Citation
Civic Center District plan, 2005

Material Information

Title:
Civic Center District plan, 2005
Creator:
Department of Parks and Recreation, City and County of Denver
Place of Publication:
Denver, CO
Publisher:
City and County of Denver
Publication Date:
Language:
English

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
City planning
Civic Center (Denver, Colo.)
Spatial Coverage:
Denver -- Civic Center

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Source Institution:
Auraria Library
Holding Location:
Auraria Library
Rights Management:
Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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APR! 2005


TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. Executive Summary and Vision Plan........................... 1
II. Purpose and Need............................................7
Need for the District Plan .................................. 8
Purpose for the District Plan................................ 8
Relationship to the Denver Comprehensive Plan ...............10
Planning Process.............................................14
III. Existing Conditions and Issues ...........................17
Study Area...................................................18
Existing Conditions .........................................20
Existing Regulations ........................................26
Existing Issues..............................................31
A Note on Terms..............................................32
IV. History of Civic Center ..................................33
History......................................................34
V. Vision and Goals .........................................39
Goals and Principles ........................................42
VI. Land Use and Economic Development.........................45
A. Civic Center District Boundaries ........................46
B. Land Use Goals & Recommendations from Existing Plans.....48
C. Land Use Goals for the Civic Center District.............51
I). Recommended Land Use Scenario Full Build Out.........53
E. Market and Economic Analysis Findings ...................62
F. Land Use Implementation..................................63


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
VII. Urban Design and Architecture..............................67
A. Goals .....................................................68
B. Urban Design ..............................................69
1. Urban Form .............................................69
2. Building Setbacks and Stepbacks in the Core ............76
3. Streetscape in the Core.................................77
4. Streetscape in the Transition Area......................79
5. Plazas..................................................80
6. Open Space..............................................82
7. Wayfinding and Signage .................................83
8. Public Art..............................................84
9. Green Design / Healthy Buildings........................85
10. Safety & Security .....................................88
C. Comply with Existing Regulations.............................91
D. Architecture in the Core ....................................93
1. The Civic Axis..........................................93
2. The Cultural Axis.......................................95
3. Private Development.....................................96
4. Parking Structures .....................................97
E. Architecture in the Transition Area..........................98
1. Civic Buildings.........................................98
2. Private Development.....................................99
3. Parking Structures .....................................99
F. Urban Design Implementation..................................100
n


TABLE OF CONTENTS
VII. Transportation............................................105
A. Goals....................................................106
B. Street System ...........................................107
1. Pedestrian Network and Bicycle Circulation ............107
2. Roads .................................................Ill
C. Parking..................................................117
I). Transit and Civic Center Station Guiding Principles ....121
1. Downtown Transit Circulator ...........................121
2. Civic Center Station ..................................122
3. Local Bus Service .....................................123
E. Transportation Implementation............................124
IX. Parks and Parkways .......................................129
A. Goals....................................................130
B. Civic Spaces ............................................131
C. Civic Center Master Plan ................................133
I). Parkways, Boulevards and Gateway Park...................137
E. Parks and Parkways Implementation .......................138
X. Implementation Plan.......................................141
A. Implementation Strategies ...............................142
B. Implementation Projects..................................146
XI. Acknowledgements..........................................157
Elected Officials
Planning Board
Mayors Cabinet
Interagency Plan Review Team
Project Team
Project Team Consultants
in


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
XII. Appendices ..........................................A-l
A. Appendix A. Relationship to the Comprehensive Plan ..A-3
B. Appendix B. Public Process Summaries.................A-13
1. Summary of Design Charrette, August 28, 2004
2. Summary of Public Open House, December 2, 2004
C. Appendix C. Potentially Significant and Historic Buildings .A-19
1. Summary
D. Appendix D. Land Use and Development................A-23
1. Land Use Alternatives
2. Alternative A The Minimalist Alternative
3. Alternative B The Full Build-Out Alternative
4. Alternative C The Partial Build-Out Alternative
E. Appendix E. Economic Analysis...........................A-65
1. Market Overview
2. Economic Impacts
3. City and County Revenue Impacts
F. Appendix F. Transportation Modeling and Evaluation .....A-79
1. Assumptions/Issues/Goals
2. Streets Systems Alternatives and Preliminary Recommendations
3. Results
4. Simulation Analysis Results
G. Appendix G. Parking Analysis ............................A-97
1. Introduction and Current Issues
2. Goals/Objectives
3. Alternatives Considered
4. Alternatives Analysis
5. Parking Demand for Special Events
6. Quantification of Parking Demand
7. Policy Recommendations
H. Appendix H. Source Notes and Bibliography...............A-105
IV


TABLE OF CONTENTS
W LIST OF MAPS, FIGURES AND ILLUSTRATIONS
Maps
Vision Plan.......................................................... 2
Context Diagram...................................................... 3
Study Area and Boundaries .......................................... 18
Land Use.............................................................20
Parcel Ownership.....................................................21
Public Art and Monuments.............................................24
Parks and Parkways...................................................25
Historic Districts and Landmark Structures ..........................26
Height Restrictions and View Plane...................................27
Current Zoning Map...................................................29
Early Plans for Civic Center.........................................34
Art Commission Vision for Civic Center ..............................35
Civic Center Design by Edward Bennett ...............................36
1924 DeBoer Plan ....................................................37
District Boundaries .................................................46
Land Use Figure Ground ..............................................54
U.L.I. Justice Center Recommendation.................................56
Context Diagram......................................................68
Urban Form Diagram...................................................69
Vision Plan .........................................................70
Building Setback and Stepback Diagram................................76
Pedestrian Lighting .................................................78
Security Zones Diagram.............................................. 88
Pedestrian Circulation Diagram......................................108
Transportation Plan ................................................110
Transportation Street Cross-Sections ...............................114
Existing and Proposed Parking Demand Generators.....................117
Parks and Parkways of the Civic Center District.....................131
Civic Center Framework Diagram .....................................134
1917 Edward Bennett Plan............................................135
Figures
Figure A Supply and Demand for City Facilities ...................57
v


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ANU
VISION PLAN
1


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND VISION PLAN
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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ANU VISION PLAN
Civic Center is one of Colorado's and Denver's most symbolic places. Known as one of
the most complete and intact examples of a City Beautiful Era civic center in the country,
Civic Center is Denver's great legacy. The historic, cultural and civic significance of the pub-
lic buildings is of tremendous importance to the citizens of the state and city. Its open space,
landscape and architecture create an inviting and dignified environment for major government
and cultural functions.
The Civic Center District Plan provides a framework for land use, urban design, transporta-
tion and parks, consistent with the general policy and guidelines of the Denver Comprehensive
Plan. The plan provides a 30 year vision for the government complex, which is a defined pub-
lic campus with permeable borders that link it to the surrounding urban activity centers.
Connections to the adjacent mixed use residential neighborhood and the central business dis-
trict are envisioned to be strong, safe and comfortable.
The District is defined by two significant urban forms: a Civic Axis that connects the State
Capitol west to Speer Boulevard, and a Cultural Axis that connects Civic Center Park to the
cultural facilities on Acoma Street. These two axes provide the framework for the Core of the
government complex. The Civic Axis is framed and defined by Colfax and 14th Avenues,
which are envisioned as grand public avenues.
Context Diagram
Left: Vision Plan
3


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND VISION PLAN
W KEY RECOMMENDATIONS
1. Framework for Public Facilities
b Provide a framework for future expansion for public facilities within the Civic Center
District and define how the edges of the government complex can best integrate into
and reinforce the strengths of adjacent neighborhoods through use, design,
programming and transit.
Core
The Core includes the Civic Axis from Grant Street to Speer Boulevard, between
Colfax and 14th Avenues, and the Cultural Axis along Acoma Street through Civic
Center Park to 12th Avenue. The Core contains large scale, monumental, visitor-active
government facilities, including administrative, legislative and judicial functions. It is
distinguished by signature architecture, deep building setbacks, formal streetscape, and
ceremonial open space.
Transition Area
The blocks immediately adjacent to the Core transition in land use and urban design to
the adjacent neighborhoods. The Transition Area contains government buildings, but
they are generally smaller scale, less monumental and less visitor active. The Transition
Area contains private development on the same blocks as public uses. The public facil-
ities fit into the adjacent context with similar scale, building placement, open space and
ground-floor activity as the neighborhoods. The Transition Area contains a mixture of
residential, office and retail uses.


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
2. Grand Avenues
I Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue are envisioned as grand avenues that connect Civic
Center to Speer Boulevard, framing and defining the Civic Axis. Plan recommend-
tions include geometric and operational changes to balance the needs of vehicles,
transit, pedestrians and bicyclists within a high quality urban environment.
3. Civic Center Park
I Civic Center Park is expected to continue as the centerpiece of the district. The 30 year
vision also anticipates the extension of the green infrastructure through tree-lined
avenues, smaller-scaled plazas and a Gateway Park to anchor the Civic Axis at Speer
Boulevard.
Implementation of the plan is divided into short-term (2005-2010), mid-term (2010-1017)
and long-term (2017-2035) actions. Implementation strategies are based on Blueprint Denver's
description of regulatory, investment and partnership tools.
4. Implcmcntatinn Prinritics
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Design and install a pedestrian wayfinding system to enhance pedestrian routes, direct
visitors to the Civic Center District and the cultural facilities, and to supplement the
existing vehicular and downtown Denver wayfinding system.
Enhance the pedestrian connection between the Civic Center District and the 16th
Street Mall along the Cultural Axis.
Design the proposed Justice Center to continue the legacy of inspired urban design and
signature architecture, and to continue the Civic Axis of the Core to the west.
Foster opportunities for enhancing the sense of place and the Civic Center Districts
identity as the Core develops.
Prioritize exploration of developing the gateway feature at Speer Boulevard.
Denver Public Library
5


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND VISION PLAN
6


PURPOSE AND NEED


PURPOSE AND NEED
The State Capitol from the Greek Theatre
W NEED FOR THE DISTRICT PLAN
In 2002, the City and County of Denver purchased the Rocky Mountain News property at
100 Gene Amole Way as a potential site for a new Justice Center complex. In 2004, the Urban
Land Institute reviewed the site acquisition and program requirements, endorsed the site and
recommended that the City acquire an additional city block for the Justice Center. The pro-
posed Justice Center raised questions about the specific influence of current government facili-
ties on the area, the potential for other new or expanded city or cultural facilities, and the loca-
tion, design and cumulative impacts-for both good and ill-that occur in the Civic Center. The
District Plan is an important part of understanding the opportunities and challenges of the pro-
posed Denver Justice Center at Colfax Avenue and Gene Amole Way, but it is also an opportu-
nity to take a critical look at the function and form of the government complex and urban
design of the Civic Center as a whole. The area has been included in numerous city wide and
area plans, but it has not been the subject of a comprehensive planning effort since the 1965
Master Plan by James Sudler.
W PURPOSE OF THE DISTRICT PLAN
To address these issues, the City has developed a District Plan that defines the context for
decision-making related to the physical planning of the Civic Center. The plan places a partic-
ular emphasis on locating and designing public places, transitions to the adjacent areas, and
enhancing the Civic Center as Denver's centerpiece. It provides a cohesive vision for the
Denver government complex and strategic opportunities for improvements.
The District Plan is a synthesis plan, building on existing plans and design guidelines, fill-
ing gaps in those documents specifically related to City and County of Denver buildings and
property and adjacent areas. As a supplement to Plan 2000, the Civic Center District Plan sup-
plements and synthesizes elements from earlier plans. As an extension of previous plans, the
district plan is a strategic document, identifying specific implementation items, potential fund-
ing, timing and responsibilities to achieve the vision set in previous plans and studies.
8


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
The District Plan provides a city-approved guide to the acceptable future development of
the Civic Center District. It is intended for use by Denver's Mayor, Department of Community
Planning and Development, Department of Public Works, Department of Parks and Recreation
and other City agencies, as well as by the Planning Board, City Council, other public and
quasi-public agencies, neighborhood associations, residents, property owners, business people
and private organizations concerned with planning, development and the built environment.
The plan is intended to promote patterns of land use, urban design, circulation and services
that contribute to the economic, social and physical health, safety and welfare of the people
who live, work, shop and recreate in the district. The plan addresses issues and opportunities
at a scale that is more refined and more responsive to specific needs than the Denver
Comprehensive Plan. The District Plan serves as a supplement of the comprehensive plan.
The District Plan is the guide when making decisions affecting the future of the Civic
Center District; however, it does not preempt the decision-making powers vested by law or
administrative directive in the Mayor, the Council or any other official of the City and County
of Denver. It is expressly understood that judgment must be exercised in the application of the
District Plan. The plan is neither an official zone map, nor does it create or deny any rights.
Zone changes that may be proposed as part of any development must be initiated under a sepa-
rate procedure established under the Revised Municipal Code. This plan does not allocate
funding nor encumber city finances.
9


PURPOSE AND NEED
14th Avenue
W RELATIONSHIP TO THE DENVER COMPREHENSIVE PLAN
The Denver Comprehensive Plan (Plan 2000) provides the policies and recommendations
for the overall health, safety and welfare of the citizenry. The District Plan implements objec-
tives and strategies from Plan 2000. The complete list of references are included in the appen-
dix. There are several key policies from Plan 2000 that guided the evaluation and recommen-
dations of the District Plan, including:
b Environmental Sustainability
b Objective 4: Achieve environmental sustainability in all aspects of planning,
community and building design, and transportation. Encourage implementation of
recommended strategies within neighborhoods, citywide and throughout the
metropolitan region.
b 4-A: Promote the development of sustainable communities and centers of activity
where shopping, jobs, recreation and schools are accessible by multiple forms of
transportation, providing opportunities for people to live where they work.
b Land Use
b Objective 1: Balance and coordinate Denver's mix of land uses to sustain a healthy
economy, support the use of alternative transportation, and enhance the quality of life
in the city.
b 1-D: Recognize the multiple transportation functions of arterial corridors, as well as
their importance for commercial activity and projecting the city's image.
b 4-B: Ensure that land-use policies and decisions support a variety of mobility choices,
including light rail, buses, paratransit, walking and bicycling, as well as convenient
access for people with disabilities.
10


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
b Mobility
b Objective 1: Provide Denver's diverse residents, workers and visitors with a choice of
transportation modes that are safe and convenient.
b 1-A: Advocate transportation investments that increase mobility of people and their
connections to employment, education, shopping, cultural opportunities and other
activities.
b 1-C: Identify areas throughout the city where transportation policies should reflect
pedestrian priorities. These include areas such as schools, child-care centers, civic
institutions, business centers, shopping districts and parks.
b Objective 3: In urban centers and in new development areas, plan, design and invest in
transportation infrastructure and systems that support the principal uses within the area,
provide well-integrated connections to urban centers and other destinations, and
address the mobility needs of frequent users.
b 3-A: Strengthen multimodal connections and transportation improvements within and
between existing and potential urban centers, including Downtown.
b Legacies
b Objective 1: Protect and continue Denver's legacy of inspired urban design in the
public realm.
b 1-A: Provide a model of excellence in urban design and architectural quality by
incorporating design quality standards and design review in City projects.
b 1-C: Preserve Denver architectural and design legacies while allowing new ones to
evolve.
b 1-E: Invest in public infrastructure and amenities strategically to promote community
identity and attract development.
11


PURPOSE AND NEED
I Neighborhoods
h l-C: Strengthen the sense of place in each neighborhood with adequate and well-
designed, public-realm facilities.. .Continue City support for public art and historic
preservation as a focus for neighborhood identity and pride.
h 1-D: Ensure high-quality urban design in neighborhoods by enhancing their distinctive
natural, historic and cultural characteristics; strengthen neighborhood connections to
urban centers and reinforce Denver's unifying design features such as street trees in tree
lawns, parkways and the grid system of streets.
h Objective 7: Plan for community facilities and strive for fair distribution, sensitive
siting and quality design to minimize their impact on neighborhoods.
h 7-C: Plan for future facilities and expansion of existing ones by identifying and
reserving land. When financially feasible, purchase the land.
h 7-G: Balance the potential negative impacts of a community facility by providing
amenities and improvements desired by its neighborhood.
12


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
The District Plan also refers to and is coordinated with the following plans and regulations:
I Plans
I Blueprint Denver: An Integrated Land Use and Transportation Plan (2002)
I Downtown Multimodal Access Plan (underway 2005)
I Civic Center Park Historic Landscapes Assessment (underway 2005)
I Silver Triangle Development Study (underway 2005)
I Golden Triangle Neighborhood Plan (1998)
I Civic Center Cultural Complex Master Plan (1992)
I Silver Triangle Urban Design Study (1990, 1999)
I Downtown Area Plan (1986)
I Central Denver Transportation Study (1998)
I Parks and Recreation Game Plan (2003)
I Bicycle Master Plan Update (2001)
I Pedestrian Master Plan (2004)
I East Colfax Corridor Plan (2004)
I FasTracks Regional Transit Plan (2004)
I Regulations
B-8-G Zone District Design Standards and Guidelines
B-5 Zone District Design Standards and Guidelines
Civic Center Historic District Designation
Civic Center Design Standards and Guidelines
Civic Center Height Restrictions
State Capitol View Preservation Ordinance
Streetscape Design Manual
Commercial Corridor Design Guidelines
Capitol Hill/Uptown/OD-1 Design Standards and Guidelines
Uptown/R-4-X Design Standards and Guidelines
13


PURPOSE AND NEED
Public meeting participants exchange ideas
while waiting for the final presentation on
August 28, 2004.
W PLANNING PROCESS
The Civic Center District Plan process consisted of four phases:
I Assessment of Existing Conditions and Issue Identification. This initial phase was
completed in November 2003 and documented in the Civic Center Planning
Assessment.
I Development of Vision, Goals and Options. Alternatives included options related to
transportation, land use, urban design, parks and public space, a parking demand
analysis for the proposed Justice Center, and a Civic Center District parking study.
I Analysis of the Alternatives, including an economic analysis of land use alternatives
and preliminary implementation strategies.
I Development of the recommendations and implementation plan.
The planning team included city staff from Community Planning and Development
(Planning Services, Historic Preservation, Urban Design, Geographic Information Systems and
Graphics divisions), Public Works (Infrastructure Planning and Programming, Traffic
Engineering and Parking Management divisions), Parks and Recreation (Parks Planning divi-
sion), Department of Law (Land Use and Contracting divisions), Office of Budget and
Management (Capital Improvement Programs division), Asset Management (Real Estate
Management division), and the Mayor's Office. Technical consultants supporting the plan
were Mundus Bishop Design, Inc., Fehr & Peers Transportation, and Marketing Support.
The public process included a half-day workshop in August 2003 for the assessment of
current issues and another half-day workshop in August 2004 to review the vision, goals and
options. This workshop included a design charrette with small groups of all stakeholders.
Participants in both events represented a broad cross-section of interests, including city
14


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
agencies (Asset Management, Courts, Safety, Parks, Public Works, Planning), other public
organizations (Regional Transportation District, State of Colorado, United States Post Office,
United States Mint, Colorado Historical Society and Museum, Denver Public Schools, Art
Museum, Public Library), neighborhood organizations (Golden Triangle Association, Golden
Triangle Arts District, Downtown Denver Partnership, Capitol Hill United Neighborhoods,
Inter-Neighborhood Cooperation, Citizens for a Better Denver), private property owners and
businesses, professional organizations (American Planning Association, American Institute of
Architects, American Society of Landscape Architects), elected and appointed officials (Mayor,
City Council, Planning Board, Landmark Preservation Commission), and users groups (courts
users, city and state employees, park users, special events coordinators).
The stakeholders were invited back for a public open house and comment period in
December 2004. Meetings with individual stakeholders and partners were held in December
2004 and January February 2005. Each of the public meetings was well attended, with 80-
120 participants at each session. The plan was also shaped through contemporaneous public
meetings related to the Downtown Multimodal Access Plan, the Civic Center park master plan,
and programming of the proposed Justice Center.
CPD Manager Peter Park (right)
discusses urban design with Bert and Myrna
Mineman, Golden Triangle residents, at the
Civic Center District Design Charrette,
August 28, 2004.
Public outreach included articles and advertising in Life on Capitol Hill and neighborhood
organization newsletters, a dedicated website (www.denvergov.org/Civic_Center), presenta-
tions at neighborhood meetings, and broadcast of public meetings on Denver Channel 8.
The city process also included review, comment and revision by the Interagency Plan
Review Committee, the Denver Planning Board, the Mayor's Cabinet and City Council.
The cooperation between the City and the public will not end with completion of the plan.
Many of the implementation strategies and priorities rely on continued public involvement and
partnerships between city agencies and the district's stakeholders.
15


PURPOSE AND NEED
16


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
EXISTING CONDITIONS AND ISSUES
17


EXISTING CONDITION AND ISSUES
Right: Study Area and Boundaries. Red
indicates the boundaries of the Study Area
and blue indicates the boundaries of the
Core.
W STUDY AREA
In Summer 2003, the City conducted an analysis of existing conditions and issue identifi-
cation in the Civic Center District, documented in the Civic Center Planning Assessment. The
Planning Assessment established a study area that included the historic Civic Center, the Civic
Center subarea of the Golden Triangle Neighborhood and a portion of the Silver Triangle sub-
area of the Central Business District. The public discussion of the Civic Center visions, goals
and options for improvements included a review of the study area. The north, south and west
boundaries of the study area were confirmed as appropriate, but the public questioned the east-
ern boundary, which excluded the majority of land owned by the State of Colorado.
18


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
As a result, the planning team extended the study area to include State facilities to the east
of the Civic Center along Sherman Street. This revised study area has been included in the
updated assessment of existing conditions.
An immediately striking feature of the Civic Center District is the orientation of its streets.
The original downtown Denver street grid is oriented parallel to the South Platte River and
Cherry Creek, creating a 45-degree grid. Starting at Broadway and Colfax, the street grid
changes to an orthogonal orientation running north-south and east-west.
The north-south streets are named after significant people, Native American tribes or other
descriptive names, while the east-west streets are numbered. On the 45-degree downtown
grid, the numbered streets are called "Streets" while on the orthogonal grid, the east-west
streets are called "Avenues." The study area includes both "streets" and "avenues" and care
should be taken not to confuse them.
19


EXISTING CONDITION AND ISSUES
Right: Current Land Use
EXISTING CONDITIONS
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Government facilities-cultural, city, state and federal-are the dominant land use in the dis-
trict, followed by surface parking. Other notable land uses are park, office, commercial, retail
and residential.
The land use in the District includes 16.59 acres of parking, 15.38 acres of city govern-
ment, 14.90 acres of open space, 12.82 acres of civic and cultural facilities, 11.96 acres of state
government, 11.20 acres of office / mixed use, 5.27 acres of industrial use, 2.65 acres of com-
mercial / service use, 1.54 acres of the RTD Station, 1.44 acres of residential use, and .14 acres
of vacant land.
20


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN

Parcel Ownership
Left: Parcel Ownership
The City and County of Denver is the majority property owner in the District, followed by
the State of Colorado. The United States government has two facilities-the Denver Mint and a
neighborhood Post Office. Regional Transportation District's Civic Center Station is within
the District boundaries and Denver Public Schools has the Emily Griffith Opportunity School
and some surface parking lots. The remainder of the property is in private ownership.
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21


EXISTING CONDITION AND ISSUES
Right: Colfax Avenue I Transportation
Existing Cross Section
The street network in the district includes both the downtown grid and the orthogonal grid,
with the 45 degree and 90 degree grids meeting on Colfax Avenue. The area includes arterial
roadways of Speer Boulevard, Colfax Avenue, 14th Avenue, 13th Avenue, Broadway, Lincoln
Street and most of the downtown streets. Bannock, Cherokee, Glenarm and 12th Avenue are
collector roads, with the remainder of the north-south streets as local roadways. Speer
Boulevard and a segment of 14th Avenue are designated parkways.
Speer Boulevard and Colfax Avenue are enhanced bus corridors. Transit service is high in
the area, with both local and regional service. Civic Center Station is a major transportation
hub. Acoma Street and 12th Avenue are designated pedestrian routes. Cherry Creek Trail and
12th Avenue are both designated regional bicycle routes, while Bannock and Cherokee Streets
are neighborhood bicycle routes.
I Colfax Avenue
22


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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
114th Avenue
Right: 14th Avenue and 13th Avenue
Existing Cross Sections
113th Avenue
23


EXISTING CONDITION AND ISSUES
I Public Art
The district serves as the collective community memory, with monuments, memorials
and public art throughout the park and on the grounds of government facilities.
Denver's Fallen Firefighters Memorial at
Fire Station # 1
Right: Public Art and Monuments
24


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
I Parks and Parkways
At 16 acres, Civic Center is the largest open space in the District. Other parks in the
District are the state-owned Lincoln Park between Broadway and Lincoln Streets, 14th Avenue
to Colfax Avenue, and Macintosh Park, which provides the foreground to the Wellington E.
Webb Municipal Office Building. Speer Boulevard and a two-block section of West 14th
Avenue are designated parkways. Cherry Creek Trail is a linear park that includes a recre-
ational trail and Cherry Creek on the western edge of the District. Access to the trail is avail-
able along 14th Avenue.
25


EXISTING CONDITION AND ISSUES
The City and County Building from the
Capitol steps.
Pexisting regulations
Existing View Preservation
The existing regulations for the Civic Center District include zoning that requires design
review of new structures and significant renovations, several historic districts to protect land-
mark buildings, and height restrictions to preserve significant views and the Civic Center scale
of buildings.
When establishing the view preservation ordinances, City Council was eloquent in the need
for the height restrictions. The Council found that:
I The perpetuation of certain panoramic mountain views from various parks and public
places within the city is required in the interests of the prosperity, civic pride and
general welfare of its people;
I It is desirable to designate, preserve and perpetuate certain existing panoramic
mountain views for the enjoyment and environmental enrichment of the citizens of the
community and visitors hereto;
I The preservation of such views will strengthen and preserve the municipality's
unique environmental heritage and attributes as a city of the plains at the foot of the
Rocky Mountains;
I The preservation of such views will stabilize and enhance the aesthetic and economic
vitality and values of the surrounding areas within which such views are preserved;
I The preservation of such views will protect and enhance the city's attraction to tourists
and visitors;
26


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
I The preservation of such views will promote good urban design;
I Regular specified areas constituting panoramic views should be established by
protecting such panoramic views from encroachment and physical obstruction.
Left: Height Restrictions and View Plane
The height restrictions are of three types: those inherent in the zone district, those to pro-
tect the view of the mountains from the western steps of the state capitol and those that protect
the sense of scale surrounding Civic Center Park.
27


EXISTING CONDITION AND ISSUES
Existing Zoning Designations
The design standards and guidelines reinforce the importance of the urban environment, partic-
ularly for pedestrians. Although standards vary from zone district to zone district, they all
require ground-floor activity adjacent to the public sidewalk, restrict parking to the rear or
sides of buildings, require building placement to reinforce the street wall through setbacks and
build-to lines, and confirm the importance of durable building materials. Additional design
standards relate to open space, building form, fenestration, parking structures, building orienta-
tion, building entries and landscaping.
B-5: Central Business District, highest density (10-20:1 Floor Area Ratio, FAR), mixed use
district with mandatory design review, density premiums for housing, historic preservation and
other public benefits, no height limit, no parking requirement, limits on auto-oriented uses.
OD-2: Overlay district to provide solar access to the 16th Street Mall.
OD-3: Overlay district to provide a 400 foot height limit.
OD-4: Overlay district to provide a 200 foot height limit.
B-8-G: Golden Triangle District, high density (4-7:1 FAR), mixed use district with mandato-
ry design review, density premiums for housing, historic preservation and other public bene-
fits, heights limited to 175 feet measured from Broadway elevation, parking required for all
uses, limits on auto-oriented uses.
R-4-X: Uptown and Capitol Hill, high density (4-5:1 FAR), residential district that encour-
ages ground-floor retail, office or other limited mixed-use, mandatory design review, density
premiums for housing, no height limit, parking required for all uses.
R-4/0D-1: Uptown and Capitol Hill, high density (3-4:1 FAR), residential district that
encourages limited office and healthcare uses, mandatory design review, no height limit, park-
ing required for all uses.
28


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
29


EXISTING CONDITION AND ISSUES
Existing Historic Preservation
The Civic Center District includes portions of three historic district: Downtown, Civic
Center and Sherman Grant. The District also includes segments of two designated parkways
and boulevards, Speer Boulevard, which is also a historic district, and 14th Avenue Parkway
that extends from Bannock Street to Broadway. Several individual landmark structures are
also located in the study area.
30


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
W EXISTING ISSUES
Although the Civic Center District has a strong urban form and is a landmark area known
throughout Denver and the region, there are areas of concern, and uncertainty or weakness in
the surrounding context. The critical issues include the following:
I Proposed construction of a new Justice Center complex (possibly including pre-
sentencing detention, criminal courts, juvenile courts, parking structure and associated
pedestrian-active uses such as retail or office);
I Concerns about additional government, police, court, library, museum and institutional
expansion;
Pedestrian Crossing at Colfax Avenue
I Urban design and physical character of buildings and public spaces;
I Pedestrian, transit and vehicular connections across Colfax Avenue, Broadway and
Lincoln, and within the Civic Center District;
I Transitions between the Civic Center District and the adjacent Golden Triangle mixed-
use neighborhood and the Silver Triangle area of the Central Business District;
I Impacts from Civic Center Park, including special events, homelessness and vagrancy,
criminal and anti-social behavior.
I Regular and special event parking demand;
I Untapped potential of the District to be an urban activity center.
31


EXISTING CONDITION AND ISSUES
IA Note on Terms
I District or Civic Center District: Indicates the general study area, including both the
Core and the Transition Area. Used to denote an area with common characteristics,
smaller than a neighborhood and more compact than a corridor.
I Historic District: A defined area of recognized historic significance, designated as a
landmark district where demolition is limited and new construction is closely reviewed.
I Civic Center: Refers to the City Beautiful era park, as well as the land and buildings
immediately adjacent to the park. Also used to describe an expanded area including
future public facilities and open space as described in the Vision Plan.
I Civic Center Park: The dedicated open space between Broadway and Bannock Street,
Colfax and 14th Avenues; the centerpiece of Civic Center.
I Civic Center Station: Regional Transportation District's transit station located at
Colfax Avenue and Broadway.
I Government Complex/Government Campus: A subarea of Civic Center District,
limited to City-owned and used facilities and their adjacent open spaces and streets;
also known as the Core.
32


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
HISTORY OF CIVIC CENTER
33


HISTORY OF THE CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT
State Capitol
courtesy Western History/ Genealogy
Department, Denver Public Library
Right:
Early Plans for Civic Center. On the
right is Frederick MacMonnies Plan
that set up the central east west axis
and reconciled the two street grids.1
1 Denver Municipal Facts, May 14, 1910
and March 6, 1909.
Courtesy Colorado Historical Society.
W HISTORY
The origins of the Civic Center District began in the early 1890s with the building of State
Capitol. Set high on Brown's Bluff with steps that rise to an elevation of one mile high, the
State Capitol is aligned squarely with the mountain range of the Continental Divide.
Its grand presence inspired early Denver leaders to plan a center for the city. Denver's
Municipal League, comprised of city leaders, businessmen and local clubs such as the
Women's Club, envisioned a grand center of commerce and interaction to the west of the State
Capitol.
By 1902 they had the support of the newly elected Mayor Speer and the Art Commission
was formed to further these ideals. In 1906 they commissioned noted planner and 'civic'
expert Charles Mulford Robinson who proposed a plan for Denver's civic improvement. At
the heart of his plan was a grand scheme for "a great Civic Center" that aligned the State
Capitol Building with the then existing County Courthouse at 16th Street and Court Place with
a large, linear open space linking government and business. This initial plan was defeated by
voters due to its large cost.
34


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
As Frederick MacMonnies designed his sculpture and fountain, the Pioneer Monument, he was drawn into the still on-going planning for the civic center. MacMonnies proposed a modi- fication to the Robinson plan that re-oriented the original axis to be a western axis, aligned along the east-west centerline of the symmetrical State Capitol. He added two park spaces at the south and northern ends of the civic center to reconcile the two grid system. Left: The Art Commission envisioned a grand center of commerce.2
In 1912, the city commissioned the Olmsted Brothers landscape architectural firm to design the civic center. Inspired by the MacMonnies plan, they proposed a 'civic center' con- necting the State Capitol with a future City building along a linear open space that was defined by a concert grove on its southern edge and a garden space on the northern edge. Portions of their plan, including MacMonnies' strong central axis, were built in 1914.
N. mCr w A C
.. i re* i !\si* v. 2 Denver Parks Archives, City and County of Denver
35


HISTORY OF THE CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT
Right: Edward Bennetts 1918 vision for
the Civic Center was for a grand cere-
monial space surrounded by govern-
ment buildings.3
After Mayor Speer was re-elected and took office in 1916, he commissioned Edward
Bennett to create a new design for the civic center. Bennett's 1918 plan was a grand vision
that emphasized the strong east-west axis and included a grand gathering space with a large
formal fountain at the center of the civic center. A building addition was proposed for the
existing Carnegie Library and a second building was proposed to complement this structure
3 Denver Parks Archives, City and County
of Denver
L*. .-:i- ILuai.i Hr- i
i '*('; * mrnrnm t f i r T. i. .
j it I-** t* TS-r
I-U|||H .Tn.ia., ri-i ftal_i|
Ihtl TL<*
M^ tilfkl 4m lafcni
*** Hi *Mtri ij- r-.~n%li *w4 Pa Oi#
ft*r-rt TV n to kiwi Hm
Ijj^ PilL Jl i-1 M tlal^lp
* i! PtB1- Inmiri fmui
36


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
and to balance the formal site plan. The Olmsted 'concert grove' was formalized as a concert
garden that would become the Greek Theater. A second axis, borrowed from the existing
Olmsted improvements, extended from the Greek Theater north to the future site of the
Voorhies Memorial.
In 1924, S. R. DeBoer, the city landscape architect, created a plan for the civic center that
envisioned extending the formal open space west to Speer Boulevard. DeBoer's plan included
a formal 'mall' along the central axis with government buildings flanking the mall on each side,
including the future city government building. The City & County Building, designed by
Associated Architects was completed in 1932 and was aligned symmetrically along the central
axis.
Left: 1924 DeBoer Plan4
In the growth of all cities, a time is
reached when they begin unconscious-
ly to take stock of themselves. They
realize that beside the physical aspect
of a city, which includes population,
area, bank clearings, factory payroll
and hosts of similar statistics, there is
another side that which appeals to
aesthetics....They ask themselves what
have we to interest our residents after
we have satisfied their purses? What
thoughts do our visitors take with them
to their homes? Do they remember our
music, our art galleries and libraries,
our architecture?
I 1

cay prrtvfp
f TfYr /-Strap

The Lookout published in 1928 by the
Denver Public Library in cordial coopera-
tion with the Fine Arts committee of the
City Club of Denver.
4 S.R. DeBoer Collection. Western History
and Genealogy Department, Denver Public
Library.
37


PURPOSE AND NEED
In 1955, the Denver Public Library moved into its new building designed by Burnham
Hoyt and located on the corner of 14th Avenue and Broadway. The Denver Water Board
moved into the Carnegie Library, making numerous changes to the buildings interior and the
immediate site. The Michael Graves addition, in association with Klipp Architects, to the
Denver Public Library was completed in 1995. The Carnegie Library was renamed the
McNichols Building and now houses city offices.
The city's Annex One, across Civic Center at Colfax Avenue and Bannock Street, was built
in 1949 as a classroom building for the University of Denver. David Owen Tryba Architect's
addition, the Wellington Webb Municipal Office Building, was complete in 2002 and city
offices were consolidated into the new addition and the rehabilitated Annex One.
In 1971, the Denver Art Museum, designed by Italian architect Gio Ponti and local archi-
tect James Sudler, was completed at 14th Avenue and Bannock Street. The Art Museums new
Frederic C. Hamilton Building, designed by Daniel Libeskind, in association with the Davis
Partnership, is under construction south of Civic Center and is scheduled for completion in
2006. By 1977, the Colorado History Museum at 13th Avenue and Broadway and the
Colorado Supreme Court at 14th Avenue and Broadway were complete.
38


VISION AND GOALS


VISION AND GOALS
The Civic Center District is a stunning example of the City Beautiful movement in Denver.
Beginning at the turn of the 20th Century, the planning and execution of Civic Center has been
based on Daniel Burnham's 1902 principles for a Civic Center:
Lincoln Park and Civic Center Park from
the Colorado State Capitol. The view is
protected by the State Capitol View
Preservation Ordinance that limits building
heights.
5 Webster's II New College Dictionary. Houghton
Mifflin Company: Boston, 1995.
I Supplement city retail-commercial core;
I A beautiful ensemble of buildings grouped around a square, park or intersection of
radial streets;
I Contrast of open space and buildings;
I A harmonious whole of class harmony, patriotism, beauty and civic mindedness;
I Presence of citizens to strengthen city pride and sense of community;
I Location for collective citizen activities.
Above all else, the Civic Center epitomizes the physical expression of citizenship. The
meanings of "Civic" include "of, relating to or belonging to a city, a citizen or citizenship."
City life is based on a principle of civil interaction; that is, "of, relating to or befitting a citizen
or citizens and their relations with the state; of or in accordance with organized society;
civilized."5
The Civic Center District is the heart of democratic interaction for the City and County of
Denver and as the state capital of Colorado. Organized around a beautiful park and framed by
grand avenues, the District includes buildings that house the fundamental legislative, executive
and judicial functions of city and state government. Public buildings, parks, monuments and
streets reflect the importance of civic functions and are open and welcoming to the public.
Historic buildings and streets create links to the traditions of the past. New buildings, while
contemporary and innovative in style and architecture, continue Denver's legacy of inspired
urban design. Security features that increase the safety of the public realm are integrated with
the streetscape and building design, keeping a feeling of openness and transparency that is
appropriate to a democratic society. The Civic Center District is important to the city, the
region and the state as a significant destination for government, art, culture and civic gather-
ings. The sense of place is enhanced by views to the Front Range and building scale that
balances the monumentality of the public buildings.
40


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
The Civic Center District is a defined public campus with permeable borders that link it to
the surrounding urban activity centers of the Central Business District and the Golden
Triangle. Connections to the adjacent mixed use residential neighborhood and the central busi-
ness district are strong, safe and comfortable. Residents, employees and visitors have multiple
transportation options, including walking, transit, biking and driving. Streets are lined with
activity, including residential and ground-floor retail. The neighborhoods enjoy facilities and
amenities that build on the Civic Center uses, especially the arts and government activities.
The Civic Center District is known for public art, memorials, monuments and cultural
expression. These gatherings and expressions form the collective memory of the city, remind-
ing current inhabitants of the contributions of those who came before.
The importance of the Civic Center District was emphasized by the Denver City Council in
1973, when it found as part of the Civic Center height restrictions, that:
The protection of the great governmental complex known as civic center, which the
state and the city share, is required in the interests of the prosperity, civic pride and
general welfare of the people;
It is desirable to preserve the integrity of the civic center and to protect the openness of
its unique public space as a relief from its intensely developed surroundings;
It is desirable to protect the stature of the public buildings as the symbols of the city
and the state and as important points of orientation for permanent residents and visitors;
It is desirable to protect the substantial public investment which has been made in civic
center park, the state capitol buildings and other public improvements;
The protection of the civic center will stabilize and enhance the aesthetic values of the
surrounding area;
An act protecting the civic center emphasizes the national recognition given to this
governmental complex;
The protection of the civic center will promote good urban design.







41


VISION AND GOALS
W GOALS AND PRINCIPLES
To protect and enhance the Civic Center District these goals and principles should be followed:
I The public realm includes parks, streets and public buildings.
I The mix of uses includes government, office, museums, libraries, residential, retail and
open space. The government uses are concentrated in a civic Core with occasional
buildings in an adjacent Transition Area. Destination retail establishments are
concentrated on the Sixteenth Street Pedestrian Mall and Broadway, while neighbor-
hood-serving and smaller-scale retail uses are appropriate along other streets through
out the district.
I Vacant and underutilized lots should redevelop to enhance the level of activity, serve as
economic generators and to provide an aesthetically-pleasing context for the Civic
Center.
I Colfax Avenue, 14th Avenue, Broadway and Lincoln Street should be great streets.
Colfax Avenue should provide strong connections and links to and between downtown
Denver and the Golden Triangle, as well as to frame and define the Core.
I Neighborhood and civic character as a high-density, mixed-use urban area should be
protected, enhanced and extended to new development. I
I The area should be pedestrian-friendly through safe mobility, strong connections and
interesting destinations.
42


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
I The area should be safe and inviting.
I Civic Center Park serves as both an active town square and a special events venue,
balancing uses and peak demand.
I Parking should be located conveniently to destinations and not disrupt the urban
character of the district. Structured parking with active ground floor uses, especially
retail, helps establish pedestrian-friendly streets.
I The Cultural Facilities are a centerpiece of the district, serving visitors and residents
and establishing contemporary interpretations of civic places.
I Government areas should be well-designed, well-maintained, welcoming and safe.
I The district and adjacent areas are not homogenous. Subareas should be defined
through use and character.
I The significance of the area should be recognized through a high level of attention to
design, operations and maintenance. I
I Parks, civic open space, and parkways and boulevards are as important as buildings and
streets.
43


VISION AND GOALS
44


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
LAND USE AND
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
45


LAND USE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Right: Civic Center District Boundaries
A. CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT DOUNDARIES AND DESCRIPTION
1. Civic Center District Boendaries and Description
The Civic Center District begins on the north end of the Golden Triangle neighborhood and
extends into the south end of downtown Denver and the west ends of North Capitol Hill and
Capitol Hill. Immediately to the west across Speer Boulevard are the Auraria Campus and La
Alma / Lincoln Park Neighborhood. The Civic Center District is home to Federal, State,
Regional, and City government and cultural facilities, as well as numerous private structures
and uses. With its diverse facilities and uses, the Civic Center District plays multiple roles in
the life of the Region, State, Metropolitan Area, City, Downtown, and adjoining neighbor-
hoods.
To meet the goals of the District Plan, the Civic Center is divided into two sub-areas: the
Core and Transition Area.
fmaibui Aj
46


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
2. Core Boundaries and Description
The boundaries of the Core extend from Speer Boulevard on the west to Grant Street on
the east and from the north side of the Colfax Avenue right-of-way to the south side of the
14th Avenue right-of-way. The Core includes the Webb Building, the new Denver Newspaper
Agency headquarters building and the Civic Center Station Plaza. To the south of Civic Center,
the Core extends to 13th Avenue to include the Colorado State Supreme Court and Colorado
History Museum, and to 12th Avenue to include the Central Denver Public Library and the
Denver Art Museum and its co-development.
The Core will be distinguished by large scale monumental and visitor-active public and
private buildings. It will generally be defined by deep building setbacks on blocks without
alleys, resulting in "signature" buildings surrounded by ceremonial spaces. With fewer, more
monumental, buildings on each block, the grain of the Core will be larger than that of the
Transition Area or the adjacent neighborhoods. Public uses will include cultural, legislative,
judicial, and administrative facilities. If private facilities and uses are located within the Core,
they should have public scale and character.
3. Transition Area Boundaries and Description
The Transition Area generally extends beyond and surrounds the Core on three sides and
provides a transition to the Silver Triangle District of downtown Denver to the north, North
Capitol Hill to the northeast, Capitol Hill to the east and southeast, and the Golden Triangle
neighborhood to the south.
The Denver Public Library
The Transition Area typically contains facilities that are smaller scale, less monumental and
less visitor-active than those located in the Core. It is generally distinguished by the same
building setbacks, streetscape, and uses as the adjacent neighborhoods. With alleys, shallower
setbacks, less monumental buildings, and more buildings per block, the character of the
Transition Area has a finer grain than the Core. Despite this, buildings in the Transition Area
may in fact be taller than those in the Core. If public facilities or uses are located within the
Transition Area, they should have a private scale and character.
47


LAND USE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
W B. LAND USE GOALS AND DECOMMENDATIONS FROM EXISTING PLANS
The Civic Center District has been influenced by many previous and existing plans and
studies. The following land use goals and recommendations from existing plans for downtown
Denver, the Silver Triangle, Uptown, Capitol Hill and the Golden Triangle contain important
considerations for the Civic Center District Plan.
I Area of Change: Blueprint Denver identifies the Civic Center District as part of the
Downtown Area of Change, showing high-density, mixed land uses and the highest
levels of transportation options and enhanced building design to be appropriate.
I Public Square: Civic Center Park will continue as one of Denver's premiere urban
spaces and downtown's major public square, serving as an important relief from the
intense development of downtown Denver.
I Enhanced Connections: Connect the Civic Center District to the nearby activity
centers, particularly the 16th Street Mall, by clear visual connections and by pedestrian
links that provide inviting and safe access to the Park.
I Improved Pedestrian Access: Provide easier and safer pedestrian access between
downtown Denver and the Civic Center District, especially at the Colfax Avenue and
14th Avenue crossings, improve streets and intersections. Improve along Cleveland
Place from the 16th Street Mall to the Park to enhance the connection between the
downtown Denver and the Civic Center. Improve 14th Street to help improve
connections between the Convention Center, the cultural complex, and the Civic
Center District. I
I Active Public Space Management: Initiate active public space management, like that
on the 16th Street Mall, to coordinate maintenance, security, and programming of Civic
Center Park as tools to help stimulate use. Recommit to programs to aid the homeless
population.
48


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN



I
I
Increased Activity and Safety
Develop new uses, activities, and amenities in the Civic Center District, including the
McNichols Building, also known as the historic Carnegie Library located in the park, to
generate activity and to increase safety.
Concentrated Development
Concentrate new civic development in the Core, including facilities for the State
of Colorado and the City and County of Denver. Concentrate private commercial
development in the Silver and Golden Triangle neighborhoods to minimize the impact
on adjacent neighborhoods.
Distinct Sub-areas in the Silver Triangle
The Silver Triangle is envisioned as a series of sub-areas, each with a character that
reflects a distinct mixture of uses. While the vision for the sub-area farthest
east focuses on adding residential uses to the mix, the vision for the sub-area closest
to the Convention Center and Cultural Complex focuses on adding additional cultural
and art-related uses.
Retention of Institutions
Retain institutions such as the Denver Athletic Club, Emily Griffith Opportunity
School, and the Denver Press Club in the Silver Triangle.
Sherman Street looking north to the
Capitol.
Enhancement of Sherman Street Character
Reinforce Sherman Street as a center of State government activity. The design of public
and private improvements along Sherman Street should enhance its character by
retaining the current width of the street and the predominant building setback,
continuing the streetscape which predominates in the 1500 and 1600 blocks, retaining
the current architectural patterns such as raised entrances, and incorporating consistent
building materials.
49


LAND USE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
I Enhancement of the Cultural and Civic Character of the Golden Triangle
Preserve and build on the cultural and civic character of the Golden Triangle
Neighborhood. Encourage the development of uses related to the Civic Center Cultural
Complex and its components. Build on the arts, culture, and government presence in
the Civic Center District.
I Integration of the Civic Center
The Civic Center sub-area of the Golden Triangle Neighborhood is envisioned as an
integral part of the Golden Triangle. The Plan envisions new buildings continuing the
tradition of world-class architecture around the Civic Center. Artists' studios, galleries,
an art school, and high tech businesses are attracted to the sub-area. Together, the uses
contribute to the Golden Triangle's position as the center of art and Western history in
the Rocky Mountain region and the government center for Denver.
I Complementary Land Uses
New private sector land uses should be complementary to the governmental and
cultural uses in the Civic Center sub-area. New uses might include galleries, studios,
restaurants, hotels, and businesses that use the cultural institutional collections.
I Government-related Uses
Encourage government-related growth in the 1300 block of Bannock.
I Parking Structures with Pedestrian Uses
Accommodate parking in multi-level structures with pedestrian-active uses on the
ground floor. I
I Avenue of the Arts
Continue cultural and institutional growth south of Civic Center Park on Acoma Street.
50


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
C. LAND USE GOALS FOR THE CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT
I Provide a framework for growth, locating new government and cultural uses within
the Civic Center District.
I Create strong, but permeable edges for the Civic Center District.
I Create a gateway to the Civic Center District from the west and visually connect Speer
Boulevard and Cherry Creek to Civic Center Park.
I Optimize relationships among uses by: locating and designing facilities and
improvements so that inter-dependent uses are close and accessible to one another.
Ensure that either distance or a significant feature such as a major streets or park,
buffers incompatible uses.
Civic Center Park
I Preserve and reuse the architecturally and historically significant structures and features
in the Civic Center District.
I Reinforce Retail Areas: Concentrate regional destination retail on the 16th Street Mall
and Broadway. Encourage neighborhood and accessory retail throughout the Transition
Area, especially as part of residential or office mixed use developments. Bannock
Street should develop as the Golden Triangle neighborhoods retail main street to
compliment the Acoma Avenue of the Arts on the next block.
I Design the Justice Center to be compatible with adjoining uses and to allow for
future expansion, and continuation of government facilities in the Core.
I Energize the Civic Center District by encouraging private development in the
Transition Area. I
I Over the long-term, consider strategic acquisition of parcels for government facilities
or for public purposes if necessary in the foreseeable future.
51


LAND USE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
I Encourage accessory uses either in or adjacent to the Districts parks and open spaces,
including accessory retail uses, that generate pedestrian traffic, serve visitor needs, and
encourage visitors to linger.
I Create tools for integrating and strengthening adjoining neighborhoods. Use a
combination of land use, programming, site and architectural design, and the
circulation system to integrate the Civic Center District with the adjacent
neighborhoods while reinforcing the strengths of those neighborhoods.
I Locate and design new facilities and uses to minimize potential negative impacts and to
optimize potential benefits to the adjacent neighborhoods while recognizing that the
Golden Triangle is developing in a multi-use urban context.
I Locate and design new cultural facilities to take advantage of the best pedestrian and
transit connections to the 16th Street Mall, downtown Denver hotels, and the
Convention Center.
I Define methods to assure that a high quality maintenance of public and private
facilities and grounds in the Civic Center District is attained. I
I Work with representatives of the Federal and State facilities to encourage them to
support and implement the recommendations of the Civic Center District Plan.
52


D. RECOMMENDED LAND USE SCENARIO FULL DUILD-OUT
CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
The Recommended Land Use Scenario envisions a full build-out of the Civic Center
District. The redevelopment potential of the District is determined by the existing zoning,
height restrictions imposed by height limitations and view preservation ordinances, parcel size,
location, and an optimistic, long-term, perspective on the market. The Full Build-Out Scenario
proposes the following:
1. Significant Structures and Uses will Remain
A large number of the City's most historically and architecturally significant structures that
should be retained are located within the Civic Center District.
The Civic Center District is also home to a large number of vacant and underdeveloped
sites and numerous structures that are not significant and, in many cases, may also be struc-
turally and/or operationally obsolete. This group of sites and structures provides the opportu-
nity for significant redevelopment and intensification of the District.
2. Current Projects arn Cnmplntnd
The civic and private development projects that are currently under construction within the
Civic Center District will be completed. These include the new wing of the Denver Art
Museum and its co-development, the Denver Newspaper Agency Headquarters, and the new
State of Colorado parking structure and pocket park.
3. The Justice Center
For the purposes of this study, it is assumed that the proposed Justice Center will be
approved and constructed at the proposed location. When completed, it will contain almost one
million square feet of space on two and one-half City blocks. It is intended to accommodate
an expansion of the Citys pre-trial detention facilities, the criminal courts, the juvenile courts,
and structured parking.
53


54


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
4. The City's Facility Needs will be Accommodated
I City's Need for Space within the District
Denver has completed several facility master plans that identify the City government's
long-range need for office, warehouse and special use space. In the Civic Center
Planning Assessment completed in November of 2003, the total additional facility
needs were identified at about 1.5 million square feet. This estimate did not take into
account the current supply of either existing or future vacant space or the potential for
backfilling City buildings. Additionally, almost two-thirds of the space needs identified
in the Assessment is directly attributable to the proposed Justice Center. (Please note
that all square footage estimates, including those for the proposed Justice Center, are
very preliminary. Future architectural analysis will better define actual square foot
needs.)
I City's Supply and Demand for Space
To analyze the need for additional City facilities, the demand for facilities was
compared with the current and anticipated supply within the District, assuming the
proposed Justice Center will be built. Much of the future supply becomes available
within existing City buildings once current uses move to the proposed Justice Center.
It is important to note that the estimates presented are speculative and likely to change
as history has indicated that uses within City facilities change significantly over time.
McNichols Building in Civic Center
Park

Justice Center Space and Uses Outside of the District (see Figure A on page 57)
The projected City demand for space is 1.5 million square feet with locations
ranging from existing facilities to the proposed Justice Center to undetermined
locations within the Civic Center District. Of the 1.5 million square feet, almost one
million square feet are for the proposed Justice Center components. For purposes of
this analysis, the proposed Justice Center is anticipated to include the pretrial
detention facility, criminal courts, and juvenile courts. The city has identified about
83,000 square feet of space that could be located either in the District or elsewhere in
the City.
Left: Land Use Figure Ground
55


LAND USE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Justice Center recommendation from
Urban Land Institute (2004)
Other City Uses in the Civic Center District
Beyond the proposed Justice Center, City facilities within the District are expected to
require about 500,000 square feet of space. These facilities, shown in Figure A on the
following page, include uses that may backfill existing facilities (some of which will be
vacated when uses are relocated to the Justice Center), uses that may locate in the Art
Museum co-development, and finally, potential uses that may locate in a new, but not-
yet-planned, facility or facilities within the District.
It is estimated that new City facilities would require between 150,000 and 200,000
square feet of additional space by 2025 (excluding parking.) One potential space need
that is not accounted for is the potential relocation of uses currently in the McNichols
Building. These uses total about 30,000 square feet of net usable space. If the
McNichols Building were to be adapted to more public uses, as is recommended to add
vitality and amenities to the Park, the current city offices would need to relocate. The
relocated city offices should remain in the Civic Center District.
56


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
FACILITY NEEDS PROJECTED SO FT NEED POSSIBLE LOCATION
Justice Center
Detention facility 500,000 Justice Center Figure A: Supply and Demand for City
Criminal courts 234,000 Justice Center
Juvenile courts 115,000 Justice Center Facilities within the Civic Center
Civil Courts Expansion TBD Justice Center District.
Parking 250,000 Justice Center
Justice Center subtotal 1.100.000 * This data represents the City's best esti- mate of future needs and plans. However, it
Facilities currently in the District to Locate Outside of District
Back-up 911 Call Center 6,000 To Be Determined is not a commitment nor should this esti-
POB Shops 12,000 To Be Determined mate be construed to limit the City's use of
Election Comm. Warehouse 45,000 To Be Determined
Special Police Functions 20,000 To Be Determined space, facilities or options.
Outside District Subtotal 83,000 Existing Building Backfill-City and County Building/PADF/Permit Center, Police
Administration Building, etc.
Fire Headquarters 25,000 Permit Center or Other
Fire Warehouse 10,000 TBD
PAB Expansion 28,000 PAB or District
Police Storage 10,000 PADF
Police Crime Lab 10,000 PADF or PAB
Police Investigations 10,000 PADF or PAB
Emergency Management 3,500 CCB
Civil Court Relocation 30,000 CCB
Civil Courts Expansion TBD CCB
City Council Expansion 3,000 CCB
Workforce Development 15,000 Webb or Other
Civil Service Commission 20,000 Permit Center or Other
Backfill subtotal New Facilities within District Other Office Uses District 6 Police 164,500 35.000 40.000 Civic Center District Civic Center District Legend: CCB: City and County Building
Art Museum Warehouse 8,000 Civic Center District PAB: Police Administration Building
Television Studios 15,000 Civic Center District PADF: Pre-Arraignment Detention
Special Police Functions 60,000 Civic Center District Facility POB: Public Office Building
Other District subtotal 158,000
Art Museum New Wing 146,000 New Wing of Art Museum SQFT: Square Feet TBD: To Be Determined
Art Museum subtotal 146,000
57


LAND USE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
5. State Facilities Needs will be Accommodated
Colorado Historical Society Plaza
The State of Colorado is in the process of developing a strategic plan for the Capitol
Complex and Denver-metro owned and leased facilities. Because of this planning effort,
underway in early 2005, these comments should be considered preliminary and subject to revi-
sion. At present, with tight budgets and TABOR6 limitations, the State is not anticipating
rapid expansion in the foreseeable future within or adjacent to the District, but rather antici-
pates emphasis on projects such as the continuation of the life safety upgrades at the State
Capitol building and the installation of a new boiler as part of the energy performance contract
at the power plant.
The State of Colorado owns a significant share of the property in and adjacent to the
District east of Broadway and between 13th and 16th Avenues. In addition, the State has sig-
nificant office leases in the Denver Post Building located at the southeast corner of 16th
Avenue and Broadway. The State Capitol is located within the District's Core and six major
State buildings (and a new parking structure under construction) are located within the
Transition Area.
b Short-term Plans:
The State's short-term plans include completion of a parking structure and pocket park
at the southeast comer of Lincoln and 14th Avenue. This facility has been designed to
allow for two additional levels at a later date as funding becomes available. Although
the facility is intended predominantly for state use, the opportunity may exist to
provide for weekend, holiday or special event use.
6 TABOR is the Taxpayers Bill of Rights
approved as an amendment to the State
Constitution in 1992. TABOR limits the
tax revenue that can be collected and
expended by government entities without
prior approval by the electorate. TABOR
also provides a formula for determining the
rate of government growth and expenditure.

Long-term Plans:
The State's strategic plan for the Capitol Complex and Denver-metro area was under
way in early 2005. Possible recommendations from the strategic plan may include co-
location of leased and owned space, renovation of existing facilities and new
construction. Legislative approval and funding availability will determine
implementation scope and schedules.
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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
6. Federal and Other Governmental Facility Needs Will Be Accommodated
The Federal Governments facility needs include those associated with the United States Mint
and the United States Post Office.
I United States Mint: Plans for the United States Mint call for the facility to remain at its
current location. There may be a future need for expansion of the current facility, such
as an expanded retail facility.
I United States Post Office: The proposed location for the Justice Center necessitates
that the United States Post Office will relocate. The neighborhood has indicated a
desire to keep the retail portion of the post office in or near the District.
I The regional transportation facility needs will be determined as part of the Regional
Transportation District FasTracks and the DMAP planning efforts, and include the
Civic Center Station and the proposed Downtown Transit Circulator.
7. Private Development Demands Will Be Accommodated
The "full build-out" potential of each of the thirty-one blocks in the Civic Center District is
unique to that block. The potential for each block is determined by a combination of factors,
including its zoning, the significance and permanence of the current structure(s) and use(s), the
size and configuration of the block, the ownership pattern, and the market. The development
potential may also be affected if a portion or all of the block is within the boundaries of the
Capitol View Preservation Ordinance, the Civic Center Height Restrictions or the Civic Center
Historic District.
Market trends indicate that full build-out will be a long-term effort perhaps requiring
three decades or more. Sites within the Civic Center District will continue to compete for a
limited market with numerous other sites in downtown Denver and the surrounding neighbor-
hoods. Because of the size, configuration, and location of the Civic Center District, some sites
are located significantly closer to areas that have development momentum.
59


LAND USE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
The current square feet and Floor Area Ratio (FAR) of development in the Civic Center
District is just over seven million square feet with a gross FAR of approximately 1.7:1. This is
assuming that the completion of the projects currently under construction and construction of
the Justice Center. Incorporating the combination of factors listed above, the full build-out
potential for the thirty-three blocks in the Civic Center District is projected to be almost
thirteen million square feet, with an FAR of approximately 3:1, an increase of approximately
five and one half million square feet. Because the projected twenty-year demand for new City
facilities within the District ranges between 150,000 and 230,000 square feet, the vast majority
of the build-out would be private development, including office, residential, hotel, and acces-
sory parking and retail uses.
8. Location Criteria for Siting New Poblio Facilities in the Civic Center District
h Larger-scaled, more monumental facilities and those facilities that will attract a large
number of visitors should be located in the Core.
h Smaller-scaled facilities and those facilities that will attract a smaller number of visitors
should be located in the Transition Area.
h Cultural facilities should be located on the Cultural Axis and other public facilities
should be located on the Civic Axis.
h Proposed location should be close, readily visible, and readily accessible to similar
facilities, related operations, pedestrian and transit connections, and parking facilities.
h Proposed location should help improve the level of customer service at the public
facility.
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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
I Proposed location should strengthen the quality of the Civic Center District by
developing a vacant or under-utilized in-fill site, by strengthening the edge of the Core,
by providing a transition in use and scale from the Core to the adjoining neighborhood,
by adding to the mix of land uses, and by enhancing the scale and character of the
District.
I Proposed location, when possible and appropriate, reuses an existing facility or an
architecturally or historically significant structure.
I Proposed location provides cost effectiveness and operational efficiency.
I Proposed location is the appropriate size and configuration for the proposed use.
I Proposed location can accommodate possible and anticipated future expansion of uses.
I Proposed location helps minimize potential adverse impacts on areas adjacent to the
District and leverage opportunities for enhancing the quality of the District and the
adjoining neighborhoods. I
I Proposed location helps distribute traffic consistent with the capacity of the street net
work hierarchy.
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LAND USE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Pe. market and economic analysis findings
To gauge the marketability of the proposed land uses, as well as their fiscal impacts and
effects on the neighborhood real estate market, a variety of economic analyses were complet-
ed. These examined the likely economic activity driven by the proposed plan and the implica-
tions of that activity. Conclusions of this analysis included the following:
I Market trends indicate that complete build out of the Civic Center District could
require three decades or more. While a proposed hotel and a share of the office and
residential development could occur in the next decade, much of the proposed
development may not occur for several decades.
I Interviews with numerous residential realtors, as well as with representatives of other
cities that have completed downtown Justice Centers, revealed very little concern about
the impacts of a Justice Center on commercial or residential real estate values in the
immediate area. With well-designed facilities that are consistent with the surrounding
architecture, real estate values have reportedly held steady or increased in the wake of
Justice Center development.
I Over the course of its development, the full build out of the District will drive more
than $4 million in one-time impacts and over $16 million in annual one-time spending
into the Civic Center District. It will continue the city's pattern of investing in the area,
coming on the heels of $313 million in infrastructure invested in the area over the past
10 years. I
I If the District is completely built out, the City will realize nearly $4 million in annual
revenues resulting from its development. Even under a less intensive alternative that
may more accurately reflect likely development in the near future, City revenues will
grow by more than $1 million annually.
62


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
W F. LAND USE IMPLEMENTATION
1. Zoning Code Amondmonts
Zoning language should be established to reinforce the boundaries and character of the
Core and the Transition Area. Zoning provisions apply to both City and private facilities.
Implementation actions are listed for
convenient reference. For more com-
plete discussion of implementation
strategies and limitations refer to the
Implementation Plan, pages 141-156
I As public facilities are developed in the Core, provide for the Core building setback on
Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue.
I Amend the B-8-G design guidelines to allow and encourage private development to
meet the Core building setback requirements recommended in the Urban Design and
Architecture section of the District Plan.
I Amend the R-4-X zone district to include the traditional deep building setback along
Sherman Street.
I Include the recommended zoning and design review provisions in any rezoning in the
Core or along Sherman Street, including rezoning to a Planned Unit Development
(PUD) or to fundamental changes to the zoning code.
2. Design Review
Design review procedures should be established to reinforce the boundaries and character
of the Core and the Transition Area. Design Guidelines apply to both City and private facili-
ties.
I Amend the B-8-G Zone District Rules and Regulations to incorporate the design
guidelines recommended in the Urban Design and Architecture chapter of the District
Plan. I
I Incorporate the historic design characteristics in design guidelines for Sherman Street.
63


LAND USE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
3. Locating New Public Facilities
I Follow the location criteria set forth in the District Plan in siting new public uses
within Civic Center District. This may be done either by Executive Order or by Rules
and Regulations.
4. Federal and State Support for the Plan
I Work with Federal and State representatives to incorporate the provisions of this Plan
into their facilities planning.
5. Sites for Expansion
I Explore programs for strategic acquisition of parcels for future expansion of existing
facilities or the construction of new facilities. If the City considers purchasing selected
properties for expansion, it should explore alternative financing and management
mechanisms.
6. High Quality Maintenance
I Establish mechanisms to assure high quality, durability and low maintenance of public
facilities and grounds in the Civic Center, enhanced District security, and programming
of Civic Center Park. I
I Options include working with the Downtown Denver Business Improvement District
(BID) to expand their boundaries to include the Civic Center District or creating a
separate charter maintenance district to address the needs of the Civic Center District.
The existing boundary of the Downtown Denver BID ends at the centerline of Colfax
Avenue, which would capture improvements to the north side, but not the south.
64


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
7. Additional Activity in the Park
I Encourage additional uses, including retail and restaurant uses, in and adjacent to Civic
Center Park to help generate additional activity in the park, including pedestrian
activity; serve visitor needs; encourage visitors to linger in the Park; and help increase
both the perception and reality of safety.
8. Distinguish Between the Scale of Blocks in the Core and Transition Areas
h Encourage the vacation of alleys where other urban and land use goals are met in the
Core, such as the setback from Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue, high quality materials,
four-sided architecture and providing plazas and open space.
h Alleys and streets should be retained in the Transition Area to help distinguish the
character of the two areas and the sites and structures within them.
B. Gateway
h Explore developing a new park, a significant structure, or a combination of park and
structure on the block(s) immediately east of Speer Boulevard between Colfax Avenue
and 14th Avenue to define the Civic Center District and to visually connect Speer
Boulevard and Cherry Creek with Civic Center Park.
65


LAND USE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
66


URBAN DESIGN AND
ARCHITECTURE


URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE
A. GOALS
I Create a government campus complex between the State Capitol and Speer Boulevard
that is a setting of symbolic significance and a major destination for residents and
visitors.
I Orient the Civic Center District along the Civic Axis.
I Connect the Civic Center District with downtown Denver, Denver's parks and
parkway system and the adjacent neighborhoods.
I Create a definable identity for the Civic Center District by celebrating its monumental
and historic architecture, and by mandating exemplary design for new buildings.
I Create a transition between the Core and its adjacent neighborhoods.
I Improve the identity, visibility and recognition of civic and cultural facilities within
the Civic Center District.
I Give prominence to the pedestrian realm and walkability as major elements of civic
character.
Context Diagram
I Enhance the pedestrian experience and create boulevards along Colfax Avenue and
14th Avenue to improve the identity of the government campus complex. I
I Enhance the green identity of the District and Civic Center Park by incorporating
significant landscape elements on major corridors.
68


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
B. URBAN RESIGN
Left: Urban Form Diagram
1. Urban Form
Denver has a long-standing tradition of creating great civic places that are connected by a
city-wide parkway and boulevard system. In 1924, before the City & County Building was
built and the United States Mint expanded, the city's landscape architect S. R. DeBoer envi-
sioned a civic center of government buildings surrounded by public open space that extended
from the State Capitol to Speer Boulevard along a central axis.
The Districts Urban Form
emphasizes the Civic Axis as the primary
organizing feature. The Cultural Axis rein-
forces the Districts connection to down-
town and to Acoma Avenue of the Arts.
The urban form of the Civic Center District in this Plan combines DeBoer's vision with
Denver's traditions to create the Districts Core, extending the government campus of city and
state facilities from Grant Street to Speer Boulevard. New civic buildings will be oriented
along the Civic Axis as envisioned in the DeBoer plan, but instead of a central mall or green
space, Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue will be developed as grand avenues that serves as civic
open space and primary linkages.
69


URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE
70


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
Components of the urban form include a deep building setback to reinforce the central core
of civic buildings; development of Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue as grand avenues; a gate-
way at Speer Boulevard, and pedestrian linkages from the District to the surrounding neighbor-
hoods and downtown Denver.
Left: Vision Plan
I The two key axes will be strengthened to define the Core of the Civic Center District.
The Civic Axis will be extended from the State Capitol west to Speer Boulevard to
link the State Capitol with the parkway and boulevard system. New civic buildings
will be oriented along the Civic Axis. The Cultural Axis will be extended from Civic
Center Park north to downtown Denver and south to the Acoma Avenue of the Arts.
The two axes will organize public open spaces and key pedestrian linkages including
connections to the 16th Street Mall along Cleveland Place and to the cultural complex
and Acoma Street.
I Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue will be established as the Districts key civic spaces.
They will be developed as grand avenues with wide tree lawns, generous pedestrian
walks, deep building setbacks adjacent to the District's civic structures, and safe
and aesthetically pleasing pedestrian crossings.
I Civic plazas / open spaces will be developed along the north edge of Colfax Avenue at
Tremont Street and Welton Street. The spaces will be active pedestrian areas that
reinforce the civic aesthetic of the grand avenue. I
I The Core will be defined by gateways that will serve as physical and visual entries into
the District. From the west, a new civic space at Speer Boulevard will signify the
entrance into the District. From the east, the State Capitol will continue to compel
attention and signify the importance of its location. From the north and south, Civic
Center Park and Lincoln Park, which provide a striking contrast of green openness, will
define the Core. A secondary gateway will be the intersection of 12th Avenue and
Acoma Street where the sense of arrival is created by the cultural cluster of museums
and the library.
71


URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE
72


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN



Colfax Avenue will be established as a grand avenue with wide tree lawns that are
planted with regularly spaced deciduous shade trees and generous pedestrian walks that
extend for its full length.
To strengthen Colfax Avenue as a grand avenue, a deep building setback will be
established on its southern edge. The deep building setback will be adjacent to the
District's civic structures to align new buildings with the City & County Building.
Except at building entries, the building setback will be unobstructed open space that
will consist primarily of landscaping live, healthy plants on permeable ground cover.
The creation of the grand avenue on Colfax Avenue will require providing additional
space for the pedestrian walk and tree lawn. If the improvements are to be
accomplished within the existing public right-of-way, the street will be narrowed. For
additional discussion on Colfax Avenue refer to the transportation chapter and
Appendix F. Transportation Modeling and Evaluation.
I Safer and aesthetically pleasing pedestrian crossings will be installed to allow Colfax
Avenue to function as a primary linkage between downtown Denver, the governmental
campus complex, and the adjacent neighborhoods.
I Enhanced pedestrian crossings will be developed along Colfax Avenue at Galapago
Street, Glenarm/Fox Street, Delaware/Tremont Street, Court Place/Cherokee
Street, Bannock Street, Cleveland Place, Broadway and Lincoln Street. The enhanced
pedestrian crossings will serve to provide vital connections from downtown Denver to
Civic Center Park, the Art Museum and the Central Library. I
I The new civic space at Speer Boulevard will be created in the Denver tradition of
linking significant civic places with the citys parkways and boulevards. The ultimate
gateway at Speer Boulevard is a long-term vision and may take many years to achieve.
In the interim, there may be secondary gateways developed on Colfax Avenue with the
proposed Justice Center, which may include the west facade of the new courthouse,
facing Fox Street, and the development of new triangle plazas on Colfax Avenue.


URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE
Right: Vision of 14th Avenue as a broad
grand avenue with tree lawns, street trees,
and wide pedestrian walks.

74


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN



Civic plazas / open spaces will be developed along the north edge of Colfax Avenue at
Tremont Street and Glenarm Street. The spaces will be active pedestrian areas that
reinforce the civic aesthetic of the grand avenue.
A view corridor from downtown Denver to the proposed Justice Center will be
maintained along Tremont Street to ensure that new development is visually linked to
downtown Denver. Views to and from the State Capitol will be emphasized along
Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue. Views of the State Capitol dome will be maintained.
14th Avenue will be established as a grand avenue with wide tree lawns that are
planted with regularly spaced deciduous shade trees and generous pedestrian walks that
extend for its full length. The existing street cross section will be used to create the
grand avenue. The existing tree lawn will be improved and existing walks will be
extended and widened as necessary to ensure a continuous pedestrian route along the
entire length of 14th Avenue within the District.
14th Avenue today
I To strengthen 14th Avenue as a grand avenue, a deep building setback will be
established on its northern edge. The deep building setback will be adjacent to the
District's civic structures to align new buildings with the City and County Building.
Except at building entries, the building setback will be unobstructed open space
consisting primarily of landscaping live, healthy plants on permeable ground cover.
I Cleveland Place is the primary pedestrian connection between Civic Center and the
16th Street Mall. Tremont Street will provide a secondary connection between the
Civic Center District and downtown Denver. Major traffic connections occur on Speer
Boulevard, Welton Street and Broadway.
I Sherman Streets streetscape will be retained as the central street of State governmental
activity. The characteristic broad building setback, wide tree lawn and raised entrances
will be retained, while continuing to provide access for people with disabilities. I
I 14th Street will be enhanced from Tremont Place to Colfax Avenue to reinforce the
relationship of the Civic Center District to the Convention Center.
75


URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE
Right: Building Setback and Stepback
Diagram
LhGhNI)
Iff Sellact
. Sfc.plu*c& 4u O.Tmiu."
Line
2. Building Setbacks and Stepbacks in the Care
The definitive central mall of civic buildings, oriented along the Civic Axis, will be defined by
a deep building setback. The building setback will align new civic buildings with the building
edge of the City and County Building. The building setback assists in protecting the views to
and from the State Capitol.
h A deep building setback of 30 feet, in alignment with the City & County Building, wil
be followed on the south side of Colfax Avenue and on the north side of 14th Avenue.
The building setback will assist in the creation of the two grand avenues that are the
key components of the Civic Center District's urban form.
h The Civic Center Historic District Design Guidelines indicate new buildings should
relate to the cornice line on the City & County Building by providing either a cornice
line or a building stepback at approximately 80 feet above grade.
<$OQ5
76


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
3. Streetscape in the Core
Streetscaping along all streets in the Core will assist in creating a definable identity for the
Civic Center District. Streetscaping enhances the street edge, improves pedestrian connectivi-
ty and visually connects the District. The streetscape will include all elements within the pub-
lic right-of-way including sidewalks, tree lawns, pedestrian lights, traffic and pedestrian sig-
nals, and street furniture such as benches, bus stops, trash cans, and special features.
I Colfax Avenue will be developed as a grand avenue with a stately streetscape of wide
tree lawns with regularly spaced deciduous shade trees, generous pedestrian walkways,
an artistic median, pedestrian plazas on the north and a landscaped setback on the
south.
I 14th Avenue will be developed as a grand avenue by improving its pedestrian walk-
ways and its already generous tree lawn. The tree lawn will be planted with regularly
spaced deciduous street trees and low turf.
I Viable, inviting and safer pedestrian environments will be developed along Colfax
Avenue and 14th Avenue. New civic buildings will include ceremonial entries oriented
to these primary streets, and the street edge will be developed with street furnishings
such as pedestrian lights, benches, banners, seasonal displays, public art, and wayfind-
ing and directional signage.
Colfax Avenue east of Lincoln Street,
with the desired streetscape of gener-
ous sidewalks, a double row of street
trees and pedestrian lighting.
I The center median on Colfax Avenue will be developed as a linear art installation with
distinctive paving and artistic vertical elements. Trees will not be allowed but low
plantings may be integrated within the design of the art installation. I
I The connection between the Convention Center and the Civic Center District,
especially for Cultural facilities, will be strengthened by improving the streetscape on
14th Street.
77


URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE
Spctr Pole, Tianshioeat White, Rovod Gk*bc.
F]uttttain While Lunp
Streetscape lighting for Colfax Avenue
and 14th Avenue reinforces their roles
as grand civic avenues.
Right: Pedestrian and Street Light Types
and Location Diagram7
Li^nd
1 jTnlinnrk DiiUlrt BountUry
Tv pc 1
A Type!
o
* r>i4
m T>[Â¥ f
* Type 6
+ type?
*
The connection between the Cultural Axis and the 16th Street Mall will be strengthened
with improved pedestrian routes and streetscape on Cleveland Place.
Streetscape lighting in the Core will follow the existing Civic Center Design Guidelines
for the Civic Center Historic District and will include streetlight poles, pedestrian light
poles, signal poles.
Streetscape amenities may include benches, trash receptacles, ash urns, kiosks and
planters.
78


CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
4. StreetSCape in the Transition Area Right: A typical neighborhood street in
the Transition Area
Streetscaping along all streets in the Transition Area will follow the requirements of the
zone district in which improvements are located. The streetscaping enhances the street edge
and improves pedestrian connectivity. The streetscape includes all elements within the public
right-of-way including sidewalks, tree lawns, pedestrian lights, traffic and pedestrian signals,
and street furniture such as benches, bus stops, and trash receptacles. 7
t
7 Civic Center Historic District Guidelines,
City & County of Denver.
79


URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE
Plaza at the Wellington E. Webb
Municipal Office Building.
5. Plazas
Plazas are urban open spaces that are adjacent to, and are a part of, a civic building or
group of buildings. Plazas are generally hardscape spaces with furniture and plantings on non-
permeable materials such as paving. Successful plazas are lively gathering areas that are sited
near or adjacent to the public right-of-way and streetscape or as the entry to a building or
group of buildings.
I Civic plazas may be contiguous with the tree lawn or amenity zone between the public
side walk and the street curb, and within the building setback and entries to civic
buildings. New civic buildings are encouraged to develop plazas as a grand approach
to the main or primary building entrances.
I Civic plazas create a strong public space framework as an organizational device for
public buildings and the existing civic spaces of the Civic Center District.
I Civic plazas will be supported by adjacent active uses such as retail on the first floor of
an adjacent building. Key elements that add to a successful plaza include active uses
on the building's first level as these assist in activating the plaza and provide a sense of
security.
I Plazas will be aesthetically pleasing and functional, and will have a purpose such as
providing a gathering space to people or as a destination for events that might from
time to time enliven it. I
I Plazas will include key design elements including seating (in the shade during the
summer and in the sun during the winter), special areas that provide a haven from the
wind or that offer views to the mountains or into the city; landscaping and planters that
can create a human scale and water features, fountains and public art that attract
people.
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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
I Plazas will be sized carefully to avoid diluting the pedestrian density if too large, or
creating unwelcoming space if too small.
I High quality maintenance of plazas, including cleanliness, durability, snow removal,
care of trees, landscaping and art, will be critical to their success.
I Triangle plazas, created with the reconfiguration of the 13th Street/Tremont Place and
12th Street/Glenarm Place intersections, will provide better street alignments and will
better facilitate automobile and pedestrian crossings at Colfax Avenue. These plazas
should connect with adjacent buildings and should serve as both pedestrian refuges and
as active urban open spaces.
I Plaza design should emphasize strong edges through thoughtful configurations and use
of elements such as curbs, trees, lights, landscaping, sidewalks, public art, wayfinding,
and educational signage.
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URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE
6. Open Space
Open space is unprogrammed green space that provides a respite from the urban
hardscape, a unifying apron surrounding civic structures, and a pleasant oasis.
I Civic open space will be located in the building setbacks on all streets, in the tree
lawn or amenity zone between the public sidewalk and the street curb, and at the
building entries.
I When formed by a terrace surrounding a building, open space will contribute to the
security of the building.
I Plantings may be formal or informal. Gathering space may or may not be encouraged,
depending on the location. Seating need not be provided.
I All open space will be made more secure by the informal surveillance of "eyes on the
street."
Frederick MacMonnies Pioneer
Monument

Open space will be aesthetically pleasing but need not necessarily be functional.
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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
7. Wayfinding and Signage
The Civic Center District is a vital and exciting area with a rich and diverse mix of historic
buildings and sites, some of the most important cultural facilities in the city, and a large
employment center. It is also an important destination for those transacting business with the
city, participating in the court system, or visiting the detention facilities.
I A comprehensive signage system and design elements will be developed to unify the
District and to emphasize its special character.
I Appropriate signage guidelines will be created to identify significant features, improve
orientation, and to direct individuals to destinations.
I Wayfinding may include orientation maps; directional, identification and interpretative
signs; District boundary markers; banners; transit signs; and historic plaques.
I A signage master plan that illustrates the location of each type of wayfinding element
will be developed to guide the installation of signs and elements.
I Wayfinding to the cultural institutions, such as the Denver Art Museum and
Denver Public Library, will be included in the development of the pedestrian routes and
Cultural Axis. Wayfinding between downtown Denver especially the Colorado
Convention Center and the cultural institutions is critical and will be given priority. I
Existing wayfinding signage in the Civic
Center District will be integrated into a
comprehensive wayfinding system.
I A wayfinding system will guide pedestrians between downtown Denver and the
cultural complex. Wayfinding elements, coordinated with public art and park ameni-
ties, will invite pedestrians into the park along the Civic Axis.
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URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE
8. Public Art
The Civic Center District will be enhanced through the installation of public art when new
civic or cultural buildings are built.
b A diverse array of public art features will be included in the Civic Center District and
may include murals; educational, memorial and commemorative installations;
sculpture; informative art; and water features.
I A public art master plan that illustrates the relocation of existing public art where
required, areas where new public art should be installed, and that defines areas where
public art would be inappropriate, will be developed to guide the installation of public
art.
"The Yearling" by Donald Lipski is an
example of public art in Civic Center.
The red painted steel chair with paint-
ed fiberglass bronco was constructed in
1992. The chair stands 21 feet high
and is 10 feet wide by 10 feet deep.
The horse is 6 feet high at the ears.
The Denver Public Library notes that
"the scale of 'The Yearling' brings each
viewer back to a time in life when
even ordinary objects seemed monu-
mental." The piece was installed out-
side the Central Library in 1998.
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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
9. Green Design, Healthy Buildings
Sustainable and 'green' design will be an integral component of all planning and new con-
struction of occupied civic buildings within the Civic Center District. Accomplished through
green building practices, sustainable design measures will result in energy efficient buildings
that are healthy pleasant environments.
Sustainable/Green design is character-
ized by three principles: 8
I Minimizing the use of non-
renewable resources such as
fossil fuels.
In addition to energy savings achieved through Green Design, recent studies indicate high-
er productivity among workers as studied and measured in terms of production rate, quality of
production, and changes in absenteeism. Buildings that follow Green Design measures are
generally more pleasant environments to work in, provide relief from the eyestrain associated
with intensive computer use, provide comfortable heating and air conditioning, and allow
employees restful outdoor views. Green Design is not just good for the environment; it is
good for people.
With good planning and a commitment to Green Design, design and construction costs can
be comparable to standard construction while operating costs should be significantly lower.
Green Design need not be more expensive than conventional design. This can be done by
using "whole system" costing, in which the budget for the building allows some components
to be higher than conventional costs as long as total costs remain within budget. For example,
higher costs such as advanced glazing, daylighting devices, raised floors and efficient mechan-
ical systems can be balanced by the downsizing or elimination of other systems permitting
smaller chillers, less ductwork, and fewer fixtures. The result should be first-cost neutral.
I Minimizing production of waste
and use of landfills.
I Maintaining highest possible
level of indoor air quality,
primarily by avoiding materials
that emit noxious gases.
8Urban Land, November/December 2002,
"The Green Way", pages 79-85, "Going for
the Green", pages 87-93
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URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE
Integrating technologies in the following areas should be given strong encouragement and
consideration for all new civic buildings within the Civic Center District:
Sus
ainable/Green Design
Advanced window glazing with different spectral characteristics on different elevations
to reduce heat gain;
Natural daylighting developed through external shading and internal light transporting
devices;
Suspended direct and indirect lighting with automatic daylight dimming controls and
electronic ballasts;
Use of raised floor systems to distribute cable, power, telecommunications, and air;
Innovative design in heating and air conditioning using highly efficient air handling
units and gas fired chillers;
Use of recycled or partially recycled carpet where possible;
Use of recycled materials such as gypsum board walls and structural steel where
possible;
Use of drought tolerant landscape design and materials;
Installation of water recycling systems.
Use of energy efficient and directed light design to avoid glare, light trespass and light
pollution.
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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
Healthy Buildings9
The following strategies have been successful in creating healthy buildings. These, or state
of the art systems and technologies, should be applied to civic structures.
I Prohibit use of materials known to emit volatile organic compounds where possible;
I Use water based paints in light colors to reflect light where possible;
I Separation of the venting systems in restrooms, kitchens and copier rooms from the
general circulation;
I Elimination of ozone depleting gases and promotion of environmentally-friendly
refrigerants;
I Locate private offices to the center of the building. Provide open workstations to the
windows to provide employees with outdoor views, and to allow for natural light
throughout the building.
The use of the above technologies could result in LEED silver certification (U.S. Green
Building Council's Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design), making Denver a leader in
environmental design and an example to other cities of thoughtful and commendable design.
9Urban Land, November/December 2002,
"The Green Way", pages 79-85, "Going for
the Green", pages 87-93
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URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE
;-,w
10. Safety and Security Through Environmental Design


The security zones identified by the
General Services Administration 10
The Civic Center District will be a safe and secure environment for everyone, including
office workers, visitors, and neighborhood residents. Prevention of crime and the possible
threat of terrorism will be carefully considered when designing new civic buildings and
streetscapes.
h New security measures will be coordinated in existing locations, within established
urban design patterns. Design for security in the streetscape and surrounding existing
historic structures will respect the existing site's context, views, symbolic meaning, and
use. Lighting, visual surveillance and access control technologies will be selected to
preserve the historic and architectural features of the District.
h Planning for security will be an integral component of the design process for civic
buildings, sites and adjacent public rights-of-ways, and will be included from the
earliest stages to ensure that security is balanced with aesthetics, and that the secured
environment is an invisible part of the design and integral to the architecture, the
landscape and the streetscape.
I The building security zones that have been identified by the General Services
Administration (GSA) for defining differing security needs, including architectural,
landscape, and streetscape responses, will be used. The zones are Zone 1: Building
Interior; Zone 2: Building Perimeter; Zone 3: Building Yard; Zone 4: Sidewalk and
Tree Lawn/ Amenity Zone; Zone 5: Curb Lane. I
I The principles of secure design natural surveillance, territorial reinforcement
and additional building security will be followed in the development of new civic
buildings and spaces to invisibly incorporate security measures into all of the five
zones.
10United States General Services
Administration
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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
I Natural surveillance maximizes the visibility of people, parking areas, plazas, and
building entrances. Territorial reinforcement is the placement of features such as land
scape plantings, pavement design, and gateway treatments that define property lines
and distinguish private spaces from public spaces.
I Enforcement of laws, codes and regulations will continue to be important to provide for
the safety of daily users as well as visitors to the Civic Center District. High quality
maintenance, diligent enforcement against quality of life crimes, and provision of a safe
and comfortable environment are integral to a safer community for the District.
Guidelines:
I Adequate surveillance for all public plazas and open space will be provided. Measures
may include providing active uses on the ground floor level of buildings, windows on
all sides of a building for views into adjacent building yards, alleys, sidewalks, and
streets; providing adequate nighttime lighting; ensuring that parking areas and building
entries are observable; maintaining shrubbery to under two feet (2') in height for
greater visibility; formally designating gathering areas; and designing spaces to
facilitate observation increase ability to see what is ahead and around. I
Security bollards near the Colorado
Historical Society building
I Territorial Reinforcement will be provided by clearly indicating public routes and
spaces; by discouraging access to private areas with structural elements; by
accentuating building entrances with architectural elements, lighting and landscaping;
minimizing ambiguous spaces and designing spaces for intended purposes. The use of
natural barriers, such as terrain or distance, will be used where possible to physically
separate conflicting activities and to define clear borders of controlled space.
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URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE
I Vulnerable areas such as civic plazas in the Civic Center District will be improved and
risk reduced by distributing safe activities and by increasing natural surveillance.
Perform a risk assessment analysis for all civic buildings and provide additional
building security were warranted. Additional building security may include security at
all public entrances; secured and limited entry at non-public entrances; and clearly
marked transitional zones from public to private areas.
I Civic Center District will be a safe and secure environment for everyone, including
office workers, visitors, and neighborhood residents. Prevention of crime and the
possible threat of terrorism will be carefully considered when designing new civic
buildings and streetscapes.
I Where streetscaping is required, hardened versions will be installed to provide invisible
security.
I Landscape design elements will be used in building yards, such as planters, terraces
and rows of trees, to provide additional security.
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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
W C. COMPLY Win REGULATIONS Existing regulations:
Architecture and development within the Civic Center District will be required to comply with the regulations for the zone district in which the new improvements or modifications are located. Regulations may vary by zone district, but currently they all require ground floor activity adjacent to the public right-of-way, reinforcing the street wall with setbacks and build-to lines, restricting parking to the rear of buildings, and the importance of durable build- ing materials. Several existing regulations offer special significance for the Civic Center District as they reinforce the civic and cultural importance of the area. Civic Center Historic District Design Guidelines Design Guidelines for Golden Triangle / B-8-G Zone District Design Guidelines for Downtown /
1. Historic Districts B-5 Zone District
1 The Civic Center District includes the Civic Center Historic District and several buildings within the Downtown Denver Historic District. As designated Denver Landmark Historic Districts, modifications within these areas, including new buildings, will be subject to the design guidelines and design review by the Denver Landmark Preservation Commission. Design Guidelines for Uptown and Capitol Hill / R-4-X and OD-1 zone districts
1 A portion of the Civic Center District is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. While the listing is primarily to recognize the historical significance of the District, it does mandate that applicable Federal and State projects comply with Federal and State preservation laws and regulations.
2. Zoning
1 The B-8-G zone district of the Golden Triangle Neighborhood encompasses a large segment of the Civic Center District, and mandates that new projects and those of a significant renovation be reviewed by city staff for conformance with the Design Guidelines for Golden Triangle / B-8-G Zone District.
1 Other zone districts that are subject to design review by city staff are B-5, R-4-X and R-4 with overlay OD-1.
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URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE
3. Building Heights
I Building heights for all buildings will conform to the existing height control ordinances
as currently defined.
I Height restrictions are of three types:
1) Those inherent in the zone district;
2) Those within the City and County of Denvers View Preservation Ordinance that
protects the mountain view from the steps of the State Capitol, (Revised Municipal
Code Section 10-56 and 10-61).
3) Restrictions on structures in the Civic Center District that prescribe heights to
protect the sense of scale surrounding the Civic Center, (Revised Municipal Code
Section 10-81 through 10-87).
4. Building Stepbacks
I Building stepbacks will be as directed in the Civic Center Historic District Design
Guidelines, i.e. provided at a height between 60-80 feet for those buildings that face
Civic Center Park or key historic buildings along Colfax Avenue, 15th Street, and
Cleveland Place.
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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN
W D. ARCMTECTURE IN THE CORE
1. Civic Axis
The Civic Axis will be distinguished by signature buildings of exceptional and dignified
architecture. New buildings will respect and continue the District's tradition of creating signa-
ture architecture of a monumental scale that are recognizable as products of their own time.
The following should be considered in the planning and design of new buildings, private
development and parking structures located along the Civic Axis. These guidelines are in
addition to existing regulations and apply to the entire building, without respect to height.
New buildings along the Civic Axis will relate, in mass and scale, to the monumental and
historic character of the District's existing civic structures. They will complement the architec-
tural qualities of the existing historic buildings of the Civic Center District but will be contem-
porary in nature.
Guidelines:
I New buildings will be surrounded by public open space and will include ceremonial
entries oriented to primary streets including Colfax Avenue and West 14th Avenue.
Facades should reflect the importance of the location with significant architectural
detailing.
United States Mint
I The preferred scale for new buildings is wide, low-scale structures that help fill and
define the block, hold the street edge and appropriately scale the open space. I
I All elevations of all buildings will be significant facades that are appropriately finished
and designed. All four facades, even those facing an alley, will be architecturally
treated and detailed.
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URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE
Great design adds value to a city. It
adds psychic value, aesthetic value and
economic value, because it says you
are a city that is moving; youre a city
that is progressive; youre a city that
has confidence in itself. I think
Denvers ready for it.


Jennifer Moulton, Denver Director of
Community Planning and Development
from 1991-2003, about the expansion of the
Denver Art Museum, quoted by Daniel
Libeskind in Breaking Ground.
All elevations facing a street will have doors, windows and architectural scaling
elements and should not appear to be the back of the building. Large areas of
undifferentiated or blank building fa9ades, as well as building arcades, are not
appropriate and are strongly discouraged.
New buildings will reflect the proportions of the existing historic buildings. Building
fa9ades will reference adjacent roof lines, floor to floor ratios, and proportions of
scaling elements. Buildings will include vertical and horizontal detailing to articulate
bay sizes and patterns, banding, belt coursing, pilasters and piers. The base will be
emphasized by a change of materials, textures, colors, and/or patterns.
Materials of new buildings will be high quality, durable, sustainable materials
appropriate to the Civic Center District. These may include granite, marble or other
stone, masonry, architectural metals or window systems, or contemporary materials
such as ceramic tile. Additional materials may be used for accent or detailing. I
I Emphasize the change of exterior materials with reveals or changes in the fa9ade plane.
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Full Text

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APRIL 2005 CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN

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w TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Executive Summary and Vision Plan . . . . . 1 II. Purpose and Need . . . . . . . . . 7 Need for the District Plan . . . . . . . . 8 Purpose for the District Plan . . . . . . . 8 Relationship to the Denver Comprehensive Plan . . . .10 Planning Process . . . . . . . . . .14 III. Existing Conditions and Issues . . . . . . .17 Study Area . . . . . . . . . . .18 Existing Conditions . . . . . . . . . .20 Existing Regulations . . . . . . . . .26 Existing Issues . . . . . . . . . . .31 A Note on Terms . . . . . . . . . .32 IV. History of Civic Center . . . . . . . .33 History . . . . . . . . . . . .34 V. Vision and Goals . . . . . . . . . .39 Goals and Principles . . . . . . . . .42 VI. Land Use and Economic Development . . . . .45 A. Civic Center District Boundaries . . . . . .46 B. Land Use Goals & Recommendations from Existing Plans . .48 C. Land Use Goals for the Civic Center District . . . .51 D. Recommended Land Use Scenario Full Build Out . . .53 E. Market and Economic Analysis Findings . . . . .62 F. Land Use Implementation . . . . . . . .63 TABLE OF CONTENTS

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN VII. Urban Design and Architecture . . . . . . 67 A. Goals . . . . . . . . . . . 68 B. Urban Design . . . . . . . . . 69 1. Urban Form . . . . . . . . . 69 2. Building Setbacks and Stepbacks in the Core . . . 76 3. Streetscape in the Core . . . . . . . 77 4. Streetscape in the Transition Area . . . . . 79 5. Plazas . . . . . . . . . . 80 6. Open Space . . . . . . . . . 82 7. Wayfinding and Signage . . . . . . . 83 8. Public Art . . . . . . . . . 84 9. Green Design / Healthy Buildings . . . . . 85 10. Safety & Security . . . . . . . . 88 C. Comply with Existing Regulations . . . . . . 91 D. Architecture in the Core . . . . . . . . 93 1. The Civic Axis . . . . . . . . . 93 2. The Cultural Axis . . . . . . . . 95 3. Private Development . . . . . . . 96 4. Parking Structures . . . . . . . . 97 E. Architecture in the Transition Area . . . . . . 98 1. Civic Buildings . . . . . . . . 98 2. Private Development . . . . . . . 99 3. Parking Structures . . . . . . . . 99 F. Urban Design Implementation . . . . . . . 100

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VII. Transportation . . . . . . . . . .105 A. Goals . . . . . . . . . . . .106 B. Street System . . . . . . . . . .107 1. Pedestrian Network and Bicycle Circulation . . . .107 2. Roads . . . . . . . . . . .111 C. Parking . . . . . . . . . . .117 D. Transit and Civic Center Station Guiding Principles . . .121 1. Downtown Transit Circulator . . . . . .121 2. Civic Center Station . . . . . . . .122 3. Local Bus Service . . . . . . . . .123 E. Transportation Implementation . . . . . . .124 IX. Parks and Parkways . . . . . . . . .129 A. Goals . . . . . . . . . . . .130 B. Civic Spaces . . . . . . . . . .131 C. Civic Center Master Plan . . . . . . . .133 D. Parkways, Boulevards and Gateway Park . . . . .137 E. Parks and Parkways Implementation . . . . . .138 X. Implementation Plan . . . . . . . . .141 A. Implementation Strategies . . . . . . . .142 B. Implementation Projects . . . . . . . .146 XI. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . .157 Elected Officials Planning Board Mayors Cabinet Interagency Plan Review Team Project Team Project Team Consultants TABLE OF CONTENTS

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN XII. Appendices . . . . . . . . . .A-1 A. Appendix A. Relationship to the Comprehensive Plan . .A-3 B. Appendix B. Public Process Summaries . . . . .A-13 1. Summary of Design Charrette, August 28, 2004 2. Summary of Public Open House, December 2, 2004 C. Appendix C. Potentially Significant and Historic Buildings .A-19 1. Summary D. Appendix D. Land Use and Development . . . . .A-23 1. Land Use Alternatives 2. Alternative A The Minimalist Alternative 3. Alternative B The Full Build-Out Alternative 4. Alternative C The Partial Build-Out Alternative E. Appendix E. Economic Analysis . . . . . .A-65 1. Market Overview 2. Economic Impacts 3. City and County Revenue Impacts F. Appendix F. Transportation Modeling and Evaluation . .A-79 1. Assumptions/Issues/Goals 2. Streets Systems Alternatives and Preliminary Recommendations 3. Results 4. Simulation Analysis Results G. Appendix G. Parking Analysis . . . . . . .A-97 1. Introduction and Current Issues 2. Goals/Objectives 3. Alternatives Considered 4. Alternatives Analysis 5. Parking Demand for Special Events 6. Quantification of Parking Demand 7. Policy Recommendations H. Appendix H. Source Notes and Bibliography . . . .A-105

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TABLE OF CONTENTS w LIST OF MAPS, FIGURES AND ILLUSTRATIONS Maps Vision Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Context Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Study Area and Boundaries . . . . . . . . . 18 Land Use . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Parcel Ownership . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Public Art and Monuments . . . . . . . . . 24 Parks and Parkways . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Historic Districts and Landmark Structures . . . . . . 26 Height Restrictions and View Plane . . . . . . . 27 Current Zoning Map . . . . . . . . . . 29 Early Plans for Civic Center . . . . . . . . . 34 Art Commission Vision for Civic Center . . . . . . 35 Civic Center Design by Edward Bennett . . . . . . 36 1924 DeBoer Plan . . . . . . . . . . . 37 District Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . 46 Land Use Figure Ground . . . . . . . . . 54 U.L.I. Justice Center Recommendation . . . . . . . 56 Context Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Urban Form Diagram . . . . . . . . . . 69 Vision Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Building Setback and Stepback Diagram . . . . . . 76 Pedestrian Lighting . . . . . . . . . . 78 Security Zones Diagram . . . . . . . . . . 88 Pedestrian Circulation Diagram . . . . . . . . .108 Transportation Plan . . . . . . . . . . .110 Transportation Street Cross-Sections . . . . . . . .114 Existing and Proposed Parking Demand Generators . . . . .117 Parks and Parkways of the Civic Center District . . . . . .131 Civic Center Framework Diagram . . . . . . . .134 1917 Edward Bennett Plan . . . . . . . . . .135 Figures Figure A Supply and Demand for City Facilities . . . . .57

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND VISION PLAN

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND VISION PLAN

PAGE 9

CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND VISION PLAN Civic Center is one of Colorado's and Denver's most symbolic places. Known as one of the most complete and intact examples of a City Beautiful Era civic center in the country, Civic Center is Denver's great legacy. The historic, cultural and civic significance of the public buildings is of tremendous importance to the citizens of the state and city. Its open space, landscape and architecture create an inviting and dignified environment for major government and cultural functions. The Civic Center District Plan provides a framework for land use, urban design, transporta tion and parks, consistent with the general policy and guidelines of the Denver Comprehensive Plan. The plan provides a 30 year vision for the government complex, which is a defined public campus with permeable borders that link it to the surrounding urban activity centers. Connections to the adjacent mixed use residential neighborhood and the central business dis trict are envisioned to be strong, safe and comfortable. The District is defined by two significant urban forms: a Civic Axis that connects the State Capitol west to Speer Boulevard, and a Cultural Axis that connects Civic Center Park to the cultural facilities on Acoma Street. These two axes provide the framework for the Core of the government complex. The Civic Axis is framed and defined by Colfax and 14th Avenues, which are envisioned as grand public avenues. Context Diagram Left: Vision Plan

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND VISION PLAN w KEY RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Framework for Public Facilities w Provide a framework for future expansion for public facilities within the Civic Center District and define how the edges of the government complex can best integrate into and reinforce the strengths of adjacent neighborhoods through use, design, programming and transit. Core The Core includes the Civic Axis from Grant Street to Speer Boulevard, between Colfax and 14th Avenues, and the Cultural Axis along Acoma Street through Civic Center Park to 12th Avenue. The Core contains large scale, monumental, visitor-active government facilities, including administrative, legislative and judicial functions. It is distinguished by signature architecture, deep building setbacks, formal streetscape, and ceremonial open space. Transition Area The blocks immediately adjacent to the Core transition in land use and urban design to the adjacent neighborhoods. The Transition Area contains government buildings, but they are generally smaller scale, less monumental and less visitor active. The Transition Area contains private development on the same blocks as public uses. The public facil ities fit into the adjacent context with similar scale, building placement, open space and ground-floor activity as the neighborhoods. The Transition Area contains a mixture of residential, office and retail uses. MacIntosh Park

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN 2. Grand Avenues w Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue are envisioned as grand avenues that connect Civic Center to Speer Boulevard, framing and defining the Civic Axis. Plan recommendtions include geometric and operational changes to balance the needs of vehicles, transit, pedestrians and bicyclists within a high quality urban environment. 3. Civic Center Park w Civic Center Park is expected to continue as the centerpiece of the district. The 30 year vision also anticipates the extension of the green infrastructure through tree-lined avenues, smaller-scaled plazas and a Gateway Park to anchor the Civic Axis at Speer Boulevard. Implementation of the plan is divided into short-term (2005-2010), mid-term (2010-1017) and long-term (2017-2035) actions. Implementation strategies are based on Blueprint Denver's description of regulatory, investment and partnership tools. 4. Implementation Priorities 1. Design and install a pedestrian wayfinding system to enhance pedestrian routes, direct visitors to the Civic Center District and the cultural facilities, and to supplement the existing vehicular and downtown Denver wayfinding system. 2. Enhance the pedestrian connection between the Civic Center District and the 16th Street Mall along the Cultural Axis. 3. Design the proposed Justice Center to continue the legacy of inspired urban design and signature architecture, and to continue the Civic Axis of the Core to the west. 4. Foster opportunities for enhancing the sense of place and the Civic Center Districts identity as the Core develops. 5. Prioritize exploration of developing the gateway feature at Speer Boulevard. Denver Public Library

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND VISION PLAN

PAGE 13

CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN PURPOSE AND NEED

PAGE 14

w NEED FOR THE DISTRICT PLAN In 2002, the City and County of Denver purchased the Rocky Mountain News property at 100 Gene Amole Way as a potential site for a new Justice Center complex. In 2004, the Urban Land Institute reviewed the site acquisition and program requirements, endorsed the site and recommended that the City acquire an additional city block for the Justice Center. The proposed Justice Center raised questions about the specific influence of current government facili ties on the area, the potential for other new or expanded city or cultural facilities, and the location, design and cumulative impacts-for both good and ill-that occur in the Civic Center. The District Plan is an important part of understanding the opportunities and challenges of the pro posed Denver Justice Center at Colfax Avenue and Gene Amole Way, but it is also an opportu nity to take a critical look at the function and form of the government complex and urban design of the Civic Center as a whole. The area has been included in numerous citywide and area plans, but it has not been the subject of a comprehensive planning effort since the 1965 Master Plan by James Sudler. w PURPOSE OF THE DISTRICT PLAN To address these issues, the City has developed a District Plan that defines the context for decision-making related to the physical planning of the Civic Center. The plan places a particular emphasis on locating and designing public places, transitions to the adjacent areas, and enhancing the Civic Center as Denver's centerpiece. It provides a cohesive vision for the Denver government complex and strategic opportunities for improvements. The District Plan is a synthesis plan, building on existing plans and design guidelines, fill ing gaps in those documents specifically related to City and County of Denver buildings and property and adjacent areas. As a supplement to Plan 2000, the Civic Center District Plan supplements and synthesizes elements from earlier plans. As an extension of previous plans, the district plan is a strategic document, identifying specific implementation items, potential funding, timing and responsibilities to achieve the vision set in previous plans and studies. PURPOSE AND NEED The State Capitol from the Greek Theatre

PAGE 15

CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN The District Plan provides a city-approved guide to the acceptable future development of the Civic Center District. It is intended for use by Denver's Mayor, Department of Community Planning and Development, Department of Public Works, Department of Parks and Recreation and other City agencies, as well as by the Planning Board, City Council, other public and quasi-public agencies, neighborhood associations, residents, property owners, business people and private organizations concerned with planning, development and the built environment. The plan is intended to promote patterns of land use, urban design, circulation and services that contribute to the economic, social and physical health, safety and welfare of the people who live, work, shop and recreate in the district. The plan addresses issues and opportunities at a scale that is more refined and more responsive to specific needs than the Denver Comprehensive Plan. The District Plan serves as a supplement of the comprehensive plan. The District Plan is the guide when making decisions affecting the future of the Civic Center District; however, it does not preempt the decision-making powers vested by law or administrative directive in the Mayor, the Council or any other official of the City and County of Denver. It is expressly understood that judgment must be exercised in the application of the District Plan. The plan is neither an official zone map, nor does it create or deny any rights. Zone changes that may be proposed as part of any development must be initiated under a separate procedure established under the Revised Municipal Code. This plan does not allocate funding nor encumber city finances.

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PURPOSE AND NEED w RELATIONSHIP TO THE DENVER COMPREHENSIVE PLAN The Denver Comprehensive Plan ( Plan 2000) provides the policies and recommendations for the overall health, safety and welfare of the citizenry. The District Plan implements objectives and strategies from Plan 2000. The complete list of references are included in the appendix. There are several key policies from Plan 2000 that guided the evaluation and recommendations of the District Plan, including: w Environmental Sustainability w Objective 4: Achieve environmental sustainability in all aspects of planning, community and building design, and transportation. Encourage implementation of recommended strategies within neighborhoods, citywide and throughout the metropolitan region. w 4-A: Promote the development of sustainable communities and centers of activity where shopping, jobs, recreation and schools are accessible by multiple forms of transportation, providing opportunities for people to live where they work. w Land Use w Objective 1: Balance and coordinate Denver's mix of land uses to sustain a healthy economy, support the use of alternative transportation, and enhance the quality of life in the city. w 1-D: Recognize the multiple transportation functions of arterial corridors, as well as their importance for commercial activity and projecting the city's image. w 4-B: Ensure that land-use policies and decisions support a variety of mobility choices, including light rail, buses, paratransit, walking and bicycling, as well as convenient access for people with disabilities. 14th Avenue

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w Mobility w Objective 1: Provide Denver's diverse residents, workers and visitors with a choice of transportation modes that are safe and convenient. w 1-A: Advocate transportation investments that increase mobility of people and their connections to employment, education, shopping, cultural opportunities and other activities. w 1-C: Identify areas throughout the city where transportation policies should reflect pedestrian priorities. These include areas such as schools, child-care centers, civic institutions, business centers, shopping districts and parks. w Objective 3: In urban centers and in new development areas, plan, design and invest in transportation infrastructure and systems that support the principal uses within the area, provide well-integrated connections to urban centers and other destinations, and address the mobility needs of frequent users. w 3-A: Strengthen multimodal connections and transportation improvements within and between existing and potential urban centers, including Downtown. w Legacies w Objective 1: Protect and continue Denver's legacy of inspired urban design in the public realm. w 1-A: Provide a model of excellence in urban design and architectural quality by incorporating design quality standards and design review in City projects. w 1-C: Preserve Denver architectural and design legacies while allowing new ones to evolve. w 1-E: Invest in public infrastructure and amenities strategically to promote community identity and attract development.

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PURPOSE AND NEED w Neighborhoods w 1-C: Strengthen the sense of place in each neighborhood with adequate and welldesigned, public-realm facilitiesContinue City support for public art and historic preservation as a focus for neighborhood identity and pride. w 1-D: Ensure high-quality urban design in neighborhoods by enhancing their distinctive natural, historic and cultural characteristics; strengthen neighborhood connections to urban centers and reinforce Denver's unifying design features such as street trees in tree lawns, parkways and the grid system of streets. w Objective 7: Plan for community facilities and strive for fair distribution, sensitive siting and quality design to minimize their impact on neighborhoods. w 7-C: Plan for future facilities and expansion of existing ones by identifying and reserving land. When financially feasible, purchase the land. w 7-G: Balance the potential negative impacts of a community facility by providing amenities and improvements desired by its neighborhood.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN The District Plan also refers to and is coordinated with the following plans and regulations: w Plans w Blueprint Denver: An Integrated Land Use and Transportation Plan (2002) w Downtown Multimodal Access Plan (underway 2005) w Civic Center Park Historic Landscapes Assessment (underway 2005) w Silver Triangle Development Study (underway 2005) w Golden Triangle Neighborhood Plan (1998) w Civic Center Cultural Complex Master Plan (1992) w Silver Triangle Urban Design Study (1990, 1999) w Downtown Area Plan (1986) w Central Denver Transportation Study (1998) w Parks and Recreation Game Plan (2003) w Bicycle Master Plan Update (2001) w Pedestrian Master Plan (2004) w East Colfax Corridor Plan (2004) w FasTracks Regional Transit Plan (2004) w Regulations w B-8-G Zone District Design Standards and Guidelines w B-5 Zone District Design Standards and Guidelines w Civic Center Historic District Designation w Civic Center Design Standards and Guidelines w Civic Center Height Restrictions w State Capitol View Preservation Ordinance w Streetscape Design Manual w Commercial Corridor Design Guidelines w Capitol Hill/Uptown/OD-1 Design Standards and Guidelines w Uptown/R-4-X Design Standards and Guidelines

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PURPOSE AND NEED Public meeting participants exchange ideas while waiting for the final presentation on August 28, 2004. w PLANNING PROCESS The Civic Center District Plan process consisted of four phases: w Assessment of Existing Conditions and Issue Identification. This initial phase was completed in November 2003 and documented in the Civic Center Planning Assessment. w Development of Vision, Goals and Options. Alternatives included options related to transportation, land use, urban design, parks and public space, a parking demand analysis for the proposed Justice Center, and a Civic Center District parking study. w Analysis of the Alternatives, including an economic analysis of land use alternatives and preliminary implementation strategies. w Development of the recommendations and implementation plan. The planning team included city staff from Community Planning and Development (Planning Services, Historic Preservation, Urban Design, Geographic Information Systems and Graphics divisions), Public Works (Infrastructure Planning and Programming, Traffic Engineering and Parking Management divisions), Parks and Recreation (Parks Planning division), Department of Law (Land Use and Contracting divisions), Office of Budget and Management (Capital Improvement Programs division), Asset Management (Real Estate Management division), and the Mayor's Office. Technical consultants supporting the plan were Mundus Bishop Design, Inc., Fehr & Peers Transportation, and Marketing Support. The public process included a half-day workshop in August 2003 for the assessment of current issues and another half-day workshop in August 2004 to review the vision, goals and options. This workshop included a design charrette with small groups of all stakeholders. Participants in both events represented a broad cross-section of interests, including city

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN agencies (Asset Management, Courts, Safety, Parks, Public Works, Planning), other public organizations (Regional Transportation District, State of Colorado, United States Post Office, United States Mint, Colorado Historical Society and Museum, Denver Public Schools, Art Museum, Public Library), neighborhood organizations (Golden Triangle Association, Golden Triangle Arts District, Downtown Denver Partnership, Capitol Hill United Neighborhoods, Inter-Neighborhood Cooperation, Citizens for a Better Denver), private property owners and businesses, professional organizations (American Planning Association, American Institute of Architects, American Society of Landscape Architects), elected and appointed officials (Mayor, City Council, Planning Board, Landmark Preservation Commission), and users groups (courts users, city and state employees, park users, special events coordinators). The stakeholders were invited back for a public open house and comment period in December 2004. Meetings with individual stakeholders and partners were held in December 2004 and January February 2005. Each of the public meetings was well attended, with 80120 participants at each session. The plan was also shaped through contemporaneous public meetings related to the Downtown Multimodal Access Plan, the Civic Center park master plan, and programming of the proposed Justice Center. Public outreach included articles and advertising in Life on Capitol Hill and neighborhood organization newsletters, a dedicated website (www.denvergov.org/Civic_Center), presenta tions at neighborhood meetings, and broadcast of public meetings on Denver Channel 8. The city process also included review, comment and revision by the Interagency Plan Review Committee, the Denver Planning Board, the Mayor's Cabinet and City Council. The cooperation between the City and the public will not end with completion of the plan. Many of the implementation strategies and priorities rely on continued public involvement and partnerships between city agencies and the district's stakeholders. CPD Manager Peter Park (right) discusses urban design with Bert and Myrna Mineman, Golden Triangle residents, at the Civic Center District Design Charrette, August 28, 2004.

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PURPOSE AND NEED

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN EXISTING CONDITIONS AND ISSUES

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EXISTING CONDITION AND ISSUES w STUDY AREA In Summer 2003, the City conducted an analysis of existing conditions and issue identifi cation in the Civic Center District, documented in the Civic Center Planning Assessment. The Planning Assessment established a study area that included the historic Civic Center, the Civic Center subarea of the Golden Triangle Neighborhood and a portion of the Silver Triangle subarea of the Central Business District. The public discussion of the Civic Center visions, goals and options for improvements included a review of the study area. The north, south and west boundaries of the study area were confirmed as appropriate, but the public questioned the east ern boundary, which excluded the majority of land owned by the State of Colorado. Right: Study Area and Boundaries. Red indicates the boundaries of the Study Area and blue indicates the boundaries of the Core.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN As a result, the planning team extended the study area to include State facilities to the east of the Civic Center along Sherman Street. This revised study area has been included in the updated assessment of existing conditions. An immediately striking feature of the Civic Center District is the orientation of its streets. The original downtown Denver street grid is oriented parallel to the South Platte River and Cherry Creek, creating a 45-degree grid. Starting at Broadway and Colfax, the street grid changes to an orthogonal orientation running north-south and east-west. The north-south streets are named after significant people, Native American tribes or other descriptive names, while the east-west streets are numbered. On the 45-degree downtown grid, the numbered streets are called "Streets" while on the orthogonal grid, the east-west streets are called "Avenues." The study area includes both "streets" and "avenues" and care should be taken not to confuse them.

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EXISTING CONDITION AND ISSUES w EXISTING CONDITIONS w Land Use Government facilities-cultural, city, state and federal-are the dominant land use in the district, followed by surface parking. Other notable land uses are park, office, commercial, retail and residential. The land use in the District includes 16.59 acres of parking, 15.38 acres of city govern ment, 14.90 acres of open space, 12.82 acres of civic and cultural facilities, 11.96 acres of state government, 11.20 acres of office / mixed use, 5.27 acres of industrial use, 2.65 acres of com mercial / service use, 1.54 acres of the RTD Station, 1.44 acres of residential use, and .14 acres of vacant land. Right: Current Land Use RTD Station 1.64% Commercial /Service 2.82% Industrial 5.62% Residential 1.54% Vacant 0.15% OfficeMixed Use 11.93% Parking 17% City Government 16.38% Open Space 16% Civic / Cultural 14% State Government 12.74%

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN Left: Parcel Ownership w Parcel Ownership The City and County of Denver is the majority property owner in the District, followed by the State of Colorado. The United States government has two facilities-the Denver Mint and a neighborhood Post Office. Regional Transportation District's Civic Center Station is within the District boundaries and Denver Public Schools has the Emily Griffith Opportunity School and some surface parking lots. The remainder of the property is in private ownership.

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EXISTING CONDITION AND ISSUES w Transportation The street network in the district includes both the downtown grid and the orthogonal grid, with the 45 degree and 90 degree grids meeting on Colfax Avenue. The area includes arterial roadways of Speer Boulevard, Colfax Avenue, 14th Avenue, 13th Avenue, Broadway, Lincoln Street and most of the downtown streets. Bannock, Cherokee, Glenarm and 12th Avenue are collector roads, with the remainder of the north-south streets as local roadways. Speer Boulevard and a segment of 14th Avenue are designated parkways. Speer Boulevard and Colfax Avenue are enhanced bus corridors. Transit service is high in the area, with both local and regional service. Civic Center Station is a major transportation hub. Acoma Street and 12th Avenue are designated pedestrian routes. Cherry Creek Trail and 12th Avenue are both designated regional bicycle routes, while Bannock and Cherokee Streets are neighborhood bicycle routes. w Colfax Avenue Right: Colfax Avenue Existing Cross Section

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w 14th Avenue w 13th Avenue Right: 14th Avenue and 13th Avenue Existing Cross Sections

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EXISTING CONDITION AND ISSUES w Public Art The district serves as the collective community memory, with monuments, memorials and public art throughout the park and on the grounds of government facilities. Denver's Fallen Firefighters Memorial at Fire Station # 1 Right: Public Art and Monuments

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w Parks and Parkways At 16 acres, Civic Center is the largest open space in the District. Other parks in the District are the state-owned Lincoln Park between Broadway and Lincoln Streets, 14th Avenue to Colfax Avenue, and MacIntosh Park, which provides the foreground to the Wellington E. Webb Municipal Office Building. Speer Boulevard and a two-block section of West 14th Avenue are designated parkways. Cherry Creek Trail is a linear park that includes a recre ational trail and Cherry Creek on the western edge of the District. Access to the trail is avail able along 14th Avenue.

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EXISTING CONDITION AND ISSUES wEXISTING REG ULATIONS Existing View Preservation The existing regulations for the Civic Center District include zoning that requires design review of new structures and significant renovations, several historic districts to protect landmark buildings, and height restrictions to preserve significant views and the Civic Center scale of buildings. When establishing the view preservation ordinances, City Council was eloquent in the need for the height restrictions. The Council found that: w The perpetuation of certain panoramic mountain views from various parks and public places within the city is required in the interests of the prosperity, civic pride and general welfare of its people; w It is desirable to designate, preserve and perpetuate certain existing panoramic mountain views for the enjoyment and environmental enrichment of the citizens of the community and visitors hereto; w The preservation of such views will strengthen and preserve the municipality's unique environmental heritage and attributes as a city of the plains at the foot of the Rocky Mountains; w The preservation of such views will stabilize and enhance the aesthetic and economic vitality and values of the surrounding areas within which such views are preserved; w The preservation of such views will protect and enhance the city's attraction to tourists and visitors; The City and County Building from the Capitol steps.

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Left: Height Restrictions and View Plane CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w The preservation of such views will promote good urban design; w Regular specified areas constituting panoramic views should be established by protecting such panoramic views from encroachment and physical obstruction. The height restrictions are of three types: those inherent in the zone district, those to protect the view of the mountains from the western steps of the state capitol and those that protect the sense of scale surrounding Civic Center Park.

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EXISTING CONDITION AND ISSUES Existing Zoning Designations The design standards and guidelines reinforce the importance of the urban environment, partic ularly for pedestrians. Although standards vary from zone district to zone district, they all require ground-floor activity adjacent to the public sidewalk, restrict parking to the rear or sides of buildings, require building placement to reinforce the street wall through setbacks and build-to lines, and confirm the importance of durable building materials. Additional design standards relate to open space, building form, fenestration, parking structures, building orientation, building entries and landscaping. B-5: Central Business District, highest density (10-20:1 Floor Area Ratio, FAR), mixed use district with mandatory design review, density premiums for housing, historic preservation and other public benefits, no height limit, no parking requirement, limits on auto-oriented uses. OD-2: Overlay district to provide solar access to the 16th Street Mall. OD-3: Overlay district to provide a 400 foot height limit. OD-4: Overlay district to provide a 200 foot height limit. B-8-G: Golden Triangle District, high density (4-7:1 FAR), mixed use district with mandato ry design review, density premiums for housing, historic preservation and other public benefits, heights limited to 175 feet measured from Broadway elevation, parking required for all uses, limits on auto-oriented uses. R-4-X: Uptown and Capitol Hill high density (4-5:1 FAR), residential district that encourages ground-floor retail, office or other limited mixed-use, mandatory design review, density premiums for housing, no height limit, parking required for all uses. R-4/0D-1: Uptown and Capitol Hill high density (3-4:1 FAR), residential district that encourages limited office and healthcare uses, mandatory design review, no height limit, park ing required for all uses.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN Left: Current Zoning Map Existing Zoning Designations, continued B-4: Colfax Avenue, commercial corridor district allowing retail, office, industrial and resi dential uses (2:1 FAR), height limits adjacent to low-density residential districts, parking required for all uses. B-2: 13th Avenue, neighborhood commercial district (1:1 FAR), height limits adjacent to lowdensity residential districts, parking required for all uses. R-3: Capitol Hill, high density residential district (3:1 FAR), height limits adjacent to lowdensity residential districts, parking required for all uses.

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EXISTING CONDITION AND ISSUES Existing Historic Preservation The Civic Center District includes portions of three historic district: Downtown, Civic Center and Sherman Grant. The District also includes segments of two designated parkways and boulevards, Speer Boulevard, which is also a historic district, and 14th Avenue Parkway that extends from Bannock Street to Broadway. Several individual landmark structures are also located in the study area.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w EXISTING ISSUES Although the Civic Center District has a strong urban form and is a landmark area known throughout Denver and the region, there are areas of concern, and uncertainty or weakness in the surrounding context. The critical issues include the following: w Proposed construction of a new Justice Center complex (possibly including presentencing detention, criminal courts, juvenile courts, parking structure and associated pedestrian-active uses such as retail or office); w Concerns about additional government, police, court, library, museum and institutional expansion; w Urban design and physical character of buildings and public spaces; w Pedestrian, transit and vehicular connections across Colfax Avenue, Broadway and Lincoln, and within the Civic Center District; w Transitions between the Civic Center District and the adjacent Golden Triangle mixeduse neighborhood and the Silver Triangle area of the Central Business District; w Impacts from Civic Center Park, including special events, homelessness and vagrancy, criminal and anti-social behavior. w Regular and special event parking demand; w Untapped potential of the District to be an urban activity center. Pedestrian Crossing at Colfax Avenue

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EXISTING CONDITION AND ISSUES w A Note on Terms w District or Civic Center District: Indicates the general study area, including both the Core and the Transition Area. Used to denote an area with common characteristics, smaller than a neighborhood and more compact than a corridor. w Historic District: A defined area of recognized historic significance, designated as a landmark district where demolition is limited and new construction is closely reviewed. w Civic Center: Refers to the City Beautiful era park, as well as the land and buildings immediately adjacent to the park. Also used to describe an expanded area including future public facilities and open space as described in the Vision Plan. w Civic Center Park: The dedicated open space between Broadway and Bannock Street, Colfax and 14th Avenues; the centerpiece of Civic Center. w Civic Center Station: Regional Transportation District's transit station located at Colfax Avenue and Broadway. w Government Complex/Government Campus: A subarea of Civic Center District, limited to City-owned and used facilities and their adjacent open spaces and streets; also known as the Core.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN HISTORY OF CIVIC CENTER

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w HISTORY The origins of the Civic Center District began in the early 1890s with the building of State Capitol. Set high on Brown's Bluff with steps that rise to an elevation of one mile high, the State Capitol is aligned squarely with the mountain range of the Continental Divide. Its grand presence inspired early Denver leaders to plan a center for the city. Denver's Municipal League, comprised of city leaders, businessmen and local clubs such as the Women's Club, envisioned a grand center of commerce and interaction to the west of the State Capitol. By 1902 they had the support of the newly elected Mayor Speer and the Art Commission was formed to further these ideals. In 1906 they commissioned noted planner and 'civic' expert Charles Mulford Robinson who proposed a plan for Denver's civic improvement. At the heart of his plan was a grand scheme for "a great Civic Center" that aligned the State Capitol Building with the then existing County Courthouse at 16th Street and Court Place with a large, linear open space linking government and business. This initial plan was defeated by voters due to its large cost. HISTORY OF THE CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT State Capitol courtesy Western History/ Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library Right: Early Plans for Civic Center. On the right is Frederick MacMonnies Plan that set up the central east west axis and reconciled the two street grids. 1 1 Denver Municipal Facts, May 14, 1910 and March 6, 1909. Courtesy Colorado Historical Society.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN As Frederick MacMonnies designed his sculpture and fountain, the Pioneer Monument, he was drawn into the still on-going planning for the civic center. MacMonnies proposed a modi fication to the Robinson plan that re-oriented the original axis to be a western axis, aligned along the east-west centerline of the symmetrical State Capitol. He added two park spaces at the south and northern ends of the civic center to reconcile the two grid system. In 1912, the city commissioned the Olmsted Brothers landscape architectural firm to design the civic center. Inspired by the MacMonnies plan, they proposed a 'civic center' connecting the State Capitol with a future City building along a linear open space that was defined by a concert grove on its southern edge and a garden space on the northern edge. Portions of their plan, including MacMonnies' strong central axis, were built in 1914. Left: The Art Commission envisioned a grand center of commerce. 2 2 Denver Parks Archives, City and County of Denver

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HISTORY OF THE CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT Right: Edward Bennetts 1918 vision for the Civic Center was for a grand ceremonial space surrounded by government buildings. 3 After Mayor Speer was re-elected and took office in 1916, he commissioned Edward Bennett to create a new design for the civic center. Bennett's 1918 plan was a grand vision that emphasized the strong east-west axis and included a grand gathering space with a large formal fountain at the center of the civic center. A building addition was proposed for the existing Carnegie Library and a second building was proposed to complement this structure 3 Denver Parks Archives, City and County of Denver

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and to balance the formal site plan. The Olmsted 'concert grove' was formalized as a concert garden that would become the Greek Theater. A second axis, borrowed from the existing Olmsted improvements, extended from the Greek Theater north to the future site of the Voorhies Memorial. In 1924, S. R. DeBoer, the city landscape architect, created a plan for the civic center that envisioned extending the formal open space west to Speer Boulevard. DeBoer's plan included a formal 'mall' along the central axis with government buildings flanking the mall on each side, including the future city government building. The City & County Building, designed by Associated Architects was completed in 1932 and was aligned symmetrically along the central axis. CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN Left: 1924 DeBoer Plan 4 In the growth of all cities, a time is reached when they begin unconsciously to take stock of themselves. They realize that beside the physical aspect of a city, which includes population, area, bank clearings, factory payroll and hosts of similar statistics, there is another side that which appeals to aesthetics....They ask themselves what have we to interest our residents after we have satisfied their purses? What thoughts do our visitors take with them to their homes? Do they remember our music, our art galleries and libraries, our architecture? The Lookout published in 1928 by the Denver Public Library in cordial coopera tion with the Fine Arts committee of the City Club of Denver. 4 S.R. DeBoer Collection. Western History and Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library.

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PURPOSE AND NEED In 1955, the Denver Public Library moved into its new building designed by Burnham Hoyt and located on the corner of 14th Avenue and Broadway. The Denver Water Board moved into the Carnegie Library, making numerous changes to the buildings interior and the immediate site. The Michael Graves addition, in association with Klipp Architects, to the Denver Public Library was completed in 1995. The Carnegie Library was renamed the McNichols Building and now houses city offices. The city's Annex One, across Civic Center at Colfax Avenue and Bannock Street, was built in 1949 as a classroom building for the University of Denver. David Owen Tryba Architect's addition, the Wellington Webb Municipal Office Building, was complete in 2002 and city offices were consolidated into the new addition and the rehabilitated Annex One. In 1971, the Denver Art Museum, designed by Italian architect Gio Ponti and local archi tect James Sudler, was completed at 14th Avenue and Bannock Street. The Art Museums new Frederic C. Hamilton Building, designed by Daniel Libeskind, in association with the Davis Partnership, is under construction south of Civic Center and is scheduled for completion in 2006. By 1977, the Colorado History Museum at 13th Avenue and Broadway and the Colorado Supreme Court at 14th Avenue and Broadway were complete.

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VISION AND GOALS CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN

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The Civic Center District is a stunning example of the City Beautiful movement in Denver. Beginning at the turn of the 20th Century, the planning and execution of Civic Center has been based on Daniel Burnham's 1902 principles for a Civic Center: w Supplement city retail-commercial core; w A beautiful ensemble of buildings grouped around a square, park or intersection of radial streets; w Contrast of open space and buildings; w A harmonious whole of class harmony, patriotism, beauty and civic mindedness; w Presence of citizens to strengthen city pride and sense of community; w Location for collective citizen activities. Above all else, the Civic Center epitomizes the physical expression of citizenship. The meanings of "Civic" include "of, relating to or belonging to a city, a citizen or citizenship." City life is based on a principle of civil interaction; that is, "of, relating to or befitting a citizen or citizens and their relations with the state; of or in accordance with organized society; civilized." 5 The Civic Center District is the heart of democratic interaction for the City and County of Denver and as the state capital of Colorado. Organized around a beautiful park and framed by grand avenues, the District includes buildings that house the fundamental legislative, executive and judicial functions of city and state government. Public buildings, parks, monuments and streets reflect the importance of civic functions and are open and welcoming to the public. Historic buildings and streets create links to the traditions of the past. New buildings, while contemporary and innovative in style and architecture, continue Denver's legacy of inspired urban design. Security features that increase the safety of the public realm are integrated with the streetscape and building design, keeping a feeling of openness and transparency that is appropriate to a democratic society. The Civic Center District is important to the city, the region and the state as a significant destination for government, art, culture and civic gatherings. The sense of place is enhanced by views to the Front Range and building scale that balances the monumentality of the public buildings. VISION AND GOALS Lincoln Park and Civic Center Park from the Colorado State Capitol. The view is protected by the State Capitol View Preservation Ordinance that limits building heights. 5 Webster's II New College Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, 1995.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN Sherman Street looking north to the Capitol The Civic Center District is a defined public campus with permeable borders that link it to the surrounding urban activity centers of the Central Business District and the Golden Triangle. Connections to the adjacent mixed use residential neighborhood and the central busi ness district are strong, safe and comfortable. Residents, employees and visitors have multiple transportation options, including walking, transit, biking and driving. Streets are lined with activity, including residential and ground-floor retail. The neighborhoods enjoy facilities and amenities that build on the Civic Center uses, especially the arts and government activities. The Civic Center District is known for public art, memorials, monuments and cultural expression. These gatherings and expressions form the collective memory of the city, reminding current inhabitants of the contributions of those who came before. The importance of the Civic Center District was emphasized by the Denver City Council in 1973, when it found as part of the Civic Center height restrictions, that: w The protection of the great governmental complex known as civic center, which the state and the city share, is required in the interests of the prosperity, civic pride and general welfare of the people; w It is desirable to preserve the integrity of the civic center and to protect the openness of its unique public space as a relief from its intensely developed surroundings; w It is desirable to protect the stature of the public buildings as the symbols of the city and the state and as important points of orientation for permanent residents and visitors; w It is desirable to protect the substantial public investment which has been made in civic center park, the state capitol buildings and other public improvements; w The protection of the civic center will stabilize and enhance the aesthetic values of the surrounding area; w An act protecting the civic center emphasizes the national recognition given to this governmental complex; w The protection of the civic center will promote good urban design.

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VISION AND GOALS w GOALS AND PRINCIPLES To protect and enhance the Civic Center District these goals and principles should be followed: w The public realm includes parks, streets and public buildings. w The mix of uses includes government, office, museums, libraries, residential, retail and open space. The government uses are concentrated in a civic Core with occasional buildings in an adjacent Transition Area. Destination retail establishments are concentrated on the Sixteenth Street Pedestrian Mall and Broadway, while neighborhood-serving and smaller-scale retail uses are appropriate along other streets through out the district. w Vacant and underutilized lots should redevelop to enhance the level of activity, serve as economic generators and to provide an aesthetically-pleasing context for the Civic Center. w Colfax Avenue, 14th Avenue, Broadway and Lincoln Street should be great streets. Colfax Avenue should provide strong connections and links to and between downtown Denver and the Golden Triangle, as well as to frame and define the Core. w Neighborhood and civic character as a high-density, mixed-use urban area should be protected, enhanced and extended to new development. w The area should be pedestrian-friendly through safe mobility, strong connections and interesting destinations.

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w The area should be safe and inviting. w Civic Center Park serves as both an active town square and a special events venue, balancing uses and peak demand. w Parking should be located conveniently to destinations and not disrupt the urban character of the district. Structured parking with active ground floor uses, especially retail, helps establish pedestrian-friendly streets. w The Cultural Facilities are a centerpiece of the district, serving visitors and residents and establishing contemporary interpretations of civic places. w Government areas should be well-designed, well-maintained, welcoming and safe. w The district and adjacent areas are not homogenous. Subareas should be defined through use and character. w The significance of the area should be recognized through a high level of attention to design, operations and maintenance. w Parks, civic open space, and parkways and boulevards are as important as buildings and streets. CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN

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VISION AND GOALS

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN LAND USE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

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LAND USE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT w A. CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT BOUNDARIES AND DESCRIPTION 1. Civic Center District Boundaries and Description The Civic Center District begins on the north end of the Golden Triangle neighborhood and extends into the south end of downtown Denver and the west ends of North Capitol Hill and Capitol Hill. Immediately to the west across Speer Boulevard are the Auraria Campus and La Alma / Lincoln Park Neighborhood. The Civic Center District is home to Federal, State, Regional, and City government and cultural facilities, as well as numerous private structures and uses. With its diverse facilities and uses, the Civic Center District plays multiple roles in the life of the Region, State, Metropolitan Area, City, Downtown, and adjoining neighborhoods. To meet the goals of the District Plan, the Civic Center is divided into two sub-areas: the Core and Transition Area. Right: Civic Center District Boundaries

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2. Core Boundaries and Description The boundaries of the Core extend from Speer Boulevard on the west to Grant Street on the east and from the north side of the Colfax Avenue right-of-way to the south side of the 14th Avenue right-of-way. The Core includes the Webb Building, the new Denver Newspaper Agency headquarters building and the Civic Center Station Plaza. To the south of Civic Center, the Core extends to 13th Avenue to include the Colorado State Supreme Court and Colorado History Museum, and to 12th Avenue to include the Central Denver Public Library and the Denver Art Museum and its co-development. The Core will be distinguished by large scale monumental and visitor-active public and private buildings. It will generally be defined by deep building setbacks on blocks without alleys, resulting in "signature" buildings surrounded by ceremonial spaces. With fewer, more monumental, buildings on each block, the grain of the Core will be larger than that of the Transition Area or the adjacent neighborhoods. Public uses will include cultural, legislative, judicial, and administrative facilities. If private facilities and uses are located within the Core, they should have public scale and character. 3. Transition Area Boundaries and Description The Transition Area generally extends beyond and surrounds the Core on three sides and provides a transition to the Silver Triangle District of downtown Denver to the north, North Capitol Hill to the northeast, Capitol Hill to the east and southeast, and the Golden Triangle neighborhood to the south. The Transition Area typically contains facilities that are smaller scale, less monumental and less visitor-active than those located in the Core. It is generally distinguished by the same building setbacks, streetscape, and uses as the adjacent neighborhoods. With alleys, shallower setbacks, less monumental buildings, and more buildings per block, the character of the Transition Area has a finer grain than the Core. Despite this, buildings in the Transition Area may in fact be taller than those in the Core. If public facilities or uses are located within the Transition Area, they should have a private scale and character. CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN The Denver Public Library

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LAND USE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT w B. LAND USE GOALS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FROM EXISTING PLANS The Civic Center District has been influenced by many previous and existing plans and studies. The following land use goals and recommendations from existing plans for downtown Denver, the Silver Triangle, Uptown, Capitol Hill and the Golden Triangle contain important considerations for the Civic Center District Plan. w Area of Change: Blueprint Denver identifies the Civic Center District as part of the Downtown Area of Change, showing high-density, mixed land uses and the highest levels of transportation options and enhanced building design to be appropriate. w Public Square: Civic Center Park will continue as one of Denver's premiere urban spaces and downtown's major public square, serving as an important relief from the intense development of downtown Denver. w Enhanced Connections: Connect the Civic Center District to the nearby activity centers, particularly the 16th Street Mall, by clear visual connections and by pedestrian links that provide inviting and safe access to the Park. w Improved Pedestrian Access: Provide easier and safer pedestrian access between downtown Denver and the Civic Center District, especially at the Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue crossings, improve streets and intersections. Improve along Cleveland Place from the 16th Street Mall to the Park to enhance the connection between the downtown Denver and the Civic Center. Improve 14th Street to help improve connections between the Convention Center, the cultural complex, and the Civic Center District. w Active Public Space Management: Initiate active public space management, like that on the 16th Street Mall, to coordinate maintenance, security, and programming of Civic Center Park as tools to help stimulate use. Recommit to programs to aid the homeless population.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w Increased Activity and Safety Develop new uses, activities, and amenities in the Civic Center District, including the McNichols Building, also known as the historic Carnegie Library located in the park, to generate activity and to increase safety. w Concentrated Development Concentrate new civic development in the Core, including facilities for the State of Colorado and the City and County of Denver. Concentrate private commercial development in the Silver and Golden Triangle neighborhoods to minimize the impact on adjacent neighborhoods. w Distinct Sub-areas in the Silver Triangle The Silver Triangle is envisioned as a series of sub-areas, each with a character that reflects a distinct mixture of uses. While the vision for the sub-area farthest east focuses on adding residential uses to the mix, the vision for the sub-area closest to the Convention Center and Cultural Complex focuses on adding additional cultural and art-related uses. w Retention of Institutions Retain institutions such as the Denver Athletic Club, Emily Griffith Opportunity School, and the Denver Press Club in the Silver Triangle. w Enhancement of Sherman Street Character Reinforce Sherman Street as a center of State government activity. The design of public and private improvements along Sherman Street should enhance its character by retaining the current width of the street and the predominant building setback, continuing the streetscape which predominates in the 1500 and 1600 blocks, retaining the current architectural patterns such as raised entrances, and incorporating consistent building materials. Sherman Street looking north to the Capitol.

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LAND USE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT w Enhancement of the Cultural and Civic Character of the Golden Triangle Preserve and build on the cultural and civic character of the Golden Triangle Neighborhood. Encourage the development of uses related to the Civic Center Cultural Complex and its components. Build on the arts, culture, and government presence in the Civic Center District. w Integration of the Civic Center The Civic Center sub-area of the Golden Triangle Neighborhood is envisioned as an integral part of the Golden Triangle. The Plan envisions new buildings continuing the tradition of world-class architecture around the Civic Center. Artists' studios, galleries, an art school, and high tech businesses are attracted to the sub-area. Together, the uses contribute to the Golden Triangle's position as the center of art and Western history in the Rocky Mountain region and the government center for Denver. w Complementary Land Uses New private sector land uses should be complementary to the governmental and cultural uses in the Civic Center sub-area. New uses might include galleries, studios, restaurants, hotels, and businesses that use the cultural institutional collections. w Government-related Uses Encourage government-related growth in the 1300 block of Bannock. w Parking Structures with Pedestrian Uses Accommodate parking in multi-level structures with pedestrian-active uses on the ground floor. w Avenue of the Arts Continue cultural and institutional growth south of Civic Center Park on Acoma Street.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w C. LAND USE GOALS FOR THE CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT w Provide a framework for growth, locating new government and cultural uses within the Civic Center District. w Create strong, but permeable edges for the Civic Center District. w Create a gateway to the Civic Center District from the west and visually connect Speer Boulevard and Cherry Creek to Civic Center Park. w Optimize relationships among uses by: locating and designing facilities and improvements so that inter-dependent uses are close and accessible to one another. Ensure that either distance or a significant feature such as a major streets or park, buffers incompatible uses. w Preserve and reuse the architecturally and historically significant structures and features in the Civic Center District. w Reinforce Retail Areas: Concentrate regional destination retail on the 16th Street Mall and Broadway. Encourage neighborhood and accessory retail throughout the Transition Area, especially as part of residential or office mixed use developments. Bannock Street should develop as the Golden Triangle neighborhoods retail main street to compliment the Acoma Avenue of the Arts on the next block. w Design the Justice Center to be compatible with adjoining uses and to allow for future expansion, and continuation of government facilities in the Core. w Energize the Civic Center District by encouraging private development in the Transition Area. w Over the long-term, consider strategic acquisition of parcels for government facilities or for public purposes if necessary in the foreseeable future. Civic Center Park

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LAND USE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT w Encourage accessory uses either in or adjacent to the Districts parks and open spaces, including accessory retail uses, that generate pedestrian traffic, serve visitor needs, and encourage visitors to linger. w Create tools for integrating and strengthening adjoining neighborhoods. Use a combination of land use, programming, site and architectural design, and the circulation system to integrate the Civic Center District with the adjacent neighborhoods while reinforcing the strengths of those neighborhoods. w Locate and design new facilities and uses to minimize potential negative impacts and to optimize potential benefits to the adjacent neighborhoods while recognizing that the Golden Triangle is developing in a multi-use urban context. w Locate and design new cultural facilities to take advantage of the best pedestrian and transit connections to the 16th Street Mall, downtown Denver hotels, and the Convention Center. w Define methods to assure that a high quality maintenance of public and private facilities and grounds in the Civic Center District is attained. w Work with representatives of the Federal and State facilities to encourage them to support and implement the recommendations of the Civic Center District Plan.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w D. RECOMMENDED LAND USE SCENARIO FULL BUILD-OUT The Recommended Land Use Scenario envisions a full build-out of the Civic Center District. The redevelopment potential of the District is determined by the existing zoning, height restrictions imposed by height limitations and view preservation ordinances, parcel size, location, and an optimistic, long-term, perspective on the market. The Full Build-Out Scenario proposes the following: 1. Significant Structures and Uses will Remain A large number of the City's most historically and architecturally significant structures that should be retained are located within the Civic Center District. The Civic Center District is also home to a large number of vacant and underdeveloped sites and numerous structures that are not significant and, in many cases, may also be structurally and/or operationally obsolete. This group of sites and structures provides the opportu nity for significant redevelopment and intensification of the District. 2. Current Projects are Completed The civic and private development projects that are currently under construction within the Civic Center District will be completed. These include the new wing of the Denver Art Museum and its co-development, the Denver Newspaper Agency Headquarters, and the new State of Colorado parking structure and pocket park. 3. The Justice Center For the purposes of this study, it is assumed that the proposed Justice Center will be approved and constructed at the proposed location. When completed, it will contain almost one million square feet of space on two and one-half City blocks. It is intended to accommodate an expansion of the Citys pre-trial detention facilities, the criminal courts, the juvenile courts, and structured parking.

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LAND USE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN 4. The Citys Facility Needs will be Accommodated w City's Need for Space within the District Denver has completed several facility master plans that identify the City government's long-range need for office, warehouse and special use space. In the Civic Center Planning Assessment completed in November of 2003, the total additional facility needs were identified at about 1.5 million square feet. This estimate did not take into account the current supply of either existing or future vacant space or the potential for backfilling City buildings. Additionally, almost two-thirds of the space needs identified in the Assessment is directly attributable to the proposed Justice Center. (Please note that all square footage estimates, including those for the proposed Justice Center, are very preliminary. Future architectural analysis will better define actual square foot needs.) w City's Supply and Demand for Space To analyze the need for additional City facilities, the demand for facilities was compared with the current and anticipated supply within the District, assuming the proposed Justice Center will be built. Much of the future supply becomes available within existing City buildings once current uses move to the proposed Justice Center. It is important to note that the estimates presented are speculative and likely to change as history has indicated that uses within City facilities change significantly over time. w Justice Center Space and Uses Outside of the District (see Figure A on page 57) The projected City demand for space is 1.5 million square feet with locations ranging from existing facilities to the proposed Justice Center to undetermined locations within the Civic Center District. Of the 1.5 million square feet, almost one million square feet are for the proposed Justice Center components. For purposes of this analysis, the proposed Justice Center is anticipated to include the pretrial detention facility, criminal courts, and juvenile courts. The city has identified about 83,000 square feet of space that could be located either in the District or elsewhere in the City. McNichols Building in Civic Center Park Left: Land Use Figure Ground

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LAND USE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT w Other City Uses in the Civic Center District Beyond the proposed Justice Center, City facilities within the District are expected to require about 500,000 square feet of space. These facilities, shown in Figure A on the following page, include uses that may backfill existing facilities (some of which will be vacated when uses are relocated to the Justice Center), uses that may locate in the Art Museum co-development, and finally, potential uses that may locate in a new, but notyet-planned, facility or facilities within the District. w It is estimated that new City facilities would require between 150,000 and 200,000 square feet of additional space by 2025 (excluding parking.) One potential space need that is not accounted for is the potential relocation of uses currently in the McNichols Building. These uses total about 30,000 square feet of net usable space. If the McNichols Building were to be adapted to more public uses, as is recommended to add vitality and amenities to the Park, the current city offices would need to relocate. The relocated city offices should remain in the Civic Center District. Justice Center recommendation from Urban Land Institute (2004)

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN Figure A: Supply and Demand for City Facilities within the Civic Center District. This data represents the City's best estimate of future needs and plans. However, it is not a commitment nor should this estimate be construed to limit the City's use of space, facilities or options. Legend: CCB: City and County Building PAB: Police Administration Building PADF: Pre-Arraignment Detention Facility POB: Public Office Building SQ FT: Square Feet TBD: To Be Determined FACILITY NEEDS PROJECTED SQ FT NEED POSSIBLE LOCATION Justice Center Detention facility 500,000 Justice Center Criminal courts 234,000 Justice Center Juvenile courts 115,000 Justice Center Civil Courts Expansion TBD Justice Center Parking 250,000 Justice Center Justice Center subtotal1,100,000 Facilities currently in the District to Locate Outside of District Back up 911 Call Center 6,000 To Be Determined POB Shops 12,000 To Be Determined Election Comm. Warehouse 45,000 To Be Determined Special Police Functions 20,000 To Be Determined Outside District Subtotal 83,000 Existing Building Backfill City and County B uilding /PADF/Permit Center, Police Administration Building, etc. Fire Headquarters 25,000 Permit Center or Other Fire W arehouse 10,000 TBD PAB Expansion 28,000 PAB or District Police Storage 10,000 PADF Police Crime Lab 10,000 PADF or PAB Police Investigations 10,000 PADF or PAB Emergency Management 3,50 0 CCB Civil Court Relocation 30,000 CCB Civil Courts Expansion TB D CCB City Council Expansion 3,000 CCB Workforce Development 15,000 Webb or Other Civil Service Commission 20,000 Permit Center or Other Backfill subtotal 164 ,500 New Facilities within District Other Office Uses 35,000 Civic Center Distr ict District 6 Police 40,000 Civic Center District Art Museum Warehouse 8,000 Civic Center District Television Studios 15,000 Civic Center District Special Police Functions 60,000 Civic Center District Other District subtotal 158,000 Art Museum New Wing 146,000 New Wing of Art Museum Art Museum subtotal 146,000

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LAND USE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Colorado Historical Society Plaza 5. State Facilities Needs will be Accommodated The State of Colorado is in the process of developing a strategic plan for the Capitol Complex and Denver-metro owned and leased facilities. Because of this planning effort, underway in early 2005, these comments should be considered preliminary and subject to revi sion. At present, with tight budgets and TABOR 6 limitations, the State is not anticipating rapid expansion in the foreseeable future within or adjacent to the District, but rather anticipates emphasis on projects such as the continuation of the life safety upgrades at the State Capitol building and the installation of a new boiler as part of the energy performance contract at the power plant. The State of Colorado owns a significant share of the property in and adjacent to the District east of Broadway and between 13th and 16th Avenues. In addition, the State has sig nificant office leases in the Denver Post Building located at the southeast corner of 16th Avenue and Broadway. The State Capitol is located within the District's Core and six major State buildings (and a new parking structure under construction) are located within the Transition Area. w Short-term Plans: The State's short-term plans include completion of a parking structure and pocket park at the southeast corner of Lincoln and 14th Avenue. This facility has been designed to allow for two additional levels at a later date as funding becomes available. Although the facility is intended predominantly for state use, the opportunity may exist to provide for weekend, holiday or special event use. w Long-term Plans: The State's strategic plan for the Capitol Complex and Denver-metro area was under way in early 2005. Possible recommendations from the strategic plan may include colocation of leased and owned space, renovation of existing facilities and new construction. Legislative approval and funding availability will determine implementation scope and schedules. 6 TABOR is the Taxpayers Bill of Rights approved as an amendment to the State Constitution in 1992. TABOR limits the tax revenue that can be collected and expended by government entities without prior approval by the electorate. TABOR also provides a formula for determining the rate of government growth and expenditure.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN 6. Federal and Other Governmental Facility Needs Will Be Accommodated The Federal Governments facility needs include those associated with the United States Mint and the United States Post Office. w United States Mint: Plans for the United States Mint call for the facility to remain at its current location. There may be a future need for expansion of the current facility, such as an expanded retail facility. w United States Post Office: The proposed location for the Justice Center necessitates that the United States Post Office will relocate. The neighborhood has indicated a desire to keep the retail portion of the post office in or near the District. w The regional transportation facility needs will be determined as part of the Regional Transportation District FasTracks and the DMAP planning efforts, and include the Civic Center Station and the proposed Downtown Transit Circulator. 7. Private Development Demands Will Be Accommodated The "full build-out" potential of each of the thirty-one blocks in the Civic Center District is unique to that block. The potential for each block is determined by a combination of factors, including its zoning, the significance and permanence of the current structure(s) and use(s), the size and configuration of the block, the ownership pattern, and the market. The development potential may also be affected if a portion or all of the block is within the boundaries of the Capitol View Preservation Ordinance, the Civic Center Height Restrictions or the Civic Center Historic District. Market trends indicate that full build-out will be a long-term effort perhaps requiring three decades or more. Sites within the Civic Center District will continue to compete for a limited market with numerous other sites in downtown Denver and the surrounding neighborhoods. Because of the size, configuration, and location of the Civic Center District, some sites are located significantly closer to areas that have development momentum.

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LAND USE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT The current square feet and Floor Area Ratio (FAR) of development in the Civic Center District is just over seven million square feet with a gross FAR of approximately 1.7:1. This is assuming that the completion of the projects currently under construction and construction of the Justice Center. Incorporating the combination of factors listed above, the full build-out potential for the thirty-three blocks in the Civic Center District is projected to be almost thirteen million square feet, with an FAR of approximately 3:1, an increase of approximately five and one half million square feet. Because the projected twenty-year demand for new City facilities within the District ranges between 150,000 and 230,000 square feet, the vast majority of the build-out would be private development, including office, residential, hotel, and accessory parking and retail uses. 8. Location Criteria for Siting New Public Facilities in the Civic Center District w Larger-scaled, more monumental facilities and those facilities that will attract a large number of visitors should be located in the Core. w Smaller-scaled facilities and those facilities that will attract a smaller number of visitors should be located in the Transition Area. w Cultural facilities should be located on the Cultural Axis and other public facilities should be located on the Civic Axis. w Proposed location should be close, readily visible, and readily accessible to similar facilities, related operations, pedestrian and transit connections, and parking facilities. w Proposed location should help improve the level of customer service at the public facility.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w Proposed location should strengthen the quality of the Civic Center District by developing a vacant or under-utilized in-fill site, by strengthening the edge of the Core, by providing a transition in use and scale from the Core to the adjoining neighborhood, by adding to the mix of land uses, and by enhancing the scale and character of the District. w Proposed location, when possible and appropriate, reuses an existing facility or an architecturally or historically significant structure. w Proposed location provides cost effectiveness and operational efficiency. w Proposed location is the appropriate size and configuration for the proposed use. w Proposed location can accommodate possible and anticipated future expansion of uses. w Proposed location helps minimize potential adverse impacts on areas adjacent to the District and leverage opportunities for enhancing the quality of the District and the adjoining neighborhoods. w Proposed location helps distribute traffic consistent with the capacity of the street net work hierarchy.

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LAND USE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT wE. MARKET AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS FINDINGS To gauge the marketability of the proposed land uses, as well as their fiscal impacts and effects on the neighborhood real estate market, a variety of economic analyses were complet ed. These examined the likely economic activity driven by the proposed plan and the implica tions of that activity. Conclusions of this analysis included the following: w Market trends indicate that complete build out of the Civic Center District could require three decades or more. While a proposed hotel and a share of the office and residential development could occur in the next decade, much of the proposed development may not occur for several decades. w Interviews with numerous residential realtors, as well as with representatives of other cities that have completed downtown Justice Centers, revealed very little concern about the impacts of a Justice Center on commercial or residential real estate values in the immediate area. With well-designed facilities that are consistent with the surrounding architecture, real estate values have reportedly held steady or increased in the wake of Justice Center development. w Over the course of its development, the full build out of the District will drive more than $4 million in one-time impacts and over $16 million in annual one-time spending into the Civic Center District. It will continue the city's pattern of investing in the area, coming on the heels of $313 million in infrastructure invested in the area over the past 10 years. w If the District is completely built out, the City will realize nearly $4 million in annual revenues resulting from its development. Even under a less intensive alternative that may more accurately reflect likely development in the near future, City revenues will grow by more than $1 million annually.

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w F. LAND USE IMPLEMENTATION 1. Zoning Code Amendments Zoning language should be established to reinforce the boundaries and character of the Core and the Transition Area. Zoning provisions apply to both City and private facilities. w As public facilities are developed in the Core, provide for the Core building setback on Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue. w Amend the B-8-G design guidelines to allow and encourage private development to meet the Core building setback requirements recommended in the Urban Design and Architecture section of the District Plan. w Amend the R-4-X zone district to include the traditional deep building setback along Sherman Street. w Include the recommended zoning and design review provisions in any rezoning in the Core or along Sherman Street, including rezoning to a Planned Unit Development (PUD) or to fundamental changes to the zoning code. 2. Design Review Design review procedures should be established to reinforce the boundaries and character of the Core and the Transition Area. Design Guidelines apply to both City and private facili ties. w Amend the B-8-G Zone District Rules and Regulations to incorporate the design guidelines recommended in the Urban Design and Architecture chapter of the District Plan. w Incorporate the historic design characteristics in design guidelines for Sherman Street. CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN Implementation actions are listed for convenient reference. For more complete discussion of implementation strategies and limitations refer to the Implementation Plan, pages 141-156

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LAND USE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 3. Locating New Public Facilities w Follow the location criteria set forth in the District Plan in siting new public uses within Civic Center District. This may be done either by Executive Order or by Rules and Regulations. 4. Federal and State Support for the Plan w Work with Federal and State representatives to incorporate the provisions of this Plan into their facilities planning. 5. Sites for Expansion w Explore programs for strategic acquisition of parcels for future expansion of existing facilities or the construction of new facilities. If the City considers purchasing selected properties for expansion, it should explore alternative financing and management mechanisms. 6. High Quality Maintenance w Establish mechanisms to assure high quality, durability and low maintenance of public facilities and grounds in the Civic Center, enhanced District security, and programming of Civic Center Park. w Options include working with the Downtown Denver Business Improvement District (BID) to expand their boundaries to include the Civic Center District or creating a separate charter maintenance district to address the needs of the Civic Center District. The existing boundary of the Downtown Denver BID ends at the centerline of Colfax Avenue, which would capture improvements to the north side, but not the south.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN 7. Additional Activity in the Park w Encourage additional uses, including retail and restaurant uses, in and adjacent to Civic Center Park to help generate additional activity in the park, including pedestrian activity; serve visitor needs; encourage visitors to linger in the Park; and help increase both the perception and reality of safety. 8. Distinguish Between the Scale of Blocks in the Core and Transition Areas w Encourage the vacation of alleys where other urban and land use goals are met in the Core, such as the setback from Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue, high quality materials, four-sided architecture and providing plazas and open space. w Alleys and streets should be retained in the Transition Area to help distinguish the character of the two areas and the sites and structures within them. 9. Gateway w Explore developing a new park, a significant structure, or a combination of park and structure on the block(s) immediately east of Speer Boulevard between Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue to define the Civic Center District and to visually connect Speer Boulevard and Cherry Creek with Civic Center Park.

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LAND USE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE

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URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE wA. GOALS w Create a government campus complex between the State Capitol and Speer Boulevard that is a setting of symbolic significance and a major destination for residents and visitors. w Orient the Civic Center District along the Civic Axis. w Connect the Civic Center District with downtown Denver, Denver's parks and parkway system and the adjacent neighborhoods. w Create a definable identity for the Civic Center District by celebrating its monumental and historic architecture, and by mandating exemplary design for new buildings. w Create a transition between the Core and its adjacent neighborhoods. w Improve the identity, visibility and recognition of civic and cultural facilities within the Civic Center District. w Give prominence to the pedestrian realm and walkability as major elements of civic character. w Enhance the pedestrian experience and create boulevards along Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue to improve the identity of the government campus complex. w Enhance the green identity of the District and Civic Center Park by incorporating significant landscape elements on major corridors. Context Diagram

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w B. URBAN DESIGN 1. Urban Form Denver has a long-standing tradition of creating great civic places that are connected by a city-wide parkway and boulevard system. In 1924, before the City & County Building was built and the United States Mint expanded, the city's landscape architect S. R. DeBoer envisioned a civic center of government buildings surrounded by public open space that extended from the State Capitol to Speer Boulevard along a central axis. The urban form of the Civic Center District in this Plan combines DeBoer's vision with Denver's traditions to create the Districts Core, extending the government campus of city and state facilities from Grant Street to Speer Boulevard. New civic buildings will be oriented along the Civic Axis as envisioned in the DeBoer plan, but instead of a central mall or green space, Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue will be developed as grand avenues that serves as civic open space and primary linkages. Left: Urban Form Diagram The Districts Urban Form emphasizes the Civic Axis as the primary organizing feature. The Cultural Axis rein forces the Districts connection to down town and to Acoma Avenue of the Arts. 1 4 t h A v e n u e C i v i c A x i s C o l f a x A v e n u e

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URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN Components of the urban form include a deep building setback to reinforce the central core of civic buildings; development of Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue as grand avenues; a gate way at Speer Boulevard, and pedestrian linkages from the District to the surrounding neighborhoods and downtown Denver. w The two key axes will be strengthened to define the Core of the Civic Center District. The Civic Axis will be extended from the State Capitol west to Speer Boulevard to link the State Capitol with the parkway and boulevard system. New civic buildings will be oriented along the Civic Axis. The Cultural Axis will be extended from Civic Center Park north to downtown Denver and south to the Acoma Avenue of the Arts. The two axes will organize public open spaces and key pedestrian linkages including connections to the 16th Street Mall along Cleveland Place and to the cultural complex and Acoma Street. w Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue will be established as the Districts key civic spaces. They will be developed as grand avenues with wide tree lawns, generous pedestrian walks, deep building setbacks adjacent to the District's civic structures, and safe and aesthetically pleasing pedestrian crossings. w Civic plazas / open spaces will be developed along the north edge of Colfax Avenue at Tremont Street and Welton Street. The spaces will be active pedestrian areas that reinforce the civic aesthetic of the grand avenue. w The Core will be defined by gateways that will serve as physical and visual entries into the District. From the west, a new civic space at Speer Boulevard will signify the entrance into the District. From the east, the State Capitol will continue to compel attention and signify the importance of its location. From the north and south, Civic Center Park and Lincoln Park, which provide a striking contrast of green openness, will define the Core. A secondary gateway will be the intersection of 12th Avenue and Acoma Street where the sense of arrival is created by the cultural cluster of museums and the library. Left: Vision Plan

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URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE Right: Artists rendering of concept of Colfax Avenue as a vibrant urban street with a strong civic character.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w Colfax Avenue will be established as a grand avenue with wide tree lawns that are planted with regularly spaced deciduous shade trees and generous pedestrian walks that extend for its full length. w To strengthen Colfax Avenue as a grand avenue, a deep building setback will be established on its southern edge. The deep building setback will be adjacent to the District's civic structures to align new buildings with the City & County Building. Except at building entries, the building setback will be unobstructed open space that will consist primarily of landscaping live, healthy plants on permeable ground cover. w The creation of the grand avenue on Colfax Avenue will require providing additional space for the pedestrian walk and tree lawn. If the improvements are to be accomplished within the existing public right-of-way, the street will be narrowed. For additional discussion on Colfax Avenue refer to the transportation chapter and Appendix F. Transportation Modeling and Evaluation. w Safer and aesthetically pleasing pedestrian crossings will be installed to allow Colfax Avenue to function as a primary linkage between downtown Denver, the governmental campus complex, and the adjacent neighborhoods. w Enhanced pedestrian crossings will be developed along Colfax Avenue at Galapago Street, Glenarm/Fox Street, Delaware/Tremont Street, Court Place/Cherokee Street, Bannock Street, Cleveland Place, Broadway and Lincoln Street. The enhanced pedestrian crossings will serve to provide vital connections from downtown Denver to Civic Center Park, the Art Museum and the Central Library. w The new civic space at Speer Boulevard will be created in the Denver tradition of linking significant civic places with the citys parkways and boulevards. The ultimate gateway at Speer Boulevard is a long-term vision and may take many years to achieve. In the interim, there may be secondary gateways developed on Colfax Avenue with the proposed Justice Center, which may include the west faade of the new courthouse, facing Fox Street, and the development of new triangle plazas on Colfax Avenue. Colfax Avenue today

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URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE Right: Vision of 14th Avenue as a broad grand avenue with tree lawns, street trees, and wide pedestrian walks.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w Civic plazas / open spaces will be developed along the north edge of Colfax Avenue at Tremont Street and Glenarm Street. The spaces will be active pedestrian areas that reinforce the civic aesthetic of the grand avenue. w A view corridor from downtown Denver to the proposed Justice Center will be maintained along Tremont Street to ensure that new development is visually linked to downtown Denver. Views to and from the State Capitol will be emphasized along Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue. Views of the State Capitol dome will be maintained. w 14th Avenue will be established as a grand avenue with wide tree lawns that are planted with regularly spaced deciduous shade trees and generous pedestrian walks that extend for its full length. The existing street cross section will be used to create the grand avenue. The existing tree lawn will be improved and existing walks will be extended and widened as necessary to ensure a continuous pedestrian route along the entire length of 14th Avenue within the District. w To strengthen 14th Avenue as a grand avenue, a deep building setback will be established on its northern edge. The deep building setback will be adjacent to the District's civic structures to align new buildings with the City and County Building. Except at building entries, the building setback will be unobstructed open space consisting primarily of landscaping live, healthy plants on permeable ground cover. w Cleveland Place is the primary pedestrian connection between Civic Center and the 16th Street Mall. Tremont Street will provide a secondary connection between the Civic Center District and downtown Denver. Major traffic connections occur on Speer Boulevard, Welton Street and Broadway. w Sherman Streets streetscape will be retained as the central street of State governmental activity. The characteristic broad building setback, wide tree lawn and raised entrances will be retained, while continuing to provide access for people with disabilities. w 14th Street will be enhanced from Tremont Place to Colfax Avenue to reinforce the relationship of the Civic Center District to the Convention Center. 14th Avenue today

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URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE Right: Building Setback and Stepback Diagram 2. Building Setbacks and Stepbacks in the Core The definitive central mall of civic buildings, oriented along the Civic Axis, will be defined by a deep building setback. The building setback will align new civic buildings with the building edge of the City and County Building. The building setback assists in protecting the views to and from the State Capitol. w A deep building setback of 30 feet, in alignment with the City & County Building, wil be followed on the south side of Colfax Avenue and on the north side of 14th Avenue. The building setback will assist in the creation of the two grand avenues that are the key components of the Civic Center District's urban form. w The Civic Center Historic District Design Guidelines indicate new buildings should relate to the cornice line on the City & County Building by providing either a cornice line or a building stepback at approximately 80 feet above grade.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN 3. Streetscape in the Core Streetscaping along all streets in the Core will assist in creating a definable identity for the Civic Center District. Streetscaping enhances the street edge, improves pedestrian connectivi ty and visually connects the District. The streetscape will include all elements within the public right-of-way including sidewalks, tree lawns, pedestrian lights, traffic and pedestrian sig nals, and street furniture such as benches, bus stops, trash cans, and special features. w Colfax Avenue will be developed as a grand avenue with a stately streetscape of wide tree lawns with regularly spaced deciduous shade trees, generous pedestrian walkways, an artistic median, pedestrian plazas on the north and a landscaped setback on the south. w 14th Avenue will be developed as a grand avenue by improving its pedestrian walkways and its already generous tree lawn. The tree lawn will be planted with regularly spaced deciduous street trees and low turf. w Viable, inviting and safer pedestrian environments will be developed along Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue. New civic buildings will include ceremonial entries oriented to these primary streets, and the street edge will be developed with street furnishings such as pedestrian lights, benches, banners, seasonal displays, public art, and wayfinding and directional signage. w The center median on Colfax Avenue will be developed as a linear art installation with distinctive paving and artistic vertical elements. Trees will not be allowed but low plantings may be integrated within the design of the art installation. w The connection between the Convention Center and the Civic Center District, especially for Cultural facilities, will be strengthened by improving the streetscape on 14th Street. Colfax Avenue east of Lincoln Street, with the desired streetscape of generous sidewalks, a double row of street trees and pedestrian lighting.

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URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE w The connection between the Cultural Axis and the 16th Street Mall will be strengthened with improved pedestrian routes and streetscape on Cleveland Place. w Streetscape lighting in the Core will follow the existing Civic Center Design Guidelines for the Civic Center Historic District and will include streetlight poles, pedestrian light poles, signal poles. w Streetscape amenities may include benches, trash receptacles, ash urns, kiosks and planters. Streetscape lighting for Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue reinforces their roles as grand civic avenues. Right: Pedestrian and Street Light Types and Location Diagram 7

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN 4. Streetscape in the Transition Area Streetscaping along all streets in the Transition Area will follow the requirements of the zone district in which improvements are located. The streetscaping enhances the street edge and improves pedestrian connectivity. The streetscape includes all elements within the public right-of-way including sidewalks, tree lawns, pedestrian lights, traffic and pedestrian signals, and street furniture such as benches, bus stops, and trash receptacles. Right: A typical neighborhood street in the Transition Area 7 Civic Center Historic District Guidelines, City & County of Denver.

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URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE 5. Plazas Plazas are urban open spaces that are adjacent to, and are a part of, a civic building or group of buildings. Plazas are generally hardscape spaces with furniture and plantings on nonpermeable materials such as paving. Successful plazas are lively gathering areas that are sited near or adjacent to the public right-of-way and streetscape or as the entry to a building or group of buildings. w Civic plazas may be contiguous with the tree lawn or amenity zone between the public side walk and the street curb, and within the building setback and entries to civic buildings. New civic buildings are encouraged to develop plazas as a grand approach to the main or primary building entrances. w Civic plazas create a strong public space framework as an organizational device for public buildings and the existing civic spaces of the Civic Center District. w Civic plazas will be supported by adjacent active uses such as retail on the first floor of an adjacent building. Key elements that add to a successful plaza include active uses on the building's first level as these assist in activating the plaza and provide a sense of security. w Plazas will be aesthetically pleasing and functional, and will have a purpose such as providing a gathering space to people or as a destination for events that might from time to time enliven it. w Plazas will include key design elements including seating (in the shade during the summer and in the sun during the winter), special areas that provide a haven from the wind or that offer views to the mountains or into the city; landscaping and planters that can create a human scale and water features, fountains and public art that attract people. Plaza at the Wellington E. Webb Municipal Office Building.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w Plazas will be sized carefully to avoid diluting the pedestrian density if too large, or creating unwelcoming space if too small. w High quality maintenance of plazas, including cleanliness, durability, snow removal, care of trees, landscaping and art, will be critical to their success. w Triangle plazas, created with the reconfiguration of the 13th Street/Tremont Place and 12th Street/Glenarm Place intersections, will provide better street alignments and will better facilitate automobile and pedestrian crossings at Colfax Avenue. These plazas should connect with adjacent buildings and should serve as both pedestrian refuges and as active urban open spaces. w Plaza design should emphasize strong edges through thoughtful configurations and use of elements such as curbs, trees, lights, landscaping, sidewalks, public art, wayfinding, and educational signage.

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URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE 6. Open Space Open space is unprogrammed green space that provides a respite from the urban hardscape, a unifying apron surrounding civic structures, and a pleasant oasis. w Civic open space will be located in the building setbacks on all streets, in the tree lawn or amenity zone between the public sidewalk and the street curb, and at the building entries. w When formed by a terrace surrounding a building, open space will contribute to the security of the building. w Plantings may be formal or informal. Gathering space may or may not be encouraged, depending on the location. Seating need not be provided. w All open space will be made more secure by the informal surveillance of "eyes on the street." w Open space will be aesthetically pleasing but need not necessarily be functional. Frederick MacMonnies Pioneer Monument

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN 7. Wayfinding and Signage The Civic Center District is a vital and exciting area with a rich and diverse mix of historic buildings and sites, some of the most important cultural facilities in the city, and a large employment center. It is also an important destination for those transacting business with the city, participating in the court system, or visiting the detention facilities. w A comprehensive signage system and design elements will be developed to unify the District and to emphasize its special character. w Appropriate signage guidelines will be created to identify significant features, improve orientation, and to direct individuals to destinations. w Wayfinding may include orientation maps; directional, identification and interpretative signs; District boundary markers; banners; transit signs; and historic plaques. w A signage master plan that illustrates the location of each type of wayfinding element will be developed to guide the installation of signs and elements. w Wayfinding to the cultural institutions, such as the Denver Art Museum and Denver Public Library, will be included in the development of the pedestrian routes and Cultural Axis. Wayfinding between downtown Denver especially the Colorado Convention Center and the cultural institutions is critical and will be given priority. w A wayfinding system will guide pedestrians between downtown Denver and the cultural complex. Wayfinding elements, coordinated with public art and park amenities, will invite pedestrians into the park along the Civic Axis. Existing wayfinding signage in the Civic Center District will be integrated into a comprehensive wayfinding system.

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URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE "The Yearling" by Donald Lipski is an example of public art in Civic Center. The red painted steel chair with painted fiberglass bronco was constructed in 1992. The chair stands 21 feet high and is 10 feet wide by 10 feet deep. The horse is 6 feet high at the ears. The Denver Public Library notes that "the scale of 'The Yearling' brings each viewer back to a time in life when even ordinary objects seemed monumental." The piece was installed out side the Central Library in 1998. 8. Public Art The Civic Center District will be enhanced through the installation of public art when new civic or cultural buildings are built. w A diverse array of public art features will be included in the Civic Center District and may include murals; educational, memorial and commemorative installations; sculpture; informative art; and water features. w A public art master plan that illustrates the relocation of existing public art where required, areas where new public art should be installed, and that defines areas where public art would be inappropriate, will be developed to guide the installation of public art.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN 9. Green Design, Healthy Buildings Sustainable and 'green' design will be an integral component of all planning and new construction of occupied civic buildings within the Civic Center District. Accomplished through green building practices, sustainable design measures will result in energy efficient buildings that are healthy pleasant environments. In addition to energy savings achieved through Green Design, recent studies indicate higher productivity among workers as studied and measured in terms of production rate, quality of production, and changes in absenteeism. Buildings that follow Green Design measures are generally more pleasant environments to work in, provide relief from the eyestrain associated with intensive computer use, provide comfortable heating and air conditioning, and allow employees restful outdoor views. Green Design is not just good for the environment; it is good for people. With good planning and a commitment to Green Design, design and construction costs can be comparable to standard construction while operating costs should be significantly lower. Green Design need not be more expensive than conventional design. This can be done by using "whole system" costing, in which the budget for the building allows some components to be higher than conventional costs as long as total costs remain within budget. For example, higher costs such as advanced glazing, daylighting devices, raised floors and efficient mechanical systems can be balanced by the downsizing or elimination of other systems permitting smaller chillers, less ductwork, and fewer fixtures. The result should be first-cost neutral. Sustainable/Green design is character ized by three principles: 8 w Minimizing the use of nonrenewable resources such as fossil fuels. w Minimizing production of waste and use of landfills. w Maintaining highest possible level of indoor air quality, primarily by avoiding materials that emit noxious gases. 8 Urban Land, November/December 2002, "The Green Way", pages 79-85, "Going for the Green", pages 87-93

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URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE Integrating technologies in the following areas should be given strong encouragement and consideration for all new civic buildings within the Civic Center District: Sustainable/Green Design w Advanced window glazing with different spectral characteristics on different elevations to reduce heat gain; w Natural daylighting developed through external shading and internal light transporting devices; w Suspended direct and indirect lighting with automatic daylight dimming controls and electronic ballasts; w Use of raised floor systems to distribute cable, power, telecommunications, and air; w Innovative design in heating and air conditioning using highly efficient air handling units and gas fired chillers; w Use of recycled or partially recycled carpet where possible; w Use of recycled materials such as gypsum board walls and structural steel where possible; w Use of drought tolerant landscape design and materials; w Installation of water recycling systems. w Use of energy efficient and directed light design to avoid glare, light trespass and light pollution.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN Healthy Buildings 9 The following strategies have been successful in creating healthy buildings. These, or state of the art systems and technologies, should be applied to civic structures. w Prohibit use of materials known to emit volatile organic compounds where possible; w Use water based paints in light colors to reflect light where possible; w Separation of the venting systems in restrooms, kitchens and copier rooms from the general circulation; w Elimination of ozone depleting gases and promotion of environmentally-friendly refrigerants; w Locate private offices to the center of the building. Provide open workstations to the windows to provide employees with outdoor views, and to allow for natural light throughout the building. The use of the above technologies could result in LEED silver certification (U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design), making Denver a leader in environmental design and an example to other cities of thoughtful and commendable design. 9 Urban Land, November/December 2002, "The Green Way", pages 79-85, "Going for the Green", pages 87-93

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URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE 10. Safety and Security Through Environmental Design The Civic Center District will be a safe and secure environment for everyone, including office workers, visitors, and neighborhood residents. Prevention of crime and the possible threat of terrorism will be carefully considered when designing new civic buildings and streetscapes. w New security measures will be coordinated in existing locations, within established urban design patterns. Design for security in the streetscape and surrounding existing historic structures will respect the existing site's context, views, symbolic meaning, and use. Lighting, visual surveillance and access control technologies will be selected to preserve the historic and architectural features of the District. w Planning for security will be an integral component of the design process for civic buildings, sites and adjacent public rights-of-ways, and will be included from the earliest stages to ensure that security is balanced with aesthetics, and that the secured environment is an invisible part of the design and integral to the architecture, the landscape and the streetscape. w The building security zones that have been identified by the General Services Administration (GSA) for defining differing security needs, including architectural, landscape, and streetscape responses, will be used. The zones are Zone 1: Building Interior; Zone 2: Building Perimeter; Zone 3: Building Yard; Zone 4: Sidewalk and Tree Lawn/ Amenity Zone; Zone 5: Curb Lane. w The principles of secure design natural surveillance, territorial reinforcement and additional building security will be followed in the development of new civic buildings and spaces to invisibly incorporate security measures into all of the five zones. The security zones identified by the General Services Administration 10 10 United States General Services Administration

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w Natural surveillance maximizes the visibility of people, parking areas, plazas, and building entrances. Territorial reinforcement is the placement of features such as land scape plantings, pavement design, and gateway treatments that define property lines and distinguish private spaces from public spaces. w Enforcement of laws, codes and regulations will continue to be important to provide for the safety of daily users as well as visitors to the Civic Center District. High quality maintenance, diligent enforcement against quality of life crimes, and provision of a safe and comfortable environment are integral to a safer community for the District. Guidelines: w Adequate surveillance for all public plazas and open space will be provided. Measures may include providing active uses on the ground floor level of buildings, windows on all sides of a building for views into adjacent building yards, alleys, sidewalks, and streets; providing adequate nighttime lighting; ensuring that parking areas and building entries are observable; maintaining shrubbery to under two feet (2') in height for greater visibility; formally designating gathering areas; and designing spaces to facilitate observation increase ability to see what is ahead and around. w Territorial Reinforcement will be provided by clearly indicating public routes and spaces; by discouraging access to private areas with structural elements; by accentuating building entrances with architectural elements, lighting and landscaping; minimizing ambiguous spaces and designing spaces for intended purposes. The use of natural barriers, such as terrain or distance, will be used where possible to physically separate conflicting activities and to define clear borders of controlled space. Security bollards near the Colorado Historical Society building

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URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE w Vulnerable areas such as civic plazas in the Civic Center District will be improved and risk reduced by distributing safe activities and by increasing natural surveillance. Perform a risk assessment analysis for all civic buildings and provide additional building security were warranted. Additional building security may include security at all public entrances; secured and limited entry at non-public entrances; and clearly marked transitional zones from public to private areas. w Civic Center District will be a safe and secure environment for everyone, including office workers, visitors, and neighborhood residents. Prevention of crime and the possible threat of terrorism will be carefully considered when designing new civic buildings and streetscapes. w Where streetscaping is required, hardened versions will be installed to provide invisible security. w Landscape design elements will be used in building yards, such as planters, terraces and rows of trees, to provide additional security.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w C. COMPLY WITH REGULATIONS Architecture and development within the Civic Center District will be required to comply with the regulations for the zone district in which the new improvements or modifications are located. Regulations may vary by zone district, but currently they all require ground floor activity adjacent to the public right-of-way, reinforcing the street wall with setbacks and build-to lines, restricting parking to the rear of buildings, and the importance of durable build ing materials. Several existing regulations offer special significance for the Civic Center District as they reinforce the civic and cultural importance of the area. 1. Historic Districts w The Civic Center District includes the Civic Center Historic District and several buildings within the Downtown Denver Historic District. As designated Denver Landmark Historic Districts, modifications within these areas, including new buildings, will be subject to the design guidelines and design review by the Denver Landmark Preservation Commission. w A portion of the Civic Center District is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. While the listing is primarily to recognize the historical significance of the District, it does mandate that applicable Federal and State projects comply with Federal and State preservation laws and regulations. 2. Zoning w The B-8-G zone district of the Golden Triangle Neighborhood encompasses a large segment of the Civic Center District, and mandates that new projects and those of a significant renovation be reviewed by city staff for conformance with the Design Guidelines for Golden Triangle / B-8-G Zone District. w Other zone districts that are subject to design review by city staff are B-5, R-4-X and R-4 with overlay OD-1. Existing regulations: Civic Center Historic District Design Guidelines Design Guidelines for Golden Triangle / B-8-G Zone District Design Guidelines for Downtown / B-5 Zone District Design Guidelines for Uptown and Capitol Hill / R-4-X and OD-1 zone districts

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URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE 3. Building Heights w Building heights for all buildings will conform to the existing height control ordinances as currently defined. w Height restrictions are of three types: 1) Those inherent in the zone district; 2) Those within the City and County of Denvers View Preservation Ordinance that protects the mountain view from the steps of the State Capitol, (Revised Municipal Code Section 10-56 and 10-61). 3) Restrictions on structures in the Civic Center District that prescribe heights to protect the sense of scale surrounding the Civic Center, (Revised Municipal Code Section 10-81 through 10-87). 4. Building Stepbacks w Building stepbacks will be as directed in the Civic Center Historic District Design Guidelines, i.e. provided at a height between 60-80 feet for those buildings that face Civic Center Park or key historic buildings along Colfax Avenue, 15th Street, and Cleveland Place.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w D. ARCHITECTURE IN THE CORE 1. Civic Axis The Civic Axis will be distinguished by signature buildings of exceptional and dignified architecture. New buildings will respect and continue the District's tradition of creating signature architecture of a monumental scale that are recognizable as products of their own time. The following should be considered in the planning and design of new buildings, private development and parking structures located along the Civic Axis. These guidelines are in addition to existing regulations and apply to the entire building, without respect to height. New buildings along the Civic Axis will relate, in mass and scale, to the monumental and historic character of the District's existing civic structures. They will complement the architectural qualities of the existing historic buildings of the Civic Center District but will be contemporary in nature. Guidelines: w New buildings will be surrounded by public open space and will include ceremonial entries oriented to primary streets including Colfax Avenue and West 14th Avenue. Faades should reflect the importance of the location with significant architectural detailing. w The preferred scale for new buildings is wide, low-scale structures that help fill and define the block, hold the street edge and appropriately scale the open space. w All elevations of all buildings will be significant faades that are appropriately finished and designed. All four faades, even those facing an alley, will be architecturally treated and detailed. United States Mint

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URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE w All elevations facing a street will have doors, windows and architectural scaling elements and should not appear to be the back of the building. Large areas of undifferentiated or blank building faades, as well as building arcades, are not appropriate and are strongly discouraged. w New buildings will reflect the proportions of the existing historic buildings. Building faades will reference adjacent roof lines, floor to floor ratios, and proportions of scaling elements. Buildings will include vertical and horizontal detailing to articulate bay sizes and patterns, banding, belt coursing, pilasters and piers. The base will be emphasized by a change of materials, textures, colors, and/or patterns. w Materials of new buildings will be high quality, durable, sustainable materials appropriate to the Civic Center District. These may include granite, marble or other stone, masonry, architectural metals or window systems, or contemporary materials such as ceramic tile. Additional materials may be used for accent or detailing. w Emphasize the change of exterior materials with reveals or changes in the faade plane. Great design adds value to a city. It adds psychic value, aesthetic value and economic value, because it says you are a city that is moving; youre a city that is progressive; youre a city that has confidence in itself. I think Denvers ready for it. Jennifer Moulton, Denver Director of Community Planning and Development from 1991-2003, about the expansion of the Denver Art Museum, quoted by Daniel Libeskind in Breaking Ground

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN 2. Cultural Axis New buildings along the Cultural Axis will relate, in mass and scale, to the monumental and historic character of the District's existing civic structures. They will be compatible with the District's urban environment while being architecturally distinct and contemporary in nature. Guidelines: w New buildings will be surrounded by public open space and will include ceremonial entries oriented to primary streets. w All elevations of all buildings will be significant facades that are appropriately finished and designed. All faades, even those facing an alley, will be architecturally treated and detailed. w Materials of new civic and cultural buildings will be high quality, durable, and sustainable. An emphasis in variation in exterior materials with reveals or changes in the faade plane can be used. w Large areas of undifferentiated or blank building facades as well as building arcades are not appropriate and are strongly discouraged. Blank building facades include those that lack a change of form, fenestration or building articulation. Denver Art Museum

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URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE 3. Private Development Private development located within the Core will be sympathetic to the character of the existing historic civic buildings, but will not be imitative or replicative in nature. Guidelines: w New private development will respond to nearby historic structures through architectural references to roof lines, floor to floor heights, and proportions of elements. w All elevations of all buildings, except those that face an alley, will be architecturally treated. All elevations facing a street will have doors, windows and architectural scaling devices, and should not appear to be the back of the building. w Building elevations and associated site improvements will provide a human scale. w New buildings will reflect the proportions of the existing historic buildings with a distinct base emphasized through the use of masonry materials and aligned with the base of adjacent civic buildings. The Core includes private-scale development and adaptive reuse of historic structures. The Byers Evans House Museum contains a public use and 1200 Bannock Street was converted from a 1904 garage to a design firm. Both are adjacent to the Denver Art Museum buildings.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN 4. Parking Structures Parking structures within the Core will be subject to the guidelines for private development including requirements for faade treatment, scale and form. Parking structures will be integrated with the building architecture and active uses will be provided on the first level facing the public right-ofway. Guidelines: w Active uses, such as retail or office, at the ground floor level of parking structures will provide for an interesting and pedestrian-friendly faade adjacent to the sidewalk. w New parking facilities will respond to nearby historic structures through architectural references to roof lines, floor to floor ratios, and proportions of elements. w All elevations of all buildings, except those that face an alley, will be architecturally treated. All elevations facing a street will have architectural scaling devices and should not appear to be the back of the building. Proportions of the openings on each parking level will be sympathetic to the proportions of nearby civic buildings. w The use of wire mesh or pierced metal coverings at the openings is not appropriate. w No sloping floors or ramps are to be visible from the exterior. w The top level of the parking garage will be roofed.

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w E. ARCHITECTURE IN THE TRANSITION AREA Architecture in the Transition Area will complement the architectural qualities of the exist ing urban environment including adjacent structures and the historic buildings of the Civic Center District, but will be architecturally distinct elements. The following should be considered in the planning and design of new civic structures, private development and parking structures in the Transition Area. These guidelines are in addition to existing regulations. 1. Civic and Cultural Buildings Architecture for civic buildings within the Transition Area will be finer-grained in mass and scale than the monumental and historic character of the Core. Civic buildings within the Transition Area will complement the architectural qualities of the existing historic buildings of the Civic Center District but will be contemporary in nature. Guidelines: w New civic buildings will meet build-to lines as required by the zone district and will include ceremonial entries oriented to primary streets. w All elevations of all buildings will be significant facades that are appropriately finished and designed. All facades, except those that face an alley, will be architecturally treated. w All elevations facing a street will have doors, windows and architectural scaling elements and should not appear to be the back of the building. Large areas of undifferentiated or blank building faades, as well as building arcades, will not be allowed. w Materials of new buildings will be high quality, durable, and sustainable. w An emphasis in variation in exterior materials with reveals or changes in the faade plane should be used. URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE The public realm is the physical manifestation of the common good. When you degrade the public realm. you degrade the common good, and. impair the ability of a group of people incorporated as a republic to think about the public interest. from James Howard Kunstlers How to Mess Up a Town in the Winter 1995 issue of the Planning Commissioners Journal

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN 2. Private Development Architecture for private development in the Transition Area shall conform to the zoning requirements for the zone district in which they are located. For example, private development within the Golden Triangle neighborhood will conform to the Design Guidelines for Golden Triangle / B-8-G Zone District. 3. Parking Structures Parking structures in the Transition Area will be subject to the guidelines for private devel opment including requirements for faade treatment, scale and form. Parking structures will be integrated with the building architecture and active uses will be provided on the first level facing the public right-of-way. Guidelines: w Active uses, such as retail or office, at the ground floor level of parking structures will provide for an interesting and pedestrian-friendly faade adjacent to the sidewalk. w No sloping floors or ramps are to be visible from the exterior. w Proportions of the openings on each parking level will be sympathetic to the proportions of nearby buildings. w The top level of the parking garage will be roofed. The art galleries and restaurants at 1301 Bannock Street are an example of private development and adaptive reuse in the Transition Area.

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URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE w F. URBAN DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION w Regulatory Strategies 1. Design Guidelines for the Core w Amend existing design standards and guidelines for the applicable zone districts to include the direction defined in the Urban Design and Architecture section. Community Planning and Development Short-term 2. Design Guidelines for City Projects w Develop design standards for City projects in the Core and the Transition Area. Community Planning and Development, Mayor's Office Short-term w Infrastructure Strategies 1. Pedestrian Connectivity w Design and install a district-wide system to direct pedestrians to points of interest and pedestrian routes both within the District and in adjacent areas, including downtown Denver. Pedestrian wayfinding should be coordinated with the existing vehicular and downtown wayfinding systems. Department of Public Works, Community Planning and Development, Parks and Recreation, Downtown Denver Business Improvement District Mid-term Implementation actions are listed for convenient reference. For more complete discussion of implementation strategies and limitations refer to the Implementation Plan, pages 141-156

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w Provide for additional sidewalks and better connections between the City & County Building and Civic Center by narrowing Bannock Street between 14th Avenue and Colfax Avenue to a 4-lane roadway, which could include a flexible lane to accommodate traffic during peak periods and on-street parking at other times. If on-street parking is retained, provide for parking kiosks rather than individual parking meters. Department of Public Works, Parks and Recreation, Public Office Buildings Mid-term w Provide for additional pedestrian safety, traffic calming and public parking. Provide for state-of-the-art parking payment solutions rather than individual parking meters. Department of Public Works (including Parking Management) Mid-term w Continue to evaluate the feasibility of adding sidewalks and improving the medians on Colfax Avenue, balancing needs for moving vehicles, transit and pedestrians; providing for public safety; providing for tree-lined avenues; using public streets to define the Civic Center; providing for special event traffic; and providing for emergency response. Time points for re-evaluation may include completion of the City's Strategic Transportation Plan, build-out of the RTD FasTracks transit system and/or build-out of the land use scenario. Department of Public Works, Community Planning and Development, Parks and Recreation Midand Long-term 2. Grand Avenues w Design and install new plazas on Colfax Avenue with the reconfiguration of intersections (see action item above). Retain and add public art where possible. Department of Public Works, Parks and Recreation, Office of Public Affairs Mid-term

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URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE w Improve tree lawns, sidewalks and streetscaping on 14th Avenue, 13th Avenue and 14th Street. Department of Public Works, Community Planning and Development, Parks and Recreation, Asset Management Mid-term w Orient public buildings on the Civic Axis of the Core, between Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue, providing opportunities for public gathering spaces, civic setbacks, enhanced plazas and tree-lined streets. In some locations, this may require dedication of additional right of way. Department of Public Works, Community Planning and Development, Parks and Recreation, Asset Management Short-, Midand Long-term w Continue to evaluate the feasibility of adding sidewalks and tree lawns and improving the medians on Colfax Avenue, balancing needs for moving vehicles, transit and pedestrians; providing for public safety; providing for tree-lined avenues; using public streets to define the Civic Center; proving for special event traffic; and providing for emergency response. Time points for re-evaluation may include completion of the City's Strategic Transportation Plan, build-out of the RTD FasTracks transit system and/or build-out of the land use scenario. Department of Public Works, Community Planning and Development, Parks and Recreation. Midand Long-term 3. Civic and Cultural Buildings w Orient public buildings on the Civic Axis of the Core, between Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue, providing opportunities for public gathering spaces, civic setbacks, enhanced plazas and tree-lined streets. Department of Public Works, Community Planning and Development, Parks and Recreation, Asset Management Midand Long-term

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w Re-use the McNichols Building/Carnegie Library to a public use that serves as a park amenity. Asset Management, Parks and Recreation Mid-term 4. Transit w Determine the appropriate location and design of the turnaround facility for the Downtown Transit Circulator near the Cultural Axis. Department of Public Works, Community Planning and Development, Regional Transportation District Short-term

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN TRANSPORTATION

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TRANSPORTATION wA. GOALS The Civic Center District will be the region's central government campus with an integrated transportation system of enhanced pedestrian, vehicular and transit movement that is a vital connection in Denver's larger transportation network. The following goals serve as the foundation of the District's transportation plan. w Balance the need to move cars with the ability of pedestrians to walk comfortably and safely through the District. w Strengthen pedestrian connections to downtown Denver, adjacent neighborhoods, and civic and cultural attractions. Improve safety of pedestrian crossings of Colfax Avenue, Broadway and Lincoln Street. w Provide for a public parking supply that is sufficient and convenient to parking demand. w Design and manage the District's public parking supply so that it is available for special events as well as supporting civic and commercial needs. w Connect the Civic Center District to downtown Denver with a new circulator/shuttle bus route. w Initiate the vision for an improved Civic Center Station in the context of the Civic Center District Plan. w Maintain Colfax Avenue as a state highway with a cross-section of at least 60 feet of curb-to-curb width for vehicular movement. w Maintain the key one-way couplets of Broadway/Lincoln streets and 13th/14th Avenues. Colfax Avenue

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w B. STREET SYSTEM The street network and the associated right-of-way in the Civic Center District are essential to both the urban design and the transportation function in the District. The District's streets define city blocks, establish view corridors and showcase public art, all while providing connections and serving the mobility needs of those traveling in and through the District. At the same time, the Civic Center District is part of a larger transportation framework that is changing with the RTDs FasTracks initiative, larger plans for downtown Denver, improvements to Colfax Avenue outside of the District, and future transit projects beyond RTDs FasTracks. The Civic Center District Plan considered numerous transportation proposals within the study area as suggested by the project team, the neighborhood, and other stakeholders. The primary goal in evaluating these proposals is to strike a balance between moving automobiles, transit and pedestrians in a quality urban environment. The recommendations include geomet ric and operational improvements to improve safety and to provide a quality urban environment and street system that will meet the City's standards for traffic operations and will operate at acceptable levels of service. Minimum pedestrian standards apply to all streets (i.e. 5 foot walks, 8 foot tree lawns). Enhanced pedestrian routes will have wider sidewalks and tree lawns, enhanced crossings and streetscape. 1. Pedestrian Network and Bicycle Circulation Pedestrian and bicycle mobility and safety will be improved throughout the Civic Center District to ensure that the District is an active urban environment. The street system will be designed to provide a walkable environment that is pedestrian-oriented and that has connec tions to downtown Denver and its surrounding neighborhoods. w Key pedestrian and bicycle routes include: Connecting the cultural complex, park and 16th Street Mall along the Cultural Axis through the park, across Colfax Avenue and 15th Street and via Cleveland Place; Connecting the Colorado Convention Center and the Denver Performing Arts Complex to the cultural complex along 14th Street, across Colfax and along Bannock Street to 14th Avenue Parkway; CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN The all-red phase of traffic signals (known as the Barnes Dance) allows for safer pedestrian movements in areas of heavy pedestrian demand.

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TRANSPORTATION

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN Left: Enhanced pedestrian routes The main goal of the Downtown Multimodal Access Plan, DMAP, is a detailed, integrated plan for vehicular, freight, pedestrian, bicycle and transit access into and throughout downtown Denver. Connecting Cherry Creek Trail to the park and Capitol Hill along Colfax and 14th Avenues; enhance the designated bicycle route on 12th Avenue with a new access ramp to Cherry Creek Trail; Connecting justice system facilities between the proposed Justice Center, the City and County Building, the Webb Municipal Office Building, the Police Administration Building and public parking along Colfax and 14th Avenues; Connecting City government facilities to downtown Denver along Fox/Glenarm Streets, Delaware/Tremont Streets and Bannock/Court Streets; Connecting Civic Center District to the Westside Courthouse, Auraria Higher Education Campus and the Denver Performing Arts Complex via Cherry Creek Trail and Speer Boulevard; Connecting pedestrians to Civic Center Station, local bus stops at Colfax/Broadway, Colfax/Lincoln and Broadway/14th Avenue, as well as future transit options. Connecting the Downtown Transit Circulator turn-around to the cultural complex and the park. w Geometric and operational changes on Colfax Avenue will improve its role as a key pedestrian route and as a primary connection between downtown Denver and its surrounding neighborhoods. Safer and enhanced pedestrian routes and crossings will be provided to Silver Triangle, Auraria, the Golden Triangle and Uptown/Capitol Hill. w Traffic signal operations will be modified as appropriate to provide for pedestrian lead-time or an all-pedestrian phase where there is high pedestrian demand to enhance pedestrian safety and respond to the expected increase in pedestrian activity. w Existing bicycle routes will provide connections to downtown Denver, the Cherry Creek Trail and neighborhoods as discussed in the Bicycle Master Plan. w Pedestrian crossings improvements on Colfax Avenue at Lincoln and Broadway, such as adding a leading pedestrian interval phase to the traffic signal, will be considered. This would allow pedestrians a "head start" before the turning traffic signal turns green. Signal timing would be coordinated with bus operations.

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Enhanced pedestrian crossings will be included at areas of high pedestrian demand. Left: Transportation Plan CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN 2. Roads The vehicular network is closely linked to the Civic Center District's urban form, where Colfax and 14th Avenues are envisioned to be developed as grand avenues linking Civic Center with Speer Boulevard. The technical analysis of the District's vehicular network performance was modeled using Synchro and subsequently using VISSIM for additional detail on Colfax Avenue. w The analysis assumed: 2025 p.m. peak hour conditions; Fourteen percent (14%) growth based on the Downtown Multimodal Access Plan modeling results; Geometric changes to create the District's urban form and providing adjusted signal timing with existing cycle lengths. w The analysis indicated that vehicular network could meet the City's standards for traffic operations, and operate at acceptable traffic service levels. The long term urban framework vision for Colfax Avenue is to create a tree-lined avenue with generous sidewalks. One means of achieving this vision is to narrow the roadway to two lanes in each direction with a center median/turn lane. This cross section would provide a sub stantial tree lawn and sidewalk to demonstrate the civic nature of the street. Other opportuni ties for providing improvements to Colfax Avenue are discussed in the urban design and parks chapters. Opportunities to acquire additional right-of-way through this segment of Colfax Avenue are extremely limited, so plan recommendations focus on optimizing the use of exist ing public right-of-way. For more discussion on this concept, refer to Appendix F. Transportation Modeling and Evaluation. The concept of tunneling Colfax Avenue within the study area was discussed qualitatively in the context of this Plan. If DMAP recommends grade separations between streets and other transportation modes to accommodate future transit within the Civic Center District, issues Synchro is a software analysis tool used to evaluate traffic operations. It can report the level of delay or congestion for vehicles on an intersection by intersection basis. VISSIM is a microsimulation software analysis tool used to evaluate traffic operations on a more detailed level. It can report the level of delay or congestion for multiple modes of travel such as transit, pedestrians and vehicles on a system-wide basis that accounts for the interactions between multiple intersections.

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TRANSPORTATION Illustrative plan of reconfigured Tremont Place. associated with burying the streets or transit facilities would be addressed at that time through additional evaluation and an inclusive process. Components of the transportation plan include physical changes such as reconfiguring the Colfax/Glenarm and Colfax/Tremont intersections, and narrowing the free right turn lane from eastbound Colfax Avenue to southbound Broadway. Specific transportation improvements and pedestrian enhancements include: w The intersection of Tremont, 13th Street and Colfax Avenue will be reconfigured for improved vehicular and pedestrian access. The reconfiguration will replace the complex and difficult to signalize existing intersection with one intersection set perpendicular to Colfax Avenue, enhanced pedestrian crossings at all four corners and a small plaza/open space. An alternative arrangement under consideration would replace the 13th Street/Colfax Avenue intersection with a plaza/open space. Traffic through movements to Delaware Street are expected to be part of the reconfiguration, subject to more detailed analysis and engineering. w The intersection of Glenarm, 12th Street and Colfax Avenue will be reconfigured for improved vehicular and pedestrian access. The reconfiguration could include closing the eastern end of 12th Street to through traffic and replacing the street with a plaza / open space. The parking areas on either side of the intersection will become plazas / open space. Traffic through movements to Fox Street are expected to be part of the reconfiguration, subject to more detailed analysis and engineering. w The turning movement from eastbound Colfax Avenue to southbound Broadway will be removed and the land added to the park. A new turn lane will be added on Colfax Avenue.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w Bannock Street could be narrowed from its current five lane configuration of three traffic lanes and two parking lanes to four lanes between Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue. The cross-section could include a flexible lane to accommodate traffic during peak periods and on-street parking at other times. The curb-to-curb width will remain adequate to support special events, including parades on Bannock Street. The design of Bannock Street will be integrated with the park master plan for Civic Center Park and will include an enhanced pedestrian crossing, broad walks and the replacement of parking meters with parking kiosks. w Gene Amole Way, the 1400 block of Elati Street that is at the center of the proposed Justice Center development, will remain open if possible after the Justice Center construction. w The one-way couplets in the District will remain as they are currently. These include Broadway/Lincoln Streets Cherokee/Delaware Streets and the 13th Avenue and 14th Avenue couplet, where their street cross sections of three lanes and the right-of-way width of 80 feet will remain unchanged. w 14th Street from Welton Street to Colfax Avenue will be enhanced as an active urban street. The sidewalks will be enhanced with street trees, lights and amenities as a key pedestrian route, linking the Convention Center with Civic Center. A bicycle lane could be added to improve bicycle accessibility in downtown Denver, if a parking lane is removed or the existing right-of-way is reallocated. w Broadway and Lincoln will continue to function as high-volume arterial streets that carry vehicles, transit and pedestrians. Future transit goals for downtown Denver may include an additional connection between Civic Center and the Broadway light rail station at I-25. The location of a potential connection and the mode of transit will require additional study, including evaluation of possible grade separations. During future study, analysis and design, care should be taken to respect the civic character of Broadway and Lincoln Streets in the District.

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w 13th Avenue TRANSPORTATION The long-term vision for the Civic Center District is to use its primary public streets to define its boundaries and its identity. Key to this vision is the improvement of Colfax and 14th Avenues as grand civic spaces that provide access into the District and that define it as the regions governmental campus. w This long term vision will provide a substantial tree lawn and sidewalk to demonstrate the civic nature of the street. However, this concept will not be pursued until a number of other issues are resolved as outlined in the Implementation section of this Plan. w One concept to achieve this vision, maximizing pedestrian and aesthetic improvements, requires that Colfax Avenue be narrowed to a five lane cross section from Bannock to Welton streets. The road cross section would be a minimum 60 foot curb-to-curb width that would include two lanes in each direction plus a center left turn lane and a center median. Fire Department Standards indicate 25 feet flow line to flow line would meet emergency access needs. Westbound Colfax Avenue would become two lanes between Court and Welton streets, and eastbound Colfax Avenue would become two lanes between Galapago and Court streets. Colfax Avenue would remain in its current configuration between Court and 15th streets. Refer to pages 22 and 23 for existing street cross sections. Right: 13th Avenue will retain its exist ing cross section with restored tree lawns and sidewalks.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN Colfax Avenue at Broadway Left: Colfax Avenue will meet the Citys standards for traffic operations and will operate at acceptable traffic service levels. See additional discussion on Colfax Avenue on page 124. w Long-term concept for Colfax Avenue if the public right-of way remains at 100 feet. w Concept for 14th Street.

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TRANSPORTATION Right: 14th Avenue will have restored tree lawns and sidewalks and a building setback on the north side to align new construction with the City and County building. w 14th Avenue w Cleveland Place Cleveland Place is a principle pedestrian connection between Civic Center Park and down town Denver via the 16th Street Mall. The sidewalks are ample, but numerous curbcuts and auto-dominated facades impede its potential pedestrian use. Cleveland Place may be an appro priate place for pilot projects for wayfinding and streetscape improvements. As parcels redevelop, pedestrian activities should be a priority. w Cheyenne Place Cheyenne Place is just one block long, making it the only 100 block on the downtown street grid. Cheyenne Place offers opportunities to enhance the connection to the Pioneer Monument and pedestrian connections to adjacent development. Enhancements could include narrowing the street, replacing the existing diagonal parking with parallel parking, and using park and pedestrian amenities to visually link to adjacent uses.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w C. PARKING Parking for the Civic Center District is currently accommodated through public facilities consisting primarily of on-street meters and structured parking such as the Denver Art Museum's parking facility, and by privately-owned facilities that are primarily surface parking lots. Parking needs in the District are changing with its on-going development and it is anticipated that many blocks will redevelop that are currently privately-owned and used for surface parking, resulting in a loss of spaces that will affect daily and special event use. Left: Existing and Proposed Parking Demand Generators

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TRANSPORTATION Existing 14th Avenue parking lot Parking Terms: Mode Share: refers to the percentage or share of people traveling by automobile, by transit or other mode of transportation. Peak Demand: refers to the time of day, or day of week, that experiences the highest level of demand for parking on a recurring or weekly basis associated with day-to-day uses in the area. In many cases, parking supply is planned to accommodate some portion, but not all of the peak parking demand. Event Demand: refers to the parking needs associated with infrequent, special event parking demands, often occurring on week ends or holidays. As the District develops, parking will continue to be accommodated through public and private facilities and will be provided as a component of new development per zoning require ments. Shared parking arrangements will be encouraged. The District facilities are anticipated to serve the parking needs for most users at non-peak times. However, the facilities will not provide over-supply that would meet peak parking demand. Development in the District is currently a mix of public projects, including the expansion of the Denver Art Museum, and private development such as new residential and commercial uses. Future development is anticipated to follow a similar pattern. Structured public parking will continue to be provided as part of the construction of the District's major public or civic uses, including the proposed Justice Center. Likewise, private development is required to provide parking according to zoning requirements. Parking for special events will be provided as shared parking arrangements with public facilities. Goals: w Between 1.6 and 2.0 parking spaces will be provided per 1,000 square feet of develop ment in the area south of Colfax Avenue and west of Lincoln Street as per the current zoning requirements. This range assumes moderate transit usage (30 to 40 percent mode share). w Seventy-five percent (75%) of the parking supply for a given use will be provided within a quarter ( ) mile of that use. w Public parking facilities that are associated with civic uses such as the Denver Art Museum and the proposed Justice Center will remain open to the public and available for use during special events.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w Partnerships between the City and County of Denver and the State of Colorado will be pursued to ensure that an adequate supply of parking will be available during special events. w On-street parking will be retained throughout the District wherever possible to provide convenient access to civic and retail uses. w Provide loading and staging areas for school and tour buses within 500 feet of the destination front door. w Parking demand analysis of the land use build-out scenario indicates that as develop ment occurs it will bring additional garage parking spaces to balance the loss of surface parking. With development providing for the needs of their users, the implementation of FasTracks, the continued operation of the 16th Street Mall shuttle and improvements to the pedestrian circulation network, there will likely be adequate parking to satisfy typical demand. w Parking Demand for Special Events Downtown Denver hosts an average of 10-12 major specials each year, many of which draw more than 50,000 participants in a single weekend day. Taste of Colorado, one of downtown Denver's oldest and largest special events, hosted over 500,000 participants in 2004 over Labor Day Weekend. Parking demand and traffic circulation for these events presents a major challenge. Even so, downtown Denver events continue to grow in attendance and popularity. Creative utilization of the existing parking supply in the downtown area, including shuttle bus service from large lots at the Pepsi Center and Invesco Field at Mile High, and strategic street closures during events will contribute to the continued success of large downtown events and the associated event parking demand. Summary of Parking Supply and Demand Build-out Parking Demand: 10,163 spaces Build-out Loss of Existing Public Parking: 1,690 spaces Build-out Parking Supply: 9,321 to 11,600 spaces

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TRANSPORTATION The Downtown Denver Partnership maintains a database of public parking supply for downtown Denver, including the Central Business District, LoDo, Golden Triangle, and Ballpark neighborhoods. The current total is just over 50,000 spaces, with 75% of downtown blocks providing public parking spaces. Since most of the special events occur on weekends and holidays, much of the downtown public parking supply is available for event-related parking. Quantifiable data on mode share for people attending major special events is limited. However, estimates of daily trips into and out of downtown Denver include transit percentages ranging 30% to 45%. With the additional transit service planned in the coming years as part of FasTracks, it is reasonable to expect this mode share for special events as well.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w D. TRANSIT AND CIVIC CENTER STATION GUIDING PRINCIPLES Transit service and the Civic Center Station are critical components of the Civic Center District's transportation system. As the changes envisioned in the Regional Transportation Districts FasTracks initiative and the Downtown Multimodal Access Plan (DMAP) become reality, integrating the Civic Center Station into the District's transportation system and ensuring adequate transit service will become even more important. 1. Downtown Transit Circulator DMAP is the Downtown Denver Multimodal Access Plan. DMAP includes transit recommendations related to all of downtown Denver's transit service. The critical improvements related to the Civic Center District focus primarily on providing a Downtown Transit Circulator that will link the District with downtown Denver. The routing of the Downtown Transit Circulator and its off-street turn-around location in the District are key elements of the District Plan. w The design and routing of the Downtown Transit Circulator between Union Station and the Civic Center District will be coordinated with the DMAP and RTDs FasTracks planning initiatives. w The proposed Downtown Transit Circulator includes an off-street turn-around within the District. Locations being examined for a turn-around include sites between Broadway and Bannock, and 11th to 13th Avenues. The turn-around will be similar in size to the 16th Street Mall shuttle turn-around at Civic Center Station, which requires about 1/4 block. w The turn-around should be reasonably proximate to the Core and the cultural complex, with strong pedestrian connections to those destinations. It should be incorporated into a mixed use, private-scale development of high quality design to serve as a neighborhood and user amenity. Supplemental uses could include a retail wrap, structured parking and office or residential uses. Civic Center Station at Broadway and Colfax Avenue accommodates the turnaround for the 16th Street Mall shuttle and regional bus traffic.

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TRANSPORTATION 2. Civic Center Station Civic Center Station is a regional hub of Denver's transportation system and is a key com ponent of the Civic Center District. As the changes envisioned for the Civic Center Station become reality, the integration of the Civic Center Station and the District's transportation system will become critical. The following guiding principles will serve to initiate the vision for the Civic Center Station that acknowledges its importance to the Civic Center District. w The Civic Center Station will be a public transportation facility that: Is a hub in the regional transportation system; Integrates the function of all modes, balancing the efficiency of each mode with system-wide efficiency Provides connections for all transportation modes into and throughout downtown Denver Provides service for local transit users with easy cross-platform transfers. w Increases transit ridership and use of other forms of public and private transit for all transportation modes. w Provides increased transportation options to the traveling public. w A system of mode transfer and way-finding orientation will be created in association with the Civic Center Station that will allow for simple and efficient movements and connections for travelers. w Civic Center Station will support the region's and the District's major activity centers and destinations by providing easy access and seamless connections. w Transit options and uses will be provided at Civic Center Station that are consistent with the Downtown Denver Multimodal Access Plan (DMAP), RTDs FasTracks and the Metro Vision Regional Plan.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w Opportunities for connections to and between local and regional transportation systems and networks will be provided at Civic Center Station. w The design of the Civic Center Station will enhance the urban framework of the District by improving pedestrian connectivity between the 16th Street Mall and the State Capitol, possibly along the 16th Street axis via an open view corridor or ground level atrium. w The design of the Civic Center Station will be subject to the design guidelines of the Civic Center District Plan as provided for in the applicable zoning or other regulations. 3. Local Bus Service Local bus service in the District is extremely good, with multiple routes, numerous bus stops and frequent headways. Local bus service levels should be maintained, increased or supplemented by other local transit modes. Issues of safety, cleanliness and comfort must be addressed to improve the transit experience. Bus shelters at Broadway/Colfax, Broadway/14th Avenue and Lincoln/Colfax need particular attention. Route information should be provided at bus shelters. Local bus service is provided at several loca tions on Broadway, Lincoln Street and Colfax Avenue.

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TRANSPORTATION wE. TRANSPORTATION IMPLEMENTATION w Colfax Avenue Narrowing The proposal to narrow Colfax Avenue within the District will not be pursued until the following issues are addressed: w Fire Station #1, located at the corner of Speer Boulevard and Colfax Avenue, creates significant disruption to traffic operations due to the numerous emergency responses every day. If this station is relocated, reducing lanes on Colfax Avenue becomes less problematic. w DMAP may recommend grade separations between streets and other transportation modes to accommodate future transit within Civic Center District. Any changes to Colfax Avenue will incorporate recommendations from DMAP. w The Strategic Transportation Plan will analyze future demands on all arterial roadways within the City and County of Denver. Until the future demands for Colfax Avenue as a regional arterial are analyzed with the STP, no changes should be made to the vehicular capacity of the street. w During special events in Civic Center Park, Colfax Avenue is used for traffic detours and managing event traffic. A detour plan must be considered when contemplating changes to the cross section. Implementation actions are listed for convenient reference. For more complete dis cussion of implementation strategies and limitations refer to the Implementation Plan, pages 141-156

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w Infrastructure Strategies 1. Pedestrian Connectivity w Change signal operations to allow for pedestrian lead time or an allpedestrian phase where there is high pedestrian demand. Current locations to be examined include Colfax/Broadway, Colfax/Lincoln, Broadway/14th Avenue and Lincoln/14th Avenue. Department of Public Works Short-term w Reconfigure Colfax Avenue intersections at Tremont Street/13th Street and Glenarm Place/12th Street to standardize the geometry, reduce the number of traffic signals and install pedestrian crosswalks. Department of Public Works Short or if done in conjunction with the proposed Justice Center; otherwise Midto Long-term w Design and install a district-wide wayfinding system to direct pedestrians to points of interest and pedestrian routes, both within the District and adjacent areas including downtown. Pedestrian wayfinding should be coordinated with the existing vehicular and downtown wayfinding systems. Maintenance agreements need to be in place prior to installation. Maintenance could include expanding the downtown Denver BID by a vote of its membership beyond the current boundary which ends at the centerline of Colfax Avenue. Department of Public Works, Community Planning and Development, Parks and Recreation, Downtown Denver Business improvement District Mid-term

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TRANSPORTATION w Provide for additional sidewalks and better connections between the City & County Building and Civic Center by narrowing Bannock Street between 14th Avenue and Colfax Avenue to a 4-lane roadway, possibly including a flexible lane to accommodate traffic during peak periods and on-street parking at other times. If on-street parking is retained, provide for state-of-the-art parking payment solutions rather than individual parking meters. Department of Public Works, Parks and Recreation, Public Office Buildings Mid-term w Reconfigure the Colfax Avenue and Broadway intersection to allow a dedicated right turn lane from Colfax Avenue to Broadway at a standard right-angle intersection and use the resulting additional right-of-way to add land to the park at the corner. Department of Public Works, Parks and Recreation Short-term

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w Continue to evaluate the feasibility of widening sidewalks, adding tree lawns and reconfiguring medians on Colfax Avenue, balancing needs for moving vehicles, transit and pedestrians; providing for public safety; providing for tree-lined avenues; using public streets to define the Civic Center; providing for special event traffic; and providing for emergency response. Time points for reevaluation may include completion of the City's Strategic Transportation Plan, build-out of the RTD FasTracks transit system and/or build-out of the land use scenario. Department of Public Works, Community Planning and Development, Parks and Recreation Midand Long-term 2. Transit w Proceed with master planning the Civic Center Station as a multi-modal hub. Department of Public Works, Community Planning and Development, Regional Transportation District Mid-term w Complete the Downtown Multi-Modal Access Plan (DMAP). Department of Public Works, Community Planning and Development, Regional Transportation District, Colorado Department of Transportation, Downtown Denver Partnership Mid-term w Determine the appropriate location and design of the turn-around facility for the Downtown Circulator near the Cultural Axis. Department of Public Works, Community Planning and Development, Regional Transportation District Short and Mid-term

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TRANSPORTATION 3. Parking w Allow for the shared use of parking facilities for special events during offpeak times (usually evenings and weekends). Department of Public Works (including Parking Management), State of Colorado, Denver Art Museum, Parks and Recreation Short-term w Remove surface parking lot south of the McNichols Building in Civic Center Park. Replace with a park amenity or accessory to the building use. Asset Management, Community Planning and Development, Department of Public Works (including Parking Management) Short-term w Provide adequate parking for public use with new civic and cultural facilities. Asset Management, Community Planning and Development, Department of Public Works (including Parking Management) On-going

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN PARKS AND PARKWAYS

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w A. GOALS Denver's Civic Center was created almost 100 years ago through the efforts of Denver's early city leaders such as artist Henry Read, politicians such as Mayor Speer and prominent citizens such as Anne Evans. Civic Center was founded on the City Beautiful principles set forth by renowned architect Daniel Burnham, who designed the Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago and the Washington Mall. Originally developed as the central gathering place for the governmental center of the city and the state, Civic Center serves as the heart and soul of Denver and as the primary building block of the expanded Civic Center District. The goals of the Plan are to extend this legacy by: w Creating a framework of parks and parkways, with Civic Center at the center, to define the governmental campus of the expanded Civic Center District. w Visually and physically connecting the Civic Center District to downtown Denver, Speer Boulevard and adjacent neighborhoods through an interconnected system of parks and parkways. w Restoring and rehabilitating Civic Center according to the original design intent and to meet contemporary needs. w Creating a vibrant, active place of public concourse in Civic Center by increasing daily use on a year-round basis and by continuing its traditional use as a festival park. w Designing and improving the District's parks, streetscape and parkways so they are inviting to all people, are safe and are well managed. PARKS AND PARKWAYS Pioneer Monument

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w B. Civic Spaces The urban form for the Civic Center District follows in Denver's tradition of creating great civic places that are connected by a city-wide parkway and boulevard system. The District's urban form is defined by two grand avenues that create a central governmental campus extending from Speer Boulevard to the State Capitol; a gateway at Speer Boulevard; Civic Center; Lincoln Park; and the grounds of the State Capitol. These features will express the civic identity of the Civic Center District. w A new Gateway Park at Speer Boulevard will continue the 100 year tradition of locating significant civic spaces along Denver's prestigious parkway and boulevard system. The gateway will be the key entry into the Civic Center District, serving as a visual icon of its civic importance and providing a respite with passive recreational amenities. CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN Left: Parks and Parkways of the Civic Center District

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w Civic Center will be restored and improved to continue as Denver's premiere public gathering space. w Colfax Avenue will become a grand avenue. New, wide tree lawns, generous pedestrian walks, civic open spaces at Tremont and Welton streets, and a deep building setback on its south side adjacent to the District's civic structures will define Colfax Avenue as a grand avenue and as a key organizing feature of the District's urban form. w Civic plazas will be developed along Colfax Avenue when the streets are reconfigured to improve traffic improvements and facilitate safer pedestrian crossings at the intersections of Glenarm and Tremont Streets. These plazas will be a part of the public right-of-way and will enhance Colfax Avenue as a grand avenue while providing active gathering spaces. Each civic plaza will include seating shaded and in the sun; opportunities for significant view to the mountains, towards municipal and state buildings or towards downtown; and landscaping and site features that create a human scale and attract people. w As its complement to the south, 14th Avenue will become a grand avenue to further define the District. Improved tree lawns and a deep building setback on its north side adjacent to the District's civic structures will define 14th Avenue as the grand civic avenue. w Linear 'green' linkages will connect Civic Center with downtown Denver and Acoma Avenue of the Arts. w Pioneer Park, the setting of Frederick MacMonnies Pioneer Monument, at the intersection of Broadway and Colfax Avenue will be recognized as a significant landmark and downtown focal point. The park will be enhanced through connections to adjacent development across an improved Cheyenne Place. PARKS AND PARKWAYS Civic Center Park

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w C. CIVIC CENTER MASTER PLAN 1. Definition Civic Center is the civic and cultural crossroads of the New West. A master plan for Civic Center will be prepared that strengthens it as a central park that is surrounded by an ensemble of the region's civic and cultural institutions. 2. Master Plan Vision w Articulate and promote Civic Center's identity as the civic and cultural crossroads of the New West. w Activate Civic Center as the city's premiere gathering space. w Establish Civic Center as the region's heritage educational center. w Sustain the Civic Center legacy through partnership and collaboration. w Ensure a Clean, Safe, Active and Connected Park "In many towns, Carnegie libraries were the only large public buildings, and they became hubs of social activities like concerts, lectures and meetings and did double duty as museums and community storehouses." from Theodore Jones' Carnegie Libraries Across America: A Public Legacy

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PARKS AND PARKWAYS Right: Civic Center Framework Diagram Elements include: Strong central axis. Secondary north-south axis Defined vertical elements such as buildings, memorials, lights and art Key nodes for activities 3. Framework Plan Civic Center is resurging as the center of Denver. Beginning in 2002, the construction of the Webb Municipal Building brought city functions and employees together into one location on Civic Center's northern edge, fulfilling an early City Beautiful principle and a goal of Edward Bennett's plan to group city facilities around a central gathering space. Emerging as the center of city and state government after 100 years, Civic Center is poised to become the hub of cultural activities as well. Its on-going success as the preferred site for large public festivals such as the Capitol Hill Peoples Fair and Taste of Colorado, and noteworthy local events including Theatre in the Park and Bike to Work Day is complemented by the expanded Denver Public Library, and the current expansion of the Denver Art Museum. The growth of its adjacent neighborhoods such as the Golden Triangle is activating Civic Center on a daily basis.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN The Civic Center framework plan builds upon the park's historic context and its architectural heritage and fulfills the vision put forth by Edward Bennett in 1918. w The framework plan recognizes the original central axis that ties Civic Center with the State Capitol, the City & County Building and the Rocky Mountains to the west. The original central formal axis is strengthened and reinforced with central gathering spaces arranged symmetrically along it. Each space will be defined by artistic vertical elements such as fountains or sculpture that are of a complementary scale to attract people to the middle of the park and that encourage activity. Consideration will be given to creating a central fountain "of monumental proportions with a large central jet, contrasted with a pool of placid water" to fulfill Bennett's original vision. w The concept of the east west connection is further articulated with a series of four linear park spaces, each aligned along a central walk, including one at Colfax Avenue and one at 14th Avenue. These linear park spaces extend beyond the park boundaries to link Civic Center with the District. w Civic Center's secondary axis is a strong element within the park boundaries. This axis will be strengthened and expanded to connect Civic Center with downtown Denver and the Golden Triangle neighborhood. Enhanced pedestrian connections will extend from Civic Center to Cleveland Place to the north and from Civic Center to Acoma Street on the south. w Key nodes will be improved as critical civic spaces including the intersection of Colfax and Cleveland Place, the plaza between the Art Museum and the Denver Public Library and the plaza between the new Denver Art Museum addition and its parking structure. Acoma Street will be enhanced as a linear 'green' open space with streetscape improvements connecting to the Acoma Avenue of the Arts. The street will not be vacated south of 12th Avenue, and open space improvements will be coordinated with existing streetscape elements on the Acoma Avenue of the Arts. Civic Center design by Edward Bennett, 1918.

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PARKS AND PARKWAYS w Civic Center will include areas for large public gatherings that will also be designed as pleasing respites for daily use. Park spaces will be diverse with areas of sun, shaded places, and gardens of various scales. w Keeping with the traditions of the City Beautiful Movement, Civic Center will continue to be a setting for great public art with defined locations for new statuary and decorative features. New public art will be inspiring, thoughtful and complementary with the park setting. Guidelines will be developed to establish parameters to guide public art installations. w The McNichols Building (originally the Carnegie Library) will be restored and rehabilitated for use as a public facility. Its original grand entry on Colfax Avenue will be restored, the parking area on its south side will be removed and a new building entrance will be established to re-connect the building with Civic Center. w A park space or building will complete the earliest visions of the Civic Center and will be located to complement the existing McNichols Building (originally the Carnegie Library). The new park space will be of a scale that reflects the scale of the McNichols Building and will be designed as a contemporary park feature. w Significant features that are historically important and architecturally noteworthy will be restored and rehabilitated, such as the Red Oak groves and the neoclassical balustrades and columns. Speer Boulevard

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w D. PARKWAYS, BOULEVARDS AND GATEWAY PARK Speer Boulevard, as one of Denver's 35 designated parkways and boulevards, is a key component of Denver's civic infrastructure. Connecting the Civic Center District to this civic infrastructure is an important goal of the District Plan that is partially fulfilled by the creation of a new civic space Gateway Park, at the District's western edge. Gateway Park will serve as the primary visual and physical entry into the District, continuing the tradition of linking Denver's significant civic places with its premiere parkway and boulevard system. w A Gateway Park at Speer Boulevard will serve as a symbolic civic icon at the Districts west edge. The park will be of a scale and design that denotes its importance in the city-wide system. It is anticipated that the park will be defined by a series of buildings on its eastern edge, and it is preferable that these be civic uses. Regardless of their use, new buildings adjacent to the park will reinforce the District's Civic Axis and provide a defined edge. w The park will be aesthetically pleasing, providing a civic identity for the District that is enriched with special features such as sculpture or sculpted terrain, water, trees, shrubs, grass, and public art. As a regional park, it will serve primarily as the 'front door' to the District, but will also support passive activities such as walking, relaxing and gathering. West High is connected to Denvers civic spaces by Speer Boulevard and Sunken Gardens Park.

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w E. PARKS AND PARKWAYS IMPLEMENTATION w Infrastructure Strategies 1. Pedestrian Connectivity w Design and install a district-wide wayfinding system to direct pedestrians to points of interest and pedestrian routes. Continue the implementation of the existing vehicular wayfinding system. Department of Public Works, Community Planning and Development, Parks and Recreation, Downtown Business Improvement District Mid-term w Provide for additional sidewalks and better connections between the City & County Building and Civic Center by narrowing Bannock Street between 14th Avenue and Colfax Avenue to a 4-lane roadway, which could include a flexible lane to accommodate traffic during peak periods and on-street parking at other times. If on-street parking is retained, provide for parking kiosks rather than individual parking meters. Department of Public Works, Parks and Recreation, Public Office Buildings Mid-term w Reconfigure the Colfax Avenue and Broadway intersection to allow a dedicated right turn lane from Colfax Avenue to Broadway at a standard right-angle intersection and use the resulting additional right-of-way to add land to the park at the corner. Department of Public Works, Parks and Recreation Short-term PARKS AND PARKWAYS Implementation actions are listed for convenient reference. For more complete discussion of implementation strategies and limitations refer to the Implementation Plan, pages 141-156

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN 2. Grand Avenues w Design and install new plazas on Colfax Avenue with the reconfiguration of intersections. Retain and add public art where possible. Department of Public Works, Parks and Recreation, Office of Cultural Affairs Mid-term w Improve tree lawns, sidewalks and streetscaping on 14th Avenue, 13th Avenue and 14th Street. Department of Public Works, Community Planning and Development, Parks and Recreation, Asset Management Mid-term w Orient public buildings on the Civic Axis of the Core, between Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue, providing opportunities for public gathering spaces, civic setbacks, enhanced plazas and tree-lined streets. In some locations, this may require dedication of additional right of way. Department of Public Works, Community Planning and Development, Parks and Recreation, Asset Management Midand Long-term 3. Civic and Cultural Buildings w Orient public buildings on the Civic Axis of the Core, between Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue, providing opportunities for public gathering spaces, civic setbacks, enhanced plazas and tree-lined streets. Department of Public Works, Community Planning and Development, Parks and Recreation, Asset Management Midand Long-term w Re-use the McNichols Building/Carnegie Library to a public use that serves as a park amenity. Asset Management, Parks and Recreation Mid-term

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4. Parks and Open Space w Complete the master plan for Civic Center Park. Parks and Recreation Short-term w Remove surface parking lot south of the McNichols Building in Civic Center Park. Replace with a park amenity or accessory to the building use. Asset Management, Parks and Recreation, Parking Management Short-term w Design and install new plazas on Colfax Avenue with the reconfiguration of the intersections. Retain and add public art where possible. Department of Public Works, Parks and Recreation, Office of Cultural Affairs Mid-term w Design and install new plazas and civic open space as part of new civic and cultural buildings in the Core. Community Planning and Development, Department of Public Works, Parks and Recreation, Asset Management Midand Long-term w Evaluate opportunities for acquiring land for the Gateway Park and civic buildings along the Cores Civic Axis. Parks and Recreation, Asset Management Long-term PARKS AND PARKWAYS

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

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w IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES Plan visions are just that a collective picture of a more desirable future. There are few if any circumstances in the complex milieu of neighborhoods and cities in which the planning, design, ownership, financing and political resources align to implement a plan's visions and goals quickly and simultaneously. As a result, by necessity, plans are implemented incrementally with the vision and goals providing common direction to the multitude of public and pri vate undertakings. Part of the City process is to evaluate each of these large and small, public and private undertakings in light of the plan's vision and goals, the current situation, and the available resources. Despite this imperfect situation, plans have proven to have substantial influence on the future direction of a plan area over a period of five, 10 or 20 years. This small area plan identifies activities and projects that will help to achieve the vision for the Civic Center District. However, projects identified in small area plans need to be evaluated relative to citywide needs, funding and resource availability, and overall city priorities. The intent of the project list is to provide reasonable guidance to the City's budgeting and prioriti zation activities as to opportunities within the District. It does not assess the relative needs of the District against other citywide or small area plans, or on-going needs of different neighborhoods and corridors. The City's expectation of involved and responsible agencies is to have the projects identified on the overall Capital Needs Assessment and to oversee the design and construction of projects if and when they are funded. Blueprint Denver identifies three categories of implementation strategies: regulatory, infrastructure, and partnerships. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN Kenneth MacKenzie Macintosh Statue

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w Ordinances and Regulations Ordinances may be promulgated by City Council. Implementing agencies, such as the Departments of Community Planning and Development, Public Works or Parks & Recreation may adopt rules and regulations to implement the ordinances and the goals of the plan. Examples of regulatory strategies include: w Zoning Language Amendments, (Council ordinance) w Zoning Map Amendments, including overlay zone districts and Planned Unit Developments, (Council ordinance) w Amendments, to the sign provisions of the Zoning Code, (Council ordinance) w Design Standards and Guidelines enabled by zoning ordinance and adopted as Rules and Regulations w Street Standards and Guidelines, which are typically enabled by ordinance and then adopted as Rules and Regulations w Historic Designation of either districts or structures, (Council ordinance) w Parks Management Policies and Regulations, enabled by ordinance and then adopted as Rules and Regulations. w Special height limits to preserve panoramic views, (Council ordinance) w Transfer of Development Rights program, enabled by zoning ordinance. CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN

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IMPLEMENTATION PLAN w Infrastructure Infrastructure strategies are based on funding through capital improvements and other public and private investment. Infrastructure typically includes: w Transportation systems, including travel lanes, sidewalks, transit technology, transit stations and stops, traffic operations, curb, gutter, sidewalks, crosswalks, lighting, street trees, tree lawns, street furniture, signs and wayfinding systems. w Storm water drainage w Utilities w Parks, public plazas and open space w Recreation facilities w Public restrooms and drinking fountains w Public buildings w Cultural facilities and buildings w Public art w Public parking (onand off-street) There are a variety of financing strategies available to the City, including: w Capital Improvement Annual Program (CIP) w General Obligation (GO) Bonds (including a potential Justice System Bond) w General Operations Fund w Certificates of Participation (COP) w Grants (such as Historic Fund, Great Outdoors Colorado, other) w Federal or State funding w Regional Transportation District (RTD) funding w Enterprise funds w Special Revenue Bonds w 1% for Art is a line item requirement of all city capital projects

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN Other infrastructure investment strategies are: w Land acquisition for public purposes w Property or sales tax incentives to encourage private investment w Tax Increment Financing (TIF) through Denver Urban Renewal Authority w Private fundraising or donations w Partnerships Partnerships are those areas where city government cannot or should not act unilaterally. Instead, community organizations, businesses or individual citizens partner with government agencies to achieve the goals and recommendations. Potential partners and partnership mechanisms could include: w Special districts, such as charter local improvement districts, charter local maintenance districts, business districts, parking improvement districts, metropolitan districts w Agreements between public and private partners w Registered Neighborhood Organizations (RNO) w Civic Center Conservancy w Park People w Private foundations w Denver Urban Renewal Authority (DURA) w Regional Transportation District (RTD) w State of Colorado w Downtown Denver Partnership Inc. w Downtown Denver Business Improvement District

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IMPLEMENTATION PLAN w IMPLEMENTATION PROJECTS Implementation of the plan goals and recommendations will occur through a series of private, public-private and public actions. The District Plan identifies both specific projects that were noted during the planning process and general awareness of opportunities that may devel op later. The list of recommendations shows implementation actions that are regulatory, public investment and public-private partnerships. Implementation projects are shown for three conceptual timeframes: short-term (2005 to 2010), mid-term (2010 to 2017) and long-term (2017 to 2035). w Regulatory Strategies 1. Zoning Changes for the Civic Center District Core Building placement and orientation are fundamental to achieving the civic setting for buildings in the Core. Zoning regulations related to setbacks, build-to lines and open space should be changed to reflect the desired quantifiable parameters. w Develop a zoning language amendment consistent with the parameters for the Core. Community Planning and Development Short-term for the proposed Justice Center. Midto Long-term for the remainder of the Core. Conceptual Timeframes: Short-term: 2005-2010 Mid-term: 2010-2017 Long-term: 2017-2035

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN 2. Design Guidelines for the Core Qualitative design standards and guidelines are as important as the quantifiable development standards in achieving the vision for the Core. Design guidelines are enabled through zone district language with more particulars included in applicable rules and regulations. This structure is already in place in the Civic Center District. w Amend existing design standards and guidelines for the applicable zone districts to include the direction defined in the Urban Design and Architecture section. Community Planning and Development Short-term 3. Design Guidelines for City Projects The Comprehensive Plan directs the City to provide a model of design excellence. The plan recognizes areas where the City should aim for a higher level of achievement than the base line provided by the regulatory system. w Develop design standards for City projects in the Core and the Transition Area. Community Planning and Development, Mayor's Office Short-term w Infrastructure Strategies 1. Pedestrian Connectivity Pedestrian improvements across and along Colfax Avenue are needed to create a link between the Central Business District's Silver Triangle, the Golden Triangle neighborhood to the south, Capitol Hill to the east and La Alma/Lincoln Park to the west. Several geometric and operational changes to Colfax Avenue can address pedestrian issues.

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IMPLEMENTATION PLAN w Change signal operations to allow for pedestrian lead time or an allpedestrian phase where there is high pedestrian demand. Department of Public Works Short-term w Reconfigure Colfax Avenue intersections at Tremont Street/13th Street and Glenarm Place/12th Street to standardize the geometry, reduce the number of traffic signals and install pedestrian crosswalks. Department of Public Works Short or Mid-Term w Design and install a district-wide wayfinding system to direct pedestrians to points of interest and pedestrian routes both within the District and in adjacent areas, including downtown Denver. Pedestrian wayfinding should be coordinated with existing vehicular and downtown wayfinding systems. Maintenance agreements need to be in place prior to installation. Maintenance could include expanding the downtown Denver BID by a vote of its membership beyond the current boundary, which ends at the centerline of Colfax Avenue. Department of Public Works, Community Planning and Development, Parks and Recreation, Downtown Denver Business Improvement District Short-term w Provide for additional sidewalks and better connections between the City & County Building and Civic Center by narrowing Bannock Street between 14th Avenue and Colfax Avenue to a 4-lane roadway with a flexible lane to accommodate traffic during peak periods and on-street parking at other times. If on-street parking is retained, provide for parking kiosks rather than individual parking meters. Department of Public Works, Parks and Recreation, Public Office Buildings Mid-term

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w Reconfigure Colfax Avenue right-of-way to include a dedicated right turn lane to south bound Broadway and add unneeded right-of-way to the park. Department of Public Works, Parks and Recreation Mid-term w Continue to evaluate the feasibility of adding sidewalks and improving the medians on Colfax Avenue, balancing needs for moving vehicles, transit and pedestrians; providing for public safety; providing for tree-lined avenues; using public streets to define the Civic Center; providing for special event traffic; and providing for emergency response. Time points for re-evaluation may include completion of the City's Strategic Transportation Plan, build-out of the RTD FasTracks transit system and/or build-out of the land use scenario. Department of Public Works, Community Planning and Development, Parks and Recreation Midand Long-term 2. Grand Avenues w Design and install new plazas on Colfax Avenue with the reconfiguration of intersections (see action item above). Retain and add public art where possible. Department of Public Works, Parks and Recreation, Office of Cultural Affairs Mid-term w Improve tree lawns, sidewalks and streetscaping on 14th Avenue, 13th Avenue and 14th Street. Department of Public Works, Community Planning and Development, Parks and Recreation, Asset Management Mid-term

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IMPLEMENTATION PLAN w Orient public buildings on the Civic Axis of the Core, between Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue, providing opportunities for public gathering spaces, civic setbacks, enhanced plazas and tree-lined streets. In some locations, this may require dedication of additional right of way. Department of Public Works, Community Planning and Development, Parks and Recreation, Asset Management Midand Long-term w Continue to evaluate the feasibility of adding sidewalks and tree lawns and improving the medians on Colfax Avenue, balancing needs for moving vehicles, transit and pedestrians; providing for public safety; providing for tree-lined avenues; using public streets to define the Civic Center; proving for special event traffic; and providing for emergency response. Time points for re-evaluation may include completion of the City's Strategic Transportation Plan, build-out of the RTD FasTracks transit system and/or build-out of the land use scenario. Department of Public Works, Community Planning and Development, Parks and Recreation. Midand Long-term 3. Civic and Cultural Buildings w Develop design standards for City projects in the Core and the Transition Area. Community Planning and Development, Mayor's Office Short-term w Orient public buildings on the Civic Axis of the Core, between Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue, providing opportunities for public gathering spaces, civic setbacks, enhanced plazas and tree-lined streets. Department of Public Works, Community Planning and Development, Parks and Recreation, Asset Management Midand Long-term

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w Re-use the McNichols Building/Carnegie Library to a public use that serves as a park amenity. Asset Management, Parks and Recreation Mid-term w When evaluating City facility needs, give priority to the Core for buildings and land acquisition, then to the Transition Area. Asset Management, Community Planning and Development Midand Long-term 4. Parks and Open Space w Complete the master plan for Civic Center Park. Parks and Recreation Short-term w Remove surface parking lot south of the McNichols Building in Civic Center Park. Replace with a park amenity or accessory to the building use. Asset Management, Community Planning and Development, Parking Management Short-term w Design and install new plazas on Colfax Avenue with the reconfiguration of the intersections (see action item above). Retain and add public art where possible. Department of Public Works, Parks and Recreation, Office of Cultural Affairs Mid-term

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IMPLEMENTATION PLAN w Design and install new plazas and civic open space as part of new civic and cultural buildings in the Core. Community Planning and Development, Department of Public Works, Parks and Recreation, Asset Management Midand Long-term w Evaluate opportunities for acquiring land for the Gateway Park. Parks and Recreation, Asset Management Long-term 5. Transit w Proceed with master planning the Civic Center Station as a multi-modal hub. Department of Public Works, Community Planning and Development, Regional Transportation District Short-term w Complete the Downtown Multi-Modal Access Plan (DMAP). Department of Public Works, Community Planning and Development, Regional Transportation District, Colorado Department of Transportation, Downtown Denver Business Improvement District Short-term w Determine the appropriate location and design of the turnaround facility for the Downtown Circulator near the Cultural Axis. Department of Public Works, Community Planning and Development, Regional Transportation District Short-term

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN 6. Parking w Allow for the shared use of parking facilities for special events during offpeak times (usually evenings and weekends). Department of Public Works (including Parking Management), State of Colorado, Denver Art Museum, Parks and Recreation Short-term w Remove surface parking lot south of the McNichols Building in Civic Center Park. Replace with a park amenity or accessory to the building use. Asset Management, Community Planning and Development, Department of Public Works (including Parking Management) Short-term w Provide adequate parking for public use with new civic and cultural facilities. Asset Management, Community Planning and Development, Department of Public Works (including Parking Management) Midand Long-term

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IMPLEMENTATION PLAN w Partnerships 1. Civic Center Park As the centerpiece of both downtown Denver and the government complex, Civic Center Park holds a special place in the hearts of city residents. It inspires citizens to participate in its restoration and improvement. The Department of Parks and Recreation welcomes partnerships with the Civic Center Conservancy, Park People, the adjacent cultural facilities, Downtown Denver Partnership, Golden Triangle Association, Capitol Hill United Neighborhoods, organizers of special events hosted in the park, and other civic organizations. 2. Grand Boulevards The installation and maintenance of a distinctive streetscape and wayfinding are important elements of creating grand avenues on Colfax and 14th Avenues. The Department of Public Works relies on adjacent property owners to maintain their side walks and tree lawns. The City is responsible for the construction and annual maintenance of the street frontage adjacent to the city, state and federal properties. An expansion of existing maintenance districts or the establishment of a new district will be necessary to ensure an appropriate level of care and maintenance for the streetscape elements. The City also acknowledges the model of excellence provided by the State of Colorado for care of its facilities, including Lincoln Park and streetscape on Sherman Street. 3. Public Art The Civic Center District is enriched by art, monuments and memorials in the parks and public buildings. New civic and cultural buildings are expected to continue to the contribute to the artistic legacy of the area. The Denver Office of Cultural Affairs manages the City's 1% for Art program. Partners for a strategic plan for public art in the district, as well as the selection, installation and maintenance of public art, could include the Denver Art Museum and the local arts community.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN 4. State and Federal Partnerships As joint inheritors of the Civic Center legacy, The United States Mint and State of Colorado are key partners for implementing the vision and goals of the Civic Center District.

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IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS w Elected Officials John W. Hickenlooper District 1 Rick Garcia District 2 Jeanne Faatz District 3 Rosemary E. Rodriguez District 4 Peggy Lehmann District 5 Marcia Johnson District 6 Charlie Brown District 7 Kathleen MacKenzie District 8 Elbra Wedgeworth District 9 Judy H. Montero District 10 Jeanne Robb District 11 Michael B. Hancock At-Large Carol Boigon At-Large Doug Linkhart w Planning Board Barbara Kelley, Chair Laura Aldrete Jan Marie Belle Brad Buchanan Frederick Corn, P.E. Monica Guardiola, Esq. Daniel R. Guimond, AICP William H. (Bill) Hornby Mason Lewis Bruce O'Donnell Jeffery Walker w Mayors Cabinet Michael Bennet, Chief of Staff Peter J. Park, Manager, Community Planning and Development Kim Bailey, Manager, Parks and Recreation Department Guillermo Bill Vidal, Manager, Department of Public Works Cole Finegan, City Attorney Margaret Browne, Budget and Management Office w Interagency Plan Review Committee Ellen Ittelson, CPD, Chair Theresa Lucero, CPD Mark Upshaw, Parks and Recreation Department JoAnn Weinstein, Department of Law Randy Schnicker, Public Works Leslie Lipstein, CPD Gorden Appell, CPD

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN w Project Team Kurt Schumacher Marilyn Miller Kiersten Faulkner, Civic Center District Plan Project Manager Fran Mishler, Task Group Leader Dennis Swain, Task Group Leader Dave Becker Eric McClelland Steve Turner Tyler Gibbs Dan Michael Jim Ottenstein Christine Richter Karen Aviles Scott Johnson Mark Najarian, Task Group Leader Dave Weaver Lindsey Strudwick James Anderson Helen Kuykendall, Task Group Leader Sarah Kendall, Deputy Chief of Staff James Mejia, Justice Center Project Manager Nick Koncilja Jim Carpenter David Hollis w Project Team Consultants Tina Bishop Pat Mundus Madalyn Shalkey Joe McGrane Jeremy Klop Lee Kellar, Matrix Design Group Emilie Ailts

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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APRIL 2005 CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN APPENDIX

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APPENDICES A-2 TABLE OF CONTENTSAppendices . . . . . . . . . . .A-1 A. Appendix A. Relationship to the Comprehensive Plan . .A-3 B. Appendix B. Public Process Summaries . . . . .A-15 1. Summary of Design Charrette, August 28, 2004 2. Summary of Public Open House, December 2, 2004 C. Appendix C. Potentially Significant and Historic Buildings .A-21 1. Summary D. Appendix D. Land Use and Development . . . . .A-25 1. Land Use Alternatives 2. Alternative AThe Minimalist Alternative 3. Alternative B The Full Build-Out Alternative 4. Alternative C The Partial Build-Out Alternative E. Appendix E. Economic Analysis . . . . . .A-67 1. Market Overview 2. Economic Impacts 3. City and County Revenue Impacts F. Appendix F. Transportation Modeling and Evaluation . .A-81 1. Assumptions/Issues/Goals 2. Streets Systems Alternatives and Preliminary Recommendations 3. Results 4. Simulation Analysis Results G. Appendix G. Parking Analysis . . . . . . .A-99 1. Introduction and Current Issues 2. Goals/Objectives 3. Alternatives Considered 4. Alternatives Analysis 5. Parking Demand for Special Events 6. Quantification of Parking Demand 7. Policy Recommendations H. Appendix H. Source Notes and Bibliography . . . .A-107

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-3 APPENDIX A. RELATIONSHIP TO THE DENVER COMPREHENSIVE PLANAll small area plans, including the District Plan, are expected to comply with the citywide policies contained in the Denver Comprehensive Plan 2000 and Blueprint Denver: An Integrated Land Use and Transportation Plan. The Civic Center District Plan implements the following policies from Plan 2000: Environmental Sustainability 1-A: Encourage redevelopment of vacant, underutilized and environmentally compromised land known as brownfields. 1-B: Promote public-private sector involvement and cooperation with citizens to formulate plans and actions that achieve shared responsibilities and benefits. Objective 4: The Environment and Community: Achieve environmental sustainability in all aspects of planning, community and building design, and transportation. Encourage implementation of recommended strategies within neighborhoods, citywide and throughout the metropolitan region. 4-A: Promote the development of sustainable communities and centers of activity where shopping, jobs, recreation and schools are accessible by multiple forms of transportation, providing opportunities for people to live where they work. 4-D: Promote convenient public transit for the community, including buses, light rail and other alternatives to single-occupancy vehicles. 2-D: Conserve energy by leading by example to adopt policies that further the use of renewable energy resources and by creating green city buildings.

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APPENDICES A-4 Land Use Objective 1: Balance and coordinate Denver's mix of land uses to sustain a healthy economy, support the use of alternative transportation, and enhance the quality of life in the city. 1-D: Recognize the multiple transportation functions of arterial corridors, as well as their importance for commercial activity and projecting the city's image. 1-G: Reinforce Denver as the focal point of the metropolitan arearecommendations must be flexible to respond to economic upturns and downturns while maintaining high-quality development throughout the city. Objective 3: Preserve and enhance the individuality, diversity and livability of Denver's neighborhoods and expand the vitality of Denver's business centers. 3-A: Completearea plans for parts of Denver where development or redevelopment is likely. 3-B: Encourage quality infill development that is consistent with the character of the surrounding neighborhood; that offers opportunities for increased density and more amenities; and that broadens the variety of compatible uses. 3-C: Work with the Denver Public Schools to preserve and incorporate educational facilities as key elements of healthy neighborhoods. 3-D: Identify and enhance existing focal points in neighborhoods, and encourage the development of such focal points where none exist.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-5 4-A: Encourage mixed-use, transit-oriented development that makes effective use of existing transportation infrastructure, supports transit stations, increases transit patronage, reduces impact on the environment, and encourages vibrant urban centers and neighborhoods. 4-B: Ensure that land-use policies and decisions support a variety of mobility choices, including light rail, buses, paratransit, walking and bicycling, as well as convenient access for people with disabilities. Mobility Objective 1: Provide Denver's diverse residents, workers and visitors with a choice of transportation modes that are safe and convenient. 1-A: Advocate transportation investments that increase mobility of people and their connections to employment, education, shopping, cultural opportunities and other activities. 1-B: Promote public transit, both bus and rail, as a safe, attractive and convenient choice for people who might otherwise drive to employment, education, cultural, shopping or other destinations. 1-C: Identify areas throughout the city where transportation policies should reflect pedestrian priorities. These include areas such as schools, child-care centers, civic institutions, business centers, shopping districts and parks. 1-E: Coordinate expansion and improvement of private transportation providers such as shuttles, taxis and specialized bus services to provide high-quality transit for the elderly and disabled. 1-F: Address the transportation needs of visitors, tourists and people attending special events and major attractions.

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APPENDICES A-6 2-A: Continue to reinforce downtown Denver as the main transportation hub for the region. 2-D: Create more convenient connections between different modes of transportation, as in pedestrian to transit, bus to light rail, or bike to transit. Objective 3: In urban centers and in new development areas, plan, design and invest in transportation infrastructure and systems that support the principal uses within the area, provide well-integrated connections to urban centers and other destinations, and address the mobility needs of frequent users. 3-A: Strengthen multimodal connections and transportation improvements within and between existing and potential urban centers, including Downtown. 3-C: Provide safe and convenient pedestrian and bicycle facilities within urban centers and new development areas. 6-A: Support major improvements to the roadway system based on detail subarea or corridor studies that investigate all mobility options, not just automobiles or transit. Detailed subarea or corridor plans require input from the entire community, as well as a comprehensive assessment of transportation, land use and other factors. 8-A: Ensure safe and convenient access and accommodation of bicycle riders, pedestrians and transit riders. 8-B: Ensure that sidewalks are continuous along all major Denver streets and that they provide pedestrians and transit riders with direct access to commercial areas, education facilities, recreational facilities and transit stops. 9-A: Update parking studies for the Central Business District, and develop parking policies and plans based on current information.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-7 9-B: Promote parking management programs to maximize use of available parking spaces within the city's major urban centers. 9-C: Explore opportunities for shared parking and evaluate the need for new shared parking structures within major urban centers such as Downtown. Legacies Objective 1: Protect and continue Denver's legacy of inspired urban design in the public realm. 1-A: Provide a model of excellence in urban design and architectural quality by incorporating design quality standards and design review in City projects. 1-B: Promote standards and incentives for design that enhance the quality and character of the city, including preservation of significant historic structures and features. 1-C: Preserve Denver architectural and design legacies while allowing new ones to evolve. 1-D: Promote the use of designs and materials that reflect the region and Denver's natural setting. 1-E: Invest in public infrastructure and amenities strategically to promote community identity and attract development. Objective 2: In new development, adapt Denver's traditional urban design character to new needs, expectations and technologies. 2-A: Establish development standards to encourage positive change and diversity while protecting Denver's traditional character.

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APPENDICES A-8 2-B: Focus design standards and review efforts on new and evolving districts that are undergoing the most dramatic change. Periodically evaluate their need and effectiveness, recognizing that locations of review focus may change over time. 2-C: Identify community design and development issues, and target specific concerns with appropriate controls and incentives. Objective 3: Incorporate visionary urban design principles into new development patterns to achieve a higher concentration and more diverse mix of housing, employment and transportation options in identified areas of the city. 3-A: Identify areas in which increased density and new uses are desirable and can be accommodated. Objective 4: Reinforce the design quality, function and character of connections among public places and activity centers, recognizing that they are places in their own right and an important part of the public realm. 4-A: Preserve, enhance and extend the pattern and character of the primary street system, including the prevailing grid, interconnected parkways, detached sidewalks and tree lawns. 4-B: Focus incentives and design controls on private development fronting major new, existing and historic roadway corridors, including parkways, boulevards and avenues citywide. Specifically recognize and address significant intersections and gateways to the city. 4-C: Establish public design and maintenance standards for major corridors that incorporate historic preservation, design quality and local character. 4-D: Accommodate multimodal transit options within major corridors while maintaining traditional scale and character.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-9 5-B: Develop design guidelines for historic landscapes, including the parks, parkways and boulevards. 6-A: Protect City-owned historic buildings and landscapes for the enjoyment of future generations. 6-B: Support and encourage historic preservation of City-owned properties within all agencies and departments. 6-C: When procuring office space for City agencies, support and encourage the adaptive reuse of historic buildings. 6-F: In City-sponsored projects, consider the recovery of archeological resources. Objective 11: Strengthen Denver's system of "green" connections: trails, bicycle routes, parkways, greenways and watercourses. 11-A: Complete and enforce design guidelines for Denver's parkways. Objective 12: Protect the environment while maintaining the City's parks to a high standard. Objective 14: Promote interagency cooperation to encourage shared facilities for community use. 14-A: Identify opportunities for shared use of facilities and initiate shared-use agreements. 14-B: Encourage developing communities to create shared community spaces that will serve the needs of and be accessible to a variety of organizations and groups.

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APPENDICES A-10 Housing Objective 6: Encourage mixed-use, mixed-income housing development in Denver's core area and along transit lines. 6-A: Support mixed-use development consistent with the goals of the Comprehensive Plan's land use and mobility strategies. 6-B: Continue to support mixed-income housing development that includes affordable rental and for-purchase housing for lower-income, entry-level and service employees, especially in Downtown and along transit lines. Economic Activity 1-H: Support a variety of housing opportunities for Denver's current and future workforce. Housing opportunities throughout Denver should be expanded-especially in the Downtown core and new employment centers-to accommodate people and families of all incomes. 2-B: Reinforce and maintain Denver's attractive quality of life as an economic asset. Denver's natural environment, climate and outdoor activities; well-maintained and architecturally diverse neighborhoods; professional sports, recreation, cultural and arts activities; post-secondary education; and real and perceived public safety all contribute to Denver's attractiveness to businesses as well as residents. Expanding housing uses in Downtown and other urban centers supports other uses and extends hours of activity. 3-A: Continually update Denver's target industries in terms of industry advancements and emerging clusters. Currently, Denver's target industries includetourism.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-11 3-C: Strengthen Denver as a destination for business, leisure and convention visitors as followsContinue to reinforcethe Downtown area as the primary location for sports, leisure, cultural and convention attractions.Expand the role of the performing and visual arts in the city's economy, especially in Downtown. 4-A: Ensure Downtown's future as Denver's preeminent center for business, tourism and entertainmentto support Downtown economic development, the City should enhance pedestrian connections among Downtown's attractions and amenitiescreating pedestrian links between Downtown and close-in neighborhoods, reactivating 14th and 15th Streets, and connecting destinations within DowntownContinue to support the reuse of historic buildings in and around Downtown. Neighborhoods 1-C: Strengthen the sense of place in each neighborhood with adequate and welldesigned, public-realm facilitiesContinue City support for public art and historic preservation as a focus for neighborhood identity and pride. 1-D: Ensure high-quality urban design in neighborhoods by enhancing their distinctive natural, historic and cultural characteristics; strengthen neighborhood connections to urban centers and reinforce Denver's unifying design features such as street trees in tree lawns, parkways and the grid system of streets. Objective 2: Engage neighborhood residents and organizations in collaborative efforts to share information, solve problems and plan for the future. Objective 3: Make neighborhoods clean and safe places that inspire community pride, where residents and visitors feel secure and comfortable.

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APPENDICES A-12 3-C: Promote planning, urban design and activities within neighborhoods that foster supportive relations among family members, neighbors, different generations, cultural groups and institutions. 3-D: Develop strong partnerships among neighborhoods, police and other City agencies to solve problems, prevent crime and reduce violence. 3-E: Continue to develop policies that foster communication and partnership between neighborhoods and the Department of Safety. Objective 5: Maintain the physical and operational integrity of community facilities. 5-A: As part of the siting and approval process, require development of a management and operational practices plan for the facility, including ongoing communication with the public. The facility management will be responsible for implementing the plan. 5-B: Maintain the physical integrity and appearance of City-owned community facilities and ensure proper operation. Objective 7: Plan for community facilities and strive for fair distribution, sensitive siting and quality design to minimize their impact on neighborhoods. 7-C: Plan for future facilities and expansion of existing ones by identifying and reserving land. When financially feasible, purchase the land. 7-D: Ensure quality design compatible with neighborhood character. The site plan, materials and landscaping should enhance the aesthetic and environmental quality of the neighborhood in which a facility will be sited or expanded. 7-E: Encourage multi-uses of existing and future community facilities to maximize effective service delivery and financial efficiency.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-13 7-F: Minimize traffic impacts by ensuring that facilities are accessible by multiple modes of transportation and, whenever feasible, use technologies such as teleconferences to reduce the number of trips generated by the facility. 7-G: Balance the potential negative impacts of a community facility by providing amenities and improvements desired by its neighborhood. Arts and Culture Objective 1: Support and promote a flourishing artistic community. 1-A: Create a vision for Denver as a flourishing artistic and cultural community by helping build a coalition among interested stakeholders, including City agencies; arts, cultural and scientific organizations; educational institutions; foundations and corporate funders; and businesses. 1-C: Support a full range of cultural and artistic opportunities within Denver's neighborhoods and among its diverse communities, including festivals, performing and visual arts events, and cultural activities. Objective 2: Encourage the development and maintenance of facilities within Denver to support diverse cultural and artistic activities. Objective 3: Enhance the capacity of arts and culture to act as an economic generator, and integrate arts and culture into the City's economic development activities. Metropolitan Cooperation 1-E: Adopt more comprehensive approaches to planning when multiple jurisdictions are affected. Such planning efforts could include sustainable development, service infrastructure enhancement, transportation facility design, and land use policies.

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APPENDICES A-14

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-15 APPENDIX B. PUBLIC PROCESS SUMMARIES1. Summary of Design Charrette, August 28, 2004 Common Theme 1.Support for DeBoer plan to connect civic core to Speer Boulevard. 2.Include a gateway at Speer Boulevard as a monumental public space. 3.Strengthen and continue the visual axis from the State Capital to the west (to Speer). 4.Include the Colorado State facilities in the core government zone. 5.Activate the park with programming including vendors and better connections. It should not be an island. 6. Include a first floor use for Carnegie Library (McNichols Building). Adding a building to complement the Carnegie was discussed in many groups without clear consensus. 7. New should reflect the current civic character. 8.Colfax should not be a barrier. Support for narrowing Colfax and adding wide pedestrian areas and safe crossings. Support for plaza areas. 9.Support for a mixed use government area. 10.Four-sided architecture. Parking structure facades are important too. 11.Views to cupola of State Capitol should be protected. 12.Wayfinding and pedestrian friendly. 13.Parking garages are good. 14.Identity that is unique to the District using the pedestrian experience, architecture and how the buildings meet the street. Concept from Group 4 led by Helen Kuykendall.

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APPENDICES A-16 Ideas but not Consensus 1.Reuse of Carnegie Library (McNichols Building) as a civic use that is accessible to the public 2.Create a campus feeling for the district that includes government buildings interspersed with residential. 3.The streetscape ties the district together not the architecture. 4.Narrow Bannock Street at the park to strengthen connections. 5.Preference for Sheet B 6.Preference for boundary concept 2 and enlarging the area. 7.Strengthen design guidelines for the district (in reference to discussion of quality of design for DNAbuilding). 8.Close right turn lane at Colfax and Broadway. 9.Acoma Street is important connection and cultural link. 10.Roofs to be compatible with historic vs. flat for 'green roof' opportunities. 11.City as leader in higher efficiency buildings and design. Discussion Items 1.Underground Colfax Avenue 2.Potential impact to personal property. 3.Diagonals as means to strengthen access and connections (across Speer, Colfax, the park). 4.Ease of access district should be easier to get to from the Performing Arts Complex and downtown. 5.Encourage cultural aspects of the district including Acoma Street. 6.Keep the spirit of the City Beautiful movement. 7.Hurry up and build. Concept from Group 5 led by Kurt Schumacher

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-17 Concept to fulfill the DeBoer Plan from Group 1 led by Dennis Swain Preferences (from plans & photos) 1.Colfax Avenue, Broadway and Lincoln should be great streets. 2.Establish 25' building setbacks for the Justice Center and provide a new 25' building setback on Colfax between Speer and the State Capitol. 3.Four-sided architecture with building architecture to be sympathetic to the historic character of district but not replicative. Buildings to respond to nearby historic structures through architectural references to roof lines, floor to floor ratio and proportions of elements. 4.The cobbled street image with people and shops. 5.Images of London street (could be character of Colfax). 6.Endeavor to keep architecture that recognizes the historic and synthesizes the new. 7.Wire mesh on parking garages prohibited. 8.Improve / remove city's parking lots that are not aesthetic within the park and behind the City & County Building. 9.Preference for Sheet B 10.Cherokee as a two-way. Concept to fulfill the DeBoer Plan from Group 2 led by Steve Turner

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APPENDICES A-18 Bob Kochevar Ray Sotter Billie Bramhall David Becker Mickey Zeppelin Steve Newman Dave Weaver Chris Carvell Dennis Swain Steve Turner Jim Carpenter Mark Najarian Helen Kuykendall Kurt Schumacher Emily Ailts Tina Bishop Jeremy Klop Lee Kellar Dave Anderson Nan Anderson Joe McGrane Sara Kendall John Hickenlooper Jeanne Robb Peter Park Kiersten Faulkner Diana Helper Cindy Christensen Tyler Gibbs Janice Webster Jim Byrne Carol Singer Public Charrette Participants Dick Farley Pat Mundus Scott Zabrishie Jeffrey Hill Charles Keyes Douglas Riddel Matthew Armstrong Heather Bock David Netz Tracy King Nell Swiers Gretchen Vasquez Frank Sullivan Paul Grattet Paul Ryan George Gonzales Charlotte Bach Leo Bach Gretchen Williams Ira Selkowitz Barb Monseu Steve Loos Ted Block R.W. Bymerson Mike Langley Eric Boyd Kristy Bierhaus Rhonda Vogts Gheda Gayou Juanita Pedotto Ron Straka Guillerino Hernandez Ted Freedman Ralph Rempel Dennis Humphries Jeff Bayless Steve Gordon Kim Bailey Beth Conover Sharon Elfenbein David Land Michael Henry Debra Hinvark David Tryba Christopher Tryba Adrian Brown Ed Johnson Carolyn Etter Dave Webster Dennis George Susan Carroll Holly Brown Steven Kaup Don Kehl Rick Ashton Christy Collins Katherine Cornwell Wayland Walker Carla Madison Amy Pallante Peg Ingram Bill Mosher

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-19 2. Summary of Public Open House, December 2, 2004 Apublic open house was held on December 2, 2004 to present the vision, goals and preliminary recommendations to the public, solicit feedback, and refine the recommendations. The open house included a general presentation on the plan and in-depth stations with information on land use, economic development, urban design, transportation, parking, parks and the proposed justice center. Participants were invited to comment verbally or in writing, at the meeting or following it. Mark Spensieri Jeff Pitchford Gayle Williams Betty Emmanuel Tim Reilly George Skordis Shawn Camper Ted Block Scott Asper Chris Nims Bob Sailor Mike Colohan Amy Pallante Gheila Gayon Edith Knehaus Jim Bliek Open House Participants Eric Boyd Billie Bramhall Kathleen Brooker Adrian Brown Georgiana Contigulia Michael Henry Robin Lima Bill Mosher Fred Oliva Jeanne Robb Bob Rynerson Mickey Zepplin Lou Kilzer Dwight Ballard John Dikeou Jeffrey Hill Leila Connard Nancy Steinfurth Rut Gogelort Sam Mullouk Dixie Malone Tara Skakraida John Ashton John Matthias Steve Newman Bruce Hanson John Desmond Beidon Harrington Errin Welty Mike Beery

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APPENDICES A-20

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-21 APPENDIX C. POTENTIAL SIGNIFICANT AND HISTORIC BUILDINGS1. Summary The Civic Center District has functioned as the civic heart and government center of the city and region for more than 100 years, resulting in its being home to many of Colorados most architecturally and historically significant structures. Buildings include the State Capitol Building, the City & County Building and the United States Mint, and sites include Civic Center Park and Lincoln Park. Most of these buildings and sites are listed on the National Register of Historic Places and are included in the Civic Center Historic District, a Denver Landmark historic district, or are individual Denver Landmarks. These and other monumental buildings greatly define the character of the District, however there are several other structures and buildings that may contribute to the significance of the District that are not currently historically designated. The following is a summary of buildings and sites within the Civic Center District that may be architecturally and / or historically significant. As the District continues to redevelop, it will be important that these structures be further researched and evaluated to determine their significance, and their potential for designation and adaptive re-use. Fountain / Watering Trough Colfax Avenue and Tremont Place intersection Built in 1907, this original watering trough is currently located in a small triangular plaza that is centered in the Colfax Avenue and Tremont Place intersection. The red granite trough consists of a broad circular basin that is set on a square base and has a square fountain in its center. The basin is filled with soil and miscellaneous plantings, making it difficult to recognize it as the troughs original water basin. The watering trough was presented to the City and County of Denver in 1907 by the the National Humane Alliance and a large brass plaque on the granite fountain recognizes this gift and the organizations founder, Hermon Lee Ensign. Fountain / Watering Trough at Colfax Avenue and Tremont Street

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APPENDICES A-22 Pints Pub 1301 Bannock Street The building at 1301 Bannock Street is a prominent two-story Spanish Colonial style building with entrances on both 13th Street and Bannock Street. Built of blond brick with tiled roofs, the building includes two porches on each of its facades that provide entrances into each of its businesses. Pints Pub occupies the western end of the building on 13th Street. Bail Bonds Houses 1319 Elati Street, at the intersection of 13th Avenue with Delaware Street and Elati Street, 1263 to 1271 Elati Street The District contains a number of small-scale houses that remain from the areas original development as a residential neighborhood. These houses are generally a story and a half, single gabled, Folk Victorian style structures that are built entirely of wood. The majority have been used as offices most notably as bail bonds offices for many years. Many of these houses have front additions and extensive signage that obscures their original porches and facades. Built on small lots, the low building heights, distinctly residential forms and narrow properties make them an anomaly in the Civic Center District. Civitas, Inc., 1200 Bannock Street Located on the corner of 12th Avenue and Bannock Street, this office building was originally built as a garage sometime prior to 1904. Broadway, and this portion of 12th Avenue, was an early automobile oriented district that abutted residential structures to the north and south. Substantial, one-story brick structures, similar to this one, originally housed automobile showrooms, service stations and garages. By 1924, the Willard Service Station was housed in this structure, which included a concrete floor, a wooden truss roof, electric lights and steam heat. Willard Service Station offered tires, parts and springs. 1301 Bannock Street

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-23 Cherokee BoilerHouse 1348 Cherokee Street This impressive red brick building was originally built as a heating plant for the Denver municipal buildings. The three story brick building with extensive decorative brick work on all four facades, has three large arched windows on its Cherokee Street facade and four smaller arched windows on its north facade. One of its more prominent features is its tall square brick smokestack. Swedish Mission Church 1225 Cherokee Street The Swedish Mission Church was built in 1919. It is a Gothic Revival style, red brick building with a hip roof. The building is set deep into its lot, well back from the Cherokee Street frontage. Anewer concrete addition obscures its original front facade that included a large central Gothic-style window and two entrances at either end of the facade. The most characteristic feature is the churchs tower and belfry, located on the buildings southeast corner. Emily Griffith Opportunity School 13th Street and Welton Street The Opportunity School is the namesake of Emily Griffith who founded the school in 1916 to provide a school for adults where students could attend classes during the day or at night, receiving as much education as they desired. The original school was housed in Longfellow School, an original Denver Public School designed by Robert Roeschlaub and built in 1882 with an addition occurring in 1889. The existing Emily Griffith Opportunity School took the place of this original building, with a handsome red brick four story structure that covers the entire western half of Tremont Street from 13th to 14th Street. The eastern portion of the school site originally housed the Opportunity School Shops,a series of numerous smaller scale garage buildings that still exist and that create a consistent building edge along Glenarm Place. Civitas, Inc. building at 1200 Bannock Street.

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APPENDICES A-24 Several additional buildings in the Civic Center District may also be architecturally or historically significant. However, little information currently exists on these buildings. Due to the limited scope of the District Plan, it was not possible at this time to research these elements. Further research and evaluation should be undertaken prior to any development or adaptive reuse of the these buildings. Building 13th Street & Tremont Place. Office Building 445 West Colfax Avenue Colorado Press Association 1336 Glenarm Street Hunts Apartments 1229 Bannock Street DMWWGarage, built in 1938 Cherokee Street Office Building 14th Street and Colfax Avenue Dozens Restaurant 13th Avenue and Cherokee Street Houses Delaware Street between 12th Avenue and 13th Avenue Red Brick Row Houses 1332 and 1338 Tremont Street

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-25 APPENDIX D. LAND USE AND DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL1. Land Use Alternatives Build the Justice Center Anew Denver Justice Center is currently proposed on two blocks immediately west of the area commonly defined as the Civic Center District. Aparking structure that would serve the new Justice Center is proposed for the north end of an adjoining block just south of 14th Avenue. These locations expand the current boundaries of the Civic Center District and again raise questions of compatibility with adjoining uses and the direction and location of any future expansions. In order to best anticipate and be able to accommodate its potential impacts, all three alternatives include the construction of a new Justice Center as a given. Each alternative also considers these parameters: almost one million square feet of space on two and one-half City blocks to accommodate an expansion of the pretrial detention facilities, the criminal courts the juvenile courts and structured parking. Accommodate the Citys Facility Needs Denver has completed several facility master plans that identify the City government's long-range need for office, warehouse and special use space. In the Civic Center Planning Assessment completed in November of 2003, the City identified total facility needs of about 1.5 million square feet. This estimate did not take into account the current supply of either existing or future vacant space and the potential for backfilling City buildings. Additionally, almost two-thirds of the space needs identified in the Assessment is directly attributable to the Justice Center. (Note: all square footage estimates, including those for the Justice Center, are very preliminary and have not yet been verified with architectural analysis currently underway.)

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APPENDICES A-26 To analyze the additional need for additional City facilities within the Study Area, the Project Team compared the demand for facilities with the current and anticipated supply within the District, assuming the Justice Center will be developed. Much of the future supply becomes available within existing City buildings once current uses move to the Justice Center. It is important to note that the estimates presented are speculative and likely to change. History has indicated that uses within City facilities change significantly over time, and master plans are not always good predictors of what actually occurs. Figure 1 shows the projected City demand for space and the projected location. Of the 1.533 million square feet, approximately one million square feet is for Justice Center components. The Justice Center Project is anticipated to include pretrial detention expansion, criminal courts, and juvenile courts. In addition to the Justice Center, about 83,000 square feet have been reclassified as uses that are currently expected to locate outside of the district. Beyond the Justice Center, City facilities within the District are expected to require about 500,000 square feet of space. These facilities are also shown in Figure Aon page 57 and include uses that may backfill existing facilities (some of which will be vacated when uses are relocated to the Justice Center), uses that would locate in the New Art Museum, and finally, potential uses that may locate in a new not-yet-planned facility or facilities within the District. The City estimates new City facilities would require between 150,000 and 200,000 square feet of additional space by 2025 (excluding parking.) One potential use not accounted for in the table would be the potential relocation of uses currently in the McNichols Building. These uses total about 30,000 square feet of net usable space and, if they were to move, would also be likely to relocate in the Civic Center.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-27 All three alternatives assume the same boundaries. 2. Alternative AThe Minimalist Alternative Boundaries: The formal, City Beautiful "Core" 14th Avenue to West Colfax, between Bannock and Speer Boulevard The Civic Center District Transition Area Land Uses : Anew Justice Center with a Detention Facility and a Courthouse for the Criminal and Juvenile Courts All other uses in the Core and Transition Area remain as they are currently. 3. Alternative B The Full Build-Out Alternative Boundaries: The formal, City Beautiful "Core" 14th Avenue to West Colfax, between Bannock and Speer Boulevard The Civic Center District Transition Area Land Uses : Anew Justice Center with a Detention Facility and a Courthouse for the Criminal and Juvenile Courts All other uses within the Core and the Civic Center Transition Area are replaced by new uses that are built out to the maximum possible height and square footage for their site.

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APPENDICES A-28 4. Alternative C The Partial Build-Out Alternative Boundaries: The formal, City Beautiful "Core" 14th Avenue to West Colfax, between Bannock and Speer Boulevard The Civic Center District Transition Area Land Uses : Anew Justice Center with a Detention Facility and a Courthouse for the Criminal and Juvenile Courts All other uses are build-out to 50% of their capacity, based on the possible height and square footage

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-29 CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT MASTER PLAN LAND USE ALTERNATIVE MATRIXIndex

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APPENDICES A-30 CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT MASTER PLAN LAND USE ALTERNATIVE MATRIXAlternative A: Minimalist "As is" alternative Alternative B: "Significant build-out" alternative Alternative C: "Partial build-out" alternative

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-31

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APPENDICES A-32

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-33

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APPENDICES A-34

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-35

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APPENDICES A-36

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-37

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APPENDICES A-38

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-39

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APPENDICES A-40

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-41

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APPENDICES A-42

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-43

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APPENDICES A-44

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-45

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APPENDICES A-46

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-47

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APPENDICES A-48

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-49

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APPENDICES A-50

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-51

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APPENDICES A-52

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-53

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APPENDICES A-54

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-55

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APPENDICES A-56

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-57

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APPENDICES A-58

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-59

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APPENDICES A-60

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-61

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APPENDICES A-62

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-63

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APPENDICES A-64

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-65

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APPENDICES A-66

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-67APPENDIX E. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS The preferred alternative presented in the Civic Center District Plan (Alternative B) proposes the addition of nearly 4 million square feet of private office development, over 900,000 square feet of residential development, 500,000 square feet of courts and detention facilities, 170,000 square feet of museums and a 290,000 square foot hotel. Under the less intensive Alternative C, the study area would see substantially less office and residential space and would not see the addition of a hotel. In all scenarios, the proposed new Justice Center has been assumed. Exhibit 1. Projected Development by Alternative Net New S.F. A B C Courts and Detention 504,908504,908504,908 Cultural 0170,93365,000 Hotel 0290,000 0 Office (1)03,952,5621,473,732 Residential 0910,000280,500Note: (1) 400,000 square feet of office space in Alternative B could be replaced by a gateway park for the district. The economic analysis examines the proposed alternatives from a number of perspectives. First, it evaluates the market context in which development will take place. Further, it examines both economic and public revenue impacts of the proposed development. In all of these analyses, the development alternatives outlined in the Land Use section of the draft plan are considered. The "no action" alternative is not analyzed in depth as it is assumed to largely preserve the status quo in regards to economic activity.

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APPENDICES A-681. Market Overview The proposed Civic Center District Plan calls for substantial public investment and activity in four primary private sector areas: office, hotel, residential and mixed use retail. The ability of the private market to support these uses will drive the timeline and feasibility of implementation of the proposed plan. Office Market Overview Areview of recent real estate trends in the Civic Center area indicates a stable but struggling office market. In the second quarter of 2000, only 94,108 vacant square feet were available in the study area, representing a very low vacancy rate of 3.5 percent.1By the third quarter of 2004, the amount of vacant square feet in the area had grown to 412,467, a 15.5 percent vacancy rate. This is consistent with the 15.5 percent vacancy rate seen metrowide in the second quarter of 2004. This growth in vacancies occurred without any increase in the available rentable area in the Civic Center district. In the 19 complete quarters since January 2000, the Civic Center district has experienced negative absorption 10 times. These include a decline of 237,000 leased square feet in the fourth quarter of 2002 and a 70,000 square foot decline in the first quarter of 2004. The low activity levels in recent years have clearly resulted from larger regional economic trends. The office market in Denver has declined precipitously in recent years, with high vacancies seen across the area. Activity preceding this decline is most indicative when considering the marketability of office space in the Civic Center District. Prior to this decline, a total of 500,000 square feet of office space were added to the Central Business District from 1990 to 2002, with 19 million square feet added across the entire metro area.2The Civic Center District currently has over 450,000 vacant square feet in the fourth quarter of 2004. Significant recovery will be required before sufficient pressure is placed on the Civic Center submarket to drive development of new or expanded office space. While nearly four million square feet of privately developed office space are projected in the Civic Center District, the timing of this development is uncertain. Given current vacancy 1All office market data from CoStar, 2004.2Cushman & Wakefield, from Economic & Planning Systems, Denver Union Station Market Analysis, April 15, 2003. Exhibit 2. Civic Center Office Occupancy Exhibit 3. Civic Center Office Absorption

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-69 3Smith Travel Research4Rocky Mountain Lodging Report, July 2004.5Development Research Partners, Monthly Economic Summary: A monthly summary of economic conditions in Metro Denver, September 8, 2004. rates and recent economic trends, no construction is likely for a number of years and complete buildout could require multiple decades. Hotel Market Overview The Civic Center District Plan calls for the construction of a 350-400 room hotel on the south end of the 16th Street mall between Cleveland Street and Cheyenne Place. The marketability of such a hotel will depend on national and regional economic conditions, as well as the success of the expanded Colorado Convention Center and its associated Hyatt hotel in inducing additional demand in Denver. After September 11, 2001, hotel occupancies in the primary and secondary markets surrounding downtown Denver dropped to below 64 percent, with average room rates also declining to approximately $110 per night. In 2003 the downtown market showed signs of recovery, with occupancy rates climbing to 67 percent and room rates holding steady. Mid-year 2004 data indicate continuing recovery of the hotel market throughout metro Denver. In early 2003, a market study was conducted for a proposed 1,100 room Hyatt convention center hotel. Between the convention center hotel and a Marriott Residence Inn that is scheduled to open in late 2005, nearly 1,300 hotel rooms will be added to the metro Denver market in the next two years. The market study projected stabilized occupancies around 70 percent by 2008 with the addition of these two properties. Athird hotel has been proposed in the Uptown neighborhood, although the prognosis for this facility is uncertain. The construction of a new hotel in the Civic Center district certainly could take place. The completion of the Denver Art Museum expansion will place a significant tourist attraction in the heart of district, and other cultural attractions are being discussed. However, the presence of two new hotels in downtown Denver, together with a tourism market that is still recovering, raises questions about the immediacy of this hotel construction. It is most likely that demand for a new hotel at the location in question will not emerge until 2009 or later.

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APPENDICES A-70 Residential In 2003 and the first 8 months of 2004, 110 residential properties were sold in the Golden Triangle, which is the best comparison market for the Civic Center District. These sales consisted entirely of multi-family residences, which is consistent with the likely development pattern in the Civic Center District. Adjusted for the partial 2004 data, an average of 63 units sold annually in the past two years. Values were relatively high, with units typically selling for nearly $340,000. Given unit sizes of less than 1,400 square feet, this produced per square foot values of $245 over the two year period. Exhibit 4. Residential Market Data Total SalesSquare FeetSale PricePrice/S.F. 2003 781,365$352,642$259 2004 (1)481,390$323,677$231 Average631,377$338,159$245Note: (1) Adjusted for only 8 months of sales. The preferred alternative presented in the Civic Center District Plan projects 661 new residential units, while the less intensive alternative proposes only 204 new units. If one-third of Golden Triangle units were to sell in the study area, the units proposed in the District Plan would be absorbed in between 10 and 31 years.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-71 Impacts of Justice Centeron Residential Market While a review of existing data identifies current patterns in the residential market, it does not account for any impacts that the proposed Justice Center might have on residential activity. To gauge these impacts, interviews were conducted with residential Realtors active in the Golden Triangle and Civic Center neighborhoods, as well as with knowledgeable individuals in cities that have recently constructed downtown Justice Centers. The individuals interviewed in this process consistently expressed little to no concern about the impacts of the proposed Justice Center on the residential market. Anumber of reasons were expressed for this lack of concern. The existing Justice Center is already taken into account by residential buyers and sellers. An increase in activity at a new Justice Center is a relatively nuanced factor that will be difficult for new buyers to gauge and will be unlikely to be noticed. The proposed Justice Center will fit better into the urban framework than the existing center, making it a less noticeable factor for buyers assessing the area. The proposed Justice Center will minimize visible detention and court activities by removing activity from the City and County Building and by decreasing the presence of Sheriff buses on downtown streets. The experience of other cities that have completed similar facilities has been steady or increasing real estate values as a result of their development. While neighborhood concern is understandable, negative impacts on residential property values appear unlikely if the Justice Center is built and operated as planned.

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APPENDICES A-72 Mixed Use Retail Only a relatively small amount of mixed use retail development is proposed for the Civic Center District. This is in accordance with the Plan's goal of preserving destination retail opportunities in downtown Denver. The proposed 204 to 661 new residential units envisioned in the plan's preferred alternative, together with thousands of new office employees and cultural tourists, will generate substantial demand for new convenience and destination retail. The spending generated by new employees, residents and visitors would support over 200,000 square feet of new retail under the preferred alternative. The Plan recommends locating convenience retail in the District itself, with destination retail focused on downtown Denver. Using conservative assumptions, approximately 30,000 of the 225,000 square feet of retail supported by new development would occur in mixed use areas in the District. This would include both neighborhood retail targeted to new residents and employees, as well as restaurants and other retail supported by visitors to the new and expanded cultural facilities. Summary of Market Overview The development projections in the preferred alternative will likely take place over a number of years. While market factors will certainly change over time, the amount of development proposed will take many years to be absorbed. Demand for a proposed hotel development is unlikely until at least 2009, and may occur much later depending on induced demand and development of other projects. The nearly 4 million square feet of office space proposed will not begin to be developed until much of the available 450,000 square feet have been absorbed. Given recent trends, it is difficult to place a timeline on the office development, but it is well into the future. Similarly, the proposed 661 residential units could take three decades or more for complete absorption. While long absorption periods are likely for the quantity of development proposed, market conditions can change and, even in the absence of changing conditions, initial development may take place. Ashare of the development proposed in the preferred alternative may take place in the next decade, even if the majority is pushed into later years.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-732. Economic Impacts Either of the alternatives proposed in the Civic Center District Plan will have substantial economic impacts on the District. With the addition of significant amounts of public and private sector development, they will drive new employment and spending that otherwise would have occurred elsewhere in metro Denver into the area. Two types of economic impacts are examined below. One time impacts are driven by the construction of between two and six million square feet of new development. These include both the construction employment driven by this development and the spending of those construction employees in the project area. On-going impacts, on the other hand, represent the employment and spending impacts of the completed development under either alternative. One Time Impacts The construction of between 500,000 and six million new square feet will drive substantial amounts of employment and spending into the Civic Center District. Using rough assumptions, the project will produce between 1.2 million and 14.6 million hours of employment. This would provide full time employment for one year for between 600 and 7,000 construction workers and would generate between 364,000 and $4.2 million of new spending in the district and surrounding areas. Households in the income category occupied by construction workers spend approximately $2,400 annually on food away from home.6If $600, or one-quarter of this amount, was spent by these workers, it would introduce between $364,000 and $4.2 million of spending into the downtown economy, a share of which will occur in the Civic Center District. 6Bureau of Labor Statistics, Consumer Expenditure Survey, 2002.

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APPENDICES A-74Exhibit 5. One-Time Economic Activity in the Civic CenterDistrict Alternative A B C Cost of construction (p.s.f) $100 $100$100 Labor share 50% 50%50% Total square feet 0%5,828,4032,324,140 Total spending $50,490,800$582,840,300$232,414,000 Total cost of labor $25,245,400$291,420,150$116,207,000 Total hours 1,262,27014,571,0085,810,350 Person/years of employment 6077,0052,793 Annual spending/employee $600 $600$600 Total spending $364,116$4,203,175$1,676,063 On-Going Impacts Activity generated by each of the proposed real estate uses will drive on-going economic impacts. This activity includes spending by office, court, hotel and cultural employees; visitors to hotels and cultural facilities and area residents. Anumber of common assumptions are used in estimating these economic impacts. Annual employee spending of $600 and annual resident spending of $41,787 are assumed based on the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Consumer Expenditure Survey. Hotel visitor spending of $267 per party per night is assumed based on recent studies by Business Travel News (with $138 assumed for lodging). Minimal spending is assumed to take place within the District, given limited retail opportunities, with two exceptions: a large share of hotel spending will necessarily occur at the hotel itself, and a large share of cultural spending will consist of admissions and memberships. Detailed economic impact calculations are provided in Appendix D.-Development Potential. The preferred alternative will produce $55 million of annual on-going spending, approximately $16 million of which would occur in the Civic Center District. Under this alternative, over 13,000 new jobs would also be produced in the District. Under the less intensive Alternative C, total annual spending would decrease to $14 million, with spending in the District declining to $4 million per year. Nearly 5,000 new jobs would be created under

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-75this Alternative. Alternative A, which calls only for construction of the proposed Justice Center, would produce minimal new annual spending and only 72 new on-going jobs. It is important to note that nearly all of this economic activity would occur elsewhere in the Denver metro area if the Civic Center District did not develop as planned. While some new spending will be attracted from outside of the metro area by new cultural attractions, most economic activity will be driven by residents and office workers who would live in the metro are regardless. However, the certainty provided by the District Plan will enhance the market and help focus development in the manner envisioned. Exhibit 6. Total Economic Activity in the Civic CenterDistrict Alternative A -Total ImpactsNew One Time Spending $364,116 New One-Time Jobs 607 New On-Going Spending (annual) $43,362 New On-Going Spending in District $6,504 New Jobs 72Alternative B -Total ImpactsNew One Time Spending $4,203,175 New One-Time Jobs 7,005 New On-Going Spending (annual) $55,198,808 New On-Going Spending in District$16,014,921 New Jobs 13,397Alternative C -Total ImpactsNew One Time Spending $1,676,063 New One-Time Jobs 2,793 New On-Going Spending (annual) $13,884,091 New On-Going Spending in District $3,627,551 New Jobs 4,992

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APPENDICES A-763. City and County Revenue Impacts By adding substantial amounts of private development to the city tax rolls, both Alternative B and Alternative C will generate significant amounts of city and county revenue. While the more intensive, and preferred, Alternative B will generate significantly more revenue, impacts along the lines of Alternative C will be more likely to occur in the short term given the market overview presented above.7Two sources of revenue are examined in calculating the city and county revenue impacts: property tax and sales tax. While other taxes will also be generated by development that occurs under the proposed alternatives, property and sales tax constitute the lion's share of revenue generation. Property Tax Property tax impacts are calculated by multiplying the projected square feet of development by three factors: the likely per square foot value, the applicable assessment ratio and the city and county tax rates. Per square foot values were calculated in two ways. For commercial property, existing property tax revenues were used to estimate a per square foot value. The $75 per square foot used in this analysis is at the high end of existing property values, since new development will likely be valued at the top of the scale. Residential values of $245 per square foot were used based on Assessor's records of recent sales in the Golden Triangle. Per Colorado law, assessment ratios of 29 percent for commercial property and 7.96 percent for residential property were used in these calculations. The resulting figures were then multiplied by the city and county's mill levy of 25.278. 7No fiscal analysis was performed for Alternative A. As purely public sector development, it will not add any new taxable area to the city's tax rolls.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-77 Sales Tax Sales tax revenues were calculated by estimating the likely retail square feet in the proposed mixed-use space, and then multiplying it by estimated sales of $200 per square foot and by the city's sales tax rate. Estimates of retail square feet assume the spending levels presented in Exhibit 6, less hotel spending, and sales of $200 per square foot. Since restaurants are taxed at a higher rate than other retail, and since much of the proposed retail space will likely consist of restaurants, a blended sales tax rate of 3.75 percent was used in these calculations.8 Lodger's Tax Lodger's tax revenues were calculated by estimating total hotel rooms (300) and applying the occupancy rate currently seen downtown (67 percent) and the average room rate for Denver tourists ($138). The city's 9.75 percent lodger's tax rate was applied to total revenues, although 4.75 percent is pledged to various debt issues meaning that 5 percent is available for other city spending. City and County Revenue Generation Under Alternative B, new development would generate an additional $4.0 million annually in 2004 dollars. With buildout likely to lag by a decade or more, the actual dollar amount will certainly increase and will be reached gradually. If the less intensive Alternative C were chosen, new revenue generation would total a much smaller $1.1 million per year. In either case, the addition of private sector development will increase the city's revenue base. 8The city's sales tax rate is 3.5 percent, but restaurants pay a higher 4 percent rate.

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APPENDICES A-78Exhibit 7. Public Revenues Alternative B Property Tax Private Development Square Feet Appraised Value/S.F. Taxable Value City Property Tax Revenue Office 3,922,562 $75$85,315,724$2,156,611 Mixed-Use Retail30,000 $75$652,500 $16,494 Residential 910,000 $245$17,746,820 $448,604 Hotel 290,000 $75$6,307,500 $159,441 Total 5,152,562 $110,022,544$2,781,150 Sales Tax Private Development Square FeetSales/S.F.Total Sales City Sales Tax Revenue (1) Mixed-Use Retail30,000 $200$6,000,000 $225,000 Lodger's Tax Rooms Average Rate Average Occupancy Total Sales City Lodger's Tax Revenue (2) 300 $138 67%$10,124,370 $987,126 Total Annual City Revenue $3,993,276 Alternative C Property Tax Private Development Square Feet Appraised Value/S.F. Taxable Value City Property Tax Revenue Office 1,473,732 $75$32,053,671 $810,253 Mixed-Use Retail20,000 $75$435,000 $10,996 Residential 280,500 $245$5,470,311 $138,279 Hotel 0 $75 $0 $0 Total 1,774,232 $37,958,982 $959,527 Sales Tax Private Development Square FeetSales/S.F.Total Sales City Sales Tax Revenue (1) Mixed-Use Retail20,000 $200$4,000,000 $150,000 Lodger's Tax Rooms Average Rate Average Occupancy Total Sales City Lodger's Tax Revenue (2) 0 $138 67% $0 $0 Total Annual City Revenue $1,109,527 Note: (1) 3.75 percent sales tax rate is used, assuming half of retail will consist of restaurants. (2) The full 9.75% is used, although 4.75% Is pledged to debt service.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-79 Summary and Conclusions The proposed alternatives set forth in the Civic Center District Master Plan will inject millions of dollars of spending into both the Civic Center District and the broader downtown area. They will generate thousands of new jobs and produce over $1 million in annual city revenues. However, an overview of the current real estate market indicates that patience may be required before development of the scope envisioned in the District Plan takes place. While a share of the proposed development may take place in early years, it is likely that initial private sector development will lag five years or more and could require decades to reach build out. However, the public investments in the proposed Justice Center and the expanded cultural facilities in the District will provide an immediate economic spark that could accelerate a share of the proposed private sector development.

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APPENDICES A-80

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-81APPENDIX F. TRANSPORTATION MODELING AND EVALUATION1. Assumptions/Issues/Goals Transportation Colfax Avenue will remain a state highway. Colfax Avenue cross-section will have at least 60 feet of curb-to-curb width for vehicular movement. Broadway/Lincoln and 13th/14th Avenues will remain one-way couplets. Anew circulator will link downtown to the cultural complex. Colfax Avenue Daily Traffic Count Summary Colfax Avenue

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APPENDICES A-82 2. Streets Systems Alternatives Analysis Process In order to understand the effect on traffic conditions due to changes made to the roadway network within the Civic Center four scenarios for the Civic Center roadway network were analyzed and compared to each other using Synchro 6. Before each Scenario was analyzed, a 14 percent growth factor was applied to the existing CCD volumes, geometric changes were made to the roadway network, and, if needed, turning movement volumes were recalculated in Synchro 6. The signal timings for the Civic Center area were optimized using Synchro 6 on a network-wide basis. The measures of effectiveness (MOEs) used to compare the scenarios were intersection delay with the corresponding level of service, and the amount of progression green time along the Colfax Avenue, Broadway and Lincoln Street corridors within the study area. Following the initial analysis using Synchro 6, additional simulation analysis of Colfax Avenue was performed using VISSIM. All Colfax intersections from Lincoln to Speer were evaluated. Four circulation scenarios were analyzed in this study. Each scenario had a number of changes to the existing roadway network in the Civic Center area. All changes described in each scenario are based on the existing roadway network. The following describes each scenario.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-83 Left: Transportation Alternatives

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APPENDICES A-84 Alternative A Alternative Arepresents the existing roadway network at all locations, except for the Colfax Ave/Tremont Street intersection, which was removed. The intersection at 13th Street/Tremont was realigned to be directly north of the existing Colfax Avenue/Delaware Street intersection in order to provide SBR and SBLturning movements at the Delaware Street intersection. This effectively combines two existing signalized intersections on Colfax Avenue into one. Realign Tremont Street Right: Alternative A

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-85 Colfax Avenue Colfax Avenue will remain as existing with three travel lanes in each direction and a parking lane between Cherokee and Bannock Streets. Improvements to the median and streetscape will be made. 14th Street 14th Street will be improved to provide direct access for pedestrians, automobiles and bicyclists between Civic Center and downtown Denver. Colfax Avenue

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APPENDICES A-86 Alternative B Colfax Avenue was narrowed from Welton Street to Bannock Street according to the proposal in DMAPto two through lanes in each direction, with left-turn pocket lanes at each intersection. The DMAPplans also call for the closing of 13th Street between Tremont Street and Colfax Avenue. 13th Avenue and 14th Avenue were reduced to two travel lanes to shorten pedestrian crossing distances and provide space for on-street parking between Speer Boulevard and Broadway. Bannock Street was closed between 14th Avenue and Colfax Avenue. The existing traffic on Bannock Street was rerouted for this scenario onto Broadway. Realign Tremont Street Right: Alternative B

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-87 Colfax Avenue 14th Avenue

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APPENDICES A-88 13th Avenue 14th Street 13th Avenue at Bannock Street

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-89 Alternative C Colfax Avenue was narrowed from Welton Street to Bannock Street according to the proposal in DMAPto two through lanes in each direction, with left-turn pocket lanes at each intersection. The DMAPplans also call for the closing of 13th Street between Tremont Street and Colfax Avenue. In contrast to Scenario B, Bannock Street was narrowed from three lanes to two lanes between Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue. Alternative D Colfax Avenue was narrowed from Welton Street to Bannock Street according to the proposal in DMAPto two through lanes in each direction, with left-turn pocket lanes at each intersection. The DMAPplans also call for the closing of 13th Street between Tremont Street and Colfax Avenue. Bannock Street was narrowed from three lanes to two lanes between Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue. Cherokee Street and Delaware Street between Colfax Avenue and 13th Avenue were converted to two-way streets with one lane in each direction and left-turn pockets at each intersection.

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APPENDICES 3. Results After optimizing the signal timing plans for each of the four Alternatives, delay and LOS results were recorded. The results for signalized intersection within the Civic Center study area are displayed in the appendix in Table 1. The delay and LOS results were similar between scenarios for most of the intersections within the study area. The differences in intersection LOS between scenarios occur where intersections were affected, directly or indirectly, by some sort of geometric change. Vehicular Geometric Changes Two different intersection configurations at Colfax Avenue/Tremont Street/13th Street were analyzed among the four scenarios. Both options, removing the Colfax/Tremont intersection (scenario A) or removing the 13th Street leg from the Colfax/Delaware intersection (Scenarios B, C and D), operate at an acceptable level of service. Scenario Aincreases the LOS at 13th/Tremont from LOS C to LOS D. The other option increases LOS at Colfax/Welton from LOS C to LOS D. Amore detailed analysis should be performed to study the specific effects of the proposed geometric changes. The narrowing of Colfax Avenue to two lanes in each direction, according to the DMAP recommendations, creates more delay at the Colfax/Welton and Colfax/Glenarm intersections. The higher vehicle demand at these intersections along Colfax than at the remaining intersections along the two-lane section of Colfax contributes to the higher delays. The reduction in lanes causes the LOS at Welton to worsen from LOS A(8.3 seconds/vehicle) to LOS D (?42 seconds/vehicle). Narrowing 13th Avenue and 14th Avenue to two lanes and one parking lane does not significantly impact the LOS at the signalized intersections between Speer Boulevard and Broadway. Two-way conversion of the named streets between Colfax Avenue and 13th Avenue A-90

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-91 (Scenario D) is a viable alternative. All intersections on the converted links operate at LOS C or better. Many existing links operate as two-way streets for the length of one block already (Bannock Street, Cherokee Street, and Delaware Street). Eliminating the link of Bannock Street between Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue (Scenario B) reduces the level of service from LOS F (?140 sec/veh) to LOS E (78 sec/veh) at the Colfax/Bannock intersection. This change causes LOS to increase from LOS C to LOS D at the Colfax/15th Street intersection due to the redirected vehicles from Bannock Street. Reducing Bannock Street to two lanes from Colfax to 14th has minimal impact on the operations of the signals. The eastbound right-turn slip ramp from Colfax Avenue to Broadway can be removed with minimal impact to the LOS at the Broadway/Colfax intersection. Adding the 1950 eastbound right-turning vehicles increases the overall intersection delay from 12.7 sec/veh to 14.7 sec/veh. However, if Bannock Street is closed (Scenario B), the majority of the existing Bannock traffic would be rerouted onto Colfax and turn right at Broadway. There would be an estimated 1500 eastbound right vehicles in the PM peak hour if Bannock Street was closed. Table 1 reports the maximum progression band (green-time) that can be achieved for the major corridors within the Civic Center District for existing timings and the optimized timing plans for each scenario. The existing progression band for the signals within the Civic Center study area can be maintained with all the proposed scenarios along Lincoln Street. The existing progression band is reduced by 13% to 16% along Broadway. TABLE 1. MAXIMUM PROGRESSION RESULTS Maximum Progression Band (Seconds) Corridor Existing Scenario A Scenario B Scenario C Scenario D Broadway 31 26 27 27 26 Lincoln Street 32 32 32 32 32 Colfax Avenue 0 0 0 0 0

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APPENDICES A-92 Pedestrian Enhancements Pedestrian safety and accessibility at the Colfax/Broadway and Colfax/Lincoln intersections have been identified as issues. Two pedestrian enhancements were analyzed in the context of Scenario C. The enhancements include: Aleading pedestrian phase at Colfax/Broadway and Colfax/Lincoln for the east-west pedestrian movements. Amid-block pedestrian crossing on Broadway and Lincoln Street between Colfax Avenue and 14th Avenue. The leading pedestrian phase signal timing plan incorporates an "all-red time" before the east-west vehicular movement begins to allow pedestrians to get out into the intersection. By allowing pedestrians to start crossing before the vehicular movement begins, pedestrians will be more visible to vehicular traffic, creating a safer crossing point for pedestrians. Additionally, pedestrians will move partially or fully out of the high vehicle/pedestrian conflict points in the intersection by the time that vehicular movement begins. The effect on vehicular traffic LOS from the leading pedestrian phase is displayed in Table 2. TABLE 2. LEADING PEDESTRIAN PHASE RESULTS Intersection Delay (LOS) Intersection Existing 4 Second Interval 9 Second Interval Colfax/Broadway 14.7 (B) 18.5 (B) 30.8(C) Colfax/Lincoln 12.4 (B) 16.9 (B) 30.9 (C)

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-93 The proposed mid-block pedestrian crossings across Broadway and Lincoln Street were analyzed. Since the downtown signal network is a pre-timed system, the pedestrian crossing signals will be pedestrian actuated, but will only be able to cross pedestrians and a specified time in the cycle in order to maintain vehicular progression along the Lincoln/Broadway corridor. The Broadway mid-block crossing walk phase will run concurrently with the east-west vehicular phase at the Colfax/Broadway intersection to minimize queuing. The Lincoln Street mid-block crossing walk phase will run concurrently with the 14th Street vehicular phase for the reasons mentioned previously. Another issue to be addressed with the mid-block crossing has to do with the view preservation ordinances from the State Capitol and how to signalize the pedestrian crossings.

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APPENDICES A-94 APPENDIX. DELAY AND LOS RESULTS Intersection Existing Scenario A Scenario B Scenario C Scenario D 16th/Broadway 1.0 (A) 1.1 (A) 1.1 (A) 1.1 (A) 1.1 (A) 16th/Lincoln 4.0 (A) 4.1 (A) 3.6 (A) 3.8 (A) 3.9 (A) 15th/Court 27.4 (C) 14.1 (B) 13.7 (B) 13.6 (B) 12.2 (B) 14th/ Welton 29.9 (C) 11.9 (B) 10.8 (B) 12.2 (B) 12.2 (B) 14th/Glenarm 11.4 (B) 11.1 (B) 13.2 (B) 11.0 (B) 11.3 (B) 14th/Tremont 13.5 (B) 10.8 (B) 13.0 (B) 11.1 (B) 10.8 (B) 14th/Court 70.1 (E) 17.2 (B) 34.4 (C) 16.8 (B) 17.1 (B) 13th/Glenarm 6.8 (A) 5.7 (A) 11.8 (B) 6.5 (A) 6.1 (A) 13th/Tremont 23.2 (C) 35.5 (D) 13.7 (B) 14.8 (B) 12.7 (B) Colfax/Welton 8.3 (A) 8.9 (A) 41.1 (D) 41.4 (D) 42.5 (D) Colfax/Glenarm 28.4 (C) 27.1 (C) 52.8 (D) 37.3 (D) 41.4 (D) Colfax/Tremont 21.3 (C) n/a 32.7 (C) 32.1 (C) 33.5 (C) Colfax/Delaware 8.7 (A) 41.2 (D) 13.2 (B) 15.9 (B) 13.4 (B) Colfax/Court 13.0 (B) 12.6 (B) 15.3 (B) 14.3 (B) 16.3 (B) Colfax/Bannock* 149.9 (F) 141.0 (F) 77.6 (E) 143.2 (F) 141.2 (F) Colfax/15th 79.9 (E) 22.4 (C) 40.8 (D) 22.8 (C) 23.6 (C) Colfax/Broadway 12.7 (B) 13.7 (B) 14.3 (B) 14.4 (B) 13.7 (B) Colfax/Lincoln 25.8 (C) 12.3 (B) 12.4 (B) 12.3 (B) 12.2 (B) Colfax/Sherman 10.6 (B) 5.9 (A) 6.0 (A) 6.0 (A) 5.9 (A) Colfax/Grant 23.9 (C) 14.4 (B) 14.3 (B) 14.3 (B) 14.4 (B) 14th/Delaware 3.3 (A) 2.2 (A) 4.1 (A) 2.4 (A) 2.4 (A) 14th/Cherokee 6.5 (A) 4.9 (A) 4.9 (A) 4.8 (A) 30.8 (C) 14th/Bannock 11.4 (B) 8.2 (A) 22.0 (C) 14.8 (B) 22.4 (C) 14th/Broadway 18.1 (B) 11.5 (B) 9.0 (A) 12.5 (B) 13.1 (B) 14th/Lincoln 13.1 (B) 9.5 (A) 10.1 (B) 7.9 (A) 8.7 (A) 14th/Sherman 6.9 (A) 6.7 (A) 7.0 (A) 6.0 (A) 6.5 (A) 14th/Grant 7.8 (A) 6.1 (A) 6.8 (A) 6.4 (A) 6.4 (A) 13th/Delaware 3.8 (A) 3.7 (A) 3.6 (A) 2.9 (A) 4.9 (A) 13th/Cherokee 8.0 (A) 6.4 (A) 7.8 (A) 5.4 (A) 6.6 (A) 13th/Bannock 9.5 (A) 6.9 (A) 12.9 (B) 8.5 (A) 8.2 (A) 13th/Acoma 15.9 (B) 5.0 (A) 8.5 (A) 9.4 (A) 5.0 (A) 13th/Broadway 21.7 (C) 10.9 (B) 9.5 (A) 9.9 (A) 10.7 (B) 13th/Lincoln 12.7 (B) 12.6 (B) 11.6 (B) 14.3 (B) 12.9 (B) Without the All-Walk phase, this intersection could operate at LOS C

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-95 4. Simulation Analysis Results Simulation Analysis 2025 PM Peak Hour conditions Assumed 14% growth based on Downtown Multimodal Access Plan modeling results Future scenario includes the following geometric changes: -Reconfigure Colfax/Glenarm intersection -Reconfigure Colfax/Tremont intersection -Narrow Colfax to a five lane cross section from Bannock to Welton -Optimized signal timing Intersection Level of Service Existing Conditions 2025 Five Lane Scenario Intersection % Demand Served Delay (sec/veh) Average LOS % Demand Served Delay (sec/veh) Average LOS Lincoln/Colfax 102.5% 22.0 C 101.7% 35.1 D Broadway/Colfax 102.7% 21.6 C 101.9% 26.6 C 15th St/Colfax 103.1% 19.8 B 102.2% 7.4 A 14th-Bannock/Colfax 101.2% 32.3 C 99.7% 49.0 D Court/Colfax 97.6% 16.7 B 99.1% 21.8 C Tremont-Delaware/Colfax 96.7% 29.6 C 96.3% 60.9 E Gene Amole/Colfax 98.3% 6.3 A 94.9% 8.9 A Glenarm/Colfax 97.6% 19.4 B 98.1% 24.9 C Galapago/Colfax 97.7% 2.9 A 97.2% 15.5 C Welton/Colfax 99.1% 6.3 A 97.9% 8.9 A Speer NB/Colfax 99.7% 14.3 B 96.2% 36.0 D Speer SB/Colfax 100.2% 14.2 B 98.2% 18.2 B

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APPENDICES 1VISSIM stores queue lengths differently than Synchro and the HCM. Average Queue Length represents average of the queue over the entire simulation period, including both green and red cycle time for each approach. Maximum Queue Length represents the single longest queue observed in the simulation period. In the attached VISSIM reporting sheets, these values are averaged over ten simulation runs. A-96 Average Travel Time Direction Existing Conditions 2025 Five Lane Scenario Eastbound (Kalamath to Grant) 4:31 6:10 Westbound (Grant to Kalamath) 5:42 6:54 Intersection Queuing Average and Maximum queue lengths for each movement at each intersection are reported in the attached VISSIM Post Processor output.1 Both average and maximum queue lengths increase between the Existing PM and the 2025 Five Lane scenario, in some cases up to and beyond the upstream intersection. While queues are expected to increase with the growth in traffic, the following approaches showed substantial increases in queue lengths in the 2025 Five Lane scenario: -Lincoln and Colfax eastbound and westbound approaches -Bannock and Colfax eastbound and southbound approaches -Court and Colfax westbound approach -Tremont and Colfax eastbound, westbound and southbound approaches -Glenarm and Colfax westbound and southbound approaches -Speer and Colfax westbound and northbound approaches Colfax and Bannock looking west Colfax and Tremont looking west

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-97 CCD Traffic Engineering Preliminary Review Comments The five lane scenario appears to operate acceptably with the following considerations: Colfax/Glenarm and Colfax/Tremont intersections should be reconfigured with or without narrowing Colfax for pedestrian safety and traffic operations benefits. Volume assumption for the 14th Street to Bannock Street movement may be too high. Adding a protected westbound left turn phase would likely bring the TremontDelaware/Colfax intersection to an acceptable LOS. AM inbound volumes on Colfax would be better served by keeping three eastbound lanes between Court and Bannock. Queue spillback to upstream intersections between Glenarm and Court may interfere with pedestrian crossings and offset the benefits to pedestrians of shorter crossings.

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APPENDICES A-98 Issues not addressed in modeling: Fire Station #1, located at the corner of Speer Boulevard and Colfax Avenue, receives an average of four calls per hour, creating significant disruption to traffic operations. Reducing lanes on Colfax could impact emergency response. Transportation planning for the Central Business District includes evaluation of potential grade separation of modes at Colfax Avenue, Broadway and Lincoln. Special events in Civic Center Park necessitate extensive detouring that was not considered in the modeling. The impacts to Colfax Avenue east and west of the study area, as well as to parallel and connecting arterials, was not fully modeled. These considerations and issues should be taken into account prior to making final decisions about the best cross-section for Colfax Avenue.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-99APPENDIX G. PARKING ANALYSIS 1.Introduction and Current Issues Parking needs in the Civic Center District will be changing with the development of the proposed Justice Center and continued redevelopment activities envisioned in the District. Many of the blocks that may redevelop are currently used for surface parking and these spaces will be lost in this transition. In addition, the parking supply needed during special event activities will be affected by redevelopment. The parking analysis examines the current supply of public parking, the planned redevelopment, and the future parking needs as the District redevelops. 2.Goals/Objectives Ensure that the parking supply is sufficient and convenient to parking demand by: -Dispersing parking throughout the Civic Center District rather than concentrating it in a couple of large parking structures. -Providing 75 percent of the parking supply for a given use within a mile of the use. -Maintaining on-street parking throughout the Civic Center District to provide convenient access to civic and retail uses. On-street parking also calms traffic and provides a buffer for pedestrians. -Providing loading and staging areas for school and tour buses within 500 feet of the destination front door. Design and manage the Civic Center District parking supply so it is available for special events.

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APPENDICES A-1003.Alternatives Considered Two approaches to serving the future parking demand were considered in the plan: The city constructs, maintains, and manages one or more parking structures to serve the future public parking demand; or All new parking supply in the District is provided with and by the new development. 4.Alternatives Analysis Existing Conditions The existing land use in the Civic Center District is currently served by approximately 2,482 public parking spaces in addition to the private parking supply associated with individual uses. On-street parking spaces account for 27% (664 spaces) of the public parking and off-street spaces, including the Denver Art Museum parking garage, account for the remaining 73% (1,818 spaces). Existing land use in the District totals approximately 5.9 million square feet of development, including office, commercial, residential, industrial, and museum uses. Future Conditions Planned land use in the District includes an additional 5.2 million square feet of development with new office, commercial, residential, and museum uses along with the proposed Justice Center.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-101Peak weekday parking demands for this planned land use were analyzed with the following findings: A.Future parking demand associated with the District Plan land use scenario is 8,756 spaces, including the proposed Justice Center. B.Approximately 846 existing public spaces will be lost due to redevelopment of surface parking lots. C.Total parking demand associated with the proposed Justice Center development will be approximately 700 spaces. D.Existing parking structures and new parking structures planned or under construction in the District include: -The Denver Art Museum parking garage (approximately 975 spaces) -Justice Center Parking garage (600 spaces planned) -State Capitol garage at 14th/Lincoln

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APPENDICES A-102 Alternatives Discussion In addition to the supply and demand analysis of future conditions, the pros and cons of the two approaches were considered. The City and County of Denver provides one or more parking structures, has the following pros and cons: Pros -Potential incentive to redevelopment -Increased control over parking supply -Dedicated supply for special events Cons -Unprecedented business venture for the City -Difficult to justify with 10-12 major special events annually and existing public parking supply -High cost ($12-15,000 per space) The second approach, where all new parking supply is provided along with new development, has the following pros and cons: Pros -Structured public parking supplied with major public or civic uses such as the proposed Justice Center and Denver Art Museum -Parking supply increased when needed -Consistent with current zoning requirements -No new parking or administrative costs for the City Cons -Less control over timing and location of supply -Increased public parking supply dependent on development of new public or civic uses -Less control over supply for special events

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-103It is also notable that shared parking opportunities exist and are currently utilized between the Denver Art Museum parking garage and the jury activities at the City and County building. In addition, attendance at special event at Civic Center has steadily increased over the last 4 years, despite recent loss of surface parking lots. 5.Parking Demand for Special Events Downtown Denver hosts an average of 10-12 major specials each year, many of which draw more than 50,000 participants in a single weekend day. Taste of Colorado, one of downtown Denver's oldest and largest special events, hosted over 500,000 participants in 2004 over the Labor Day Weekend. Parking demand and traffic circulation for these events presents a major challenge. Even so, downtown events continue to grow in attendance and popularity. Creative utilization of the existing parking supply in the downtown area, including shuttle bus service from large lots at the Pepsi Center and Invesco Field at Mile High, and strategic street closures during events contributes to the continued success of large downtown events and the associated event parking demand. The Downtown Denver Partnership maintains a database of public parking supply for downtown Denver, including the Central Business District, LoDo, Golden Triangle, and Ballpark neighborhoods. The current total is just over 50,000 spaces, with 75% of downtown blocks providing public parking spaces. Since most of the special events occur on weekends and holidays, much of this downtown public parking supply is available for event related parking.

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APPENDICES A-104Quantifiable data on mode share for people attending major special events is limited. However, estimates of daily trips into and out of downtown Denver include transit percentages ranging 30 to 45%. With the additional transit service planned in the coming years as part of the FasTracks program, it is reasonable to expect this mode share for special events as well. 6.Quantification of Parking Demand Existing Land-UseArea (sq. ft.) Office3,688,000 Commercial91,000 Residential152,000 Industrial911,000 Museum1,101,000 Total5,943,000 Existing Public Parking Spaces On-Street664 Off-Street1,818 Total2,482 (Civic CenterPlanning Assessment & Field Check) Future Build-Out Additional Land-UseArea (sq. ft.) Office3,950,000 Justice Center505,000 Commercial290,000 Residential910,000 Cultural171,000 Total5,826,000

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-105Assumed Parking Rates Source Office 2 spaces/ksf Parking Justice Center700 spaces Project Team Estimate Commercial1.7 spaces/ksf Parking Hotel 0.81 spaces/room ITE Parking Generation Room 750 sq. ft. Project Team Estimate Residential1.0 spaces/dwelling unit Parking Dwelling Unit1000 sq. ft. Project Team Estimate Cultural 2 spaces/ksf Project Team Estimate Existing Parking Spaces Replaced by Development orRoadway Changes in Build-Out Public Off-Street Surface Lots846 spaces Private Off-Street Surface Lots820 spaces Public On-Street Spaces 32 spaces on Bannock between Colfax and 14th 32 spaces on Gene Amole between Colfax & 14th 4 spaces on Colfax between Bannock and Court Build-Out Parking Demand Build-Out+10,163 spaces Additional Parking Supply Associated with New Development (Assuming 1.6 2.0 perksf) Build-Out+9,321 to 11,652 spaces

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APPENDICES A-1067.Policy Recommendations Provide between 1.6 and 2.0 spaces per 1,000 square feet of development in the area south of Colfax Avenue and west of Lincoln Street per the zoning requirements. This range assumes moderate transit usage (30 to 40 percent mode share). Require the parking supply associated with public uses such as the Denver Art Museum and the proposed Justice Center to remain open to the public and available for special events. Establish partnerships with private redevelopments to make public parking supply available during special events.

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CIVIC CENTER DISTRICT PLAN A-107APPENDIX H. SOURCE NOTES AND BIBLIOGRAPHYCivic Center Historic District Guidelines. Denver Planning Office, City & County of Denver, Denver, Colorado. Denver Parks Archives. Denver Park & Recreation Department, City & County of Denver, Denver, Colorado. Denver Parks Collection. Western History and Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado. Jones, Theodore. Carnegie Libraries Across America: A Public Legacy Kunstler, James H. How to Mess up a Town Planning Commissioners Journal Winter, 1995. Libeskind, Daniel and Sarah Crichton. Breaking Ground: Adventures in Life and Architecture. Penguin Group: New York, 2004. McAlester, Virginia and Lee. A Field Guide to American Houses New York, New York: Alfred Knopf, Inc., 1984. Photograph Collection. Western History and Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado. S.R. DeBoer Collection. Western History and Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado. The Municipal Facts, 1909-1925. Western History and Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado.

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APPENDICES A-108Urban Land, November/December 2002, "The Green Way" pp. 79-85. Urban Land, November/December 2002, "Going for the Green" pp. 87-93. Urban Land Institute, The Denver Justice Center, Denver, Colorado: Review and Recommendation. ULI Advisory Services Report. Washington, D.C., April 2004. Webster's II New College Dictionary, Marion Severynse, ed. Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston, 1995.

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VIII Transportation Civic Center District Plan Home Page Civic Center Assessment Civic Center Plan Final Contact Us Executive Summary & Vision PlanLOCATE IT! Find city services near your home or business. More Maps Data Sales VIII Transportation Civic Center District Plan VIII Transportation The file below contains the Transportation section of the Civic Center District Plan. The file is very large and may take some time to download. CC05Apr09Transportation.pdf LoginSEARCH http://denvergov.org/redirect_404/tabid/367615/tabid/382380/Default.aspx? (1 of 2) [2/13/08 12:09:32 PM]

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IX Parks & Parkways Civic Center District Plan Home Page Civic Center Assessment Civic Center Plan Final Contact Us Executive Summary & Vision PlanLOCATE IT! Find city services near your home or business. More Maps Data Sales IX Parks & Parkways Civic Center District Plan IX Parks & Parkways The file below contains the Parks and Parkways section of the Civic Center District Plan. CC05Apr10Parks.pdf LoginSEARCH http://denvergov.org/redirect_404/tabid/367615/tabid/382381/Default.aspx? (1 of 2) [2/13/08 12:09:37 PM]

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X Implementation Civic Center District Plan Home Page Civic Center Assessment Civic Center Plan Final Contact Us Executive Summary & Vision PlanLOCATE IT! Find city services near your home or business. More Maps Data Sales X Implementation Civic Center District Plan X Implementation The file below contains the Implementation section of the Civic Center District Plan. CC05Apr11Implementation.pdf LoginSEARCH http://denvergov.org/redirect_404/tabid/367615/tabid/382382/Default.aspx? (1 of 2) [2/13/08 12:09:42 PM]

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XI Acknowlegements Civic Center District Plan Home Page Civic Center Assessment Civic Center Plan Final Contact Us Executive Summary & Vision PlanLOCATE IT! Find city services near your home or business. More Maps Data Sales XI Acknowlegements Civic Center District Plan XI Acknowlegements The file below contains the Acknowledgements section of the Civic Center District Plan. CC05Apr23Acknowledgements.pdf LoginSEARCH http://denvergov.org/redirect_404/tabid/367615/tabid/382383/Default.aspx? (1 of 2) [2/13/08 12:09:48 PM]

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XI Acknowlegements http://denvergov.org/redirect_404/tabid/367615/tabid/382383/Default.aspx? (2 of 2) [2/13/08 12:09:48 PM]