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Blueprint Denver : an integrated land use and transportation plan

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Title:
Blueprint Denver : an integrated land use and transportation plan
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City and County of Denver
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
City and County of Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

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Subjects / Keywords:
Transportation planning
Land use planning
Master plans

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Auraria Library
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Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
Blueprint
Denver. _
An Integrated
V-
Land Use and
Transportation Plan




LAND USE AND TRANSPORTATION PLAN
Table of Contents
Acknowledgements
Plan Guide
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Chapter 2 Denver Today and Tomorrow 7
Chapter 3 Blueprint Denver Concept ID
Chapter 4 The Plan Map 33
Chapter 5 The Land Dse Component 71
Chapter G The Transportation Component 31
Chapter 7 Areas of Stability and Areas of Change 113
Chapter B Small Area Planning 143
Chapter S Blueprint Denver Implementation 161
Chapter ID Public Participation Process 173
Glossary IDS
Appendix
Plan 2000 Annual Report and Blueprint Denver Indicators..........................192
Denver Street Function/Classification Definition Criteria .......................194
Maps
Areas of Change .....................................................................21 and 129
Areas of Stability ..........................................................................121
Blueprint Denver Scenario ....................................................................29
Enhanced Bus Corridors .......................................................................99
Existing TMAs ...............................................................................Ill
Land Use Today ...............................................................................35
Land Use and Zoning Discrepancies ............................................................89
Missing Bike Links ..........................................................................105
Parks and Parkways ...........................................................................70
Population Growth in the 90s ..................................................................9
Potential Roadway Capacity Improvements .....................................................117
Public Facilities............................................................................160
Transportation Enhancements .................................................................118
Zoning Scenario ..............................................................................28
The Plan Map
Click on the page
number to go to that
chapters page
Click on the chapter
title to go to a
summary with links
to that chapter
Web links to Blueprint
Denvers website and
other publications.
Blueprint Denver
http://www.denvergov.org/
blueprint-denver
Metro Vision 2020
http://www.drcog.org/
reg_growthlmv2020.htm
Game Plan
http://www.denvergov.org/
gameplan
Plan 2000
http://www.derwergov.org/
CompPlan_2000
Master Bicycle Plan
http://198.202.202.66/
dephome.asp?depid=598


Acknowledgements
The Honorable Wellington E. Webb Mayor of the City and County of Denver
Denver City Council
Dennis Gallagher District 1
Joyce Foster District 4
Kathleen MacKenzie District 7
Ed Thomas District 10
Cathy Reynolds At-Large
Denver Planning Board
William Hornby Chair
Pat Cortez
Mark Johnson
Bruce O'Donnell
Ted Hackworth District 2
Polly Flobeck District 5
ElbraWedgeworth Districts
Happy Haynes District 11
Jan Belle
Michael Dino
Herman Malone
Robert Wright PhD
Land Use and Transportation Advisory Committee
Bruce Alexander Co-Chair
Lisa Bardwell
Dick Bjurstrom
Brad Buchanan
Carolyn Etter
Councilwoman Joyce Foster
Michael Henry
Charlie Jordan
Chris Martinez
Claire Monash
Bruce O'Donnell
Susan Powers
Kathy Sandoval
Anne Warhover
Jackson White
Willie Shepherd Co-Chair
Councilwoman Susan Barnes-Gelt
Brian Brainerd
Bob Camicello
Melissa Feher-Peiker
Rick Garcia
Bob Hickman
Mason Lewis
Virginia Martinez
Jennifer Moulton
Chuck Perry
Jeanne Robb
Leroy Smith
Darrell Watson
Robert Wright PhD
City Staff
Community Planning and Development Agency
Jennifer Moulton Director
Katherine Cornwell
Theresa Lucero
Julius Zsako
Dave Becker
Kiersten Faulkner
Tyler Gibbs
Daniel Michael Graphic Design
Public Works
Janice Finch
Bill Sirois
Parks and Recreation
Susan Baird
Ellen Ittelson Co-Project Manager
Catherine Cox
Phil Plienis
Nora Kimball
Tom Best
Janell Flaig
Ken Barkema Maps
Jim Ottenstein Graphic Design
Tony Ogboli
Dave Willett
City Attorney's Office
David Broadwell
Consultants
Fregonese Calthorpe Associates Calthorpe Associates
Center for Regional and Neighborhood Action
Project Partners
City Council Aides Channel 8
Parks and Recreation
Ramona Martinez District 3
Charlie Brown District 6
Deborah Ortega District 9
Susan Barnes-Gelt At-Large
Frederick Corn
Daniel Guimond
Joyce Oberfeld
Ron Abo
Mike Billings
Kathleen Brooker
Theresa Donahue
Stephanie Foote
Lucia Guzman
Mark Johnson
Marcy Lister
Sarah McCarthy
Kelly Nordini
Jackie Peterson-Hall
Mateo Miguel Romero
Bill Vidal
Councilwoman Elbra Wedgeworth
Jim Zavist
Steve Gordon Co-Project Manager
Mark Williams
Jeff Gockley
Dennis Swain
Devon Buckels
Matt Seubert
Julie Connor Graphic Design
Terry Rosapep
Jason Longsdorf
City staff
from many other City agencies
Fehr & Peers
Public Works
The many citizens whose regular attendance and participation added immeasurably to the success
of the process and the final outcome of Blueprint Denver


CHAPTER 1


Blueprint Denver explores the relationship
between land use and transportation,
advocating land-use and transportation
decisions be made in conjunction.
Creating a vibrant, community-oriented city requires the collective vision of
those who make the city work, the wisdom of those who want the best for
future generations, and the lessons of the past. To create and preserve strong
neighborhoods, safe streets and buildings that will be treasured for years,
Denvers energy must be harnessed and directed appropriately.
Those of us who live in Denver appreciate the richness of all our city has to
offer: the quiet neighborhoods threaded together by community spirit,
combined with the bustle and economic stamina of a world-class city. And
like any growing world-class city, Denver must remain true to its essence and
character while being enriched by new thoughts, actions and energy. This
vision and action to maintain and foster a high quality of life for Denver is
known collectively as Blueprint Denver. Developed over 18 months, this plan
presents a strategy to improve our city by shaping the places where we live,
travel, work, shop and play.
Blueprint Denver encourages and promotes more efficient use of
transportation systems, expanded transportation choices, appropriate and
mixed land uses, and the revitalization of declining neighborhoods all of
which ultimately will improve our quality of life.
The Blueprint Denver
vision of our future was
laid out in the Denver
Comprehensive Plan
2000 (Plan 2000), and
furthers the principles of
Metro Vision 2020, the
plan for the Denver
region that the City has
adopted.
Blueprint Denver explores the important relationship between land use and
transportation and advocates that land-use and transportation decisions be
made in conjunction with each other. Understanding and strategically
managing the relationship between land use and transportation is crucial to
improving the quality of life in any major city. Transportation policy in part
determines how to get from home to work, the amount of time spent
commuting, and the types and degrees of choices available for getting from
one place to another. The other part of this equation is determined by the
choices we make about land use. When developing a new land use,
community setting, building design and orientation all have an effect on
transportation use.
The Blueprint Denver vision of our future was laid out in the Denver
Comprehensive Plan 2000 (Plan 2000), and furthers the principles of Metro
Vision 2020, the plan for the Denver region that the City has adopted.
Plan 2000 created its vision for the community through a series of general
goals, visions of success and specific objectives and strategies. Blueprint
Denver serves as the first step in implementing and making concrete the
vision outlined in Plan 2000. As a result, the plans vision will not be
achieved without some significant changes to the way the community plans
for the future.
2
WHAT IS A LAND USE AND


BLUEPRINT DENVER
Shortly before World War II, Denver represented 72 percent of the regions
population. Today, Denver represents 23 percent of the population and 34
percent of the jobs. Therefore, to maintain a high quality of life, Denver
residents must be concerned about growth and its impacts on the city, the
region, the Front Range and Colorado. When Denver adopted Plan 2000, it
also adopted the regional plan, Metro Vision 2020.
Metro Vision 2020 contains six major elements to promote a healthy region.
Blueprint Denver promotes five of those six elements that apply to Denver.
The elements that apply to Denver are:
Extent of urban development I Denver established an urban growth
boundary for Denver and has adhered to it. Blueprint Denver identifies areas
within its boundaries that are appropriate for new development.
Open space I Denver has added substantial open space that helps shape
the regions form, protects environmental resources, and provides
recreational opportunities.
Balanced, multi-modal transportation system I This is a key tenet of
Blueprint Denver that will be achieved in a variety of ways, including through
an emphasis on creating and enhancing multi-modal streets and endorsing
the completion of the rapid transit system.
Urban centers I Blueprint Denver calls for improving and adding new
centers to create vibrant urban areas that serve not only Denver
neighborhoods, but also the region. Downtown and Cherry Creek are Denvers
centers with the greatest regional draw.
Environmental quality I Blueprint Denver also acknowledges that the
location, type of growth and land development have significant effects on the
regions air and water quality and strives to create transportation options and
sustainable development.
Why is Blueprint Denver Necessary?
Like any good city, Denver has a vision for the future. It will examine its
policies, keeping what works and discarding what doesnt work, to fulfill this
vision. Blueprint Denver is the primary step to implement and achieve the
vision outlined in Plan 2000. A comprehensive examination of Denvers land-
use ordinances and procedures and its investment strategies will occur as a
result of Blueprint Denver.
The zoning ordinance is the citys most important tool for implementing land-
use decisions. Denvers last major revision to the zoning code and
comprehensive rezoning of the city was in 1956. However, it has been
Shortly before World War 11, Denver represented
72 percent of the regions population. Today,
Denver represents 23 percent of the population
and provides 34 percent of the jobs.
Metro Vision 2020
Elements Promoted by
Blueprint Denver
I Established urban growth
boundary
I Added substantial open
space
I Create multi-modal streets
and support buildout of
the rapid transit system
I Create new and enhance
existing urban centers
I Support sustainable
development to protect
regional air and water
quality
TRANSPORTATION PLAN?
3
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION


16th Street 1920s: Main street; trolley line;
wide sidewalks for pedestrians, cars and
parking on both sides of the street; and
mixed-use buildings including housing.
16th Street 1950s: One-way street to
increase capacity for cars; autos dominate;
few pedestrians; and lacks people-friendly
amenities such as awnings, trees or benches
amended many times and is no longer easy to understand or use. The
regulations contained in the zoning ordinance may no longer reflect the
communitys values or wishes. Some of the ideas in the ordinance are dated
and will not lead to a sustainable future for Denver. To better understand
what needs to be done, it is important to review the areas history of land-use
and transportation planning.
As planning evolved during the end of the 19th century, city plans addressed
land-use and transportation as halves of the same whole. Cities evolved with
business and industry located near the transportation hub of a city, with
employee housing nearby. Eventually schools and parks emerged, followed by
entertainment venues and more businesses. Over time, public transit
systems developed in the larger cities. At the end of the 19th century and into
the early 20th century, streetcars helped create close-in neighborhoods.
Housing spread along these transit lines, followed by businesses that served
everyday needs, such as markets, post offices and doctors offices all within
walking distance of one another. In the Denver of 1920, 16th Street was a
classic main street and was the hub of the trolley system.
Land-use planning began changing in the 1920s, with the widespread growth
of zoning as the dominant form of regulation. Instead of the lands relation to
the street and scale of its surroundings being the most important factor in
making decisions, land began being regulated primarily by its use and by how
that use related to adjacent uses. The separation of uses required more and
longer trips, and increasingly these trips were made in cars. By the 1950s,
more people owned cars, which led to unprecedented mobility, new freeway
systems, and faster growth in outlying areas. Evolution of the bedroom
suburb followed these trends with houses and businesses being separated
and where driving was required for most activities. Another offshoot of
suburbanization was that engineering concerns took precedence over
integrated planning for land use and transportation. Thus, streets were
engineered almost solely to accommodate more cars.
The consequences of planning for land use and transportation separately can
be seen in and around nearly every American city more time spent in cars,
polluted air, limited mobility for those unable to drive and landscapes that
detract rather than add to quality of life. This is not the vision Plan 2000 calls
for, so the City is changing the way it plans. The legacy of land-use and
transportation planning trends is visible in the evolution of Denvers 16th
Street. Today the street contains many of the elements endorsed by Blueprint
Denver.
4
WHAT IS A LAND USE AND


BLUEPRINT DENVER
Land-use and Transpnrtatinn Planning in Cnntext the History of
Denvers 16th Street
In the 1920s many pedestrians and sometimes bicyclists used Denvers 16th
Street; and automobiles shared the street with trolleys. In the 1950s, the
street was modified for use primarily as a one-way route to maximize auto
movement; transit use and foot-traffic decreased as the street became a
hostile place to walk. Today, 16th Street actually moves more people than it
did in the 1950s, but because of the people-friendly design, it is also one of
the premier urban destinations in the region. Sixteenth Street illustrates
many of the key concepts of Blueprint Denver that a right-of-way can move
more people and become a more pleasant place when its design jointly
considers land use and transportation.
What Are the Goals of Blueprint Denver?
Blueprint Denver will outline the specific steps that must be taken to achieve
the Plan 2000 vision. There are several key concepts that are central to
Blueprint Denvers successful implementation. The plan will direct growth to
Areas of Change and manage and limit change in Areas of Stability.
Areas of Stability include the vast majority of Denver and are primarily the
fairly stable residential neighborhoods where minimal change is expected
during the next 20 years. The goal is to maintain the character of these areas
yet accommodate some new development and redevelopment to prevent
stagnation. Meanwhile, the vast majority of new development will be tunneled
to areas that will benefit from and thrive on an infusion of population,
economic activity and investment. These places are Areas of Change.
16th Street today: Active pedestrian
environment; major public investment in
rapid transit and streetscape; increased
capacity of the street to carry people, not just
cars; mixed-use buildings including housing;
transportation system connectivity; and
transit oriented development.
Improving the function of streets is the foundation of these goals. Blueprint
Denver proposes that streets be viewed as a means to move people and not
just cars. Multi-modal streets accommodate more trips by more people in the
same amount of space by improving transit and providing better pedestrian
and bicycle facilities. Multi-modal streets consider all types of transportation
to be equally important, helping mixed-use development, another key concept,
become successful.
Mixed-use development is not a new idea and in fact is an old, highly
successful idea that fell out of favor for many years and now is being
reinvented. Mixed use refers to urban centers where residential, retail and
commercial areas are intertwined. These urban centers were popular in
most cities until the advent of suburban neighborhoods and the restrictive
zoning that occurred in the last half of the 20th century. Returning to
communities where people can walk or take transit for their daily errands,
Cities are an invention
to maximize exchange
(goods, services, culture,
friendship, ideas, and
knowledge) and to
minimize travel.
David Engwicht
author of Reclaiming our
Towns and Villages
TRANSPORTATION PLAN?
5
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION


The greatest current
challenge to the
environment is managing
growth slowing the
loss of land, the
consumption of
resources, the congestion
and the human stress
created by urban sprawl.
The public-policy
challenge to develop and
implement balanced and
sustainable growth
strategies addressing
equity, stewardship and
cooperation will become
ever more critical.
Plan 2000
or drive with shorter and less frequent car trips, already has happened in
some parts of Denver, such as Lower Downtown.
While significant progress has been made on many fronts, much of the plans
vision will not be achieved without some significant changes. Denver has
many good examples of planning, but they often are isolated victories within a
particular neighborhood or district. This plan develops a comprehensive
approach to address all the components needed to achieve a livable city.
Blueprint Denver examines the links between land use and transportation
from a city-wide perspective. This plan explores existing Denver ordinances
and regulations, recommends steps to improve these regulatory tools and
provides a framework for implementing these measures. In this way,
Blueprint Denver bridges the gap between the general policies of Plan 2000
and the detailed implementation measures that follow.
Plan Relationships
Denver Plans
Regional
Plans
Comprehensive Plan 2000
Small Area J________w Citywide
Plans ^ ' Plans
Developed by:
RTD
CDOT
Neighborhood
Plans
Corridor Plans
District Plans
Blueprint Denver
DPR Game Plan
Bike Master Plan
Pedestrian Master
Plan
Stormwater
Management Plan
Housing Plan
^ DRCOG
Metro Wastewater
Urban Drainage
and Flood Control
6


MOJJOUJQL
pue Aepox
JQAUQa
C HHldVHO


Key concepts:
I Denver grew by 87,000
people from 1990 to
2000
I By 2020 Denver's
population is forecast
to increase by 132,000
people or 60,700
households
I Employment is
expected to increase by
109,200jobs by 2020
I Traffic congestion will
increase, with 162
miles of roadway
projected to operate
near or over capacity
I The capacity and
permitted locations for
growth based on
current zoning will not
make it possible to
maximize the benefits
or avoid the negative
impacts from growth
I A blueprint for how
Denver should grow is
vital to Denvers future
Accommodating more growth in Denver will be challenging. The negative
impacts of unregulated growth are well documented and are most often
expressed in terms of too much traffic, loss of open space and new
development out of character with existing development. Without the big
picture that Blueprint Denver provides, the project by project and
neighborhood by neighborhood struggle to maintain livability, as represented
by lighting to maintain the status quo, will continue. This chapter explores
the expected conditions of Denver in 2020 if the city does not pursue
alternatives to our likely growth pattern given the existing zoning
designations. Chapter 3 outlines the concepts of Blueprint Denver and
describes the conditions of Denver in 2020 based on adoption of this plan.
What is Denver like in 2000P
Growth
In terms of population, the City and County of Denver is growing at a rate
unmatched since the 1940s. Between 1990 and 2000, the citys population
increased by more than 87,000 residents, an increase of nearly 19 percent.1
(The Population Growth; 1990-2000 map shows how population growth
occurred in Denver in the 1990s.)
City and County of Denver population change during previous decades 1880-2000
100,000
00,000
00,000
40.000
20.000
-20,000
-40,000

\y'

Growth and Land Ose
This growth manifests itself in burgeoning urban districts downtown
and Cherry Creek and the blossoming of adjacent neighborhoods. Some
of these neighborhoods were underused or blighted as recently as 10 years
ago, including Lower Downtown (LoDo), Uptown and the Platte River Valley.
These areas dramatically illustrate the benefits of shaping growth to
achieve a communitys desired change. Change also is occurring in
8
DENVER IN 2000


AND IN 2020
How population growth occurred in Denver in the 90s
POPULATION CHANGE
(persons)
3,000 to 6,100 Extremely High Increase
1,000 to 3,000 High Increase
500 to 1,000 Moderate Increase
150 to 500 Slight Increase
-150 to 150 Unchanged
-1,150 to-150 Loss
Neighborhood Boundary
2000 Census Tract Boundary
Areas not within the City & County of Denver
Statistical Neighborhood names, e.g. Goldsmith
are in approximate locations
1990 Population = 467,610
2000 Population = 554,636
MOHHONOX Q N V AVQOX HHAN3Q
E HHXdVHD
DENVERS LAND USE AND TRANSPORTATION PLAN


Unprecedented growth means
more traffic.
traditionally single-family neighborhoods such as Platt Park and West
Highlands. In some of these areas, large new residential units are being
built in the midst of older, more modestly-scaled houses because of an
influx of more affluent residents. While private investment in
neighborhoods is generally a positive trend, it can have negative
consequences if private investment does not respect the high quality urban
design elements of an area such as architectural character, garage location,
alley access, private open space and tree preservation. Lacking attention to
these characteristics, investment may result in neighborhod instability and
reduced quality of life for exisiting residents. Whether positive or negative,
Denver is changing because of growth.
Transportation use
is largely a result of
regional growth and
driving habits. Much of
Denvers congestion
results from auto trips
that originate or
terminate outside city
limits. In 2001, it is
estimated that
62 percent of the trips
in Denver either started
or ended outside
the city limits
source: DRCOG, Fehr and Peers
These additional residents and the concurrent economic prosperity enjoyed
by many support a wider variety of shops, services and cultural
opportunities. Areas such as 32nd and Lowell, Bear Valley Shopping Center,
LoDo and South Federals evolving Asian goods markets, have seen stagnant
shopping districts return to busy marketplaces that attract consumers from
many parts of the city and region.
Despite this growth, a handful of neighborhoods in the city, including the
northern neighborhoods of Globeville and Elyria-Swansea, remain without
some services as basic as a grocery store.
Growth and Transportation
Growth also has become more apparent through increased traffic congestion
and air pollution. Residents in the Denver region drove an average of 22 miles
a day in 1999 up from 18 miles in 1990. That translates to a 20 percent
increase in fewer than 10 years. During that same period, the increase in
delayed hours due to congestion increased from 20 hours to 45 hours per
person per year. That means 37 percent of daily travel time is spent in
congestion up from 22 percent in 1990.2 This is due to the rapid growth in
regional population coupled with residents increasing driving distances. In
2001, there were 158 miles of roadway in the City and County of Denver
operating at or near capacity. Denvers congested roads equal about 45
percent of the regions 354 miles of congested roads in 2001. This translates
into lost time and added fuel costs of $760 per person per year in 1999 for
the Denver region up from $285 in 1990.
Despite Denvers new light-rail fine, as well as other improvements to the
transit network, it is estimated that only 10 percent of the daily trips in the
City and County of Denver will use public transit in 2001.3
Denver is a desirable place to five for many people; but congested roads and
air pollution may threaten the areas future prosperity and livability.
10
DENVER IN 2000


BLUEPRINT DENVER
What will Denver be like in 2020P
Looking at trends in population growth, real-estate development and
transportation use, how will Denver continue to change and how will the city
function in the next 20 years? This vital question leads to answers about
what may happen if the community takes no steps to plan wisely for future
growth. To predict where growth will go, it is necessary to develop a model
that can test alternatives for how growth can be distributed, look at forecasts
for growth in 2020, understand how growth can be accommodated, and
determine the capacity for growth based on Denvers current zoning. Based
on these factors, a zoning scenario was created. It is possible to describe the
impacts on Denver by studying the zoning scenario along with the
corresponding transportation modeling.
Modeling future growth
Blueprint Denver tested a number of potential growth scenarios to determine
the likely future settlement pattern of the city. The results were evaluated
using a model for regional transportation demand developed by the Denver
Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG) and also measured against
Blueprint Denvers transportation benchmarks. The tested scenarios are
plausible and are based on realistic assumptions about growth forecasts,
economically viable development and transportation investments. The
scenarios test ideas to see which strategies are the most effective in reaching
the many goals of Blueprint Denver.
Huw much gruwth is expected by 2020?
In 2020, Denver Couniy is forecast to have a population increase of 132,000,
translating into 60,700 more households. Employment is expected to increase by
109,200 jobs. These figures are based on forecasts developed by the Denver
Regional Council of Governments. DRCOG is a voluntary association of 49
county and municipal governments in the metro area working cooperatively to
address regional issues. DRCOG has developed a regional plan called MetroVision
2020 that includes policies for the region. These policies, along with trends in
population and employment growth, were used to develop the forecasts.
How will Denver continue
to change and how will
the city function in the
next 20 years? This vital
question leads to
answers about what may
happen if the community
takes no steps to plan
wisely for future growth.
Increased air pollution
comes with the increase in traffic.
Huw will gruwth bu accummudatud?
Much of Denvers growth will be accommodated by infill development on
vacant land or through redevelopment of existing sites. Redevelopment
replaces or expands existing development. For either type of development,
the amount of growth that can be accommodated on any particular site is
limited by the financial feasibility of the development and by zoning
regulations. Zoning regulations determine where land uses can be located
and what densities are allowed.
AND IN 2020
11
CHAPTER 2 DENVER TODAY AND TOMORROW


How does zoning capacity affect where growth will occer?
Under the assumption that existing zoning will remain basically the same,
zoning capacity shows where future growth and change can occur and how
many people can live and work in an area. Zoning determines the capacity
for development on a piece of land by determining the amount of building
square footage or the number of dwelling units that are allowed. To
determine the capacity of land for future development, zoning and land-use
planners considered all of the major regulations that would apply to new
developments. The analysis included a thorough review of the regulations
that affect density both directly building size requirements and
indirectly landscaping and parking requirements. The zoning scenario
also calculated likely development on vacant land and through the
application of a real estate development model determined which properties
have the potential to redevelop.
How will growth be distriboted under Hoovers existing zoning?
Today, existing zoning capacity can accommodate about 69,800 households,
slightly more than the population increase of 60,700 households forecast by
DRCOG, although there are individual neighborhoods where capacity is not
sufficient to meet demand. However, current zoning has the capacity to
accommodate about 246,900 additional employees more than enough to
meet the projected increase of 109,200 jobs.
2020 Forecast Zoning Capacity
Jobs 109,000 247,000
Households 60,700 69,800
Growth and change are inevitable.
The quality of change will determine
whether new growth is compatible with
Denvers urban design legacy.
Currently, Denver provides more employment development opportunities than
residential development opportunities compared to the rest of the region.
Existing zoning capacity is far less restricted for commercial development than
for residential development, providing limited opportunities for developers to
change the balance between jobs and housing. As a result, there is a relative
scarcity of housing, which may have an unintended negative consequence on
housing affordability. Consumers and developers, simply through the laws of
supply and demand, may raise the value of existing housing and
subsequently the price of land available for future housing.4
The zoning scenarin
The zoning scenario was created by taking DRCOGs forecast for employment
and population growth (used to develop the Regional Transportation Plan),
and distributing the projected growth across the city according to a realistic
development pattern based on existing zoning capacity.
12
DENVER IN 2000


BLUEPRINT DENVER
Redevelopment capacity was estimated for Denver by applying the
calculations used by developers and builders. For each parcel, a hypothetical
redevelopment project was considered within the parameters of existing
zoning to determine if it would be profitable. If the hypothetical project was
profitable after the expenses of acquisition, demolition and construction, the
parcel was considered to have the long-term potential to redevelop.
The zoning scenario distributes more than 36 percent of the forecasted new
housing throughout the existing stable residential areas in the city. By
comparison the most pedestrian- and transit-friendly areas of the city such as
corridors, transit stations and neighborhoods near downtown receive only 13
percent of new housing in the zoning scenario. Downtown grows by 24
percent in both housing and employment. A 27 percent increase in housing
occurs in the new neighborhoods of Lowry, Gateway and Stapleton.
How will growth affect transportation?
Regardless of whether Denver chooses to manage its growth, traffic congestion
is on the rise and is likely to continue increasing. In the next 20 years,
DRCOG projects that daily vehicle miles of travel in the region will increase by
28 million miles, with an increase of nearly 5 million daily vehicle miles in the
City and County of Denver. This growth will result in more than 450 miles of
congested roads in the region roads operating near or over capacity of
which 162 miles will be in Denver. With 36 percent of all the congested
roadways, Denver will bear the burden of regional congestion.
The existing fiscally constrained Regional Transportation Plan for 2020
provides for only limited increases in the transit and traffic handling capacity
for Denver. Much of the regions financial investment for transportation will
serve the high growth areas in the suburbs. Light-rail construction and
highway improvements for 1-25 and 1-225 will require a substantial portion of
the available regional transportation funds during the next five years.
Therefore, few other improvements to travel corridors can be expected. And
even with expanded fight rail, public transit use is expected to increase by
just one percent for work-related trips. It is inevitable that congestion and
growth in travel time and distance will continue to increase.
Lessons Learned I This scenario shows that the large amount of new
housing scattered among existing neighborhoods results in higher traffic flows
in the neighborhoods and a nominal increase in transit ridership. In addition,
most of the areas where land use can be closely linked to transportation
experience little development and remain largely as they are today during the
next 20 years. Because new housing is built on scattered sites, most of the
Often, cities and counties
adopt regulations to
accommodate much more
growth than is projected.
This strategy allows the
private market great
leeway in selecting the
appropriate locations for
development. On the
other hand, cities and
counties that closely
match zoned supply with
expected growth can
shape and apply
direction to the market
forces that lead to the
development of land in
urban areas.
AND IN 2020
13
CHAPTER 2 DENVER TODAY AND TOMORROW


projects are small, and the high cost of construction on these small sites
results in relatively expensive housing.
Growth that accommodates only the needs
of the automobile creates poor pedestrian
environments and discourages walking,
biking and transit use.
Zoning is the current official policy regarding land use. Understanding the
implications of development capacity based on zoning provides the citys
residents and planners with important information about where potential
development patterns may pose threats to the citys overall quality of life.
The zoning scenario reveals:
I A haphazard and unfocused potential land-use pattern that does not
correlate with major transportation corridors, transit station areas or the
neighborhoods near downtown.
I A lack of support for the mixed-use, pedestrian-friendly environment that
could develop along many of the transit corridors in Denver.
I Insufficient intensity to encourage investment, such as amenities and
services that are essential to pedestrians and transit users.
Little new development will occur in transit
corridors under the zoning scenario.
Scattered site housing is typically expensive.
As a result, if land were developed according to the zoning scenario, Denver
will likely see increased traffic in neighborhoods, low transit ridership,
reduced air quality and scarce affordable housing.
Is there an alternative that better manages growth?
Growth and expansion are inevitable in the next 20 years. Without well
thought-out guidance, including a comprehensive exploration of zoning
policies, livability and prosperity in Denver and the region are in jeopardy.
What follows in Chapter 3 is a description of the Blueprint Denver concept to
mitigate the effects of negative growth patterns that likely will occur under
existing zoning. Blueprint Denver builds from the Comprehensive Plan 2000
vision and develops a framework to integrate land-use and transportation
planning to ensure a more sustainable future for Denver residents.
Footnotes
1 United States Census
2 Texas Transportation Institute, Mobility Data for Denver Region, Colorado, 2000
3 Denver Regional Council of Governments, Fehr and Peers
4 See Appendix for a detailed description of the methodology used for the capacity
analysis
14


CHAPTER 3
Blueprint
Denver
Concept


Key concepts:
I Plan 2000 directed the
City to undertake a
land-use and
transportation plan
Blueprint Denver
I Reinvestment and
character preservation
will promote stable
neighborhoods
I Growth will be directed
to Areas of Change
I Mixed-use development
will bring shops,
services, employment
and entertainment
close to residential
areas and encourage
access by walking,
biking and transit
I Multi-modal streets will
increase the capacity
of the transit system to
move people and will
result in more active
corridors, attractive to
a variety of land uses
I Interconnected and
diverse transportation
options will improve
the convenience of
rapid transit
I Mountain views, parks,
parkways and other
important legacies will
be preserved
Denvers Comprehensive Plan 2000 anticipates the consequences of
unmanaged growth and prescribes a new vision for the future quality of life
within Denvers human and physical environments. Specifically, Plan 2000
calls for a land-use and transportation plan to balance and coordinate
Denvers mix of land uses to sustain a healthy economy, support the use of
alternative transportation, and enhance the quality of life in the city.
Blueprint Denver is a response to this direchon from the comprehensive plan.
The previous chapter examined the citys recent growth trends and presented
a likely growth scenario during the next 20 years if Denver continues these
current trends under existing zoning. This chapter describes the key
elements of an alternative growth scenario for Denver that integrates planning
for land use with transportation. The chapters that follow describe more
explicitly the land-use and transportation components of the plan, and
Chapter 7 presents more details about the Blueprint Denver core concept.
Relationship of Blueprint Denver to Plan 2000
Several key elements of Plan 2000 provided the framework for Blueprint
Denver. These elements are found in Plan 2000s visions of success and in
the plan objectives.
Key elements of the Plan 2000 visions for success include:
i Congruency of land use and zoning: .. .a built environment with
greater overall urban design integrity, stronger connections among urban
centers, and a richer and more diverse mix of uses within geographically
proximate areas.
i Information and communication: ...greater clarity in land-use
regulatory policies, easier access to information, and more opportunities
to communicate with city agencies and other interests about land-use
policies and issues.
i Compact development: ...improved] neighborhood cohesion, reduce[d]
urban sprawl and residents more directly connected] to services and
amenities within their immediate living environment.
i Mobility: ...residents will enjoy a greater variety of convenient
transportation options and alternative mobility choices.
i Preservation of urban legacies: ...ongoing development and
maintenance of the parks and parkways system, preservation of
historic resources, and quality urban design consistent with Denvers
traditional character.
Plan 2000 lists certain objectives that must be pursued to achieve the visions
of success including:
16
BLUEPRINT DENVER


BLUEPRINT DENVER
I Creating a city-wide land-use and transportation plan
I Clarifing and updating Denvers zoning ordinance
I Preserving and enhancing the individuality, diversity and livability of
Denvers neighborhoods
I Supporting the development of a clean, efficient and innovative
transportation system
Through the direchon of Plan 2000, a vision for Denvers future land-use and
transportation system emerged that embraces these visions of success and
plan objectives. The city engaged in an intensive public process to generate
ideas for a new concept to manage future growth. The concepts in this plan
represent input from residents, business leaders, community activists and
civic leaders. The ideas and strategies incorporated in Blueprint Denver have
been adopted as a supplement to the Plan 2000.
Small Area Plans are the center of Denver
planning and are influenced by subject plans,
Plan 2000 and MetroVision 2020.
Evolution of the Blueprint Denver ConceptPublic Involvement
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Planning for Blueprint Denver involved an ongoing public process that
included regular meetings of a 46-member advisory committee. This Land
Use and Transportation Advisory Committee met over a 17-month period to
develop and discuss the ideas presented in this plan.
Early in the process, the Land Use and Transportation Advisory Committee
participated in a planning workshop to design alternative future development
scenarios for the city. During this workshop the committee was asked to identify
areas where growth was occurring and areas where change would be beneficial.
The committee prepared six maps at the workshop. The original scope of work
for Blueprint Denver called for developing several alternative land-use scenarios
from the maps prepared at the workshop. However, the maps generated in the
planning workshop demonstrated remarkable consensus, and distinct
alternatives were not distinguishable. Instead, what emerged was one clear
alternative for how the city should develop in the future and where beneficial
change should occur. In addition, there was equal interest in creating stability
by preserving the character of, and reinvesting in, Denvers existing
neighborhoods. The result was an innovative map that illustrated Areas of
Change and Areas of Stability. The Areas of Change represent those parts of
the city where change is either underway or desirable. Areas of Stability
represent the majority of Denvers residential areas where there is a prevailing
character that should be preserved or enhanced through reinvestment.
The Areas of Change and Areas of Stability map then was introduced to the
public through a series of open houses in each of the council districts plus
one city-wide open house, as well as an open house for the Inter-
Neighborhood Cooperation. A series of planning and design workshops
CONCEPT
17


followed the introductory open houses. These workshops focused on sections
within selected Areas of Change as a way of testing the proposed plan
concepts in key areas of the city such as corridors, transit stations and
neighborhoods. Areas of Stability workshops were held to test ways to
manage development in several ways, including directing potential growth to
areas where neighborhood reinvestment is needed, areas where growth is
complementary to neighborhood character, or where infrastructure investment
is needed. The open houses and workshops involved hundreds of citizens.
Many changes were made to the initial plan map as a result of public input.
Residents helped create the
Blueprint Denver vision.
The alternative to
sprawl is simple and
timely: neighborhoods of
housing, parks, and
schools placed within
walking distance of
shops, civic services,
jobs, and transit a
modem version of the
traditional town. The
convenience of the car
and the opportunity to
walk or use transit can
be blended in an
environment with local
access for all the daily
needs of a diverse
community.
Peter Calthorpe
author of The Next American
Metropolis
A draft plan emerged from the 14 months of planning, based largely on the
extensive input of Denver residents. A new round of public review and input,
which included six city-wide forums, followed the draft plan. Additional
changes (to make the plan more user-friendly and to refine key concepts and
implementation strategies) resulted from this round of input.
A Vision for Denver in 2020
The planning process for Blueprint Denver resulted in a new vision for Denver
in 2020 organized around the plans central premise that growth should be
directed to Areas of Change, while the character of neighborhoods in Areas of
Stability should be preserved and enhanced. With the goals of Plan 2000 and
the succesful implementation of Blueprint Denver, the city in the year 2020
builds on the elements that define its character through a coordinated
land-use and transportation system. Blueprint Dever anticipates several key
outcomes of this integrated approach to planning for the future:
l Neighborhood reinvestment and character preservation creates stability in
residential areas.
l Enhanced transportation system connectivity strong links between and
among transit, bicycle and pedestrian routes promotes the use of
multiple modes of transportation.
l Multi-modal streets increase the capacity of corridors to move people,
not just cars.
l Appropriately located and attractive density stimulates postive change and
development in areas with strong links to transit.
l Attractive streetscape, people-friendly amenities and mixed uses
transform auto-dominated streets into lively, active corridors that support
the needs of transit users and encourages people to walk.
l Traffic trouble spots within residential areas are reduced.
l A coordinated system of green corridors and trails creates a cohesive
park system.
18
BLUEPRINT DENVER


BLUEPRINT DENVER
l A diversity of housing in terms of size, type and cost provides a range of
housing options and prices throughout the community,
i Residential areas are located near employment centers, thus creating
more job opportunities across the city.
I Denvers legacies, such as historic buildings and districts, parks and
parkways, and urban design, have been preserved, maintained and
enhanced.
l Revitalization and redevelopment in parts of the city respects peoples
diversity and cultural history.
Typical Denver corridor in 2000.
I Historic preservation and urban design contribute to the development of a
sense of place and community across Denvers neighborhoods,
l Economic generators continue to provide jobs to residents and promote
Denver as a national business center.
The Blueprint Denver Concept
Plan Strategy: Direct Crowth to Areas of Change
There are 26 Areas of Change that serve as the basis of the Blueprint Denver
concept. Certain features may characterize an Area of Change, such as:
Model Denver corridor in 2020.
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l Underutilized land near downtown and along the South Platte River
l Areas undergoing positive change that is expected to continue
l Areas adjacent to and around transit stations (both existing and planned)
l Areas along corridors with frequent bus service that can accommodate
development, especially where there is potential for a pedestrian-friendly
shopping environment
l Areas with special opportunities such as where major public or private
investments are planned
Most of the Areas of Change already are developed to varying degrees. In
most cases, there is enough capacity of public facilities such as streets,
sewers and schools so that additional development will be able to take
advantage of existing infrastructure in the area. However, these areas have
not realized their lull development potential. Some are zoned incorrectly for
accommodating future development. In addition to regulatory barriers, many
of these Areas of Change do not contain amenities such as plazas, street
trees or high-frequency transit that would attract the type of development
that meets the goals of Plan 2000 and Blueprint Denver. The 26 Areas of
Change identified in the planning process also include three large, vacant
redevelopment sites. These were created by the closure of the Air Force Base
at Lowry and the former Stapleton Airport, and the annexation of land for
the new Denver International Airport, creating the Gateway District.
Areas of Change are
parts of the city where
new growth or
redevelopment can best
be accommodated
because of
transportation choices
and opportunities for
mixed-use development.
Channeling growth to
older industrial areas,
districts close to
downtown, major arterial
corridors, historical
trolley routes or existing
and planned light rail
stops will benefit the City
as a whole.
CONCEPT
19
CHAPTER


Future development will
be directed to three areas:
1. Downtown
2. Lowry, Stapleton and
Gateway
3. Areas where land use is
closely linked to
transportation
A region with a high
growth demand has
several fundamental
growth choices: try to
limit overall growth; let
the towns and suburbs
surrounding the
metropolitan center grow
until they become a
continuous mass;
attempt to accommodate
new growth in
redevelopment and infill
locations; or plan new
towns and new growth
areas within reasonable
transit proximity of the
city center. While each
strategy has inherent
advantages and
problems, every region
will have to find an
appropriate mix of these
very different forms of
growth.
Peter Calthorpe
author of The Next American
Metropolis
Three Types of Areas of Change
To achieve Blueprint Denvers growth management objective, new
development will be directed to three general areas:
l Downtown
l Lowry, Stapleton and Gateway
l Areas where land use and transportation are closely linked
The Blueprint Denver concept encourages development in and around
downtown Denver; supports the development of Lowry, Stapleton and Gateway
by fashioning these areas after Denvers urban design legacies; and promoting
appropriate development in the remaining Areas of Change. These remaining
Areas of Change link transit to a somewhat more intensive mixed-use
development, while creating pedestrian-friendly places that help reduce the
number and lengths of trips made by car. By directing growth to these areas
that are appropriate for new development, Blueprint Denver strives to preserve
the communitys established neighborhoods. The result will be beneficial for all
areas of Denver while also accommodating new residents and jobs.
Downtown
Blueprint Denver expects that 47,000 additional jobs and 21,000 new
housing units will be developed in the city core by 2020.
More so than anywhere else in the region, downtown development strongly
links residents and employees to transportation. The downtown is the area
best served by transit and is one of the most pedestrian-friendly areas in the
region, with many downtown streets having a good human-scale environment.
The 16th Street transit mall is Colorados best example of how pedestrian and
transit friendliness can occur when land use is closely coordinated with
transportation. New patterns are emerging in and around downtown that
complement the plans objectives. The success of LoDo, for example, has
spurred developer interest in the Central Platte Valley, as well as the Ballpark,
Golden Triangle and Uptown neighborhoods. Chapter 7 contains a more
detailed description of Areas of Change and Areas of Stability.
Strategies Infill and redevelop vacant and underused properties
i Reuse of older buildings, including industrial buildings
i Historic preservation
i Compatibility between new and existing development
i Balanced mix of uses no one use has a dominating impact
within the mix
i Transit service and access
i Multi-modal streets
i Parking reduction strategies, such as shared parking and TMA
i Adequate parks and open space
i Economic activitybusiness retention, expansion and creation
i Housing, including affordable housing
20
BLUEPRINT DENVER


CONCEPT
Areas of Change
JEFFERSON PARK/
HIGHLANDS
BRIGHTON
BOULEVARD
NORTHEAST
DOWNTOWN
WEST 38TH
AVENUE
DOWNTOWN -
WEST COLFAX/
WEST TRANSIT -
ORIENTED
DEVELOPMENT
ALAMEDA
TOWN CENTER
MORRISON -
ROAD
SOUTH FEDERAL-
BOULEVARD
IS9
HAVANA
GATEWAY
"0
m
EAST COLFAX
(WEST OF COLORADO BLVD.)
EAST COLFAX
(EAST OF COLORADO BLVD.)
LOWRY
HAMPDEN
SOUTHEAST
TRANSIT
ORIENTED
DEVELOPMENTS
Legend
| City/County Boundary
| Areas of Change
Areas of Stability
Arterials
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p
)
High-density development downtown provides
an intense mix of employment, housing,
shopping, services and entertainment
in close proximity to each other with
convenient access to transit.
Stapleton, Gateway, Lowry
Blueprint Denver expects 17,000 additional jobs and 16,000 new housing
units at Stapleton, Gateway and Lowry by 2020.
One of Denvers unique characteristics is the presence of these large vacant
development sites. These sites were created when the Air Force base at Lowry
and the former Stapleton Airport closed and also when land was annexed for
the new Denver International Airport, creating the Gateway District.
These sites offer the potential to create new neighborhoods that embody the
best characteristics of Denvers traditional residential areas. The Blueprint
Denver scenario calls for a level of local retail, services and jobs to support the
needs of residents who will occupy future housing on these sites. Such a
development pattern ensures that residents can find goods, services and
employment close to home and may help reduce the number and length of
trips taken. In modeling various growth scenarios, those that contained a
substantial jobs-housing balance within the districts decreased the amount of
forecasted external traffic by as much as 15 percent. Designing multi-modal,
interconnected street grid systems in these new neighborhoods is equally
important to providing mixed land uses. Multi-modal streets ensure that
residents have a range of transportation options at their disposal.
Growth will be directed to the large new
neighborhood development sites that include
Lowry (pictured), Stapleton and Gateway.
Strategies I Coordinated master planning
i Urban character
i Pedestrian and transit supportive design and development
standards
i Mixed land usesretail and employment near residential
neighborhoods
i Diversity of housing type, size, and cost
i Multi-modal streets
i Street grid/connectivity
i Transit service and access
i Reduce land used for parking with shared parking and
structured parking
i Extensions of Denvers urban legacies
i Adequate parks and open space
Remaining Areas of Change
Blueprint Denver expects an additional 30,000 jobs and 15,000 new housing
units in the remaining Areas of Change by 2020.
If growth is redirected from the Areas of Stability to the Areas of Change, the
model results are positive less development intrusion and traffic in the
neighborhoods and more redevelopment along corridors and near transit
stations with little or no increase in traffic. Slight reductions in traffic may
even result where land uses are mixed and highly coordinated with transit
access. Public facility capacities generally are adequate to accommodate
22
BLUEPRINT DENVER


BLUEPRINT DENVER
additional development without significant replacements, and a focused
growth management strategy allows for good coordination between new
infrastructure investment and private development. The transformation of
auto-dominated corridors into vibrant, mixed-use, pedestrian-friendly places
is a potential outcome of the Blueprint Denver strategy.
There are reasons, however, that these areas have not developed already.
Some are incorrectly zoned for future development. In addition to regulatory
barriers, many do not contain the amenities that would attract development of
mixed-income housing. Some are perceived as unsafe or undesirable. Most
Growth scenarios that
had a substantial jobs-
housing balance within
the districts decreased
the amount of forecasted
external traffic by as
much as 15 percent.
will require some combination of regulatory reform, public investment and
public-private partnerships to create a positive change.
Strategies
Address edges between Areas of Stability and Areas of Change
Compatibility between existing and new development
Reuse of older buildings, including industrial buildings
Historic preservation
Pedestrian and transit supportive design and development
standards
Eliminate auto-oriented zoning standards
Mixed land uses
Infill and redevelop vacant and underused properties
Reduce land used for parking with shared parking and
structured parking
Multi-modal streets
Transit service and transit access
Adequate parks and open space, especially where density
is increased
Diversity of housing type, size, and cost
Retain low and moderate income residents
Economic activitybusiness retention, expansion and creation
Plan Strategy: Preserve Stable Neighborhoods
Areas of Stability
These areas represent the bulk of the residential portions of the city and
employment areas not designated as Areas of Change. Preserving and
revitalizing neighborhood character has been a prevailing concern throughout
the planning process. The need to direct and manage the location, type and
intensity of future development is balanced by an equally strong desire to
preserve those areas of the city with an established character. Within Areas of
Stability there may be places such as stagnant commercial centers where
An ideal place to direct growth
is vacant land near downtown ...
... and near existing or
planned light rail stations.
reinvestment would be desirable to make the area an asset to and supportive
of the surrounding neighborhood. Generally, Areas of Stability face two types
of concerns: character preservation and reinvestment.
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Character preservation I Denver has experienced a nationwide
phenomenon in recent years referred to as pop-tops and scrape-offs. These
CONCEPT
23
CHAPTER


What are Areas of
Stability?
Areas of Stability include
most of Denver, primarily
the stable residential
neighborhoods and their
commercial areas, where
minimal change is
expected during the next
20 years. The ideal for
Areas of Stability is to
identify and maintain
the character of an area
while accommodating
some new development
and redevelopment in
appropriate locations.
New residential development should
demonstrate compatible architectural features.
Modest, well-cared for houses
are an asset in many neighborhoods.
terms refer to the recent trend of significant second-story additions to modest
single family houses (pop-tops) and replacing a house with a larger house,
sometimes out-of-scale or architecturally incompatible (scrape-offs). A host of
associated urban design and architectural character concerns result from
these alterations to the existing structures and lots.
There are several reasons for this phenomenon. First, demand is outpacing
supply in the Denver housing market and is creating a highly competitive real
estate environment, particularly in neighborhoods with convenient access to
downtown and with a range of shops, services and other community
amenities. Second, Denvers stable neighborhoods have a large supply of
modest homes that are smaller than what many people today would like.
These factors have made parcels more valuable for their development potential
than for their existing residential structures.
Reinvestment I Other parts of the city have experienced a different set of
circumstances. These areas demonstrate stability through a high home-
occupancy rate, yet are threatened by inadequate or deteriorating infrastructure
(unpaved alleys and a lack of curbs or gutters), land-use conflicts such as those
between industrial and residential uses, or a lack of basic services such as
grocery stores. These areas need stabilization through reinvestment.
Preserve Areas of Stability
A central goal of the plan is to reduce development capacity in the Areas of
Stability from 20,000 new housing units to 8,000, and to reduce employment
from 37,000 new jobs to 15,000 with most of the new job growth located in
the business districts and industrial areas.
Areas of Stability represent the bulk of the city, and development in these areas
is responsible for most development controversies. The Areas of Stability grew
slowly in the 1990s, yet many neighborhoods experienced considerable
redevelopment pressures that created controversies regarding architectural and
urban design compaibility. These areas currently are zoned to accommodate
20,000 more housing units and 37,000 employees about one-third of the
ciiys capaciiy. This means that without a strategy to address this potential for
development, Denvers stable neighborhoods may face a threat that goes beyond
issues of design compatibiliiy and into issues related to the zoned capacity of a
lot to accomodate more intense development iypes. In the land-use and
transportation analysis, it became obvious that large amounts of development in
the Areas of Stability would be harmful to achieving the vision of quiet
neighborhoods, vibrant corridors and active districts.
For much of the 1990s in Denver, as in other regions, alternatives to sprawl
were discussed. One obvious approach to mitigate sprawl is to increase the
24
BLUEPRINT DENVER


BLUEPRINT DENVER
density of development in built-up areas to reduce land consumption.
Generally, the areas of the city that are the most dense, such as downtown,
also have very different transportation characteristics and offer a mixture of
uses near one another. Therefore, residents, employees and visitors in these
places are much more inclined to walk, bike or take transit and are less auto
dependent. The dynamics of this environment led to an assumption that
higher density is a general benefit, especially for encouraging non-auto
transportation use and should be pursued whenever possible.
Residents of Tampa Bay in their cars
Blueprint Denver takes a different approach to density. Higher density always
reduces land consumption, but it only has transportation benefits when paired
with a land-use mix that provides destinations within a convenient walking
distance, in areas that have access to transit and transportation corridors, and
in areas that have street patterns that are interconnected and developed with
sidewalks. Adding density to areas that are single use, far from transit and
with a low-density street pattern simply adds an equal number of auto trips.
In many parts of the Areas of Stability, there would be little benefit derived
from additional growth. Limiting overall development in the Areas of Stability
helps to achieve many growth management goals, while preserving the valued
quality of fife that is characteristic to Denvers neighborhoods.
Strategies I Address incompatible zoning and land use issues
i Compatibility between existing and new development, design
and development standards
i Address edges between Areas of Stability and Areas of Change
i Diversity of housing type, size, and cost
i Uphold the legacy of walkable neighborhoods
i Provide neighborhood traffic management programs
i Revitalize neighborhood centers and provide basic
services (grocery)
i Reinvest in substandard and deteriorating infrastructure
Plan Strategy: Multi-modal Streets
Denvers ability to continue to widen roads to accommodate increased
demand from automobile traffic is limited. Additionally, road widening
threatens the citys goals to create streets that are pedestrian friendly and
safe. Therefore, the City must seek alternative ways to increase the capacity
of streets to carry more people, not just more cars. In response to this need,
Blueprint Denver proposes the concept of multi-modal streets. Multi-modal
streets focus on accomodating all modes or types of travel including rapid
transit (bus and rail options), bicycles and pedestrians, as well as cars.
Single-occupant vehicles consume large amounts of space in the roadway
and are the least efficient way to move large numbers of people through a
corridor. Single occupant vehicles create congestion that leads to unsafe
travel conditions for other types of travelers as well as other drivers.
... then sitting where their cars had been.
Now the same number of people are sitting
in an invisible bus ...
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CONCEPT
25
CHAPTER


Higher density always
reduces land
consumption, but it only
has transportation
benefits when paired
with a land-use mix that
provides destinations
within a convenient
walking distance, in
areas that have access to
transit and
transportation corridors,
and in areas that have
street patterns that are
interconnected and
developed with
sidewalks. Adding
density to areas that are
single use, far from
transit and with a low-
density street pattern
simply adds an equal
number of auto-trips.
Blueprint Denver identifies street types with appropriate street design
elements to create safe streets that effectively move people and accommodate
multiple types of transportation. Land uses adjacent to a street determine
the appropriate street types and associated design elements that should
apply. More information on multi-modal streets, street function designation
and street types can be found in Chapter 6.
Plan Strategy: Innovative Transit Optinns
Blueprint Denver relies on strategies that improve the rapid transit choices
available to residents and commuters. Buildout of the proposed rapid transit
system is a critical piece of the Blueprint Denver strategy. It will add capacity
to the transportation system so that more trips can be accommodated. It also
will provide opportunities for more intensive, mixed-use development
surrounding stations and along transit corridors. Proposed innovative transit
options supported by this plan include:
I Light rail
I Bus rapid transit
I Commuter rail
I Enhanced bus corridors
I Neighborhood circulator buses
This system cannot be built in isolation without consideration for land use
patterns and the means of access to these rapid transit options by bicycle and
pedestrian routes. Links between transit routes and the provision of facilities
and amenities that make transit use pleasant and convenient are important
planning elements. Strategies to improve mass transit circulation options
within the city as well as to outlying suburbs is a planning reality if the city
intends to preserve quality of life and ensure a sustainable future for residents.
Growth Implications of the Plan Strategy
Innovative transit options.
Modeling the Blneprint Denver Scenario
A growth model was developed to understand the implications of Blueprint
Denvers strategy to direct growth to Areas of Change while preserving the
Areas of Stability. The Blueprint Denver scenario assumes the Denver
Regional Council of Governments forecast of housing and employment growth
but distributes it differently than the zoning scenario. It shifts anticipated
development from Denvers lower density residential neighborhoods (Areas of
Stability) to corridors, close-in neighborhoods, and land around existing and
planned light-rail stations (Areas of Change).
26
BLUEPRINT DENVER


BLUEPRINT DENVER
Lessons Learned I In the Areas of Change, the Blueprint Denver scenario
facilitates increased transit ridership, more pedestrian activity and shared
parking in business districts along corridors and in employment center
districts. Results of this scenario include decreased traffic in neighborhoods,
while development along transit corridors increases. Many of the Areas of
Change generate new businesses and more housing options that include
mixed-use living with greater opportunity for mixed-income housing. With
better design and development standards, these areas become active
pedestrian places where walking to and from transit stops is a pleasant,
convenient experience. The Blueprint Denver scenario provides the best
combination of growth patterns to achieve the vision outlined in Plan 2000.
Blueprint Denver Scenario vs. Zoning Scenarin
A comparison of the zoning and Blueprint Denver scenarios reveals
differences in distribution of new households and employment. With
Blueprint Denver, a substantial amount of new growth in both housing and
employment is tunneled away from stable neighborhoods to areas where
development or redevelopment can best be accommodated because of
transportation choices and opportunities for mixed-use development.
Additionally, Blueprint Denver concentrates more employment downtown
rather than spreading it across the city in areas that are difficult to access
by transit.
Zoning Capacity
Remaining
Areas of
Change
13%
L,G,S
27%
Stability
36%
Downtown
24%
Blueprint Denver Scenario
L,G,S
27%
Stability
13%
Remaining
Areas of
Change
25%
Downtown
35%
Comparing scenario analysis results
for households
CO
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O
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2
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to
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o
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2
o
to
TJ
H
Growth in Households 2000 to 2020; Blueprint Denver Scenario
versus Zoning Scenario
Blueprint Denver Zoning
Downtown 21,200 14,600 c
Lowry, Stapleton, Gateway 16,400 16,400
Remaining Areas of Change 15,200 7,900
Areas of Stability 7,900 21,800 Remaining
Total Household Growth by 2020 60,700 60,700 Change 24%
Growth in Employment 2000 to 2020; Blueprint Denver Scenario
versus Zoning Scenario Blueprint Denver Zoning
Downtown 47,000 26,200
Lowry, Stapleton, Gateway 17,500 16,400
Remaining Areas of Change 29,500 26,200 Remaining Areas of
Areas of Stability 15,200 40,400 Change 27%
Total Employment Growth 2020 109,200 109,200
Comparisons between Blueprint Denver and Zoning scenarios are on the
next two pages.
for employment.
Zoning Capacity
L,G,S
15%
Stability
37%
Downtown
24%
Blueprint Denver Scenario
L,G,S
16%
Stability
14%
Downtown
43%
CONCEPT
27
CHAPTER


DENVER
1*0


CONCEPT
Blueprint Denver scenario
IS9
Growth as illustrated by the additional
housing units per acre from 2000 to 2020
less than 0.02
0.02 to 0.5
0.5 to 1
1 to 2
2 and over
Interstate
Areas of Change
boundary
Lightrail
XdHDNOD H3AMHQ X N I H d 3 fid 9
e HHXdVHD
DENVERS LAND USE AND TRANSPORTATION PLAN


Shaping Growth:
Realistic Challenges
1. Regional cooperation
and planning
2. Balancing property
owner expectations
with appropriate
zoning policies &
designations
3. Funding for
transportation
infrastructure
Shaping Growth
Tools for Shaping Growth
Blueprint Denver develops a comprehensive approach for addressing all the
components needed to achieve a coordinated land-use and transportation
system vision city-wide. The City can rely on three powerful tools available for
shaping growth:
I Regulatory tools
I Public infrastructure investment
I Public-private partnerships
Regulatory tools define the type and intensity of new development and
prescribe design and development standards to achieve an areas overall
urban design goals. Public infrastructure investments, such as a park or
light-rail line, improve the development climate of an area and make it
more attractive to private investment. Both public and private investment
has a positive effect on property values and development patterns. By
using public investments strategically, government can reinforce and guide
the growth concept and stimulate interest and leverage investment from
the private sector. A public-private partnership involves using public funds
or activities to directly foster private investment and development activity
that otherwise would not occur. This often can result in new types of
housing (including affordable housing), buildings or development within
areas that otherwise would remain stagnant. The most successful
public-private partnerships are those in which risks are shared in
developing new models; once the success is proven, others soon follow.
Chapter 7 explores the variety of ways these tools may be used to address
the strategies presented in the previous section.
Realistic Challenges to Shaping Grnwth
Denver is part of a growing region. The Denver metropolitan area is expected
to grow by more than 890,000 people in the next 20 years. Choices related to
managing growth in Denver should be made in a regional context. Denver is
linked dynamically to the rest of the region through transportation,
economics, social behavior, politics and geography. A scenario where Denver
grows little or not at all, while the region surrounding it increases by a million
people, likely would damage the quality of life for people who live in Denver
and throughout the region. Since Denver functions as the center of the
metropolitan area with its cross-roads of highways, railroads and transit as
well as its entertainment venues and commerical ventures its choices in
growth management affect the surrounding communities. Just as a strong
30
BLUEPRINT DENVER


BLUEPRINT DENVER
downtown core is the heart of any successful city plan, so is a strong city
such as Denver that functions as the core of a larger region.
The existing zoning and development expectations of property owners are
important considerations in developing a plan for Denver. Property owners
understandably expect to maintain or increase their propertys economic
worth and must play an important role in any growth management plan.
Conformance with the Plan 2000 vision for a sustainable future also affects
the development potential of a property. As a supplement to Plan 2000,
Blueprint Denver will be used in development review to determine whether
new developments contribute to a coordinated and balanced land-use and
transportation system. Therefore, it will be important during implementation
to carefully determine the best balance of property owner expectations with
appropriate zoning policies and designations. Private investment will be
needed to make Blueprint Denver a reality. New development or
redevelopment cannot be dependent solely on public subsidies. The
regulatory framework must allow and facilitate the private sectors ability to
meet community needs for housing choices, retail shopping and services,
and economic activity. Entrepreneurial enterprises, especially small
businesses, should find many locations to develop and thrive.
Despite the inevitable growth in traffic, it is clear that Denver and the region
cannot build enough miles of streets and highways to eliminate traffic
congestion. Funding for transportation projects at the regional, state and
federal levels already is severely constrained, and the many municipalities in
the region compete with Denver for these scarce funds. It also is
economically unrealistic to expand most streets and highways in urban
areas, given the high cost of acquiring the land for road widening.
Regardless of the availability of funds, expanding streets and highways would
have to overcome immense environmental obstacles and neighborhood
opposition. Given these constraints, it makes sense to look to alternative
solutions to transportation problems solutions that focus on maximizing
the investment in existing infrastructure, integrating land-use and
transportation planning, and promoting other modes of transportation.
Measuring the Effects of Change and StabilityBenchmarks
Benchmarks will be used as a way to quantify the success of Blueprint
Denver as implementation occurs. Benchmarks rely on data gathered and
compared over time to determine if the plan strategies are successful in
achieving the desired objectives and outcomes. When data shows negative
trends, it can act as an early warning system to uncover flaws or
weaknesses in the plan and thereby direct future policy changes.
Examples of benchmarks
Percent of development
accommodated through
infill development
a measure of the
development located to
take advantage of existing
streets, parks and transit
lines, and where relatively
short trips are needed to
get from place to place
Vehicle Miles Traveled
a measure of the
distance cars are driven in
Denver, a strong indication
of air pollution and general
congestion
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CONCEPT
31
CHAPTER


Conversely, positive trends reveal successful policies and strategies that
should be continued or expanded. Benchmarks provide accountability in
the plan implementation process and serve as a guide for future
adjustments to plan objectives and stategies.
The benchmarking process will be incorporated in the Plan 2000 Annual
Report. The annual report intends to he the budget process with the success
of city programs and processes in implementing Plan 2000 goals and
objectives. Therefore, if the benchmarks indicate that certain programs are
highly successful, then these programs would be called out by the Planning
Board as projects that should receive priority funding in the next budget
cycle. Conversely, where benchmarks indicate that certain goals and
objectives are not being met, the Planning Board may recommend alterations
in funding or suggest that the City make certain policy or program
adjustments to reverse a negative trend. The plan Appendix outlines the
process that will be used to evaluate the success of Blueprint Denver
implementation.
Next Steps
In the succeeding chapters, this plan will discuss implementation strategies of
the Blueprint Denver scenario. Chapter 4 describes the plan maps and
describes the land-use and transportation building blocks vocabulary of the
plan. Chapters 5 and 6 delineate the land-use and transportation
components, while Chapter 7 elaborates on the details of the concept and the
tools to direct growth to Areas of Change, while stimulating reinvestment and
preserving character in Areas of Stability.
32


CHAPTER 4
The Plan
Map


Introduction
Key Concepts
I The Blueprint Denver
Plan Map sets the
basic parameters for
future land-use
decisions
i Land use and
transportation types
are multi-dimensional
and interconnected
I Descriptions of the
building blocks, land-
use and street types
indicate the future
composition and urban
design of different
areas in Denver
i Multi-modal streets are
an effective strategy
for moving more
people, not just more
cars, through a fixed
corridor
i The design of multi-
modal streets helps
balance auto needs
with the needs of other
forms of travel
i Design and
development standards
will assure that new
development is
compatible with its
surroundings and
enable the pleasant
and safe integration
of streets within a
community setting
This chapter presents the Plan Map and the vocabulary used to describe the
map components. The vocabulary consists of building blocks that provide a
framework for the land-use and transportation types. These building blocks
and associated land-use and transportation types provide a frame of reference
for historical and recent development patterns, as well as patterns that
should be carried into the future as part of Blueprint Denver. The
descriptions of the land-use and transportation types describe images and
qualities of land-use and transportation patterns in a way that is accessible to
the general public.
The Denver Today map illustrates an image of Denver in 2001, categorized by
these land-use and transportation types. These types also are used to define
the Blueprint Plan Map that illustrates the citys desired vision. The Plan Map
types do not simply describe the typical existing characteristics of each land
use or street in the city today; instead, they define the ideal future land use,
rapid transit corridors, and multi-modal street characteristics. Thus the
description of types is intended as a guide for future development to
demonstrate patterns that build upon the best existing characteristics of the
neighborhoods and city. Each building block is associated with land-use and
street types that characterize both their functional role within the city and the
design standards to be applied to them.
The land-use building blocks consist of a set of individual types. The building
blocks include:
l Districts (types: downtown, employment, industrial, campus,
entertainment/cultural/civic and parks and open space)
l Residential areas (types: mixed-use, urban residential,
single-family/duplex residential, and single-family residential)
l Centers (types: regional center, town center, neighborhood center, and
transit-oriented development)
l Corridors (types: pedestrian shopping and commercial)
The transportation building blocks consist of a set of individual components
of an interconnected transportation system. The transportation building
blocks include:
l Regional rapid transit (types: rail light rail and commuter rail, HOV
lanes and bus rapid transit, and stations and park-and-ride facilities)
l Multi-modal street system (types: residential street, main street,
mixed-use street, commercial street, and industrial street; and functions:
local, collector, arterial, downtown access).
34
THE PLAN


MAP
Denvers land Use Today
dVW NVld 3HI
T HHXdVHD
DENVERS LAND USE AND TRANSPORTATION PLAN


BLUEPRINT DENVER TYPOLOGY
LAND USE
I
District
Neighborhood
Corridor
Center
BUILDING BLOCKS
TRANSPORTATION
-------1-------
Rapid Transit System
Multi-Modal
Street System
Street Types
(Interface)
Functional
Classification
(Function)
l Other transportation infrastructure including alleys, curbs, gutters,
street ramps, stormwater drainage and detention facilities, signalization
and signage, bridges, sidewalks, streetscaping, medians and pavement
The definitions remove confusion that might otherwise arise when terms are
used to describe the elements of Blueprint Denver. Without a common set of
defined terms, a land-use type such as pedestrian shopping corridor can be
ambiguous meaning different things to different people.
Blueprint Denver typology.
Adding physical design elements further refines the land-use and
transportation types. The plan recognizes that certain design elements play
an important role in whether a land use or street contributes to the overall
vision of Blueprint Denver. This plan identifies particular design
characteristics that can mean the difference between whether a new structure
or street design fails or succeeds as an addition to the community. For
example, creating a pedestrian friendly city is a central premise of Blueprint
Denver. In a pedestrian shopping corridor, which calls for strolling and
window shopping, design standards include bringing buildings near the
sidewalk and providing an adequate amount of display window area at street
level. A main street, the street type often associated with pedestrian
shopping corridors, includes design elements such as wide sidewalks and tree
lawns. Blueprint Denver defines both the function an area serves and the
design elements needed to make it function properly.
Downtown is a district
comprised of a variety of land
uses such as the retail at Larimer Square.
Using land-use and transportation types focuses on the experience of place
at ground level, where the qualifies of a pedestrian-oriented city are most
apparent. Density and traffic impacts of land-use development can be
mitigated through appropriate urban design. People often find the same
design traits appealing for small buildings as well as large buildings.
Furthermore, certain design elements are appealing for both low- and
high-volume streets. It is, therefore, a central premise of this plan that
design, when applied correctly, alleviates some of the impacts created by
density and traffic.
36
THE
PLAN


BLUEPRINT DENVER
The Plan Map Purpose and Use
Purpose of the Plan Map
The Blueprint Denver Map arranges the building blocks described later in this
chapter to illustrate Denvers desired future (introduced in Chapter 3). The
map is the component of Blueprint Denver that addresses the man-made
geography of the city. The Plan Map identifies areas where the land uses or
intensity of uses are envisioned to change (generally the Areas of Change), as
well as areas where land uses should be maintained and improved in their
existing state (generally the Areas of Stability). For instance, new
neighborhood centers are identified in Stapleton and at the intersection of
Umatilla and Alameda. The Map also indentifies existing neighborhood
centers, such as at Downing at Evans and Hampden at Monaco, that should
be maintained and improved. Regarding transportation, the map illustrates
the regional rapid transit system, multi-modal street types (which relate to the
interface between adjacent land uses and travel mode choices), and
multi-modal street functions (which relate to the mobility and access
functions of a street). Multi-modal street function designations were already
in existence and were updated as a part of this planning effort.
How to Read the Plan Map
The Plan Map: Land Use and Transportation
Positive aspects of how Denver could look in the future are identified using a
series of symbols and colors. For instance, downtown Denver is red. The
Cherry Creek Regional Shopping Center is deep purple and has a square box
in it. The Gates Rubber Company site is identified as a transit-oriented
development area by pink, and the transit stations have a red symbol. The
area at 1-25 and Colorado Boulevard is marked the same as Gates because it
will also be a transit-oriented development area once T-REX is completed and
light rail is operating. The map also identifies the planned rapid transit
system, multi-modal street types, and multi-modal street function. The rapid
transit system is based upon RTDs system buildout plan.
A map legend is provided for the existing and planned transportation types
that shows different colors, shading, or symbols for existing and planned
rapid transit corridors and stations, multi-modal street type, and street
function designations. For example, Broadway is a mixed-use arterial, except
for a stretch between Speer Boulevard and Alameda, which is a main street;
the commercial corridor portion is shown in orange and the main street
portion is shown in pink.
The Blueprint Denver
Plan Map identifies areas
where the land uses or
intensity of uses are
envisioned to change x
cn
(generally the Areas of ^
Change) as well as areas >
where land uses should 2
be maintained and >
improved in their
existing state (generally
Areas of Stability).
MAP
37
CHAPTER


Use of the Plan Map
Land-use types indicated on the Plan Map suggest the zoning needed to
support the characteristics of identified land use and transportation patterns.
Street types indicated on the Plan Map define the street environment that
should be created to support the land use. For example, industrial areas
should have streets with wide lanes to accommodate trucks, and pedestrian
shopping areas should have wide sidewalks to accommodate pedestrians.
The Plan Map should be used to develop small area plans and to guide
regulatory changes and public investment strategies for the area in question.
Zoning changes, public infrastructure investments and partnership strategies
should be based on the Plan Map. Use of the Plan Map in the development of
small area plans is discussed in Chapter 8.
After conducting a review of a proposed project or small area plan, the City
may discover that Blueprint Denver did not predict the growth and evolution
of a neighborhood or the city correctly. In this case, the Plan Map will be
amended using the building blocks and land-use and transportation types
identified in this Plan.
Broadway south of Speer is both a
commercial and main street arterial, as
shown by the shading on the Plan Map.
The Plan Map should be
used in the development
of small area plans and
to guide regulatory
changes and public
investment strategies.
land Use Building Blocks
Below are definitions for the land-use types. The land-use types are organized
around four general building blocks: districts, residential areas, centers and
corridors. The building blocks in these four categories must be applied to
reflect the complex character of many areas. The boundaries of the building
blocks are not fixed some areas are in a state of transition, as is the case
with several older industrial areas around downtown that are emerging as
mixed-use neighborhoods.
The types distinguish functional land-use characteristics under the building
block framework with regard to typical location, transportation characteristics,
land-use mix, employment and housing characteristics. The types also
address basic physical regulatory parameters including bulk and density.
Minimum basic design standards are prescribed for each land-use type.
These design standards describe the ideal characteristics with the
understanding that many existing areas in Denver do not and in some cases
may never meet this ideal. The last pages of this chapter are tables
illustrating the relationship between land-use building blocks and a variety of
land-use characteristics, design standards and development standards.
Chapters 5 and 6 will describe the tools used to transform areas that do not
meet ideal design standards.
38
THE PLAN


BLUEPRINT DENVER
Districts
Districts may cover a few blocks or hundreds of acres. The district
boundaries contain an area with a generally consistent character in land-use
mix, physical design and transportation characteristics. A district, however,
may be large enough to incorporate both smaller centers and corridors.
Downtown
Downtown Denver is the centerpiece of the city and region with the highest
intensity of uses in Colorado. Many uses are attracted to the centralized
location government entities, employers, entertainment venues, educational
facilities, restaurants, nightclubs, cultural facilities and hotels. Downtown is
not only a significant source of employment, with more than 100,000
employees, but also a unique neighborhood offering a special variety of
housing for people who prefer to live in the midst of its activity and amenities.
Greater Downtown Denver.
In addition to the minimum development standards, downtown has special
design standards that address architectural form and site design. The
buildings in downtown create the skyline by which the world recognizes
Denver. Complex skyscrapers, unique civic structures and the large
concentration of historic buildings, justify current design review. Existing
zone districts B-5, B-7, the Commons PUD, B-8G and R-4X and
landmark district designations Lower Downtown, Downtown Denver
District, Larimer Square and Civic Center make developments in these
areas among the most highly regulated in the City.
Employment
Employment areas contain office, warehousing, light manufacturing and high
tech uses such as clean manufacturing or information technology.
Sometimes big-box retail is found in these areas. These areas are
distinguished from mixed-use centers in that they have few residences and
typically have more extensive commercial and some industrial activity.
Employment areas require access to major arterials or interstates. Those
areas with manufacturing and warehousing uses must be able to
accommodate extensive truck traffic and rail in some instances. Due to these
special transportation requirements, attention to design, screening and
buffering is necessary when employment districts are near other districts that
include residential use. Examples of employment districts include the Denver
Tech Center and portions of Stapleton and Lowry.
Downtown buildings
create Denvers recognizable skyline.
MAP
39
CHAPTER


Warehousing in some Industrial
Districts remains a viable type of land use.
Campus Districts are usually large areas
with a variety of buildings for a primary user.
Industrial
As manufacturing and shipment have become more sophisticated, the need
for heavy industrial areas adjacent to rail has lessened. Some of these older
areas have historic buildings that are suitable for conversion to office and
residential, a notable trend in LoDo and the Ballpark District. Others have
the potential to be more diverse employment areas. Warehousing remains a
viable use with high demand for trucking. Active industrial areas require
access to major arterials or interstates. Heavy rail facilities also are often
adjacent to industrial districts. Streets in these districts must be able to
accommodate heavy trucks. Special attention to design, screening and
buffering is necessary where industrial districts abut districts that include
residential use. Examples of this form of development include the 1-70 and
South Platte River corridors.
Campus
A campus is a special district that typically is dominated by a single, large
institutional user. Universities, medical centers and large research facilities
are examples. Campuses are usually large, contiguous areas that contain a
variety of buildings and uses geared toward a primary purpose. In addition to
institutional uses, some large companies organize their headquarters as a
campus. Often specialized retail will locate near or in a campus district to
meet the needs of those on campus. If present, residential tends to be limited
to dormitory-type facilities. CU Health Sciences Center, University of Denver
and the Auraria Higher Education Campus are all campuses.
EntertainmentlCultural/Exhibition
These specialized districts include regional event-oriented, civic or cultural
attractions. Sometimes a few additional uses are included in each district.
Such a district can blossom into a more vital and well rounded area,
blending cultural or sporting events with entertainment, civic uses,
restaurants and even office uses. Often a single large facility dominates,
but sometimes (as in a theater district) a group of large and small facilities
make up the district. Adequate parking is essential, but many districts
thrive with substantial transit use, shared parking with an adjacent
business district and pedestrian access. Examples include the Performing
Arts Center and the National Western Stock Show.
Parks and Open Space
Parks and natural open space are public spaces, ranging from our historic,
traditional parks to natural areas along the waterways. They provide a
welcome respite from the intensity of urban living. Parks and open spaces
range from active neighborhood and community parks with recreation
fields and centers to larger preserves of natural open areas that provide
40
THE PLAN


BLUEPRINT DENVER
space for wildlife habitat. A greenway is a linear park or open space
developed along a stream, canal, or other natural or man-made feature.
They enhance nearby neighborhoods by providing park space and
frequently off-street bicycle paths. Some examples include the Platte River
Greenway, City Park and Westwood Park.
Residential Areas and Neighbnrhnnds
A neighborhood is an area that consists primarily of residential land uses.
A city should contain neighborhoods that offer a variety of housing types, as
well as complementary land-use types such as stores, parks and schools that
provide the basic needs of nearby residents. Historical, cultural or ethnic
amenities, such as a collection of historic homes, art galleries, or ethnic or
specialty shops and restaurants, should be accentuated to help
neighborhoods develop a niche within the city. Easily identifiable borders help
distinguish each neighborhood. Neighborhoods are primarily residential but
vary in density, size and adjacency of non-residential uses. Typical
neighborhoods are 500 to 1,000 acres, but higher density neighborhoods may
be much smaller. There are several different types of residential areas, and
neighborhoods often have more than one type within them. The plan
introduces a vocabularly to describe various residential land-use
characteristics that might be found in a number of neighborhoods.
Parks and open space provide a respite from
the intensity of urban living.
L
H
X
cn
x
r
>
2
2
>
There are four general types of residential areas:
l Mixed-use
l Urban residential
l Single-family/duplex residential
l Single-family residential
Mixed-Use
These areas have a sizable employment base as well as housing. Intensity is
higher in mixed-use areas than in other residential areas. Land uses are not
necessarily mixed in each building or development or even within each block.
But within the neighborhood, residential and non-residential uses are within
walking distance of one another. The proportion of residential to commercial
uses varies considerably from one mixed-use district to another. The Golden
Triangle, Uptown and the Jefferson Park-Highland Area of Change are
examples of mixed-use districts.
Urban Residential
Urban residential neighborhoods are higher density and primarily residential
but may include a noteworthy number of complementary commercial uses.
New housing tends to be in mid- to high-rise structures, and there is a greater
Depiction of a mixed-use building.
^ \ i
MAP
41
CHAPTER


Depiction of a duplex residential building.
Depiction of single family houses.
housing base than employment base. A mixture of housing types is present,
including historic single-family houses, townhouses, small multi-family
apartments and sometimes high-rise residential structures. Capitol Hill,
Cheesman Park, Riverfront Park in the Central Platte Valley and Cherry Creek
East are good examples of urban residential areas.
Single Family/Duplex Residential
Single family duplex residential areas are moderately dense areas that are
primarily residential but with some complementary, small-scale commercial
uses. However, the employment-base is minor compared to the housing base.
There is a mixture of housing types, including single-family houses, duplexes,
townhouses and small apartment buildings. Typically densities are between
10 and 20 housing units per acre area-wide, and single family detached
structures often predominate. Many historic neighborhoods contain this
combination of housing types including City Park West, Alamo Placita and
portions of West Washington Park. Newer neighborhoods such as Cherry
Creek typically have townhouses and duplexes.
Single Family Residential
Neighborhoods of single family houses represent the majority of Denvers
residential areas, particularly those developed after 1900 and especially those
built after 1940. Densities are fewer than 10 units per acre, often less than
six units per acre neighborhood-wide, and the employment base is
significantly smaller than the housing base. Single-family homes are the
predominant residential type. Some of the many areas in Denver with this
attribute include Rosedale, University, Park Hill, Washington Park, Sloan
Lake, Regis, Montbello, Green Valley Ranch, Hampden and Bear Valley.
Centers
A center is the focal point of one or more neighborhoods. Centers provide
convenient access to shops, restaurants and community-oriented services,
such as day care, libraries and meeting halls. There are shorter auto trips
and more walking and bicycling in a center since residential and commercial
areas are near one another. Attractive and safe pedestrian connections from
the surrounding neighborhood to the center encourage people to walk or bike
to destinations in the center such as transit stations, bus stops or businesses.
The size of a center and its role in the city vary correspondingly with the scale
and accessibility of the surrounding neighborhoods. Ideally, centers should
support both daytime and evening activities to create an attractive and safe
neighborhood destination.
42
THE PLAN


BLUEPRINT DENVER
Neighborhood Centers
This small center serves the many everyday shopping, service or
entertainment needs of one or more neighborhoods. A mix of land uses
includes those for convenience shopping, personal services and restaurants.
A neighborhood center also may contain offices that serve nearby residents.
Occasionally, neighborhood centers contain boutique shopping or popular
restaurants that act as a regional draw. Examples include both
supermarket-based shopping centers, such as 44th and Lowell or Monaco
and Hampden, or historical streetcar districts, such as 9th and Corona, Old
South Gaylord or 39th and Tennyson. Good pedestrian and bus
transportation links should connect neighborhood centers. As a result, these
neighborhood centers are natural locations for bus transit hubs.
Town Centers
Town centers are similar to neighborhood centers but meet a larger variety of
shopping, entertainment, service and employment needs and are large
enough to serve several neighborhoods. They usually contain shopping and
commercial uses that total at least 150,000 square feet and often have
specialty shops for ethnic products, baked goods, apparel, toys and the like.
Entertainment and other types of unique services that attract people from
across the city are also found in town centers. Unlike many shopping
centers and malls, town centers should be pedestrian-friendly places that are
focal points of nearby neighborhoods. Urban design features such as plazas,
landscaping, small parks and civic features contribute to making these
places focal points of community activity. Town centers in Denver include
14th and Krameria, University Hills, Bear Valley Shopping Center and
Broadway Market Place.
Blueprint Denver
endorses the MetroVision
2020 concept of Urban
Centers. These 2
community focal points m
are high-density, transit- r
>
supportive, pedestrian- z
oriented, mixed-use ~
locations providing a ~
range of retail, business,
civic, cultural and
residential opportunities
for the surrounding area
that help the average
density of the region to
increase by allowing
higher density
development in
appropriate locations.
Regional Centers
Ideally, a regional center has a balance of retail, employment and residential
uses; however, many began as one major use, such as a regional shopping
center or a large office park. These centers cover a fairly large area and are
dense enough to encompass both the dominant use and a wide variety of
other uses. These centers have an atmosphere that is attractive to patrons
from throughout the region. Cherry Creek is an example of a regional center
where a major shopping center is at the core of many other uses concentrated
in a small area.
Depiction of a town center.
MAP
43
CHAPTER


Transit-Oriented Development (TOD)
There are many land-use types described in this chapter downtown,
pedestrian-oriented shopping corridors and centers where creating links
between land use and transportation are critical elements. One of the
explicit purposes of each of these land-use concepts is to support transit
and to create areas that are pleasant places to walk and bike.
Transit-oriented developments are distinctly different because these land
uses have a direct correlation to the function of a mass transit system.
These development sites are located at stations or stops along bus or rail
lines within a mass transit network. Transit-oriented developments offer an
alternative to traditional development patterns by providing housing,
services, and employment opportunities for a diverse population in a
configuration that facilitates pedestrian and transit access.1 Some key
attributes of TOD commonly include:
Depiction of development
around a transit station.
I A balanced mix of uses (residential, retail, office, entertainment, public
facilities and others)
l Compact, mid- to high-density development
l Close proximity to transit, emphasizing a pedestrian-friendly and
attractive pedestrian environment
l Multi-modal transportation connections (rail, bus, bicycle,
pedestrian and others)
l Reduced emphasis on auto parking including lowered parking
requirements, shared parking, parking configurations that mitigate the
visual impacts of automobiles, parking structures located near but not
necessarily at stations and replacement of surface parking lots with
structured parking
i Urban design guidelines to improve character and create a sense of place
l Attractive, multi-story buildings facing the station and adjacent streets
l A variety of housing types and prices, including affordable housing
opportunities
i Access to open space and recreational amenities
l A high degree of connectivity between station area and surrounding
neighborhoods
The planned developments at Colorado Station (1-25 and Colorado), Stapleton
and Denver Union Station Inter-modal Transportation Center are a few
examples of future transit-oriented development areas.
44
THE PLAN


BLUEPRINT DENVER
Corridors
Corridors share some of the same attributes as centers, but these areas are
more linear and oriented along one or more streets. As with streetcar
commercial districts and streets with heavy auto traffic, corridors historically
have formed in conjunction with the transportation infrastructure, as
illustrated by historic streetcar commercial districts and high traffic
commercial arterial streets. A corridors commercial vitality relies on careful
planning for automobiles. But because corridors are linear and meet the
needs of the immediate surrounding districts as well as street traffic, the
land-use and transportation system should be designed and improved to
accommodate many types of travel including walking and buses.
Denver Union Terminal will be the central
transit oriented development hub in the g
regional rapid transit system. >
"0
Pedestrian Shopping Corridor
A pedestrian shopping corridor exhibits the same land uses as a town center
or neighborhood center, but it orients those uses in a linear rather than
circular pattern. Many of the existing pedestrian shopping corridors in
Denver grew from streetcar business districts. These corridors are scaled to
be compatible with surrounding residential neighborhoods. Pedestrian
shopping corridors have a continuous street frontage of buildings, wide
sidewalks, on-street parking, and shared parking among businesses. These
corridors provide pedestrian amenities and good transit service. Examples of
this development pattern include East Colfax between Grant and York,
Broadway from Ellsworth to Third Avenue, and the Welton Street light-rail
corridor through Five Points.
Commercial Corridor
Commercial corridors are linear business districts primarily oriented to
heavily used arterial streets. They share similarities with pedestrian
shopping corridors but are larger and accommodate more auto traffic.
Because of the heavy traffic, special design features are necessary for
buildings to be accessible and visible to someone driving by, while also
practical for transit, bicycle and pedestrian use. Commercial corridors are
favored locations for big-box retail, which can present special design
challenges. Many corridors accommodate major bus transit routes and
have significant numbers of transit users. Well-designed commercial
corridors include street trees, wide sidewalks, on-street parking and
attractive bus stops, and, as a result, exhibit a fair amount of pedestrian
activity. Colorado Boulevard, Federal Boulevard and Hampden Avenue are
commercial corridors.
Pedestrian shopping corridors
invite walking and window shopping.
(Illustration courtesy of Urban Advantage)
MAP
45
CHAPTER 4 THE PLAN



A regional rapid transit system will provide
a frequent, reliable and convenient
alternative to the automobile.
Transportation Building Blocks
The two fundamental transportation building blocks are the regional rapid
transit system and the multi-modal street system. The rapid transit system is
important because it provides infrastructure that can help shape a more
sustainable land-use pattern. Focusing development around rail stations
reduces vehicle trips and creates less pollution than other types of
development that strictly rely on the automobile. The multi-modal street
system provides the transportation backbone for all of Denver. It has two
different, but important, aspects that influence development. The first is
street function, which defines the more traditional mobility and access role
that a particular street plays (i.e., whether it is meant for longer or shorter
distance trips). Secondly, street interface (i.e., street types) provides the
connection with the surrounding land uses. This is essentially how the street
design relates to the development adjacent to the street right-of-way. Each of
the transportation building blocks is explained in more detail below.
Regional Rapid Transit System
The rapid transit system is the first component of the transportation building
blocks. The elements of the rapid transit system include rail (both light rail
and commuter rail), High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes, Bus Rapid Transit
(BRT), and the stations and park-n-ride facilities that serve both the rail and
bus network.
The purpose of the rapid transit system is twofold. First, it provides a
reliable and convenient alternative to the automobile. Rapid transit
provides frequent, reliable service that gives it an advantage over
traditional bus services and allows it to be competitive with the automobile.
Secondly, rapid transit can play an important role in influencing
sustainable land-use patterns. Concentrating development in and around
rapid transit corridors promotes a more efficient land-use pattern. People
living and working in and around rapid transit corridors rely less on the
automobile due to enhanced pedestrian, transit, and bicycle access. In
addition, development can be more concentrated with less impact and can
consist of a more diverse mix of land uses.
Each of the rapid transit system elements is described in more detail
below. More specific information about the actual existing and proposed
rapid transit system is provided in Chapter 6. The plan for the existing
and proposed rapid transit system was developed by the Regional
Transportation District (RTD) with input from local jurisdictions and is
consistent with DRCOGs Metro Vision 2020.
46
THE PLAN


BLUEPRINT DENVER
Rail Transit
The rail transit element of the regional rapid transit system consists of both
light rail and commuter rail service. Both types of rail typically operate in
designated rights of way separate from other forms of transportation (i.e.,
cars, bikes, pedestrians, and freight rail). In addition, connections with other
forms of transportation sometimes are grade separated (e.g., rail crossing of a
major street) to reduce conflicts. Commuter rail differs from light rail in that
it typically serves longer distance trips, has fewer stops within a corridor, and
uses diesel-powered vehicles. The operational characteristics of light rail
include smaller vehicles and better acceleration, allowing it to function more
efficiently on a multi-modal street mixed with other forms of transportation
(i.e., cars, bikes, buses, and pedestrians).
Both commuter rail and light rail provide advantages over the automobile. As
demand increases, light rail and commuter rail lines can easily be expanded
by adding cars to the trains or by increasing the frequency of service. Thus,
rail serves densely built areas such as downtown Denver more efficiently. Rail
corridors also play a vital role in providing access to special events, sports and
cultural facilities, and entertainment.
High Occupancy Vehicle Lanes (HOV) and
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)
HOV lanes and BRT use buses and automobiles rather than trains. HOV
lanes are buffer or barrier-separated highway lanes that may be used by
buses, motorcycles, and people who carpool. HOV lane restrictions typically
are limited to the peak travel times in the morning and afternoon.
BRT is a relatively new technology that combines some aspects of rail transit
with the flexibility of buses. It can operate on exclusive transit ways, HOV
lanes, expressways, or ordinary streets. As compared to typical diesel bus
technology, a BRT system can potentially combine new technology (using
propane or other alternative non-diesel fuel), priority for transit, cleaner and
quieter operation, rapid and convenient fare collection, and integration with
land-use policy. In Denver regional studies, BRT has been and will be
considered as an alternative along with rail technologies, especially in corridors
that may not currently have the land-use densities to support rail ridership. It
also can serve as an interim transit solution and an effective tool to prepare
development patterns to adequately support rail transit in the future.2
Stations and park-n-Ride Facilities
Stations and park-n-ride facilities servicing rapid transit routes are important
elements of the regional rapid transit system. These facilities provide the
connection between the rapid transit system and multi-modal street system
HOV lanes are buffer or
barrier-separated highway lanes that may
be used by buses, motorcycles and carpools.
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CHAPTER 4


and serve as the key link between transit and land use. They provide an
opportunity for mixed-use development to increase ridership and offer
accessible housing, offices, and other uses both as origins and destinations.
These facilities must be well connected with local bus routes, neighborhood
circulator buses, express bus routes with regional connections, and have good
bike and pedestrian connections both internal and external to the site.
Multi-Modal Street System
A multi-modal street in 1920s Denver
accommodated trolleys, cars,
pedestrians and cyclists.
A multi-modal street
balances the needs of all
modes of travel, giving
people the option to
walk, bike, take transit
or drive. The concept of
multi-modal streets
divergesfrom
conventional street
designs that emphasize a
high level of service for
automobiles over other
transportation modes.
Blueprint Denver recognizes that all streets are or should be multi-modal
streets, with each street providing the best balance of the various travel mode
choices. However, the Plan also emphasizes that all multi-modal streets are
not designed the same. Design of a multi-modal street is based on both the
function of the street and the adjacent land use.
The street function designation defines the broad purpose of the street such
as the need to primarily move vehicles or primarily provide land access. A
streets function defines its engineering design and travel speed, as well as its
character and connectivity within the community and the entire Denver
region. Traditional street function designations include the following:
l Arterials
i Collectors
i Local Streets
Due to their uniqueness, Downtown Access Streets have been added as an
additional street function designation.
As described in more detail below, a streets interface is how it relates to its
users and adjacent land use. Users include auto drivers, truck drivers,
bicyclists, and transit riders within the travelway, people parking their cars
on the street, and pedestrians within the pedestrian environment of the
street. The interface of the street with adjacent land use is an important
relationship that affects street design.
Based on this interface concept, Blueprint Denver assigns special street
type categories for each multi-modal street according to the adjacent land
uses. As described below, the following five street types are used in this
Plan: residential, main street, mixed-use, commercial, and industrial. Two
other special street types are also described below: landmark streets and
one-way couplets.
48
The Plan Map in the first section of this chapter emphasizes the combination
of street function and street type for Denvers arterial and collector streets.
Most of Denvers local streets are a residential street type.
THE PLAN


BLUEPRINT DENVER
In addition to regional rapid transit and the multi-modal street system (street
function and types), other types of street related improvements play a
significant role in the building blocks that promote livability in both Areas of
Stability and Areas of Change. Planning, developing and maintaining this
other public infrastructure requires substantial investment and must be
considered along with the Citys other capital investment priorities.
These other types of public infrastructure are essential components of an
integrated multi-modal street system, forming an additional layer, or
subsystem. This subsystem regulates traffic movement, alleviates obstacles to
mobility, protects roadways from flooding and manages access, among other
functions. This subsystem includes:
l Alleys
l Curbs, curb ramps, gutters and instersection drainage
l Storm water drainage and detention facilities
l Signals and signage
l Bridges
l Sidewalks
l Streetscaping in public rights-of-way
l Medians
i Pavement
l Traffic management features (pedestrian crossings, narrower travel lanes,
roundabouts, traffic circles, etc.)
One of these elements alleys deserves special menbon, because it
illustrates the important role that a subsystem can play in creating desired
development patterns. The multi-purpose function of alleys should not be
underestimated. From a practical standpoint, alleys provide basic
transportation and utility access. For vehicles, alleys are the primary access
to rear-facing garages. Trash trucks and large delivery vehicles also use this
public space, allowing these vehicles to perform necessary functions without
hampering traffic on City streets. From a utility perspective, alleys provide
adequate space to locate underground wet and dry utilities, pole mounted
wires and surface storm water facilities. By providing space for utilities,
storm water drainage, trash pickup and delivery trucks, alleys keep visually
blighting elements off of the streets. The use of alleys for rear-facing garages
reduces curb cuts along the block fronts in neighborhoods, thereby preserving
sidewalk continuity and creating a more pedestrian-friendly environment.
Residential alleys in Sunnyside.
Streetscaping along Santa Fe.
Traffic management features in Uptown.
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The use of alleys in Denver is prevalent throughout the historic
neighborhoods. Alleys are a basic defining feature that helps differentiate
traditional neighborhood development and suburban type development. New
trends in land-use and transportation planning emphasize alley-accessed
MAP
49
CHAPTER


The role of alleys in
urban design
The use of alleys for
access to rear facing
garages reduces curb
cuts along the block
fronts in residential
neighborhoods, thereby
preserving sidewalk
continuity and creating a
more pedestrian-friendly
environment.
An important premise of
the multi-modal street
concept is the
recognition that most
streets exist within a
constrained right-of-way
and cannot fully
accommodate the ideal
needs of every mode of
travel. This results in
tradeoffs. Some multi-
modal streets attempt to
balance traffic capacity
with pedestrian and
bicyclist needs, while
other streets emphasize
pedestrian and transit
mobility at the cost of
traffic capacity.
garages and fewer curb cuts along the street frontage. Alley use enhances the
street environment, thereby promoting livability in neighborhoods. Alleys are
emphasized in the design and development standards discussed in both
Chapters 4 and 5 of this plan. In both Areas of Change and Areas of Stability
alleys contribute to desired development patterns.
Connectivity and continuity within the land-use and transportation system is
an important precept of Blueprint Denver that holds true for the sidewalk
subsystem, the storm drainage subsytem or other similar public
infrastructure subsystems as well. Therefore, Blueprint Denvers land-use
and transportation strategies will guide future investment in public
infrastructure.
Multi-Modal Street Function
Street function designations encompass both the design characteristics of
streets and the character of service or travel trips that the streets are
intended to provide. Traditionally, categorizing street function forms a
hierarchy of streets ranging from those that are primarily for travel mobility
(arterials) to those that are primarily for access to property (local streets).
These two primary concepts, mobility and access, relate to the ability to get
from one location to another (mobility) and the ability to get into and out of a
particular piece of property (access). The street function system recognizes
that individual streets do not act independently of one another but instead
form a network that works together to serve travel needs on a local, city and
regional level.
Blueprint Denver recognizes and retains the Citys existing street function
designations of arterials, collectors and local streets but also presents criteria
to better classify the function of the Citys streets. The criteria, presented in
the Appendix, are based on nationally accepted standards and practices
recognized by the City and County of Denver and the Denver Regional Council
of Governments (DRCOG), and by professional and regulatory organizations
such as the Institute of Transportation Engineers and the American
Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO).
In general, the current street function designations remain the same under
Blueprint Denver, with the exception of a new designation, downtown access,
which is described in detail below. Blueprint Denver augments the traditional
street function designations with recommended design elements and
operational changes to provide a more balanced environment for pedestrians,
bicyclists, transit users and motorists.
Denvers street function system is illustrated on the Plan Map at the
beginning of this chapter. The map designates arterials, collectors, controlled
50
THE PLAN


BLUEPRINT DENVER
access highways, and downtown access streets. Detailed information on the
street function designations is provided below.
Arterial Streets
Arterials are designed to provide a high degree of mobility and generally serve
longer vehicle trips to, from, and within urban areas. Denvers arterial system
interconnects major urban elements such as the central business district,
employment centers, large urban and suburban commercial centers and
residential neighborhoods.
Movement of people and goods, also known as mobility, rather than access,
is the primary function of an arterial street. Arterial streets serve a city-wide
function and are, therefore, designated using a broader city-wide perspective.
Posted speed limits on arterial facilities generally range from 30 to 45 miles per
hour, depending on the type of area being served. Streets in higher densiiy
central business districts or residential neighborhoods usually accommodate
the lower end of the speed range. Traffic volume and capacity of an arterial
street depend, in part, on the number of through and turning lanes, signals,
the number of driveways and access points, and the volume of bus and truck
traffic. The volume and capacity of arterials can range from 10,000 vehicles a
day on a two-lane arterial to 75,000 vehicles on a six-lane arterial.
Collector Streets
Collectors are designed to provide a greater balance between mobility and
land access within residential, commercial and industrial areas. The
makeup of a collector street largely depends on the density, size and type
of nearby buildings.
Posted speed limits on collector streets generally range from 25 to 35 miles
per hour. Traffic volume and capacity can range from 5,000 vehicles a day on
a two-lane facility to 20,000 vehicles a day on larger multi-lane facilities.
Local Streets
The design features of local streets are influenced less by traffic volumes and
are tailored more to providing local access. Mobility on local streets is
typically incidental and involves relatively short trips at lower speeds to and
from other streets.
Because of their neighborhood nature, travel speeds are usually lower than
collectors and arterials. Posted speed limits on local streets range from 25 to
30, depending on available right-of-way and the adjacent land uses. Traffic
volumes on local streets should not exceed 2,000 vehicles a day.
...it is often extremely
difficult to make
adequate provisions for
pedestrians. Yet this
must be done because
pedestrians are the
lifeblood of our urban
areas, especially in the
downtown and other
retail areas. In general,
the most successful
shopping sections are
those that provide the
most comfort and
pleasurefor
pedestrians.
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AASHTO A Policy on Geometric
Design of Streets and Highways
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51
CHAPTER


Local streets are designed for short trips and
low traffic volumes, such as this street
in the Hilltop neighborhood.
Downtown Access Streets
Streets located in downtown areas are unique compared to the traditional
street function designations of arterial, collector and local. These streets
provide a high degree of access to the highly intense mixed land uses
including office, retail, entertainment, residential, and public uses located
within downtown. Travel by alternative modes is crucial to reducing
congestion and minimizing land devoted to vehicular travel and parking.
Consequently, Blueprint Denver has designated streets within certain
boundaries as downtown access streets. This area is bounded by Colfax
Avenue on the south, Wewatta Street on the north, Speer Boulevard on the
west and Park Avenue and Broadway on the east.
All of the streets within this area are designed as multi-modal streets to
accommodate a complex transportation network with the following
characteristics:
l Higher levels of mobility during peak hours
l Heavy pedestrian activity and bicycle travel
l Intensive bus and light-rail transit movements
l Frequent and disruptive loading and unloading activities
l A large reservoir of both on-street and off-street parking spaces
l Complex underground utility systems.
Typically, streets designated as downtown access streets are one-way
streets consisting of two or more travel lanes, with on-street parking on
one or both sides, arranged in a closely spaced grid pattern. Speeds on
downtown access streets generally range between 20 and 30 mph, with
speeds during peak hours in the range of 15 to 25 mph. Traffic capacity
and volumes on downtown access streets which depend on the number
of travel lanes, signals, and other factors range from 5,000 to 25,000
vehicles per day.
Street Interface
Street interface focuses on the cross-section of a street and how the street relates
to the adjacent land uses. It consists of three areas: the travelway area needed
to move vehicles; the pedestrian area needed to move people and transition
people between vehicles and land uses or from one land use to another; and the
land use and urban design area, where land uses meet the street (e.g. building
faces, front yards) and how the street looks and feels to its users. Urban design
focuses on character and aesthetics and includes building orientation,
streetscapes, lighting, landscaping themes and building architecture.
The Travelway Area I The travelway is the section of the street in which
vehicles travel. It includes bicycle lanes, travel lanes, turning lanes and
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THE PLAN


BLUEPRINT DENVER
medians. While the travelway is primarily for the movement of vehicles, it also
is where pedestrians cross streets to reach land uses and access transit. The
design of the travelway affects how much traffic a street can carry and how
fast vehicles will travel.
Equally important, the design of the travelway affects how people perceive the
street. Wide expanses of asphalt and concrete with barren landscaping are
perceived as barriers to pedestrians who often choose not to cross such
streets even when their destination is directly across the street. The travelway
connects with the pedestrian area along its length and connects with adjacent
land use via driveways and intersections.
The travelway area includes travel, turning
and bike lanes, as well as medians
and pedestrian crosswalks.
2
>
The Pedestrian Area I The pedestrian area is the section of the street
needed to move people and transition people between land uses and between
vehicles and land use. This environment includes on-street parking, curbs
and gutters, tree lawns, sidewalks and bus stops. It is the interface between
land use and the travelway. Often, amenities such as on-street parking and
tree lawns achieve a dual purpose they serve to slow down traffic in the
travelway as well as provide a more attractive and safer pedestrian area.
Pedestrian-friendly streets provide the foundation for safe, active and livable
areas. Whether it is a quiet residential area, a busy shopping district or a
major arterial, pedestrian amenities generate activity on the street, encourage
walking, bicycling, and transit use, thereby contributing to quality of life.
Attention to the pedestrian area and the design of connections to buildings
and sites are critical to the transit viability. Every trip has a pedestrian
component, but transit riders usually walk more than drivers do at both ends
of each trip. If the connection from the transit stop to the destination is safe,
comfortable, direct, and engaging, transit use becomes an attractive
alternative to driving. If other needs can be met in the process, such as daily
errands, the attraction becomes that much stronger.
In addition, pedestrian amenities make a critical difference in the safety,
comfort, and mobility of those without the option of driving: the elderly, the
disabled, children, and lower-income people. In an environment designed for
drivers, these segments of the population often are forgotten.
The Land Use and Urban Design Area I The land-use and urban design
area is where land uses meet the street (e.g. building faces, front yards), and it
is fundamental to how the street looks and feels to its users. Urban design
focuses on character and aesthetics and includes building orientation and
placement, streetscapes, lighting, landscaping themes and building architecture.
MAP
53
CHAPTER 4 THE PLAN


This area includes the land uses that are lined up along the street and how
they relate to the street. It deals with the mix of uses as well as how they are
accessed. It also deals with the appearance of the buildings, both from the
standpoint of pedestrians in the pedestrian area and passengers in vehicles
traveling through the travelway area. Finally, the location and design of
alleys that allow garages to be in the rear, and coordinated access
management (the limitation of driveways and other access points between
the pedestrian area and the travelway area), are important considerations.
Access management is discussed in more detail in Chapter 6: The
Transportation Component.
Multi-Modal Street Types
As indicated earlier, the concept of street interface is embodied in the
designation of street types on the Plan Map. Street types are categorized
based on their adjacent land use.
Five new street types have been designated for the Plan Map:
l Residential street
l Main street
l Mixed-use street
l Commercial street
l Industrial street
Two other special street types also are relevant because of their unique and
historical nature:
l Landmark streets
i One-way couplets
Fbcusing on how land uses meet
the street is the function of urban design.
As described in the previous section, the traditional designation of a streets
function broadly defines its design and operational characteristics related
primarily to the movement of motor vehicles. The multi-modal street types
define streets by relating them to the adjacent land use and their function for
pedestrians, bicyclists and transit. Street design often ignores, or
de-emphasizes, other modes of travel when it is based solely on the traditional
emphasis of street function. The design of a street, its intersections,
sidewalks, and transit stops should reflect the adjacent land uses since the
type and intensity of the adjacent land use directly influences the level of use
by other modes.
The street types attempt to strike a balance between street function, adjacent
land use, and the competing travel needs. Each street type prioritizes various
design elements by looking at factors related to both the adjacent land use
and the appropriate balance of transportation modes. Of course, the
54
THE PLAN


BLUEPRINT DENVER
improvements to a particular street will depend upon the availability of public
right-of-way and funding.
Where sufficient public right-of-way exists, all initial priority design elements
are recommended and may be accommodated. If sufficient land and funding
are available, secondary priority design elements could then be added. Within
constrained public right-of-way and with limited transportation funding,
however, tradeoffs between design elements are required to balance the
functions of the various travel modes and mobility and access needs.
Table 1 provides the minimum dimension for the priority design elements
associated with each street type.
The general characteristics of the five main street types are described below.
A more detailed description for landmark streets and one-way couplets is
also provided.
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Residential Streets
Residential streets serve two major purposes in Denvers neighborhoods. As
arterials, residential streets balance transportation choices with land access,
without sacrificing auto mobility. As collectors and local streets, residential
streets are designed to emphasize walking, bicycling and land access over
mobility. In both cases, residential streets tend to be more pedestrian-
oriented than commercial streets, giving a higher priority to landscaped
medians, tree lawns, sidewalks, on-street parking and bicycle lanes.
Residential streets also serve an important role for Denvers local parks.
Residential streets create connections that emphasize walking, bicycling, and
vehicular connections to Denvers local parks. Creating a diverse array of
mobility options to local parks is critical to enhancing the use and character
of the park system, which is such a vital part of Denvers urban fabric.
Residential streets consist of two to four travel lanes but place a higher
priority on pedestrian and bicycle friendliness than on auto mobility.
Initial priority design elements
l Sidewalks
l Tree lawns
l On-street parking
l Bike lanes on designated bicycle routes
l Alleys and rear-facing garages
Secondary priority design elements
i Number and width of travel lanes (especially for collector and local streets)
i Landscaped medians
Residential street birds-eye view.
J t
. H H K f i t
Residential street cross section.
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55
CHAPTER


Examples of traffic management features
l Medians
l On-street parking
i Street trees
l Narrower travel lanes
l Traffic circles and roundabouts
l Reduced pedestrian crossing distances at intersections, using curb
extensions, traffic islands, and other measures
l Diverters
Main Streets
Main streets serve the highest intensity retail and mixed land uses in areas
such as downtown and in regional and neighborhood centers. Main streets
are designed to promote walking, bicycling, and transit within an attractive
landscaped corridor. Generally, main street commercial activities are
concentrated along a two- to eight-block area but may extend farther
depending on the type of adjacent land uses and the area served.
Main streets may have two to four travel lanes. On-street parking usually is
provided to serve adjacent land uses. Tree lawns and detached walks are
emphasized. In especially busy pedestrian districts, the landscaped tree lawn
may be replaced with an amenity zone featuring street trees in grates. To
further create a pedestrian-friendly atmosphere, main streets may have wide
sidewalks, street furniture (benches, information kiosks, trash receptacles,
etc.), outdoor cafes, plazas and other public spaces.
Initial priority design elements
i Wide sidewalks with transit access and pedestrian plazas
l Well-marked pedestrian crosswalks and signals
l Bicycle facilities
l Curb extensions
l Tree lawns / amenity zones
l On-street parking
Secondary priority design elements
l Medians
l Width and number of travel lanes
Main Street cross section.
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THE
PLAN


BLUEPRINT DENVER
Examples of traffic management features
l Narrower travel lanes
l Alternative paving material
l Tree planters in parking lane
l On-street parking
l Reduced pedestrian crossing distances at intersections, using curb
extensions, traffic islands, and other measures
l Raised intersections
l High-visibility crosswalks
3rd Avenue in Cherry Creek North,
a mixed-use neighborhood
Mixed-Use Street
Mixed-use streets emphasize a variety of travel choices such as pedestrian,
bicycle and transit use. Mixed-use streets are located in high-intensity mixed-
use commercial, retail and residential areas with substantial pedestrian activity.
These streets are attractive for pedestrians and bicyclists because of landscaped
medians and tree lawns. Mixed-use streets can have on-street parking and
wide sidewalks depending on the type and intensity of adjacent commercial
land uses. On-street parking, bicycle lanes, landscaping and sidewalk width
are higher priorities than the number of travel lanes on this type of street.
A Mixed-Use Street Bannock near 10th.
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Initial priority design elements
l Wide sidewalks with transit access
l Well-marked pedestrian crossings and signals
l Bicycle lanes on designated bike routes
l Bicycle facilities
l Tree lawns
l On-street parking
Secondary priority design elements
i Width and number of travel lanes (on collector and local streets)
l Medians
Examples of traffic management features
i Landscaped medians
l On-street parking
i Street trees
l Narrower travel lanes
l Traffic circles and roundabouts
l Reduced pedestrian crossing distances at intersections, using curb
extensions, traffic islands, and other measures
13th Avenue east of Broadway is
a Mixed-Use Street.
A Mixed-Use Street birds-eye view.

A Mixed-Use Street cross section.
MAP
57
CHAPTER


Commercial Street
The most widespread commercial street type is the strip commercial arterial.
These arterials typically serve commercial areas that contain many small
retail strip centers with buildings set back behind front parking lots. Because
of this, strip commercial arterials have many intersections and driveways that
provide access to adjacent businesses. Historically, this type of street often is
highly auto-oriented and tends to discourage walking and bicycling. On-street
parking is infrequent.
An ideal commercial corridor efficiently moves
cars and transit, and contains safe, attractive Commercial streets are designed with multiple lanes divided by a landscaped
pedestrian elements. Colorado and Psderal median Qr a continuous Lw0_way ieft turn lane in the center. Commercial
Boulevards in Denver both need reinvestment J
to be ideal commercial corridors. streets are designed to balance traffic mobility with access to nearby
businesses. However, because there are so many intersections and access
points on commercial streets, they often become congested.
Colorado Boulevard.
A Commercial Street birds-eye view.
Initial priority design elements
l Number and width of travel lanes
l Medians
l Pedestrian facilities
l Transit accommodations
l Limited driveways and other access points
Secondary priority design elements
l Bicycle facilities
l Tree lawns
l Two-way center left-turn lanes
l On-street parking
Examples of traffic management features
l Medians
l Consolidated driveways
l Synchronization of traffic signals
l On-street parking
l Narrower travel lanes
l Reduced pedestrian crossing distances at intersections, using curb
extensions, traffic islands, and other measures
Industrial Streets
Industrial streets serve industrial areas. These streets are designed to
accommodate a high volume of large vehicles such as trucks, trailers and
other delivery vehicles. Bicycles and pedestrians are infrequent but still need
to be accommodated.
Industrial streets typically are two to four lanes, which in general are wider
than usual to accommodate larger vehicles. On-street parking often is used to
58
THE PLAN


BLUEPRINT DENVER
store trailers and other large vehicles. Sidewalks are provided but are not as
wide as in other higher-density commercial and retail areas. This is the only
street type in which attached sidewalks are allowed with tree lawns outside of
sidewalks. Attached sidewalks allow larger vehicles and trailers to park on
the street without damaging tree canopies in the tree lawn.
Initial priority design elements 5
l Wider travel lanes a
l Sidewalks 2
l Wider turning radius at intersections 2
>
Secondary priority design elements ^
l Medians
l Bicycle lanes
l On-street parking
l Number of lanes
l Tree lawns
Examples of traffic management features
l Parking restrictions
l Wider turn radius at intersections and access points
1 Acceleration and deceleration lanes
Special Denver Street Categories
While not fitting the definition of street types, two other categories of streets
are noteworthy because of their unique character and evolution in the Denver
street system landmark streets and one-way couplets. Both of these may
function as arterials, collectors, or local streets. One-way couplets also may
function as downtown access streets. Because of the land uses adjacent to
the streets, one-way couplets can be designated any of the five street types:
residential, main, mixed-use, commercial or industrial. Landmark streets also
are characterized by several street types as well, including residential, main
street, or mixed-use.
Landmark Streets
Originally, many of the landmark streets were developed as parkways and
boulevards to connect Denvers major parks; to serve as components of a
system for pleasure drives and as settings for fine homes, important public
and private institutions; and recreational amenities. Because of their
connection to the regional street system, landmark streets serve key functions
of mobility and land access. They are important components of the citys
street function system of arterial, collector, and local streets, as well as the
citys bicycle and pedestrian systems.
6th Avenue Parkway.
MAP
59
CHAPTER


17th Avenue Parkway is a
Denver landmark.
Landmark streets are designated as Denver landmarks by City Council based
on a recommendation from the Denver Landmark Preservation Commission,
which considers the streets historical, architectural and geographical
significance. Once designated, the Landmark Commission provides advice
and guidance to the Public Works Department and Parks and Recreation
Department on projects affecting landmark streets so that projects are
implemented with sensitivity to the streets historic character. Particular
features or elements of projects that are reviewed by the Landmark
Commission include: landscaped medians and tree lawns, planting patterns
along the street, and the relative balance and arrangement of planted area to
paved surface area.
Each landmark street has its own unique character and design. Right-of-way
can vary significantly from street to street and from segment to segment.
Generally, these streets consist of two to four lanes in each direction, with
wide tree lawns along each side. Wide, attractively landscaped medians
separate the travel lanes. Medians typically are continuous, with limited
cross-street access. Finally, landmark streets have strict setback and sign
regulations.
Denvers existing parks and parkways are shown on the map at the end of
this chapter; this map includes parkways and boulevards designated by City
ordinance, as well as Denver landmark streets.
One-Way Couplets
One-way couplets are pairs of one-way streets that function as a single
higher-capacity street. Couplets are usually separated by one city block,
allowing travel in opposite directions. One-way couplets serve many different
areas of Denver from higher-density commercial and mixed-use areas, such
as downtown and regional centers, to lower-density residential areas and
main streets. One-way couplets are designed to have a higher transportation
capacity than an equivalent two-way street. They can be designated any of
the five street types: residential, main, mixed-use, commercial or industrial.
.East 8th Avenue serves as a one-way
couplet in conjunction with East 6th Avenue.
One-way couplets generally consist of two to four lanes, and emphasize
mobility over land access. Because all vehicular travel is flowing in the same
direction on each street, couplets have fewer movements at intersections and
better synchronization of traffic signals. In addition, because there usually
are fewer lanes than an equivalent two-way street, pedestrian-crossing
distances are shorter. This configuration of one-way streets potentially may
be safer for pedestrians. Traffic management measures may be needed,
however, to slow traffic and ensure pedestrian safety and comfort.
60
THE PLAN


BLUEPRINT DENVER
Multi-Modal Street Design
The design elements associated with each street type and street function serve
as the foundation for developing the multi-modal street. Their presence in the
street environment is essential to ensure the appropriate connection between
land use, transportation, urban design, community, environment and social
interaction. Their accepted dimensions are important to the designer who
becomes responsible for turning the multi-modal street concept into reality.
Table 1 presents the design element minimum dimensions associated with the
primary physical elements of the street. Please note that the design element
minimum dimensions are intended for use in locations with relatively minimal
right-of-way constraints. In built-up areas where right-of-way constraints are
significant these minimums are desirable but may not be achievable.
However, the design element minimums should be a priority in built-up areas
where there is an opportunity for uniformity in defined sub-areas, blocks and
corridors.
Automobile transport has
dominated development
patterns for most of the
20th century. Adapting
multiple modes of x
rn
transportation to _
existing corridors >
presents significant *
design challenges. New >
development must
consider site access by
pedestrians, cyclists and
transit users in addition
to automobiles.
Table 1 Design Element Minimum Dimensinns
Element Width
uesign uemem Standard Range
Bicycle Lanes 5'-0" 4'-0" to 6'-0"
Adjacent to an unpaved shoulder 4'-0"
Adjacent to on-street parking 5'-0"
Adjacent to high speed traffic, or high use 6'-0
Travel Lanes ll'-0" 10-0" to ltf-O"
Travel lane, less than 40 mph 11'-0
Travel lane, greater than 40 mph 12-0"
Transit lane exclusive 12'-0 ii'-0"to i2"-0"
Right-turn or left-turn lane ll'-0 10'-0"to 14"-0"
Two-way left-turn lane 14'-0 12'-0"to 14"-0"
Medians Variable 4'-0" and greater
Median setback from travel lane l'-0" 6" to 2'-0"
Median for landscaping and pedestrian refuge 8'-0 8'-0"to 12'-0"
Raised median for single left-turn lanes (curb included) 18'-0 18'-0
Raised median for double left-turn lanes (curb included) 28'-0 28'-0
On-street parking and loading 8'-0 8'-0
Shoulder 5'-0 3'-0" to 10'-0
Emergency, unmarked, vehicles only 8'-0 8'-0
Shoulder, mixed bicycles, emergency, slow vehicles 8'-0 8-0" to lO'-O"
Tree Lawns 8'-0 8'-0" and greater
Sidewalks Variable 5'-0" and greater
Attached to curb and gutter 8'-0 8'-0" and greater
Detached from curb and gutter 5'-0 5'-0" and greater
As a key implementation strategy of Blueprint Denver, a comprehensive
multi-modal street design guidelines manual will be developed by Public
Works Transportation Division, in cooperation with other City agencies.
This manual will provide more detailed direction for balancing or prioritizing
the infrastructure for each mode of travel in the context of the adjacent land
MAP
61
CHAPTER


uses. The guidelines take an interdisciplinary approach to street design that
will further encourage coordination among traffic engineers, planners, urban
designers, architects, emergency response officials, and the community when
designing new streets or reconstructing existing streets. This approach fosters
communication with those designing other elements of the community and
results in more context-sensitive and collaborative designs. The guidelines
will reline the information presented in Table 1 and will provide the rationale
for when and how the guidelines are to be applied.
Linking Multi-Mndal Street Types and Street Functions
Table 2 below illustrates the general relationship between multi-modal street
types and street functions:
Table 2 Relationships between Denver Multi-Modal Street Types and Functinnal
Class Categnries
FUNCTIONAL CLASS Residential Main STREET TYPE Mixed-Use Commercial industri:
Street Street Street Street Street
Arterial
Collector
Local
Downtown Access
Nearly all street types can be designated all four of the street functions, and
vice versa. This relationship means that street design must consider the
characteristics of both street function and street type when enhancements are
made to the multi-modal street system.
Each cell in the table above represents different characteristics that should be
considered in design. For example, a street that can be designated with an
arterial function and as a residential street type has different characteristics
or design features than a residential street designated as a local or collector
street. Residential arterial streets serve longer distance trips than residential
local or collector streets. As such, maintaining the through capacity should
be a higher priority on a residential arterial than on a residential local or
collector street. As another example, a mixed-use collector street and an
industrial collector street have different characteristics. A mixed-use collector
emphasizes accommodating several transportation modes while an industrial
collector emphasizes accommodating heavy trucks and automobiles over other
forms of transportation.
THE PLAN


BLUEPRINT DENVER
Conclusion
The terms in this chapter are an important way to describe Denvers future as
envisioned in the Plan Map. The terms also have been applied to the land
and transportation system based on the existing conditions.
These concepts are not simply vocabulary terms to describe elements of the
plan they serve as building blocks to achieve the plans vision. They are
utilized to describe Denvers future, which is presented conceptually in the
Plan Map. The Plan Map should be used to develop smaller scale plans and
related implementation legislation or public investment strategies. Zoning
changes, neighborhood plans, public investments and transportation
improvements should be based on the Plan Map.
These building blocks set guidelines for how individual land-use and
transportation types should be designed to a high standard within their
functional roles. The next two chapters will address how these building
blocks can be implemented into city policies and regulations within the
city-wide context.
The following chapter, Chapter 5, addresses land-use tools and Chapter 6
addresses transportation tools.
Footnotes
1 Lang, Alice H. and Diaz, Roderick B.; Bus Rapid Transit: An Integrated and
Flexible Package of Service; APTA 2000 Rail Conference Proceedings Paper.
2 Calthorpe, Peter. The Next American Metropolis, Princeton Architectural Press,
1993
Sources of funding for
transportation
infrastructure
Private sector
developers and
property owners
pay for on-site
improvements and
adjacent roadways,
as well as other
infrastructure.
H
X
cn
x
r
>
2
2
>
The transportation
improvement program
(TIP) is the regional
funding plan for the
distribution of federal
and state
transportation funds.
The Capital
Improvement Program
(CIP) allocates funding
to city transportation
and infrastructure
projects, as well as
other city capital
improvements
Improvement Districts
provide different types
of mechanisms, using
special tax
assessments and other
funding sources, to
construct, maintain,
and/or operate public
improvements.
MAP
63
CHAPTER


Building Block Attributes
Location Intensity Residential Density
Downtown There is only one downtown district in the region New building FAR average above 3.0, with some above 15 Most new development between 75 & 150 DUA (dwelling units per acre)
Employment Close access to major roads and transit FAR averages of 2.0 to 4.0 N/A
Industrial Often along rail lines or close access to major roads or airport New buildings are typically 0.2 FAR, historic uses can approach 0.75 FAR Typically, residential uses are not located in industrial areas
Campus/ According to needs of Usually less than 1.0 FAR, Varies from 0 to 20 DUA on
Institutional institution but individual buildings may be much higher average where present; dorms may be much higher
Mixed-use Proximate to downtown, regional centers or light rail stops FAR averages of 1 to 1.5, sometimes higher 20 to 50 DUA, sometimes much higher
Urban Usually by Downtown, 0.75 FAR for neighborhood Above 20 DUA, sometimes more
Residential transit corridors or regional centers average, some buildings 4 or more than 100 DUA
Single-family/ Usually 1/3 mile from 0.5 on average, with FAR of More than 10 DUA, usually less
Duplex Residential transit corridors, centers, former streetcar lines over 1 in some buildings than 20 DUA neighborhood-wide.
Single Family Usually farther from Low FAR, averaging from Fewer than 10 DUA neighborhood-
Residential Downtown than townhouse residential neighborhoods 0.2 to 0.5 wide
Neighborhood By intersections of 0.5 to 1.0 FAR, one to two Low overall, but may be 30 to 40
Centers arterials, collectors or former streetcar lines story buildings DUA in individual buildings
Town Centers Intersection of arterials FAR 0.5 to 1.25 Low overall, may be 20 to 40 DUA in individual buildings
Regional Including and surrounding Commercial use greater than Moderate for district overall, but
Centers regional-scale land use 500,000 square feet may be 20 to 150 DUA in individual buildings
TOD Centered around permanent transit stations 0.5 FAR to 4.0 FAR Between 12 and 100 DUA
Pedestrian Arterials that carry fewer Average FAR of 1.0 Moderately low for the corridor
Shopping than 25,000 trips per day, Higher densities are desirable overall, but may be 20 to 40 units
Corridor often along former streetcar routes. Can be along busier arterials if traffic speeds are lower than 30 MPH and sidewalks are wider, with more room for trees and street furniture near downtown per acre in individual buildings
Commercial Corridor Along major arterials Average FAR from 0.2 to 0.6 From very low to 30 units per acre
Detailed descriptions and examples of each type of land-use type are provided earlier in this chapter
64
THE PLAN


BLUEPRINT DENVER
Mix of Uses Size Transportation Use
Office, retail, hotel, residential, About 1,400 acres or 2 High level of pedestrian & bicycle
entertainment and civic square miles activity & transit use plus auto use. More than half of travel is non-auto
Office, some warehousing or light manufacturing 10 to 300 acres Major transit destinations but auto uses and some trucking accommodated
Light and heavy industrial and warehousing; some office 500 to 2,000 acres Auto-oriented, w/ transit for employees. Often dependent on truck & rail facilities, special requirements dominate street design
Usually educational, medical or Typically 50 to 500 Auto use accommodated but often
research oriented. Often residential, office & specialty retail in or next to campus acres campuses serve as major transit destinations, with pedestrian connections to adjacent neighborhoods
Light industry, office, retail & entertainment uses mixed with residential horizontal & vertical 50 to 300 acres High pedestrian activity and significant transit use in addition to automobile uses
Primarily residential with moderate levels of small-scale commercial use 200 to 400 acres Good transit access and significant levels of pedestrian and bicycling along with automobile use
Primarily residential with periodic small-scale commercial uses 200 to 600 acres Good transit access and significant levels of pedestrian and bicycling activity along with automobile use
Primarily single-family residential 500 to 1,000 acres Predominantly auto, some transit, walking and biking
Smaller scale retail and everyday 25,000 to 150,000 sq. High level pedestrian and bicycle
services and some office and residential ft. of retail activity and transit; plus auto use
Retail, office, entertainment uses. At least 150,000 Appropriate next to light-rail transit,
Many w/ boutiques with regional pull, residential desirable commercial, sq. ft. regional bus stations, or arterials
Office, retail, hotel, residential Varies but averages Excellent pedestrian zones that
and entertainment 300 acres accommodate automobile and transit use equally well; appropriate for light rail and major bus corridors
Residential and office uses with support retail and services About 50 acres Most trips are made via transit, walking and bicycling. Automobile reliance is discouraged
Primarily small-scale, street- At least 2 blocks long, These are mixed transportation mode
fronting commercial uses; but may extend for corridors, with heavily used transit
residential uses also may be miles. With nodes of routes and a high level of pedestrian and
present activity, every .25-.5 mile or so bike use, as well as autos
Primarily commercial uses, with Generally at least 5 Primarily automobile use but frequently
periodic residential nodes blocks long coincide with high frequency transit routes. Pedestrian safety is key to transit use
L
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2
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65
CHAPTER


Design Standards
_________________Design Standards________________
Pedestrian scaled facades and contextual design
Prominent street facing entry
Architectural scaling elements
Big box development: continuous arcade along the
facade of anchor store and in-line retail store
frontage
Awnings to protect pedestrians and mark entrances
Ground floor windows on multi-family buildings -
stoops can be used to raise porches and entrances
above street level to increase the privacy of
occupants
Extensive ground floor windows and frequent
access
Window transparency requirements to enable
pedestrians to see into buildings
Sidewalk uses, outdoor seating, street-carts and
vendors, etc. allowed and encouraged
Retail or similar active uses on main floor
Maximum percentage a garage can occupy of a
public facing facade
Garage entrances flush or recessed from facade
Detached garage recessed from facade
Tree canopy
Street trees
Preservation of mature trees in front setback
Landscaping between structures and primary street
Landscaping in front setback/parkway setback
Landscaping standards and screening adjacent to
residential and mixed-use areas
Downtown Employment Industrial Mixed- use Urban Residential
X X X
X X X X X
X X X X X
X X
X X
X X X
X X X
X X X X
X X X
X X Option
X X X X
X X
X X X
X X X X X
X
X X X X
X X X X X
X X X X
66
THE PLAN


BLUEPRINT DENVER
Single Family/ Duplex Residential Single Family Residential Neighbor- hood Centers Town Centers Regional Centers TOD Pedestrian Shopping Corridor Commercial Corridor Campus
X X X X X X X X X
X X X X X X X X X
X X X X X X X X X
X X
X X X X X X
X X X X X X X
X X X X X X X X
X X X X X X X X
X X X X X Option X
X X X X X X X X
X X X X X X X X X
X X
X X
X X X X X X X
X X X X X X X X X
X X X X
X X X X X X X X X
X X X X X X X X X
X X X X X X X
MAP
67
CHAPTER 4 THE PLAN MAP


Development Standards
Mixed- Urban
Development Standards Downtown Employment Industrial use Residential
Maximum FAR Minimum FAR Bulk plane limitations on comer lots Buildings scaled to allow sunlight on major open spaces X X X X X X X X
Height limitations Option Option
Side and rear setbacks Option Option
Maximum building setback to bring buildings to the sidewalk X X X X
Accessory units encouraged X
Detached sidewalks w/ trees in grates X Option Option Option Option
Attached sidewalks X
Detached walks with tree lawn Direct pedestrian connections Full site coverage to ensure continuity of the streetscape underground or structured parking Garage uses facing public streets and plazas restricted Structured parking No parking between structure and primary street X X Option X X X Option Option X X Option X X X X
X X
X X X X
Maximum parking ratio Developed on a grid pattern Enclosure, buffering and screening of external effects X X X X X X X X X X
Drive-in facilities restricted Drive-in facilities prohibited Minimize curb cuts to restrict auto access across sidewalks X X X X X X X X
Maximum driveway width When alleys are present, garage access from alley X X X X
Option refers to the judgement of the regulator, not the developer
68
THE PLAN


BLUEPRINT DENVER
Single- Family/ Duplex Residential Single Family Residential Neighbor- hood Centers Town Centers Regional Centers TOD Pedestrian Shopping Corridor Commercial Corridor Campus
X X X X X X X X X
X X
X X
X X X X X
X X Option Option Option Option Option Option X
X X Option X
X X X X X X X X
X X X X X X
X X X X X X Option
X X X X X X X X Option
X X X X X X X X X
X X
X X X X X X X X
X X X X X
X X X X X X X X X
X
X X X X X X X
X X X X X X X X X
X X X X
X X X X X
X X X X X X X X X
X X X X X X
X X
MAP
69
CHAPTER 4 THE PLAN MAP


Parks and parkways


CHAPTER 5
The Land


32nd and Lowell is an attractive and lively
place, and easily accessible.
Key concepts:
I Land-use regulations
are the primary tool to
designate areas for the
appropriate type of
development
I Appropriate land-use
regulations ensure
buildings work with
public infrastructure to
create desired
development patterns
I Blueprint Denvers
vision cannot be
implemented with the
Citys current zoning
I New zoning should
concentrate as much
on building design as it
does on activities that
occur within buildings
This chapter describes the land-use regulations and tools that will be used to
reach Blueprint Denvers vision. Chapter 4, the Plan Map, characterizes the
building blocks that describe the desired characteristics of areas within
Denver. These residential areas, districts, corridors and centers must become
more than simply a location for stores or housing. They must become lively,
attractive and efficient places that can be accessed easily through a variety of
ways, including walking from nearby neighborhoods. Land-use regulations
ensure that buildings within residential areas, districts, corridors and centers
work together with public infrastructure to create these desired places.
These places are created by establishing standards for development, allowing
appropriate mixes of uses and densities, and prohibiting or limiting
inappropriate uses. While these standards create the regulatory framework,
the public sector must develop a climate that attracts private investment.
One way to encourage private-sector redevelopment is to create opportunities
for economically rewarding development. Although regulations cannot
increase the market demand in an area for a specific type of building, they
can encourage development by allowing sufficient development intensity and
appropriate mixes of uses so that planned land uses are more likely to be
economically feasible.
After describing the land-use regulations and tools, this chapter examines the
weaknesses in Denvers current zoning code that make it difficult to
implement Blueprint Denver and depicts the attributes that need to be
incorporated in a revised zoning code. Chapter 7 explains how the land-use
tools described here and transportation tools in Chapter 6 can be applied in
the Areas of Stability and Areas of Change.
Types of Tools
Three types of tools form the basis for creating an environment needed to
support desirable development: regulatory policies, public infrastructure, and
partnerships between the public and private sector.
Regulation is a powerful, but not entirely sufficient tool, to bring about the
vision of Blueprint Denver. Generally, land-use regulatory tools address the
dimensions of a development with regard to size, density, setbacks and
height, and allow or limit the land uses that can be included in buildings.
Regulation also can guide the basic design of a structure. In addition to
regulatory tools, public infrastructure improvements and public/private
partnerships are essential to create the synergy needed to implement the
plan. Key public infrastructure, such as adding or improving parks and
building transit, can help citizens feel more amenable to living in a certain
area. Partnerships can be created between public agencies and private
72
THE LAND USE


BLUEPRINT DENVER
interests by lending money, using redevelopment agency powers and sharing
responsibility for maintaining public amenities. The infrastructure and
partnership tools are described in Chapter 7.
Land-Use Regulations in General
Zoning
The zoning code affects the following four basic aspects of development:
Uses I Uses refer to the way in which land is being used. For instance,
single-family dwelling is one type of residential use, whereas a grocery store is
a type of commercial use. Each zone district allows a range of uses.
Single-family homes are allowed in all residential zone districts, whereas
factories are typically allowed only in industrial zone districts. The zoning
code also includes limitations and conditions on uses.
Development standards I Development standards prescribe the allowable
dimensions of a development in terms such as its bulk and height and its
placement on the site.
Design standards I Design standards control the appearance of a structure
such as its window and door placement and roof form.
Zone map I Denvers zoning map shows the zone district that applies to
each property in the city. The designated uses, development standards, and
design standards for each zone district apply to each property that falls into
that zone district.
Other land-use regulations
Subdivision ordinance and regulations I These regulations determine how
private land is divided into streets and parcels of land.
Site plan review I Site plan review, set out in code and regulations,
determines how buildings are arranged on a site and how development on the
site relates to and affects its surroundings. There are three types of reviews:
ministerial, which is done at the zoning desk; administrative, which is done
for Planned Building Groups and Planned Developments; and, design review,
which is done by urban design professionals.
Landmark designation I The Landmark Preservation Ordinance provides
the authority to designate buildings and areas that have architectural,
historical and geographical significance. Once a building or district is
designated, the Landmark Commission must review and approve exterior
changes or demolition.
L
iOKIWt
CITY AhO COUniT
Of
DCnVU
H
X
m
r
>
2
D
C
in
cn
O
O
Regulation is a powerful tool to realize
Blueprint Denvers vision.
x
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COMPONENT
73
CHAPTER


Live-work lofts in a redeveloped building
on Larimer Street.
View Plane preservation I The view plane ordinances preserve aesthetic
views of the mountains and downtown by outlining a geographic area that
cannot contain tall buildings.
The Land-Use Tools
The City and County of Denver must have readily available tools for
addressing common challenges if Blueprint Denver is to be effective. A
toolbox of new and existing land-use tools will be used to reach city-wide
objectives and to address many of the challenges found in areas around the
city. Once the tools are adopted, their effectiveness will be evaluated and
the tools will be modified.
Mixed-use zoning
provides for a mixture of
uses enabling residents
to live, shop and work in
the same area. It
encourages residential
with commercial uses
such as moderate-sized
offices or retail. The uses
can be in the same
building or separate
buildings within the
same district. Live-work
townhouses are examples
of building types
accommodated through
mixed-use zoning.
There are several regulatory tools that need to be applied because they affect
different aspects of development. For example, changes to zoning can allow
enough density and mix of uses so that a good development proposal will be
economically feasible. Design standards can ensure that the quality of design
is an asset to the surrounding neighborhood. Finally, for large, vacant Areas
of Change, subdivision regulations can be used to establish connectivity in
the street plan, designate adequate street rights-of-way, provide adequate
public facilities, and plat lots.
Regulatory Tools
Zoning Changes
Language amendments I The zoning language can be amended for a zone
district to change the allowed uses or the standards. This revised language
then would apply to every property in that zone district. Other language
amendments, such as a modified definition of a use, apply to every zone
district in which that use is allowed. A change in the land-use standards of a
zone is one tool to improve compatibility. For example, a zone that currently
allows drive-through restaurants could be altered to make these businesses
subject to additional conditions (known as a conditional use). Another
strategy is to provide a set of standardized limitations on allowable uses
(e.g. retail is permitted, but only up to a limited square footage per building).
Creating new and more appropriate zone districts I In some cases there
are gaps in zone districts that make it difficult to find an appropriate lit
between the land uses in an area and zoning. For instance, the current zone
districts covering many traditional Denver neighborhoods leap in scale from
R-2 at 14 units to the acre to R-3 which, at a 3:1 floor area ratio, allows
approximately 120 units per acre, or to R-4 at a 4:1 FAR with a potential of
building high rises at 150 units per acre or more. In other cases, a zoning
district that allows the appropriate uses, densities, and design standards for
74
THE LAND USE


BLUEPRINT DENVER
certain Areas of Change may not exist. In such instances a new zone district
needs to be created or an existing zone district needs to be modified through a
language amendment. Given the number of proposed transit-oriented
development districts, a new zone district may need to be created, or the
existing mixed-use zone districts may need to be modified.
Map amendments I In some instances it may be appropriate to change
the zoning in Areas of Stability to create a better match between existing
land uses and the zoning. In other instances it may be necessary to change
the zoning in an area to establish the appropriate framework for achieving
the vision for each Area of Change. For example, some areas near
downtown are zoned for industrial use but are slated for mixed-use
development. In this case, the underlying zoning would need to be changed
to a mixed-use zone district.
Density bonuses or premiums I Density bonuses or premiums are
sometimes awarded to promote development that provides a public purpose.
Historic preservation, housing and affordable housing, and public plazas are
among the public purposes for which the incentive of additional development
is provided. One example in Denver is bonuses that are provided in
downtown through a Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) program. The
transfer of development rights to new development from historic buildings has
helped these buildings be preserved and re-used.
Development Standards
FAR limits I FAR limits are a regulatory tool that addresses the amount of
square footage that can be built on a given parcel of land. FAR is the ratio of
the total floor area of a building to the land area of the site.
Height limits I The height of a building can be limited to keep the
buildings in scale.
Setbacks I This standard controls the distance a building is set back from
the property line. In new single-family neighborhoods, a minimum front
setback is established to assure consistency of building placement to
sidewalks. In existing neighborhoods, new houses must comply with the
average setback of existing homes. For commercial and mixed-use
development, a maximum front setback or build-to fine brings buildings
next to or near the sidewalk and helps create the style of a main street. Side
and rear yard setbacks are also established.
Parking location I Parking along main streets can be required to be placed
to the side or behind commercial buildings and prohibited between the
building and the sidewalk. This improves pedestrian access and contributes
to the visual appeal of a main street environment.
gross floor area of a building _
total area of the lot
What is FAR?
Floor-to-Area-Ratio is a
standard measure of a
buildings intensity. FAR is
the ratio of the gross floor
area of a building divided
by the square footage of
the land it sits upon. Thus
a 10,000 square foot
building that sits on a
10,000 square foot parcel
has a FAR of 1.0. Each of
the development examples
above has a FAR of 1.0.
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Existing zoning regulations
in the B-4 zone allows for a
maximum FAR of 2.0.
However, the zone requires
5 parking spaces or
roughly 2,000 square feet
of parking lot area for
every 1,000 square feet of
retail space. This required
parking occupies land that
could otherwise be used for
a building structure. Unless
a developer wishes to build
expensive structured
parking, a FAR of 2.0 is
impossible to achieve, even
with a building over 20
stories tall! Instead of a 2.0
FAR, the actual FAR that
can be achieved with this
parking requirement and
surface parking is less
than 1.0.
The diagram below represents a
bulk plane that goes vertically upward 10'
from the side property lines and then projects
over the property at a 45-degree angle.
Off-street parking requirements I The number of parking spaces required
for different land uses is prescribed in the zoning code. For example, several
zone districts require 1.5 parking spaces for each dwelling unit. Parking
requirements can shape development. Surface parking takes up land, but
land values must be high to cover the expense of structured parking. In
some parts of Areas of Change, especially those with existing or planned
high-quality transit access, minimum parking requirements also could be
modified to encourage the creation of pedestrian- and transit-friendly centers
and main streets.
Signs I In commercial areas, signs are essential for business identification,
but can cause clutter. As with parking, the size, design, and location of
signage should be carefully considered.
Landscaping I Landscaping is a prized amenity. In low-density residential
areas, it is important to assure that sufficient landscaping is incorporated into
a development by using maximum lot coverage standards, minimum
landscaping percentages, and requirements that mature trees be preserved.
However, in commercial or high-density residential areas, where buildings
have little or no setback, landscaping will have an urban character. In
redevelopment areas, landscaping regulations will group open-space into
active places, such as plazas, or usable recreation areas, designed for public
or semi-public use, and will maintain or re-establish street landscaping.
Bulk limits I Bulk regulations are designed to control the mass of
structures, provide consistency among structures, and allow sunlight to reach
adjacent property. This is done by establishing an imaginary plane beyond
which a structure may not be built.
Transitions between residential and non-residential areas I One of the
current challenges facing Areas of Stability is the presence of industrial or
larger auto-oriented commercial buildings near residences. This close
proximity detracts from the visual appeal and livability of a residential area
while putting businesses in the awkward position of being in conflict with
their neighbors. Transitions between conflicting uses can be eased by
requiring:
i Vegetated screens or buffers
i Screening walls and fences
i Site arrangements to keep service or delivery areas screened and away
from residential uses
l Design elements that tie businesses into residential neighborhoods such
as gables and more modest signage
l Transitional height limits
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THE LAND USE


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DENVER
Design Standards
For certain Areas of Stability, the underlying zoning is generally
appropriate, but specific design features of new development are not
compatible with the communitys values. Specific design standards
generally fall into the following categories:
Garage treatment I Often, new housing is designed with a prominent
garage door that dominates the view of the building from the street. In
Denvers older neighborhoods, these garage-oriented structures may be
conspicuously incompatible with older and historical houses. Design
guidelines can address garage door treatment in a number of ways including:
i Have garage doors recessed or set back from the rest of the front facade
l Limit the size of garage doors facing the street to a fixed percentage of the
front facade.
Windows and doors I When the street-facing facade is punctuated with
windows and doors, it tends to appear friendlier than a blank or unbroken
facade. Also, street-facing doors tend to give a human quality to a building.
Design standards can specify a minimum percentage of windows and can
require that front doors directly face the street.
Porches and other neighborhood features I When an existing residential
area has a prominent architectural feature such as front porches or a certain
roofline, new homes in those existing areas can be required to integrate these
features into their designs.
Compatible building designs I New buildings should reinforce existing or
desired character. The development and design standards described above do
much to accomplish this. Further standards related to materials, roof shape,
heights, rhythm, glazing patterns, or special site arrangements may be needed
in special circumstances to assure greater compatibility.
Additional Regulatory Tools
Subdivision
Subdivision is the fundamental process by which street rights-of-way and
legal lots are established. Much of Denver has been subdivided with a street,
lot and building pattern well established. Subdivision remains an essential
part of the land-use regulatory system only where land has not been
subdivided or where resubdivision is necessary. Stapleton and Gateway are
examples of areas that have never been subdivided; the Central Platte Valley
is an example of an area that needs to be resubdivided because of its
dramatic change in use.
Compatible building means designing similar
roof lines and scale to neighboring homes,
such as this example in Washington Park.
The 1999 Housing Plan,
a supplement to Plan
2000, calls for reducing
the regulatory costs of
housing. One of the
actions is to review
current land planning,
design and
infrastructure
requirements to
determine if they
unnecessarily add to the
cost of housing. Those
that add unnecessarily
to the cost should be
changed.
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Denvers detached sidewalks and tree lawns
with mature trees are among the
citys legacies.
Street creation I The most permanent physical feature of a new subdivision
is its streets. If history is any guide, long after the original houses and
buildings have been replaced, the streets will still be there. Early subdivisions
established the grid and set a standard for continuity that continues today.
They also created the standard for alleys to be the primary auto (or formerly
carriage) access. Denvers detached sidewalks and tree lawns with mature
trees are among the citys trademark images. It is a system that was
developed to make walking to streetcar stops more enjoyable.
New subdivisions can recreate this fundamental framework of streets. The
post-war era saw a change from a streetcar and pedestrian orientation to an
auto orientation. Residential developments, such as those with an abundance
of cul-de-sacs, lack street continuity, force longer car trips, and turn their
backs on perimeter streets. Likewise, more recent arterial streets lack
sidewalks, dedicating all of the right-of-way to traffic lanes. Today,
communities recognize the importance of returning to some of the advantages
of yesterdays commitment to walking and transit. Newer requirements try to
balance the needs of cars with other transportation systems. As a result,
these streets have more potential to accommodate mixed-use development,
which, in turn, promotes more walking.
In new subdivisions, a minimum connectivity interval is a regulatory tool to
ensure that streets flow and provide good connections for everyone who uses
them. For example, along the edges of the development, street connections or
intersections may be required at about 600-foot intervals. Inside this defined
area, street patterns can be grid-like, curvilinear, radial, irregular, or any
other pattern that connects to the perimeter streets. In this manner, interior
parts of a development retain their connectivity as well. An example of an
interconnected street pattern that is an alternative to the street grid can be
found in the Bear Valley neighborhood.
Maximum block sizes I Historically, Denver streets have created a
pattern of blocks that tends to be fairly standard regardless of the use.
Newer development that lacks connectivity requirements tends to have
larger super blocks of residential or commercial activity that is oriented to
the center of the block. An office park such as the Denver Tech Center is
an example of this approach; the fence canyons that line arterial streets
are another outcome. A street connectivity requirement could create a
maximum block length of about 600 feet, which may need to be further
refined with additional requirements for lot definition. Alternatively, block
size can be tied to density such that, as densities increase, the maximum
block size decreases and street access increases.
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THE LAND USE


BLUEPRINT DENVER
Lot creation I Subdivision regulations also establish legal lots. Most of
the older parts of Denver have a standard lot size of 50 by 125 feet with
the narrow side tending to face the street. Newer areas tend to have more
variety of lot size and orientation. The subdivision and base zone
regulations should be revised to provide for varied lot sizes to promote a
variety of housing types and prices.
Street Design Standards
Once a subdivision plat identifies the location and amount of street right-
of-way, the design of the street components must be established. Again,
many of Denvers streets are already in place and adequately serve many
people. Where a street is non-existent or is inadequate, Denvers street
design standards apply. The Streetscape Design Manual (City and County
of Denver, 1993) provides additional direction for the sidewalk, tree lawn
and other amenities. When development occurs, the City requires that the
adjacent right-of-way be brought up to the applicable street design
standard. Depending on the particular case, this may include some or all
of the following:
A Gateway subdivision and its street pattern.
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l Additional traffic lane(s)
l Curb and gutter
i Detached sidewalk
l Tree lawn with ground cover or special paving
i Street trees
l Streetlights
l Median design
ministerial Design Standards
Ministerial design standards are those that require no discretionary decision-
making by those who administer them. They are objective, based on clear
measurements and unambiguous language. An example of a ministerial
design standard is a requirement that the garage doors on a single-family
house occupy no more than 35 percent of the front facade. The value of
ministerial design standards is that they are effective in accomplishing
basic design goals while being inexpensive to administer. Their low
administrative cost enables them to be applied broadly, improving the
basic level of design in many portions of the city.
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The view from the State Capitol is protected.
Protecting Denvers Legacies
Several components of the land-use regulatory system protect Denvers
legacies urban design, historic buildings and districts, and views of the
mountains and downtown. These, along with parks and parkways, represent
Denvers fundamental cultural values.
Urban Design Review
A few zone districts require review of building design based on adopted design
standards and guidelines. This staff intensive review is appropriate for a few
high visibility areas such as downtown (B-5) and Cherry Creek North (CCN).
Historic Buildings and Districts
Landmark designation is the means by which historic buildings and districts
are protected through design and demolition review. To qualify as a
landmark, the Landmark Preservation Ordinance specifies that a building or
district must have significance in two of three categories architecture,
history and geography. Regardless of designation, reuse of buildings is an
important concept for sustainability.
View Plane Preservation
There are many public places in Denver with spectacular views of the
mountains or downtown Denver. Picking a point (e.g., the steps of the State
Capitol) and establishing a plane that cannot be penetrated by new buildings
can preserve these views.
Land-Use Regulatory Priorities
Once Blueprint Denver is adopted, one of the highest priorities will be to
revise current Denver laws, procedures and practices to implement the vision
represented by this document. This section outlines the rationale and the
steps needed to meet this goal.
The current Denver Zoning cnde and its limitatinns
This diagram shows the emphasis in
Denvers current zoning code in favor of uses.
The current Denver code originated in 1956 and has been revised extensively
since then. As the communitys expectations for development changed, so did
the code, and it has evolved to include many new districts that are highly
specialized. While many new ideas have been added, little has been deleted or
revised in 45 years. As a result, the code is a particularly unwieldy
document, difficult to use and understand, and sometimes unpredictable in
its effect. A few of its flaws are described below.
Too many use types I Because its basic design is from the 1950s, it tends to
regulate uses by specifically defining each gradation of use, fisting each with
THE LAND USE


BLUEPRINT DENVER
great detail and with many nuances. The basic premise of this approach is
that the appearance of the building, its compatibility with the surrounding
uses, and its impacts on the community are closely related to and can
therefore be defined by the use within the building. However, 45 years of
experience with the effects of zoning demonstrates that it is much more
effective to direcdy regulate impact or appearance than to expect it to happen
indirectly through detailed regulation of uses. More than 379 different uses
are currendy listed in Denvers zoning districts. Among them are obsolete uses
(apothecary, typewriter and adding machine store), incredibly specific uses (a
candy, nut and confectionery store in which potato chips are not
manufactured), and other curious uses (bridge studio, including the teaching
of the card game known as bridge and the playing of the card game known as
bridge). These evolved not through a comprehensive fisting of uses, but rather
by the accretion of 45 years of modification, one district or use at a time.
Too many zones I The code contains 67 distinct zoning districts. Some,
such as R-l, R-3 and B-4, are the remnants of the original 1956 zoning
legislation. Some are rarely used today (RS-4), some were enacted to
implement special plans, and others evolved to solve a specific problem.
The combination of uses and districts involves more than 24,000 possible
combinations more than enough to cover any conceivable need. It takes
a zoning specialist or planner more than two years of service in the zoning
office to master the zoning code.
Conflicting development standards I The basic development standards often
conflict. For example, the permitted FAR in the B-4 district is 2.0, but parking
requirements typically limit the actual intensity to a FAR of less than a 1.0.
Few design related standards in the basic zones I Most zones do not
contain basic design standards aimed at ensuring a minimum standard of
appearance and compatibility in new buildings again the focus of the zone
district is on land use. Design review has been instituted in a few high
visibility areas. There is continued pressure to expand design review to many
other areas, but current structure of the code makes design review an
awkward and burdensome addition.
Unenforceable standards I Many standards were written without regard to
the problems of enforcement. For example, some uses limit the number of
employees that may work within a building or the number of customers per
day. These standards, however, are almost impossible to enforce without the
use of an undercover police detective, a very inefficient allocation of resources.
A much more effective way to regulate impact and size is to limit the
dimensions of some physical part of the building, which then can be enforced
at the permit counter.
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A candy, nut and
confectionary store in
which potato chips are
not manufactured is an
example of an incredibly
specific use in Denvers
zoning code.
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Imposition of zoning conditions and waivers I The unsatisfactory
performance of the current regulations has led to the use of unique
conditions and waivers applied to rezonings. These waivers and conditions,
which are not organized in the zoning code, further complicate Denvers
zoning situation. In addition, these conditions are written to address the
construction of buildings and are not crafted broadly enough to address
the ongoing regulation of the land after construction is completed. They
remain enforceable for decades after, regardless of their effectiveness and
applicability.
The result is that the regulatory system does not deliver effective land-use
regulation, but its administration absorbs a large amount of resources. It is
difficult to envision how Blueprint Denver will be implemented by simply
adding another layer of regulation on top of the current code. In fact, if the
reforms mentioned in this chapter are instituted, it may be appropriate to
eliminate the practice of rezoning with conditions and waivers.
Planned Unit Developments (PUD) I A PUD involves a negotiated
development plan between a developer and the City and County of Denver.
Concerns with PUDs are that their widespread proliferation has increased the
complexity of regulating land use, and the conditions they place on
development sometimes perform poorly and inflexibly once the PUD has been
adopted. This issue can be addressed if the city acts on the authority to
repeal obsolete PUD zoning and change it to a more appropriate district.
Lack of uniform processes for development review I There is a lack of a
single, unified site plan review process. Instead, innumerable formal, informal
and ad hoc review processes have been created through the years.
Lack of an intermediate public body for development plan review I
Denver relies very heavily on its zoning processes to regulate individual land
development projects. Many cities have an intermediate public body, such as
a fully-empowered planning commission, to engage in a public development
review and approval process.
Staff resources needed to administer the code I Major changes in the
staffing of the Community Planning and Development Agency are unlikely.
This means that if more attention is to be given to issues raised in this
plan such as developing an interesting, mixed-use environment in the
Areas of Change, or ensuring compatibility of character for new buildings
in Areas of Stability some current tasks will receive less staff time and
attention. Revising and simplifying the code will allow more attention to
issues such as implementing Blueprint Denver without any loss in the
protections given by the current code.
With over 24,000 possible combinations
of uses and zone districts, the
zoning code is unwieldy.
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THE LAND USE


BLUEPRINT DENVER
Proposed revision of the Denver Zoning Code
The following revisions will make the Denver code easier to use, more
predictable and much more effective in creating the kind of environment
envisioned by Blueprint Denver. The revised code will consist of standardized
land uses, as well as development and design standards available for use in
all zone districts. Each district will have a similar format, with each
component of the zone district treated in a similar manner. As a result, a
matrix may be developed to summarize the content of all zone districts.
Currently, the zoning code pays particular attention to land-use issues,
focusing on detailed distinctions, such as in the difference between a bank
and a savings and loan. The intent of the revised zoning code is to give equal
attention to the land-use, development and design aspects of the code.
Supplemental tools, such as overlay districts, will be available to address
special situations.
Uses Standards Design
III
[ual attention must be given to the land use,
velopment and design aspects of the code.

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Zone Districts
The format of the 67 zoning districts can be improved. Some zone districts
are rarely applied in the City but remain on the books. Some have
distinctions between districts that are barely perceptible. Still others have
distinctions that could be addressed better through overlay zones. The zoning
districts would be refined into the following categories:
Basic Zones I There would be fewer basic zones categorized into residential,
business, industrial and mixed-use zones. They all would contain the same
set of uses, each being listed as permitted, not permitted, limited or
conditional. Similarly, all the development standards and design standards
would apply or not apply in each district. For simplicity, the current
designations such as R-3 and B-3 would be retained and the fundamental
rights within each of these basic zones would remain the same. Furthermore,
to reduce the proliferation of zone districts, the city should reclassify obsolete,
unbuilt PUDs into more appropriate general zoning categories. To limit the
future excesses of PUDs, the city should reserve them for special situations
and should provide tighter standards that define what type and scale of
development will qualify for this zone designation.
Overlay Zones I Many detailed distinctions can be made by using overlay
zones, applied as a supplement to a consistent set of basic zones. Overlay
zones usually address specific issues dealing with a specific area or type of
area. However, an overlay may geographically cover a variety of underlying
basic zones. Because many of the issues that the different overlays address
are similar, a small set of overlay zones that can be applied as needed
throughout the city should be adopted as part of a basic zoning package.
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Uses Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3
Retail P P
Hotel P C L3
Factory P 14
Representation of
proposed new format
Each box will indicate if
a use is permitted,
permitted conditionally
or permitted with
limitations.
Examples of general overlay zones might include a pedestrian overlay zone or
a transit overlay zone (these are discussed in more detail in Chapter 9
Implementation). In these cases, additional development or design standards
may be applied. Some use refinement is appropriate in overlay zones, such as
further limitations on land uses permitted elsewhere. However, overlays
primarily should address the impact, design and character.
For administrative simplicity, overlay districts should be designed not to
duplicate the breadth of content in the basic zones but to specify how the
regulations of the basic zone should be modified. In addition, adopting
standard overlay districts should reduce the need to establish unique overlay
districts in many parts of the city.
Land Uses
One of the first and most straightforward revisions of the code should be to
simplify the fist of permitted uses. Uses listed in each district should be
selected based on how their different activities affect neighboring uses, or based
on their probable impact. For example, the Denver code lists separate uses for
apparel, bank, bicycle shop, and beauty shop in some zones, while in others it
distinguishes between retail-limited and retail-major and between retail small,
retail medium, and retail large. It lists separately and regulates differently an
artist gallery and an artist shop, based on whether the customer wants to
purchase a finished painting or the oils and canvas to make a painting.
Zoning codes are best when the land-use definitions address differences in
uses that can be noticed by a reasonable neighbor. It seems as if only the
most meddlesome of neighbors would care if a store sold paintings or if it sold
artists supplies.
When the definitions of uses change from one zone district to another, a
standard matrix of uses and zone districts cannot be created. A standardized
comprehensive matrix of uses by zone districts makes the code easier to use,
understand and administer. To do this, use definitions must be standardized.
Each cell of the matrix then shows if a use is permitted, permitted with
limitations or conditions, or not permitted for each zone district.
Many modern zoning codes following this approach use only 20-60 land-use
distinctions. The American Planning Association recently published the
Land-Based Classification System, updating the 1965 system that was used
to draft thousands of zoning codes in the United States. The basic set of uses
defined by activity fists only 70 uses for all conceivable activities. Using the
Land-Based Classification System or similar definitions means that the entire
zoning code would have a consistent set of uses and a consistent format for
all zoning districts.
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BLUEPRINT DENVER
Development Standards
In addition to standardizing uses, the basic zoning districts should
standardize the format of development standards that may be applied to
each zone. Each zone then can take advantage of a standard set of controls
that deal with bulk, height and other attributes. For example, the current
controversy over scale for new homes in residential zones could be
addressed by applying a FAR maximum, as is commonly used in
commercial zones. The development standards would include minimum
setbacks, maximum setbacks (also known as build-to lines), FAR, maximum
lot coverage, minimum landscaping percentage, minimum tree canopy
required, height (regular and bulk plane), lot size, density (units per acre),
as well as others. Not every zone would use each standard, but each zone
would have exactly the same format of development standards, and they all
would be used the same way among the zone districts. Other standards
would be included, such as off street parking requirements and signage.
(See the matrix in chapter 4.)
A typical list of
development standards
might include:
Maximum height in feet
Minimum open space as
a percent of lot area
Open space, minimum
square feet per dwelling
unit
Maximum coverage of a
lot by a building
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Design Standards
The motivation behind having so many zones, uses and conditions is a
desire to influence the design of buildings and areas. Impacts and basic
physical characteristics can be controlled most effectively by using a
straightforward set of design standards, in addition to the development
standards described above. These are not guidelines but a set of specific
solutions to common problems. The way a building addresses the sidewalk
in pedestrian areas, landscaping, buffering and screening methods, roof
shape, door and window arrangement, and materials for construction all
can be developed into a set of simply administered standards.
Maximum floor to area
ratio
Maximum dwelling units
per acre
Minimum lot area
Parking requirement,
minimum or maximum
Landscaping required
Once generally adopted in the regulatory framework, the design standards
can be applied by reference in any of the basic or overlay zones. Thus, each
common set of issues would have a common set of design solutions. This
would allow for more consistent treatment of issues. Refinements made
from the experience in one part of town can be applied to similar situations
elsewhere. In addition, developers, planners and neighbors will become
familiar with and skilled at consistently applying the same simple set of
design principles.
Procedures for Design Review
One of the biggest concerns in developing more design regulation is that it
will be more time consuming. Certainly, if each building were subject to a
discretionary, subjective design review process, the amount of staffing
required would be enormous. However, if the task of bringing design issues
into the zoning code is set up correctly, and the code is made more efficient
Setbacks (minimum)
Setbacks (maximum or
build-to line)
Bulk plane setbacks
Fences or walls required
Solar access bulk plane
Minimum dwelling size
in square feet
Building separation
required
Garage/parking location
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The greater the discretion provided for in the
review of buildings, the more staff review time
needed and the less permit requests that can
be reviewed necessitating longer turnaround
times or hiring more staff.
at the same time, it could be done using about the same resources as now.
The design issues would be dealt with in three stages described below.
Ministerial Reviews I Ministerial reviews are those that are administered
by the zoning office using clear, objective standards. These need to be
straightforward and unambiguous, usually by providing a standard based
on a measurement that can be taken from a drawing of the proposed
project. These standards may take into account the location relative to a
street or other common element or a use that requires buffering. Examples
include standards for entrance location and the amount of glass on a
pedestrian-oriented street, or buffering required when adjacent to a
residential zone. This kind of review would be the most common,
accounting for as much as 85 percent of all permits requiring attention to
design issues.
Administrative Review I Administrative review is most commonly
handled through the Planned Building Group (PBG) or Planned
Development (PD) procedures today. This is an administrative decision but
involves more judgment (and therefore more discretion) on the part of the
decision-maker. This system also requires standards, but these apply to
larger projects, complex buildings and groups of buildings, and those that
are context sensitive. While the percentage of permits that go through this
process may be small, these developments often have a large impact
because of their size or location. In some cases, certain high impact uses
may be required to go through this review regardless of the zone or overlay
zone. The same design standards would be applied in the same manner for
all site plan review.
Design Review I Design review is a process that involves subjective and
discretionary review, guided by site-specific design standards. Typically,
professional planning staff or a special board either recommends or
actually makes the decision. Design review is used today for designated
landmarks and in prominent development areas, most notably downtown,
Cherry Creek, and the new development areas of Lowry, Stapleton,
and the Gateway.
Due to the time and expense involved, additional areas selected for full
design review should be limited. Because resources are scarce design
review should be used only when the other two review methods are not
adequate. Design review is an effective tool for reviewing only the most
sensitive areas and important buildings and uses in the community.
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The Zoning Map
Adopting a new zoning code does not require adopting a new zoning map.
However, Blueprint Denver raises issues that cannot be resolved by simply
changing the form and structure of the current regulations. In some cases,
the current zoning does not allow the envisioned mix of uses or intensity
and arrangement of development. In other cases, the appropriate uses are
permitted, but standards in the zoning district do not create the desired
environment. In still other cases, especially in some of the Areas of
Stability, too much development intensity is allowed.
However, the wholesale adoption of a new zoning map for a community the
size of Denver is simply too complex to undertake immediately. Many,
much smaller communities have bogged down when the combination of a
new code and new zoning map are presented for adoption hearings.
Therefore, a strategic approach should be taken, making those changes that
are possible city-wide, while relying on small area planning (see Chapter 8)
for recommending many of the geographically specific changes that will
implement this plan.
In Areas of Change, sometimes zoning does not allow sufficient intensity to
develop new uses. In some cases, the uses permitted are incompatible with
the proposed new land-use type. In other cases the uses are sufficient, but
the development and design standards are not sufficient for developing the
envisioned environment. Some of these issues can be resolved by adopting
a new zoning code with general, city-wide overlay zones (such as pedestrian
or transit area overlays). Some will require a full-scale small area plan to
resolve the issues.
In the same vein, the Areas of Stability may have areas where existing
zoning permits densities higher than the current use and higher than what
is envisioned in Blueprint Denver. Addressing zone changes in these areas
undoubtedly will be a difficult process to undertake, but it is the root of
many of Denver citizens unease about growth. The concept of Areas of
Stability will not be successful without addressing the areas where zoning is
incompatible with the current neighborhood, the areas that should remain
stable, and where growth is not needed or actually harmful to the
fulfillment of Plan 2000 goals. Zoning should be adopted that makes
relatively few current uses non-conforming but resolves the incompatibility
of parts of the current zoning map with Plan 2000s vision.
COMPONENT


The Streetscape Design Manual shapes basic
physical characteristics of the city scene by
outlining a straightforward set of standards.
Ongoing Compatibility with the Plan Map
Proposed amendments to the Zone Map should be thoroughly evaluated for
their compatibility with the Plan Map. Those that are compatible should be
recommended for approval. Those that are found to be incompatible
should be carefully evaluated to determine if the application should be
modified to conform better to the Plan Map, or if the Plan Map should be
modified to reflect the zoning map amendment. If neither can be
accomplished, the application should be recommended for denial. If this
refinement and rigor is practiced, over time the Plan Map and Zone Map
will become more compatible and consistent.
Subdivision and Street Design Regulations
Subdivision regulations have limited applicability in a mostly developed
city such as Denver. However, where applicable, it is an important tool
that should be used to its fullest extent. Subdivisions should establish
the street pattern with right-of-way dedication; establish maximum block
sizes; provide sites for essential public facilities such as parks and
schools; protect waterway and floodplain areas; and set out an
appropriate lot pattern. Subdivision should be viewed as a fundamental
tool to assure that public infrastructure and private development will be
well integrated. In new development areas that have not been subdivided,
the subdivision ordinance and applicable rules and regulations should be
revised to meet these expectations. Consideration should be given to
making subdivision a required part of the development process in
unsubdivided areas. Where an Area of Change is expected to undergo
dramatic change of use, such as from industrial to mixed use,
resubdivision may be a useful tool if the street pattern is inadequate.
Otherwise, land-use regulatory tools such as the Streetscape Design
Manual and site plan review should prove adequate.
The Streetscape Design Manual remains one of the Citys most important
tools for creating attractive, functional streets. It is a challenge, however,
to adapt the manual to suit a variety of land-use conditions. Additional
tools should be added to provide standards for features such as sidewalk
bulbouts and transit stations.
THE LAND USE


COM PONENT
Potential discrepancy between land-ese characteristics and cerrent regelations
C
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DENVERS LAND USE AND TRANSPORTATION PLAN


Priority Actions for
Land Use Regulation
1 Reorganize the
Zoning Code
2 Consolidate site plan
review processes and
revise site plan rules
and regulations
3 Amend Subdivision
ordinance and rules
and regulations
4 Prepare overlay
district language
5 Evaluate zone districts
for consistency
with Plan
6 Propose map
amendments to deal
with significant land
use-zoning
discrepancies
7 Use Blueprint Denver
Plan Map to evaluate
zoning map
amendments
Conclusion
Land-use regulations and tools will be central in implementing Blueprint
Denver. The Blueprint Plan Map outlines the citys future structure by
using building blocks of districts, residential areas, centers, corridors and
rapid transit and streets. Land-use regulations ensure the buildings within
these districts, corridors and centers work together with public
infrastructure to create vital and compatible places.
Three types of tools form the basis for creating pedestrian- and
transit-friendly environments: regulatory policies, public infrastructure and
partnerships between the public and private sector. Regulations establish
standards for development, allow appropriate mixes of uses and densities,
and prohibit or limit inappropriate uses. Regulation also can guide the
basic design of a structure. In addition to regulatory tools, public
infrastructure improvements and public-private partnerships are essential
to create the synergy needed to implement the plan.
Unfortunately, current Denver regulations do not deliver effective land-use
regulation, and their administration requires a significant allocation of
resources. To implement Blueprint Denver, a comprehensive revision of the
code is needed to allow more attention to developing a human scaled,
pedestrian-friendly environment in the Areas of Change and to ensure that
new buildings in the Areas of Stability are compatible with current
conditions and character.
90


CHAPTER 6
Component

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Introduction
Key concepts:
I A streets entire
right-of-way should
be appropriate to and
complement adjacent
buildings
I Since every trip begins
and ends with walking,
the pedestrian
environment is the
primary transportation
element that connects
all travel modes
I The rapid transit
system shapes land use
patterns by promoting
more sustainable
development focused
around transit stations
I Connectivity means a
seamless connection
for all modes of travel,
as well as between
modes of travel
I Many tools are needed
to address Denvers
transportation issues
including better
transit, better bike and
pedestrian connections,
and neighborhood
traffic management
measures
The transportation building blocks described in Chapter 4, the regional rapid
transit system and the multi-modal street system, must be enhanced to make
Blueprint Denver a reality. This chapter describes how the transportation
building blocks can be enhanced by establishing multimodal and inter-modal
connections, by stressing the importance of street types and street functional
classifications, and by presenting additional transportation tools critical to
implementing Blueprint Denver.
In accordance with the Plan 2000, implementing the tools presented in this
chapter will enhance existing multi-modal and inter-modal transportation
connections while also ensuring that future development will feature a range
of diverse and well-integrated transportation choices. The result will be an
improved environment for pedestrians, bicyclists and transit users and less
reliance on single-occupant vehicles.
Connecting Modes of Transnortation
In general, people claim to prefer their cars because of the convenience.
A motorist can get in the car, choose the most direct route to a specified
destination and usually park within a few yards of that destination. This
level of control is what makes the automobile so popular. Controlling ones
mobility can be dramatically reduced when using other forms of
transportation, particularly when it seems less thought is given to
connections for modes other than cars. For example, lack of shelter and
amenities at transit stops, infrequent service, and inadequate, unattractive
and discontinuous sidewalks make transit and walking difficult when
compared to the car. It is important to remember that everyone at some
point during a trip is a pedestrian.
For walking, bicycling and transit to be competitive with the automobile, the
existing transportation infrastructure must be enhanced so that there is a
seamless connection for each mode of travel and also between modes. If the
connection from the transit stop to the destination is safe, comfortable, direct
and attractive, transit becomes an acceptable alternative to driving.
Connecting modes of travel is more than simply ensuring there is a
continuous sidewalk or bike lane; it requires forethought to integrate facilities
in a cohesive and appealing manner. It also requires attention to the elements
of connection that make walking, biking and waiting for transit on streets an
attractive, convenient and comfortable experience.
92
THE TRANSPORTATION


BLUEPRINT DENVER
Elements of Connection
Street System I Streets are the primary conduits for all modes of travel;
their design and operation substantially influence the extent that people will
walk, bike or use transit. Some of the critical elements of connection for
streets include:
i Small block sizes to provide pedestrian scale to development,
l Narrower streets to reduce pedestrian crossing distance, pedestrian
exposure to traffic and reduce vehicle speeds,
l Neighborhood traffic management to increase pedestrian safety and
reduce the impacts from excessive speeds and intrusive cut-through
traffic in neighborhoods.
l Access management to improve the flow of traffic, reduce accidents by
efiminating conflicts between vehicles, improve pedestrian and bicycle
safety, enhance the walking environment, and allow space for street
amenities such as on-street parking and street trees.
Control over personal mobility is a factor in
making the automobile so popular.
Bus Transit System I Connecting the transit system to other modes occurs
on the street at transit stops and at inter-modal centers. Close attention
should be given to the details at these connections as well as to the buildings
and developments that are essential to transit viability. Safe, comfortable,
direct and inviting connections between transit and destinations are as
important as frequent and reliable transit service. The following are important
elements of connection for the transit system:
l Timed-transfer centers and stops to conveniently fink connecting bus
fines and minimize wait time between transfers.
l Inter-modal transfer centers that integrate appropriate facilities for all
modes of travel.
i Pleasant, accessible and functional transit stops that provide a safe,
secure, convenient and comfortable location to access transit with
adequate sheltered space for the number of people waiting.
Bicycle System I Bicycles are a viable alternative to driving, accommodating
longer trips than walking, particularly when combined with transit. Emphasis
should be placed on ensuring that the facilities are adequate, well-maintained,
continuous and secure. Connecting the bicycle system to other modes entails
not only connections to the travel system itself, but attention to details at the
end of the trip. The following are important elements of connection for the
bicycle system:
l Continuous and interconnected systems of bicycle lanes, bicycle routes
and off-street paths.
Bike racks on buses connect
separate modes of transportation.
COMPONENT
93
CHAPTER 6 THE TRANSPORTATION COMPONENT


Every trip begins and ends with walking.
I Intersection design that accommodates bicycles including continuation of
lanes through intersections, bicycle detectors, and adequate clearance
time at traffic signals.
l Secure bicycle parking that is highly visible, conveniently located near
building entrances and transit stops, adequately fit, well-signed, and
possibly sheltered.
l Bicycle stations (publicly- or privately-operated facilities that offer services
such as covered, secure, valet bike parking; bike accessories and repair;
bike and transit informahon; and, when possible, food service and locker
rooms) at locabons where there are high volumes of bicyclists.
Appropriate locabons may include office complexes and transit,
entertainment and shopping centers,
l Bicycle accommodahons provided on RTDs rail transit vehicles at all
bmes, not just non-peak bmes.
Pedestrian System I Since every trip begins and ends with walking, the
pedestrian environment becomes the primary transportation element that
connects all travel modes. The pedestrian system is needed to move people
and provide them access to adjacent land uses. The following elements of
connechvity enhance the safety, comfort and attrachveness of the
pedestrian system:
l Interconnected pedestrian system with conbnuous sidewalks along
streets; clear and direct connecbons from sidewalks into and between
buildings and transit starions.
l Wider sidewalks at more congested locations such as bus stops, building
entrances and resbng areas. Curb extensions or building frontage
setbacks may be used for widening,
l Crosswalks with highly visible markings and advanced signage, and
increased travel information and educabon for pedestrians,
i Buffers between sidewalks and travel lanes created by street trees, tree
lawns or on-street parking.
l Recognibon of the green connecbons linking parks in Denver,
l Alternabve paving surfaces, materials and unique surface designs to
provide a visual warning to drivers entering pedestrian areas, and
improve the visual appearance of streets and sidewalks for pedestrians,
l Provisions of curb ramps, removal of barriers and conflict points, and
other improvements for elderly, disabled, and transit-dependent travelers,
l Public places designed into the pedestrian environment ranging from
large plazas to small niches or pocket parks for gathering or resbng.
94
THE TRANSPORTATION


BLUEPRINT DENVER
How to Use Street Types and Functional Classifications as Tools
As explained in detail in Chapter 4, the Plan Map, multi-modal street types
and functional classifications deal with how a street interfaces with the
adjacent land use and how the street is intended to function from a mobility
standpoint. Both are important elements to consider when attempting to
create seamless connections between several transportation modes. As tools
to implement Blueprint Denver, each element gives direchon to City staff,
elected officials, neighborhoods and others who are undertaking more detailed
planning efforts to develop project-level recommendations. The street types
and functional classifications provide guidance on priority design elements to
consider and relate specific characteristics of multi-modal streets to their
function at a city-wide level. Without this guidance, each transportation
improvement project could be developed independently without regard to its
relation to land use and to other streets in the City.
Transportation Tools
Denvers transportation system consists of many components that must work
together to make Blueprint Denver a reality. These components include: the
transit system, pedestrian facilities, bicycle facilities, parking, the systemwide
tools of travel demand management and transportation systems management,
and roadway network and drainage infrastructure. This section provides a
description of each component, identifies how the component currently is
being used as a tool to accomplish Blueprint Denver, and fists priorities for
how each component can be enhanced.
Unlike land-use policies that guide the development of private property
outside of the public right-of-way, transportation policies primarily address
the public infrastructure of streets, alleys, bikeways, sidewalks, and transit
services. However, the transportation policies recommend tools and strategies
that also affect how private development contributes to the transportation
system. Directly, that occurs via physical improvements (e.g., management of
auto access across city rights-of-way, or the construction of streets as part of
new development). Indirectly, City policies affect development through tools
that reduce travel demand and encourage alter natives to the automobile.
Most of the tools other than transit require implementation actions by the
City since the design, operation, maintenance and approval of transportation
facilities are public agency responsibilities.
Transit
As a tool, transit represents opportunities to provide regional rapid transit,
including light-rail transit (LRT), high-occupancy vehicle lanes (HOV), bus
rapid transit (BRT), and commuter rail.
COMPONENT
95
CHAPTER 6 THE TRANSPORTATION COMPONENT


It also includes expanding the existing light rail and bus services. Such
improvements may result in new bus routes including circulator routes,
higher frequencies on existing routes, appropriately-sized buses for the type of
service required, increasing transit access through park-n-rides, better
pedestrian connections and amenities, and improved bike access and
amenities. Transit may involve installation of Intelligent Transportation
Systems (ITS) such as bus priority signalization, real-time bus route and
transfer information at user-friendly kiosks, and information from variable
message signs. Emphasis on transit-oriented developments (TOD) also should
be considered a part of the transit tool.
Current Use of Transit as a Tool
Regional Rapid Transit System I In addition to the successful completion
and operation of the Central Corridor LRT line (30th and Downing to 1-25
and Broadway) in 1995, and the Southwest LRT extension (1-25 and
Broadway to Mineral Avenue) in 2000, several other major rapid transit
corridors are in various stages of development. Two corridors the Central
Platte Valley Corridor and the Southeast I-25/I-225 Corridor, also known as
T-REX (Transportation Expansion Project) were funded and construction
began in 2001.
Opening in 2002, the Central Platte Valley line will connect the existing
Central Corridor line to the 16th Street Mall Shuttle at Denver Union
Terminal in Lower Downtown. Stations along the line will provide transit
service to the west side of the Auraria Campus, Mile High and Pepsi Center.
The T-REX project includes 19 miles of light rail transit along 1-25 and 1-225,
including 13 new stations.
A formal Major Investment Study (MIS) to determine a preferred alternative
transportation investment has been completed in several other corridors.
l North Metro Corridor 1-25 and US 85 north of Downtown Denver
l US 36 Corridor Between Boulder and Downtown Denver
l Gold Line Corridor Denver to Wheat Ridge
l 1-225 Corridor Parker Road to 1-70
l East Corridor Downtown Denver to DIA
l West Corridor Downtown Denver to Lakewood
In addition, an additional light-rail access into downtown between the
Broadway / 1-25 station and Civic Center Station at Colfax and Broadway
is planned.
Transit improvements in these corridors are not yet funded. RTD intends to
seek funding from the voters in the next several years for all these corridors.
96
THE TRANSPORTATION


Full Text

PAGE 1

Blueprint Denver An Integrated Land Use and Transportation Plan

PAGE 3

LAND USE AND TRANSPORTATION PLANT able of Contents Acknowledgements Plan Guide Chapter 1 Introduction 1 Chapter 2 DenverToday and Tomorrow 7 Chapter 3 Blueprint Denver Concept 15 Chapter 4 The Plan Map 33 Chapter 5 The Land Use Component 71 Chapter 6 The Transportation Component 91 Chapter 7 Areas of Stability and Areas of Change 119 Chapter 8 Small Area Planning 143 Chapter 9 Blueprint Denver Implementation 161 Chapter 10 Public Participation Process 173 Glossary 185 AppendixPlan 2000 Annual Report and Blueprint Denver Indicators . . . . .192 Denver Street Function/Classification Definition Criteria . . . . .194 MapsAreas of Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 and 129 Areas of Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 Blueprint Denver Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Enhanced Bus Corridors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99 Existing TMAs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111 Land Use Today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Land Use and Zoning Discrepancies . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 Missing Bike Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105 Parks and Parkways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70 Population Growth in the 90s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Potential Roadway Capacity Improvements . . . . . . . . . . . .117 Public Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160 Tr ansportation Enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118 Zoning Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Click on the page number to go to that chapters page Click on the chapter title to go to a summary with links to that chapter The Plan Map W eb links to Blueprint Denvers website and other publications. Blueprint Denver http://www.denvergov.org/ blueprint-denver Metro Vision 2020 http://www.drcog.org/ r eg_growth/mv2020.htm Game Plan http://www.denvergov.org/ gameplan Plan 2000 http://www.denvergov.org/ CompPlan_2000 Master Bicycle Plan http://198.202.202.66/ dephome.asp?depid=598

PAGE 4

AcknowledgementsThe Honorable Wellington E. WebbMayor of the City and County of DenverDenver City Council Dennis GallagherDistrict 1Te d HackworthDistrict 2Ramona MartinezDistrict 3Joyce FosterDistrict 4Polly FlobeckDistrict 5Charlie BrownDistrict 6Kathleen MacKenzieDistrict 7Elbra WedgeworthDistrict 8Deborah OrtegaDistrict 9Ed ThomasDistrict 10Happy HaynesDistrict 11Susan Barnes-GeltAt-LargeCathy ReynoldsAt-LargeDenver Planning Board W illiam HornbyChairJan Belle Frederick Corn Pat Cortez Michael Dino Daniel Guimond Mark Johnson Herman Malone Joyce Oberfeld Bruce ODonnell Robert WrightPhDLand Use and Transportation Advisory Committee Bruce AlexanderCo-ChairW illie ShepherdCo-ChairRon Abo Lisa BardwellCouncilwomanSusan Barnes-GeltMike Billings Dick BjurstromBrian BrainerdKathleen Brooker Brad BuchananBob CarnicelloTheresa Donahue Carolyn EtterMelissa Feher-PeikerStephanie FooteCouncilwomanJoyce Foster Rick Garcia Lucia Guzman Michael Henry Bob Hickman Mark Johnson Charlie Jordan Mason Lewis Marcy Lister Chris Martinez Virginia Martinez Sarah McCarthy Claire Monash Jennifer Moulton Kelly Nordini Bruce ODonnell Chuck Perry Jackie Peterson-Hall Susan Powers Jeanne Robb Mateo Miguel Romero Kathy Sandoval Leroy Smith Bill Vidal Anne Warhover Darrell WatsonCouncilwomanElbra Wedgeworth Jackson WhiteRobert WrightPhDJim Zavist City Staff Community Planning and Development Agency Jennifer MoultonDirectorEllen IttelsonCo-Project ManagerSteve GordonCo-Project ManagerKatherine Cornwell Catherine Cox Mark Williams Theresa Lucero Phil Plienis Jeff Gockley Julius Zsako Nora Kimball Dennis Swain Dave Becker Tom Best Devon Buckels Kiersten Faulkner Janell Flaig Matt Seubert Tyler Gibbs Ken BarkemaMapsJulie ConnorGraphic DesignDaniel MichaelGraphic Design Jim OttensteinGraphic DesignPublic Works Janice FinchTony OgboliTerry Rosapep Bill SiroisDave WillettJason Longsdorf Parks and RecreationCity Attorneys OfficeCity staff Susan BairdDavid Broadwellfrom many other City agencies Consultants Fregonese Calthorpe AssociatesCalthorpe AssociatesFehr & Peers Center for Regional and Neighborhood Action Project Partners City Council AidesChannel 8Public Works Parks and Recreation The many citizens whose regular attendance and participation added immeasurably to the success of the process and the final outcome of Blueprint Denver ^

PAGE 5

Introduction CHAPTER 1

PAGE 6

2Creating a vibrant, community-oriented city requires the collective vision of those who make the city work, the wisdom of those who want the best for future generations, and the lessons of the past.To create and preserve strong neighborhoods, safe streets and buildings that will be treasured for years, Denvers energy must be harnessed and directed appropriately. Those of us who live in Denver appreciate the richness of all our city has to offer: the quiet neighborhoods threaded together by community spirit, combined with the bustle and economic stamina of a world-class city.And like any growing world-class city, Denver must remain true to its essence and character while being enriched by new thoughts, actions and energy.This vision and action to maintain and foster a high quality of life for Denver is known collectively as Blueprint Denver. Developed over 18 months, this plan presents a strategy to improve our city by shaping the places where we live, travel, work, shop and play. Blueprint Denver encourages and promotes more efficient use of transportation systems, expanded transportation choices, appropriate and mixed land uses, and the revitalization of declining neighborhoods all of which ultimately will improve our quality of life. Blueprint Denver explores the important relationship between land use and transportation and advocates that land-use and transportation decisions be made in conjunction with each other.Understanding and strategically managing the relationship between land use and transportation is crucial to improving the quality of life in any major city.Transportation policy in part determines how to get from home to work, the amount of time spent commuting, and the types and degrees of choices available for getting from one place to another.The other part of this equation is determined by the choices we make about land use.When developing a new land use, community setting, building design and orientation all have an effect on transportation use. The Blueprint Denver vision of our future was laid out in the Denver Comprehensive Plan 2000 (Plan 2000), and furthers the principles of Metro V ision 2020, the plan for the Denver region that the City has adopted. Plan 2000 created its vision for the community through a series of general goals, visions of success and specific objectives and strategies.Blueprint Denver serves as the first step in implementing and making concrete the vision outlined in Plan 2000.As a result, the plans vision will not be achieved without some significant changes to the way the community plans for the future.Blueprint Denver explores the relationship between land use and transportation, advocating land-use and transportation decisions be made in conjunction. The Blueprint Denver vision of our future was laid out in the Denver Comprehensive Plan 2000 (Plan 2000), and furthers the principles of Metro Vision 2020, the plan for the Denver r egion that the City has adopted. ^WHATISALANDUSEAND

PAGE 7

Shortly before World War II, Denver represented 72 percent of the regions population.Today, Denver represents 23 percent of the population and 34 percent of the jobs.Therefore, to maintain a high quality of life, Denver r esidents must be concerned about growth and its impacts on the city, the r egion, the Front Range and Colorado.When Denver adopted Plan 2000, it also adopted the regional plan, Metro Vision 2020. Metro Vision 2020 contains six major elements to promote a healthy region. Blueprint Denver promotes five of those six elements that apply to Denver. The elements that apply to Denver are:Extent of urban developmentDenver established an urban growth boundary for Denver and has adhered to it.Blueprint Denver identifies areas within its boundaries that are appropriate for new development.Open spaceDenver has added substantial open space that helps shape the regions form, protects environmental resources, and provides r ecreational opportunities.Balanced, multi-modal transportation systemThis is a key tenet of Blueprint Denver that will be achieved in a variety of ways, including through an emphasis on creating and enhancing multi-modal streets and endorsing the completion of the rapid transit system.Urban centersBlueprint Denver calls for improving and adding new centers to create vibrant urban areas that serve not only Denver neighborhoods, but also the region. Downtown and Cherry Creek are Denvers centers with the greatest regional draw.Environmental qualityBlueprint Denver also acknowledges that the location, type of growth and land development have significant effects on the r egions air and water quality and strives to create transportation options and sustainable development.Why is Blueprint Denver Necessary?Like any good city, Denver has a vision for the future.It will examine its policies, keeping what works and discarding what doesnt work, to fulfill this vision.Blueprint Denver is the primary step to implement and achieve the vision outlined in Plan 2000.A comprehensive examination of Denvers landuse ordinances and procedures and its investment strategies will occur as a r esult of Blueprint Denver. The zoning ordinance is the citys most important tool for implementing landuse decisions.Denvers last major revision to the zoning code and comprehensive rezoning of the city was in 1956.However, it has beenShortly before World War II, Denver represented 72 percent of the regions population.Today, Denver represents 23 percent of the population and provides 34 percent of the jobs. Metro Vision 2020 Elements Promoted by Blueprint Denver Established urban growth boundary Added substantial open space Create multi-modal streets and support buildout of the rapid transit system Create new and enhance existing urban centers Support sustainable development to protect r egional air and water quality BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION3TRANSPORTATIONPLAN?

PAGE 8

WHATISALANDUSEAND4amended many times and is no longer easy to understand or use.The r egulations contained in the zoning ordinance may no longer reflect the communitys values or wishes.Some of the ideas in the ordinance are dated and will not lead to a sustainable future for Denver.To better understand what needs to be done, it is important to review the areas history of land-use and transportation planning. As planning evolved during the end of the 19th century, city plans addressed land-use and transportation as halves of the same whole.Cities evolved with business and industry located near the transportation hub of a city, with employee housing nearby.Eventually schools and parks emerged, followed by entertainment venues and more businesses.Over time, public transit systems developed in the larger cities.At the end of the 19th century and into the early 20th century, streetcars helped create close-in neighborhoods. Housing spread along these transit lines, followed by businesses that served everyday needs, such as markets, post offices and doctors offices all within walking distance of one another.In the Denver of 1920, 16th Street was a classic main street and was the hub of the trolley system. Land-use planning began changing in the 1920s, with the widespread growth of zoning as the dominant form of regulation.Instead of the lands relation to the street and scale of its surroundings being the most important factor in making decisions, land began being regulated primarily by its use and by how that use related to adjacent uses.The separation of uses required more and longer trips, and increasingly these trips were made in cars.By the 1950s, more people owned cars, which led to unprecedented mobility, new freeway systems, and faster growth in outlying areas.Evolution of the bedroom suburb followed these trends with houses and businesses being separated and where driving was required for most activities.Another offshoot of suburbanization was that engineering concerns took precedence over integrated planning for land use and transportation.Thus, streets were engineered almost solely to accommodate more cars. The consequences of planning for land use and transportation separately can be seen in and around nearly every American city more time spent in cars, polluted air, limited mobility for those unable to drive and landscapes that detract rather than add to quality of life.This is not the vision Plan 2000 calls for, so the City is changing the way it plans.The legacy of land-use and transportation planning trends is visible in the evolution of Denvers 16th Street.Today the street contains many of the elements endorsed by Blueprint Denver.16th Street 1920s:Main street; trolley line; wide sidewalks for pedestrians, cars and parking on both sides of the street; and mixed-use buildings including housing. 16th Street 1950s:One-way street to increase capacity for cars; autos dominate; fe w pedestrians; and lacks people-friendly amenities such as awnings, trees or benches ^

PAGE 9

Land-use and Transportation Planning in Context the History of Denvers 16th StreetIn the 1920s many pedestrians and sometimes bicyclists used Denvers 16th Street; and automobiles shared the street with trolleys.In the 1950s, the street was modified for use primarily as a one-way route to maximize auto movement; transit use and foot-traffic decreased as the street became a hostile place to walk.Today, 16th Street actually moves more people than it did in the 1950s, but because of the people-friendly design, it is also one of the premier urban destinations in the region.Sixteenth Street illustrates many of the key concepts of Blueprint Denver that a right-of-way can move more people and become a more pleasant place when its design jointly considers land use and transportation.What Are the Goals of Blueprint Denver?Blueprint Denver will outline the specific steps that must be taken to achieve the Plan 2000 vision.There are several key concepts that are central to Blueprint Denvers successful implementation.The plan will direct growth to Areas of Change and manage and limit change in Areas of Stability. Areas of Stability include the vast majority of Denver and are primarily the fairly stable residential neighborhoods where minimal change is expected during the next 20 years.The goal is to maintain the character of these areas yet accommodate some new development and redevelopment to prevent stagnation.Meanwhile, the vast majority of new development will be funneled to areas that will benefit from and thrive on an infusion of population, economic activity and investment.These places are Areas of Change. Improving the function of streets is the foundation of these goals.Blueprint Denver proposes that streets be viewed as a means to move people and not just cars.Multi-modal streets accommodate more trips by more people in the same amount of space by improving transit and providing better pedestrian and bicycle facilities.Multi-modal streets consider all types of transportation to be equally important, helping mixed-use development, another key concept, become successful. Mixed-use development is not a new idea and in fact is an old, highly successful idea that fell out of favor for many years and now is being reinvented. Mixed use refers to urban centers where residential, retail and commercial areas are intertwined.These urban centers were popular in most cities until the advent of suburban neighborhoods and the restrictive zoning that occurred in the last half of the 20th century.Returning to communities where people can walk or take transit for their daily errands,16th Street today:Active pedestrian environment; major public investment in rapid transit and streetscape; increased capacity of the street to carry people, not just cars; mixed-use buildings including housing; transportation system connectivity; and transit oriented development. Cities are an invention to maximize exchange (goods, services, culture, friendship, ideas, and knowledge) and to minimize travel. David Engwicht author of Reclaiming our T owns and V illages BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION5TRANSPORTATIONPLAN?

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6or drive with shorter and less frequent car trips, already has happened in some parts of Denver, such as Lower Downtown. While significant progress has been made on many fronts, much of the plans vision will not be achieved without some significant changes.Denver has many good examples of planning, but they often are isolated victories within a particular neighborhood or district.This plan develops a comprehensive approach to address all the components needed to achieve a livable city. Blueprint Denver examines the links between land use and transportation from a city-wide perspective.This plan explores existing Denver ordinances and regulations, recommends steps to improve these regulatory tools and provides a framework for implementing these measures.In this way, Blueprint Denver bridges the gap between the general policies of Plan 2000 and the detailed implementation measures that follow. Plan Relationships Denver Plans Regional PlansDeveloped by: RTD CDOT DRCOG Metro Wastewater Urban Drainage and Flood Control Neighborhood Plans Corr idor Plans District Plans Blueprint Denver DPR Game Plan Bike Master Plan Pedestrian Master Plan Stormwater Management Plan Housing Plan Comprehensive Plan 2000 Small Area Plans Citywide Plans The greatest current challenge to the environment is managing growth slowing the loss of land, the consumption of r esources, the congestion and the human stress created by urban sprawl. The public-policy challenge to develop and implement balanced and sustainable growth strategies addressing equity, stewardship and cooperation will become ever more critical.Plan 2000 ^

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Denver T oday and T omorrow CHAPTER 2

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DENVERIN20008 Key concepts:Denver grew by 87,000 people from 1990 to 2000By 2020 Denver's population is forecast to increase by 132,000 people or 60,700 householdsEmployment is expected to increase by 109,200 jobs by 2020T raffic congestion will increase, with 162 miles of roadway projected to operate near or over capacityThe capacity and permitted locations for growth based on current zoning will not make it possible to maximize the benefits or avoid the negative impacts from growth A blueprint for how Denver should grow is vital to Denvers future ^Accommodating more growth in Denver will be challenging.The negative impacts of unregulated growth are well documented and are most often expressed in terms of too much traffic, loss of open space and new development out of character with existing development.Without the big picture that Blueprint Denver provides, the project by project and neighborhood by neighborhood struggle to maintain livability, as represented by fighting to maintain the status quo, will continue.This chapter explores the expected conditions of Denver in 2020 if the city does not pursue alternatives to our likely growth pattern given the existing zoning designations.Chapter 3 outlines the concepts of Blueprint Denver and describes the conditions of Denver in 2020 based on adoption of this plan.What is Denver like in 2000?Growth In terms of population, the City and County of Denver is growing at a rate unmatched since the 1940s. Between 1990 and 2000, the citys population increased by more than 87,000 residents, an increase of nearly 19 percent.1(The Population Growth; 1990-2000 map shows how population growth occurred in Denver in the 1990s.) City and County of Denver population change during previous decades 1880-2000 Growth and Land UseThis growth manifests itself in burgeoning urban districts downtown and Cherry Creek and the blossoming of adjacent neighborhoods. Some of these neighborhoods were underused or blighted as recently as 10 years ago, including Lower Downtown (LoDo), Uptown and the Platte River Valley. These areas dramatically illustrate the benefits of shaping growth to achieve a communitys desired change. Change also is occurring in 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 01880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000-20,000 -40,000

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REGIS BERKELEYCHAFFEE PARKSUNNYSIDE HIGHLAND WEST HIGHLAND SLOAN LAKEGLOBEVILLEELYRIA/SWANSEA FIVE POINTS COLE CITY PARK WEST CLAYTON SKYLANDWHITTIERCITY PARKCAPITOL HILLWEST COLFAXJEFFERSON PARKUNION STATIONAURARIACBDBARNUM BARNUM WESTSUN VALLEYLINCOLN PARK CIVIC CENTERNORTH CAPITOL HILLSPEER BAKER VALVERDE WESTWOOD ATHMAR PARKCHEESMAN PARKCOUNTRY CLUBWASH. PARK WASH. PARK WEST RUBY HILL PLATT PARKROSEDALEOVERLANDCOLLEGE VIEW SOUTH PLATTEHARVEY PARK HARVEY PARK SOUTH MAR LEE MARSTON FORT LOGAN BEAR VALLEY NORTHEAST PARK HILL NORTH PARK HILL STAPLETON SOUTH PARK HILL MONTBELLO EAST COLFAX LOWRY FIELD HALEMONTCLAIRCONGRESS PARK CHERRY CREEK HILLTOP GATEWAY/GREEN VALLEY RANCH WINDSOR WASHINGTON VIRGINIA VALE BELCARO CORYMERRILL VIRGINIA VILLAGEHAMPDENGOLDSMITH KENNEDYUNIVERSITY HILLSSOUTHMOOR PARK HAMPDEN SOUTHUNIVERSITY PARK WELLSHIRE UNIVERSITYINDIAN CREEK VILLA PARK DIAPOPULATION CHANGE(persons) 3,000 to 6,100 Extremely High Increase 1,000 to 3,000 High Increase 500 to 1,000 Moderate Increase 150 to 500 Slight Increase -150 to 150 Unchanged -1,150 to -150 Loss Neighborhood Boundary 2000 Census Tract Boundary Areas not within the City & County of DenverStatistical Neighborhood names, e.g. Goldsmith are in approximate locations1990 Population = 467,610 2000 Population = 554,636 How population growth occurred in Denver in the 90s DENVERS LAND USE AND TRANSPORTATION PLANCHAPTER 2 DENVER TODAY AND TOMORROW9ANDIN2020

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DENVERIN200010Unprecedented growth means more traffic. T ransportation use is largely a result of r egional growth and driving habits. Much of Denvers congestion r esults from auto trips that originate or terminate outside city limits. In 2001, it is estimated that 62 percent of the trips in Denver either started or ended outside the city limits source: DRCOG, Fehr and Peers ^traditionally single-family neighborhoods such as Platt Park and West Highlands. In some of these areas, large new residential units are being built in the midst of older, more modestly-scaled houses because of an influx of more affluent residents. While private investment in neighborhoods is generally a positive trend, it can have negative consequences if private investment does not respect the high quality urban design elements of an area such as architectural character, garage location, alley access, private open space and tree preservation. Lacking attention to these characteristics, investment may result in neighborhod instability and re duced quality of life for exisiting residents. Whether positive or negative, Denver is changing because of growth. These additional residents and the concurrent economic prosperity enjoyed by many support a wider variety of shops, services and cultural opportunities. Areas such as 32nd and Lowell, Bear Valley Shopping Center, LoDo and South Federals evolving Asian goods markets, have seen stagnant shopping districts return to busy marketplaces that attract consumers from many parts of the city and region. Despite this growth, a handful of neighborhoods in the city, including the northern neighborhoods of Globeville and Elyria-Swansea, remain without some services as basic as a grocery store.Growth and TransportationGrowth also has become more apparent through increased traffic congestion and air pollution. Residents in the Denver region drove an average of 22 miles a day in 1999 up from 18 miles in 1990. That translates to a 20 percent increase in fewer than 10 years. During that same period, the increase in delayed hours due to congestion increased from 20 hours to 45 hours per person per year. That means 37 percent of daily travel time is spent in congestion up from 22 percent in 1990.2This is due to the rapid growth in r egional population coupled with residents increasing driving distances. In 2001, there were 158 miles of roadway in the City and County of Denver operating at or near capacity. Denvers congested roads equal about 45 percent of the regions 354 miles of congested roads in 2001. This translates into lost time and added fuel costs of $760 per person per year in 1999 for the Denver region up from $285 in 1990. Despite Denvers new light-rail line, as well as other improvements to the transit network, it is estimated that only 10 percent of the daily trips in the City and County of Denver will use public transit in 2001.3Denver is a desirable place to live for many people; but congested roads and air pollution may threaten the areas future prosperity and livability.

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What will Denver be like in 2020?Looking at trends in population growth, real-estate development and transportation use, how will Denver continue to change and how will the city function in the next 20 years? This vital question leads to answers about what may happen if the community takes no steps to plan wisely for future growth. To predict where growth will go, it is necessary to develop a model that can test alternatives for how growth can be distributed, look at forecasts for growth in 2020, understand how growth can be accommodated, and determine the capacity for growth based on Denvers current zoning. Based on these factors, a zoning scenario was created. It is possible to describe the impacts on Denver by studying the zoning scenario along with the corresponding transportation modeling.Modeling future growthBlueprint Denver tested a number of potential growth scenarios to determine the likely future settlement pattern of the city. The results were evaluated using a model for regional transportation demand developed by the Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG) and also measured against Blueprint Denvers transportation benchmarks. The tested scenarios are plausible and are based on realistic assumptions about growth forecasts, economically viable development and transportation investments. The scenarios test ideas to see which strategies are the most effective in reaching the many goals of Blueprint Denver.How much growth is expected by 2020?In 2020, Denver County is forecast to have a population increase of 132,000, translating into 60,700 more households. Employment is expected to increase by 109,200 jobs. These figures are based on forecasts developed by the Denver Regional Council of Governments. DRCOG is a voluntary association of 49 county and municipal governments in the metro area working cooperatively to address regional issues. DRCOG has developed a regional plan called MetroVision 2020 that includes policies for the region. These policies, along with trends in population and employment growth, were used to develop the forecasts.How will growth be accommodated?Much of Denvers growth will be accommodated by infill development on vacant land or through redevelopment of existing sites. Redevelopment re places or expands existing development. For either type of development, the amount of growth that can be accommodated on any particular site is limited by the financial feasibility of the development and by zoning r egulations. Zoning regulations determine where land uses can be located and what densities are allowed. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 2 DENVER TODAY AND TOMORROW11ANDIN2020Increased air pollution comes with the increase in traffic. How will Denver continue to change and how will the city function in the next 20 years? This vital question leads to answers about what may happen if the community takes no steps to plan wisely for future growth.

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12How does zoning capacity affect where growth will occur?Under the assumption that existing zoning will remain basically the same, zoning capacity shows where future growth and change can occur and how many people can live and work in an area. Zoning determines the capacity for development on a piece of land by determining the amount of building square footage or the number of dwelling units that are allowed. To determine the capacity of land for future development, zoning and land-use planners considered all of the major regulations that would apply to new developments. The analysis included a thorough review of the regulations that affect density both directly building size requirements and indirectly landscaping and parking requirements. The zoning scenario also calculated likely development on vacant land and through the application of a real estate development model determined which properties have the potential to redevelop.How will growth be distributed under Denvers existing zoning?To day, existing zoning capacity can accommodate about 69,800 households, slightly more than the population increase of 60,700 households forecast by DRCOG, although there are individual neighborhoods where capacity is not sufficient to meet demand. However, current zoning has the capacity to accommodate about 246,900 additional employees more than enough to meet the projected increase of 109,200 jobs. 2020 ForecastZoning Capacity Jobs109,000247,000 Households60,70069,800 Currently, Denver provides more employment development opportunities than r esidential development opportunities compared to the rest of the region. Existing zoning capacity is far less restricted for commercial development than for residential development, providing limited opportunities for developers to change the balance between jobs and housing. As a result, there is a relative scarcity of housing, which may have an unintended negative consequence on housing affordability.Consumers and developers, simply through the laws of supply and demand, may raise the value of existing housing and subsequently the price of land available for future housing.4The zoning scenarioThe zoning scenario was created by taking DRCOGs forecast for employment and population growth (used to develop the Regional Transportation Plan), and distributing the projected growth across the city according to a realistic development pattern based on existing zoning capacity. Growth and change are inevitable. The quality of change will determine whether new growth is compatible with Denvers urban design legacy. ^DENVERIN2000

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Redevelopment capacity was estimated for Denver by applying the calculations used by developers and builders. For each parcel, a hypothetical r edevelopment project was considered within the parameters of existing zoning to determine if it would be profitable. If the hypothetical project was profitable after the expenses of acquisition, demolition and construction, the parcel was considered to have the long-term potential to redevelop. The zoning scenario distributes more than 36 percent of the forecasted new housing throughout the existing stable residential areas in the city. By comparison the most pedestrianand transit-friendly areas of the city such as corridors, transit stations and neighborhoods near downtown receive only 13 percent of new housing in the zoning scenario. Downtown grows by 24 percent in both housing and employment.A 27 percent increase in housing occurs in the new neighborhoods of Lowry, Gateway and Stapleton. How will growth affect transportation? Regardless of whether Denver chooses to manage its growth, traffic congestion is on the rise and is likely to continue increasing. In the next 20 years, DRCOG projects that daily vehicle miles of travel in the region will increase by 28 million miles, with an increase of nearly 5 million daily vehicle miles in the City and County of Denver. This growth will result in more than 450 miles of congested roads in the region roads operating near or over capacity of which 162 miles will be in Denver. With 36 percent of all the congested r oadways, Denver will bear the burden of regional congestion. The existing fiscally constrained Regional Transportation Plan for 2020 provides for only limited increases in the transit and traffic handling capacity for Denver. Much of the regions financial investment for transportation will serve the high growth areas in the suburbs. Light-rail construction and highway improvements for I-25 and I-225 will require a substantial portion of the available regional transportation funds during the next five years. Therefore, few other improvements to travel corridors can be expected. And even with expanded light rail, public transit use is expected to increase by just one percent for work-related trips. It is inevitable that congestion and growth in travel time and distance will continue to increase.Lessons LearnedThis scenario shows that the large amount of new housing scattered among existing neighborhoods results in higher traffic flows in the neighborhoods and a nominal increase in transit ridership. In addition, most of the areas where land use can be closely linked to transportation experience little development and remain largely as they are today during the next 20 years. Because new housing is built on scattered sites, most of the Often, cities and counties adopt regulations to accommodate much more growth than is projected. This strategy allows the private market great leeway in selecting the appropriate locations for development. On the other hand, cities and counties that closely match zoned supply with expected growth can shape and apply direction to the market forces that lead to the development of land in urban areas. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 2 DENVER TODAY AND TOMORROW13ANDIN2020

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14Growth that accommodates only the needs of the automobile creates poor pedestrian environments and discourages walking, biking and transit use.Little new development will occur in transit corridors under the zoning scenario.Scattered site housing is typically expensive. ^projects are small, and the high cost of construction on these small sites r esults in relatively expensive housing. Zoning is the current official policy regarding land use. Understanding the implications of development capacity based on zoning provides the citys r esidents and planners with important information about where potential development patterns may pose threats to the citys overall quality of life. The zoning scenario reveals: A haphazard and unfocused potential land-use pattern that does not correlate with major transportation corridors, transit station areas or the neighborhoods near downtown. A lack of support for the mixed-use, pedestrian-friendly environment that could develop along many of the transit corridors in Denver. Insufficient intensity to encourage investment, such as amenities and services that are essential to pedestrians and transit users. As a result, if land were developed according to the zoning scenario, Denver will likely see increased traffic in neighborhoods, low transit ridership, re duced air quality and scarce affordable housing.Is there an alternative that better manages growth?Growth and expansion are inevitable in the next 20 years. Without well thought-out guidance, including a comprehensive exploration of zoning policies, livability and prosperity in Denver and the region are in jeopardy. What follows in Chapter 3 is a description of the Blueprint Denver concept to mitigate the effects of negative growth patterns that likely will occur under existing zoning. Blueprint Denver builds from the Comprehensive Plan 2000 vision and develops a framework to integrate land-use and transportation planning to ensure a more sustainable future for Denver residents.Footnotes1 United States Census 2T exas Transportation Institute, Mobility Data for Denver Region, Colorado, 2000 3 Denver Regional Council of Governments, Fehr and Peers 4 See Appendix for a detailed description of the methodology used for the capacity analysis

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Blueprint Denver C oncept CHAPTER 3

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BLUEPRINTDENVER16 Key concepts:Plan 2000 directed the City to undertake a land-use and transportation plan Blueprint Denver Reinvestment and character preservation will promote stable neighborhoodsGrowth will be directed to Areas of ChangeMixed-use development will bring shops, services, employment and entertainment close to residential areas and encourage access by walking, biking and transitMulti-modal streets will increase the capacity of the transit system to move people and will r esult in more active corridors, attractive to a variety of land usesInterconnected and diverse transportation options will improve the convenience of rapid transitMountain views, parks, parkways and other important legacies will be preserved ^Denvers Comprehensive Plan 2000 anticipates the consequences of unmanaged growth and prescribes a new vision for the future quality of life within Denvers human and physical environments.Specifically, Plan 2000 calls for a land-use and transportation plan to balance and coordinate Denvers mix of land uses to sustain a healthy economy, support the use of alternative transportation, and enhance the quality of life in the city. Blueprint Denver is a response to this direction from the comprehensive plan. The previous chapter examined the citys recent growth trends and presented a likely growth scenario during the next 20 years if Denver continues these current trends under existing zoning.This chapter describes the key elements of an alternative growth scenario for Denver that integrates planning for land use with transportation.The chapters that follow describe more explicitly the land-use and transportation components of the plan, and Chapter 7 presents more details about the Blueprint Denver core concept.Relationship of Blueprint Denver to Plan 2000 Several key elements of Plan 2000 provided the framework for Blueprint Denver.These elements are found in Plan 2000s visions of success and in the plan objectives. Key elements of the Plan 2000 visions for success include:Congruency of land use and zoning: a built environment with greater overall urban design integrity, stronger connections among urban centers, and a richer and more diverse mix of uses within geographically proximate areas.Information and communication: greater clarity in land-use r egulatory policies, easier access to information, and more opportunities to communicate with city agencies and other interests about land-use policies and issues.Compact development: improve[d] neighborhood cohesion, reduce[d] urban sprawl and residents more directly connect[ed] to services and amenities within their immediate living environment.Mobility: residents will enjoy a greater variety of convenient transportation options and alternative mobility choices.Preservation of urban legacies: ongoing development and maintenance of the parks and parkways system, preservation of historic resources, and quality urban design consistent with Denvers traditional character. Plan 2000 lists certain objectives that must be pursued to achieve the visions of success including:

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Creating a city-wide land-use and transportation planClarifing and updating Denvers zoning ordinance Preserving and enhancing the individuality, diversity and livability of Denvers neighborhoodsSupporting the development of a clean, efficient and innovative transportation system Through the direction of Plan 2000, a vision for Denvers future land-use and transportation system emerged that embraces these visions of success and plan objectives.The city engaged in an intensive public process to generate ideas for a new concept to manage future growth.The concepts in this plan r epresent input from residents, business leaders, community activists and civic leaders.The ideas and strategies incorporated in Blueprint Denver have been adopted as a supplement to the Plan 2000.Evolution of the Blueprint Denver Concept Public Involvement Planning for Blueprint Denver involved an ongoing public process that included regular meetings of a 46-member advisory committee.This Land Use and Transportation Advisory Committee met over a 17-month period to develop and discuss the ideas presented in this plan.Early in the process, the Land Use and Transportation Advisory Committee participated in a planning workshop to design alternative future development scenarios for the city.During this workshop the committee was asked to identify areas where growth was occurring and areas where change would be beneficial. The committee prepared six maps at the workshop.The original scope of work for Blueprint Denver called for developing several alternative land-use scenarios from the maps prepared at the workshop.However, the maps generated in the planning workshop demonstrated remarkable consensus, and distinct alternatives were not distinguishable.Instead, what emerged was one clear alternative for how the city should develop in the future and where beneficial change should occur.In addition, there was equal interest in creating stability by preserving the character of, and reinvesting in, Denvers existing neighborhoods.The result was an innovative map that illustrated Areas of Change and Areas of Stability.The Areas of Change represent those parts of the city where change is either underway or desirable.Areas of Stability re present the majority of Denvers residential areas where there is a prevailing character that should be preserved or enhanced through reinvestment.The Areas of Change and Areas of Stability map then was introduced to the public through a series of open houses in each of the council districts plus one city-wide open house, as well as an open house for the InterNeighborhood Cooperation.A series of planning and design workshopsSmall Area Plans are the center of Denver planning and are influenced by subject plans, Plan 2000 and MetroVision 2020. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 3 BLUEPRINT DENVER CONCEPT17CONCEPT

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18Residents helped create the Blueprint Denver vision. The alternative to sprawl is simple and timely: neighborhoods of housing, parks, and schools placed within walking distance of shops, civic services, jobs, and transit a modern version of the traditional town. The convenience of the car and the opportunity to walk or use transit can be blended in an environment with local access for all the daily needs of a diverse community. Peter Calthorpe author of The Next American Metr opolis ^followed the introductory open houses.These workshops focused on sections within selected Areas of Change as a way of testing the proposed plan concepts in key areas of the city such as corridors, transit stations and neighborhoods.Areas of Stability workshops were held to test ways to manage development in several ways, including directing potential growth to areas where neighborhood reinvestment is needed, areas where growth is complementary to neighborhood character, or where infrastructure investment is needed.The open houses and workshops involved hundreds of citizens. Many changes were made to the initial plan map as a result of public input. A draft plan emerged from the 14 months of planning, based largely on the extensive input of Denver residents.A new round of public review and input, which included six city-wide forums, followed the draft plan.Additional changes (to make the plan more user-friendly and to refine key concepts and implementation strategies) resulted from this round of input.A Vision for Denver in 2020The planning process for Blueprint Denver resulted in a new vision for Denver in 2020 organized around the plans central premise that growth should be directed to Areas of Change, while the character of neighborhoods in Areas of Stability should be preserved and enhanced.With the goals of Plan 2000 and the succesful implementation of Blueprint Denver, the city in the year 2020 builds on the elements that define its character through a coordinated land-use and transportation system.Blueprint Dever anticipates several key outcomes of this integrated approach to planning for the future:Neighborhood reinvestment and character preservation creates stability in r esidential areas.Enhanced transportation system connectivity strong links between and among transit, bicycle and pedestrian routes promotes the use of multiple modes of transportation.Multi-modal streets increase the capacity of corridors to move people, not just cars.Appropriately located and attractive density stimulates postive change and development in areas with strong links to transit.A ttractive streetscape, people-friendly amenities and mixed uses transform auto-dominated streets into lively, active corridors that support the needs of transit users and encourages people to walk.Tr affic trouble spots within residential areas are reduced.A coordinated system of green corridors and trails creates a cohesive park system.BLUEPRINTDENVER

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T ypical Denver corridor in 2000. Model Denver corridor in 2020. Areas of Change are parts of the city where new growth or r edevelopment can best be accommodated because of transportation choices and opportunities for mixed-use development. Channeling growth to older industrial areas, districts close to downtown, major arterial corridors, historical trolley routes or existing and planned light rail stops will benefit the City as a whole. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 3 BLUEPRINT DENVER CONCEPT19CONCEPTA diversity of housing in terms of size, type and cost provides a range of housing options and prices throughout the community.Residential areas are located near employment centers, thus creating more job opportunities across the city.Denvers legacies, such as historic buildings and districts, parks and parkways, and urban design, have been preserved, maintained and enhanced.Revitalization and redevelopment in parts of the city respects peoples diversity and cultural history.Historic preservation and urban design contribute to the development of a sense of place and community across Denvers neighborhoods.Economic generators continue to provide jobs to residents and promote Denver as a national business center.The Blueprint Denver ConceptPlan Strategy: Direct Growth to Areas of Change There are 26 Areas of Change that serve as the basis of the Blueprint Denver concept.Certain features may characterize an Area of Change, such as:Underutilized land near downtown and along the South Platte River Areas undergoing positive change that is expected to continue Areas adjacent to and around transit stations (both existing and planned)Areas along corridors with frequent bus service that can accommodate development, especially where there is potential for a pedestrian-friendly shopping environmentAreas with special opportunities such as where major public or private investments are planned Most of the Areas of Change already are developed to varying degrees.In most cases, there is enough capacity of public facilities such as streets, sewers and schools so that additional development will be able to take advantage of existing infrastructure in the area.However, these areas have not realized their full development potential.Some are zoned incorrectly for accommodating future development.In addition to regulatory barriers, many of these Areas of Change do not contain amenities such as plazas, street trees or high-frequency transit that would attract the type of development that meets the goals of Plan 2000 and Blueprint Denver.The 26 Areas of Change identified in the planning process also include three large, vacant re development sites.These were created by the closure of the Air Force Base at Lowry and the former Stapleton Airport, and the annexation of land for the new Denver International Airport, creating the Gateway District.

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BLUEPRINTDENVER20Three Types of Areas of ChangeTo achieve Blueprint Denvers growth management objective, new development will be directed to three general areas:DowntownLowry, Stapleton and GatewayAreas where land use and transportation are closely linkedThe Blueprint Denver concept encourages development in and around downtown Denver; supports the development of Lowry, Stapleton and Gateway by fashioning these areas after Denvers urban design legacies; and promoting appropriate development in the remaining Areas of Change.These remaining Areas of Change link transit to a somewhat more intensive mixed-use development, while creating pedestrian-friendly places that help reduce the number and lengths of trips made by car.By directing growth to these areas that are appropriate for new development, Blueprint Denver strives to preserve the communitys established neighborhoods.The result will be beneficial for all areas of Denver while also accommodating new residents and jobs.DowntownBlueprint Denver expects that 47,000 additional jobs and 21,000 new housing units will be developed in the city core by 2020. More so than anywhere else in the region, downtown development strongly links residents and employees to transportation.The downtown is the area best served by transit and is one of the most pedestrian-friendly areas in the r egion, with many downtown streets having a good human-scale environment. The 16th Street transit mall is Colorados best example of how pedestrian and transit friendliness can occur when land use is closely coordinated with transportation.New patterns are emerging in and around downtown that complement the plans objectives.The success of LoDo, for example, has spurred developer interest in the Central Platte Valley, as well as the Ballpark, Golden Triangle and Uptown neighborhoods.Chapter 7 contains a more detailed description of Areas of Change and Areas of Stability.StrategiesInfill and redevelop vacant and underused propertiesReuse of older buildings, including industrial buildingsHistoric preservationCompatibility between new and existing developmentBalanced mix of uses no one use has a dominating impact within the mixT ransit service and accessMulti-modal streetsParking reduction strategies, such as shared parking and TMAAdequate parks and open space Economic activitybusiness retention, expansion and creationHousing, including affordable housing A region with a high growth demand has several fundamental growth choices: try to limit overall growth; let the towns and suburbs surrounding the metropolitan center grow until they become a continuous mass; attempt to accommodate new growth in r edevelopment and infill locations; or plan new towns and new growth areas within reasonable transit proximity of the city center. While each strategy has inherent advantages and problems, every region will have to find an appropriate mix of these very different forms of growth.Peter Calthorpe author of The Next American Metr opolis Future development will be directed to three areas:1.Downtown 2.Lowry, Stapleton and Gateway 3.Areas where land use is closely linked to transportation ^

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COLFAX PENA I-25SHERIDANCOLORADOYORKFEDERAL TOWER38THBROADWAYYALEHAMPDENJEWELLHAVANAUNIVERSITY48TH6THEVANSPEORIAALAMEDALEETSDALECOLFAXCHAMBERSMI SSISSIPPII-25MONACO6THI-70 I-70GATEWAY STAPLETON BRIGHTON BOULEVARD NORTHEAST DOWNTOWN WEST 38TH AVE NUE WEST COLFAX/ WEST TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT DOWNTOWN JEFFERSON PARK/ HIGHLANDS NORTH INDUSTRIAL ALAMEDA TOWN CENTER MORRISON ROAD SOUTH FEDERAL BOULEVARD SOUTH BROADWAY GATES TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT CHERRY CREEK SOUTHEAST TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENTS HAMPDEN LO WRY EAST COLFAX (EAST OF COLORADO BLVD.) EAST COLFAX (WEST OF COLORADO BLVD.) Legend City/County Boundary Areas of Change Areas of Stability Arterials DENVERS LAND USE AND TRANSPORTATION PLANCHAPTER 3 BLUEPRINT DENVER CONCEPT21CONCEPTAreas of Change

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BLUEPRINTDENVER22High-density development downtown provides an intense mix of employment, housing, shopping, services and entertainment in close proximity to each other with convenient access to transit. Growth will be directed to the large new neighborhood development sites that include Lowry (pictured), Stapleton and Gateway. ^Stapleton, Gateway, LowryBlueprint Denver expects 17,000 additional jobs and 16,000 new housing units at Stapleton, Gateway and Lowry by 2020. One of Denvers unique characteristics is the presence of these large vacant development sites.These sites were created when the Air Force base at Lowry and the former Stapleton Airport closed and also when land was annexed for the new Denver International Airport, creating the Gateway District. These sites offer the potential to create new neighborhoods that embody the best characteristics of Denvers traditional residential areas.The Blueprint Denver scenario calls for a level of local retail, services and jobs to support the needs of residents who will occupy future housing on these sites.Such a development pattern ensures that residents can find goods, services and employment close to home and may help reduce the number and length of trips taken.In modeling various growth scenarios, those that contained a substantial jobs-housing balance within the districts decreased the amount of forecasted external traffic by as much as 15 percent.Designing multi-modal, interconnected street grid systems in these new neighborhoods is equally important to providing mixed land uses.Multi-modal streets ensure that r esidents have a range of transportation options at their disposal.StrategiesCoordinated master planningUrban characterPedestrian and transit supportive design and development standardsMixed land usesretail and employment near residential neighborhoodsDiversity of housing type, size, and costMulti-modal streetsStreet grid/connectivityT ransit service and accessReduce land used for parking with shared parking and structured parkingExtensions of Denvers urban legaciesAdequate parks and open spaceRemaining Areas of ChangeBlueprint Denver expects an additional 30,000 jobs and 15,000 new housing units in the remaining Areas of Change by 2020. If growth is redirected from the Areas of Stability to the Areas of Change, the model results are positive less development intrusion and traffic in the neighborhoods and more redevelopment along corridors and near transit stations with little or no increase in traffic.Slight reductions in traffic may even result where land uses are mixed and highly coordinated with transit access.Public facility capacities generally are adequate to accommodate

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additional development without significant replacements, and a focused growth management strategy allows for good coordination between new infrastructure investment and private development.The transformation of auto-dominated corridors into vibrant, mixed-use, pedestrian-friendly places is a potential outcome of the Blueprint Denver strategy. There are reasons, however, that these areas have not developed already. Some are incorrectly zoned for future development.In addition to regulatory barriers, many do not contain the amenities that would attract development of mixed-income housing.Some are perceived as unsafe or undesirable.Most will require some combination of regulatory reform, public investment and public-private partnerships to create a positive change.StrategiesAddress edges between Areas of Stability and Areas of ChangeCompatibility between existing and new developmentReuse of older buildings, including industrial buildingsHistoric preservationPedestrian and transit supportive design and development standardsEliminate auto-oriented zoning standardsMixed land usesInfill and redevelop vacant and underused propertiesReduce land used for parking with shared parking and structured parkingMulti-modal streetsTr ansit service and transit accessAdequate parks and open space, especially where density is increasedDiversity of housing type, size, and costRetain low and moderate income residentsEconomic activitybusiness retention, expansion and creationPlan Strategy: Preserve Stable NeighborhoodsAreas of StabilityThese areas represent the bulk of the residential portions of the city and employment areas not designated as Areas of Change.Preserving and r evitalizing neighborhood character has been a prevailing concern throughout the planning process.The need to direct and manage the location, type and intensity of future development is balanced by an equally strong desire to preserve those areas of the city with an established character.Within Areas of Stability there may be places such as stagnant commercial centers where re investment would be desirable to make the area an asset to and supportive of the surrounding neighborhood.Generally, Areas of Stability face two types of concerns: character preservation and reinvestment. Character preservationDenver has experienced a nationwide phenomenon in recent years referred to as pop-tops and scrape-offs. TheseAn ideal place to direct growth is vacant land near downtown .. and near existing or planned light rail stations. Growth scenarios that had a substantial jobshousing balance within the districts decreased the amount of forecasted external traffic by as much as 15 percent. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 3 BLUEPRINT DENVER CONCEPT23CONCEPT

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24terms refer to the recent trend of significant second-story additions to modest single family houses (pop-tops) and replacing a house with a larger house, sometimes out-of-scale or architecturally incompatible (scrape-offs).A host of associated urban design and architectural character concerns result from these alterations to the existing structures and lots. There are several reasons for this phenomenon.First, demand is outpacing supply in the Denver housing market and is creating a highly competitive real estate environment, particularly in neighborhoods with convenient access to downtown and with a range of shops, services and other community amenities.Second, Denvers stable neighborhoods have a large supply of modest homes that are smaller than what many people today would like. These factors have made parcels more valuable for their development potential than for their existing residential structures. ReinvestmentOther parts of the city have experienced a different set of circumstances.These areas demonstrate stability through a high homeoccupancy rate, yet are threatened by inadequate or deteriorating infrastructure (unpaved alleys and a lack of curbs or gutters), land-use conflicts such as those between industrial and residential uses, or a lack of basic services such as grocery stores.These areas need stabilization through reinvestment.Preserve Areas of StabilityA central goal of the plan is to reduce development capacity in the Areas of Stability from 20,000 new housing units to 8,000, and to reduce employment from 37,000 new jobs to 15,000 with most of the new job growth located in the business districts and industrial areas.Areas of Stability represent the bulk of the city, and development in these areas is responsible for most development controversies.The Areas of Stability grew slowly in the 1990s, yet many neighborhoods experienced considerable r edevelopment pressures that created controversies regarding architectural and urban design compaibility.These areas currently are zoned to accommodate 20,000 more housing units and 37,000 employees about one-third of the citys capacity.This means that without a strategy to address this potential for development, Denvers stable neighborhoods may face a threat that goes beyond issues of design compatibility and into issues related to the zoned capacity of a lot to accomodate more intense development types.In the land-use and transportation analysis, it became obvious that large amounts of development in the Areas of Stability would be harmful to achieving the vision of quiet neighborhoods, vibrant corridors and active districts.For much of the 1990s in Denver, as in other regions, alternatives to sprawl were discussed.One obvious approach to mitigate sprawl is to increase theNew residential development should demonstrate compatible architectural features. Modest, well-cared for houses are an asset in many neighborhoods. What are Areas of Stability? Areas of Stability include most of Denver, primarily the stable residential neighborhoods and their commercial areas, where minimal change is expected during the next 20 years. The ideal for Areas of Stability is to identify and maintain the character of an area while accommodating some new development and redevelopment in appropriate locations. ^BLUEPRINTDENVER

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Residents of Tampa Bay in their cars .. then sitting where their cars had been.Now the same number of people are sitting in an invisible bus .. and now they are walking or biking. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 3 BLUEPRINT DENVER CONCEPT25CONCEPTdensity of development in built-up areas to reduce land consumption. Generally, the areas of the city that are the most dense, such as downtown, also have very different transportation characteristics and offer a mixture of uses near one another.Therefore, residents, employees and visitors in these places are much more inclined to walk, bike or take transit and are less auto dependent.The dynamics of this environment led to an assumption that higher density is a general benefit, especially for encouraging non-auto transportation use and should be pursued whenever possible.Blueprint Denver takes a different approach to density.Higher density always r educes land consumption, but it only has transportation benefits when paired with a land-use mix that provides destinations within a convenient walking distance, in areas that have access to transit and transportation corridors, and in areas that have street patterns that are interconnected and developed with sidewalks.Adding density to areas that are single use, far from transit and with a low-density street pattern simply adds an equal number of auto trips. In many parts of the Areas of Stability, there would be little benefit derived from additional growth.Limiting overall development in the Areas of Stability helps to achieve many growth management goals, while preserving the valued quality of life that is characteristic to Denvers neighborhoods.StrategiesAddress incompatible zoning and land use issuesCompatibility between existing and new development, design and development standardsAddress edges between Areas of Stability and Areas of ChangeDiversity of housing type, size, and costUphold the legacy of walkable neighborhoodsProvide neighborhood traffic management programsRevitalize neighborhood centers and provide basic services (grocery)Reinvest in substandard and deteriorating infrastructurePlan Strategy: Multi-modal StreetsDenvers ability to continue to widen roads to accommodate increased demand from automobile traffic is limited.Additionally, road widening threatens the citys goals to create streets that are pedestrian friendly and safe.Therefore, the City must seek alternative ways to increase the capacity of streets to carry more people, not just more cars.In response to this need, Blueprint Denver proposes the concept of multi-modal streets.Multi-modal streets focus on accomodating all modes or types of travel including rapid transit (bus and rail options), bicycles and pedestrians, as well as cars. Single-occupant vehicles consume large amounts of space in the roadway and are the least efficient way to move large numbers of people through a corridor.Single occupant vehicles create congestion that leads to unsafe travel conditions for other types of travelers as well as other drivers.

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BLUEPRINTDENVER26Blueprint Denver identifies street types with appropriate street design elements to create safe streets that effectively move people and accommodate multiple types of transportation.Land uses adjacent to a street determine the appropriate street types and associated design elements that should apply.More information on multi-modal streets, street function designation and street types can be found in Chapter 6.Plan Strategy: Innovative Transit OptionsBlueprint Denver relies on strategies that improve the rapid transit choices available to residents and commuters.Buildout of the proposed rapid transit system is a critical piece of the Blueprint Denver strategy.It will add capacity to the transportation system so that more trips can be accommodated.It also will provide opportunities for more intensive, mixed-use development surrounding stations and along transit corridors.Proposed innovative transit options supported by this plan include: Light railBus rapid transitCommuter railEnhanced bus corridorsNeighborhood circulator busesThis system cannot be built in isolation without consideration for land use patterns and the means of access to these rapid transit options by bicycle and pedestrian routes.Links between transit routes and the provision of facilities and amenities that make transit use pleasant and convenient are important planning elements.Strategies to improve mass transit circulation options within the city as well as to outlying suburbs is a planning reality if the city intends to preserve quality of life and ensure a sustainable future for residents.Growth Implications of the Plan StrategyModeling the Blueprint Denver ScenarioA growth model was developed to understand the implications of Blueprint Denvers strategy to direct growth to Areas of Change while preserving the Areas of Stability.The Blueprint Denver scenario assumes the Denver Regional Council of Governments forecast of housing and employment growth but distributes it differently than the zoning scenario.It shifts anticipated development from Denvers lower density residential neighborhoods (Areas of Stability) to corridors, close-in neighborhoods, and land around existing and planned light-rail stations (Areas of Change).Innovative transit options. Higher density always r educes land consumption, but it only has transportation benefits when paired with a land-use mix that provides destinations within a convenient walking distance, in areas that have access to transit and transportation corridors, and in areas that have street patterns that are interconnected and developed with sidewalks. Adding density to areas that are single use, far from transit and with a lowdensity street pattern simply adds an equal number of auto-trips. ^

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Lessons LearnedIn the Areas of Change, the Blueprint Denver scenario facilitates increased transit ridership, more pedestrian activity and shared parking in business districts along corridors and in employment center districts.Results of this scenario include decreased traffic in neighborhoods, while development along transit corridors increases.Many of the Areas of Change generate new businesses and more housing options that include mixed-use living with greater opportunity for mixed-income housing.With better design and development standards, these areas become active pedestrian places where walking to and from transit stops is a pleasant, convenient experience.The Blueprint Denver scenario provides the best combination of growth patterns to achieve the vision outlined in Plan 2000.Blueprint Denver Scenario vs.Zoning ScenarioA comparison of the zoning and Blueprint Denver scenarios reveals differences in distribution of new households and employment.With Blueprint Denver, a substantial amount of new growth in both housing and employment is funneled away from stable neighborhoods to areas where development or redevelopment can best be accommodated because of transportation choices and opportunities for mixed-use development. Additionally, Blueprint Denver concentrates more employment downtown rather than spreading it across the city in areas that are difficult to access by transit.Growth in Households 2000 to 2020: Blueprint Denver Scenario versus Zoning ScenarioBlueprint DenverZoning Downtown21,20014,600 Lowry, Stapleton, Gateway16,40016,400 Remaining Areas of Change15,2007,900 Areas of Stability7,90021,800 T otal Household Growth by 202060,70060,700Growth in Employment 2000 to 2020: Blueprint Denver Scenario versus Zoning ScenarioBlueprint DenverZoning Downtown47,00026,200 Lowry, Stapleton, Gateway17,50016,400 Remaining Areas of Change29,50026,200 Areas of Stability15,20040,400 T otal Employment Growth 2020109,200109,200 Comparisons between Blueprint Denver and Zoning scenarios are on the next two pages.Co mparing scenario analysis results fo r households Co mparing scenario analysis results for em ployment. Stability 14% Downtown 43% Remaining Areas of Change 27% L,G,S 16%Blueprint Denver Scenario Stability 37% Downtown 24% Remaining Areas of Change 24% L,G,S 15%Zoning Capacity Stability 13% Downtown 35% Remaining Areas of Change 25% L,G,S 27%Blueprint Denver Scenario Stability 36% Remaining Areas of Change 13% L,G,S 27% Downtown 24%Zoning Capacity BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 3 BLUEPRINT DENVER CONCEPT27CONCEPT

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BLUEPRINTDENVER28 ^Zoning scenarioGrowth as illustrated by the additional h ousing units per acre from 2000 to 2020 less than 0.02 0.02 to 0.5 0.5 to 1 1 to 2 2 and over Interstate Areas of Change boundary Lightrail

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DENVERS LAND USE AND TRANSPORTATION PLANCHAPTER 3 BLUEPRINT DENVER CONCEPT29CONCEPTBlueprint Denver scenarioGrowth as illustrated by the additional h ousing units per acre from 2000 to 2020 less than 0.02 0.02 to 0.5 0.5 to 1 1 to 2 2 and over Interstate Areas of Change boundary Lightrail

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BLUEPRINTDENVER30Shaping Growth T ools for Shaping GrowthBlueprint Denver develops a comprehensive approach for addressing all the components needed to achieve a coordinated land-use and transportation system vision city-wide.The City can rely on three powerful tools available for shaping growth: Regulatory tools Public infrastructure investment Public-private partnerships Regulatory tools define the type and intensity of new development and prescribe design and development standards to achieve an areas overall urban design goals.Public infrastructure investments, such as a park or light-rail line, improve the development climate of an area and make it more attractive to private investment.Both public and private investment has a positive effect on property values and development patterns.By using public investments strategically, government can reinforce and guide the growth concept and stimulate interest and leverage investment from the private sector.A public-private partnership involves using public funds or activities to directly foster private investment and development activity that otherwise would not occur.This often can result in new types of housing (including affordable housing), buildings or development within areas that otherwise would remain stagnant.The most successful public-private partnerships are those in which risks are shared in developing new models; once the success is proven, others soon follow. Chapter 7 explores the variety of ways these tools may be used to address the strategies presented in the previous section.Realistic Challenges to Shaping GrowthDenver is part of a growing region.The Denver metropolitan area is expected to grow by more than 890,000 people in the next 20 years.Choices related to managing growth in Denver should be made in a regional context.Denver is linked dynamically to the rest of the region through transportation, economics, social behavior, politics and geography.A scenario where Denver grows little or not at all, while the region surrounding it increases by a million people, likely would damage the quality of life for people who live in Denver and throughout the region.Since Denver functions as the center of the metropolitan area with its cross-roads of highways, railroads and transit as well as its entertainment venues and commerical ventures its choices in growth management affect the surrounding communities.Just as a strong Shaping Growth: Realistic Challenges 1.Regional cooperation and planning 2.Balancing property owner expectations with appropriate zoning policies & designations 3.Funding for transportation infrastructure ^

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downtown core is the heart of any successful city plan, so is a strong city such as Denver that functions as the core of a larger region. The existing zoning and development expectations of property owners are important considerations in developing a plan for Denver.Property owners understandably expect to maintain or increase their propertys economic worth and must play an important role in any growth management plan. Conformance with the Plan 2000 vision for a sustainable future also affects the development potential of a property.As a supplement to Plan 2000, Blueprint Denver will be used in development review to determine whether new developments contribute to a coordinated and balanced land-use and transportation system.Therefore, it will be important during implementation to carefully determine the best balance of property owner expectations with appropriate zoning policies and designations.Private investment will be needed to make Blueprint Denver a reality.New development or re development cannot be dependent solely on public subsidies.The r egulatory framework must allow and facilitate the private sectors ability to meet community needs for housing choices, retail shopping and services, and economic activity.Entrepreneurial enterprises, especially small businesses, should find many locations to develop and thrive. Despite the inevitable growth in traffic, it is clear that Denver and the region cannot build enough miles of streets and highways to eliminate traffic congestion.Funding for transportation projects at the regional, state and federal levels already is severely constrained, and the many municipalities in the region compete with Denver for these scarce funds.It also is economically unrealistic to expand most streets and highways in urban areas, given the high cost of acquiring the land for road widening. Regardless of the availability of funds, expanding streets and highways would have to overcome immense environmental obstacles and neighborhood opposition.Given these constraints, it makes sense to look to alternative solutions to transportation problems solutions that focus on maximizing the investment in existing infrastructure, integrating land-use and transportation planning, and promoting other modes of transportation.Measuring the Effects of Change and Stability Benchmarks Benchmarks will be used as a way to quantify the success of Blueprint Denver as implementation occurs.Benchmarks rely on data gathered and compared over time to determine if the plan strategies are successful in achieving the desired objectives and outcomes.When data shows negative trends, it can act as an early warning system to uncover flaws or weaknesses in the plan and thereby direct future policy changes. Examples of benchmarks Percent of development accommodated through infill development a measure of the development located to take advantage of existing streets, parks and transit lines, and where relatively short trips are needed to get from place to placeVehicle Miles Traveled a measure of the distance cars are driven in Denver, a strong indication of air pollution and general congestion BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 3 BLUEPRINT DENVER CONCEPT31CONCEPT

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32Conversely, positive trends reveal successful policies and strategies that should be continued or expanded.Benchmarks provide accountability in the plan implementation process and serve as a guide for future adjustments to plan objectives and stategies. The benchmarking process will be incorporated in the Plan 2000 Annual Report.The annual report intends to tie the budget process with the success of city programs and processes in implementing Plan 2000 goals and objectives.Therefore, if the benchmarks indicate that certain programs are highly successful, then these programs would be called out by the Planning Board as projects that should receive priority funding in the next budget cycle.Conversely, where benchmarks indicate that certain goals and objectives are not being met, the Planning Board may recommend alterations in funding or suggest that the City make certain policy or program adjustments to reverse a negative trend.The plan Appendix outlines the process that will be used to evaluate the success of Blueprint Denver implementation.Next StepsIn the succeeding chapters, this plan will discuss implementation strategies of the Blueprint Denver scenario.Chapter 4 describes the plan maps and describes the land-use and transportation building blocks vocabulary of the plan.Chapters 5 and 6 delineate the land-use and transportation components, while Chapter 7 elaborates on the details of the concept and the tools to direct growth to Areas of Change, while stimulating reinvestment and preserving character in Areas of Stability. ^

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The Plan Map CHAPTER 4

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THEPLAN34IntroductionThis chapter presents the Plan Map and the vocabulary used to describe the map components.The vocabulary consists of building blocks that provide a framework for the land-use and transportation types.These building blocks and associated land-use and transportation types provide a frame of reference for historical and recent development patterns, as well as patterns that should be carried into the future as part of Blueprint Denver.The descriptions of the land-use and transportation types describe images and qualities of land-use and transportation patterns in a way that is accessible to the general public. The Denver Today map illustrates an image of Denver in 2001, categorized by these land-use and transportation types.These types also are used to define the Blueprint Plan Map that illustrates the citys desired vision.The Plan Map types do not simply describe the typical existing characteristics of each land use or street in the city today; instead, they define the ideal future land use, rapid transit corridors, and multi-modal street characteristics.Thus the description of types is intended as a guide for future development to demonstrate patterns that build upon the best existing characteristics of the neighborhoods and city.Each building block is associated with land-use and street types that characterize both their functional role within the city and the design standards to be applied to them. The land-use building blocks consist of a set of individual types.The building blocks include:Districts (types: downtown, employment, industrial, campus, entertainment/cultural/civic and parks and open space)Residential areas (types: mixed-use, urban residential, single-family/duplex residential, and single-family residential)Centers (types: regional center, town center, neighborhood center, and transit-oriented development)Corridors (types: pedestrian shopping and commercial) The transportation building blocks consist of a set of individual components of an interconnected transportation system.The transportation building blocks include:Regional rapid transit (types: rail light rail and commuter rail, HOV lanes and bus rapid transit, and stations and park-and-ride facilities)Multi-modal street system (types: residential street, main street, mixed-use street, commercial street, and industrial street; and functions: local, collector, arterial, downtown access). Key Concepts The Blueprint Denver Plan Map sets the basic parameters for future land-use decisions Land use and transportation types are multi-dimensional and interconnected Descriptions of the building blocks, landuse and street types indicate the future composition and urban design of different areas in Denver Multi-modal streets are an effective strategy for moving more people, not just more cars, through a fixed corridor The design of multimodal streets helps balance auto needs with the needs of other forms of travel Design and development standards will assure that new development is compatible with its surroundings and enable the pleasant and safe integration of streets within a community setting ^

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Denvers Land Use TodayBlueprint Denver Graphics Department,Community Planning & Development Agency 2002 DENVERS LAND USE AND TRANSPORTATION PLANCHAPTER 4 THE PLAN MAP35MAP

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36Blueprint Denver typology. Downtown is a district comprised of a variety of land uses such as the retail at Larimer Square. BLUEPRINT DENVER TYPOLOGY BUILDING BLOCKS LAND USE TRANSPORTATION District Neighborhood Corridor Rapid Transit System Multi-Modal Street System Street Types (Interface) Functional Classification (Function) LAND USE TYPES TRANSPORTATION TYPES Center ^Other transportation infrastructure including alleys, curbs, gutters, street ramps, stormwater drainage and detention facilities, signalization and signage, bridges, sidewalks, streetscaping, medians and pavement The definitions remove confusion that might otherwise arise when terms are used to describe the elements of Blueprint Denver.Without a common set of defined terms, a land-use type such as pedestrian shopping corridor can be ambiguous meaning different things to different people. Adding physical design elements further refines the land-use and transportation types.The plan recognizes that certain design elements play an important role in whether a land use or street contributes to the overall vision of Blueprint Denver.This plan identifies particular design characteristics that can mean the difference between whether a new structure or street design fails or succeeds as an addition to the community.For example, creating a pedestrian friendly city is a central premise of Blueprint Denver.In a pedestrian shopping corridor, which calls for strolling and window shopping, design standards include bringing buildings near the sidewalk and providing an adequate amount of display window area at street level.A main street, the street type often associated with pedestrian shopping corridors, includes design elements such as wide sidewalks and tree lawns.Blueprint Denver defines both the function an area serves and the design elements needed to make it function properly. Using land-use and transportation types focuses on the experience of place at ground level, where the qualities of a pedestrian-oriented city are most apparent.Density and traffic impacts of land-use development can be mitigated through appropriate urban design.People often find the same design traits appealing for small buildings as well as large buildings. Furthermore, certain design elements are appealing for both low-and high-volume streets.It is, therefore, a central premise of this plan that design, when applied correctly, alleviates some of the impacts created by density and traffic.THEPLAN

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The Plan Map Purpose and UsePurpose of the Plan MapThe Blueprint Denver Map arranges the building blocks described later in this chapter to illustrate Denvers desired future (introduced in Chapter 3).The map is the component of Blueprint Denver that addresses the man-made geography of the city.The Plan Map identifies areas where the land uses or intensity of uses are envisioned to change (generally the Areas of Change), as well as areas where land uses should be maintained and improved in their existing state (generally the Areas of Stability).For instance, new neighborhood centers are identified in Stapleton and at the intersection of Umatilla and Alameda.The Map also indentifies existing neighborhood centers, such as at Downing at Evans and Hampden at Monaco, that should be maintained and improved.Regarding transportation, the map illustrates the regional rapid transit system, multi-modal street types (which relate to the interface between adjacent land uses and travel mode choices), and multi-modal street functions (which relate to the mobility and access functions of a street).Multi-modal street function designations were already in existence and were updated as a part of this planning effort.How to Read the Plan MapThe Plan Map:Land Use and TransportationPositive aspects of how Denver could look in the future are identified using a series of symbols and colors.For instance, downtown Denver is red.The Cherry Creek Regional Shopping Center is deep purple and has a square box in it.The Gates Rubber Company site is identified as a transit-oriented development area by pink, and the transit stations have a red symbol.The area at I-25 and Colorado Boulevard is marked the same as Gates because it will also be a transit-oriented development area once T-REX is completed and light rail is operating.The map also identifies the planned rapid transit system, multi-modal street types, and multi-modal street function.The rapid transit system is based upon RTDs system buildout plan. A map legend is provided for the existing and planned transportation types that shows different colors, shading, or symbols for existing and planned rapid transit corridors and stations, multi-modal street type, and street function designations.For example, Broadway is a mixed-use arterial, except for a stretch between Speer Boulevard and Alameda, which is a main street; the commercial corridor portion is shown in orange and the main street portion is shown in pink. The Blueprint Denver Plan Map identifies areas where the land uses or intensity of uses are envisioned to change (generally the Areas of Change) as well as areas where land uses should be maintained and improved in their existing state (generally Areas of Stability). BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 4 THE PLAN MAP37MAP

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38Use of the Plan MapLand-use types indicated on the Plan Map suggest the zoning needed to support the characteristics of identified land use and transportation patterns. Street types indicated on the Plan Map define the street environment that should be created to support the land use.For example, industrial areas should have streets with wide lanes to accommodate trucks, and pedestrian shopping areas should have wide sidewalks to accommodate pedestrians. The Plan Map should be used to develop small area plans and to guide r egulatory changes and public investment strategies for the area in question. Zoning changes, public infrastructure investments and partnership strategies should be based on the Plan Map.Use of the Plan Map in the development of small area plans is discussed in Chapter 8. After conducting a review of a proposed project or small area plan, the City may discover that Blueprint Denver did not predict the growth and evolution of a neighborhood or the city correctly.In this case, the Plan Map will be amended using the building blocks and land-use and transportation types identified in this Plan.Land Use Building BlocksBelow are definitions for the land-use types.The land-use types are organized around four general building blocks: districts, residential areas, centers and corridors.The building blocks in these four categories must be applied to r eflect the complex character of many areas.The boundaries of the building blocks are not fixed some areas are in a state of transition, as is the case with several older industrial areas around downtown that are emerging as mixed-use neighborhoods. The types distinguish functional land-use characteristics under the building block framework with regard to typical location, transportation characteristics, land-use mix, employment and housing characteristics.The types also address basic physical regulatory parameters including bulk and density. Minimum basic design standards are prescribed for each land-use type. These design standards describe the ideal characteristics with the understanding that many existing areas in Denver do not and in some cases may never meet this ideal.The last pages of this chapter are tables illustrating the relationship between land-use building blocks and a variety of land-use characteristics, design standards and development standards. Chapters 5 and 6 will describe the tools used to transform areas that do not meet ideal design standards.Broadway south of Speer is both a commercial and main street arterial, as shown by the shading on the Plan Map. The Plan Map should be used in the development of small area plans and to guide regulatory changes and public investment strategies. ^THEPLAN

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DistrictsDistricts may cover a few blocks or hundreds of acres.The district boundaries contain an area with a generally consistent character in land-use mix, physical design and transportation characteristics.A district, however, may be large enough to incorporate both smaller centers and corridors.DowntownDowntown Denver is the centerpiece of the city and region with the highest intensity of uses in Colorado.Many uses are attracted to the centralized location government entities, employers, entertainment venues, educational facilities, restaurants, nightclubs, cultural facilities and hotels.Downtown is not only a significant source of employment, with more than 100,000 employees, but also a unique neighborhood offering a special variety of housing for people who prefer to live in the midst of its activity and amenities. In addition to the minimum development standards, downtown has special design standards that address architectural form and site design.The buildings in downtown create the skyline by which the world recognizes Denver.Complex skyscrapers, unique civic structures and the large concentration of historic buildings, justify current design review.Existing zone districts B-5, B-7, the Commons PUD, B-8G and R-4X and landmark district designations Lower Downtown, Downtown Denver District, Larimer Square and Civic Center make developments in these areas among the most highly regulated in the City.EmploymentEmployment areas contain office, warehousing, light manufacturing and high tech uses such as clean manufacturing or information technology. Sometimes big-box retail is found in these areas.These areas are distinguished from mixed-use centers in that they have few residences and typically have more extensive commercial and some industrial activity. Employment areas require access to major arterials or interstates.Those areas with manufacturing and warehousing uses must be able to accommodate extensive truck traffic and rail in some instances.Due to these special transportation requirements, attention to design, screening and buffering is necessary when employment districts are near other districts that include residential use.Examples of employment districts include the Denver T ech Center and portions of Stapleton and Lowry.Greater Downtown Denver. Downtown buildings create Denvers recognizable skyline. GOLDEN TRIANGLEA URARIA UPTOWN CBD UNION STATIONSOUTHPLATTERIVERBROADWAYCOLFAXPAR K AVE.CHERRYCREEK BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 4 THE PLAN MAP39MAP

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THEPLAN40Wa rehousing in some Industrial Districts remains a viable type of land use.Ca mpus Districts are usually large areas with a variety of buildings for a primary user. ^IndustrialAs manufacturing and shipment have become more sophisticated, the need for heavy industrial areas adjacent to rail has lessened.Some of these older areas have historic buildings that are suitable for conversion to office and r esidential, a notable trend in LoDo and the Ballpark District.Others have the potential to be more diverse employment areas.Warehousing remains a viable use with high demand for trucking.Active industrial areas require access to major arterials or interstates.Heavy rail facilities also are often adjacent to industrial districts.Streets in these districts must be able to accommodate heavy trucks.Special attention to design, screening and buffering is necessary where industrial districts abut districts that include r esidential use.Examples of this form of development include the I-70 and South Platte River corridors.CampusA campus is a special district that typically is dominated by a single, large institutional user.Universities, medical centers and large research facilities are examples.Campuses are usually large, contiguous areas that contain a variety of buildings and uses geared toward a primary purpose.In addition to institutional uses, some large companies organize their headquarters as a campus.Often specialized retail will locate near or in a campus district to meet the needs of those on campus.If present, residential tends to be limited to dormitory-type facilities.CU Health Sciences Center, University of Denver and the Auraria Higher Education Campus are all campuses.Entertainment/Cultural/ExhibitionThese specialized districts include regional event-oriented, civic or cultural attractions.Sometimes a few additional uses are included in each district. Such a district can blossom into a more vital and well rounded area, blending cultural or sporting events with entertainment, civic uses, r estaurants and even office uses.Often a single large facility dominates, but sometimes (as in a theater district) a group of large and small facilities make up the district.Adequate parking is essential, but many districts thrive with substantial transit use, shared parking with an adjacent business district and pedestrian access.Examples include the Performing Arts Center and the National Western Stock Show.Parks and Open SpaceParks and natural open space are public spaces, ranging from our historic, traditional parks to natural areas along the waterways.They provide a welcome respite from the intensity of urban living.Parks and open spaces range from active neighborhood and community parks with recreation fields and centers to larger preserves of natural open areas that provide

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space for wildlife habitat.A greenway is a linear park or open space developed along a stream, canal, or other natural or man-made feature. They enhance nearby neighborhoods by providing park space and frequently off-street bicycle paths.Some examples include the Platte River Greenway, City Park and Westwood Park.Residential Areas and NeighborhoodsA neighborhood is an area that consists primarily of residential land uses. A city should contain neighborhoods that offer a variety of housing types, as well as complementary land-use types such as stores, parks and schools that provide the basic needs of nearby residents.Historical, cultural or ethnic amenities, such as a collection of historic homes, art galleries, or ethnic or specialty shops and restaurants, should be accentuated to help neighborhoods develop a niche within the city.Easily identifiable borders help distinguish each neighborhood.Neighborhoods are primarily residential but vary in density, size and adjacency of non-residential uses.Typical neighborhoods are 500 to 1,000 acres, but higher density neighborhoods may be much smaller.There are several different types of residential areas, and neighborhoods often have more than one type within them.The plan introduces a vocabularly to describe various residential land-use characteristics that might be found in a number of neighborhoods. There are four general types of residential areas:Mixed-useUrban residentialSingle-family/duplex residentialSingle-family residentialMixed-UseThese areas have a sizable employment base as well as housing.Intensity is higher in mixed-use areas than in other residential areas.Land uses are not necessarily mixed in each building or development or even within each block. But within the neighborhood, residential and non-residential uses are within walking distance of one another.The proportion of residential to commercial uses varies considerably from one mixed-use district to another.The Golden Tr iangle, Uptown and the Jefferson ParkHighland Area of Change are examples of mixed-use districts.Urban ResidentialUrban residential neighborhoods are higher density and primarily residential but may include a noteworthy number of complementary commercial uses. New housing tends to be in midto high-rise structures, and there is a greaterP arks and open space provide a respite from the intensity of urban living. Depiction of a mixed-use building. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 4 THE PLAN MAP41MAP

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THEPLAN42housing base than employment base.A mixture of housing types is present, including historic single-family houses, townhouses, small multi-family apartments and sometimes high-rise residential structures.Capitol Hill, Cheesman Park, Riverfront Park in the Central Platte Valley and Cherry Creek East are good examples of urban residential areas.Single Family/Duplex ResidentialSingle family duplex residential areas are moderately dense areas that are primarily residential but with some complementary, small-scale commercial uses. However, the employment-base is minor compared to the housing base. There is a mixture of housing types, including single-family houses, duplexes, townhouses and small apartment buildings. Typically densities are between 10 and 20 housing units per acre area-wide, and single family detached structures often predominate. Many historic neighborhoods contain this combination of housing types including City Park West, Alamo Placita and portions of West Washington Park.Newer neighborhoods such as Cherry Creek typically have townhouses and duplexes.Single Family ResidentialNeighborhoods of single family houses represent the majority of Denvers r esidential areas, particularly those developed after 1900 and especially those built after 1940.Densities are fewer than 10 units per acre, often less than six units per acre neighborhood-wide, and the employment base is significantly smaller than the housing base.Single-family homes are the predominant residential type.Some of the many areas in Denver with this attribute include Rosedale, University, Park Hill, Washington Park, Sloan Lake, Regis, Montbello, Green Valley Ranch, Hampden and Bear Valley.CentersA center is the focal point of one or more neighborhoods.Centers provide convenient access to shops, restaurants and community-oriented services, such as day care, libraries and meeting halls.There are shorter auto trips and more walking and bicycling in a center since residential and commercial areas are near one another.Attractive and safe pedestrian connections from the surrounding neighborhood to the center encourage people to walk or bike to destinations in the center such as transit stations, bus stops or businesses. The size of a center and its role in the city vary correspondingly with the scale and accessibility of the surrounding neighborhoods.Ideally, centers should support both daytime and evening activities to create an attractive and safe neighborhood destination.Depiction of an urban residential building.Depiction of a duplex residential building.Depiction of single family houses. ^

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Neighborhood CentersThis small center serves the many everyday shopping, service or entertainment needs of one or more neighborhoods.A mix of land uses includes those for convenience shopping, personal services and restaurants. A neighborhood center also may contain offices that serve nearby residents. Occasionally, neighborhood centers contain boutique shopping or popular r estaurants that act as a regional draw.Examples include both supermarket-based shopping centers, such as 44th and Lowell or Monaco and Hampden, or historical streetcar districts, such as 9th and Corona, Old South Gaylord or 39th and Tennyson.Good pedestrian and bus transportation links should connect neighborhood centers.As a result, these neighborhood centers are natural locations for bus transit hubs.T own CentersTo wn centers are similar to neighborhood centers but meet a larger variety of shopping, entertainment, service and employment needs and are large enough to serve several neighborhoods.They usually contain shopping and commercial uses that total at least 150,000 square feet and often have specialty shops for ethnic products, baked goods, apparel, toys and the like. Entertainment and other types of unique services that attract people from across the city are also found in town centers.Unlike many shopping centers and malls, town centers should be pedestrian-friendly places that are focal points of nearby neighborhoods.Urban design features such as plazas, landscaping, small parks and civic features contribute to making these places focal points of community activity.Town centers in Denver include 14th and Krameria, University Hills, Bear Valley Shopping Center and Broadway Market Place.Regional CentersIdeally, a regional center has a balance of retail, employment and residential uses; however, many began as one major use, such as a regional shopping center or a large office park.These centers cover a fairly large area and are dense enough to encompass both the dominant use and a wide variety of other uses.These centers have an atmosphere that is attractive to patrons from throughout the region.Cherry Creek is an example of a regional center where a major shopping center is at the core of many other uses concentrated in a small area. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 4 THE PLAN MAP43MAPDepiction of a town center. Blueprint Denver endorses the MetroVision 2020 concept of Urban Centers. These community focal points are high-density, transitsupportive, pedestrianoriented, mixed-use locations providing a range of retail, business, civic, cultural and r esidential opportunities for the surrounding area that help the average density of the region to increase by allowing higher density development in appropriate locations.

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THEPLAN44Tr ansit-Oriented Development (TOD)There are many land-use types described in this chapter downtown, pedestrian-oriented shopping corridors and centers where creating links between land use and transportation are critical elements.One of the explicit purposes of each of these land-use concepts is to support transit and to create areas that are pleasant places to walk and bike. T ransit-oriented developments are distinctly different because these land uses have a direct correlation to the function of a mass transit system. These development sites are located at stations or stops along bus or rail lines within a mass transit network.Transit-oriented developments offer an alternative to traditional development patterns by providing housing, services, and employment opportunities for a diverse population in a configuration that facilitates pedestrian and transit access.1Some key attributes of TOD commonly include:A balanced mix of uses (residential, retail, office, entertainment, public facilities and others)Compact, midto high-density developmentClose proximity to transit, emphasizing a pedestrian-friendly and attractive pedestrian environmentMulti-modal transportation connections (rail, bus, bicycle, pedestrian and others)Reduced emphasis on auto parking including lowered parking r equirements, shared parking, parking configurations that mitigate the visual impacts of automobiles, parking structures located near but not necessarily at stations and replacement of surface parking lots with structured parkingUrban design guidelines to improve character and create a sense of placeAttractive, multi-story buildings facing the station and adjacent streetsA variety of housing types and prices, including affordable housing opportunitiesAccess to open space and recreational amenitiesA high degree of connectivity between station area and surrounding neighborhoods The planned developments at Colorado Station (I-25 and Colorado), Stapleton and Denver Union Station Inter-modal Transportation Center are a few examples of future transit-oriented development areas.Depiction of development around a transit station. ^

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CorridorsCorridors share some of the same attributes as centers, but these areas are more linear and oriented along one or more streets.As with streetcar commercial districts and streets with heavy auto traffic, corridors historically have formed in conjunction with the transportation infrastructure, as illustrated by historic streetcar commercial districts and high traffic commercial arterial streets.A corridors commercial vitality relies on careful planning for automobiles.But because corridors are linear and meet the needs of the immediate surrounding districts as well as street traffic, the land-use and transportation system should be designed and improved to accommodate many types of travel including walking and buses.Pedestrian Shopping CorridorA pedestrian shopping corridor exhibits the same land uses as a town center or neighborhood center, but it orients those uses in a linear rather than circular pattern.Many of the existing pedestrian shopping corridors in Denver grew from streetcar business districts.These corridors are scaled to be compatible with surrounding residential neighborhoods.Pedestrian shopping corridors have a continuous street frontage of buildings, wide sidewalks, on-street parking, and shared parking among businesses.These corridors provide pedestrian amenities and good transit service.Examples of this development pattern include East Colfax between Grant and York, Broadway from Ellsworth to Third Avenue, and the Welton Street light-rail corridor through Five Points.Commercial CorridorCommercial corridors are linear business districts primarily oriented to heavily used arterial streets.They share similarities with pedestrian shopping corridors but are larger and accommodate more auto traffic. Because of the heavy traffic, special design features are necessary for buildings to be accessible and visible to someone driving by, while also practical for transit, bicycle and pedestrian use.Commercial corridors are favored locations for big-box retail, which can present special design challenges.Many corridors accommodate major bus transit routes and have significant numbers of transit users.Well-designed commercial corridors include street trees, wide sidewalks, on-street parking and attractive bus stops, and, as a result, exhibit a fair amount of pedestrian activity. Colorado Boulevard, Federal Boulevard and Hampden Avenue are commercial corridors.Denver Union Terminal will be the central transit oriented development hub in the regional rapid transit system. P edestrian shopping corridors invite walking and window shopping.(Illustration courtesy of Urban Advantage) BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 4 THE PLAN MAP45MAP

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THEPLAN46Transportation Building BlocksThe two fundamental transportation building blocks are the regional rapid transit system and the multi-modal street system.The rapid transit system is important because it provides infrastructure that can help shape a more sustainable land-use pattern.Focusing development around rail stations re duces vehicle trips and creates less pollution than other types of development that strictly rely on the automobile.The multi-modal street system provides the transportation backbone for all of Denver.It has two different, but important, aspects that influence development.The first is street function, which defines the more traditional mobility and access role that a particular street plays (i.e., whether it is meant for longer or shorter distance trips).Secondly, street interface (i.e., street types) provides the connection with the surrounding land uses.This is essentially how the street design relates to the development adjacent to the street right-of-way.Each of the transportation building blocks is explained in more detail below.Regional Rapid Transit SystemThe rapid transit system is the first component of the transportation building blocks.The elements of the rapid transit system include rail (both light rail and commuter rail), High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lanes, Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), and the stations and park-n-ride facilities that serve both the rail and bus network. The purpose of the rapid transit system is twofold.First, it provides a re liable and convenient alternative to the automobile.Rapid transit provides frequent, reliable service that gives it an advantage over traditional bus services and allows it to be competitive with the automobile. Secondly, rapid transit can play an important role in influencing sustainable land-use patterns.Concentrating development in and around rapid transit corridors promotes a more efficient land-use pattern.People living and working in and around rapid transit corridors rely less on the automobile due to enhanced pedestrian, transit, and bicycle access.In addition, development can be more concentrated with less impact and can consist of a more diverse mix of land uses. Each of the rapid transit system elements is described in more detail below.More specific information about the actual existing and proposed rapid transit system is provided in Chapter 6.The plan for the existing and proposed rapid transit system was developed by the Regional Tr ansportation District (RTD) with input from local jurisdictions and is consistent with DRCOGs Metro Vision 2020.A regional rapid transit system will provide a frequent, reliable and convenient alternative to the automobile. ^

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Rail TransitThe rail transit element of the regional rapid transit system consists of both light rail and commuter rail service.Both types of rail typically operate in designated rights of way separate from other forms of transportation (i.e., cars, bikes, pedestrians, and freight rail).In addition, connections with other forms of transportation sometimes are grade separated (e.g., rail crossing of a major street) to reduce conflicts.Commuter rail differs from light rail in that it typically serves longer distance trips, has fewer stops within a corridor, and uses diesel-powered vehicles.The operational characteristics of light rail include smaller vehicles and better acceleration, allowing it to function more efficiently on a multi-modal street mixed with other forms of transportation (i.e., cars, bikes, buses, and pedestrians). Both commuter rail and light rail provide advantages over the automobile.As demand increases, light rail and commuter rail lines can easily be expanded by adding cars to the trains or by increasing the frequency of service.Thus, rail serves densely built areas such as downtown Denver more efficiently.Rail corridors also play a vital role in providing access to special events, sports and cultural facilities, and entertainment.High Occupancy Vehicle Lanes (HOV) and Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)HOV lanes and BRT use buses and automobiles rather than trains.HOV lanes are buffer or barrier-separated highway lanes that may be used by buses, motorcycles, and people who carpool.HOV lane restrictions typically are limited to the peak travel times in the morning and afternoon.BRT is a relatively new technology that combines some aspects of rail transit with the flexibility of buses.It can operate on exclusive transit ways, HOV lanes, expressways, or ordinary streets.As compared to typical diesel bus technology, a BRT system can potentially combine new technology (using propane or other alternative non-diesel fuel), priority for transit, cleaner and quieter operation, rapid and convenient fare collection, and integration with land-use policy.In Denver regional studies, BRT has been and will be considered as an alternative along with rail technologies, especially in corridors that may not currently have the land-use densities to support rail ridership.It also can serve as an interim transit solution and an effective tool to prepare development patterns to adequately support rail transit in the future.2Stations and park-n-Ride FacilitiesStations and park-n-ride facilities servicing rapid transit routes are important elements of the regional rapid transit system.These facilities provide the connection between the rapid transit system and multi-modal street systemLight Rail has been a success beyond expectations in Denver. HOV lanes are buffer or barrier-separated highway lanes that may be used by buses, motorcycles and carpools. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 4 THE PLAN MAP47MAP

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THEPLAN48and serve as the key link between transit and land use.They provide an opportunity for mixed-use development to increase ridership and offer accessible housing, offices, and other uses both as origins and destinations. These facilities must be well connected with local bus routes, neighborhood circulator buses, express bus routes with regional connections, and have good bike and pedestrian connections both internal and external to the site.Multi-Modal Street SystemBlueprint Denver recognizes that all streets are or should be multi-modal streets, with each street providing the best balance of the various travel mode choices.However, the Plan also emphasizes that all multi-modal streets are not designed the same.Design of a multi-modal street is based on both the function of the street and the adjacent land use. The street function designation defines the broad purpose of the street such as the need to primarily move vehicles or primarily provide land access.A streets function defines its engineering design and travel speed, as well as its character and connectivity within the community and the entire Denver r egion.Traditional street function designations include the following:ArterialsCollectorsLocal Streets Due to their uniqueness, Downtown Access Streets have been added as an additional street function designation. As described in more detail below, a streets interface is how it relates to its users and adjacent land use.Users include auto drivers, truck drivers, bicyclists, and transit riders within the travelway, people parking their cars on the street, and pedestrians within the pedestrian environment of the street.The interface of the street with adjacent land use is an important re lationship that affects street design. Based on this interface concept, Blueprint Denver assigns special street type categories for each multi-modal street according to the adjacent land uses.As described below, the following five street types are used in this Plan: residential, main street, mixed-use, commercial, and industrial.Two other special street types are also described below: landmark streets and one-way couplets. The Plan Map in the first section of this chapter emphasizes the combination of street function and street type for Denvers arterial and collector streets. Most of Denvers local streets are a residential street type.A multi-modal street in 1920s Denver accommodated trolleys, cars, pedestrians and cyclists. A multi-modal street balances the needs of all modes of travel, giving people the option to walk, bike, take transit or drive. The concept of multi-modal streets diverges from conventional street designs that emphasize a high level of service for automobiles over other transportation modes. ^

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In addition to regional rapid transit and the multi-modal street system (street function and types), other types of street related improvements play a significant role in the building blocks that promote livability in both Areas of Stability and Areas of Change.Planning, developing and maintaining this other public infrastructure requires substantial investment and must be considered along with the Citys other capital investment priorities. These other types of public infrastructure are essential components of an integrated multi-modal street system, forming an additional layer, or subsystem.This subsystem regulates traffic movement, alleviates obstacles to mobility, protects roadways from flooding and manages access, among other functions.This subsystem includes:AlleysCurbs, curb ramps, gutters and instersection drainageStorm water drainage and detention facilitiesSignals and signageBridgesSidewalksStreetscaping in public rights-of-wayMediansPavementTr affic management features (pedestrian crossings, narrower travel lanes, r oundabouts, traffic circles, etc.) One of these elements alleys deserves special mention, because it illustrates the important role that a subsystem can play in creating desired development patterns.The multi-purpose function of alleys should not be underestimated.From a practical standpoint, alleys provide basic transportation and utility access.For vehicles, alleys are the primary access to rear-facing garages.Trash trucks and large delivery vehicles also use this public space, allowing these vehicles to perform necessary functions without hampering traffic on City streets.From a utility perspective, alleys provide adequate space to locate underground wet and dry utilities, pole mounted wires and surface storm water facilities.By providing space for utilities, storm water drainage, trash pickup and delivery trucks, alleys keep visually blighting elements off of the streets.The use of alleys for rear-facing garages re duces curb cuts along the block fronts in neighborhoods, thereby preserving sidewalk continuity and creating a more pedestrian-friendly environment. The use of alleys in Denver is prevalent throughout the historic neighborhoods.Alleys are a basic defining feature that helps differentiate traditional neighborhood development and suburban type development.New trends in land-use and transportation planning emphasize alley-accessedResidential alleys in Sunnyside.Streetscaping along Santa Fe.Tr affic management features in Uptown. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 4 THE PLAN MAP49MAP

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THEPLAN50garages and fewer curb cuts along the street frontage.Alley use enhances the street environment, thereby promoting livability in neighborhoods.Alleys are emphasized in the design and development standards discussed in both Chapters 4 and 5 of this plan.In both Areas of Change and Areas of Stability alleys contribute to desired development patterns. Connectivity and continuity within the land-use and transportation system is an important precept of Blueprint Denver that holds true for the sidewalk subsystem, the storm drainage subsytem or other similar public infrastructure subsystems as well.Therefore, Blueprint Denvers land-use and transportation strategies will guide future investment in public infrastructure.Multi-Modal Street FunctionStreet function designations encompass both the design characteristics of streets and the character of service or travel trips that the streets are intended to provide.Traditionally, categorizing street function forms a hierarchy of streets ranging from those that are primarily for travel mobility (arterials) to those that are primarily for access to property (local streets). These two primary concepts, mobility and access, relate to the ability to get from one location to another (mobility) and the ability to get into and out of a particular piece of property (access).The street function system recognizes that individual streets do not act independently of one another but instead form a network that works together to serve travel needs on a local, city and r egional level. Blueprint Denver recognizes and retains the Citys existing street function designations of arterials, collectors and local streets but also presents criteria to better classify the function of the Citys streets.The criteria, presented in the Appendix, are based on nationally accepted standards and practices r ecognized by the City and County of Denver and the Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG), and by professional and regulatory organizations such as the Institute of Transportation Engineers and the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). In general, the current street function designations remain the same under Blueprint Denver, with the exception of a new designation, downtown access, which is described in detail below.Blueprint Denver augments the traditional street function designations with recommended design elements and operational changes to provide a more balanced environment for pedestrians, bicyclists, transit users and motorists. Denvers street function system is illustrated on the Plan Map at the beginning of this chapter.The map designates arterials, collectors, controlled An important premise of the multi-modal street concept is the r ecognition that most streets exist within a constrained right-of-way and cannot fully accommodate the ideal needs of every mode of travel. This results in tradeoffs. Some multimodal streets attempt to balance traffic capacity with pedestrian and bicyclist needs, while other streets emphasize pedestrian and transit mobility at the cost of traffic capacity. The role of alleys in urban design The use of alleys for access to rear-facing garages reduces curb cuts along the block fronts in residential neighborhoods, thereby preserving sidewalk continuity and creating a more pedestrian-friendly environment. ^

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access highways, and downtown access streets.Detailed information on the street function designations is provided below.Arterial StreetsArterials are designed to provide a high degree of mobility and generally serve longer vehicle trips to, from, and within urban areas.Denvers arterial system interconnects major urban elements such as the central business district, employment centers, large urban and suburban commercial centers and r esidential neighborhoods. Movement of people and goods, also known as mobility, rather than access, is the primary function of an arterial street.Arterial streets serve a city-wide function and are, therefore, designated using a broader city-wide perspective. Posted speed limits on arterial facilities generally range from 30 to 45 miles per hour, depending on the type of area being served.Streets in higher density central business districts or residential neighborhoods usually accommodate the lower end of the speed range.Traffic volume and capacity of an arterial street depend, in part, on the number of through and turning lanes, signals, the number of driveways and access points, and the volume of bus and truck traffic.The volume and capacity of arterials can range from 10,000 vehicles a day on a two-lane arterial to 75,000 vehicles on a six-lane arterial.Collector StreetsCollectors are designed to provide a greater balance between mobility and land access within residential, commercial and industrial areas.The makeup of a collector street largely depends on the density, size and type of nearby buildings. Posted speed limits on collector streets generally range from 25 to 35 miles per hour.Traffic volume and capacity can range from 5,000 vehicles a day on a two-lane facility to 20,000 vehicles a day on larger multi-lane facilities.Local StreetsThe design features of local streets are influenced less by traffic volumes and are tailored more to providing local access.Mobility on local streets is typically incidental and involves relatively short trips at lower speeds to and from other streets. Because of their neighborhood nature, travel speeds are usually lower than collectors and arterials.Posted speed limits on local streets range from 25 to 30, depending on available right-of-way and the adjacent land uses.Traffic volumes on local streets should not exceed 2,000 vehicles a day. it is often extremely difficult to make adequate provisions for pedestrians. Yet this must be done because pedestrians are the lifeblood of our urban areas, especially in the downtown and other r etail areas. In general, the most successful shopping sections are those that provide the most comfort and pleasure for pedestrians.AASHTO A Policy on Geometric Design of Streets and Highways BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 4 THE PLAN MAP51MAP

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THEPLAN52Downtown Access StreetsStreets located in downtown areas are unique compared to the traditional street function designations of arterial, collector and local.These streets provide a high degree of access to the highly intense mixed land uses including office, retail, entertainment, residential, and public uses located within downtown.Travel by alternative modes is crucial to reducing congestion and minimizing land devoted to vehicular travel and parking. Consequently, Blueprint Denver has designated streets within certain boundaries as downtown access streets.This area is bounded by Colfax A venue on the south, Wewatta Street on the north, Speer Boulevard on the west and Park Avenue and Broadway on the east. All of the streets within this area are designed as multi-modal streets to accommodate a complex transportation network with the following characteristics:Higher levels of mobility during peak hoursHeavy pedestrian activity and bicycle travelIntensive bus and light-rail transit movementsFrequent and disruptive loading and unloading activitiesA large reservoir of both on-street and off-street parking spacesComplex underground utility systems. Typically, streets designated as downtown access streets are one-way streets consisting of two or more travel lanes, with on-street parking on one or both sides, arranged in a closely spaced grid pattern.Speeds on downtown access streets generally range between 20 and 30 mph, with speeds during peak hours in the range of 15 to 25 mph.Traffic capacity and volumes on downtown access streets which depend on the number of travel lanes, signals, and other factors range from 5,000 to 25,000 vehicles per day.Street InterfaceStreet interface focuses on the cross-section of a street and how the street relates to the adjacent land uses.It consists of three areas: the travelway area needed to move vehicles; the pedestrian area needed to move people and transition people between vehicles and land uses or from one land use to another; and the land use and urban design area, where land uses meet the street (e.g.building faces, front yards) and how the street looks and feels to its users.Urban design focuses on character and aesthetics and includes building orientation, streetscapes, lighting, landscaping themes and building architecture.The Travelway AreaThe travelway is the section of the street in which vehicles travel.It includes bicycle lanes, travel lanes, turning lanes andLocal streets are designed for short trips and low traffic volumes, such as this street in the Hilltop neighborhood. ^

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medians.While the travelway is primarily for the movement of vehicles, it also is where pedestrians cross streets to reach land uses and access transit.The design of the travelway affects how much traffic a street can carry and how fast vehicles will travel. Equally important, the design of the travelway affects how people perceive the street.Wide expanses of asphalt and concrete with barren landscaping are perceived as barriers to pedestrians who often choose not to cross such streets even when their destination is directly across the street.The travelway connects with the pedestrian area along its length and connects with adjacent land use via driveways and intersections. The Pedestrian AreaThe pedestrian area is the section of the street needed to move people and transition people between land uses and between vehicles and land use.This environment includes on-street parking, curbs and gutters, tree lawns, sidewalks and bus stops.It is the interface between land use and the travelway.Often, amenities such as on-street parking and tree lawns achieve a dual purpose they serve to slow down traffic in the travelway as well as provide a more attractive and safer pedestrian area. Pedestrian-friendly streets provide the foundation for safe, active and livable areas.Whether it is a quiet residential area, a busy shopping district or a major arterial, pedestrian amenities generate activity on the street, encourage walking, bicycling, and transit use, thereby contributing to quality of life. Attention to the pedestrian area and the design of connections to buildings and sites are critical to the transit viability.Every trip has a pedestrian component, but transit riders usually walk more than drivers do at both ends of each trip.If the connection from the transit stop to the destination is safe, comfortable, direct, and engaging, transit use becomes an attractive alternative to driving.If other needs can be met in the process, such as daily errands, the attraction becomes that much stronger. In addition, pedestrian amenities make a critical difference in the safety, comfort, and mobility of those without the option of driving: the elderly, the disabled, children, and lower-income people.In an environment designed for drivers, these segments of the population often are forgotten. The Land Use and Urban Design AreaThe land-use and urban design area is where land uses meet the street (e.g.building faces, front yards), and it is fundamental to how the street looks and feels to its users.Urban design focuses on character and aesthetics and includes building orientation and placement, streetscapes, lighting, landscaping themes and building architecture.The travelway area includes travel, turning and bike lanes, as well as medians and pedestrian crosswalks. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 4 THE PLAN MAP53MAP

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THEPLAN54This area includes the land uses that are lined up along the street and how they relate to the street.It deals with the mix of uses as well as how they are accessed.It also deals with the appearance of the buildings, both from the standpoint of pedestrians in the pedestrian area and passengers in vehicles traveling through the travelway area.Finally, the location and design of alleys that allow garages to be in the rear, and coordinated access management (the limitation of driveways and other access points between the pedestrian area and the travelway area), are important considerations. Access management is discussed in more detail in Chapter 6: The Tr ansportation Component.Multi-Modal Street TypesAs indicated earlier, the concept of street interface is embodied in the designation of street types on the Plan Map.Street types are categorized based on their adjacent land use. Five new street types have been designated for the Plan Map:Residential streetMain streetMixed-use streetCommercial streetIndustrial street Two other special street types also are relevant because of their unique and historical nature:Landmark streetsOne-way couplets As described in the previous section, the traditional designation of a streets function broadly defines its design and operational characteristics related primarily to the movement of motor vehicles.The multi-modal street types define streets by relating them to the adjacent land use and their function for pedestrians, bicyclists and transit.Street design often ignores, or de-emphasizes, other modes of travel when it is based solely on the traditional emphasis of street function.The design of a street, its intersections, sidewalks, and transit stops should reflect the adjacent land uses since the type and intensity of the adjacent land use directly influences the level of use by other modes. The street types attempt to strike a balance between street function, adjacent land use, and the competing travel needs.Each street type prioritizes various design elements by looking at factors related to both the adjacent land use and the appropriate balance of transportation modes.Of course, theF ocusing on how land uses meet the street is the function of urban design. ^

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improvements to a particular street will depend upon the availability of public right-of-way and funding. Where sufficient public right-of-way exists, all initial priority design elements are recommended and may be accommodated.If sufficient land and funding are available, secondary priority design elements could then be added.Within constrained public right-of-way and with limited transportation funding, however, tradeoffs between design elements are required to balance the functions of the various travel modes and mobility and access needs. Ta ble 1 provides the minimum dimension for the priority design elements associated with each street type. The general characteristics of the five main street types are described below. A more detailed description for landmark streets and one-way couplets is also provided.Residential StreetsResidential streets serve two major purposes in Denvers neighborhoods.As arterials, residential streets balance transportation choices with land access, without sacrificing auto mobility.As collectors and local streets, residential streets are designed to emphasize walking, bicycling and land access over mobility.In both cases, residential streets tend to be more pedestrianoriented than commercial streets, giving a higher priority to landscaped medians, tree lawns, sidewalks, on-street parking and bicycle lanes. Residential streets also serve an important role for Denvers local parks. Residential streets create connections that emphasize walking, bicycling, and vehicular connections to Denvers local parks.Creating a diverse array of mobility options to local parks is critical to enhancing the use and character of the park system, which is such a vital part of Denvers urban fabric. Residential streets consist of two to four travel lanes but place a higher priority on pedestrian and bicycle friendliness than on auto mobility. Initial priority design elementsSidewalksTr ee lawnsOn-street parkingBike lanes on designated bicycle routesAlleys and rear-facing garages Secondary priority design elementsNumber and width of travel lanes (especially for collector and local streets)Landscaped mediansLogan Street in West Wash Park.Residential street birds-eye view.Residential street cross section. PARKING/ BIKE LANE SETBACK TRAVEL SIDEWALK TREE LAWN PARKING/ BIKE LANE TREE LAWN SIDEWALK TRAVEL SETBACK MEDIAN/TURN LANE BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 4 THE PLAN MAP55MAP

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THEPLAN56Examples of traffic management featuresMediansOn-street parkingStreet treesNarrower travel lanesTr affic circles and roundaboutsReduced pedestrian crossing distances at intersections, using curb extensions, traffic islands, and other measuresDivertersMain StreetsMain streets serve the highest intensity retail and mixed land uses in areas such as downtown and in regional and neighborhood centers.Main streets are designed to promote walking, bicycling, and transit within an attractive landscaped corridor.Generally, main street commercial activities are concentrated along a twoto eight-block area but may extend farther depending on the type of adjacent land uses and the area served. Main streets may have two to four travel lanes.On-street parking usually is provided to serve adjacent land uses.Tree lawns and detached walks are emphasized.In especially busy pedestrian districts, the landscaped tree lawn may be replaced with an amenity zone featuring street trees in grates.To further create a pedestrian-friendly atmosphere, main streets may have wide sidewalks, street furniture (benches, information kiosks, trash receptacles, etc.), outdoor cafs, plazas and other public spaces. Initial priority design elementsWi de sidewalks with transit access and pedestrian plazasWe ll-marked pedestrian crosswalks and signalsBicycle facilitiesCurb extensionsTr ee lawns / amenity zonesOn-street parking Secondary priority design elementsMediansWi dth and number of travel lanesMain Street in Highlands at 32nd and Lowell.Main Street birds-eye view.Main Street cross section. TRAVEL TREELAWN SIDEWALK PARKING TRAVEL PARKING TREELAWN SIDEWALK ^

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Examples of traffic management featuresNarrower travel lanesAlternative paving materialTr ee planters in parking laneOn-street parkingReduced pedestrian crossing distances at intersections, using curb extensions, traffic islands, and other measuresRaised intersectionsHigh-visibility crosswalksMixed-Use StreetMixed-use streets emphasize a variety of travel choices such as pedestrian, bicycle and transit use.Mixed-use streets are located in high-intensity mixeduse commercial, retail and residential areas with substantial pedestrian activity. These streets are attractive for pedestrians and bicyclists because of landscaped medians and tree lawns.Mixed-use streets can have on-street parking and wide sidewalks depending on the type and intensity of adjacent commercial land uses.On-street parking, bicycle lanes, landscaping and sidewalk width are higher priorities than the number of travel lanes on this type of street.Initial priority design elementsWi de sidewalks with transit accessWe ll-marked pedestrian crossings and signalsBicycle lanes on designated bike routesBicycle facilitiesTr ee lawnsOn-street parking Secondary priority design elementsWi dth and number of travel lanes (on collector and local streets)Medians Examples of traffic management featuresLandscaped mediansOn-street parkingStreet treesNarrower travel lanesTr affic circles and roundaboutsReduced pedestrian crossing distances at intersections, using curb extensions, traffic islands, and other measures3rd Avenue in Cherry Creek North, a mixed-use neighborhoodA Mixed-Use Street Bannock near 10th.13th Avenue east of Broadway is a Mixed-Use Street.A Mixed-Use Street birds-eye view.A Mixed-Use Street cross section. SIDEWALK SETBACK MEDIAN/TURN LANE TRAVEL TREE LAWN SIDEWALK SETBACK TRAVEL TRAVEL BIKE LANE PARKING LANE TRAVEL PARKING LANE TREE LAWN BIKE LANE BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 4 THE PLAN MAP57MAP

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THEPLAN58Commercial StreetThe most widespread commercial street type is the strip commercial arterial. These arterials typically serve commercial areas that contain many small r etail strip centers with buildings set back behind front parking lots.Because of this, strip commercial arterials have many intersections and driveways that provide access to adjacent businesses.Historically, this type of street often is highly auto-oriented and tends to discourage walking and bicycling.On-street parking is infrequent. Commercial streets are designed with multiple lanes divided by a landscaped median or a continuous two-way left turn lane in the center.Commercial streets are designed to balance traffic mobility with access to nearby businesses.However, because there are so many intersections and access points on commercial streets, they often become congested. Initial priority design elementsNumber and width of travel lanesMediansPedestrian facilitiesT ransit accommodations Limited driveways and other access points Secondary priority design elementsBicycle facilitiesTr ee lawnsTwo-way center left-turn lanesOn-street parking Examples of traffic management featuresMediansConsolidated drivewaysSynchronization of traffic signalsOn-street parkingNarrower travel lanesReduced pedestrian crossing distances at intersections, using curb extensions, traffic islands, and other measuresIndustrial StreetsIndustrial streets serve industrial areas.These streets are designed to accommodate a high volume of large vehicles such as trucks, trailers and other delivery vehicles.Bicycles and pedestrians are infrequent but still need to be accommodated. Industrial streets typically are two to four lanes, which in general are wider than usual to accommodate larger vehicles.On-street parking often is used toAn ideal commercial corridor efficiently moves cars and transit, and contains safe, attractive pedestrian elements. Colorado and Federal Boulevards in Denver both need reinvestment to be ideal commercial corridors. Co lorado Boulevard. A Commercial Street birds-eye view.A Commercial Street cross section. SETBACK SIDEWALK TREE LAWN TRAVEL TRAVEL TRAVEL TRAVEL TRAVEL TREE LAWN SETBACK SIDEWALK TRAVEL BIKE LANE BIKE LANE MEDIAN/TURN LANE ^

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store trailers and other large vehicles.Sidewalks are provided but are not as wide as in other higher-density commercial and retail areas.This is the only street type in which attached sidewalks are allowed with tree lawns outside of sidewalks.Attached sidewalks allow larger vehicles and trailers to park on the street without damaging tree canopies in the tree lawn. Initial priority design elementsWid er travel lanesSidewalksWi der turning radius at intersections Secondary priority design elementsMediansBicycle lanesOn-street parkingNumber of lanesTr ee lawns Examples of traffic management featuresParking restrictionsWi der turn radius at intersections and access pointsAcceleration and deceleration lanesSpecial Denver Street CategoriesWhile not fitting the definition of street types, two other categories of streets are noteworthy because of their unique character and evolution in the Denver street system landmark streets and one-way couplets.Both of these may function as arterials, collectors, or local streets.One-way couplets also may function as downtown access streets.Because of the land uses adjacent to the streets, one-way couplets can be designated any of the five street types: r esidential, main, mixed-use, commercial or industrial.Landmark streets also are characterized by several street types as well, including residential, main street, or mixed-use.Landmark StreetsOriginally, many of the landmark streets were developed as parkways and boulevards to connect Denvers major parks; to serve as components of a system for pleasure drives and as settings for fine homes, important public and private institutions; and recreational amenities.Because of their connection to the regional street system, landmark streets serve key functions of mobility and land access.They are important components of the citys street function system of arterial, collector, and local streets, as well as the citys bicycle and pedestrian systems.6th Avenue Parkway. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 4 THE PLAN MAP59MAP

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THEPLAN60Landmark streets are designated as Denver landmarks by City Council based on a recommendation from the Denver Landmark Preservation Commission, which considers the streets historical, architectural and geographical significance.Once designated, the Landmark Commission provides advice and guidance to the Public Works Department and Parks and Recreation Department on projects affecting landmark streets so that projects are implemented with sensitivity to the streets historic character.Particular features or elements of projects that are reviewed by the Landmark Commission include: landscaped medians and tree lawns, planting patterns along the street, and the relative balance and arrangement of planted area to paved surface area. Each landmark street has its own unique character and design.Right-of-way can vary significantly from street to street and from segment to segment. Generally, these streets consist of two to four lanes in each direction, with wide tree lawns along each side.Wide, attractively landscaped medians separate the travel lanes.Medians typically are continuous, with limited cross-street access.Finally, landmark streets have strict setback and sign r egulations. Denvers existing parks and parkways are shown on the map at the end of this chapter; this map includes parkways and boulevards designated by City ordinance, as well as Denver landmark streets.One-Way CoupletsOne-way couplets are pairs of one-way streets that function as a single higher-capacity street.Couplets are usually separated by one city block, allowing travel in opposite directions.One-way couplets serve many different areas of Denver from higher-density commercial and mixed-use areas, such as downtown and regional centers, to lower-density residential areas and main streets.One-way couplets are designed to have a higher transportation capacity than an equivalent two-way street.They can be designated any of the five street types: residential, main, mixed-use, commercial or industrial. One-way couplets generally consist of two to four lanes, and emphasize mobility over land access.Because all vehicular travel is flowing in the same direction on each street, couplets have fewer movements at intersections and better synchronization of traffic signals.In addition, because there usually are fewer lanes than an equivalent two-way street, pedestrian-crossing distances are shorter.This configuration of one-way streets potentially may be safer for pedestrians.Traffic management measures may be needed, however, to slow traffic and ensure pedestrian safety and comfort.17th Avenue Parkway is a Denver landmark. .East 8th Avenue serves as a one-way couplet in conjunction with East 6th Avenue. ^

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Multi-Modal Street DesignThe design elements associated with each street type and street function serve as the foundation for developing the multi-modal street.Their presence in the street environment is essential to ensure the appropriate connection between land use, transportation, urban design, community, environment and social interaction.Their accepted dimensions are important to the designer who becomes responsible for turning the multi-modal street concept into reality. Ta ble 1 presents the design element minimum dimensions associated with the primary physical elements of the street.Please note that the design element minimum dimensions are intended for use in locations with relatively minimal right-of-way constraints.In built-up areas where right-of-way constraints are significant these minimums are desirable but may not be achievable. However, the design element minimums should be a priority in built-up areas where there is an opportunity for uniformity in defined sub-areas, blocks and corridors. T able 1 Design Element Minimum DimensionsAs a key implementation strategy of Blueprint Denver, a comprehensive multi-modal street design guidelines manual will be developed by Public W orks Transportation Division, in cooperation with other City agencies. This manual will provide more detailed direction for balancing or prioritizing the infrastructure for each mode of travel in the context of the adjacent land E l e m e n t Wi d t h D e s i g n El e m e n t S t a n d a r d R a n g e Bicycle Lanes5 -0 4 -0 to 6 -0 Adjacent to an unpaved shoulder 4'-0" Adjacent to on-street parking5'-0" Adjacent to high speed traffic, or high use 6'-0" Travel Lanes11 -0 10 -0 to 16 -0 Travel lane, less than 40 mph 11'-0" Travel lane, greater than 40 mph12'-0" Trans it lane exclusive 12'-0" 11'-0" to 12"-0" Righ t-turn or left-turn lane 11'-0"10'-0" to 14"-0" Two-wa y left-turn lane 14'-0" 12'-0" to 14"-0"MediansVariable4 -0 a nd greater Median setback from travel lane 1'-0" 6" to 2'-0" Median for landsc aping and pedestrian refuge8'-0"8'-0" to 12'-0" Raised median for single left -turn la nes (curb included) 18'-0" 18'-0" Raised median fo r do uble left-turn lanes (curb included)28'-0" 28'-0" On-street parking and loading 8 -0 8 -0 "Shoulder5 -0 3 -0 to 10 -0 Emergenc y, unmarked, vehicles only 8'-0" 8'-0" Sh oulder, mixed bicycles, emergency, slow vehicles8'-0"8'-0" to 10'-0" Tree Lawns 8 -0 8 -0 a nd greaterSidewalksVariable5 -0 a nd greater Attached to curb and gutter 8'-0" 8'-0" and greater Detached from curb and gutter5'-0"5'-0" and greater Automobile transport has dominated development patterns for most of the 20th century. Adapting multiple modes of transportation to existing corridors presents significant design challenges. New development must consider site access by pedestrians, cyclists and transit users in addition to automobiles. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 4 THE PLAN MAP61MAP

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THEPLAN62uses.The guidelines take an interdisciplinary approach to street design that will further encourage coordination among traffic engineers, planners, urban designers, architects, emergency response officials, and the community when designing new streets or reconstructing existing streets.This approach fosters communication with those designing other elements of the community and r esults in more context-sensitive and collaborative designs.The guidelines will refine the information presented in Table 1 and will provide the rationale for when and how the guidelines are to be applied.Linking Multi-Modal Street Types and Street FunctionsT able 2 below illustrates the general relationship between multi-modal street types and street functions: T able 2 Relationships between Denver Multi-Modal Street Types and Functional Class CategoriesNearly all street types can be designated all four of the street functions, and vice versa.This relationship means that street design must consider the characteristics of both street function and street type when enhancements are made to the multi-modal street system. Each cell in the table above represents different characteristics that should be considered in design.For example, a street that can be designated with an arterial function and as a residential street type has different characteristics or design features than a residential street designated as a local or collector street.Residential arterial streets serve longer distance trips than residential local or collector streets.As such, maintaining the through capacity should be a higher priority on a residential arterial than on a residential local or collector street.As another example, a mixed-use collector street and an industrial collector street have different characteristics.A mixed-use collector emphasizes accommodating several transportation modes while an industrial collector emphasizes accommodating heavy trucks and automobiles over other forms of transportation. F U N C T I O N A L C L A S S S T R E E T TY P E R e s i d e n t i a l S t r e e t M a i n S t r e e t M i x e d U s e S t r e e t C o m m e r c i a l S t r e e t I n d u s t r i a l S t r e e t Arterial Collector Local Downtown Access ^

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ConclusionThe terms in this chapter are an important way to describe Denvers future as envisioned in the Plan Map.The terms also have been applied to the land and transportation system based on the existing conditions. These concepts are not simply vocabulary terms to describe elements of the plan they serve as building blocks to achieve the plans vision.They are utilized to describe Denvers future, which is presented conceptually in the Plan Map.The Plan Map should be used to develop smaller scale plans and r elated implementation legislation or public investment strategies.Zoning changes, neighborhood plans, public investments and transportation improvements should be based on the Plan Map. These building blocks set guidelines for how individual land-use and transportation types should be designed to a high standard within their functional roles.The next two chapters will address how these building blocks can be implemented into city policies and regulations within the city-wide context. The following chapter, Chapter 5, addresses land-use tools and Chapter 6 addresses transportation tools.Footnotes1 Lang, Alice H.and Diaz, Roderick B.; Bus Rapid Transit: An Integrated and Flexible Package of Service; APTA 2000 Rail Conference Proceedings Paper. 2 Calthorpe, Peter. The Next American Metropolis Princeton Architectural Press, 1993 Sources of funding for transportation infrastructure Private sector developers and property owners pay for on-site improvements and adjacent roadways, as well as other infrastructure. The transportation improvement program (TIP) is the regional funding plan for the distribution of federal and state transportation funds. The Capital Improvement Program (CIP) allocates funding to city transportation and infrastructure projects, as well as other city capital improvements Improvement Districts provide different types of mechanisms, using special tax assessments and other funding sources, to construct, maintain, and/or operate public improvements. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 4 THE PLAN MAP63MAP

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THEPLAN64 Location Intensity Residential Density Downtown There is only one downtown district in the region New building FAR average above 3.0, with some above 15 Most new development between 75 & 150 DUA (dwelling units per acre) Employment Close access to major roads and transit FAR averages of 2.0 to 4.0 N/A Industrial Often along rail lines or close access to major roads or airport New buildings are typically 0.2 FAR, historic uses can approach 0.75 FAR Typically, residential uses are not located in industrial areas Campus/ Institutional According to needs of institution Usually less than 1.0 FAR, but individual buildings may be much higher Varies from 0 to 20 DUA on average where present; dorms may be much higher Mixed-use Proximate to downtown, regional centers or light rail stops FAR averages of 1 to 1.5, sometimes higher 20 to 50 DUA, sometimes much higher Urban Residential Usually by Downtown, transit corridors or regional centers 0.75 FAR for neighborhood average, some buildings 4 or more Above 20 DUA, sometimes more than 100 DUA Single-family/ Duplex Residential Usually 1/3 mile from transit corridors, centers, former streetcar lines 0.5 on average, with FAR of over 1 in some buildings More than 10 DUA, usually less than 20 DUA neighborhood-wide. Single Family Residential Usually farther from Downtown than townhouse residential neighborhoods Low FAR, averaging from 0.2 to 0.5 Fewer than 10 DUA neighborhoodwide Neighborhood Centers By intersections of arterials, collectors or former streetcar lines 0.5 to 1.0 FAR, one to two story buildings Low overall, but may be 30 to 40 DUA in individual buildings Town Centers Intersection of arterials FAR 0.5 to 1.25 Low overall, may be 20 to 40 DUA in individual buildings Regional Centers Including and surrounding regional-scale land use Commercial use greater than 500,000 square feet Moderate for district overall, but may be 20 to 150 DUA in individual buildings TOD Centered around permanent transit stations 0.5 FAR to 4.0 FAR Between 12 and 100 DUA Pedestrian Shopping Corridor Arterials that carry fewer than 25,000 trips per day, often along former streetcar routes. Can be along busier arterials if traffic speeds are lower than 30 MPH and sidewalks are wider, with more room for trees and street furniture Average FAR of 1.0 Higher densities are desirable near downtown Moderately low for the corridor overall, but may be 20 to 40 units per acre in individual buildings Commercial Corridor Along major arterials Average FAR from 0.2 to 0.6 From very low to 30 units per acre Detailed descriptions and examples of each type of land-use type are provided earlier in this chapter ^Building Block Attributes

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Mix of Uses Size Transportation Use Office, retail, hotel, residential, entertainment and civic About 1,400 acres or 2 square miles High level of pedestrian & bicycle activity & transit use plus auto use. More than half of travel is non-auto Office, some warehousing or light manufacturing 10 to 300 acres Major transit destinations but auto uses and some trucking accommodated Light and heavy industrial and warehousing; some office 500 to 2,000 acresAuto-oriented, w/ transit for employees. Often dependent on truck & rail facilities, special requirements dominate street design Usually educational, medical or research oriented. Often residential, office & specialty retail in or next to campus Typically 50 to 500 acres Auto use accommodated but often campuses serve as major transit destinations, with pedestrian connections to adjacent neighborhoods Light industry, office, retail & entertainment uses mixed with residential horizontal & vertical mix 50 to 300 acresHigh pedestrian activity and significant transit use in addition to automobile uses Primarily residential with moderate levels of small-scale commercial use 200 to 400 acres Good transit access and significant levels of pedestrian and bicycling along with automobile use Primarily residential with periodic small-scale commercial uses 200 to 600 acresGood transit access and significant levels of pedestrian and bicycling activity along with automobile use Primarily single-family residential 500 to 1,000 acres Predominantly auto, some transit, walking and biking Smaller scale retail and everyday services and some office and residential 25,000 to 150,000 sq. ft. of retail High level pedestrian and bicycle activity and transit; plus auto use Retail, office, entertainment uses. Many w/ boutiques with regional pull, residential desirable At least 150,000 commercial. sq. ft. Appropriate next to light-rail transit, regional bus stations, or arterials Office, retail, hotel, residential and entertainment Varies but averages 300 acres Excellent pedestrian zones that accommodate automobile and transit use equally well; appropriate for light rail and major bus corridors Residential and office uses with support retail and services About 50 acres Most trips are made via transit, walking and bicycling. Automobile reliance is discouraged Primarily small-scale, streetfronting commercial uses; residential uses also may be present At least 2 blocks long, but may extend for miles. With nodes of activity, every .25-.5 mile or so These are mixed transportation mode corridors, with heavily used transit routes and a high level of pedestrian and bike use, as well as autos Primarily commercial uses, with periodic residential nodes Generally at least 5 blocks long Primarily automobile use but frequently coincide with high frequency transit routes. Pedestrian safety is key to transit use BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 4 THE PLAN MAP65MAP

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THEPLAN66 Design Standards DowntownEmploymentIndustrial Mixeduse Urban Residential Pedestrian scaled facades and contextual design X X X Prominent street facing entry XXXXX Architectural scaling elements X X X X X Big box development: continuous arcade along the faade of anchor store and in-line retail store frontage XX Awnings to protect pedestrians and mark entrances X X Ground floor windows on multi-family buildings stoops can be used to raise porches and entrances above street level to increase the privacy of occupants XXX Extensive ground floor windows and frequent access X X X Window transparency requirements to enable pedestrians to see into buildings XXXX Sidewalk uses, outdoor seating, street-carts and vendors, etc. allowed and encouraged X X X Retail or similar active uses on main floor X X Option Maximum percentage a garage can occupy of a public facing faade X X X X Garage entrances flush or recessed from faade XX Detached garage recessed from faade Tree canopy XXX Street trees X X X X X Preservation of mature trees in front setback X Landscaping between structures and primary street X X X X Landscaping in front setback/parkway setback XXXXX Landscaping standards and screening adjacent to residential and mixed-use areas X X X X ^Design Standards

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Single Family/ Duplex Residential Single Family Residential Neighborhood Centers Town Centers Regional CentersTOD Pedestrian Shopping Corridor Commercial CorridorCampus X X X X X X X X X XX XXXXXXX X X X X X X X X X XX X X X X X X X XXXXXX X X X X X X X X X XXXXXXX X X X X X Option X X XXXXXXX X X X X X X X X X XX X X XXXXXX X X X X X X X X X X XXX X X X X X X X X X X XX XXXXXXX X X X X X X X BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 4 THE PLAN MAP67MAP

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THEPLAN68 Development Standards DowntownEmploymentIndustrial Mixeduse Urban Residential Maximum FAR X X X X X Minimum FAR X Bulk plane limitations on corner lots Buildings scaled to allow sunlight on major open spaces XX Height limitations Option Option Side and rear setbacks OptionOption Maximum building setback to bring buildings to the sidewalk X X X X Accessory units encouraged X Detached sidewalks w/ trees in grates X Option Option Option Option Attached sidewalks X Detached walks with tree lawn Option Option Option Option Direct pedestrian connections XXXX Full site coverage to ensure continuity of the streetscape underground or structured parking X X Garage uses facing public streets and plazas restricted XX X Structured parking X X X X No parking between structure and primary street XXXX Maximum parking ratio X Developed on a grid pattern XXXX Enclosure, buffering and screening of external effects X X X X X Drive-in facilities restricted XX Drive-in facilities prohibited X X Minimize curb cuts to restrict auto access across sidewalks XX X X Maximum driveway width X X When alleys are present, garage access from alley XX Option refers to the judgement of the regulator, not the developer ^Development Standards

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SingleFamily/ Duplex Residential Single Family Residential Neighborhood Centers Town Centers Regional CentersTOD Pedestrian Shopping Corridor Commercial CorridorCampus X X X X X X X X X XX X X XXXX X X X Option Option Option Option Option Option X XX O p tion X X X X X X X X X XXXXXX X X X X X X Option X X X X X X X X Option XXXXXXXXX X X XXXXXXX X X X X X X XXXXXXXX X X XXXXXX X X X X X X X X X X XXX X X X X X X XXXXXXXXX X X X X X X XX BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 4 THE PLAN MAP69MAP

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70 City Park City Park Esplanade Inspiration Point Park Berkely Lake Park W illis Case Golf Course Rocky Mountain Lake Park Alcott Park McDonough Park Pferdesteller Park Speer Park Highland Park Highland Senior Center Park Viking Park Sloan Lake Park Jefferson Park Hallack Park Sanchez Park Rude Park Martinez Park Barnum East Park Barnum South Park Barnum North Park W estwood Park Salsbury Ditch Garfield Lake Park Ford Park Sanderson Gulch Park Sanderson Gulch Overland Pond Godsman Park Irving St Park Harvey Park Loretto Heights Park W est Harvard Gulch Dartmouth Gulch Ruby Hill Park Pasquinels Landing Park Overland Golf Course Frontier Grant Park Riverfront Park V anderbilt Park Platte Park Denver Christian Park Rosedale Park City of Kunming Park State Home Park Deboer Park McWilliams Park Harvard Gulch Harvard Gulch Park Eisenhower Park Hillcrest Park Jefferson Square Park Eastmoor Park Rosamond Park Southmoor Park Southmoor ParkG oldsmit h Gulch N orthGoldsmith G ulch SouthBible Park Hutchinson Park Hutchinson East Park Goldsmith Gulch Park Golden Key Park Hampden Heights West Park Kennedy Parks and Golf Course Hampden Heights Park Hampden Heights North Park Babi-Yar/ Grove of Rememberance Park Hentzell Park Broadway Park Atzlan Park Chaffee Park Ciancio Park Columbus Park Franco Park City of Cuernavaca Park Community Plaza Osage Park Hirshorn Park Highland Gateway Park Northside Park Argo Park Globeville Landing Park Elyria Park St. Charles Place Park Downing Park Russell Square Park Mestizo-Curtis Park Morrison Park Swansea Park Dunham Park Schafer Park City of Nairobi Park City of Axum Park Skyland Martin Luther King Jr. Park Northeast Denver Community Park Thunderbolt Community Park W illiams Park Douglas Park Fuller Park Quick Park Stout St. Childrens Park Lawson Park Broadway Parks Benedict Park Commons Park Confluence Park Fishback Park Centennial Park Speer Blvd V iaduct West Skyline Park Auraria Park Gates Crescent Park Bell Park Creekfront Park Lincoln Park W eir Gulch Marina Park Frog Hollow Park Sunken Gardens Parks Quality Hill Park Governors Park Grant Humphreys Park Milstein Park Flores Park Dailey Park Hungarian Freedom Park W est-Bar-Val-Wood Park V alverde Park Aspgren Park Habitat Park W ashington Park Alamo Placita Park Cheesman Park Civic Center Manley Park Huston Lake Vete rans Park Observatory Park Centennial Park Belcaro Park Burns Park City of Brest Park Four Mile House Historic Park Congress Park Pulaski Park Cranmer Park Robinson Park Magna Carta Park Ash Grove Park Cook Park City of Madras Park Place Middle School Park Jacobs Park Garland Park City of Potenza Park Future Stapleton Parks & Parkways Future Stapleton Parks & Parkways Future Stapleton Parks & Parkways Future Stapleton Parks & Parkways Future Lowry Parks & Parkways Lindsley Park Mayfair Park Crestmoor Parks Crestmoor Park Kittredge Park Richthofen Park Denison Park Verben Park Montclair Park Fred Thomas Park McClain Park McNichols Park Nursery Facility Bluff Lake Park Ferguson Park First Creek Park Green Valley West Ranch Park Green Valley East Ranch Park Parkeld Park Ford Park Montbello Central Park Falcon Park Elmendorf Park Silverman Park Montbello Civic Center Vill age Place Park Bezoff Park Lakewood & Dry Gulch Park Bear Valley Pinecrest Park Pinehurst Park Bow-Mar Heights Park Lake of Lakes Stanford Park Union Ave Park V illage West (Wagon Trail) Park V illage West (Wagon Trail) Park Park Dudley Park Quincy Ave Parks W ellshire Golf Course Bear Creek Park City of Ta kayama City of KarmielWeir GulchC lear Creek ParkwayC olorado B lv d Pa rkwayMonac o Pa rkway45th Ave Parkway 47th Ave Parkway 49th Ave Parkway 51st Ave ParkwayNorth Havana St. Parkway North Peoria St. Parkway Chambers Rd. ParkwayF ederMartin Luther King Jr ParkwayPark Av en ueHa le Parkw ayMonaco Park wayUniForest Par kwayMontview Blvd Parkway 17th Ave Parkway 6th Ave Parkway Alameda Parkway 7th Ave ParkwayCountry Cl Cl W ill3rd Ave Parkway 1st Ave ParkwayMarion St Parkway Downing St P ark way Steele S t ParkwaySpe er Bl vd ParkwayLogan St Parkw ayColfax Parkway Colfax Parkway Alameda Ave ParkwayBuchte l Blv d ParkwayArizona Ave Parkway Syracuse & Yale Bikeway Princeton Parkway Sh eridan Bon nie Brae P ark wayZ enobia Parkw ayYose mite St ParkwayQuebec St & Tamar ac St Parkway26th Ave Parkway W. 4 6th Ave Parkway Bonnie Brae Park ^Parks and parkways

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The Land Use C omponent CHAPTER 5

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THELANDUSE7232nd and Lowell is an attractive and lively place, and easily accessible. Key concepts:Land-use regulations are the primary tool to designate areas for the appropriate type of developmentAppropriate land-use r egulations ensure buildings work with public infrastructure to create desired development patternsBlueprint Denvers vision cannot be implemented with the Citys current zoning New zoning should concentrate as much on building design as it does on activities that occur within buildings ^This chapter describes the land-use regulations and tools that will be used to re ach Blueprint Denvers vision.Chapter 4, the Plan Map, characterizes the building blocks that describe the desired characteristics of areas within Denver.These residential areas, districts, corridors and centers must become more than simply a location for stores or housing.They must become lively, attractive and efficient places that can be accessed easily through a variety of ways, including walking from nearby neighborhoods.Land-use regulations ensure that buildings within residential areas, districts, corridors and centers work together with public infrastructure to create these desired places. These places are created by establishing standards for development, allowing appropriate mixes of uses and densities, and prohibiting or limiting inappropriate uses.While these standards create the regulatory framework, the public sector must develop a climate that attracts private investment. One way to encourage private-sector redevelopment is to create opportunities for economically rewarding development.Although regulations cannot increase the market demand in an area for a specific type of building, they can encourage development by allowing sufficient development intensity and appropriate mixes of uses so that planned land uses are more likely to be economically feasible. After describing the land-use regulations and tools, this chapter examines the weaknesses in Denvers current zoning code that make it difficult to implement Blueprint Denver and depicts the attributes that need to be incorporated in a revised zoning code.Chapter 7 explains how the land-use tools described here and transportation tools in Chapter 6 can be applied in the Areas of Stability and Areas of Change.T ypes of ToolsThree types of tools form the basis for creating an environment needed to support desirable development: regulatory policies, public infrastructure, and partnerships between the public and private sector. Regulation is a powerful, but not entirely sufficient tool, to bring about the vision of Blueprint Denver.Generally, land-use regulatory tools address the dimensions of a development with regard to size, density, setbacks and height, and allow or limit the land uses that can be included in buildings. Regulation also can guide the basic design of a structure.In addition to r egulatory tools, public infrastructure improvements and public/private partnerships are essential to create the synergy needed to implement the plan.Key public infrastructure, such as adding or improving parks and building transit, can help citizens feel more amenable to living in a certain area.Partnerships can be created between public agencies and private

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interests by lending money, using redevelopment agency powers and sharing r esponsibility for maintaining public amenities.The infrastructure and partnership tools are described in Chapter 7.Land-Use Regulations in GeneralZoningThe zoning code affects the following four basic aspects of development: UsesUses refer to the way in which land is being used.For instance, single-family dwelling is one type of residential use, whereas a grocery store is a type of commercial use.Each zone district allows a range of uses. Single-family homes are allowed in all residential zone districts, whereas factories are typically allowed only in industrial zone districts.The zoning code also includes limitations and conditions on uses. Development standardsDevelopment standards prescribe the allowable dimensions of a development in terms such as its bulk and height and its placement on the site. Design standardsDesign standards control the appearance of a structure such as its window and door placement and roof form. Zone mapDenvers zoning map shows the zone district that applies to each property in the city.The designated uses, development standards, and design standards for each zone district apply to each property that falls into that zone district.Other land-use regulationsSubdivision ordinance and regulationsThese regulations determine how private land is divided into streets and parcels of land. Site plan reviewSite plan review, set out in code and regulations, determines how buildings are arranged on a site and how development on the site relates to and affects its surroundings.There are three types of reviews: ministerial, which is done at the zoning desk; administrative, which is done for Planned Building Groups and Planned Developments; and, design review, which is done by urban design professionals. Landmark designationThe Landmark Preservation Ordinance provides the authority to designate buildings and areas that have architectural, historical and geographical significance.Once a building or district is designated, the Landmark Commission must review and approve exterior changes or demolition.Regulation is a powerful tool to realize Blueprint Denvers vision. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 5 THE LAND USE COMPONENT73COMPONENT

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74Live-work lofts in a redeveloped building on Larimer Street. Mixed-use zoning provides for a mixture of uses enabling residents to live, shop and work in the same area. It encourages residential with commercial uses such as moderate-sized offices or retail. The uses can be in the same building or separate buildings within the same district. Live-work townhouses are examples of building types accommodated through mixed-use zoning. ^Vi ew Plane preservationThe view plane ordinances preserve aesthetic views of the mountains and downtown by outlining a geographic area that cannot contain tall buildings.The Land-Use ToolsThe City and County of Denver must have readily available tools for addressing common challenges if Blueprint Denver is to be effective.A toolbox of new and existing land-use tools will be used to reach city-wide objectives and to address many of the challenges found in areas around the city. Once the tools are adopted, their effectiveness will be evaluated and the tools will be modified. There are several regulatory tools that need to be applied because they affect different aspects of development.For example, changes to zoning can allow enough density and mix of uses so that a good development proposal will be economically feasible.Design standards can ensure that the quality of design is an asset to the surrounding neighborhood.Finally, for large, vacant Areas of Change, subdivision regulations can be used to establish connectivity in the street plan, designate adequate street rights-of-way, provide adequate public facilities, and plat lots.Regulatory ToolsZoning ChangesLanguage amendmentsThe zoning language can be amended for a zone district to change the allowed uses or the standards.This revised language then would apply to every property in that zone district.Other language amendments, such as a modified definition of a use, apply to every zone district in which that use is allowed.A change in the land-use standards of a zone is one tool to improve compatibility.For example, a zone that currently allows drive-through restaurants could be altered to make these businesses subject to additional conditions (known as a conditional use).Another strategy is to provide a set of standardized limitations on allowable uses (e.g.retail is permitted, but only up to a limited square footage per building). Creating new and more appropriate zone districtsIn some cases there are gaps in zone districts that make it difficult to find an appropriate fit between the land uses in an area and zoning.For instance, the current zone districts covering many traditional Denver neighborhoods leap in scale from R-2 at 14 units to the acre to R-3 which, at a 3:1 floor area ratio, allows approximately 120 units per acre, or to R-4 at a 4:1 FAR with a potential of building high rises at 150 units per acre or more.In other cases, a zoning district that allows the appropriate uses, densities, and design standards forTHELANDUSE

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gross floor area of a building total area of the lot = FAR What is FAR? Floor-to-Area-Ratio is a standard measure of a buildings intensity. FAR is the ratio of the gross floor area of a building divided by the square footage of the land it sits upon. Thus a 10,000 square foot building that sits on a 10,000 square foot parcel has a FAR of 1.0. Each of the development examples above has a FAR of 1.0. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 5 THE LAND USE COMPONENT75COMPONENTcertain Areas of Change may not exist.In such instances a new zone district needs to be created or an existing zone district needs to be modified through a language amendment.Given the number of proposed transit-oriented development districts, a new zone district may need to be created, or the existing mixed-use zone districts may need to be modified. Map amendmentsIn some instances it may be appropriate to change the zoning in Areas of Stability to create a better match between existing land uses and the zoning.In other instances it may be necessary to change the zoning in an area to establish the appropriate framework for achieving the vision for each Area of Change.For example, some areas near downtown are zoned for industrial use but are slated for mixed-use development.In this case, the underlying zoning would need to be changed to a mixed-use zone district. Density bonuses or premiumsDensity bonuses or premiums are sometimes awarded to promote development that provides a public purpose. Historic preservation, housing and affordable housing, and public plazas are among the public purposes for which the incentive of additional development is provided.One example in Denver is bonuses that are provided in downtown through a Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) program.The transfer of development rights to new development from historic buildings has helped these buildings be preserved and re-used.Development StandardsFAR limitsF AR limits are a regulatory tool that addresses the amount of square footage that can be built on a given parcel of land.FAR is the ratio of the total floor area of a building to the land area of the site. Height limitsThe height of a building can be limited to keep the buildings in scale. SetbacksThis standard controls the distance a building is set back from the property line.In new single-family neighborhoods, a minimum front setback is established to assure consistency of building placement to sidewalks.In existing neighborhoods, new houses must comply with the average setback of existing homes.For commercial and mixed-use development, a maximum front setback or build-to line brings buildings next to or near the sidewalk and helps create the style of a main street.Side and rear yard setbacks are also established. Parking locationParking along main streets can be required to be placed to the side or behind commercial buildings and prohibited between the building and the sidewalk.This improves pedestrian access and contributes to the visual appeal of a main street environment.

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76Off-street parking requirementsThe number of parking spaces required for different land uses is prescribed in the zoning code.For example, several zone districts require 1.5 parking spaces for each dwelling unit.Parking r equirements can shape development.Surface parking takes up land, but land values must be high to cover the expense of structured parking.In some parts of Areas of Change, especially those with existing or planned high-quality transit access, minimum parking requirements also could be modified to encourage the creation of pedestrianand transit-friendly centers and main streets. SignsIn commercial areas, signs are essential for business identification, but can cause clutter. As with parking, the size, design, and location of signage should be carefully considered. LandscapingLandscaping is a prized amenity.In low-density residential areas, it is important to assure that sufficient landscaping is incorporated into a development by using maximum lot coverage standards, minimum landscaping percentages, and requirements that mature trees be preserved. However, in commercial or high-density residential areas, where buildings have little or no setback, landscaping will have an urban character. In r edevelopment areas, landscaping regulations will group open-space into active places, such as plazas, or usable recreation areas, designed for public or semi-public use, and will maintain or re-establish street landscaping. Bulk limitsBulk regulations are designed to control the mass of structures, provide consistency among structures, and allow sunlight to reach adjacent property.This is done by establishing an imaginary plane beyond which a structure may not be built. T ransitions between residential and non-residential areasOne of the current challenges facing Areas of Stability is the presence of industrial or larger auto-oriented commercial buildings near residences.This close proximity detracts from the visual appeal and livability of a residential area while putting businesses in the awkward position of being in conflict with their neighbors.Transitions between conflicting uses can be eased by r equiring:V egetated screens or buffersScreening walls and fencesSite arrangements to keep service or delivery areas screened and away from residential usesDesign elements that tie businesses into residential neighborhoods such as gables and more modest signageTr ansitional height limitsThe diagram below represents a bulk plane that goes vertically upward 10' from the side property lines and then projects over the property at a 45-degree angle. Existing zoning regulations in the B-4 zone allows for a maximum FAR of 2.0. However, the zone requires 5 parking spaces or roughly 2,000 square feet of parking lot area for every 1,000 square feet of r etail space. This required parking occupies land that could otherwise be used for a building structure. Unless a developer wishes to build expensive structured parking, a FAR of 2.0 is impossible to achieve, even with a building over 20 stories tall! Instead of a 2.0 F AR, the actual FAR that can be achieved with this parking requirement and surface parking is less than 1.0. ^THELANDUSE

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Design StandardsFor certain Areas of Stability, the underlying zoning is generally appropriate, but specific design features of new development are not compatible with the communitys values.Specific design standards generally fall into the following categories: Garage treatmentOften, new housing is designed with a prominent garage door that dominates the view of the building from the street.In Denvers older neighborhoods, these garage-oriented structures may be conspicuously incompatible with older and historical houses.Design guidelines can address garage door treatment in a number of ways including:Have garage doors recessed or set back from the rest of the front faadeLimit the size of garage doors facing the street to a fixed percentage of the front faade. Wi ndows and doorsWhen the street-facing faade is punctuated with windows and doors, it tends to appear friendlier than a blank or unbroken facade.Also, street-facing doors tend to give a human quality to a building. Design standards can specify a minimum percentage of windows and can r equire that front doors directly face the street. Porches and other neighborhood featuresWhen an existing residential area has a prominent architectural feature such as front porches or a certain r oofline, new homes in those existing areas can be required to integrate these features into their designs. Compatible building designsNew buildings should reinforce existing or desired character.The development and design standards described above do much to accomplish this.Further standards related to materials, roof shape, heights, rhythm, glazing patterns, or special site arrangements may be needed in special circumstances to assure greater compatibility.Additional Regulatory ToolsSubdivisionSubdivision is the fundamental process by which street rights-of-way and legal lots are established.Much of Denver has been subdivided with a street, lot and building pattern well established.Subdivision remains an essential part of the land-use regulatory system only where land has not been subdivided or where resubdivision is necessary.Stapleton and Gateway are examples of areas that have never been subdivided; the Central Platte Valley is an example of an area that needs to be resubdivided because of its dramatic change in use.Co mpatible building means designing similar roof lines and scale to neighboring homes, such as this example in Washington Park. The 1999 Housing Plan, a supplement to Plan 2000, calls for reducing the regulatory costs of housing. One of the actions is to review current land planning, design and infrastructure r equirements to determine if they unnecessarily add to the cost of housing. Those that add unnecessarily to the cost should be changed. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 5 THE LAND USE COMPONENT77COMPONENT

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THELANDUSE78Denvers detached sidewalks and tree lawns with mature trees are among the citys legacies. ^Street creationThe most permanent physical feature of a new subdivision is its streets.If history is any guide, long after the original houses and buildings have been replaced, the streets will still be there.Early subdivisions established the grid and set a standard for continuity that continues today. They also created the standard for alleys to be the primary auto (or formerly carriage) access.Denvers detached sidewalks and tree lawns with mature trees are among the citys trademark images.It is a system that was developed to make walking to streetcar stops more enjoyable. New subdivisions can recreate this fundamental framework of streets.The post-war era saw a change from a streetcar and pedestrian orientation to an auto orientation.Residential developments, such as those with an abundance of cul-de-sacs, lack street continuity, force longer car trips, and turn their backs on perimeter streets.Likewise, more recent arterial streets lack sidewalks, dedicating all of the right-of-way to traffic lanes.Today, communities recognize the importance of returning to some of the advantages of yesterdays commitment to walking and transit.Newer requirements try to balance the needs of cars with other transportation systems.As a result, these streets have more potential to accommodate mixed-use development, which, in turn, promotes more walking. In new subdivisions, a minimum connectivity interval is a regulatory tool to ensure that streets flow and provide good connections for everyone who uses them.For example, along the edges of the development, street connections or intersections may be required at about 600-foot intervals.Inside this defined area, street patterns can be grid-like, curvilinear, radial, irregular, or any other pattern that connects to the perimeter streets.In this manner, interior parts of a development retain their connectivity as well.An example of an interconnected street pattern that is an alternative to the street grid can be found in the Bear Valley neighborhood. Maximum block sizesHistorically, Denver streets have created a pattern of blocks that tends to be fairly standard regardless of the use. Newer development that lacks connectivity requirements tends to have larger super blocks of residential or commercial activity that is oriented to the center of the block.An office park such as the Denver Tech Center is an example of this approach; the fence canyons that line arterial streets are another outcome.A street connectivity requirement could create a maximum block length of about 600 feet, which may need to be further r efined with additional requirements for lot definition.Alternatively, block size can be tied to density such that, as densities increase, the maximum block size decreases and street access increases.

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Lot creationSubdivision regulations also establish legal lots.Most of the older parts of Denver have a standard lot size of 50 by 125 feet with the narrow side tending to face the street.Newer areas tend to have more variety of lot size and orientation.The subdivision and base zone r egulations should be revised to provide for varied lot sizes to promote a variety of housing types and prices.Street Design StandardsOnce a subdivision plat identifies the location and amount of street rightof-way, the design of the street components must be established.Again, many of Denvers streets are already in place and adequately serve many people.Where a street is non-existent or is inadequate, Denvers street design standards apply.The Streetscape Design Manual (City and County of Denver, 1993) provides additional direction for the sidewalk, tree lawn and other amenities.When development occurs, the City requires that the adjacent right-of-way be brought up to the applicable street design standard.Depending on the particular case, this may include some or all of the following:Additional traffic lane(s)Curb and gutterDetached sidewalkTr ee lawn with ground cover or special pavingStreet treesStreet lightsMedian designMinisterial Design StandardsMinisterial design standards are those that require no discretionary decisionmaking by those who administer them.They are objective, based on clear measurements and unambiguous language.An example of a ministerial design standard is a requirement that the garage doors on a single-family house occupy no more than 35 percent of the front faade.The value of ministerial design standards is that they are effective in accomplishing basic design goals while being inexpensive to administer.Their low administrative cost enables them to be applied broadly, improving the basic level of design in many portions of the city.A Gateway subdivision and its street pattern. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 5 THE LAND USE COMPONENT79COMPONENT

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80Protecting Denvers LegaciesSeveral components of the land-use regulatory system protect Denvers legacies urban design, historic buildings and districts, and views of the mountains and downtown.These, along with parks and parkways, represent Denvers fundamental cultural values.Urban Design ReviewA few zone districts require review of building design based on adopted design standards and guidelines.This staff intensive review is appropriate for a few high visibility areas such as downtown (B-5) and Cherry Creek North (CCN).Historic Buildings and DistrictsLandmark designation is the means by which historic buildings and districts are protected through design and demolition review.To qualify as a landmark, the Landmark Preservation Ordinance specifies that a building or district must have significance in two of three categories architecture, history and geography.Regardless of designation, reuse of buildings is an important concept for sustainability.V iew Plane PreservationThere are many public places in Denver with spectacular views of the mountains or downtown Denver.Picking a point (e.g., the steps of the State Capitol) and establishing a plane that cannot be penetrated by new buildings can preserve these views.Land-Use Regulatory PrioritiesOnce Blueprint Denver is adopted, one of the highest priorities will be to r evise current Denver laws, procedures and practices to implement the vision r epresented by this document.This section outlines the rationale and the steps needed to meet this goal.The current Denver Zoning code and its limitationsThe current Denver code originated in 1956 and has been revised extensively since then.As the communitys expectations for development changed, so did the code, and it has evolved to include many new districts that are highly specialized.While many new ideas have been added, little has been deleted or r evised in 45 years.As a result, the code is a particularly unwieldy document, difficult to use and understand, and sometimes unpredictable in its effect.A few of its flaws are described below. Too many use typesBecause its basic design is from the 1950s, it tends to r egulate uses by specifically defining each gradation of use, listing each withThe view from the State Capitol is protected. This diagram shows the emphasis in Denvers current zoning code in favor of uses. Uses Standards Design D D D D D D D E E E E E E E E E C C C C C C C C C C C C C B B B B B B A A A A A A A A A A A A A F FF F F FF D Pennsylvania St. Pennsylvania St. Logan St. Logan St. Grant St. Grant St. Sherman St. Sherman St. Lincoln St. Lincoln St.16th Ave.Colfax Ave.Galapago St. Fox St. Cherokee St. Bannock St. Acoma St.Broadway12th Ave. 13th Ave. 14th Ave. 14th Ave. 13th Ave. 12th Ave.15th St. 14th St.Tremont Pl. Court Pl. Cleveland Pl.Colfax Ave.13th St.12th St.Elati St. Delaware St.Welton St.Glenarm Pl.16th St. MallSpeer Blvd.Speer Blvd. ^THELANDUSE

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A candy, nut and confectionary store in which potato chips are not manufactured is an example of an incredibly specific use in Denvers zoning code. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 5 THE LAND USE COMPONENT81COMPONENTgreat detail and with many nuances.The basic premise of this approach is that the appearance of the building, its compatibility with the surrounding uses, and its impacts on the community are closely related to and can therefore be defined by the use within the building.However, 45 years of experience with the effects of zoning demonstrates that it is much more effective to directly regulate impact or appearance than to expect it to happen indirectly through detailed regulation of uses.More than 379 different uses are currently listed in Denvers zoning districts.Among them are obsolete uses (apothecary, typewriter and adding machine store), incredibly specific uses (a candy, nut and confectionery store in which potato chips are not manufactured), and other curious uses (bridge studio, including the teaching of the card game known as bridge and the playing of the card game known as bridge).These evolved not through a comprehensive listing of uses, but rather by the accretion of 45 years of modification, one district or use at a time.Too many zonesThe code contains 67 distinct zoning districts.Some, such as R-1, R-3 and B-4, are the remnants of the original 1956 zoning legislation.Some are rarely used today (RS-4), some were enacted to implement special plans, and others evolved to solve a specific problem. The combination of uses and districts involves more than 24,000 possible combinations more than enough to cover any conceivable need.It takes a zoning specialist or planner more than two years of service in the zoning office to master the zoning code. Conflicting development standardsThe basic development standards often conflict.For example, the permitted FAR in the B-4 district is 2.0, but parking r equirements typically limit the actual intensity to a FAR of less than a 1.0.Few design related standards in the basic zonesMost zones do not contain basic design standards aimed at ensuring a minimum standard of appearance and compatibility in new buildings again the focus of the zone district is on land use.Design review has been instituted in a few high visibility areas.There is continued pressure to expand design review to many other areas, but current structure of the code makes design review an awkward and burdensome addition. Unenforceable standardsMany standards were written without regard to the problems of enforcement.For example, some uses limit the number of employees that may work within a building or the number of customers per day.These standards, however, are almost impossible to enforce without the use of an undercover police detective, a very inefficient allocation of resources. A much more effective way to regulate impact and size is to limit the dimensions of some physical part of the building, which then can be enforced at the permit counter.

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THELANDUSE82Imposition of zoning conditionsand waiversThe unsatisfactory performance of the current regulations has led to the use of unique conditions and waivers applied to rezonings.These waivers and conditions, which are not organized in the zoning code, further complicate Denvers zoning situation.In addition, these conditions are written to address the construction of buildings and are not crafted broadly enough to address the ongoing regulation of the land after construction is completed.They re main enforceable for decades after, regardless of their effectiveness and applicability. The result is that the regulatory system does not deliver effective land-use r egulation, but its administration absorbs a large amount of resources.It is difficult to envision how Blueprint Denver will be implemented by simply adding another layer of regulation on top of the current code.In fact, if the r eforms mentioned in this chapter are instituted, it may be appropriate to eliminate the practice of rezoning with conditions and waivers. Planned Unit Developments (PUD)A PUD involves a negotiated development plan between a developer and the City and County of Denver. Concerns with PUDs are that their widespread proliferation has increased the complexity of regulating land use, and the conditions they place on development sometimes perform poorly and inflexibly once the PUD has been adopted.This issue can be addressed if the city acts on the authority to re peal obsolete PUD zoning and change it to a more appropriate district. Lack of uniform processes for development reviewThere is a lack of a single, unified site plan review process.Instead, innumerable formal, informal and ad hoc review processes have been created through the years. Lack of an intermediate public body for development plan reviewDenver relies very heavily on its zoning processes to regulate individual land development projects.Many cities have an intermediate public body, such as a fully-empowered planning commission, to engage in a public development r eview and approval process. Staff resources needed to administer the codeMajor changes in the staffing of the Community Planning and Development Agency are unlikely. This means that if more attention is to be given to issues raised in this plan such as developing an interesting, mixed-use environment in the Areas of Change, or ensuring compatibility of character for new buildings in Areas of Stability some current tasks will receive less staff time and attention.Revising and simplifying the code will allow more attention to issues such as implementing Blueprint Denver without any loss in the protections given by the current code.With over 24,000 possible combinations of uses and zone districts, the zoning code is unwieldy. ^

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Proposed revision of the Denver Zoning CodeThe following revisions will make the Denver code easier to use, more predictable and much more effective in creating the kind of environment envisioned by Blueprint Denver.The revised code will consist of standardized land uses, as well as development and design standards available for use in all zone districts.Each district will have a similar format, with each component of the zone district treated in a similar manner.As a result, a matrix may be developed to summarize the content of all zone districts. Currently, the zoning code pays particular attention to land-use issues, focusing on detailed distinctions, such as in the difference between a bank and a savings and loan.The intent of the revised zoning code is to give equal attention to the land-use, development and design aspects of the code. Supplemental tools, such as overlay districts, will be available to address special situations.Zone DistrictsThe format of the 67 zoning districts can be improved.Some zone districts are rarely applied in the City but remain on the books.Some have distinctions between districts that are barely perceptible.Still others have distinctions that could be addressed better through overlay zones.The zoning districts would be refined into the following categories: Basic ZonesThere would be fewer basic zones categorized into residential, business, industrial and mixed-use zones.They all would contain the same set of uses, each being listed as permitted, not permitted, limited or conditional.Similarly, all the development standards and design standards would apply or not apply in each district.For simplicity, the current designations such as R-3 and B-3 would be retained and the fundamental rights within each of these basic zones would remain the same.Furthermore, to reduce the proliferation of zone districts, the city should reclassify obsolete, unbuilt PUDs into more appropriate general zoning categories.To limit the future excesses of PUDs, the city should reserve them for special situations and should provide tighter standards that define what type and scale of development will qualify for this zone designation. Overlay ZonesMany detailed distinctions can be made by using overlay zones, applied as a supplement to a consistent set of basic zones.Overlay zones usually address specific issues dealing with a specific area or type of area.However, an overlay may geographically cover a variety of underlying basic zones.Because many of the issues that the different overlays address are similar, a small set of overlay zones that can be applied as needed throughout the city should be adopted as part of a basic zoning package.Equal attention must be given to the land use, development and design aspects of the code. UsesStandardsDesign BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 5 THE LAND USE COMPONENT83COMPONENT

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THELANDUSE84Examples of general overlay zones might include a pedestrian overlay zone or a transit overlay zone (these are discussed in more detail in Chapter 9 Implementation).In these cases, additional development or design standards may be applied.Some use refinement is appropriate in overlay zones, such as further limitations on land uses permitted elsewhere.However, overlays primarily should address the impact, design and character. For administrative simplicity, overlay districts should be designed not to duplicate the breadth of content in the basic zones but to specify how the r egulations of the basic zone should be modified.In addition, adopting standard overlay districts should reduce the need to establish unique overlay districts in many parts of the city.Land UsesOne of the first and most straightforward revisions of the code should be to simplify the list of permitted uses.Uses listed in each district should be selected based on how their different activities affect neighboring uses, or based on their probable impact.For example, the Denver code lists separate uses for apparel, bank, bicycle shop, and beauty shop in some zones, while in others it distinguishes between retail-limited and retail-major and between retail small, r etail medium, and retail large.It lists separately and regulates differently an artist gallery and an artist shop, based on whether the customer wants to purchase a finished painting or the oils and canvas to make a painting. Zoning codes are best when the land-use definitions address differences in uses that can be noticed by a reasonable neighbor.It seems as if only the most meddlesome of neighbors would care if a store sold paintings or if it sold artists supplies. When the definitions of uses change from one zone district to another, a standard matrix of uses and zone districts cannot be created.A standardized comprehensive matrix of uses by zone districts makes the code easier to use, understand and administer.To do this, use definitions must be standardized. Each cell of the matrix then shows if a use is permitted, permitted with limitations or conditions, or not permitted for each zone district. Many modern zoning codes following this approach use only 20-60 land-use distinctions.The American Planning Association recently published the Land-Based Classification System, updating the 1965 system that was used to draft thousands of zoning codes in the United States.The basic set of uses defined by activity lists only 70 uses for all conceivable activities.Using the Land-Based Classification System or similar definitions means that the entire zoning code would have a consistent set of uses and a consistent format for all zoning districts. ZoneZoneZone Uses123 RetailPP HotelPCL3 Factory PL4 Representation of proposed new format. Each box will indicate if a use is permitted, permitted conditionally or permitted with limitations. ^

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Development StandardsIn addition to standardizing uses, the basic zoning districts should standardize the format of development standards that may be applied to each zone.Each zone then can take advantage of a standard set of controls that deal with bulk, height and other attributes.For example, the current controversy over scale for new homes in residential zones could be addressed by applying a FAR maximum, as is commonly used in commercial zones.The development standards would include minimum setbacks, maximum setbacks (also known as build-to lines), FAR, maximum lot coverage, minimum landscaping percentage, minimum tree canopy r equired, height (regular and bulk plane), lot size, density (units per acre), as well as others.Not every zone would use each standard, but each zone would have exactly the same format of development standards, and they all would be used the same way among the zone districts.Other standards would be included, such as off street parking requirements and signage. (See the matrix in chapter 4.)Design StandardsThe motivation behind having so many zones, uses and conditions is a desire to influence the design of buildings and areas.Impacts and basic physical characteristics can be controlled most effectively by using a straightforward set of design standards, in addition to the development standards described above.These are not guidelines but a set of specific solutions to common problems.The way a building addresses the sidewalk in pedestrian areas, landscaping, buffering and screening methods, roof shape, door and window arrangement, and materials for construction all can be developed into a set of simply administered standards. Once generally adopted in the regulatory framework, the design standards can be applied by reference in any of the basic or overlay zones.Thus, each common set of issues would have a common set of design solutions.This would allow for more consistent treatment of issues.Refinements made from the experience in one part of town can be applied to similar situations elsewhere.In addition, developers, planners and neighbors will become familiar with and skilled at consistently applying the same simple set of design principles.Procedures for Design ReviewOne of the biggest concerns in developing more design regulation is that it will be more time consuming.Certainly, if each building were subject to a discretionary, subjective design review process, the amount of staffing r equired would be enormous.However, if the task of bringing design issues into the zoning code is set up correctly, and the code is made more efficient A typical list of development standards might include: Maximum height in feet Minimum open space as a percent of lot area Open space, minimum square feet per dwelling unit Maximum coverage of a lot by a building Maximum floor to area ratio Maximum dwelling units per acre Minimum lot area Parking requirement, minimum or maximum Landscaping required Setbacks (minimum) Setbacks (maximum or build-to line) Bulk plane setbacks Fences or walls required Solar access bulk plane Minimum dwelling size in square feet Building separation r equired Garage/parking location BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 5 THE LAND USE COMPONENT85COMPONENT

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THELANDUSE86at the same time, it could be done using about the same resources as now. The design issues would be dealt with in three stages described below. Ministerial ReviewsMinisterial reviews are those that are administered by the zoning office using clear, objective standards.These need to be straightforward and unambiguous, usually by providing a standard based on a measurement that can be taken from a drawing of the proposed project.These standards may take into account the location relative to a street or other common element or a use that requires buffering.Examples include standards for entrance location and the amount of glass on a pedestrian-oriented street, or buffering required when adjacent to a r esidential zone.This kind of review would be the most common, accounting for as much as 85 percent of all permits requiring attention to design issues. Administrative ReviewAdministrative review is most commonly handled through the Planned Building Group (PBG) or Planned Development (PD) procedures today.This is an administrative decision but involves more judgment (and therefore more discretion) on the part of the decision-maker.This system also requires standards, but these apply to larger projects, complex buildings and groups of buildings, and those that are context sensitive.While the percentage of permits that go through this process may be small, these developments often have a large impact because of their size or location.In some cases, certain high impact uses may be required to go through this review regardless of the zone or overlay zone.The same design standards would be applied in the same manner for all site plan review. Design ReviewDesign review is a process that involves subjective and discretionary review, guided by site-specific design standards.Typically, professional planning staff or a special board either recommends or actually makes the decision.Design review is used today for designated landmarks and in prominent development areas, most notably downtown, Cherry Creek, and the new development areas of Lowry, Stapleton, and the Gateway. Due to the time and expense involved, additional areas selected for full design review should be limited.Because resources are scarce design r eview should be used only when the other two review methods are not adequate.Design review is an effective tool for reviewing only the most sensitive areas and important buildings and uses in the community.The greater the discretion provided for in the review of buildings, the more staff review time needed and the less permit requests that can be reviewed necessitating longer turnaround times or hiring more staff. # of Permits IssuedTime + Discretion ^

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The Zoning MapAdopting a new zoning code does not require adopting a new zoning map. However, Blueprint Denver raises issues that cannot be resolved by simply changing the form and structure of the current regulations.In some cases, the current zoning does not allow the envisioned mix of uses or intensity and arrangement of development.In other cases, the appropriate uses are permitted, but standards in the zoning district do not create the desired environment.In still other cases, especially in some of the Areas of Stability, too much development intensity is allowed. However, the wholesale adoption of a new zoning map for a community the size of Denver is simply too complex to undertake immediately.Many, much smaller communities have bogged down when the combination of a new code and new zoning map are presented for adoption hearings. Therefore, a strategic approach should be taken, making those changes that are possible city-wide, while relying on small area planning (see Chapter 8) for recommending many of the geographically specific changes that will implement this plan. In Areas of Change, sometimes zoning does not allow sufficient intensity to develop new uses.In some cases, the uses permitted are incompatible with the proposed new land-use type.In other cases the uses are sufficient, but the development and design standards are not sufficient for developing the envisioned environment.Some of these issues can be resolved by adopting a new zoning code with general, city-wide overlay zones (such as pedestrian or transit area overlays).Some will require a full-scale small area plan to r esolve the issues. In the same vein, the Areas of Stability may have areas where existing zoning permits densities higher than the current use and higher than what is envisioned in Blueprint Denver.Addressing zone changes in these areas undoubtedly will be a difficult process to undertake, but it is the root of many of Denver citizens unease about growth.The concept of Areas of Stability will not be successful without addressing the areas where zoning is incompatible with the current neighborhood, the areas that should remain stable, and where growth is not needed or actually harmful to the fulfillment of Plan 2000 goals.Zoning should be adopted that makes re latively few current uses non-conforming but resolves the incompatibility of parts of the current zoning map with Plan 2000s vision. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 5 THE LAND USE COMPONENT87COMPONENT

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THELANDUSE88Ongoing Compatibility with the Plan MapProposed amendments to the Zone Map should be thoroughly evaluated for their compatibility with the Plan Map.Those that are compatible should be r ecommended for approval.Those that are found to be incompatible should be carefully evaluated to determine if the application should be modified to conform better to the Plan Map, or if the Plan Map should be modified to reflect the zoning map amendment.If neither can be accomplished, the application should be recommended for denial.If this r efinement and rigor is practiced, over time the Plan Map and Zone Map will become more compatible and consistent.Subdivision and Street Design RegulationsSubdivision regulations have limited applicability in a mostly developed city such as Denver.However, where applicable, it is an important tool that should be used to its fullest extent.Subdivisions should establish the street pattern with right-of-way dedication; establish maximum block sizes; provide sites for essential public facilities such as parks and schools; protect waterway and floodplain areas; and set out an appropriate lot pattern.Subdivision should be viewed as a fundamental tool to assure that public infrastructure and private development will be well integrated.In new development areas that have not been subdivided, the subdivision ordinance and applicable rules and regulations should be r evised to meet these expectations.Consideration should be given to making subdivision a required part of the development process in unsubdivided areas.Where an Area of Change is expected to undergo dramatic change of use, such as from industrial to mixed use, r esubdivision may be a useful tool if the street pattern is inadequate. Otherwise, land-use regulatory tools such as the Streetscape Design Manual and site plan review should prove adequate. The Streetscape Design Manual remains one of the Citys most important tools for creating attractive, functional streets.It is a challenge, however, to adapt the manual to suit a variety of land-use conditions.Additional tools should be added to provide standards for features such as sidewalk bulbouts and transit stations.The Streetscape Design Manual shapes basic physical characteristics of the city scene by outlining a straightforward set of standards. ^

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LEGEND Small Medium Large South Platte RiverLight Rail I-70 Colfax W 38thFederal Colo radoEvans Hampden Martin Luther KingI-25US 285Speer DENVERS LAND USE AND TRANSPORTATION PLANCHAPTER 5 THE LAND USE COMPONENT89COMPONENTPotential discrepancy between land-use characteristics and current regulations

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90ConclusionLand-use regulations and tools will be central in implementing Blueprint Denver.The Blueprint Plan Map outlines the citys future structure by using building blocks of districts, residential areas, centers, corridors and rapid transit and streets.Land-use regulations ensure the buildings within these districts, corridors and centers work together with public infrastructure to create vital and compatible places. Three types of tools form the basis for creating pedestrianand transit-friendly environments: regulatory policies, public infrastructure and partnerships between the public and private sector.Regulations establish standards for development, allow appropriate mixes of uses and densities, and prohibit or limit inappropriate uses.Regulation also can guide the basic design of a structure.In addition to regulatory tools, public infrastructure improvements and public-private partnerships are essential to create the synergy needed to implement the plan. Unfortunately, current Denver regulations do not deliver effective land-use r egulation, and their administration requires a significant allocation of r esources.To implement Blueprint Denver, a comprehensive revision of the code is needed to allow more attention to developing a human scaled, pedestrian-friendly environment in the Areas of Change and to ensure that new buildings in the Areas of Stability are compatible with current conditions and character. Priority Actions for Land Use Regulation 1 Reorganize the Zoning Code 2 Consolidate site plan r eview processes and r evise site plan rules and regulations 3A mend Subdivision ordinance and rules and regulations 4Pr epare overlay district language 5E valuate zone districts for consistency with Plan 6P ropose map amendments to deal with significant land use-zoning discrepancies 7U se Blueprint Denver Plan Map to evaluate zoning map amendments ^

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The T ransportation C omponent CHAPTER 6

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THETRANSPORTATION92 Key concepts:A streets entire right-of-way should be appropriate to and complement adjacent buildingsSince every trip begins and ends with walking, the pedestrian environment is the primary transportation element that connects all travel modes The rapid transit system shapes land use patterns by promoting more sustainable development focused around transit stationsConnectivity means a seamless connection for all modes of travel, as well as between modes of travelMany tools are needed to address Denvers transportation issues including better transit, better bike and pedestrian connections, and neighborhood traffic management measures ^IntroductionThe transportation building blocks described in Chapter 4, the regional rapid transit system and the multi-modal street system, must be enhanced to make Blueprint Denver a reality.This chapter describes how the transportation building blocks can be enhanced by establishing multimodal and inter-modal connections, by stressing the importance of street types and street functional classifications, and by presenting additional transportation tools critical to implementing Blueprint Denver. In accordance with the Plan 2000, implementing the tools presented in this chapter will enhance existing multi-modal and inter-modal transportation connections while also ensuring that future development will feature a range of diverse and well-integrated transportation choices.The result will be an improved environment for pedestrians, bicyclists and transit users and less re liance on single-occupant vehicles.Connecting Modes of TransportationIn general, people claim to prefer their cars because of the convenience. A motorist can get in the car, choose the most direct route to a specified destination and usually park within a few yards of that destination.This level of control is what makes the automobile so popular.Controlling ones mobility can be dramatically reduced when using other forms of transportation, particularly when it seems less thought is given to connections for modes other than cars.For example, lack of shelter and amenities at transit stops, infrequent service, and inadequate, unattractive and discontinuous sidewalks make transit and walking difficult when compared to the car. It is important to re member that everyone at some point during a trip is a pedestrian. For walking, bicycling and transit to be competitive with the automobile, the existing transportation infrastructure must be enhanced so that there is a seamless connection for each mode of travel and also between modes.If the connection from the transit stop to the destination is safe, comfortable, direct and attractive, transit becomes an acceptable alternative to driving. Connecting modes of travel is more than simply ensuring there is a continuous sidewalk or bike lane; it requires forethought to integrate facilities in a cohesive and appealing manner.It also requires attention to the elements of connection that make walking, biking and waiting for transit on streets an attractive, convenient and comfortable experience.

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Elements of ConnectionStreet SystemStreets are the primary conduits for all modes of travel; their design and operation substantially influence the extent that people will walk, bike or use transit.Some of the critical elements of connection for streets include:Small block sizes to provide pedestrian scale to development.Narrower streets to reduce pedestrian crossing distance, pedestrian exposure to traffic and reduce vehicle speeds.Neighborhood traffic management to increase pedestrian safety and re duce the impacts from excessive speeds and intrusive cut-through traffic in neighborhoods.Access management to improve the flow of traffic, reduce accidents by eliminating conflicts between vehicles, improve pedestrian and bicycle safety, enhance the walking environment, and allow space for street amenities such as on-street parking and street trees. Bus Transit SystemConnecting the transit system to other modes occurs on the street at transit stops and at inter-modal centers.Close attention should be given to the details at these connections as well as to the buildings and developments that are essential to transit viability.Safe, comfortable, direct and inviting connections between transit and destinations are as important as frequent and reliable transit service.The following are important elements of connection for the transit system:Ti med-transfer centers and stops to conveniently link connecting bus lines and minimize wait time between transfers.Inter-modal transfer centers that integrate appropriate facilities for all modes of travel.Pleasant, accessible and functional transit stops that provide a safe, secure, convenient and comfortable location to access transit with adequate sheltered space for the number of people waiting. Bicycle SystemBicycles are a viable alternative to driving, accommodating longer trips than walking, particularly when combined with transit.Emphasis should be placed on ensuring that the facilities are adequate, well-maintained, continuous and secure.Connecting the bicycle system to other modes entails not only connections to the travel system itself, but attention to details at the end of the trip.The following are important elements of connection for the bicycle system:Continuous and interconnected systems of bicycle lanes, bicycle routes and off-street paths.C ontrol over personal mobility is a factor in making the automobile so popular. Bike racks on buses connect separate modes of transportation. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 6 THE TRANSPORTATION COMPONENT93COMPONENT

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94Every trip begins and ends with walking. ^Intersection design that accommodates bicycles including continuation of lanes through intersections, bicycle detectors, and adequate clearance time at traffic signals.Secure bicycle parking that is highly visible, conveniently located near building entrances and transit stops, adequately lit, well-signed, and possibly sheltered.Bicycle stations (publiclyor privately-operated facilities that offer services such as covered, secure, valet bike parking; bike accessories and repair; bike and transit information; and, when possible, food service and locker r ooms) at locations where there are high volumes of bicyclists. Appropriate locations may include office complexes and transit, entertainment and shopping centers.Bicycle accommodations provided on RTDs rail transit vehicles at all times, not just non-peak times. Pedestrian SystemSince every trip begins and ends with walking, the pedestrian environment becomes the primary transportation element that connects all travel modes.The pedestrian system is needed to move people and provide them access to adjacent land uses.The following elements of connectivity enhance the safety, comfort and attractiveness of the pedestrian system:Interconnected pedestrian system with continuous sidewalks along streets; clear and direct connections from sidewalks into and between buildings and transit stations.Wi der sidewalks at more congested locations such as bus stops, building entrances and resting areas.Curb extensions or building frontage setbacks may be used for widening.Crosswalks with highly visible markings and advanced signage, and increased travel information and education for pedestrians.Buffers between sidewalks and travel lanes created by street trees, tree lawns or on-street parking.Recognition of the green connections linking parks in Denver.Alternative paving surfaces, materials and unique surface designs to provide a visual warning to drivers entering pedestrian areas, and improve the visual appearance of streets and sidewalks for pedestrians.Provisions of curb ramps, removal of barriers and conflict points, and other improvements for elderly, disabled, and transit-dependent travelers.Public places designed into the pedestrian environment ranging from large plazas to small niches or pocket parks for gathering or resting.THETRANSPORTATION

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BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 6 THE TRANSPORTATION COMPONENT95COMPONENTHow to Use Street Types and Functional Classifications as ToolsAs explained in detail in Chapter 4, the Plan Map, multi-modal street types and functional classifications deal with how a street interfaces with the adjacent land use and how the street is intended to function from a mobility standpoint.Both are important elements to consider when attempting to create seamless connections between several transportation modes.As tools to implement Blueprint Denver, each element gives direction to City staff, elected officials, neighborhoods and others who are undertaking more detailed planning efforts to develop project-level recommendations.The street types and functional classifications provide guidance on priority design elements to consider and relate specific characteristics of multi-modal streets to their function at a city-wide level.Without this guidance, each transportation improvement project could be developed independently without regard to its r elation to land use and to other streets in the City.Transportation ToolsDenvers transportation system consists of many components that must work together to make Blueprint Denver a reality.These components include: the transit system, pedestrian facilities, bicycle facilities, parking, the systemwide tools of travel demand management and transportation systems management, and roadway network and drainage infrastructure.This section provides a description of each component, identifies how the component currently is being used as a tool to accomplish Blueprint Denver, and lists priorities for how each component can be enhanced. Unlike land-use policies that guide the development of private property outside of the public right-of-way, transportation policies primarily address the public infrastructure of streets, alleys, bikeways, sidewalks, and transit services.However, the transportation policies recommend tools and strategies that also affect how private development contributes to the transportation system.Directly, that occurs via physical improvements (e.g., management of auto access across city rights-of-way, or the construction of streets as part of new development).Indirectly, City policies affect development through tools that reduce travel demand and encourage alternatives to the automobile. Most of the tools other than transit require implementation actions by the City since the design, operation, maintenance and approval of transportation facilities are public agency responsibilities.T ransitAs a tool, transit represents opportunities to provide regional rapid transit, including light-rail transit (LRT), high-occupancy vehicle lanes (HOV), bus rapid transit (BRT), and commuter rail.

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96It also includes expanding the existing light rail and bus services.Such improvements may result in new bus routes including circulator routes, higher frequencies on existing routes, appropriately-sized buses for the type of service required, increasing transit access through park-n-rides, better pedestrian connections and amenities, and improved bike access and amenities.Transit may involve installation of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) such as bus priority signalization, real-time bus route and transfer information at user-friendly kiosks, and information from variable message signs.Emphasis on transit-oriented developments (TOD) also should be considered a part of the transit tool.Current Use of Transit as a ToolRegional Rapid Transit SystemIn addition to the successful completion and operation of the Central Corridor LRT line (30th and Downing to I-25 and Broadway) in 1995, and the Southwest LRT extension (I-25 and Broadway to Mineral Avenue) in 2000, several other major rapid transit corridors are in various stages of development.Two corridors the Central Platte Valley Corridor and the Southeast I-25/I-225 Corridor, also known as TREX (Transportation Expansion Project) were funded and construction began in 2001. Opening in 2002, the Central Platte Valley line will connect the existing Central Corridor line to the 16th Street Mall Shuttle at Denver Union Te rm inal in Lower Downtown.Stations along the line will provide transit service to the west side of the Auraria Campus, Mile High and Pepsi Center. The T-REX project includes 19 miles of light rail transit along I-25 and I-225, including 13 new stations. A formal Major Investment Study (MIS) to determine a preferred alternative transportation investment has been completed in several other corridors.North Metro Corridor I-25 and US 85 north of Downtown DenverUS 36 Corridor Between Boulder and Downtown DenverGold Line Corridor Denver to Wheat RidgeI-225 Corridor Parker Road to I-70East Corridor Downtown Denver to DIAW est Corridor Downtown Denver to Lakewood In addition, an additional light-rail access into downtown between the Broadway / I-25 station and Civic Center Station at Colfax and Broadway is planned. Tr ansit improvements in these corridors are not yet funded.RTD intends to seek funding from the voters in the next several years for all these corridors. ^THETRANSPORTATION

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This funding program is designed as an accelerated 10-year regional transit expansion plan to construct the preferred transit in each of the corridors.The funding also would provide increased parking and pedestrian access at station areas in the southwest and southeast corridors.Union Station, jointly purchased by four public agencies in 2001 RTD, DRCOG, CDOT and the City and County of Denver would serve as the rapid transit systems hub. Expanded Bus ServicesCurrently, RTD has a system of more than 1,100 buses to serve its local, limited, express and special service routes for the metro area.With expansion of the rapid transit system described above, RTD will reorient some of its existing routes to better serve rapid transit corridors and may add circulator type routes to serve rapid transit stations.RTD also has plans to expand its bus fleet to 1,400 vehicles by the year 2020. Tr ansit AccessThe City has initiated a new bus shelter and bench program in partnership with the private sector with the purpose of:Encouraging the use of public transportationEnhancing the appearance and character of transit stops in neighborhoods and business areasImproving the level of maintenance at stops in response to complaints from the community Newly designed benches and shelters will replace more than 1,400 advertising benches at current locations during the next three years, many where benches did not exist previously. R TD has completed a bike rack and permit program to accommodate bikes on all buses and many light-rail transit vehicles.This allows bicyclists to connect to all bus and off-peak rail routes seamlessly with transit. Also, RTD has a system of more than 65 park-n-ride facilities throughout the metro area.Currently, there are plans to expand that number to 97 by the year 2020, and RTD is seeking funding for expanding existing facilities, especially at overcrowded light-rail station parking facilities. Operational Improvements/EnhancementsTr ansit priority improvements are being completed in certain areas to improve the operation of transit travel in congested areas by using priority green phases, exclusive bus lanes and special bus stops that decrease passenger loading times and improve the ability of the bus to reenter the traffic stream.These measures are being implemented on key arterial streets and major bus transit corridors. The concept of timed-transfers is being tested and implemented by RTD.A timed-transfer station presently exists at the intersection of Ulster and Tufts in southeast Denver.The primary purpose of a timed-transfer system is toThe City will pursue RTDs rapid transit buildout scenario, in addition to other opportunities for the advancement of rail transit. I-25 I-25 Santa Fe I-225 C470 I-70 US 36ColfaxSpeerBroadway Sheridan6th AveUS 285to DIA to Boulder LRT LRT-Future Phase II HOV/ BRT Commuter Rail West LRT Gold Line LRT US 36 Commuter Rail East Commuter Rail US 36 BRT SW LRT N. Metro Bus/HOV N. Metro LRT SE LRT I-225 LRT BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 6 THE TRANSPORTATION COMPONENT97COMPONENT

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THETRANSPORTATION98Bus shelters help to encourage the use of public transportation. ^synchronize all or select transit routes so that they meet almost simultaneously at the same location during regular intervals.This will help minimize wait times between transfers. TODThe City has established a Light Rail Station Development Program to encourage transit-oriented development at existing and proposed stations. The program focuses on proactive planning with property owners and communities adjacent to the stations and addresses how the station can be integrated effectively into the community.Some of the issues addressed in the process are: transportation access for pedestrians, bicycles, transit and automobiles; the type and density of land use; urban design; and parking. The program also works with private property owners and potential developers to help implement and develop incentives for TODs.Potential TOD incentives include reductions in parking requirements for mixed-use zone districts and tax increment financing for designated urban renewal areas.Plan Priorities for Transit as a ToolSupport efforts to increase funding for the build-out of the regional rapid transit system, including RTDs FasTracks and the advancement of rail.Evaluate and implement options for enhanced bus transit services such as higher frequency bus service, BRT and priorities for intelligent transportation systems (ITS) investments (including bus priority signalization) on the following corridors:Federal BoulevardColorado BoulevardEast/West Colfax AvenueBroadway south of I-25Brighton Boulevard north of DowntownQuebec/Monaco StreetsHampden AvenueSpeer/Alameda Corridor from northwest Denver, through downtown and Cherry Creek, to AuroraW est 38th AvenueEast/West Evans AvenueEast/West Alameda AvenueUniversity BoulevardLeetsdale DriveSmith Road/East 40th AvenueDevelop new bus circulator routes for the neighborhoods surrounding all proposed rail stations.These circulator routes should serve as

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I-25 I-225I-70Sheridan6th Ave US 285Pena Blvd.I-270 SouthPlatteRiver CherryCreek I-25Santa Fe YorkColfaxSpeerW. 38th Ave.Brighton Blvd.Broadway Fe deral University Co lorado Blvd.AlamedaMonaco Pkwy. QuebecHampdenEvansLeetsdale SMITH RD. 40TH AVENUE DENVERS LAND USE AND TRANSPORTATION PLANCHAPTER 6 THE TRANSPORTATION COMPONENT99COMPONENTEnhanced bus transit corridors

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100many of the neighborhoods surrounding the station as possible and provide high-frequency service to be competitive with driving to and parking at the station.Coordinate with RTD to link timed-transfer points to Areas of Change that serve as regional and neighborhood centers.As RTD further develops its timed-transfer concept, the City should work with RTD to identify locations within Areas of Change to enhance transit service.The Areas of Change that should be targeted include TODs, regional centers and town centers.Develop additional transit-oriented development incentives, including: promotion of shared parking; creation of new zone districts and/or overlays that allow for reduced parking requirements and support a mix of transit-supportive land uses; and development of dedicated funding to land bank key land parcels near stations to preserve future development opportunities.Neighborhood Traffic ManagementAs traffic congestion increases on Denvers arterial street system, neighborhood collector and local streets increasingly are affected by speeding and non-local traffic.Neighborhood traffic management addresses these impacts and helps improve livability in neighborhoods.Traffic management is a city-wide issue.Treating every issue as if it were unique is ineffective and inefficient.In addition, many problems and solutions need to be examined from a broader perspective to ensure that one neighborhoods solution does not become another neighborhoods problem.A traffic management program is an effective, systematic and fair approach to addressing such problems. Any neighborhood traffic management program should provide a consistent, city-wide approach to addressing neighborhood traffic and transportation issues related to pedestrian safety, traffic speed and traffic volume on r esidential streets. Such a program recognizes that a street is a highly complex environment with multiple competing needs such as land access and livability versus mobility, vehicular accommodations versus multi-modal balance, and consistency of function versus flexibility of form.Potential traffic management strategies and techniques are directly linked to the city-wide street type designations and are intended to enhance both the form and function of city streets. Strategies and techniques for neighborhood traffic management may include a combination of the following:Support for additional transit servicePublic education and special programs Regarding neighborhood transportation, Plan 2000 states: The Citys process for addressing neighborhood transportation issues must consider trade-offs within and between neighborhoods as well as with economic interests. The following principles should apply: Avoi d solving one neighborhoods problem at the expense of another neighborhood or at the expense of the Citys economic interests. Distribute benefits and burdens; treat issues equally. Link land-use planning activities closely to transportation needs and actual transportation improvements. Increase enforcement of traffic laws to improve driver behavior. Provide a greater emphasis on transit and alternative modes. Increase awareness of the impacts of travel behavior on neighborhood quality of life. ^THETRANSPORTATION

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The preparation of neighborhood traffic plans includes extensive citizen involvement. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 6 THE TRANSPORTATION COMPONENT101COMPONENTIncrease in and consistent enforcement of speed limits and other traffic r egulations, including signage and enforcement in school zones and other high pedestrian activity areas.Engineering, operations and design approacheschanges in signing and striping of roadways and intersectionsadditional or improved signalization at intersectionstraffic calming measures that have proven effective for comparable conditions in other similar cities and neighborhoods Through implementation of a neighborhood traffic management program, the City, in partnership with neighborhoods, can consistently study and implement methods designed to reduce traffic impacts. Individual neighborhood traffic plans must include extensive neighborhood and citizen involvement.Through a series of meetings and workshops, the City and participants can discuss the planning process, identify problems and issues, collect and review traffic data, define specific quantifiable goals, review potential solutions, and develop and refine the neighborhood traffic plan.Current Use of Neighborhood Traffic Management as a ToolNeighborhood traffic management currently is handled on a case-by-case basis.One example is the Central Denver Transportation Plan completed in 1998.The project was initiated based on complaints and requests by the Central Denver neighborhoods (an area bounded by Colfax on the north, Quebec Street on the east, I-25 on the south, and Broadway on the west) to address multiple transportation issues within the area.Some of these issues were speed, safety and motorist behavior. An on-going challenge in this process was the need to balance access to downtown, Cherry Creek and other regional destinations with neighborhood interests.(This challenge is a critical issue and needs to be addressed in any neighborhood traffic management planning process that affects travel patterns to regional destinations such as downtown.)There was general concern about area-wide growth patterns, a perceived lack of adequate public transit, and noise.The study resulted in a list of solutions that identified near-term, mid-term and long-term objectives and ideas and solutions for more than 20 specific street segments within the study area.Implementation is ongoing as funding becomes available. Some of the Central Denver Transportation Plan projects that have been completed involved striping changes and reducing the number of travel lanes on several one-way couplets in the Capitol Hill, Speer, West Washington Park and Platt Park neighborhoods.

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THETRANSPORTATION102Plan Priorities for Neighborhood Traffic Management as a ToolImplement a city-wide neighborhood traffic management program.Integrate appropriate traffic management principles into new development and re-development occurring in Areas of Change and Areas of Stability through the development review process.Distribute information about potential neighborhood traffic management strategies during the small area planning process outlined in Chapter 8. One outcome of a neighborhood plan, for example, may be application for developing a formal neighborhood traffic plan to address traffic problems identified during the small area planning process.Pedestrian EnhancementsAs a tool, pedestrian enhancements become the primary transportation element that connects all travel modes.Increased pedestrian amenities and well-planned pedestrian connections enhance walking as a viable form of transportation, especially when integrated into transit-oriented developments. A pedestrian-friendly environment provides the most affordable and cost-effective transportation alternative that any community can plan, design, construct and maintain. Benefits of pedestrian enhancements and travel include:Reduced vehicle miles traveled and less environmental pollution.Increased community and social interaction and potentially less crime because of increased activity and observation by pedestrians.Improved health due to exercise and stress reduction.Additional open space, park trails, view corridors, visual relief and aesthetics in business areas and other neighborhood districts.Interconnections and access to parks, campus districts, entertainment and public facilities (including museums, zoos, sports stadiums, entertainment facilities and special events among others).Reduction of individual travel costs (auto maintenance, parking, fuel).Current Use of Pedestrian Enhancements as a ToolPedestrian enhancements currently are addressed on an individual basis through Denvers development review process.Standards are applied to projects as related to issues such as building placement, building entryway location and pedestrian connections.In addition, Denvers Streetscape Design Manual currently is used to provide urban design guidelines for pedestrian amenities including sidewalks, street trees, lighting, signage, paving and furnishings.Also, Denver constructs new and improved pedestrian facilities through the use of a Capital Improvement Program (CIP).Special attentionA pedestrian-friendly environment provides an affordable transportation alternative. ^

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has been paid to providing curb ramps and other facilities to accommodate disabled persons and the elderly.More than $500,000 a year is programmed to provide pedestrian ramps at intersections. Denver is actively pursuing pedestrian enhancements as a transportation tool. Public and private development projects are reviewed to ensure adequate pedestrian connections.Pedestrian connections between Lower Downtown and the Highlands neighborhood are being developed and involve non-auto, multi-use bridges over the consolidated mainline, I-25 and the South Platte River and paths through parks and plazas.Plan Priorities for Pedestrian Enhancements as a ToolComplete a comprehensive sidewalk inventory and revise the Citys current sidewalk maintenance policy.Currently, adjacent property owners are responsible for sidewalk improvements.A new policy needs to be developed concerning the extent of the Citys involvement in and funding for maintaining and enhancing sidewalks.This may include developing a dedicated funding source for sidewalk maintenance and enhancement.Develop a pedestrian master plan that will include:A workshop to elicit the publics pedestrian priorities and concernsAn inventory of sidewalk and non-sidewalk pedestrian infrastructure including deficiencies (i.e.gaps in sidewalks and significant barriers to pedestrian connections)A review of pedestrian elements recommended in other city plans and a r eview of public feedback from the pedestrian workshopsCreation of a tool to prioritize improvements by identifying important pedestrian corridors and destinations in the city (i.e.arterial and collector streets served by transit, neighborhood destinations, downtown, TODs, pedestrian shopping corridors, schools, parks and large entertainment facilities)Identification and prioritization of improvementsCreation of pedestrian amenity guidelines for Areas of Change and Areas of Stability they should build upon policies identified in the Citys Streetscape Design Manual and relate directly to Areas of Change and Areas of StabilityContinue program for providing curb ramps and other facilities to accommodate disabled and transit-dependent persons, as well as the elderlyDevelopment of partnerships that are coordinated with Denvers Parks and Recreation Department to enhance pedestrian connections between parks and other recreational facilities BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 6 THE TRANSPORTATION COMPONENT103COMPONENT

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THETRANSPORTATION104Investigation of funding opportunities.Coordination with RTD, DRCOG, CDOT, and adjacent municipalities to invest in pedestrian infrastructure to support transit ridership in enhanced bus transit corridors.Ensure the continued development of sidewalk improvements with other improvements on major arterial corridors where opportunities to enhance the pedestrian environment exist.Bicycle EnhancementsBicycle enhancements help provide a viable alternative to driving for the commuter cyclist and facilitate bicycle travel for the recreational cyclist. Successful enhancements emphasize adequate, well-maintained, continuous and secure facilities.Connection of the bicycle system to other modes consists of connections to the travel system itself and to the end of the trip. Many bicycle facilities, especially trails, have multiple commuter and r ecreational users and should be designed for this multiple use. A bicycle-friendly environment consists of significant regional trails linked to a network of major streets with striped bicycle lanes and signed bicycle r outes.The system maximizes connections to other modes such as pedestrian routes and transit, and minimizes unsafe interactions with auto traffic at intersections. Benefits of bicycling include:Fewer vehicle miles traveled and less environmental pollution.Reduced land and financial resources devoted to vehicle parking and travel lanes.Improved health through exercise and stress reduction.Reduced individual travel costs (auto maintenance, parking, fuel). The City is expanding and maintaining the bicycle system to ensure that missing links are being reduced and that the overall situation for high-traffic bike areas is improved.This includes providing for bike amenities such as lockers, parking, on-street signage and markings, lighting and security, and easier access to bicycle information.Current Use of Bicycle Enhancements as a ToolCurrent efforts to enhance the bicycle system and the use of bicycles as an alternative to private, single-occupancy vehicles include:Signing of the city-wide grid system of bike routes.Improved bicycle infrastructure, such as adding bicycle lanes, as part of other transportation projects.Signed bike routes create a bikeable environment. ^

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I-70 SouthPlatteRiver CherryCreek Denver International AirportYorkSpeerBrighton Blvd.Broadway Federal University Colorado Blvd.Alameda Hampden Yale 56th Ave. EvansQuebec LeetsdaleHavanaI-7023rd Ave. Smith Rd. 40th Ave. 52nd Ave. US 285 LOWRYPena Blvd. Washington St. I-25I-2706th Ave AlamedaI-225 SheridanI-25Santa Fe Colfax Major Missing Bike Links Major Missing Bike Links 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15LEGEND43rd Ave. bridge over RR tracks: Fox to Inca 46th Ave.: Platte River Trail to National Western Complex Northeast Neighborhoods: Green Valley Ranch/Gateway/ Emerald Strands Trails Colorado Blvd. at 12th Ave. intersection Alameda Ave. at Santa Fe, Kalamath and I-25 off-ramps Underpass reconstruction: Cherokee-Santa Fe Bayaud Ave. bridge Cherry Creek Trail improvements: University to Downing Leetsdale at Bayaud/Cedar Leetsdale at Jersey Broadway Station (RTD Connection) east/west connections Iowa Ave. underpass reconstruction Santa Fe Drive trail Iowa to Florida Iliff Ave. bridge at Santa Fe Drive/Evans Ave. Station (RTD Connection) We st Harvard Gulch Trail connection Bridge over I-25: Bellaire to Colorado Blvd. Station (RTD Connection) Bridge over I-25 at Iliff/Warren/Dahlia Quincy Ave. Bike Trail/Grant Ranch connections DENVERS LAND USE AND TRANSPORTATION PLANCHAPTER 6 THE TRANSPORTATION COMPONENT105COMPONENTMissing Bicycle Links

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THETRANSPORTATION106Support of bicycle advocacy organizations and coordination with other municipalities to improve regional connections, and expansion of bicycle education and enforcement for children and other bicyclists.Distribution of Denver bicycle route maps and sponsorship of programs such as Bike to Work Day, Cycle Safety Circus (childrens bicycle education) and bicycle parking at numerous public events.Review of private and public development projects to ensure adequate bicycle parking and access. Denvers zoning ordinance has been amended to require bicycle parking in non-residential, office or retail areas.The number of bike parking spaces r equired by the ordinance is determined based on the total off-street parking spaces required.Specific rules and regulations governing the dimensions and design of bicycle parking have been adopted. The updated Denver Bicycle Master Plan has identified priorities including:Improved integration of on-street bicycle facilities with Denver parks. Some examples include expanding the system into Areas of Change such as Commons Park in the Central Platte Valley, Lowry, Stapleton and Gateway.Improved circulation into and around downtown.This includes additional on-street pavement markings and connections to existing on-street facilities and to Commons Park.Placement of microwave sensors at intersections for signal activation where signals are now triggered by the presence of motor vehicles only. This demonstration project is designed to test a new technology to provide safer crossing for bicyclists at signalized intersections.Expansion of RTD bicycle accommodations.This includes: provisions for bikes on RTD rail transit vehicles during peak travel times; bike storage at and connections to RTD park-n-rides and light-rail stations; and development of a bike station at the Denver Union Terminal.Continued efforts to expand bicycle advocacy, education and enforcement.Plan Priorities for Bicycle Enhancements as a ToolImplement the updated Bicycle Master Plan, including filling in the missing links in the bicycle grid network.Develop detailed inventory of bike facilities (routes, parking, amenities) and bicycle plans as part of the small area planning process.Establish dedicated funding for construction of bicycle facilities prioritized in the Bicycle Master Plan.Coordinate funding and simultaneous construction of bike facilities with street, drainage and other infrastructure improvements.Bike stations in key locations such as transit centers can enhance bike access and usage. ^

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ParkingWhen looking at parking as a tool, Plan 2000 emphasizes developing a comprehensive city-wide approach that addresses parking needs within major urban centers, at transit stations, and in neighborhoods next to major facilities.This city-wide approach emphasizes building shared-use parking structures; developing reduced parking ratios for appropriate areas through the zoning process; and managing neighborhood parking, which includes establishing parking management districts, metered zones and neighborhood pass programs. Zoning code parking requirements significantly influence the design, character and development of buildings because of the quantity of land r equired for parking lots.Zoning typically requires a substantial amount of space for parked cars, with ratios sometimes based on excessive standards not supported by actual parking demand.Parking requirements often are applied with a one size fits all perspective without regard for the density and transit orientation of an area.Ample free parking surrounding employment and shopping centers encourages driving even when high-quality transit is available. Eliminating or reducing parking minimums and/or establishing parking maximums in districts around transit can reduce the amount of land r equired for parking, thereby allowing more intensive development.The re lative scarcity of parking and resulting higher parking prices can discourage the use of single-occupant vehicles.Reduced parking minimums and parking maximums should be implemented only where there is frequent transit service, at employment centers with effective travel demand management programs, and at mixed-use development projects with complementary uses that can share parking.Any proposed parking r equirement changes must be analyzed carefully to ensure that impacts to the surrounding neighborhoods are considered.Current Use of Parking as a ToolParking ratios and parking management measures are currently being used by the city via:Parking ratios Denvers mixed-use zone districts allow for reduced parking requirements near transit stations and allow for shared parking credits.The Commons neighborhood development in the Central Platte Vall ey has parking maximums instead of minimums.Parking management Neighborhood parking permit programs are being used in several areas impacted by nearby facilities or businesses including the Colorado Health Center District and the Old SouthNeighborhood parking management can establish metered zones. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 6 THE TRANSPORTATION COMPONENT107COMPONENT

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THETRANSPORTATION108Gaylord area.A parking district has been established for the Commons neighborhood in the Platte Valley to promote shared parking and joint use structures.Plan Priorities for Parking as a ToolEstablish a dedicated funding source and publicprivate partnerships for constructing shared-use, structured parking facilities in appropriate Areas of Change to spur higher density development.Evaluate parking ratios for areas around transit stations and in enhanced bus transit corridors to determine if reductions in requirements or parking maximums are appropriate.This should be done in the context of developing a TOD zone district or overlay.Evaluate the feasibility of comprehensive parking management in high density and TOD Areas of Change.Parking districts should be encouraged to promote shared parking and neighborhood parking permit programs to minimize the impacts of parking and traffic on the surrounding neighborhoods.Access ManagementCoordinated access management is an important tool for achieving Blueprint Denvers vision in both Areas of Change and Areas of Stability.Access management means the planning, design and implementation of land-use and transportation strategies that control the location and flow of vehicular traffic into and out of businesses and residential developments across the pedestrian area and onto the travelway area. As traffic volumes increase, efforts to accommodate the access needs of individual property owners become more complex.Providing desired property access must be balanced with concerns about vehicular traffic on adjacent r oadways and conflicts with pedestrian, bicycle and transit users. If access management strategies in Denver are not considered during development review and corridor planning, the following can occur:Increased intersection and mid-block conflicts that could result in accidentsT ravel routes for pedestrians and bicyclists that are discontinuous, indirect and unattractiveCongested and difficult access to parking and adjacent businesses and residencesSignificant interruption and delays for traffic along key roadways Access management involves consolidating access points along high traffic corridors, particularly commercial streets, to reduce conflicts between vehicles ^

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entering or leaving the corridor and vehicles already in the corridor.By re ducing the number of conflict points, operations along the corridor can be improved.Pedestrian safety also is enhanced. Effective access management requires planning as well as regulatory solutions.City agencies need to consistently study and implement methods to re duce undesirable conflicts at property access points, including driveways, alleys and loading areas.Revisions to zoning code and site planning r egulations should be coordinated with the development of transportation standards and guidelines. In order to improve access management, a coordinated and consistent access management policy is needed.Such a policy should address the different street types and functional designation of streets, including the nature and intensity of the adjacent land use.Traffic impact studies should be required during the development review process when the data provided by such studies is necessary to evaluate access point locations and operations.In specific problem areas on existing commercial roadways, corridor access management plans should be developed and implemented. Denver should incorporate a range of strategies and techniques for access management in its zoning, subdivision, development review, and transportation design standards and guidelines.Current Use of Access Management as a ToolAccess management currently is dealt with on a case-by-case basis through the development review process.Where it is feasible, commercial driveways are consolidated as redevelopment occurs in high traffic corridors.Access management for individual private property must recognize the legal r equirements of individual property owners right of access to and from the public roadway.Plan Priorities for Access Management as a ToolDevelop a coordinated and consistent access management policy and program for Denver.Integrate appropriate access management principles into new development and re-development occurring in Areas of Change and Areas of Stability through the development review process.Design access points based on thorough traffic impact studies, which take into account existing and anticipated access needs as well as the convenience and safety for all transportation modes.Reduce the number of existing driveways and curb cuts along commercial street corridors, especially as redevelopment occurs.To o many access points (driveways) along commercial corridors can cause vehicle conflicts, reduce traffic flow and create an un friendly pedestrian environment. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 6 THE TRANSPORTATION COMPONENT109COMPONENT

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THETRANSPORTATION110Establish and enforce minimum distances between public street intersections and private property access points.Establish standards for the number and type of access points for land uses and parcels based on linear frontage, number of lots, or other measures.Include access management in developing transportation design standards that recognize both street type and function in determining access.Provide incentives to develop shared access locations and shared parking and to provide parking circulation across private property boundaries.Distribute information about potential access management strategies during the small area planning process outlined in Chapter 8.T ravel Demand Management (TDM)Tr avel demand management (TDM) is designed to influence travel behavior and reduce single-occupant vehicle trips at peak times.TDM means demand-side strategies (as opposed to supply-side strategies, which might be new lane construction) that are intended to affect how, if and when the transportation system is used. TDM is a broad range of strategies that is intended to reduce peak period automobile trips by encouraging the use of high-occupancy modes.TDM strategies include: preferential parking for carpools and vanpools; free or re duced-cost transit passes; promotion of transit, carpooling, biking, walking, flex time, alternative work schedules and telecommuting; designation of transportation coordinators at employment sites; and shuttle service to and from park-n-ride lots. Tr ansportation Management Associations (TMAs), are public-private partnerships that bring together government agencies, businesses and neighborhood residents to address traffic congestion, air quality, mobility options and other related problems in specific areas.TMAs typically advocate transportation issues at the local and state levels, develop and market alternative transportation programs and manage resources such as parking and paratransit. ^

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Existing TMAsCurrent Use of Travel Demand Management as a ToolTMAs currently are functioning in Denver.The City originally provided financial, technical and policy support for the formation of these associations. TMAs exist, or soon will exist, in the following areas:Downtown (Downtown Transportation Management Association)Cherry Creek/Colorado Blvd/Glendale (Transportation Solutions)Lowry (in cooperation with Transportation Solutions)StapletonDenver Technological Center (Southeast Transportation Management Organization) Services vary by TMA but include operation of transit circulator services, transportation project improvements (such as sidewalks), development and coordination of employer programs to encourage the use of alternative modes, and advocacy for transportation improvements and services from RTD, CDOT, Denver, DRCOG and others. Specific TDM requirements were established for the Commons neighborhood development in the Central Platte Valley and the Colorado Center Development near I-25 and Colorado.The development of a TDM program was a mandatory item identified in the PUD zoning for both areas to reduce traffic, promote transit and improve air quality.Most TDM programs are strictly voluntary. RideArrangers, the TDM division of DRCOG, has implemented several successful programs to reduce the dependence on single occupant vehicles. These include bike pool, carpool, school pool and vanpool programs. Existing Transportation Management Associations (TMAs) Downtown Tr ansportation Management Association Stapleton Lowry Tr ansportation Solutions Existing TMA In Development Southeast Transportation Management Organization (SETMO) Note: SETMO boundary extends along I-25 to Lincoln Ave. I-25 I-225I-70Sheridan6th Ave US 285Pena Blvd.I-270 SouthPlatteRiver CherryCr eek I-25Santa F e YorkColfaxSpeerBrighton Blvd.Broadway Federal University Colorado Blvd.Alameda Hampden Yale The Citys electric vehicles for work-related trips are an enviromentally-friendly option so employees leave their cars at home. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 6 THE TRANSPORTATION COMPONENT111COMPONENT

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THETRANSPORTATION112Plan Priorities for TDM as a ToolExpand existing TMAs in Areas of Change with a large employment base. Assist in establishing new TMAs in appropriate areas not covered by the expansion of existing TMAs.The DIA/Gateway area should consider establishing a TMA as employment levels increase in that area.Establish TDM measures to be used in the access management process. Neighborhoods should be encouraged to use TDM measures because they help reduce neighborhood generated traffic.Require that a TDM program be developed as part of the small area planning process for all TOD and higher-density Areas of Change with a significant employment base.T ransportation System Management (TSM)While TDM programs address demands on the transportation system, TSM programs are intended to address the supply side of transportation facilities. TSM is a set of tools or methods for improving the existing transportation system to relieve congestion with minimal roadway widening.TSM includes traffic control through the use of: traffic signs and pavement marking systems; management of special events; planning and designing of operational improvements; investigation and improvement of safety needs as identified through engineering studies; collection and maintenance of transportation data and records; and, sign visibility review.TSM strategies also include intersection and signalization improvements, freeway bottleneck removal and application of ITS technology.Current Use of Transportation System Management as a ToolDenver currently operates a Traffic Management Center (TMC) that is involved in many of the program elements identified above, including signal systems, traveler information and special event management.The TMC oversees more than 1,200 signals in Denver and is in the process of developing fiber optic connections to the entire system to make it easier to adjust signal timing to changing traffic conditions.Signal timing improvements for highly congested corridors are completed regularly to improve traffic flow.The TMC also handles traffic control for special events at facilities such as Coors Field, the Pepsi Center and the Mile High sports complex.Key intersections near these facilities have closed-circuit cameras to identify locations for signal timing adjustments, provide information to traffic control personnel working special events, and monitor congested areas for modifications of the traffic control plan. Some system management elements, including access management, currently are being addressed through the development review process.Operational ^

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improvements, such as intersection improvements and sign improvements, typically are identified as a result of citizen input or a City-initiated study. Improvements to high-accident intersections and other problem areas are completed on a priority basis.Plan Priorities for TSM as a ToolContinue to enhance development of Denvers TMC.The TMC will continue to play an important role in using technology to manage the existing roadway system as growth and traffic congestion increase.Prioritize operational and ITS improvements for enhanced bus transit corridors.Along with RTD, the City should invest resources to improve bus operations in designated high traffic corridors to improve transit operations and increase ridership.Coordinate with the development review staff in the Public Works Department and the Community Planning and Development Agency to promote access management as a means to achieve land-use goals as well as traffic operational goals.Current access management procedures should be reviewed to provide needed improvements that affect land-use access and pedestrian safety.Roadways and Other InfrastructurePlan 2000 emphasizes the need to manage the effectiveness of Denvers ro adway network, including its street grid, first by investing in operational and reconstruction improvement, and then by increasing new roadway capacity at key locations that best serve the city as a whole.One of the strategies toward achieving this objective supports major improvements to the r oadway system based on detailed sub-area or corridor studies, which investigate all access options and not just automobiles or transit.Detailed sub-area or corridor plans require input from the whole community, as well as a comprehensive assessment of transportation, land use and other factors. As such, the maintenance and reconstruction of existing infrastructure, targeted capacity improvements and the development of drainage facilities should be a priority. Investment in and management of roadway and drainage infrastructure is an important tool to manage growth and development within Denver.Targeted capacity improvements in both roadway and drainage infrastructure in Areas of Change serve to accommodate growth where it is desirable and address problems where they may exist in Areas of Stability. Public investment in both on-street and off-street facilities to accommodate alternative modes of travel will allow the City to provide a vital and efficient Intelligent T ransportation Systems ITS is much more than just coordinating traffic signals; it involves r eal-time information processing to monitor changing conditions, disruptions and changing traffic patterns in response to actual conditions and incidents. Improves the reliability of transit and traffic systems.Improves safety for all modes of travel.Provides easy access to current and real-time information.Reduces the time r equired for transporting goods and emergency services.Reduces transportation costs, travel time, and improves employee productivity.Reduces environmental impacts of transportation projects and reduces fuel consumption.Encourages the use of public transportation. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 6 THE TRANSPORTATION COMPONENT113COMPONENT

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THETRANSPORTATION114multi-modal network of streets.These investments should be preceded by small area planning efforts that conduct a thorough analysis of alternatives and include extensive public involvement.Improvements in infrastructure capacity are often controversial, particularly roadways, because of potential impacts to the surrounding community.Maintenance and reconstruction of existing infrastructure also is important to preserving and enhancing the quality of life of neighborhoods.Maintaining and enhancing existing roadways and drainage infrastructure often is overlooked but is an extremely important tool to ensure the future livability of Denvers neighborhoods.Current Use of Roadway and Other Infrastructure as a ToolThe Citys CIP process currently addresses priorities related to funding for infrastructure investments.The process addresses both capacity improvements as well as maintenance and reconstruction activities.Roadway capacity improvements typically are developed through a corridor or district planning process (such as the Stapleton Development Plan, Lowry Reuse Plan and Federal Boulevard Plan), while drainage facility capacity improvements are developed based on identification of existing drainage problems. Maintenance and reconstruction activities require assessing the condition of different types of infrastructure.Various levels of data for assessing conditions are kept for bridges, alleys, storm sewers, sanitary sewers, street pavement, street curbs, street gutters, street ramps and sidewalks.This conditional assessment data is used to rate the condition of the Citys inventory of infrastructure and determine where CIP maintenance and r econstruction funds should be spent.This inventory and assessment effort should be continued and expanded and should be used to develop priorities for operational and maintenance funding. In addition, the City obtained voter approval of special bond programs to increase or accelerate funding for construction of improvements.Other funding programs include investment in regional roadways and transit improvements that benefit Denver through DRCOG regional planning, the Tr ansportation Improvement Program funding processes (which involves critical partnerships with other cities, counties, CDOT, RTD and federal agencies), and private investment in infrastructure related to development. Often private land owners and developers share in the cost of capacity and r econstruction improvements such as at Stapleton, Gateway, Lowry and the Commons neighborhood. Partnerships with local business groups and community organizations are r equired to ensure that special streetscaping and other infrastructure, once constructed in local business and activity areas, is properly maintained.The City has a variety of tools that allows business and Multi-jurisdictional corridors Hampden, Wadsworth, Sheridan and Quebec are examples of arterial streets that traverse several jurisdictions and may also be state highways.Any studies or plans require participation from all government entities. Special Districts On-going maintenance of streetscaping and other infrastructure developed to enhance multi-modal streets is extremely important. Wi thout maintenance, streetscaping and other infrastructure will deteriorate and detract from lively, attractive business and activity areas.Special districts should be formed, in partnerships between the City and property owners, to provide tax funding not only for construction but for long-term maintenance as well. ^

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r esidential property owners to assist in constructing and maintaining the infrastructure and amenities developed. Local Improvement Districts (LIDs), Local Maintenance Districts, Business Improvement Districts (BIDs) and other special districts can be used to construct and maintain infrastructure such as streets, adjacent streetscaping, curb and gutters, water and drainage utility systems, sidewalks, and alleys. Perhaps the biggest advantages to those desiring or needing improvements are that property owners are able to apportion the cost of improvements to more than just one property owner and that the cost of improvements can be spread over time.In addition, these districts may be able to take advantage of the Citys ability to borrow money at lower interest rates than individuals.A public vote may be required for the City to incur debt through bonds.The larger, more expansive LIDs and BIDs also allow property owners not familiar with construction, contracting, engineering, or financing to rely on the City to undertake the process for them.The City can act as an agent to manage the projects design and construction.Plan Priorities for Roadway and Other InfrastructureEliminate gaps and mismatches of infrastructure with development and re development in Areas of Change.Expand funding for maintaining and constructing existing infrastructure needed for both Areas of Change and Areas of Stability.Pursue targeted capacity improvements and multi-modal enhancements with an inclusive, comprehensive, and detailed planning process along the following corridors (as provided in previously adopted City and regional plans):Brighton Boulevard (Broadway to I-70)East 56th Avenue (Washington Street to Pena Boulevard)Construction of roadways for the Stapleton and Gateway Areas of ChangeEast Evans Avenue (Colorado Boulevard to Quebec Street)Federal Boulevard (Colfax Avenue to Hampden)Leetsdale Drive (Alameda to Havana Street)Pena Boulevard (I-70 to DIA)Quebec Street (Leetsdale Drive to 23rd Avenue)Smith Road/40th Avenue (Blake/Walnut to Quebec Street)North Washington Street/38th Street (Brighton Boulevard and 38th Street to East 52nd Avenue)W est Alameda Avenue (Knox Court to I-25)Hampden, Santa Fe to city limitsContinue to pursue private investment in infrastructure related to development.Infrastructure construction at the Stapleton site. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 6 THE TRANSPORTATION COMPONENT115COMPONENT

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THETRANSPORTATION116Complete a comprehensive Downtown Transportation Study due to significant changes in the transportation system, such as light rail and land uses, including large numbers of additional housing units.Continue developing the inventory, assessment, and geographic information systems (GIS) mapping for various infrastructure systems including pavement, sidewalks, alleys, etc.Provide assistance to local community organizations and business groups to form local improvement districts and business improvement districts to ensure adequate funding for construction and maintenance of streetscaping and other infrastructure.Ensure annual funding through CIP and Transportation Improvement Program processes, coordinated with DRCOG, RTD and CDOT.Promote regional solutions to water detention and drainage issues in Areas of Change.Support efforts to do a city-wide watershed study that will highlight the overlap between Areas of Change and problem areas for water detention.Support city-wide water quality design guidelines.Conclusion/SummaryThe purpose of this chapter has been to describe the tools necessary to develop a transportation system that balances the needs of all modes of travel, providing the public with multiple transportation choices.The success of a multi-modal system hinges on the strength of the systems connections and the opportunity for diverse mobility options within the system. A summary of proposed transportation enhancements is shown in the map on the last page of this chapter.This map combines the individual improvements shown earlier in the chapter onto a single, comprehensive map. Chapter 7 applies the land-use and transportation tools presented in Chapters 5 and 6 to Areas of Change and Stability. ^

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SouthPlatteRiverCherry GATEWAY STAPLETONAreas for Capacity Improvement Co rridors for C apacity Improvement LEGEND Creek PENA BOULEVARD WASHINGTONALAMEDABRIGHTONFEDERAL56TH AVENUE EVANSQUEBECLEETSDALESMITH ROAD 40TH AVENUEYorkColfaxSpeerBroadway Knox Ct. University Co lorado Blvd.Alameda Hampden Yale HavanaI-7023rd Ave. 52nd Ave.Blake/W alnutQuincyI-25 I-225I-70Sheridan6th Ave US 285I-270I-25Santa Fe DENVERS LAND USE AND TRANSPORTATION PLANCHAPTER 6 THE TRANSPORTATION COMPONENT117COMPONENTPotential roadways capacity improvements

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118 Transportation Enhancements Transportation Enhancements GATEWAY STAPLETONAreas for Capacity Improvement* Roadway Corridors for Capacity Improvement* LEGEND *Improvements shown are recommendations from previously adopted City plans Regional Rapid Transit(Light Rail, Commuter Rail, HighOccupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lanes, Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)) Southeast I-25 Corridor to Douglas County Southwest Corridor to Littleton West Corridor to Lakewood U S 36 Corridor to Boulder & Gold line Corridor to Arvada North Metro Corridor to Thornton I-225 Corridor through Aurora East Corridor to DIA RTD Rail Route Under Study U S 36/North Metro HOV & BRT I-25 I-225I-70Sheridan6th AvePe na Blvd.I-270 SouthPlatteRiver CherryCreek I-25Santa Fe Washington St. AlamedaDenver International Airport YorkSpeerBrighton Blvd.Broadway Fe deralKnox Ct.University Co lorado Blvd.Alameda HampdenYale56th Ave. EvansQuebec LeetsdaleHavanaI-7023rd Ave.Smith Rd. 40th Ave.52nd Ave.Blake/W alnutUS 285 LO WRYQuincy I-225Colfax W. 38th Ave.Monaco Pkwy.Evans Enhanced Transit Corridors Bike Missing Link ^T ransportation enhancements

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Areas of Stability and Areas of Change CHAPTER 7

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AREASOFSTABILITY120 Key concepts:All areas of Denver are either an Area of Stability or Change, or on a continuum from change to stability Direct growthto places that will benefit from an infusion of activity, population and investment Character preservation, r einvestment and limited growth are the primary concerns for stable residential neighborhoods Regulations should encourage development with standards for appropriately located density Public and private partnerships create innovative projectsPublic infrastructure investments stimulate private investment and improve the physical environmentSmart growth connects r esidents to transit, jobs and centers of activity, and increases housing and employment opportunities ^This chapter describes the concepts of Areas of Stability and Areas of Change that were introduced in Chapter 3.Some of the land-use and transportation tools that are presented in Chapters 5 and 6 are also highlighted as the most useful way to achieve the objectives for the Areas of Stability and Areas of Change.Areas of StabilityShaping Denvers future involves more than deciding where and how new development will occur.It is equally important to enhance what has drawn people to live in and be loyal to Denver over the years.In recognition of how strongly Denvers citizens feel about their neighborhoods, Blueprint Denver includes tools that focus on keeping valued community characteristics in many of Denvers older and stable neighborhoods.These new measures provide tools that help shape where and how redevelopment occurs. Areas of Stability include the vast majority of Denver, primarily the stable r esidential neighborhoods and their associated commercial areas, where limited change is expected during the next 20 years.The goal for the Areas of Stability is to identify and maintain the character of an area while accommodating some new development and redevelopment. One of the most successful and common policy tools to preserve a neighborhoods special qualities is to designate the neighborhood as a historic district.Because this tool is known to work, many Denver neighborhoods have sought and continue to seek landmark status.However, most neighborhoods do not meet the stringent requirements necessary to qualify for historic designation nor do all neighborhoods want to live under the r estrictions imposed by a historic district designation.Blueprint Denver includes measures specifically designed to enhance the unique qualities of older neighborhoods that are looking for new ways to preserve neighborhood character and quality of life.Relation to Areas of ChangeBlueprint Denver does not seek to change the growth forecast for Denver. The Plan distributes forecasted growth to Areas of Change, where it will be most beneficial, and away from Areas of Stability, where it may have some negative consequences.Thus Areas of Stability and Areas of Change have a symbiotic relationship. Despite this relationship, Areas of Change and Stability should not be considered as mutually exclusive.First, each area in the city can be thought of as located on a continuum from change to stability.Second, in stable residential neighborhoods there often are areas that would benefit

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COLFAX PENA I-25SHERIDANCOLORADOYORKFEDERAL TOWER38THBROADWAYYALEHAMPDENJEWELLHAVANAUNIVERSITY48TH6THEVANSPEORIAALAMEDALEETSDALECOLFAXCHAMBERSMI SSISSIPPII-25MONACO6THI-70 I-70Legend City/County Boundary Areas of Change Areas of Stability Arterials DENVERS LAND USE AND TRANSPORTATION PLANCHAPTER 7 AREAS OF STABILITY AND AREAS OF CHANGE 121ANDAREASOFCHANGEAreas of Stability

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122W est Highlands is a neighborhood that illustrates the characteristics that draw people to Denver. Brick tudors are a characteristic housing type in many stable Denver neighborhoods like Greater Park Hill. ^from change, such as stagnant commercial development that would benefit from revitalization and possibly provide some neighborhood services.These areas, due to their lack of reinvestment, have a negative visual impact on the surrounding area.Similarly, Areas of Change may include viable r esidential and commercial pockets that should be treated as Areas of Stability.T ypes of Areas of StabilityWhile residents of many parts of Denver want to maintain the character of their neighborhoods, these predominantly residential areas do not all have similar characteristics.The Areas of Stability can be thought of as belonging predominantly to one of the following two categories: Committed Areas and Reinvestment Areas.Committed AreasCommitted Areas are stable neighborhoods that may benefit from the stabilizing effects of minor infill development rather than large-scale, major r edevelopment.For example, reinvestment in the Washington Park neighborhood is not necessary to improve its character.Tools appropriate for this neighborhood seek primarily to maintain present character and to motivate modest redevelopment of selected areas, such as commercial corridors or neighborhood centers.Infrastructure, which is generally adequate, needs to be maintained. Committed Areas of Stability face many different challenges.For example, some neighborhoods are primarily concerned about the transitions or lack of transitions between commercial areas and residential areas.Some neighborhoods are focused on traffic issues.Other neighborhoods are more concerned about replacement housing that has a design incompatible with the rest of the neighborhood.The challenge in these latter neighborhoods is to preserve character without preventing residents from upgrading their homes to meet contemporary standards.Reinvestment AreasReinvestment areas are neighborhoods with a character that is desirable to maintain but that would benefit from reinvestment through modest infill and redevelopment or major projects in a small area.These areas would encourage investment but in a more limited and targeted way than in Areas of Change. Residents in these areas face a variety of challenges and opportunities. Examples of challenges include concern about deteriorated and poorly maintained housing stock, inappropriate land uses or inadequate bufferingAREASOFSTABILITY

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Po tter Highlands is a neighborhood with historic district designation. Some Areas of Stability could benefit from modest reinvestment. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 7 AREAS OF STABILITY AND AREAS OF CHANGE 123ANDAREASOFCHANGEbetween uses, lack of services such as grocery stores, lack of curbs and gutters and other infrastructure, and maintaining affordable housing. Opportunities for improvement also can vary widely.Examples include re deeming vacant land for a neighborhood park or redeveloping underutilized land to provide needed neighborhood services. Blueprint Denver does not identify committed areas or reinvestment areas. T ools are provided in this plan for both approaches.The appropriate tools for each neighborhood can be selected to deal with a single issue or multiple issues through the small area planning process (See Chapter 8).In fact, many neighborhoods contain a mix of types and will not cleanly fit into the committed or reinvestment approaches.Thus a plan might specify tools to promote reinvestment in one portion of a neighborhood and tools to stabilize other parts of the neighborhood.Small Area PlansSmall area plans are the primary vehicle for applying tools to promote stability and re-investment.Because Denver residents are actively involved and versed in addressing issues at a neighborhood level, it follows that a small area plan is the best means to address many of the issues that confront Areas of Stability.Standardized tools presented here can be applied to fit the specific circumstances in each neighborhood.Chapter 8, Small Area Planning, covers in detail the contents and processes for such plans.T oolbox for Areas of StabilityMany tools are available to maintain valued community characteristics in Denvers many stable neighborhoods.Some of the key regulatory tools from Chapter 5 are listed here, followed by a more complete description of public infrastructure and partnership tools that could be applied to Areas of Stability. T ools from Chapter 6, The Transportation Component also are described.Regulatory ToolsThe role of regulation in Areas of Stability is to ensure that land uses and densities are compatible with stable residential neighborhoods.Another role is to make sure that beneficial commercial development in reinvestment areas is not impeded and that any redevelopment that occurs is attractive and supportive of transit, walking and bicycling.Regulation also aims to prevent or mitigate negative impacts from non-residential development, especially where these uses are adjacent to residential development. Just as the degree of the mismatch between land use and zoning varies, so does the range of possible solutions.In some cases, the underlying zoning allows redevelopment projects that are grossly incompatible with buildings

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124valued by the community, and a change to a different zoning designation is warranted to prevent this.In other cases, the mismatches are minor, so amendments to the zones regulatory language are sufficient to address the specific issues. Language amendmentsA change in the language of a zone district is one tool that can improve compatibility of buildings within an Area of Stability. Creating new and more appropriate zone districtsIn some cases there are gaps in zone districts that make it difficult to find an appropriate fit between the land uses in an area and zoning.A replacement or new zone district may be needed. Map amendmentsIn some cases it may be appropriate to change the zoning in an area to create a better match between existing land uses and the zoning. Design standardsFor certain Areas of Stability the underlying zoning is generally appropriate, but specific design features of new development are not compatible with existing development that is valued by the community.Specific design standards include garage treatment, window and door placement, and the presence of front porches (See the matrix at the end of Chapter 4). Development standardsDevelopment standards regulate building dimensions and orientation to ensure that new development is compatible with its surroundings.Such standards include floor area ratio limits, bulk limits, parking and garage location, height limits, and setbacks (especially minimum and maximum front-yard setbacks).Landscaping is one of the most prized amenities in the Areas of Stability.When new investment provides a landscaped area substantially smaller than seen around nearby homes, it can be disconcerting to neighbors (See the matrix at the end of Chapter 4).The following is an example of how several development standards can be combined to address landscaping for new developments.Clarify maximum lot coverage standards to exclude hardscape or impermeable surfaces.Use alleys to access new garages and parking where alleys exist, leaving the entire front setback available for landscaping.Increase minimum landscaping percentages to better match historical patterns.Establish minimum side-yard landscaping requirements to ensure a landscaped buffer between adjacent houses.Require existing trees in the frontyard setback to be preserved.A house substantially larger than the other homes in the neighborhood. ^AREASOFSTABILITY

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Landmark designationIf there is a large concentration of historically significant buildings in a neighborhood, Landmark designation may be appropriate. Overlay zonesThis type of zoning can apply to areas where there are similar objectives but where the base zoning varies or where additional standards are needed to reinforce a certain character.Two examples are overlay zones for transit and pedestrian districts.Public Infrastructure ToolsIn addition to regulation, infrastructure improvements can directly improve conditions in Areas of Stability.Minor investments such as curbs and gutters and sidewalks can have a significant impact.In revitalization areas, public infrastructure also can set the stage for private investment. Street improvementsRight-of-way improvements can greatly change or r estore the character to a street improving its pedestrian friendliness and providing a context for increased investment.Collectors and arterials can be improved by providing landscaped medians or more sidewalk space and room for street trees.Bulbouts can be built at intersections to minimize the distance pedestrians must cross while increasing their view of oncoming traffic.Increased on-street parking provides a greater buffer between pedestrians and traffic. Pedestrian amenitiesStreet improvements such as street trees, lighting, and street furniture provide the context for increased investment in an area. This tool can help change market perceptions and increase local pride in an area.Such improvements also encourage walking. Traf fic calmingAs traffic congestion increases on arterial street systems, neighborhood collector and local streets may be affected by non-local traffic spreading through them.This will be addressed through the implementation of a neighborhood traffic management program. T ransit improvementsHigh-frequency, high-quality transit service can help decrease auto use on certain streets and, in Reinvestment Areas, attract development. Parks and open spaceCertain Areas of Stability may have a lack of r ecreational opportunities such as a recreation center.These shortcomings can be identified during the small area planning process and addressed using methods detailed in the Denver Parks and Recreation Game Plan.The attractiveness of the 6th A venue and York intersection was greatly improved by landscaping and street furniture. City Council passed an ordinance to preserve established trees in the front setback of r esidential zone lots. Older, mature trees contribute to neighborhood character, provide shade and serve as a buffer. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 7 AREAS OF STABILITY AND AREAS OF CHANGE 125ANDAREASOFCHANGE

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AREASOFSTABILITY126C apitol Heights on Grant and 13th is a mixed income and mixed-use development that offers affordable housing in the Capitol Hill neighborhood, adjacent to downtown. One of Denvers strengths is its social diversity and openness. Diverse living and working arrangements, fair housing and sensitivity to needs enhance this strength. A balanced continuum of housing programs and services that address the needs of all levels of homeownership, rental and special needs housing must be provided in a variety of neighborhoods. The 1999 Housing Plan, a supplement to the Denver Comprehensive Plan 2000. ^P artnership ToolsIn general, partnerships between the private and public sector are a useful tool to address many community needs that are not being met solely through private market activity or public infrastructure.The public sector can partner with private interests to reduce the risk of development or to subsidize costs of otherwise unprofitable development. Examples of uses for partnerships include:Redevelopment of a brownfield siteAffordable housing developmentBusiness recruitment and retention; attracting services to revitalize neighborhoodsJob growth in revitalization areasMixed-income HousingMixed-income housing development in an Area of Stability can maintain moderate income housing opportunities in the face of increasing housing prices.This can occur by combining public and private financing.Home-ownership LoansTo increase or maintain home-ownership levels in Areas of Stability, housing loans can be made to moderate income, first-time homebuyers.Many programs are already in place, but there may be some opportunity for the City to increase available funds or to expand the marketing of available programs.Economic DevelopmentEconomic development tools range from providing low interest loans to writing down the interest rate on bank loans made to businesses.City agencies also can help recruit specific services, such as a grocery store, that are lacking in Areas of Stability or create businesses that provide jobs to local residents.Appearance ImprovementsA faade improvement loan is an example of a tool that can improve the appearance of commercial areas.These loans usually are provided at low or no interest to businesses willing to restore or improve street-facing facades.Similarly, low interest loans can be provided to homeowners to improve the appearance of their homes.These loans are a relatively inexpensive way for the City to improve the appearance of commercial streets, neighborhood centers and homes. In revitalization areas, a partnership that produces a successful result can lead the way for the private sector to follow.For example, a financially

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successful mixed-use project of housing and retail will enable private interests to more easily obtain financing for similar projects and at lower interest rates. More importantly, private developers may begin to look at the area with a more favorable viewpoint.Areas of ChangeThe purpose of Areas of Change is to channel growth where it will be beneficial and can best improve access to jobs, housing and services with fewer and shorter auto trips.Areas of Change are parts of the city where most people agree that development or redevelopment would be beneficial. As steps are taken to plan for, and, in some cases, develop or redevelop these areas, a high priority will be providing housing opportunities for existing residents.A major goal is to increase economic activity in the area to benefit existing residents and businesses, and where necessary, provide the stimulus to redevelop. Areas of Change are found throughout Denver.These areas have many different characteristics, but some of the most common traits are close proximity to a commercial arterial street, along a historical trolley route, adjacent to existing or planned light-rail stops, or locations in older industrial areas or in large vacant areas.Opportunities for pedestrian-oriented, mixed-use development can be found in most of these areas. Many of the Areas of Change are located near downtown. Some of them have r elatively high concentrations of minority populations and lower-income groups.Successfully developing these Areas of Change should not come at the expense of displacing these residents.Instead, these redevelopments should become diverse neighborhoods, both in income and ethnic background; but this should be largely through the addition of new residents to the areas, rather than by displacement.The City must be careful to encourage the retention of low-income residents.Whenever possible, new investment should be encouraged in a way that benefits local residents and supports entrepreneurial activity.Therefore, regulatory reform, strategic investments and aggressive housing programs must accompany the development of most of the Areas of Change to ensure that these become wonderful neighborhoods for all, not just for the fortunate few. Areas of Change provide Denver with the opportunity to focus growth in a way that benefits the city as a whole.Future residents and workers in these areas will have excellent access to efficient forms of transportation that include walking, biking, buses and light rail.However, redevelopment in these areas does more than just reduce the potential traffic congestion in the city.New development can improve the economic base, provide jobs, and enhance theGrowth can be channeled to areas near transit, providing transportation options as well as creating economic activity for residents. The 1999 Housing Plan states that diverse housing opportunities should be provided in the City. It is important to provide a full range of housing types and price ranges and to adopt policies that maintain diversity over time. Where necessary, the City should adopt r egulations and/or incentives to facilitate the production of new affordable housing. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 7 AREAS OF STABILITY AND AREAS OF CHANGE 127ANDAREASOFCHANGE

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AREASOFSTABILITY128visual quality of buildings, streets and neighborhoods, thereby positively affecting the quality of life in both the Areas of Change and in the surrounding neighborhoods.Criteria for Selecting Areas of Change and Adding New Areas of Change The following criteria were used to select the Areas of Change.After the plan is adopted, new or revised Areas of Change can be proposed based on these same criteria.The criteria may need to be augmented as conditions change.Underutilized land, especially industrial land, near downtown and along the Platte RiverAreas already undergoing positive change that is expected to continueAreas adjacent to transit and around transit stations, both existing and plannedAreas along corridors with frequent bus service that can accommodate development, especially areas with potential as pedestrian shopping corridorsAreas with special opportunities, such as where major public or private investments are planned.T oolbox for Areas of ChangeNew development and revitalization can be encouraged through the appropriate use of tools, which have been categorized as follows: land-use r egulations, public infrastructure including transportation improvements, and partnerships between the public and private sectors.Regulatory ToolsOne of the keys for the public sector to encourage the private sector to re develop land is to create opportunities for economically rewarding development.Although regulations cannot increase the market demand for an area or a specific type of building, they can limit the size and type of development or otherwise impose conditions that make redevelopment infeasible without subsidy.Therefore, the base strategy for encouraging development is to allow sufficient development intensity and appropriate mixes of uses so that planned land uses will be economically feasible. Design standards can ensure that the quality of design is an asset to the surrounding neighborhood.Finally, for large, vacant Areas of Change, subdivision regulations can be used to ensure street connectivity for new development so that auto trips are not concentrated on a limited number of overburdened streets. The guiding principles to achieve the land use and transportation vision of Blueprint Denver for the Areas of Change are: Contribute to the urban design vision Preserve and enhance valued attributes of the area Contribute to the economic vision Expand transportation choices and pedestrian friendliness Protect and enhance environmental quality and Denver legacies ^

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COLFAX PENA I-25SHERIDANCOLORADOYORKFEDERAL TOWER38THBROADWAYYALEHAMPDENJEWELLHAVANAUNIVERSITY48TH6THEVANSPEORIAALAMEDALEETSDALECOLFAXCHAMBERSMI SSISSIPPII-25MONACO6THI-70 I-70GATEWAY STAPLETON BRIGHTON BOULEVARD NORTHEAST DOWNTOWN WEST 38TH AVE NUE WEST COLFAX/ WEST TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT DOWNTOWN JEFFERSON PARK/ HIGHLANDS NORTH INDUSTRIAL ALAMEDA TOWN CENTER MORRISON ROAD SOUTH FEDERAL BOULEVARD SOUTH BROADWAY GATES TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT CHERRY CREEK SOUTHEAST TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENTS HAMPDEN LO WRY EAST COLFAX (EAST OF COLORADO BLVD.) EAST COLFAX (WEST OF COLORADO BLVD.) Legend City/County Boundary Areas of Change Areas of Stability Arterials DENVERS LAND USE AND TRANSPORTATION PLANCHAPTER 7 AREAS OF STABILITY AND AREAS OF CHANGE 129ANDAREASOFCHANGEAreas of Change

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AREASOFSTABILITY130Changes to ZoningLanguage AmendmentsIn some cases, a zoning district that allows the appropriate uses, densities, and design standards for certain Areas of Change may not exist.In such instances a new zone district needs to be created or an existing zone district needs to be modified through a language amendment. Given the number of proposed transit oriented development districts, a new zone district may need to be created, or the existing mixed-use zone districts may need to be modified. Map AmendmentsIn some cases it may be necessary to change the zoning to establish the appropriate framework for achieving the vision for Areas of Change.For instance, some areas near downtown are zoned for industrial use but are slated for mixed-use development.In this case, the underlying zoning would need to be changed to a mixed-use zone district. Mixed-Use ZoningMixed-use zoning provides a mixture of uses to enable r esidents to shop and work in the same area.Mixed-use zoning allows or encourages residential use with commercial use, such as moderate sized offices or retail.The uses can be either mixed in the same building or in separate buildings near each other.It may be appropriate to include a r equirement that no one major use type can exceed a certain percent of the total development.This would assure that uses are indeed mixed and that one particular use does not dominate, especially in new development areas. Overlay zonesThis type of zoning can apply to areas where there are similar objectives but where the base zoning may vary or development objectives are more specific.A pedestrian and a transit overlay district should be developed.These zones should be developed using a standardized format. Landmark designationIf there is a large concentration of historically significant buildings in a neighborhood, Landmark designation may be appropriate.Development StandardsLower parking requirementsOne of the best strategies for increasing the potential for redevelopment in an area is to lower artificially high parking r equirements.High parking requirements often result in underutilized parking lots that create an unfriendly pedestrian environment and constitute an inefficient, unsightly land-use pattern.Parking requirements can also be re duced for proximity to transit stops or pedestrian districts or for sharing of parking among a collection of businesses.In some areas, parking maximums may be applied.Reduced parking, how ever it is achieved, means more land for development, which supports more active use and pedestrian activity.TheAll areas in Denver are on a continuum of change to stability.Attention to urban design details such as building orientation, signage, wide sidewalks and pleasant streetscape can transform an area. ^

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location and design of parking lots and structures contributes to a safer and more attractive pedestrian environment. F AR and building envelope limitsWhen used together, these tools limit the amount of floor area that can be developed and the shape that it can take. A building envelope establishes the structural form through bulk planes, height limits, and setbacks.A FAR approach used alone allows greater flexibility in design than establishing a building envelope while controlling for overall impacts on a community, since most impacts are associated with the use and its floor area.Design StandardsDesign standards are a valuable regulatory tool.By improving the r elationship between buildings and the street, a place becomes more attractive and pedestrian friendly, encouraging walking and other modes of non-auto travel.Examples of design standards are street facing entries, awnings, and ground floor windows.Design standards that are appropriate for Areas of Change are detailed in Chapter 4, The Plan Map .Subdivision and Street StandardsFinally, for large, vacant Areas of Change, subdivision regulations can be used to ensure new development provides street continuity and does not concentrate cars on a few overburdened streets.These regulations will assure street connectivity, set street rights-of-way, set maximum block sizes, and provide for variations in lot sizes to promote a variety of housing.Street design standards require streetscaping treatment that can be adjusted to complement the land use.Public Infrastructure ToolsAlthough changes to regulations cannot improve market demand, there are other tools available that can help increase market share by changing the publics and development communitys perceptions of an area. Basic InfrastructureBasic public infrastructure streets, stormwater, sewer, water, parks and trails is typically paid for by the developer or by the City.The developer is required to build the on-site or local improvements at the time of the development.The City is required to build the larger regional system into which local improvements connect.Assistance in paying for local improvements or building the regional system earlier can spur private development.In some cases, these improvements may solve long-standing problems, such as inadequate storm drainage.Right-of-way changes can improve the appearance and character of an area. A parking management district can be formed along a main street or in a center to address issues such as spillover parking and to work out issues such as lighting, maintenance and future parking needs comprehensively. A business association may manage a parking district. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 7 AREAS OF STABILITY AND AREAS OF CHANGE 131ANDAREASOFCHANGE

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AREASOFSTABILITY132Street improvementsMaking sidewalks wider and separating them from traffic are helpful in making an area friendly for pedestrians.Such improvements also encourage walking. Public parking facilities (on-street and off-street)Parking has r egulatory, public infrastructure, and partnership aspects.The regulatory aspects of zoning requirements for parking are as described in the previous section.In Denver, publicly-owned parking is provided on street and to serve City-owned facilities.On-street parking is available for visitors, overflow or existing shortages.In areas of intense development such as downtown, privately-owned parking lots and structures are open to the public and serve multiple users.In many cases, public-private partnerships are necessary to fund, manage, and maintain parking in an area, especially if it is structured parking.Creating such mechanisms for businesses to share parking can benefit the area with more intensity of activity, more attractive design, and lower development costs.In some areas, providing common parking lots or structures can be an effective business development strategy.Where parking is paid rather than free, there are even more opportunities to provide parking for multiple users rather than exclusive parking for each use. T ransit ImprovementsWhile public parking facilities improve the efficiency of supply, transit improvements decrease demand.The benefits of transit improvements to the region are obvious including less congestion and pollution.Transit improvements also tend to increase pedestrian activity in a neighborhood.This increased pedestrian activity also increases patronage of businesses within walking distance of the stations.A circulator bus can allow people access to several destinations from a transit station or a parking lot, thus reducing the number of auto trips. Parks and Open SpaceParks and open space are among Denvers prized features.As the intensity of development increases in Areas of Change, so too should access to parks and recreation.In some cases, investment in new parks, such as at Commons Park in the Central Platte Valley, attract new development and establish an expectation of quality design and development. In other cases, better connections will be provided to existing parks.P artnership ToolsPartnership tools involve private redevelopment supported by the public or public facilities supported with private funding. Urban renewal districtsAn urban renewal district allows local government to raise money for improvements through tax increment financing.The year the urban renewal district is created, the redevelopmentCo mm ons Park attracted new development to the Central Platte Valley area. ^

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agency determines the tax revenue from properties within the district.For a limited number of years after the district is created, the increase in tax r evenue, generated beyond the base year tax revenue level, is captured to pay for improvements within the district. T echnical supportT echnical assistance can be a useful tool to get a mixed-use or non-traditional development off the ground.Assistance can come in the form of pro-forma calculations, construction and building code advice, or leasing and marketing advice.An example is sharing a solution with a potential developer about how to build residential over commercial while meeting building codes and keeping costs down. Mixed-income HousingSelectively subsidizing housing development costs in Areas of Change can help meet moderate income housing needs while also encouraging people to live in areas where they can use transit, or walk to shopping, employment and services.Once an Area of Change is established, mixed-income housing is important to ensure that housing opportunities re main for people of all incomes.Often a combination of public and private financing is needed to achieve mixed-income housing.It also can be achieved by requiring that a portion of new housing be affordable. Economic DevelopmentEconomic development tools range from providing low interest loans to writing down interest.Tenant recruitment and marketing efforts can be effective actions.Also, an increase of housing in Areas of Change helps make pedestrian areas more vibrant and local businesses more profitable. Tr avel Demand ManagementReducing the number of people who drive alone within an Area of Change can keep congestion under control and make it possible to reduce parking requirements.Establishing Transportation Management Associations can help accomplish this.This could range from a single large development working with its tenants or an association of several property owners and businesses.These organizations might offer bus passes, supply vans for van pools, organize car pools, operate circulator buses, and generally encourage use of alternative transportation modes. Demonstration ProjectsA successful public-private development partnership can ignite market demand in an area where reinvestment is desirable.Success demonstrates to lenders and other developers that there is market demand and relatively less risk for development.Developers benefit because a public agency helps shoulder much of the financial risk.For example, when private lenders were unwilling to make construction loans for r esidential lofts, the City and the construction company provided financing. Lenders stepped in once the market for lofts was proven.The Grand Lowry Lofts is a mixed-income project that required a combination of public and private financing. Public and private participation by the City and the construction company generated financing for Acme Lofts. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 7 AREAS OF STABILITY AND AREAS OF CHANGE 133ANDAREASOFCHANGE

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AREASOFSTABILITY134Land AssemblageWhere land is held in multiple ownerships, the City and other public agencies may assist with land assemblage to provide larger parcels for redevelopment.In some cases, land assemblage is needed in conjunction with developing transit station areas.Descriptions of Areas of Change DistrictsThe Areas of Change are described below and are organized into districts, r esidential areas, centers and corridors, corresponding to the categories described in Chapter 4.In most cases, changes in these areas will occur through following adopted plans such as for downtown Denver, Stapleton, and Lowry, or through developing new small area plans.Furthermore, six of the Areas of Change were the subject of small area workshops designed to test the processes, concepts and tools and to provide a jumpstart in developing more detailed plans.This process is described in Chapter 10.DowntownDowntown is the center of the City itself and of the Denver metropolitan area.It has the most intense land-use development and transportation systems.It consists of a number of well-known districts within the central core: the Central Business District, Lower Downtown District, Central Platte Va lley, Auraria Campus, Golden Triangle and part of Uptown.These subdistricts of the downtown area have distinct characteristics, land uses and functions.They are centered around the Central Business District and transition in both scale and intensity toward the surrounding residential neighborhoods.There are significant design and scale differences between the sub-districts, though all emphasize high-quality urban design, pedestrian-friendly design and multi-modal transportation.The vision for downtown is to continue more of the same types of high quality office, hotel, r etail, residential and mixed-use development.Cherry Creek mixed-use districtCherry Creek is a vibrant mixed-use neighborhood with a large, regional shopping district in its southwest quadrant and a smaller concentration of commercial uses extending east of the shopping district along the 1st Avenue corridor.An office/hotel district occupies the southeast sector of the neighborhood, and retail uses line the west side of Colorado Boulevard south of Alameda.To the north and east of the shopping district, what historically was essentially a single-family residential neighborhood, is being redeveloped with new single-family and multi-family residences, primarily townhomes. The neighborhood vision is to continue redeveloping the area in a manner that focuses on livability and produces a well-integrated blend of residential,Cherry Creek has a pedestrian-friendly environment with a mix of retail, commercial and residential uses. ^

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r egional and neighborhood retail, office, hotel, open space, and public uses in a pedestrian-friendly environment.Lowry mixed-use districtThe Lowry neighborhood is on the site of the former Lowry Air Force Base in east Denver and west Aurora.The 1,866-acre Lowry neighborhood at buildout is projected to have about 4,000 homes, 10,000 students in a campus, 10,000 employees, and 800 acres of parks and open space.A town center will provide neighborhood-serving retail within a half-mile walk of nearly every residence in Lowry, as well as many residences in the neighborhoods to the west.Stapleton mixed-use districtThe former Stapleton International Airport, a 4,700-acre site, is being re developed into several neighborhoods.When complete, the Stapleton neighborhoods will consist of a network of urban villages with employment centers, parks and opens space.Stapleton, the largest urban infill project in the United States, will be capable of supporting more than 30,000 jobs and 25,000 residents.More than one-third of the property will be devoted to parks, recreation and open space.Integrating Stapleton into the fabric of the city will enhance surrounding neighborhoods and provide strong ties to the adjacent Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, the Lowry neighborhood, and Fitzsimmons Medical Complex.Gateway mixed-use districtThe Gateway area extends from 40th and Chambers to DIA along Pea Boulevard.As one of the citys new development areas, the 4,500-acre Gateway has much potential; however, the fact that it is owned by multiple parties creates some unique obstacles for planning.Gateway is best considered as two areas.The area south of 56th Avenue has the potential to be a mixed-use community providing essential services for the residential development in Gateway and the adjoining Green Valley Ranch and Montbello neighborhoods.North of 56th, much of the land is restricted to commercial use because of proximity to the airport.While much planning has been done to locate and design a grid of streets and to accommodate commuter rail to the airport, more planning is needed to direct development in the Gateway to meet the goals of Plan 2000.The Gateway Concept Plan has been adopted, but many of its concepts are outdated.North Industrial Area employment districtThe North Industrial Area includes much of the industrial portion of the Elyria Swansea neighborhood and a portion of the Globeville neighborhood.TheseLowrys redevelopment furnishes office space as well as residential fo r many income levels.Stapletons redevelopment provides for large tracts of open space along with commerical, industrial and residential. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 7 AREAS OF STABILITY AND AREAS OF CHANGE 135ANDAREASOFCHANGE

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AREASOFSTABILITY136industrial areas surround stable residential areas that need some reinvestment and are affected by some of the industrial uses.Buffering the residential areas from the industrial areas is needed.This area includes some large employers, as well as considerable land used for truck parking and junkyards.Much of the industrial area should be improved to serve industry better and attract new businesses that provide jobs for nearby residents.Other portions of the area should be converted to mixed use, especially near the proposed transit stations and to buffer the residential areas.Finally, some of the industrial area should be considered for commercial development that would provide needed shopping for residents.Descriptions of Areas of Change NeighborhoodsThe conceptual plans for these areas incorporate a broad mix of uses to r evitalize an area.Where there is an existing population, emphasis is on r etaining a diverse population and discouraging displacement.Brighton Boulevard mixed-use neighborhoodThe Brighton sub-area incorporates one to two blocks on either side of Brighton Boulevard from downtown to Interstate 70.A mixture of housing, r etail services and office development is ideally suited for redeveloping this sub-area.However, some warehousing and distribution uses may remain. This also will entail converting this industrial street to a mixed-use street. Brightons role as an entry to downtown, as well as its proximity to neighborhoods and its interstate access, creates considerable potential for back office services, neighborhood serving retail and a variety of housing types.The proximity of the Platte River greenway to the Brighton sub-area will provide opportunities to enhance the greenway edges, locate development along it, and use it as a major bicycle and pedestrian connection to downtown.Northeast Downtown mixed-use neighborhoodBounded by downtown to the southwest, the Brighton sub-area to the north, and the Welton/Downing light-rail line to the south and east, the heart of this area is the Curtis Park Historic District and adjacent residential area that is an Area of Stability.In the Curtis Park Historic District, the vision focuses on r etaining existing high-quality housing stock, while encouraging reinvestment through infill on vacant lots and reuse of unoccupied or dilapidated structures.Northeast downtown includes a broad diversity of neighborhoods and land dynamics within a relatively small area.Redevelopment potential includes a mixed-use district parallel to the Brighton sub-area, enhanced pedestrian shopping on Welton Street adjacent to light rail in Five Points and new development on vacant parcels.The North Industrial Area needs buffering between its residential and industrial. Brighton sub-area has considerable potential for redevelopment. Northeast Downtowns diversity includes the residential reuse of many historic, industrial buildings. ^

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Jefferson Park-Highland mixed-use neighborhoodThe Jefferson ParkHighland area overlooks downtown from the west.This sub-area retains much of the mix of residential, commercial, industrial and institutional uses that characterize historically self-contained neighborhoods. The type of mixed-use development envisioned intends to revive the best of these characteristics and respect the scale of historic buildings.Urban apartments mixed with pockets of retail with housing above will be one type of re development along collectors and arterials.Bordering these mixed-use streets will be townhouses and higher density residential buildings.In addition to these general redevelopment directions, this sub-area proposal identifies a location for a neighborhood center to serve residents needs.The portion of the Highland neighborhood included in this Area of Change is distinguished by its many historic buildings and districts, as well as its new r esidential development.Some of the major employment, sports facilities and nodes of historic buildings in Jefferson Park create different challenges.Descriptions of Areas of Change Transit-Oriented Development (TOD)The TOD Areas of Change have or will have a light-rail transit stop as a focal point surrounded by transit-oriented development.West Colfax Light Rail Station Area TOD with urban residentialColfax west of Federal and the proposed west corridor light-rail line comprise the West ColfaxWest TOD sub-area.The pedestrian-oriented shopping development pattern along West Colfax is similar to the proposed East Colfax (Lincoln Street to Colorado Boulevard) sub-area described below.However, unlike East Colfax, the closeness of this area to the light rail line calls for main street designs that may be integrated into the larger TOD district. Single family/duplex and urban residential land-use types surround two of the four TODs of the West Corridor.The TOD surrounding the Federal Station needs connections to destinations as well as new mixed uses.The Sheridan Station will provide parking, employment and residential uses.Gates Light Rail Station Area (I-25/Broadway) TODThe Gates TOD lies at the intersection of the Southeast, Southwest and Central Corridor light-rail lines.This largely out-moded industrial site holds the potential for high-density housing, employment, and publicly accessible open space.Proximity to major transportation facilities, the Platte River, adjacent residential, industrial and South Broadway commercial areas creates a perfect blend of uses and access to develop a model TOD.Jefferson ParkHighland has a mix of uses that characterizes historically self-contained neighborhoods. Because of its size and location, the Gates TOD is a singular opportunity. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 7 AREAS OF STABILITY AND AREAS OF CHANGE 137ANDAREASOFCHANGE

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AREASOFSTABILITY138Southeast Light Rail Corridor TODAlong the I-25 Corridor south of Broadway, there are several TOD opportunities.The Colorado Station area and the Belleview Station area offer the greatest potential for larger-scale TOD development.Both areas have the potential to create a mixed-use urban village centered around the light-rail station.The Southmoor Station area (near Hampden) and the Yale Station area offer smaller scale redevelopment opportunities for housing, office and re tail.Other spot opportunities for redevelopment exist near the Louisiana and University stations.West Evans Light Rail Station Area (Southwest Corridor) TODThis transit stop has the potential for redevelopment of the industrial land adjacent to the Platte River and the station.As with the Gates TOD, the Platte holds long-term potential as an amenity.Descriptions of Areas of Change Town CenterAlameda TowncenterThe focal point of the Alameda Towncenter sub-area is the Alameda Square shopping center at the intersection of Umatilla and Alameda.Redeveloping the shopping center will concentrate activity along the corridor and offer neighborhood-serving shops and services and perhaps housing.Alameda A venue is envisioned as a revitalized commercial corridor attractive to transit riders.Descriptions of Areas of Change CorridorsLinear Areas of Change are called corridors.They have different scales and intensities and generally fall into three categories: pedestrian shopping corridor, river corridor, and commercial corridor.The first is oriented to pedestrians and provides smaller shops serving a neighborhood market area. The last is more auto oriented with a much larger market area.West 38th pedestrian shopping corridorW est 38th Avenue between Sheridan and Inca Street demonstrates re development potential as a pedestrian shopping corridor interspersed with r esidential.Patches of main street style development define portions of the existing corridor.Redevelopment along West 38th Avenue would fortify this corridor as one of the primary urban residential and pedestrian shopping streets with a frequent-service bus transit route in northwest Denver. Market demand will drive the amount of commercial retail development, while West 38th Avenues pedestrian and transit orientation will influenceAlameda Square is envisioned as the center of a revitalized commercial corridor. Land uses and street design elements should be enhanced on W. 38th Avenue corridor to create a pedestrian shopping environment. ^

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the amount of urban residential development along the corridor.The Inca and West 38thA venue stop on the proposed Gold Line will provide significant TOD opportunity.Morrison Road pedestrian shopping corridorThree features define the Morrison Road sub-area: a town center to serve the r esidential area adjacent to Alameda; a neighborhood shopping area at Sheridan and Morrison Road; and a cultural center including arts, retail, and civic uses.In addition, pedestrian shopping is expected to fill in portions of Morrison Road in the future.Land along Morrison Road is underused, and the diagonal orientation of the roadway with its adjacent unusual lot configurations predispose the area to redevelopment that would take advantage of these unique features.The unusual lot configurations give rise to a host of redevelopment opportunities: unusual architectural designs, pocket parks, and unique living spaces.Creating a pedestrian shopping area will encourage the growth of neighborhod services, more transit service, and enhancements to transit.East Colfax (Lincoln to Colorado) pedestrian shopping corridorThe focus of this sub-area centers on Colfax Avenue from Lincoln Street to Colorado Boulevard.The texture of this district as a historic streetcar line has faded over time.The redevelopment proposal for the East Colfax (Lincoln to Colorado) sub-area concentrates on recapturing that sense of history by bolstering the areas role as a pedestrian shopping corridor.It also focuses on re development with high-density residential, an entertainment area with additional parking and restaurants in the vicinity of the Ogden and Fillmore theaters, and mixed-use development throughout.The Central Industrial Area river corridorThe Central Industrial area currently is the industrial spine adjacent to the Platte River and railroad tracks to the south of downtown.Proximity to the southern extension of the light-rail line creates opportunities for re development, including dense housing and mixed-use development to the east of the light-rail line.The Platte River corridor and the ability to change land uses within the floodplain are subject to further study.Much of it will be maintained as an industrial area, but there are likely to be opportunities to provide more employment, housing and open space.A TOD is possible to redevelop out of the industrial land south of the Alameda Street transit station.Redevelopment along East Colfax concentrates on filling in the holes to create a pedestrian corridor BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 7 AREAS OF STABILITY AND AREAS OF CHANGE 139ANDAREASOFCHANGE

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AREASOFSTABILITY140South Federal Boulevard commercial corrridorSouth Federal south of Colfax is an area of change because of its vibrancy as an ethnic corridor.It is a high-traffic corridor that serves as the primary non-freeway, north-south route on the west side of Denver.It is scheduled to be widened to six lanes.Because of the width of the travelway and the traffic volumes, the parcels fronting Federal are not appropriate for pedestrian shopping uses.The emphasis is to promote corridor redevelopment that supports transit so that pedestrians and consumers are protected from the negative impacts of a high traffic volume.Hampden commercial corrridorHampden Avenue will remain a heavily traveled commercial corridor.The r ecent improvements in bus service and the coming light-rail station have made pedestrian safety and connections a higher priority.The small area workshop showed some modest potential to add urban residential and create a more mixed-use town center at Hampden and Tamarac.Most notable was a concept to better organize access and parking to serve each block of strip commercial, thereby making it possible to add sidewalks and landscaping. This also would create a more attractive business environment.East Colfax (East of Colorado Boulevard) commercial corrridorThe focus of this sub-area centers on Colfax Avenue from Colorado Boulevard to Yosemite.Redevelopment possibilities for this East Colfax sub-area include introducing mixed-uses along this major bus corridor.South Broadway commercial corrridorSouth Broadway is envisioned as a revitalized commercial corridor where areas of pedestrian activity occur at key intersections.Adjacent urban r esidential and mixed-use development helps to activate Broadway businesses.A key node at Evans Avenue serves the additional purpose of putting residents and activity within walking distance of the Evans transit station.Antique Row is a unique destination. There is also the potential for creating some pedestrian shopping segments similar to First Avenue and Broadway.Access and parking along Hampden could be better organized to allow for a more pedestrian-friendly corridor. Neighborhoods around Broadway help activate its businesses. ^

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Guiding Principles for Areas of Stability and ChangeEvery project or plan needing City approval be it a small area plan, r ezoning or site development plan is expected to contribute to achieving the Blueprint Denver vision for land use and transportation and the overall Plan 2000 vision of sustaining Denvers quality of life.These guiding principles summarize the fundamental concepts of Blueprint Denver. The overall concept of Blueprint Denver implementation is to create as many effective tools as possible at the city-wide level.Similar problems should have similar solutions regardless of the location.Small area plans will be the primary mechanism for compiling a set of implementation strategies tailored to the specific conditions and vision of an area. This will all take time.Many questions have arisen about the effectiveness of Blueprint Denver between the time of adoption and implementation.Projects will surface that need an immediate response from the City and citizens in the affected neighborhood.The concepts in Blueprint Denver provide considerable guidance for projects and situations that arise during this period between plan adoption and implementation.The following are guiding principles to achieve the land use and transportation vision of Blueprint Denver and Denver Comprehensive Plan 2000.Areas of StabilityRespect valued development patternsRelationship of the building to the streetLocation of garage, driveway, and parkingFront yard landscapingBuilding scaleRoof shapeDurability of materials Respect valued attributes of areaDiversity of housing types and pricesNeighborhood-serving retail and servicesExisting buildings, especially those adding distinctive character and identityMature landscapingExisting circulation (streets, alleys, sidewalks)Significant views from public placesParks and parkways Respect adjoining propertyLight, air and privacyFencingOrientation to the streetAlignment of buildings along streetNight lighting Expand transportation choicePedestrian safety and comfortAccess to transitStreet system continuity Minimize traffic impacts on neighborhood streetsLower traffic speedLess cut-through trafficNot solving one problem only to create another Respect environmental qualityTr ee canopyPermeable open spaceParks and parkwaysPreservation of historic architecture is a fundamental part of Blueprint Denvers guiding principles. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 7 AREAS OF STABILITY AND AREAS OF CHANGE 141ANDAREASOFCHANGE

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142Areas of ChangeConclusionThis chapter has shown that there are tools available to maintain the character of Areas of Stability and to promote development in the Areas of Change.Some of these tools will be applied on a city-wide basis.Others will be applied at a more detailed level through small area plans.Given that it will take time to implement these tools, the guiding principles described above and described throughout the plan in more detail will be used in the interim by decision makers during project planning and development review. The next chapter describes the content and process that should be used to establish a specific vision and set of standardized tools in a small area plan.Contribute to urban design visionOrientation to the streetAlignment of buildings along streetLocation of garage, driveway, and parkingFront yard landscapingBuilding scaleRoof shapeDurability of materialsTr ansition to adjacent areas, especially Areas of Stability Respect valued attributes of areaExisting buildings, especially those adding distinctive character and identityEconomic generatorsDiversity of housing types and pricesMature landscapingSignificant views from public placesParks and parkways Contribute to economic visionBalance of usesT ransportation accessEconomic opportunity Expand transportation choicePedestrian/bicyclist safety and comfortLinks between modes (pedestrian, bicycle, transit)Access to transitStreet system continuity (streets, alleys, sidewalks, bikeways)Tr ansit ridershipShared parking solutions Improve environmental qualityTr ee canopyPermeable open spaceParks and parkwaysSite lightingNoise, vibration, and odor mitigation The new urbanist development under construction at the former Elitch Gardens site respects many of the Blueprint Denvers guiding principles. ^

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Small Area Planning CHAPTER 8

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SMALLAREA144 Small Area Plans:NeighborhoodDistrictCorridor Subject Plans:Blueprint DenverMetroVisionBicycle Master PlanParks Game PlanPedestrian Plan Comprehensive Plan:Plan 2000 Key concepts:Small area plans for neighborhoods, corridors and districts should utilize a standardized process, format and planning toolsSmall area plans must ultimately agree with both Plan 2000 and Blueprint DenverCivic responsibilities that improve the overall quality of Denver will be addressed in small area plans ^What is a Small Area Plan?A small area plan is any plan that addresses the issues of a portion of the city.Small area plans can cover as few as 10 acres or as many as 4,500 acres the size of Stapleton or Gateway.It is useful to identify three different geographic scales for plans neighborhood, corridor and district. Small area plans cover a specific geography that often has a cohesive set of characteristics. The advantage of a small area plan is its ability to engage issues and people on a close-up, personal scale.The result can be a richly detailed plan that addresses the areas unique issues with tailored solutions.However, one disadvantage with small area plans is if they are unrealistically narrow in scope, considering only local issues while ignoring the city-wide context.The r esult can fragment Denver into a parochial society of neighborhoods that could contradict broader goals.Similarly, there are disadvantages when each small area plan uses a different process or proposes unique solutions to similar problems.The result can be delayed implementation and difficult administration.If each neighborhood plan includes its own zoning designations, design standards, or street types, over time Denvers planning and zoning would become hopelessly complex and fragmented.This chapter recommends a standardized process for small area plans so they can be smoothly crafted, readily adopted, efficiently administered, and more r eadily implemented.The chapter outlines minimum necessary content for a small area plan to ensure that, while addressing the localized issues of the area, it also responds to the city-wide context and addresses city-wide goals and issues.Additionally, a set of standardized tools is included for use in small area plans again so those plans can be easily developed and efficiently administered.Small area plans also will be used to adjust, maintain and reinvigorate Blueprint Denver over time, thereby keeping it a vital and useful document.And finally, if solutions can be organized in a similar format, based on a standardized set of tools, the small area plans will more easily and therefore more likely be implemented. Also of note are subject plans that cover the entire city.These plans further direct City policy and budgeting, especially for capital improvements. Examples of subject plans include Blueprint Denver, the Bicyle Master Plan, and the proposed Parks Game Plan.MetroVision 2020 is an example of a plan for regional growth covering the entire metro area.Plan ContextNow that it has been adopted by City Council, Blueprint Denver will become a significant part of the Citys land-use and transportation policy.As such, it is

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important to understand the context in which it will function.Denvers landuse policy is set by elected officials and implemented by boards, commissions, and City staff.Land-use policy is developed in public processes that rely on public, board and commission, and staff participation.City Council reviews land-use policy-related ordinances and considers adopting them after an extensive public review process.Plan 2000 is the guiding document for land-use policy.The policy is primarily implemented through plans adopted as supplements to the comprehensive plan, the zoning ordinance, and the zoning map.Transportation policy is more widely spread out because the City is only one of several entities that provide and direct transportation systems and fund capital improvements. Denvers citizens, the Mayor, City Council, boards and commissions, and City staff all have specific roles and responsibilities in the development, review, adoption, and implementation of land-use policy.Denver has a strong mayoral form of government, with the Mayor appointing agency directors and other key staff positions, appointing boards and commissions, and structuring and assigning responsibilities to City agencies.City Council as a legislative body approves plans, zoning language and map amendments, budgets, contracts and payments.Depending on their specific charge, boards and commissions may provide direction, recommendations, or decisions r egarding the development, adoption, interpretation, or implementation of land-use or transportation policy.Different Types of Small Area PlansThere are three kinds of small area plans: neighborhood, corridor and district. While most plans apply only to Denver, some include other jurisdictions.A corridor spanning several cities or a district straddling two communities are examples.NeighborhoodDenver is organized into 77 statistical neighborhoods based on census tracts.Most neighborhood plans are for predominantly residential areas.Therefore, more than other types of small area plans, citizens or neighborhood organizations play a significant role.All plans, regardless of type, have a strong and significant component of citizen participation. Neighborhood plans often are initiated in response to changing conditions such as a large development proposal, transportation infrastructure construction, or expansion of a large institution.Because of the residential nature of many neighborhood planning areas, issues of city services, housing, education, and human services are high priorities.Some recently completed examples include the Park Hill, Whittier, and the Cherry Creek neighborhood plans.CorridorA corridor plan focuses on a significant linear feature such as a street, waterway or highway and the adjacent area of influence.ManyThe Hampden South Neighborhood has three census tracts. 68.09 68.04 68.10TAMARAC DR.HAMPDEN SOUTH BELLEVIEW AVE.I-225HAMPDEN AVE.I-25YOSEMITE Census tracts are small, r elatively permanent statistical subdivisions of a county. Census tracts usually have between 2,500 and 8,000 persons and, when first delineated, are designed to be homogenous with r espect to population characteristics, economic status and living conditions. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 8 SMALL AREA PLANNING145PLANNING

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146Small area plans can deal with neighborhoods, corridors or districts. Criteria for selecting areas for Small Area Plans: Disinvestment Significant change Public improvements needed Redevelopment opportunities Large new development T ransit station development opportunities ^corridor plans address streets that serve as the boundaries between neighborhoods.These streets tend to be long enough to encompass portions of several neighborhoods.The City or business associations typically initiate them in response to a proposed capital investment or a shared issue. Examples of capital investment projects include a major public beautification investment for the corridor; introduction of new transit technology such as bus rapid transit or light-rail; or open space and trails along a waterway. Corridor plans place emphasis on land-use, transportation, infrastructure, urban design, and economic development issues.Examples of completed corridor plans include The Boulevard Plan (for Colorado Boulevard), the Federal Boulevard Plan, and the Cherry Creek Greenway Plan. DistrictDistrict plans are for a cohesive area with common conditions and issues.The content and process varies according to the development and constituency.District plans often address the land-use, development, urban design and transportation characteristics of relatively small areas such as neighborhood, town or regional centers and campuses, as well as large additions to Denver such as Stapleton or Lowry.Planning for relatively large areas also may encompass new open space and parks, public investments, new streets and transportation service, as well as land-use and transportation issues.Recently, with the introduction of light rail to Denver, transit-oriented development plans have been in the spotlight as examples of district plans, such as the Colorado Station Area Framework Plan.Other examples include the Stapleton Development Plan, the Lower Downtown Plan and the Stadium Area Plan.Initiating a Small Area Planning ProcessBlueprint Denver sets a new framework for small area plans and provides new tools.Combined with the pressures of growth and public investment, this creates tremendous demand for undertaking small area plans.Again, small area planning is a partnership between the City and the areas stakeholders residents, businesses, institutions and other government entities.Neither can do an effective small area plan alone.As a result, there is and will be a need for more planning than there are resources.It is therefore essential to use criteria to evaluate and prioritize requests for small area plans. Plan 2000 outlines a number of criteria to establish priorities for small area planning:Evidence of disinvestment, deteriorating housing, and high vacancy, unemployment and poverty rates.Significant change is occurring or anticipated.SMALLAREA

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Standardized Process: Better utilization of time Broader participation More timely completion Faster response to changing conditions Better analysis and content Plans undertaken and updated more frequently BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 8 SMALL AREA PLANNING147PLANNINGPublic facilities and/or physical improvements need to be addressed.Opportunities for substantial infill or redevelopment are present.Opportunities arise to influence site selection, development or major expansion of a single, large activity generator.Opportunity for development in conjunction with a transit station exists. Also important are criteria that more specifically address the goals of Blueprint Denver:Creating opportunity for appropriate development in Areas of Change.Stabilizing conditions that threaten Areas of Stability.Promoting public investments that increase transportation choice. City staff from relevant agencies, with assistance from the Planning Board, will evaluate neighborhoods, corridors and districts using these criteria to establish priorities.Available resources will be allocated and timeframes established for starting specific plans.Organizations may be able to supplement City resources by helping with public involvement and participating in the planning process. A small area planning handbook will provide more detailed guidance on how to prepare a small area plan.More detail about the process, using the Plan Map and other resources, will be provided.The handbook also will set parameters for plan amendments should conditions change dramatically.Standardized ProcessSmall area plans historically have been done in isolation from one another. Lessons learned about the best method for drafting one plan are not necessarily transferred to the next.Under the goals of Blueprint Denver, however, a standarized process will be provided for all small area plans.It will entail an inclusive public process, similar format, established level of analysis, standardized set of tools, and recognition of civic responsibilities and City-wide context.There are four positive consequences for having a standardized process to develop small area plans.First, citizen and staff time will be better utilized. Those who develop plans often learn some of the same lessons and come to the same conclusions as those who developed plans before, but only after spending valuable time reinventing the wheel.Second, a smooth process assures broader participation, more timely completion and faster response to changing conditions.Third, the content of each plan is improved because time saved can be spent on evaluating citizen input, thorough technical analysis and clearly articulated implementation strategies.Fourth, implementing a completed small area plan becomes easier because plans are

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148in a similar format and address similar issues with similar recommendations and tools.As a result, small area plans will be undertaken and updated more often, implemented more easily and include more effective recommendations to improve conditions in the subject area. Any small area plan is a joint undertaking of the City and the citizens of the affected area.Considerable teamwork and coordination is required, especially if another organization, such as a neighborhood association, is a co-sponsor of the planning effort. Before beginning the plan, some basic research on the area, including a r eview of existing plans and studies should be completed so that a well-established set of steps can be outlined.Every plan must incorporate these steps, although the details may vary from plan to plan.The following sections describe the major steps, and the order in which they come, in the standardized planning process.The actual plan the written document may arrange its contents to best relay the information, so long as the plan document is well organized, clear, concise and tailored to the findings.Community ParticipationKey to every plan is a thoughtful public involvement strategy that is integrated into the planning process.A successful public involvement strategy includes a wide range of mechanisms for people to share their ideas, questions and concerns.The strategy should: inform a broad variety of citizens; provide ample opportunities for participants to provide feedback; and give more involved citizens an opportunity to interact directly in the process.Some methods for citizen participation are described here. Depending on the size and complexity of the plan or group, several of these methods may be used for one planning effort.No matter which methods are selected, the goal is to engage as many citizens as possible in an efficient, effective and timely manner. CharretteA charrette is a workshop where participants actively design a future for the planning area using maps or aerial photographs.For example, participants may identify specific land uses they want to change, specific landmarks to be preserved, locations for additional growth, changes to the street cross sections, or key public improvements. Citizen Advisory CommitteeA citizen advisory committee is a group of informed citizens representing a full range of interests that meets regularly to r eview information and products and make recommendations as the plan is being developed.They are useful as a sounding board for new ideas, to ensure that the plans content reflects the values of citizens and stakeholders in the area, and to develop innovative ideas.Pa rticipants during a Land Use and T ransportation Plan charrette. ^SMALLAREA

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Newsletters and surveysPeriodic newsletters can be delivered through a variety of means, such as the mail, as a newspaper insert, or through the Internet, to inform a broad constituency.An early newsletter may contain a r esponse survey.The Internet also can provide an effective way to elicit r esponse and comment from the public. Open HousesOpen houses are a good way to keep citizens informed while giving them the opportunity to discuss issues with planners and stakeholders. Open houses not only allow citizens to get questions answered but also to provide feedback directly to staff.Open houses also help foster a sense of community in a neighborhood, district or corridor, helping to motivate support for the planning process. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT)SWOT is an effective participation method designed to engage many ideas from many people on an equal basis.Participants are asked to identify the strengths and weaknesses of, the opportunities present in, and the threats facing their area. The resulting list can be used throughout the process to develop a vision statement, check identified issues and verify that implementation covers those issues.It also can help focus planning efforts on issues that have the greatest impact on the area. The planning process, once initiated, can best be described as a series of phases.The time and effort spent on each phase will vary depending on the characteristics of the area and experience of the participants.Phase 1 Background and IntroductionThis first phase sets the stage for the planning process to come.Typical components include:Defining the planning area and defining subareas, if applicableDefining the purpose of the small area plan for the City and for the other stakeholdersDiscussing the planning processIdentifying stakeholders and partners and defining a public involvement strategyPhase 2 Planning ContextEvery area of the city has a planning context based on already adopted plans and previous studies.This phase defines the context, which may include some or all of the following:Comprehensive Plan (the current plan is Denver Comprehensive Plan 2000) Standard process1.Background and introduction 2.Planning context 3.Vision statement 4.Assessment 5.Plan recommendations 6.Plan implementation program BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 8 SMALL AREA PLANNING149PLANNING

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SMALLAREA150P opulation estimates and projections are an important planning tool. Structures and areas can be designated as Landmarks. NeighborhoodPopulation Employment in 2000in 20203,0003,300 1,0001,050 ^Blueprint Denver and other city-wide plans such as the Bicycle Master Plan or proposed Parks Game PlanSmall area plans adopted as supplements to the comprehensive planTr ansportation, urban design, drainage, or other studies of specific issuesState or federal policy direction that may be applicablePhase 3 Vision statementThe vision statement is a concise description of the area at some point 10 to 20 years in the future.There also may be guiding principles to further advise the planning process and recommendations.Phase 4 AssessmentAssessment is the inventory and analysis phase of the process.It includes an inventory of existing conditions covering all of the chapter topics of the Comprehensive Plan 2000 and an analysis of the issues to be addressed by the plan.A list of the chapters and topics that might be included in the assessment follows.Neighborhood, district and corridor plans will place different emphases on the various components.As it becomes available, the Citys Geographic Information System (GIS) will create a fast, accurate compilation of the multiple layers of data for the area. Demographic trendsAnalysis of demographic trends should include past trends for the area, available projections and comparison with the city for population and household characteristics, income and poverty rates, and education levels. Environmental sustainabilityAnalysis of environmental sustainability should include topics such as physical setting and topography, tree canopy, street trees, flood plain, brownfields, and air and water quality.The focus and depth of the discussion will depend on the attributes of the planning area. Land use and zoningA key component of the land-use and zoning study is to evaluate, refine and correct the Blueprint Denver Plan Map. Refinements may include regional and local destinations and additional Areas of Change and Areas of Stability.The existing land-use regulatory framework (zoning, view plane, historic structures and districts, design review districts) must be defined and mapped.The same must be done for the existing land uses and built form attributes.A comparison of these can identify needed buffers and transitions between different uses and densities and significant discrepancies between land use and zoning.Another component is to define the likely change agents such as significant land assembleges, opportunity sites, and major proposed projects.

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HousingAnalysis of housing should include housing characteristics and change over time, an inventory of housing by type, home ownership and tenancy trends, and housing cost compared to city and metro area. Opportunities to meet a broader range of housing types and prices also should be identified. LegaciesPlan 2000 identifies legacies such as historic preservation, parks, and urban design.Mapping residential types and discussing types of architecture, building materials, site attributes, and other aspects of urban form is one component.The historic preservation element should discuss the history of development and resulting development pattern and identify landmark structures and districts, both designated and eligible.Similarly, the existing parks, parkways, and open space system needs to be evaluated and mapped.Some of the other urban design elements may include significant views, focal points, gateways, and area and sub-area edges. MobilityMajor components of mobility may include the street system (overall street pattern, street classification, street type), traffic patterns and volumes, parking issues and inventory, transit routes and frequencies, bike ro utes, pedestrian connections (especially related to destinations), and pedestrian and bike safety issues.In some planning areas, attention may be given to identifying existing or potential pedestrian or transit priority areas and to neighborhood traffic management issues. Economic activityEconomic activity will vary considerably from one area to another.Where considerable employment, retail and other activity is an important present or future attribute, information about existing businesses and employment, retail, and industrial areas and sub-areas is essential. Other information may include estimates of employment by category and inventory of other economic generators, significant retail shopping patterns in and out of the planning area, and development trends.In some cases, it may be appropriate to conduct a market study. NeighborhoodThe key attributes of neighborhood issues may include the social fabric of the area (community organizations and informal gathering places, for example), communication, and an inventory of community facilities (schools, recreation centers, religious institutions, senior centers, libraries, other public facilities, and major private facilities).In some areas, public safety and health issues (crime rates) will be significant. Arts and CultureArts and culture is sometimes an important component for an area.An inventory of large and small arts and cultural facilities often is the best way to depict this characteristic. The Vision of Plan 2000: Denver Comprehensive Plan 2000 is the effort of hundreds of residents, looking through their differing lenses, to agree on the Citys long-term purposes, to think through Denvers special inheritance and its effect on those purposes, and then to suggest strategies that will buy that inheritance as much long-term insurance as possible to sustain it for the future. The Guiding Principles of Plan 2000: The following guiding principles Economic Opportunity, Environmental Stewardship, Equity and Engagement are the core values of Plan 2000. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 8 SMALL AREA PLANNING151PLANNING

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152Phase 5 Plan RecommendationsThe plan recommendations must incorporate three components: a concept plan for the planning area (based on the Blueprint Denver Plan Map); plan r ecommendations in the form of goals and objectives, issue identification and r esolution; and civic responsibilities.Phase 6 Plan Implementation ProgramThe final component of the plan is to create an implementation program by applying the tool kit to achieve the plan recommendations.As discussed earlier, the tool kit has three types of tools regulatory, public infrastructure, and public-private partnership that need to be considered and used to achieve the plan recommendations.Other components of the implementation program may include discussion of the capacity and resources for implementation (public, private, nonprofit, organizational) and assignment of priorities, responsibility and schedule.Follow up for evaluating progress and setting new priorities also should be discussed.Civic Responsibilities and Community ContextA basic tenet of small area plans is that specific areas cannot solve problems at the expense of their neighbors or the city as a whole.Each small area should address a set of civic responsibilities that will improve the citys livability.As an example:it is a civic responsibility to provide many different housing types to accommodate people of different ages and income levels.By addressing this responsibility, Denver can be an accessible place for many different types of individuals and families.Another is accepting and re inforcing the Area of Change and Area of Stability designations that have been refined by the planning process.This assures a city-wide approach to channeling growth to increase benefits and minimize burdens.Blueprint Denver Plan MapAs a key inventory step, an areas Blueprint Denver map gets reviewed, corrected and refined to balance neighborhood and city-wide interests.This includes the Areas of Change and Areas of Stability within the area, as well as the street types and transit lines.The plan recommendations must justify any significant deviation from the Blueprint Denver Plan Map.If the small area plan recommends land-use types, transportation, Areas of Change, and Areas of Stability consistent with Blueprint Denver, this portion of the plan would be considered acceptable without further study.If recommended changes represent an underlying change from Blueprint Denver, a technical study will be required to see if the change suggested has a significant impact to the city as a whole and if that impact is positive or negative.Small theaters can be a neighborhood attribute. Goal: Improve access for neighborhood residents Issue: T ransit is inadequate Recommendation: Increase the frequency of bus service ^SMALLAREA

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A verage home sales prices and rents have been increasing rapidly. PriceYear199019952000 BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 8 SMALL AREA PLANNING153PLANNINGThrough the process of producing a small area plan, it might be determined that lower or higher levels of growth would be consistent with the plans vision.Minor differences up to a 20 percent variation do not need to be specifically addressed.However, major differences should be addressed in the plan, and any impact on Denver as a whole should be examined.This includes not only the individual impact of the specific plan, but also the cumulative impact of similar decisions in other plans.Other Civic ResponsibilitiesAffordable housingThe need for a broad range of housing types and prices throughout the city is very important to the quality of life for Denver as well as the entire region.A diversity of housing is essential in every part of the city.Housing types that meet the needs of each particular stage in life enables a resident to age within the same neighborhood.This allows the young and old to live in the same neighborhood with their parents and children respectively, if they so choose.Affordable housing also can mean modest-wage workers living closer to their jobs, decreasing transportation expenses and increasing transportation efficiency. T ransportation system integrityHaving a connected regional system of r oads and rapid transit is essential to continuing the metropolitan areas vitality.Improving streets so that they complement adjacent land uses, and vice versa, is encouraged.Roadways of city-wide importance and new transit lines are identified and discussed in Chapter 6.For example, there may be an opportunity to increase sidewalk width, provide on-street parking or add a transit stop along certain commercial streets.However, to decrease the traffic capacity of a street or reroute a transit line may have adverse impacts on other parts of the city. Tr ansit Oriented Development (TOD)TOD is an example of another transportation element in Blueprint Denver that has broad importance for the city.TODs bring employees and residents within walking distance of highfrequency transit routes, and, as a result, improve the efficiency of the r egional transportation system. Community facilitiesWhile most community facilities are viewed positively, those that are deemed less desirable nonetheless often are essential to serving the needs of the neighborhood and the City.Some of these facilities are best clustered, while others need to be dispersed throughout the city.Every plan needs to deal with existing facilities and potential expansions, as well as new facilities.Some major facilities will r equire special planning and site selection processes.

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SMALLAREA154Consistency with adopted plansA proposed plan must be consistent with already adopted plans including Plan 2000, Blueprint Denver and plans for adjacent small areas.Substantial differences between the proposed plan and adopted plans must be identified.In some cases, the difference may point out a new trend that should be reflected in other plans; if not, the proposed plan should be adjusted.The Planning Boards review and r ecommendations regarding proposed plans will take this into consideration. Regional coordinationRegional coordination is increasingly important to Denver.In some cases, consistency with regional smart growth and transportation policies may take priority over local neighborhood recommendations.Required Content and Graphics FormatFor ease of administration, each small area plan should follow the same basic format that is outlined in the content above.Within this basic format, flexibility is allowed as long as the minimum content outlined in this chapter is addressed.In addition to the basic order and minimum content, each plan should:Use standardized toolsSummarize recommendationsDetermine priorities among the recommendationsTools For Small Area PlansLand-use and transportation conclusions in the small area plans should use standard tools, available City-wide, that are contained in Blueprint Denvers toolbox.If a new tool is needed, it will be developed for use in other neighborhoods as well.The use of standardized tools keeps the administrative burden on the City within a reasonable level and enables recommendations to be drafted and implemented more quickly.Regulatory ToolsRegulatory tools can be implemented to shape, encourage and discourage future land-use changes.ZoningZoning tools include:Keep zoning as isAmend language in codeRezone selected parcels to a new district ^

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Apply fundamental overlay zones e.g.transit or pedestrian overlay Utilize a specific overlay zone district Evaluate the need for additional development guidelines reviewLandmark districtFor those buildings or districts with architectural, historical or geographical significance, a landmark district may be recommended to provide protection from demolition or inappropriate remodeling.V iew protectionA view of downtown or the mountains from a point in an important public place can be recommended for protection through a view preservation ordinance.Public Infrastructure ToolsPublic investments in an area have an immediate impact and are not subject to market conditions and private decisions.However, they are subject to a competitive City budgetary process.Plans should prioritize desired investments to ensure that the most beneficial investments are addressed first.Recommendations from city-wide and small area plans will be included in the annual budget process. The cost of public infrastructure is such that small area plans must include an evaluation of existing infrastucture for condition and capacity to handle future growth or change in land use.The plan also should identify all the potential sources of revenue, be they public, private, or partnership.T ransportationTr ansportation investments include:Neighborhood traffic managementStreet improvements, including storm drainage, alleys and targeted r oadway capacity improvementsMediansTr ansit improvementsnew bus routeimproved bus servicefixed-guideway buseslight-rail transit corridorslocal circulator busesadditional transit stopsimprovements to transit stops, including pedestrian connections BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 8 SMALL AREA PLANNING155PLANNING

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SMALLAREA156Bike lane, route, path, and other amenitiesSidewalk improvementsPriority signals for pedestrians, bikes and transitStreet trees/detached walksStreet furnitureParking structures and/or surface lots (shared-use) The following table gives a sample of some construction costs for transportation improvements. Linear improvements are for a length of about one block or 600 linear feet (l.f.). Infrastructure ElementCost (2001 dollars) Bus bench (1)$1,000 Bus shelter (1)$7,500 Bike lane-on-street (600 l.f.)$1,000 Bike path-off-street (600 l.f.)$47,000 Sidewalk (600 l.f.)$34,000 Curb & gutter (600 l.f.)$36,000 Alley (600 l.f.)$105,000 Roadway paving-asphalt (600 l.f.)$110,000 Tr affic signal (1)$150,000P arksNew parks and open spaces have obvious benefits to the community and surrounding property owners.Park facilities are popular and sought after but can be expensive to create, operate and maintain.Combining facilities such as parks and open space with storm water quality and detention facilities is imporant but requires additional operation and maintenance coordination.Green streets beautified pedestrian connections along streets between parks.Parkways streets with broad medians and treelawnsParks neighborhood, community or regional scaleOpen spaces natural areasPlazas public space within more dense urban districtsF acilitiesSome neighborhoods are in need of key civic facilities such as:Recreation centersLibrariesBallfieldsPa rks and parkways, like 17th Avenue Parkway, are neighborhood assets. ^

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Partnerships ToolsIn the absence of a strong private development market that can produce positive change without public money, partnerships can be formed between public and private partners.In Areas of Change, a partnership can help stimulate additional private investment by changing market perceptions.In Areas of Stability, partnerships can be useful tools in developing affordable housing or in improving a business district.Partnerships are discussed more fully in Chapter 7.Examples of investments that can occur through partnerships include:Shared parking Brownfield mitigationPublic plazas or parksAffordable housingLand assemblageBusiness recruitmentFaade improvement loansBusiness incubatorPilot projects V arious revenue sources are available to the City including Community Development Block Grants, tax increment financing and special programs, such as funding for cleaning up brownfields.Implementation of Small Area Plans Into City-wide Policies and PrioritiesPlan AdoptionBecause small area plans are so important in helping direct future resources, adoption involves a thorough evaluation, as well as formal action.The process, in order, is as follows:A completed plan draft is formally submitted to the Planning Director.The Planning Director directs a multi-agency, technical review committee to evaluate the plans format, contents and process, especially related to the Comprehensive Plan, Blueprint Denver, and other adopted plans.The committee recommends changes as needed.The recommended changes, if any, are reviewed by the entity that drafted the plan, and then a r esponse to the recommendations is submitted.The Planning Director transmits the revised plan to the Planning Board for a work session to review the contents, committeeThis median addition on Logan is both a transportation and aesthetic improvement BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 8 SMALL AREA PLANNING157PLANNING

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SMALLAREA158r ecommendations and compatibility with Plan 2000, Blueprint Denver and other adopted plans.Planning Board conducts a public hearing and makes a r ecommendation to City Council based on the review committees findings and public testimony.City Council acts on adopting the proposed plan as a supplement to Plan 2000. The adopted plan is put into digital format and published electronically. Limited numbers of printed copies will be available.City Commits To Implement Conforming PlansThe premise of Blueprint Denver is that similar problems should have similar solutions.The toolkit presents a variety of mechanisms for developing implementation strategies for small area plans.If plans take advantage of the broader range of tools in the regulatory, public infrastructure, and partnership categories, City implementation should be readily available. Implementation takes place on many levels for the City and other partners. Regular recommendations and decisions such as review of proposed developments and recommendations on rezonings can benefit from a thoughtful, clear small area plan.Similarly, a neighborhood associations annual work program can be more targeted based on clear recommendations. Some of the more substantial recommendations, such as public infrastructure, are dependent on the highly competitive annual funding of capital improvements.Evaluation of the PlanOne of the criteria the City will use to consider implementing a plans programs is the effectiveness of proposed investments in improving conditions in the City, as measured by objective benchmarks.Therefore, the plan should attempt to forecast how it would improve those benchmarks that are applicable to the small area planning process.What About Existing Neighborhood Plans?Until they are updated using this process, existing neighborhood plans will continue to guide City decisions.For example, plans that call for implementation through zone changes or neighborhood improvements will continue to be considered for implementation.However, existing neighborhood plans vary greatly in their format and their implementation effects. Neighborhood plan updates should build on the foundation of prior plans. These plans represented the neighborhood and City consensus at the time Policies for Plans: Consistent with Plan 2000 Standardized content and format Standardized tools Address civic r esponsibilities City implementation ^

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the plan was completed.In many cases, these plans have been the agents of change for the areas they serve.A comprehensive review of the successes, failures and the ideas not yet implemented should form the foundation of any renewed planning effort.Summary of PoliciesSmall area plans must be in agreement with Plan 2000 and Blueprint Denver prior to adoption by City Council.If the small area plan complies with these two City-wide plans, it may be adopted without delay.If the small area plan conflicts with these two plans, it must be reviewed and r econciled, either through modifications to the small area plan or to Blueprint Denver.The City will establish a standardized content and format for small area plan documents.The City will establish a standardized set of tools to be used for implementing small area plans.Recommendations should be prioritized within the plan document.Small area plans must address applicable civic responsibilities.The City will commit to implement adopted small area plans that are in agreement with Plan 2000 and Blueprint Denver, subject to the Citys competitive budget process. This standardized approach to small area planning in Denver creates new opportunities.Plans can be developed more quickly, standardized tools can be applied, and subjects can be covered comprehensively.This process allows Small Area Plans to tackle required issues and to emphasize the qualities of place that make Denver unique, inviting and interesting. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 8 SMALL AREA PLANNING159PLANNING

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160 Interstates Major St reets Community Centers Cultural Facilites Recreation Centers Hospitals DFD Stations DPD Stations Publ ic Libraries DPS Schools County BoundaryLEGEND Denver International AirportDenver International Airport (see inset below) Green Valley Ranch Gateway Montbello Stapleton East Colfax South Park Hill Montclair Hale Hilltop Lowry Field WindsorWashingtonVirginia Vale Indian Creek Southmoor ParkVirginia Village Goldsmith University Hills University Park CoryMerrill BelcaroWashington Park Washington Park westUniversity RosedaleOverlandRuby Hill Mar Lee Harvey Park Harvey Park South Fort Logan Marston Bear Valley Athmar Park Valverde Baker Speer Country Club Cherry CreekCongress ParkCity ParkSkylandClayton Cole Five Points CBD AurariaCity Park West Civic Center Capitol Hill Lincoln Park Sun Valley Union Station Whittier Cheeseman Park Platte ParkSouth Platte College View Wellshire Hampden Hampden South Kennedy North Park Hill Northeast Park Hill Elyria/ Swansea Globeville Chaffee Park Regis Berkeley Sloan LakeSunnyside Highland Jefferson Park West Colfax Villa Park Barnum WestBarnumWestwood West Highland ^Public facilities

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Blueprint Denver Implementation CHAPTER 9

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IM PLEMENTING162How we use our land today, defines what people will live with tomorrow. Key concepts:Inter-agency coordination will maximize resources available for planning and developmentKey regulatory implementation priorities include r evising the zoning code and developing pedestrian and transit overlay zonesPublic infrastructure implementation priorities include rapid transit system buildout, neighborhood traffic management and enhanced bike and ped facilitiesCollaboration through public and private partnerships will bring together interests and r esources to create innovative projects ^As the City prepares to implement Blueprint Denver, there are basic strategies applicable city-wide that are essential and may dramatically improve land-use and transportation qualities.This chapter summarizes the regulatory, infrastructure and partnership recommendations that affect the whole city and are a high priority for accomplishing Blueprint Denver.As described in the previous chapter, small area plans will be used to address smaller, more specific issues that require attention to the dynamics of an area.Land Use Regulation StrategyThis section outlines basic regulatory strategies to implement Blueprint Denver that apply either city-wide or to multiple areas of the city.Priorities include revisions to the zoning code, changes to the site plan review process, modifications to the Citys subdivision ordinance and regulations, and use of the Blueprint Plan map.Reorganizing the zoning codeFundamental to achieving the regulatory changes set out in the plan is to r eorganize the zoning code.The result will be a code that is Web-friendly with a similar structure for all zone districts.The initial step, described in Chapter 5, is to reduce and standardize definitions of land uses and add some development and design standards.The fundamental use and development rights of all zone districts would remain intact.In addition, new zone districts will be added to meet identified needs; one example is a zone district for transit-oriented development.ActionReorganize the zoning code with a language amendment that reduces and standarizes use definitions and adds development and design standards.Add needed zone districts.Responsible AgenciesCommunity Planning and Development Agency (CPDA), City Attorneys Office, Public Works, and other agencies as needed.Time FrameSubmit to City Council for adoption in late 2002.Elimination of Obsolete Zone DistrictsSome zone districts may be used so little that it makes sense to eliminate them, while others no longer reinforce Denvers land-use vision.In these cases, the zoning language will be amended to eliminate the district from the code and the map will be amended to reassign the affected areas to more compatible zone districts.These actions will require considerable public involvement and close coordination with affected property owners.

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ActionAmend code to eliminate obsolete zone districts and amend map to apply new zone districts to affected areas.Responsible AgenciesCPDA and City Attorneys OfficeTime Frame2-5 yearsRevisions to the Zone DistrictsOnce the code itself is reorganized, it will be necessary to reevaluate the content of various zone districts that may have land uses, development and design standards and signage and parking requirements that are no longer compatible with Denvers vision.More experience with the reorganized code will be necessary before recommendations can be given to the community and to City Council.Each district change will require an extensive public process to understand the consequences of proposed language changes and to garner support from stakeholder groups.ActionModify zone districts that do not reinforce the policies of Blueprint Denver. Protecting neighborhood character in the low-density r esidential zone districts, R-0, R-1, and R-2, will be examined first by addressing issues such as front, side, and back yard open space and the long house.Responsible AgenciesCPDA and City Attorneys OfficeTime Frameless than 1 year for the R-0, R-1, R-2 zone districts; up to 3 years and beyond for other zone districts.Correct Significant Land Use-Zoning DiscrepanciesAs illustrated on the Areas of Stability map, Chapter 7, a few areas within Areas of Stability have a significant discrepancy between land use and zoning. The most dramatic of these should be corrected.Some of the more minor discrepancies are best left until the code is reorganized to see if additional development and design standards solve the issues.ActionCorrect significant discrepencies between land use and zoning in Areas of StabilityResponsible AgenciesCPDA with stakeholder groups, City Attorneys OfficeTime Frame2002-3Revisions to the Zoning MapThe Blueprint Plan Map (page 43, Chapter 4) is a conceptual depiction of Denvers land-use and transportation vision for the future.Because it is Priority Actions for Land Use Regulation 1 Reorganize the Zoning Code 2 Consolidate site plan r eview processes and r evise site plan rules and regulations 3A mend Subdivision ordinance and rules and regulations 4Pr epare overlay district language 5E valuate zone districts for consistency with Plan 6P ropose map amendments to deal with significant land use-zoning discrepancies 7U se Blueprint Denver Plan Map to evaluate zoning map amendments BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 9 BLUEPRINT DENVER IMPLEMENTATION163THEPLAN

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164 ^conceptual, the maps boundaries between land-use types are not always specific.Eventually, the zoning map and Blueprint Denver map should be in agreement.In the meantime, when zoning map amendments are proposed, the Plan Map (and any refinements generated through small area plans) will be used as a policy guide for staff recommendations and City Council action.Over time, the zoning map itself must be amended to make it more compatible with the Blueprint Denver Plan Map.This means that zoning in some Areas of Change will be modified to provide the range of uses, intensity of development, and development and design standards reflected in the land-use types.Likewise, zoning in some Areas of Stability will need to be modified to provide a range of uses and development intensity more reflective of the current land-use pattern.ActionModify the Zoning Map to be more compatible with the Blueprint Denver Land-use Map and to reinforce the Areas of Change and StabilityResponsible AgenciesCPDA and City Attorneys OfficeTime Frame2-5 years and moreOverlay zonesTwo overlay zones transit and pedestrian will be proposed as language amendments and then be available for use where appropriate city-wide.They are intended to provide a solution for particular situations that occur throughout the city and to modify the underlying zoning accordingly.In addition to creating the overlay zone, the City may adopt some standard rules and regulations for site plan review as well. The transit overlay zone will address the relationship of buildings to stations, parking requirements, enhanced pedestrian safety and convenience, and other factors that encourage the use of transit.The transit overlay zone will be used most appropriately adjacent to light-rail stations and other permanent transit facilities. The pedestrian overlay zone will be applied to support a high-quality pedestrian-friendly environment between destinations within a specific area. Building setback, entrance location, and storefront windows are examples of design features that promote an environment conducive to pedestrians.Other overlay districts may also be developed for application throughout the city as the zoning code is revised.ActionPrepare language to create transit and pedestrian overlay districts in the zoning code.Recommendations to apply the city-wide overlays will come through small area plans or as the zoning code is revised.IM PLEMENTING

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The consistent house fronts in some neighborhoods are still apparent today Site planning assures compliance with the zoning code. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 9 BLUEPRINT DENVER IMPLEMENTATION165THEPLANResponsible agenciesCPDA, Public Works, others as neededTime FrameLanguage for pedestrian and transit overlays will be submitted to City Council in late 2002.Site Plan ReviewSite plan review is a key step in land-use regulation.It assures that a proposed development, both for the development itself and for its various impacts on its surroundings, meets all of the Citys regulatory requirements. Consolidating the review processes in the code and adopting associated rules and regulations are important in implementing Blueprint Denver.The land-use, urban design, and transportation components of the rules, r egulations and review process are of particular note, as are storm drainage and water quality requirements.Transportation requirements are compiled into a Transportation Engineering Plan.ActionConsolidate site plan review processes and procedures as the zoning code is reorganized and amend the site plan rules and regulations to reinforce the development and design standards.Responsible agenciesCPDA, Public Works, and other agenciesTime FrameRules and regulations to be submitted to Planning Board for adoption in early 2003SubdivisionThe subdivision ordinance and regulations address dedication of land for streets and other public facilities and the way in which large parcels are subdivided into smaller ones.The subdivision ordinance should be amended to require a subdivision plat where none exists.The current subdivision r egulations should be revised to ensure that new neighborhoods continue to exhibit some of the best characteristics seen in established neighborhoods. Because much of Denver already is subdivided, amending the ordinance and rules and regulations is a high priority only for Gateway and Stapleton; however, there are some pockets of unsubdivided land where making subdivision mandatory could solve some issues of infrastructure coordination. A subdivision plat must be required where none exists and should organize proposed streets in a master street plan that provides connectivity within and between neighborhoods.The subdivision plat should establish block and lot sizes that allow for a pedestrian scale to the street and building arrangement.

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IM PLEMENTING166ActionAmend the subdivision ordinance and associated rules and regulations.Responsible agenciesCPDA, City Attorneys Office, and Public WorksTime Frame2003-4T ransportation Design Standards and GuidelinesIt is imperative that a strong multi-modal street system be developed if Blueprint Denver is to be implemented successfully.Transportation standards and guidelines will be developed to link street types to the design and construction of new or reconstructed streets associated with new development.The transportation standards and guidelines will address issues such as street function, access management, medians, sidewalks, lighting, site circulation and access.These issues and others need to be clearly defined so that Blueprint Denver can be directly linked to the Citys development review and project design processes.ActionsDevelop transportation standards and guidelines manualResponsible AgenciesPublic Works Transportation Division and other divisions, CPDA, Parks and Recreation (DPR) Time Frame2002Public InfrastructureThis section describes the basic public infrastructure strategies to implement Blueprint Denver.It focuses on transportation, related public infrastructure for storm water, and parks.While funding is not in place for most of the improvements recommended in Blueprint Denver, the strategies described here must be in place to take full advantage of public infrastructure investments.Just as important are the parks improvements to be proposed through the Game Plan.Overall priorities are to:Use public infrastructure as an investment coordinated with private land use projects, economic development, and partnership strategies through small area planning.Coordinate funding from multiple public sources such as regional, state and federal sources.Develop fiscally responsible and creative funding strategies to implement this Plan. The responsibility for public infrastructure improvements has two aspects: design and funding.Public improvements should be designed to promote investment in the city.Fiscal responsibility demands that the investments be Priority actions for public transportation Advance improvements that directly support Blueprint Denvers future land uses. Support development of transit services, including r egional rapid transit, enhanced bus corridors, local circulators and transit-supportive land use. Provide urban design, street and other infrastructure improvements that match the desired street type. Prepare an assessment of pedestrian access throughout the City and build key connections. Fill gaps in the bicycle route system as recommended in the Bicycle Master Plan. Better manage traffic on neighborhood streets using a neighborhood traffic management program. Use existing streets better by applying parking strategies, travel demand management and transportation system management to full advantage. Continue to expand the capabilities of the Traffic Management Center. ^

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coordinated and multiple funding sources be used whenever possible.Local or on-site infrastructure is the responsibility of the property owner or developer.Partnerships such as special districts may enhance the quality and pace of construction of these improvements, as well as provide for on-going operation and maintenance.Regional infrastructure is the public sectors r esponsibility.The City uses its capital improvements budget, general obligation bonds, and grant funds to pay for these improvements.Other entities such as RTD, DRCOG, CDOT, Metro Wastewater, and Urban Drainage and Flood Control are significant funding partners with the City.Often a multidisciplinary planning effort, such as for a corridor, station area, or park is the catalyst for designing and funding these improvements.T ransportationImproving transportation choice and balance throughout the city especially for non-auto travel is a key component of Blueprint Denver.The priorities to accomplish this include enhancements and management strategies for all transportation modes.T ransitImprovements identified in City and regional transit plans should be funded to create a cohesive transit system.ActionsEstablish a leadership role with RTD to define where, when and how the regional rapid transit system can be completed. Identify and develop enhanced bus corridors.Support infrastructure investments, zoning changes, development incentives, and other transit-supportive strategies to achieve a Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) in rail station areas and at other key transit locations.Develop small area bus circulators to provide non-auto access to transit stations.Responsible AgenciesMayors Office, Public Works RTD, DRCOG, and CDOTTime Frame2 to 10 yearsRoadways and Other InfrastructureMaintaining and enhancing the Citys roadway and other infrastructure is important in implementing Blueprint Denver.ActionsContinue to develop inventory and condition assessments for key City infrastructure including bridges, alleys, sidewalks, storm sewers, sanitary sewers, street pavement, street curbs, street gutters, BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 9 BLUEPRINT DENVER IMPLEMENTATION167THEPLANRTD provides public transit to the metro area.

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IM PLEMENTING168 Challenges for Implementation A major challenge to implementation of Blueprint Denver is the already limited funding for transportation projects.Denver funding is inadequate to meet even existing needs. Creative combination of funding sources will be critical in the future. Bond programs, grants, private developers, RTD partnership, and other funding sources should be actively pursued to supplement existing public funding sources. ^street ramps and sidewalks.Develop priorities for re placement and repair of inadequate infrastructure based on City policy and adopted plans. Promote multi-modal street reconstruction projects that either enhance Areas of Stability or facilitate desired development in Areas of Change. Provide targeted capacity improvements in Areas of Change and other significant travel corridors. Develop a storm water management plan to promote r egional solutions to water detention and water quality issues.Responsible AgenciesPublic Works, CPDATime FrameOngoingNeighborhood Traffic ManagementA neighborhood traffic management program is a comprehensive approach to solving specific neighborhood traffic issues and meeting the principles set out in Plan 2000.ActionsImplement a traffic management program by integrating the principles into the small area planning and development review processes. Disseminate information about the many available traffic management strategies to interested groups and individuals. Evaluate and refine the program periodically.Responsible AgenciesPublic Works, CPDA, City Council, neighborhood groupsTime FrameOn-going; evaluation every 1 to 3 yearsBicycle EnhancementsActionsImplement the updated Bicycle Master Plan to fill in the missing links in the bicycle network Coordinate bicycle improvements with construction of other infrastructure improvementsResponsible AgenciesPublic WorksTime FrameOn-going

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P edestrian EnhancementsActionsDevelop a Pedestrian Master Plan that establishes a basic inventory of pedestrian infrastructure, identifies priority pedestrian areas, and establishes enhanced pedestrian access as a cornerstone of public policy. Prioritize investment in pedestrian infrastructure to support transit ridership for light rail and enhanced bus corridors and to improve safety. Develop a sidewalk maintenance and replacement policy, including recommendations for dedicated funding sources. Develop green streets to connect parks.Responsible AgenciesPublic Works, CPDA, DPR, RTD, City Council, neighborhood groupsTime Frame2 to 5 yearsP arking and Transportation Management StrategiesTr ansportation system management strategies reduce reliance on single occupant vehicles, improve the efficiency of the transportation system and allow parking reductions at destinations served by good transit access and shared parking.ActionsIncorporate new parking requirements in revisions of the Citys zoning code to facilitate reduced parking, shared parking, and parking structures where appropriate. Develop public policies and funding sources and public-private partnerships to construct shared-use parking structures in key transit-oriented centers, public entertainment locations, and high-intensity employment or activity areas. Develop regulations which require development of and participation in a Transportation Management Association for private developments, employment centers and activity centers above a certain size. Increase efficiency of the entire transportation system through better traffic management and operations.Responsible AgenciesPublic Works, CPDA, transportation management associations, private developers and property ownersTime Frame2 to 5 yearsP arking can often be shared with one set of cars in the day and another at night. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 9 BLUEPRINT DENVER IMPLEMENTATION169THEPLAN

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170Parks and Open SpaceThe Game Plan, a master plan for Denvers parks and open space system, will be released early in 2002.The plan includes a number of specific r ecommended improvements that will link Denver residents with the outdoors.In Areas of Change, new open space opportunities may emerge through public-private partnerships to design or construct a plaza or a special street.The green streets concept will be elaborated on through small area plans and should be coordinated with master planning for better pedestrian connections.Recommendations for investments in large parks should trigger appropriate small area planning to enhance public investment and coordinate with other public improvements.An example of one such major park investment is the South Platte River corridor from Colfax south to the city limits.The South Platte River has been the focal point of parks planning.Commons Park in the Central Platte Valley and Northside Park in Globeville illustrate this potential.The river corridor to the south of Colfax has yet to receive this same level of planning and investment.Currently, the area is part of the Citys transitioning industrial base.While maintaining viable industrial and employment areas along the river, there are opportunities to improve certain segments as amenities for southwest Denver, improve flood control, connect parks and trails across the river, and build new neighborhoods.PartnershipsThere are several different types of partnership tools mentioned in Chapters 4, 5, 6,and 7.Blueprint Denver points to a number of priorities for partnership activities, including affordable housing, economic activity (especially in Areas of Change); transit-oriented development; regional cooperation; and shared parking.Use City resources (often federal) to lend funds to businesses for improving their facades or expanding their businesses to create new jobs; also lend money to developers to create mixed-income housing.Provide financing to fill the gap needed to make priority projects feasible.Assemble land in priority areas.Wo rk with associations to promote transit use or to maintain public spaces.Assign staff resources to provide technical assistance.Wo rk with local jurisdictions in the region to address transportation and growth issues. The following examples demonstrate how some key issues can be addressed through partnerships.Partnerships work only when each party has sufficient funding and has the capacity to carry out its responsibilities.Pa rks and open space have been a focus in planning throughout Denvers history. City Agency PartnershipsA key step for strategic investments is to develop internal City partnerships to submit joint funding re quests and develop joint work programs. Key City agency partnerships for Blueprint Denver implementation include: Community Planning and Development Agency Public Works Parks and Recreation Denver Urban Renewal Authority Environmental Health Mayors Office of Economic Development and International Trade ^IM PLEMENTING

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Co lorado Station will become an intermodal transit center for the region. Regional recognition of Urban Centers triggers eligibility for regional r esources.Resource commitments can be made after recognition of center plans, enabling private investments to occur with lower risk. These public investments and partnerships among local CIPs, RTD, GOCO, DRCOG, and OEC and other public entities will encourage private investment. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 9 BLUEPRINT DENVER IMPLEMENTATION171THEPLANAffordable HousingTo implement this plan, the City will consider making mixed-income housing developments along transit corridors a priority for housing resources.These projects typically involve a low interest loan from the City, developers equity including equity from the sale of low-income housing tax credits, and financing from bonds issued by the City.The City receives grants from the U.S.Department of Housing and Urban Development that can be used to produce affordable housing.In 2002, the City will receive about $20 million in private activity bonds to lend to developers for mixed-income, rental housing.If needed and available, these resources also might include tax increment financing.Reducing parking requirements near transit stations also reduces development costs and enhances the feasibility of such apartment developments.In TODs, tenants could receive Eco-passes as part of their rent, thereby encouraging them to use transit to reach work and other destinations.Thus, several plan objectives can be met including: increasing transit ridership; providing affordable housing in locations served by transit and nearby employment and services; and increasing access to jobs.Regional growth and transportationDenver working alone cannot effectively manage growth.Many of the issues such as transportation can be addressed effectively only on a regional basis. The most important transportation measure is transit.For example, building out a regional rapid transit system will take a coordinated effort with the Regional Transportation District, the Colorado Department of Transportation, the Denver Regional Council of Governments, and the support of local governments including Denver individually as well as through the Metro Mayors Caucus.Another example is the purchase of Denver Union Terminal in downtown Denver as a regional intermodal transit center.Funding for purchase and master planning has been provided by RTD, DRCOG, CDOT, and the City and County of Denver.The four entities have entered into an intergovernmental agreement that addresses interim ownership, funding r esponsibility, and the master planning process and outcome.The master plan will address integrating all of the transportation modes and transit lines, maximizing development opportunities, and long-term management and operation of the station.ResponsibilitiesPublic-private partnership obviously involves two or more partners with both the capacity and willingness to achieve a shared outcome.The City must commit adequate funding and resources for these partnerships and should always view the partnership as one aspect of a coordinated implementation effort.

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172Putting It All TogetherThere are two basic types of implementation recommendations.The first are those establishing tools and processes that can be used where needed.They must occur on a general basis to help implement the plan at a specific site or in a specific small area plan.Examples of these general implementation r ecommendations are described above. Second, once these city-wide recommendations are in place, much of the detailed application will occur through the small area planning described in Chapter 8.The demand for small area planning for specific Areas of Change and Areas of Stability will be substantial, and the City and community must prioritize these efforts using the criteria described in Chapter 8. The combination of Plan 2000 and Blueprint Denver provides a substantial policy base and set of tools to undertake the depth of planning necessary to accommodate the communitys vision at the regional, city, neighborhood, corridor, and district levels.Small Area Planning HandbookTo better facilitate effective small area planning, a handbook that expands on Chapter 8 will be prepared.The handbook will expand on the process for initiating and conducting a planning process and will include contents of the plan as described in Blueprint Denver.The handbook will be a resource to promote consistency and quality among planning efforts.It will provide greater direction on the three components of implementation: regulation, public infrastructure, and partnership.ActionPrepare a small area planning handbookResponsibilible agencyCPDATime Frame2002ConclusionImplementation of Blueprint Denver will require a long-term, substantial commitment from the City and its many constituencies.This commitment must be earned through steady progress in accomplishing the r ecommendations and seeing measurable results.The land-use and transportation benchmarks will be incorporated into the Plan 2000 annual r eport.Concerted and coordinated support will be needed to adopt the r egulatory recommendations.Annual budgets and work programs will need to be formulated to integrate land use and transportation.These two plans provide the policy base fo r small area planning. 1 999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006Denver Comprehensive Plan 2000 Denver Comprehensive Plan 2000A Vision for Denver and Its People A Vision for Denver and Its People Blueprint Denver An Integrated Land Use and Tran sportation Plan ^

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Public P articipation Process CHAPTER 10

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PUBLIC174Blueprint Denver is built on the fou ndation of a broad range of public input. Key concepts:The Blueprint Denver planning process engaged thousands of residentsBecause growth will affect residents in myriad ways, on-going public input and education is fundamental to Blueprint Denver implementationBlueprint Denver r equires the action of citizens for successful implementation ^Land Use and Transportation Plan Public Process ApproachDenvers Plan 2000 called for developing a land use and transportation plan r ecognizing that the city will be a better place in 20 years if a plan successfully considers the strong relationship between transportation and land-use decisions.These are decisions that will have a profound effect on Denvers quality of life.An extensive public participation process was key to generating new ideas, reinvigorate old ideas and refine both to address Denvers particular needs.This chapter outlines this public involvement process, highlights key ideas in Blueprint Denver that resulted from the publics participation and points to future actions. Blueprint Denver is built on a foundation of broad public input obtained at the neighborhood level 19 open houses and eight hands-on workshops held in various areas throughout the city.In addition, comments were obtained through newsletters and websites.An advisory committee of interested citizens and business leaders tested each idea and suggested new concepts to be incorporated into the plan.These mechanisms provided residents with the opportunity to identify issues, submit comments and critiques, and pose questions during Blueprint Denvers development.Advisory CommitteeBased on a list of nominations from City Council, Plan 2000 volunteers, City staff and consultants, Mayor Wellington Webb selected the Land Use and Tr ansportation Advisory Committee (LUTAC).Ultimately 46 individuals accepted this invitation and donated countless hours volunteering to craft the Plans concepts.The LUTAC provided guidance to City staff and the consultant team as Blueprint Denver was developed and also advised City Council and the Mayor on final plan elements and implementation.LUTAC members made themselves available to the public as an additional conduit for input into the Plan.LUTAC meetings were held about once a month and the public was welcome to attend. In fact, many citizens regularly attended the LUTAC meetings.The Land Use and Transportation Advisory Committee:Served as a focus group to generate and test ideasBecame advocates for the ideas generated during the planning processMade recommendations on plan contentRepresented a variety of perspectives within the context of city-wide planning

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Public Input and the Plan Development ProcessThe LUTAC played a significant role in creating a plan vocabulary of terms, developing the broad plan concepts of Areas of Change and Areas of Stability, and conducting a number of public involvement workshops. The LUTAC assisted in creating a plan vocabulary to define certain city-wide land-use and transportation development patterns.The terms identified particular land-use types such as neighborhood center and typical street patterns such as main street that are associated with those land-use classifications.The land-use types were defined by characteristic elements such as density, floor area ratio, mixture of uses and average land area.The street types included characteristic elements such as lane width, sidewalk width, tree lawns and bike lanes. In December 2000, the Advisory Committee participated in a planning workshop to design alternative scenarios for land-use changes during the next 20 years.After much study, there was remarkable consensus regarding future land-use scenarios.The consensus was so prevalent among the multiple plans created at the workshop that alternative scenarios for change were unnecessary.A great deal of discussion from the advisory committee r evealed that equally important to change in some areas was stability in others.Taking this into consideration, the original vision of Blueprint Denver was shifted from identifying alternative land-use change scenarios to designating Areas of Change and Areas of Stability.Open HousesOpen houses were held at key points during the Blueprint Denver process. The first round of 13 open houses was hosted in spring of 2001 by the LUTAC, the Community Planning and Development Agency (CPDA) and the Public Works Department to introduce the initial Blueprint Denver concepts for Areas of Change and Areas of Stability.To reach the broadest crosssection of the community, an open house was held in each of the 11 City Council districts.A presentation to the Inter-Neighborhood Cooperation (INC) a group representing neighborhood associations from around the city served as a prelude to the open houses.The INC presentation was r ecorded and re-broadcast on Channel 8.The final City-wide open house was held at the Denver Public Library and concluded the initial public outreach campaign. CPDA and Public Works created a series of presentation boards describing:The motive for a land-use and transportation plan.Forecasts for growth during the next 20 years. The Land Use and T ransportation Plan offered a variety of ways for the public to stay informed and to participate directly during the development of the plan. Among these were: Advisory Committee Areas of Change W orkshops Areas of Stability W orkshops Open Houses Newsletters Interactive Web Site T elephone Hotline Presentations BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 10 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION PROCESS175PARTICIPATION

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176The LUTAC along with CPDA and the Public Wo rks hosted a series of open houses. Stakeholders: Residents, property owners, business leaders or community activists with an interest in the future status of an area. ^Initial land-use and transportation concepts developed in conjunction with LUTAC, including descriptions and maps of the Areas of Change and Areas of Stability. The open houses created a forum to introduce the initial Plan concepts and to r eceive feedback from the community.The open houses and information about the Plans concepts were announced in the following ways:Newspaper advertisements were placed in the Denver Post, Rocky Mountain News and the Denver Business Journal, which provided an overview of the planning process and listed all of the open house meetings.(circulation in excess of 1,000,000)Postcards listing all the open house meetings were mailed out to more than 20,000 households and registered neighborhood organizations.Nearly 20,000 Blueprint Denver newsletters were sent by direct mail and were circulated at public meetings.(The newsletter included a survey more than 400 responses were received and results presented to the LUTAC.)Repeated broadcasts were presented on Channel 8 of the Blueprint Denver Plan presentation to the INC.An interactive website detailed the planning activities and provided users with the opportunity to give feedback through a survey and comment section.Attendance at the open houses averaged 50 to 60 people, with more than 150 people attending the City Council District 11 open house.Participants at the open houses provided feedback through a survey, general comment cards and map notations.All comments received were recorded and forwarded to LUTAC and most were posted on the website.The open houses generated a great deal of feedback that, in some instances, led to significant changes in the Plans concepts.For example, an overwhelming number of residents expressed concern over the boundaries of the East Colfax (East of Colorado) Area of Change.The comments led to a significant adjustment to the change area boundary along this portion of East Colfax.The second round of open houses and meetings were held in October 2001 following the release of the draft Blueprint Denver Plan.These six open houses one in each quadrant of the city, plus the far Northeast and Central Denver provided an opportunity for the public to learn more about the draft plan, ask questions and offer comments.In addition to the six open houses, more than 25 smaller group meetings and presentations were made to special interest groups. The several hundred people that attended generated thousands of comments.Several means were used to solicit input on the draft plan and to advertise the open houses.A brochure was published that provided a summary of the planPUBLIC

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Synthesis Plans: The amalgamation of all the maps prepared by workshop participants. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 10 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION PROCESS177PARTICIPATIONand the dates, times and locations for the six open houses.These were mailed to those registered on the Blueprint Denver mailing list, the registered neighborhood assocations, distributed through the City Council offices, other city agencies and other interested parties.Also, a poster-sized brochure was produced that provided more information on the draft plan and summarized the main components.The draft plan itself was posted on the Citys website. A questionnaire was distributed at the public meetings and also posted on the Citys website.The questionnaire asked questions on the following subjects:Multi-modal streets verses street wideningReorganizing the City zoning codeManaging growth in DenverThe Areas of Change and Areas of Stability conceptsBuild out of the rapid transit system All comments on the draft plan were distributed to staff and the consultant and were considered as the final draft was prepared for LUTAC to release to the Planning Board.The Planning Board in turn recommended revisions based on public comment and forwarded the final plan to City Council for adoption.Small Area WorkshopsAfter presenting the initial plan concepts for Areas of Change and Areas of Stability at the open houses, a series of small area workshops was conducted to test the suitability of the land-use and street classifications at a neighborhood level.Six Areas of Change and two Areas of Stability were selected for study.CPDA mailed invitations to more than 5,000 stakeholders from all of the study area neighborhoods to participate in the design workshops.The purpose of change area exercises was to test the Blueprint Denver concepts and tools in specific areas. Participants were asked to identify positive and negative attributes of the study area and envision new possibilities for the future of the area.In the case of the stability area workshops, participants identified tools that should be used to protect positive neighborhood attributes.For each Area of Change workshop, small groups of participants came up with a number of potential redevelopment scenarios.The consultants created synthesis plans that combined the common themes from the variety of scenarios envisioned.Blueprint Denver incorporates the results of the workshops as test models for other Areas of Change that exhibit similar characteristics.Many of the r ecommendations proposed in Blueprint Denver are a result of issues identified in the small area workshops.

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178For each of the six Areas of Change workshops, a regulatory map was developed to recommend possible land uses and basic zoning modifications to achieve those proposed land uses.The plans, maps and street cross-sections developed through the small area workshops should be the starting point for developing small area plans that also will address land use, transportation, open space, urban design and affordable housing. In addition to the six Areas of Change workshops, two Areas of Stability workshops tested tools for addressing issues that are typical of those facing Areas of Stability.Participants investigated the spectrum of issues facing the workshops subject neighborhood and developed tools to protect desired character and facilitate desired change.The stability area workshops tested new methods for the small area planning process in Denver.As with the Areas of Change workshops, the Areas of Stability workshops generated synthesis plans that were a consolidation of the participants ideas. The workshops success in using a similar standardized method for small area planning will make it possible to accomplish many tasks and obtain organized feedback.This new approach will make it possible to work in several areas simultaneously, in addition to creating small area plans more quickly and productively. Small area workshops were conducted in 6 areas of the city: the vicinity of 40th Avenue and 40th Street TOD, West Colfax/West TOD, Hampden, Jefferson Park, Morrison Road, and East Colfax.The purpose of the workshops was to test the processes, concepts and tools and to provide a jump-start in developing more detailed plans.Small area workshops are a mechanism to obtain major citizen participation and support while producing plans expeditiously.The synthesis and illustrative plans generated through the workshops should be viewed as conceptual, potential scenarios for re development over a 20-year period.The small area workshop process demonstrates how consensus can be quickly formed which can be a point of departure for completing a full plan. To illustrate the nature of the small area workshops held in Areas of Change, a synopsis of the East Colfax workshop is presented here.The East Colfax workshop produced illustrations that show a potential development scenario for the corridor which focused on the area from Grant Street to Gilpin Street, between 14th and 16th Avenues.The approximately 150 attendees were seated at 14 tables and asked to discuss positive attributes as well as problems in this stretch of East Colfax.They then were asked to use icons showing different land uses to describe what they would like East Colfax to be in the future, including which buildings should be preserved.The East Colfax Small Area Wo rkshop produced these two illustrations: East Colfax today, and East Colfax as a pedestrian shopping corridor. ^PUBLIC

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All 14 maps were traced onto a single map to develop a synthesis plan.It calls for an urban residential district on the west and at other places in the corridor, an entertainment district in the middle where theatres already exist, and pedestrian shopping corridors on either side of the entertainment district. The participants recommended a combination of retail, office and restaurant uses at ground floor with residential and/or office above. The illustrative plan proposes one of many scenarios that could be developed to transform East Colfax into a corridor that promotes walking, transit, housing and shopping.It shows buildings oriented to the street, potential new land uses, streetscape improvements, public plazas and parking lots masked from view.Interactive WebsiteThe city created an interactive website where anyone with access to the Internet could view maps and illustrations, find answers to frequently asked questions, and post comments about Blueprint Denver.As Blueprint Denver was developed, the website allowed interested citizens to both read and respond to information.The site included the same survey as was posted in the newsletter. Throughout the project, products created by the consultant team were placed on the web for public review.The draft of Blueprint Denver and supporting maps were posted to the City website once it was available for public review.NewsletterThe newsletters contained much of the same information as the website, including a description of the basic concepts of the plan, a survey to gather input, and contact information for those who wished to get more involved.It was broadly distributed by mail, through City Council offices and through LUTAC members.HotlineDenver staff established a telephone hotline where members of the public could call to pose questions or record comments.Questions from the hotline were answered with a return call from the appropriate staff member.Staff also posted some questions received from the hotline on the website under Frequently Asked Questions. Comments received through the hotline were also compiled and submitted to City staff and the consultant team.The East Colfax Small Area Workshop produced these two illustrations: The Synthesis Plan [top], and the Illustrative Plan. There is an interactive website regarding all aspects of Blueprint Denver. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 10 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION PROCESS179PARTICIPATION

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PUBLIC180 ^General Public InputGenerally, the public input during the drafting stages of Blueprint Denver presented strong support for linking transportation with land-use decisions. There also was strong support for the Blueprint Denver concept of Areas of Stability and Areas of Change.The majority of the criticisms addressed specific boundaries around Areas of Change.Some of the Plans boundaries were adjusted, or the land-use designations were changed to reflect many of these comments.The West Colfax, East Colfax (east of Colorado), and Jefferson ParkHighlands are some of the Areas of Change that were modified in response to comments. Some citizens rejected the idea that Denver should accommodate any new growth.They expressed the idea that Denver should begin discouraging growth.It is plausible that less growth would decrease some localized traffic problems and would prevent unwanted change.However, Blueprint Denver shows that people living outside of the City generate much of the traffic and air pollution that negatively affects Denvers quality of life.By encouraging growth in key areas within Denver, traffic in residential neighborhoods decreases, transit use increases and suburban sprawl is moderated.In addition, growth can bring about revitalization or wanted change in many areas of the city.Effects of Growth on ResidentsEver since the Areas of Change concept was introduced, people have expressed concern about what effect it will have on existing residents.How will their lives, property and livelihood be affected by focusing growth into a certain area? Will encouraging revitalization raise property values, lead to higher taxes and higher rents and thereby, displace less affluent residents? W ill affordable housing units be redeveloped into more expensive mixed-use developments? Where will additional community facilities be located? These are valid concerns that must be addressed in the planning process.Community facilitiesCommunity facilities are remarkably diverse.Therefore, defining the institutions that are considered community facilities and identifying the myriad ways they may impact our neighborhoods and our city pose a significant challenge.The purpose of community facilities is to provide community service: education, health and human services; criminal justice; or cultural and entertainment attractions.Community facilities include schools, hospitals, jails, museums, parks and libraries, among others.They are operated by private non-profit organizations, governmental agencies, or corporate entities.The largest and most widely known of the community

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facilities have significant budgets which provide jobs and have positive impacts on the economic health of our community and, in some cases, our r egion.In many cases, they have the potential to foster greater community involvement and volunteerism, while at the same time addressing the needs and interests of diverse individuals.Thus they can enhance the quality of life within our City by promoting the education, health, safety and welfare of its r esidents and visitors. Despite the community benefits that come from facilities, they can have harmful effects on immediate neighbors.The reality or anticipation of negative consequences from new or expanding institutions sometimes leads to public controversy about their siting, design and operation.Though individual organizations may have standard siting procedures, the City and County of Denver as a whole lacks a universal approach to siting most controversial facilities.Existing ordinances do govern the location of r esidential care facilities, such as group homes.Given the individual issues and differing nature of facilities, a standardized siting procedure could lack the flexibility and responsiveness to nuance that is needed. However, Denver does have standard expectations for all siting decisions. 1.Valuing and preserving community facilities; 2.Increasing awareness of the location and distribution of existing facilities; 3.Meeting user needs while achieving more equitable distribution of facilities within the city; 4.Developing a fair and equitable process prior to making controversial decisions by providing access to all relevant information and the opportunity for interested individuals and organizations to be heard and heeded, in so far as possible, without sacrificing the greater good of the community; 5.Fostering collaboration among facility developers (including the City) and neighborhood residents and other stakeholders to reduce disputes and improve the quality of siting decisions; 6.Considering transportation access needs for users during siting decisions; 7.Maintaining the physical and operational integrity of community facilities; and, 8.Enhancing the positive and reducing the negative impacts of community facilities. The City expects to use a broad-based participatory process for siting community facilities.Such a process shall be designed to incorporate elements such as early notification of affected parties, creation of a document that sets forth the need for and impact of the facility, facilitated BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 10 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION PROCESS181PARTICIPATION

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PUBLIC182public meetings, and additional community outreach efforts as necessary to achieve fuller public participation.Support for the Blueprint Denver ConceptThrough the feedback obtained from the advisory committee, the public outreach process and the eight workshops, participants expressed very strong support for the concept of directing growth to revitalize Areas of Change while simultaneously controlling growth in Areas of Stability.The citizens of Denver see that growth can have either positive or negative impacts depending on where and how it is accommodated. The public also has shown significant support for the location of the Areas of Change.(Although some people have taken exception to the inclusion of some areas; modifications have been made in an effort to address many of these concerns.) Participants in the process largely supported the idea of encouraging growth next to many of the Citys arterials and corridors, in and around downtown, near existing and future light-rail stops, in centrally-located, outdated industrial areas, and in the large master-planned re development sites of Lowry and the former Stapleton Airport.Citizen ActionBlueprint Denver is intended to be a living document that is updated to r espond to changing conditions and to the more detailed recommendations that are found in a small area plan.As a city-wide plan, Blueprint Denver addresses the big picture issues that affect the city as a whole; whereas, small area plans are an avenue for issues specific to a particular district, neighborhood or corridor.In short, Blueprint Denver is a concept that relies upon detailed implementation plans to bring it to fruition.There is a civic r esponsibility that accompanies this plan.It requires citizen action over the next 20 years to ensure that development fosters good design, affordable housing, economic development, rapid transit access, pedestrian friendliness, efficient/attractive transportation systems and neighborhood stability.Ongoing Public EducationTo stimulate citizen action Blueprint Denver staff will continue to engage r esidents in the planning process.The broad public participation leading up to the adoption of Blueprint Denver is the start of an on-going educational program.Efforts will be made to reach out to and inform the public.The City, especially the Community Planning and Development Agency, will maintain a dialogue with neighborhood interests, the business community, foundations, special interest groups, and others about Blueprint Denver and solicit their support and active participation in its implementation. Key Citizen Actions Support funding for rapid transit and transportation infrastructure V ote for neighborhood bond issues T ake advantage of mixed-use areas Whenever possible choose to walk, bike, carpool or take transit Support the revision of the zoning code Participate in neighborhood events and organizations ^

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Public Process SummaryOverall, the public participation process has been extensive, well received and inclusive.Its important to realize the value of this participation and the commitment of Denverites in shaping their communitys future growth.When people take time out of their busy schedules to take part in these important decisions, its an indication of how much the people of Denver care for both their neighborhoods and their City.There will be continued opportunities for r esidents, business owners, civic leaders and interest groups to participate as the strategies in Blueprint Denver move toward implementation.Denver will be a better place because of civic involvement and commitment. In Blueprint Denver, as in Plan 2000, Denver citizens have been very generous with their time.The result is strong, inclusive, and visionary planning. BLUEPRINT DENVERCHAPTER 10 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION PROCESS183PARTICIPATION

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Glossary

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BLUEPRINTDENVER186AccessThe ability to reach desired goods, services and activities.Access also refers to the ability to get into and out of a particular piece of property.See Mobility.Access ManagementControl of the number of access points (driveways), and the location and flow of vehicular traffic into and out of businesses and r esidential development across the Pedestrian Area and onto the Travelway Area.See Pedestrian Area and Travelway Area.Affordable HousingAffordable housing has many meanings.Within the context of this plan, affordable housing generally r efers to households of modest means which often struggle to find housing that does not consume an inordinate amount of their income and that meets their needs.Air QualityAir that meets federal standards for pollution and allows clear views of distant objects such as the mountains or downtown skyline.AlleyNarrow access ways mid-block, at the rear of residential and business properties.Alternative TransportationT ravel by means other than a car.Light rail, commuter rail, bus, bicycling and walking are often grouped together under this heading.ArterialMajor roadway designed to provide a high degree of mobility and serve longer vehicle trips to, from, and within major activity centers in Denver and the region.Bicycle Facilities and AmenitiesIncludes bike routes, lanes and paths which are interconnected, safe and attractive; bike parking and storage (racks & lockers).Bicycle LaneA separate lane on a r oadway that is reserved for bicyclists and demarcated by lane striping.Bicycle RouteA signed bicycle route is typically designated along more lightly traveled residential or secondary roads.Bike StationAttended bike-transit centers that offer secure, covered, valet bicycle parking and other amenities.BrownfieldAccording to the Environmental Protection Agency, a brownfield is an abandoned, idled, or under-used industrial or commercial facility where expansion or r edevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination.BulboutSee curb extension.Bulk PlaneAn imaginary plane beyond which a structure may not be built; controls the mass of structures, provides consistency among structures, and provides for sunlight to reach structures.Bus Circulator or Shuttle BusA bus providing more localized bus service for a specific area such as a transit station, shopping area, employment center, the Downtown area, or other activity center.Bus Rapid TransitBuses using and occupying a separate right-of-way for the exclusive use of public transportation service.Capital Improvement ProgramScheduled infrastructure improvements as part of a city budget.CollectorA roadway that collects and distributes local traffic to and from arterial streets, and provides access to adjacent properties.Commuter RailLocal passenger rail, either locomotive-hauled (typically dieselpowered) or self-propelled (typically hybrid propulsion technology). ^

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Curb ExtensionAn area where the sidewalk and curb are extended into the parking lane, resulting in a narrower r oadway, usually to shorten pedestrian crossing distance.(Often referred to as a bulbout or neckdown)Daily Vehicle MilesA measure of the total miles traveled by all vehicles over 24 hrs.This is a good measure to show the growth in the number of cars and the increase in the length of car trips.Downtown Access StreetsStreets designated by Blueprint Denver in Denvers broader downtown area.This designation recognizes that streets located in downtown areas are unique compared to the traditional street function designations of arterial, collector and local.DRCOGDenver Regional Council of Governments.The planning agency for the Denver region.FARThe ratio of the gross floor area of a building to the area of the land on which it rests.FrontageThe part of a lot that touches a street.Functional ClassificationSee Street Function.Geographic Information System (GIS)Computer generated maps based on data such as land use or population.Green StreetsStreets with additional landscaping, often linking parks.Defined in the Parks Game Plan.High-Occupancy Vehicle Lanes (HOV)Buffer or barrier-separated highway lanes that may be used by buses, motorcycles, and carpools.Infill DevelopmentDevelopment on vacant lots in developed areas.Impervious SurfaceSurface through which water cannot easily penetrate, such as roof, road, sidewalk, and paved parking lot.InfrastructurePublic improvements such as roads and traffic signals, sidewalks and bicycle paths, water and sewer lines, power and telecommunication lines.Intelligent System TechnologyReal-time information about local travel conditions.Land BankAcquisition of land by a local government or other nonprofit entity for eventual resale or improvement later.Landmark DesignationThe Landmark Preservation Ordinance provides the authority to designate buildings and areas that have architectural, historical and geographical significance.Chapter 30, Revised Municipal Code.Landmark StreetsStreets designated as landmarks under Chapter 30, RMC.Light RailA rail system with vehicles operating on a fixed track and powered by an overhead electric power source.Local streetA neighborhood or minor street that provides access to adjacent properties only.Mobility on local streets is typically incidental and involves r elatively short trips at lower speeds to and from collector streets.MediansA linear strip of island in the center of a street often planted with trees, bushes and other landscaping.Metro Vision 2020Metro Vision is DRCOGs long-range growth strategy for the Denver region.Mixed-Use DevelopmentMixes of r esidential, commercial and office space within the same buildings and districts. BLUEPRINT DENVERGLOSSARY187GLOSSARY

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BLUEPRINTDENVER188MobilityThe ability to move from one place to another, or movement of people and goods from one place to another. See access.Multi-Modal StreetsStreets that accommodate multiple modes of travel including rapid transit (bus and rail options), bicycles and pedestrians, as well as cars.Neighborhood Traffic ManagementIncludes various traffic calming strategies to address pedestrian safety, traffic speed and cut-through traffic in neighborhoods.Off-Street ParkingParking that is provided outside of the right-of-way of a public street, typically in a surface parking lot or parking structure.One-way CoupletsPairs of one-way streets that function as a single highercapacity street.Couplets are usually separated by one city block, allowing travel in opposite directions.On-Street ParkingParking that is provided within the right-of-way of a public street, typically in designated parallel or diagonally striped spaces adjacent to moving traffic lanes.Overlay ZoneZoning that is superimposed over the existing zoning of an area and establishes additional r egulations.ParatransitT ransit service required by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 for individuals with disabilities who are unable to use fixed-route transportation systems.Also, any more informal van or shuttle service.Park-and-Ride LotParking lots where motorists park their cars and transfer to public transportation.RTDs version is called park-n-Rides (PnRs).Parking ManagementA tool to address localized parking issues, e.g.Colorado Health Center District, Old South Gaylord area, Commons Neighborhood in the Platte Valley.Parking RatioA ratio expressing the number of parking spaces per dwelling unit, or per certain amounts of square footage of commercial space (office or r etail space).Pedestrian AreaSidewalks and other sections of the street needed to move people and transition people between land uses and between vehicles and land use.Pedestrian FacilitiesSidewalks, pedestrian signals, crosswalks.Pedestrian-FriendlyStreet design that facilitates safe, comfortable and attractive pedestrian travel.Plan 2000The Denver Comprehensive Plan 2000.Planned Unit Development (PUD)Specific zoning for a specific parcel of land.Regional Transportation District (RTD)The r egional public transportation agency for the six County Denver metro areas.RoundaboutA traffic circle or rotary.ScaleThe relative proportion of the size of different elements of the built environment to one another; the measurement of the relationship of one object to another.SetbackThe distance a building is set back from the property line.Shared ParkingCombining parking spaces for different uses that require peak parking at different times of the day. ^

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Site Plan ReviewSite plan review, set out in code and regulations, determines how buildings are arranged on a site and how the development on the site relates to and impacts its surroundings.Special DistrictOrganizational and financing mechanisms involving special tax assessments and fees to build, operate, and/or maintain public infrastructure.Street FunctionA traditional classification for streets which defines engineering design and travel speed, as well as its character and connectivity within the community; also known as functional classification.StreetscapingPhysical amenities added to the roadway and intersections, including lighting, trees, landscaping, art, surface textures and colors and street furniture.Stormwater Drainage SystemFacilities to control surface runoff from precipitation, including alleys, curbs and gutters, and intersection drainage (cross-pans), in addition to underground pipes.Structured ParkingParking that is provided in a structure as opposed to surface parking.SubdivisionThe fundamental process by which street rights-of-way and legal lots are established.T elecommutingUsing computers, telephones, modems, fax machines, and other telecommunications devices to connect to a workplace from a remote location (such as home).T raffic CalmingMethods used to reduce vehicular speed and volume, and increase the sharing of streets by pedestrians and other users.T raffic CirclesRaised circular islands located in the middle of an intersection so that drivers must maneuver around them at a slow speed.T raffic IslandRaised areas in the r oadway.T ransfer of Development RightsA process that allows an owner of one parcel of land to trade the zoned development potential of the land to land somewhere else in exchange for a public purpose such as historic preservation.T ransitPublic transportation by bus, rail, or other conveyance.T ransit-Oriented Development (TOD)Form of development that maximizes the benefits from the investment in transit infrastructure by concentrating the most intense types of development around transit stations to promote increase transit use.T ravel Demand Management (TDM)A broad range of strategies intended to r educe peak period automobile trips.T ransportation Management Association (TMA)Public-private partnership that develops and markets alternative transportation programs and manages r esources such as parking and paratransit.Also called Transportation Management Organization (TMO).T ransportation Systems Management (TSM)A set of tools or methods for improving the existing transportation system to r elieve congestion with minimal roadway widening.T ree LawnThe strip of land, usually vegetated, between the sidewalk and street.VanpoolEmployer provided vehicle to use for vanpooling employees to and from the work site. BLUEPRINT DENVERGLOSSARY189GLOSSARY

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190Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT)A measure of the total miles traveled by all vehicles over a certain time period.View PlaneThe view plane ordinances preserve views by establishing, from a given location, an area that cannot be penetrated by a buildings height.Urban DesignInvolves the social, economic, functional, environmental, and aesthetic objectives that result in the plan or structure of a city, in whole or in part.ZoningBasic means of land use control used by local governments.It divides the community into districts (zones) and imposes different land use controls on each district, specifying the allowed uses of land and buildings, the intensity or density of such uses, and the bulk of buildings on the land.Zoning CodeThe compilation of land use regulations for the City.It includes general definitions and land use, and building size and location requirements by zone district.Zoning MapMap that depicts the location of zone districts in the city. ^

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Appendix

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BLUEPRINTDENVER192Plan 2000 Annual Report and Blueprint Denver IndicatorsIntroductionPlan 2000 outlines the communitys vision, goals, objectives and strategies for maintaining and improving the health of our Citys physical and human environments.Plan 2000 calls for the development of an annual report, one component of which examines community indicators to monitor the progress of the comprehensive plans implementation.Since Blueprint Denver is a supplement to Plan 2000, the land use and transportation indicators will be incorporated in the Plan 2000 Annual Report and Performance Indicators Supplement.This appendix outlines how the Blueprint Denver indicators will be utilized in the Plan 2000 Annual Report. The Annual Report and Performance Indicator Supplement are constructed so that the benchmark is the year 2000, the indicators are the data measured annually and the targets for certain indicators represent a goal to be achieved by 2020.BenchmarksIndicators are a means of measuring changes in our physical and human environments over time.However, in order to measure changes, it is first necessary to establish benchmarks for 2000.The benchmarks are a starting point that allow us to view at one time a broad range of community issues and focus our attention on those issues that appear to be most pressing.Tracking changes in indicators against the benchmarks is not intended to give definitive answers regarding issues facing the community.Rather, they serve as an early warning system a set of gauges to alert us to possible problems; or, conversely, the indicators may reveal positive trends in the data collected and potential success in achieving the goals, objectives and strategies of Plan 2000.If the indicators reveal notable trends, they should be explored in greater detail. The first Plan 2000 Annual Report and accompanying Performance Indicators Supplement compiled a preliminary data set to be used to gauge improvement or decline in a variety of indicators of community well being.As annual reports are r eleased in the following years, the data will be compared to the 2000 benchmark year to determine the progress toward the achievement of the goals and objectives outlined in the comprehensive plan.While most of the indicators measure improvement or decline generally, some will measure improvement or decline against established targets.Where supplemental plans have been prepared to guide progress toward certain Plan 2000 objectives, targeted benchmarks will be used to measure success toward implementation of these more specific objectives.Establishing TargetsBlueprint Denver establishes certain objectives that should be achieved to ensure a balanced and coordinated land use and transportation system.Because Blueprint Denver adds another level of specificity to Plan 2000, it is desirable to establish r easonable targets, which should be achieved to ensure that implementation is on course, for some indicators.By establishing targets, it becomes possible to determine whether the City is on track toward achieving the goals of Blueprint Denver. ^

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Are Targets Being Reached?Annual report indicator measurements should demonstrate movement toward projected Blueprint Denver targets.If an examination of the trend in an indicator shows that the 2020 targets are unlikely to be met (or more rarely, too easily met), the first step should be to verify the accuracy of the indicator.If the data appears to be an accurate measurement, a change may be needed.Changes can come in two forms; changes to the implementation of Blueprint Denver, or changes to the content of the plan.Changes to implementation would involve a review of the strategies and the specific actions.For instance, if transit ridership on the new Southeast Light Rail Line falls below the projections for 2006 and 2007, new strategies would be formulated and some additional actions might be called for.On the other hand, it may be that the policies in Blueprint Denver need to be modified because of changing circumstances.A change in circumstances may well necessitate a revision to a policy in Blueprint Denver and the development of new strategies and actions.For instance, if RTD fails to get approval for an expansion of the rapid transit system, some Blueprint Denver policies may need to be revised and a new approach developed.Blueprint Denver IndicatorsA complete list of land use and transportation indicators will be included in the Plan 2000 Performance Indicator Report.Where a specific amount of change needs to occur by 2020, then established targets would be included to measure progress toward this objective.Since Plan 2000 implementation is reviewed annually, the performance indicators will be subject to review and modification to track the data that reflects most accurately the condition of the citys human and physical environments and provides the city with the best information to guide policy decisions. BLUEPRINT DENVERAPPENDIX193APPENDIX

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194Denver Street Function/Classification Definition CriteriaOverviewBlueprint Denver recognizes and retains the Citys existing classification system of arterials, collectors and local streets, but also presents criteria to better classify the function of the Citys streets.The criteria are based on nationally accepted standards and practices recognized locally by the City and County of Denver, the Denver Regional Council of Governments (DRCOG), as well as by professional and regulatory organizations such as the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) and the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). Historically, Denver designated streets as arterials, collectors, and locals based on certain criteria.Blueprint Denver further refines the criteria used to designate the class of a street and, in some cases, changes the designation/classification of particular streets to better reflect their actual function.New Transportation Standards and Multi-Modal Street Design Guidelines are being developed.The criteria for arterial, collector, and local street designation/classification are a combination of quantitative and subjective measures that are applied to both existing and future characteristics of arterial, collector, and local streets.Not all of the criteria need to be met in designating an arterial, collector, or local street, and some criteria carry more weight than others.The criteria and street designations are reviewed on an on-going basis to accommodate changing conditions.The following criteria are listed in order of relative importance or weight for arterial, collector and local streets:Arterial StreetsConsist of a grid of streets generally spaced at 1 to 1.5 mile intervals;Serve as significant streets citywide, accommodating trips of 5-10+ miles between Denver neighborhoods, employementemployment and retail centers, including downtown;Provide connectivity between other arterials (e.g.connects parallel north-south or east-west arterials);Provide connectivity between or to freeway interchanges;Accommodate existing or future average daily traffic volumes of 20,000 or greater (individual segments may accommodate lower volumes);Provide significant restrictions on driveways and other access points to adjacent land uses;Accommodate the regional transit system usually providing bus service at frequencies of 30 minutes or less during peak hours;Operate and are designated as arterial streets in adjacent jurisdictions;Generally accommodate speeds of 30 mph or greater;Provide traffic signals at major intersections and driveways, generally spaced at 1/3to 1/2mile intervals;Function as significant snow, truck, or emergency routes;Provide 4 or more travel lanes; andServe higher-density and higher-intensity land uses adjacent to the streets. ^BLUEPRINTDENVER

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Special Criteria for Arterials within Travel CorridorsFor the purposes of functional classification, a travel corridor is defined as a street, or series of closely spaced parallel streets, that operate as a system.In general, the streets in a travel corridor provide the same function or provide complementary functions.One example is a pair of one-way streets that operate as a couplet.In addition to the criteria listed above, the following criteria are used to identify arterial streets within travel corridors:Streets that are parallel to major, or regionally significant transit corridors, with parallel streets providing additional vehicular capacity;Streets that are part of a one-way couplet system; and/orStreets in corridors where the traffic count of the cordon (line drawn across several streets at a given point) exceeds the vehicular capacity of one of the streetsCollector StreetsConsist of a grid of streets generally spaced at ? -mile intervals;Serve as locally significant streets (accommodates trips of less than 5 miles distance between Denver neighborhoods, or between downtown and central neighborhoods);Provide connectivity between arterials (e.g.connects parallel north-south or eastwest arterials) or between other collectors;Provide connectivity between important neighborhood activity centers such as commercial areas, town centers, schools, parks and residential neighborhoods;Accommodate existing or future average daily traffic volumes of 20,000 or less (individual segments may accommodate slightly higher volumes);Accommodate the local transit system or provide bus service at frequencies of 60 minutes or less during peak hours;Operate as and are designated as collector streets in adjacent jurisdictions;Accommodate speeds of 25 mph or greater;Provide limited restrictions on driveways and other access points to adjacent land uses;Provide traffic signals at major intersections and driveways, generally spaced at ?to 1/3-mile intervals;Function as local or regional snow, truck, or emergency routes;Provide no more than 4 travel lanes; andServe all levels of land use density and intensity adjacent to the streets.Local StreetsServe primarily to provide access to housing in residential neighborhoods;Provide connectivity to and from collector streets for shorter trips at lower speeds;Accommodate existing or future average daily traffic volumes of 2,000 vehicles per day or less;Post speed limits generally ranging between 25 and 30 mph; BLUEPRINT DENVERAPPENDIX195APPENDIX

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BLUEPRINTDENVER196Provide few if any restrictions on driveways and other access points to adjacent land uses;Have traffic controls at intersections with major streets which may include stop signs or traffic signals with no rule of thumb for traffic control spacing.Downtown Access StreetsIn refining Denvers existing street classification system, Blueprint Denver designates a new classification of street called Downtown Access Streets.These streets are unique to the downtown or central business district area.These streets provide a high degree of access to the highly intense mixed land uses including office, retail, r esidential, and public uses located within downtown.Travel by alternative modes is extremely important to reduce congestion, and minimize land devoted to vehicular travel and parking.Consequently, Downtown Access Streets are designed as multimodal facilities to accommodate a complex transportation network with the following characteristics:Higher levels of mobility during peak hours,Heavy pedestrian activity and bicycle travel,Intensive bus and light rail transit movements,Frequent and disruptive loading and unloading activities,A large reservoir of both on-street and off-street parking spaces, andComplex underground utility systems Downtown Access Streets primarily provide local land use access, and are, therefore, designated using a more local perspective.Arterial streets adjacent to or perpendicular to Downtown Access Streets for example, Speer Boulevard and Colfax Avenue serve citywide and regional travel to and from downtown.Definition CriteriaThe following criteria are used in designating Downtown Access Streets as part of Blueprint Denver.The criteria are a combination of quantitative and subjective measures that are applied to both existing and future characteristics of streets located in downtown Denver.Not all of the criteria need to be met in designating Downtown Access Streets, but some criteria carry more weight than others.The following criteria are listed in order of relative importance or weight:Includes streets located entirely or partially in the downtown area;Consists primarily of a grid of closely spaced one-way streets;Serves high-density and high-intensity mixed land uses located adjacent to the street in a downtown environment;Provides primary access to downtown businesses and activity, while emphasizing safety and efficiency for all modes of travel using access and traffic management techniques;Provides relatively wide sidewalks, with enhanced pedestrian amenities such as street trees and other landscaping, public art and street furniture, and public plazas; ^

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Uses synchronized traffic signals, with pedestrian crossing phases, at major intersections, generally at closely spaced intervals;Provides connectivity to the surrounding arterial and collector roadway network;Accommodates existing or future average daily traffic volumes of 5,000 or greater;Accommodates an extensive local and regional transit system including bus and light rail transit;Provides specified loading zones and large amounts of parking both public on-street (usually metered or restricted) parking and private off-street parking structures or surface lots;Includes specialized signage, priority signalization, and priority lanes to accommodate peak traffic flows, on-street parking, or transit vehicles;Includes bicycle lanes and other bicycle amenities on certain streets, to provide bicycle access and connectivity with major Denver and regional bike routes;Accommodates vehicular speeds of 30 mph or less; andProvides two or more travel lanes. Applying these criteria, the streets located within the following boundaries in downtown Denver have been designated as Downtown Access Streets: Colfax Avenue on the south, Speer Boulevard on the west, Wewatta Street and Park Avenue West on the north, and Broadway Street on the east. BLUEPRINT DENVERAPPENDIX197APPENDIX