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38th and Blake station area plan

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Title:
38th and Blake station area plan
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Community Planning and Development, City and County of Denver
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Denver, CO
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City and County of Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

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Transit oriented development
Public transportation

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Auraria Library
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Auraria Library
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Full Text
38 th & Blake
Station Area Plan
DENVER
Community Planning
& Development
Adopted August 10,2009




Table of Contents
Acknowledgements iv
Executive Summary 1
Introduction 7
Vision and Goals 13
Mobility 17
Stormwater Infrastructure 33
Land Use and Urban Design 41
Implementation 55
Community and Economic Conditions 63


38th & Blake Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
Mayor John W Hickenlooper
Denver City Council
District 1 Rick Garcia
District 2 Jeanne Faatz
District 3 Paul D. Lopez
District 4 Peggy Lehmann
District 5 Marcia Johnson
District 6 Charlie Brown
District 7 Chris Nevitt
District 8 Carla Madison
District 9 Judy Montero
District 10 Jeanne Robb President
District 11 Michael Hancock
At-Large Carol Boigon
At-Large Doug Linkhart
Community Planning & Development
Peter J. Park, AICP, Manager
Steve Gordon, Comprehensive Planning Manager
Gideon Berger, AICP, Project Manager
Courtland Hyser, AICP, Project Manager
Deirdre Oss, AICP
Barbara Frommell
Steve Nalley
Eric McClelland, Senior CIS Analyst
Carolyne Janssen, Graphic Designer
Diana Denwood, Intern
Denver Planning Board
Brad Buchanan, Chairman
Laura E. Aldrete
Richard Delanoy
William H. Hornby
Anna Jones
Judith Martinez
Sharon Nunnally
Bruce ODonnell
Karen Perez
Jeffrey Walker
Dave Webster
Public Works
Guillermo Bill Vidal, Manager
Brian Pinkerton, FasTracks Liaison
Terry Ruiter, East Corridor EIS Liaison
Cindy Patton, Policy and Planning
Janice Finch, AICP, Policy and Planning
Eric Osmundsen, Development Engineering Services
Frank Kemme, Development Engineering Services
Mike Anderson, Capital Projects
Brian Mitchell, City Traffic Engineer
Justin Schmitz, Traffic Engineering Services
Parks & Recreation
Kevin Patterson, Manager
Gordon Robertson, Assistant Director
Devon Buckels, AICP
Office of Economic Development
Andre Pettigrew, Executive Director
Terrance Ware, Dirctor of Business and Housing Services
James Busby
Other Agencies
Bill Sirois, Regional Transportation District
Carol Duecker, Regional Transportation District
Grant Bennett, Denver Urban Renewal Authority
Consultant Team
PB PlaceMaking
Fehr & Peers
Nelson/Nygaard
Basile Baumann Probst Cole & Associates
ArLand
IV


Executive
Summary


38th & Blake Executive Summary
Introduction
The 38th & Blake Station is part of the Regional Transporta-
tion Districts (RTD) $1.4 billion, 23-6-mile East Corridor
commuter rail project, which will connect Denver Union
Station to Denver International Airport along an alignment
roughly parallel to Blake Street, 40th Avenue, Smith Road
and Pena Boulevard as part of the FasTracks transit expan-
sion program. The 38th & Blake Station will also serve the
Central Corridor light rail line, which will be extended about
one mile from its current terminus at the 30th & Downing
Station north along Downing Street to 36th Street, where it
will connect to the East Corridor.
The 38th & Blake Station Area Plan is intended to guide pub-
lic and private development and infrastructure investment
decisions as well as public regulation of the built environ-
ment in the vicinity of the 38th & Blake Station, which is
planned to be operational by 2015. The plan articulates im-
mediate and longer-term goals, issues and recommendations
for the future. Blueprint Denver, the citys integrated plan for
transportation and land use, other adopted city-wide plans;
and the River North Plan; River North Greenway Master Plan
formed the basis for this plans recommendations.
Vision and Goals
Transit-oriented development (TOD) is a mix of uses at vari-
ous densities within a half-mile radius, or walking distance,
of a transit stop. TOD should create specific areas that inte-
grate transit into neighborhoods and help support lively and
vital communities.
Through the public input process, members of the community
made it abundantly clear that the issues they most want to see
addressed are related to infrastructure, connectivity, access,
safety, and quality of life. In response to stakeholder-identified
priorities, the goals and objectives of this plan have been orga-
nized around the themes of improving circulation for pedes-
trians, cyclists and vehicles; addressing storm water needs; and
creating a destination area in the vicinity of the new station
that ties the surrounding neighborhoods together.
Vision Statemenb The 38th & Blake station area will become
a unique destination district that provides safe and comfort-
able multi-modal access from the surrounding communities
to the rail station, the South Platte River, and between ad-
jacent neighborhoods. Future development of the area will
emphasize its industrial heritage, historic neighborhoods,
and emerging new residential and arts and entertainment
districts; provide a mix of uses where feasible and especially
near the station; ensure access and provide enhancements to
the South Platte River greenway; provide enough housing
and jobs to make non-auto travel modes those of choice; and
provide living opportunities for people of all incomes, ages
and backgrounds.
Plan Goals:
Connect Upper Larimer, Cole and River North to the
station and each other with pedestrian paths and bicycle
routes
Move vehicles safely to the station, station parking lots and
through the station area without jeopardizing safe pedes-
trian circulation
Address storm water management issues with sustain-
able, urban solutions for detention, conveyance and water
quality that also serve to provide usable open space that
provides an amenity for the community
Utilize the station investment to strengthen existing diverse
neighborhoods and create a new center for the community
Existing Conditions
Portions of three Neighborhood Statistical Areas (NSAs) are
within a half-mile radius of the 38th & Blake Station: Five
Points, Cole and Elyria-Swansea (see Figure 1.1) The Cole
neighborhood lies east of Downing Street and south of 40th
Avenue. The Curtis Park section of the Five Points NSA is
west of Downing Street; the alley between Lawrence and
Larimer streets is roughly the border between Curtis Park
and the more industrial area adjacent to the Union Pacific
(UP) railroad tracks, called Upper Larimer. Blake, Walnut
and Larimer streets have been transitioning from industrial to
residential and commercial mixed use as market demand for
these uses has pushed northeast from the Ballpark neighbor-
hood and LoDo. New residential development is especially
concentrated along Blake Street southwest of 35th Street in
Upper Larimer.
Northwest of the tracks is the River North area along the
banks of the South Platte River. River North is physically
separated from the rest of the Five Points NSA by the UP
right-of-way. Brighton Boulevard is the main arterial through
2


38th & Blake Executive Summary
Figure 1.1 Station Area with NSA and Council District Boundaries.
River North, acting as a major vehicular gateway connecting
downtown to 1-70. The northeast section of River North lies
within the Elyria-Swansea NSA. It is an industrial area along
Brighton Boulevard that is physically separated from the
residential part of Elyria by the 1-70 viaduct.
Station Area Households
The median household income levels of Cole and Five Points
are more than 20% lower than the citywide figure. In addi-
tion, both neighborhoods have a large number of households
that earn less than $15,000 a year. Households within the
station area have some of the lowest rates of vehicle availabil-
ity in Colorado. Nearly 25% of Cole households, and 20%
of Five Points households lack access to a vehicle, about three
times the regional figure. These are clearly neighborhoods
that would benefit from new and accessible transit service.
Mobility and Access
Mobility for all modes of travel within the station area is
challenging today. The railroad tracks sever River North
from the neighborhoods to the south between Broadway
and 38th Street, and the South Platte River divides River
North between 31st and 38th streets. Futhermore, Downing
Street is the edge between Denvers two street grid networks,
resulting in a series of triangular parcels along the downtown
alignment because the east-west running avenues do not
quite match intersections with the diagonal streets. This cre-
ates confusion for motorists, pedestrians and cyclists that is
exacerbated by a series of one-way couplets that intrude from
one grid into the other.
Perhaps the greatest challenge to pedestrian mobility in
the area, however, is that the majority of streets within a
half-mile of the future station do not have sidewalks, and a
significant portion of those that do have sidewalks that are in
poor condition. There are virtually no sidewalks in the River
North area within a half-mile of the station (see Figure 1.2).
Good Condition Needs Repair No Sidewalk
Figure 1.2 Sidewalk Analysis
The opening of the 38th & Blake Station is likely to intro-
duce new conflicts for all modes based on the design in the
East Corridor Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). With
input from the community, the plan has identified no fewer
than 13 conflict points for modes of travel related to access-
ing the station (see Figure 1.3).
Stormwater Infrastructure
The mouths of two large stormwater basins, the Montclair
Basin and the Lower Platte Basin, are located within the
station area (See Figure 1.4). Many of the Citys largest and
oldest storm sewers were built in these watersheds and have
been found to provide protection in less than a two-year
storm event.
3


38th & Blake Executive Summary
O
V*
Multi-modal conflict point
Converging Downtown and East Der
Street Grid
Street Car Stop
Commuter Rail Pedestriar
Bridges
/
South Platte River Circulation
Rail Road Corridor Circulation
^1 NTS
Existing Bike Routes
Proposed Bike Routes
East Corridor Commuter Rail
Figure 1.3 Conflict Points and Circulation Barriers
The City and RTD are currently coordinating planned
improvements to the Montclair Basin that include upgrad-
ing its existing storm sewers so that these systems can convey
a 5-year storm event, which is the Citys standard for con-
structing storm sewers serving or protecting commercial
areas. This new infrastructure is associated with the FasTracks
East Corridor and will be located under 40th Avenue as far
east as York Street, then cross under the railroad along the
40th Street alignment, where it will continue to its outfall at
the South Platte River in Globeville Landing Park.
These improvements do not obviate the requirement that
the finished ground floor of any new development be at least
1-foot higher than the 100-year storm flood level for public
safety, nor the requirement that new development accommo-
date on-site 10-year detention and water quality in order to
mitigate impacts on existing infrastructure and the environ-
ment. These requirements present challenges to TOD for two
reasons. The first is that elevated ground floors generally pro-
vide less opportunity for active commercial uses. A combina-
tion of retail and services with transparent storefronts and
large windows is recommended near transit stations to encour-
age uses that activate the street with pedestrians and provide a
level of visibility that promotes safety. The second challenge for
new development is where to locate and how to design on-site
detention and water quality facilities in a way that maintains
the station areas urban neighborhood character.
Recommendations
Mobility
The development of the 38th & Blake station provides an
opportunity to re-examine the alignment and direction of the
streets in the station area to provide safe access to the station for
all modes, and improve vehicular movement through the area.
A few arterial streetsincluding 38th Street, Brighton Boule-
vard, 40th Avenue, Downing, Larimer and Walnut streets
carry the majority of the traffic through the area and will
continue to serve that need in the future. A reconfiguration
of the existing one-way couplets and assigning more streets as
two-way direction streets will help ensure that they support
multi-modal transportation. Additional measuresincluding
traffic signals, stop signs, sidewalk improvements, crosswalks,
and realignment of some street segmentsare recommended
at key locations to address access and safety issues throughout
the station area (see Figure 1.5).
Figure 1.4 Stormwater Basins
4


38th & Blake Executive Summary
Land Use
Figure 1.5 Proposed Street and Directional Changes
Stormwater
As there are few, if any, opportunities for additional upstream
improvements, the City should conduct a review of complet-
ed stormwater studies for both basins and the station area to
determine the extent to which possible solutions have already
been identified. Pending the results of that evaluation, the
City should assess the need to fund and initiate a new study
to incrementally address stormwater management solutions
in the station area that recognize it is both impacted by and
solving for many impervious developed acres upstream.
In the interim, a collaborative working team between the
City and landowners/developers should be formed to develop
sub-regional solutions that aggregate the 10-year on-site
detention and water quality needs. Such an approach could
result in using less-valuable parcels for infrastructure that
benefits all the property owners, and detention sites could
also be developed in combination with open space to meet
requirements as well as provide a community amenity.
Although the majority of new development in the
station area is proposed to be mixed-use, different
subareas will have their own function and charac-
ter within the larger plan. The plan recommends
five distinct categories of land use designation:
Mixed-Use Main Street, Mixed-Use Residential,
Urban Residential, Mixed-Use Employment and
Open Space and Parks (see Figure 1.6).
Key Recommendations
There are several key recommendations that are
significant enough to be identified as priori-
ties due to their importance or because of time
constraints:
Relocate the proposed pedestrian bridge over
the railroad from 38th Street to 36th Street, and
orient the section of the commuter rail platform
built for opening day toward 36th Street rather
than at 38th Street, (see Figure 1.7).
Rationale: A pedestrian crossing at 36th Street
would more directly connect River North to the
transit station and would have the additional
benefit of connecting Cole, Upper Larimer and
Curtis Park to the South Platte River. Orienting
the platform on 36th Street would deter pedestrians from
crossing Blake Street near the hump over the 38th Street
underpass, where there is limited visibility from motorists.
Conduct a subsequent study of the traffic, circulation pat-
terns, and street grid around the station area as part of the
38th & Blake Next Steps Transportation Operations study
immediately following the adoption of this station area plan.
Rationale: The complexity of the station area transportation
network requires more detailed study than is typical in an
area plan. The City was awarded a federal grant to analyze
the future circulation and land use concepts proposed by this
plan to determine their feasibility for transportation opera-
tions. This study should develop a phasing plan for infra-
structure improvements (taking into consideration opening
day needs) and identify priorities, responsible parties and
partners, and potential funding sources.
Begin the Northeast Downtown Neighborhoods Plan im-
mediately following the adoption of this station area plan.
5


38th & Blake Executive Summary
LEGEND
Mi>ed Use -TOD Core
Mixed Use Main Street
Mixed Use Residential
Urban Residential
Mixed-Use- Employment
Open Space and Parks
New Open Space and Parks
FasTracks East Corridor Line
Possible Future Blake
Streetcar Connection
Central Corridor Street Car
Q Transit Station
Q Station Parking

Mixed Ffedestrian-Auto Street (Cy 1/4 and 1/2 Mile Walk Radius
Pedestrian Plaza Pedestrian Bridge b
Figure 1.6 Future Land Use
surrounding the 38th & Blake Station to work
collaboratively with RTD and other potential
partners in finding and funding solutions that
improve the function of the station and imple-
ment community goals. These include safe
access for all travel modes, encouraging TOD
opportunities, and connecing the neighbor-
hoods to each other and to the South Platte
River Greenway.
With the adopted plan in place, the City
intends to initiate a transportation opera-
tions study as a next step for the station area
to provide greater levels of analysis, data and
recommendations for transportation infra-
structure projects for opening day and beyond.
These measures may include temporary closures
of certain street segments to vehicular traffic
in places where conflicts with pedestrians are
likely. The City has about $2 million in TOD
bond funding for station area infrastructure that
should be used for these purposes. The City
should also pursue funding opportunities for
the 36th Street pedestrian bridge regardless of
whether RTD changes the EIS design.
The plan should provide more detailed evaluation
and recommendations for multi-modal operations,
station locations and land uses along Downing Street.
Pending the results of the Next Steps Transportation
Operations Study, the success of collaboration with
RTD to change the location of pedestrian bridge
and explore park-n-Ride access options, and any new
development projects that implement the street re-
configurations in this plan, the City should take steps
to ensure that the station area street network meets
pedestrian access needs by opening day in 2015.
Implementation
Several recommendations of this plan call for design
changes to the East Corridor and Central Corridor
Extension projects. To be implemented by opening
day, these will require immediate collaboration with
RTD. It is the desire of the City and the neighborhoods
Figure 1.7-Proposed Station Concept
6




38th & Blake Introduction
The 38th & Blake Station Area Plan is intended to guide pub-
lic and private development and infrastructure investment
decisions as well as public regulation of the built environ-
ment in the vicinity of the 38th & Blake Station, which is
planned to be operational by 2015- The 38th & Blake Sta-
tion is part of RTDs $1.4 billion, 23-6-mile East Corridor
commuter rail project, which will connect Denver Union
Station to Denver International Airport along an alignment
roughly parallel to Blake Street, 40th Avenue, Smith Road
and Pena Boulevard as part of the FasTracks transit expansion
program (see Figure 2.1)
Blueprint Denver, the City and County of Denvers integrated
land use and transportation plan adopted in 2002, furthers
the goals identified in Comprehensive Plan 2000 by promot-
ing more efficient use of transportation systems, expanded
transportation choices, and appropriate and mixed land uses.
Blueprint Denver identifies Areas of Change where growth
should be directed, and Areas of Stability where changes
should be more limited.
With the passage of FasTracks in 2004, Denver was poised
to take a more significant leadership role in implementing
Blueprint Denver and focusing growth near transit stations.
This agenda was furthered by the adoption of the Citys
Greenprint Denver Action Agenda and Climate Action Plan in
2006, which sets goals for reducing the citys greenhouse gas
emissions by limiting total vehicle miles traveled and vehicle
trips. It was also reinforced by Denvers Strategic Transporta-
tion Plan completed in 2008, which calls for the City to
measure transportation capacity in the form of person trips
by all modes of travel, rather than vehicle trips, and states
that Denver must increase its share of pedestrian, bicycle and
transit trips to meet its future transportation needs.
In an effort to prioritize planning and implementation
activities related to transit and transit oriented development
(TOD), the City prepared the Transit Oriented Develop-
ment Strategic Plan in 2006. Building on and refining the
broad vision expressed in that document, the 38th & Blake
Station Area Plan provides a sound policy basis for citywide
decision making and guiding positive changes to the built
environment. It outlines the key components of the planning
process, establishes a foundation of essential objectives and
provides strategies on how to realize the vision.
According to the FasTracks program, the 38th & Blake Sta-
tion will also serve the Central Corridor light rail line, which
will be extended about 1 mile from its current terminus at
the 30th & Downing Station north along Downing Street to
36th Street, where it will connect to the East Corridor (see
Figure 2.2) At the time of plan adoption, RTD has identi-
fied a funding shortfall for the FasTracks program, but the
Central Corridor Environmental Evaluation is expected to be
completed by the end of 2009. RTD is expected to authorize
a new ballot initiative as early as November 2010 to ask vot-
ers for an additional sales tax increase to make up the fund-
ing shortfall for FasTracks.
Plan Intent
Several recommendations of this plan call for design changes
to the East Corridor and Central Corridor Extension proj-
ects. In order to be implemented by opening day, these will
require immediate collaboration with RTD. It is the desire
of the City and the neighborhoods surrounding the 38th &
Blake Station to work collaboratively with RTD and other
potential partners in finding solutions that improve the
function of the station and implement community goals.
These include safe access for all travel modes, encouraging
TOD opportunities, and connecting the neighborhoods to
Figure 2.2 Central
Corridor Extension
8


38th & Blake Introduction
each other and to the South Platte River Greenway. As soon
as an adopted plan is in place, the City intends to initiate a
transportation operations study as a next step for the station
area to provide greater levels of analysis, data and recommen-
dations for transportation infrastructure projects for opening
day and beyond.
Property owners, elected officials, neighborhood organiza-
tions and City departments will use the 38th & Blake Station
Area Plan for many purposes over its lifespan. The following
is a description of the primary uses of the plan ranging from
big picture expectations to implementation.
Infrastructure Improvements: A plan can provide the justifi-
cation, prioritization and allocation of funding from private
sources or the Citys capital improvement budget and other
sources.
Funding and Partnership Opportunities: Implementation of
plans requires a collaborative effort between neighborhoods,
businesses, elected officials and city departments. Plans
typically require funding beyond the Citys budget. This
plan identifies and supports these partnerships and resource
leveraging efforts.
Reference for Larger Citywide Plans: The station area plan
may include analysis that can inform other larger citywide
plans. For example, as multi-modal circulation is a major is-
sue that is addressed in this station area plan, the analysis and
recommendations included here should be considered in the
development of transportation infrastructure on both public
and private property.
Data Resource: The plan offers a collection of existing condi-
tions data about the planning area in an easy-to-reference
document.
Reinvestment Guidance: Market conditions cannot be guar-
anteed and changes in demographics cannot be accurately
predicted. However, it is clear that the development of the
rail station, construction of the East Corridor and the exten-
sion of the Central Corridor are attracting interest in the
area from private parties. The plan guides public and private
decision-making and investment in the planning area over
the coming years as it relates to land use, urban design and
infrastructure. The plan offers guidance on this reinvestment
for the near-term and flexibility to adapt to changing demo-
graphics and market demands.
Zoning Amendments: The plan does not convey or deny
any zoning entitlement, but it is an essential tool that is used
to evaluate proposed zoning changes. Furthermore, the plan
does not change zoning code language, but will inform the
pending new code.
Plan Process
Planning for the 38th and Blake Station began in 2007,
under very different assumptions. In the original FasTracks
program, this station was located at the intersection of 40th
Street and 40th Avenue. RTD was planning to acquire the
Union Pacific Railroads (UP) 50-acre Trailer on Flat Car
(TOFC) intermodal transfer facility for the station as well as
a commuter rail car maintenance facility. While RTD needed
about only 30 acres of the TOFC site, it was assumed that
the UP would require RTD to purchase the entire facility
since RTD would have had to provide the UP with compen-
sation to reconstruct it at a new location and the remnant
would be unusable for its current purpose.
The remaining approximately 20 acres was considered a
significant TOD opportunity that would be in public owner-
ship, although the land would face significant development
challenges, including environmental remediation. These
assumed conditions led the 40th & 40th Station Area to
be classified as a future major urban center in the Transit
Oriented Development Strategic Plan. A major urban center
station area has a mixture of office, retail, residential and
entertainment uses, includes multi-family and townhome
residential housing, has an employment emphasis with more
than 250,000 square feet of office space and 50,000 square
feet of retail, and has building heights of at least 5 stories or
higher. The proposed redevelopment of the former Gates
company headquarters and rubber factory at Broadway Sta-
tion is an example of a future major urban center.
However, RTDs subsequent negotiations with the UP re-
sulted in a change of plans that removed the TOFC site from
consideration for acquisition and moved the commuter rail
maintenance facility elsewhere. It also shifted the station loca-
tion to the southwest. The East Corridor Draft Environmental
Impact Statement (DEIS) carried two alternative locations for
the station: 33rd & Blake and 38th & Blake. Published in Jan-
uary 2009, the DEIS selected 38th & Blake as the preferred
alternative for numerous reasons including the connection to
the Central Corridor extension and public comments.
9


38th & Blake Introduction
With the new station location finalized, the planning process
for the 38th & Blake station area was restarted in January of
2009- The new station location, although only two blocks
away from 40th & 40th, features very different development
circumstances and circulation and access issues. Most of the
work that had been done on the previous plan proved to be
less relevant to the new conditions. Where possible, this plan
builds upon the work that was done on the 40th & 40th sta-
tion area plan, but much of the planning process was restart-
ed from scratch, including visioning, goal setting, and the
existing conditions, opportunities and constraints analyses.
Over a course of approximately 8 months, stakeholders
worked together with City staff, the consulting team, and the
station area planning steering committee (made up of repre-
sentatives from multiple City agencies, RTD, key property
owners and neighborhood organizations) to articulate oppor-
tunities, develop a vision, refine specific recommendations,
and craft strategies to achieve the vision. Regular public
meetings and stakeholder work sessions shaped the content
of the plan. Briefings with City Council members, the Fas-
Tracks Committee, Denver Planning Board, interagency City
staff, and RTD were also crucial to the process.
The eight month planning process for the 38th and Blake
station area plan can be summarized as follows:
January 2009
Collected and analyzed background information
Began identifying opportunities and constraints
Steering Committee Meeting #1
February
Public Workshop #1: Provided project overview, identified
issues, concerns, and proposed solutions
Identified infrastructure constraints and areas of intermodal
conflict within the study area
Drafted vision and key objectives for the plan
March/April
Conducted existing conditions analysis
Developed land use, transportation, and drainage alterna-
tives
Steering Committee Meeting #2
Planning Board informational item
Public Workshop #2: Collected public input on draft concepts
May
Refined draft concepts based on public input
Wrote draft plan
Steering Committee Meeting #3
June
Public Workshop #3: Open house review of draft plan
Refined draft plan based on public input
Planning Board review of draft document
July
Planning Board public hearing and approval of plan
August
City Council adoption of plan
Planning Area Context
Station Area Typology
The Transit Oriented Development Strategic Plan identified
the original 40th & 40th station area as a future major urban
center due to assumptions about the availability of approxi-
mately 20 acres of remnant UP property as a significant
mixed-use redevelopment opportunity. When that oppor-
tunity was lost and the station location was moved to 38th
& Blake, the urban neighborhood typology was tested with
stakeholders through the public process and deemed appro-
priate for the station area, provided that it is also acknowl-
edged that more intense development, taller building heights,
and a greater mixture of commercial and employment uses
are appropriate along the Brighton Boulevard corridor.
Urban neighborhood station areas have predominantly
residential uses along with about 50,000 square feet of
neighborhood-serving retail; multi-family, townhome, and
single-family residential development; and building heights
of 2-7 stories. However, the Brighton corridor section of
the station area north of the UP tracks is envisioned to have
more intense development with a greater mixture of commer-
cial and employment uses and taller building heights than
the area south of the station. This is supported by the River
10


38th & Blake Introduction
North Plan and recent rezonings and development proposals
along Brighton Boulevard.
Station Area Neighborhoods
Portions of three Neighborhood Statistical Areas (NSAs) are
within a half-mile radius of the 38th & Blake Station: Five
Points, Cole and Elyria-Swansea. The station area is split
between two city Council districts along Larimer Street,
Downing Street and 40th Avenue: District #8 lies to the
south, District #9 lies to the north (see Figure 2.3).
There are several unique areas within the NSAs (see Figure
2.4). The Cole neighborhood lies east of Downing Street
and south of 40th Avenue. One of Denvers oldest neighbor-
hoods, Cole is predominately a mixture of 19th Century
single-family homes and brick bungalows built before 1930.
There are small retail establishments interspersed throughout
the neighborhood, along with industrial uses lining the north
edge of the neighborhood adjacent to the railroad tracks. The
western half of Cole lies within the station area, including
blocks of industrial uses that separate the residential portions
from the future station platform.
Figure 2.3- Station Area Neighborhood Statistical Areas and Council Districts
11


38th & Blake Introduction
The Curtis Park section of the Five Points NSA, also one
of Denvers oldest neighborhoods with many 19th Cen-
tury Victorian homes, is west of Downing Street. The alley
between Lawrence and Larimer streets is roughly the border
between Curtis Park and the more industrial Upper Larimer
area adjacent to the railroad tracks, meaning that only about
a half dozen residential blocks in the northeast corner of
Curtis Park are within the station area. Curtis Park residents
will have more convenient access to the rail system at stations
along Downing and Welton streets. However, the Upper
Larimer area of the Five Points NSA along Blake, Walnut
and Larimer streets has been transitioning to residential
and retail/entertainment uses as market demand has pushed
northeast along these streets from the Ballpark neighborhood
and LoDo. This new residential development is especially
concentrated along Blake Street southwest of 35th Street.
Northwest of the tracks is the River North area along the
banks of the South Platte River. River North is physically
separated from the rest of the Five Points NSA by the UP
right-of-way. Brighton Boulevard is the main arterial through
River North, acting as a major vehicular gateway connect-
ing downtown to 1-70. The segment of Brighton between
31st and 43rd streets is within the station area, which is
characterized today by a mixture of industrial uses and artist
studios, as well as significant plans for large-scale residen-
tial and mixed-use development. Northeast of 31st Street,
Brighton lacks curbs, gutters and sidewalks, which makes it
very uninviting for pedestrians. Across the South Platte River
from Brighton, the Taxi redevelopment is bringing a new mix
of uses to a formerly industrial area, but remains somewhat
isolated from the other side of River North because there are
no river crossings between 31st and 38th streets.
The northeast section of River North lies within the Elyria-
Swansea NSA. It is an industrial area along Brighton Bou-
levard that is home to the Pepsi Companys bottling and
distribution facility and the UPs TOFC facility, among other
large industrial uses, and is physically separated from the
residential part of Elyria by the 1-70 viaduct. The residential
section of Elyria will
be closer and have
better access to the
proposed National
Western/Coliseum
Station along the
North Metro Cor-
ridor commuter rail
line than to the 38th
& Blake Station.
Figure 2.4- Station Area Places
12




38th & Blake Vision and Goals
Vision Statement
The 38th & Blake station area will become a unique destina-
tion district that provides safe and comfortable multi-modal
access from the surrounding communities to the rail station,
the South Platte River and between adjacent neighborhoods.
Future development of the area will emphasize its industrial
heritage, historic neighborhoods, and emerging new resi-
dential and arts and entertainment districts; provide a mix
of uses where feasible and especially near the station; ensure
access and provide enhancements to the Platte greenway;
provide enough housing and jobs to make non-auto travel
modes those of choice; and provide living opportunities for
people of all incomes, ages and backgrounds.
Foundation of TOD Principles
Developing the communitys vision began with the under-
lying principles of transit-oriented development. Transit-
oriented development is a mix of uses at various densities
within a half-mile radius, or walking distance, of a transit
stop. TOD should create specific areas that integrate transit
into neighborhoods and help support lively and vital com-
munities. The TOD Strategic Plan defines TOD in Denver
and establishes strategies for implementation.
In order to succeed, TOD should address these guiding
principles:
Place-making: Create safe, comfortable, varied and attrac-
tive station areas with a distinct identity.
Rich Mix of Choices: Provide housing, employment, trans-
portation and shopping choices for people of all
ages, household types, incomes and lifestyles.
Location Efficiency: Place homes, jobs, shopping,
entertainment, parks and other amenities close to the
station to promote walking, biking and transit use.
Value Capture: Encourage all stakeholders residents,
business owners, RTD and the City to take full
economic advantage of the amenity of enhanced transit
services.
Portal to the Region: Understand and maximize the
stations role as an entry to the regional transit network
and as a safe and pleasant place to live.
TOD and Sustainability
As defined by the Brundtland Commission (World Commis-
sion on Environment and Development), sustainable develop-
ment meets the needs of the present without compromising
the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Transit-oriented development addresses the three Es of sus-
tainability: environment, economy, and (social) equity and
furthers the climate objectives set forth by Greenprint Denver.
Environment Mobile sources account for as much as 90%
of all carbon-monoxide emissions. Transit-oriented develop-
ment supports the use of public transportation and can help
reduce traffic and air pollution. For every passenger mile
traveled, public transportation is twice as efficient as private
automobiles.
Economy The average working American drives 396 hours
each year, the equivalent of 10 workweeks. More than one-
fourth of this time is spent commuting to and from work.
Transit-oriented and mixed-use development can convey sub-
stantial fiscal and economic benefits for workers by reducing
commute costs and increasing available hours for productiv-
ity. In addition, businesses recognize that TOD encourages a
variety of local employment opportunities, and helps attract
new businesses and industries.
Equity The cost of buying, maintaining, and operating ve-
hicles is the largest source of personal debt after home mort-
gages. TOD offers a framework to build communities with
a sense of place that offer living and transportation options
that are accessible to people with a wide range of incomes. It
does this by providing housing and transportation choices,
urban green spaces, accessible recreational and cultural at-
tractions, and policies and incentives that promote mixed-use
neighborhoods for the benefit of everyone.
Opportunities and Constraints
The greatest opportunities for positive change in the 38th
& Blake station area are: the coming development of the
rail station, proximity of the South Platte River greenway,
interest in the areas future by real estate developers, a strong
desire by adjacent neighborhoods for local retail and services,
and the planned stormwater improvements.
The largest constraints in the station area are: the general lack
of sidewalks near the future station platform and in River
North, the barriers imposed by the Union Pacific tracks and
14


38th & Blake Vision and Goals
limited crossings of the river, the lack of multi-modal infra-
strucuture and curb and gutters on Brighton Boulevard, and
the awkward roadway network in the southern part of the sta-
tion area where the city grids collide along Downing Street.
Plan Goals and Objectives
The goals and objectives for the 38th and Blake station area
plan address the opportunities and constraints that are present
in the study area. Through the public input process, members
of the community made it abundantly clear that the issues
they most want to see addressed relate to infrastructure, access,
safety, and quality of life. In response to stakeholder-identified
priorities, the goals and objectives of this plan have been or-
ganized around improving circulation for pedestrians, cyclists
and vehicles; addressing storm water needs; and creating a
destination area in the vicinity of the new station that ties the
surrounding neighborhoods together (see Figure 3.1).
The defining recommendation is the relocation of the 38th
Street pedestrian bridge to 36th Street. This important move
facilitates connectivity from the neighborhoods to the station,
between the neighborhoods, and provides access to the South
Platte River. Moving the bridge to this new location creates a
spine of activity along 36th Street in both directions from the
15


38th & Blake Vision and Goals
station that connects with current redevelopment efforts along
Brighton Boulevard and in Upper Larimer, and supports the
vision articulated in the River North Greenway Master Plan.
The advantages of this new 36th Street connection include
the creation of a contiguous corridor to orient pedestrian
activity and development. It also provides for a greater
integration of the South Platte River as an amenity for the
neighborhoods that currently do not have good access to the
greenway. The 36th Street spine will create a node of activity
at its intersection with Brighton Boulevard. For the 36th Street
spine to succeed, careful attention is needed at intersections
with key streets along its path: Brighton Boulevard, Blake
Street and Downing Street. These streets require transforma-
tion to ensure that they are pedestrian friendly and form a
network of pathways to the station. Attention to safe vehicular
movement and circulation will be important as well.
Pedestrian and Bike Circulation
Goal: Connect Upper Larimer, Cole and River North neigh-
borhoods to the station and each other with pedestrian paths
and bicycle routes.
Objectives:
Mitigate existing conflicts between cars, pedestrians and
cyclists throughout the station area.
Create safe, viable, pedestrian and bike connections to the
station from the surrounding neighborhoods.
Create safe, viable, pedestrian and bike connections be-
tween individual neighborhoods, as well as to open space,
the South Platte River, and other local destinations.
Vehicular Circulation
Goal: Move vehicles safely to the station, station parking
lots and through the station area without jeopardizing safe
pedestrian circulation.
Objectives:
Enhance circulation to allow vehicles to easily access the
station or station parking lot.
Modify the roadway network to simplify vehicular naviga-
tion through the area without jeopardizing local traffic
movements of cars, bikes and pedestrians.
Where possible, convert one-way streets to two-way to
make vehicle circulation less confusing and streets friend-
lier to pedestrians and cyclists.
Storm Water Management
Goal: Address storm water management issues with sustain-
able, urban solutions for detention, conveyance and water
quality that also serve to provide usable open space for the
community.
Objectives:
Utilize multi-functional storm water conveyance to serve
as both recreational space that is aesthetically pleasing and
accessible to pedestrians and cyclists as well as practical
conveyance.
Ensure that recreational areas associated with channels con-
nect to the greater city park system, including the Platte
River Greenway.
Solve regional storm water deficiencies and develop a strat-
egy to preserve appropriate land for infill development that
benefits from multi-purpose greenway amenities.
Place Making
Goal: Utilize the station investment to strengthen existing di-
verse neighborhoods and create a new center for the community.
Objectives:
Accommodate a compatible mix of industrial, commercial,
and residential land uses within the study area.
Promote a unique sense of place by requiring development
to respect the context of the areas diverse existing urban
form characteristics.
Promote infill within the station area to create develop-
ment that supports transit ridership, residential, and
neighborhood-serving retail and services.
16




38th & Blake Mobility
Existing Conditions
Mobility for all modes of travel within the station area is
challenging today (see Figure 4.1). But the introduction of
the 38th & Blake station is likely to introduce new chal-
lenges for all modes. Cooperative action should be taken by
the City, RTD and property owners before opening day to
ensure that all users accessing the station, whether by foot,
bicycle, bus, or private auto, can do so safely.
EIS Station Design
The East Corridor EIS has located the station platform on
the west side of Blake Street, adjacent to the railroad right-of-
way between 36th Street and the 38th Street underpass (see
Figure 4.2). An adjacent platform connection is planned for
the Central Corridor light rail line, which will be extended
along Downing Street from its current terminus at 30th
Avenue to the 38th & Blake Station, with up to two interme-
diate stops along Downing Street, before approaching Blake
along 36th Street. The Central Corridor Extension Environ-
mental Evaluation (EE) is expected to be completed by RTD
by the end of 2009.
According to the East Corridor EIS, the 400-foot platform
segment built for opening day will be located on the eastern
half of the block, ending at 38th Street. The platform will be
expanded by RTD to 800 feet to accommodate longer trains
in the future when demand increases. One hundred transit
parking spaces will be located on the west side of Blake Street
adjacent to the railroad right-of-way between the 38th Street
underpass and 40th Street. Another 100 spaces will be built
across the railroad right-of-way in a park-n-Ride facility to
be located along Wazee Street. The EIS proposes acquiring
Legend preferred Alternative Landscapng Area N
Central CorrioonOcmfiing St'eet Extension ftazarfteKstnai Crossng Platform Location Opening Day (2015) Surface Parking Year 2030 Surface Parking ")( tusflng irattic Signal J Proposed Tramc Signal MTbSertt
Figure 4.2 East Corridor EIS Station Design
this site with enough room to add another 300 spaces when
demand increases at a future date. The route 48 bus, which
currently serves Brighton Boulevard, is envisioned to access
the station via the Wazee park-n-Ride.
The EIS also proposes roadway mitigations to accomodate
vehicles trying to access the Wazee park-n-Ride. The intersec-
tion of 38th & Wazee would have only right-in, right-out
movements, forcing motorists traveling southbound on 38th
Street to access the Wazee park-n-Ride from Brighton Boule-
vard. The EIS also proposes a right-in, right-out intersection
at Brighton and 39th Street to prevent stacking by inbound
vehicles that would otherwise turn left to access the park-
n-Ride. That movement would be accommodated by a new
traffic signal at the intersection of 40th Street and Brighton.
The EIS also proposes acceleration-deceleration lanes to ac-
commodate turning movements onto 40th Street.
Mobility Barriers
In terms of natural barriers, the only crossings of the South
Platte River exist at 31st Street and 38th Street, effectively
severing the River North section of the area along the rivers
18


38th & Blake Mobility
two banks. In addition, those two streets offer the only exist-
ing access points in the area to the South Platte River Trail, a
regional pedestrian and bicycle trail facility
The Union Pacific Railroad right-of-way is a formidable
barrier between the Upper Larimer and Cole neighborhoods
and River North. The only access point across the railroad
right-of-way within the area is the 38th Street underpass,
which only has a sidewalk on the north side of the street,
offering only about 6 feet for pedestrians and cyclists using
the D-9 route. Its two lanes are inadequate to meet peak
auto demand, and its 13-foot, 3-inch clearance prevents large
trucks from passing through. The next closest crossings of the
railroad right-of-way are outside the study area, along Broad-
way to the southwest and York Street to the east.
The Blake Street bridge, which crosses the 38th Street under-
pass, creates a barrier that is difficult for pedestrians to cross
because its hump-like design. It is reasonable to expect that
when the East Corridor becomes operation in 2015, there
will be an increase in pedestrian, bicycle and vehicular traffic
on Blake Street trying to access the station.
The railroad right-of-way and 38th Street underpass are not
the only constructed mobility barriers in the area. Downing
Street is the edge between Denvers two competing street
grids: the downtown grid which is aligned with the South
Platte River, and the east Denver neighborhood grid which
is aligned in a north-south configuration. As with other areas
of Denver where these grids collide, such as Broadway or
Colfax Avenue, the result is a series of triangular parcels along
the downtown alignment because the east-west running
avenues dont quite match intersections with the diagonal
streets, which creates confusion for motorists, pedestrians
and cyclists.
This confusion is exacerbated along Downing Street because
of the one-way couplet assignment of Larimer and Walnut.
Figure 4.3 Street Directions and Existing Average Daily Traffic (counts taken March, 2009)
19


38th & Blake Mobility
When this is compounded with the edges of different street
grids, additional streets become one-way for short distances,
then revert to two-way traffic. The result is that there is no
simple, direct way to access the station or travel through this
area (see Figure 4.3)
Lawrence, Marion and Walnut streets undergo directional
changes due to the transition of the one-way paired-street
network between the grids. Lawrence, which in 2006 was
converted to a two-way street in Curtis Park, becomes one-
way east of Downing where it merges with Marion, which
serves as the northbound couplet for Downings southbound-
only segment to access the 38th Street underpass. The change
from two-way to one-way occurs on Marions 3600 block.
West of Downing, Walnut serves as the outbound one-way
complementing Larimer as the inbound one-way to down-
town. However, it converts to a two-way street east of Down-
ing because it provides the only through east-west access to
the 38th Street underpass.
Blake Street also converts from one-way to two-way, at 35th
Street in Upper Larimer, a remnant of the more extensive
street pairing system that extended through Curtis Park from
downtown which is transitioning to two-way streets in some
places, such as Lawrence. Residents of the Upper Larimer
neighborhood have raised concerns that drivers routinely
violate the street direction either unintentionally or out of
convenience.
Furthermore, there are curved street connections that intrude
from one grid network into the other that create potential
safety concerns. For example, Lawrence Street extends east
of Downing as a one-way arterial for vehicles trying to ac-
cess the 38th Street underpass to go north or 40th Avenue
to go east. In a similar manner, Downing extends into the
downtown grid north of Walnut Street. While these street
segments facilitate traffic flow through the area, they create
concerns for pedestrians and cyclists because of the limited
visbility that is created by their curves.
The intersection of 38th, Walnut
and Marion streets was designed
to give vehicles un-impeded
access, similar to highway exit
ramps, creating more road seg-
ments for pedestrians and cy-
clists to cross, encouraging faster
turning speeds, and resulting in
less stopping time for vehicles.
This design continues in part to
the intersections of Downing and
Walnut, and Downing and Blake.
Perhaps the greatest challenge to
pedestrian mobility in the area,
however, is the lack of sidewalks.
The majority of streets within a
half-mile of the future station do
not have sidewalks, and a sig-
nificant portion of those that do
have sidewalks that are in such
poor condition that it could be
challenging for someone in a
wheelchair or pushing a stroller
to use them (see Figure 4.4). The
only parts of the station area that
currently have sidewalks in good
condition are in the Cole and
Good Condition Needs Repair No Sidewalk
Figure 4.4 Sidewalk Analysis
20


38th & Blake Mobility
Curtis Park neighborhoods. Brighton Boulevard is considered
a critical gateway to downtown, but there are presently no
sidewalks on Brighton north of 31st Street. Although several
development projects are proposed between 31st and 38th
that would result in new sidewalks being created on those
properties, many gaps in the pedestrian infrastructure would
remain. This sporadic provision of sidewalks can be seen in
the Upper Larimer neighborhood, where sidewalks are in
place only where they have been required as a result of new
development.
There are no sidewalks at all on the blocks adjacent to the
planned station platform location. Providing residents and
workers with access to the station will be an immediate chal-
lenge to address.
Summary of Station Area Intermodal Conflict Points
The following discussion of intermodal conflict points cor-
relates to Figure 4.5:
Conflict Point #1: 38th Street, Vthlnut and Marion
Intersection
This intersection has curved turning lanes that makes it
unfriendly for pedestrian movements. It is a main through-
route for autos from the east to downtown.
Conflict Point #2: Blake Street Bridge Over 38th
Pedestrian and bicycle access from the Cole neighborhood to
the station will be challenging. A pedestrian from Cole who
attempts to get to the 38th & Blake Station would have a
hard time getting there because there is no such place: while
38th and Blake streets are certainly perpendicular, they never
intersect due to the grade separation. Additionally, there are
presently no sidewalks along Blake Street in the vicinity of
the station (see Figures 4.6 and 4.7 and 4.8).
Conflict Point #3: 38th Street Underpass
The 38th Street underpass has only a narrow sidewalk on one
side that is also a shared bike lane for the D-9 route. The EIS
proposes a pedestrian bridge to connect the Wazee Street park-
n-Ride over the railroad tracks. Because there are no sidewalks
along Blake Street, the EIS calls for pedestrian access across the
38th Street underpass via a pedestrian walkway that runs adja-
cent to the East Corridors railroad tracks. This design would
accommodate access from the park-n-Ride, but it provides
little benefit for pedestrians who are trying to access the station
from the surrounding neighborhoods. It also does not resolve
how the route 44 and route 7 buses would provide transfer ac-
cess from the south. RTDs proposed pedestrian bridge at 38th
Street does not greatly enhance connectivity across the Union
Pacific tracks because Blake Street is grade separated from 38th
Street.
Conflict Point #4: Downing Between Vthlnut and Blake
Downing Street extends south of the station area, bisecting
the block directly east of the station platform and creating a
challenging intersection for autos and pedestrians. Increases
in the volume of motorists, pedestrians, and cyclists will
likely cause conflicts at this intersection due to its oblique
angle.
Conflict Point #5: 36th Street and Blake Street
Intersection
Because 36th Street will be a primary pedestrian route to the
station from the Cole neighborhood, new facilities need to be
added along that route to ensure the safety of people who are
walking to the station. The East Corridor EIS assumes that
the Central Corridor project will be responsible for con-
structing a new traffic signal at the intersection of 36th Street
and Blake, where the light rail will be turning from 36th
Street into the station.
Currently Blake Street functions as a one-way street from
35th St. south to Downtown. With the introduction of the
station on Blake, this street will likely be an important site
for future transit oriented development. Land uses on Blake
south of the station are already transitioning to residential.
Two-way traffic may better accommodate residential, retail,
mixed-use and pedestrian activity south of the station.
Conflict Point #6: 36th St., 37th Ave. and Downing
Intersection
37th Avenue and 36th Street are expected to serve as the pri-
mary pedestrian route to the station from the Cole neighbor-
hood. The intersection of Downing, 37th Avenue and 36th
Street is one of several intersections along Downing where
the grids do not align, causing the blocks to not quite match
up on either side of the street, which makes crossing more
difficult (See Figure 4.9). This intersection also currently
lacks crosswalks and traffic lights.
21


38th & Blake Mobility
o Multi-modal conflict point
Commuter Rail Pedestrian
Bridges
/
\
Converging Downtown and East Denver
Street Grid
Central Corridor Street Car Stop
South Platte River Circulation
Barrier
Rail Road Corridor Circulation
Barrier
East Corridor Commuter Rail Station
] Station Platforms
.25 and .50 Mile Radius
Figure 4.5 38th and Blake Conflict Points and Circulation Barriers
In nts
Existing Bike Routes
Proposed Bike Routes
OODDDDDD
East Corridor Commuter Rail
Line
Major Pedestrian Station
Connections
Central Corridor Street Car Line
22


38th & Blake Mobility
w
/
Figure 4.8 Blake Street bridge hump
Conflict Point #7: 37th Avenue and Marion Street
Intersection
Pedestrians accessing the station from the Cole neighbor-
hood will likely use 37th Avenue and will cross at the Marion
Street intersection. Marion Street in its current configuration
has no pedestrian traffic signal and limited sight distances for
cars traveling north on Lawrence to 38th Street.
Conflict Point #8: Downing Street Intersections
The downtown and neighborhood grids collide at Downing
Street south of the station, which causes confusing intersec-
tions for motorists and makes the act of crossing Downing
Street difficult for pedestrians. This is especially true where
Downing intersects at Lawrence, Curtis and 34th Street.
When the Central Corridor street car extension is built and
travels along Downing, these intersections will become even
more complicated.
Conflict Point #9: 37th Avenue Pedestrian Route
Pedestrians accessing the station from the Cole neighborhood
will likely use 37th Avenue. While 37th Avenue is a local
street today, if it is intended to serve as the main pedes-
trian access to the station, safe crossing needs to be ensured
where this street intersects with north-south collectors such
as Franklin Street, a designated bike route that is near two
schools.
Conflict Point #10: 40th Avenue, Franklin and Walnut
Intersection
The intersection of 40th Avenue, Franklin Street and Wal-
nut Street poses challenges for vehicles and pedestrians. This
intersection features an awkward traffic movement caused
by the intersection of three streets, with stop signs only on
40th (eastbound) and Franklin (northbound). Most of the
street segments in this area do not have sidewalks. In the
future, this intersection will be impacted by the alignment
of the East Corridor, which will be sited adjacent to 40th
Ave. When the East Corridor becomes operational, vehicular
traffic accessing RTDs Blake Street parking lot will primarily
approach from this intersection, increasing traffic volumes.
Figure 4.9 Intersection of Downing, 36th Street and 37th Avenue
23


38th & Blake Mobility
Conflict Point #11: 40th Street and Vthlnut Intersection
Pedestrians from northern Cole and the Rock Drill Lofts are
likely to access the station via 39th Avenue and 40th Street. The
intersection of 40th Street and Walnut poses a challenge for
pedestrians because of a lack of sidewalks, crosswalks, and stop
signs.
Conflict Point #12: 40th Street and Blake Intersection
The lack of traffic control as 40th Ave curves into Blake
Street makes the act of crossing Blake Street difficult for
pedestrians. Crossing Blake at this point would be logical for
pedestrians because the EIS calls for RTD to build a sidewalk
on the northwest side of the street, where they will have a
100-space park-n-Ride. There are presently no sidewalks on
either side of Blake from here to the station platform.
Conflict Point #13: 38th Street and Brighton Boulevard
Intersection
Cyclists and pedestrians traveling between the station or
neighborhoods south of the tracks to the river would have to
use 38th Street since it is the only railroad crossing under the
EIS design. Crossing at this intersection would be challeng-
ing for pedestrians because of the high volume of vehicles
traveling along Brighton as well as turning to access the park-
n-Ride from the north. The EIS also proposes acceleration-
deceleration lanes along Brighton at 40th Street to accommo-
date turning movements at that intersection, which will add
extra lanes for pedestrians to cross.
Recommendations
The development of the 38th & Blake station provides an
opportunity to re-examine the alignment and direction of the
streets in the station area to provide safe access to the station
for all modes, and improve vehicular movement through the
area. A few arterial streetsincluding 38th Street, Brigh-
ton Boulevard, 40th Avenue, Downing, Larimer and Wal-
nutcarry the majority of the traffic through the area and
will continue to serve that need, as well as provide residents
and businesses access to destinations outside of the area. A
reconfiguration of the existing one-way couplets and assign-
ing more streets as two-way direction streets will help ensure
that the street network supports multi-modal transportation.
Additional measures, including traffic lights and stop signs,
are recommended at key locations as described below.
It is also important to identify the most critical streets for
future pedestrain infrastructure improvements. Most impor-
tant is an analysis of those connections that pedestrians are
most likely to use to access the station from the surrounding
neighborhoods. These connections need to be direct and
efficient, and more intuitive so that all residentsyoung and
old of varying physical abilitiescan walk to the station.
For example, while Blake Street will continue to carry auto
traffic, the street should be designed to balance multimodal
needs by slowing vehicle traffic and providing infrastructure
for pedestrians and cyclists.
This plan recommends that key streets and intersections in
the station be prioritized for pedestrian needs. Shown in the
Concept Pedestrian Circulation Plan (see Figure 4.10), these
include Blake Street, 38th Street, 36th Street, 37th Avenue,
40th Street, Downing Street and 31st Street. Continuous
sidewalks are a necessity along these streets. New develop-
ment will help to provide more sidewalk continuity, but this
development may be fragmented over time, and a cohesive
network of sidewalks needs to be planned for the interim.
With a commuter rail station (East Corridor), light rail station
(Central Corridor) and multiple bus routes (7, 38, 44, 47x, 48,
and 48x), the station area needs to facilitate bus-rail, bus-bus,
and light rail-commuter rail transfers. Transfers between these
different modes will occur by walking, which reinforces the
need for a strong pedestrian network at the station.
Recommendations 1-13 below address the specific conflict
points described in the existing conditions section (see Figure
4.11 for the Concept Vehicular Circulation Plan). Recom-
mendations 14-23 describe new streets, pedestrian connec-
tions, and amenities (see Figure 4.12 for an illustration of
possible changes to street configurations, travel direction,
street segment closures and new streets).
It is important to note that the Next Steps Transporta-
tion Operations study should consider and explore all of
the mobility recommendations presented herein as part of
its analysis. This is not to say that the scope of that study
should be limited only to the recommendations presented
here, but rather that this plans recommendations should
form part of that study, and should be tested for feasibility.
In the end, the Next Steps study may conclude that some
of this plans recommendations are not feasible or advisable.
For that reason, at such time as the Next Steps study has
been completed, this station area plan should be revisited and
24


38th & Blake Mobility
| Mixed Use-TOD Core
Mixed Use- Main Street
j Mixed Use- Residential
I Urban Residential
Mixed-Use- Employment iiiiiiin Central Corridor Streetcar Q Transit Station | 200' 400' S00'
Open Space and Parks i n ii n Possible Future Blake Streetcar Connection Q Station Parking
New Open Space and Parks FasTracks East Corridor Line Mixed Pedestrian -Auto Street Pedestrian Plaza ( 1/4 and 1/2 Mile Walk Radius ) Pedestrian Bridge E> PB
Figure 4.10- Concept Pedestrian/Bike Circulation Plan
potentially amended in light of new information and recom-
mendations provided by Next Steps.
Recommendation Mobility (MO)-l: Reconfigure 38th
Street, Walnut, Marion intersection
Develop a new intersection configuration at 38th Street/
Walnut/Marion to facilitate pedestrian crossings and vehicu-
lar movements and to take into account additional traffic on
Walnut, the future widening of the 38th Street underpass,
and two-way traffic on Marion. The design should replace
the curved-cutouts with a more traditional square intersec-
tion configuration to the extent practicable.
Recommendation
MO-2: Consider tem-
porary closure of Blake
Street Bridge over 38th
Street to vehicles
Until such time that
the 38th Street under-
pass and Blake Street
hump are reconstruct-
ed, and pending the
results of further study
of this recommendation
by Next Steps, consider
closing the hump to
vehicular traffic. The
purpose of such a clo-
sure would be to ensure
safe pedestrian crossings
of Blake Street in the
vicinity of the hump.
Recommendation
MO-3: Reconstruct
38th Street Underpass
Reconstruct the 38th
Street Underpass be-
tween Wynkoop Street
and Walnut Street to
provide a four-lane cross
section with wide side-
walks on both sides of
the street and adequate
vertical clearance. Ensure that the sidewalk is wide enough
to safely accommodate pedestrians and the D-9 bike route.
Reconstruct the Blake Street Bridge to remove the hump and
make it a level crossing over 38th with sidewalks on both
sides of the street.
Recommendation MO-4: Reconfigure Downing between
Walnut and Blake
Pending the results of the Next Steps study, consider remov-
ing the Downing Street segment connecting Blake Street and
Walnut Street across from the station and replace it with a
new 37th Street that is pedestrian friendly and perpendicular
to Blake and Walnut. The new 37th Street should be a local
25


38th & Blake Mobility
CIRCULATION LEGEND
Arterial Streets
Local Streets
New Streets
Mixed Pedestrian Auto Street
New Traffic Signals
0
L J Proposed Pedestrian Bridges
Luther King Boulevard
LAND USE LEGEND
| Mixed Use -TOD Core
Mixed Use Main Street
| Mixed Use Residential
Urban Residential
0' 200' 400'
Mixed-Use-Employment ............ Central Corridor Streetcar Q Transit Station
Open Space and Parks lii.iiji Possible Future Blake ^ Station Parking
Streetcar Connection .
New Open Space and Parks Mixed Pedestrian-Auto Street (o) 1/4 and 1/2 Mile Walk Radius
f ) Pedestrian Bridge
Pedestrian Plaza
PB
Figure 4.11 Concept Vehicular Circulation Plan
street with one lane of traffic in each direction and on-street
parking. It should be located to create roughly proportional
blocks between 36th and 38th street, while maintaining safe
access across Walnut. This change should happen as part of
the redevelopment of these blocks.
Recommendation MO-5: Blake Street platform access and
traffic direction
MO-5A: The intersection of 36th and Blake streets should
be a full movement intersection with a signal to control
26


38th & Blake Mobility
..... Streets Proposed for Realignment
^ Transit Station
Q Station Parking ----- Street Traffic Directional Changes
Figure 4.12- Proposed Street and Directional Changes
traffic around the station. It is believed that a traffic signal
will be necessary in this location even if the Blake Street
hump is closed to traffic because of the future presence of
the Central Corridor at this intersection. In addition to
sidewalks and crosswalks, consider new streetscape im-
JL p?
provements such as street trees, lighting, benches and other
street amenities. Ensure that any intersection improve-
ments are coordinated with the Central Corridor align-
ment through the Environmental Evaluation process.
27


38th & Blake Mobility
MO-5B: As part of the Next Steps study, determine the
feasibility of converting Blake Street from one-way to
two-way between 35th Street and Broadway, and possibly
as far south as 20th Street. As redevelopment continues
along Blake Street, there is enough room within the exist-
ing right-of-way to include two 11-foot travel lanes, two
5-foot bike lanes, two 8-foot parking lanes, with 16-foot
pedestrian amenity zones including sidewalks on both sides
of the street (see Figure 4.13 for potential cross-section
design). If streetcar service is extended along Blake Street in
the future, the cross-section will need to be revisited at that
time to accomodate this additional travel mode.
Recommendation MO-6: Pedestrian Treatment for 36th
Street, 37th Avenue and Downing Intersection
Consider crosswalks and a traffic light at this intersection to
ensure that this primary access point between the neighbor-
hoods and the station is safe and efficient. If possible, the
intersection should be re-aligned so that 36th Street matches
up with 37th Avenue across Downing. Ensure that any
intersection improvements are coordinated with the Central
Corridor alignment through the Environmental Evaluation
process.
Blake Street Existing Cross Section
35th to 38th Street *
80 ROW
Blake Street Existing Cross Section
South of 35th Street*
80 ROW
Blake Street Proposed Cross Section
olT
Recommendation MO-7: Modify segments of Lawrence,
Marion and Downing between Lawrence and Walnut
Streets.
+ 80 ROW
Figure 4.13- Existing and Proposed Blake Street Cross-Sections
Pending feasibility testing in Next Steps, the following
recommended improvements are related and would need to
occur in the following sequence:
MO-7A: Convert Downing Street from one-way to two-
way between Walnut and Lawrence Streets. This modifica-
tion will improve vehicular mobility through the area.
MO-7B: Remove the diagonal portion of Lawrence Street
between Downing and Marion.
MO-7C: Convert Marion from a one-way northbound
street to a two-way local street with reduced lanes and
wider sidewalks between Lawrence and Walnut.
Recommendation MO-8: Reconfigure other Downing
Street intersections
Wherever possible, square-up intersections where the two
street grids intersect at Downing to create better visibility
and mobility for pedestrians, bicyclists and vehicles. Other
than 37th Avenue and 36th Street (discussed above), these
interesections include Bruce Randolph and 35th Street, and
33rd Avenue and 34th Street.
Recommendation MO-9: Pedestrian Treatment for 37th
Avenue
Pending the results of the Next Steps study, consider improve-
ments to the pedestrian infrastructure along 37th Avenue, the
main pedestrian route to the station from Cole. Ensure that
sidewalks along this route are in good condition and are ADA
accessible, crosswalks are provided at intersections, and that
traffic control measures (stop signs, etc) are adequate to meet
the needs of increased numbers of pedestrians and cyclists along
this route.
Recommendation MO-IO: Close 40th Avenue Between
40th Street and Franklin
Pending the findings of the Next Steps study, consider clos-
ing the 40th Avenue segment between Blake Street & 40th
28


38th & Blake Mobility
Street and the Franklin & Walnut intersections to eliminate
the curve and facilitate pedestrian crossing at 40th Street
and Blake. Such an action would also reduce traffic volumes
on Blake in front of the station, resulting in safer pedestrian
crossings at all intersections between 40th and 36th streets.
Recommendation MO-11: Pedestrian Treatment for 40th
Street and Walnut Intersection
With the closure of 40th Avenue to the west, all through
traffic should be moving between 40th Avenue and Wal-
nut, including vehicles using the new park-n-Ride on Blake
Street. A traffic signal should be located at this intersection to
ensure safe pedestrian movement to the station across Walnut
street from Cole.
Recommendation MO-12: Pedestrian Treatment for 40th
Street and Blake Intersection
40th Street is envisioned as a main pedestrian route to the
station from northeast Cole, as well as the main vehicular
route to the Blake Street park-n-Ride. Incorporate sidewalks
and crosswalks at this intersection to ensure safe access from
the Blake Street park-n-Ride to the station, and from the
neighborhood to the station. The closing of 40th Avenue
to auto traffic (see MO-10) is key to improving pedestrian
safety at this intersection.
Recommendation MO-13: Brighton Boulevard Cross-
section Design
Brighton Boulevard is a critical arterial gateway to downtown
but there are presently no sidewalks on the corridor within
the station area. Although several development projects are
proposed between 31st and 38th streets that would result in
Interim Brighton Corridor
Cross Section
80 ROW
ROW Dedication Needed None
Figure 4.14- Interim and Ultimate Brighton Boulevard Cross-Sections
new sidewalks being created on those properties, the result
would be disconnected pedestrian infrastructure.
Brighton Boulevard is also the front door to the River North
district. It should be a place where pedestrians find interest-
ing shops and galleries and feel welcome to walk or visit. The
Brighton Boulevard Urban Design Guidelines propose the
following cross-section for between 31st and 44th (see Figure
4.14).
The interim cross section fits within the existing 80-foot
ROW. It has a 16-foot median, consistent with the ultimate
cross section. The interim cross section is intended to be used
prior to any redevelopment of properties. It does not provide
on-street parking, but does have an attached 7-foot sidewalk
on both sides of the street. When properties redevelop, the
ultimate cross section will need to be followed. Construction
of the interim cross section will likely require outside funding
sources.
The ultimate cross section of 110 feet will require right-of-
way dedication as properties redevelop. It provides access
control, on-street parking, and is pedestrian friendly with
wide sidewalks, pedestrian amenities, and street trees. Bicycle
lanes are recommended on parallel facilities both southeast
and northwest of Brighton.
Construction of the ultimate cross section could be funded
in a variety of ways, including a local improvement district
formed by area property owners. Strategies and phasing op-
tions that may be applicable are discussed in the Economic
Opportunity section. As there is no annual program for
sidewalk installation or maintenance, there is potential for an
interim condition by block to exist for several years. To mini-
mize that possibility, the City should partner in this effort by
Ultimate Brighton Corridor
Cross Section
---mffLi i ^ r l! '^-1---
>v I r t w | ir I it | it iv If r | it
MOW t-*i
110 ROW
ROW Dedication Needed -15 Feet (each side)
29


38th & Blake Mobility
Figure 4.15 -36th Street Central Corridor station concept with pedestrian connections and streetscape improvements
bringing together relevant parties and looking for additional
funding sources for this key gateway, as identified by Blue-
print Denver and the River North Plan.
Recommendation MO-14: Signalize 36th and Brighton
Boulevard Intersection
A new traffic signal should be located on Brighton Boulevard
at 36th Street to provide pedestrian connectivity to the sta-
tion and the South Platte River Greenway. This could replace
the 40th & Brighton signal mitigation proposed in the East
Corridor DEIS if the park-n-Ride is also moved to 36th
Street and Wazee. The proposed DEIS improvements at the
intersections of 38th and Wynkoop, 39th and Brighton, and
40th and Brighton should not be constructed if the park-n-
Ride is moved elsewhere.
Recommendation MO-15: New 37th Street
Introduce a new street at 37th Street between Wazee and the
South Platte River. This new connection will contribute to a
more complete street grid in River North and will improve
mobility within the neighborhood. It would serve as the
main orientation for the mixed-use employment/arts district
between 36th and 38th Streets.
30


38th & Blake Mobility
Recommendation MO-16: New 39th Street and Marion
Street
When redevelopment occurs, introduce a new street at 39th
Street between the existing Lafayette and Blake streets, with
a new segment of Marion Street between the new 39th Street
and 40th Street. The resulting smaller blocks would be more
appropriate for TOD and promote better pedestrian access to
the station and through the area.
Recommendation MO-17: Extend Wynkoop and Wazee,
and create new 33rd, 34th, 4lst, 42nd, and 43rd Streets
When redevelopment occurs, extend Wynkoop Street from
its current public terminus northwest of 40th Street all the
way to 43rd Street and add new streets at 41st, 42nd and
43rd connecting Wynkoop to Brighton. When redevelop-
ment occurs, also extend Wynkoop and Wazee southwest of
35th Street and add new streets at 33rd and 34th connecting
Wynkoop to Brighton consistent with the recommenda-
tions of the River North Greenway Master Plan. The result-
ing smaller blocks would promote better pedestrian access
through the area.
Recommendation MO-18: Maintain a vehicular through-
route parallel to Brighton between 38th Street and down-
town
When redevelopment occurs on the east bank of the South
Platte River between 31st and 35th streets, open space and
on-site detention is expected to be located adjacent to the
river consistent with the recommendations of the River North
Greenway Master Plan. If these developments and infrastruc-
ture improvements result in a vacation of a segment of Arkins
Court, a vehicular through-route parallel to Brighton should
be maintained by extending Delgany Street southwest of
35th Street.
Recommendation MO-19: Second Pedestrian Bridge
Across the UP railroad tracks
An additional pedestrian bridge at 31st Street or 33rd Street
over the railroad tracks would provide access between River
North and the Denargo Market redevelopment to Upper
Larimer and Curtis Park. Public input indicated the need for
this second pedestrian crossing over the railroad tracks closer
to downtown. This additional crossing is less of a priority
than the 36th Street crossing, but would be beneficial for
residents on both sides of the railroad tracks.
Recommendation MO-20: Central Corridor Station
The Central Corridor Extension Environmental Evaluation
should evaluate the engineering feasibility, environmental im-
pacts and mitigations of a station along 36th Street between
Walnut and Blake instead of the proposed platform adjacent
to the commuter rail station. Locating the station along
36th Street would create opportunities for TOD by increas-
ing pedestrian traffic in the area. In terms of walk distance,
the difference would be minimal because the high platform
required by the commuter rail line forces riders to walk all
the way to the end of the platform regardless of the light rail
location (see Figure 4.15). This location would also reinforce
pedestrian movement along 36th Street across the railroad
tracks between River North and Upper Larimer. It could,
however, result in the closure of 36th Street between Down-
ing and Walnut to vehicular traffic.
Recommendation MO-21: Bus Routing and Stops
Coordinate bus routing and stops with RTD based on the
recommended parking location and platform access from
36th Street. This is especially important for the route 7 and
44 buses, which approach the station from the south. Facili-
tate transfers between the East/Central Corridors and the
North Metro Corridor by re-routing buses or creating new
bus routes to serve both stations.
Recommendation MO-22: Lighting and Amenities
Work closely with Xcel Energy to provide street lighting on
the streets with the highest priority for pedestrian enhance-
ments, including but not limited to 37th Avenue, 36th
Street, Blake from 38th to 36th, and Walnut from 38th to
36th Streets.
Recommendation MO-23: Overhead Power Lines
Work closely with Xcel Energy to identify pedestrian prior-
ity corridors where overhead power lines should be hurried
around the station area. Prioritize primary pedestrian routes
for these improvements, including but not limited to 36th
Street, 37th Avenue, and Blake Street. Coordinate with the
Citys Public Works Department to determine whether an-
nual fund dollars to bury utilities may be utilized.
31


38th & Blake Mobility
32




38th & Blake Stormwater Infrastructure
Figure 5. i Montclair and Lower Platte storm basins in relation to 38th & Blake Station
Existing Conditions
The mouths of two large stormwater basins, the Montclair
Basin and the Lower Platte Basin, are located within the sta-
tion area (see Figure 5-1).
The Montclair Basin is the single largest tributary area outfall
in the City of Denver. Its outfall to the South Platte River
occurs between 36th and 40th streets and its storm network
collects storm runoff from about 6,000 acres, all the way to
Lowry, and includes City Park. City engineers believe that
34


38th & Blake Stormwater Infrastructure
before this part of Denver was platted and developed, a natu-
ral stream bed existed in its outfall vicinity within the station
area. Since nearly half of the Montclair Basin is impervious, a
100-year storm event can generate about 6,500 cubic feet of
water per second.
The Lower Platte Basin, which flows into the South Platte Riv-
er south of 36th Street, has a storm network collecting runoff
from about 2,200 acres and extends all the way to the Denver
Botanic Gardens. Since nearly 65% of the basin is impervious,
a 100-year storm event can generate about 2,700 cubic feet of
water per second.
Many of the Citys largest and oldest storm sewers were built
in these watersheds in order to address storm drainage needs.
In reviewing these systems as part of the Citys regular Storm
Drainage Master Plan updates, many were found to provide
storm protection in less than a 2-year storm event. As a
result, there is flooding after large storms. A 100-year storm
is estimated to generate between 1-3 feet of flooding in the
area, but the actual amount of flood water can vary signifi-
cantly by block.
Planned Improvements
The Citys Storm Drainage Master Plan and Capital Improve-
ment Plan have identified the need and associated funding to
upgrade the Montclair Basin outfall capacity. Furthermore,
the East Corridor EIS proposes to relocate the existing storm
sewer under 40th Avenue between York and 40th Street
because it will be using part of the right-of-way for the com-
muter rail alignment. The City and RTD are coordinating
their planned improvements for the Montclair Basin to up-
grade the storm sewer to convey runoff from a 5-year event,
which is the Citys standard for constructing storm sewers
serving or protecting commercial areas.
Within the station area, this new infrastructure will be located
under 40th Avenue, then cross under the UP tracks along the
40th Street alignment, where it will continue to its outfall at
the South Platte River in Globeville Landing Park (see Figure
5.2). These stormwater improvements are expected to be con-
structed jointly by the City and RTD so that they are coordi-
nated with the East Corridor project. Slated to be completed
by 2014, they are expected to reduce the 100-year storm flood
level in the Montclair Basin section of the station area by about
1 foot overall.
Development Implications
There are a wide range of stormwater management solutions
for development and redevelopment within the station area,
each with their own implications. The challenge will be to
coordinate the urban infrastructure needs with the built
environment to support both economic and community
development. Brief descriptions of some of the potential
solutions are provided below, but further analysis is necessary
to determine which solution, or combination of solutions,
could render the best outcome to enhance the station area
neighborhoods. It should be noted, however, that adaptive
reuse projects, such as the Rock Drill Lofts located at 39th
Avenue and Williams Street, are considered to be merely ten-
Figure 5.2 Planned 5-Year Storm Infrastructure Improvements
35


38th & Blake Stormwater Infrastructure
ant improvements and do not require new stormwater man-
agement infrastructure. But the historic offices and industrial
buildings on the Rock Drill property are not indicative of the
quality of the station areas building stock, and so it seems
likely that the majority of future development in this area
will not be adaptive reuse, but rather new construction.
Denver Storm Water Management
The standard level of storm protection in the City and
County of Denver is to plan, design, and construct storm
sewers to convey storm runoff from the 2-year storm event
in residential areas, and the 5-year storm event in commer-
cial and industrial areas. For larger storm events, the public
right-of-way conveys the excess runoff, up to one foot deep
in the gutter. Since 1995, the City has required water quality
detention and stormwater detention for all new develop-
ments greater than one-half acre in size.
The storm drainage improvements being installed concur-
rently with the East Corridor project do not obviate the re-
quirement that the finished ground floor of any new develop-
ment be at least 1 foot higher than the 100-year storm flood
level, nor the requirement that new development accom-
modate on-site 10-year detention and water quality. These
requirements have been enacted to ensure continued public
health and safety as well as environmental and infrastructure
preservation.
These implications present challenges to implementing TOD
for two reasons. The first is that elevated ground floors pro-
vide less opportunity for active commercial uses. A combina-
tion of retail and services with transparent storefronts and
large windows is recommended near transit stations to en-
courage uses that activate the street with pedestrians and pro-
vide a level of visibility that promotes safety. The requirement
for any new development to be at least one foot higher than
the 100-year storm flood event for public safety may result in
finished floors an estimated 1 to 3 feet above existing grade
in the station area, depending on location and topography.
There are examples of successful commercial mixed-use dis-
tricts in Denver, namely in the LoDo and Ballpark neighbor-
hoods, that have elevated ground floors due to their indus-
trial heritage, but these are largely rehabilitated warehouses
that match the context of those areas (see Figures 5.3). A
recent example of how new construction has handled this
requirement is the Argonaut Wine & Liquor on East Colfax
Avenue, which has an at-grade entrances that ramps up to
Figure 5.3 Elevated finished graound floor in LoDo/Ballpark
Figure 5.4 This at-grade entrance ramps up inside the building
the finished ground floor inside the building (See Figure 5.4).
Elevated ground floors are less of a challenge for residential
uses, which are sometimes designed to be elevated from the
street to provide ground-floor residents with enhanced pri-
vacy. Compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act
will require buildings with elevated ground floors to provide
ramped or elevator access, which results in less buildable area,
requires stairs and ramps for access and poses an additional
financial cost to development.
The second challenge for development is where to locate and
how to design on-site detention and water quality facilities.
In downtown environments with few requirements for open
space, parking, or building setbacks, developers sometimes
provide this function in a vault under their building. But
underground detention is expensive and requires high land
values for developers to be able to recover the cost, condi-
36


38th & Blake Stormwater Infrastructure
Figure 5.5 Example of on-site detention
Figure 5.6 Example of on-site detention
tions that do not exist in this station area today, where land
prices are relatively inexpensive considering their proximity
to downtown. Alternatively, above-ground detention, which
can be designed to provide open space that serves as a public
amenity, reduces the amount of developable land on the site.
Low Impact Development (LID) techniques, such as green
roofs, can address water quality issues to reduce some of the
on-site detention requirements. Otherwise, a portion of any
new development site would have to be devoted to a pond-
like detention facility, similar to what is built in front of retail
centers along commercial arterials in suburban settings (see
Figures 5.5 and 5.6).
A facility of any significant size such as that could render de-
velopment of the site infeasible, especially if there are off-street
parking requirements that also need to be addressed. One solu-
tion to this problem could be for the stakeholders and prop-
erty owners in the new development areas to work together to
develop sub-regional detention ponds that can be aggregated
to create a meaningful open space feature and alleviate the
specific development site requirements for detention.
Traditional Urban Storm Water Management
The conventional solution to stormwater conveyance in ur-
ban areas is to place storm sewers under the streets. Because
the 38th and Blake station area is essentially at the mouth of
two large basins, an underground conveyance system large
enough to accommodate the 100-year storm event would
need enormous capacity and would have to be located under
all streets running perpendicular to the river. This solution
option would still need to separately address the regional
storm water quality and detention issues, but would provide
an opportunity to connect on-site 10-year detention and
water quality into the system to be conveyed to the river (see
Figure 5.7) This solution would also have major impacts on
existing underground utilities and would be very costly.
Sustainable Urban Open Channel
Perhaps a less expensive and more sustainable solution would
be to create one or more open channels connecting the
Montclair and Lower Platte basins to the river. These facilities
would convey stormwater to the river through an open chan-
nel collection system on the south side of the railroad tracks
that would be piped beneath the tracks. The channel to the
river could be designed to meet regional and on-site deten-
tion and water quality requirements for all of the properties
in the station area. There are several potential advantages to
this solution that merit further analysis:
Co-locating regional and on-site detention allows for devel-
opment parcels to realize a greater development footprint,
resulting in urban development patterns that support
transit and pedestrian orientation
The channel could be designed to serve as an organizing
element that emphasizes the unique character of the area
by incorporating features such as an arts walk
The edges of the channel could be activated by single-sided
streets and wide sidewalks adjacent to active ground-floor
commercial or residential uses (see Figure 5.8)
Vehicular and pedestrian bridges over the channel would
allow for continued connectivity within the neighborhood
and diminish any barriers
The open channel creates opportunities for a multi-func-
tional use of land, serving not only stormwater manage-
ment needs but also creating a new open space amenity
that connects to the South Platte River Greenway
With the introduction of greater residential densities along
the Brighton corridor, such an amenity would help to meet
the increased need for open space
37


38th & Blake Stormwater Infrastructure
Subsurface Storm Water Pipes
Q Transit Station
On Site and Regional Storm
Water Detention Ponds
PB
Figure 5.7 -Conceptual diagram illustrating underground stormwater conveyance with on-site detention
Recommendations
By opening day of the station in 2015, underground storm
sewer capacity will be improved so that is is able to convey
a 5-year storm event. However, without addressing issues
associated with the regional 100-year storm event, it will be
challenging for development to respond to the transit invest-
ment and community goals. Furthermore, one of the major
goals of the recently completed River North Greenway Master
Plan is to improve water quality in this stretch of the South
Platte River.
38


38th & Blake Stormwater Infrastructure
Figure 5.8 Open Channel Cross-Section Concept
Studies have found few, if any, opportunities for additional
upstream improvements to reduce the regional storm flow
impact to the station area. Seizing on the most feasible
one, the City spent $20 million between 2006 and 2008 to
provide 145 acre-feet of stormwater detention and improve-
ments to Ferril Lake in City Park to reduce the cost and
size of downstream improvements and provide an outlet for
storm sewers that are needed upstream. As potential solutions
within the station area examined, funding recommendations
should recognize that the station area is both impacted by
and solving for many impervious developed acres upstream.
Urban infrastructure should look to perform multiple func-
tions where possible. In the instance of stormwater manage-
ment, multi-functioning solutions may serve to effectively
address the infrastructure issues and provide an amenity such
as a gathering place for the community, become a unique
identifier to the community, or help to organize desired uses
around the amenity. The recommendations herein lay out
the first steps for identifying solutions to regional and sub-
regional storm water infrastructure.
Recommendation SI (Stormwater Infrastructure)-!: Sta-
tion Area Stormwater Management Study
The City should conduct a review of completed stormwater
studies for both basins and the station area (such as the East
Corridor Drainage Master Plan) to determine the extent
to which possible solutions have already been identified.
Pending the results of that evaluation, the City should assess
the need to fund and initiate a new study to incrementally
address stormwater management solutions in the station area.
The study should include the following:
Identify 100-year storm flood depths in the station area
Propose 100-year storm conveyance, detention and water
quality solutions and potential locations
Examine the range of alternative solutions, including: open
channel/park amenity, below-grade sewers, or a combina-
tion of multiple alternatives
Incorporate local development 10-year detention and water
quality requirements within the station area into regional
solutions
Provide rough order of magnitude cost estimates for all op-
tions
Propose funding approaches that include all properties
within both basins
Provide sub-regional water quality consolidation options
Analyze the development impacts of the identified solu-
tions for the station area
39


38th & Blake Stormwater Infrastructure
Recommendation SI-2: Station Area Stormwater Working
Group
Form a collaborative working team between the City and
landowners/developers to develop sub-regional solutions that
aggregate the 10-year on-site detention and water quality
needs.
A potential solution to the on-site detention needs could
be for a group of developers and property owners to create
a General Development Plan and create an Improvement
District to provide shared locations to handle the 10-year
stormwater needs of their combined sites. The value of such
an approach is that it could result in using less-valuable
parcels for development for the infrastructure that benefits all
the property owners, and it could potentially result in more
transit-supportive development. The detention sites could
also be developed in combination with open space to meet
requirements as well as provide a community amenity. This
model is currently being employed in the River North area.
40


Ff
Land Use and


38th & Blake Land Use and Urban Design
Existing Land Use
Industrial uses are predominant within the study area, ac-
counting for 44% of all land. Transportation, communica-
tions, and utilities (TCU) uses, which tend to be industrial
in nature (primarily rail yards and other railroad-supportive
uses along with telecommunications facilities in the station
area), constitute an additional 14% of the study area, bring-
ing the total industrial uses to 58% (see Figure 6.1). The area
north of the UP railroad tracks is almost entirely industrial,
featuring small, isolated pockets of non-industrial uses,
while the area south of the railroad tracks has industrial uses
along the edges of stable residential neighborhoods. The alley
between Larimer and Lawrence largely serves as the dividing
line between industrial and residential uses separating Upper
Larimer from Curtis Park (see Figure 6.2).
Residential is the next most common land use, comprising
19% of the study area (12% single family and 7% multifami-
ly). The vast majority of single-family dwellings are located in
the residential sections of Curtis Park and Cole. Multi-family
developments can also be found in these neighborhoods, al-
though it is becoming increasingly common for multi-family
development as an adaptive reuse of buildings on former
industrial sites that are adjacent to active industrial and heavy
commercial uses, such as the Rock Drill Lofts on Williams
Street and 39th Avenue in Cole.
Commercial, retail, and office uses comprise only about
4% of the station area today. Furthermore, the commercial
Land Use Acres % of Total
Office 4.2 1.1
Retail 5.9 1.5
Commercial 0.4 0.1
Mixed-Use 5.5 1.4
Industrial 171.0 44.4
Entertainment-Cultural 5.7 1.5
Public/Quasi-Public 5.6 1.5
Single-Family 46.5 12.1
Multi-Family Low Rise 24.2 6.3
Multi-Family High Rise 0.1 0.03
Park-Open Space 8.9 2.3
TCU 52.4 13.6
Parking 29.0 7.5
Surface Water 10.5 2.7
Vacant 14.0 3.6
Unknown/Other 1.5 0.4
Total 385.6 100.0
Figure 6.1 Existing Land Use Table
uses that are present are sprinkled throughout the neighbor-
hoods, lacking enough concentration in any one location
to be considered a commercial district. This is true even on
Downing Street, which has some of the character of a main
street commercial corridor, but lacks heavy concentrations of
commercial uses.
Land Use Guidance from Adopted Plans
Blueprint Denver: An Integrated Land Use and Transportation
Plan was adopted in 2002 and places a city-wide priority on
land use, transportation, housing, environmental sustain-
ability and protection of Denvers historic legacies. Blueprint
Denver identifies Areas of Stability and Areas of Change
throughout the city with the goal of directing new develop-
ments and infill projects toward Areas of Change in order to
preserve Denvers stable neighborhoods. It also establishes
citywide concept land use and concept street classifications.
Most of the 38th & Blake station area is identified in Blue-
print as an Area of Change, with the exception of the Cole
neighborhood and portions of Curtis Park, which are identi-
fied as Areas of Stability. Blueprint Denvers land-use plan
shows mixed-use development for Upper Larimer and River
North, which represents a change from the predominantly
industrial zoning in this area today. The areas northeast of
38th Street and across the South Platte River are proposed to
remain industrial in Blueprint Denver. TOD is proposed for
Downing Street, site of the Central Corridor extension, and
in the immediate vicinity of the old station location at 40th
& 40th. The Cole neighborhood is shown as single-family
residential and Curtis Park is shown as urban residential,
reflecting the higher residential densities found there.
The River North Plan provides land use guidance for ap-
proximately the northwestern two-thirds of the 38th & Blake
station area. Adopted in 2003, the River North Plan was the
first small area plan completed after Blueprint Denver. As
such, land use recommendations in the River North Plan
are more detailed than, yet highly consistent with, Blueprint
Denver. The River North Plan (see Figure 6.3), expands upon
Blueprint Denvers mixed-use concept (see Figure 6.4) by
identifying individual mixed-use areas that fall into the fol-
lowing categories: commercial, residential, TOD, industrial,
and river corridor.
42


38th & Blake Land Use and Urban Design
I 1 Multi-Family Low Rise [ I Multi-Family Mid Rise I I Multi-Family High Rise ,____________ Single-Family
H Office
I I Commercial
kttfl Park-Open Space
I 1 ROW/Road
Retail
Industrial
Public/Quasi-Public
Vacant
^_J Transportation, Communication, Utility
Figure 6.2 Existing Land Use Map
I I Mixed-Use or Office-Retail
I I Entertainment-Cultural
I I Surface Water
Surface Parking; Parking Structure
Other/Unknown; Agriculture
43


38th & Blake Land Use and Urban Design
Figure 6.3 River North Plan Land Use Concept Map
Existing Zoning Districts
Zoning in the station area is largely consistent with the exist-
ing land use pattern and there are not significant areas of
non-conforming uses. For example, industrial uses account
for 58% of the study area, while the amount of industrial
zoning (1-0,1-1, and 1-2) is 63%. Similarly, residential uses
account for 19% of the study area, and R district zoning (R-
2, R-2A, R-3, and R-4) accounts for 21% (see Figure 6.5).
Although current land-use patterns are reinforced by existing
zoning, there is evidence that this pattern has been shifting
in recent years as individual property owners have rezoned
to non-industrial mixed-use districts. This market pressure is
illustrated in the zoning map by the prevalence of individual
lots within the I districts that have been rezoned to com-
mercial mixed use (CMU), residential mixed use (RMU) and
planned unit development (PUD) districts (see Figure 6.9).
CMU districts account for 5% of the study area, RMU dis-
tricts account for another 5%, and PUDs an additional 1%.
This rezoning trend can be seen on both sides of the railroad
tracks, generally marching northeast from LoDo. Examples
of CMU, RMU, and PUD zoning can be found especially
along Brighton Boulevard and Blake Street. Notable exam-
ples of recent or planned redevelopment of former industrial
sites include Fire Clay Lofts on Blake Street (see Figure 6.6),
44


38th & Blake Land Use and Urban Design
4fi ** Martin Luther King Blvd o
& Tfe si ra 31st Ave
jlol 5
| | Single Family Residential | | Urban Residential [ 1 Park j | Entertainment, Cultural, Exhibition
Transit Oriented Development Pedestrian Shopping District | | Mixed Use | | Industrial
Area of Change;
Figure 6.4 Blueprint Denver Land Use Concept Map
the Exdo Event Center on Walnut Street (see Figure 6.7),
Rock Drill Lofts on 39th Avenue (see Figure 6.8), as well
as several large-scale developments that are currently in the
planning stages on Brighton Boulevard, such as the Denargo
Market redevelopment and the Beleza condominium project.
Because zoning sets the stage for future development, the
quantity and nature of rezoning activity within the western
part of the station area (which follows an earlier pattern of
rezonings in the Ballpark section to the southwest) appears to
indicate market pressure for future land-use changes.
Recommendations
As described in the Introduction, the movement of the sta-
tion from 40th & 40th to 38th & Blake shifted the station
area typology from a major urban center to an urban neigh-
borhood. The urban neighborhood typology was tested with
45


38th & Blake Land Use and Urban Design
Distribution of Denver Zoning Districts
38th and Blake Station Area (2008)
Zoning District Acres Percent
B-1 11,317 0.1%
B-2 175,733 0.8%
B-4 904,738 4.1%
C-MU-10 231,362 1.1%
C-MU-20 66,724 0.3%
C-MU-30 814,045 3.7%
l-O 9,162 0.0%
1-1 7,740,996 35.4%
I-2 5,963,566 27.3%
PUD 266,546 1.2%
R-2 3,425,511 15.7%
R-2-A 277,707 1.3%
R-3 830,777 3.8%
R-4 131,795 0.6%
R-MU-20 192,643 0.9%
R-MU-30 838,588 3.8%
Total acres 21,881,211 100.0%
Figure 6.5 Existing Zoning Table
stakeholders through the public process and deemed appro-
priate for the areas south of the railroad right-of-way, but the
Brighton corridor is envisioned to have more intense devel-
opment with a greater mixture of commercial and employ-
ment uses and taller building heights than the area south of
the station.
Recommendation LU (Land Use)-1: Station Area
Typology
Revise the station area typology from major urban center to
urban neighborhood in the Transit Oriented Development
Strategic Plan to match the development opportunities of
the revised station location (38th & Blake) and the existing
neighborhood context, but note the different context of the
Brighton Boulevard corridors more intense development
with a greater mixture of commercial and employment uses
and taller building heights.
Land Use Category Descriptions
The plan recommends six distinct categories of land use
designation: Mixed-Use TOD Core, Mixed-Use Main Street,
Mixed-Use Residential, Urban Residential, Mixed-Use Em-
ployment and Open Space and Parks (see Figure 6.10).
Mixed-Use TOD Core designation encourages a more
intense mix of residential and commercial uses with a
pedestrian orientation that supports transit usage. This is
envisioned adjacent to the station platform and at the 36th
Stret & Brighton node. First floors should have transparent
fapades that allow people to be eyes on the street. Active com-
merical first-floor uses are strongly encouraged along the 36
Street axis on both sides of the tracks, and along Blake and
Walnut streets between 35th and 38th streets. Allowing this
use near transit will encourage pedestrian traffic and promote
commercial activity. Building heights within the Mixed-Use
TOD Core category are from 2 to 8 stories.
Figure 6.6- Fire Clay Lofts
Figure 6.7-Exdo Event Center
Figure 6.8 Rock Drill Lofts
46


38th & Blake Land Use and Urban Design
Mixed Use Residential
Mixed Use Commercial
Industrial
Business District
PUD
Figure 6.9- Current Zoning Map (simplified)
47


38th & Blake Land Use and Urban Design
Mixed-Use Main Street designation encourages a strong
mix of housing, office, and commercial uses with flexible use
requirements that respect the residential fabric of the neigh-
borhood and reinforce linear development patterns along
commercial streets. This is envisioned along Downing Street
between 35th and 37th avenues. Main Street districts should
have transparent fapades that allow people in the first floor to
be eyes on the street. Allowing this use near transit will en-
courage pedestrian traffic and promote commercial activity.
The character of these mixed use streets should clearly define
and activate the public realm by locating buildings, entrances
and windows in a way that creates an active and lively pedes-
trian scaled commercial corridor. Building heights within the
Mixed-Use Main Street category are up to 3 stories.
Mixed-Use Residential designation includes higher density
residential including but not limited to: garden apartments,
tuck under townhouses, or multi-family buildings. Active
ground floors should include residential amenities, leasing
lobbies, workout facilities, parking entrances and conve-
LEGEND
Mixed Use-TOD Core Mixed-Use- Employment
Mixed Use Main Street Open Space and Parks
Mixed Use Residential New Open Space and Parks
Urban Residential iiiiiiin iiiiiiiin FasTracks East Corridor Line
Possible Future Blake
Streetcar Connection
Central Corridor Street Car
Mixed Pedestrian -Auto Street
Pedestrian Plaza
Q Transit Station
^ Station Parking
o
1/4 and 1/2 Mile Walk Radius
] Pedestrian Bridge
P PB
z.. -
Figure 6.10- Future Land Use
48


38th & Blake Land Use and Urban Design
nience retail at strategic locations that reinforce the overall
connectivity and access plans for the station. The building
heights within the Mixed-use Residential category vary: up
to 5 stories southeast of the railroad tracks in Upper Larimer
and in Cole (where it drops to 3 stories east of Franklin and
east of the new Marion Street), 2-8 stories surrounding the
Mixed-Use TOD node at 36th & Brighton, and up to 8
stories southwest of 35th Street along Brighton (taller build-
ings could be developed southwest of 35th with additional
requirements such as stepbacks and open space).
Urban Residential is primarily residential but may include a
limited number of commercial uses to serve daily needs such
as a drycleaner, bank, video store or neighborhood market.
This designation is intended to serve as a transition between
more intense development and existing single-family neigh-
borhoods. A mixture of housing types is present, including
historic single-family houses, townhouses, and small multi-
family apartments. The building heights for Urban Residen-
tial are up to 3 stories.
Mixed-Use Employment encourages employment opportu-
nities and allows for a mix of uses that includes: warehouse,
retail, research and development, creative services, offices,
incubator business, arts/cultural uses, and compatible rec-
reational uses. New infill development should be compat-
ible with the other recommended uses near the station area.
Mixed-Use Employment is meant to attract and accommo-
date cutting-edge industries and transition over time to in-
clude opportunities for a unique and inviting place to live and
workresidential uses are allowable. This designation is en-
visioned in two places within the station area. Along Larimer
and Walnut Streets southwest of the station (which are one-
way streets with more employment uses than Blake Street)
where building heights are up to 3 stories. Along Brighton
Boulevard southwest of 38th Avenue, where this designation
is intended to accomodate growth of the RINO arts district
and provide opportunties for TOD, building heights are up
to 5 stories. Northwest of 38th Street, which today has a more
industrial character, building heights are up to 3 stories.
Open Space and Parks provide neighborhood gathering
places, create focal points, and provide local green spaces that
can increase housing value. This plan proposes expansion of
the St. Charles Park, the addition of a small plaza at 36th
Street and Blake (across from the station), and endorses the
open space locations recommended in the River North Green-
way Master Plan. New parks may serve to function as passive
and active recreation spaces, water quality and detention and
should have development face onto the park on all sides if
possible.
Following Denvers allowable aggregation of open space per
the General Development Plan, 10% of all new development
should be publicly accessible, usable open space. Open space
requirements for several contiguous developments can be
combined to create larger, more usable open spaces so long
as the full amount of open space is provided with the initial
development project.
District Plan
Although the majority of new development in the station
area is proposed to be mixed-use, different subareas will have
their own function and character within the larger plan.
Figure 6.11 identifies the subareas in lettering from A-G, and
each is described further below.
A) Primary TOD Areas
A primary principle of TOD advocates a mix of uses clos-
est to the station. A mix of uses at the station serves as the
area of greatest activity, from a ground floor retail, office
and residential perspective. Two TOD areas are recom-
mended within a quarter-mile of the station: one extends
along Blake Street on the blocks adjacent to the platform,
the other is at the intersection of 36th Street and Brighton
Boulevard.
Mixed-Use TOD Core (2-8 stories) is envisioned along Blake
and Walnut streets, the front door to the station. This
designation is intended to create a hub of activity, with a mix
of uses and small plazas for gathering near the station. The
TOD Core is envisioned as a place where new and existing
residents can meet their daily needs, and will serve as a desti-
nation for the larger community, signifying that it is a unique
and special place.
Brighton Boulevard is a key gateway to downtown Denver
and is envisioned as the focus of new mixed-use develop-
ment within River North. While there have been numerous
re-zonings along Brighton, redevelopment has occurred at a
slower pace and the identified character for this corridor has
yet to be realized. The boulevard today continues to serve
more as a path for vehicles than a place for people. The new
Mixed-Use TOD Core (2-8 stories) node at 36th Street and
Brighton Boulevard reinforces 36th Street as an important
49


38th & Blake Land Use and Urban Design

Figure 6.11 Districts
pedestrian connection from the river, across Brighton, and
across the tracks to the station platform into Upper Lar-
imer, Curtis Park and Cole. It will create an activity center
and reinforce the street as a destination.
Recommendation LU-2: Blake Street TOD Core
Provide a mix of uses around the station that supports the
neighborhood and the station. Create a front door to the
station along Blake Street and 36th Street through active
ground-floor commercial uses, as well as a mix of residen-
tial.
50


38th & Blake Land Use and Urban Design
Recommendation LU-3: Brighton Boulevard TOD Core
Reinforce Brighton Boulevard as the most intense develop-
ment corridor in the station area. Mixed use and greater
building heights should be focused on the intersection of
36th and Brighton. As the gateway downtown and front
door to River North, Brighton should be a place where
pedestrians find interesting shops, galleries and creative
welcoming places to walk and visit. Even with tall buildings,
development should have a human scale that greets the street.
Building on its arts district, public art should be utilized to
provide an identifying character along Brighton in the transi-
tion between the public and private realms.
B) Downing as a Main Street Corridor
The Central Corridor light rail line, which currently ends
at 30th & Downing, will eventually be extended northward
along Downing to connect with the 38th & Blake station.
The Central Corridor will serve residents of the Five Points
and Cole neighborhoods and could serve as a catalyst for new
development, especially for parcels that are adjacent to new
stops. The land use along Downing Street north of 35th Av-
enue is envisioned as Mixed-Use Main Street up to 3 stories
to maintain neighborhood scale and character.
Recommendation LU-4: Downing Mixed Use
Encourage mixed-use development along Downing from
35th to Walnut Street that emphasizes Downing as a main
street for the neighborhoods to access goods and services and
includes residential.
C) Mixed-Use Residential Infill and Redevelopment
Mixed-Use Residential should extend along Blake Street in
both directions from the station and on Brighton Boulevard
southwest of 36th Street. Mixed-Use Residential is intended
to include the adaptive reuse of existing buildings or new
construction of multi-family housing. This type of develop-
ment is already occurring within the station area, especially
along Blake Street to the southwest, at the Rock Drill Lofts
to the east of the station in Cole, and along Brighton where
the Beleza project is planned.
Recommendation LU-5: Residential Mixed Use
Development
Increase the population of residents living near transit
through the adaptive reuse of existing buildings or construc-
tion of new residential buildings along Blake Street southwest
of the station and to the northeast towards the Rock Drill
Lofts (up to 5 stories). East of the proposed new Marion
Street the height should transition to 3 stories. Mixed Use
Residential should also create a residential base around the
36th Street and Brighton node (2-8 stories) and continue
southwest along Brighton towards the Denargo Market
development (up to 8 stories but greater heights could be
possible with stepbacks and other requirements).
D) Urban Residential Transition Areas
To preserve the scale, massing and views of the existing
stable residential sections of Curtis Park and Cole, an Urban
Residential designation is recommended at 38th Avenue and
Lafayette Street to transition from the Mixed-Use Residen-
tial to the north, and along the west side of Marion Street
to transition the Mixed-Use Main Street designation along
Downing. The Urban Residential designation encourages
townhomes and other small-scale multi-family development.
Recommendation LU-6: Urban Residential Transition
Implement Urban Residential (up to 3 stories) at appropriate
locations to provide a transition of scale and massing into the
adjacent single-family neighborhoods.
E) Brighton North Mixed-Use Employment
The existing employment base found along Brighton Bou-
levard and along Larimer and Walnut streets provides jobs
in close proximity to downtown with vehicular access to the
interstate system. The Pepsi Company bottling facility is an
example of a major employer that will remain in the area but
could be improved aesthetically and operationally to contrib-
ute to a more unified and active streetscape along Brighton
Boulevard and 38th Street.
Recommendation LU-7: Maintain Employment Base
Northeast of 38th Street
Maintain employment uses along 38th Street and Brighton
to the northeast, and work with Pepsi and other industrial
properties along Brighton to improve building fapades and
redevelop surface parking. Allow other uses, including some
residential, to infill as the market develops, with heights up
to 3 stories.
51


38th & Blake Land Use and Urban Design
LEGEND
Mixed Use -TOD Core Mixed-Use- Employment ^ Transit Station
Mixed Use Residential Open Space and Parks Q Station Parking
Mixed Use Main Street New Open Space and Parks (C)) 1/4 and 1/2 MileWalk Radius
Urban Residential * Additional Stories With Step Backs D PB
Figure 6.12- Recommended Building Fleights
F) 37th Street Mixed-Use Arts District
In recent years, artist studios in an industrial context have
been growing in the vicinity of Brighton Boulevard between
36th and 38th streets. This plan recommends construction of
a new 37th Street to improve mobility, access, and circulation
in this area. The land use recommend for this 8-block area
is Mixed-Use Employment. This designation is intended to
encourage the continued employment or artists and artisans
while allowing a mix of uses, including residential.
52


38th & Blake Land Use and Urban Design
Recommendation LU-8: Create a 37th Street Corridor
Mixed-Use Arts District
Enhance the small business/arts district in River North to
strengthen its identity as an arts and employment center and
allow residential uses to infill and provide more vitality to the
area with the creation of 37th Street, with building heights of
up to 5 stories.
G) Open Space and Parks
Existing parks and other open space should be expanded to
serve additional growth in the station area. The park and
open space recommendations in this plan support the recom-
mendations of the River North Greenway Master Plan com-
pleted by the City in 2009.
Recommendation LU-9: Strengthen St. Charles Park and
Recreation Center
Increase the amount of publicly available open space near the
St. Charles Park and Recreational Center to provide for more
recreational activities and to provide a presence on Walnut
Street. This could be accommodated either through expan-
sion of the park or through publicly accessible but privately
owned property.
Recommendation LU-10: Share Water Quality/Open
Space
Site future park/open space that could also be used for water
quality detention for new development along the South
Platte River southwest of 35th Street and southwest of 38th
Street, and to southwest of 35th Street and Wynkoop.
Recommendation LU-11: Create a Station Plaza
Create a small plaza on the corner of 36th Street and Blake,
across the street from the station. The plaza could be used to
meet open space requirements and provide retail goods or
services while also improving visibility of the station from
36th Street and Walnut.
Urban Design and Building Heights
Based on the station area typology, Blueprint Denver and the
River North Plan, the land use recommendations above, and
community input, building heights for new development in
the station area should follow the descriptions in Districts
A-G. These are: 2-8 stories adjacent to the station in District
A; 2-8 stories centered around the 36th Street & Brighton
Boulevard node in District A,; up to 3 stories along Downing
Street in District B; up to 8 stories (with taller building possi-
ble) in the mixed-use residential area along Brighton Boule-
vard southwest of 36th Street in District C; up to 5 stories
in the residential mixed-use section of District C northeast
of the station; up to 3 stories in the residential mixed-use in
District C southwest of the station and in the urban resi-
dential areas in District D; up to 5 stories in the mixed-use
employment areas along Brighton Boulevard in Districts E
and F (see Figure 6.12). Figures 6.13 and 6.14 illustrate the
massing of new development within these height ranges.
Because the ultimate roadway network and stormwater man-
agement solutions in the station area will have to be deter-
mined by additional studies, it is not possible for this plan to
develop a build-out scenario based on future land use. The
configuration and direction of streets have signficant market
implications for individual properties, and the property im-
pacts of stormwater infrastructure could be significantly differ-
ent depending on which approach is ultimately implemented
in the station area. Resolution of these issues could result
in a future plan amendment, or regulatory implementation
through other means such as a General Development Plan.
53


38th & Blake Land Use and Urban Design
Figure 6.13- Building Massing Viewed from West
Platte River Pedestrian Bridge
Commuter Rail Station
36th Street Pedestrian Bridge
Downing Street
Brighton Boulevard
54


Imple


38th & Blake Implementation
Implementation
The Implementation chapter identifies action items for the
purpose of accomplishing the recommendations of the 38th
& Blake Station Area Plan. The chapter is divided into two
sections. The first is a set of four key recommendations (some
general, some specific) that are considered to be of critical
importance in order to successfully implement the remainder
of the plans recommendations. The second is an implemen-
tation matrix that addresses each of the recommendations
contained in this plan, and identifies action items, time
frames, and responsible parties.
Key Recommendations
There are several key recommendations that are significant
enough to be identified as priorities due to their importance
or because of time constraints. Some of these were identi-
fied earlier in the Mobility and Land Use and Urban Design
chapters. Others are overarching recommendations that affect
the entire station area.
Recommendation K (Key)-1: Pedestrian Bridge
Relocation; Opening Day Platform Segment
The priority recommendation that has evolved from public
outreach and analysis conducted as part of this plan is to
relocate the RTD pedestrian bridge crossing of the UP Rail-
road from 38th Street to 36th Street. A pedestrian crossing
at 36th Street would more directly connect the River North
neighborhood to the transit station and would have the ad-
ditional benefit of connecting the Cole, Upper Larimer and
Curtis Park neighborhoods to the South Platte River. A new
pedestrian spine along 36th Street both north and south of
the railroad tracks would reduce existing mobility barriers,
resulting in a more cohesive station area with stronger rede-
velopment potential.
Along with the above relocations, the section of the com-
muter rail platform built for opening day should be oriented
on 36th Street rather than 38th Street. This location will pro-
vide a more direct pedestrian link for residents living in both
Cole and Upper Larimer, and deter pedestrians from crossing
Blake Street near the hump over the 38th Street underpass.
The potential relocation of RTDs proposed park-n-Ride at
38th Street and Wynkoop to 36th Street and Wazee should
also be explored. If it cannot be relocated, a pedestrian
bridge should be constructed over 38th Street adjacent to the
railroad tracks to allow pedestrian access to the park-n-Ride
from Wazee Street. Between 36th and 38th streets, Wazee
should be designed to accomodate a pedestrian path from the
park-n-Ride to the 36th Street bridge to access the platform.
Recommendation K-2: Next Steps Transportation
Operations Study
Conduct a subsequent study of the traffic, circulation pat-
terns, and street grid around the station area as part of the
38th & Blake Next Steps Transportation Operations study
immediately following the adoption of this station area plan.
The Next Steps study should analyze the future circulation
and land use concepts proposed by this plan (including the
relocation of the park-n-Ride and pedestrian bridge) to test
their feasibility and determine their effects on mobility in the
station area in the context of the following principles for safe
station access and streets designed for multi-modal travel:
Facilitate pedestrian access to the station
Simplify connections between the two grid networks
through street segment and intersection design modifications
Study the feasibility of converting one-way streets to two-
way, including Blake Street southwest of 35th Street
Identify multi-modal travel patterns to and from the sta-
tion
Develop a phasing plan for infrastructure improvements
(taking into consideration opening day needs) and identify
priorities, responsible parties and partners, and potential
funding sources
Coordinate with and inform RTDs Central Corridor En-
vironmental Evaluation process to ensure safe and efficient
mobility and access for all modes in relation to the light
rail extensions in-street alignment, future stations, and
connectivity to 38th and Blake.
Recommendation K-3: Northeast Downtown
Neighborhoods Plan
Begin the Northeast Downtown Neighborhoods Plan imme-
diately following the adoption of this station area plan. The
plan should provide more detailed evaluation and recom-
mendations for multi-modal operations, station locations
and land uses along Downing Street.
56


38th & Blake Implementation
Recommendation K-4: Opening Day Transportation
Infrastructure Improvements
Pending the results of the Next Steps Transportation Opera-
tions Study, the success of collaboration with RTD to change
the location of the park-n-Ride and pedestrian bridge, and
any new development projects that implement the street
reconfigurations in this plan, the City should take steps to
ensure that the station area street network meets pedestrian
access needs by opening day in 2015- These measures may
include temporary closures of certain street segments to
vehicular traffic in places where conflicts with pedestrians are
likely The City has about $2 million in TOD bond funding
for station area infrastructure that should be used for these
purposes. The City should also pursue funding opportunities
for the 36th Street pedestrian bridge regardless of whether
RTD changes the EIS design.
Implementation
The following are implementation strategies for the station
area. Each strategy includes reference to the numbered plan
recommendation(s) it implements, a general timeframe and
responsible parties. The recommendations are abbreviated for
each section: K= Key; MO= Mobility; LU = Land Use and
Urban Design; and SI = Stormwater Infrastructure. There
are three different implementation timeframes: immediate,
short-term (by opening day for the station in 2015) and
long-term. Many of the mobility recommendations must
be implemented at the same time to ensure that the street
network functions appropriately in the event of street clo-
sures, reconfigurations, intersection redesigns and directional
changes.
A team approach is crucial to implementation. There are
many parties involved including City departments, RTD,
property owners, elected and appointed officials, neighbor-
hood organizations and business organizations. The table
identifies responsible parties so it is clear who will take the
lead on each effort.
Implementation and Next Steps
Recommendations Implementation Strategy Time- frame Responsibility
K-1: Pedestrian Bridge Relocation; Opening Day Platform Segment Relocate the pedestrian bridge crossing over the railroad tracks from 38th Street to 36th Street. The phase of the platform built for opening day should be oriented towards 36th Street rather than 38th. Work with RTD on potential relocation of northside park-n-Ride or provide pedes- trian access on Wazee Street. Opening Day City, RTD
K-2: Next Steps Transportation Study Conduct a subsequent study of the traffic, circulation patterns, and street grid around the station area as part of the 38th & Blake Next Steps Transportation Operations study immediately following the adoption of this station area plan. Recommend tranportation infrastrucutre improvements and phasing. Provide Input into the Central Corridor Environmental Evaluation. Immediate Public Works, RTD, Community Planning and Development
K-3: Northeast Downtown Neighborhoods Plan Conduct the Northeast Downtown Neighborhoods Plan immediately following the adoption of this station area plan. Provide more detailed evaluation and recommendations for multi-modal operations, station locations and land use along Downing Street. Immediate Community Planning & Development
K-4: Opening Day Transportation Infrastructure Improvements Based on the results of the Next Steps Study, collaborate with RTD for station design changes, and development by property owners in the station area. Take steps to ensure pedestrian access to the station utilizingTOD bond funding and look for other funding opportunities. Immediate to Opening Day Public Works, RTD, Property Owners
57


38th & Blake Implementation
Implementation and Next Steps
Recommendations Implementation Strategy Time- frame Responsibility
MO-1:38th Street, Walnut and Marion Intersection Pending results of the Next Steps study, develop a new intersection configuration at 38th Street/Walnut/Marion to facilitate pedestrian crossings and vehicular movements and to take into account additional traffic on Walnut, future widening of the 38th Street underpass and two-way traffic on Marion. Opening Day to Long-Term PublicWorks
MO-2: Blake Street Bridge over 38th Until the 38th Street underpass and Blake Street"hump"are recon- structed, ensure pedestrian connections across Blake Street to the transit station based on Next Steps study recommendations. Opening Day PublicWorks
MO-3: 38th Street Underpass Reconstruct the 38th Street Underpass between Wynkoop Street and Walnut Street to provide a four-lane cross section with wide sidewalks on both sides of the street and adequate vertical clearance. Reconstruct the Blake Street Bridge to remove the hump over 38th Street. Long-Term PublicWorks
MO-4: Downing Between Walnut and Blake Pending the results of the Next Steps study and development plans by property owners, reconfigure the Downing Street segment connecting Blake Street and Walnut Street across from the station with a new 37th Street that is pedestrian friendly and perpendicular to Blake and Walnut. Opening Day Property Owners, PublicWorks
MO-5A: Blake Street platform access Pending the results of the Next Steps study and collaboration with RTD, improve the pedestrian crossing of Blake at 36th Street. Opening Day PublicWorks, RTD
MO-5B: Convert Blake Street to two-way Pending the results of the Next Steps study, Blake Street between 35th and Broadway should be considered for conversion from one-way to two-way. In conjunction with new development, the new street cross- section should include bike lanes, on-street parking, sidewalks and a pedestrian amenity zone. Opening Day PublicWorks, RTD
MO-6: 36th Street, Downing and 37th Avenue intersection Pending the results of the Next Steps study and in collaboration with the Central Corridor EE, consider crosswalks and a traffic signal to improve this primary access point between the neighborhoods and the station. If possible, re-align intersection so that 36th St. matches up with 37th Ave. across Downing. Opening Day PublicWorks, RTD
MO-7 A: Convert Downing Street to two-way Pending results of the Next Steps study, convert Downing Street from one-way to two-way between Walnut and Lawrence Streets. Opening Day to Long-Term PublicWorks
MO-7B: Remove Lawrence Street segment Pending results of the Next Steps study, remove the diagonal portion of Lawrence Street between Downing and Marion. Opening Day to Long-Term PublicWorks
MO-7C: Convert Marion Street to two-way Pending results of the Next Steps study, convert Marion from a one-way northbound street to a two-way local street with reduced lanes and wider sidewalks between Lawrence and Walnut. Opening Day to Long-Term PublicWorks
58


38th & Blake Implementation
Implementation and Next Steps
Recommendations Implementation Strategy Time- frame Responsibility
MO-8: Reconfigure other key Downing Street Intersections Pending the results of the Next Steps study and in collaboration with the Central Corridor EE, consider physical reconfiguration, crosswalks and traffic signals at Downing Street intersections where the grids collide to ensure safe pedestrian access and vehicular movements. Opening Day to Long Term PublicWorks, RTD
MO-9: 37th Avenue pedestrian treatment Pending results of the Next Steps study, consider improvements to the pedestrian infrastructure along 37th Avenue, the main pedestrian route to the station from Cole. Ensure that sidewalks along this street are in good condition and are ADA accessible, crosswalks are provided at intersections, and that traffic control measures (stop signs, etc) are adequate to meet the needs of increased numbers of pedestrians and cyclists along this route. Opening Day Public Works
MO-10:40th Avenue between 40th Street and Franklin Pending the results of the Next Steps study, close 40th Avenue segment between Blake Street & 40th Street, and Franklin & Walnut intersections to provide better pedestrian crossing at 40th Street and Blake. Opening Day PublicWorks
MO-11:40th Street and Walnut intersection Pending the results of the Next Steps study, locate a traffic signal at this intersection to ensure safe pedestrian movement to the station across Walnut street from Cole. Opening Day PublicWorks
MO-12:40th Street and Blake intersection Pending the completion of recommendations MO-10 and MO-11, build sidewalks and crosswalks at this intersection to ensure pedestrian access from the proposed Blake Street park-n-Ride to the station, and from the neighborhood to the station. Opening Day PublicWorks
MO-13: New Brighton Boulevard cross-section The Brighton Boulevard Urban Design Guidelines study will propose intermediate and ultimate cross-sections between 31 stand 44th. The City should collaborate with property owners to assist with implemen- tation and funding. Immediate to Long-Term Property Owners, PublicWorks
MO-14: Signalize 36th and Brighton Boulevard Intersection Pending the results of the Next Steps study and collaboration with RTD, provide a new traffic signal on Brighton Boulevard at 36th Street to provide pedestrian connectivity to the South Platte River Greenway. Opening Day City, RTD
MO-15: New 37th Street In conjunction with new development, improve connectivity by introducing a new street at 37th Street from Wazee to the South Platte River. Long-term Property Owners, PublicWorks, Community Planning & Development
MO-16: New 39th Street and Marion Street In conjuntion with new development, introduce a new street at 39th Street between the existing Lafayette and Blake streets, with a new segment of Marion Street between the new 39th Street and 40th Street. The resulting smaller blocks would be more appropriate for TOD and promote better pedestrian access to the station and through the area. Long-term Property Owners, PublicWorks, Community Planning & Development
59


38th & Blake Implementation
Implementation and Next Steps
Recommendations Implementation Strategy Time- frame Responsibility
MO-17: Extend Wynkoop and Wazee and create new 33rd, 34th, 41 st, 42nd, and 43 rd Streets In conjuction with new development, extend Wynkoop Street from its current public terminus northwest of 40th Street all the way to 43rd Street and add new streets at 41 st, 42nd and 43rd connecting Wynkoop to Brighton. Also in conjunction with new development, extend Wynkoop and Wazee southwest of 35th Street and add new streets at 33rd and 34th connecting Wynkoop to Brighton Long-term Property Owners, Public Works, Parks & Recreation, Community Planning & Development
MO-18: Maintain vehicular through-route parallel to Brighton between 38th Street and downtown In conjunction with new development occurs on the east bank of the South Platte River between 31st and 35th streets, open space and on- site detention is expected to be located adjacent to the river consistent with the recommendations of the River North Greenway Master Plan. If these developments and infrastructure improvements result in a vacation of a segment of Arkins Court, a vehicular through-route parallel to Brighton should be maintained by extending Delgany Street south- west of 35th Street. Long-term Property Owners, Public Works, Parks & Recreation, Community Planning & Development
MO-19: Second pedestrian bridge across railroad tracks An additional pedestrian bridge at 31st Street or 33rd Street over the railroad tracks would provide access between River North and the Denargo Market redevelopment to Upper Larimer and Curtis Park. This additional crossing is less of a priority than the 36th Street crossing, but would be beneficial for residents on both sides of the railroad tracks. Long-term Public Works
MO-20: Central Corridor Station The Central Corridor Extension Environmental Evaluation should evaluate the engineering feasibility, environmental impacts and mitigations of a station along 36th Street between Walnut and Blake in lieu of the proposed platform adjacent to the commuter rail station. This reconfiguration would promote TOD without significantly increasing walking distance for transit users. Immediate RTD, Community Planning & Development, Public Works
MO-21: Bus Routing and Stops Coordinate bus routing and stops with RTD based on the recommended parking location and platform access from 36th Street. This is especially important for the route 7 and 44 buses, which approach the station from the south. Facilitate bus transfer activity from North Metro Corridor Station. Opening Day RTD, Community Planning & Development, Public Works
MO-22: Lighting and Amenities Work closely with Xcel to provide street lighting on the streets with the highest priority for pedestrian enhancements, including but not limited to 37th Avenue, 36th Street, Blake from 38th to 36th, and Walnut from 38th to 36th Streets. Opening Day to Long-Term Public Works, Xcel, Property Owners
MO-23: Overhead Power Lines Work closely with Xcel to identify pedestrian priority corridors where overhead power lines should be undergrounded around the station area. Prioritize primary pedestrian routes for these improvements, including but not limited to 36th Street, 37th Avenue, and Blake Street. Coordinate with the City's Public Works Department to determine whether annual fund dollars to bury utilities may be utilized. Opening Day to Long-Term Public Works, Xcel, Property Owners
SI-1: Stormwater manage- ment study Conduct a review of completed stormwater studies to identify solutions for stormwater issues within the station area. Further study of incre- mental shared solutions for station area with cost estimates and finding options including properties in both basins. Begin Immediately with Long Term Implementation City
60


38th & Blake Implementation
Implementation and Next Steps
Recommendations Implementation Strategy Time- frame Responsibility
SI-2: Collaborative Working Group Form a collaborative working team between the City and landowners/ developers to develop sub-regional solutions that aggregate the 10-year on-site detention and water quality needs. Immediate Property Owners, Public Works, Community Planning & Development
LU-1: Station Area Typology Revise the station area typology from major urban center to urban neighborhood in the Transit Oriented Development Strategic Plan to match the development opportunities of the revised station location (38th & Blake) and the existing neighborhood context, but note the different context of the Brighton Boulevard corridor's more intense development with a greater mixture of commercial and employment uses and taller building heights. Immediate Community Planning & Development
LU-2: Blake StreetTOD Core Provide a mix of uses around the station that supports the neighborhood and the station. Create a front door to the station along Blake Street through station-supportive first-floor retail, as well as a mix of office and residential. Immediate to Long-term Community Planning & Development, Private Developers
LU-3: Brighton Boulevard TOD Core Reinforce Brighton Boulevard as the most intense development corridor in the station area. Residential uses and greater building heights (2-8 stories) should be focused on the intersection of 36th and Brighton. Immediate to Long-term Community Planning & Development, Private Developers
LU-4: Downing Main Street Encourage mixed use development along Downing from 35th Avenue to Walnut Street that creates a main street for the neighborhoods to access goods and services and includes residential. Immediate to Long-Term Community Planning & Development, Private Developers
LU-5: Residential mixed use development Increase the population of residents living near transit through the adaptive reuse of existing buildings or construction of new residential buildings along Blake Street, around the Rock Drill Lofts, and on Brighton Boulevard southwest of 36th Street. Encourage Mixed Use Residential along Brighton Boulevard to build a residential base around the 36th Street node and to tie into the Denargo Market development planned southwest of 31st Street. Maximum building heights in this area should be higher than the building heights southeast of the railroad tracks. Immediate to Long-Term Community Planning & Development, Private Developers
LU-6: Urban Residential transition Implement the urban residential land use at appropriate locations to provide a transition of scale and massing into the adjacent single-family neighborhoods. Immediate to Long-Term Community Planning & Development, Private Developers
LU-7: Maintain employment uses on Brighton northeast of 38th Street Maintain employment uses along 38th Street and Brighton and to the northeast, and work with Pepsi and other industrial properties along Brighton to improve building facades and redevelop surface parking. Allow other uses, including some residential, to infill as the market develops. Immediate to Long-Term Community Planning & Development, Private Developers
LU-8:37th Street Arts District Enhance the small business/arts district in River North to strengthen its identity as an arts and employment center and allow residential uses to infill and provide more vitality to the area with the creation of 37th Street. Immediate to Long-Term Property Owners, Public Works, Community Planning & Development
LU-9: St. Charles Park & Rec Center Increase the amount of publicly available open space near the St. Charles Park and Recreational Center to provide for more recreational activities and to provide a presence on Walnut Street.This could be accommodated either through expansion of the park or through publicly accessible, but privately owned, property. Long-Term Parks & Rec, Property Owners, Public Works, Community Planning & Development
61


38th & Blake Implementation
Implementation and Next Steps
Recommendations Implementation Strategy Time- frame Responsibility
LU-10: Share water quality/ open space facilities Site future park/open space that could also be used for water quality detention for new development along the South Platte River south- west of 35th Street and southwest of 38th Street, and to the southwest of 35th Street and Wynkoop. Long-Term Parks & Rec, Property Owners, Public Works, Community Planning & Development
LU-11: Station Plaza In conjunction with new development, create a small plaza on the eastern corner of 36th Street and Blake to provide a public gathering place, increase visibility of the station, and promote station area retail and TOD. Immediate to Long-Term Property Owners, Community Planning & Development
62




38th & Blake Community and Economic Conditions
Community and Economic Conditions
Study Area Location
The 38th & Blake Station is a new transit station on the East
Corridor commuter rail line that will be added as part of the
FasTracks program. It will also be the future northern termi-
nus of the Central Corridor light rail line, which currently
ends at 30th and Downing. The station platform will be
located on Blake Street and at ultimate buildout will extend
800 feet from 36th Street to 38th Street. The station area
includes all land within a half-mile radius of the platform.
Population and Housing Characteristics
Station Area Characteristics
According to 2008 data from the City of Denver, there are
1,167 housing units with a population of 3,913 residents
within a half mile radius of the station. The average house-
hold size is relatively high at 3.58 persons per household (see
Figure 7.1). The station areas housing stock is more or less
evenly split between multi-family low rise and single-family
units, which together account for 92% of the housing units
within the study area. Multi-family high rise and mixed-use
residential account for the remainder of the areas housing
stock (see Figure 7.2)
Population and Housing Table 38th and Blake Station Area (2008)
Total Residential Population* 3,913
Residential Units 1,167
Vacancy Rate 6%
# Persons Per Household 3.58
% Housing Units Owner Occupied 44%
*Does not include any Group Quarters
Figure 7.1 Population and Flousing Table
Neighborhood (NSA) Characteristics
Portions of three neighborhood statistical areas (NSAs) fall
within the study area: Five Points, Cole, and Elyria-Swansea.
Flowever, within the study area boundaries, only Five Points
and Cole have residential uses. Therefore, the neighborhood-
level population and housing data presented here is limited
to the Five Points and Cole NSAs.
Housing Distribution by Unit Type (2008)
38th and Blake Station Area
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
Multi-Family High Rise Multi-Family Low Rise Single-Family Mixed Use
Housing Type
Figure 7.2 Flousing Type Distribution
Between 1950 and 1990, the population of Five Points de-
clined by approximately two-thirds. A subsequent rebound has
restored population levels to about half of what they were in
1950. During this same time period, Cole experienced its own
cycle of population decline and rebound. Between 1960 and
1990, the population of Cole declined by almost 50%, but has
since experienced steady growth and today the neighborhoods
population is close to its pre-decline levels (see Figure 7.3).
The population of Cole is younger than that of Five Points,
with nearly a third of all Cole residents (32%) being younger
than 18, compared to 25% in Five Points. These sizable
populations of youth, combined with the senior citizen
population (8% in both neighborhoods) indicate that the
high level of transit service that is present in this area is
Total Population (1940 2007)
Cole and Five Points Neighborhoods
1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2007
Year
Figure 7.3- Total Population
' Census (1950- 2000), Denver CPD (2007)
64


38th & Blake Community and Economic Conditions
Neighborhood Age Distribution (2007)
38th and Blake Neighborhoods
Figure 7.4- Neighborhood Age Distribution
justified, as significant proportions of the population in both
neighborhoods are outside of the prime driving age (18-64)
(see Figure 7-4).
Personal Vehicle Availability
Households within the station area have some of the low-
est rates of vehicle availability than anywhere in Colorado.
Nearly 1 in 4 Cole households, (24.5%) and more than 1 in
5 Five Points households (20.5%) lack access to a vehicle,
according to the 2000 Census. By comparison, the regional
average of households without vehicle access is 7.3%, and the
statewide figure is 6.3% (see Figure 7.5).
Housing
Although the population of Five Points hit its low point in
1990 and began to rebound, the total number of housing
units within the neighborhood continued to decline until
2000. The subsequent increase in the number of housing
Percentage of Households Without Vehicle Access
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25%
Figure 7.5 Fiouseholds Without Vehicle Access
units since 2000 is evidence of a new trend of residential
reinvestment within Five Points.
The number of housing units in Cole, however, has remained
relatively constant since 1950 despite the fact that the popula-
tion of the neighborhood varied by as much as 50% during
that time (see Figure 7.6). This indicates that the repopulation
of Cole is likely due to the reoccupation of existing units, as
compared to Five Points, where recent population gains are
largely the result of new construction and adaptive reuse.
Total Housing Units (1950 2007)
Cole and Five Points Neighborhoods
Year
Figure 7.6- Fiousing Units
The median household income levels of Cole and Five Points
are comparable at $40,457 and $42,743, respectively (see
Figure 7.7). The income levels for both neighborhoods are
significantly less than Denver, which has a median house-
hold income level of $54,400. In addition to having overall
lower income levels than Denver, both neighborhoods have a
significant number of households that earn less than $15,000
a year. In Cole, there are more households earning less than
$15,000 a year than there are in any other income category.
In Five Points, the <$15,000 category is the second largest,
after the $50,000-$75,000 group.
Household Income (2007 estimate)
Five Points and Cole Neighborhoods
500
400
300
200
100
0
Income Range
Figure 7.7- FlouseholdIncome
65


38th & Blake Community and Economic Conditions
3. Osii:.# D y vyjj itj y
liuii
S.
RTD Local Bus Routes RTD Local Bus Stops Express / Limited Service Stops
Figure 7.8 Bus Routes and Stops
Transportation
The study area is well-served by public transit. There are 34
RTD bus stops within the study area that are serviced by four
local routes (7, 38, 44, and 48), and two express routes (47x
and 48x) (see Figure 7-8).
There are also several bicycle facilities within the study area.
The Platte River Trail cuts through the study area along the
eastern bank of the South Platte River. Currently, the only
access point to the trail within the study area is at 38th
Street.
66


38th & Blake Community and Economic Conditions
Off Street Trails Neighborhood Routes Street Grid Routes
Figure 7.9 Bike Routes
In addition to the Platte River Trail, there are three Denver
Bike Routes within the study area (see Figure 7-9): D-4,
D-9, and D-l 1. The D-9 is currently an incomplete route,
as the portion of the bikeway that travels through the 38th
Street underpass is identified as a future connection on the
Denver Bikeways Map. The connection today is possible but
poor.
67


38th & Blake Community and Economic Conditions
Existing Zoning District Descriptions
The following are descriptions of the existing zoning districts
in the 38th and Blake station area.
R-2 Multi-Unit Dwellings, Low Density: Typically duplexes
and triplexes. Home occupations are allowed by permit.
Minimum of 6,000 square feet of land required for each du-
plex structure with an additional 3,000 square feet required
for every unit over 2. Density =14.5 dwelling units/acre.
R-2-A Multi-Unit Dwellings, Medium Density: 2,000
square feet of land required for each dwelling unit unless
site plan is submitted under planned building group (PBG)
provisions, in which case 1,500 square feet of land is required
for each unit. Home occupations are allowed by permit.
R-3 Multi-Unit Dwellings, High Density: Building size is
controlled by bulk standards, off -street parking and open
space requirements. Building floor area cannot exceed 3 times
the site area. Maximum density is determined by the size of
the units and the factors mentioned above.
R-4 Multi-Unit Dwellings and/or Offices, High Density:
The purpose of this district is to provide a location for high-
density residential and intensive office development. Building
size is controlled by bulk standards, off street parking and
open space requirements. Allows hotel or motel uses and lim-
ited accessory retail shopping. Building floor cannot exceed
four times the site area.
R-5 Institutional District: Allows colleges, schools, churches
and other institutional uses. Maximum lot coverage is 60%
of the zone lot. Building height is controlled by bulk stan-
dards.
R-MU-20 Residential Mixed-Use District: The R-MU-
20 district is primarily residential, allowing either single or
multiple-unit dwellings. Along heavily traveled streets, devel-
opment may be either residential or mixed-use, combining
residential with neighborhood-serving retail, office, or service
uses. No maximum residential density is prescribed; instead,
the scale of buildings is determined by bulk plane, maximum
heights, setbacks, open space requirements, and parking ra-
tios. The intent is to encourage a full range of housing types,
including affordable housing.
R-MU-30 Residential Mixed-Use District: The R-MU-30
district is a primarily residential district allowing higher
density multiple unit dwellings of a density appropriate to
the center city and other activity centers such as light rail
transit stations. Supporting commercial development, such
as consumer retail and service uses and small-scale office uses,
is encouraged to create a truly mixed-use environment. No
maximum residential density is prescribed. Instead, maxi-
mum height, setbacks, and open space requirements deter-
mine the scale of buildings.
B-l Limited Office District: This district provides office
space for services related to dental and medical care and for
office-type services, often for residents of nearby residential
areas. The district is characterized by a low-volume of direct
daily customer contact. This district is characteristically small
in size and is situated near major hospitals or between large
business areas and residential areas. The district regulations
establish standards comparable to those of the low density
residential districts, resulting in similar building bulk and
retaining the low concentration of pedestrian and vehicular
traffic. Building height is controlled by bulk standards and
open space requirements. Building floor area cannot exceed
the site area.
B-2 Neighborhood Business District: This district provides
for the retailing of commodities classed as convenience
goods, and the furnishing of certain personal services, to
satisfy the daily and weekly household or personal needs
of the residents of surrounding residential neighborhoods.
This district is located on collector streets, characteristically
is small in size, usually is entirely surrounded by residential
districts and is located at a convenient walking distance from
the residential districts it is designed to serve. The district
regulations establish standards comparable to those of low
density residential districts, resulting in similar standards.
Building floor area cannot exceed the site area.
B-4 General Business District: This district is intended to
provide for and encourage appropriate commercial uses adja-
cent to arterial streets, which are normally transit routes. Uses
include a wide variety of consumer and business services and
retail establishments that serve other business activities, and
local transit-dependent residents within the district as well
as residents throughout the city. The regulations generally
allow a moderate intensity of use and concentration for the
purpose of achieving compatibility between the wide variet-
ies of uses permitted in the district. Building height is not
controlled by bulk standards unless there is a property line to
property line abutment with a residential use. Building floor
area cannot exceed twice the site area.
68


38th & Blake Community and Economic Conditions
C-MU-10 Commercial Mixed-Use District: The C-MU-10
district is the most restrictive of the commercial mixed-use
districts, with the shortest list of allowed uses. It includes
commercial uses appropriate for high-visibility locations
such as employment centers and the intersections of arterial
streets. The purpose of the district is to concentrate higher
intensity commercial uses, spatially define streets, encourage
higher site standards, and create a more attractive pedestrian
environment. Uses incompatible with this purpose, such as
auto-related uses, industrial uses, and single unit dwellings,
are not allowed. Although residential uses are permitted in the
C-MU districts, it is expected that residential uses shall be
responsible for buffering themselves from nonresidential uses
that may locate on adjacent property. Basic maximum gross
floor area is equal to two (2) times the area of the zone lot.
C-MU-20 Commercial Mixed-Use District: The CMU-20
district provides for a mix of commercial, residential, and
industrial uses along or near arterials or other high traffic
streets. Site and building design is to be of a quality that
enhances the character of the streets. A wide range of com-
mercial and residential uses are allowed, along with limited
industrial uses. Although residential uses are permitted in the
C-MU districts, it is expected that they shall be responsible
for buffering themselves from nonresidential uses that may
locate on adjacent property. Maximum gross floor area is
equal to one times the area of the zone lot.
C-MU-30 Commercial Mixed-Use District: The C-MU-30
district provides for a wide range of commercial, office, retail,
industrial, and residential uses that allow property owners the
flexibility to respond to the long-term evolution of develop-
ment trends. Although residential uses are permitted in the
C-MU districts, it is expected that residential uses shall be
responsible for buffering themselves from nonresidential uses
that may locate on adjacent property. Maximum gross floor
area is equal to one (1) times the area of the zone lot.
1-0 Light Industrial/Office District: This district is intended
to be an employment area containing offices, and light
industrial uses which are generally compatible with residen-
tial uses. 1-0 zoned areas are designed to serve as a buffer
between residential areas and more intensive industrial areas.
Bulk plane, setback and landscaping standards apply in this
district. Building floor area cannot exceed 50% of the site
area; however, office floor area may equal site area. Some uses
are conditional uses.
1-1 General Industrial District: This district is intended to
be an employment area containing industrial uses which
are generally more intensive than those permitted in the 1-0
zone. Bulk plane, setback and landscape standards apply in
this district. Building floor area cannot exceed twice the site
area. Some uses are conditional uses.
1-2 Heavy Industrial District: This district is intended to
be an employment area containing uses which are generally
more intensive than that permitted in either of the other two
industrial zones. Bulk plane, setback and landscape standards
apply in this district. Building area cannot exceed twice the
site area. Some uses are conditional uses.
PUD Planned Unit Development District: The PUD district
is an alternative to conventional land use regulations, com-
bining use, density and site plan considerations into a single
process. The PUD district is specifically intended to encourage
diversification in the use of land and flexibility in site design
with respect to spacing, heights and setbacks of buildings,
densities, open space and circulation elements; innovation in
residential development that results in the availability of ad-
equate housing opportunities for varying income levels; more
efficient use of land and energy through smaller utility and
circulation networks; pedestrian considerations; and develop-
ment patterns in harmony with nearby areas and with the
goals and objectives of the comprehensive plan for the city.
Economic Opportunity
FasTracks promises to bring the Denver region an unprec-
edented opportunity to promote and facilitate transit-ori-
ented, mixed-use residential and commercial development.
While the amount, type and mix of uses within the transit
station area and corridor influences market potential, the
presence of undeveloped and underutilized land can be a
source of great economic opportunity. Generally speaking,
prospects for redevelopment are stronger when station areas
feature:
Relatively high levels of undeveloped and underutilized
land
Fewer landowners such that land is concentrated in fewer
hands
Underutilized land consolidated into fewer parcels, there-
fore requiring less land assembly to facilitate redevelopment
69


38th & Blake Community and Economic Conditions
Station Area Market
In 2006, the City and County of Denver, Regional Trans-
portation District, Metro Denver Economic Development
Corporation, and Denver Regional Council of Governments
hired a consultant team to develop a market study to assess
the regional and station-specific potential for TOD as part of
FasTracks.
The team, selected through a competitive process, was led by
Basile Baumann Prost Cole & Associates (BBPC) of Annapo-
lis, Maryland in association with ArLand Land Use Econom-
ics of Denver, Colorado. Work on the study began in 2007,
and was completed in 2008. The goals of the market study
were to:
Understand regional and station-specific TOD potential
Evaluate transit potential to induce demand
Gauge short and long-term TOD demand
Align station area plans with market realities
Address phasing issues and implementation strategies
Optimize future development opportunities
At the time when the market study was conducted, the
40th and 40th Station had not yet been relocated to 38th
& Blake. As a result, the study included assumptions about
the redevelopment of the UPRRs TOFC facility, which was
expected to have a remnant of about 20 acres not needed by
RTD which were proposed for mixed-use redevelopment.
Since these conditions are no longer the case for the station,
its development typology has been changed from a major
urban center to an urban neighborhood station area, with a
more intense mixture of uses along the Brighton Boulevard
corridor.
Some of the findings of the 40th & 40th TOD market study
that are still relevant for the conditions at 38th & Blake
include the following strengths and opportunities:
Central rail location on East Corridor with access to
Stapleton, DIA & Downtown
Proximity to downtown enhances station areas redevelop-
ment potential
Strong neighborhood interest in community revitalization
and redevelopment
Serves as gateway to downtown
History (trailheads, industrial importance)
South Platte River amenity regional trail/greenway
Views of the mountains
Consider development of mixed income housing (combina-
tion of workforce and market rate)
Provide neighborhood serving retail/services/shopping to
local residents
Provide local employment opportunities including cre-
ative work spaces
Challenges and constraints to TOD found by the market
study that remain valid at 38th & Blake include:
Need for environmental remediation of former industrial
sites
Limited street connectivity in station area
Potential land speculation along Brighton
Lacks an identity
Office development may be challenging since area lacks a
critical mass of employment
Lack of pedestrian orientation
Industrial character conflicts with residential development
UP RR operations create diesel emissions, contribute to
traffic congestion at intersections
Lack of retail/services/shopping in neighborhood (residents
must leave their neighborhood to meet their basic needs)
Stormwater drainage capacity needs are great and have im-
plications for both architecture and infrastructure location
The TOD market studys evaluation of existing conditions
identified capacity for up to 500,000 new square feet of
residential development (approximately 530 dwelling units);
110,000 square feet of new office development, and 160,000
square feet of new retail development. However, these de-
velopment opportunities could be enhanced by continued
redevelopment in the River North area.
70


38th & Blake Community and Economic Conditions
Economic Strategies
The realization ofTOD will require a combination of near
and long term efforts and the use of best practices and inno-
vative strategies. The city should continue to use all avail-
able resources and contacts in the TOD field at the national
level to identify solutions to challenges as they emerge. An
ongoing regional dialogue is critical to address challenges
faced by multiple jurisdictions and the challenges inherent
in implementation where station areas straddle jurisdictional
boundaries. The City should continue its communication
with regional entities (e.g. Denver Regional Council of
Governments, Urban Land Institute, RTD) and surround-
ing jurisdictions to investigate regional approaches to shared
obstacles. Implementation will be most effective if carried
out under a broad framework that establishes strategies to
advance TOD at the system level. These system-wide strate-
gies will in turn support individual efforts undertaken at the
corridor and station area levels. Participating actors in the
implementation ofTOD include transit agencies, local juris-
dictions, and developers.
Under Denvers TOD Initiative, the Office of Economic
Developments is partnering with the Community Plan-
ning & Development Department to find opportunities to
strengthen and grow local business districts and preserve
and create new workforce housing around Denvers existing
and planned transit stations. The City & County of Denver
presently offers a broad array of programs that could be used
to effectuate transit-supportive development. Rather than
providing an exhaustive list of programs already available in
Denver, the following are key existing programs that could
be focused or expanded as well as innovative strategies not
currently used in Denver that could help facilitate positive
reinvestment in the 38th & Blake Station area.
Regulations, guidelines and development Memorandums
of Understanding: Formalizing standards for transit-
oriented development whether through local regula-
tions and ordinances, guidelines, or memorandum of
understanding is a key first step in facilitating the type of
development that will support transit service
Direct and indirect financial incentives: In addition to
direct financial incentives to facilitate transit-oriented
development, regulations can provide a number of indirect
financial incentives. Indirect incentives often used to fa-
cilitate development include flexible zoning provisions and
density bonuses, while direct incentives include reduced
development fees, expedited development review, and team
inspections to streamline and reduce the total costs of the
review and permitting process.
Financing/Funding methods: Transit-oriented develop-
ment often occurs as infill development in established areas
or through redevelopment of sometimes contaminated
sites. In these types of developments, the level of infrastruc-
ture required may include extensive reconstruction of the
street network (or introduction of new streets), installation
of structured parking, addition of pedestrian enhancements
and public plazas, and stormwater infrastructure. Obtain-
ing financing and/or funding for these critical infrastruc-
ture enhancements can be a key challenge in effectuat-
ing transit oriented development. The success of future
expansion efforts in the 38th & Blake Station Area is partly
contingent on the investment in improved pedestrian and
transportation linkages particularly between the station and
the Brighton corridor.
Small Business and Technical Assistance: Community
members in many of the selected Denver station areas have
cited a desire for local entrepreneurship opportunities and
jobs within their station areas. Small businesses can be
encouraged through multiple methods, including the Main
Street Program approach, business incubation, and small
business support programs (including loans and technical
assistance).
Phasing Strategies
Many communities have used phasing strategies to address
the lag time that often occurs between transit service intro-
duction and transit oriented development realization. Such
strategies can help establish supportive conditions in the
near-term to set the stage for future development that is sup-
portive of transit at the 38th & Blake Station.
Land Banking & Assembly Methods: Realization of
transit-oriented development often requires assembly of
various properties owned by different property owners and/
or banking of land until transit service becomes operable or
market conditions support the level of desired mixed-use
development. Several models for land banking and assem-
bly were presented above, including: transit authority/local
government acquisition, the equity investment approach (a
public-private partnership model), and special legislation.
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38th & Blake Community and Economic Conditions
Zoning: Regulations play an important role in determin-
ing what uses will be allowed within station areas. Once
market conditions support TOD, zoning may be amended
to provide for the full density desired within station areas.
Zoning can also be used to provide incentives and/or elimi-
nate barriers to many of the recommendations in this plan.
Infrastructure Improvements, Special Assessments &
Tax Incentives: As a pre-development phase, public enti-
ties working alone or in partnership with developers may
undertake infrastructure improvement projects such as
parking facilities, parks, streetscapes, pedestrian and bicycle
enhancements, road reconstruction and extension, park
beautification and signage. The purpose of such projects is
to set the stage for and encourage transit supportive devel-
opment. These activities can also provide early marketing
of the station areas identity to future prospective residents,
employees and visitors. To fund infrastructure investments,
a special assessment district may be formed (either through
a charter district or statutory district in Denvers case) in
the pre-development phase. Alternatively, tax incentive
programs such as tax increment financing, tax abatements,
or payment in lieu of taxes may be used to bolster develop-
ers resources for funding infrastructure.
Joint Development, Revenue Sharing & Cost Sharing:
In station areas where joint development is an option, the
landowner (often the transit authority) can enter into rev-
enue or cost sharing arrangements with the private sector
in order to either secure a source of revenue for improve-
ments or divide the cost of infrastructure construction
and maintenance. Types of revenue sharing arrangements
include land leases, air rights development, and special
assessment districts. Cost sharing arrangements can include
sharing of construction expenses and density bonuses of-
fered in exchange for infrastructure construction.
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Full Text

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Community Planning & Development Adopted August 10, 2009 38th & BlakeStation Area Plan

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Table of ContentsAcknowledgements iv Executive Summary 1 Introduction 7 Vision and Goals 13 Mobility 17 St ormwater Infrastructure 33 Land Use and Urban Design 41 Implementation 55 Community and Economic Conditions 63

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AcknowledgementsMayor John W. Hickenlooper Denver City Council District 1 Rick Garcia District 2 Jeanne Faatz District 3 Paul D. Lpez District 4 Peggy Lehmann District 5 Marcia Johnson District 6 Charlie Brown District 7 Chris Nevitt District 8 Carla Madison District 9 Judy Montero District 10 Jeanne Robb President District 11 Michael Hancock At-Large Carol Boigon At-Large Doug Linkhart Community Planning & Development Peter J. Park, AICP, Manager Steve Gordon, Comprehensive Planning Manager Gideon Berger, AICP, Project Manager Courtland Hyser, AICP, Project Manager Deirdre Oss, AICP Barbara Frommell Steve Nalley Eric McClelland, Senior GIS Analyst Carolyne Janssen, Graphic Designer Diana Denwood, Intern Denver Planning Board Brad Buchanan, Chairman Laura E. Aldrete Richard Delanoy William H. Hornby Anna Jones Judith Martinez Sharon Nunnally Bruce ODonnell Karen Perez Jerey Walker Dave Webster Public Works Guillermo Bill Vidal, Manager Brian Pinkerton, FasTracks Liaison Terry Ruiter, East Corridor EIS Liaison Cindy Patton, Policy and Planning Janice Finch, AICP, Policy and Planning Eric Osmundsen, Development Engineering Services Frank Kemme, Development Engineering Services Mike Anderson, Capital Projects Brian Mitchell, City Trac Engineer Justin Schmitz, Trac Engineering Services Parks & Recreation Kevin Patterson, Manager Gordon Robertson, Assistant Director Devon Buckels, AICP Oce of Economic Development Andre Pettigrew, Executive Director Terrance Ware, Dirctor of Business and Housing Services James Busby Other Agencies Bill Sirois, Regional Transportation District Carol Duecker, Regional Transportation District Grant Bennett, Denver Urban Renewal Authority Consultant Team PB PlaceMaking Fehr & Peers Nelson/Nygaard Basile Baumann Probst Cole & Associates ArLand 38th & Blake Acknowledgements iv

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Executive Summary

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38th & Blake Executive SummaryIntroductione 38th & Blake Station is part of the Regional Transportation Districts (RTD) $1.4 billion, 23.6-mile East Corridor commuter rail project, which will connect Denver Union Station to Denver International Airport along an alignment roughly parallel to Blake Street, 40th Avenue, Smith Road and Pea Boulevard as part of the FasTracks transit expansion program. e 38th & Blake Station will also serve the Central Corridor light rail line, which will be extended about one mile from its current terminus at the 30th & Downing Station north along Downing Street to 36th Street, where it will connect to the East Corridor. e 38th & Blake Station Area Plan is intended to guide public and private development and infrastructure investment decisions as well as public regulation of the built environment in the vicinity of the 38th & Blake Station, which is planned to be operational by 2015. e plan articulates immediate and longer-term goals, issues and recommendations for the future. Blueprint Denver, the citys integrated plan for transportation and land use, other adopted city-wide plans; and the River North Plan; River North Greenway Master Plan formed the basis for this plans recommendations.Vision and GoalsTransit-oriented development (TOD) is a mix of uses at various densities within a half-mile radius, or walking distance, of a transit stop. TOD should create specic areas that integrate transit into neighborhoods and help support lively and vital communities. rough the public input process, members of the community made it abundantly clear that the issues they most want to see addressed are related to infrastructure, connectivity, access, safety, and quality of life. In response to stakeholder-identied priorities, the goals and objectives of this plan have been organized around the themes of improving circulation for pedestrians, cyclists and vehicles; addressing storm water needs; and creating a destination area in the vicinity of the new station that ties the surrounding neighborhoods together. Vision Statement: e 38th & Blake station area will become a unique destination district that provides safe and comfortable multi-modal access from the surrounding communities to the rail station, the South Platte River, and between adjacent neighborhoods. Future development of the area will 2 emphasize its industrial heritage, historic neighborhoods, and emerging new residential and arts and entertainment districts; provide a mix of uses where feasible and especially near the station; ensure access and provide enhancements to the South Platte River greenway; provide enough housing and jobs to make non-auto travel modes those of choice; and provide living opportunities for people of all incomes, ages and backgrounds. Plan Goals: station and each other with pedestrian paths and bicycle routes through the station area without jeopardizing safe pedestrian circulation able, urban solutions for detention, conveyance and water quality that also serve to provide usable open space that provides an amenity for the community neighborhoods and create a new center for the communityExisting ConditionsPortions of three Neighborhood Statistical Areas (NSAs) are within a half-mile radius of the 38th & Blake Station: Five Points, Cole and Elyria-Swansea (see Figure 1.1) e Cole neighborhood lies east of Downing Street and south of 40th Avenue. e Curtis Park section of the Five Points NSA is west of Downing Street; the alley between Lawrence and Larimer streets is roughly the border between Curtis Park and the more industrial area adjacent to the Union Pacic (UP) railroad tracks, called Upper Larimer. Blake, Walnut and Larimer streets have been transitioning from industrial to residential and commercial mixed use as market demand for these uses has pushed northeast from the Ballpark neighborhood and LoDo. New residential development is especially concentrated along Blake Street southwest of 35th Street in Upper Larimer. Northwest of the tracks is the River North area along the banks of the South Platte River. River North is physically separated from the rest of the Five Points NSA by the UP right-of-way. Brighton Boulevard is the main arterial through

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38th & Blake Executive Summary 3 River North, acting as a major vehicular gateway connecting downtown to I-70. e northeast section of River North lies within the Elyria-Swansea NSA. It is an industrial area along Brighton Boulevard that is physically separated from the residential part of Elyria by the I-70 viaduct. Station Area Households e median household income levels of Cole and Five Points are more than 20% lower than the citywide gure. In addition, both neighborhoods have a large number of households that earn less than $15,000 a year. Households within the station area have some of the lowest rates of vehicle availability in Colorado. Nearly 25% of Cole households, and 20% of Five Points households lack access to a vehicle, about three times the regional gure. ese are clearly neighborhoods that would benet from new and accessible transit service. Mobility and Access Mobility for all modes of travel within the station area is challenging today. e railroad tracks sever River North from the neighborhoods to the south between Broadway and 38th Street, and the South Platte River divides River North between 31st and 38th streets. Futhermore, Downing Street is the edge between Denvers two street grid networks, resulting in a series of triangular parcels along the downtown alignment because the east-west running avenues do not quite match intersections with the diagonal streets. is creates confusion for motorists, pedestrians and cyclists that is exacerbated by a series of one-way couplets that intrude from one grid into the other. Perhaps the greatest challenge to pedestrian mobility in the area, however, is that the majority of streets within a half-mile of the future station do not have sidewalks, and a signicant portion of those that do have sidewalks that are in poor condition. ere are virtually no sidewalks in the River North area within a half-mile of the station (see Figure 1.2). e opening of the 38th & Blake Station is likely to introduce new conicts for all modes based on the design in the East Corridor Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). With input from the community, the plan has identied no fewer than 13 conict points for modes of travel related to accessing the station (see Figure 1.3). Stormwater Infrastructure e mouths of two large stormwater basins, the Montclair Basin and the Lower Platte Basin, are located within the station area (See Figure 1.4). Many of the Citys largest and oldest storm sewers were built in these watersheds and have been found to provide protection in less than a two-year storm event. Figure 1.1 Station Area with NSA and Council District Boundaries. Figure 1.2 Sidewalk Analysis

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38th & Blake Executive Summary 4 e City and RTD are currently coordinating planned improvements to the Montclair Basin that include upgrading its existing storm sewers so that these systems can convey a 5-year storm event, which is the Citys standard for constructing storm sewers serving or protecting commercial areas. is new infrastructure is associated with the FasTracks East Corridor and will be located under 40th Avenue as far east as York Street, then cross under the railroad along the 40th Street alignment, where it will continue to its outfall at the South Platte River in Globeville Landing Park. ese improvements do not obviate the requirement that the nished ground oor of any new development be at least 1-foot higher than the 100-year storm ood level for public safety, nor the requirement that new development accommodate on-site 10-year detention and water quality in order to mitigate impacts on existing infrastructure and the environment. ese requirements present challenges to TOD for two reasons. e rst is that elevated ground oors generally provide less opportunity for active commercial uses. A combination of retail and services with transparent storefronts and large windows is recommended near transit stations to encourage uses that activate the street with pedestrians and provide a level of visibility that promotes safety. e second challenge for new development is where to locate and how to design on-site detention and water quality facilities in a way that maintains the station areas urban neighborhood character.RecommendationsMobility e development of the 38th & Blake station provides an opportunity to re-examine the alignment and direction of the streets in the station area to provide safe access to the station for all modes, and improve vehicular movement through the area. A few arterial streetsincluding 38th Street, Brighton Boulevard, 40th Avenue, Downing, Larimer and Walnut streets carry the majority of the trac through the area and will continue to serve that need in the future. A reconguration of the existing one-way couplets and assigning more streets as two-way direction streets will help ensure that they support multi-modal transportation. Additional measuresincluding trac signals, stop signs, sidewalk improvements, crosswalks, and realignment of some street segmentsare recommended at key locations to address access and safety issues throughout the station area (see Figure 1.5).Multi-modalconflict point CommuterRailPedestrian Bridges South PlatteRiver Circulation Barrier Rail Road Corridor Circulation Barrier Existing Bike Routes MajorPedestrian Station Connections EastCorridorCommuterRail Line CentralCorridor StreetCar Line .25 and .50 MileRadius Station Platforms Proposed Bike Routes ConvergingDowntown and East Denver Street Grid CentralCorridor StreetCar Stop EastCorridorCommuterRail Station C S 36th Street 35th Street 39thAv enue 40thAv enue 38thAv enue 37thAv enue 36thAv enue Bruce Randolph Av enue 33rdAvenueWalnut Street Blake Street Larimer Street Lawrence StreetDowning Street Marion Street Points and Circulation Barriers South Platte River S C 33rdAvenue Blake StreetLafayette Street Franklin StreetBrighton Boulevard Curtis Street Humbolt Street DRAFT04.06.2009 RTDParking NTS N 1 10 10 2 3 9 7 7 8 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 38th Street 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 10 1 2 1 3 Humboldt Street 13 12 10 11 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 9 8 8 8 Figure 1.3 Conict Points and Circulation Barriers Figure 1.4 Stormwater Basins

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38th & Blake Executive Summary 5 Stormwater As there are few, if any, opportunities for additional upstream improvements, the City should conduct a review of completed stormwater studies for both basins and the station area to determine the extent to which possible solutions have already been identied. Pending the results of that evaluation, the City should assess the need to fund and initiate a new study to incrementally address stormwater management solutions in the station area that recognize it is both impacted by and solving for many impervious developed acres upstream. In the interim, a collaborative working team between the City and landowners/developers should be formed to develop sub-regional solutions that aggregate the 10-year on-site detention and water quality needs. Such an approach could result in using less-valuable parcels for infrastructure that benets all the property owners, and detention sites could also be developed in combination with open space to meet requirements as well as provide a community amenity. Land Use Although the majority of new development in the station area is proposed to be mixed-use, dierent subareas will have their own function and character within the larger plan. e plan recommends ve distinct categories of land use designation: Mixed-Use Main Street, Mixed-Use Residential, Urban Residential, Mixed-Use Employment and Open Space and Parks (see Figure 1.6). Key Recommendations ere are several key recommendations that are signicant enough to be identied as priorities due to their importance or because of time constraints: the railroad from 38th Street to 36th Street, and orient the section of the commuter rail platform built for opening day toward 36th Street rather than at 38th Street. (see Figure 1.7). Rationale: A pedestrian crossing at 36th Street would more directly connect River North to the transit station and would have the additional benet of connecting Cole, Upper Larimer and Curtis Park to the South Platte River. Orienting the platform on 36th Street would deter pedestrians from crossing Blake Street near the hump over the 38th Street underpass, where there is limited visibility from motorists. terns, and street grid around the station area as part of the 38th & Blake Next Steps Transportation Operations study immediately following the adoption of this station area plan. Rationale: e complexity of the station area transportation network requires more detailed study than is typical in an area plan. e City was awarded a federal grant to analyze the future circulation and land use concepts proposed by this plan to determine their feasibility for transportation operations. is study should develop a phasing plan for infrastructure improvements (taking into consideration opening day needs) and identify priorities, responsible parties and partners, and potential funding sources. mediately following the adoption of this station area plan. LEGEND Station Parking Transit Station P P T1/4 and 1/2 Mile Walk Radius Streets Proposed for Realignment Street Traffic Directional Changes Central Corridor Streetcar FasTracks East Corridor Line 0 200400 800 Street and Direction Changes Diagram06.05.2009 Wazee St. Blake St. Walnut St. Curtis St. Champa St. StoutSt. Chestnut St .Arkins40th Ave. 39th Ave. 38th Ave. 37th Ave. 36th Ave. 35th Ave. Bruce Randolph Ave. 33rd Ave. Martin Luther King Boulevard 31st Ave. 38th Street 36th Street 35th StreetMarion Street Lafayette Street Lafayette S t reet Humbolt Street Franklin Street Gilpin Street Williams Street High Street Race Street 38th and Blake Station Area Plan T T T Arapahoe St. Lawrence St. Larimer St.New Streets P Marion Street 37th Street Brighton Blvd. Wynkoop St. Downing Street STOP St. Charles Rec Center Pepsi Curtis ParkWyman/Mitchell Elementary School Cole Middle School Wyatt-Edison School Platte River35thStreet 34thStreet 33rd Street 32rd Street 31stStreet Figure 1.5 Proposed Street and Directional Changes

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38th & Blake Executive Summary 6 e plan should provide more detailed evaluation and recommendations for multi-modal operations, station locations and land uses along Downing Street. Operations Study, the success of collaboration with RTD to change the location of pedestrian bridge and explore park-n-Ride access options, and any new development projects that implement the street recongurations in this plan, the City should take steps to ensure that the station area street network meets pedestrian access needs by opening day in 2015. ImplementationSeveral recommendations of this plan call for design changes to the East Corridor and Central Corridor Extension projects. To be implemented by opening day, these will require immediate collaboration with RTD. It is the desire of the City and the neighborhoods Station Tower/Vertical Pedestrian Connection Existing Parks Station Gateways Regional Bike Path Mixed Use -Main Street (2 5 Stories) Mixed Use-Main Street (1-3 Stories) Mixed Use Residential Urban Residential Single Family-Duplex Single Family Mixed-UseEmployment Proposed On Street Bike Routes Existing On Street Bike Routes Bike Bridge 1st Priority Bike Bridge 2nd Priority Proposed Regional Bike Bridge Transit Parking Transit Station Plaza/Pedestrian Bridge Potential Private Public Open Space Land Use Plan Draft 06.05.200938th and Blake Station Area Plan 36th Street Downing Street Blake Street Wazee Street Walnut Street Larimer Street37th Street RTD FasTracks Commuter Rail Station Pedestrian Bridge Central Corridor Streetcar Stop RTD Parking Figure 1.7 Proposed Station Concept LEGEND Mixed Use -TOD Core Urban Residential Station Parking Transit Station Mixed-UseEmployment Open Space and Parks Mixed Use Main Street Mixed Use Residential New Open Space and Parks P T1/4 and 1/2 Mile Walk Radius Pedestrian Bridge FasTracks East Corridor Line 0 200400 800 Land Use Plan Draft 06.02.2009 Brighton Blvd. Wynkoop St. Wazee St. Blake St. Walnut St. Lawrence St. Arapahoe St. Curtis St. Champa St. Stout St. Larimer St. Chestnut St.Arkins40th Ave. 39th Ave. 38th Ave. 37th Ave. 36th Ave. 35th Ave. Bruce Randolph Ave. 33rd Ave. Martin Luther King Boulevard 31st Ave. 38th Street 37th Street 36th Street 35th Street Downing Street Marion Street Lafayette Street Lafayette Street Marion Street Humbolt Street Franklin Street Gilpin Street Williams Street High Street Race Street Mixed Pedestrian -Auto Street Central Corridor Street Car Pedestrian Plaza 38th and Blake Station Area Plan Possible Future Blake Streetcar Connection St. Charles Rec Center Pepsi Curtis Park Wyman/Mitchell Elementary School Cole Middle School Wyatt-Edison School Platte River35th Street 34th Street 33rd Street 32rd Stree t 31st Street Figure 1.6 Future Land Usesurrounding the 38th & Blake Station to work collaboratively with RTD and other potential partners in nding and funding solutions that improve the function of the station and implement community goals. ese include safe access for all travel modes, encouraging TOD opportunities, and connecing the neighborhoods to each other and to the South Platte River Greenway. With the adopted plan in place, the City intends to initiate a transportation operations study as a next step for the station area to provide greater levels of analysis, data and recommendations for transportation infrastructure projects for opening day and beyond. ese measures may include temporary closures of certain street segments to vehicular trac in places where conicts with pedestrians are likely. e City has about $2 million in TOD bond funding for station area infrastructure that should be used for these purposes. e City should also pursue funding opportunities for the 36th Street pedestrian bridge regardless of whether RTD changes the EIS design.

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Introduction

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38th & Blake Introduction e 38th & Blake Station Area Plan is intended to guide public and private development and infrastructure investment decisions as well as public regulation of the built environment in the vicinity of the 38th & Blake Station, which is planned to be operational by 2015. e 38th & Blake Station is part of RTDs $1.4 billion, 23.6-mile East Corridor commuter rail project, which will connect Denver Union Station to Denver International Airport along an alignment roughly parallel to Blake Street, 40th Avenue, Smith Road and Pea Boulevard as part of the FasTracks transit expansion program (see Figure 2.1) Blueprint Denver, the City and County of Denvers integrated land use and transportation plan adopted in 2002, furthers the goals identied in Comprehensive Plan 2000 by promoting more ecient use of transportation systems, expanded transportation choices, and appropriate and mixed land uses. Blueprint Denver identies Areas of Change where growth should be directed, and Areas of Stability where changes should be more limited. With the passage of FasTracks in 2004, Denver was poised to take a more signicant leadership role in implementing Blueprint Denver and focusing growth near transit stations. is agenda was furthered by the adoption of the Citys Greenprint Denver Action Agenda and Climate Action Plan in 2006, which sets goals for reducing the citys greenhouse gas emissions by limiting total vehicle miles traveled and vehicle trips. It was also reinforced by Denvers Strategic Transportation Plan completed in 2008, which calls for the City to measure transportation capacity in the form of person trips by all modes of travel, rather than vehicle trips, and states that Denver must increase its share of pedestrian, bicycle and transit trips to meet its future transportation needs. In an eort to prioritize planning and implementation activities related to transit and transit oriented development (TOD), the City prepared the Transit Oriented Development Strategic Plan in 2006. Building on and rening the broad vision expressed in that document, the 38th & Blake Station Area Plan provides a sound policy basis for citywide decision making and guiding positive changes to the built environment. It outlines the key components of the planning process, establishes a foundation of essential objectives and provides strategies on how to realize the vision. According to the FasTracks program, the 38th & Blake Station will also serve the Central Corridor light rail line, which will be extended about 1 mile from its current terminus at the 30th & Downing Station north along Downing Street to 36th Street, where it will connect to the East Corridor (see Figure 2.2) At the time of plan adoption, RTD has identied a funding shortfall for the FasTracks program, but the Central Corridor Environmental Evaluation is expected to be completed by the end of 2009. RTD is expected to authorize a new ballot initiative as early as November 2010 to ask voters for an additional sales tax increase to make up the funding shortfall for FasTracks.Plan IntentSeveral recommendations of this plan call for design changes to the East Corridor and Central Corridor Extension projects. In order to be implemented by opening day, these will require immediate collaboration with RTD. It is the desire of the City and the neighborhoods surrounding the 38th & Blake Station to work collaboratively with RTD and other potential partners in nding solutions that improve the function of the station and implement community goals. ese include safe access for all travel modes, encouraging TOD opportunities, and connecting the neighborhoods to Figure 2.1 East Corridor Figure 2.2 Central Corridor Extension8

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38th & Blake Introduction each other and to the South Platte River Greenway. As soon as an adopted plan is in place, the City intends to initiate a transportation operations study as a next step for the station area to provide greater levels of analysis, data and recommendations for transportation infrastructure projects for opening day and beyond. Property owners, elected ocials, neighborhood organizations and City departments will use the 38th & Blake Station Area Plan for many purposes over its lifespan. e following is a description of the primary uses of the plan ranging from big picture expectations to implementation. Infrastructure Improvements: A plan can provide the justication, prioritization and allocation of funding from private sources or the Citys capital improvement budget and other sources. Funding and Partnership Opportunities: Implementation of plans requires a collaborative eort between neighborhoods, businesses, elected ocials and city departments. Plans typically require funding beyond the Citys budget. is plan identies and supports these partnerships and resource leveraging eorts. Reference for Larger Citywide Plans: e station area plan may include analysis that can inform other larger citywide plans. For example, as multi-modal circulation is a major issue that is addressed in this station area plan, the analysis and recommendations included here should be considered in the development of transportation infrastructure on both public and private property. Data Resource: e plan oers a collection of existing conditions data about the planning area in an easy-to-reference document. Reinvestment Guidance: Market conditions cannot be guaranteed and changes in demographics cannot be accurately predicted. However, it is clear that the development of the rail station, construction of the East Corridor and the extension of the Central Corridor are attracting interest in the area from private parties. e plan guides public and private decision-making and investment in the planning area over the coming years as it relates to land use, urban design and infrastructure. e plan oers guidance on this reinvestment for the near-term and exibility to adapt to changing demographics and market demands. Zoning Amendments: e plan does not convey or deny any zoning entitlement, but it is an essential tool that is used to evaluate proposed zoning changes. Furthermore, the plan does not change zoning code language, but will inform the pending new code.Plan ProcessPlanning for the 38th and Blake Station began in 2007, under very dierent assumptions. In the original FasTracks program, this station was located at the intersection of 40th Street and 40th Avenue. RTD was planning to acquire the Union Pacic Railroads (UP) 50-acre Trailer on Flat Car (TOFC) intermodal transfer facility for the station as well as a commuter rail car maintenance facility. While RTD needed about only 30 acres of the TOFC site, it was assumed that the UP would require RTD to purchase the entire facility since RTD would have had to provide the UP with compensation to reconstruct it at a new location and the remnant would be unusable for its current purpose. e remaining approximately 20 acres was considered a signicant TOD opportunity that would be in public ownership, although the land would face signicant development challenges, including environmental remediation. ese assumed conditions led the 40th & 40th Station Area to be classied as a future major urban center in the Transit Oriented Development Strategic Plan. A major urban center station area has a mixture of oce, retail, residential and entertainment uses, includes multi-family and townhome residential housing, has an employment emphasis with more than 250,000 square feet of oce space and 50,000 square feet of retail, and has building heights of at least 5 stories or higher. e proposed redevelopment of the former Gates company headquarters and rubber factory at Broadway Station is an example of a future major urban center. However, RTDs subsequent negotiations with the UP resulted in a change of plans that removed the TOFC site from consideration for acquisition and moved the commuter rail maintenance facility elsewhere. It also shifted the station location to the southwest. e East Corridor Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) carried two alternative locations for the station: 33rd & Blake and 38th & Blake. Published in January 2009, the DEIS selected 38th & Blake as the preferred alternative for numerous reasons including the connection to the Central Corridor extension and public comments. 9

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38th & Blake Introduction With the new station location nalized, the planning process for the 38th & Blake station area was restarted in January of 2009. e new station location, although only two blocks away from 40th & 40th, features very dierent development circumstances and circulation and access issues. Most of the work that had been done on the previous plan proved to be less relevant to the new conditions. Where possible, this plan builds upon the work that was done on the 40th & 40th station area plan, but much of the planning process was restarted from scratch, including visioning, goal setting, and the existing conditions, opportunities and constraints analyses. Over a course of approximately 8 months, stakeholders worked together with City sta, the consulting team, and the station area planning steering committee (made up of representatives from multiple City agencies, RTD, key property owners and neighborhood organizations) to articulate opportunities, develop a vision, rene specic recommendations, and craft strategies to achieve the vision. Regular public meetings and stakeholder work sessions shaped the content of the plan. Briengs with City Council members, the FasTracks Committee, Denver Planning Board, interagency City sta, and RTD were also crucial to the process. e eight month planning process for the 38th and Blake station area plan can be summarized as follows: January 2009 February issues, concerns, and proposed solutions conict within the study area March/April tives May June July August Planning Area ContextStation Area Typology e Transit Oriented Development Strategic Plan identied the original 40th & 40th station area as a future major urban center due to assumptions about the availability of approximately 20 acres of remnant UP property as a signicant mixed-use redevelopment opportunity. When that opportunity was lost and the station location was moved to 38th & Blake, the urban neighborhood typology was tested with stakeholders through the public process and deemed appropriate for the station area, provided that it is also acknowledged that more intense development, taller building heights, and a greater mixture of commercial and employment uses are appropriate along the Brighton Boulevard corridor. Urban neighborhood station areas have predominantly residential uses along with about 50,000 square feet of neighborhood-serving retail; multi-family, townhome, and single-family residential development; and building heights of 2-7 stories. However, the Brighton corridor section of the station area north of the UP tracks is envisioned to have more intense development with a greater mixture of commercial and employment uses and taller building heights than the area south of the station. is is supported by the River 10

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38th & Blake Introduction North Plan and recent rezonings and development proposals along Brighton Boulevard. Station Area Neighborhoods Portions of three Neighborhood Statistical Areas (NSAs) are within a half-mile radius of the 38th & Blake Station: Five Points, Cole and Elyria-Swansea. e station area is split between two city Council districts along Larimer Street, (see Figure 2.3). ere are several unique areas within the NSAs (see Figure 2.4). e Cole neighborhood lies east of Downing Street and south of 40th Avenue. One of Denvers oldest neighborhoods, Cole is predominately a mixture of 19th Century single-family homes and brick bungalows built before 1930. ere are small retail establishments interspersed throughout the neighborhood, along with industrial uses lining the north edge of the neighborhood adjacent to the railroad tracks. e western half of Cole lies within the station area, including blocks of industrial uses that separate the residential portions from the future station platform. Figure 2.3 Station Area Neighborhood Statistical Areas and Council Districts11

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38th & Blake Introduction e Curtis Park section of the Five Points NSA, also one of Denvers oldest neighborhoods with many 19th Century Victorian homes, is west of Downing Street. e alley between Lawrence and Larimer streets is roughly the border between Curtis Park and the more industrial Upper Larimer area adjacent to the railroad tracks, meaning that only about a half dozen residential blocks in the northeast corner of Curtis Park are within the station area. Curtis Park residents will have more convenient access to the rail system at stations along Downing and Welton streets. However, the Upper Larimer area of the Five Points NSA along Blake, Walnut and Larimer streets has been transitioning to residential and retail/entertainment uses as market demand has pushed northeast along these streets from the Ballpark neighborhood and LoDo. is new residential development is especially concentrated along Blake Street southwest of 35th Street. Northwest of the tracks is the River North area along the banks of the South Platte River. River North is physically separated from the rest of the Five Points NSA by the UP right-of-way. Brighton Boulevard is the main arterial through River North, acting as a major vehicular gateway connecting downtown to I-70. e segment of Brighton between 31st and 43rd streets is within the station area, which is characterized today by a mixture of industrial uses and artist studios, as well as signicant plans for large-scale residential and mixed-use development. Northeast of 31st Street, Brighton lacks curbs, gutters and sidewalks, which makes it very uninviting for pedestrians. Across the South Platte River from Brighton, the Taxi redevelopment is bringing a new mix of uses to a formerly industrial area, but remains somewhat isolated from the other side of River North because there are no river crossings between 31st and 38th streets. e northeast section of River North lies within the ElyriaSwansea NSA. It is an industrial area along Brighton Boulevard that is home to the Pepsi Companys bottling and distribution facility and the UPs TOFC facility, among other large industrial uses, and is physically separated from the residential part of Elyria by the I-70 viaduct. e residential section of Elyria will be closer and have better access to the proposed National Western/Coliseum Station along the North Metro Corridor commuter rail line than to the 38th & Blake Station. 12 River North Upper Larimer Curtis Park ColeFigure 2.4 Station Area Places

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Vision and Goals

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38th & Blake Vision and GoalsVision Statemente 38th & Blake station area will become a unique destination district that provides safe and comfortable multi-modal access from the surrounding communities to the rail station, the South Platte River and between adjacent neighborhoods. Future development of the area will emphasize its industrial heritage, historic neighborhoods, and emerging new residential and arts and entertainment districts; provide a mix of uses where feasible and especially near the station; ensure access and provide enhancements to the Platte greenway; provide enough housing and jobs to make non-auto travel modes those of choice; and provide living opportunities for people of all incomes, ages and backgrounds.Foundation of TOD Principles Developing the communitys vision began with the underlying principles of transit-oriented development. Transitoriented development is a mix of uses at various densities within a half-mile radius, or walking distance, of a transit stop. TOD should create specic areas that integrate transit into neighborhoods and help support lively and vital communities. e TOD Strategic Plan denes TOD in Denver and establishes strategies for implementation. In order to succeed, TOD should address these guiding principles: tive station areas with a distinct identity. portation and shopping choices for people of all ages, household types, incomes and lifestyles. entertainment, parks and other amenities close to the station to promote walking, biking and transit use. economic advantage of the amenity of enhanced transit services. stations role as an entry to the regional transit network and as a safe and pleasant place to live. TOD and Sustainability As dened by the Brundtland Commission (World Commission on Environment and Development), sustainable development meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Transit-oriented development addresses the three Es of sustainability: environment, economy, and (social) equity and furthers the climate objectives set forth by Greenprint Denver. Environment Mobile sources account for as much as 90% of all carbon-monoxide emissions. Transit-oriented development supports the use of public transportation and can help reduce trac and air pollution. For every passenger mile traveled, public transportation is twice as ecient as private automobiles. Economy e average working American drives 396 hours each year, the equivalent of 10 workweeks. More than onefourth of this time is spent commuting to and from work. Transit-oriented and mixed-use development can convey substantial scal and economic benets for workers by reducing commute costs and increasing available hours for productivity. In addition, businesses recognize that TOD encourages a variety of local employment opportunities, and helps attract new businesses and industries. Equity e cost of buying, maintaining, and operating vehicles is the largest source of personal debt after home mortgages. TOD oers a framework to build communities with a sense of place that oer living and transportation options that are accessible to people with a wide range of incomes. It does this by providing housing and transportation choices, urban green spaces, accessible recreational and cultural attractions, and policies and incentives that promote mixed-use neighborhoods for the benet of everyone.Opportunities and Constraintse greatest opportunities for positive change in the 38th & Blake station area are: the coming development of the rail station, proximity of the South Platte River greenway, interest in the areas future by real estate developers, a strong desire by adjacent neighborhoods for local retail and services, and the planned stormwater improvements. e largest constraints in the station area are: the general lack of sidewalks near the future station platform and in River North, the barriers imposed by the Union Pacic tracks and 14

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38th & Blake Vision and Goals limited crossings of the river, the lack of multi-modal infrastrucuture and curb and gutters on Brighton Boulevard, and the awkward roadway network in the southern part of the station area where the city grids collide along Downing Street.Plan Goals and Objectivese goals and objectives for the 38th and Blake station area plan address the opportunities and constraints that are present in the study area. rough the public input process, members of the community made it abundantly clear that the issues they most want to see addressed relate to infrastructure, access, safety, and quality of life. In response to stakeholder-identied priorities, the goals and objectives of this plan have been organized around improving circulation for pedestrians, cyclists and vehicles; addressing storm water needs; and creating a destination area in the vicinity of the new station that ties the surrounding neighborhoods together (see Figure 3.1). e dening recommendation is the relocation of the 38th Street pedestrian bridge to 36th Street. is important move facilitates connectivity from the neighborhoods to the station, between the neighborhoods, and provides access to the South Platte River. Moving the bridge to this new location creates a spine of activity along 36th Street in both directions from the Figure 3.1 Plan Concept15

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38th & Blake Vision and Goals station that connects with current redevelopment eorts along Brighton Boulevard and in Upper Larimer, and supports the vision articulated in the River North Greenway Master Plan. e advantages of this new 36th Street connection include the creation of a contiguous corridor to orient pedestrian activity and development. It also provides for a greater integration of the South Platte River as an amenity for the neighborhoods that currently do not have good access to the greenway. e 36th Street spine will create a node of activity at its intersection with Brighton Boulevard. For the 36th Street spine to succeed, careful attention is needed at intersections with key streets along its path: Brighton Boulevard, Blake Street and Downing Street. ese streets require transformation to ensure that they are pedestrian friendly and form a network of pathways to the station. Attention to safe vehicular movement and circulation will be important as well. Pedestrian and Bike Circulation Goal: Connect Upper Larimer, Cole and River North neighborhoods to the station and each other with pedestrian paths and bicycle routes. Objectives: cyclists throughout the station area. station from the surrounding neighborhoods. tween individual neighborhoods, as well as to open space, the South Platte River, and other local destinations. Vehicular Circulation Goal: Move vehicles safely to the station, station parking lots and through the station area without jeopardizing safe pedestrian circulation. Objectives: station or station parking lot. tion through the area without jeopardizing local trac movements of cars, bikes and pedestrians. make vehicle circulation less confusing and streets friendlier to pedestrians and cyclists. Storm Water Management Goal: Address storm water management issues with sustainable, urban solutions for detention, conveyance and water quality that also serve to provide usable open space for the community. Objectives: as both recreational space that is aesthetically pleasing and accessible to pedestrians and cyclists as well as practical conveyance. nect to the greater city park system, including the Platte River Greenway. egy to preserve appropriate land for inll development that benets from multi-purpose greenway amenities. Place Making Goal: Utilize the station investment to strengthen existing diverse neighborhoods and create a new center for the community. Objectives: and residential land uses within the study area. to respect the context of the areas diverse existing urban form characteristics. ment that supports transit ridership, residential, and neighborhood-serving retail and services. 16

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Mobility

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38th & Blake MobilityExisting ConditionsMobility for all modes of travel within the station area is challenging today (see Figure 4.1). But the introduction of the 38th & Blake station is likely to introduce new challenges for all modes. Cooperative action should be taken by the City, RTD and property owners before opening day to ensure that all users accessing the station, whether by foot, bicycle, bus, or private auto, can do so safely. EIS Station Design e East Corridor EIS has located the station platform on the west side of Blake Street, adjacent to the railroad right-ofway between 36th Street and the 38th Street underpass (see Figure 4.2). An adjacent platform connection is planned for the Central Corridor light rail line, which will be extended along Downing Street from its current terminus at 30th Avenue to the 38th & Blake Station, with up to two intermediate stops along Downing Street, before approaching Blake along 36th Street. e Central Corridor Extension Environmental Evaluation (EE) is expected to be completed by RTD by the end of 2009. According to the East Corridor EIS, the 400-foot platform segment built for opening day will be located on the eastern half of the block, ending at 38th Street. e platform will be expanded by RTD to 800 feet to accommodate longer trains in the future when demand increases. One hundred transit parking spaces will be located on the west side of Blake Street adjacent to the railroad right-of-way between the 38th Street underpass and 40th Street. Another 100 spaces will be built across the railroad right-of-way in a park-n-Ride facility to be located along Wazee Street. e EIS proposes acquiring this site with enough room to add another 300 spaces when demand increases at a future date. e route 48 bus, which currently serves Brighton Boulevard, is envisioned to access the station via the Wazee park-n-Ride. e EIS also proposes roadway mitigations to accomodate vehicles trying to access the Wazee park-n-Ride. e intersection of 38th & Wazee would have only right-in, right-out movements, forcing motorists traveling southbound on 38th Street to access the Wazee park-n-Ride from Brighton Boulevard. e EIS also proposes a right-in, right-out intersection at Brighton and 39th Street to prevent stacking by inbound vehicles that would otherwise turn left to access the parkn-Ride. at movement would be accommodated by a new trac signal at the intersection of 40th Street and Brighton. e EIS also proposes acceleration-deceleration lanes to accommodate turning movements onto 40th Street. Mobility Barriers In terms of natural barriers, the only crossings of the South Platte River exist at 31st Street and 38th Street, eectively severing the River North section of the area along the rivers Figure 4.1 Mobility Barriers Within the Station Area Figure 4.2 East Corridor EIS Station Design18

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38th & Blake Mobility two banks. In addition, those two streets oer the only existing access points in the area to the South Platte River Trail, a regional pedestrian and bicycle trail facility. e Union Pacic Railroad right-of-way is a formidable barrier between the Upper Larimer and Cole neighborhoods and River North. e only access point across the railroad right-of-way within the area is the 38th Street underpass, which only has a sidewalk on the north side of the street, oering only about 6 feet for pedestrians and cyclists using the D-9 route. Its two lanes are inadequate to meet peak auto demand, and its 13-foot, 3-inch clearance prevents large trucks from passing through. e next closest crossings of the railroad right-of-way are outside the study area, along Broadway to the southwest and York Street to the east. e Blake Street bridge, which crosses the 38th Street underpass, creates a barrier that is dicult for pedestrians to cross because its hump-like design. It is reasonable to expect that when the East Corridor becomes operation in 2015, there will be an increase in pedestrian, bicycle and vehicular trac on Blake Street trying to access the station. e railroad right-of-way and 38th Street underpass are not the only constructed mobility barriers in the area. Downing Street is the edge between Denvers two competing street grids: the downtown grid which is aligned with the South Platte River, and the east Denver neighborhood grid which is aligned in a north-south conguration. As with other areas of Denver where these grids collide, such as Broadway or Colfax Avenue, the result is a series of triangular parcels along the downtown alignment because the east-west running avenues dont quite match intersections with the diagonal streets, which creates confusion for motorists, pedestrians and cyclists. is confusion is exacerbated along Downing Street because of the one-way couplet assignment of Larimer and Walnut. 19 Figure 4.3 Street Directions and Existing Average Daily Trac (counts taken March, 2009)

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38th & Blake Mobility When this is compounded with the edges of dierent street grids, additional streets become one-way for short distances, then revert to two-way trac. e result is that there is no simple, direct way to access the station or travel through this area (see Figure 4.3) Lawrence, Marion and Walnut streets undergo directional changes due to the transition of the one-way paired-street network between the grids. Lawrence, which in 2006 was converted to a two-way street in Curtis Park, becomes oneway east of Downing where it merges with Marion, which serves as the northbound couplet for Downings southboundonly segment to access the 38th Street underpass. e change from two-way to one-way occurs on Marions 3600 block. West of Downing, Walnut serves as the outbound one-way complementing Larimer as the inbound one-way to downtown. However, it converts to a two-way street east of Downing because it provides the only through east-west access to the 38th Street underpass. Blake Street also converts from one-way to two-way, at 35th Street in Upper Larimer, a remnant of the more extensive street pairing system that extended through Curtis Park from downtown which is transitioning to two-way streets in some places, such as Lawrence. Residents of the Upper Larimer neighborhood have raised concerns that drivers routinely violate the street direction either unintentionally or out of convenience. Furthermore, there are curved street connections that intrude from one grid network into the other that create potential safety concerns. For example, Lawrence Street extends east of Downing as a one-way arterial for vehicles trying to access the 38th Street underpass to go north or 40th Avenue to go east. In a similar manner, Downing extends into the downtown grid north of Walnut Street. While these street segments facilitate trac ow through the area, they create concerns for pedestrians and cyclists because of the limited visbility that is created by their curves. e intersection of 38th, Walnut and Marion streets was designed to give vehicles un-impeded access, similar to highway exit ramps, creating more road segments for pedestrians and cyclists to cross, encouraging faster turning speeds, and resulting in less stopping time for vehicles. is design continues in part to the intersections of Downing and Walnut, and Downing and Blake. Perhaps the greatest challenge to pedestrian mobility in the area, however, is the lack of sidewalks. e majority of streets within a half-mile of the future station do not have sidewalks, and a signicant portion of those that do have sidewalks that are in such poor condition that it could be challenging for someone in a wheelchair or pushing a stroller to use them (see Figure 4.4). e only parts of the station area that currently have sidewalks in good condition are in the Cole and Figure 4.4 Sidewalk Analysis20

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38th & Blake Mobility Curtis Park neighborhoods. Brighton Boulevard is considered a critical gateway to downtown, but there are presently no sidewalks on Brighton north of 31st Street. Although several development projects are proposed between 31st and 38th that would result in new sidewalks being created on those properties, many gaps in the pedestrian infrastructure would remain. is sporadic provision of sidewalks can be seen in the Upper Larimer neighborhood, where sidewalks are in place only where they have been required as a result of new development. ere are no sidewalks at all on the blocks adjacent to the planned station platform location. Providing residents and workers with access to the station will be an immediate challenge to address. Summary of Station Area Intermodal Conict Points e following discussion of intermodal conict points correlates to Figure 4.5: Conict Point #1: 38th Street, Walnut and Marion Intersection is intersection has curved turning lanes that makes it unfriendly for pedestrian movements. It is a main throughroute for autos from the east to downtown. Conict Point #2: Blake Street Bridge Over 38th Pedestrian and bicycle access from the Cole neighborhood to the station will be challenging. A pedestrian from Cole who attempts to get to the 38th & Blake Station would have a hard time getting there because there is no such place: while 38th and Blake streets are certainly perpendicular, they never intersect due to the grade separation. Additionally, there are presently no sidewalks along Blake Street in the vicinity of the station (see Figures 4.6 and 4.7 and 4.8). Conict Point #3: 38th Street Underpass e 38th Street underpass has only a narrow sidewalk on one side that is also a shared bike lane for the D-9 route. e EIS proposes a pedestrian bridge to connect the Wazee Street parkn-Ride over the railroad tracks. Because there are no sidewalks along Blake Street, the EIS calls for pedestrian access across the 38th Street underpass via a pedestrian walkway that runs adjacent to the East Corridors railroad tracks. is design would accommodate access from the park-n-Ride, but it provides little benet for pedestrians who are trying to access the station from the surrounding neighborhoods. It also does not resolve how the route 44 and route 7 buses would provide transfer access from the south. RTDs proposed pedestrian bridge at 38th Street does not greatly enhance connectivity across the Union Pacic tracks because Blake Street is grade separated from 38th Street. Conict Point #4: Downing Between Walnut and Blake Downing Street extends south of the station area, bisecting the block directly east of the station platform and creating a challenging intersection for autos and pedestrians. Increases in the volume of motorists, pedestrians, and cyclists will likely cause conicts at this intersection due to its oblique angle. Conict Point #5: 36th Street and Blake Street Intersection Because 36th Street will be a primary pedestrian route to the station from the Cole neighborhood, new facilities need to be added along that route to ensure the safety of people who are walking to the station. e East Corridor EIS assumes that the Central Corridor project will be responsible for constructing a new trac signal at the intersection of 36th Street and Blake, where the light rail will be turning from 36th Street into the station. Currently Blake Street functions as a one-way street from 35th St. south to Downtown. With the introduction of the station on Blake, this street will likely be an important site for future transit oriented development. Land uses on Blake south of the station are already transitioning to residential. Two-way trac may better accommodate residential, retail, mixed-use and pedestrian activity south of the station. Conict Point #6: 36th St., 37th Ave. and Downing Intersection 37th Avenue and 36th Street are expected to serve as the primary pedestrian route to the station from the Cole neighborhood. e intersection of Downing, 37th Avenue and 36th Street is one of several intersections along Downing where the grids do not align, causing the blocks to not quite match up on either side of the street, which makes crossing more dicult (See Figure 4.9). is intersection also currently lacks crosswalks and trac lights. 21

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38th & Blake Mobility 22Multi-modalconflict point CommuterRailPedestrian Bridges South PlatteRiver Circulation Barrier Rail Road Corridor Circulation Barrier Existing Bike Routes MajorPedestrian Station Connections EastCorridorCommuterRail Line CentralCorridor StreetCar Line .25 and .50 MileRadius Station Platforms Proposed Bike Routes ConvergingDowntown and East Denver Street Grid CentralCorridor StreetCar Stop EastCorridorCommuterRail Station C S 36th Street 35th Street 39thAvenue 40thAvenue 38thAvenue 37thAvenue 36thAvenue Bruce Randolph Avenue 33rdAvenueWalnut Street Blake Street Larimer Street Lawrence StreetDowning Street Marion Street Points and Circulation Barriers South Platte River S C 33rdAvenue Blake StreetLafayette Street Franklin StreetBrighton Boulevard Curtis Street Humbolt Street DRAFT04.06.2009 RTDParking NTS N 1 10 10 2 3 9 7 7 8 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 38th Street 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 10 1 2 1 3 Humboldt Street 13 12 10 11 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 9 8 8 8 Figure 4.5 38th and Blake Conict Points and Circulation Barriers

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38th & Blake Mobility Conict Point #7: 37th Avenue and Marion Street Intersection Pedestrians accessing the station from the Cole neighborhood will likely use 37th Avenue and will cross at the Marion Street intersection. Marion Street in its current conguration has no pedestrian trac signal and limited sight distances for cars traveling north on Lawrence to 38th Street. Conict Point #8: Downing Street Intersections e downtown and neighborhood grids collide at Downing Street south of the station, which causes confusing intersections for motorists and makes the act of crossing Downing Street dicult for pedestrians. is is especially true where Downing intersects at Lawrence, Curtis and 34th Street. When the Central Corridor street car extension is built and travels along Downing, these intersections will become even more complicated. Conict Point #9: 37th Avenue Pedestrian Route Pedestrians accessing the station from the Cole neighborhood will likely use 37th Avenue. While 37th Avenue is a local street today, if it is intended to serve as the main pedestrian access to the station, safe crossing needs to be ensured where this street intersects with north-south collectors such as Franklin Street, a designated bike route that is near two schools. Conict Point #10: 40th Avenue, Franklin and Walnut Intersection e intersection of 40th Avenue, Franklin Street and Walnut Street poses challenges for vehicles and pedestrians. is intersection features an awkward trac movement caused by the intersection of three streets, with stop signs only on 40th (eastbound) and Franklin (northbound). Most of the street segments in this area do not have sidewalks. In the future, this intersection will be impacted by the alignment of the East Corridor, which will be sited adjacent to 40th Ave. When the East Corridor becomes operational, vehicular trac accessing RTDs Blake Street parking lot will primarily approach from this intersection, increasing trac volumes. Figure 4.8 Blake Street bridge hump Figure 4.7 Climbing grade to access Blake from 38th and Walnut Figure 4.9 Intersection of Downing, 36th Street and 37th Avenue23 Figure 4.6 Intersection of Walnut, Marion and 38th Street

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38th & Blake Mobility Conict Point #11: 40th Street and Walnut Intersection Pedestrians from northern Cole and the Rock Drill Lofts are likely to access the station via 39th Avenue and 40th Street. e intersection of 40th Street and Walnut poses a challenge for pedestrians because of a lack of sidewalks, crosswalks, and stop signs. Conict Point #12: 40th Street and Blake Intersection e lack of trac control as 40th Ave curves into Blake Street makes the act of crossing Blake Street dicult for pedestrians. Crossing Blake at this point would be logical for pedestrians because the EIS calls for RTD to build a sidewalk on the northwest side of the street, where they will have a 100-space park-n-Ride. ere are presently no sidewalks on either side of Blake from here to the station platform. Conict Point #13: 38th Street and Brighton Boulevard Intersection Cyclists and pedestrians traveling between the station or neighborhoods south of the tracks to the river would have to use 38th Street since it is the only railroad crossing under the EIS design. Crossing at this intersection would be challenging for pedestrians because of the high volume of vehicles traveling along Brighton as well as turning to access the parkn-Ride from the north. e EIS also proposes accelerationdeceleration lanes along Brighton at 40th Street to accommodate turning movements at that intersection, which will add extra lanes for pedestrians to cross.Recommendationse development of the 38th & Blake station provides an opportunity to re-examine the alignment and direction of the streets in the station area to provide safe access to the station for all modes, and improve vehicular movement through the area. A few arterial streetsincluding 38th Street, Brighton Boulevard, 40th Avenue, Downing, Larimer and Walnutcarry the majority of the trac through the area and will continue to serve that need, as well as provide residents and businesses access to destinations outside of the area. A reconguration of the existing one-way couplets and assigning more streets as two-way direction streets will help ensure that the street network supports multi-modal transportation. Additional measures, including trac lights and stop signs, are recommended at key locations as described below. It is also important to identify the most critical streets for future pedestrain infrastructure improvements. Most important is an analysis of those connections that pedestrians are most likely to use to access the station from the surrounding neighborhoods. ese connections need to be direct and ecient, and more intuitive so that all residentsyoung and old of varying physical abilitiescan walk to the station. For example, while Blake Street will continue to carry auto trac, the street should be designed to balance multimodal needs by slowing vehicle trac and providing infrastructure for pedestrians and cyclists. is plan recommends that key streets and intersections in the station be prioritized for pedestrian needs. Shown in the Concept Pedestrian Circulation Plan (see Figure 4.10), these include Blake Street, 38th Street, 36th Street, 37th Avenue, 40th Street, Downing Street and 31st Street. Continuous sidewalks are a necessity along these streets. New development will help to provide more sidewalk continuity, but this development may be fragmented over time, and a cohesive network of sidewalks needs to be planned for the interim. With a commuter rail station (East Corridor), light rail station (Central Corridor) and multiple bus routes (7, 38, 44, 47x, 48, and 48x), the station area needs to facilitate bus-rail, bus-bus, and light rail-commuter rail transfers. Transfers between these dierent modes will occur by walking, which reinforces the need for a strong pedestrian network at the station. Recommendations 1-13 below address the specic conict points described in the existing conditions section (see Figure 4.11 for the Concept Vehicular Circulation Plan). Recommendations 14-23 describe new streets, pedestrian connections, and amenities (see Figure 4.12 for an illustration of possible changes to street congurations, travel direction, street segment closures and new streets). It is important to note that the Next Steps Transportation Operations study should consider and explore all of the mobility recommendations presented herein as part of its analysis. is is not to say that the scope of that study should be limited only to the recommendations presented here, but rather that this plans recommendations should form part of that study, and should be tested for feasibility. In the end, the Next Steps study may conclude that some of this plans recommendations are not feasible or advisable. For that reason, at such time as the Next Steps study has been completed, this station area plan should be revisited and 24

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38th & Blake Mobility potentially amended in light of new information and recommendations provided by Next Steps. Recommendation Mobility (MO)-1: Recongure 38th Street, Walnut, Marion intersection Develop a new intersection conguration at 38th Street/ Walnut/Marion to facilitate pedestrian crossings and vehicular movements and to take into account additional trac on Walnut, the future widening of the 38th Street underpass, and two-way trac on Marion. e design should replace the curved-cutouts with a more traditional square intersection conguration to the extent practicable. Recommendation MO-2: Consider temporary closure of Blake Street Bridge over 38th Street to vehicles Until such time that the 38th Street underpass and Blake Street hump are reconstructed, and pending the results of further study of this recommendation by Next Steps, consider closing the hump to vehicular trac. e purpose of such a closure would be to ensure safe pedestrian crossings of Blake Street in the vicinity of the hump. Recommendation MO-3: Reconstruct 38th Street Underpass Reconstruct the 38th Street Underpass between Wynkoop Street and Walnut Street to provide a four-lane cross section with wide sidewalks on both sides of the street and adequate vertical clearance. Ensure that the sidewalk is wide enough to safely accommodate pedestrians and the D-9 bike route. Reconstruct the Blake Street Bridge to remove the hump and make it a level crossing over 38th with sidewalks on both sides of the street. Recommendation MO-4: Recongure Downing between Walnut and Blake Pending the results of the Next Steps study, consider removing the Downing Street segment connecting Blake Street and Walnut Street across from the station and replace it with a new 37th Street that is pedestrian friendly and perpendicular to Blake and Walnut. e new 37th Street should be a local Bike and Pedestrian Circulation Plan Draft 06.02.2009 Brighton Blvd. Wynkoop St. Wazee St. Blake St. Walnut St. Lawrence St. Arapahoe St. Curtis St. Champa St. Stout St. Larimer St. Delgany St. Chestnut St.Arkins40th Ave. 39th Ave. 38th Ave. 37th Ave. 36th Ave. 35th Ave. Bruce Randolph Ave. 33rd Ave. Martin Luther King Boulevard 38th Street 37th Street 36th Street 35th Street 34th Street 33rd Street 32rd Street 31st Street 35th Street Downing Street Marion Street Lafayette Street Lafayette Street Marion Street Humbolt Street Franklin Street Gilpin Street Williams Street High Street Race Street Pedestrian Routes Bike Routes and Paths New Traffic Signals Proposed Pedestrian Bridges St. Charles Rec Center Pepsi Curtis Pa rk Wyman/Mitchell Elementary School Cole Middle School Wyatt-Edison School Platte River STOP 38th and Blake Station Area Plan Mixed Use -TOD Core Urban Residential Station Parking Transit Station Mixed-UseEmployment Open Space and Parks Mixed Use Main Street Mixed Use Residential New Open Space and Parks P T1/4 and 1/2 Mile Walk Radius Central Corridor Streetcar FasTracks East Corridor Line 0 200400 800Mixed Pedestrian -Auto Street Pedestrian Plaza Possible Future Blake Streetcar Connection LAND USE LEGEND CIRCULATION LEGEND Pedestrian Bridge T T T P P Figure 4.10 Concept Pedestrian/Bike Circulation Plan25

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38th & Blake Mobility street with one lane of trac in each direction and on-street parking. It should be located to create roughly proportional blocks between 36th and 38th street, while maintaining safe access across Walnut. is change should happen as part of the redevelopment of these blocks. Recommendation MO-5: Blake Street platform access and trac direction be a full movement intersection with a signal to control Figure 4.11 Concept Vehicular Circulation Plan26 Vehicular Circulation Plan Draft 06.05.2009 Brighton Blvd. Wynkoop St. Wazee St. Blake St. Walnut St. Lawrence St. Arapahoe St. Curtis St. Champa St. Stout St. Larimer St. Delgany St. Chestnut St.Arkins40th Ave. 39th Ave. 38th Ave. 37th Ave. 36th Ave. 35th Ave. Bruce Randolph Ave. 33rd Ave. Martin Luther King Boulevard 38th Street 37th Street 36th Street 35th Street 34th Street 33rd Street 32rd Street 31st Street 35th Street Downing Street Marion Street Lafayette Street Lafayette Street Marion Street Humbolt Street Franklin Street Gilpin Street Williams Street High Street Race Street Arterial Streets Local Streets New Streets Mixed Pedestrian Auto Street New Traffic Signals Proposed Pedestrian Bridges St. Charles Rec Center Pepsi Curtis Pa rk Wyman/Mitchell Elementary School Cole Middle School Wyatt-Edison School Platte River STOP 38th and Blake Station Area Plan Mixed Use -TOD Core Urban Residential Station Parking Transit Station Mixed-UseEmployment Open Space and Parks Mixed Use Main Street Mixed Use Residential New Open Space and Parks P T1/4 and 1/2 Mile Walk Radius Central Corridor Streetcar FasTracks East Corridor Line 0 200400 800Mixed Pedestrian -Auto Street Pedestrian Plaza Possible Future Blake Streetcar Connection LAND USE LEGEND CIRCULATION LEGEND Pedestrian Bridge

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38th & Blake Mobility trac around the station. It is believed that a trac signal will be necessary in this location even if the Blake Street hump is closed to trac because of the future presence of the Central Corridor at this intersection. In addition to sidewalks and crosswalks, consider new streetscape improvements such as street trees, lighting, benches and other street amenities. Ensure that any intersection improvements are coordinated with the Central Corridor alignment through the Environmental Evaluation process. 27 LEGEND Station Parking Transit Station P P T1/4 and 1/2 Mile Walk Radius Streets Proposed for Realignment Street Traffic Directional Changes Central Corridor Streetcar FasTracks East Corridor Line 0 200400 800 Street and Direction Changes Diagram06.05.2009 Wazee St. Blake St. Walnut St. Curtis St. Champa St. StoutSt. Chestnut St .Arkins40th Ave. 39th Ave. 38th Ave. 37th Ave. 36th Ave. 35th Ave. Bruce Randolph Ave. 33rd Ave. Martin Luther King Boulevard 31st Ave. 38th Street 36th Street 35th StreetMarion Street Lafayette Street Lafayette S t reet Humbolt Street Franklin Street Gilpin Street Williams Street High Street Race Street 38th and Blake Station Area Plan T T T Arapahoe St. Lawrence St. Larimer St.New Streets P Marion Street 37th Street Brighton Blvd. Wynkoop St. Downing Street STOP St. Charles Rec Center Pepsi Curtis ParkWyman/Mitchell Elementary School Cole Middle School Wyatt-Edison School Platte River35thStreet 34thStreet 33rd Street 32rd Street 31stStreet Figure 4.12 Proposed Street and Directional Changes

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38th & Blake Mobility feasibility of converting Blake Street from one-way to two-way between 35th Street and Broadway, and possibly as far south as 20th Street. As redevelopment continues along Blake Street, there is enough room within the existing right-of-way to include two 11-foot travel lanes, two 5-foot bike lanes, two 8-foot parking lanes, with 16-foot pedestrian amenity zones including sidewalks on both sides of the street (see Figure 4.13 for potential cross-section design). If streetcar service is extended along Blake Street in the future, the cross-section will need to be revisited at that time to accomodate this additional travel mode. Recommendation MO-6: Pedestrian Treatment for 36th Street, 37th Avenue and Downing Intersection Consider crosswalks and a trac light at this intersection to ensure that this primary access point between the neighborhoods and the station is safe and ecient. If possible, the intersection should be re-aligned so that 36th Street matches up with 37th Avenue across Downing. Ensure that any intersection improvements are coordinated with the Central Corridor alignment through the Environmental Evaluation process. Recommendation MO-7: Modify segments of Lawrence, Marion and Downing between Lawrence and Walnut Streets. Pending feasibility testing in Next Steps, the following recommended improvements are related and would need to occur in the following sequence: way between Walnut and Lawrence Streets. is modication will improve vehicular mobility through the area. between Downing and Marion. street to a two-way local street with reduced lanes and wider sidewalks between Lawrence and Walnut. Recommendation MO-8: Recongure other Downing Street intersections Wherever possible, square-up intersections where the two street grids intersect at Downing to create better visibility and mobility for pedestrians, bicyclists and vehicles. Other than 37th Avenue and 36th Street (discussed above), these interesections include Bruce Randolph and 35th Street, and 33rd Avenue and 34th Street. Recommendation MO-9: Pedestrian Treatment for 37th Avenue Pending the results of the Next Steps study, consider improvements to the pedestrian infrastructure along 37th Avenue, the main pedestrian route to the station from Cole. Ensure that sidewalks along this route are in good condition and are ADA accessible, crosswalks are provided at intersections, and that trac control measures (stop signs, etc) are adequate to meet the needs of increased numbers of pedestrians and cyclists along this route. Recommendation MO-10: Close 40th Avenue Between 40th Street and Franklin Pending the ndings of the Next Steps study, consider closing the 40th Avenue segment between Blake Street & 40th 28 8 parking 16' vehicular lane 16 vehicular lane 8 parking 16' varied treatment* 16' varied treatment* DRAFT 08 June 2009 8 parking 16' vehicular lane Existing Land Use16 vehicular lane 8 parking Redevelopment 16' unpaved** varied walk/amenity** 8 parking 11' vehicular lane 11 vehicular lane 8 parking 5 bike lane 5 bike lane 16' walk/amenity 16' walk/amenity Blake Street Proposed Cross Section Blake Street Existing Cross Section 35th to 38th Street Blake Street Existing Cross Section South of 35th Street *Behind the curb treatments vary between paved sidewalks, gravel shoulder, trees and grass, and informal parking areas **Curb and gutter, sidewalk, and amenities have been installed where redevelopment has taken place. Where properties have not been redeveloped, there is no curb and gutter or sidewalk. 80 ROW 80 ROW 80 ROW Figure 4.13 Existing and Proposed Blake Street Cross-Sections

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38th & Blake MobilityFigure 4.14 Interim and Ultimate Brighton Boulevard Cross-SectionsStreet and the Franklin & Walnut intersections to eliminate the curve and facilitate pedestrian crossing at 40th Street and Blake. Such an action would also reduce trac volumes on Blake in front of the station, resulting in safer pedestrian crossings at all intersections between 40th and 36th streets. Recommendation MO-11: Pedestrian Treatment for 40th Street and Walnut Intersection With the closure of 40th Avenue to the west, all through trac should be moving between 40th Avenue and Walnut, including vehicles using the new park-n-Ride on Blake Street. A trac signal should be located at this intersection to ensure safe pedestrian movement to the station across Walnut street from Cole. Recommendation MO-12: Pedestrian Treatment for 40th Street and Blake Intersection 40th Street is envisioned as a main pedestrian route to the station from northeast Cole, as well as the main vehicular route to the Blake Street park-n-Ride. Incorporate sidewalks and crosswalks at this intersection to ensure safe access from the Blake Street park-n-Ride to the station, and from the neighborhood to the station. e closing of 40th Avenue to auto trac (see MO-10) is key to improving pedestrian safety at this intersection. Recommendation MO-13: Brighton Boulevard Crosssection Design Brighton Boulevard is a critical arterial gateway to downtown but there are presently no sidewalks on the corridor within the station area. Although several development projects are proposed between 31st and 38th streets that would result in 29 new sidewalks being created on those properties, the result would be disconnected pedestrian infrastructure. Brighton Boulevard is also the front door to the River North district. It should be a place where pedestrians nd interesting shops and galleries and feel welcome to walk or visit. e Brighton Boulevard Urban Design Guidelines propose the following cross-section for between 31st and 44th (see Figure 4.14). e interim cross section ts within the existing 80-foot ROW. It has a 16-foot median, consistent with the ultimate cross section. e interim cross section is intended to be used prior to any redevelopment of properties. It does not provide on-street parking, but does have an attached 7-foot sidewalk on both sides of the street. When properties redevelop, the ultimate cross section will need to be followed. Construction of the interim cross section will likely require outside funding sources. e ultimate cross section of 110 feet will require right-ofway dedication as properties redevelop. It provides access control, on-street parking, and is pedestrian friendly with wide sidewalks, pedestrian amenities, and street trees. Bicycle lanes are recommended on parallel facilities both southeast and northwest of Brighton. Construction of the ultimate cross section could be funded in a variety of ways, including a local improvement district formed by area property owners. Strategies and phasing options that may be applicable are discussed in the Economic Opportunity section. As there is no annual program for sidewalk installation or maintenance, there is potential for an interim condition by block to exist for several years. To minimize that possibility, the City should partner in this eort by

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38th & Blake Mobility 30 bringing together relevant parties and looking for additional funding sources for this key gateway, as identied by Blueprint Denver and the River North Plan. Recommendation MO-14: Signalize 36th and Brighton Boulevard Intersection A new trac signal should be located on Brighton Boulevard at 36th Street to provide pedestrian connectivity to the station and the South Platte River Greenway. is could replace the 40th & Brighton signal mitigation proposed in the East Corridor DEIS if the park-n-Ride is also moved to 36th Street and Wazee. e proposed DEIS improvements at the intersections of 38th and Wynkoop, 39th and Brighton, and 40th and Brighton should not be constructed if the park-nRide is moved elsewhere. Recommendation MO-15: New 37th Street Introduce a new street at 37th Street between Wazee and the South Platte River. is new connection will contribute to a more complete street grid in River North and will improve mobility within the neighborhood. It would serve as the main orientation for the mixed-use employment/arts district between 36th and 38th Streets. Station Tower/Vertical Pedestrian Connection Existing Parks Station Gateways Regional Bike Path Mixed Use -Main Street (2 5 Stories) Mixed Use-Main Street (1-3 Stories) Mixed Use Residential Urban Residential Single Family-Duplex Single Family Mixed-UseEmployment Proposed On Street Bike Routes Existing On Street Bike Routes Bike Bridge 1st Priority Bike Bridge 2nd Priority Proposed Regional Bike Bridge Transit Parking Transit Station Plaza/Pedestrian Bridge Potential Private Public Open Space Land Use Plan Draft 06.05.200938th and Blake Station Area Plan 36th Street Downing Street Blake Street Wazee Street Walnut Street Larimer Street37th Street RTD FasTracks Commuter Rail Station Pedestrian Bridge Central Corridor Streetcar Stop RTD Parking Figure 4.15 36th Street Central Corridor station concept with pedestrian connections and streetscape improvements

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38th & Blake Mobility Recommendation MO-16: New 39th Street and Marion Street When redevelopment occurs, introduce a new street at 39th Street between the existing Lafayette and Blake streets, with a new segment of Marion Street between the new 39th Street and 40th Street. e resulting smaller blocks would be more appropriate for TOD and promote better pedestrian access to the station and through the area. Recommendation MO-17: Extend Wynkoop and Wazee, and create new 33rd, 34th, 41st, 42nd, and 43rd Streets When redevelopment occurs, extend Wynkoop Street from its current public terminus northwest of 40th Street all the way to 43rd Street and add new streets at 41st, 42nd and 43rd connecting Wynkoop to Brighton. When redevelopment occurs, also extend Wynkoop and Wazee southwest of 35th Street and add new streets at 33rd and 34th connecting Wynkoop to Brighton consistent with the recommendations of the River North Greenway Master Plan. e resulting smaller blocks would promote better pedestrian access through the area. Recommendation MO-18: Maintain a vehicular throughroute parallel to Brighton between 38th Street and downtown When redevelopment occurs on the east bank of the South Platte River between 31st and 35th streets, open space and on-site detention is expected to be located adjacent to the river consistent with the recommendations of the River North Greenway Master Plan. If these developments and infrastructure improvements result in a vacation of a segment of Arkins Court, a vehicular through-route parallel to Brighton should be maintained by extending Delgany Street southwest of 35th Street. Recommendation MO-19: Second Pedestrian Bridge Across the UP railroad tracks An additional pedestrian bridge at 31st Street or 33rd Street over the railroad tracks would provide access between River North and the Denargo Market redevelopment to Upper Larimer and Curtis Park. Public input indicated the need for this second pedestrian crossing over the railroad tracks closer to downtown. is additional crossing is less of a priority than the 36th Street crossing, but would be benecial for residents on both sides of the railroad tracks. Recommendation MO-20: Central Corridor Station e Central Corridor Extension Environmental Evaluation should evaluate the engineering feasibility, environmental impacts and mitigations of a station along 36th Street between Walnut and Blake instead of the proposed platform adjacent to the commuter rail station. Locating the station along 36th Street would create opportunities for TOD by increasing pedestrian trac in the area. In terms of walk distance, the dierence would be minimal because the high platform required by the commuter rail line forces riders to walk all the way to the end of the platform regardless of the light rail location (see Figure 4.15). is location would also reinforce pedestrian movement along 36th Street across the railroad tracks between River North and Upper Larimer. It could, however, result in the closure of 36th Street between Downing and Walnut to vehicular trac. Recommendation MO-21: Bus Routing and Stops Coordinate bus routing and stops with RTD based on the recommended parking location and platform access from 36th Street. is is especially important for the route 7 and 44 buses, which approach the station from the south. Facilitate transfers between the East/Central Corridors and the North Metro Corridor by re-routing buses or creating new bus routes to serve both stations. Recommendation MO-22: Lighting and Amenities Work closely with Xcel Energy to provide street lighting on the streets with the highest priority for pedestrian enhancements, including but not limited to 37th Avenue, 36th Street, Blake from 38th to 36th, and Walnut from 38th to 36th Streets. Recommendation MO-23: Overhead Power Lines Work closely with Xcel Energy to identify pedestrian priority corridors where overhead power lines should be burried around the station area. Prioritize primary pedestrian routes for these improvements, including but not limited to 36th Street, 37th Avenue, and Blake Street. Coordinate with the Citys Public Works Department to determine whether annual fund dollars to bury utilities may be utilized. 31

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38th & Blake Mobility 32

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Stormwater Infrastructure

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38th & Blake Stormwater InfrastructureExisting Conditionse mouths of two large stormwater basins, the Montclair Basin and the Lower Platte Basin, are located within the station area (see Figure 5.1). e Montclair Basin is the single largest tributary area outfall in the City of Denver. Its outfall to the South Platte River occurs between 36th and 40th streets and its storm network collects storm runo from about 6,000 acres, all the way to Lowry, and includes City Park. City engineers believe that Figure 5.1 Montclair and Lower Platte storm basins in relation to 38th & Blake Station34

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38th & Blake Stormwater Infrastructure before this part of Denver was platted and developed, a natural stream bed existed in its outfall vicinity within the station area. Since nearly half of the Montclair Basin is impervious, a 100-year storm event can generate about 6,500 cubic feet of water per second. e Lower Platte Basin, which ows into the South Platte River south of 36th Street, has a storm network collecting runo from about 2,200 acres and extends all the way to the Denver Botanic Gardens. Since nearly 65% of the basin is impervious, a 100-year storm event can generate about 2,700 cubic feet of water per second. Many of the Citys largest and oldest storm sewers were built in these watersheds in order to address storm drainage needs. In reviewing these systems as part of the Citys regular Storm Drainage Master Plan updates, many were found to provide storm protection in less than a 2-year storm event. As a result, there is ooding after large storms. A 100-year storm is estimated to generate between 1-3 feet of ooding in the area, but the actual amount of ood water can vary signicantly by block. Planned Improvements e Citys Storm Drainage Master Plan and Capital Improvement Plan have identied the need and associated funding to upgrade the Montclair Basin outfall capacity. Furthermore, the East Corridor EIS proposes to relocate the existing storm sewer under 40th Avenue between York and 40th Street because it will be using part of the right-of-way for the commuter rail alignment. e City and RTD are coordinating their planned improvements for the Montclair Basin to upgrade the storm sewer to convey runo from a 5-year event, which is the Citys standard for constructing storm sewers serving or protecting commercial areas. Within the station area, this new infrastructure will be located under 40th Avenue, then cross under the UP tracks along the 40th Street alignment, where it will continue to its outfall at the South Platte River in Globeville Landing Park (see Figure 5.2). ese stormwater improvements are expected to be constructed jointly by the City and RTD so that they are coordinated with the East Corridor project. Slated to be completed by 2014, they are expected to reduce the 100-year storm ood level in the Montclair Basin section of the station area by about 1 foot overall. Development Implications ere are a wide range of stormwater management solutions for development and redevelopment within the station area, each with their own implications. e challenge will be to coordinate the urban infrastructure needs with the built environment to support both economic and community development. Brief descriptions of some of the potential solutions are provided below, but further analysis is necessary to determine which solution, or combination of solutions, could render the best outcome to enhance the station area neighborhoods. It should be noted, however, that adaptive reuse projects, such as the Rock Drill Lofts located at 39th Avenue and Williams Street, are considered to be merely tenFigure 5.2 Planned 5-Year Storm Infrastructure Improvements35

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38th & Blake Stormwater Infrastructure ant improvements and do not require new stormwater management infrastructure. But the historic oces and industrial buildings on the Rock Drill property are not indicative of the quality of the station areas building stock, and so it seems likely that the majority of future development in this area will not be adaptive reuse, but rather new construction. Denver Storm Water Management e standard level of storm protection in the City and County of Denver is to plan, design, and construct storm sewers to convey storm runo from the 2-year storm event in residential areas, and the 5-year storm event in commercial and industrial areas. For larger storm events, the public right-of-way conveys the excess runo, up to one foot deep in the gutter. Since 1995, the City has required water quality detention and stormwater detention for all new developments greater than one-half acre in size. e storm drainage improvements being installed concurrently with the East Corridor project do not obviate the requirement that the nished ground oor of any new development be at least 1 foot higher than the 100-year storm ood level, nor the requirement that new development accommodate on-site 10-year detention and water quality. ese requirements have been enacted to ensure continued public health and safety as well as environmental and infrastructure preservation. ese implications present challenges to implementing TOD for two reasons. e rst is that elevated ground oors provide less opportunity for active commercial uses. A combination of retail and services with transparent storefronts and large windows is recommended near transit stations to encourage uses that activate the street with pedestrians and provide a level of visibility that promotes safety. e requirement for any new development to be at least one foot higher than the 100-year storm ood event for public safety may result in nished oors an estimated 1 to 3 feet above existing grade in the station area, depending on location and topography. ere are examples of successful commercial mixed-use districts in Denver, namely in the LoDo and Ballpark neighborhoods, that have elevated ground oors due to their industrial heritage, but these are largely rehabilitated warehouses that match the context of those areas (see Figures 5.3). A recent example of how new construction has handled this requirement is the Argonaut Wine & Liquor on East Colfax Avenue, which has an at-grade entrances that ramps up to the nished ground oor inside the building (See Figure 5.4). Elevated ground oors are less of a challenge for residential uses, which are sometimes designed to be elevated from the street to provide ground-oor residents with enhanced privacy. Compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act will require buildings with elevated ground oors to provide ramped or elevator access, which results in less buildable area, requires stairs and ramps for access and poses an additional nancial cost to development. e second challenge for development is where to locate and how to design on-site detention and water quality facilities. In downtown environments with few requirements for open space, parking, or building setbacks, developers sometimes provide this function in a vault under their building. But underground detention is expensive and requires high land values for developers to be able to recover the cost, condi36 Figure 5.4 This at-grade entrance ramps up inside the building Figure 5.3 Elevated nished graound oor in LoDo/Ballpark

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38th & Blake Stormwater Infrastructure tions that do not exist in this station area today, where land prices are relatively inexpensive considering their proximity to downtown. Alternatively, above-ground detention, which can be designed to provide open space that serves as a public amenity, reduces the amount of developable land on the site. Low Impact Development (LID) techniques, such as green roofs, can address water quality issues to reduce some of the on-site detention requirements. Otherwise, a portion of any new development site would have to be devoted to a pondlike detention facility, similar to what is built in front of retail centers along commercial arterials in suburban settings (see Figures 5.5 and 5.6). A facility of any signicant size such as that could render development of the site infeasible, especially if there are o-street parking requirements that also need to be addressed. One solution to this problem could be for the stakeholders and property owners in the new development areas to work together to develop sub-regional detention ponds that can be aggregated to create a meaningful open space feature and alleviate the specic development site requirements for detention. Traditional Urban Storm Water Management e conventional solution to stormwater conveyance in urban areas is to place storm sewers under the streets. Because the 38th and Blake station area is essentially at the mouth of two large basins, an underground conveyance system large enough to accommodate the 100-year storm event would need enormous capacity and would have to be located under all streets running perpendicular to the river. is solution option would still need to separately address the regional storm water quality and detention issues, but would provide an opportunity to connect on-site 10-year detention and water quality into the system to be conveyed to the river (see Figure 5.7) is solution would also have major impacts on existing underground utilities and would be very costly. Sustainable Urban Open Channel Perhaps a less expensive and more sustainable solution would be to create one or more open channels connecting the Montclair and Lower Platte basins to the river. ese facilities would convey stormwater to the river through an open channel collection system on the south side of the railroad tracks that would be piped beneath the tracks. e channel to the river could be designed to meet regional and on-site detention and water quality requirements for all of the properties in the station area. ere are several potential advantages to this solution that merit further analysis: opment parcels to realize a greater development footprint, resulting in urban development patterns that support transit and pedestrian orientation element that emphasizes the unique character of the area by incorporating features such as an arts walk streets and wide sidewalks adjacent to active ground-oor commercial or residential uses (see Figure 5.8) allow for continued connectivity within the neighborhood and diminish any barriers tional use of land, serving not only stormwater management needs but also creating a new open space amenity that connects to the South Platte River Greenway the Brighton corridor, such an amenity would help to meet the increased need for open space 37 Figure 5.6 Example of on-site detention Figure 5.5 Example of on-site detention

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38th & Blake Stormwater InfrastructureRecommendationsBy opening day of the station in 2015, underground storm sewer capacity will be improved so that is is able to convey a 5-year storm event. However, without addressing issues associated with the regional 100-year storm event, it will be challenging for development to respond to the transit investment and community goals. Furthermore, one of the major goals of the recently completed River North Greenway Master Plan is to improve water quality in this stretch of the South Platte River. 38 LEGEND Station Parking Transit Station Open Space and Parks Subsurface Storm Water Pipes P P T T T1/4 and 1/2 Mile Walk Radius On Site and Regional Storm Water Detention Ponds East Corridor Commuter Rail 0200400 100 Year Traditional Subsurface Storm Water Solution (Concept) Draft 04.21.2009 Brighton Blvd. Wynkoop St. Wazee St. Blake St. Walnut St. Lawrence St. Arapahoe St. Curtis St. Champa St. Stout St. Larimer St. Chestnut St.Arkins40th Ave. 39th Ave. 38th Ave. 37th Ave. 36th Ave. 35th Ave. Bruce Randolph Ave. 33rd Ave. Martin Luther King Boulevard 31st Ave. 38th Street 37th Street 36th Street 35th Street Downing Street Marion Street Lafayette Street Lafayette Street Marion Street Humbolt Street Franklin Street Gilpin Street Williams Street High Street Race Street St. Charles Rec Center Pepsi Curtis Park Wyman/Mitchell Elementary School Cole Middle School Wyatt-Edison School Platte River35th Street 34th Street 33rd Street 32rd Street 31st Street 38th and Blake Station Area Plan T Figure 5.7 Conceptual diagram illustrating underground stormwater conveyance with on-site detention

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38th & Blake Stormwater Infrastructure Studies have found few, if any, opportunities for additional upstream improvements to reduce the regional storm ow impact to the station area. Seizing on the most feasible one, the City spent $20 million between 2006 and 2008 to provide 145 acre-feet of stormwater detention and improvements to Ferril Lake in City Park to reduce the cost and size of downstream improvements and provide an outlet for storm sewers that are needed upstream. As potential solutions within the station area examined, funding recommendations should recognize that the station area is both impacted by and solving for many impervious developed acres upstream. Urban infrastructure should look to perform multiple functions where possible. In the instance of stormwater management, multi-functioning solutions may serve to eectively address the infrastructure issues and provide an amenity such as a gathering place for the community, become a unique identier to the community, or help to organize desired uses around the amenity. e recommendations herein lay out the rst steps for identifying solutions to regional and subregional storm water infrastructure. Recommendation SI (Stormwater Infrastructure)-1: Station Area Stormwater Management Study e City should conduct a review of completed stormwater studies for both basins and the station area (such as the East Corridor Drainage Master Plan) to determine the extent to which possible solutions have already been identied. Pending the results of that evaluation, the City should assess the need to fund and initiate a new study to incrementally address stormwater management solutions in the station area. e study should include the following: quality solutions and potential locations channel/park amenity, below-grade sewers, or a combination of multiple alternatives quality requirements within the station area into regional solutions tions within both basins tions for the station area Figure 5.8 Open Channel Cross-Section Concept39

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38th & Blake Stormwater Infrastructure 40 Recommendation SI-2: Station Area Stormwater Working Group Form a collaborative working team between the City and landowners/developers to develop sub-regional solutions that aggregate the 10-year on-site detention and water quality needs. A potential solution to the on-site detention needs could be for a group of developers and property owners to create a General Development Plan and create an Improvement District to provide shared locations to handle the 10-year stormwater needs of their combined sites. e value of such an approach is that it could result in using less-valuable parcels for development for the infrastructure that benets all the property owners, and it could potentially result in more transit-supportive development. e detention sites could also be developed in combination with open space to meet requirements as well as provide a community amenity. is model is currently being employed in the River North area.

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Land Use and Urban Design

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38th & Blake Land Use and Urban DesignExisting Land UseIndustrial uses are predominant within the study area, accounting for 44% of all land. Transportation, communications, and utilities (TCU) uses, which tend to be industrial in nature (primarily rail yards and other railroad-supportive uses along with telecommunications facilities in the station area), constitute an additional 14% of the study area, bringing the total industrial uses to 58% (see Figure 6.1). e area north of the UP railroad tracks is almost entirely industrial, featuring small, isolated pockets of non-industrial uses, while the area south of the railroad tracks has industrial uses along the edges of stable residential neighborhoods. e alley between Larimer and Lawrence largely serves as the dividing line between industrial and residential uses separating Upper Larimer from Curtis Park (see Figure 6.2). Residential is the next most common land use, comprising 19% of the study area (12% single family and 7% multifamily). e vast majority of single-family dwellings are located in the residential sections of Curtis Park and Cole. Multi-family developments can also be found in these neighborhoods, although it is becoming increasingly common for multi-family development as an adaptive reuse of buildings on former industrial sites that are adjacent to active industrial and heavy commercial uses, such as the Rock Drill Lofts on Williams Street and 39th Avenue in Cole. Commercial, retail, and oce uses comprise only about 4% of the station area today. Furthermore, the commercial uses that are present are sprinkled throughout the neighborhoods, lacking enough concentration in any one location to be considered a commercial district. is is true even on Downing Street, which has some of the character of a main street commercial corridor, but lacks heavy concentrations of commercial uses. Land Use Guidance from Adopted Plans Blueprint Denver: An Integrated Land Use and Transportation Plan was adopted in 2002 and places a city-wide priority on land use, transportation, housing, environmental sustainability and protection of Denvers historic legacies. Blueprint Denver identies Areas of Stability and Areas of Change throughout the city with the goal of directing new developments and inll projects toward Areas of Change in order to preserve Denvers stable neighborhoods. It also establishes citywide concept land use and concept street classications. Most of the 38th & Blake station area is identied in Blueprint as an Area of Change, with the exception of the Cole neighborhood and portions of Curtis Park, which are identied as Areas of Stability. Blueprint Denvers land-use plan shows mixed-use development for Upper Larimer and River North, which represents a change from the predominantly industrial zoning in this area today. e areas northeast of 38th Street and across the South Platte River are proposed to remain industrial in Blueprint Denver. TOD is proposed for Downing Street, site of the Central Corridor extension, and in the immediate vicinity of the old station location at 40th & 40th. e Cole neighborhood is shown as single-family residential and Curtis Park is shown as urban residential, reecting the higher residential densities found there. e River North Plan provides land use guidance for approximately the northwestern two-thirds of the 38th & Blake station area. Adopted in 2003, the River North Plan was the rst small area plan completed after Blueprint Denver. As such, land use recommendations in the River North Plan are more detailed than, yet highly consistent with, Blueprint Denver. e River North Plan (see Figure 6.3), expands upon Blueprint Denvers mixed-use concept (see Figure 6.4) by identifying individual mixed-use areas that fall into the following categories: commercial, residential, TOD, industrial, and river corridor. Figure 6.1 Existing Land Use Table42

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38th & Blake Land Use and Urban Design Figure 6.2 Existing Land Use Map43

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38th & Blake Land Use and Urban Design Existing Zoning Districts Zoning in the station area is largely consistent with the existing land use pattern and there are not signicant areas of non-conforming uses. For example, industrial uses account for 58% of the study area, while the amount of industrial zoning (I-0, I-1, and I-2) is 63%. Similarly, residential uses account for 19% of the study area, and R district zoning (R2, R-2A, R-3, and R-4) accounts for 21% (see Figure 6.5). Although current land-use patterns are reinforced by existing zoning, there is evidence that this pattern has been shifting in recent years as individual property owners have rezoned to non-industrial mixed-use districts. is market pressure is illustrated in the zoning map by the prevalence of individual lots within the I districts that have been rezoned to commercial mixed use (CMU), residential mixed use (RMU) and planned unit development (PUD) districts (see Figure 6.9). CMU districts account for 5% of the study area, RMU districts account for another 5%, and PUDs an additional 1%. is rezoning trend can be seen on both sides of the railroad tracks, generally marching northeast from LoDo. Examples of CMU, RMU, and PUD zoning can be found especially along Brighton Boulevard and Blake Street. Notable examples of recent or planned redevelopment of former industrial sites include Fire Clay Lofts on Blake Street (see Figure 6.6), 44 Figure 6.3 River North Plan Land Use Concept Map

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38th & Blake Land Use and Urban Design 45 Figure 6.4 Blueprint Denver Land Use Concept Mapthe Exdo Event Center on Walnut Street (see Figure 6.7), Rock Drill Lofts on 39th Avenue (see Figure 6.8), as well as several large-scale developments that are currently in the planning stages on Brighton Boulevard, such as the Denargo Market redevelopment and the Beleza condominium project. Because zoning sets the stage for future development, the quantity and nature of rezoning activity within the western part of the station area (which follows an earlier pattern of rezonings in the Ballpark section to the southwest) appears to indicate market pressure for future land-use changes. RecommendationsAs described in the Introduction, the movement of the station from 40th & 40th to 38th & Blake shifted the station area typology from a major urban center to an urban neighborhood. e urban neighborhood typology was tested with

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38th & Blake Land Use and Urban Design stakeholders through the public process and deemed appropriate for the areas south of the railroad right-of-way, but the Brighton corridor is envisioned to have more intense development with a greater mixture of commercial and employment uses and taller building heights than the area south of the station. Recommendation LU (Land Use)-1: Station Area Typology Revise the station area typology from major urban center to urban neighborhood in the Transit Oriented Development Strategic Plan to match the development opportunities of the revised station location (38th & Blake) and the existing neighborhood context, but note the dierent context of the Brighton Boulevard corridors more intense development with a greater mixture of commercial and employment uses and taller building heights. Land Use Category Descriptions e plan recommends six distinct categories of land use designation: Mixed-Use TOD Core, Mixed-Use Main Street, Mixed-Use Residential, Urban Residential, Mixed-Use Employment and Open Space and Parks (see Figure 6.10). Mixed-Use TOD Core designation encourages a more intense mix of residential and commercial uses with a pedestrian orientation that supports transit usage. is is envisioned adjacent to the station platform and at the 36th Stret & Brighton node. First oors should have transparent faades that allow people to be eyes on the street. Active commerical rst-oor uses are strongly encouraged along the 36 Street axis on both sides of the tracks, and along Blake and Walnut streets between 35th and 38th streets. Allowing this use near transit will encourage pedestrian trac and promote commercial activity. Building heights within the Mixed-Use TOD Core category are from 2 to 8 stories. 46 Figure 6.5 Existing Zoning Table Figure 6.8 Rock Drill Lofts Figure 6.6 Fire Clay Lofts Figure 6.7 Exdo Event Center

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38th & Blake Land Use and Urban Design 47 Figure 6.9 Current Zoning Map (simplied)

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38th & Blake Land Use and Urban Design Mixed-Use Main Street designation encourages a strong mix of housing, oce, and commercial uses with exible use requirements that respect the residential fabric of the neighborhood and reinforce linear development patterns along commercial streets. is is envisioned along Downing Street between 35th and 37th avenues. Main Street districts should have transparent faades that allow people in the rst oor to be eyes on the street. Allowing this use near transit will encourage pedestrian trac and promote commercial activity. e character of these mixed use streets should clearly dene 48 and activate the public realm by locating buildings, entrances and windows in a way that creates an active and lively pedestrian scaled commercial corridor. Building heights within the Mixed-Use Main Street category are up to 3 stories. Mixed-Use Residential designation includes higher density residential including but not limited to: garden apartments, tuck under townhouses, or multi-family buildings. Active ground oors should include residential amenities, leasing lobbies, workout facilities, parking entrances and conveLEGEND Mixed Use -TOD Core Urban Residential Station Parking Transit Station Mixed-UseEmployment Open Space and Parks Mixed Use Main Street Mixed Use Residential New Open Space and Parks P T1/4 and 1/2 Mile Walk Radius Pedestrian Bridge FasTracks East Corridor Line 0 200400 800 Land Use Plan Draft 06.02.2009 Brighton Blvd. Wynkoop St. Wazee St. Blake St. Walnut St. Lawrence St. Arapahoe St. Curtis St. Champa St. Stout St. Larimer St. Chestnut St.Arkins40th Ave. 39th Ave. 38th Ave. 37th Ave. 36th Ave. 35th Ave. Bruce Randolph Ave. 33rd Ave. Martin Luther King Boulevard 31st Ave. 38th Street 37th Street 36th Street 35th Street Downing Street Marion Street Lafayette Street Lafayette Street Marion Street Humbolt Street Franklin Street Gilpin Street Williams Street High Street Race Street Mixed Pedestrian -Auto Street Central Corridor Street Car Pedestrian Plaza 38th and Blake Station Area Plan Possible Future Blake Streetcar Connection St. Charles Rec Center Pepsi Curtis Park Wyman/Mitchell Elementary School Cole Middle School Wyatt-Edison School Platte River35th Street 34th Street 33rd Street 32rd Stree t 31st Street Figure 6.10 Future Land Use

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38th & Blake Land Use and Urban Design 49 nience retail at strategic locations that reinforce the overall connectivity and access plans for the station. e building heights within the Mixed-use Residential category vary: up to 5 stories southeast of the railroad tracks in Upper Larimer and in Cole (where it drops to 3 stories east of Franklin and east of the new Marion Street), 2-8 stories surrounding the Mixed-Use TOD node at 36th & Brighton, and up to 8 stories southwest of 35th Street along Brighton (taller buildings could be developed southwest of 35th with additional requirements such as stepbacks and open space). Urban Residential is primarily residential but may include a limited number of commercial uses to serve daily needs such as a drycleaner, bank, video store or neighborhood market. is designation is intended to serve as a transition between more intense development and existing single-family neighborhoods. A mixture of housing types is present, including historic single-family houses, townhouses, and small multifamily apartments. e building heights for Urban Residential are up to 3 stories. Mixed-Use Employment encourages employment opportunities and allows for a mix of uses that includes: warehouse, retail, research and development, creative services, oces, incubator business, arts/cultural uses, and compatible recreational uses. New inll development should be compatible with the other recommended uses near the station area. Mixed-Use Employment is meant to attract and accommodate cutting-edge industries and transition over time to include opportunities for a unique and inviting place to live and workresidential uses are allowable. is designation is envisioned in two places within the station area. Along Larimer and Walnut Streets southwest of the station (which are oneway streets with more employment uses than Blake Street) where building heights are up to 3 stories. Along Brighton Boulevard southwest of 38th Avenue, where this designation is intended to accomodate growth of the RINO arts district and provide opportunties for TOD, building heights are up to 5 stories. Northwest of 38th Street, which today has a more industrial character, building heights are up to 3 stories. Open Space and Parks provide neighborhood gathering places, create focal points, and provide local green spaces that can increase housing value. is plan proposes expansion of the St. Charles Park, the addition of a small plaza at 36th Street and Blake (across from the station), and endorses the open space locations recommended in the River North Greenway Master Plan. New parks may serve to function as passive and active recreation spaces, water quality and detention and should have development face onto the park on all sides if possible. Following Denvers allowable aggregation of open space per the General Development Plan, 10% of all new development should be publicly accessible, usable open space. Open space requirements for several contiguous developments can be combined to create larger, more usable open spaces so long as the full amount of open space is provided with the initial development project. District Plan Although the majority of new development in the station area is proposed to be mixed-use, dierent subareas will have their own function and character within the larger plan. Figure 6.11 identies the subareas in lettering from A-G, and each is described further below. A) Primary TOD Areas A primary principle of TOD advocates a mix of uses closest to the station. A mix of uses at the station serves as the area of greatest activity, from a ground oor retail, oce and residential perspective. Two TOD areas are recommended within a quarter-mile of the station: one extends along Blake Street on the blocks adjacent to the platform, the other is at the intersection of 36th Street and Brighton Boulevard. Mixed-Use TOD Core (2-8 stories) is envisioned along Blake and Walnut streets, the front door to the station. is designation is intended to create a hub of activity, with a mix of uses and small plazas for gathering near the station. e TOD Core is envisioned as a place where new and existing residents can meet their daily needs, and will serve as a destination for the larger community, signifying that it is a unique and special place. Brighton Boulevard is a key gateway to downtown Denver and is envisioned as the focus of new mixed-use development within River North. While there have been numerous re-zonings along Brighton, redevelopment has occurred at a slower pace and the identied character for this corridor has yet to be realized. e boulevard today continues to serve more as a path for vehicles than a place for people. e new Mixed-Use TOD Core (2-8 stories) node at 36th Street and Brighton Boulevard reinforces 36th Street as an important

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38th & Blake Land Use and Urban Design pedestrian connection from the river, across Brighton, and across the tracks to the station platform into Upper Larimer, Curtis Park and Cole. It will create an activity center and reinforce the street as a destination. Recommendation LU-2: Blake Street TOD Core Provide a mix of uses around the station that supports the neighborhood and the station. Create a front door to the station along Blake Street and 36th Street through active ground-oor commercial uses, as well as a mix of residential. 50 Land Use Districts Draft06.06.200938th and Blake Station Area Plan Mixed Use -TOD Core Urban Residential Station Parking Transit Station Mixed-UseEmployment Open Space and Parks Mixed Use Main Street Mixed Use Residential New Open Space and Parks P T1/4 and 1/2 Mile Walk Radius 0 200400 800 A C C B F E C G G D D A E C Brighton Blvd. Wynkoop St. Wazee St. Blake St. Walnut St. Lawrence St. Arapahoe St. Curtis St. Champa St. Stout St. Lar imer St. Chestnut St .Arkins40th Ave. 39th Ave. 38th Ave. 37th Ave. 36th Ave. 35th Ave. Bruce Randolph Ave. 33rd Ave. Martin Luther King Boulevard 31st Ave. 38th Street 37th Street 36th Street 35th Street Downing Street Marion Street Lafayette Street Lafayette Street Marion Street Humbolt Street Franklin Street Gilpin Street Williams Street High Street Race Street St. Charles Rec Center Pepsi Curtis Park Wyman/Mitchell Elementary School Cole Middle School Wyatt-Edison School Platte River35th Street 34th Street 33rd Street 32rd Street 31st Street Figure 6.11 Districts

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38th & Blake Land Use and Urban Design Recommendation LU-3: Brighton Boulevard TOD Core Reinforce Brighton Boulevard as the most intense development corridor in the station area. Mixed use and greater building heights should be focused on the intersection of 36th and Brighton. As the gateway downtown and front door to River North, Brighton should be a place where pedestrians nd interesting shops, galleries and creative welcoming places to walk and visit. Even with tall buildings, development should have a human scale that greets the street. Building on its arts district, public art should be utilized to provide an identifying character along Brighton in the transition between the public and private realms. B) Downing as a Main Street Corridor e Central Corridor light rail line, which currently ends at 30th & Downing, will eventually be extended northward along Downing to connect with the 38th & Blake station. e Central Corridor will serve residents of the Five Points and Cole neighborhoods and could serve as a catalyst for new development, especially for parcels that are adjacent to new stops. e land use along Downing Street north of 35th Avenue is envisioned as Mixed-Use Main Street up to 3 stories to maintain neighborhood scale and character. Recommendation LU-4: Downing Mixed Use Encourage mixed-use development along Downing from 35th to Walnut Street that emphasizes Downing as a main street for the neighborhoods to access goods and services and includes residential. C) Mixed-Use Residential Inll and Redevelopment Mixed-Use Residential should extend along Blake Street in both directions from the station and on Brighton Boulevard southwest of 36th Street. Mixed-Use Residential is intended to include the adaptive reuse of existing buildings or new construction of multi-family housing. is type of development is already occurring within the station area, especially along Blake Street to the southwest, at the Rock Drill Lofts to the east of the station in Cole, and along Brighton where the Beleza project is planned. Recommendation LU-5: Residential Mixed Use Development Increase the population of residents living near transit through the adaptive reuse of existing buildings or construction of new residential buildings along Blake Street southwest of the station and to the northeast towards the Rock Drill Lofts (up to 5 stories). East of the proposed new Marion Street the height should transition to 3 stories. Mixed Use Residential should also create a residential base around the 36th Street and Brighton node (2-8 stories) and continue southwest along Brighton towards the Denargo Market development (up to 8 stories but greater heights could be possible with stepbacks and other requirements). D) Urban Residential Transition Areas To preserve the scale, massing and views of the existing stable residential sections of Curtis Park and Cole, an Urban Residential designation is recommended at 38th Avenue and Lafayette Street to transition from the Mixed-Use Residential to the north, and along the west side of Marion Street to transition the Mixed-Use Main Street designation along Downing. e Urban Residential designation encourages townhomes and other small-scale multi-family development. Recommendation LU-6: Urban Residential Transition Implement Urban Residential (up to 3 stories) at appropriate locations to provide a transition of scale and massing into the adjacent single-family neighborhoods. E) Brighton North Mixed-Use Employment e existing employment base found along Brighton Boulevard and along Larimer and Walnut streets provides jobs in close proximity to downtown with vehicular access to the interstate system. e Pepsi Company bottling facility is an example of a major employer that will remain in the area but could be improved aesthetically and operationally to contribute to a more unied and active streetscape along Brighton Boulevard and 38th Street. Recommendation LU-7: Maintain Employment Base Northeast of 38th Street Maintain employment uses along 38th Street and Brighton to the northeast, and work with Pepsi and other industrial properties along Brighton to improve building faades and redevelop surface parking. Allow other uses, including some residential, to inll as the market develops, with heights up to 3 stories. 51

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38th & Blake Land Use and Urban Design F) 37th Street Mixed-Use Arts District In recent years, artist studios in an industrial context have been growing in the vicinity of Brighton Boulevard between 36th and 38th streets. is plan recommends construction of a new 37th Street to improve mobility, access, and circulation in this area. e land use recommend for this 8-block area is Mixed-Use Employment. is designation is intended to encourage the continued employment or artists and artisans while allowing a mix of uses, including residential. LEGEND Mixed Use -TOD Core Urban Residential Station Parking Transit Station Mixed-UseEmployment Open Space and Parks Mixed Use Residential Mixed Use Main Street New Open Space and Parks Additional Stories With Step Backs P1/4 and 1/2 Mile Walk Radius 0 200400 800 Building Heights Draft 06.02.200938th and Blake Station Area Plan Brighton Blvd. Wynkoop St. Wazee St. Blake St. Walnut St. Lawrence St. Arapahoe St. Curtis St. Champa St. Stout St. Larimer St. Chestnut St.Arkins40th Ave. 39th Ave. 38th Ave. 37th Ave. 36th Ave. 35th Ave. Bruce Randolph Ave. 33rd Ave. 31st Ave. 38th Street 37th Street 36th Street 35th Street Downing Street Marion Street Lafayette Street Lafayette Street Marion Street Humbolt Street Franklin Street Gilpin Street Williams Street High Street Race Street T T T T T P P 1-5 Stories 2-8 Stories 1-8 Stories 2-8 Stories 1-3 Stories 1-5 Stories 1-3 Stories 1-3 Stories 1-3 Stories 1-5 Stories St. Charles Rec Center Pepsi Curtis Park Wyman/Mitchell Elementary School Cole Middle School Wyatt-Edison School Platte River35th Street 34th Street 33rd Street 32rd Street 31st Street Figure 6.12 Recommended Building Heights52

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38th & Blake Land Use and Urban Design 53 Recommendation LU-8: Create a 37th Street Corridor Mixed-Use Arts District Enhance the small business/arts district in River North to strengthen its identity as an arts and employment center and allow residential uses to inll and provide more vitality to the area with the creation of 37th Street, with building heights of up to 5 stories. G) Open Space and Parks Existing parks and other open space should be expanded to serve additional growth in the station area. e park and open space recommendations in this plan support the recommendations of the River North Greenway Master Plan completed by the City in 2009. Recommendation LU-9: Strengthen St. Charles Park and Recreation Center Increase the amount of publicly available open space near the St. Charles Park and Recreational Center to provide for more recreational activities and to provide a presence on Walnut Street. is could be accommodated either through expansion of the park or through publicly accessible but privately owned property. Recommendation LU-10: Share Water Quality/Open Space Site future park/open space that could also be used for water quality detention for new development along the South Platte River southwest of 35th Street and southwest of 38th Street, and to southwest of 35th Street and Wynkoop. Recommendation LU-11: Create a Station Plaza Create a small plaza on the corner of 36th Street and Blake, across the street from the station. e plaza could be used to meet open space requirements and provide retail goods or services while also improving visibility of the station from 36th Street and Walnut. Urban Design and Building Heights Based on the station area typology, Blueprint Denver and the River North Plan, the land use recommendations above, and community input, building heights for new development in the station area should follow the descriptions in Districts A-G. ese are: 2-8 stories adjacent to the station in District A; 2-8 stories centered around the 36th Street & Brighton Boulevard node in District A,; up to 3 stories along Downing Street in District B; up to 8 stories (with taller building possible) in the mixed-use residential area along Brighton Boulevard southwest of 36th Street in District C; up to 5 stories in the residential mixed-use section of District C northeast of the station; up to 3 stories in the residential mixed-use in District C southwest of the station and in the urban residential areas in District D; up to 5 stories in the mixed-use employment areas along Brighton Boulevard in Districts E and F (see Figure 6.12). Figures 6.13 and 6.14 illustrate the massing of new development within these height ranges. Because the ultimate roadway network and stormwater management solutions in the station area will have to be determined by additional studies, it is not possible for this plan to develop a build-out scenario based on future land use. e conguration and direction of streets have signcant market implications for individual properties, and the property impacts of stormwater infrastructure could be signicantly dierent depending on which approach is ultimately implemented in the station area. Resolution of these issues could result in a future plan amendment, or regulatory implementation through other means such as a General Development Plan.

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38th & Blake Land Use and Urban Design 54 Station Area Massing Draft 06.06.200938th and Blake Station Area Plan Platte River Pedestrian Bridge 36th Street 37th Street 36th Street Pedestrian Bridge Commuter Rail Station Commuter Rail Station 36th Street Pedestrian Bridge N NDowning Street Brighton Boulevard Figure 6.14 Building Massing Viewed from South Figure 6.13 Building Massing Viewed from West

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Implementation

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38th & Blake ImplementationImplementatione Implementation chapter identies action items for the purpose of accomplishing the recommendations of the 38th & Blake Station Area Plan. e chapter is divided into two sections. e rst is a set of four key recommendations (some general, some specic) that are considered to be of critical importance in order to successfully implement the remainder of the plans recommendations. e second is an implementation matrix that addresses each of the recommendations contained in this plan, and identies action items, time frames, and responsible parties. Key Recommendations ere are several key recommendations that are signicant enough to be identied as priorities due to their importance or because of time constraints. Some of these were identied earlier in the Mobility and Land Use and Urban Design chapters. Others are overarching recommendations that aect the entire station area. Recommendation K (Key)-1: Pedestrian Bridge Relocation; Opening Day Platform Segment e priority recommendation that has evolved from public outreach and analysis conducted as part of this plan is to relocate the RTD pedestrian bridge crossing of the UP Railroad from 38th Street to 36th Street. A pedestrian crossing at 36th Street would more directly connect the River North neighborhood to the transit station and would have the additional benet of connecting the Cole, Upper Larimer and Curtis Park neighborhoods to the South Platte River. A new pedestrian spine along 36th Street both north and south of the railroad tracks would reduce existing mobility barriers, resulting in a more cohesive station area with stronger redevelopment potential. Along with the above relocations, the section of the commuter rail platform built for opening day should be oriented on 36th Street rather than 38th Street. is location will provide a more direct pedestrian link for residents living in both Cole and Upper Larimer, and deter pedestrians from crossing Blake Street near the hump over the 38th Street underpass. e potential relocation of RTDs proposed park-n-Ride at 38th Street and Wynkoop to 36th Street and Wazee should also be explored. If it cannot be relocated, a pedestrian bridge should be constructed over 38th Street adjacent to the railroad tracks to allow pedestrian access to the park-n-Ride from Wazee Street. Between 36th and 38th streets, Wazee should be designed to accomodate a pedestrian path from the park-n-Ride to the 36th Street bridge to access the platform. Recommendation K-2: Next Steps Transportation Operations Study Conduct a subsequent study of the trac, circulation patterns, and street grid around the station area as part of the 38th & Blake Next Steps Transportation Operations study immediately following the adoption of this station area plan. e Next Steps study should analyze the future circulation and land use concepts proposed by this plan (including the relocation of the park-n-Ride and pedestrian bridge) to test their feasibility and determine their eects on mobility in the station area in the context of the following principles for safe station access and streets designed for multi-modal travel: through street segment and intersection design modications way, including Blake Street southwest of 35th Street tion (taking into consideration opening day needs) and identify priorities, responsible parties and partners, and potential funding sources vironmental Evaluation process to ensure safe and ecient mobility and access for all modes in relation to the light rail extensions in-street alignment, future stations, and connectivity to 38th and Blake. Recommendation K-3: Northeast Downtown Neighborhoods Plan Begin the Northeast Downtown Neighborhoods Plan immediately following the adoption of this station area plan. e plan should provide more detailed evaluation and recommendations for multi-modal operations, station locations and land uses along Downing Street. 56

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38th & Blake Implementation Recommendation K-4: Opening Day Transportation Infrastructure Improvements Pending the results of the Next Steps Transportation Operations Study, the success of collaboration with RTD to change the location of the park-n-Ride and pedestrian bridge, and any new development projects that implement the street recongurations in this plan, the City should take steps to ensure that the station area street network meets pedestrian access needs by opening day in 2015. ese measures may include temporary closures of certain street segments to vehicular trac in places where conicts with pedestrians are likely. e City has about $2 million in TOD bond funding for station area infrastructure that should be used for these purposes. e City should also pursue funding opportunities for the 36th Street pedestrian bridge regardless of whether RTD changes the EIS design. Implementation e following are implementation strategies for the station area. Each strategy includes reference to the numbered plan recommendation(s) it implements, a general timeframe and responsible parties. e recommendations are abbreviated for each section: K= Key; MO= Mobility; LU = Land Use and Urban Design; and SI = Stormwater Infrastructure. ere are three dierent implementation timeframes: immediate, short-term (by opening day for the station in 2015) and long-term. Many of the mobility recommendations must be implemented at the same time to ensure that the street network functions appropriately in the event of street closures, recongurations, intersection redesigns and directional changes. A team approach is crucial to implementation. ere are many parties involved including City departments, RTD, property owners, elected and appointed ocials, neighborhood organizations and business organizations. e table identies responsible parties so it is clear who will take the lead on each eort. Implementation and Next StepsRecommendations Implementation Strategy Timeframe Responsibility K-1: Pedestrian Bridge Relocation; Opening Day Platform Segment K-2: Next Steps Transportation Study K-3: Northeast Downtown Neighborhoods Plan K-4: Opening Day Transportation Infrastructure Improvements Opening Day Immediate Immediate Immediate to Opening Day City, RTD Public Works, RTD, Community Planning and Development Community Planning & Development Public Works, RTD, Property Owners Relocate the pedestrian bridge crossing over the railroad tracks from 38th Street to 36th Street. The phase of the platform built for opening day should be oriented towards 36th Street rather than 38th. Work with RTD on potential relocation of northside park-n-Ride or provide pedestrian access on Wazee Street. Conduct a subsequent study of the trac, circulation patterns, and street grid around the station area as part of the 38th & Blake Next Steps Transportation Operations study immediately following the adoption of this station area plan. Recommend tranportation infrastrucutre improvements and phasing. Provide Input into the Central Corridor Environmental Evaluation. Conduct the Northeast Downtown Neighborhoods Plan immediately following the adoption of this station area plan. Provide more detailed evaluation and recommendations for multi-modal operations, station locations and land use along Downing Street. Based on the results of the Next Steps Study, collaborate with RTD for station design changes, and development by property owners in the station area. Take steps to ensure pedestrian access to the station utilizing TOD bond funding and look for other funding opportunities. 57

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38th & Blake Implementation Implementation and Next StepsRecommendations Implementation Strategy Timeframe Responsibility MO-1: 38th Street, Walnut and Marion Intersection MO-2: Blake Street Bridge over 38th MO-3: 38th Street Underpass MO-4: Downing Between Walnut and Blake MO-5A: Blake Street platform access MO-5B: Convert Blake Street to two-way MO-6: 36th Street, Downing and 37th Avenue intersection MO-7A: Convert Downing Street to two-way MO-7B: Remove Lawrence Street segment MO-7C: Convert Marion Street to two-way Opening Day to Long-Term Opening Day Long-Term Opening Day Opening Day Opening Day Opening Day Opening Day to Long-Term Opening Day to Long-Term Opening Day to Long-Term Public Works Public Works Public Works Property Owners, Public Works Public Works, RTD Public Works, RTD Public Works, RTD Public Works Public Works Public Works Pending results of the Next Steps study, develop a new intersection conguration at 38th Street/Walnut/Marion to facilitate pedestrian crossings and vehicular movements and to take into account additional trac on Walnut, future widening of the 38th Street underpass and two-way trac on Marion. Until the 38th Street underpass and Blake Street hump are reconstructed, ensure pedestrian connections across Blake Street to the transit station based on Next Steps study recommendations. Reconstruct the 38th Street Underpass between Wynkoop Street and Walnut Street to provide a four-lane cross section with wide sidewalks on both sides of the street and adequate vertical clearance. Reconstruct the Blake Street Bridge to remove the hump over 38th Street. Pending the results of the Next Steps study and development plans by property owners, recongure the Downing Street segment connecting Blake Street and Walnut Street across from the station with a new 37th Street that is pedestrian friendly and perpendicular to Blake and Walnut. Pending the results of the Next Steps study and collaboration with RTD, improve the pedestrian crossing of Blake at 36th Street. Pending the results of the Next Steps study, Blake Street between 35th and Broadway should be considered for conversion from one-way to two-way. In conjunction with new development, the new street crosssection should include bike lanes, on-street parking, sidewalks and a pedestrian amenity zone. Pending the results of the Next Steps study and in collaboration with the Central Corridor EE, consider crosswalks and a trac signal to improve this primary access point between the neighborhoods and the station. If possible, re-align intersection so that 36th St. matches up with 37th Ave. across Downing. Pending results of the Next Steps study, convert Downing Street from one-way to two-way between Walnut and Lawrence Streets. Pending results of the Next Steps study, remove the diagonal portion of Lawrence Street between Downing and Marion. Pending results of the Next Steps study, convert Marion from a one-way northbound street to a two-way local street with reduced lanes and wider sidewalks between Lawrence and Walnut. 58

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38th & Blake Implementation Implementation and Next StepsRecommendations Implementation Strategy Timeframe Responsibility MO-8: Recongure other key Downing Street Intersections MO-9: 37th Avenue pedestrian treatment MO-10: 40th Avenue between 40th Street and Franklin MO-11: 40th Street and Walnut intersection MO-12: 40th Street and Blake intersection MO-13: New Brighton Boulevard cross-section MO-14: Signalize 36th and Brighton Boulevard Intersection MO-15: New 37th Street MO-16: New 39th Street and Marion Street Opening Day to Long Term Opening Day Opening Day Opening Day Opening Day Immediate to Long-Term Opening Day Long-term Long-term Public Works, RTD Public Works Public Works Public Works Public Works Property Owners, Public Works City, RTD Property Owners, Public Works, Community Planning & Development Property Owners, Public Works, Community Planning & Development Pending the results of the Next Steps study and in collaboration with the Central Corridor EE, consider physical reconguration, crosswalks and trac signals at Downing Street intersections where the grids collide to ensure safe pedestrian access and vehicular movements. Pending results of the Next Steps study, consider improvements to the pedestrian infrastructure along 37th Avenue, the main pedestrian route to the station from Cole. Ensure that sidewalks along this street are in good condition and are ADA accessible, crosswalks are provided at intersections, and that trac control measures (stop signs, etc) are adequate to meet the needs of increased numbers of pedestrians and cyclists along this route. Pending the results of the Next Steps study, close 40th Avenue segment between Blake Street & 40th Street, and Franklin & Walnut intersections to provide better pedestrian crossing at 40th Street and Blake. Pending the results of the Next Steps study, locate a trac signal at this intersection to ensure safe pedestrian movement to the station across Walnut street from Cole. Pending the completion of recommendations MO-10 and MO-11, build sidewalks and crosswalks at this intersection to ensure pedestrian access from the proposed Blake Street park-n-Ride to the station, and from the neighborhood to the station. The Brighton Boulevard Urban Design Guidelines study will propose intermediate and ultimate cross-sections between 31st and 44th. The City should collaborate with property owners to assist with implementation and funding. Pending the results of the Next Steps study and collaboration with RTD, provide a new trac signal on Brighton Boulevard at 36th Street to provide pedestrian connectivity to the South Platte River Greenway. In conjunction with new development, improve connectivity by introducing a new street at 37th Street from Wazee to the South Platte River. In conjuntion with new development, introduce a new street at 39th Street between the existing Lafayette and Blake streets, with a new segment of Marion Street between the new 39th Street and 40th Street. The resulting smaller blocks would be more appropriate for TOD and promote better pedestrian access to the station and through the area. 59

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38th & Blake Implementation Implementation and Next StepsRecommendations Implementation Strategy Timeframe Responsibility MO-17: Extend Wynkoop and Wazee and create new 33rd, 34th, 41st, 42nd, and 43rd Streets MO-18: Maintain vehicular through-route parallel to Brighton between 38th Street and downtown MO-19: Second pedestrian bridge across railroad tracks MO-20: Central Corridor Station MO-21: Bus Routing and Stops MO-22: Lighting and Amenities MO-23: Overhead Power Lines SI-1: Stormwater management study Long-term Long-term Long-term Immediate Opening Day Opening Day to Long-Term Opening Day to Long-Term Begin Immediately with Long Term Implementation Property Owners, Public Works, Parks & Recreation, Community Planning & Development Property Owners, Public Works, Parks & Recreation, Community Planning & Development Public Works RTD, Community Planning & Development, Public Works RTD, Community Planning & Development, Public Works Public Works, Xcel, Property Owners Public Works, Xcel, Property Owners City In conjuction with new development, extend Wynkoop Street from its current public terminus northwest of 40th Street all the way to 43rd Street and add new streets at 41st, 42nd and 43rd connecting Wynkoop to Brighton. Also in conjunction with new development, extend Wynkoop and Wazee southwest of 35th Street and add new streets at 33rd and 34th connecting Wynkoop to Brighton In conjunction with new development occurs on the east bank of the South Platte River between 31st and 35th streets, open space and onsite detention is expected to be located adjacent to the river consistent with the recommendations of the River North Greenway Master Plan. If these developments and infrastructure improvements result in a vacation of a segment of Arkins Court, a vehicular through-route parallel to Brighton should be maintained by extending Delgany Street southwest of 35th Street. An additional pedestrian bridge at 31st Street or 33rd Street over the railroad tracks would provide access between River North and the Denargo Market redevelopment to Upper Larimer and Curtis Park. This additional crossing is less of a priority than the 36th Street crossing, but would be benecial for residents on both sides of the railroad tracks. The Central Corridor Extension Environmental Evaluation should evaluate the engineering feasibility, environmental impacts and mitigations of a station along 36th Street between Walnut and Blake in lieu of the proposed platform adjacent to the commuter rail station. This reconguration would promote TOD without signicantly increasing walking distance for transit users. Coordinate bus routing and stops with RTD based on the recommended parking location and platform access from 36th Street. This is especially important for the route 7 and 44 buses, which approach the station from the south. Facilitate bus transfer activity from North Metro Corridor Station. Work closely with Xcel to provide street lighting on the streets with the highest priority for pedestrian enhancements, including but not limited to 37th Avenue, 36th Street, Blake from 38th to 36th, and Walnut from 38th to 36th Streets. Work closely with Xcel to identify pedestrian priority corridors where overhead power lines should be undergrounded around the station area. Prioritize primary pedestrian routes for these improvements, including but not limited to 36th Street, 37th Avenue, and Blake Street. Coordinate with the Citys Public Works Department to determine whether annual fund dollars to bury utilities may be utilized. Conduct a review of completed stormwater studies to identify solutions for stormwater issues within the station area. Further study of incremental shared solutions for station area with cost estimates and nding options including properties in both basins. 60

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38th & Blake Implementation Implementation and Next StepsRecommendations Implementation Strategy Timeframe Responsibility SI-2: Collaborative Working Group LU-1: Station Area Typology LU-2: Blake Street TOD Core LU-3: Brighton Boulevard TOD Core LU-4: Downing Main Street LU-5: Residential mixed use development LU-6: Urban Residential transition LU-7: Maintain employment uses on Brighton northeast of 38th Street LU-8: 37th Street Arts District LU-9: St. Charles Park & Rec Center Immediate Immediate Immediate to Long-term Immediate to Long-term Immediate to Long-Term Immediate to Long-Term Immediate to Long-Term Immediate to Long-Term Immediate to Long-Term Long-Term Property Owners, Public Works, Community Planning & Development Community Planning & Development Community Planning & Development, Private Developers Community Planning & Development, Private Developers Community Planning & Development, Private Developers Community Planning & Development, Private Developers Community Planning & Development, Private Developers Community Planning & Development, Private Developers Property Owners, Public Works, Community Planning & Development Parks & Rec, Property Owners, Public Works, Community Planning & Development Form a collaborative working team between the City and landowners/ developers to develop sub-regional solutions that aggregate the 10-year on-site detention and water quality needs. Revise the station area typology from major urban center to urban neighborhood in the Transit Oriented Development Strategic Plan to match the development opportunities of the revised station location (38th & Blake) and the existing neighborhood context, but note the dierent context of the Brighton Boulevard corridors more intense development with a greater mixture of commercial and employment uses and taller building heights. Provide a mix of uses around the station that supports the neighborhood and the station. Create a front door to the station along Blake Street through station-supportive rst-oor retail, as well as a mix of oce and residential. Reinforce Brighton Boulevard as the most intense development corridor in the station area. Residential uses and greater building heights (2-8 stories) should be focused on the intersection of 36th and Brighton. Encourage mixed use development along Downing from 35th Avenue to Walnut Street that creates a main street for the neighborhoods to access goods and services and includes residential. Increase the population of residents living near transit through the adaptive reuse of existing buildings or construction of new residential buildings along Blake Street, around the Rock Drill Lofts, and on Brighton Boulevard southwest of 36th Street. Encourage Mixed Use Residential along Brighton Boulevard to build a residential base around the 36th Street node and to tie into the Denargo Market development planned southwest of 31st Street. Maximum building heights in this area should be higher than the building heights southeast of the railroad tracks. Implement the urban residential land use at appropriate locations to provide a transition of scale and massing into the adjacent single-family neighborhoods. Maintain employment uses along 38th Street and Brighton and to the northeast, and work with Pepsi and other industrial properties along Brighton to improve building faades and redevelop surface parking. Allow other uses, including some residential, to inll as the market develops. Enhance the small business/arts district in River North to strengthen its identity as an arts and employment center and allow residential uses to inll and provide more vitality to the area with the creation of 37th Street. Increase the amount of publicly available open space near the St. Charles Park and Recreational Center to provide for more recreational activities and to provide a presence on Walnut Street. This could be accommodated either through expansion of the park or through publicly accessible, but privately owned, property. 61

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38th & Blake Implementation 62 Implementation and Next StepsRecommendations Implementation Strategy Timeframe Responsibility LU-10: Share water quality/ open space facilities LU-11: Station Plaza Long-Term Immediate to Long-Term Parks & Rec, Property Owners, Public Works, Community Planning & Development Property Owners, Community Planning & Development Site future park/open space that could also be used for water quality detention for new development along the South Platte River southwest of 35th Street and southwest of 38th Street, and to the southwest of 35th Street and Wynkoop. In conjunction with new development, create a small plaza on the eastern corner of 36th Street and Blake to provide a public gathering place, increase visibility of the station, and promote station area retail and TOD.

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Community and Economic Conditions

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38th & Blake Community and Economic ConditionsCommunity and Economic ConditionsStudy Area Location e 38th & Blake Station is a new transit station on the East Corridor commuter rail line that will be added as part of the FasTracks program. It will also be the future northern terminus of the Central Corridor light rail line, which currently ends at 30th and Downing. e station platform will be located on Blake Street and at ultimate buildout will extend 800 feet from 36th Street to 38th Street. e station area includes all land within a half-mile radius of the platform. Population and Housing Characteristics Station Area Characteristics According to 2008 data from the City of Denver, there are 1,167 housing units with a population of 3,913 residents within a half mile radius of the station. e average household size is relatively high at 3.58 persons per household (see Figure 7.1). e station areas housing stock is more or less evenly split between multi-family low rise and single-family units, which together account for 92% of the housing units within the study area. Multi-family high rise and mixed-use residential account for the remainder of the areas housing stock (see Figure 7.2) Neighborhood (NSA) Characteristics Portions of three neighborhood statistical areas (NSAs) fall within the study area: Five Points, Cole, and Elyria-Swansea. However, within the study area boundaries, only Five Points and Cole have residential uses. erefore, the neighborhoodlevel population and housing data presented here is limited to the Five Points and Cole NSAs. Between 1950 and 1990, the population of Five Points declined by approximately two-thirds. A subsequent rebound has restored population levels to about half of what they were in 1950. During this same time period, Cole experienced its own cycle of population decline and rebound. Between 1960 and 1990, the population of Cole declined by almost 50%, but has since experienced steady growth and today the neighborhoods population is close to its pre-decline levels (see Figure 7.3). e population of Cole is younger than that of Five Points, with nearly a third of all Cole residents (32%) being younger than 18, compared to 25% in Five Points. ese sizable populations of youth, combined with the senior citizen population (8% in both neighborhoods) indicate that the high level of transit service that is present in this area is Population and Housing Table 38th and Blake Station Area (2008) Total Residential Population* 3,913 Residential Units 1,167 Vacancy Rate 6% # Persons Per Household 3.58 % Housing Units Owner Occupied 44%* Does not include any Group Quarters Figure 7.1 Population and Housing Table 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Housing Distribution by Unit Type (2008) 38th and Blake Station AreaHousing Type Number of Units Multi-Family High RiseMulti-Family Low RiseSingle-Family Mixed Use 47 Units 522 Units 548 Units 50 Units Figure 7.2 Housing Type Distribution Total Population (1940 2007) 6,041 12,7300 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 19401950196019701980199020002007Year Total Population Cole Five PointsSource: U.S. Census (1950 2000); Denver CPD (2007)Total Population (1940 2007) Cole and Five Points NeighborhoodsFigure 7.3 Total Population64

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38th & Blake Community and Economic Conditions justied, as signicant proportions of the population in both neighborhoods are outside of the prime driving age (18-64) (see Figure 7.4). Personal Vehicle Availability Households within the station area have some of the lowest rates of vehicle availability than anywhere in Colorado. Nearly 1 in 4 Cole households, (24.5%) and more than 1 in 5 Five Points households (20.5%) lack access to a vehicle, according to the 2000 Census. By comparison, the regional average of households without vehicle access is 7.3%, and the statewide gure is 6.3% (see Figure 7.5). Housing Although the population of Five Points hit its low point in 1990 and began to rebound, the total number of housing units within the neighborhood continued to decline until 2000. e subsequent increase in the number of housing units since 2000 is evidence of a new trend of residential reinvestment within Five Points. e number of housing units in Cole, however, has remained relatively constant since 1950 despite the fact that the population of the neighborhood varied by as much as 50% during that time (see Figure 7.6). is indicates that the repopulation of Cole is likely due to the reoccupation of existing units, as compared to Five Points, where recent population gains are largely the result of new construction and adaptive reuse. e median household income levels of Cole and Five Points are comparable at $40,457 and $42,743, respectively (see Figure 7.7). e income levels for both neighborhoods are signicantly less than Denver, which has a median household income level of $54,400. In addition to having overall lower income levels than Denver, both neighborhoods have a signicant number of households that earn less than $15,000 a year. In Cole, there are more households earning less than $15,000 a year than there are in any other income category. In Five Points, the <$15,000 category is the second largest, after the $50,000-$75,000 group. Neighborhood Age Distribution (2007) 38th and Blake Neighborhoods 22% 60% 8% 10% 18% 67% 8% 7% Cole Five Points 65+ 18 to 64 5 to 17 < 5 Figure 7.4 Neighborhood Age Distribution Figure 7.6 Housing Units Figure 7.5 Households Without Vehicle Access Percentage of Households Without Vehicle AccessSource: 2000 Census 0%5%10%15%20%25% Colorado Denver Metro Five Points Cole6.4% 7.3% 20.4% 24.5% Household Income (2007 estimate) Five Points and Cole NeighborhoodsIncome Range Number of Households 0 100 200 300 400 500 < $15,000 $15,000 $25,000 $25,000 $35,000 $35,000 $50,000 $50,000 $75,000 $75,000 $100,000 $100,000 $150,000 $150,000 $250,000 $250,000 $500,000 > $500,000Figure 7.7 Household Income65 Total Housing Units (1950 2007) Cole and Five Points Neighborhoods 1,794 5,080 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 1950196019701980199020002001200220032004200520062007 Year Total Housing Units Cole Five Points

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38th & Blake Community and Economic Conditions Transportation e study area is well-served by public transit. ere are 34 RTD bus stops within the study area that are serviced by four local routes (7, 38, 44, and 48), and two express routes (47x and 48x) (see Figure 7.8). ere are also several bicycle facilities within the study area. e Platte River Trail cuts through the study area along the eastern bank of the South Platte River. Currently, the only access point to the trail within the study area is at 38th Street. Figure 7.8 Bus Routes and Stops66

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38th & Blake Community and Economic Conditions In addition to the Platte River Trail, there are three Denver Bike Routes within the study area (see Figure 7.9): D-4, D-9, and D-11. e D-9 is currently an incomplete route, as the portion of the bikeway that travels through the 38th Street underpass is identied as a future connection on the Denver Bikeways Map. e connection today is possible but poor. Figure 7.9 Bike Routes67

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38th & Blake Community and Economic Conditions Existing Zoning District Descriptions e following are descriptions of the existing zoning districts in the 38th and Blake station area. R-2 Multi-Unit Dwellings, Low Density: Typically duplexes and triplexes. Home occupations are allowed by permit. Minimum of 6,000 square feet of land required for each duplex structure with an additional 3,000 square feet required for every unit over 2. Density = 14.5 dwelling units/acre. R-2-A Multi-Unit Dwellings, Medium Density: 2,000 square feet of land required for each dwelling unit unless site plan is submitted under planned building group (PBG) provisions, in which case 1,500 square feet of land is required for each unit. Home occupations are allowed by permit. R-3 Multi-Unit Dwellings, High Density: Building size is controlled by bulk standards, o -street parking and open space requirements. Building oor area cannot exceed 3 times the site area. Maximum density is determined by the size of the units and the factors mentioned above. R-4 Multi-Unit Dwellings and/or Oces, High Density: e purpose of this district is to provide a location for highdensity residential and intensive oce development. Building size is controlled by bulk standards, o street parking and open space requirements. Allows hotel or motel uses and limited accessory retail shopping. Building oor cannot exceed four times the site area. R-5 Institutional District: Allows colleges, schools, churches and other institutional uses. Maximum lot coverage is 60% of the zone lot. Building height is controlled by bulk standards. R-MU-20 Residential Mixed-Use District: e R-MU20 district is primarily residential, allowing either single or multiple-unit dwellings. Along heavily traveled streets, development may be either residential or mixed-use, combining residential with neighborhood-serving retail, oce, or service uses. No maximum residential density is prescribed; instead, the scale of buildings is determined by bulk plane, maximum heights, setbacks, open space requirements, and parking ratios. e intent is to encourage a full range of housing types, including aordable housing. R-MU-30 Residential Mixed-Use District: e R-MU-30 district is a primarily residential district allowing higher density multiple unit dwellings of a density appropriate to the center city and other activity centers such as light rail transit stations. Supporting commercial development, such as consumer retail and service uses and small-scale oce uses, is encouraged to create a truly mixed-use environment. No maximum residential density is prescribed. Instead, maximum height, setbacks, and open space requirements determine the scale of buildings. B-1 Limited Oce District: is district provides oce space for services related to dental and medical care and for oce-type services, often for residents of nearby residential areas. e district is characterized by a low-volume of direct daily customer contact. is district is characteristically small in size and is situated near major hospitals or between large business areas and residential areas. e district regulations establish standards comparable to those of the low density residential districts, resulting in similar building bulk and retaining the low concentration of pedestrian and vehicular trac. Building height is controlled by bulk standards and open space requirements. Building oor area cannot exceed the site area. B-2 Neighborhood Business District: is district provides for the retailing of commodities classed as convenience goods, and the furnishing of certain personal services, to satisfy the daily and weekly household or personal needs of the residents of surrounding residential neighborhoods. is district is located on collector streets, characteristically is small in size, usually is entirely surrounded by residential districts and is located at a convenient walking distance from the residential districts it is designed to serve. e district regulations establish standards comparable to those of low density residential districts, resulting in similar standards. Building oor area cannot exceed the site area. B-4 General Business District: is district is intended to provide for and encourage appropriate commercial uses adjacent to arterial streets, which are normally transit routes. Uses include a wide variety of consumer and business services and retail establishments that serve other business activities, and local transit-dependent residents within the district as well as residents throughout the city. e regulations generally allow a moderate intensity of use and concentration for the purpose of achieving compatibility between the wide varieties of uses permitted in the district. Building height is not controlled by bulk standards unless there is a property line to property line abutment with a residential use. Building oor area cannot exceed twice the site area. 68

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38th & Blake Community and Economic Conditions C-MU-10 Commercial Mixed-Use District: e C-MU-10 district is the most restrictive of the commercial mixed-use districts, with the shortest list of allowed uses. It includes commercial uses appropriate for high-visibility locations such as employment centers and the intersections of arterial streets. e purpose of the district is to concentrate higher intensity commercial uses, spatially dene streets, encourage higher site standards, and create a more attractive pedestrian environment. Uses incompatible with this purpose, such as auto-related uses, industrial uses, and single unit dwellings, are not allowed. Although residential uses are permitted in the C-MU districts, it is expected that residential uses shall be responsible for buering themselves from nonresidential uses that may locate on adjacent property. Basic maximum gross oor area is equal to two (2) times the area of the zone lot. C-MU-20 Commercial Mixed-Use District: e CMU-20 district provides for a mix of commercial, residential, and industrial uses along or near arterials or other high trac streets. Site and building design is to be of a quality that enhances the character of the streets. A wide range of commercial and residential uses are allowed, along with limited industrial uses. Although residential uses are permitted in the C-MU districts, it is expected that they shall be responsible for buering themselves from nonresidential uses that may locate on adjacent property. Maximum gross oor area is equal to one times the area of the zone lot. C-MU-30 Commercial Mixed-Use District: e C-MU-30 district provides for a wide range of commercial, oce, retail, industrial, and residential uses that allow property owners the exibility to respond to the long-term evolution of development trends. Although residential uses are permitted in the C-MU districts, it is expected that residential uses shall be responsible for buering themselves from nonresidential uses that may locate on adjacent property. Maximum gross oor area is equal to one (1) times the area of the zone lot. I-0 Light Industrial/Oce District: is district is intended to be an employment area containing oces, and light industrial uses which are generally compatible with residential uses. I-0 zoned areas are designed to serve as a buer between residential areas and more intensive industrial areas. Bulk plane, setback and landscaping standards apply in this district. Building oor area cannot exceed 50% of the site area; however, oce oor area may equal site area. Some uses are conditional uses. I-1 General Industrial District: is district is intended to be an employment area containing industrial uses which are generally more intensive than those permitted in the I-0 zone. Bulk plane, setback and landscape standards apply in this district. Building oor area cannot exceed twice the site area. Some uses are conditional uses. I-2 Heavy Industrial District: is district is intended to be an employment area containing uses which are generally more intensive than that permitted in either of the other two industrial zones. Bulk plane, setback and landscape standards apply in this district. Building area cannot exceed twice the site area. Some uses are conditional uses. PUD Planned Unit Development District: e PUD district is an alternative to conventional land use regulations, combining use, density and site plan considerations into a single process. e PUD district is specically intended to encourage diversication in the use of land and exibility in site design with respect to spacing, heights and setbacks of buildings, densities, open space and circulation elements; innovation in residential development that results in the availability of adequate housing opportunities for varying income levels; more ecient use of land and energy through smaller utility and circulation networks; pedestrian considerations; and development patterns in harmony with nearby areas and with the goals and objectives of the comprehensive plan for the city. Economic Opportunity FasTracks promises to bring the Denver region an unprecedented opportunity to promote and facilitate transit-oriented, mixed-use residential and commercial development. While the amount, type and mix of uses within the transit station area and corridor inuences market potential, the presence of undeveloped and underutilized land can be a source of great economic opportunity. Generally speaking, prospects for redevelopment are stronger when station areas feature: land hands fore requiring less land assembly to facilitate redevelopment 69

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38th & Blake Community and Economic Conditions Station Area Market In 2006, the City and County of Denver, Regional Transportation District, Metro Denver Economic Development Corporation, and Denver Regional Council of Governments hired a consultant team to develop a market study to assess the regional and station-specic potential for TOD as part of FasTracks. e team, selected through a competitive process, was led by Basile Baumann Prost Cole & Associates (BBPC) of Annapolis, Maryland in association with ArLand Land Use Economics of Denver, Colorado. Work on the study began in 2007, and was completed in 2008. e goals of the market study were to: At the time when the market study was conducted, the 40th and 40th Station had not yet been relocated to 38th & Blake. As a result, the study included assumptions about the redevelopment of the UPRRs TOFC facility, which was expected to have a remnant of about 20 acres not needed by RTD which were proposed for mixed-use redevelopment. Since these conditions are no longer the case for the station, its development typology has been changed from a major urban center to an urban neighborhood station area, with a more intense mixture of uses along the Brighton Boulevard corridor. Some of the ndings of the 40th & 40th TOD market study that are still relevant for the conditions at 38th & Blake include the following strengths and opportunities: Stapleton, DIA & Downtown ment potential and redevelopment tion of workforce and market rate) local residents ative work spaces Challenges and constraints to TOD found by the market study that remain valid at 38th & Blake include: sites critical mass of employment trac congestion at intersections must leave their neighborhood to meet their basic needs) plications for both architecture and infrastructure location e TOD market studys evaluation of existing conditions identied capacity for up to 500,000 new square feet of residential development (approximately 530 dwelling units); 110,000 square feet of new oce development, and 160,000 square feet of new retail development. However, these development opportunities could be enhanced by continued redevelopment in the River North area. 70

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38th & Blake Community and Economic Conditions Economic Strategies e realization of TOD will require a combination of near and long term eorts and the use of best practices and innovative strategies. e city should continue to use all available resources and contacts in the TOD eld at the national level to identify solutions to challenges as they emerge. An ongoing regional dialogue is critical to address challenges faced by multiple jurisdictions and the challenges inherent in implementation where station areas straddle jurisdictional boundaries. e City should continue its communication with regional entities (e.g. Denver Regional Council of Governments, Urban Land Institute, RTD) and surrounding jurisdictions to investigate regional approaches to shared obstacles. Implementation will be most eective if carried out under a broad framework that establishes strategies to advance TOD at the system level. ese system-wide strategies will in turn support individual eorts undertaken at the corridor and station area levels. Participating actors in the implementation of TOD include transit agencies, local jurisdictions, and developers. Under Denvers TOD Initiative, the Oce of Economic Developments is partnering with the Community Planning & Development Department to nd opportunities to strengthen and grow local business districts and preserve and create new workforce housing around Denvers existing and planned transit stations. e City & County of Denver presently oers a broad array of programs that could be used to eectuate transit-supportive development. Rather than providing an exhaustive list of programs already available in Denver, the following are key existing programs that could be focused or expanded as well as innovative strategies not currently used in Denver that could help facilitate positive reinvestment in the 38th & Blake Station area. Regulations, guidelines and development Memorandums of Understanding: Formalizing standards for transittions and ordinances, guidelines, or memorandum of development that will support transit service Direct and indirect nancial incentives: In addition to direct nancial incentives to facilitate transit-oriented development, regulations can provide a number of indirect nancial incentives. Indirect incentives often used to facilitate development include exible zoning provisions and density bonuses, while direct incentives include reduced development fees, expedited development review, and team inspections to streamline and reduce the total costs of the review and permitting process. Financing/Funding methods: Transit-oriented development often occurs as inll development in established areas or through redevelopment of sometimes contaminated sites. In these types of developments, the level of infrastructure required may include extensive reconstruction of the street network (or introduction of new streets), installation of structured parking, addition of pedestrian enhancements and public plazas, and stormwater infrastructure. Obtaining nancing and/or funding for these critical infrastructure enhancements can be a key challenge in eectuating transit oriented development. e success of future expansion eorts in the 38th & Blake Station Area is partly contingent on the investment in improved pedestrian and transportation linkages particularly between the station and the Brighton corridor. Small Business and Technical Assistance: Community members in many of the selected Denver station areas have cited a desire for local entrepreneurship opportunities and jobs within their station areas. Small businesses can be encouraged through multiple methods, including the Main Street Program approach, business incubation, and small business support programs (including loans and technical assistance). Phasing Strategies Many communities have used phasing strategies to address the lag time that often occurs between transit service introduction and transit oriented development realization. Such strategies can help establish supportive conditions in the near-term to set the stage for future development that is supportive of transit at the 38th & Blake Station. Land Banking & Assembly Methods: Realization of transit-oriented development often requires assembly of various properties owned by dierent property owners and/ or banking of land until transit service becomes operable or market conditions support the level of desired mixed-use development. Several models for land banking and assembly were presented above, including: transit authority/local government acquisition, the equity investment approach (a public-private partnership model), and special legislation. 71

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38th & Blake Community and Economic Conditions Zoning: Regulations play an important role in determining what uses will be allowed within station areas. Once market conditions support TOD, zoning may be amended to provide for the full density desired within station areas. Zoning can also be used to provide incentives and/or eliminate barriers to many of the recommendations in this plan. Infrastructure Improvements, Special Assessments & Tax Incentives: As a pre-development phase, public entities working alone or in partnership with developers may undertake infrastructure improvement projects such as parking facilities, parks, streetscapes, pedestrian and bicycle enhancements, road reconstruction and extension, park beautication and signage. e purpose of such projects is to set the stage for and encourage transit supportive development. ese activities can also provide early marketing of the station areas identity to future prospective residents, employees and visitors. To fund infrastructure investments, a special assessment district may be formed (either through a charter district or statutory district in Denvers case) in the pre-development phase. Alternatively, tax incentive programs such as tax increment nancing, tax abatements, or payment in lieu of taxes may be used to bolster developers resources for funding infrastructure. Joint Development, Revenue Sharing & Cost Sharing: In station areas where joint development is an option, the landowner (often the transit authority) can enter into revenue or cost sharing arrangements with the private sector in order to either secure a source of revenue for improvements or divide the cost of infrastructure construction and maintenance. Types of revenue sharing arrangements include land leases, air rights development, and special assessment districts. Cost sharing arrangements can include sharing of construction expenses and density bonuses offered in exchange for infrastructure construction. 72