehicle Curb Drop-off OTHER MODES 8 spaces or positions No. of Spaces
Bicycle Bike Station
PediCab On Street (16th /or designated site)
Motorcycles/Scooters In Parking Structure
Small Electric Vehicles In Parking Structure
Horse Drawn Carriage On Street (16th /or designated site)
Pedestrians On-Site Public Parkina Incorporate into circulation system No. of SDaces
Commercial Parking Facility 150 spaces
Ski Train
Amtrak
Transit Parking (RTD)
Total Public Parking 150 spaces - -
defined as a transit patron entering and leaving the
Transit District, thus a patron who passes through
twice a day makes two visits. More than 200,000
typical weekday visits to the Transit District are
expected at full build out. Of these, the vast majority
of visits will occur via RTD transit, and are calculated
using projected boardings (getting on a transit
vehicle), alightings (getting off a transit vehicle) and
through trips (not changing transit vehicles). For
pedestrians, a boarding is defined as a pedestrian
walking to the Transit District, while an alighting is
a pedestrian walking from the Transit District. Other
transportation services and the retail, commercial,
and residential development in the Transit District
will attract thousands of additional visits.
This section of Passenger Rail at approximately 18th Street
shows bus access to the Regional Bus Facility.
MASTER PLAN
SUPPLEMENT


24
DENVER UNION
STATION
Transit District and Transportation Elements
Passenger Rail
On the west side of the Historic Building, the
existing five passenger rail tracks accommodate
Amtrak and Ski Train rail services up to 1,100 feet
long, with tail tracks that cross 16th Street and
extend to Cherry Creek. Train access is provided
to the site only from the north, over the 20th Street
grade-separated structure. Denver Union Station
has three lead tracks in the track throat north of
20th Street. One active pedestrian tunnel connects
below the passenger rail tracks between the light rail
platforms and the Historic Station.
Under the Transit District, passenger rail service
will be accommodated on eight at-grade tracks
immediately west of the Historic Station. The tracks
will stub end just to the north of 16th Street. The
passenger rail program includes RTDs Northwest,
East, North Metro, and Gold passenger rail lines,
existing Amtrak and Ski Train services, and capacity
for occasional special trains and potential new rail
services, as listed below:
Northwest Corridor: Passenger rail connections
to Longmont, Boulder, Louisville, Broomfield,
and Westminster
East Corridor: Passenger rail through east
At-Grade Transportation Plan
A cross section of the 17th Street spine shows (left to right) the Historic Station, passenger rail platforms, the Promenade, with below-grade bus facility, and light rail platforms.


Denver and Aurora to Denver International
Airport
North Metro Corridor: Passenger rail to
Commerce City, Thornton, and Northglenn
Gold Line Corridor: Passenger rail to Adams
County, Arvada, and Wheat Ridge
Intercity Passenger Rail: Amtrak and other
potential regional and national rail service
Private Excursion Rail: Including Ski Train and
Cheyenne Frontier Days service
1-70 Mountain Corridor: Potential new rail
service to mountain communities
Front Range Rail: Potential new rail service
between Denver, Fort Collins, and Loveland to
the north and Colorado Springs and Pueblo to the
south
Platform lengths and widths for the passenger rail
lines will vary depending on the program for each
corridor. Denver Union Station can accommodate up
to a 970-foot-long platform for RTDs passenger rail
lines. Platform width varies from 30 feet where the
platform will be shared by two tracks to 15 feet wide
where it will be used by one track.
For Amtrak and Ski Train, there will be space for two
passenger platforms, up to 1,100 feet long, to serve
three locomotive trains with 13 cars each. These
carriers ran on infrequent schedules and have the
longest dwell time at the station. Their schedule gaps
will allow flexibility to share platforms with other
carriers. Denver Union Station also will have a long-
tracks service platform for baggage handling and in-
station maintenance.
As part of the passenger rail improvements, the track
throat north of 20th Street will be rebuilt to provide
five tracks with switches to improve efficiency of
operation and allow the passenger rail trains to access
any platform. The current configuration provides
adequate passenger rail capacity for the 2030-year
planning horizon and beyond. These improvements
will replace the functions of the existing tail tracks
between 16th Street and Cherry Creek, thus allowing
removal of these rail tracks. The public right-of-way
under the removed tracks, a portion of which will
be occupied by the ultimate Wewatta Street cross
section, will be retained by CCD.
Denver Union Station will continue to function as a
stub-end station for passenger rail. This stub-end
configuration requires all trains to enter and exit
the station from the same direction (from and to the
north). The long trains from Amtrak and Ski Train
will generally back into the station. The commuter
rail technologies under consideration will allow
trains from the north to go in either direction to and
from the station. The location of the rail at-grade will
prevent a future through station from occurring at this
location due to crossing conflicts at 15th and 16th
streets and Speer Boulevard.
With the potential of new rail services emerging, the
plan preserves the option to expand passenger rail
services adjacent to the light rail station within the
Consolidated Main Line property. Outside RTDs
peak hours, there also will be available capacity for
new service at the stub-end passenger rail station.
For through service, a passenger rail station adjacent
to the light rail station at the Consolidated Main
Line will be possible. This area will be located
immediately next to and connected with the Transit
District, with connections to light rail, the regional
bus facility, and the Mall Shuttle and Downtown
Circulator services.
Light Rail Transit (LRT)
Currently, the Southeast and Southwest light rail
transit (LRT) lines arrive at-grade between the
Historic Station and Wewatta Street. The Transit
District Plan calls for LRT to be adjacent to the
Consolidated Main Line. A plaza between the LRT
and Chestnut Place will include a signature canopy to
provide shade and weather protection and help create
1*1__sU_iL
___!SL

Site section looking west at the Passenger Rail Station
MASTER PLAN
SUPPLEMENT


26
a sense of arrival and orientation for transit users and
other pedestrians. The 17th Street Promenade, the
16th Street Mall Shuttle, and Regional Bus Facility
concourse will provide the primary connections
between light rail, passenger rail, and the Historic
Station. The LRT program within the Transit District
includes:
West Line: Light-rail connections to Golden and
Lakewood
Southeast Line: Light-rail connections
to southeast Denver, Aurora, Centennial,
Greenwood Village, and Lone Tree
Southwest Line: Light-rail connections to south
Denver, Englewood, Littleton, Sheridan, and
Highlands Ranch
DENVER UNION
STATION
Located below-grade, under the 17th Street right-of-way,
the Regional Bus facility provides 22 bays for bus routes
that serve the city, region, and beyond.
The Transit District will accommodate four-car LRT
trains with 400-foot-long platforms. The width for
the LRT tracks and platforms will be 100 feet. An
additional 50 feet of space will be provided within
the RTD right of way for a future third track and
platform, if needed.
The Transit District also includes space for tail tracks
north of the platforms to store two four-car trains and
to provide access to the other light rail tracks, which
extend to approximately 19th Street.
RTD Express and Regional Bus
Currently, regional and express bus routes from the
north and northwest metro area access downtown
Denver via the HOV lanes next to 20th Street, and
circulate adjacent to the Historic Station to access the
Market Street Station via the 16th Street Mall.
The Regional Bus Facility in the Transit District
will replace Market Street Station. The Transit
District locates the Regional Bus Facility below
grade under the 17th Street right of way between the
light rail platforms and the Historic Station. Buses
will access and exit the facility from new ramps at
either the HOV lane near 18th Street or at 18th Street
and Chestnut Place. This will reduce the number
of buses using the 16th Street Mall and circulating
through Lower Downtown between Blake Street and
Wynkoop Street. The bus facility will have 22 bays:
16 for RTD regional and express buses, four for the
Downtown Circulator, and two available for other
commercial carriers or new services. The bus facility
will be approximately 1,000 feet long and 150 feet
wide. Pedestrians will access the facility from the
light rail platforms, the passenger rail platforms, the
Historic Station, and at 17th and Wewatta streets. An
emergency exit also will be located between Chestnut
Place and Wewatta Street. Pedestrians will be able
to circulate from end to end in a climate-controlled
environment.
As the only underground component of the
Transit District, the Regional Bus Facility will be
mechanically ventilated, and the ventilation stacks
will be accommodated in the site design.
RTD Local Bus
Several local bus routes will continue to serve
Denver Union Station and LoDo at street level and
have curbside stops. These include the 20, 0, 6,
15, and 10B routes. The 20 route will continue to
serve Wynkoop Street, and the other routes will be
rerouted to Wewatta Street.
16th Street Mall Shuttle and Downtown
Circulator
The Transit District also will include new
transportation services to help distribute passengers
to downtown destinations.
The 16th Street Mall Shuttle now terminates at
Denver Union Station next to the C Line and E
Line light rail platform. Under the Transit District,
the Mall Shuttle will extend to a location adjacent to
the new light rail station at the Consolidated Main
Line. The Mall Shuttle will have four bus bays for
passenger loading and unloading, and new space to
stage four shuttle vehicles. Space for loading and
unloading will be provided on 16th Street, next to
the stub end of the passenger rail tracks and the
light rail platform at the Consolidated Main Line.
The Mall Shuttle will mn in dedicated lanes and be
separated from vehicle traffic between Wynkoop
Street and the light rail station.
On the basis of recommendations in the Downtown
Multimodal Access Plan (DMAP), the Downtown
Circulator will connect Denver Union Station to the
employment center in mid-downtown and continue
to Civic Center Station and the Civic Center cultural
facilities. The DMAP has proposed a rubber-tire
vehicle with service frequency similar to the 16th


Street Mall Shuttle on 18th/ 19th streets and Lincoln/
Broadway between Denver Union Station and the
Civic Center. It will provide service to passenger
rail, regional bus, and light rail riders via the bus
facility located beneath 17th Street. The Downtown
Circulator will access the ramp into the Regional
Bus Facility via 18th Street. Space will be provided
in the Regional Bus Facility for the circulator to
access two dedicated bus bays below passenger rail
and two dedicated bus bays adjacent to the light
rail station. The Downtown Circulator will provide
service similar to the 16th Street Mall Shuttle to meet
the demand for distributing
passengers to the east end of
downtown and Civic Center
attractions. It will operate
in both exclusive lanes and
mixed traffic on 18th and
19th streets and Broadway
and Lincoln.
Of the approximately
11.000 peak horn trips
with downtown origins or
destinations, most will use the
Mall Shuttle or Downtown
Circulator. Of the 10,000
or so trips expected to
occur via the Mall Shuttle
or Downtown Circulator,
the exact split between the
modes is not known and will
depend on the technology,
route, and schedule of this
new service. However, since
the Mall Shuttle capacity
will be approximately
6.000 passengers per hour,
the Downtown Circulator
will need to be designed to
serve approximately 4,000
passengers per horn.
The 16th Street mall shuttle route to light rail
27
Commercial Bus and Private Carriers
Commercial bus service, including intercity,
international, charter, and tour bus carriers, will
be accommodated in the Transit District. Two bus
slips will be available for private commercial carrier
bus during peak hours, with more slips available at
nonpeak hours. RTD has an existing agreement with
Greyhound to provide this access in their Market
Street Station, and may extend this opportunity to
Greyhound and other commercial bus companies at
the new facility.
Additional private carriers will support the Transit
District, and may include taxis, limousines, vans,
shuttle services, and auto rentals. These carriers add
breadth, variety, flexibility, and convenience to transit
patrons, area employees, and residents, as well as
tourists and shoppers. Space accommodations will be
identified during the final design process for private
carriers to pick up and drop off passengers. The
program for these services includes:
Taxis and Limousines: 15 curbside positions, as
determined by CCD
Vans and Shuttle Services: 4 designated curbside
positions, as determined by CCD
Auto Rentals: Market-rate space within
structured parking
Public Parking
Public parking will be provided in the parking garage
located between 18th and 19th streets. One level of
parking in this structure will provide approximately
150 parking spaces, which can be used by the public
at market rates. RTD has determined that a Park-n-
Ride is not required within the Transit District, so
no free transit parking will be provided. Shared-use
parking provisions for evenings and weekends should
be pursued with the on-site development.
MASTER PLAN
SUPPLEMENT


28
Program
The Transit District is based on a commitment that
all the transportation components will be operating
before the openings of the FasTracks corridors,
to the
Light Rail: Fall 2009 completion and operation
Regional Bus Facility: Fall completion and
Passenger Rail: Summer completion
Project Costs and Funding Sources Table
Total Estimated Project Revenues
RTD FasTracks L$ 208.800.000 1
RTD Farm arks 1
CO-097 t.scifetea-lu) s 2.000.000
CO-520 (FTA 5309 Bus) s 2.000.000
CO-167 (FTA 5309 Bus) 4.600.000
ODOT Farm ark 1
FHWA/CDOT Ear Mark 7PNRS safetea-lu) s 40.000.000
ODOT SR-1 s 16.800.000
Metropolitan District s 25.400.000
Surplus Land Sale s 38.000.000
Citv Obligated Revenue s 120.800.000
Other sources s 18.600.000
Total T.stimatpH Prnippt Wpypnnps _s 477.nnn.nnn
Total Estimated Project Costs
Light Rail Facility S 35.000.000
Regional Bus Facility S 205.000.000
Commuter Rail Facility S 168.000.000
Street and Utilities S 23.000.000
Plazas and Public Spaces S 29.000.000
DUS Renovation S 17.000.000
STotal Estimated Project Costs S 477.000.000
DENVER UNION
STATION
Circulation
Establishing easy-to-understand
circulation for pedestrians, bicyclists,
and drivers will be a key component
of the Transit District. Pedestrians are
defined as those who walk or bike onto
the site and exit via another mode, those
who arrive via another mode and exit as
a pedestrian or cyclist, and those who
walk or bike both to and from the site.
The majority of these trips are paired
with either another transit or commercial
carrier mode. Using this definition,
excluding on-site circulation, the Transit
District expects approximately 35,000
pedestrians per day.
Pedestrian Connections
Convenient, attractive, and engaging
pedestrian connections are important
to the success of the Transit District.
Pedestrian facilities will be provided on
the site to enhance circulation around and through
the Transit District. Pedestrian crossings with signals
will be provided at the intersections on Wewatta at
16th, 17th and 18th streets, and on Wynkoop at 16th,
17th, and 18th to enhance the ability of pedestrians to
access the Transit District from neighboring blocks.
Pedestrians will be able to walk through the site in a
variety of locations, and will have extensive choices
for internal site circulation and transit connections.
For pedestrians accessing the Historic Station and
Wynkoop Plaza:
Easy pedestrian access will be available from
Wynkoop, 16th, 17th and 18th streets to LoDo
via the existing sidewalk system. Wynkoop Plaza
will replace the parking lot that currently exists
in front of the Historic Station. This plaza will be
the front door to the multimodal facility and the
Transit District from downtown.
Access will be provided from the Central Platte
Valley side of Denver Union Station, using either
the 16th Street or the pedestrian deck connection
from 17th, 18th and Wewatta streets.
Access will be provided to the Regional Bus
Facility, with its east access point adjacent to the
Historic Station.
For pedestrians accessing the passenger rail system,
there are many ways to arrive at the platforms:
From Wynkoop Street and Wynkoop Plaza,
pedestrians will be able to access transit by
walking through the plaza at each side of the
Historic Station, or by going through the Historic
Station. Pedestrians will be able to walk around
the Historic Station exterior in a pedestrian
plaza environment. The deck-level connection
over passenger rail can be accessed via a grand
stairway between the north wing of the Historic


Station and the new development. This deck
level access will connect to the passenger rail
platforms by stairs and escalators that also lead
to the new development along Wewatta Street,
the parking structure, and 18th Street.
From Wewatta Street, pedestrians will be able to
access transit from 16th Street along the Mall,
from 17th Street at the 17th Street Promenade,
and from 18th Street to the parking garage and
pedestrian deck over passenger rail.
From 16th Street, pedestrians will be able to
walk directly to the passenger rail platforms, to
the Historic Stations west entrance, or around
the rail platforms to 17th Street.
From the Regional Bus Facility, pedestrians will
access passenger rail platforms via stairs and
elevators. Platform 1, adjacent to the Historic
Station building, also will have escalator access.
For pedestrians accessing the Regional Bus Facility,
there are many options to choose from, depending on
the direction of travel:
From the Historic Station, access to the below-
grade Regional Bus Facility will be located
directly out the west doors of the building to
stairs, elevators, and escalators that descend to
the facilitys main concourse.
To each of the passenger rail platforms via stairs
and elevators.
Via stairs, elevators, and escalators from the east
end of the 17th Street Promenade at 17th and
Wewatta streets.
Access to the west end of the facility will be via
stairs, elevators, and escalators from the light rail
plaza.
An emergency access point will be located mid-
block between Wewatta Street and Chestnut
Place.
Pedestrians have many options for circulating through the Denver Union Station site.
For pedestrians accessing the light rail facility at
the terminus of 17th Street, there are many ways to
MASTER PLAN
SUPPLEMENT


30
Proposed bike routes and pedestrian and bike bridges will extend Denvers alternative transportation options
access the light rail platforms:
From 16th Street, pedestrians can walk
from downtown and the Central Platte
Valley on 16th Street, or access the
Transit District from Commons Park via
the Millennium Bridge and walk directly
to the south end of the light rail platforms
from the downtown side of the bridge.
From 17th Street, pedestrians can access
Denver Union Station via sidewalks
on both sides of 17th Street, crossing
Chestnut Place to the transit plaza at the
light rail station. Pedestrians also can
access the transit plaza directly from the
station through the Regional Bus Facility
with its climate-controlled connection and
moving walkway.
From 18th Street, pedestrians can connect
directly to the north end of the light rail
platforms if they arrive via the 18th Street
pedestrian bridge over the Consolidated
Main Line or walk from Denver Union
Station or Wewatta Street.
Access will be provided via the 16th
Street Mall Shuttle with a cross-platform
transfer, or via the Downtown Circulator
with direct access from the west end of
the Regional Bus Facility.
Bicycle Connections
Bicycle access to the Transit District will
allow a popular alternative transportation mode to
connect with other transportation options. Bicycles
will be allowed on all of the RTD transit modes
(except the 16th Street Mall Shuttle), and good
bicycle connections to, from, and through Denver
Union Station will provide opportunities for people
to access transit and make connections to the
surrounding neighborhoods.
Bicycles currently can access the site along Wynkoop
Street from the Cherry Creek bike path to the
south of the site at 14th Street. Wynkoop Street has
dedicated bike lanes, and also is a good connection to
Coors Field to the north at 20th Street. Bicycle access
will be provided on 16th Street from the Central
Platte Valley to the Millennium Bridge, Commons
Park, and the South Platte River Greenway trail.
Because of the dedicated Mall Shuttle lanes, bicycles
will not be allowed east of Wynkoop Street on 16th
Street (except on Sundays). Bicycle travel will be
accommodated within the 115-foot right-of-way
width between Chestnut Place and Wynkoop Street
on 16th Street. Additional study will be needed
to determine whether bicycle lanes, shared-use
markings, and/or signs are the most appropriate
circulation means in this area in the final design of
16th Street. Bicycle access to Denver Union Station
also will be available via 18th Street west of the
site, using the future 18th Street pedestrian bridge
across the light rail and Consolidated Main Line.
This connection will have access to Commons Park
and the South Platte River Greenway trail. Access to
DENVER UNION
STATION


the site will be via the elevator to the pedestrian deck
over passenger rail at 18th and Wewatta streets.
Space will be provided on site for a bike station,
which will be equipped with secured bike parking,
bike repair, bike accessories, and changing stalls.
It may also include amenities such as bike rentals,
restrooms, and a cafe or snack bar. The bike station is
intended to be a private concession, and is therefore
contingent on a commitment of ongoing operating
funds from an as-yet-undetermined source. Inverted-
U bike racks and bike lockers will be provided
at key locations around the facilities for easy and
convenient bicycle parking.
Bicycles will be permitted within the Regional
Bus Facility pedestrian concourse, but bicyclists
likely will be required to dismount before crossing
significant vehicle intersections or congested
pedestrian areas within the Denver Union Station
site. Bicycles will not be allowed to use the busway
within the Regional Bus Facility.
Private and Service Vehicles
Private vehicles will enter the site and park in the
various parking garages within private development
along 16th Street, between Wynkoop and Wewatta
streets. They also can enter and park from 18th Street
at the intersections with Wewatta and Wynkoop
streets. Service-vehicle access and fire access will
be provided to each of the private development
buildings on the site. The pedestrian area directly
behind the Historic Station will be used for service
access at off-peak times and for emergency access.
31
MASTER PLAN
SUPPLEMENT




Development Program


34
n"k. ^
*
' : t 5>
Private (developmentparcels with in the fransitbistnct will help create an active
and economically successful regional multimodal transportation center.
THE
DEVELOPMENT
PROGRAM
The Denver Union
Station 2004
Master Plan and
the Master Plan
Supplement envision
development of a
regional multimodal
transportation center
that encourages
private buildings on
the site to create an
active, economically
successful, cost-
effective, and
attractive urban
place. The linking
of land use and
transportation
in the Transit
District is consistent with the goals of the Denver
Comprehensive Plan 2000 and Blueprint Denver,
the Downtown Area Plan (2007), and other local and
regional plans. The redevelopment of Denver Union
Station will be an asset to downtown by offering
high-profile addresses adjacent to LoDo and the
Central Platte Valley, easy access for commuters,
residents, visitors, and other patrons, high pedestrian
volume for retail shops and restaurants, and reduced
reliance on private vehicles.
Including private real-estate development in the
Transit District realizes several of the original goals
related to urban design and neighborhood integration,
historic preservation, and development feasibility by:
Creating activity throughout the site at all times
of the day, thus enhancing public use, appeal, and
safety;
Providing active pedestrian edges to complement
the sites perimeter streets and public spaces;
Buffering the transportation-intensive uses;
Making the project compatible with surrounding
development;
Providing attractive, usable connections between
downtown and the Commons Neighborhood; and
Creating an appropriate setting for the Historic
Building, one of Denvers most important
landmarks.
In addition to the transportation program, four
key features provide the framework for private
development: the neighborhood context, private
development at Denver Union Station, the Historic
Station, and the public spaces. The following sections
outline the desired urban form and the regulatory
requirements for both public and private development
at Denver Union Station.
Neighborhood Context
For most of Denver Union Stations history, the
Historic Station building has held the western edge of
downtowns warehouse district, with the tracks and rail
yards beyond creating a significant barrier. As the rail
yards have redeveloped and tracks consolidated, the
neighborhoods are coming much closer. Due to new
development, the context has changed somewhat since
2004.
Lower Downtown
Adjacent to Denver Union Station and across
Wynkoop Street is the Lower Downtown Historic
District (LoDo). Approximately 2,000 people now
live in LoDo. New infill buildings have been tailored
in massing, street orientation, and detailing to respect
the districts character, while also differentiating
themselves as modem designs. All development
activity is subject to design review by the Lower
Downtown Design Review Board.
Commons Neighborhood
The Commons Neighborhood is located between the
Denver Union Station site and the South Platte River.
Formerly rail yards, this area will be developed to
include as much as 6 million square feet of new office,
commercial, retail, and residential uses. Zoning for
the Commons area allows for larger-scale buildings
compared to LoDo. Buildings of 140 feet in height
are typical, with five sites allowing buildings as tall
as 250 feet. Considerable residential development has
occurred on the west side of the Consolidate Main
Line. Commons Park along the river is one of the
amenities enjoyed by the neighborhood and central
Denver residents. Much of the east side closest to
Denver Union Station remains vacant. The Gates
Corporation occupies the office building at 15th and
Delgany, and a new office building at 16th Street and
Chestnut Place is just starting construction.
DENVER UNION
STATION


The Transit District extends from Wynkoop Street to
the Consolidated Main Line, incorporating Denver
Union Station as well as connections through the
Commons Neighborhood. The 17th Street Promenade
provides the internal connection for the Transit
District, providing access to all major elements. The
16th Street corridor connects Denver Union Station
to Riverfront Park in the Commons Neighborhood
via the Millennium Bridge, and the site is linked to
the Highland neighborhood beyond via the pedestrian
bridges over the Platte River and 1-25. The 18th Street
Pedestrian Bridge over the Consolidated Main Line,
proposed by the Central Platte Valley Metro District,
will provide better connections to the north end of the
Commons Neighborhood.
Private Development at Union Station
There are six development parcels on the Denver
Union Station site. The intent will be to accommodate
a dynamic and complementary mix of residential and
commercial uses in buildings of the highest quality.
Denver Union Stations T-MU-30 zoning allows for
varying amounts of development under different
height limits and setbacks to provide the urban design
transition from lower downtown to the Commons
Neighborhood.
Development Massing Diagram showing the six parcels on the DUS site.
Location-
Maximum-
Height
Other requiremerits-
Potential Uses
1. 16th & Wynkoop
tSouth Wingj
65 feet
45-foot setback from Ground floor retail; office above
Wynkoop__________________(75.000 SF)________________
2.
3.
4.
18th & Wynkoop
(North Wing)
65 feet
45-foot setback from Ground floor retail; office above
Wynkoop (75,000 SF)
16th & Wewatta
(Triangle)
140 feet
Office or hotel; ground floor retail
(200,000-217,500 SF)
Wewatta, 16th-! 7th
(A Block)
140 feet; one
tower to 220
feet
Portion over 140 feet
limited in area; 16th
Street frontage will serve
as a head house for
passenger rail.
Office, residential and retail (500,000
SF); 18th Street buildings will be
above tracks and will provide
pedestrian connections
5. Wewatta, 17th-! 8th
(B Block)
6. Parking garage
140 feet, one
tower to 200
feet____________
Portion over 140 feet
limited in area
Office, residential and retail (500,000
SF)
685 spaces
Private Development Program
Historic Station Building
The Historic Station is one of Denvers iconic
structures. Continuing and expanding the use of a
historic railway station as a transportation facility
will be a great accomplishment for the community.
The continued use of the Historic Station as a
transportation facility invites Denver Union Station
into the company of great center-city stations such as
New Yorks Grand Central Station, Washington Union
Station, and Los Angeles Union Station.
The Historic Station will continue to have a prominent
role in the Transit District. In addition to providing
space for transportation functions such as ticketing,
the Train Room likely will be the location for visitor
information. The specifics of other uses such as retail
will await a more detailed program for the entire site.
Retaining a meaningful set of circulation functions and
public uses is an important goal for reactivating the
Historic Station.
Public Spaces
The Transit District will have several significant public
spaces: Wynkoop Plaza, the 17th Street Promenade
from the east side of Wewatta to the light rail station,
the comer of 18th and Wewatta, the pedestrian deck
over passenger rail, and the Outdoor Train Room.


36
Successful public spaces will create opportunities for
many different activities and experiences throughout
the site. Making public spaces lively and interesting
is not an easy task, and each public space will have
its own opportunities and challenges. The following
are guidelines for actions that have been found to
contribute to successful public spaces, and will be used
in designing Denver Union Stations public spaces:
Create active and inviting edges by providing
opportunities for street-level retail, restaurants,
cafes, and outdoor retailing opportunities.
Provide ample seating with benches, tables and
chairs, movable seating and seating walls, and
complementary site furnishings such as bollards,
trash receptacles, and banners.
Provide shade with building canopies and
awnings, trees, and structures.
Provide space for retail vendors and carts for food,
flowers, newspapers, arts and crafts, and coffee
and drinks. Place vendors and carts along busy
passageways where they are convenient, visible,
and accessible.
Provide public art such as sculptures, paving
design, fountains, interactive art, and wall art
throughout public spaces and along surrounding
streets.
Use a variety of materials that complement the
historic building and new development and add
interest to the pedestrian environment.
Provide numerous access points for public and
private transportation modes.
Provide wireless computer internet access.
Provide power and water for maintenance
purposes, as well as for kiosks, performances and
events, and temporary uses.
Create visual interest and focal points with
fountains and moving water.
Provide adequate lighting to make spaces feel safe
and useful during evening horns.
Establish a management entity to program the
public space.
DENVER UNION
STATION
The Transit District features abundent public space, including outdoor passage ways, cafes, retail,
seating, and gathering places.
Design and development of all of the public spaces
will take into account the needs of transit users, who
can categorized as follows:
Hectic: The transit user is late or stressed, and is
rushing from one mode to another.
In control: The transit user is in control and has
ample time to make connections.
Relaxed: The transit user is not required to keep to
a schedule for travel connections.
Hectic users need clear paths and easy wayfinding
from one mode to another. The in control group
likely will be regular users who know when and where
to make connections or will head off-site to work or
to other time-sensitive destinations. They may stop
for coffee or food as part of a regular routine. The
relaxed group will be the most likely to linger to
have coffee, meet friends, shop, or use retail and


other site amenities in a more leisurely manner.
Transit-related public spaces will be successful only
if they accommodate all three user types with the
understanding that ratios of each will vary with the
time of day and day of the week.
The public spaces of Denver Union Station will
create a series of interconnected places and corridors
that will help to tie the site together and create a
memorable and cohesive pedestrian network. This
network needs to have common thematic
elements and materials and a high level of
quality that will create a clean, attractive,
and durable pedestrian environment that
can withstand daily use by many people.
The design and use of each of these spaces
must relate to the other spaces and adjacent
uses, be easy to navigate for pedestrians,
and provide a variety of opportunities for
different functions and activities. Wherever
it is possible, pedestrian corridors should
have activities to help activate transitions.
Wynkoop Plaza
Wynkoop Plaza will extend from 16th
Street to 18th streets along Wynkoop
Street. These three streets create regular
edges for the plaza, while the modulated
building facades create five distinct areas:
in front of each of the two wing buildings,
in front of the two Historic Station wings,
and in front of the Train Room. The plaza
is one of the sites iconic places, and will
serve as the front door to the Historic
Station and site from LoDo.
In April 2005, Project for Public Spaces
presented a community workshop
to suggest the types of activities that
might occur in the plaza. The nonprofit
oiganizations report identified a number of activities,
both formal and informal, that could contribute to an
active open space. Actual programming of the space
and design of the plaza will occur incrementally with
an expanded public involvement process incorporated
into the General Development Plan, Design
Guidelines, and final design development processes.
17th Street Promenade
17th Street provides a major axis and orienting
feature, and connects the Historic Station to all of the
transportation elements in the Transit District. Located
to the east of the Historic Station, 17th Street is well-
established as an important downtown street with a
strong identity as the Wall Street of the West. Key
spaces for activation and design include the light rail
plaza between the platforms and Chestnut Place and
the 17th and Wewatta Street plaza between Wewatta
The 17th Street Promenade, viewed from Chestnut Place, connects the Historic Station
with the Wewatta Street Plaza, and new mixed-use private development.
MASTER PLAN
SUPPLEMENT


I
Street and the passenger rail tracks.
To the west of Denver Union Station, 17th Street
will have more complex functions and connections.
The right-of-way is 160 feet wide both on the site
and in the Commons Neighborhood, and the height
of any structures within this area will be restricted to
assure a view of the Train Room from the west. The
passenger rail tracks and platforms are at-grade, so
their canopies and other features will conform to the
zoning requirements to protect the views to and from
the mezzanine level of the Train Room. Denver Union
Station zoning provides a special process for review
and approval of any structures that extend into this
view corridor.
18th and Wewatta Plaza
The public space located at the northeast comer of 18th
and Wewatta streets will provide another access point
to the site from the Central Platte Valley, and will be a
companion public space to a new plaza being planned
for the northwest comer of 18th and Wewatta streets
by a private developer. This plaza will have stairs and
elevators that will connect to the pedestrian deck above
passenger rail and the on-site parking structure.
Pedestrian Deck over Passenger Rail
This upper-level connection across the passenger rail
tracks and down to the passenger rail platforms could
be one of the most engaging public spaces at Denver
Union Station. Easy-to-access connections can be
made from the elevated parking garage and street
level at 17th and 18th and Wewatta streets and the
Wynkoop Plaza to various destinations on the site. The
Pedestrian Deck also provides public viewing areas
and retail shops that will attract people to this level.
The Outdoor Train Room
The Outdoor Train Room next to the Historic Station
includes the passenger rail tracks and platforms with
attractive views to and from the west side of the Train
DENVER UNION
STATION
Room and functional elements such as canopy-covered
staircases and escalators to the regional bus bays
below and upper deck above. Denver Union Station
zoning and the Commons Planned Unit Development
(PUD) zoning limit the height of structures within
the 160-foot-wide corridor extending west from the
facade.
Principles of Urban Form
The principles of urban form for Denver Union
Station reflect the aspirations for the project as a
whole, and are derived from three sources:
1) a relatively universal set of sound urban design
precepts, 2) a group of ideas related to downtown
Denver and the adjacent LoDo and Commons
neighborhoods, and 3) principles related to the
preservation of the Historic Building and its environs.
The following principles, along with the Denver
Union Station vision and goals, establish the
framework for implementation of the 2004 Master
Plan and the Supplement.
Public Spaces
Proportion and articulate public spaces to
encourage pedestrian activities within them and
along their edges.
Place active uses along the edges of the public
spaces to provide visual interest, amenities, and
eyes on the street.
Provide for the creation of small public spaces
throughout the site that improve connections to
the community, access to transit, and general
enjoyment of the site.
Establish the 17th Street Promenade as the
defining pedestrian connection for the Transit
District.
Provide a safe, attractive, and active connection
along the 17th Street Promenade between
Wewatta Street and the light rail station.
Relate Wynkoop Plaza to the Historic Station
and the Lower Downtown Historic District.
Design Wynkoop Plaza to provide clear access to
the Historic Station and transportation beyond,
and to accommodate programmed activities and
reinforce pedestrian continuity along Wynkoop
Street.
Design the Wynkoop Plaza to:
Attract different types of people at different
times of day.
Balance the needs of all users.
Be family-friendly.
Be flexible and responsive to changing
needs.
Add to the quality of the pedestrian
environment along adjoining streets.
Positively interact with the Historic Building
and the new wing buildings.
Pedestrians
Give pedestrians priority in designing streets,
service drives, and intersections.
Provide attractive and convenient pedestrian
routes to and through the Transit District
to connect downtown, the Commons
Neighborhood, and other adjacent neighborhoods
with the Historic Station and transit elements.
Link pedestrian focal points into the circulation
system.
Depending on the adjacent building and street
activities, provide adequate sidewalk widths on
all streets to accommodate people in various
pedestrian, retail, public space, and curbside
zones.
Design intersections to safely and efficiently
accommodate large numbers of pedestrians.
Use attractions such as an overlook or outdoor
cafe to make the deck-level connections active
and interesting.
Integrate into buildings the deck-level connection
from 18th and Wewatta streets to the north end
of the Wynkoop Plaza, and provide a graceful


landing that complements the architecture and
activates the plaza.
Design pedestrian and sign systems that
accommodate the needs of all transit users
rushing to a connection, seeking amenities, or
waiting for a connection.
Seamlessly incorporate universal access into site
circulation and access to transit.
Bicycles
Provide bicycle access to and through the site
from adjacent and nearby bike routes.
Strategically locate bicycle parking to attract
cyclists and to encourage them to dismount
before entering congested areas.
Accommodate a bike station at a location
convenient to bicycle access.
Provide bicycle access to transit facilities and
transit vehicleslight rail, passenger rail, and
regional bus.
Vehicle Access and Parking
Provide parking for a wide variety of motorized
vehicles.
Locate parking access to minimize impacts to
pedestrian and transit movements.
Locate on-street parking and transportation stops
so they are convenient, help activate public
spaces, and retain key views into the site.
Design service access to be unobtrusive and
minimize conflicts with pedestrians.
Maximize shared parking opportunities to the
greatest extent possible.
Multimodal Connections
Establish continuity of design elements for
all the platforms and station areaslight rail,
regional bus, passenger rail, Mall Shuttle, and
Downtown Circulator.
Design 16th Street to safely and conveniently
accommodate multiple modesshuttle buses,
pedestrians, bikes, and private vehicles.
Provide clear and intuitive sign system
throughout the Transit District.
Create a positive user experience for the
multimodal transportation center and related on-
site development.
Building Form and Placement
Respect the continuity of downtown block
spacing in the arrangement of buildings and
access points along 16th Street between
Wynkoop and Wewatta streets.
Assure that the visual connection to and from the
west side of the Train Room remains unimpeded.
Ensure that the mass, scale, orientation, and
architecture of the redeveloped site and private
development are harmonious with the Historic
Station and the surrounding neighborhoods.
Provide appropriate horizontal and vertical
articulation of buildings along Wewatta Street to
promote a comfortable and attractive pedestrian
scale.
Complement the Historic Station and reflect
the distinctive character of the adjacent
neighborhoods through careful consideration of
the form, massing, materials, and architectural
design of new buildings.
Encourage a synergistic mix of land uses that
establishes the Transit District as a desirable
destination within central Denver and the region.
Ensure personal safety and visual interest with
ground-floor transparency and active uses along
street and public space frontages throughout the
Transit District.
Elicit architectural excellence.
Historic Preservation
Preserve, rehabilitate, and restore the Historic
Station.
Incorporate the Historic Station into the
multimodal transportation hub both physically
and functionally.
Provide a visual connection to the Train Room
from adjacent public space.
Incorporate into the Historic Building
interpretive displays about Denver Union
Station.
Sustainability
Recognize the multiple facets of sustainability
environmental, economic, and social equity.
Enhance the use of the Historic Station as the
hub of the Transit District and the regions
transportation system.
Seek Silver Certification in the U.S. Green
Building Councils Leadership in Energy and
Environmental Design (LEED) green building
rating system for 50-percent of new buildings.
Encourage the use of alternative transportation
to reduce the number of single-occupant vehicle
trips.
Incorporate alternative energy sources for
vehicles and buildings to the greatest extent
possible.
Use local materials to the greatest extent
possible.
Use recycled or recyclable materials to construct
the transportation and private development
components to the greatest extent possible.
Make provisions for recycling.
Explore innovative approaches to stormwater
and water-quality management.
Regulatory Framework for Denver Union
Station
Two sets of land-use and development regulations
affect the Denver Union Station site: zoning and
landmark designation. Together these regulatory
processes establish the framework for future
development and will provide for a clear and
predictable redevelopment process that incorporates
flexibility over time. Although the Transit District


40
The Denver Union Station T-MU-30 Zoning Map.
encompasses more property than the 19.5-acre
Denver Union Station site, the property beyond the
site has previously existing zoning, determined by the
Commons Planned Unit Development, which remains
in effect and is complementary to the Denver Union
Station zoning.
Zoning
The Denver Union Station site was zoned T-MU-30
with waivers and conditions in 2004. The T-MU-30
zoning is intended for station areas with enough land
to create a successful transit-oriented development,
such as the one envisioned for Denver Union Station.
T-MU-30 zoning permits a wide range of residential,
commercial, and civic uses appropriate to areas
adjacent to rail transit stations. A number of uses are
designated as special review because of particular
design considerations or potential off-site impacts.
Special review uses can be approved as part of the
General Development Plan or as part of the use
permit process.
This zoning district allows a lloor-area-ratio
(FAR) of 5:1 (or live times the amount of
development area to land area). The mixed-use nature
of T-MU-30 provides critical flexibility for long-term
redevelopment and changing real-estate markets. The
waivers and conditions were included to assure that
development meets the goals of the Denver Union
Station Master Plan.
Building Envelopes and Maximum Building
Heights
The waivers and conditions in the Denver Union
Station zoning focus on potential building envelopes
DENVER UNION
STATION


and heights. Except for the 17th Street View Corridor
and the zero and five-foot height areas, the zoning
requires that any building be built to a minimum
height of 35 feet. Maximum heights vary by building
envelope and are defined on the zoning map.
The intent is to have heights on the east side of the
site correspond to the Historic Station and buildings
in LoDo, and heights on the west complement
buildings in the Commons Neighborhood.
The two buildings along Wynkoop Street
(referred to as the wing buildings) have a
maximum height of 65 feet, which is lower
than would be permitted throughout the Lower
Downtown Historic District.
Buildings along Wewatta Street have an allowed
height of 140 to 220 feet to correspond with
the contemporary development occurring in
the Commons Neighborhood. The baseline
building height along Wewatta Street is 140 feet;
however, greater height allowance is provided to
promote architectural diversity along these two
long frontages. The area between 16th and 17th
streets (Area A) allows for one structure of up to
220 vertical feet, provided the footprint of this
structure does not exceed 40 percent of Area A.
The area between 17th and 18th streets (Area
B) will have a base height of 140 feet, allowing
for one structure up to 200 feet tall, provided
the footprint of this structure does not exceed 40
percent of Area B.
Buildings along 16th and 18th streets have a
maximum height of 90 feet as a transition.
Buildings immediately to the west of the
Historic Station have a maximum height of 70
feet so that, viewed from the east, they are not
apparent behind the Historic Station.
Wynkoop Street Plaza
To create a significant public space and protect
views of the Train Room, the zoning provides for
a zero-foot height limit between Wynkoop Street
and the Historic Station and new wing buildings.
The only structures allowed in the zero-foot height
area are public art, accessory uses, temporary uses,
and structures that provide access to or shelter for
transportation facilities. In addition, the zero-foot
height area does not allow major transportation uses,
parking, or loading. The size and shape of this area
were determined by the desire to create and maintain
an active public space, honor the Historic Station, and
allow for a public space appropriately scaled with the
neighborhood and new on-site development.
17th Street View Corridor
As first established in the Commons PUD, the 17th
Street View Corridor is the extended 17th Street right-
of-way from Commons Park to the west face of the
Train Room. Views will be preserved from the Train
Rooms second floor windows out to Wewatta Street
and beyond along the 17th Street axis.
The zoning restricts height in this area to an elevation
of 5,209 feet above sea level, which is the elevation
of the second-floor windowsill of the Train Room.
Much of this area will contain the eight-passenger
rail tracks and associated platforms, canopies, and
vertical circulation, as well as multimodal service
drives along the west side of the Historic Station.
Setbacks
T-MU-30 zoning typically establishes front, side, and
rear setbacks from zero to 20 feet based on building
use. Due to the urban nature of the Denver Union
Station site, these setbacks were waived to allow for a
zero-foot setback for all structures. The one exception
is the setback from Wynkoop, which is set at 45 feet
to allow views of the Historic Station from Wynkoop
at 16th and 18th streets.
Signs
Defining sign regulations will be complicated due
to the complexity of planned transportation and
development elements. The waivers and conditions
allow for a site-specific comprehensive sign plan to
be submitted for approval.
Landmark Designation
The Historic Station and a defined area encompassing
the proposed plaza and new wing buildings (see map)
were designated as a Denver Landmark in 2004. This
designation provides design and demolition review
authority through the Denver Landmark Preservation
Commission. The Historic Station had been listed
in the National Register of Historic Places in 1972.
As a designated Denver Landmark, all exterior
alterations within the designated landmark area will
be subject to design and demolition review by the
Landmark Preservation Commission. This includes
Landmark Designation Area
DENVER UNION STATION -
LANDMARK BOUNDARY DIAGRAM 02/19/2003

010 30 50 100 200
Denver Union Station Landmark Designation Diagram
18TH STREET


42
all exterior restoration or alteration of the Historic
Station itself, any addition to the Historic Station, and
any new construction within the Landmark Area. The
Landmark Preservation Commission bases its review
decisions on Design Guidelines for Landmark
Structures and Districts (Landmark Preservation
Commission, 1995) and guidelines specific to the
Denver Union Station property.
General Development Plan
Denver Union Station zoning requires that a
General Development Plan (GDP) be approved
before development can occur but exempts RTD
Early Transit Elements, should these elements
be constructed before a GDP is approved. The
GDP process will define the framework for site
redevelopment. It includes overviews of land use,
open spaces, pedestrian circulation, design standards
and guidelines, transportation, and infrastructure. The
GDP process requires extensive public notification, a
public hearing, and Denver Planning Board approval.
Design Standards and Guidelines
Design standards and guidelines to be developed
for Denver Union Station need to address the area
within the Landmark Preservation Commissions
purview, as well as the rest of the site, as required
by the T-MU-30 zoning. These standards and
guidelines will incorporate contextual elements of
the Lower Downtown Historic District to the east
and more contemporary new development in the
Commons Neighborhood to the west, as well as the
characteristics of the Historic Station itself.
Design guidelines such as this are devised in a public
process that includes the current property owner,
which is RTD, the potential developer, Community
Planning and Development (CPD) urban design
and landmark staff, and interested parties from the
neighborhood. The guidelines will build upon those
already adopted for the Lower Downtown Historic
DENVER UNION
STATION
District to the east and the Commons PUD to the
west.
In addition to the topics that are typically included
in design standards and guidelines, Denver Union
Station zoning establishes the following design
criteria for the Design Standards and Guidelines:
Promote visibility of pedestrian-oriented
activities at ground level.
Provide human scale through change, contrast,
and intricacy of facade form, color, and material
where lower floors of buildings face public
streets and spaces.
Define street spaces to concentrate pedestrian
traffic and to create a clear urban character.
Encourage pedestrian access to structures and
uses along public streets, sidewalks, and open
space.
Maintain views of the sky and exposure to light.
Minimize downdrafts from tall buildings.
Protect the historic interior and exterior of
Denver Union Station.
Promote vehicle and transportation patterns
compatible with pedestrian access, streetscapes,
and open spaces.
Promote architecture that will be sympathetic to
adjacent urban areas.
Maintain substantially unobstmcted views of the
Train Room for structures within the 17th Street
View Corridor Area.
For structures next to Denver Union Station,
provide sufficient transparency and minimize
structural incursions to protect the stations
historic character.
Encourage architectural diversity and varied
building heights for structures in Areas A and B.
Protect sunlight on the 16th Street Mall.
Design Review Process
The Denver Union Station site is one of a handful in
the city regulated by both the Landmark and Urban
Design review processes. The Denver Landmark
Preservation Ordinance regulates the portion of
the site within the Landmark Area, and the zoning
regulates the entire site. In both cases, the adopted
guidelines will be the basis of the staff review and
recommendation and Commission/Board action. All
private buildings on the site will be subject to design
review at the time of permitting. New buildings, the
Historic Station, and other improvements within the
landmark area will be reviewed and approved by
the Landmark Preservation Commission in a public
meeting. Buildings on the remainder of the site will
be subject to Community Planning and Development
staff review and approval, with Planning Board
ratification, again in a public meeting. The City
and County of Denver will be responsible for
coordinating these reviews. All proposed buildings
will be subject to one of these two processes.


Governance
The 2004 Master Plan defined the functions of a
governing body from the perspective of the need for
implementation over a 30 to 50-year time frame. As
articulated in the Introduction, much has changed and
much has been accomplished since September 2004:
The Executive Oversight Committee, created
by an intergovernmental agreement among
the partner agencies, has served as the interim
governing body.
Passage of FasTracks has provided a significant
funding source.
The Master Developer, the Union Station
Neighborhood Company (USNC), has
demonstrated that construction of all the
transportation elements at one time will be
technically feasible and essential to a successful
project.
The Letter of Intent between the Executive
Oversight Committee and USNC outlines how
to accomplish the Transit District, including the
framework for USNC land purchases from RTD
and payment of a developer fee to USNC.
Principles of Governance
The Third Amendment to the Intergovernmental
Agreement (April 20, 2004) between the Executive
Oversight Committee established eight Principles
of Governance to be used as the framework for
implementation. These principles are cited in the
Supplement to reiterate their continued relevance and
establish the progress that has been made in achieving
them.
Next Steps for Governance
The Executive Oversight Committee will focus on
five factors as it considers adopting a governance
plan:
Governance must maintain the vision of the
Master Plan. The governance approach must
reflect the regional and statewide importance of
the project and assure continuation of the
multimodal aspects of the station and the site.
Governance must provide appropriate
stewardship of the historic Train Room and the
public spaces to assure that these spaces remain
an asset to the site, the development, and the
transit rider experience.
Governance must allow RTD, in collaboration
with the other partner agencies, to effectively and
efficiently manage the RTD transit elements
and consider the needs of other transportation
providers at Denver Union Station.
Governance must incorporate public input in a
meaningful way and develop policies in
a transparent and accountable manner, while
not compromising the operation of the
transportation facilities.
The governance approach must incorporate an
entity with the authority to ensure the long-term
financial viability of the project. This will
allow the project to generate sufficient revenues
to pay off development debts and invest adequate
funds in the maintenance of the complex so
it can become sustainable as a thriving
transportation hub that enriches the entire
community.
The community and the partner agencies have
confirmed the importance of these values in
governance discussions. These values will be at the
forefront of discussions as the governance plan is
formulated.
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MASTER PLAN
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44
PrinciDle Current Status
1. The primary goal of the governance structure is to make the Union Station Site function as an efficient transportation facility. However, the governance structure shall provide for integration of the entire redevelopment of the Union Station Site, including the transportation, development and civic components, while taking into account the needs and interests of the Parties, users and surrounding neighborhoods. The Transit District provides for integration of the transportation, development, and civic components of the project.
2. The governance structure shall provide appropriate opportunities for public agency, general public and private interest involvement to assure the viability of the project. The EOC has proven to be an effective governing body to get the project underway. Through the efforts of the USAC, Break-Out Groups, and other public forums, the public has had an opportunity to participate in ongoing implementation of the 2004 Master Plan, which will continue through approval of the GDP.
3. The governance structure shall consider the needs of all the Master Plan Transportation Facilities and treat them all with importance to make a successful multimodal transportation hub. The Transit District Plan incorporates all of the modes contemplated in the 2004 Master Planlight rail, passenger rail, regional bus, 16th Street Mall Shuttle, Downtown Circulator, pedestrian flow, bicycles, private vehicles, and private transportation providers.
4. The governance structure shall diligently pursue the full implementation of the Master Plan Transportation Facilities and the vision it sets forth, and the future needs of the historic station and the Union Station Site. The Transit District fully implements the vision for transportation, development opportunity, public space, and historic station articulated in the 2004 Master Plan.
5. The governance structure shall be capable of seeking and/or receiving funds from all sources and creating funding mechanisms to fully implement the Master Plan and the Master Plan Transportation Facilities. The proposed financing plan incorporates funding from federal, state, and local sources. Funding through additional public, philanthropic, and private sources continues to be sought.
6. The governance structure shall be charged with diligently pursuing and using best efforts to secure funding and approval for full implementation of the Master Plan and the Master Plan Transportation Facilities. As stated in #5 above, the financing plan provides funding needed to construct the transportation and other public facilities. The Final Environmental Impact Statement is being drafted and a Record of Decision is expected in September 2008.
7. The governance structure shall provide that Site-Generated Revenues first be used for the reasonable operation and maintenance of the Union Station Site; second, for reimbursement of any shortfalls in the reasonable operation and maintenance of the Union Station Site if approved by the governing body of the permanent governance structure; and third, to implement the Master Plan to the extent not prohibited by federal statute, court decision, or grant agreement as determined by the appropriate federal agency after the EOC has had an opportunity to present the matter to the appropriate federal agency. Once the Master Plan is fully implemented, all Site-Generated Revenues shall be used for transit projects within the RTD and DRCOG region boundaries consistent with the DRCOG long-range regional transportation plan. RTD has allocated all of the site generated revenues to furthering the vision for Union Station. RTD has made improvements to the historic station including a new tile roof that is consistent with the original roof material and restoration of the metal mansard on the Train Room. Future use of Site- Generated Revenues will be part of the agreements implementing the 2004 Master Plan.
8. All uses of the Union Station Site shall be planned, constructed and operated so as to not adversely impact the Master Plan Transportation Facilities or any other Master Plan element as determined by the permanent governance structure. The Transit District fully implements the transportation facilities articulated in the 2004 Master Plan. The transportation components will be fully operational for FasTracks lines, Amtrak, and Ski Train and will allow for concurrent private development and public spaces.
Principles of Governance from the Executive Oversight Committee
DENVER UNION
STATION


45
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Sustainablity as an Overarching Principle


48
SUSTAINABILITY AS AN OVERARCHING
PRINCIPLE
In the few years since the adoption of 2004 Master
Plan, global events have focused significant
attention on sustainability. The partner agencies
anticipate that technology in this area will continue
to improve at a rapid pace in the near future. This
plan documents the current goals and policies of each
of the partner agencies as aspirations for the design
and construction of the Transit District. The term
sustainability has many definitions; following are a
few common understandings of the term, as reported
by staff to the RTD Board of Directors:
Sustainable development meets the needs of
the present without compromising the ability of
future generations to meet their own needs.
Sustainable development is the achievement
of continued economic development without
detriment to the environment and natural
resources.
The goal of sustainable transportation is to
ensure that environmental, social, and economic
considerations are factored into decisions
affecting transportation activity.
The partner agencies all recently have updated their
sustainability goals. Though these goals are not
requirements, they will serve as aspirations for the
design and construction of the Transit District.
Colorado Department of Transportation
In April 2007, Governor Ritter signed Executive
Order D0011-07 to provide clear guidance and
directive to all state agencies and offices in the
greening of state government in the State of
Colorado. These goals will apply to all Denver
Union Station work directly accounted to CDOT
or other state-initiated actions as part of the Transit
District. The goals for state agencies and offices
include the following:
DENVER UNION
STATION
Energy Management
By fiscal year 2011-2012, achieve at least a
20 percent reduction in state facilities energy
consumption from fiscal year 2005-2006 levels.
By January 2008, develop or update an energy
management plan and ensure the development
of a study determining the feasibility of energy
performance contracting for all state owned
facilities.
On an ongoing basis, assess and implement,
where effective, the development of state
renewable-energy projects with the support of
the Governors Energy Office.
Materials and Resource Management
By fiscal year 2008-2009, develop purchasing
policies to reduce the states environmental
impact as a consumer of products and services.
Adopt a goal of zero waste from the construction
of new buildings and the operation and
renovation of existing facilities.
Achieve a paper-use reduction goal of 20 percent
by fiscal year 2011-2012 using fiscal year 2005-
2006 as a baseline.
Achieve a reduction in water consumption goal
of 10 percent by fiscal year 2011-2012, using
fiscal year 2005-2006 as a baseline.
The Department of Personnel and
Administration, in cooperation with the
Department of Public Health and Environment,
shall develop purchasing policies for selecting
environmentally preferable products.
Vehicle Petroleum Consumption
By June 30, 2012, achieve a 25 percent
volumetric reduction in petroleum consumption
by state vehicles, measured against a fiscal year
2005-2006 baseline, while increasing energy
efficiency of the fleet (excluding vehicles used
for law enforcement, emergency response, road
maintenance, and highway construction).
By December 1, 2007, complete a transportation
efficiency audit addressing methods for
improving the environmental efficiency of the
state fleet.
City and County of Denver
(adapted from www.Denvergov.org)
In October 2007, Mayor Hickenlooper signed
Executive Order 123 to create the Greenprint Denver
Office and establish the citys sustainability policy
and position as a national leader in sustainability.
The Executive Order includes several measures to
promote sustainability throughout city operations.
The Greenprint Denver Offices intent is to develop
and implement solutions to resource challenges and
to work with city agencies to ensure that all city
policy and program decisions incorporate triple
bottom line analysis, balancing short and long-term
economic, social, and environmental considerations.
Goals include:
Green Building and Energy Conservation
All applicable new city building construction and


major renovations will be built and certified to the
U.S. Green Building Councils Leadership in Energy
and Environmental Design LEED-NC (New
Construction) Silver standard, and achieve Energy
Star status. All capital improvement projects and
existing and future city-owned and operated facilities
shall incorporate all appropriate LEED standards.
Vehicle Replacement and Operation
Replace light-duty vehicles with hybrids, alternative
fuel vehicles, or the most fuel-efficient and least-
polluting vehicles available as older vehicles are
phased out. Diesel-powered vehicles will use at
least 20 percent B20 biodiesel. A Green Fleet
Committee will be established to ensure the city
procures and operates a fleet of vehicles that
minimizes environmental impact, enhances domestic
energy security, and maximizes fuel efficiency and
diversification.
Materials and Waste Management
All agencies shall direct efforts to use recycling
services and pursue integrated waste management
strategies that include reducing consumption,
collecting used materials for reuse or recycling,
and purchasing cost-competitive recycled and
recyclable products. Construction projects will use
concrete consisting of at least 20 percent fly ash, and
construction and demolition waste will be recycled.
All city employees shall take measures to reduce
waste and reuse resources whenever possible, such
as using electronic media in place of paper and dual-
sided printing and copying, reducing font sizes and
margins in documents, and purchasing paper with at
least 35 percent post-consumer content.
Water Conservation
The city will demonstrate wise water use in city
facilities, buildings, and parks through identification
of water inefficiencies and implementation of water
conservation projects to improve plumbing fixtures,
irrigation systems, cooling towers, kitchen
operations, swimming pool operations, laundries,
and other water uses.
Environmental Public Health Policy
All city employees and contractors must be
familiar with and follow the citys Environmental
Public Health Policy, included with the Executive
Order as Memorandum 123-F.
Regional Transportation District
In October 2006, the Regional Transportation
District board adopted a sustainability policy
to propose that agencys goals towards more
sustainable practices, including:
Developing and adopting best practices for
sustainable design, construction, operations,
and maintenance.
Training RTD staff in sustainable design
practices and sponsoring a select group
of RTD personnel to become LEED
Accredited Professionals.
Hiring FasTracks corridor consultants that
have experience with sustainability and the
LEED program.
Evaluating adoption of LEED as a standard
for new RTD transit buildings and major
additions/renovations.
Incorporating LEED guidelines into
design standards and/or requiring LEED
certification. (Three new FasTracks
maintenance facilities are candidates for
LEED certification.)
Investigating the use of many sources of
electrical energy, including renewable sources
to power trains.
Evaluating the incorporation of energy-
saving features in maintenance facilities,
including using solar space heating and new
technologies such as SolarWall or equivalents
49
to complement building heating, and using solar
hot water heating for vehicle washing and staff
needs.
Evaluating the incorporation of LEED
practices and Urban Drainage and Flood Control
District (UDFCD) best management practices in
Transit Centers, Park-n-Rides, shelters, and
corridor projects.
Improving stormwater quantity and quality by
using locally accepted/encouraged best
management practices, such as pervious
pavement, wetlands, and bioswales for protection
of water quality.
Reducing light pollution while maintaining safety
and security standards.
Using water efficient landscaping and irrigation
systems.
Incorporating renewable energy (photovoltaic
cells) and low-energy light emitting diode (LED)
light sources with variable light output for energy
savings in bus shelters and rail stations.
Using local and recycled materials.
Using climate-sensitive building design,
including ground-source heating, ventilation, and
air-conditioning (HVAC).
Developing life-cycle costing analyses that
consider several scenarios, using estimates of
future energy prices from the U.S. Department of
Energy, the Energy Information Agency, the
Electric Power Research Center, and others.
Regarding Denver Union Station redevelopment
Preserving the historic character of the Denver
Union Station building.
Creating economic, environmental, and social
benefits, including more transportation services,
greater energy efficiency, improved mobility,
connections between metro-area communities,
and walkable mixed-use economic development.
Adopting climate-sensitive building and open
space design.
Investigating ground-source HVAC systems.
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50
DRCOG
In December 2007, the Denver Regional Council
of Governments (DRCOG) adopted the Metro
Vision 2035 Plan, the Denver regions updated
comprehensive plan for regional growth and
development (The Metro Vision 2030 Plan was
adopted by the DRCOG board of directors in January
2005). The Metro Vision Plan includes the following
policies regarding sustainable development, many
of which are relevant to Denver Union Station
development. Following are excerpts from the plan:
Sustainable development seeks to meet the needs
of the present without compromising the ability
of future generations to meet their own needs.
Sustainable development encompasses three
general regional policy frameworks: economic
development, environmental protection, and social
equity. Sustainable growth and development
manifests itself through compact development and
the implementation of building practices that aim to
preserve agricultural land and open space; conserve
and reclaim water resources; prevent water-quality
degradation; protect wetlands; conserve energy;
minimize traffic congestion and air pollution; reduce
the impacts of greenhouse gases; and maintain
economic viability.
Livable communities is a design concept that
considers the architectural and urban design elements
of the built environment and how they affect peoples
quality of life. Specifically, the livable communities
concept seeks to: promote compact, human-scale,
pedestrian-friendly communities; provide varied
housing, shopping, recreation, transportation, and
employment choices; encourage integrated mixed-
use development; preserve, restore, revitalize and
refill urban centers; give people the options of
walking, biking, and using public transit in addition
to driving; provide well-defined public places; create
a neighborhood identity; protect environmental
DENVER UNION
STATION
resources; and conserve open space, farms and
wildlife habitat.
As the regions planning organization, DRCOG,
through the Metro Vision 2035 Plan, seeks to
encourage appropriate stewardship of the regions
natural and built environments by working with local
communities to implement concepts of sustainable
development and livable communities in their current
and long-range planning activities. The Metro
Vision 2035 Plan contains many goals and policies
that either directly or indirectly promote sustainable
development and livable communities. These
include:
Managing the extent of urban development with
an urban growth boundary.
Developing higher-density, mixed-use, transit,
and pedestrian-oriented urban centers.
Recognizing freestanding communities and rural
town centers.
Minimizing semi-urban development.
Encouraging senior-friendly development.
Supporting a vital economy.
Providing safe, environmentally sensitive, and
efficient mobility choices for people and goods.
Establishing an integrated and permanent parks
and open space system.
Restoring and maintaining the chemical and
physical integrity of the regions waters.
Achieving and maintaining ambient air-quality
standards.
Minimizing exposure to excessive noise
associated with land use and transportation
activities.
Denver Union Station and its transit district have
inherent qualities that make it highly sustainable.
First and foremost, it is the hub of the regional transit
system, so it provides unprecedented access to jobs
and housing throughout the region. It is within the
downtown core, providing easy pedestrian, bike, and
shuttle access to the regions greatest concentration
of employment, largest event centers, and a wide
variety of neighborhoods and housing options. The
project also features reuse of one of Denvers best
known historic buildings-Denver Union Station.
Beyond these fundamental opportunities for more
sustainable lifestyles and transportation choices are
the opportunities for energy conservation, alternative
energy sources, recycling, and the multitude of large
and small actions that owners, residents, employees,
visitors, and transit riders will take in the future.


51
MASTER PLAN
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Acknowledgments


54
Union Station Advisory Committee
(USAC)
Tom Anthony
Bob Brewster
Pam Brown
Tracy Chastulik
Dana Crawford
Keith Dameron
Gary Desmond
Tami Door
Thomas Ema
Barbara Englert
Jon Esty
Barbara Gibson
Shannon Gifford, Co-Chair
Jerry Glick
Jim Graebner, Co-Chair
Lorraine Granado
Helga Grenderud
David Gundersen
Fabby Hillyard
Keith Howard
Miller Hudson
Robert Jackson
Walter Isenberg
Lane Ittelson
Brian Klipp, Co-Chair
Robin Kniech
Steve Kutska
Rich Maginn
Terry McCullough
Bert Melcher
Dave Moore
Jeff Nobel
DENVER UNION
STATION
David Pfeifer
Bill Pruter
Bill Roettker
Scot Rogers
Harvey Rothenberg
Dennis Rubba
Joanne Salzman
Ray Schoch
Thomas Slabe
Frank Sullivan
John Valerio
Jan Wagner
Bob Wilson
Petur Workman
Executive Oversight Committee (EOC)
Peggy Catlin, Colorado Department of
Transportation
Peter Park, City of Denver
Cal Marsella, Regional Transportation
District
Jennifer Schaufele, Denver Regional
Council of Governments
Project Management Team (PMT)
Ellen Ittelson, Peter Baertlein and Diane
Barrett, City of Denver
Jerry Nery, Doug Fritz and Gina McAfee,
RTD FasTracks
Elizabeth Kemp, Colorado Department of
Transportation
George Scheuemstuhl, Denver Regional
Council of Governments
Project Design Team
Parsons Brinckerhoff
CRL Associates, Inc.
DMJM Harris
Skidmore Owings & Merrill, LLP
Kiewit
Navjoy Consulting Services, Inc.
68 West Engineering
HCL Engineering and Surveying, LLC.
Hartwig and Associates, Inc.
Environmental Subcontractors
EME Solutions, Inc.
Hermsen Consultants
Hankard Environmental
Fehr & Peers
RMC Consultants
Goodbee & Associates, Inc.
Development Partner
Union Station Neighborhood Company


55
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Full Text

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3 Dear Fellow Citizens and Interested Readers : The Denver Union Sllllion Executive Ovel'!light Commi1te1: is proud to present the Denver Union Station MaJ>lcr Plan SupplemenL 11tis document ha s been developed with the help of the community, te Union SlationAdvisoryComminee, and the partner agencies (City and Cow1ty of Denver, Colorado Depamncnt Denver Regional Council of Governments, and the Regional fronsporlation District) lhm have been involved in lhe Denver Union Station over tl1e last four years since the 2004 Master Plan Their continued suppon oflh. is project and their time commitme111 has been essential to the development or this supplemem. All four agencies adopted the plan supplement during the Spring of200S. General Manager Regional Transportation District .. Deputy Executive Director Colorado Department ofTmnsportation 11te original vision for Denver Union Station has been maintained and strengthened in this supplement. The station will be "a multimo
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Denver Union Station Master Plan Supplement Table of Contents I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.....................................................6 II. INTRODUCTION............................................................13 A. Denver Union Station Master Plan (2004) .............14 1.Why Union Station?..............................................15 2.Why is a Supplement Needed?.............................15 Denver Union Station Related Studies.............15 Denver Union Station Events and Studies.......16 B.Vision and Goals .......................................................18 1. Transportation/Multimodal Center......................18 2. Urban Design and Neighborhood Integration.....18 3. Historic Preservation...........................................19 4 Development Feasibility.....................................19 5. Implementation and Governance.........................19 6. Sustainability.......................................................19 C.Bene ts and Expectations for the Transit District ........................................................................19 III. THE MULTIMODAL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM...........21 A.Transit District Plan and Transportation Elements .....................................................................24 1. Passenger Rail......................................................24 2. Light Rail Transit................................................25 3. RTD Express and Regional BUS..........................26 4. RTD Local Bus...................................................26 5. 16th Street Mall Shuttle and Downtown Circulator..............................................................26 6. Commercial Bus and Private Carrier...................27 7. Public Parking......................................................27 B. Transportation Program Phasing, Costs, and Funding ...................................................................28 C. Circulation ..................................................................28 1. Pedestrian Connections.........................................28 2. Bicycle Connections.............................................30 3. Private and Service Vehicles.................................31 IV. The Development Program .....................................33 A. Neighborhood Context ..............................................34 1. Lower Downtown.................................................34 2. Commons Neighborhood.....................................34 B. Private Development at Denver Union Station ....35 C. Historic Station Building ........................................35 D. Public Spaces ...........................................................35 1. Wynkoop Plaza..................................................37 2. 17th Street Promenade.......................................37 3. 18th and Wewatta Plaza.....................................38 4. Pedestrian Deck over Passenger Rail................38 5. The Outdoor Train Room..................................38 E. Principles of Urban Form ......................................38 1. Public Space........................................................38 2. Pedestrians...........................................................38 3. Bicycles................................................................39 4. Vehicle Access and Parking.................................39 5. Multimodal Connections.....................................39 6. Building Form and Placement.............................39 7. Historic Preservation...........................................39 8. Sustainability.......................................................39 F. Regulatory Framework for Denver Union Station ......................................................................39 1. Zoning..................................................................40 2. Landmark Designation.........................................41 3. General Development Plan..................................42 4. Design Standards and Guidelines........................42 5. Design Review Process........................................42 6. Governance..........................................................43 V. Sustainability as an Overarching Principle ............................................................47 1. Colorado Department of Transportation.......48 2. City and County of Denver...........................48 3. Regional Transportation District..................49 4. Denver Regional Council of Governments..49 5

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6community involvement. It is important to understand terms related to partner agencies and organizations used in the Supplement. The Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) refers to the formal entity formed by the partner agencies in 2001 through an intergovernmental agreement between the Regional Transportation District (RTD), the City and County of Denver (CCD), the Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT), and the Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG) to pursue a common interest in Denver Union Station. The Historic Station refers to the Denver Union Station Terminal Building, and includes the existing Train Room and wings as they exist today. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYVision Statement “ Denver Union Station will be a multimodal transportation hub of international signi cance and a prominent and distinctive gateway to downtown Denver and the region. Denver Union Station (DUS) will bring critical elements of public and private local, regional, statewide, and national transportation systems, existing and planned, together with private development and inspiring civic features. Denver Union Station will create an exciting setting that will improve the connections between all transportation modes, respect the character and historical signi cance of the station and its adjacent neighborhoods, and provide a stimulating environment for public activity and economic vitality.” Vision Statement for Denver Union Station, developed by the Executive Oversight Committee and the Union Station Advisory Committee, 2002The Denver Union Station Vision Statement since 2002 has guided the planning process for the rebirth of the historic Denver Union Station as a regional and statewide multimodal transportation center. The vision statement articulates the partner agencies’ and community’s high aspirations for the redevelopment of the station. Planning efforts have seen signi cant progress since the Regional Transportation District (RTD) with assistance from the partner agencies purchased the 19.5 acre Denver Union Station site in 2001. These efforts also have had to respond to changes in assumptions related to the FasTracks corridors, agency requirements, and funding realities. This Denver Union Master Plan Supplement (Supplement) reviews the accomplishments since adoption of the 2004 Master Plan, describes a new element, the Denver Union Station Transit District, and includes updated information about the transportation and private development components. The Supplement adjusts the Master Plan vision and set of expectations and how they will be accomplished. The signi cant changes between the 2004 Master Plan and the Supplement are: the reorganization of the transportation elements, the updated transportation program, and the addition of the Transit District to the overall plan. The majority of elements featured in the 2004 Master Plan remain intact and are not repeated in the Supplement. The accomplishments and additions discussed in the Supplement were possible as a result of extensive Architectural concept of the outdooor “Train Room” above the Passenger Rail station

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7The acronym DUS and the term “site” refer to the Denver Union Station site, which is the 19.5 acres encompassing most of the area from Wynkoop to Wewatta streets and 15th to 20th streets, including the Historic Station. This is the area RTD purchased in 2001, and it is the only property included in the 2004 Master Plan. The Transit District is geographically de ned as the area from Wynkoop Street to the Consolidated Main Line (CML) railroad tracks, and from 16th to 18th streets, also extending south and north to include the areas between 18th Street15th and 20th streets from the track side of the Historic Station to Wewatta Street. The Transit District includes Denver Union Station and some of the surrounding property involved in the master planning efforts documented in this Supplement. The Transit District encompasses the set of public and private improvements within the Transit District that are presented in the Supplement. These transportation, public space, and private development improvements will make Denver Union Station into the multimodal transportation hub of regional signi cance that was envisioned in 2002. The 2004 Master Plan and the Supplement will be used to guide decisions on how to incorporate future transportation elements into the Transit District. Elements of the Transit District Historic Station The Historic Station, the symbol of the project, will be the heart and soul of the Transit District. The exterior and interior of the Historic Station will be restored and rehabilitated to its historic prominence as a major transportation gateway to Denver. The interior Train Room will connect the east and west sides of the site and serve as a passenger waiting area. The plan envisions that the Historic Station will provide space for transportation and regional information, ticketing, rental car and airline counters, retail shops, the stationmaster’s of ce, and public uses. The north and south wings will be used for transportation support functions, such as baggage and check-in facilities, and for retail, restaurant, and of ce uses, much as they have been in the past. Passenger Rail Passenger rail includes both RTD regional passenger rail services and intercity heavy rail, such as Amtrak and Ski Train. The passenger rail facility will be located at-grade, adjacent to the Wewatta Street side of the Historic Station. The facility includes eight passenger rail tracks, plus a storage track for Amtrak and four passenger platforms and one service platform. The facility will accommodate RTD commuter rail, Amtrak, and the Ski Train, and will provide surplus capacity for future service or special trains. Platforms will be accessed several ways: at-grade from 16th Street, below grade from the Regional Bus Facility, or above from the pedestrian deck adjacent to the buildings along 18th Street. Track 1, which will be closest to the Historic Station, Denver Union Station Transit District 17th StreetChestnut Place16th Street 15th StreetWewatta Street Passenger Rail StationLight Rail StationDenver Union Station Wynkoop Street

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8will accommodate the East Corridor Line to Denver International Airport (DIA), and will be accessed directly from the station. Light Rail The light rail station will be located at-grade adjacent to the Consolidated Main Line and will be aligned with the terminus of 17th Street. The light rail station will have two tracks and platforms, with space to add one more track and platform when needed. All trains will arrive from and depart to the south. Arriving passengers will have a clear view of the Historic Station as an immediate orienting feature and will have easy access to the Mall Shuttle and Downtown Circulator for connections to the Historic Station or downtown destinations. RTD Regional Bus Facility The Regional Bus Facility, which will replace RTDÂ’s Market Street Station, will be located under 17th Street between the light rail station and the Historic Station. The facility will provide 22 bus bays serving RTD regional and express buses, the Downtown Circulator, and commercial buses. The facility will be climate-controlled and will connect pedestrians on moving walkways between the light rail platforms and the Historic Station and the passenger rail platforms. 16th Street Mall Shuttle and the Downtown Circulator The 16th Street Mall Shuttle and the Downtown Circulator will provide the main distribution means for passengers to and from downtown. The Mall Shuttle will be extended to provide a convenient connection adjacent to the light rail station, passenger-rail platforms, and the Historic Station. The Downtown Circulator will use 18th Street to access the Regional Bus Facility and connect the Transit District with the rest of downtown. Downtown Circulator stops will be provided at each end of the Regional Bus Facility to provide convenient access to and from light rail and passenger rail. Public Space The primary public spaces for the Transit District are Wynkoop Plaza, located on the east side of the Historic Station, and the 17th Street Promenade on the west. Wynkoop Plaza will be used as circulation space, outdoor eating and vending, and as a gathering space for small groups or events. This public space will provide views of the Historic Station faade as well as the faades of the historic structures across Wynkoop Street. It will enhance the Historic StationÂ’s setting, and create a vibrant and attractive pedestrian amenity that links the Historic Station and Transit District with the Lower Downtown Historic District (LoDo). To ensure that Wynkoop Plaza becomes a lively public space, it will have active uses along the plaza edges, along 16th and 18th streets, and within the plaza itself. The major public circulation space will be along the 17th Street Promenade. As the spine of the Transit District, the 17th Street Promenade provides a visual and physical connection between the Historic Station, major buildings, and all the major transportation modes. The promenade will be a busy circulation space, providing opportunities for small retail shops, cafes, and transportation services. Spaces along the Denver Union Station W y n k o o p P l a z a B e l o w G r a d e R e g i o n a l B u s F a c i l i t y L i g h t R a i l T e r m i n a l A t G r a d e P a s s e n g e r R a i l P a r k i n g S t r u c t u r e C h e s t n u t P l a c e W e w a t t a S t r e e t W y n k o o p S t r e e tC o n s o l i d a t e d M a i n L i n e1 6t hS t r e e t 1 7t hS t r e e t 1 8t hS t r e e t 1 9t hS t r e e t 2 0t hS t r e e t Major Transportation Components of the Denver Union Station Transit District

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9promenade will be designed at appropriate scales and will provide interesting elements for pedestrians making transit connections or traversing the site. The 17th Street Promenade will be anchored by two plazas-one just to the west of the passenger rail platforms, and the other just east of the light rail platforms-both with connections to the Regional Bus Facility. The deck above the passenger-rail area, another important public space, will be used as a transfer area for pedestrians making key connections to passenger rail, Wewatta Street, and parking. A large public space in front of the Light Rail Station at the terminus of 17th Street will provide an area for passengers to make connections from light rail to the Mall Shuttle and the Downtown Circulator. Another smaller public space will be provided at the northeast corner of 18th and Wewatta streets. This smaller plaza will be the counterpart to a new plaza that will be developed on the opposite corner of the intersection. It also will provide the main access for pedestrians over the passenger rail tracks from 18th Street, and will serve as the main connection to the public parking structure from the west side of Denver Union Station. Private Development There are six development parcels on the Denver Union Station site. The intent of the Transit District is to accommodate a dynamic and complementary mix of residential and commercial uses in buildings of the highest quality. The Transit District will include buildings with active ground oor uses fronting Wynkoop, Wewatta, and 16th, 17th, and 18th streets. The Transit District Plan reinforces the architectural character and scale of the Historic Station and provides an area of transition in urban design from LoDo to the Commons Neighborhood. For example, the site zoning allows for varying amounts of development under different height limits and setbacks. Pedestrian Circulation and Connection The 17th Street Promenade is the Transit DistrictÂ’s primary orienting and connecting spine. At street level, the 160-foot-wide boulevard provides a clear connection between the Historic Station and passenger rail, regional bus, and light rail services. The Regional Bus Facility will be located beneath the 17th Street Promenade, providing the choice of an open-air stroll along the Promenade or a weatherprotected connection with moving walkways below street level. The Promenade also includes escalators and elevators for vertical circulation from the bus concourse to all the street-level amenities, including connections to rail services, taxis, limousines, and shuttles. Simple-to-navigate pedestrian routes connect the site internally and with the surrounding neighborhoods, featuring safe and comfortable pedestrian street crossings within and at the perimeter of the Transit District. Careful consideration of pedestrian safety will be needed at the intersection of Wewatta and 17th streets, near the train shed and the below-grade bus facility, because of the especially high volume of people and vehicles. Pedestrians will access the site at 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th, Wynkoop, and Wewatta streets. The 16th Street corridor is now connected to the Highland neighborhood via three pedestrian/bike bridges over the Consolidated Main Line, the South Platte River, and Interstate-25 (I-25). Bicycles The Transit District maintains the areaÂ’s bicycle access to and from the regional and local bike trail system, and provides bicycle access to the at-grade light rail and passenger rail platforms, as well as convenient access to the Regional Bus Facility. The plan will improve bicycle ow between the Millennium Bridge and Wynkoop Street. Ample bicycle racks and lockers, situated at key locations, will be provided to encourage people to arrive at the site on bicycles but also to dismount before entering areas congested with pedestrians. Though the Transit District does not identify a location for a bike station where bicyclists could service their bikes, one is envisioned in the Historic Train Building, on the right-of-way, or elsewhere within the footprint of the Transit District. Like pedestrians, bicyclists can access the site on the street network at 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th, Wynkoop (dedicated lanes), and Wewatta streets, as well by the new bridges connecting 16th Street to the Highland neighborhood. A future bicycle connection is planned at 18th Street, over the Consolidated Main Line. Automobile Access and Parking Automobile access within the Transit District will be provided on Wynkoop, 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th, and Wewatta streets and Chestnut Place. Expansion of 16th Street will allow for through movements of the Mall Shuttle and new general purpose lanes that will improve connections to LoDo and the Commons Neighborhood, and will provide local traf c access to Denver Union Station. Primary drop-off zones for taxis, limousines, and private vehicles will be along Wynkoop and Wewatta Streets. This Supplement outlines the parking needed for on-site private development uses, as well as some additional public parking. Each private development building will provide its own parking. However, because the passenger rail runs beneath the building on 18th and Wewatta streets, some of that buildingÂ’s parking will be located in a structure between 18th and 19th streets. The market rate public parking also will occupy approximately 150 spaces in that structure.

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10 SustainabilityIn the few years since the adoption of the 2004 Master Plan, global events have focused signi cant attention on environmental sustainability. It is anticipated that sustainable technology will improve markedly in the near future. The Supplement documents the current goals and policies of each of the partner agencies as aspirations for the design and construction of the Transit District. Project Costs and Funding Sources The partner agencies have identi ed funding sources for up to $477 million in RTD, federal, and local dollars to construct the public elements of the Transit District. This matches the most recent cost estimate, and has given the partner agencies and Master Developer the con dence to move forward with the nal design and approval processes. Denver Union Station Transit District Bene ts The Transit District will accommodate light rail, passenger rail, and regional bus, as well as other public and private transportation services. The layout of the transportation components, public space, and development components creates clear and intuitive routes for pedestrians walking from one mode to another or from one destination to another. Perhaps most important, all of the transportation elements can be constructed at the same time, before the FasTracks stations become operable. This single phase of construction also allows for immediate public space construction and eliminates barriers to private development, such as the prospect of future underground construction activity. Bene ts of the Transit District will be realized throughout the city, metropolitan region, and Outdoor “Train Room” from the end of the passenger rail platforms state. The transportation hub will promote economic vitality by providing better access to housing, jobs, and commerce, and by improving connections for business, education, recreation, tourism, and services. Connections within the Transit District also will help people who are young, elderly, or disabled access transportation more independently.

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Introduction

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14Union Station Master Plan process. With extensive community involvement, the Executive Oversight Committee created a vision to guide redevelopment and serve as the basis for preparing the environmental impact statement (EIS), zoning the property, achieving historic landmark designation, and other future implementation actions. In September 2004, the four partner agencies adopted the Master Plan vision, framework, and practical guidelines to transform the Historic Station and the 19.5-acre site into a multimodal transportation center serving the Denver region and the state of Colorado. The multimodal concept intended to bring together many means of transportation in one place with logical, safe, and convenient transfers. It was anticipated that the concurrent design and construction of the siteÂ’s transportation and development elements would provide mutual advantages and ef ciencies. The 2004 Master Plan detailed the bene ts and complexities of combining all of the regionÂ’s ground transportation modes at one hub. It created the opportunity for Denver Union Station to enhance the value of local, metropolitan region, state, and federal investments in highways, high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes, light rail, passenger rail, buses, parking, bike paths, and pedestrian networks. The INTRODUCTIONThe purpose of the Denver Union Station Master Plan Supplement is to update the 2004 Master Plan by: Reviewing the accomplishments of related planning efforts since adoption of the 2004 Master Plan; Reiterating the major elements of the 2004 Master Plan that have not changed; Describing the Denver Union Station Transit District; and Updating the transportation and development programs. Denver Union Station Master Plan (2004) The Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) was formed in 2001 through an intergovernmental agreement between the Regional Transportation District (RTD), the City and County of Denver (CCD), the Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT), and the Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG) to pursue a common interest in Denver Union Station (DUS). After RTD with assistance from the partner agencies purchased Denver Union Station in 2001, RTD, CCD, CDOT, and DRCOG jointly initiated the Denver An illustration of the Denver Union Station Transit District, submitted by the Union Station Neighborhood Company, renders a vision for public and private site improvements 2004 Denver Union Station Master Plan

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15multimodal hub concept also allowed for expanding the transportation network statewide through private bus and rental car services and internationally by linking to Denver International Airport (DIA). The 2004 Master Plan envisioned restoring Denver Union Station as a gateway to downtown Denver, the metropolitan region, and the state of Colorado. Why Denver Union Station? Denver is the primary intersection of transportation modes and corridors serving the region and the state. State and regional road and rail networks, interstate highways, light rail, and bike paths all converge in or near Downtown Denver. The city and its transportation infrastructure create the gateway to the metro region, the state, and the Rocky Mountain West. In the 1980s, as the Denver region studied light rail and passenger rail, planners identi ed the need for a central point of connection. The best location for this hub soon came into focus: Denver Union Station. Located in the stateÂ’s geographic heart and its capitol city, as well as its busiest downtown, Denver Union Station enjoys: existing rail lines that allow easy access for new lines, convenient highway connections, a Historic Station building prime for more active use, adjacent sites for complementary transitsupportive development, a central location near the regionÂ’s major entertainment venues and densest employment center, a location within a highly walkable downtown, and proximity to an extensive bicycle network, including the South Platte River Greenway and Cherry Creek bike path systems. Through extensive study, planning, design, and public feedback gathered during the 2004 Master Plan preparation process, the Denver Union Station site was con rmed as the best location for a multimodal facility that takes advantage of its geography and transportation infrastructure. Why is a Supplement Needed? While much of the 2004 Master Plan remains relevant, subsequent events and studies related to the Denver Union Station site indicated the need to update information about the proposed treatment of various transportation and development elements and to extend the geographic scope of the plan to include the areas along 17th Street to the Consolidated Main Line. Denver Union Station Related Studies Colorado Department of Transportation Studies I-25 HOT Lanes: CDOT and the Colorado Tolling Enterprise (CTE) changed the operations of the I-25 HOV lanes to high-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes on June 1, 2006. The change allows single occupant vehicles (SOVs) to use the HOV lanes for a fee. Existing users, including carpools, vanpools, and buses, continue to use the facility free of charge. As a result of the conversion from HOV to HOT lanes, these lanes, which end at 19th Street, now potentially carry more traf c, which could increase travel time and the number of visitors to Denver Union Station. Public Bene ts and Costs Study: Front Range rail passenger service is dependent on the relocation of north/south through-freight-rail movements out of the Denver metro area. CDOT completed a Public Bene ts and Costs Study in May 2005, which explored opportunities to relocate freight operations so Denver Union Station could become more accessible for future passengers. The study considered an Eastern Plains bypass rail line for Wyoming-to-Texas coal traf c, and found a wide range of public bene ts, as well as private bene ts for the Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad and the Union Paci c Railroad. These bene ts included the opportunity to use the current Front Range rail line for future passenger services. Colorado Railroad Relocation Implementation Study: In 2007, CDOT began a follow-up study, currently underway, to better understand the steps needed to form partnerships, de ne a project scope, and identify possible funding and nancing for relocating railroad lines. The study also is assessing how to secure environmental clearances to relocate signi cant freight rail movements away from the congested communities along the Front Range. Rocky Mountain Rail Authority: In 2007, CDOT awarded funds to the Rocky Mountain Rail Authority (RMRA), an intergovernmental authority created to conduct a high-speed passenger rail feasibility study for the I-25 and Interstate-70 (I-70) corridors. The high-speed rail feasibility study is analyzing how a new rail service would interface with the Transit District. Downtown Multimodal Access Plan (DMAP) The CCD, working with RTD and CDOT, adopted the Downtown Multimodal Access Plan (DMAP) in December 2005. This plan identi es improvements needed for the downtown Denver transportation system to complement FasTracks. Among other recommendations, DMAP highlights the need for a Downtown Circulator on 18th and 19th streets to supplement the 16th Street Mall Shuttle and improve the movement of people between Denver Union Station, employment concentrations in middowntown, and the Civic Center.

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16Downtown Area Plan In 2006, the Downtown Denver Partnership and the CCD initiated a new Downtown Area Plan process to replace the highly successful 1986 Downtown Area Plan. This most recent Downtown Area Plan was adopted in July 2007. Recommendations include refurbishing the 16th Street Mall, focusing more attention on the named streets as important connectors across downtown, capitalizing on the Downtown Circulator as an important public investment in the heart of downtown, and adding more jobs, residents, retail, and visitors to downtown. The plan recognizes the importance of Denver Union Station as the regional transit hub, and advocates for developing it consistent with the vision, goals, and principles of the 2004 Master Plan. FasTracks Corridor Environmental Studies All of the FasTracks corridors are in various stages of planning and completing environmental impact studies. As project plans have developed, some aspects of the 2004 FasTracks Plan, such as re ned alignments, station locations, and in some cases modes, have changed in some corridors. The most signi cant change for the Transit District was establishing the Gold Line as commuter rail, rather than light rail. These proposed improvements were described and evaluated in the Denver Union Station Draft Environmental Impact Statement (Draft EIS). Sustainability Since adoption of the 2004 Master Plan, each of the partner agencies has adopted or updated their sustainability goals. Though these goals are not requirements, they will serve as aspirations for the design and construction of the Transit District. Denver Union Station Events and Studies Executive Oversight Committee Since adoption of the 2004 Master Plan, the EOC, which consists of one representative from each of the four partner agencies (CCD, CDOT, DRCOG, and RTD), has met regularly. Consistent with the intergovernmental agreement and its amendments, the EOC has continued to seek and secure funding to monitor re nements to the transportation program and the environmental impact assessment process, and to oversee public involvement and developer solicitation processes. These efforts have provided new information, which has changed the assumptions for the Master Plan Supplement. FasTracks In November 2004, the Denver metro region’s voters approved a sales tax increase to fund the FasTracks regional transit plan. FasTracks provided part of the funding required to construct the public elements of the 2004 Master Plan—speci cally funding for construction of transit improvements that would make Denver Union Station function as a regional multimodal transportation hub. The Rebirth of Union Station: A Vision for the Plaza Following adoption of the 2004 Master Plan, rezoning the site for transit mixed-use (T-MU-30) development, and achieving landmark designation for the Historic Station and its environs, a consortium including CCD and Friends of Union Station contracted with Project for Public Spaces, Inc. (PPS) and Civic Results to undertake a public process to explore potential uses of Wynkoop Plaza. PPS led a public workshop in April 2005 to elicit ideas for a vibrant and attractive new public space that also supports the practical functions of the transportation facility and planned development, as laid out in the 2004 Master Plan. The PPS report, “The Rebirth of Union Station: A Vision for the Plaza,” was released in August 2005. A summary statement in the report suggests the potential of the Denver Union Station Plaza to: FasTracks Corridor Plan Project for Public Spaces “2005 Wynkoop Plaza Report”

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17“attract a wide range of users, from commuters and visitors to families with children, with an everchanging cavalcade of events and activities, in a space designed to be adaptable, green and shady. Workshop participants envisioned a place where people can retreat, meet friends, eat a take-out lunch, or read a book while waiting for a train, as well as a place with more active uses such as markets, fairs, performances, and sport-related activities. The buildings surrounding the plaza should provide an active edge a “front porch” with uses that spill out into the plaza –from which diners and shoppers can observe and participate in the life of the plaza. The plaza space should feel like it extends across Wynkoop Street and, on weekends or for special events, the street could even be closed to traf c.” Master Developer Selection Early on, the Executive Oversight Committee recognized that the 2004 Master Plan was a longterm effort that would take many years to implement fully. The EOC engaged a private development entity to reduce the implementation time for transportation elements and to help fund the effort. The EOC also recognized the bene t of including a private developer in the process as important design decisions were made. In November 2006, after an extensive solicitation process, Continuum Partners, LLC, East-West Partners, and their development team were selected as the Master Developer to begin exclusive negotiations with the Executive Oversight Committee. The EOC made this selection because the Continuum/East-West proposal outlined a way to accomplish the transportation and development goals of the 2004 Master Plan in a single phase, using the concept of a Transit District. The Transit District concept also enabled development to begin sooner, resulting in a viable transportation and development asset much earlier than expected with the 2004 Master Plan. Continuum and East West formed the Union Station Neighborhood Company (USNC) to undertake the design, construction, and development of Denver Union Station and the Transit District. USNC entered into a letter of intent agreement with the EOC outlining speci c commitments to construct the transportation components by late 2012. Denver Union Station Transit District aligns major transportation elements on the 17th street axis with mixed-use development and civic spaces.Chestnut Place16th Street 15th Street 18th StreetWewatta Street Passenger Rail StationLight Rail StationDenver Union Station17th StreetWynkoop Street

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18Letter of Intent In January 2008, the EOC and USNC entered into a Letter of Intent (LOI) agreement that outlines the responsibilities and arrangements for the partner agencies and Master Developer. The LOI allows the Master Developer to proceed with the contract and design work needed to build the project. The major elements covered in the LOI include: A de nition of deadlines and deliverables for a 30 percent design package. A description of the required elements of a design-build contract, including provisions for development of transit and other public improvements, such as plazas, walkways, pedestrian connections, and renovation of the Historic Station. A determination of appropriate master developer fees and a payment schedule. Timelines for the appraisals and sale of surplus Denver Union Station land, and Market Street Station and subsequent construction timelines. A statement that architectural design and public spaces for this important project will include nishes commensurate with the expectations of the partner agencies and the community. Expectations for the renovation of the Historic Station. Next steps for -completing the nal environmental impact statement (FEIS); -establishing legal structures for issuing debt and executing and managing the design-build contract; -determining agreements for creating a Downtown Development Authority, a structure for use and ownership of the Historic Station, formal development agreements, and bond documentation. Vision and Goals The 2004 Master Plan Vision and Goals statements were created to guide the future redevelopment of Denver Union Station. These statements were prepared jointly by the Executive Oversight Committee, the Union Station Advisory Committee, and the Technical Advisory Committee. The vision and goals remain valid for this Master Plan Supplement and are reiterated here exactly as they appear in the original 2004 Master Plan. Denver Union Station Vision Statement Denver Union Station will be a multimodal transportation hub of international signi cance and a prominent and distinctive gateway to downtown Denver and the region. Denver Union Station will bring critical elements of the public and private local, regional, statewide, and national transportation systems, both existing and future, together with private development and inspiring civic features. Denver Union Station will create an exciting setting that will improve the connections between all transportation modes, respect the character and historical signi cance of the station and its adjacent neighborhoods, and provide a stimulating environment for public activity and economic vitality Denver Union Station Goals Statement Transportation/Multimodal Center Develop a public transportation facility that will: Serve as the hub of the regional transportation system. Ensure that all modes function together to optimize ef ciency for each mode and the whole system. Provide connections for all transportation modes into and throughout the Denver region. Increase transit ridership and use of other forms of public and private transportation and alternative transportation modes. Provide more ground transportation options. Accommodate all ground passenger modes, both public and private, to the greatest extent feasible on the site. Create a system of orientation and transfer between transportation modes that allows for simple and ef cient connections for travelers. Support the regionÂ’s major activity centers and destinations by providing easy access and seamless connections. Provide transportation options and uses that are consistent with the Metro Vision Plan. Provide the opportunity for connections to and between local, regional, statewide, and national transportation systems and networks. Urban Design and Neighborhood Integration Develop a plan with pedestrian-friendly urban design elements that: Ensure the mass, scale, orientation, and architecture of the redeveloped Denver Union Station site and private development are harmonious with the Historic Station and the surrounding neighborhoods. Encourage a mix of land uses on the site that creates appropriate densities of development compatible with neighborhood plans and concepts. Connect downtown, the Central Platte Valley, and the adjacent neighborhoods, emphasizing pedestrian and bicycle connections to and through the development, easy access to transportation, and an active, attractive environment. Create a positive user experience for the Denver Union Station multimodal transportation center and related on-site development. Provide for the creation of public spaces. Original 1881 Station After the Fire in 1894 1895 Station

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19Historic Preservation Develop a plan that: Provides for the preservation of the Historic Station building. Regarding new development, complements the form, architecture, and character of the Historic Station and the surrounding neighborhoods. To the greatest extent feasible, physically and functionally incorporates the Historic Station into the multimodal transportation hub. Development Feasibility Develop a plan that maximizes the opportunities for public/private development that supports transportation ridership, serves neighborhood needs, functions as a regional and statewide amenity, generates project revenues to help offset costs, and enhances the downtown environment. Develop a nancing package that optimizes the use of funding from federal, state, local, and private sources. Integrate transportation and development in an economically sustainable phasing and buildout strategy that takes advantage of available funding and public/private partnerships. Implementation and Governance Develop a plan that provides for governance of the Denver Union Station site that is appropriate for a public/private facility, that does not put undue risk and burden on the taxpayers, and that provides opportunities for private partners and users. Ensure that the long-term ownership and governance structure for the Denver Union Station site incorporates strict standards for quality and cost-effectiveness regarding facility design, workmanship, operations, and maintenance. Sustainability Meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Use approaches that have net-positive effects on the local environment, social well-being, and economic health. Bene ts and Expectations for the Denver Union Station Transit District As described below, the transportation and private development elements of the Denver Union Station Transit District will bene t the city, metropolitan region, and state. The transportation hub will promote economic vitality by providing citizens better access to housing, jobs, and commerce, and improved connections for business, recreation, tourism, and services. Connections within the Transit District also will bene t the young, the elderly, and the disabled by helping them access employment, shopping, and leisure activities more independently. Some of the Denver Union Station Transit District bene ts are that it: Aligns major transportation elements on the 17th Street axis for easy way nding and passenger orientation. Allows all major transportation components— light rail, regional bus, and passenger rail—to be constructed in a single phase, thereby opening the site for private development and avoiding the long-term disruption future construction of these elements would cause. Establishes new high-quality public spaces for the enjoyment of transit users and central Denver residents and visitors, and allows Wynkoop Plaza to be constructed in its nal form early in the construction phase. Creates simple and convenient access to and connections between transportation modes, thereby increasing transportation choices and enhancing time effectiveness and traveler comfort for tens of thousands of regional commuters, residents, and visitors every day. Re-establishes Denver Union Station as a major transportation hub for downtown Denver, the metropolitan area, and the state, with the restored historic building as the icon and central orienting feature. Facilitates seamless, ef cient connections among urban centers throughout the region, expanding workforce mobility, housing options, and access to essential services, entertainment venues, and shopping for people of all ages, needs, and means. Links the important values of historic preservation, transportation ef ciency, and economic development by enhancing the use of the Historic Building, creating jobs, generating tax revenues, and attracting tourists and travelers to the Denver metropolitan area. Provides space for new economic activity, a variety of jobs, and a range of housing types and prices. In doing so it provides thousands of onsite jobs through of ce, retail, and transportation uses, and provides construction jobs through multimillion dollar investments in development, historic rehabilitation, transportation, and infrastructure. Provides new pedestrian and bicycle links to connect LoDo and the Commons Neighborhood through the site. The Transit District meets and reinforces the vision and goals established in the 2004 Master Plan. It provides the greatest bene t for all aspects of the endeavor, balancing the needs of transportation, private development, and the pedestrian environment. 1933 Castlewood Canyon Flood 1914 Station Mizpah on Welcome Arch

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Multimodal Transportation Program

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22 THE MULTIMODAL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM The multimodal hub will blend many different transportation modes in one place with convenient transfers and connections. This critical mass of transportation services will encourage dynamic redevelopment and give the regionÂ’s residents and visitors an array of transportation choices. The transportation program aims to serve a large number of visitors. Understanding how large the number of transit riders will be is important to effective circulation. A common measurement of visits to the site re ects the total level of transportation activity expected from all modes. A visit is AM Peak Hour Transit Transfers and Through Trips at DUS 2030 Build TO Mode PedMallCircReg./Exp.LRTCRT TotalFromPed 386 211 10 23 49 679 Mall 79 20 56 120 275 Circ 79 10 31 66 186 Reg./Exp. 167 405 223 200 140 205 1,340 LRT 681 1,655 909 75 200 500 4,020 CRT 1,265 3,072 1,688 125 610 400 7,160 Total 2,271 5,518 3,031 440 1,060 1,340 13,660 PM Peak Hour Transit Transfers and Through Trips at DUS 2030 Build TO Mode PedMall CircReg./Exp.LRTCRT TotalFromPed 79 79 167 681 1,265 2,271 Mall 386 405 1,655 3,072 5,518 Circ 211 223 909 1,688 3,031 Reg./Exp. 10 20 10 240 75 125 480 LRT 23 56 31 140 200 610 1,060 CRT 49 120 66 205 500 400 1,340 Total 679 275 186 1,380 4,020 7,160 13,700 CRT STATION LRT STATION CIRCULATOR STOP (BELOW GRADE) CIRCULATOR STOP (BELOW GRADE) SHUTTLE STOP SHUTTLE STOP18TH STREETCOMMONS NEW DEVELOPMENT16TH STREETBUS STATION (BELOW GRADE) Section of Passenger Rail between 16th and 17th Streets Pedestrian Flow Diagram showing general passenger ow between modesChestnut Place17th Street 16th Street 18th StreetWewatta Street Wynkoop StreetSource: RTD19th Street

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23 de ned as a transit patron entering and leaving the Transit District, thus a patron who passes through twice a day makes two visits. More than 200,000 typical weekday visits to the Transit District are expected at full build out. Of these, the vast majority of visits will occur via RTD transit, and are calculated using projected boardings (getting on a transit vehicle), alightings (getting off a transit vehicle) and through trips (not changing transit vehicles). For pedestrians, a boarding is de ned as a pedestrian walking to the Transit District, while an alighting is a pedestrian walking from the Transit District. Other transportation services and the retail, commercial, and residential development in the Transit District will attract thousands of additional visits. Transportation ProgramRevised 1/17/08 Number of reqÂ’d tracks/ Track No. /share with Platform Length COMMUTER RAIL (8 track) FrequencyAmtrak1 req / track #4 / track #51115Â’2/day Ski Train1 req / track #5 / track #41115Â’2/day (seasonal) East Corridor 1 req / track #1 / NA985Â’4/hr. Northwest Corridor1 req / track #8 / NA985Â’4/hr. Gold Line2 req/track #6 and #7/NA615Â’/500Â’8/hr. North Metro1 req / track #2 500Â’4/hr. Future Commuter Rail CapacityTrack #3615Â’ Intercity Rail (North Front Range)TBDTBD2/hr. Intercity Rail (South Front Range)TBDTBD2/hr. Additional Capacity at non-peak times LIGHT RAIL (2 Track)Light Rail West Corridor1 req/ all400Â’12/hr. Light Rail SE/SW Corridors1 req / all400Â’8/hr. Platte Valley TrolleyNANA REGIONAL BUS (22 Bays) No. of BaysRTD Regional Bus16(10) 45Â’ bays, (6) 65Â’ baysCommercial Bus2(2) 45Â’ baysDowntown Circulator4(4) straight bays OTHER BUSLocal BusNoneNone16th Street Mall Shuttle (@DUS)8 (4 EB/4 WB)45Â’ slips16th Street Mall Shuttle (@LRT)445Â’ slips Tour Buses (Interstate)Share w/Commercial Bus45Â’slips1/day Charter BusesShare w/Commercial Bus-COMMERCIAL CARRIERS No. of BaysTaxi15 positions-Rental Car30 parking spaces-Vans and Shuttles3 positions-Ski Area Shuttles1 dedicated bay-Van PoolDrop off area-LimoDesignated loading zone-Courier ServicesDesignated loading zone-Taxi & Private Vehicle Curb Drop-off 8 spaces or positions-OTHER MODES No. of SpacesBicycleBike Station-PediCabOn Street (16th /or designated site)-Motorcycles / ScootersIn Parking Structure-Small Electric VehiclesIn Parking Structure-Horse Drawn CarriageOn Street (16th /or designated site)-PedestriansIncorporate into circulation system-On-Site Public Parking No. of Spaces Commercial Parking Facility150 spaces--Ski Train ---Amtrak---Transit Parking (RTD)---Total Public Parking150 spaces-This section of Passenger Rail at approximately 18th Street shows bus access to the Regional Bus Facility.

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24 Chestnut Place17th Street 16th Street 18th StreetWewatta Street Denver Union StationCMLWynkoop StreetAt-Grade Transportation Plan19th Street Transit District and Transportation Elements Passenger Rail On the west side of the Historic Building, the existing ve passenger rail tracks accommodate Amtrak and Ski Train rail services up to 1,100 feet long, with “tail tracks” that cross 16th Street and extend to Cherry Creek. Train access is provided to the site only from the north, over the 20th Street grade-separated structure. Denver Union Station has three lead tracks in the track throat north of 20th Street. One active pedestrian tunnel connects below the passenger rail tracks between the light rail platforms and the Historic Station. Under the Transit District, passenger rail service will be accommodated on eight at-grade tracks immediately west of the Historic Station. The tracks will stub end just to the north of 16th Street. The passenger rail program includes RTD’s Northwest, East, North Metro, and Gold passenger rail lines, existing Amtrak and Ski Train services, and capacity for occasional special trains and potential new rail services, as listed below: • Northwest Corridor: Passenger rail connections to Longmont, Boulder, Louisville, Broom eld, and Westminster • East Corridor: Passenger rail through east A cross section of the 17th Street spine shows (left to right) the Historic Station, passenger rail platforms, the Promenade, w ith below-grade bus facility, and light rail platforms. PROMENADE

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25 Denver and Aurora to Denver International Airport • North Metro Corridor: Passenger rail to Commerce City, Thornton, and Northglenn • Gold Line Corridor: Passenger rail to Adams County, Arvada, and Wheat Ridge • Intercity Passenger Rail: Amtrak and other potential regional and national rail service • Private Excursion Rail: Including Ski Train and Cheyenne Frontier Days service • I-70 Mountain Corridor: Potential new rail service to mountain communities • Front Range Rail: Potential new rail service between Denver, Fort Collins, and Loveland to the north and Colorado Springs and Pueblo to the south Platform lengths and widths for the passenger rail lines will vary depending on the program for each corridor. Denver Union Station can accommodate up to a 970-foot-long platform for RTD’s passenger rail lines. Platform width varies from 30 feet where the platform will be shared by two tracks to 15 feet wide where it will be used by one track. For Amtrak and Ski Train, there will be space for two passenger platforms, up to 1,100 feet long, to serve three locomotive trains with 13 cars each. These carriers run on infrequent schedules and have the longest dwell time at the station. Their schedule gaps will allow exibility to share platforms with other carriers. Denver Union Station also will have a longtracks service platform for baggage handling and instation maintenance. As part of the passenger rail improvements, the track throat north of 20th Street will be rebuilt to provide ve tracks with switches to improve ef ciency of operation and allow the passenger rail trains to access any platform. The current con guration provides adequate passenger rail capacity for the 2030-year planning horizon and beyond. These improvements will replace the functions of the existing tail tracks between 16th Street and Cherry Creek, thus allowing removal of these rail tracks. The public right-of-way under the removed tracks, a portion of which will be occupied by the ultimate Wewatta Street cross section, will be retained by CCD. Denver Union Station will continue to function as a “stub-end” station for passenger rail. This stub-end con guration requires all trains to enter and exit the station from the same direction (from and to the north). The long trains from Amtrak and Ski Train will generally back into the station. The commuter rail technologies under consideration will allow trains from the north to go in either direction to and from the station. The location of the rail at-grade will prevent a future through station from occurring at this location due to crossing con icts at 15th and 16th streets and Speer Boulevard. With the potential of new rail services emerging, the plan preserves the option to expand passenger rail services adjacent to the light rail station within the Consolidated Main Line property. Outside RTD’s peak hours, there also will be available capacity for new service at the stub-end passenger rail station. For through service, a passenger rail station adjacent to the light rail station at the Consolidated Main Line will be possible. This area will be located immediately next to and connected with the Transit District, with connections to light rail, the regional bus facility, and the Mall Shuttle and Downtown Circulator services. Light Rail Transit (LRT) Currently, the Southeast and Southwest light rail transit (LRT) lines arrive at-grade between the Historic Station and Wewatta Street. The Transit District Plan calls for LRT to be adjacent to the Consolidated Main Line. A plaza between the LRT and Chestnut Place will include a signature canopy to provide shade and weather protection and help create Site section looking west at the Passenger Rail Station

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26 As the only underground component of the Transit District, the Regional Bus Facility will be mechanically ventilated, and the ventilation stacks will be accommodated in the site design. RTD Local Bus Several local bus routes will continue to serve Denver Union Station and LoDo at street level and have curbside stops. These include the 20, 0, 6, 15, and 10B routes. The 20 route will continue to serve Wynkoop Street, and the other routes will be rerouted to Wewatta Street. 16th Street Mall Shuttle and Downtown Circulator The Transit District also will include new transportation services to help distribute passengers to downtown destinations. The 16th Street Mall Shuttle now terminates at Denver Union Station next to the “C” Line and “E” Line light rail platform. Under the Transit District, the Mall Shuttle will extend to a location adjacent to the new light rail station at the Consolidated Main Line. The Mall Shuttle will have four bus bays for passenger loading and unloading, and new space to stage four shuttle vehicles. Space for loading and unloading will be provided on 16th Street, next to the stub end of the passenger rail tracks and the light rail platform at the Consolidated Main Line. The Mall Shuttle will run in dedicated lanes and be separated from vehicle traf c between Wynkoop Street and the light rail station. On the basis of recommendations in the Downtown Multimodal Access Plan (DMAP), the Downtown Circulator will connect Denver Union Station to the employment center in mid-downtown and continue to Civic Center Station and the Civic Center cultural facilities. The DMAP has proposed a rubber-tire vehicle with service frequency similar to the 16th The Transit District will accommodate four-car LRT trains with 400-foot-long platforms. The width for the LRT tracks and platforms will be 100 feet. An additional 50 feet of space will be provided within the RTD right of way for a future third track and platform, if needed. The Transit District also includes space for tail tracks north of the platforms to store two four-car trains and to provide access to the other light rail tracks, which extend to approximately 19th Street. RTD Express and Regional Bus Currently, regional and express bus routes from the north and northwest metro area access downtown Denver via the HOV lanes next to 20th Street, and circulate adjacent to the Historic Station to access the Market Street Station via the 16th Street Mall. The Regional Bus Facility in the Transit District will replace Market Street Station. The Transit District locates the Regional Bus Facility below grade under the 17th Street right of way between the light rail platforms and the Historic Station. Buses will access and exit the facility from new ramps at either the HOV lane near 18th Street or at 18th Street and Chestnut Place. This will reduce the number of buses using the 16th Street Mall and circulating through Lower Downtown between Blake Street and Wynkoop Street. The bus facility will have 22 bays: 16 for RTD regional and express buses, four for the Downtown Circulator, and two available for other commercial carriers or new services. The bus facility will be approximately 1,000 feet long and 150 feet wide. Pedestrians will access the facility from the light rail platforms, the passenger rail platforms, the Historic Station, and at 17th and Wewatta streets. An emergency exit also will be located between Chestnut Place and Wewatta Street. Pedestrians will be able to circulate from end to end in a climate-controlled environment. a sense of arrival and orientation for transit users and other pedestrians. The 17th Street Promenade, the 16th Street Mall Shuttle, and Regional Bus Facility concourse will provide the primary connections between light rail, passenger rail, and the Historic Station. The LRT program within the Transit District includes: • West Line: Light-rail connections to Golden and Lakewood • Southeast Line: Light-rail connections to southeast Denver, Aurora, Centennial, Greenwood Village, and Lone Tree • Southwest Line: Light-rail connections to south Denver, Englewood, Littleton, Sheridan, and Highlands Ranch Denver Union Station Wewatta Street Chestnut Place Wynkoop Street18th Street 16th StreetLocated below-grade, under the 17th Street right-of-way, the Regional Bus facility provides 22 bays for bus routes that serve the city, region, and beyond.

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27 Street Mall Shuttle on 18th/19th streets and Lincoln/ Broadway between Denver Union Station and the Civic Center. It will provide service to passenger rail, regional bus, and light rail riders via the bus facility located beneath 17th Street. The Downtown Circulator will access the ramp into the Regional Bus Facility via 18th Street. Space will be provided in the Regional Bus Facility for the circulator to access two dedicated bus bays below passenger rail and two dedicated bus bays adjacent to the light rail station. The Downtown Circulator will provide service similar to the 16th Street Mall Shuttle to meet the demand for distributing passengers to the east end of downtown and Civic Center attractions. It will operate in both exclusive lanes and mixed traf c on 18th and 19th streets and Broadway and Lincoln. Of the approximately 11,000 peak hour trips with downtown origins or destinations, most will use the Mall Shuttle or Downtown Circulator. Of the 10,000 or so trips expected to occur via the Mall Shuttle or Downtown Circulator, the exact split between the modes is not known and will depend on the technology, route, and schedule of this new service. However, since the Mall Shuttle capacity will be approximately 6,000 passengers per hour, the Downtown Circulator will need to be designed to serve approximately 4,000 passengers per hour. 16th StreetWewatta Street Denver Union Stattion Chestnut PlaceLight Rail17th Street Shuttle Path The 16th Street mall shuttle route to light rail Commercial Bus and Private Carriers Commercial bus service, including intercity, international, charter, and tour bus carriers, will be accommodated in the Transit District. Two bus slips will be available for private commercial carrier bus during peak hours, with more slips available at nonpeak hours. RTD has an existing agreement with Greyhound to provide this access in their Market Street Station, and may extend this opportunity to Greyhound and other commercial bus companies at the new facility. Additional private carriers will support the Transit District, and may include taxis, limousines, vans, shuttle services, and auto rentals. These carriers add breadth, variety, exibility, and convenience to transit patrons, area employees, and residents, as well as tourists and shoppers. Space accommodations will be identi ed during the nal design process for private carriers to pick up and drop off passengers. The program for these services includes: • Taxis and Limousines: 15 curbside positions, as determined by CCD • Vans and Shuttle Services: 4 designated curbside positions, as determined by CCD • Auto Rentals: Market-rate space within structured parking Public Parking Public parking will be provided in the parking garage located between 18th and 19th streets. One level of parking in this structure will provide approximately 150 parking spaces, which can be used by the public at market rates. RTD has determined that a Park-nRide is not required within the Transit District, so no free transit parking will be provided. Shared-use parking provisions for evenings and weekends should be pursued with the on-site development.

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28 • Access will be provided from the Central Platte Valley side of Denver Union Station, using either the 16th Street or the pedestrian deck connection from 17th 18th and Wewatta streets. • Access will be provided to the Regional Bus Facility, with its east access point adjacent to the Historic Station. For pedestrians accessing the passenger rail system, there are many ways to arrive at the platforms: • From Wynkoop Street and Wynkoop Plaza, pedestrians will be able to access transit by walking through the plaza at each side of the Historic Station, or by going through the Historic Station. Pedestrians will be able to walk around the Historic Station exterior in a pedestrian plaza environment. The deck-level connection over passenger rail can be accessed via a grand stairway between the north wing of the Historic Transportation Program Phasing, Costs, and Funding The Transit District is based on a commitment that all the transportation components will be operating before the openings of the FasTracks corridors, according to the following schedule: Light Rail: Fall 2009 completion and operation Regional Bus Facility: Fall 2010 completion and 2012 operation Passenger Rail: Summer 2012 completion and operation Project Costs and Funding Sources Table Total Estimated Project Revenues RTD FasTracks $ 208,800,000 RTD Earmarks CO-097 (safetea-lu) $ 2,000,000 CO-520 (FTA 5309 Bus) $ 2,000,000 CO-167 (FTA 5309 Bus) $ 4,600,000 CDOT Earmark FHWA/CDOT Ear Mark (PNRS safetea-lu) $ 40,000,000 CDOT SB-1 $ 16,800,000 Metropolitan District $ 25,400,000 Surplus Land Sale $ 38,000,000 City Obligated Revenue $ 120,800,000 Other sources $ 18,600,000 Total Estimated Project Revenues $ 477,000,000Total Estimated Project Costs Light Rail Facility $ 35,000,000 Regional Bus Facility $ 205,000,000 Commuter Rail Facility $ 168,000,000 Street and Utilities $ 23,000,000 Plazas and Public Spaces $ 29,000,000 DUS Renovation $ 17,000,000 $ Total Estimated Project Costs $ 477,000,000Circulation Establishing easy-to-understand circulation for pedestrians, bicyclists, and drivers will be a key component of the Transit District. Pedestrians are de ned as those who walk or bike onto the site and exit via another mode, those who arrive via another mode and exit as a pedestrian or cyclist, and those who walk or bike both to and from the site. The majority of these trips are paired with either another transit or commercial carrier mode. Using this de nition, excluding on-site circulation, the Transit District expects approximately 35,000 pedestrians per day. Pedestrian Connections Convenient, attractive, and engaging pedestrian connections are important to the success of the Transit District. Pedestrian facilities will be provided on the site to enhance circulation around and through the Transit District. Pedestrian crossings with signals will be provided at the intersections on Wewatta at 16th, 17th and 18th streets, and on Wynkoop at 16th, 17th, and 18th to enhance the ability of pedestrians to access the Transit District from neighboring blocks. Pedestrians will be able to walk through the site in a variety of locations, and will have extensive choices for internal site circulation and transit connections. For pedestrians accessing the Historic Station and Wynkoop Plaza: • Easy pedestrian access will be available from Wynkoop, 16th, 17th and 18th streets to LoDo via the existing sidewalk system. Wynkoop Plaza will replace the parking lot that currently exists in front of the Historic Station. This plaza will be the front door to the multimodal facility and the Transit District from downtown. Pedestrian connections above passenger rail Wewatta Street Wynkoop Street Denver Union Station17th Street 18th Street

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29 Pedestrians have many options for circulating through the Denver Union Station site. 17th StreetLight Rail Chestnut Place16th Street 18th Street 19th StreetWewatta Street Denver Union Station Wynkoop Street15h Street Station and the new development. This deck level access will connect to the passenger rail platforms by stairs and escalators that also lead to the new development along Wewatta Street, the parking structure, and 18th Street. • From Wewatta Street, pedestrians will be able to access transit from 16th Street along the Mall, from 17th Street at the 17th Street Promenade, and from 18th Street to the parking garage and pedestrian deck over passenger rail. • From 16th Street, pedestrians will be able to walk directly to the passenger rail platforms, to the Historic Station’s west entrance, or around the rail platforms to 17th Street. • From the Regional Bus Facility, pedestrians will access passenger rail platforms via stairs and elevators. Platform 1, adjacent to the Historic Station building, also will have escalator access. For pedestrians accessing the Regional Bus Facility, there are many options to choose from, depending on the direction of travel: • From the Historic Station, access to the belowgrade Regional Bus Facility will be located directly out the west doors of the building to stairs, elevators, and escalators that descend to the facility’s main concourse. • To each of the passenger rail platforms via stairs and elevators. • Via stairs, elevators, and escalators from the east end of the 17th Street Promenade at 17th and Wewatta streets. • Access to the west end of the facility will be via stairs, elevators, and escalators from the light rail plaza. • An emergency access point will be located midblock between Wewatta Street and Chestnut Place. For pedestrians accessing the light rail facility at the terminus of 17th Street, there are many ways to

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30 Street from the Cherry Creek bike path to the south of the site at 14th Street. Wynkoop Street has dedicated bike lanes, and also is a good connection to Coors Field to the north at 20th Street. Bicycle access will be provided on 16th Street from the Central Platte Valley to the Millennium Bridge, Commons Park, and the South Platte River Greenway trail. Because of the dedicated Mall Shuttle lanes, bicycles will not be allowed east of Wynkoop Street on 16th Street (except on Sundays). Bicycle travel will be accommodated within the 115-foot right-of-way width between Chestnut Place and Wynkoop Street on 16th Street. Additional study will be needed to determine whether bicycle lanes, shared-use markings, and/or signs are the most appropriate circulation means in this area in the nal design of 16th Street. Bicycle access to Denver Union Station also will be available via 18th Street west of the site, using the future 18th Street pedestrian bridge across the light rail and Consolidated Main Line. This connection will have access to Commons Park and the South Platte River Greenway trail. Access to access the light rail platforms: • From 16th Street, pedestrians can walk from downtown and the Central Platte Valley on 16th Street, or access the Transit District from Commons Park via the Millennium Bridge and walk directly to the south end of the light rail platforms from the downtown side of the bridge. • From 17th Street, pedestrians can access Denver Union Station via sidewalks on both sides of 17th Street, crossing Chestnut Place to the transit plaza at the light rail station. Pedestrians also can access the transit plaza directly from the station through the Regional Bus Facility with its climate-controlled connection and moving walkway. • From 18th Street, pedestrians can connect directly to the north end of the light rail platforms if they arrive via the 18th Street pedestrian bridge over the Consolidated Main Line or walk from Denver Union Station or Wewatta Street. • Access will be provided via the 16th Street Mall Shuttle with a cross-platform transfer, or via the Downtown Circulator with direct access from the west end of the Regional Bus Facility. Bicycle Connections Bicycle access to the Transit District will allow a popular alternative transportation mode to connect with other transportation options. Bicycles will be allowed on all of the RTD transit modes (except the 16th Street Mall Shuttle), and good bicycle connections to, from, and through Denver Union Station will provide opportunities for people to access transit and make connections to the surrounding neighborhoods. Bicycles currently can access the site along Wynkoop Pepsi CenterSpeer Blvd. 15th St 16th St 18th St 20th St 19th St 18th StWynkoop St. Wazee St Blake St. Market St. Larimer Lawrence St. Arapahoe. I-25Coors FieldS. Platte River DUS Denver Bike Routes Existing Rail Line Bike/Pedestrian Bridges Proposed Denver Bike Routes Proposed Bike/Pedestrian Bridges New 18th St Pedestrian Bridge Millennium Bridge17th StProposed bike routes and pedestrian and bike bridges will extend Denver’s alternative transportation options Platte River Bridge

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31 the site will be via the elevator to the pedestrian deck over passenger rail at 18th and Wewatta streets. Space will be provided on site for a bike station, which will be equipped with secured bike parking, bike repair, bike accessories, and changing stalls. It may also include amenities such as bike rentals, restrooms, and a caf or snack bar. The bike station is intended to be a private concession, and is therefore contingent on a commitment of ongoing operating funds from an as-yet-undetermined source. InvertedU bike racks and bike lockers will be provided at key locations around the facilities for easy and convenient bicycle parking. Bicycles will be permitted within the Regional Bus Facility pedestrian concourse, but bicyclists likely will be required to dismount before crossing signi cant vehicle intersections or congested pedestrian areas within the Denver Union Station site. Bicycles will not be allowed to use the busway within the Regional Bus Facility. Private and Service Vehicles Private vehicles will enter the site and park in the various parking garages within private development along 16th Street, between Wynkoop and Wewatta streets. They also can enter and park from 18th Street at the intersections with Wewatta and Wynkoop streets. Service-vehicle access and re access will be provided to each of the private development buildings on the site. The pedestrian area directly behind the Historic Station will be used for service access at off-peak times and for emergency access.

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Development Program

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34Neighborhood Context For most of Denver Union StationÂ’s history, the Historic Station building has held the western edge of downtownÂ’s warehouse district, with the tracks and rail yards beyond creating a signi cant barrier. As the rail yards have redeveloped and tracks consolidated, the neighborhoods are coming much closer. Due to new development, the context has changed somewhat since 2004. Lower Downtown Adjacent to Denver Union Station and across Wynkoop Street is the Lower Downtown Historic District (LoDo). Approximately 2,000 people now live in LoDo. New in ll buildings have been tailored in massing, street orientation, and detailing to respect the districtÂ’s character, while also differentiating themselves as modern designs. All development activity is subject to design review by the Lower Downtown Design Review Board. Commons Neighborhood The Commons Neighborhood is located between the Denver Union Station site and the South Platte River. Formerly rail yards, this area will be developed to include as much as 6 million square feet of new of ce, commercial, retail, and residential uses. Zoning for the Commons area allows for larger-scale buildings compared to LoDo. Buildings of 140 feet in height are typical, with ve sites allowing buildings as tall as 250 feet. Considerable residential development has occurred on the west side of the Consolidate Main Line. Commons Park along the river is one of the amenities enjoyed by the neighborhood and central Denver residents. Much of the east side closest to Denver Union Station remains vacant. The Gates Corporation occupies the of ce building at 15th and Delgany, and a new of ce building at 16th Street and Chestnut Place is just starting construction. THE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM The Denver Union Station 2004 Master Plan and the Master Plan Supplement envision development of a regional multimodal transportation center that encourages private buildings on the site to create an active, economically successful, costeffective, and attractive urban place. The linking of land use and transportation in the Transit District is consistent with the goals of the Denver Comprehensive Plan 2000 and Blueprint Denver, the Downtown Area Plan (2007), and other local and regional plans. The redevelopment of Denver Union Station will be an asset to downtown by offering high-pro le addresses adjacent to LoDo and the Central Platte Valley, easy access for commuters, residents, visitors, and other patrons, high pedestrian volume for retail shops and restaurants, and reduced reliance on private vehicles. Including private real-estate development in the Transit District realizes several of the original goals related to urban design and neighborhood integration, historic preservation, and development feasibility by: Creating activity throughout the site at all times of the day, thus enhancing public use, appeal, and safety; Providing active pedestrian edges to complement the siteÂ’s perimeter streets and public spaces; Buffering the transportation-intensive uses; Making the project compatible with surrounding development; Providing attractive, usable connections between downtown and the Commons Neighborhood; and Creating an appropriate setting for the Historic Building, one of DenverÂ’s most important landmarks. In addition to the transportation program, four key features provide the framework for private development: the neighborhood context, private development at Denver Union Station, the Historic Station, and the public spaces. The following sections outline the desired urban form and the regulatory requirements for both public and private development at Denver Union Station. Private development parcels with in the Transit District will help create an active and economically successful regional multimodal transportation center. Chestnut PlaceWewatta StreetWynkoop Street16th Street 17th Street 18th Street 19th

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35The Transit District extends from Wynkoop Street to the Consolidated Main Line, incorporating Denver Union Station as well as connections through the Commons Neighborhood. The 17th Street Promenade provides the internal connection for the Transit District, providing access to all major elements. The 16th Street corridor connects Denver Union Station to Riverfront Park in the Commons Neighborhood via the Millennium Bridge, and the site is linked to the Highland neighborhood beyond via the pedestrian bridges over the Platte River and I-25. The 18th Street Pedestrian Bridge over the Consolidated Main Line, proposed by the Central Platte Valley Metro District, will provide better connections to the north end of the Commons Neighborhood. Private Development at Union Station There are six development parcels on the Denver Union Station site. The intent will be to accommodate a dynamic and complementary mix of residential and commercial uses in buildings of the highest quality. Denver Union Station’s T-MU-30 zoning allows for varying amounts of development under different height limits and setbacks to provide the urban design transition from lower downtown to the Commons Neighborhood. Historic Station Building The Historic Station is one of Denver’s iconic structures. Continuing and expanding the use of a historic railway station as a transportation facility will be a great accomplishment for the community. The continued use of the Historic Station as a transportation facility invites Denver Union Station into the company of great center-city stations such as New York’s Grand Central Station, Washington Union Station, and Los Angeles Union Station. The Historic Station will continue to have a prominent role in the Transit District. In addition to providing space for transportation functions such as ticketing, the Train Room likely will be the location for visitor information. The speci cs of other uses such as retail will await a more detailed program for the entire site. Retaining a meaningful set of circulation functions and public uses is an important goal for reactivating the Historic Station. Public Spaces The Transit District will have several signi cant public spaces: Wynkoop Plaza, the 17th Street Promenade from the east side of Wewatta to the light rail station, the corner of 18th and Wewatta, the pedestrian deck over passenger rail, and the Outdoor Train Room. Location Maximum Height Other requirements Potential Uses 1. 16th & Wynkoop (South Wing) 65 feet45-foot setback from Wynkoop Ground oor retail; of ce above (75,000 SF) 2. 18th & Wynkoop (North Wing) 65 feet45-foot setback from Wynkoop Ground oor retail; of ce above (75,000 SF) 3. 16th & Wewatta (Triangle) 140 feetOf ce or hotel; ground oor retail (200,000-217,500 SF) 4. Wewatta, 16th-17th (A Block) 140 feet; one tower to 220 feet Portion over 140 feet limited in area; 16th Street frontage will serve as a “head house” for passenger rail. Of ce, residential and retail (500,000 SF); 18th Street buildings will be above tracks and will provide pedestrian connections 5. Wewatta, 17th-18th (B Block) 140 feet, one tower to 200 feet Portion over 140 feet limited in area Of ce, residential and retail (500,000 SF) 6. Parking garage685 spaces Development Massing Diagram showing the six parcels on the DUS site. Private Development Program

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36Design and development of all of the public spaces will take into account the needs of transit users, who can categorized as follows: Hectic: The transit user is late or stressed, and is rushing from one mode to another. In control: The transit user is in control and has ample time to make connections. Relaxed: The transit user is not required to keep to a schedule for travel connections. The Transit District features abundent public space, including outdoor passage ways, cafes, retail, seating, and gathering places. Chestnut Place Wewatta Street Denver Union Station Wynkoop Street16th Street 17th Street 18th Street 19th StreetSuccessful public spaces will create opportunities for many different activities and experiences throughout the site. Making public spaces lively and interesting is not an easy task, and each public space will have its own opportunities and challenges. The following are guidelines for actions that have been found to contribute to successful public spaces, and will be used in designing Denver Union Station’s public spaces: Create active and inviting edges by providing opportunities for street-level retail, restaurants, cafs, and outdoor retailing opportunities. Provide ample seating with benches, tables and chairs, movable seating and seating walls, and complementary site furnishings such as bollards, trash receptacles, and banners. Provide shade with building canopies and awnings, trees, and structures. Provide space for retail vendors and carts for food, owers, newspapers, arts and crafts, and coffee and drinks. Place vendors and carts along busy passageways where they are convenient, visible, and accessible. Provide public art such as sculptures, paving design, fountains, interactive art, and wall art throughout public spaces and along surrounding streets. Use a variety of materials that complement the historic building and new development and add interest to the pedestrian environment. Provide numerous access points for public and private transportation modes. Provide wireless computer internet access. Provide power and water for maintenance purposes, as well as for kiosks, performances and events, and temporary uses. Create visual interest and focal points with fountains and moving water. Provide adequate lighting to make spaces feel safe and useful during evening hours. Establish a management entity to program the public space. Hectic users need clear paths and easy way nding from one mode to another. The “in control” group likely will be regular users who know when and where to make connections or will head off-site to work or to other time-sensitive destinations. They may stop for coffee or food as part of a regular routine. The “relaxed group” will be the most likely to linger to have coffee, meet friends, shop, or use retail and

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37other site amenities in a more leisurely manner. Transit-related public spaces will be successful only if they accommodate all three user types with the understanding that ratios of each will vary with the time of day and day of the week. The public spaces of Denver Union Station will create a series of interconnected places and corridors that will help to tie the site together and create a memorable and cohesive pedestrian network. This network needs to have common thematic elements and materials and a high level of quality that will create a clean, attractive, and durable pedestrian environment that can withstand daily use by many people. The design and use of each of these spaces must relate to the other spaces and adjacent uses, be easy to navigate for pedestrians, and provide a variety of opportunities for different functions and activities. Wherever it is possible, pedestrian corridors should have activities to help activate transitions. Wynkoop Plaza Wynkoop Plaza will extend from 16th Street to 18th streets along Wynkoop Street. These three streets create regular edges for the plaza, while the modulated building facades create ve distinct areas: in front of each of the two wing buildings, in front of the two Historic Station wings, and in front of the Train Room. The plaza is one of the site’s iconic places, and will serve as the front door to the Historic Station and site from LoDo. In April 2005, Project for Public Spaces presented a community workshop to suggest the types of activities that might occur in the plaza. The nonpro t organization’s report identi ed a number of activities, both formal and informal, that could contribute to an active open space. Actual programming of the space and design of the plaza will occur incrementally with an expanded public involvement process incorporated into the General Development Plan, Design Guidelines, and nal design development processes. 17th Street Promenade 17th Street provides a major axis and orienting feature, and connects the Historic Station to all of the transportation elements in the Transit District. Located to the east of the Historic Station, 17th Street is wellestablished as an important downtown street with a strong identity as the “Wall Street of the West.” Key spaces for activation and design include the light rail plaza between the platforms and Chestnut Place and the 17th and Wewatta Street plaza between Wewatta The 17th Street Promenade, viewed from Chestnut Place, connects the Historic Station with the Wewatta Street Plaza, and new mixed-use private development.

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38Street and the passenger rail tracks. To the west of Denver Union Station, 17th Street will have more complex functions and connections. The right-of-way is 160 feet wide both on the site and in the Commons Neighborhood, and the height of any structures within this area will be restricted to assure a view of the Train Room from the west. The passenger rail tracks and platforms are at-grade, so their canopies and other features will conform to the zoning requirements to protect the views to and from the mezzanine level of the Train Room. Denver Union Station zoning provides a special process for review and approval of any structures that extend into this view corridor. 18th and Wewatta Plaza The public space located at the northeast corner of 18th and Wewatta streets will provide another access point to the site from the Central Platte Valley, and will be a companion public space to a new plaza being planned for the northwest corner of 18th and Wewatta streets by a private developer. This plaza will have stairs and elevators that will connect to the pedestrian deck above passenger rail and the on-site parking structure. Pedestrian Deck over Passenger Rail This upper-level connection across the passenger rail tracks and down to the passenger rail platforms could be one of the most engaging public spaces at Denver Union Station. Easy-to-access connections can be made from the elevated parking garage and street level at 17th and 18th and Wewatta streets and the Wynkoop Plaza to various destinations on the site. The Pedestrian Deck also provides public viewing areas and retail shops that will attract people to this level. The Outdoor Train Room The Outdoor Train Room next to the Historic Station includes the passenger rail tracks and platforms with attractive views to and from the west side of the Train Room and functional elements such as canopy-covered staircases and escalators to the regional bus bays below and upper deck above. Denver Union Station zoning and the Commons Planned Unit Development (PUD) zoning limit the height of structures within the 160-foot-wide corridor extending west from the faade.Principles of Urban FormThe principles of urban form for Denver Union Station re ect the aspirations for the project as a whole, and are derived from three sources: 1) a relatively universal set of sound urban design precepts, 2) a group of ideas related to downtown Denver and the adjacent LoDo and Commons neighborhoods, and 3) principles related to the preservation of the Historic Building and its environs. The following principles, along with the Denver Union Station vision and goals, establish the framework for implementation of the 2004 Master Plan and the Supplement. Public Spaces Proportion and articulate public spaces to encourage pedestrian activities within them and along their edges. Place active uses along the edges of the public spaces to provide visual interest, amenities, and “eyes on the street.” Provide for the creation of small public spaces throughout the site that improve connections to the community, access to transit, and general enjoyment of the site. Establish the 17th Street Promenade as the de ning pedestrian connection for the Transit District. Provide a safe, attractive, and active connection along the 17th Street Promenade between Wewatta Street and the light rail station. Relate Wynkoop Plaza to the Historic Station and the Lower Downtown Historic District. Design Wynkoop Plaza to provide clear access to the Historic Station and transportation beyond, and to accommodate programmed activities and reinforce pedestrian continuity along Wynkoop Street. Design the Wynkoop Plaza to: Attract different types of people at different times of day. Balance the needs of all users. Be family-friendly. Be exible and responsive to changing needs. Add to the quality of the pedestrian environment along adjoining streets. Positively interact with the Historic Building and the new wing buildings. Pedestrians Give pedestrians priority in designing streets, service drives, and intersections. Provide attractive and convenient pedestrian routes to and through the Transit District to connect downtown, the Commons Neighborhood, and other adjacent neighborhoods with the Historic Station and transit elements. Link pedestrian focal points into the circulation system. Depending on the adjacent building and street activities, provide adequate sidewalk widths on all streets to accommodate people in various pedestrian, retail, public space, and curbside zones. Design intersections to safely and ef ciently accommodate large numbers of pedestrians. Use attractions such as an overlook or outdoor caf to make the deck-level connections active and interesting. Integrate into buildings the deck-level connection from 18th and Wewatta streets to the north end of the Wynkoop Plaza, and provide a graceful

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39pedestrians, bikes, and private vehicles. Provide clear and intuitive sign system throughout the Transit District. Create a positive user experience for the multimodal transportation center and related onsite development. Building Form and Placement Respect the continuity of downtown block spacing in the arrangement of buildings and access points along 16th Street between Wynkoop and Wewatta streets. Assure that the visual connection to and from the west side of the Train Room remains unimpeded. Ensure that the mass, scale, orientation, and architecture of the redeveloped site and private development are harmonious with the Historic Station and the surrounding neighborhoods. Provide appropriate horizontal and vertical articulation of buildings along Wewatta Street to promote a comfortable and attractive pedestrian scale. Complement the Historic Station and re ect the distinctive character of the adjacent neighborhoods through careful consideration of the form, massing, materials, and architectural design of new buildings. Encourage a synergistic mix of land uses that establishes the Transit District as a desirable destination within central Denver and the region. Ensure personal safety and visual interest with ground oor transparency and active uses along street and public space frontages throughout the Transit District. Elicit architectural excellence. Historic Preservation Preserve, rehabilitate, and restore the Historic Station. Incorporate the Historic Station into the multimodal transportation hub both physically landing that complements the architecture and activates the plaza. Design pedestrian and sign systems that accommodate the needs of all transit users— rushing to a connection, seeking amenities, or waiting for a connection. Seamlessly incorporate universal access into site circulation and access to transit. Bicycles Provide bicycle access to and through the site from adjacent and nearby bike routes. Strategically locate bicycle parking to attract cyclists and to encourage them to dismount before entering congested areas. Accommodate a bike station at a location convenient to bicycle access. Provide bicycle access to transit facilities and transit vehicles—light rail, passenger rail, and regional bus. Vehicle Access and Parking Provide parking for a wide variety of motorized vehicles. Locate parking access to minimize impacts to pedestrian and transit movements. Locate on-street parking and transportation stops so they are convenient, help activate public spaces, and retain key views into the site. Design service access to be unobtrusive and minimize con icts with pedestrians. Maximize shared parking opportunities to the greatest extent possible. Multimodal Connections Establish continuity of design elements for all the platforms and station areas—light rail, regional bus, passenger rail, Mall Shuttle, and Downtown Circulator. Design 16th Street to safely and conveniently accommodate multiple modes—shuttle buses, and functionally. Provide a visual connection to the Train Room from adjacent public space. Incorporate into the Historic Building interpretive displays about Denver Union Station. Sustainability Recognize the multiple facets of sustainability— environmental, economic, and social equity. Enhance the use of the Historic Station as the hub of the Transit District and the region’s transportation system. Seek Silver Certi cation in the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) green building rating system for 50-percent of new buildings. Encourage the use of alternative transportation to reduce the number of single-occupant vehicle trips. Incorporate alternative energy sources for vehicles and buildings to the greatest extent possible. Use local materials to the greatest extent possible. Use recycled or recyclable materials to construct the transportation and private development components to the greatest extent possible. Make provisions for recycling. Explore innovative approaches to stormwater and water-quality management. Regulatory Framework for Denver Union Station Two sets of land-use and development regulations affect the Denver Union Station site: zoning and landmark designation. Together these regulatory processes establish the framework for future development and will provide for a clear and predictable redevelopment process that incorporates exibility over time. Although the Transit District

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40encompasses more property than the 19.5-acre Denver Union Station site, the property beyond the site has previously existing zoning, determined by the Commons Planned Unit Development, which remains in effect and is complementary to the Denver Union Station zoning. Zoning The Denver Union Station site was zoned T-MU-30 with waivers and conditions in 2004. The T-MU-30 zoning is intended for station areas with enough land to create a successful transit-oriented development, such as the one envisioned for Denver Union Station. T-MU-30 zoning permits a wide range of residential, commercial, and civic uses appropriate to areas adjacent to rail transit stations. A number of uses are designated as special review because of particular design considerations or potential off-site impacts. Special review uses can be approved as part of the General Development Plan or as part of the use permit process. This zoning district allows a oor-area-ratio (FAR) of 5:1 (or ve times the amount of development area to land area). The mixed-use nature of T-MU-30 provides critical exibility for long-term redevelopment and changing real-estate markets. The waivers and conditions were included to assure that development meets the goals of the Denver Union Station Master Plan. Building Envelopes and Maximum Building Heights The waivers and conditions in the Denver Union Station zoning focus on potential building envelopes The Denver Union Station T-MU-30 Zoning Map.

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41and heights. Except for the 17th Street View Corridor and the zero and ve-foot height areas, the zoning requires that any building be built to a minimum height of 35 feet. Maximum heights vary by building envelope and are de ned on the zoning map. The intent is to have heights on the east side of the site correspond to the Historic Station and buildings in LoDo, and heights on the west complement buildings in the Commons Neighborhood. The two buildings along Wynkoop Street (referred to as “the wing buildings”) have a maximum height of 65 feet, which is lower than would be permitted throughout the Lower Downtown Historic District. Buildings along Wewatta Street have an allowed height of 140 to 220 feet to correspond with the contemporary development occurring in the Commons Neighborhood. The baseline building height along Wewatta Street is 140 feet; however, greater height allowance is provided to promote architectural diversity along these two long frontages. The area between 16th and 17th streets (Area A) allows for one structure of up to 220 vertical feet, provided the footprint of this structure does not exceed 40 percent of Area A. The area between 17th and 18th streets (Area B) will have a base height of 140 feet, allowing for one structure up to 200 feet tall, provided the footprint of this structure does not exceed 40 percent of Area B. Buildings along 16th and 18th streets have a maximum height of 90 feet as a transition. Buildings immediately to the west of the Historic Station have a maximum height of 70 feet so that, viewed from the east, they are not apparent behind the Historic Station. Wynkoop Street Plaza To create a signi cant public space and protect views of the Train Room, the zoning provides for a zero-foot height limit between Wynkoop Street and the Historic Station and new wing buildings. The only structures allowed in the zero-foot height area are public art, accessory uses, temporary uses, and structures that provide access to or shelter for transportation facilities. In addition, the zero-foot height area does not allow major transportation uses, parking, or loading. The size and shape of this area were determined by the desire to create and maintain an active public space, honor the Historic Station, and allow for a public space appropriately scaled with the neighborhood and new on-site development. 17th Street View Corridor As rst established in the Commons PUD, the 17th Street View Corridor is the extended 17th Street rightof-way from Commons Park to the west face of the Train Room. Views will be preserved from the Train Room’s second oor windows out to Wewatta Street and beyond along the 17th Street axis. The zoning restricts height in this area to an elevation of 5,209 feet above sea level, which is the elevation of the second oor windowsill of the Train Room. Much of this area will contain the eight-passenger rail tracks and associated platforms, canopies, and vertical circulation, as well as multimodal service drives along the west side of the Historic Station. Setbacks T-MU-30 zoning typically establishes front, side, and rear setbacks from zero to 20 feet based on building use. Due to the urban nature of the Denver Union Station site, these setbacks were waived to allow for a zero-foot setback for all structures. The one exception is the setback from Wynkoop, which is set at 45 feet to allow views of the Historic Station from Wynkoop at 16th and 18th streets. Signs De ning sign regulations will be complicated due to the complexity of planned transportation and development elements. The waivers and conditions allow for a site-speci c comprehensive sign plan to be submitted for approval. Landmark Designation The Historic Station and a de ned area encompassing the proposed plaza and new wing buildings (see map) were designated as a Denver Landmark in 2004. This designation provides design and demolition review authority through the Denver Landmark Preservation Commission. The Historic Station had been listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1972. As a designated Denver Landmark, all exterior alterations within the designated landmark area will be subject to design and demolition review by the Landmark Preservation Commission. This includes Denver Union Station Landmark Designation Diagram

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42all exterior restoration or alteration of the Historic Station itself, any addition to the Historic Station, and any new construction within the Landmark Area. The Landmark Preservation Commission bases its review decisions on “Design Guidelines for Landmark Structures and Districts” (Landmark Preservation Commission, 1995) and guidelines speci c to the Denver Union Station property. General Development Plan Denver Union Station zoning requires that a General Development Plan (GDP) be approved before development can occur but exempts RTD Early Transit Elements, should these elements be constructed before a GDP is approved. The GDP process will de ne the framework for site redevelopment. It includes overviews of land use, open spaces, pedestrian circulation, design standards and guidelines, transportation, and infrastructure. The GDP process requires extensive public noti cation, a public hearing, and Denver Planning Board approval. Design Standards and Guidelines Design standards and guidelines to be developed for Denver Union Station need to address the area within the Landmark Preservation Commission’s purview, as well as the rest of the site, as required by the T-MU-30 zoning. These standards and guidelines will incorporate contextual elements of the Lower Downtown Historic District to the east and more contemporary new development in the Commons Neighborhood to the west, as well as the characteristics of the Historic Station itself. Design guidelines such as this are devised in a public process that includes the current property owner, which is RTD, the potential developer, Community Planning and Development (CPD) urban design and landmark staff, and interested parties from the neighborhood. The guidelines will build upon those already adopted for the Lower Downtown Historic District to the east and the Commons PUD to the west. In addition to the topics that are typically included in design standards and guidelines, Denver Union Station zoning establishes the following design criteria for the Design Standards and Guidelines: Promote visibility of pedestrian-oriented activities at ground level. Provide human scale through change, contrast, and intricacy of facade form, color, and material where lower oors of buildings face public streets and spaces. De ne street spaces to concentrate pedestrian traf c and to create a clear urban character. Encourage pedestrian access to structures and uses along public streets, sidewalks, and open space. Maintain views of the sky and exposure to light. Minimize downdrafts from tall buildings. Protect the historic interior and exterior of Denver Union Station. Promote vehicle and transportation patterns compatible with pedestrian access, streetscapes, and open spaces. Promote architecture that will be sympathetic to adjacent urban areas. Maintain substantially unobstructed views of the Train Room for structures within the 17th Street View Corridor Area. For structures next to Denver Union Station, provide suf cient transparency and minimize structural incursions to protect the station’s historic character. Encourage architectural diversity and varied building heights for structures in Areas A and B. Protect sunlight on the 16th Street Mall. Design Review Process The Denver Union Station site is one of a handful in the city regulated by both the Landmark and Urban Design review processes. The Denver Landmark Preservation Ordinance regulates the portion of the site within the Landmark Area, and the zoning regulates the entire site. In both cases, the adopted guidelines will be the basis of the staff review and recommendation and Commission/Board action. All private buildings on the site will be subject to design review at the time of permitting. New buildings, the Historic Station, and other improvements within the landmark area will be reviewed and approved by the Landmark Preservation Commission in a public meeting. Buildings on the remainder of the site will be subject to Community Planning and Development staff review and approval, with Planning Board rati cation, again in a public meeting. The City and County of Denver will be responsible for coordinating these reviews. All proposed buildings will be subject to one of these two processes.

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43Next Steps for Governance The Executive Oversight Committee will focus on ve factors as it considers adopting a governance plan: Governance must maintain the vision of the Master Plan. The governance approach must re ect the regional and statewide importance of the project and assure continuation of the multimodal aspects of the station and the site. Governance must provide appropriate stewardship of the historic Train Room and the public spaces to assure that these spaces remain an asset to the site, the development, and the transit rider experience. Governance must allow RTD, in collaboration with the other partner agencies, to effectively and ef ciently manage the RTD transit elements and consider the needs of other transportation providers at Denver Union Station. Governance must incorporate public input in a meaningful way and develop policies in a transparent and accountable manner, while not compromising the operation of the transportation facilities. The governance approach must incorporate an entity with the authority to ensure the long-term nancial viability of the project. This will allow the project to generate suf cient revenues to pay off development debts and invest adequate funds in the maintenance of the complex so it can become sustainable as a thriving transportation hub that enriches the entire community. The community and the partner agencies have con rmed the importance of these values in governance discussions. These values will be at the forefront of discussions as the governance plan is formulated. Governance The 2004 Master Plan de ned the functions of a governing body from the perspective of the need for implementation over a 30 to 50-year time frame. As articulated in the Introduction, much has changed and much has been accomplished since September 2004: The Executive Oversight Committee, created by an intergovernmental agreement among the partner agencies, has served as the interim governing body. Passage of FasTracks has provided a signi cant funding source. The Master Developer, the Union Station Neighborhood Company (USNC), has demonstrated that construction of all the transportation elements at one time will be technically feasible and essential to a successful project. The Letter of Intent between the Executive Oversight Committee and USNC outlines how to accomplish the Transit District, including the framework for USNC land purchases from RTD and payment of a developer fee to USNC. Principles of Governance The Third Amendment to the Intergovernmental Agreement (April 20, 2004) between the Executive Oversight Committee established eight Principles of Governance to be used as the framework for implementation. These principles are cited in the Supplement to reiterate their continued relevance and establish the progress that has been made in achieving them.

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44 Principle Current Status1. The primary goal of the governance structure is to make the Union Station Site function as an ef cient transportation facility. However, the governance structure shall provide for integration of the entire redevelopment of the Union Station Site, including the transportation, development and civic components, while taking into account the needs and interests of the Parties, users and surrounding neighborhoods. The Transit District provides for integration of the transportation, development, and civic components of the project. 2. The governance structure shall provide appropriate opportunities for public agency, general public and private interest involvement to assure the viability of the project. The EOC has proven to be an effective governing body to get the project underway. Through the efforts of the USAC, Break-Out Groups, and other public forums, the public has had an opportunity to participate in ongoing implementation of the 2004 Master Plan, which will continue through approval of the GDP. 3. The governance structure shall consider the needs of all the Master Plan Transportation Facilities and treat them all with importance to make a successful multimodal transportation hub. The Transit District Plan incorporates all of the modes contemplated in the 2004 Master Plan—light rail, passenger rail, regional bus, 16th Street Mall Shuttle, Downtown Circulator, pedestrian ow, bicycles, private vehicles, and private transportation providers. 4. The governance structure shall diligently pursue the full implementation of the Master Plan Transportation Facilities and the vision it sets forth, and the future needs of the historic station and the Union Station Site. The Transit District fully implements the vision for transportation, development opportunity, public space, and historic station articulated in the 2004 Master Plan. 5. The governance structure shall be capable of seeking and/or receiving funds from all sources and creating funding mechanisms to fully implement the Master Plan and the Master Plan Transportation Facilities. The proposed nancing plan incorporates funding from federal, state, and local sources. Funding through additional public, philanthropic, and private sources continues to be sought. 6. The governance structure shall be charged with diligently pursuing and using best efforts to secure funding and approval for full implementation of the Master Plan and the Master Plan Transportation Facilities. As stated in #5 above, the nancing plan provides funding needed to construct the transportation and other public facilities. The Final Environmental Impact Statement is being drafted and a Record of Decision is expected in September 2008. 7. The governance structure shall provide that Site-Generated Revenues rst be used for the reasonable operation and maintenance of the Union Station Site; second, for reimbursement of any shortfalls in the reasonable operation and maintenance of the Union Station Site if approved by the governing body of the permanent governance structure; and third, to implement the Master Plan to the extent not prohibited by federal statute, court decision, or grant agreement as determined by the appropriate federal agency after the EOC has had an opportunity to present the matter to the appropriate federal agency. Once the Master Plan is fully implemented, all Site-Generated Revenues shall be used for transit projects within the RTD and DRCOG region boundaries consistent with the DRCOG long-range regional transportation plan. RTD has allocated all of the site generated revenues to furthering the vision for Union Station. RTD has made improvements to the historic station including a new tile roof that is consistent with the original roof material and restoration of the metal mansard on the Train Room. Future use of SiteGenerated Revenues will be part of the agreements implementing the 2004 Master Plan. 8. All uses of the Union Station Site shall be planned, constructed and operated so as to not adversely impact the Master Plan Transportation Facilities or any other Master Plan element as determined by the permanent governance structure. The Transit District fully implements the transportation facilities articulated in the 2004 Master Plan. The transportation components will be fully operational for FasTracks lines, Amtrak, and Ski Train and will allow for concurrent private development and public spaces. Principles of Governance from the Executive Oversight Committee

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Sustainablity as an Overarching Principle

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48 SUSTAINABILITY AS AN OVERARCHING PRINCIPLEIn the few years since the adoption of 2004 Master Plan, global events have focused signi cant attention on sustainability. The partner agencies anticipate that technology in this area will continue to improve at a rapid pace in the near future. This plan documents the current goals and policies of each of the partner agencies as aspirations for the design and construction of the Transit District. The term “sustainability” has many de nitions; following are a few common understandings of the term, as reported by staff to the RTD Board of Directors: Sustainable development meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainable development is the achievement of continued economic development without detriment to the environment and natural resources. The goal of sustainable transportation is to ensure that environmental, social, and economic considerations are factored into decisions affecting transportation activity. The partner agencies all recently have updated their sustainability goals. Though these goals are not requirements, they will serve as aspirations for the design and construction of the Transit District. Colorado Department of Transportation In April 2007, Governor Ritter signed Executive Order D0011-07 “to provide clear guidance and directive to all state agencies and of ces in the greening of state government in the State of Colorado.” These goals will apply to all Denver Union Station work directly accounted to CDOT or other state-initiated actions as part of the Transit District. The goals for state agencies and of ces include the following: Energy Management By scal year 2011-2012, achieve at least a 20 percent reduction in state facilities energy consumption from scal year 2005-2006 levels. By January 2008, develop or update an energy management plan and ensure the development of a study determining the feasibility of energy performance contracting for all state owned facilities. On an ongoing basis, assess and implement, where effective, the development of state renewable-energy projects with the support of the Governor’s Energy Of ce. Materials and Resource Management By scal year 2008-2009, develop purchasing policies to reduce the state’s environmental impact as a consumer of products and services. Adopt a goal of zero waste from the construction of new buildings and the operation and renovation of existing facilities. Achieve a paper-use reduction goal of 20 percent by scal year 2011-2012 using scal year 20052006 as a baseline. Achieve a reduction in water consumption goal of 10 percent by scal year 2011-2012, using scal year 2005-2006 as a baseline. The Department of Personnel and Administration, in cooperation with the Department of Public Health and Environment, shall develop purchasing policies for selecting environmentally preferable products. Vehicle Petroleum Consumption By June 30, 2012, achieve a 25 percent volumetric reduction in petroleum consumption by state vehicles, measured against a scal year 2005-2006 baseline, while increasing energy ef ciency of the eet (excluding vehicles used for law enforcement, emergency response, road maintenance, and highway construction). By December 1, 2007, complete a transportation ef ciency audit addressing methods for improving the environmental ef ciency of the state eet. City and County of Denver (adapted from www.Denvergov.org) In October 2007, Mayor Hickenlooper signed Executive Order 123 to create the Greenprint Denver Of ce and establish the city’s sustainability policy and position as a national leader in sustainability. The Executive Order includes several measures to promote sustainability throughout city operations. The Greenprint Denver Of ce’s intent is to develop and implement solutions to resource challenges and to work with city agencies to ensure that all city policy and program decisions incorporate “triple bottom line” analysis, balancing short and long-term economic, social, and environmental considerations. Goals include: Green Building and Energy Conservation All applicable new city building construction and denver Greenprint Denver Plan 7.12.06www.greenprintdenver.org

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49irrigation systems, cooling towers, kitchen operations, swimming pool operations, laundries, and other water uses. Environmental Public Health Policy All city employees and contractors must be familiar with and follow the city’s Environmental Public Health Policy, included with the Executive Order as Memorandum 123-F. Regional Transportation District In October 2006, the Regional Transportation District board adopted a sustainability policy to propose that agency’s goals towards more sustainable practices, including: Developing and adopting best practices for sustainable design, construction, operations, and maintenance. Training RTD staff in sustainable design practices and sponsoring a select group of RTD personnel to become LEED™ Accredited Professionals. Hiring FasTracks corridor consultants that have experience with sustainability and the LEED™ program. Evaluating adoption of LEED™ as a standard for new RTD transit buildings and major additions/renovations. Incorporating LEED™ guidelines into design standards and/or requiring LEED™ certi cation. (Three new FasTracks maintenance facilities are candidates for LEED™ certi cation.) Investigating the use of many sources of electrical energy, including renewable sources to power trains. Evaluating the incorporation of energysaving features in maintenance facilities, including using solar space heating and new technologies such as SolarWall or equivalents major renovations will be built and certi ed to the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design LEED-NC (New Construction) Silver standard, and achieve Energy Star status. All capital improvement projects and existing and future city-owned and operated facilities shall incorporate all appropriate LEED standards. Vehicle Replacement and Operation Replace light-duty vehicles with hybrids, alternative fuel vehicles, or the most fuel-ef cient and leastpolluting vehicles available as older vehicles are phased out. Diesel-powered vehicles will use at least 20 percent B20 biodiesel. A Green Fleet Committee will be established to ensure the city procures and operates a eet of vehicles that minimizes environmental impact, enhances domestic energy security, and maximizes fuel ef ciency and diversi cation. Materials and Waste Management All agencies shall direct efforts to use recycling services and pursue integrated waste management strategies that include reducing consumption, collecting used materials for reuse or recycling, and purchasing cost-competitive recycled and recyclable products. Construction projects will use concrete consisting of at least 20 percent y ash, and construction and demolition waste will be recycled. All city employees shall take measures to reduce waste and reuse resources whenever possible, such as using electronic media in place of paper and dualsided printing and copying, reducing font sizes and margins in documents, and purchasing paper with at least 35 percent post-consumer content. Water Conservation The city will demonstrate wise water use in city facilities, buildings, and parks through identi cation of water inef ciencies and implementation of water conservation projects to improve plumbing xtures, to complement building heating, and using solar hot water heating for vehicle washing and staff needs. Evaluating the incorporation of LEED™ practices and Urban Drainage and Flood Control District (UDFCD) best management practices in Transit Centers, Park-n-Rides, shelters, and corridor projects. Improving stormwater quantity and quality by using locally accepted/encouraged best management practices, such as pervious pavement, wetlands, and bioswales for protection of water quality. Reducing light pollution while maintaining safety and security standards. Using water ef cient landscaping and irrigation systems. Incorporating renewable energy (photovoltaic cells) and low-energy light emitting diode (LED) light sources with variable light output for energy savings in bus shelters and rail stations. Using local and recycled materials. Using climate-sensitive building design, including ground-source heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC). Developing life-cycle costing analyses that consider several scenarios, using estimates of future energy prices from the U.S. Department of Energy, the Energy Information Agency, the Electric Power Research Center, and others. Regarding Denver Union Station redevelopment Preserving the historic character of the Denver Union Station building. Creating economic, environmental, and social bene ts, including more transportation services, greater energy ef ciency, improved mobility, connections between metro-area communities, and walkable mixed-use economic development. Adopting climate-sensitive building and open space design. Investigating ground-source HVAC systems.

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50DRCOG In December 2007, the Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG) adopted the Metro Vision 2035 Plan, the Denver region’s updated comprehensive plan for regional growth and development (The Metro Vision 2030 Plan was adopted by the DRCOG board of directors in January 2005). The Metro Vision Plan includes the following policies regarding sustainable development, many of which are relevant to Denver Union Station development. Following are excerpts from the plan: Sustainable development seeks to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainable development encompasses three general regional policy frameworks: economic development, environmental protection, and social equity. Sustainable growth and development manifests itself through compact development and the implementation of building practices that aim to preserve agricultural land and open space; conserve and reclaim water resources; prevent water-quality degradation; protect wetlands; conserve energy; minimize traf c congestion and air pollution; reduce the impacts of greenhouse gases; and maintain economic viability. “Livable communities” is a design concept that considers the architectural and urban design elements of the built environment and how they affect people’s quality of life. Speci cally, the livable communities concept seeks to: promote compact, human-scale, pedestrian-friendly communities; provide varied housing, shopping, recreation, transportation, and employment choices; encourage integrated mixeduse development; preserve, restore, revitalize and re ll urban centers; give people the options of walking, biking, and using public transit in addition to driving; provide well-de ned public places; create a neighborhood identity; protect environmental resources; and conserve open space, farms and wildlife habitat. As the region’s planning organization, DRCOG, through the Metro Vision 2035 Plan, seeks to encourage appropriate stewardship of the region’s natural and built environments by working with local communities to implement concepts of sustainable development and livable communities in their current and long-range planning activities. The Metro Vision 2035 Plan contains many goals and policies that either directly or indirectly promote sustainable development and livable communities. These include: Managing the extent of urban development with an urban growth boundary. Developing higher-density, mixed-use, transit, and pedestrian-oriented urban centers. Recognizing freestanding communities and rural town centers. Minimizing semi-urban development. Encouraging senior-friendly development. Supporting a vital economy. Providing safe, environmentally sensitive, and ef cient mobility choices for people and goods. Establishing an integrated and permanent parks and open space system. Restoring and maintaining the chemical and physical integrity of the region’s waters. Achieving and maintaining ambient air-quality standards. Minimizing exposure to excessive noise associated with land use and transportation activities. Denver Union Station and its transit district have inherent qualities that make it highly sustainable. First and foremost, it is the hub of the regional transit system, so it provides unprecedented access to jobs and housing throughout the region. It is within the downtown core, providing easy pedestrian, bike, and shuttle access to the region’s greatest concentration of employment, largest event centers, and a wide variety of neighborhoods and housing options. The project also features reuse of one of Denver’s best known historic buildings--Denver Union Station. Beyond these fundamental opportunities for more sustainable lifestyles and transportation choices are the opportunities for energy conservation, alternative energy sources, recycling, and the multitude of large and small actions that owners, residents, employees, visitors, and transit riders will take in the future.

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Acknowledgments

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54 Project Design Team Parsons Brinckerhoff CRL Associates, Inc. DMJM Harris Skidmore Owings & Merrill, LLP Kiewit Navjoy Consulting Services, Inc. 68 West Engineering HCL Engineering and Surveying, LLC. Hartwig and Associates, Inc. Environmental Subcontractors EME Solutions, Inc. Hermsen Consultants Hankard Environmental Fehr & Peers RMC Consultants Goodbee & Associates, Inc. Development Partner Union Station Neighborhood Company David Pfeifer Bill Pruter Bill Roettker Scot Rogers Harvey Rothenberg Dennis Rubba Joanne Salzman Ray Schoch Thomas Slabe Frank Sullivan John Valerio Jan Wagner Bob Wilson Petur Workman Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) Peggy Catlin, Colorado Department of Transportation Peter Park, City of Denver Cal Marsella, Regional Transportation District Jennifer Schaufele, Denver Regional Council of Governments Project Management Team (PMT) Ellen Ittelson, Peter Baertlein and Diane Barrett, City of Denver Jerry Nery, Doug Fritz and Gina McAfee, RTD FasTracks Elizabeth Kemp, Colorado Department of Transportation George Scheuernstuhl, Denver Regional Council of Governments Union Station Advisory Committee (USAC) Tom Anthony Bob Brewster Pam Brown Tracy Chastulik Dana Crawford Keith Dameron Gary Desmond Tami Door Thomas Ema Barbara Englert Jon Esty Barbara Gibson Shannon Gifford, Co-Chair Jerry Glick Jim Graebner, Co-Chair Lorraine Granado Helga Grenderud David Gundersen Fabby Hillyard Keith Howard Miller Hudson Robert Jackson Walter Isenberg Lane Ittelson Brian Klipp, Co-Chair Robin Kniech Steve Kutska Rich Maginn Terry McCullough Bert Melcher Dave Moore Jeff Nobel

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