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Denver bicycle master plan, update 2001

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Denver bicycle master plan, update 2001
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BWS / URS Corp.
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Denver, CO
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City and County of Denver
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English

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Bicycle lanes
Master plans
City planning

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STER PLEN
a URS Corporation Company


Denver Bicycle Master
Plan Update 2001
Presented
to the City & County of Denver
BRW/URS Corp
Final Draft
March 2002
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 2


Acknowledgements
Mayors Bicycle Advisory
Committee Members
Michael Allen
Chad Anderson
Will Anderson
Shayne Brady
Bruce Blank
Kate Clark
Fred Criswell
Matt Duncan
Kent Epperson
Robert Gonzales
Tracy Flalasinski
Robin Blunt Chair
Mike Kinsey
Rob Merritt
Bob Montoya
Cynthia Nagel
Alan Nakamura
Ben Ortiz
Barbara Pearson
Bob Shedd
Neil Sperandeo
Diane Thiel
Don Thompson
Mitch Westall
City and County of Denver
Wellington E. Webb, Mayor, City and
County of Denver
Council Members
Dennis Gallagher: District 1
T.J. Ted Elackworth: District 2
Ramona Martinez: District 3
Joyce Foster: District 4
Polly Flobeck: District 5
Charlie Brown: District 6
Kathleen MacKenzie: District 7
Elbra Wedgeworth: District 8
Deborah L. Ortega: District 9
Ed Thomas: District 10
Allegra Flappy Flaynes: District 11
Cathy Reynolds: Council-at-Large
Susan Barnes-Gelt: Council-at-Large
City Staff
Stephanie Foote Manager of Public
Works
James Mejia Manager of Parks
James Mackay, Denver Bike Planner
Jason Longsdorf, Public Works
Dick Gannon, Parks and Recreation
Jennifer Moulton, Community
Planning and Development
Rob Deering, Public Works
Janell Flaig, Community Planning and
Development
Emily Gloeckner, Public Works
Robert A. Kochevar, Public Works
Brian Mitchell, Public Works
CJ Musman, Parking Management
Mark Najarian, Public Works
Terry Rosapep, Public Works
Planning Board
William FI. Flornby Chair
Jan Marie Belle
Frederick Corn
Pat Cortez
Michael Dino
Daniel Guimond Vice Chair
Mark Johnson
Flerman Malone
Joyce Oberfield
Bruce O'Donnell
Dr. Robert Wright
Parks Advisory Board
Tim Celesta, Pres.
Florence Navarro, VPres.
Samuel Batey
William Bessessen
Karla Breitenstein
Jeff Dawson
Dan du Bois
Mary Ewing
Royce Forsyth
Diane Godeaux
Donna Flultin
Jim Johnson
Ayo Joyner
Carla Kolomitz
John Prosser
Sal Rivera
Richard Sanchez
Christine Smith
Jim Zavist
Consultants
BRW/URS Corporation
James Cromar
Sara Jane Maclennan
Scott Bressler
Crissy Fanganello
Nadine Lee
Norene Pen
Jim Estus
Ken Schroeppel
Chris Vogelsang
Pen Yuan-Liaw
Katie Doyle
Patricia Steinholtz
Randy Sanchez
Matt Ashby
Jeff Bartosik
Contributors
John Pucher, Charles Komanoff, Paul
Schimek, and Lewis Dijkstra
City of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
National Strategies for Advancing
Bicycle Safety
Eric Stachon Photos
3 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Contents
Executive Summary pg VI
Introduction PG I
Grid Route System PG 4
Downtown Bicycling PG 8
Major Missing Links PG 20
Parks & Trails PG 36
Recreational Bicycling PG 60
Transit Access and Accommodations PG 64
Advocacy PG 74
Implementation PG 76
APPENDIX
Introduction
Bicycling Renaissance in North America? Recent Trends
and Alternative Policies to Promote Bicycling
"Making Walking and Cycling Safer: Lessons from Europe
Grid Route System
signage
BICYCLE DETECTORS
Downtown Bicycling
BICYCLE LANE ANALYSIS
I 6th street mall issues
BICYCLE COMMERCE
Major Missing Links
Parks & Trails
TRAIL STANDARDS
PROPOSED TRAIL USER ORDINANCE
TRAIL ANALYSIS
FUTURE OFF-STREET CONNECTIONS
Recreational Bicycling
FAMILY BICYCLE LOOPS
BICYCLE RACING
Transit Access and Accommodations
Advocacy
Implementation
COST ESTIMATES
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 4


Executive Summary
Introduction
According to the Denver Comprehensive Plan (2000), Denver must address mobility in multi-
ple ways: providing more choices, encouraging those that reduce impact on the urban envi-
ronment, and cooperating with metropolitan jurisdictions and quasi-governmental agencies on
mobility plans and projects. At a regional level, one of the six core elements of the DRCOG
Metrovision 2020 Plan is to enhance the attractiveness and convenience of non-motorized
modes in serving non-recreational travel.
This document is an update to the 1993 Denver Bicycle Master Plan (DBMP) which sought to
develop and implement a comprehensive bicycling program by developing a framework for a
physical bicycle system as well as education, promotion, enforcement, public policy, and
information distribution programs. The DBMP has effectively guided the implementation of
bicycle facilities and program, and many of the components of the 1993 DBMP have been
achieved. The following four factors drive the need for an update.
1. The population of the City and County of Denver has grown nearly 20%
between 1990 and 2000. During the same period, Denver experienced sub-
stantial economic growth and increased travel demand.
2. Downtown Denver has emerged as the activity center for the Denver metro-
area, while increasing the number of urban housing units. The resulting devel-
opment pattern has increased the attractiveness of alternative transportation
modes, including bicycling.
3. The U.S. Department of Transportations National Bicycling and Walking Study
has outlined goals for local governments:
- To double the current percentage of trips made by bicycling and walking; and,
- To simultaneously reduce by ten percent (10%) the number of bicyclists and
pedestrians killed or injured in traffic crashes.
4. Completion of the Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update (the Update) and imple-
mentation of its major recommendations are specifically called for in the
Comprehensive Plan 2000 Annual Report and in DRCOGs Metrovision 2020
Plan. The Update directly reinforces the Comprehensive Plan 2000 goals to
preserve and enhance Denver's natural environment; anticipate and meet the
expanding mobility needs of residents, businesses, and visitors; build on the
assets of every neighborhood and foster a citywide sense of community;
enhance opportunities for people in need to work and participate fully in commu-
nity life; and foster cooperation and share leadership on regional issues.
Implementation of the Update will address the Comprehensive Plan goals
above.
5 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Focus
The emphasis of the Update is the identification and prioritization of improvements to the
citys bicycle infrastructure and programs with the goal of encouraging and accommodating
bicycle usage for both recreational and transportation purposes. This document contains a
review of recommendations from the 1993 DBMP that are not yet implemented and new
opportunities due to development and infrastructure changes.
This document is a tool for the citizenry of Denver to advocate for and support city invest-
ments in bicycle facilities and programs. Bicycling has long been popular in Denver for recre-
ational purposes, and many recreational facilities are also used for transportation purposes.
A goal of the Update is to provide bicycle facilities to meet the recreational needs of all
Denver citizens across the city, and to resolve the transportation needs of each citizen via
bicycling at least one day a week.
Process and Analysis
The process for the Update began with a staff recommendation and was budgeted for in
2001. City staff put together the Update team to include Public Works Department staff,
Parks and Recreation Department planners, the Community Planning and Development
Agency, the Mayors Bike Advisory Committee (MBAC)1 and the consultant (BRW). The
Update team proposed dozens of potential issues for review and trimmed the list to seven
key issues by prioritizing them according to system and regional implications, implementation
feasibility, and funding. In addition to new bicycle traffic counts, seven key issues addressed
in the Update include improvements to Denvers:
- Grid Route System
- Downtown Bicycling
- Major Missing Links
- Parks & Trails
- Recreational Bicycling
- Transit Access and Accommodations
- Advocacy
Analysis began with review of the existing conditions for each of the seven key issues of the
plan and determination of the current opportunities, strengths and weaknesses of the system.
The next step was a public open house in January 2001 where citizens indicated their prefer-
ences on the improvements and solutions for each of the issues. With initial priorities, identi-
fied strengths and weaknesses, public input, and best practices from other municipalities, the
Update team began to integrate the recommendations. A preliminary list of recommenda-
'The Mayors Bike Advisory Committee consists of many citizen members who are architects, lawyers and avid cyclists, as
well as planners from the Regional Transportation District and the Denver Regional Council of Governments and city staff
from the Police, Public Works, and Parks and Recreation.
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 6


tions was taken to the public in April 2001 for further input. In addition to continual monitoring
and review by the Update team and the two public meetings, the Update also went through
several special interest groups, internal staff review, the Planning Board, Public works
Executive Management Team and finally to City Council in 2002.
Key Issues, Recommendations, and Implementation
Grid Route System
GOAL: Identify the next round of priorities for expanding the grid and neighborhood route
system.
The City of Denver has used the grid route system as the focus for bicycle improvements.
However, several routes have yet to be signed, are incomplete in sections or are not suffi-
ciently bicycle friendly. The 1993 Master Plan recommended 22 routes on the grid system.
Eight routes now have signage (D-1, D-4, D-6, D-8, D-10, D-11, D-12, and D-18). One route
is partially signed (D-2). Route D-5 will be signed in 2002, and the central portions of routes
D-16 and D-20 will be signed in 2002. Funding is in place for signage on two additional
routes (D-7, D-22). The fieldwork is complete for signage of Route D-3 but no funding is in
place. In addition, existing signage on routes should be checked periodically for vandalism,
fading, and the need for other potential improvements.
New neighborhood routes should be developed that create connections between the existing
bicycle grid route system and nearby facilities not currently on a bicycle route. More specifi-
cally, neighborhood routes from existing routes should be established that would connect to
nearby parks or appropriate facilities and then return to the original route.
The Update also recommends upgrading actuated traffic signals to include devices that
detect bicyclists. Signal upgrades could include microwave, video or other detection tech-
nologies for bicyclists that could prove to be a much more reliable detection.
Implementation
Responsibility Task
City Improve routes and install signage
for the priority routes.
City Provide additional signage for
neighborhood links.
Downtown Bicycling
GOAL: Make Downtown Denver bicycle friendly.
Downtown has changed from solely a business district to a twenty-four hour a day mixed use
neighborhood. This change requires that the city needs to provide more than access to the
Target Date Cost
2002-2012 $750,000
2004 $200,000
7 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


edges of downtown. The Update recommends creation of a system of bicycle lanes on
Downtown streets to provide bicycle circulation through the Downtown area and to Downtown
destinations. It is also important to seek more consistent bicycle accommodations on the
16th Street Mall since it is the transportation core of downtown. Downtown also suffers from
a lack of regulation of bicycle commerce.
Recommendations:
- Bicycle lanes on Glenarm from Colfax Avenue to 18th St.;
- Bicycle lanes on Arapahoe and Lawrence between Speer Blvd. and 21st St;
- Bicycle lanes on 18th St. between Glenarm and Wynkoop;
- Bicycle lanes on 19th St. between Stout and Lawrence; and,
- Designation of 14th St. as a bicycle route between Larimer and Colfax.
- Seek support from the city staff, Downtown Denver Partnership (DDP) and Regional
Transportation District (RTD) to modify the existing ordinance regarding the restriction
of bicycle use of the 16th Street Mall except for a connection across the southeast end
of the mall between the 16th Avenue bicycle lanes and Cleveland Place, and a con-
nection from the Commons neighborhood to the bicycle lanes on Wynkoop Street at
the northwest end of the mall between Wynkoop and Wewatta.
- Pursue adoption of an ordinance to regulate operations of bicycle messengers, pedal
cabs, and other commercial bicycling activities, with enforcement, in the public right-of-
way.
Implementation
Responsibility
Public Works
Public Works
Public Works
Public Works
Major Missing Links
GOAL: Close the gaps
tern.
Over the last eight years, the City has made significant progress toward an aggressive goal of
more than 100 miles of new bike routes by working to complete a one-mile grid system of
bicycle routes. The goal of the system is to make it possible for a person anywhere in the
City to be no more than one-half mile from a designated route (Plan, 1993). As the city
nears completion of this grid, a number of major missing links have become apparent which
hamper connections on the system. These missing links fall into one or more of these cate-
gories:
Task
Create a system of Downtown bicycle lanes:
Propose change to the 16th Street Mall ordinance.
Propose bicycle messenger and pedal cab ordinance
to regulate, promote, and formalize these services.
Work with the Denver Police Department to increase
enforcement of existing and new bicycle laws.
in the existing bicycle routes to complete the bicycle grid route sys-
Taraet Date
Summer 2002
Summer 2002
Fall 2002
Winter 2002
- improvements to the existing off-street trails system;
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 8


- preservation of drainage corridors for future off-street trails;
- problem intersections and crossings; and,
- connections across 1-25, the Santa Fe Drive corridor, or railroad tracks.
Each of these links is a key element to completing the grid route system.
Recommendations:
Improvements to the following Major Missing Links (details are found in the document and
appendix)
- Alameda Avenue: Platte River Trail to Cherokee Street connection (Routes D-7; D-14;
D-16)
- Cherry Creek Trail (Route D-14 portion)
- University Boulevard underpass
- Safety recommendations for the First Avenue sidewalk
- Colorado Boulevard & 12th Ave (Route D-10)
- Grant Ranch connections into the city and Quincy Ave. Bike Trail
- Iliff Avenue/Warren Avenue/Dahlia Street at I-25 (Routes D-15 and D-20)
- Iliff Avenue at Santa Fe Drive (Route D-20)
- Iowa Avenue at Santa Fe Drive (Route D-18)
- Acoma Street to Santa Fe Drive
- Santa Fe Drive sidewalk: Iowa Avenue to Florida Avenue
- Leetsdale Drive at Bayaud Avenue (Route D-14)
- Leetsdale Drive at Kearney Street (Routes D-16 and D-17)
- Northeast Neighborhoods DIA access, E-470 link, First Creek, Second Creek, 48th
Avenue, High Line Canal corridor, other regional trail links, connections to Green
Valley Ranch and Gateway area
- West Harvard Gulch connection to the Platte River Trail (Route D-20)
- 43rd Avenue pedestrian bridge over railroad tracks between Fox Street and Inca Street
(Route D-2)
- 46th Avenue from Platte River Trail to National Western Stock Show Complex (Route
D-2)
- Incorporate planning study recommendations (underway) for 38th Street connection to
Platte River Trail (Route D-9)
Implementation
Responsibility Task Target Date
City Pursue the necessary funding to 1-2 projects per year
implement the projects identified in the Major Missing
Links section.
City Seek opportunities to eliminate major 1-2 projects per year
missing links as part of other projects.
Cost of implementation is variable. The recommendation is that the City spend a minimum of $1.00 per citizen
per year to assist in the implementation of the recommended improvements.
9 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Parks & Trails
GOAL: To enhance a system of off-street, multi-use trails to allow users of all types an
opportunity to recreate and commute safely without the worries of riding with motorized vehi-
cle traffic.
This section of the Update will serve two purposes. First it will establish design and con-
struction standards for the off-street recreational paths. Second, it will prioritize maintenance
and modification of existing paths and construction of new paths. The recommended mainte-
nance and new construction projects are listed below.
Recommendations
1. The prioritized recommendations for trail improvements are:
Regional Trails
- Sand Creek
- High Line Canal through Green Valley Ranch
- Cherry Creek High Line Canal to I-225
- High Line Canal Leetsdale Drive to Florida Avenue
- High Line Canal Yosemite Street to Cherry Creek
- High Line Canal Cherry Creek Trail intersection to lliff Avenue (west of Los Verdes
Golf Course), with bridge replacements
- Platte River 15th Street to 19th Street (West Side)
Minor Trails
- Lakewood Gulch through Martinez Park to Tennyson Street
- Lakewood/Dry Gulch through Rude Park
- Sanderson Gulch
- Weir Gulch
Neighborhood Trails
- Wagon Trail west of Saratoga Place to east of Saratoga
- Lake of Lakes Trail
2. The recommendations for off-street connections can be categorized as follows:
- Pursue the completion of off-street trails along existing drainage corridors and utility
rights-of-way.
- Construct off-street trails in areas where Parks and Recreation provides mainte-
nance.
- Create a north-south connection from Stapleton to the Denver Tech Center along
Westerly Creek, High Line Canal, and Goldsmith Gulch.
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 10


Implementation:
Responsibility Task
Parks and Improvement of selected regional trails.
Recreation
Target Dates
Ongoing
Recreational Bicycling
GOAL: To encourage more people to ride bicycles more often.
Recreational bicycling encompasses many different types of activities. There were many
competing demands for attention in the 2001 Update. The Update Team decided to focus on
two aspects of recreational bicycling during this process: family bicycle loops and bicycle rac-
ing. Additional recreational bicycling topics should be the subject of future Bicycle Master
Plan Update analysis.
Recommendations
- Designate family bicycle loops to encourage recreational riding. Place directional
signage along the loop routes.
- Continue to improve maintenance such as pavement defects and sweeping for the
on-street route system. Install signage for all routes. Ensure safe conditions for
bicyclists if traffic calming measures are installed on the bicycle route system
streets.
- Investigate possible locations for a BMXA/elodrome/Mountain Bike Circuit facility in
vacant or redeveloping areas within the city.
- Plan bicycle racing and training routes in Denver. Develop general guidelines for
acceptable street closures for bicycle races.
- Encourage the development of new bicycle racers via the juniors, seniors and citi-
zens categories of bike racing.
Implementation
Responsibility
Public Works
Parks and
Recreation
Task Target Date
Place signage to designate family Ongoing
bicycle loops. Maintain and improve
bicycle route system.
Investigate possible locations for
BMX/Velodrome/Mountain
Bike Circuit facility
Bicycle racers Work with CCD Parks and Denver Ongoing
Public Schools to encourage new
bicycle racers
Cost
$150,000
II Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Transit Access and Accommodations:
GOAL: Make bicycling and transit work in a seamless manner.
Bicycle access to transit facilities as well as bicycle accommodations at transit facilities and
on transit vehicles is crucial to maximize use of alternative transportation. These opportuni-
ties can be especially important at transit facilities that have limited car parking.
The Update recommends improving access with bike route and trail signage around light rail
stations and park-n-Ride facilities as well as connections to three critical RTD facilities.
- The Broadway Station from the Platte River trail and from Washington Park/West
Washington Park neighborhoods.
-The Evans Avenue Station from the Platte River Trail and Overland neighborhood.
- The Colorado Center from the Virginia Vale neighborhood.
Bicycles are already accommodated on most RTD services and this plan supports maintain-
ing those accommodations. Additionally, the Update recommends that RTD:
- Revisit the policy of allowing bikes on light rail only on the reverse commute when
the Southeast Corridor (T-REX) line begins service;
- Installing bike racks inside the current fleet of light rail vehicles;
- Procure low-floor light rail vehicles in the future that are equipped with folding seats
and ceiling suspension hooks in designated areas; and
- Pursue Bikestations as a means of accommodating cyclists and attracting new
users to multi-modal travel.
Implementation
Resoonsibilitv City Task Implement the identified bicycle routes to facilitate bicyclist access to transit. Taraet Date Continuous Cost As defined above in signage and major missing links
City Coordinate with CDOT to ensure continuous bicycle access during Southeast Corridor construction. 2002-2007
RTD Implement the recommendations to improve the accommodation of bicycles on new and existing light rail vehicles and at transit facilities. Continuous
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 12


Advocacy
GOAL: Organize bicycle enthusiasts to promote bicycling in Denver.
During the research process, the Update team noted that most cities with excellent bicycling
facilities have strong bicycle advocacy groups. In polls taken at both public meetings about
half of the attendees volunteered to promote advocacy in some manner. The excitement
level for an advocacy effort was higher than expected, indicating that Denver bicyclists are
ready and willing to get involved.
Towards the end of the update process, Bicycle Colorado and the City and County of Denver
hosted an advocacy organization meeting that drew more than 100 people. The group
named itself BikeDenver and has met regularly for a few months now.
Recommendations
- The City bicycle planner, Public Works Department, and MBAC should facilitate the
interest and guide the energy in BikeDenver to achievable goals that will improve
bicycling in Denver.
- BikeDenver should not officially be an extension of the MBAC, the City & County of
Denver, or any other local government. It should function independently from formal
local government with a board of directors.
- BikeDenver would be an ideal organization to define public opinion on bicycling
issues and advocate for Denver, RTD and CDOT bicycle improvements.
Implementation
Responsibility Task Target Date
City Coordinate the activities of bicycle groups towards Ongoing
achieving common goals.
City/Advocacy Group Form an independent advocacy group from the bicycle Completed, 2001
community to promote bicycling in Denver.
Conclusion
Denver is a great city for bicycling due to the moderate year-round climate and the efforts
made by the city and the Mayors Bike Advisory Committee over the past 10 years. During
this time, Bicycling Magazine has recognized Denver as one of the Top Ten Cities for
Cycling three times (1995, 1999, 2001) and the League of American Bicyclists has recog-
nized the city as a Bicycle Friendly Community (2001). This update is in all likelihood the
first in a series of updates that will occur in the future as additional accomplishments take
place, existing conditions and infrastructure change, and new opportunities present them-
selves. This commitment to review and update the Denver Bike Master Plan is the first step to
guarantee that Denver remains one of the best metropolitan cities for bicycling in North
America. The continued implementation of the recommendations made in this and subse-
quent updates will require funding, inter-agency cooperation, and a shared vision that bicy-
cling can be an easy, safe, and enjoyable recreation and transportation choice.
13 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 14


15 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


The 1993 Denver Bicycle Master
Plan (DBMP which was adopted
unanimously by City Council)
sought to develop and implement
a comprehensive bicycling pro-
gram by developing a physical
bicycle system as well as educa-
tion, promotion, enforcement,
public policy, and information
distribution programs. This doc-
ument is an update of that plan.
The City of Denver has made
great strides since the adoption of
the DBMP in 1993 and has suc-
cessfully implemented many of
the recommendations. To ensure
that Denver remains one of the
best cities for bicycling in North
America, it is essential that the
City continue its efforts to
improve the bicycle system and
the necessary avenues of support.
The focus of the Denver Bicycle
Master Plan Update (the Update)
is to provide bicycle facilities and
promote bicycle usage to meet the
recreation needs of Denver citi-
zens in all parts of the city and to
resolve the transportation needs
of each citizen via bicycling (at
least one day a week). If all the
citizens of Denver were to com-
mute by bicycle once a week, the
result would be a reduction of up
to 20% in peak hour demands on
the Citys roadways. The capacity
demands on local roadways would
decrease, and there would be
tremendous cost savings by not
widening roads and increasing
capacities.
The goals of the Update are taken
from The National Bicycling and
Walking Study, published by the
U.S. Department of Transport-
ation. The Study presents a plan
of action for activities at the
Federal, State and local levels with
the following two goals:
- To double the current percent-
age of trips (from 7*9% to
I 5.8%) made by bicycling and
walking, and;
- To simultaneously reduce by ten
percent the number of bicyclists
and pedestrians killed or injured
in traffic crashes.
Recognizing the achievements of
the past several years as well as
the changing environment of
Denver, the City determined that
it was time to re-visit the DBMP
with a formal update to maintain
the momentum, success and
excitement of implementing bicy-
cle improvements in Denver.
Introduction
About 85 million adults and
children ride their bikes every
year.
For children and teens, the
bicycle is a primary means of
transportation when traveling
independently.
Every morning an estimated
half million people bike to
work in the United States.
Each year, more than 500,000
bicyclists of all ages sustain a
cycling injury that requires
emergency department care.
Of the approximately 800
bicyclists killed annually, about
750 are killed in traffic
crashes.
Perhaps not surprisingly, more
than half of the bicyclists rid-
ing in or near traffic report
feeling unsafe.
From the National Strategies for
Advancing Bicycle Safety
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 i



Route D-18
through
Ruby Hill
Park has
been
upgraded to
become
ADA
compliant.
Introduction
Ideals of the National
Strategies for
Advancing Bicycle
Safety
#1 Motorists Will Share
the Road
# 2 Bicyclists Will Ride
Safely
#3 Bicyclists Will Wear
Helmets
#4 The Legal System
Will Support Safe
Bicycling
#5 Roads and Paths Will
Safely Accommodate
Bicyclists
In 2001, the Update focuses on
determining the next set of solu-
tions and recommendations to
continue this effort. The initial
focus of the Update is based on
recommendations from the 1993
DBMP that are not yet imple-
mented, new conditions through-
out the City due to development
and infrastructure changes, and
new situations, opportunities and
attitudes that were previously
non-existent. In addition to new
bicycle traffic counts, the main
elements for the Update include:
Grid Route System:
Increased Route Signage
and Neighborhood
Routes & Signage
Downtown Bicycling: How
to Make Downtown More
Bicycle Friendly
Major Missing Links:
Closing the Gaps in
Missing Links & Difficult
Crossings
Parks &Trails: Bicycle Trail
Standards, Existing Trails
Analysis and Future Off-
Street Connections
Recreational Bicycling:
Family Bicycle Loops and
Bicycle Racing
Transit Access and
Accommodations:
Improving Access to
Light Rail Stations,
Access on Light Rail
Vehicles & 1-25
Reconstruction Access:
The T-REX Project
Advocacy: Existing
Conditions &
Opportunities
This Update is in all likelihood
the first in a series of updates
that will occur in the future as
additional accomplishments take
place, existing conditions and
infrastructure change, and new
opportunities present themselves.
This commitment to review and
update the DBMP over time is
the first step to guarantee that
Denver continues to be one of the
best metropolitan cities for bicy-
cling in North America. The next
step is more challenging; it
includes the continued and steady
implementation of the recommen-
dations made in this update and
subsequent updates which will
require funding, inter-agency
2 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


I
.A

The City of
Denver
receives the
League of
American
Bicyclists
Bicycle
Friendly
Community
Award at
Bike to Work
Day 2001
cooperation, and a shared vision
that bicycling is an easy, valid,
safe, healthy and fun transporta-
tion and recreation choice.
Methodology & Analysis:
The first task for the Update
team was to analyze the existing
conditions within each of the six
elements of the plan, and deter-
mine the current opportunities,
strengths and weaknesses of the
system. In many cases, the focus
went beyond analysis of bicycling
in Denver to look at bicycling
programs and trends in other
metropolitan areas. More impor-
tantly, the local bicycle communi-
ty provided input at two public
meetings and monthly work ses-
sions with the Mayors Bicycle
Advisory Committee (MBAC) to
determine specific areas of inter-
est, concern, and recommended
priorities.
Accomplishments Since 1993:
- Top 10 Cities for Cycling Award from
Bicycling Magazine Three Times!
- League of American Bicyclists Bicycle
Friendly Community Award
- Improved maintenance of trails and bike
routes
- Replacement of numerous low water bridge
crossings/ wooden bridge structures
- Improved Intra- and Inter-agency
cooperation
- RTD buses with bike racks, bikes on light
rail trains, and bike lockers at Park-N-Rides
- Establishment of grid route system and
signage program
- Bicycle Parking Ordinance and City-provid-
ed bike parking racks
- Wheels & Heels Trails on the Downtown
portion of the Cherry Creek Trail
- Wynkoop St. Bridge and Bicycle Lanes
- Bicycle connection along Pena Boulevard
to Denver International Airport
- City Bike Map
- Free bicycle registration via the City
website
- Bicycle provisions in the Stapleton and
Lowry Redevelopments
- Lights on the Cherry Creek and Platte River
Trails
- Bike lanes on numerous streets
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 3


Pavement
markings
can define to
bicyclists
where to
stop to get a
traffic signal
detect."
Grid Route System
Grid Route System
A one-mile grid of designated
bicycle routes consisting of a
combination of on-street routes
and off-street trails. The Grid
Route system provides a focus
for implementation of roadway,
signage and trail improvements,
and creates a city-wide network
for transportation and recre-
ational bicycling.
Grid Bicycle Route System
Issues:
The 1993 Bicycle Master Plan
stated:
A major goal of the Denver Bicycle
Master Plan is to provide a comprehen-
sive bicycling network with access to all
parts of the City. Completion of the
one-mile grid system of bicycle routes
will result in the addition of more than
1 oo miles of new routes. A one-mile
grid makes it possible for a person any-
where in the City to be no more than
one-half mile from a designated route.
The designation of on-street bicycle routes
can provide a focus for the implementa-
tion of improvements to make the Citys
streets safer for bicycling.
The scope of work for the 2001
Update contains the following
tasks for the Grid Route System:
Recommend prioritized
action plan to sign the
remainder of the citys
grid bicycle route system.
Recommend
Neighborhood Bike
Routes to provide recre-
ation as well as access to
open spaces, access to
schools, recreation cen-
ters, employment sites,
shopping, historic sites,
etc.
In the last eight years, the City of
Denver has used the grid route
system as the focus for bicycle
improvements. Throughout the
city, many minor capital improve-
ments have been implemented
that have allowed the signage of
several grid routes. The routes
that have yet to be signed are
incomplete in sections or are not
sufficiently bicycle friendly.
The 1993 DBMP recommended
22 routes on the grid system.
Eight routes now have signage
(D-I, D-4, D-6, D-8, D-IO, D-
II, D-I2, and D-l8). One route
is partially signed (D-2). Route
D-5 and the central portions of
routes D-I6 and D-20 will be
signed in 2002. Funding is in
place for signage on two addition-
al routes (D-7, D-22). The
fieldwork is complete for signage
of Route D-3 but no funding is
in place. In addition, existing sig-
nage on routes should be checked
periodically for vandalism, fading,
and the need for other possible
improvements. Beyond grid route
signage, the City will install bicy-
cle detectors to upgrade the per-
formance of traffic signals on
4 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Routes with Existing Signage:
North/South Routes East/West Routes
D-1 Signed in 1994 D-4 Signed in 1995 Grid Route System
D-11 Signed in 1994 D-6 Signed in 1995
D-8 Signed in 1996
D-10 Signed in 1997
D-12 Signed in 1997
D-18 Signed in 2000
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 5


Grid Route System
Routes to be Signed
Immediately:
- D-3 Fieldwork for signage is
complete but no funding has
been secured.
- D-5 Field work is complete for
signage of this route will be
signed in 2002
- D-7 Funding in place for signing
in 2002, with fieldwork and plan
set needed
- D-9 Immediate action for sign-
ing suggested after completion
of 38th Street bikeway improve-
ments in 2002
- D-16 The central portion will be
signed in 2002
- D-17 Immediate action for sign-
ing suggested
- D-22 Funding secured for sign-
ing in 2002. No field work to
date.
grid route streets. (See Appendix
for details of Grid Route sig-
nage.)
Neighborhood Bike Routes
The current one-mile grid system
in place within the City was
developed with the intent to uti-
lize streets and paths that are
located near parks, schools,
libraries, recreation centers and
other similar facilities. Bicyclists
are able to see these amenities
while they are using the grid
route system.
However, for those facilities not
near a section of the one-mile
bicycle grid route system, any
apparent connection to the sys-
tem is less evident. Conversely,
for those people using the grid
route system, these areas and
buildings can not be easily seen
(if at all).
Analysis:
A major incentive for connecting
public facilities to the bicycle grid
route system centers on the
notion that the more people who
are made aware of the system, the
more people will use the bicycle
route system. Therefore, new
routes should be developed that
create connections between the
existing bicycle grid route system
and nearby facilities not currently
on a bicycle route. More specifi-
cally, neighborhood routes from
existing routes should be estab-
lished that will connect to nearby
parks or appropriate facilities and
then return to the original route.
Appropriate streets for these new
neighborhood routes have been
identified so that underserved
public facilities can be connected
via the bicycle grid route system
New bicycle and directional sig-
nage should be developed and
erected showing the neighborhood
routes, its destination and its
connection back to the original
trail. (See Appendix for detailed
information.)
6 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Additional Routes to be Signed:
- D-2 Partially signed in 1995; signage completion over the long term
- D-13 Signage completion over the long term
- D-14 Signage completion over the long term
- D-15 Signage completion over the long term
- D-19 Signage completion over the long term
- D-20 Signage completion over the long term the central portion will be
signed in 2002
- D-21 Signage completion over the long term
Grid Route System
Grid Route System
Typical Section

8.0' 8.0' 4.0' 2 O' 12.0 4.0' 8.0' 6.0 8.0'
^ w Sidewalk Parking Lane Bike Lane Travel Lane Travel Lane Bike Parking Lane Tree line Sidewalk
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 7


Downtown Bicycling
General Background:
Downtown Denver is the center
of the Denver metropolitan
region, not only geographically,
but also in terms of human and
economic activity. The signifi-
cant increase in commercial, resi-
dential and entertainment activity
Downtown since the 1993 Plan
provide the reason to revisit the
topic of bicycle access and circu-
lation in Downtown Denver.
Currently Downtown is headed in
the right direction with the
upcoming Bikestation, planned
for the Denver Union Terminal
(DUT), in conjunction with the
expansion of the 16th St. Mall
shuttle service, and Central Platte
Valley light-rail extension, and the
planned multi-modal transit hub
at the DUT site. Now is the
time to make bicycling attractive,
easy and safe for travel within and
through Downtown.
Since the adoption of the 1993
DBMP Downtown Denver has
continued its renaissance to
become a more lively activity cen-
ter for the region. The sum of
these recent developments is the
reason to explore the opportuni-
ties and constraints for improving
bicycling to and through the
Downtown area. The following
recommendations will make
Downtown more Bicycle
Friendly thereby achieving the
vision of the Denver Bicycle
Master Plan.
Since the adoption of the DBMP
in 1993, the City of Denver has
made dramatic strides in improv-
ing bicycling conditions through-
out the City. This includes the
installation of a substantial num-
ber of inverted-U bike racks
downtown and the adoption of a
bicycle parking ordinance. RTD
has also increased accessibility by
allowing bicycles on their buses
and light rail vehicles. (See
Transit Access and
Accommodations section.)
Existing Downtown Circulation
There are a number of existing
bicycle routes that run near or
through Downtown Denver. The
most significant of these are:
East-West Routes:
- D-4, along 20th Street past
Coors Field to Curtis Street.
- D-6, along the Cherry Creek
Trail and Wynkoop bicycle lanes
past Coors Field to Curtis Street.
- D-8, along Auraria Parkway to
the Cherry Creek Trail to
8 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Wynkoop Street, past Coors
Field, to 19th Avenue.
- D-IO, along I 3th Avenue from
the west and along I Ith and 12th
Avenues to the east.
North-South Routes:
- D-5 Inca Street to the 1-25
underpass leading to Cuernavaca
Park and the Platte River Trail
- D-7, Cherry Creek Trail to
Wynkoop Street, past Coors
Field, to the 23 rd Street viaduct
- D-9, along Sherman Street
from the south to 21st Street, to
Curtis Street to the northeast.
Additionally, the Cherry Creek
Trail and the Platte River Trail, as
separate elements of the greater
Denver trail system, provide
access along the western edge of
Downtown, with lighting beneath
street bridges that pass over these
trails. Also, I 6th Avenue from
Broadway east to Esplanade is
striped with bicycle lanes as a
neighborhood bicycle route.
The seven grid bicycle routes and
the Cherry Creek and Platte River
Trails mentioned above, in effect,
encircle Downtown. None of
these routes or trails penetrates
downtown within the area gener-
ally bounded by Wynkoop Street
and 21 st Street on the north,
Sherman Street on the east, 12th
Avenue on the south, and the
Cherry Creek Trail on the west.
As a result, getting to the edge of
Downtown is relatively easy with
numerous routes available for the
bicyclist coming from virtually
any direction. The difficulty is
getting from these routes into the
heart of Downtown, particularly
the principal retail and office cen-
ters along the I 6th Street Mall,
17th Street and I 8th Street.
Bicycle Lane Issues:
In 1999, the City of Denver cre-
ated bicycle lanes on Wynkoop
Street (Routes D-6, D-7, D-8)
to connect bicyclists between the
Cherry Creek Trail
and Coors Field.
The bicycle lanes
made it easier for
novice and family
riders to ride
between the two
facilities, and are a
positive example fo
the provision of
additional down-
town bike lanes.
The DRCOG
Metrovision 2020
plan specifically
Downtown Bicycling
The grid route system defines bicyde access around
Downtown Denver but does not designate routes
within the core. Proposed bicycle lanes will address
the bicycle access to and through Downtown.
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 9


BIKE LANE
Downtown Bicycling
identifies that the provision of
marked, on-street bicycle lanes
...can make bicycling more com-
fortable for riders of different
ability levels.
Analysis
Although a few streets in the City
of Denver have striped bicycle
lanes, most of the on-street bicy-
cle routes in the city are shared-
use lanes without specifically des-
ignated bike lanes. The 1993
DBMP did not recommend the
designation of bicycle routes on
Downtown streets because of
traffic volumes and the narrow
traffic lanes with limited space on
many streets. At the January
2001 public meeting held to ini-
tiate the Update process, there
was overwhelming public interest
and support for additional
Downtown bicycle lanes to facili-
tate bicycling to and through
Downtown.
There are few, if any, streets that
can easily accommodate bike lanes
without changes in traffic flow,
lane widths, or on-street parking.
To date, Wynkoop Street is the
only street in the Downtown area
with striped bicycle lanes. While
some people would like bicycle
lanes on every street, the Update
recommends the strategic place-
ment of lanes to improve access
and circulation throughout the
Downtown area. Just as the grid
route system provides bicycle
routes within a half-mile of any
destination in the city, the
Downtown bicycle lanes should
provide safe bicycle access within
a few blocks of every Downtown
destination.
The following list contains some
of the principles that guided the
current effort to stripe bicycle
lanes on Downtown streets:
- The effort to place bicy-
cle lanes on Downtown
streets is in recognition
of traffic conditions in
the Downtown area; the
predominantly one-way
street system, the mix of
vehicle types and double-
turn lanes which can be
intimidating to many
bicyclists.
Bicycle lanes on
Downtown streets can
encourage bicycling for
commuting and other
transportation needs in
the Downtown area.
io Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Better provision for bicy-
cling on street can serve
to reduce unlawful bicy-
cling on downtown side-
walks (which creates con-
flicts with pedestrians).
Bicycle lanes should not
lead novice or family rid-
ers into unsafe bicycling
conditions.
- The bicycle lanes should
create a system that pro-
vides circulation to and
through Downtown and
safe access from the
Cherry Creek Trail, the
Platte River Trail and the
designated bicycle routes
in the surrounding neigh-
borhoods.
The installation of Share the
Road signage throughout the
downtown area can serve to edu-
cate and inform drivers and
pedestrians that they can expect
cyclists on every roadway. To
ensure the utility of the signs,
there must be a balance between
installing sufficient signage to
inform roadway users, and over-
whelming roadway users with the
visual clutter of too many signs.
Therefore, strategic placement of
Share the Road signage on spe-
cific streets, such as Curtis Street,
Larimer Street and Wazee Street,
is appropriate.
The following streets emerged
with high potential for accommo-
dating bicycle lanes. Together
they create a system of bicycle
lanes providing circulation on the
numbered and named streets at
the ends of Downtown and cross-
ing the 16th Street Mall at the
center of Downtown.
Wynkoop Street ^Routes D-6, D-
7, D-8)
Wynkoop Street is the location of
the first bicycle lanes in
Downtown Denver, providing a
connection between the Cherry
Creek Trail and Coors Field.
Wynkoop Street also provides
access to the Bikestation to be
located at the Denver Union
Terminal (DUT) site.
Glenarm Place
The existing layout of Glenarm
Place includes one travel lane in
each direction and a center turn
lane for most of its length.
Glenarm Place typically has a 48-
foot wide roadway, except between
I5th and I 6th Street, where it
narrows to a 41-foot width
Downtown Bicycling
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 11


through the Denver Pavilions, an
Downtown Bicycling ,
1 a urban entertainment activity cen-
ter. Based on analysis of traffic
volumes and turning movements,
Public Works staff concurred with
the desire to install bicycle lanes
on Glenarm Place between I 8th
Street and Colfax Avenue. To
provide adequate space for the
bicycle lanes, the center turn lane
needs to be removed for most of
the length of Glenarm Place with
two exceptions:
Proposed bicycle lanes and 1
routes in Downtown Denver.
- The five-leg
intersection of
Glenarm Place,
Colfax Avenue and
Fox Street requires
three lanes on
Glenarm approach-
ing the intersection
to handle the mul-
tiple turning move-
ments. Bicycle lane
striping on this
block of Glenarm
Place should begin
midway between
Colfax Avenue and
I 3 th Street.
- Between I 5th and
16th Street, the
roadway narrows
from a 48-foot
width to a 41-foot width.
Bicycle lane striping
should end midway
between I 5th Street and
16th Street where the
center turn lane serves as
a pedestrian refuge
through the Pavilions, and
on-street parking and
loading zones take up
space alongside the curbs
on the narrower roadway.
If I9th Avenue east of Broadway
converts to two-way operations in
the future, the Glenarm Place
bicycle lanes should be extended
to improve the connection to the
Uptown neighborhood.
Arapahoe and Lawrence Streets
Arapahoe Street and Lawrence
Street form a one-way couplet
midway between Glenarm Place
and Wynkoop Street. The two
streets have typical 60-foot road-
way sections with four through
lanes and parking on both sides
of the street. Traffic volumes are
moderate on both streets.
Changing conditions in
Downtown are the reason for re-
examining the roles of motor
vehicle and bicycle traffic on
Arapahoe Street and Lawrence
Street. The placement of bicycle
12 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Cleveland
Place
approaching
the 16th
Street Mall
from the
west.
lanes on Arapahoe and Lawrence
Street will be accomplished best
by the removal of a through traf-
fic lane on each of these streets.
Arapahoe Street
The Update recommends remov-
ing of a traffic lane and striping a
bicycle lane between 21st Street
and Speer Boulevard. At 21st
Street, the bicycle lane will con-
nect to existing bicycle routes.
The City is currently pursuing
renovation of Skyline Park
between I 5th and 18th Streets
along Arapahoe Street. The City
is supportive of narrowing the
roadway and removing a traffic
lane on Arapahoe Street as part of
the Skyline Park renovation. This
should result in the allocation of
some of the 60-foot roadway for
pedestrian and bicycle circulation.
Between 14th Street and Speer
Boulevard, Arapahoe Street carries
two-way traffic and provides
access to a large parking garage
for the Denver Performing Arts
Complex. West of 14th St.,
Arapahoe Street should be recon-
figured to provide two automo-
bile lanes in each direction and a
new bicycle lane leading to Speer
Boulevard.
Lawrence Street
The Update recommends that the
City remove one of the four
through lanes on Lawrence Street
between Speer Boulevard and 21st
Street and stripe a bicycle lane on
this segment. Public Works staff
concurred with the removal of a
traffic lane to install the bicycle
lane based on the removal of
State Highway designation on
Lawrence Street.
Bicyclists can easily access
Lawrence Street from the Cherry
Creek Trail via Creekfront Park,
by using the sidewalk trail to con-
nect directly to Lawrence and
I4th Streets. Coordination with
RTD could allow for bicyclists to
use the bus lane on Larimer
Street to connect to 14th Street,
and then to Lawrence Street.
Once on Lawrence Street, bicy-
clists can connect to 14th Street,
the I 6th Street Mall (including
for Sunday riding), the proposed
bicycle lanes on I 8th and 19th
Streets, or the existing bicycle
routes on 21st Street.
18th Street and 19th Street
At the northeastern edge of the
Downtown core, 18th and 19th
Street form a one-way couplet.
Downtown Bicycling
Bicycle Lanes
Recommendations
- Create bicycle lanes on
Glenarm Place from Colfax
Avenue to 18th Street. Remove
the center-turn lane on Glenarm
Place (except on the block
between 15th Street and 16th
Street). Maintain all three of the
existing southwesterly bound
lanes on Glenarm Place as it
approaches the intersection at
Colfax Avenue.
- Create bicycle lanes on
Arapahoe Street and
Lawrence Street as a one-way
couplet between Speer
Boulevard and 21st Street.
- Create bicycle lanes on 18th
Street between Glenarm Place
and Wynkoop Street.
- Create bicycle lanes on 19th
Street between Stout Street and
Lawrence Street.
- Adjust lane striping to create a
wide outside lane on the right
(westerly) side of the street and
designate 14th Street as a
bicycle route between Larimer
Street and Colfax Avenue.
- Install Share the Road signs
at strategic locations, beginning
with Curtis Street, Larimer
Street and Wazee Street.
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 13


Police
officers on
bicycles are
an effective
enforcement
tool across
the country.
Downtown Bicycling
Downtown bike lane provides a travel cor-
ridor for bicyclists.
These streets emerged as candi-
dates for the placement of bicycle
lanes because they could provide
access and distribution on the
northeasterly side of Downtown.
18th Street
Of these two streets, 18th Street
offers the greater opportunity for
the placement of bicycle lanes.
The general lane layout remains
consistent for the entire length of
18th Street, although the curb-
to-curb width changes in two
locations.
Discussions with Public Works
staff led to the recommendation
to remove one through lane and
reapportion the roadway width for
a 6-foot bicycle lane. The Bicycle
Master Plan Update recommends
striping bicycle lanes on 18th
Street from Glenarm Place to
Wynkoop Street accompanied by
the removal of one through traffic
lane. (See typical roadway cross-
sections in the Appendix for
details.)
19th Street
Partially because of its location at
the edge of the Downtown core,
19th Street serves varying func-
tions in its different segments of
its length from Wynkoop Street
to Broadway. Although 19th
Street is one-way for most its
length, between Wynkoop Street
and Blake Street it carries two-
way traffic. From Wynkoop
Street to Arapahoe Street, the
existing HOV lanes are opera-
tional from 6-9 AM on weekdays.
The roadway width on 19th
Street varies from 48 feet to 60
feet between Market Street and
Broadway. Between Stout Street
and Welton Street, light rail
tracks occupy up to half of the
roadway, limiting the space for
through lanes. The sum of these
conditions makes the placement
of bicycle lanes difficult.
The Update recommends the
removal of one through lane on
I9th Street between Lawrence
Street and Stout Street, and the
placement of a bicycle lane.
(Alternatively, the HOV lane
could be re-defined to include
bicycles, as is done in other
cities.) At I9th Street and
Lawrence Street, bicyclists can
transfer from the Lawrence Street
bicycle lanes to the lanes on 19th
Street. At 19th Street and Stout
Street, signage should direct bicy-
clists either to Share The Road
with motor vehicles on 19th
Street or to use Stout Street to
14 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Blue bike
lanes are
typical in
Denmark
and have
also been
used in the
U.S.
connect to the designated bicycle
route two blocks northeasterly on
21 st Street.
I4th Street
Between Larimer Street and
Colfax Avenue, 14th Street has
the potential to serve as a com-
fortable street for bicyclists. It
provides a connection between the
Cherry Creek Trail via Creekfront
Park and the Civic Center area
with the pending Cleveland Place
bikeway connection at Macintosh
Plaza (which will open in 2002).
Because large activity centers such
as the Denver Performing Arts
Complex and the Colorado
Convention Center have necessi-
tated street closures, there are
long expanses with no intersec-
tions on the westerly side of the
street. For most of its length
I4th Street carries moderate lev-
els of traffic in three through
lanes with parking on both sides
of the street.
The Update recommends that the
City designate 14th Street as a
bicycle route by adjusting the
existing lane striping on 14th
Street to provide a 20-foot wide
outside lane on the right (wester-
ly) side of the street. The exist-
ing traffic conditions on 14th
Street in conjunction with the
provision of a wide outside lane
would allow comfortable bicycling
(without the designation of a
specific bicycle lane) with no
impacts to the existing, on-street
parking. The City should provide
directional signage for bicyclists
and Share the Road signage to
alert all road users about shared-
use conditions.
16th Street Mall Issues:
The I 6th Street Mall is the spine
of Downtown Denver, connecting
the Civic Center to Lower
Downtown. The Mall opened in
1982, and continues to be the
gathering place for Downtown
workers, residents, visitors and
tourists. The Update addressed
two issues concerning bicycles
and the Mall.
Creating a connection
across the Broadway/l 6th
Street Mall/Cleveland
Place triangle.
Creating a connection to
Wynkoop Street from the
northwesterly end of the
mall.
Analysis:
Because of its status as an auto-
mobile-free street, the 16th Street
Mall is inviting to bicyclists who
Downtown Bicycling
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 15


Downtown Bicycling
16th Street Mall
Recommendations
- Pursue City Council adoption of
a change to the 16th Street Mall
bicycle ordinance to allow bicy-
clists on the triangular plaza
bounded by Cleveland Place,
16th Street and Broadway to
connect 16th Avenue bicycle
lanes to Cleveland Place.
Conduct a monitored, six-month
experiment allowing bicyclists
on the 16th Street Mall on the
triangular plaza, after which
Council can review safety and
operations on the Mall.
- Pursue City Council adoption of
a change to the 16th Street Mall
bicycle ordinance to allow bicy-
clists on the westerly Mall side-
walk between Wynkoop Street
and Wewatta Street. This
change will provide access from
the Commons neighborhood to
the bicycle lanes on Wynkoop
Street and to the Bikestation
facility at the DUT site.
do not feel comfortable sharing
the road with traffic. RTD and
the Downtown Denver Partner-
ship have espressed concerns
about pedestrian safety and RTD
Mall Shuttle operations that
should be weighed in combination
with the promotion of alternative
transportation modes, specifically
bicycles. The following concepts
define incremental phases for
potentially allowing increased
bicycle access to both ends of the
16th Street Mall.
pi 6th Avenue Bike Lane
Connections to Cleveland Place
via the Mall Plaza ("bounded by
the I 6th Street Mall, Cleveland
Place and Broadway
East 16th Avenue has striped
bicycle lanes from the Esplanade
at East High School to the block
between Lincoln Street and
Broadway. Many bicyclists use
this facility for access to and
from Downtown, even though
there is a significant gap at
Broadway. Eastbound bicyclists
use the short one-way segment of
16th Avenue at Broadway to con-
nect to the bicycle lanes.
Westbound bicyclists have a more
difficult time crossing Broadway
to get to Downtown streets.
It is a high priority in the bicycle
community to legitimize bicycling
in this area. It is therefore rec-
ommended that the existing I 6th
Avenue bicycle lanes must have a
bicycle-friendly connection to
Cleveland Place. A change to
City Ordinance 54-44 regulating
bicycle use on the Mall could
allow bicycles on the triangular
plaza at Broadway/l 6th Street/
Cleveland Place at all times. This
Update recommends that City
Council enact a monitored, six-
month duration experiment with
bicycle access on the plaza. The
experiment could include the use
of signs, pavement markings and
streetscaping measures to define
the bicycle travel corridor to all
plaza users. If the experiment
provides a positive result, the
ordinance could be changed
accordingly.
2) I 6th Street Mall Extension to
Wynkoop Street
The redevelopment of Lower
Downtown and the Central Platte
Valley is an opportunity to
address the changes to the trans-
portation network such as the
demolition of the 16th Street
viaduct. Three new bridges
planned along the 16th Street
16 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


alignment will re-establish the
pedestrian and bicycle connection
between the Highlands neighbor-
hood and Downtown, and create a
connection to the development in
the Commons neighborhood.
The three bridges include a con-
nection over 1-25, a second bridge
over the Platte River, and a third
bridge, the Millennium bridge,
over the mainline railroad tracks.
At the southerly end of the
Millennium bridge adjacent to the
intersection of Chestnut and
16th Streets, bicyclists can ride
two blocks to Wewatta Street
then walk one block to Wynkoop
Street. With the development of
the Bikestation at DUT and use
of the Commons area, traffic vol-
umes on the current legal alterna-
tive along I 5th St. will certainly
increase.
The Update recommends a direct
bicycle connection between the
Millennium bridge and the bicycle
lanes on Wynkoop Street, con-
necting with the Bikestation at
the DUT site. The Plan further
recommends a defined bicycle
connection on the northerly end
of the I 6th Street Mall using the
westerly sidewalk next to the Post
Office Terminal Annex and con-
tinuing to Wewatta and 16th
Street. From there, bicyclists
could share the road with
motorists on 16th Street for the
two blocks from Wewatta to
Chestnut Street to the
Millennium bridge. This bicycle
sidewalk usage will require a
change to the 16th Street Mall
ordinance by the City Council.
The provision of a quality bicycle
route on the sidewalk will avoid
conflicts with Shuttle vehicles
and light rail trains through the
Central Platte Valley. Now is the
time to provide a viable connec-
tion for bicyclists as part of the
initial development for this area.
Bicycle Commerce:
Currently, pedal cabs and bicycle
messengers use Denver streets for
commerce. This plan recom-
mends that any ordinance devel-
opment regarding any of these
categories attempt to coordinate
efforts to treat these commercial
cyclists equally.
Pedal Cabs
Pedal Cabs are currently regulated
via City Ordinances 55-3 81 55-
396. These ordinances define
pedal cabs and specify that the
City Traffic Engineer determine
the hours of operation, streets
Downtown Bicycling
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 17


Downtown Bicycling
Bicycle Commerce
Recommendations
- Adopt an ordinance to increase
downtown public safety by regu-
lating the operations of bicycle
messengers, pedal cabs, and
other commercial bicycling
activities in the public right-of-
way. Follow the example of the
City of Chicago bicycle messen-
ger ordinance, but specify that
helmets must be properly fas-
tened. Investigate the possibili-
ty of a citizen complaint hotline
similar to Bostons.
- Increase the level of enforce-
ment of bicycling-related laws,
particularly in the Downtown
area.
and areas where pedal cabs can
operate. During the development
of the Update, some changes to
the operations of pedal cabs have
been defined, including:
Pedal cabs are permitted
to operate in the Central
Business District except:
- on the I 6th Street
Mall from 6am to 6pm
on non-holiday week-
days; and,
- on arterials from 7am
to 9am and 4ptn to
6pm on non-holiday
weekdays.
Pedal cabs must remain in
the roadway at all times
even when loading and
unloading passengers.
Pedal cabs may not oper-
ate on sidewalks unless
the sidewalk is a designat-
ed bike route.
)Note that Ordinance jj-jdj indicates
that pedal cabs are subject to all rights
and duties applicable to bicycles.)
machines, e-mail with attached
files, paperless E-ticketing for
airline travel, and the electronic
transfer of funds and documents
have reduced the number of bicy-
cle messengers on Downtown
streets.
Bicycle messenger delivery service
is currently an unregulated com-
mercial use of public streets. The
Denver Police Department, Public
Works Department and the
Downtown Denver Partnership
have all considered proposing bike
messenger regulation, but, there
are conflicting issues which make
regulation difficult.
- Bicycle messengers have
wanted to regulate them-
selves rather than face
outside regulation.
- The employment status
of messengers is not clear,
nor is the accountability
of the companies they
represent.
Bicycle Messengers
There are currently five or six
established delivery companies
with approximately 60 couriers
operating in Denver. Changing
technologies, such as fax
- The business community
is concerned that regula-
tion would slow down
service and increase costs.
- Messengers behavior is
18 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


NNmA/e
Courier
$Gr
%

Chicago
messengers
are required
to display
their
company
name and
number.
too often a bad example
to potential cyclists, a
safety hazard to motorists
and pedestrians, and the
cause of serious injury to
at least one pedestrian
recently and one courier.
Analysis:
As part of the development of the
1993 DBMP there was an identi-
fied need to decrease dangerous (or
frightening) incidents between messengers,
motor traffic, and-pedestrians. At
that time, messengers asked for
an opportunity for reinforcing a
self regulating program. Overall, the
1993 plans recommendations
reflected an intent .. to encourage
messenger services to regulate themselves,
reduce illegal bicycling activity, minimize
confrontations with pedestrians and
motor traffic, and increase safety.
Despite the passage of time, the
topic of bicycle messengers con-
tinues to be a chronic sore point
in any discussion of Downtown
bicycling.
A number of North American
cities are already regulating bicy-
cle messenger operations, with
ordinances currently in effect in
Boston, Calgary, Chicago, New
York, Vancouver and Washington,
D.C. In response to issues simi-
lar to those in Denver, the City of
Chicago enacted an ordinance in
1992 to regulate the operations
of bicycle messengers. By ordi-
nance, the Chicago delivery com-
panies are required to hire mes-
sengers as employees with insur-
ance coverage and workmens
compensation benefits, not as
independent contractors.
Messengers are required to wear
helmets and safety vests with the
company name and the individual
messengers city-issued license
number, simplifying police
enforcement activities. The sum
of Chicagos requirements has
resulted in public safety improve-
ments and improved working con-
ditions for messengers. This
ordinance serves as a model for a
corresponding ordinance in
Denver (see draft ordinance in
the Update appendix).
Downtown Bicycling
Benefits of Regulating Bicycle
Messengers
- Requires that messengers be
employees of the companies
they work for
- Employer provided insurance,
helmets and safety vests with
company name for employees
- Individual employees licensing
and identifying number
assigned by the City
- Allows citizens to contact
employer directly
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 19


. *4
-k
Existing
conditions at
Evans
Avenue
overpass of
Santa Fe
Drive.
vt
Vi
f
Major Missing Links
Major Missing Links:
One of the major recommenda-
tions to come out of the 1993
DBMP was the one-mile grid sys-
tem of on-street routes and off-
street trails. Over the last eight
years, the City has made signifi-
cant progress toward completing
the system, using the grid route
system as a framework in the
implementation of bicycle
improvements. Even so, a num-
ber of major missing links still
exist that hamper connections on
the system. Each of the Major
Missing Links is a key element to
completing the grid route system
for the City. These missing links
fall into the following categories:
Connections across 1-25
Connections across the
Santa Fe Drive corridor
Connections across railroad
corridors
Improvements to the existing
off-street trails system
Preservation of drainage cor-
ridors for future off-
street trails
Problem intersections and
crossings
(NOTE: For detailed analysis of the missing
links, listing of the alternatives under rone:dera-
tion and additional information, please see the
Appendix to this document.)
Recommended Improvements
1. 43rd Avenue pedestrian bridge
(Route D-2)
2. 46th Avenue from Platte River
Trail to National Western
Stock Show Complex (Route
D-2)
3. Northeast Neighborhoods -DIA
access, E-470 link, First
Creek, Second Creek, High
Line Canal, other regional
trais, conections to Green
Valley Ranch and
Gateway area
4. Colorado Boulevard & 12th
Ave (Route D-10)
5. Alameda Avenue: Platte River
Trail to Cherokee Street
(Routes D-7; D-14; D-16)
6. Cherry Creek Trail (Route D
14 portion)
- University Blvd. underpass
- First Avenue sidewalk
7. Leetsdale Drive at Bayaud
Avenue (Route D-14)
8. Leetsdale Drive at Kearney
Street (Routes D-16 and D-17)
9. Broadway Station connection
10. Iowa Avenue at Santa Fe
Drive (Route D-18)
- Acoma St. to Santa Fe Drive
- Santa Fe Drive sidewalk:
Iowa Avenue to Florida
Avenue
11. Iliff Avenue at Santa Fe
Drive (Route D-20)
12. West Harvard Gulch to the
Platte River Trail (Route D-20)
13. Colorado Station connection
14 Iliff Avenue/Warren
Avenue/Dahlia Street at I-25
(Routes D-15 and D-20)
15. Quincy Avenue Bikeway
Sheridan to Wadsworth, Grant
Ranch connections to the rest
of the city
20 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


'L
'r JB
v 21 j Note the
- j t t| ... -.r>' . impact
damaged
fence poles
along the
western
sidewalk of
Santa Fe
Drive (which
is used by
I Route D-18).
Major Missing Links
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 21


Major Missing Links
Alameda Avenue: Platte River
to Cherokee Street
Connection
(Routes D-7; D-I4; D-i6):
This section of Alameda Avenue is
a central connection for three
bicycle routes. The Platte River
Trail connects to the north side of
Alameda Avenue via a ramp.
Between the ramp and Santa Fe
Drive, bicyclists and pedestrians
must cross three high-volume
intersections complicated by turn-
ing movements at the 1-25 exit
ramp, Kalamath Street and Santa
Fe Drive. Multiple curb cuts and
an existing bus stop further com-
plicate the route.
Between Santa Fe Drive and
Cherokee Street, a sidewalk on the
north side of Alameda Avenue pro-
vides uninterrupted access under
the railroad tracks to the designat-
ed bicycle route on Cherokee.
The City has plans to rebuild the
sidewalk portion of the Alameda
Avenue underpass between Santa
Fe Drive and Cherokee Street with
a wider cross-section, a new profile
and new railings. Reconstruction
of the existing sidewalk, which is
not ADA compliant, will be part
of the project and is scheduled for
2005 or 2006.
In the long term, the Update rec-
ommends the construction of a
bicycle and pedestrian bridge along
the Bayaud Avenue alignment.
Recommendation:
- Improvements to the crosswalks at the
intersections, including signage, strip-
ing and reconstruction of the northeast
corner of the intersection of Santa Fe
Drive and Alameda Avenue to tighten
the turning radius for westbound
Alameda Avenue to northbound Santa
Fe Drive traffic
- Rebuild the sidewalk portion of the
Alameda Avenue underpass with an
ADA compliant profile and handrails,
improved cross-section drainage, and
upgraded lighting
- In the long term construct a bicycle and
pedestrian bridge at the Bayaud Avenue
alignment over 1-25 and the Platte
River
Priori tizatioq/Implementation:
- Immediate Action Item: Alameda
Avenue intersection improvements and
underpass reconstruction
- Long-Term Implementation: Bayaud
Avenue bridge
22 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Cherry Creek Trail:
The Cherry Creek Trail is the
most popular trail in the state and
traverses through several jurisdic-
tions.
The University Boulevard under-
pass is an established location for
user conflicts and crashes due to
poor sight lines, approach grades
(which are not ADA compliant
and are conducive to excessive
speeds) and the ninety-degree
deflection at the base of the west
approach.
Between University Boulevard and
Downing Street, the Cherry Creek
Trail is located on the south side
of First Avenue, along the north-
ern frontage of the Denver
Country Club. There are safety
concerns because of the narrow
clearances and the lack of buffer
between the trail users and the
automobile traffic, especially for
westbound trail users directly
behind the curbline of eastbound
First Avenue. Because of the high
potential for accidents, trail users
navigate this section of the trail at
slower speeds and with extreme
caution. The project team explored
the concept of extending the
Wheels & Fleels trail south of
Colfax Avenue to Downing Street.
This concept was abandoned
because of the desire to not pave
paradise.
Recommendation:
- Acquire 10 feet of right-of-way from
the Denver Country Club on the south
side of First Avenue directly to the
south of the existing Cherry Creek
Trail to bring the trail alignment into
compliance with AASHTO.
Reconstruct the trail with an 8-foot
tree lawn as a buffer between the trail
and the traffic lanes on First Avenue to
bring the trail into compliance with city
standards and Streetscape Guidelines.
- Reconstruct the University Boulevard
underpass to improve sight lines and
address the 90-degree deflection on the
west side ramp. Widen the trail in the
underpass towards the Creek and recon-
struct the ramp on the east side of the
underpass with an improved alignment
and ADA compliant profile. Pursue
right-of-way acquisition from the
Denver Country Club to provide an
ADA compliant profile and an AASFd-
TO compliant curve at the base of the
west side ramp. Provide upgraded
lighting with vandal-resistant lighting
fixtures.
Major Missing Links
Prioritization/Implementation:
At a public meeting, proposed improve-
ments to the I st Avenue segment received
tremendous public support primarily due
to the popularity of the Cherry Creek
Trail, high number of users in this sec-
tion, and its central location in the Citys
bicycle network. Although the Bicycle
Master Plan recommends that the City
pursue right-of-way acquisition to imple-
ment these improvements, this segment
of the trail received a low-priority
improvement status in the initial prioriti-
zation rounds for a number of reasons:
- First Avenue/Speer Boulevard is a desig-
nated historic parkway, which severely
limits potential alternative solutions.
- Potential cost of land acquisition.
- Politically difficult to resolve the exist-
ing conflicts of interest between the
bicycling communitys desire to widen
the trail and the private property rights
of the Denver Country Club.
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 23


Major Missing Links
Colorado Boulevard & I2th
Ave (Route D-IO):
This off-set intersection currently
functions as a connection on route
D-IO between the Congress Park
and Mayfair neighborhoods.
Bicyclists must use the sidewalk on
the west side of Colorado Boulevard
for access between the two sections
of 12th Avenue. On the east side of
Colorado Boulevard the sidewalk is
narrow and there are conflicts with
turning vehicles from westbound
12th Avenue to northbound
Colorado Boulevard.
Colorado Boulevard and 12th Avenue
Recommendation:
- Install microwave traffic signal
detector to detect cyclists on
12th Avenue east of Colorado
Boulevard.
- Widen the sidewalk at the northeast cor-
ner of 12th Avenue and Colorado
Boulevard to provide a landing for east-
bound bicyclists crossing the intersection.
- Conduct traffic impact analysis prior to
installing pedestrian priority signal phas-
ing to facilitate pedestrian and bicyclist
crossing of Colorado Boulevard.
Prioritization/Implementation:
- Long-term implementation
priority
24 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


% r
M:,
U <7
w ,
1b '
EVANS AVENUE.'
T*>- a :
\ ? :
fe
fe
r* 1v ^ E-.
-j 5 I
^ ..-Evans Avenue
_ 1_RT Statibn
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Â¥\ fe
, *v ^,wrs; p ,.^rr*
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I UhA e,7T- CU 'l-' i '>
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ILIFf AVENuld 7?
T_ -. l.' Z51'U2*£5
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lliff Avenue and Santa Fe Drive
Major Missing Links
Iliff at Santa Fe
(Route D-20):
Route D-20 extends across the
southern part of the city generally
along Iliff Avenue. The route has
no good existing connection across
the Santa Fe Drive/railroad corri-
dor. The Evans Avenue overpass is
the only access between
Dartmouth and Iowa Avenues, and
has numerous access and suitabili-
ty issues for pedestrians and bicy-
clists.
The Update recommends con-
struction of an overpass aligned
with Iliff Avenue to complete the
connection on Route D-20 and
provide a connection to the Evans
Avenue light rail station.
Recommendation:
- Construct a bicyclist/pedestrian bridge
on the Iliff Avenue alignment over
Santa Fe Drive and the railroad tracks
to reach the Platte River trail at Grant
Frontier Park.
- Provide access ramps that are ADA
compliant.
Prioritizatioq/Implementation:
- Immediate Action priority
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 25


Major Missing Links
Grant Ranch connections to
THE REST OF THE CITY/
Quincy Avenue Bike Trail -
Sheridan to Wadsworth:
Grant Ranch is an outlying area
located in a finger-like extension
of the southwestern Denver
boundaries. Its location in an out-
lying area of Denver limits the
possible connections to the rest of
the city. The boundary lines
between Denver, Jefferson County,
Lakewood, and Bow Mar dictate
that Denver work with these juris-
dictions to address bicycle connec-
tions.
The first 1,000 feet of a 10-foot
bicycle trail on Quincy Avenue
west of Sheridan Boulevard is
scheduled to be built with 1998
City Neighborhood Bond funding.
The proposed location for the
Quincy Avenue trail is on the
north side of Quincy Avenue,
where the Pinehurst Country Club
encroaches on the public right-of-
way. Because of limited funding,
the trail will stop abruptly with no
connections at the Pinehurst
Country Club golf course.
Additional trail construction on
Quincy Avenue west to Pierce
Street will complete the Denver
portion of this connection. The
portion of the trail between Pierce
Street and Wadsworth Boulevard
lies within the City of Lakewood
and is the responsibility of that
city to construct. City Traffic
Engineering should review any
proposed trail improvements for
compatibility with long-term plans
to rebuild the two-lanes of Quincy
Avenue as a four-lane roadway.
Recommendation:
- Construct the Quincy Avenue bicycle
trail on the north side of Quincy
Avenue between Sheridan Boulevard and
Pierce Street.
- Work with the City of Lakewood to
extend the Quincy Avenue Trail to
Wadsworth Boulevard.
- Provide an on-street bicycle connection
through the residential neighborhoods
southeast of the intersection of Pierce
Way and Quincy Avenue along Stetson
Place to reach the signalized intersec-
tions of South Wadsworth Boulevard at
Stanford Avenue and at Layton Avenue.
- Coordinate with the Town of Bow Mar
to establish a bicycle connection from
Grant Ranch south of Marston Lake
through Bow Mar.
Prioritization/Implementation:
- Near-term implementation priority -
Quincy Avenue Bike Trail construction
- Mid-term implementation priority -
Grant Ranch connections
Grant Ranch and Quincy Avenue Bike Trail connections
26 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Iliff Avenue/Warren
Avenue/Dahlia Street at 1-25
(Routes D-I5 and D-20):
Route D-I 5 on Dahlia Street and
Route D-20 on Iliff Avenue do
not currently provide good access
across the 1-25 corridor. Bicyclists
on these routes must use the
Evans Avenue bridge over 1-25 or
the Yale Avenue underpass, options
which take bicyclists through
interchanges with high traffic vol-
umes and conflicts with turning
vehicles. A bicyclist/pedestrian
bridge in the Iliff/Warren/Dahlia
area could provide improved bicy-
cle and pedestrian access, in addi-
tion to access to future light rail
stations at Colorado Center and
Yale Avenue.
Colorado Boulevard. The
Southeast Corridor project will
provide a new Evans Avenue bridge
with 5-foot bike lanes and 5-foot
sidewalks. While this improve-
ment is beneficial, connections to
the bicycle routes are poor on
either side of the bridge and it
would be difficult to make mean-
ingful improvements.
Recommendation:
- Construct a bicycle/pedestrian bridge
over 1-25 to connect bicycle route D-
I 5 on Dahlia Street and D-20 on Iliff
and Warren Avenues. Re-examine the
need for this improvement if a bicy-
cle/pedestrian bridge on the Bellaire
Street alignment is built across 1-25 to
provide access to the Colorado Center
Station area (see RTD section).
The 1993 DBMP recommended a
north/south bridge aligned with
Dahlia Street to provide a connec-
tion across 1-25 and to avoid
crossing at Evans Avenue or
Priori tizatioq/Implementation:
- Mid-term implementation priority
Iliff/Warren/Dahlia bridge
- Near-term implementation priority -
Bellaire Street bridge over 1-25
Iliff AvenueAA/arren Avenue/Dahlia Street at 1-25
Major Missing Links
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 27


Major Missing Links
Iowa Avenue from Acoma to
Florida Aye via Santa Fe Drive
sidewalk (Route D-i8)
Santa Fe Sidewalk/Path:
Safety issues for bicyclists and
pedestrians along Santa Fe Drive
are the impetus for improving this
section of trail. The sidewalk/trail
on the west side of Santa Fe Drive
is an attached sidewalk. The
potential for accidents is high and
is exacerbated by the 45 MPFd
speed limit (with traffic, including
full size trucks, frequently travel-
ling at much greater speeds) and
history of southbound traffic
striking the fenceposts located
behind the sidewalk. With no set-
back from traffic, the sidewalk is
typically covered with sand, gravel,
glass, and, in the wintertime,
plowed snow.
All possible solutions must
include provisions to increase the
separation of trail users from
motorized traffic. For example, a
detached sidewalk/trail with jersey
barriers along Santa Fe would
enhance bicyclist and pedestrian
safety in this area. The Florida
Avenue bikeway portion of route
D-I8 on the northern frontage of
Overland Golf Course is an exam-
ple to emulate, with both an
AASFdTO compliant trail width
and a tree lawn setback providing a
buffer from traffic. To meet City
of Denver Streetscape Guidelines,
the more desirable solution
includes the provision of sufficient
right-of-way to construct an 8-
foot tree lawn to serve as a buffer
between the trail and the roadway.
Iowa Avenue:
The Iowa Avenue underpass
between Cherokee Street and
Santa Fe Drive has a sidewalk only
on the north side with staircases
instead of ramps. Therefore, this
sidewalk specifically does not meet
ADA requirements for wheelchair
accessibility (with bicycle, in-line
skate, baby stroller, etc. usage pre-
cluded as well).
Over time, the entire Iowa Avenue
underpass will need to be recon-
structed and widened from two
lanes to four lanes. The need for
the sidewalk improvement is cur-
rently greater than the need to
rebuild the entire underpass.
Taking advantage of existing set-
back bridge abutments, the City
could proceed with sidewalk
improvements in the near-term,
but this would create a long-term
issue when complete reconstruc-
tion of the underpass to its full-
width section would result in the
demolition and removal of any
intermediate sidewalk improve-
ments.
Recommendations:
- Immediate action: Acquire additional
ROW on the west side of Santa Fe
Drive from the existing plateau area
removed from and situated above a fair-
way of the city-owned Overland Golf
Course. This plateau area is needed to
provide a re-aligned sidewalk bikeway
with a setback and traffic barriers to
separate and protect bicyclists and
pedestrians from Santa Fe Drive traffic.
- Long-term: Rebuild the sidewalk
through the Iowa Avenue underpass to
accommodate a wider sidewalk with an
ADA compliant grade.
Prioritization/Implementation:
- Mid-term implementation priority
Iowa Avenue from Acoma to Florida Ave via Santa Fe Drive
28 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Leetsdale at Bayaud
Leetsdale at Bayaud
(Route D-14):
The 1993 DBMP recommended
defining the existing, one-way
westbound alley on Bayaud from
Colorado Boulevard east to Birch
Street as a two-way bicycle linkage.
This improvement is on hold until
the intersection of Colorado
Boulevard/Bayaud Avenue/
Leetsdale Drive is more bicycle
friendly. The City Traffic
Engineer has indicated that any
changes to signal timing on
Colorado Boulevard must address
its role as a major arterial and the
maintenance of traffic flows. A
traffic impact analysis must pre-
cede any requests for changes to
signal timing on Colorado
Boulevard.
Rather than pursue modifications
to the Bayaud Avenue/Colorado
Boulevard intersection, the
Mayors Bicycle Advisory
Committee proposed creating a
connection across Leetsdale Drive
one block south on Cedar Avenue.
A refuge in the median of the two-
lane section of Leetsdale Drive
would provide a place for pedestri-
ans and bicyclists to wait for
breaks in the traffic. A
sidewalk/trail connection along the
perimeter of Burns Park from
Cedar Avenue to Bayaud Avenue
would close the connection to the
signalized crosswalk at Colorado
Boulevard and Bayaud Avenue.
Recommendation:
- Construct a trail in Burns Park from
the intersection of Colorado Boulevard
and Bayaud Avenue along the south
side of Bayaud Avenue and the west
side of Leetsdale Drive to the intersec-
tion of Leetsdale Drive and Cedar
Avenue. Construct a bicyclist/pedestri-
an refuge in the median of Leetsdale
Drive to allow easier east-west cross-
ings at Cedar Avenue.
- Install signage to direct bicyclists from
Cedar Avenue to Birch Street to Bayaud
Avenue.
Prioritization/Implementation:
- Mid-term implementation priority
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 29


Major Missing Links
Leetsdale at Kearney
(Routes D-i6 and D-17):
The trail provides a connection
from the neighborhoods north of
Leetsdale to Garland Park and the
Cherry Creek Trail. The populari-
ty of the Cherry Creek Trail and
the location near the George
Washington High School are two
factors that will contribute the
potential usage and success of this
connection.
The existing trail is located in the
easement for the high-tension
power lines. The trail ends on
both sides of Leetsdale Drive at
Kearney Street where the crossing
is at grade and unsignalized. The
route also has significant align-
ment and grade change issues on
the north and south sides of
Leetsdale Drive that should be
addressed to meet ADA require-
ments and improve overall safety
of the route. Improved signage at
the crossing, with an actuated traf-
fic signal, pavement markings, or
lights embedded in the roadway
may help alert motorists to poten-
tial bicycle/pedestrian traffic.
In the long term, a bicycle/pedes-
trian overpass may be necessary. A
bridge would need to meet ADA
and maintenance vehicle access
requirements. This would be cost-
ly given the substantial grade
change (which would likely require
switchbacks on the south side of
Leetsdale Drive for the vertical
transition needed).
Recommendation:
- In the near term, construct a
bicyclist/pedestrian refuge in the medi-
an of Leetsdale Drive. Construct the
refuge of raised concrete with a ramp in
the center for access from the trail.
Install signage and lighting to increase
the visibility of the crossing for
motorists on Leetsdale. Formally inves-
tigate the possibility of an actuated
traffic signal for trail users.
- Widen the ramp and improve the land-
ing on the south side of Leetsdale
Drive to provide adequate queuing
space for bicyclists traveling in both
directions. Reconstruct the trail to an
Leetsdale at Kearney
ADA compliant profile on this section
of trail.
- Reconstruct the asphalt trail connection
to provide a I O-foot concrete trail
between Leetsdale Drive and the Cherry
Creek Trail connection in Garland Park.
- In the long term, construct a
bicyclist/pedestrian bridge over
Leetsdale Drive. Provide access ramps
that are ADA compliant and mainte-
nance vehicle accessible.
Prioritization/Implementation;
- Near-term implementation priority
30 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Northeast Neighborhoods -
DIA access, E-470 link, First
Creek, Second Creek, 48 th
Avenue, High Line Canal cor-
ridor, other Regional Trail
Links, Connections to Green
Valley Ranch and Gateway
area:
Much like the Cherry Creek Trail
and the Platte River Greenway, the
spines of Denvers off-road trail
system, the drainage corridors in
the northeast neighborhoods are
the foundations for trails to serve
recreational bicycling and bicycle
commuting from this area. The
Parks and Recreation Department
requested the inclusion of all pro-
Northeast Neighborhoods
posed trail corridors in the
Update since potential develop-
ment threatens to absorb the
right-of-way. Although develop-
ment of these trails is not likely to
proceed quickly, listing in the
Update document prepares the
way for corridor preservation and
eventual construction of trail
facilities.
Implementation of the Emerald
Strands plan, a multi-jurisdictional
planning effort, is not proceeding
as it should. The public entities
have competing demands for limit-
ed resources, and the private devel-
opment community is not strongly
behind the plan. The private sec-
Major Missing Links
tor can be instrumental in the cre-
ation of the trails system through
the establishment of special dis-
tricts attached to the development
of residential communities and
commercial areas.
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 31


Major Missing Links
DRCOG has only two of these
trails included in their
Metrovision 2020 Master Plan.
TEA-21 funding is not available
for these trails if they are not
included in the regional master
plan. (Additionally, the DRCOG
project selection criteria places an
emphasis on the population and
employment adjacent to the proj-
ect site this makes it difficult to
fund trails prior to the adjoining
sites being fully developed and
built -out.)
Individual issues in the northeast
neighborhoods are discussed
below:
First Creek Crossing from 48th
Avenue and Picadilly Road to the
eastern boundary of the Rocky
Mountain Arsenal along the Pena
Boulevard corridor.
Second Creek from Picadilly
Road north across the Pena
Boulevard corridor. The main
area of concentration at this time
by those jurisdictions involved in
the Emerald Strands Plan,
including Denver Parks &
Recreation.
Derby Lateral/High Line Canal -
from the High Line Canal in
Green Valley Ranch, across the
Pena Boulevard corridor, north
to the Rocky Mountain Arsenal.
High Line Canal north of 1-70 -
meanders through Green Valley
Ranch to connect to the First
Creek Trail at 48th Avenue and
Picadilly Road.
Pena Blvd In 2000, DIA granted
permission for bicyclists to use
the shoulders of the existing
Pena Blvd for bicycle travel. An
off-street trail proposed on west
side of corridor.
Crossing at E-470 will probably
have to jog to the north along
Second Creek (East) corridor
and then return to the Pena Blvd
alignment.
E-470 Trail trail ROW within
highway corridor. Construction
not set because no funding in
place.
Sand Creek Aurora, Denver and
Commerce City constructing
trail improvements.
Westerly Creek Trail improve-
ments proposed through
Stapleton.
Peoria Street Upgrade and
extend the existing bikeway to
reach 37th Avenue.
Grid Routes:
Extend the Citys grid system on
40th, 48th and 56th Avenue and
north/south streets parallel to
Tower Road (Waco Street and
Argonne Street). Create new
east-west grid routes D-2A, D-
2B and D-2C and new north-
south grid Routes D-23 and D-
25. All five of these potential
routes would uphold the one-
mile bicycle route grid concept
in place throughout the rest of
the city.
5 6th Avenue An off-street route
along the north side of the street
in cooperation with the Rocky
Mountain Arsenal. Grade-sepa-
rated interchanges provide access
across the Pena Boulevard corri-
dor, connecting the neighbor-
hoods on the east and west.
48th Avenue Mayors Bicycle
Advisory Committee requested
that 48th Avenue have an off-
street bicycle trail
40th Avenue serves as a connec-
tion from Montbello to Green
Valley Ranch; there is no room
to accommodate an on-street
trail due to existing development
and infrastructure; the existing
sidewalks are wide with minimal
curb-cuts.
Tower Road This is not an
appropriate street for either an
on-street or off-street bike path
because of continuing develop-
ment as a major arterial thor-
oughfare.
Priori tization/Implementation:
- Near-Term implementation priority -
Pursue ROW acquisition and preserva-
tion now for future improvement
- Mid-term implementation priority -
Grid Route extension
- Long-term implementation priority -
Drainage corridor trai construction
32 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


West Harvard Gulch connec-
tion to the Platte River
(Route D-20):
The existing West Harvard Gulch
trail ends east of Pecos Street as it
approaches the west side of the
BNSF railroad corridor. A social
trail connection is already in place
passing below the existing railroad
bridge, indicating the desire to
travel along this path to connect
to the Platte River Trail to the
east.
existing sanitary sewer lines on the
west side of the BNSF corridor
2) Designing and value-engineer-
ing an ADA compliant and mainte-
nance vehicle accessible trail to
pass below the railroad bridge,
and;
3) Securing Public Utilities
Commission and railroad agree-
ment to have a public trail defined
across the BNSF corridor.
The three main constraints are: The City of Englewood is working
l) Minimizing conflicts with two with the City of Denver Parks and
l/l/esf Harvard Gulch connection to the Platte River
Major Missing Links
Recreation Department to com-
plete this connection.
Recommendation:
- Fund and construct the connection
between the existing terminus of the
West Harvard Gulch and the Platte
River Trail. Resolve the issues with the
Public Utilities Commission and BNSF
railroad to secure a trail easement and
construction permits. Acquire needed
land from the Xcel Energy power plant.
Prioritization/ Implementation:
- Near-term implementation priority
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 33


Major Missing Links
43 rd Ave pedestrian bridge
OVER RAILROAD TRACKS BETWEEN
Fox and Inca (Route D-2):
This missing link would provide
east/west neighborhood and route
D-2 access. It would improve bicy-
cle, wheelchair and skate connec-
tion from the Northwest Denver
neighborhood through Globeville
to the Platte River trail. The
wooden stair towers have been set
afire at several locations and are
Recommendation:
- Demolish the existing 43 rd Avenue
bridge. Reconstruct the bridge with
access ramps that are ADA compliant
and maintenance vehicle accessible.
Provide a paved connection to Fox
Street on the east side of the bridge.
Prioritization/Implementation:
- Mid-term implementation priority
structurally deteriorated. The
existing access to the narrow
bridge span is via unsheltered
stairways, which, by definition, are
not ADA compliant (with no pos-
sibility of maintenance vehicle
access). The design and con-
struction of any new crossing
would have to be sensitive to oper-
ations in the Burlington Northern
Santa Fe (BNSF) rail yard.
34 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


46th Avenue from Platte River to National Western
46th Avenue from Platte
River to National Western
(Route D-2):
The 46th Avenue connection on
Route D-2 serves neighborhoods
in the northern part of the city.
The City recently built a ramp
from the Platte River Trail to
46th Avenue. In the same area,
the Colorado Department of
Transportation (CDOT) is
rebuilding the 1-70 viaduct and
will construct a 10-foot bicycle
trail on the north side of 46th
Avenue below the reconstructed
viaduct, across the southern
frontage of the National Western
Stock Show Complex.
Between the Platte River Trail and
the Stock Show Complex, the pro-
posed bicycle connection is on the
northern sidewalk along 46th
Avenue. The existing sidewalk is
problematic because of its narrow
width, high volumes of turning
truck traffic at the intersection of
46th Avenue and National
Western Drive, and an underpass
that is narrow, dark and uninvit-
ing. Every January during the
Stock Show, the street and bicycle
connections are closed.
Recommendation:
- In the near term, provide a connection
from the Platte River Trail at 3 8th
Street to Arkins Court. Construct an
off-street trail connection around the
gates to the National Western Complex
parking lot. Route the trail along
Arkins Court south of the parking lots
to the eastern side of the Denver
Coliseum, to the signalized intersection
Major Missing Links
at 46th Avenue and Humboldt Street.
- In the long term, improve the sidewalk
in the 46th Avenue underpass in con-
junction with the reconstruction of the
railroad overpass. Continue to improve
the connection by constructing side-
walk ramps at the intersection with
National Western Drive, and reconfig-
ure the intersection to improve sight
lines for motorists exiting the under-
pass and to encourage slower speeds for
turning traffic. Investigate the possi-
bility of widening the sidewalk on the
46 th Avenue bridge over the Platte
River.
- Pursue a provision with the National
Western Stock Show to maintain bicy-
cle access through the Complex during
the Stock Show, either on 46th Avenue
or along another route north of 46th
Avenue.
- Pursue opportunities via National Park
Service planning assistance.
Prioritization/Implementation:
- Near-term implementation priority
Conceptual cost estimates in 2002 dol-
lars for the major missing links are
shown in the table to the right.
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 35


Major Missing Links
Locution Conceptual Cost Estimate (in 2002 dollars)
Immediate Action Items:
D-9: 38th St. connection (currently in design) $630,000
D-20: Bridge at lliff alignment over Santa Fe Drive (RTD Connection) $3,680,000
D-1S, D-17: Improved at-grade crossing of Leetsdale at Kearney $54,000
D-2 Northeast Neighborhood: High Line Canal Trail, Darby Lateral, Pena Boulevard Trail. 40th Avenue, 56th Avenue
D-14 Cherry Creek Trail Improvements: University Blvd. underpass reconstruction $1,050,000
D-7, D-14, D-16: Alameda Avenue intersection improvements at Santa Fe. Kalamath and I-25 off-ramps, and underpass $6,035,000
Neai-Tenn Implementation:
D-15, D-20: Bridge over I-25 at Bellaire to Connect to Colorado Blvd, Station (RTD Connection)
Quincy Avenue Bike Trail construction from 900 ft. west of Sheridan to Pierce $1,080,000
D-20: West Harvard Gulch trail connection from Englewood trail to Platte River Drive
D-2: 46th Avenue from Platte River to National Western Complex (Arkins Court connection) $170,000
D-1B: Santa Fe Drive west-side trail improvements from Iowa to Florida $200,000
D-7, D-14, D-16: Alameda Avenue: Bayaud Bridge
Mirl-Teim Implementation:
D-2, D-23, D-25: Green Valley Ranch/Gateway: extension of qrid route system
D-15, D-20: Bridge overl-25 at Iliff/Warren/Dahlia $2,180,000
D-18: Iowa Avenue Underpass reconstruction from Acoma to Santa Fe Drive $2,000,000
Grant Ranch Connections on-street connections
D-14: At-grade crossing of Leetsdale of Bayaud/Cedar with Burns Park connection $1,610,000
D-2: 43rd Ave. bridge over RR tracks from Fox to Inca $3,010,000
Long-Term Implementation:
D-14: Cherry Creek Trail Improvements: University to Downinp rebuild trail with buffer $1,590,000
D-10: Colorado Blvd. at 12th- intersection improvements $60,000
Ongoing Long-Term Implementation:
Broadway Station (RTD Connection) begin now for long- term results
D-2: Northeast Neighborhood: Drainage Corridor Trails begin ROW acquisition now
36 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 37


Parks & Trails
l 00m
^_______[40 nj, ^
Figure 1. User Operating Space.
Introduction/Overview
The 1993 DBMP recognized the
importance of the off-street,
multi-use paths in the City and
County of Denver. This system
of trails allows users of all types,
include recreational bicyclist and
commuters, to ride safely without
the worries of riding with motor-
ized vehicle traffic.
The purpose of this section is to
answer questions that may arise
concerning safety standards when
constructing and modifying bike
paths. This document sets design
and construction standards in the
City & County of Denver (CCD)
that promote the health, safety
and welfare of the population who
use the off-street recreational
paths. The CCD Bike Path
Standards conform to accessibili-
ty standards set forth by the
Americans with Disabilities Act
and guidelines established by the
American Association of State
Highway and Transportation
Officials (AASHTO) Guide for
the Development of Bicycle
Facilities. In some cases, CCD
standards may override the
AASHTO guidelines (which are
typically requirements on federal-
ly funded projects).
This document also serves the
City and County of Denver Parks
and Recreation Department
(CCD Parks) in the maintenance
and modification of existing
paths within the City's off-street
system. In addition, the design
and construction of new paths
shall comply with the standards
described in this text to ensure
consistency throughout the sys-
tem. Any deviations from these
standards shall be subject to
review and approval by the CCD
Parks and Recreation Department
with the advice of the Mayor's
Bicycle Advisory Committee
(MBAC) regarding bicycling
issues.
Bicycle Trail Standards:
Design Considerations
All off-street bicycle facilities
shall be designed with respect to
the following considerations:
User Operating Space Figure I
(AASHTO)shows the physical
dimensions that accommodate a
cyclist's comfortable operating
space. This space measures 40
inches in width and 100 inches in
height.
User Type Profile In addition to
the operating space required by a
38 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


cyclist, consideration must be
given to the ability of the user.
User type profiles were developed
in a 1994 Federal Highway
Administration (FHWA) report.
(See Table I.) Paths should be
designed to accommodate all lev-
els of riders.
Design Speed
The design speed for all geomet-
ries shall be 20 mph (per AASH-
TO).
Horizontal
Minimum horizontal curvature
along the centerline of the path
shall be 90 feet. This minimum
curvature applies where the cross
slope of the path is 2% and the
assumed lean angle of the bicy-
clist is 20 degrees.
At trail intersections, access
ramps, etc, the minimum inside
radius is 20 feet to ensure main-
tenance vehicle accessibility (for
sweeping and snowplowing).
Pavement markings and signs
shall be provided to alert cyclists
to any possible obstructions.
However, stopping sight distance
is an essential design element -
particularly with maintenance
vehicles operating on the trail.
The safety of all users depends on
the ability to respond to and
avoid potential path obstructions.
Per Figure 19 of AASHTO, the
minimum stopping sight distance
for a 20 mph design speed and
5% descending grade is 140 feet.
The AASHTO guide can be used
to determine the required lengths
for other geometric conditions.
It should be emphasized that the
distances in shown in the diagram
are the distances required for one-
way traffic only and are mini-
mums. Every effort should be
made to provide stopping sight
distances greater than the dis-
tances recommended in the dia-
gram. Table 4 of the AASHTO
guide shall be used to determine
Parks & Trails
Downtown trails provide urban bicyclists
great access in Chicago.
Table I. User Type Profiles
User Type Description
A Advanced or experienced riders who are comfortable with on street riding amongst motorized vehicles.
B Basic adult riders who are comfortable riding on low-volume streets, off-street paths, and bike lanes.
C Children, who require an adequate buffer zone or delineated path to ride along.
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 39


Parks & Trails
the minimum lateral clearance
required to maintain the appro-
priate stopping sight distance for
pathside obstructions.
Intersections of off-street paths
and all roadways shall be designed
to comply with the recommenda-
tions set forth in the AASHTO
guide and City & County of
Denver standards.
Vertical
Steep grades can encourage quick
descents and difficult climbs for
an average user. Off-street paths
in Denver must conform to the
accessibility standards set forth
by the Americans with Disabilities
Act (ADA). Therefore, the
absolute maximum longitudinal
grade for off-street paths shall
not exceed 5% for more than 800
feet in length. Maximum grades
of 3% are preferable.
Additionally, the effects of grade
on erosion and drainage must be
addressed. Attention should be
given specifically to areas of rapid
grade changes, where ponding
may be a problem.
The entrance/exit ramps for
shared-use paths shall also comply
with ADA standards. Ramps that
exceed 5% in grade, up to a maxi-
mum 8.3 3%, shall provide 5' long
rest plateaus every 3 01 horizontal
travelled to allow users the oppor-
tunity to rest.
Typical Sections
There are optimal dimensions for
safe operational conditions on
shared-use paths (see pages 40-
49 for typical sections).
Designers must be aware of the
similarities between bicycles and
motor vehicles when accommo-
dating pedestrians. In areas of
heavy pedestrian traffic, specific
lanes should be designated for
each of the uses. Such areas are
designed for two-way travel, but
must include a lane specifically
for walkers, joggers, and other
pedestrians. In the absence of
available space for divided lanes, a
single paved path is acceptable,
provided that standard widths are
used. The minimum width for a
two-directional shared-use path
shall be 8 feet (preferred width is
10 feet). The minimum 8-foot
width also accommodates use by
maintenance and emergency vehi-
cles with reduced risk of edge
break-up.
Paths shall be constructed with a
2% cross slope, which is the maxi-
mum allowed by ADA, with the
40 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


t
ts-
y'
i iy"

The last
remaining
wooden
bridge
across the
Platte River
between
Alameda
and 6th
Avenues.
low point on the pavement on the
downhill side. This slope will
help prevent ponding and ice for-
mation on the path.
A clear zone of 3 feet (2 foot
minimum) graded at 6:1 shall be
provided on each side of the trail.
Within the 3-foot clear zone, a
vertical clearance of 8 feet, 4
inches shall be maintained.
Paved shoulders shall be provided
as zone of recovery for cyclists to
regain their balance in areas where
a maximum sideslope of 6:1 can-
not be accommodated and partic-
ularly in areas where pathside
obstructions are present within
the established clear zone of 3
feet (retaining walls, rocky slopes,
waterways, etc.). This recovery
zone shall be a 3 feet in width (2
foot minimum) and shall be fin-
ished with 3/8-inch tooled joints
on I foot centers to provide a
tactile warning to users that they
have strayed off the path.
The specifications for the pave-
ment structure for multi-use
paths is defined in the attached
typical sections. In general, the
pavement shall be 6 inches in
thickness and placed over a prop-
erly compacted subgrade.
Pavement shall be concrete for all
regional, shared-use paths. Other
pavement types shall be approved
by the CCD Parks and Recreation
Department.
Surface finishes shall address two
primary concerns: the mainte-
nance and durability of the pave-
ment, and the smoothness of the
surface as it relates to comfort
and safety of users. Cracks, verti-
cal offsets and potholes create
safety hazards for the users, and
such surface imperfections also
increase the possibility of damage
due to freeze/thaw cycles. Cracks
and vertical offsets can also catch
the blade of a snow plow, damag-
ing both the blade and the path
surface. Control joints shall be
perpendicular saw cuts 1/8-inch
wide, one quarter depth of slab
on 10 feet centers along the
length of the path. Zip strips
may be used instead of saw cuts.
The surface of the pavement shall
be a broom finish.
Railings shall be used only in
areas where there is great concern
for safety. Railings shall be pro-
vided at any location where the
adjacent drop-off is greater than
30 inches. Areas with a drop-off
of greater than 18 inches or
Parks & Trails
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 41


Parks & Trails
Regional Path
Typical Section
,3.0 (M\n\t_________________1Q 0-12 0'*______________t<3.0'
Clearance
to obstmclion
A
6" Concrete (1)
I with sawn or zip stnp joints
1---Compacted Subgrade
m conemi* Bpecmcaflona for cretin Place Concrete Trail
(.cncrf'.'itfei .....................................^ort
Mririnijn r*." Di'iy <"! Mmmim Cemsntaicus Matrnais .'onterts. ... IC/V
^ruontent... . .....................
Minimum /McrfC'ciriml R;4iu D4^
Ma Majmum sump ihiodiinei 'leceriert!..................f
C'lmiii? Aygrrniki Si* Na )i'M>itiinr Pi ii.mnml 4riT ix ?,
Cimimi>Agc|ri>iMlt! Fire AMrapate'ManrniiTi I eta* Appreciate,'... .iv'%
Tciliil jvn rzirrI or ly itii ;illtxvil>lr hy/.n:ujtl
dTi;i:ntcril plir, fly irfi ,0^.
* Fly Khmayf:lass or Close- F
Fitn&us rsmrcroamert...........................................i.b ipjaj.v
Fitrt'us reinrcroemertto oe virqm coupropyiane
titmiateJ tcara contanng no ctefm materiel?.
Matt* uiver I rail rjorcrete shai re orried ue/is uya voicrow-l
ivmeha l an;- or approved equal, atari acMitocn rata or one pome
jx:i h:*j cifTypr I II PmUWicI l~ I'lriiTil
* Path widUi shall be 12 al eng P?ade R P25 north to City of Cuernavaca Park and along
Cherry Creek
NOTE: ALLWORK SHALL BEADA COMPLIANT
42 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Parks & Trails
Regional Path With Recovery Zone
Typical Section


Recovwy
Zone <2)
2% Cross Slope
6 Concrete {1) witi sawn J
cf zip strip joints
Compacted Subgrade
<11 Cs-^-rtc Ssgc.ficitfonc *'=-Cast P a:c Concrete Trail
C 0i iCfni His...................................................AorB
Mlnrirmn 7.1 Ri.iy ^(iiTi|:c Miniirn.ni CcrnicHHitm:; Miili-iinlM vcjiIit ih, AM lb
Ajr content................................................
Maximum /atercement Redo..................................U.-l-J
M.j> iiriuii i Hump ll litui Pl-n i: inml j 4'
Maximum BJump (Macnire I 'leiernerti......................i-
Coarse Aggregate lBee No.XMBcnne l larement..vjl cri-j,
^lrll'AlJly ictd percent otnvasn aiiowaBs byweigrt
rij1 4i m.1 y Ctl.-ixs C iif Cli-f. T
hibrcus reinrcroerr.ent....................................1.1 IPsj'C.Y.
ntniMJK rciiirircxtlnrfil Itibr lilfAi virgn pKilyix ctj-vylcriu-
titnlBted i&ers cortainno no olefin mat ends._________________________
(2) Recover,1 zones shall be tilted Davis Dye color
1117 (Tile Red) at a rate of three pounds per bag of
Type Ml Portland Cement. Recovery zones shal be
scored to 3J8P depth at 12p or centers.
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 43


Parks & Trails
High Line Canal Path
South of 1-70
CT AsphaS
A" Cvshe* Fnas -
GuiripudtfJ Rjtjyiaijy
44 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Parks & Trails
Two-Way Path Bridge Underpass
Typical Section
150-watt High Pressure Sodium Vapor Wallpack Light Fixtures
with lexan enclosures (2 footcandle min. lighting level)
3.0' M 2.5'
Recovery Curb
Zone
12.0'
Travel Lane
- Bike Path Surface (project specific)
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 45


Parks & Trails
Two-Way Path -- Bridge Underpass
Typical Section
46 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Parks & Trails
Two-Way Path Low Water Crossing
Typical Section
3.0' M 10.0-12.0* n 3.0-
Recovery Recovery
Zone (2) Zone (2)
2% Crossjgope ^
.?>; '4,'
30" allowable max.
without railing

fi" Concrete (11
with sawn or zip strip joints
_ Concrete Bo* Culvert
or Structural Stab
(2) Recovery zones shal be timed Davis Dye color
1117 (Tie Red,i at a rate of tree pounds per bag of
Type HI Portland Cement Recovery zcnes shall be
scored to 3/8" depth at 12* on centers.
11J Concrete Sjhec ificatvonjsjor C*jrt In P l= e Concrete Trail
Ccncrete ............................................Aorfc
Mnimirn L'av'.ornr-rassi'-'e length itierdi... .MJttl psi
Mriiiriini CiifriciiliJiuuii M.tlmnlri Ccirtlnl:. i
AirC Mflomum Werteo'U'sinsnt i-ratiC'.....................D j1Ci
Maumiiiri Sbirii|> |l lirnJ FI ii: Minimum iikirii|) |M*iiinr:- Fliiixitmnll V
.'c^rieApqreceteii'rzeMo ^MacbreVJ. ore-.-.
CiMiiir-Aycjnriyilc (& riiK tyncynlt! ^imfTrt.'il 'Vjyinyiip)
* lotei percent ot ly wfi alienable tv/ja^rt
of current plus n i esti........................jj'&
* l"!y irjtirnny Chv. C Htcous reinroroemert .................................iylt*A.Y
riixiMti inirtriHccmcril In tur 1,T'TI*iii /iyin |xilypiy4mp
fihilhi iM fticr, i nrlisniiri no ulnliii trid iTi.ihi
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 47


Parks & Trails
Two-Way Path Bridge
Typical Section
10.0 (Min.1
Prqect specific design loading(AASHTOH5loading min.)
48 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Parks & Trails
Two-Way Path Tunnel
Typical Section
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 49


Parks & Trails
Pedestrian Walking Path/Garden Path
Typical Section
Com pactcd Subgradc
50 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Parks & Trails
Recreational Loops/Local Parks Paths
Typical Section
6r AsphaH
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 51


Improved
trail
geometry at
the new
Platte River
Trail bridge
at Overland
Pond.
Parks & Trails
sideslopes steeper than 1:1
should be considered for railings.
It should also be noted that rail-
ings can be potential obstructions
for cyclists. Railings shall be
designed so that the vertical posts
are set back from the actual rail-
ing. Also, railings should be
placed near the edge of the clear
zone when possible. If the railing
is to be placed at the edge of the
traveled way, a taper of 9 feet
shall be provided to transition the
railing from the edge of the clear
zone to the edge of traveled way.
Railings shall be a minimum of
42 inches in height.
Drainage
Sideslope treatment shall be 6:1
maximum for 3 feet offset from
the edge of the path.
In general, the high side of the
typical cross section shall incor-
porate an interceptor ditch adja-
cent to the paved trail to divert
the surface runoff before it reach-
es the path pavement. The inter-
ceptor ditch shall be a minimum
of I foot deep. Landscaping or
shoulder treatments shall be fin-
ished at I inch below the edge of
pavement to help prevent ponding
on the path.
Drainage grates and covers
should be placed outside of a
shared-use path (and, when possi-
ble, outside of the clear zone).
Also, the ends of cross-path
drainage structures shall extend
beyond the edge of the clear zone
so as not to present pathside
obstructions.
Structures
The widths of structures
(bridges, etc.) along the trails
should maintain the widths of the
trail segments they are connect-
ing. Overpass structures must be
a minimum of 10 feet in width.
Although the design loads shall
be project specific, the minimum
design shall accommodate a
10,000-pound vehicle (H5 load-
ing factor) to withstand loading
from sweeping and snowplowing
maintenance vehicles. In most
conditions, bridge decks should
be broom-finished concrete.
Underpass structures shall pro-
vide 10 feet of vertical clearance
(8 foot minimum). To route
base flows of drainage and reduce
the formation of algae and ice on
the trail, a 2-inch deep by 6-inch
wide drainage gutter shall be pro-
vided at the low edge of the path
through tunnel structures.
52 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Intersections
Where feasible, grade-separated
intersections shall be provided
where trails cross arterial and col-
lector streets. When an at-grade
intersection must be designed, the
following issues shall be consid-
ered:
Traffic control devices, includ-
ing regulatory, warning and guide
signs shall be installed per the
MUTCD and per the recommen-
dations of AASHTO.
Stopping sight distance shall be
provided per the previous discus-
sion in this report (Horizontal
design section).
Ramps, curb cuts, and refuge
islands shall be provided per City
accessibility standards and
AASHTO recommendations.
Paths adjacent to roadways shall
be set back a minimum of 5 feet
from the back of curb. If the 5
foot set back cannot be achieved,
a barrier or railing shall be
installed to protect users from
vehicular traffic on roadways with
speed limits exceeding 3 5 mph.
Lighting
Lighting for underpasses shall
consist of 150-watt, high-pres-
sure sodium vapor light fixtures
with vandal-resistant lexan enclo-
sures. Lighting level shall be 2
footcandle minimum. To reduce
glare while maximizing illumina-
tion on the trail and reducing
vandalism possibilities, lighting
fixtures shall be overhead-mount-
ed wherever possible. Wall-
mounted lighting is also accept-
able if clearance requirements can-
not be met with overhead-mount-
ed fixtures.
Signing & Striping
All signing and pavement mark-
ings shall follow the specifica-
tions set forth by the MUTCD.
A yellow centerline stripe shall be
provided at all approaches to
underpasses to separate opposing
lanes of traffic. Yellow center-
lines, used to define no-passing
zones, should otherwise be used
sparingly so that, when used, trail
users recognize that there truly is
a trail alignment condition which
requires that all users keep to
their right.
Environmental/Conservation
Issues
Off-street trails are often built
along streamways and other envi-
ronmentally-sensitive corridors.
A 50-foot buffer zone (10 feet
minimum) shall be maintained
between an off-street trail and an
Parks & Trails
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 53


Potential connection to
the Pepsi Center from
the Cherry Creek trail
alongside the new
Central Platte Valley
light rail line beneath the
Speer Boulevard viaduct.
A
TT

T*ny§
44
Parks & Trails
adjacent sensitive conservation
area. Also, trail designers should
follow the guidelines described in
the publication "Planning Trails
with Wildlife in Mind A Hand
book for Trail Planners (Trails
and Wildlife Task Force, Colorado
State Parks, and Hellmund
Associates, September, 1998).
Where possible, native vegetation
should be used to revegetate the
site following construction of
new trails.
Existing Trails Analysis:
The City and County of Denver
Department of Parks and
Recreation is primarily responsi-
ble for the maintenance and
reconstruction of off-street recre-
ational trails within the city lim-
its. As part of the Update, CCD
Parks requested an analysis of the
existing off-street trails for the
purposes of prioritizing future
capital improvement funds.
In 1997, CCD Parks authorized a
study of the existing trail condi-
tions and user counts for the fol-
lowing trails:
- South Platte River Trail
- Cherry Creek Trail
- High Line Canal Trail
- Bear Creek Trail
- Lakewood/Dry Gulch Trail
- Sanderson Gulch Trail
- Weir Gulch Trail
For the Update, additional sur-
veys were collected for the trails
listed below:
- Wagon Trail
- Leewood Lake of Lakes
Trail
- Westwood Trail
- West Harvard Gulch Trail
- East Harvard Gulch Trail
- Clear Creek Trail
- Goldsmith Gulch Trail
Analysis Methodology:
Each of the surveyed trails was
broken down into segments
defined by logical break points
(street crossings, boundaries,
etc.) along the trail. Establishing
categories of significance in the
citywide system allows the Parks
Department to more fairly dis-
tribute resources for maintenance
and capital improvements, recog-
nizing that each trail had a differ-
ent level of importance in the
citywide system. The categories
were established as follows:
Regional Trails essential
routes in the citywide sys-
tem, such as the Cherry
Creek Trail, Platte River
54 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Trail, Bear Creek Trail,
High Line Canal Trail,
and Clear Creek Trail
Minor Trails links to the
regional routes, such as
Lakewood/Dry Gulch,
Sanderson Gulch,
Goldsmith Gulch, Weir
Gulch, West Harvard
Gulch, and East Harvard
Gulch
Neighborhood Trails recre-
ational loops or trails
through a neighborhood,
sometimes linking neigh-
borhood destinations,
such as Wagon Trail, Lake
of Lakes Trail, and
Westwood Trail
Segments were numbered and
evaluated according to seven pri-
mary criteria and eight additional
conditions. The seven primary
criteria are surface condition,
curve radius, sight distance,
recovery zone, drainage, grade,
and fluidity. Scoring based on the
analysis criteria served as an indi-
cation of the condition of each
segment with respect to its overall
safety and user-friendliness.
Recommendations:
The prioritized recommendations
for trail maintenance and
improvements are:
Regional Trails
Sand Creek
High Line Canal through
Green Valley Ranch
Cherry Creek High Line Canal
to 1-225
High Line Canal Leetsdale
Drive to Llorida Avenue
High Line Canal Yosemite
Street to Cherry Creek
High Line Canal Cherry Creek
Trail intersection to Iliff
Avenue (west of Los Verdes
Golf Course), with bridge
replacements
Platte River I 5th Street to 19th
Street (West Side)
Minor Trails
Lakewood Gulch through
Martinez Park to
Tennyson Street
Lakewood/Dry Gulch through
Rude Park
Sanderson Gulch
Weir Gulch
Neighborhood Trails
Wagon Trail west of Saratoga
Place to east of Saratoga
Lake of Lakes Trail
Parks & Trails
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 5 5


Parks & Trails
Cowell Public School to Lakewood
Gulch Connection (2)
Barnum North Park Connection (3)
Westwood Trail (4)
Future Off-Street Trail
Connections:
The bicycle system for the City
of Denver consists primarily of
on-street bicycle routes and off-
street trails. The Parks and
Recreation Department directs
the construction and maintenance
of nearly all the off-street trail
system, coordinating with the
appropriate City agencies. The
off-street trails provide recre-
ational opportunities and supple-
ment the transportation emphasis
of the grid bicycle route system.
Off-street trails provide an invit-
ing place for novice riders and
families to get into the habit of
bicycling. People who bicycle for
recreational purposes are more
likely to, eventually, bicycle for
transportation purposes than peo-
ple that never bicycle at all.
Therefore trails can function as a
host for all levels of recreational
riders.
Throughout the City of Denver,
there are several locations for the
Parks and Recreation Department
to oversee the construction of
off-street trail connections. CCD
Parks can partner with special dis-
tricts or pursue alternate funding
sources for construction and
maintenance of off-street trails.
The project team examined several
sources such as Parks Department
maintenance maps and aerial pho-
tographs and conducted site visits
to determine candidate locations
for off-street trails. The criteria
for placement of off-street trails
included the location of undevel-
oped parcels, drainage corridors
or open space, Parks Department
ownership or maintenance respon-
sibility, and connectivity to exist-
ing trails or public facilities such
as schools, libraries and commu-
nity centers.
The proposed off-street connec-
tions exhibit common characteris-
tics. Many existing drainageways
carry low water volumes in small
channels that do not provide suf-
ficient space (such as the cross-
sectional width, or vertical clear-
ance) for grade-separated street
crossings. As a result these pro-
posed trail connections do not
provide the advantage of complete
separation from automobile traf-
fic. Trail users must cross neigh-
borhood streets at grade, requir-
ing frequent or diagonal cross-
ings. In other locations where
undeveloped parcels and open
space provide space for off-street
connections, trail users still must
cross streets at grade. Where trail
5 6 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Future Off-Street Trail Recommendations
1. Clear Creek connection
2. Cowell Public School connec-
tion to Martinez Park
3. Barnum Park-Weir Gulch con-
nection to the Platte River
Trail
4. Westwood Trail connection to
Huston Lake Park
5. Sanderson Gulch to Platte
River
6. West Harvard Gulch
7. Dartmouth Gulch Park
8. Lake of Lakes Park connection
9. Wagon Trail to Kiping Street
10. Wagon Trail to Belleview
Avenue
11. Quincy Avenue to Lowell
Boulevard and Bear Creek
Trail
12. Cherry Creek Trail to
Washington Park to Buchtel
13. East Harvard Gulch
14. Oneida Street connection to
High Line Canal Trail
15. Hutchinson Park connection to
Holm Public School/Hamilton
Middle School
16. Goldsmith Gulch connection
across Hampden Avenue
17. Goldsmith Gulch to Rosamond
Park
18. Air Force Finance Center
redevelopment
19. Westerly Creek
20. Derby Lateral/High Line Canal
21. High Line Canal north of I-70
22. First Creek
23. Second Creek
24. Pena Boulevard Trail
25. E-470 Trail
26. Bow Mar to Grant Ranch
connection
Parks & Trails
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 57


Future
upgrades are
needed at
Shoemaker
Plaza on the
Platte River
Trail.
Parks & Trails
Lowell Boulevard to Bear Creek Trail
along Quincy Avenue (11)
crossings occur at grade, they
should occur at established inter-
sections and where there is ade-
quate sight distance. Where
future arterials and collectors
cross existing drainageways, the
design should provide adequate
clearance for grade-separation of
bicycles and pedestrians.
Analysis
The Appendix to this document
contains the analysis leading to
the following recommendations.
Recommendations
The recommended connections
are numbered as shown on the
Off-Street Trail Connections map
on page 45. Please note that the
recommendations are unpriori-
tized.
Construct a trail parallel to
Clear Creek (i) to complete the
connection through Denver.
Create a trail connection from
Cowell Public School to
Lakewood Gulch (2) through
the vacant land south of 9th
Avenue at Vrain Street. Create
an off-street trail connection
along Lakewood Gulch to
Martinez Park (2).
Create an off-street trail in
Barnum North Park (3) along
the improved 8 th Avenue.
Extend the Westwood Trail (4)
via the construction an off-
street connection in the utility
easement between Westwood
Park and the current terminus
of the Westwood Trail at
Kentucky Avenue near Raleigh
Street.
Complete the gaps in the
Westwood Trail (4) between
Raleigh Street and Kepner
Middle School. Sign and stripe
an off-street connection through
the parking lot of the Westwood
Library between Lowell
Boulevard and Knox Court
along the Tennessee Avenue
alignment.
Extend the Westwood Trail (4)
east of federal Boulevard by
constructing an off-street con-
nection through the utility ease-
ment along Tennessee Avenue
between federal Boulevard and
Zuni Street. Improve the cross-
ing of federal Boulevard at
Tennessee Avenue. Provide a
connection to Huston Lake Park
from the Westwood Trail
through the alley near Bryant
Street or Alcott Street between
58 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Tennessee Avenue and Kentucky
Avenue.
The Sanderson Gulch (5) con-
nection on the north side of
Florida Avenue, while still a very
viable option, is not a high pri-
ority due to the existing off-
street connection on the south
side of Florida Avenue (Route
D-I8). If redevelopment of the
north side of Florida Avenue
takes place, a new connection
should then be established to
enhance the access along this
corridor.
The West Harvard Gulch (6)
connection is included in the
Major Missing Links section of
the DBMPU (see pages 20-36).
Dartmouth Gulch (7) was con-
sidered to be very low on the
priority list because there is cur-
rently no through-connection
that can be identified. An inves-
tigation of the property owner-
ship along the ditch to Decatur
Street may help to identify a
way to link Dartmouth Avenue
to College View Elementary
School along Decatur Street.
Improve the existing trail in
Lake of Lakes Park (8) as part
of a loop around Little Lake
Fdenry. Ensure the completion
of the trail around Little Lake
Fdenry and the on-street connec-
tion on Balsam Way.
Monitor the development of the
farm property between Kipling
Street and Garrison Street Park
south of Stanford Avenue.
When the owner seeks to devel-
op this property, pursue the
acquisition of right-of-way or
procure an easement to extend
Wagon Trail west to Kipling
Street (9).
Construct an off-street trail
along the drainage corridor con-
necting Wagon Trail to
Belleview Avenue (IO).
CCD Parks and Public Works
should coordinate with the City
of Sheridan and the Colorado
Mental Fdealth Institute at Fort
Logan to construct a planned
bikeway that connects Lowell
Boulevard to the Bear Creek
Trail along Quincy Avenue
(II).
Provide a connection from
Washington Park (12) through
the South Fdigh School/All City
Stadium properties if the pro-
Parks & Trails
Oneida Street (14) and Goldsmith Gulch to
Rosamond Park (17)
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 59


Parks & Trails
Hutchinson East Park (15) and Goldsmith
Gulch to Hutchinson Park (16)
Air Force Finance Center (18)
posed pedestrian/bicycle bridge
is built across 1-25 at High
Street. If this bridge is built,
construct an off-street trail
from route D-l8 adjacent to
Iowa Avenue and Vine Street
through Veterans Park to con-
nect with the University light
rail station.
Install signage to direct trail
users from the end of the East
Harvard Gulch Trail (13) at
Ogden Street along the north-
ern side of Harvard Avenue to
the signalized crossing at
Downing Street where the
Harvard Gulch Trail begins
again.
Construct an off-street trail
linking Oneida Street (14)
south of Evans Avenue to the
High Line Canal Trail.
Construct an off-street connec-
tion through Hutchinson East
Park (15) between Tamarac
Street and Holm Public
School/Hamilton Middle
School.
Monitor the redevelopment of
the retail centers north and
south of Hampden Avenue
along the Goldsmith Gulch cor-
ridor. Use the future redevelop-
ment as an opportunity to
improve the Goldsmith Gulch
trail connection, eventually con-
structing a grade-separated
crossing at Hampden Avenue.
Extend the Goldsmith Gulch
trail north to Hutchinson Park
and south to Rosamond Park
(16, 17). Construct grade-sep-
arated crossings at Rosemary
Way and Mansfield Avenue.
Investigate off-street connection
possibilities through Air Force
Finance Center (l8) redevelop-
ment.
Improve the connection between
the Lowry and Stapleton rede-
velopment areas via the existing
on-street bicycle routes on
Syracuse Street (Route D-I9)
and Yosemite Street (Route D-
21). Coordinate the connec-
tions between these routes and
the Westerly Creek Trails (19)
in Lowry and Stapleton.
Westerly Creek Trails (19)
60 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Coordinate trail construction of
the Derby Lateral (20) along
this City-owned right-of-way.
Coordinate right-of-way preser-
vation and trail construction of
High Line Canal north of 1-70
(21). Provide a safe crossing
where the High Line Canal Trail
crosses 48th Avenue at Picadilly
Road.
Encourage the E-470 Authority
to construct the E-470
Recreational Trail (25) in the
land acquired for the highway
right-of-way.
Pursue the trail connections
from Bow Mar to Grant Ranch
(26) south of Marston Lake,
with a crusher fine trail through
Mary's Meadow.
Parks & Trails
Preserve the right-of-way along
the First Creek (22) drainage
corridor. Coordinate construc-
tion of the trail through the
Gateway area. Coordinate right-
of-way preservation and trail
construction with City agencies,
local developers and property
owners.
Preserve the right-of-way along
the Second Creek (23) drainage
corridor. Construct these trails
through the Gateway area.
Coordinate right-of-way preser-
vation and trail construction
with City agencies, local devel-
opers and property owners.
Construct the recreational trail
to the north and west of Pena
Boulevard (24) to connect the
First Creek Trail to the Second
Creek Trail, the E-470 Trail and
Denver International Airport.
Derby Lateral (20), High Line Canal North of 1-70 (21), First Creek (22), Second Creek (23),
Pena Boulevard (24), and E-470 Recreational Trail (25) Connections
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 61


A favorable
setback from
traffic
reduces user
concerns on
this portion
of the First
Avenue
sidewalk
used by the
Cherry
Creek Trail.
Recreational Bicycling
Family Bicycle Loops
Recommendations
- Designate family bicycle loops to
encourage recreational riding.
Place directional signage along
the loop routes.
Family Bicycle Loops
Although bicycle loops exist with-
in Cheesman, Sloan Lake, and
City Parks, other routes may be
possible. By creating loops
which incorporate existing off-
street trails with designated on-
street trails, possibilities for fami-
ly/recreational loops can be found
in most areas of the city. The
following list describes loops that
follow the above suggested sce-
nario:
1. Bear Creek Loop: Bear
Creek Trail to Raleigh
Street (D-l) to Yale
Avenue (D-20) to Lamar
Street (Bear Valley neigh-
borhood route).
2. West Harvard Gulch
Loop: West Harvard
Gulch Trail (D-20) to
Zuni Street (D-5) to
Sanderson Gulch Trail
(D-l8) to Irving Street
(D-3).
3. Sanderson Gulch Loop:
Sanderson Gulch (D-l8)
to Irving Street (D-3) to
Westwood Trail to
Raleigh Street (D-l).
4. Cheesman Park Loop:
Cheesman Park Loop (D-
11) to 12th Avenue (D-
10) to Sherman Street
(D-9) to 7th Avenue (D-
12) to Williams Street
(Cheesman Park/D-Il).
5. Washington Park Loop:
Washington Park Loop
(D-Il) to Exposition
Avenue/Bonnie Brae
Boulevard (D-I6) to
Steele Street (D-I3) to
Florida/Race/Louisiana
(D-18).
6. Bible Park Loop: High
Line Canal to
Yale/Oneida (D-I7) to
Iliff Avenue (D-20) to
Holly and High Line
Canal.
7. High Line Canal Loop:
High Line Canal (D-l8)
to Cherry Creek
Trail/Cherry Creek Drive
South (D-I9) to Florida
Avenue (D-l8).
62 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Bicycle Racing
Bicycle racing emerged as an issue
in the Update because racers and
fitness riders wanted a place they
could train. Users of the off-
street trail system also stated this
as an issue because of the poten-
tial conflicts on the trails between
higher speed bicyclists and slower
speed pedestrians, joggers, and
recreational bicyclists.
Definition
This section refers to bicycle
racing as a competition or train-
ing for a competition. Racers
want to ride at a continuous pace
for a length of time without
interruption or undue impedi-
ment. Bicycle racing comes in
many forms including road bike
racing, mountain bike racing,
BMX (Bicycle Moto Cross)
racing, track racing in a velo-
drome, and hand bike racing for
disabled athletes.
Desirable Venues
For bicycle racing and training,
roads with low to medium levels
of traffic and few stop signs or
traffic signals are preferable. On
streets with speed limits from 25
to 30 MPH, racers are traveling
at speeds similar to vehicle traffic.
The road should have a wide curb
lane, shoulder, or bike lane, or be
low speed and volume. Low vol-
umes of turning traffic character-
ize favorable training routes.
Often, routes with traffic calming
devices such as chokers, chicanes,
and traffic circles deter bicycle
racers from using them.
In general, streets that are better
for bicycle race training are essen-
tially those in the Denver on-
street bicycle route system The
trail system in Denver is appeal-
ing for training because it is con-
tinuous with few stop signs or
traffic signals, has no vehicular
traffic, and has well maintained
surfaces. However, the use of
trails for training should be dis-
couraged because the bicyclists
become to pedestrians what
motorists are to bicyclists on the
street: vehicles moving at a much
higher rate of speed in the same
travel area.
The best areas for racers to ride
exist outside the City and County
of Denver in more suburban/rural
locations where traffic volumes
are lower and there are few traffic
signals to interrupt training. One
area in Denver where these condi-
tions exist is in the northeast. As
development occurs in this area,
Recreational Bicycling
Mountain Biking at Corona Pass looking
west towards Winter Park.
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 63


Many
weekend
recreational
bicyclists
could
become
weekday
urban
cyclists.
Recreational Bicycling
The where is the most diffi-
cult part; to find a good velo-
drome at altitude. I want to do
it (World Hour Record) one
time, do it well and never do it
again. But its hard to find a
fast indoor velodrome at alti-
tude. One thing weve talked
about is to build a track in
America. It should be at about
6,000 feet altitude.
- Lance Armstrong, Tour De France win-
ner in 1999, 2000, and 2001 expressing
an interest in a velodrome around 6,000
feet above sea level in America
World Mountain Bike
Championships at Vail.
the desirability of the routes for
training will decrease without
careful planning and considera-
tion.
Competitive Bicycling
Road racing has several forms.
Criterium racing involves racing
around a short circuit as small as
3 or 4 city blocks for a specified
amount of time or number of
laps. This type of racing requires
total road closures and strict traf-
fic control to protect the racers
from collisions with vehicles.
Time trials involve racing from
one point to another and general-
ly require long sections of road
that at a minimum are closed to
motorists travelling in the same
direction. Street sprinting is a
type of road race and typically
takes place on a closed road that
is one to four blocks long.
Track bicyclists ride fixed gear
bikes, which require that they
pedal anytime that the bicycle is
in motion. Track racing takes
place in a velodrome a short oval
of racing surface with steeply
banked curves to allow for speeds
in excess of 3 5 MPH. A good
example is the velodrome in
Colorado Springs where the
Olympic team trains and others
race on a weekly basis. There has
been some interest in creating a
velodrome within the City of
Denver, with specific opportuni-
ties in the Stapleton or Prospect
redevelopment areas.
Mountain bike racing comes in
several forms, including point-to-
point cross-country racing and
downhill racing. BMX racing and
training requires a separate BMX
track made of dirt with jumps
and other terrain features.
Denver could combine a BMX
facility with a circuit mountain
bike racing facility and even a
velodrome on a relatively limited
amount of land.
Obtaining Race Permits
The process of obtaining permis-
sion from the City and County of
Denver to hold a bicycle race is
difficult and the criteria are not
well defined. The only bicycle
races held regularly in the City of
Denver are the City Park
Criterium and the Bannock Street
Criterium, with the 2001 season
featuring a street sprint race in
Lower Downtown. General
guidelines would help applicants
negotiate the process more effec-
tively and help to further develop
Denver as a racing venue.
64 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Development of Bicycle Racing
Participation:
Overall, there is a large untapped
potential in further developing
the sport of bicycle racing in
Denver. Many professional bicy-
cle racers choose to live in
Colorado. While schools and
recreation centers generally offer
training and facilities for a variety
of other sports, allowing candi-
date athletes to find a sport at
which they can excel, bicycle rac-
ing does not have a corresponding
level of promotion.
Recreational Bicycling
Bicycle Racing
Recommendations
- Continue to improve mainte-
nance such as pavement
defects and sweeping for the
on-street route system. Install
signage for all routes. Ensure
safe conditions for bicyclists if
traffic calming measures are
installed on the bicycle route
system streets.
- Investigate possible locations
for a BMX/Velodrome/Mountain
Bike Circuit facility in vacant or
redeveloping areas within the
city.
- Plan bicycle racing and training
routes in Denver. Develop gen-
eral guidelines for acceptable
street closures for bicycle races.
- Encourage the development of
new bicycle racers via the jun-
iors, seniors and citizens cate-
gories of bike racing.
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 65


A new
bike/pedes-
trian bridge
on the lliff
Ave. align-
ment would
connect the
Platte River
Trail to the
Light Rail
Station at
Evans Ave.
Transit Access and
Accommodations
&
Light rail and trail bridge in Calgary. Good
planning resulted in accommodating both
light rail and trail users.
Overview;
The Regional Transportation
District (RTD) is the Denver
metropolitan areas local mass
transit provider. RTD under-
stands that one of its great
opportunities is the bicycle /
pedestrian element, since these
patrons have already begun their
trip without the use of their
automobile and therefore could
rely on transit more than those
commuters who began their trip
in their personal automobile.
Although the Citys Bicycle
Master Plan Update process is a
separate effort from RTDs bicy-
cle planning, the two must work
in unison to facilitate a modal
shift.
In the 1993 DBMP there were
several issues that related to tran-
sit, transit stations, and RTD in
general. The Plan stated the fol-
lowing regarding light rail:
RTD- Light Rail Line:
Develop safe bicycle access
to, and parking at light
rail stations. (Ongoing)
Explore the possibility of
accommodating bicycles
on trains. (Ongoing)
Future improvements
could be made, including
rolling stock that will
carry bikes without creat-
ing vestibule conflicts.
While the T-REX exten-
sion will continue to
operate with high-floor
vehicles, future light rail
vehicle purchases could be
low-floor models (that
include folding seats as
well as suspension hooks
from the ceiling.)
Provide lockers and racks for
long-term parking at
intercept stations at the
transit stations.
(Ongoing)
Provide directional informa-
tion, including bicycle
route information, to
major civic attractions.
(Ongoing)
In the downtown area, reduce
bicycle hazards at non-
perpendicular bicycle
crossings of light rail
tracks through use of
warning signs. (Ong oing.
Future rail stations
should make necessary rail
crossings as smooth as
possible for both pedes-
66 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


trians and bicyclists.)
Many of these issues have been
implemented as part of the light
rail station construction and sta-
tion upgrades, but this must be
an ongoing process.
Bicycle Connections to RTD
Facilities
Bike access to transit facilities is a
key component of RTDs future
development. As RTDs service
increases within neighborhoods,
there is an opportunity to
increase non-motorized trips to
transit stations and local bus
stops. The full value of these
transit services will not be real-
ized without bicycle and pedestri-
an friendly connections around
new and existing transit stops.
Established in 1998, RTDs Bike
on Bus program provides bus-
mounted bike racks to serve the
bicyclist market, which increase
the distance that bicyclists can
travel. Today RTDs bike racks
can carry two bikes on every RTD
Local, Limited, Express, and
Regional bus. RTD estimates
that their buses carry more than
500,000 bikes a year or about
1.4% of all summer weekday bus
boardings.
Because of the location of the
light rail stations and park-n-
Rides along major arterials and
railroad corridors, bicycle access
can be difficult. RTD has built
pedestrian bridges/underpasses at
the Westminster park-n-Ride, the
Mineral Avenue Light Rail
Station and the Thornton park-n-
Ride. Bike/pedestrian bridges
were initially requested and con-
sidered for several T-REX
Stations but due to financial con-
straints were not included in the
final alternative. The Nine-Mile
Station at 1-225 and Parker Road
is currently the only proposed
location for a pedestrian/bicycle
underpass in the entire T-REX
project area.
Several important connections are
missing in the Citys bicycle grid
route system which are also bicy-
cle and pedestrian connections to
light rail stations (as defined by
both the City of Denvers Bicycle
Master Plan as well as by RTD).
These include the following:
The Broadway Station from
the Platte River trail and
from Washington
Park/West Washington
Park neighborhoods: A
Transit Access and
Accommodations
Bicyclists must obtain an RTD Bike Permit
to bring their bikes on board the light rail
vehicles.
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 67


Transit Access and
Accommodations
The constuction of the Central Platte
Valley light rail tracks leaves space
for a bicycle connection under
the Speer viduct to reach the Pepsi Center
from the Cherry Creek Trail
bicycle/pedestrian bridge
at East Ohio Avenue
across Lincoln Street and
Broadway, or at East
Mississippi Avenue across
1-25 should be construct-
ed to connect to and from
the east. From the west, a
connection on Acoma
Street parallel to the light
rail tracks, between the
existing buildings to the
east and the tracks could
provide direct bicycle
access to the station;
access across or under the
light rail tracks is neces-
sary just south of the sta-
tion. Station area rede-
velopment plans should
include a bicycle/pedestri-
an bridge to carry people
over the BNSF and UP
railroad tracks and con-
nect with the Platte River
Trail adjacent to
Vanderbilt Park and the
West Mississippi Avenue
commercial district.
The Evans Avenue Station
from the Platte River
Trail and Overland neigh-
borhood: A new
bicycle/pedestrian bridge
across Santa Fe Drive on
the Iliff Avenue or Warren
Avenue alignments should
be built to connect
Overland neighborhood
residents to the Evans
Avenue Station.
Additionally, this bridge
would connect residents
from the Rosedale,
University and University
Park neighborhoods to
the Platte River Trail.
Overall, this bridge would
resolve a major missing
link in bike route D-20.
The Colorado Center from
the Virginia Vale neigh-
borhood: A new
bicycle/pedestrian bridge
crossing 1-25 on the
Bellaire Street alignment
should be built, as dis-
cussed in the major miss-
ing links section.
Connection to the south
would require upgrading
the existing traffic signal
at Evans and Birch to a
four-way signal with bicy-
cle detection.
T-REX Construction Bicycle
Strategies
Bike access to transit is a compo-
nent of the T-REX project that
68 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


needs to be resolved in the long
term. In the near term, the
immediate issue is how to accom-
modate bicyclists throughout the
area during construction. The T-
REX team is currently developing
the construction phasing plans
for the project. The Southeast
Corridor EIS: Bicycle and
Pedestrian Plan (which was pre-
pared prior to the project being
renamed as the T-REX project)
acknowledges that during con-
struction, there will be street clo-
sures and detours, particularly
between Logan Street and Evans
Avenue where bridges will be
replaced.
With the phasing plans in place, a
major emphasis will be handling
emergency vehicles that must tra-
verse 1-25 in a timely manner.
This will be a great benefit for
bicycle connections, as two nearby
bridges will likely remain open at
any one time and no two adjacent
bridges will likely be replaced
concurrently. The Southeast
Corridor EIS: Bicycle and
Pedestrian Plan suggests that
detours during construction
should be well marked and as
much advance notice as possible
should be given to insure the
safety of both bicyclists and
motorists. More importantly, a
detour plan must be laid out that
will ensure that bicyclists do not
have to travel a great distance out
of their way to cross over 1-25.
Northern Portion of 1-25:
The northern segment
which stretches from
Broadway to University
Boulevard is depressed for
much of its length with
bike route D-9 crossing
on Logan Street and bike
routes D-II and D-l8
crossing on Franklin
Street (both of which are
non-interchange bridges).
This section of the 1-25
corridor will be the great-
est challenge during con-
struction due to the many
bridge structures that
must be replaced within a
very short distance. Two
adjoining bridges should
remain open at any one
time and no two adjacent
bridges should be replaced
concurrently. The possi-
bility of a phased demoli-
tion of the Franklin
Street bridge should be
considered (correspon-
ding to the phased demo-
lition of the Steele/St.
Transit Access and
Accommodations
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 69


Transit Access and
Accommodations
Bicyclists and light rail share the road in
Basel, Switzerland.
Paul Street bridge).
Advance warning signage
along the route should
extend well beyond the
construction area to give
bicyclists ample warning
of the detour around the
construction areas.
Central Portion of 1-25: The
central portion of the
corridor, which stretches
from University
Boulevard to Evans
Avenue, has only bike
route D-I3 that crosses
1-25 at Steele Street (a
non-interchange bridge).
The phased demolition of
the Steele/St. Paul Street
Bridge resolves the need
for any bicycle and pedes-
trian detour.
Southern Portion of 1-25
(including 1-225): The
southern portion of the
corridor has a suburban
character, as highway exits
and the associated over-
passes and underpasses
are generally spaced at
least a mile apart. This
portion includes the pro-
posed bicycle/pedestrian
bridge connection adja-
cent to Iliff Avenue and
Dahlia Street for routes
D-I 5 and D-20, the
High Line Canal Trail
underpass between the
Yale Avenue and
Hampden Avenue inter-
changes, and bike route
D-22 crossing at Quincy
Avenue (a non-inter-
change bridge).
Recommended Details:
The following temporary detours
should be used during construc-
tion of the T-REX project:
High Line Canal Underpass:
During construction, the
Yale Avenue interchange
should be used as the
temporary detour to cross
1-25 when the High Line
Canal Underpass is recon-
structed.
Quincy Avenue (Route D-
22): The likeliest detour
will be via Monaco Street,
Union Avenue and
Quebec Street. Bicyclists
who feel comfortable
using Happy Canyon
Road and Quincy Avenue
under current conditions
70 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


may not be willing to use
this detour route. As part
of the detour, signage
should be installed to
remind motorists to
Share the Road.
Quebec Street (Route D-
17): Quebec Street is the
best link to the Denver
Tech Center but Yosemite
also offers very good
access. The Yosemite and
Quebec Street Bridges
should not be replaced
concurrently.
Yosemite Street (Route D-
19) .* The Yosemite and
Quebec Street Bridges
should not be replaced
concurrently.
Goldsmith Gulch Trail: The
Goldsmith trail provides
access to the Denver Tech
Center and should serve
as an alternate route if
both Quebec and
Yosemite Street bridges
are reconstructed concur-
rently.
Light Rail / Bicycle
Accommodations
Currently, 24 cities in North
America have light rail systems,
including eighteen in the United
States. Each light rail system has
its own rules to accommodate
bicycles on trains. Because of
high passenger volumes on light
rail vehicles, in many cases bicycle
access to trains is secondary to
function and efficiency for other
users.
RTD rules permit two bicycles
per train. Originally, RTD
allowed bicycles on trains only
during off-peak times; it now also
allows bicycles on light rail vehi-
cles during the peak period, but
only in the reverse peak direction.
This should be revisited when
service along 1-25 begins in 2008,
especially if the reverse commute
to the Denver Tech Center
becomes significant, as is current-
ly the case with automobile traf-
fic.
Bike Racks on Light Rail Vehicles
RTD should consider installing
bike racks inside the current fleet
of light rail vehicles. Future light
rail vehicle procurements should
be low-floor models (like those in
Portland) that are equipped with
Transit Access and
Accommodations
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 71


Transit Access and
Accommodations
folding seats and ceiling suspen-
sion hooks in designated areas.
These modifications will benefit
multiple users, as passengers with
baby strollers or other larger
items will be able to fit them
more easily on the light rail vehi-
cles, as well as for bicyclists.
Currently, bicyclists must carry
their bicycles up the stairs, then
stand and hold their bicycles in
the vestibules at the end of cars.
Bicycles are not allowed in the
front vestibule of the train near
the driver. This creates conflicts
with other passengers who need
to pass through the vestibules
when entering and exiting the
light rail vehicle. Additionally,
RTD requires bicyclists to carry a
permit while riding on light rail
with their bicycles. These per-
mits are available for free at sever-
al locations as well as on the
RTD website:
www.RTD-Denver.com.
Signage
Signage should be placed around
all existing and future light rail
stations and park-n-Ride facili-
ties. The signage should be con-
sistent with existing directional
signage. These signs should be
placed in locations that make
them obvious to bicyclists and
pedestrians, as well as to
motorists. Currently the signage
that defines connections to the
bike route and trail system is
poor or non-existent at many sta-
tions.
Extensive work is needed to bet-
ter connect light rail stations and
park-n-Ride facilities with the
Citys bicycle route and trail sys-
tem. For on-street routes, sig-
nage should be placed so that
motorists can see it to increase
their awareness of the likely pres-
ence of bicyclists. Signage assem-
blies with station name destina-
tion plaques included can also act
as a marketing device to encour-
age and facilitate a modal shift
from driving to bicycling and
transit.
Parking
Bicycle parking at light rail sta-
tions, park-n-Rides and bus stops
has become a central element of
RTDs bike plan since many
bike/transit passengers do not
need their bike at their final des-
tination. For these passengers,
safe and convenient bike parking
is needed at their origin light rail
station, park-n-Ride or bus stop.
RTD has offered bike racks at
72 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Transit Access and
Accommodations
The location of RTD Park-n-Rides in relation to the grid routes.
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 73


Transit Access and
Accommodations
most park-n-Rides since the
I98os, and bike lockers at vari-
ous locations since the I990's.
RTDs bike plan categorizes bike
parking into two tiers of security:
Tier I includes bike racks and
bike lockers, and Tier 2 includes
Bike Corrals and Bikestations.
RTD currently has approximately
500 Inverted U type bike racks
located at 76 different locations
throughout the District. There
are also more than 500 bike lock-
ers available at 42 park-n-Rides
and Stations district wide.
Bikestations
Bike Corrals or Bikestations are
two innovative approaches to park
a large number of bikes common-
ly used in Europe, Japan, and
California. A Bike Corral is a
fully secured enclosure that is
designed to offer access to a lim-
ited number of people via a
smart card (or electronic card
key). Bikes can be secured on the
inside with the use of individual
locks for added security.
Bikestations, first developed in
Long Beach in 1996, are staffed
facilities that offer services and
amenities such as bicycle parking,
bicycle repair, bicycle rentals,
bicycle accessories, restrooms,
changing facilities and snack bars.
RTD has approved the construc-
tion of a Bikestation at Union
Station (DUT), and is consider-
ing additional facilities in Boulder
and Cherry Creek North. The
Union Station Bikestation (also
referred to as The Hub) is cur-
rently programmed and budgeted
for an anticipated opening date of
2003. The Hub will include bike
parking, bike repair, bike rentals, a
commuter store, and alternative
modes information. Additional
services such as showers and lock-
ers, food vendors and a patio
seating area, electric vehicles, and
ski rentals may be included.
A second Bikestation is envi-
sioned for the Boulder Terminal
at 14th and Walnut in downtown
Boulder. Transportation
Solutions, the TMA for the
Cherry Creek area is sponsoring
the Cherry Creek North
Bikestation, scheduled to open in
2002. Several other locations for
Bikestations have also been identi-
fied, including the University
Boulevard station, the Colorado
Center light rail station, and the
Broadway and 1-25 light rail sta-
tion/park-n-ride. Outside of
Denver, the Mineral Avenue
74 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Station is a good candidate also.
Bikestation use should be moni-
tored and if patronage is signifi-
cant, others should be implement-
ed especially as the future light
rail stations along the T-REX
project are constructed. These
Bikestations should be a joint
venture between the City of
Denver, RTD, developers, and the
local business community.
Transit Access and
Accommodations
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 75


Advocacy
Share the Road signage alerts motorists
to the likely presence of bicyclists and
encourages cooperation between modes.
Denver is a great city for bicy-
cling due to the moderate year-
round climate and efforts made
by city staff and the Mayors
Bicycle Advisory Committee
(MBAC) over the past 10 years.
This is a critical and exciting time
for bicycling in Denver the
ground work has been done, now
is the time to expand and pro-
mote bicycling in Denver as a
viable, safe and convenient mode
of transportation for the 21st
Century.
In 1993 the Denver Bicycle
Master Plan (DBMP) noted, that
there was no organized entity
that serves as the voice of the
bicycle community in Denver.
At that time the MBAC, estab-
lished in 1990, had begun to fill
this advocacy role. The recom-
mendations of the DBMP were
to:
Further strengthen the
role of MBAC
Encourage more public
inclusion in the process
Create and distribute a
newsletter
The MBAC continues to work
with the citys bicycle planner and
various city departments and city
officials to review systemic and
programmatic bicycle improve-
ments. Other bicycle groups exist
in Denver but are social in nature,
primarily focused on recreational
riding. As the Update process
began, there was not a bicycle
group in Denver actively involved
in bicycle advocacy.
Advocacy in Other Municipalities
Bicycle advocacy groups are active
in other municipalities within the
United States. Some exemplary
groups include the Cascade Club
in Seattle, WA; Bicycle
Transportation Alliance, Portland,
OR; Washington Area Bicycle
Association, Washington, D.C.,
the San Francisco Bicycle
Coalition; and Transportation
Alternatives in New York City.
(See Appendix for additional
information.)
Strategy to Increase Advocacy
Efforts in Denver
The public meetings held during
the Update process were opportu-
nities for local bicyclists to sign
up as participants in advocacy
efforts. The excitement level for
advocacy efforts at both public
meetings was higher than expect-
ed, with more than 50% of the
attendees at the first public meet-
ing signing up, and an additional
76 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


20% of attendees at the second
public meeting. The advocates
indicated their areas of interest,
resulting in the formation of five
groups:
- Access
- Communication/PR/Safety
- Events
- Education
- Youth
The advocates held an open-house
meeting and organized themselves
as Bike Denver. They continue to
meet on a regular basis and have
already proven to be critical in the
process of RTD Board approval
of the Bikestation funding.
www.bikedenver.org
BikeDenver recently organized
to give bicyclists in Denver
a unified voice.
Advocacy
Advocacy Recommendations and Next Steps:
An organized advocacy group should spur increased inter-
est and participation by the bicycling community and other
alternative transportation mode commuters to make bicy-
cling in Denver a safe, convenient, desirable and healthy
mode of transportation.
-The advocacy group should actively advocate and sup-
port bicycle/alternative transportation plans in the Denver
metro-area, such as the recommendations of this Update
and other plans.
-The advocacy group should not be an extension of the
MBAC, the City & County of Denver, or any other local
government. The group should function independently.
Ideally, BikeDenver should define and champion:
- Collaborative program development
- Potential bicycle/alternative transportation day promo-
tions
- Education efforts, such as collaborative efforts with the
Denver Public Schools and the Cycle Safety Circus for
Kids
- An action plan for public/private promotions of
bicycling/alternative modes
- Public and private funding roles and opportunities
The City & County of Denver and MBAC as well as other
metro-area local governments should work collectively
with the advocacy group to foster and develop programs,
coordinate planning efforts and support alternative trans-
portation in general.
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 77


Grid Route System
GOAL: Identify the next round of priorities for expanding the grid
and neighborhood route system.
Responsibility
Public Works
Task Target Date
Complete signage on 2002
D-5 and D-22. Sign
the central portions of
routes D-I6 and D-20.
Implementation
Public Works Sign D-3 and D-7. 200 3
Public Works Seek funding to complete 2004-2012
signage of the rest of the
route system.
Public Works
Public Works
Seek opportunities to Ongoing
work with neighborhoods
to identify and sign
neighborhood bike routes.
Work with maintenance to Ongoing
improve checks for
vandalism, fading, and
other sign improvements.
Downtown Bicycling
GOAL: Make Downtown Denver bicycle friendly.
Responsibility
Public Works
Public Works
Task Target Date
Create a system of Summer 2002
Downtown bicycle lanes.
Propose changes to the Summer 2002
I 6th Street Mall ordinance.
Public Works Propose bicycle messenger Fall 2002
and pedal cab ordinance to
regulate, promote, and
formalize these services.
Public Works Work with the Denver Police Winter 2002
Department to increase
enforcement of existing and
secure city council approval of
proposed, new bicycle-related ordinances.
78 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Major Missing Links
GOAL: Close the gaps in the existing bicycle routes to complete the
bicycle grid route system.
Responsibility
City
City
Task
Pursue the necessary
funding to implement
the projects identified
in the Major Missing
Links section.
Target Date
1-2 projects/year
Seek opportunities to 1-2 projects/year
eliminate major missing
links as part of other
projects.
Implementation
Parks & Trails
GOAL: To enhance a system of off-street, multi-use trails to allow
users of all types an opportunity to recreate and commute safely with-
out the worries of riding with motorized vehicle traffic.
Responsibility Task Target Dates
Parks and Communicate Ongoing
Recreation regularly with Public Works and the MBAC
about upcoming projects and funding
opportunities
Public Works Seek funding and partnership opportunities with parks and private developers to establish these parks connections Ongoing
Recreational Bicycling
GOAL: Increase opportunities for recreational bicycling.
The City of Denver has installed
thousands of bike racks.
Responsibility
Bicycle Racing
Community
Bicycle Racing
Community
Task
Target Date
Implement training program Ongoing
to attract new racers.
Solicit funding for race Ong oing
events, training facilities and
velodrome.
Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 79


Implementation
Transit Access and Accommodations
GOAL: Make bicycle and transit travel work in a seamless manner.
Responsibility Task Target Date
Public Works Implement the identified bicycle routes to the Broadway, Evans and Colorado Center stations. 2002-2006
Public Works Coordinate with CDOT to ensure continuous bicycle access during Southeast Corridor T-REX construction. Continuous 2002-2007
Public Works Support RTD policy changes and Bikestations As opportunities arise
RTD Implement the recommendations to improve the accommodation of bicycles on new and existing light rail vehicles and at transit facilities. 2007
Advocacy
GOAL: Organize bicycle enthusiasts to promote bicycling in Denver.
Responsibility Task Target Date
Mayors Bicycle Advisory Committee Coordinate the activities of bicycle groups towards achieving common goals. Ongoing
Advocacy Group Form an independent advocacy group from the bicycle community to promote bicycling in Denver. Winter 2001
80 Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001


Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001 81


Full Text

PAGE 1

Mayor Wellington E. Webb

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 2 BRW/URS CORPFINALDRAFTMARCH2002 Presented to the City & County of Denver Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update 2001

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3DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 MA Y O R’SBI C Y C L EAD V I S O R YCO M M I T T E EME M B E R SMichael Allen Chad Anderson Will Anderson Shayne Brady Bruce Blank Kate Clark Fred Criswell Matt Duncan Kent Epperson Robert Gonzales Tracy Halasinski Robin Hunt Chair Mike Kinsey Rob Merritt Bob Montoya Cynthia Nagel Alan Nakamura Ben Ortiz Barbara Pearson Bob Shedd Neil Sperandeo Diane Thiel Don Thompson Mitch Westall CI T Y A N DCO U N T Y O FDE N V E RWellington E.Webb,Mayor,City and County ofDenver CO U N C I LME M B E R SDennis Gallagher:District 1 T.J.“Ted”Hackworth:District 2 Ramona Martinez:District 3 Joyce Foster:District 4 Polly Flobeck:District 5 Charlie Brown:District 6 Kathleen MacKenzie:District 7 Elbra Wedgeworth:District 8 Deborah L.Ortega:District 9 Ed Thomas:District 10 Allegra “Happy”Haynes:District 11 Cathy Reynolds:Council-at-Large Susan Barnes-Gelt:Council-at-Large CI T YST A F FStephanie Foote Manager ofPublic Works James Mejia Manager ofParks James Mackay,Denver Bike Planner Jason Longsdorf,Public Works Dick Gannon,Parks and Recreation Jennifer Moulton,Community Planning and Development Rob Deering,Public Works Janell Flaig,Community Planning and Development Emily Gloeckner,Public Works Robert A.Kochevar,Public Works Brian Mitchell,Public Works CJ Musman,Parking Management Mark Najarian,Public Works Terry Rosapep,Public Works PL A N N I N GBO A R DWilliam H.Hornby Chair Jan Marie Belle Frederick Corn Pat Cortez Michael Dino Daniel Guimond Vice Chair Mark Johnson Herman Malone Joyce Oberfield Bruce O'Donnell Dr.Robert Wright PA R K SAD V I S O R YBO A R DTim Celesta,Pres. Florence Navarro,V.Pres. Samuel Batey William Bessessen Acknowledgements Karla Breitenstein JeffDawson Dan du Bois Mary Ewing Royce Forsyth Diane Godeaux Donna Hultin Jim Johnson Ayo Joyner Carla Kolomitz John Prosser Sal Rivera Richard Sanchez Christine Smith Jim Zavist CO N S U L T A N T SBRW/URS Corporation James Cromar Sara Jane Maclennan Scott Bressler Crissy Fanganello Nadine Lee Norene Pen Jim Estus Ken Schroeppel Chris Vogelsang Pen Yuan-Liaw Katie Doyle Patricia Steinholtz Randy Sanchez Matt Ashby JeffBartosik CO N T R I B U T O R SJohn Pucher,Charles Komanoff,Paul Schimek,and Lewis Dijkstra City ofToronto,Ontario,Canada National Strategies for Advancing Bicycle Safety Eric Stachon Photos

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 4 E EX E C U T I V ES SU M M A R Y P G V II IN T R O D U C T I O N P G1 1 G GR I DR RO U T ES SY S T E M P G4 4 D DO W N T O W NB BI C Y C L I N G P G8 8 M MA J O RM MI S S I N GL LI N K S P G2 2 0 0 P PA R K S& & T TR A I L S P G3 3 6 6 R RE C R E A T I O N A LB BI C Y C L I N G P G6 6 0 0 T TR A N S I TA AC C E S S A N DA AC C O M M O D A T I O N S P G6 6 4 4 A AD V O C A C Y P G7 7 4 4 I IM P L E M E N T A T I O N P G7 7 6 6A P P E N D I X IN T R O D U C T I O N“ BI C Y C L I N GRE N A I S S A N C E I NNO R T HAM E R I C A? RE C E N TTR E N D S A N DAL T E R N A T I V EPO L I C I E S T OPR O M O T EBI C Y C L I N G” “ MA K I N GWA L K I N G A N DCY C L I N GSA F E R: LE S S O N S F R O MEU R O P E” GR I DRO U T ESY S T E M S I G N A G E B I C Y C L E D E T E C T O R SDO W N T O W NBI C Y C L I N G B I C Y C L E L A N E A N A L Y S I S1 6T H S T R E E T M A L L I S S U E S B I C Y C L E C O M M E R C EMA J O RMI S S I N GLI N K SPA R K S& TR A I L S T R A I L S T A N D A R D S P R O P O S E D T R A I L U S E R O R D I N A N C E T R A I L A N A L Y S I S F U T U R E O F F-S T R E E T C O N N E C T I O N SRE C R E A T I O N A LBI C Y C L I N G F A M I L Y B I C Y C L E L O O P S B I C Y C L E R A C I N GTR A N S I TAC C E S S A N DAC C O M M O D A T I O N SAD V O C A C YIM P L E M E N T A T I O N C O S T E S T I M A T E SContents

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E X X E E C C U U T T I I V V E E S U U M M M M A A R R Y Y Introduction According to the Denver Comprehensive Plan (2000), Denver must address mobility in multiple ways: providing more choices, encouraging those that reduce impact on the urban environment, and cooperating with metropolitan jurisdictions and quasi-governmental agencies on mobility plans and projects. At a regional level, one of the six core elements of the DRCOG Metrovision 2020 Plan is to “enhance the attractiveness and convenience of non-motorized modes in serving non-recreational travel.” This document is an update to the 1993 Denver Bicycle Master Plan (DBMP) which sought to develop and implement a comprehensive bicycling program by developing a framework for a physical bicycle system as well as education, promotion, enforcement, public policy, and information distribution programs. The DBMPhas effectively guided the implementation of bicycle facilities and program, and many of the components of the 1993 DBMPhave been achieved. The following four factors drive the need for an update. 1.The population of the City and County of Denver has grown nearly 20% between 1990 and 2000. During the same period, Denver experienced substantial economic growth and increased travel demand. 2.Downtown Denver has emerged as the activity center for the Denver metroarea, while increasing the number of urban housing units. The resulting development pattern has increased the attractiveness of alternative transportation modes, including bicycling. 3.The U.S. Department of Transportation’s National Bicycling and Walking Study has outlined goals for local governments: -To double the current percentage of trips made by bicycling and walking; and, -To simultaneously reduce by ten percent (10%) the number of bicyclists and pedestrians killed or injured in traffic crashes. 4.Completion of the Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update (the Update) and implementation of its major recommendations are specifically called for in the Comprehensive Plan 2000 Annual Report and in DRCOG’s Metrovision 2020 Plan. The Update directly reinforces the Comprehensive Plan 2000 goals to preserve and enhance Denver's natural environment; anticipate and meet the expanding mobility needs of residents, businesses, and visitors; build on the assets of every neighborhood and foster a citywide sense of community; enhance opportunities for people in need to work and participate fully in community life; and foster cooperation and share leadership on regional issues. Implementation of the Update will address the Comprehensive Plan goals above. 5DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001

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Focus The emphasis of the Update is the identification and prioritization of improvements to the cityÂ’s bicycle infrastructure and programs with the goal of encouraging and accommodating bicycle usage for both recreational and transportation purposes. This document contains a review of recommendations from the 1993 DBMPthat are not yet implemented and new opportunities due to development and infrastructure changes. This document is a tool for the citizenry of Denver to advocate for and support city investments in bicycle facilities and programs. Bicycling has long been popular in Denver for recreational purposes, and many recreational facilities are also used for transportation purposes. Agoal of the Update is to provide bicycle facilities to meet the recreational needs of all Denver citizens across the city, and to resolve the transportation needs of each citizen via bicycling at least one day a week. Process and Analysis The process for the Update began with a staff recommendation and was budgeted for in 2001. City staff put together the Update team to include Public Works Department staff, Parks and Recreation Department planners, the Community Planning and Development Agency, the MayorÂ’s Bike Advisory Committee (MBAC)1 and the consultant (BRW). The Update team proposed dozens of potential issues for review and trimmed the list to seven key issues by prioritizing them according to system and regional implications, implementation feasibility, and funding. In addition to new bicycle traffic counts, seven key issues addressed in the Update include improvements to DenverÂ’s: Grid Route System Downtown Bicycling Major Missing Links Parks & Trails Recreational Bicycling Transit Access and Accommodations Advocacy Analysis began with review of the existing conditions for each of the seven key issues of the plan and determination of the current opportunities, strengths and weaknesses of the system. The next step was a public open house in January 2001 where citizens indicated their preferences on the improvements and solutions for each of the issues. With initial priorities, identified strengths and weaknesses, public input, and best practices from other municipalities, the Update team began to integrate the recommendations. Apreliminary list of recommendaDENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 6 1 The MayorÂ’s Bike Advisory Committee consists of many citizen members who are architects, lawyers and avid cyclists, as well as planners from the Regional Transportation District and the Denver Regional Council of Governments and city staff from the Police, Public Works, and Parks and Recreation.

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tions was taken to the public in April 2001 for further input. In addition to continual monitoring and review by the Update team and the two public meetings, the Update also went through several special interest groups, internal staff review, the Planning Board, Public works Executive Management Team and finally to City Council in 2002.Key Issues, Recommendations, and ImplementationGrid Route System GOAL: Identify the next round of priorities for expanding the grid and neighborhood route system. The City of Denver has used the grid route system as the focus for bicycle improvements. However, several routes have yet to be signed, are incomplete in sections or are not sufficiently bicycle friendly. The 1993 Master Plan recommended 22 routes on the grid system. Eight routes now have signage (D-1, D-4, D-6, D-8, D-10, D-11, D-12, and D-18). One route is partially signed (D-2). Route D-5 will be signed in 2002, and the central portions of routes D-16 and D-20 will be signed in 2002. Funding is in place for signage on two additional routes (D-7, D-22). The fieldwork is complete for signage of Route D-3 but no funding is in place. In addition, existing signage on routes should be checked periodically for vandalism, fading, and the need for other potential improvements. New neighborhood routes should be developed that create connections between the existing bicycle grid route system and nearby facilities not currently on a bicycle route. More specifically, neighborhood routes from existing routes should be established that would connect to nearby parks or appropriate facilities and then return to the original route. The Update also recommends upgrading actuated traffic signals to include devices that detect bicyclists. Signal upgrades could include microwave, video or other detection technologies for bicyclists that could prove to be a much more reliable detection. Implementation Responsibility T ask T arget Date Cost CityImprove routes and install signage 2002-2012$750,000 for the priority routes. CityProvide additional signage for 2004$200,000 neighborhood links.Downtown Bicycling GOAL: Make Downtown Denver bicycle friendly. Downtown has changed from solely a business district to a twenty-four hour a day mixed use neighborhood. This change requires that the city needs to provide more than access to the 7DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001

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edges of downtown. The Update recommends creation of a system of bicycle lanes on Downtown streets to provide bicycle circulation through the Downtown area and to Downtown destinations. It is also important to seek more consistent bicycle accommodations on the 16th Street Mall since it is the transportation core of downtown. Downtown also suffers from a lack of regulation of bicycle commerce. Recommendations: Bicycle lanes on Glenarm from Colfax Avenue to 18th St.; Bicycle lanes on Arapahoe and Lawrence between Speer Blvd. and 21st St; Bicycle lanes on 18th St. between Glenarm and Wynkoop; Bicycle lanes on 19th St. between Stout and Lawrence; and, Designation of 14th St. as a bicycle route between Larimer and Colfax. Seek support from the city staff, Downtown Denver Partnership (DDP) and Regional Transportation District (RTD) to modify the existing ordinance regarding the restriction of bicycle use of the 16th Street Mall except for a connection across the southeast end of the mall between the 16th Avenue bicycle lanes and Cleveland Place, and a connection from the Commons neighborhood to the bicycle lanes on Wynkoop Street at the northwest end of the mall between Wynkoop and Wewatta. Pursue adoption of an ordinance to regulate operations of bicycle messengers, pedal cabs, and other commercial bicycling activities, with enforcement, in the public right-ofway. Implementation Responsibility T ask T arget Date Public WorksCreate a system of Downtown bicycle lanes: Summer 2002 Public WorksPropose change to the 16th Street Mall ordinance. Summer 2002 Public WorksPropose bicycle messenger and pedal cab ordinance Fall 2002 to regulate, promote, and formalize these services. Public WorksWork with the Denver Police Department to increase Winter 2002 enforcement of existing and new bicycle laws.Major Missing Links GOAL: Close the gaps in the existing bicycle routes to complete the bicycle grid route system. Over the last eight years, the City has made significant progress toward an aggressive goal of more than 100 miles of new bike routes by working to complete a one-mile grid system of bicycle routes. The goal of the system is to make “it possible for a person anywhere in the City to be no more than one-half mile from a designated route “(Plan, 1993). As the city nears completion of this grid, a number of major missing links have become apparent which hamper connections on the system. These missing links fall into one or more of these categories: -improvements to the existing off-street trails system; DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 8

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preservation of drainage corridors for future off-street trails; problem intersections and crossings; and, connections across I-25, the Santa Fe Drive corridor, or railroad tracks. Each of these links is a key element to completing the grid route system. Recommendations: Improvements to the following Major Missing Links (details are found in the document and appendix) Alameda Avenue: Platte River Trail to Cherokee Street connection (Routes D-7; D-14; D-16) -Cherry Creek Trail (Route D-14 portion) -University Boulevard underpass -Safety recommendations for the First Avenue sidewalk Colorado Boulevard & 12th Ave (Route D-10) -Grant Ranch connections into the city and Quincy Ave. Bike Trail Iliff Avenue/Warren Avenue/Dahlia Street at I-25 (Routes D-15 and D-20) Iliff Avenue at Santa Fe Drive (Route D-20) Iowa Avenue at Santa Fe Drive (Route D-18) -Acoma Street to Santa Fe Drive -Santa Fe Drive sidewalk: Iowa Avenue to Florida Avenue Leetsdale Drive at Bayaud Avenue (Route D-14) Leetsdale Drive at Kearney Street (Routes D-16 and D-17) Northeast Neighborhoods DIAaccess, E-470 link, First Creek, Second Creek, 48th Avenue, High Line Canal corridor, other regional trail links, connections to Green Valley Ranch and Gateway area West Harvard Gulch connection to the Platte River Trail (Route D-20) 43rd Avenue pedestrian bridge over railroad tracks between Fox Street and Inca Street (Route D-2) 46th Avenue from Platte River Trail to National Western Stock Show Complex (Route D-2) Incorporate planning study recommendations (underway) for 38th Street connection to Platte River Trail (Route D-9) Implementation Responsibility T ask T arget Date CityPursue the necessary funding to 1-2 projects per year implement the projects identified in the Major Missing Links section. CitySeek opportunities to eliminate major 1-2 projects per year missing links as part of other projects. Cost of implementation is variable. The recommendation is that the City spend a minimum of $1.00 per citizen per year to assist in the implementation of the recommended improvements. 9DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001

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Parks & Trails GOAL: To enhance a system of off-street, multi-use trails to allow users of all types an opportunity to recreate and commute safely without the worries of riding with motorized vehicle traffic. This section of the Update will serve two purposes. First it will establish design and construction standards for the off-street recreational paths. Second, it will prioritize maintenance and modification of existing paths and construction of new paths. The recommended maintenance and new construction projects are listed below. Recommendations 1. The prioritized recommendations for trail improvements are: Regional Trails -Sand Creek -High Line Canal through Green Valley Ranch -Cherry Creek High Line Canal to I-225 -High Line Canal Leetsdale Drive to Florida Avenue -High Line Canal Yosemite Street to Cherry Creek -High Line Canal Cherry Creek Trail intersection to Iliff Avenue (west of Los Verdes Golf Course), with bridge replacements Platte River 15th Street to 19th Street (West Side) Minor Trails Lakewood Gulch through Martinez Park to Tennyson Street Lakewood/Dry Gulch through Rude Park Sanderson Gulch Weir Gulch Neighborhood Trails Wagon Trail west of Saratoga Place to east of Saratoga Lake of Lakes Trail 2. The recommendations for off-street connections can be categorized as follows: Pursue the completion of off-street trails along existing drainage corridors and utility rights-of-way. -Construct off-street trails in areas where Parks and Recreation provides maintenance. -Create a north-south connection from Stapleton to the Denver Tech Center along Westerly Creek, High Line Canal, and Goldsmith Gulch. DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 10

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Implementation: Responsibility T ask T arget Dates Parks andImprovement of selected regional trails.Ongoing Recreation Recreational Bicycling GOAL: To encourage more people to ride bicycles more often. Recreational bicycling encompasses many different types of activities. There were many competing demands for attention in the 2001 Update. The Update Team decided to focus on two aspects of recreational bicycling during this process: family bicycle loops and bicycle racing. Additional recreational bicycling topics should be the subject of future Bicycle Master Plan Update analysis. Recommendations -Designate family bicycle loops to encourage recreational riding. Place directional signage along the loop routes. -Continue to improve maintenance such as pavement defects and sweeping for the on-street route system. Install signage for all routes. Ensure safe conditions for bicyclists if traffic calming measures are installed on the bicycle route system streets. -Investigate possible locations for a BMX/Velodrome/Mountain Bike Circuit facility in vacant or redeveloping areas within the city. Plan bicycle racing and training routes in Denver. Develop general guidelines for acceptable street closures for bicycle races. -Encourage the development of new bicycle racers via the juniors, seniors and citizens categories of bike racing. Implementation Responsibility T ask T arget Date Cost Public WorksPlace signage to designate family Ongoing$150,000 bicycle loops. Maintain and improve bicycle route system. Parks and Investigate possible locations for RecreationBMX/Velodrome/Mountain Bike Circuit facility Bicycle racersWork with CCD Parks and Denver Ongoing Public Schools to encourage new bicycle racers 11DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001

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Transit Access and Accommodations: GOAL: Make bicycling and transit work in a seamless manner. Bicycle access to transit facilities as well as bicycle accommodations at transit facilities and on transit vehicles is crucial to maximize use of alternative transportation. These opportunities can be especially important at transit facilities that have limited car parking. The Update recommends improving access with bike route and trail signage around light rail stations and park-n-Ride facilities as well as connections to three critical RTD facilities. -The Broadway Station from the Platte River trail and from Washington Park/West Washington Park neighborhoods. -The Evans Avenue Station from the Platte River Trail and Overland neighborhood. -The Colorado Center from the Virginia Vale neighborhood. Bicycles are already accommodated on most RTD services and this plan supports maintaining those accommodations. Additionally, the Update recommends that RTD: -Revisit the policy of allowing bikes on light rail only on the reverse commute when the Southeast Corridor (T-REX) line begins service; -Installing bike racks inside the current fleet of light rail vehicles; -Procure low-floor light rail vehicles in the future that are equipped with folding seats and ceiling suspension hooks in designated areas; and -Pursue Bikestations as a means of accommodating cyclists and attracting new users to multi-modal travel. Implementation Responsibility T ask T arget Date Cost CityImplement the identified bicycle routes Continuous As defined above to facilitate bicyclist access to transit. in signage and major missing links CityCoordinate with CDOTto ensure 2002-2007 continuous bicycle access during Southeast Corridor construction. RTDImplement the recommendations to Continuous improve the accommodation of bicycles on new and existing light rail vehicles and at transit facilities. DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 12

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13DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 Advocacy GOAL: Organize bicycle enthusiasts to promote bicycling in Denver. During the research process, the Update team noted that most cities with excellent bicycling facilities have strong bicycle advocacy groups. In polls taken at both public meetings about half of the attendees volunteered to promote advocacy in some manner. The excitement level for an advocacy effort was higher than expected, indicating that Denver bicyclists are ready and willing to get involved. Towards the end of the update process, Bicycle Colorado and the City and County of Denver hosted an advocacy organization meeting that drew more than 100 people. The group named itself BikeDenver and has met regularly for a few months now. Recommendations -The City bicycle planner, Public Works Department, and MBAC should facilitate the interest and guide the energy in BikeDenver to achievable goals that will improve bicycling in Denver. -BikeDenver should not officially be an extension of the MBAC, the City & County of Denver, or any other local government. It should function independently from formal local government with a board of directors. -BikeDenver would be an ideal organization to define public opinion on bicycling issues and advocate for Denver, RTD and CDOTbicycle improvements. Implementation Responsibility T ask T arget Date CityCoordinate the activities of bicycle groups towards Ongoing achieving common goals. City/Advocacy GroupForm an independent advocacy group from the bicycle Completed, 2001 community to promote bicycling in Denver.Conclusion Denver is a great city for bicycling due to the moderate year-round climate and the efforts made by the city and the Mayor’s Bike Advisory Committee over the past 10 years. During this time, Bicycling Magazine has recognized Denver as one of the “Top Ten Cities for Cycling” three times (1995, 1999, 2001) and the League of American Bicyclists has recognized the city as a “Bicycle Friendly Community” (2001). This update is in all likelihood the first in a series of updates that will occur in the future as additional accomplishments take place, existing conditions and infrastructure change, and new opportunities present themselves. This commitment to review and update the Denver Bike Master Plan is the first step to guarantee that Denver remains one of the best metropolitan cities for bicycling in North America. The continued implementation of the recommendations made in this and subsequent updates will require funding, inter-agency cooperation, and a shared vision that bicycling can be an easy, safe, and enjoyable recreation and transportation choice.

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The 1993 Denver Bicycle Master Plan (DBMP, which was adopted unanimously by City Council) sought to develop and implement a comprehensive bicycling program by developing a physical bicycle system as well as education, promotion, enforcement, public policy, and information distribution programs. This document is an update of that plan. The City of Denver has made great strides since the adoption of the DBMP in 1993 and has successfully implemented many of the recommendations. To ensure that Denver remains one of the best cities for bicycling in North America, it is essential that the City continue its efforts to improve the bicycle system and the necessary avenues of support. The focus of the Denver Bicycle Master Plan Update (the Update) is to provide bicycle facilities and promote bicycle usage to meet the recreation needs of Denver citizens in all parts of the city and to resolve the transportation needs of each citizen via bicycling (at least one day a week). If all the citizens of Denver were to commute by bicycle once a week, the result would be a reduction of up to 20% in peak hour demands on the CityÂ’s roadways. The capacity demands on local roadways would decrease, and there would be tremendous cost savings by not widening roads and increasing capacities. The goals of the Update are taken from The National Bicycling and Walking Study, published by the U.S. Department of Transportation. The Study presents a plan of action for activities at the Federal, State and local levels with the following two goals: To double the current percentage of trips (from 7.9% to 15.8%) made by bicycling and walking, and; To simultaneously reduce by ten percent the number of bicyclists and pedestrians killed or injured in traffic crashes. Recognizing the achievements of the past several years as well as the changing environment of Denver, the City determined that it was time to re-visit the DBMP with a formal update to maintain the momentum, success and excitement of implementing bicycle improvements in Denver. From the National Strategies for Advancing Bicycle Safety Introduction DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 1 About 85 million adults and children ride their bikes every year. For children and teens, the bicycle is a primary means of transportation when traveling independently. Every morning an estimated half million people bike to work in the United States. Each year, more than 500,000 bicyclists of all ages sustain a cycling injury that requires emergency department care. Of the approximately 800 bicyclists killed annually, about 750 are killed in traffic crashes. Perhaps not surprisingly, more than half of the bicyclists riding in or near traffic report feeling unsafe.

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Introduction 2DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 In 2001, the Update focuses on determining the next set of solutions and recommendations to continue this effort. The initial focus of the Update is based on recommendations from the 1993 DBMP that are not yet implemented, new conditions throughout the City due to development and infrastructure changes, and new situations, opportunities and attitudes that were previously non-existent. In addition to new bicycle traffic counts, the main elements for the Update include: Grid Route System: Increased Route Signage and Neighborhood Routes & Signage Downtown Bicycling: How to Make Downtown More “Bicycle Friendly” Major Missing Links: Closing the Gaps in Missing Links & Difficult Crossings Parks &Trails: Bicycle Trail Standards, Existing Trails Analysis and Future OffStreet Connections Recreational Bicycling: Family Bicycle Loops and Bicycle Racing Transit Access and Accommodations: Improving Access to Light Rail Stations, Access on Light Rail Vehicles & I-25 Reconstruction Access: The T-REX Project Advocacy: Existing Conditions & Opportunities This Update is in all likelihood the first in a series of updates that will occur in the future as additional accomplishments take place, existing conditions and infrastructure change, and new opportunities present themselves. This commitment to review and update the DBMP over time is the first step to guarantee that Denver continues to be one of the best metropolitan cities for bicycling in North America. The next step is more challenging; it includes the continued and steady implementation of the recommendations made in this update and subsequent updates which will require funding, inter-agency Ideals of the National Strategies for Advancing Bicycle Safety #1 Motorists Will Share the Road # 2 Bicyclists Will Ride Safely #3 Bicyclists Will Wear Helmets #4 The Legal System Will Support Safe Bicycling #5 Roads and Paths Will Safely Accommodate Bicyclists Route D-18 through Ruby Hill Park has been upgraded to become ADA compliant.

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cooperation, and a shared vision that bicycling is an easy, valid, safe, healthy and fun transportation and recreation choice. M e t h o d o l o g y & A n a l y s i s : The first task for the Update team was to analyze the existing conditions within each of the six elements of the plan, and determine the current opportunities, strengths and weaknesses of the system. In many cases, the focus went beyond analysis of bicycling in Denver to look at bicycling programs and trends in other metropolitan areas. More importantly, the local bicycle community provided input at two public meetings and monthly work sessions with the Mayor’s Bicycle Advisory Committee (MBAC) to determine specific areas of interest, concern, and recommended priorities. DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 3 Accomplishments Since 1993: Top 10 Cities for Cycling Award from Bicycling Magazine Three Times! League of American Bicyclists Bicycle Friendly Community Award Improved maintenance of trails and bike routes Replacement of numerous low water bridge crossings/ wooden bridge structures Improved Intraand Inter-agency cooperation RTD buses with bike racks, bikes on light rail trains, and bike lockers at Park-N-Rides Establishment of grid route system and signage program Bicycle Parking Ordinance and City-provided bike parking racks “Wheels & Heels” Trails on the Downtown portion of the Cherry Creek Trail Wynkoop St. Bridge and Bicycle Lanes Bicycle connection along Pea Boulevard to Denver International Airport City Bike Map Free bicycle registration via the City website Bicycle provisions in the Stapleton and Lowry Redevelopments Lights on the Cherry Creek and Platte River Trails Bike lanes on numerous streets The City of Denver receives the League of American Bicyclist’s “Bicycle Friendly Community” Award at Bike to Work Day 2001

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Pavement markings can define to bicyclists where to stop to get a traffic signal “detect.” G r i d B i c y c l e R o u t e S y s t e m I s s u e s : The 1993 Bicycle Master Plan stated: A major goal of the Denver Bicycle Master Plan is to provide a comprehensive bicycling network with access to all parts of the City. Completion of the one-mile grid system of bicycle routes will result in the addition of more than 100 miles of new routes. A one-mile grid makes it possible for a person anywhere in the City to be no more than one-half mile from a designated route. The designation of on-street bicycle routes can provide a focus for the implementation of improvements to make the City’s streets safer for bicycling. The scope of work for the 2001 Update contains the following tasks for the Grid Route System: -Recommend prioritized action plan to sign the remainder of the city’s grid bicycle route system. -Recommend Neighborhood Bike Routes to provide recreation as well as access to open spaces, access to schools, recreation centers, employment sites, shopping, historic sites, etc. In the last eight years, the City of Denver has used the grid route system as the focus for bicycle improvements. Throughout the city, many minor capital improvements have been implemented that have allowed the signage of several grid routes. The routes that have yet to be signed are incomplete in sections or are not sufficiently bicycle friendly. The 1993 DBMP recommended 22 routes on the grid system. Eight routes now have signage (D-1, D-4, D-6, D-8, D-10, D11, D-12, and D-18). One route is partially signed (D-2). Route D-5 and the central portions of routes D-16 and D-20 will be signed in 2002. Funding is in place for signage on two additional routes (D-7, D-22). The fieldwork is complete for signage of Route D-3 but no funding is in place. In addition, existing signage on routes should be checked periodically for vandalism, fading, and the need for other possible improvements. Beyond grid route signage, the City will install bicycle detectors to upgrade the performance of traffic signals on Grid Route System 4DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 Grid Route System Aone-mile grid of designated bicycle routes consisting of a combination of on-street routes and off-street trails The Grid Route system provides a focus for implementation of roadway, signage and trail improvements, and creates a city-wide network for transportation and recreational bicycling.

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Grid Route System DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 5 North/South Routes D-1 Signed in 1994 D-11 Signed in 1994 East/West Routes D-4 Signed in 1995 D-6 Signed in 1995 D-8 Signed in 1996 D-10 Signed in 1997 D-12 Signed in 1997 D-18 Signed in 2000 Routes with Existing Signage:

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6DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 Temporary monitored bicycle parking corrals and racks at major events can promote bicycle usage. grid route streets. (See Appendix for details of Grid Route signage.) N e i g h b o r h o o d B i k e R o u t e s The current one-mile grid system in place within the City was developed with the intent to utilize streets and paths that are located near parks, schools, libraries, recreation centers and other similar facilities. Bicyclists are able to see these amenities while they are using the grid route system. However, for those facilities not near a section of the one-mile bicycle grid route system, any apparent connection to the system is less evident. Conversely, for those people using the grid route system, these areas and buildings can not be easily seen (if at all). Analysis: A major incentive for connecting public facilities to the bicycle grid route system centers on the notion that the more people who are made aware of the system, the more people will use the bicycle route system. Therefore, new routes should be developed that create connections between the existing bicycle grid route system and nearby facilities not currently on a bicycle route. More specifically, neighborhood routes from existing routes should be established that will connect to nearby parks or appropriate facilities and then return to the original route. Appropriate streets for these new neighborhood routes have been identified so that underserved public facilities can be connected via the bicycle grid route system. New bicycle and directional signage should be developed and erected showing the neighborhood routes, its destination and its connection back to the original trail. (See Appendix for detailed information.) Grid Route System Routes to be Signed Immediately: D-3 Fieldwork for signage is complete but no funding has been secured. D-5 Field work is complete for signage of this route will be signed in 2002 D-7 Funding in place for signing in 2002, with fieldwork and plan set needed D-9 Immediate action for signing suggested after completion of 38th Street bikeway improvements in 2002 D-16 The central portion will be signed in 2002 D-17 Immediate action for signing suggested D-22 Funding secured for signing in 2002. No field work to date.

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 7 Bicycle parking in Basel, Switzerland. Grid Route System Additional Routes to be Signed: D-2 Partially signed in 1995; signage completion over the long term D-13 Signage completion over the long term D-14 Signage completion over the long term D-15 Signage completion over the long term D-19 Signage completion over the long term D-20 Signage completion over the long term the central portion will be signed in 2002 D-21 Signage completion over the long term

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8DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 G e n e r a l B a c k g r o u n d : Downtown Denver is the center of the Denver metropolitan region, not only geographically, but also in terms of human and economic activity. The significant increase in commercial, residential and entertainment activity Downtown since the 1993 Plan provide the reason to revisit the topic of bicycle access and circulation in Downtown Denver. Currently Downtown is headed in the right direction with the upcoming Bikestation, planned for the Denver Union Terminal (DUT), in conjunction with the expansion of the 16th St. Mall shuttle service, and Central Platte Valley light-rail extension, and the planned multi-modal transit hub at the DUT site. Now is the time to make bicycling attractive, easy and safe for travel within and through Downtown. Since the adoption of the 1993 DBMP, Downtown Denver has continued its renaissance to become a more lively activity center for the region. The sum of these recent developments is the reason to explore the opportunities and constraints for improving bicycling to and through the Downtown area. The following recommendations will make Downtown more “Bicycle Friendly” thereby achieving the vision of the Denver Bicycle Master Plan. Since the adoption of the DBMP in 1993, the City of Denver has made dramatic strides in improving bicycling conditions throughout the City. This includes the installation of a substantial number of inverted-U bike racks downtown and the adoption of a bicycle parking ordinance. RTD has also increased accessibility by allowing bicycles on their buses and light rail vehicles. (See “Transit Access and Accommodations” section.) E x i s t i n g D o w n t o w n C i r c u l a t i o n There are a number of existing bicycle routes that run near or through Downtown Denver. The most significant of these are: EastW est R outes: D-4, along 20th Street past Coors Field to Curtis Street. D-6, along the Cherry Creek Trail and Wynkoop bicycle lanes past Coors Field to Curtis Street. D-8, along Auraria Parkway to the Cherry Creek Trail to Downtown Bicycling The 16th Street Mall is a busy corridor at all hours of the day.

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 9 Downtown Bicycling Wynkoop Street, past Coors Field, to 19th Avenue. D-10, along 13th Avenue from the west and along 11th and 12th Avenues to the east. North-South R outes: D-5 Inca Street to the I-25 underpass leading to Cuernavaca Park and the Platte River Trail D-7, Cherry Creek Trail to Wynkoop Street, past Coors Field, to the 23rd Street viaduct D-9, along Sherman Street from the south to 21st Street, to Curtis Street to the northeast. Additionally, the Cherry Creek Trail and the Platte River Trail, as separate elements of the greater Denver trail system, provide access along the western edge of Downtown, with lighting beneath street bridges that pass over these trails. Also, 16th Avenue from Broadway east to Esplanade is striped with bicycle lanes as a neighborhood bicycle route. The seven grid bicycle routes and the Cherry Creek and Platte River Trails mentioned above, in effect, encircle Downtown. None of these routes or trails penetrates downtown within the area generally bounded by Wynkoop Street and 21st Street on the north, Sherman Street on the east, 12th Avenue on the south, and the Cherry Creek Trail on the west. As a result, getting to the edge of Downtown is relatively easy with numerous routes available for the bicyclist coming from virtually any direction. The difficulty is getting from these routes into the heart of Downtown, particularly the principal retail and office centers along the 16th Street Mall, 17th Street and 18th Street. B i c y c l e L a n e I s s u e s : In 1999, the City of Denver created bicycle lanes on Wynkoop Street (Routes D-6, D-7, D-8) to connect bicyclists between the Cherry Creek Trail and Coors Field. The bicycle lanes made it easier for novice and family riders to ride between the two facilities, and are a positive example for the provision of additional downtown bike lanes. The DRCOG Metrovision 2020 plan specifically The grid route system defines bicyde access around Downtown Denver but does not designate routes within the core. Proposed bicycle lanes will address the bicycle access to and through Downtown.

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10DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 Downtown Bicycling identifies that the provision of marked, on-street bicycle lanes “…can make bicycling more comfortable for riders of different ability levels.” A n a l y s i s Although a few streets in the City of Denver have striped bicycle lanes, most of the on-street bicycle routes in the city are shareduse lanes without specifically designated bike lanes. The 1993 DBMP did not recommend the designation of bicycle routes on Downtown streets because of traffic volumes and the narrow traffic lanes with limited space on many streets. At the January 2001 public meeting held to initiate the Update process, there was overwhelming public interest and support for additional Downtown bicycle lanes to facilitate bicycling to and through Downtown. There are few, if any, streets that can easily accommodate bike lanes without changes in traffic flow, lane widths, or on-street parking. To date, Wynkoop Street is the only street in the Downtown area with striped bicycle lanes. While some people would like bicycle lanes on every street, the Update recommends the strategic placement of lanes to improve access and circulation throughout the Downtown area. Just as the grid route system provides bicycle routes within a half-mile of any destination in the city, the Downtown bicycle lanes should provide safe bicycle access within a few blocks of every Downtown destination. The following list contains some of the principles that guided the current effort to stripe bicycle lanes on Downtown streets: The effort to place bicycle lanes on Downtown streets is in recognition of traffic conditions in the Downtown area; the predominantly one-way street system, the mix of vehicle types and doubleturn lanes which can be intimidating to many bicyclists. Bicycle lanes on Downtown streets can encourage bicycling for commuting and other transportation needs in the Downtown area. Bicyclists can successfully use a quadrupole loop to get a signal “detect”.

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 11 Downtown Bicycling Better provision for bicycling on street can serve to reduce unlawful bicycling on downtown sidewalks (which creates conflicts with pedestrians). Bicycle lanes should not lead novice or family riders into unsafe bicycling conditions. The bicycle lanes should create a system that provides circulation to and through Downtown and safe access from the Cherry Creek Trail, the Platte River Trail and the designated bicycle routes in the surrounding neighborhoods. The installation of “Share the Road” signage throughout the downtown area can serve to educate and inform drivers and pedestrians that they can expect cyclists on every roadway. To ensure the utility of the signs, there must be a balance between installing sufficient signage to inform roadway users, and overwhelming roadway users with the visual clutter of too many signs. Therefore, strategic placement of “Share the Road” signage on specific streets, such as Curtis Street, Larimer Street and Wazee Street, is appropriate. The following streets emerged with high potential for accommodating bicycle lanes. Together they create a system of bicycle lanes providing circulation on the numbered and named streets at the ends of Downtown and crossing the 16th Street Mall at the center of Downtown. W ynk oop Str eet (R outes D -6, D 7, D -8) Wynkoop Street is the location of the first bicycle lanes in Downtown Denver, providing a connection between the Cherry Creek Trail and Coors Field. Wynkoop Street also provides access to the Bikestation to be located at the Denver Union Terminal (DUT) site. Glenarm Place The existing layout of Glenarm Place includes one travel lane in each direction and a center turn lane for most of its length. Glenarm Place typically has a 48foot wide roadway, except between 15th and 16th Street, where it narrows to a 41-foot width Abike lane has been proposed along Glenarm Street.

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12DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 through the Denver Pavilions, an urban entertainment activity center. Based on analysis of traffic volumes and turning movements, Public Works staff concurred with the desire to install bicycle lanes on Glenarm Place between 18th Street and Colfax Avenue. To provide adequate space for the bicycle lanes, the center turn lane needs to be removed for most of the length of Glenarm Place with two exceptions: The five-leg intersection of Glenarm Place, Colfax Avenue and Fox Street requires three lanes on Glenarm approaching the intersection to handle the multiple turning movements. Bicycle lane striping on this block of Glenarm Place should begin midway between Colfax Avenue and 13th Street. Between 15th and 16th Street, the roadway narrows from a 48-foot width to a 41-foot width. Bicycle lane striping should end midway between 15th Street and 16th Street where the center turn lane serves as a pedestrian refuge through the Pavilions, and on-street parking and loading zones take up space alongside the curbs on the narrower roadway. If 19th Avenue east of Broadway converts to two-way operations in the future, the Glenarm Place bicycle lanes should be extended to improve the connection to the Uptown neighborhood. Arapahoe and Lawr ence Str eets Arapahoe Street and Lawrence Street form a one-way couplet midway between Glenarm Place and Wynkoop Street. The two streets have typical 60-foot roadway sections with four through lanes and parking on both sides of the street. Traffic volumes are moderate on both streets. Changing conditions in Downtown are the reason for reexamining the roles of motor vehicle and bicycle traffic on Arapahoe Street and Lawrence Street. The placement of bicycle Downtown Bicycling 19th Street has a HOV lane in Lower Downtown Glenarm Pl. 14th St. 19th St. 18th St. Wynkoop St. Lawrence St. Arapahoe St. Proposed bicycle lanes and routes in Downtown Denver. 16th St. Cherokee St.

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 13 lanes on Arapahoe and Lawrence Street will be accomplished best by the removal of a through traffic lane on each of these streets. Arapahoe Str eet The Update recommends removing of a traffic lane and striping a bicycle lane between 21st Street and Speer Boulevard. At 21st Street, the bicycle lane will connect to existing bicycle routes. The City is currently pursuing renovation of Skyline Park between 15th and 18th Streets along Arapahoe Street. The City is supportive of narrowing the roadway and removing a traffic lane on Arapahoe Street as part of the Skyline Park renovation. This should result in the allocation of some of the 60-foot roadway for pedestrian and bicycle circulation. Between 14th Street and Speer Boulevard, Arapahoe Street carries two-way traffic and provides access to a large parking garage for the Denver Performing Arts Complex. West of 14th St., Arapahoe Street should be reconfigured to provide two automobile lanes in each direction and a new bicycle lane leading to Speer Boulevard. Lawr ence Str eet The Update recommends that the City remove one of the four through lanes on Lawrence Street between Speer Boulevard and 21st Street and stripe a bicycle lane on this segment. Public Works staff concurred with the removal of a traffic lane to install the bicycle lane based on the removal of State Highway designation on Lawrence Street. Bicyclists can easily access Lawrence Street from the Cherry Creek Trail via Creekfront Park, by using the sidewalk trail to connect directly to Lawrence and 14th Streets. Coordination with RTD could allow for bicyclists to use the bus lane on Larimer Street to connect to 14th Street, and then to Lawrence Street. Once on Lawrence Street, bicyclists can connect to 14th Street, the 16th Street Mall (including for Sunday riding), the proposed bicycle lanes on 18th and 19th Streets, or the existing bicycle routes on 21st Street. 18th Str eet and 19th Str eet At the northeastern edge of the Downtown core, 18th and 19th Street form a one-way couplet. Downtown Bicycling Cleveland Place approaching the 16th Street Mall from the west. Bicycle Lanes Recommendations Create bicycle lanes on Glenarm Place from Colfax Avenue to 18th Street. Remove the center-turn lane on Glenarm Place (except on the block between 15th Street and 16th Street). Maintain all three of the existing southwesterly bound lanes on Glenarm Place as it approaches the intersection at Colfax Avenue. Create bicycle lanes on Arapahoe Street and Lawrence Street as a one-way couplet between Speer Boulevard and 21st Street. Create bicycle lanes on 18th Street between Glenarm Place and Wynkoop Street. Create bicycle lanes on 19th Street between Stout Street and Lawrence Street. Adjust lane striping to create a wide outside lane on the right (westerly) side of the street and designate 14th Street as a bicycle route between Larimer Street and Colfax Avenue. Install “Share the Road” signs at strategic locations, beginning with Curtis Street, Larimer Street and Wazee Street.

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14DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 Downtown Bicycling These streets emerged as candidates for the placement of bicycle lanes because they could provide access and distribution on the northeasterly side of Downtown. 18th Str eet Of these two streets, 18th Street offers the greater opportunity for the placement of bicycle lanes. The general lane layout remains consistent for the entire length of 18th Street, although the curbto-curb width changes in two locations. Discussions with Public Works staff led to the recommendation to remove one through lane and reapportion the roadway width for a 6-foot bicycle lane. The Bicycle Master Plan Update recommends striping bicycle lanes on 18th Street from Glenarm Place to Wynkoop Street accompanied by the removal of one through traffic lane. (See typical roadway crosssections in the Appendix for details.) 19th Str eet Partially because of its location at the edge of the Downtown core, 19th Street serves varying functions in its different segments of its length from Wynkoop Street to Broadway. Although 19th Street is one-way for most its length, between Wynkoop Street and Blake Street it carries twoway traffic. From Wynkoop Street to Arapahoe Street, the existing HOV lanes are operational from 6-9 AM on weekdays. The roadway width on 19th Street varies from 48 feet to 60 feet between Market Street and Broadway. Between Stout Street and Welton Street, light rail tracks occupy up to half of the roadway, limiting the space for through lanes. The sum of these conditions makes the placement of bicycle lanes difficult. The Update recommends the removal of one through lane on 19th Street between Lawrence Street and Stout Street, and the placement of a bicycle lane. (Alternatively, the HOV lane could be re-defined to include bicycles, as is done in other cities.) At 19th Street and Lawrence Street, bicyclists can transfer from the Lawrence Street bicycle lanes to the lanes on 19th Street. At 19th Street and Stout Street, signage should direct bicyclists either to Share The Road with motor vehicles on 19th Street or to use Stout Street to Police officers on bicycles are an effective enforcement tool across the country. Downtown bike lane provides a travel corridor for bicyclists.

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 15 connect to the designated bicycle route two blocks northeasterly on 21st Street. 14th Str eet Between Larimer Street and Colfax Avenue, 14th Street has the potential to serve as a comfortable street for bicyclists. It provides a connection between the Cherry Creek Trail via Creekfront Park and the Civic Center area with the pending Cleveland Place bikeway connection at MacIntosh Plaza (which will open in 2002). Because large activity centers such as the Denver Performing Arts Complex and the Colorado Convention Center have necessitated street closures, there are long expanses with no intersections on the westerly side of the street. For most of its length 14th Street carries moderate levels of traffic in three through lanes with parking on both sides of the street. The Update recommends that the City designate 14th Street as a bicycle route by adjusting the existing lane striping on 14th Street to provide a 20-foot wide outside lane on the right (westerly) side of the street. The existing traffic conditions on 14th Street in conjunction with the provision of a wide outside lane would allow comfortable bicycling (without the designation of a specific bicycle lane) with no impacts to the existing, on-street parking. The City should provide directional signage for bicyclists and “Share the Road” signage to alert all road users about shareduse conditions. 1 6 t h S t r e e t M a l l I s s u e s : The 16th Street Mall is the spine of Downtown Denver, connecting the Civic Center to Lower Downtown. The Mall opened in 1982, and continues to be the gathering place for Downtown workers, residents, visitors and tourists. The Update addressed two issues concerning bicycles and the Mall. Creating a connection across the Broadway/16th Street Mall/Cleveland Place triangle. Creating a connection to Wynkoop Street from the northwesterly end of the mall. A n a l y s i s : Because of its status as an automobile-free street, the 16th Street Mall is inviting to bicyclists who Downtown Bicycling Blue bike lanes are typical in Denmark and have also been used in the U.S.

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16DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 Downtown Bicycling do not feel comfortable sharing the road with traffic. RTD and the Downtown Denver Partnership have espressed concerns about pedestrian safety and RTD Mall Shuttle operations that should be weighed in combination with the promotion of alternative transportation modes, specifically bicycles. The following concepts define incremental phases for potentially allowing increased bicycle access to both ends of the 16th Street Mall. 1)16th A venue Bik e Lane Connections to Cleveland Place via the Mall Plaza (bounded by the 16th Str eet Mall, Cleveland Place and Br oadway East 16th Avenue has striped bicycle lanes from the Esplanade at East High School to the block between Lincoln Street and Broadway. Many bicyclists use this facility for access to and from Downtown, even though there is a significant gap at Broadway. Eastbound bicyclists use the short one-way segment of 16th Avenue at Broadway to connect to the bicycle lanes. Westbound bicyclists have a more difficult time crossing Broadway to get to Downtown streets. It is a high priority in the bicycle community to legitimize bicycling in this area. It is therefore recommended that the existing 16th Avenue bicycle lanes must have a bicycle-friendly connection to Cleveland Place. A change to City Ordinance 54-44 regulating bicycle use on the Mall could allow bicycles on the triangular plaza at Broadway/16th Street/ Cleveland Place at all times. This Update recommends that City Council enact a monitored, sixmonth duration experiment with bicycle access on the plaza. The experiment could include the use of signs, pavement markings and streetscaping measures to define the bicycle travel corridor to all plaza users. If the experiment provides a positive result, the ordinance could be changed accordingly. 2) 16th Str eet Mall Extension to W ynk oop Str eet The redevelopment of Lower Downtown and the Central Platte Valley is an opportunity to address the changes to the transportation network such as the demolition of the 16th Street viaduct. Three new bridges planned along the 16th Street Bicycle parking adjacent to gate E at Coors Field. 16th Street Mall Recommendations Pursue City Council adoption of a change to the 16th Street Mall bicycle ordinance to allow bicyclists on the triangular plaza bounded by Cleveland Place, 16th Street and Broadway to connect 16th Avenue bicycle lanes to Cleveland Place. Conduct a monitored, six-month experiment allowing bicyclists on the 16th Street Mall on the triangular plaza, after which Council can review safety and operations on the Mall. Pursue City Council adoption of a change to the 16th Street Mall bicycle ordinance to allow bicyclists on the westerly Mall sidewalk between Wynkoop Street and Wewatta Street. This change will provide access from the Commons neighborhood to the bicycle lanes on Wynkoop Street and to the Bikestation facility at the DUTsite.

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 17 Downtown Bicycling Bicycle parking at the Pepsi Center in the Central Platte Valley alignment will re-establish the pedestrian and bicycle connection between the Highlands neighborhood and Downtown, and create a connection to the development in the Commons neighborhood. The three bridges include a connection over I-25, a second bridge over the Platte River, and a third bridge, the Millennium bridge, over the mainline railroad tracks. At the southerly end of the Millennium bridge adjacent to the intersection of Chestnut and 16th Streets, bicyclists can ride two blocks to Wewatta Street then walk one block to Wynkoop Street. With the development of the Bikestation at DUT and use of the Commons area, traffic volumes on the current legal alternative along 15th St. will certainly increase. The Update recommends a direct bicycle connection between the Millennium bridge and the bicycle lanes on Wynkoop Street, connecting with the Bikestation at the DUT site. The Plan further recommends a defined bicycle connection on the northerly end of the 16th Street Mall using the westerly sidewalk next to the Post Office Terminal Annex and continuing to Wewatta and 16th Street. From there, bicyclists could share the road with motorists on 16th Street for the two blocks from Wewatta to Chestnut Street to the Millennium bridge. This bicycle sidewalk usage will require a change to the 16th Street Mall ordinance by the City Council. The provision of a quality bicycle route on the sidewalk will avoid conflicts with Shuttle vehicles and light rail trains through the Central Platte Valley. Now is the time to provide a viable connection for bicyclists as part of the initial development for this area. B i c y c l e C o m m e r c e : Currently, pedal cabs and bicycle messengers use Denver streets for commerce. This plan recommends that any ordinance development regarding any of these categories attempt to coordinate efforts to treat these commercial cyclists equally. P edal Cabs Pedal Cabs are currently regulated via City Ordinances 55-381 55396. These ordinances define pedal cabs and specify that the City Traffic Engineer determine the hours of operation, streets

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18DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 AChicago messenger is ticketed for failing to display his company name and IDnumber. Downtown Bicycling and areas where pedal cabs can operate. During the development of the Update, some changes to the operations of pedal cabs have been defined, including: Pedal cabs are permitted to operate in the Central Business District except: -on the 16th Street Mall from 6am to 6pm on non-holiday weekdays; and, -on arterials from 7am to 9am and 4pm to 6pm on non-holiday weekdays. Pedal cabs must remain in the roadway at all times even when loading and unloading passengers. Pedal cabs may not operate on sidewalks unless the sidewalk is a designated bike route. (Note that Ordinance 55-383 indicates that pedal cabs are subject to all rights and duties applicable to bicycles.) Bicycle Messengers There are currently five or six established delivery companies with approximately 60 couriers operating in Denver. Changing technologies, such as fax machines, e-mail with attached files, paperless “E-ticketing” for airline travel, and the electronic transfer of funds and documents have reduced the number of bicycle messengers on Downtown streets. Bicycle messenger delivery service is currently an unregulated commercial use of public streets. The Denver Police Department, Public Works Department and the Downtown Denver Partnership have all considered proposing bike messenger regulation, but, there are conflicting issues which make regulation difficult. Bicycle messengers have wanted to regulate themselves rather than face outside regulation. The employment status of messengers is not clear, nor is the accountability of the companies they represent. The business community is concerned that regulation would slow down service and increase costs. Messengers’ behavior is Bicycle Commerce Recommendations Adopt an ordinance to increase downtown public safety by regulating the operations of bicycle messengers, pedal cabs, and other commercial bicycling activities in the public right-ofway. Follow the example of the City of Chicago bicycle messenger ordinance, but specify that helmets must be “properly fastened.” Investigate the possibility of a citizen complaint hotline similar to Boston’s. Increase the level of enforcement of bicycling-related laws, particularly in the Downtown area.

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 19 Chicago messengers are required to display their company name and number. too often a bad example to potential cyclists, a safety hazard to motorists and pedestrians, and the cause of serious injury to at least one pedestrian recently and one courier. A n a l y s i s : As part of the development of the 1993 DBMP there was an identified need to “decrease dangerous (or frightening) incidents between messengers, motor traffic, and pedestrians.” At that time, messengers asked for an opportunity “…for reinforcing a self regulating program.” Overall, the 1993 plan’s recommendations reflected an intent “…to encourage messenger services to regulate themselves, reduce illegal bicycling activity, minimize confrontations with pedestrians and motor traffic, and increase safety.” Despite the passage of time, the topic of bicycle messengers continues to be a chronic sore point in any discussion of Downtown bicycling. A number of North American cities are already regulating bicycle messenger operations, with ordinances currently in effect in Boston, Calgary, Chicago, New York, Vancouver and Washington, D.C. In response to issues similar to those in Denver, the City of Chicago enacted an ordinance in 1992 to regulate the operations of bicycle messengers. By ordinance, the Chicago delivery companies are required to hire messengers as employees with insurance coverage and workmen’s compensation benefits, not as independent contractors. Messengers are required to wear helmets and safety vests with the company name and the individual messenger’s city-issued license number, simplifying police enforcement activities. The sum of Chicago’s requirements has resulted in public safety improvements and improved working conditions for messengers. This ordinance serves as a model for a corresponding ordinance in Denver (see draft ordinance in the Update appendix). Downtown Bicycling Benefits of Regulating Bicycle Messengers Requires that messengers be employees of the companies they work for Employer provided insurance, helmets and safety vests with company name for employees Individual employees licensing and identifying number assigned by the City Allows citizens to contact employer directly

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Existing conditions at Evans Avenue overpass of Santa Fe Drive. 20DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 M a j o r M i s s i n g L i n k s : One of the major recommendations to come out of the 1993 DBMP was the one-mile grid system of on-street routes and offstreet trails. Over the last eight years, the City has made significant progress toward completing the system, using the grid route system as a framework in the implementation of bicycle improvements. Even so, a number of major missing links still exist that hamper connections on the system. Each of the Major Missing Links is a key element to completing the grid route system for the City. These missing links fall into the following categories: Connections across I-25 Connections across the Santa Fe Drive corridor Connections across railroad corridors Improvements to the existing off-street trails system Preservation of drainage corridors for future offstreet trails Problem intersections and crossings(NOTE: For detailed analysis of the missing links, listing of the alternatives under consideration and additional information, please see the Appendix to this document.) Major Missing LinksRecommended Improvements 1.43rd Avenue pedestrian bridge (Route D-2) 2. 46th Avenue from Platte River Trail to National Western Stock Show Complex (Route D-2) 3. Northeast Neighborhoods -DIA access, E-470 link, First Creek, Second Creek, High Line Canal, other regional trais, conections to Green Valley Ranch and Gateway area 4.Colorado Boulevard & 12th Ave (Route D-10) 5. Alameda Avenue: Platte River Trail to Cherokee Street (Routes D-7; D-14; D-16) 6.Cherry Creek Trail (Route D 14 portion) University Blvd. underpass First Avenue sidewalk 7.Leetsdale Drive at Bayaud Avenue (Route D-14) 8.Leetsdale Drive at Kearney Street (Routes D-16 and D-17) 9.Broadway Station connection 10.Iowa Avenue at Santa Fe Drive (Route D-18) Acoma St. to Santa Fe Drive Santa Fe Drive sidewalk: Iowa Avenue to Florida Avenue 11.Iliff Avenue at Santa Fe Drive (Route D-20) 12.West Harvard Gulch to the Platte River Trail (Route D-20) 13.Colorado Station connection 14Iliff Avenue/Warren Avenue/Dahlia Street at I-25 (Routes D-15 and D-20) 15. Quincy Avenue Bikeway Sheridan to Wadsworth, Grant Ranch connections to the rest of the city

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 21 Major Missing Links Note the impact damaged fence poles along the western sidewalk of Santa Fe Drive (which is used by Route D-18).

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22DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001AL A M E D AAV E N U E: PL A T T ERI V E R T OCH E R O K E EST R E E TCO N N E C T I O N( RO U T E SD -7 7 ; D -1 1 4 ; D -1 1 6 ) : This section of Alameda Avenue is a central connection for three bicycle routes. The Platte River Trail connects to the north side of Alameda Avenue via a ramp. Between the ramp and Santa Fe Drive, bicyclists and pedestrians must cross three high-volume intersections complicated by turning movements at the I-25 exit ramp, Kalamath Street and Santa Fe Drive. Multiple curb cuts and an existing bus stop further complicate the route. Between Santa Fe Drive and Cherokee Street, a sidewalk on the north side of Alameda Avenue provides uninterrupted access under the railroad tracks to the designated bicycle route on Cherokee. The City has plans to rebuild the sidewalk portion of the Alameda Avenue underpass between Santa Fe Drive and Cherokee Street with a wider cross-section, a new profile and new railings. Reconstruction of the existing sidewalk, which is not ADA compliant, will be part of the project and is scheduled for 2005 or 2006. In the long term, the Update recommends the construction of a bicycle and pedestrian bridge along the Bayaud Avenue alignment.R e c o m m e n d a t i o n : Improvements to the crosswalks at the intersections, including signage, striping and reconstruction of the northeast corner of the intersection of Santa Fe Drive and Alameda Avenue to tighten the turning radius for westbound Alameda Avenue to northbound Santa Fe Drive traffic Rebuild the sidewalk portion of the Alameda Avenue underpass with an ADA compliant profile and handrails, improved cross-section drainage, and upgraded lighting In the long term construct a bicycle and pedestrian bridge at the Bayaud Avenue alignment over I-25 and the Platte River P r i o r i t i z a t i o n / I m p l e m e n t a t i o n : Immediate Action Item: Alameda Avenue intersection improvements and underpass reconstruction Long-Term Implementation: Bayaud Avenue bridge Major Missing Links Alameda Avenue: Platte River to Cherokee Street Connection

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 23 CH E R R YCR E E KTR A I L: The Cherry Creek Trail is the most popular trail in the state and traverses through several jurisdictions. The University Boulevard underpass is an established location for user conflicts and crashes due to poor sight lines, approach grades (which are not ADA compliant and are conducive to excessive speeds) and the ninety-degree deflection at the base of the west approach. Between University Boulevard and Downing Street, the Cherry Creek Trail is located on the south side of First Avenue, along the northern frontage of the Denver Country Club. There are safety concerns because of the narrow clearances and the lack of buffer between the trail users and the automobile traffic, especially for westbound trail users directly behind the curbline of eastbound First Avenue. Because of the high potential for accidents, trail users navigate this section of the trail at slower speeds and with extreme caution. The project team explored the concept of extending the Wheels & Heels trail south of Colfax Avenue to Downing Street. This concept was abandoned because of the desire to not “pave paradise.”R e c o m m e n d a t i o n : Acquire 10 feet of right-of-way from the Denver Country Club on the south side of First Avenue directly to the south of the existing Cherry Creek Trail to bring the trail alignment into compliance with AASHTO. Reconstruct the trail with an 8-foot tree lawn as a buffer between the trail and the traffic lanes on First Avenue to bring the trail into compliance with city standards and Streetscape Guidelines. Reconstruct the University Boulevard underpass to improve sight lines and address the 90-degree deflection on the west side ramp. Widen the trail in the underpass towards the Creek and reconstruct the ramp on the east side of the underpass with an improved alignment and ADA compliant profile. Pursue right-of-way acquisition from the Denver Country Club to provide an ADA compliant profile and an AASHTO compliant curve at the base of the west side ramp. Provide upgraded lighting with vandal-resistant lighting fixtures. P r i o r i t i z a t i o n / I m p l e m e n t a t i o n : At a public meeting, proposed improvements to the 1st Avenue segment received tremendous public support primarily due to the popularity of the Cherry Creek Trail, high number of users in this section, and its central location in the City’s bicycle network. Although the Bicycle Master Plan recommends that the City pursue right-of-way acquisition to implement these improvements, this segment of the trail received a low-priority improvement status in the initial prioritization rounds for a number of reasons: First Avenue/Speer Boulevard is a designated historic parkway, which severely limits potential alternative solutions. Potential cost of land acquisition. Politically difficult to resolve the existing conflicts of interest between the bicycling community’s desire to widen the trail and the private property rights of the Denver Country Club. Major Missing Links Major missing links along Cherry Creak trail

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24DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 CO L O R A D OBO U L E V A R D& 1 2T HAV E( RO U T ED -1 1 0 ) : This off-set intersection currently functions as a connection on route D-10 between the Congress Park and Mayfair neighborhoods. Bicyclists must use the sidewalk on the west side of Colorado Boulevard for access between the two sections of 12th Avenue. On the east side of Colorado Boulevard the sidewalk is narrow and there are conflicts with turning vehicles from westbound 12th Avenue to northbound Colorado Boulevard. R e c o m m e n d a t i o n : Install microwave traffic signal detector to detect cyclists on 12th Avenue east of Colorado Boulevard. Widen the sidewalk at the northeast corner of 12th Avenue and Colorado Boulevard to provide a landing for eastbound bicyclists crossing the intersection. Conduct traffic impact analysis prior to installing pedestrian priority signal phasing to facilitate pedestrian and bicyclist crossing of Colorado Boulevard. P r i o r i t i z a t i o n / I m p l e m e n t a t i o n : Long-term implementation priority Colorado Boulevard and 12th Avenue Major Missing Links

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 25 IL I F F A TSA N T AFE( RO U T ED -2 2 0 ) : Route D-20 extends across the southern part of the city generally along Iliff Avenue. The route has no good existing connection across the Santa Fe Drive/railroad corridor. The Evans Avenue overpass is the only access between Dartmouth and Iowa Avenues, and has numerous access and suitability issues for pedestrians and bicyclists. The Update recommends construction of an overpass aligned with Iliff Avenue to complete the connection on Route D-20 and provide a connection to the Evans Avenue light rail station.R e c o m m e n d a t i o n : Construct a bicyclist/pedestrian bridge on the Iliff Avenue alignment over Santa Fe Drive and the railroad tracks to reach the Platte River trail at Grant Frontier Park. Provide access ramps that are ADA compliant. P r i o r i t i z a t i o n / I m p l e m e n t a t i o n : Immediate Action priority Iliff Avenue and Santa Fe Drive Major Missing Links

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26DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 GR A N TRA N C H C O N N E C T I O N S T O T H E R E S T O F T H E C I T Y/ QU I N C YAV E N U EBI K ETR A I LSH E R I D A N T OWA D S W O R T H: Grant Ranch is an outlying area located in a finger-like extension of the southwestern Denver boundaries. Its location in an outlying area of Denver limits the possible connections to the rest of the city. The boundary lines between Denver, Jefferson County, Lakewood, and Bow Mar dictate that Denver work with these jurisdictions to address bicycle connections. The first 1,000 feet of a 10-foot bicycle trail on Quincy Avenue west of Sheridan Boulevard is scheduled to be built with 1998 City Neighborhood Bond funding. The proposed location for the Quincy Avenue trail is on the north side of Quincy Avenue, where the Pinehurst Country Club encroaches on the public right-ofway. Because of limited funding, the trail will stop abruptly with no connections at the Pinehurst Country Club golf course. Additional trail construction on Quincy Avenue west to Pierce Street will complete the Denver portion of this connection. The portion of the trail between Pierce Street and Wadsworth Boulevard lies within the City of Lakewood and is the responsibility of that city to construct. City Traffic Engineering should review any proposed trail improvements for compatibility with long-term plans to rebuild the two-lanes of Quincy Avenue as a four-lane roadway. R e c o m m e n d a t i o n : Construct the Quincy Avenue bicycle trail on the north side of Quincy Avenue between Sheridan Boulevard and Pierce Street. Work with the City of Lakewood to extend the Quincy Avenue Trail to Wadsworth Boulevard. Provide an on-street bicycle connection through the residential neighborhoods southeast of the intersection of Pierce Way and Quincy Avenue along Stetson Place to reach the signalized intersections of South Wadsworth Boulevard at Stanford Avenue and at Layton Avenue. Coordinate with the Town of Bow Mar to establish a bicycle connection from Grant Ranch south of Marston Lake through Bow Mar. P r i o r i t i z a t i o n / I m p l e m e n t a t i o n : Near-term implementation priority Quincy Avenue Bike Trail construction Mid-term implementation priority Grant Ranch connections Major Missing Links Grant Ranch and Quincy Avenue Bike Trail connections

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 27 IL I F FAV E N U E/ WA R R E NAV E N U E/ DA H L I AST R E E T A TI -2 2 5 ( RO U T E SD -1 1 5 A N DD -2 2 0 ) : Route D-15 on Dahlia Street and Route D-20 on Iliff Avenue do not currently provide good access across the I-25 corridor. Bicyclists on these routes must use the Evans Avenue bridge over I-25 or the Yale Avenue underpass, options which take bicyclists through interchanges with high traffic volumes and conflicts with turning vehicles. A bicyclist/pedestrian bridge in the Iliff/Warren/Dahlia area could provide improved bicycle and pedestrian access, in addition to access to future light rail stations at Colorado Center and Yale Avenue. The 1993 DBMP recommended a north/south bridge aligned with Dahlia Street to provide a connection across I-25 and to avoid crossing at Evans Avenue or Colorado Boulevard. The Southeast Corridor project will provide a new Evans Avenue bridge with 5-foot bike lanes and 5-foot sidewalks. While this improvement is beneficial, connections to the bicycle routes are poor on either side of the bridge and it would be difficult to make meaningful improvements. R e c o m m e n d a t i o n : Construct a bicycle/pedestrian bridge over I-25 to connect bicycle route D15 on Dahlia Street and D-20 on Iliff and Warren Avenues. Re-examine the need for this improvement if a bicycle/pedestrian bridge on the Bellaire Street alignment is built across I-25 to provide access to the Colorado Center Station area (see RTD section). P r i o r i t i z a t i o n / I m p l e m e n t a t i o n : Mid-term implementation priority Iliff/Warren/Dahlia bridge Near-term implementation priority Bellaire Street bridge over I-25Major Missing Links Iliff Avenue/Warren Avenue/Dahlia Street at I-25

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Iowa Avenue from Acoma to Florida Ave via Santa Fe Drive 28DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 IO W AAV E N U E F R O MAC O M A T OFL O R I D AAV E V I ASA N T AFEDR I V E S I D E W A L K( RO U T ED -1 1 8 ) SA N T AFESI D E W A L K/ PA T H: Safety issues for bicyclists and pedestrians along Santa Fe Drive are the impetus for improving this section of trail. The sidewalk/trail on the west side of Santa Fe Drive is an attached sidewalk. The potential for accidents is high and is exacerbated by the 45 MPH speed limit (with traffic, including full size trucks, frequently travelling at much greater speeds) and history of southbound traffic striking the fenceposts located behind the sidewalk. With no setback from traffic, the sidewalk is typically covered with sand, gravel, glass, and, in the wintertime, plowed snow. All possible solutions must include provisions to increase the separation of trail users from motorized traffic. For example, a detached sidewalk/trail with jersey barriers along Santa Fe would enhance bicyclist and pedestrian safety in this area. The Florida Avenue bikeway portion of route D-18 on the northern frontage of Overland Golf Course is an example to emulate, with both an AASHTO compliant trail width and a tree lawn setback providing a buffer from traffic. To meet City of Denver Streetscape Guidelines, the more desirable solution includes the provision of sufficient right-of-way to construct an 8foot tree lawn to serve as a buffer between the trail and the roadway. I o w a A v e n u e : The Iowa Avenue underpass between Cherokee Street and Santa Fe Drive has a sidewalk only on the north side with staircases instead of ramps. Therefore, this sidewalk specifically does not meet ADA requirements for wheelchair accessibility (with bicycle, in-line skate, baby stroller, etc. usage precluded as well). Over time, the entire Iowa Avenue underpass will need to be reconstructed and widened from two lanes to four lanes. The need for the sidewalk improvement is currently greater than the need to rebuild the entire underpass. Taking advantage of existing setback bridge abutments, the City could proceed with sidewalk improvements in the near-term, but this would create a long-term issue when complete reconstruction of the underpass to its fullwidth section would result in the demolition and removal of any intermediate sidewalk improvements. R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s : Immediate action: Acquire additional ROW on the west side of Santa Fe Drive from the existing plateau area removed from and situated above a fairway of the city-owned Overland Golf Course. This plateau area is needed to provide a re-aligned sidewalk bikeway with a setback and traffic barriers to separate and protect bicyclists and pedestrians from Santa Fe Drive traffic. Long-term: Rebuild the sidewalk through the Iowa Avenue underpass to accommodate a wider sidewalk with an ADA compliant grade. P r i o r i t i z a t i o n / I m p l e m e n t a t i o n : Mid-term implementation priority Major Missing Links

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 29 LE E T S D A L E A TBA Y A U D( RO U T ED -1 1 4 ) : The 1993 DBMP recommended defining the existing, one-way westbound alley on Bayaud from Colorado Boulevard east to Birch Street as a two-way bicycle linkage. This improvement is on hold until the intersection of Colorado Boulevard/Bayaud Avenue/ Leetsdale Drive is more bicycle friendly. The City Traffic Engineer has indicated that any changes to signal timing on Colorado Boulevard must address its role as a major arterial and the maintenance of traffic flows. A traffic impact analysis must precede any requests for changes to signal timing on Colorado Boulevard. Rather than pursue modifications to the Bayaud Avenue/Colorado Boulevard intersection, the MayorÂ’s Bicycle Advisory Committee proposed creating a connection across Leetsdale Drive one block south on Cedar Avenue. A refuge in the median of the twolane section of Leetsdale Drive would provide a place for pedestrians and bicyclists to wait for breaks in the traffic. A sidewalk/trail connection along the perimeter of Burns Park from Cedar Avenue to Bayaud Avenue would close the connection to the signalized crosswalk at Colorado Boulevard and Bayaud Avenue. R e c o m m e n d a t i o n : Construct a trail in Burns Park from the intersection of Colorado Boulevard and Bayaud Avenue along the south side of Bayaud Avenue and the west side of Leetsdale Drive to the intersection of Leetsdale Drive and Cedar Avenue. Construct a bicyclist/pedestrian refuge in the median of Leetsdale Drive to allow easier east-west crossings at Cedar Avenue. Install signage to direct bicyclists from Cedar Avenue to Birch Street to Bayaud Avenue. P r i o r i t i z a t i o n / I m p l e m e n t a t i o n : Mid-term implementation priority Major Missing Links Leetsdale at Bayaud

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30DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 LE E T S D A L E A TKE A R N E Y( RO U T E SD -1 1 6 A N DD -1 1 7 ) : The trail provides a connection from the neighborhoods north of Leetsdale to Garland Park and the Cherry Creek Trail. The popularity of the Cherry Creek Trail and the location near the George Washington High School are two factors that will contribute the potential usage and success of this connection. The existing trail is located in the easement for the high-tension power lines. The trail ends on both sides of Leetsdale Drive at Kearney Street where the crossing is at grade and unsignalized. The route also has significant alignment and grade change issues on the north and south sides of Leetsdale Drive that should be addressed to meet ADA requirements and improve overall safety of the route. Improved signage at the crossing, with an actuated traffic signal, pavement markings, or lights embedded in the roadway may help alert motorists to potential bicycle/pedestrian traffic. In the long term, a bicycle/pedestrian overpass may be necessary. A bridge would need to meet ADA and maintenance vehicle access requirements. This would be costly given the substantial grade change (which would likely require switchbacks on the south side of Leetsdale Drive for the vertical transition needed).R e c o m m e n d a t i o n : In the near term, construct a bicyclist/pedestrian refuge in the median of Leetsdale Drive. Construct the refuge of raised concrete with a ramp in the center for access from the trail. Install signage and lighting to increase the visibility of the crossing for motorists on Leetsdale. Formally investigate the possibility of an actuated traffic signal for trail users. Widen the ramp and improve the landing on the south side of Leetsdale Drive to provide adequate queuing space for bicyclists traveling in both directions. Reconstruct the trail to an ADA compliant profile on this section of trail. Reconstruct the asphalt trail connection to provide a 10-foot concrete trail between Leetsdale Drive and the Cherry Creek Trail connection in Garland Park. In the long term, construct a bicyclist/pedestrian bridge over Leetsdale Drive. Provide access ramps that are ADA compliant and maintenance vehicle accessible. P r i o r i t i z a t i o n / I m p l e m e n t a t i o n : Near-term implementation priorityMajor Missing Links Leetsdale at Kearney

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 31 NO R T H E A S TNE I G H B O R H O O D SD I A A C C E S S, E -4 4 7 0 L I N K, FI R S TCR E E K, SE C O N DCR E E K, 4 8T HAV E N U E, HI G HLI N ECA N A L C O R-R I D O R, O T H E RRE G I O N A LTR A I LLI N K S, CO N N E C T I O N S T OGR E E NVA L L E YRA N C H A N DGA T E W A Y A R E A: Much like the Cherry Creek Trail and the Platte River Greenway, the spines of DenverÂ’s off-road trail system, the drainage corridors in the northeast neighborhoods are the foundations for trails to serve recreational bicycling and bicycle commuting from this area. The Parks and Recreation Department requested the inclusion of all proposed trail corridors in the Update since potential development threatens to absorb the right-of-way. Although development of these trails is not likely to proceed quickly, listing in the Update document prepares the way for corridor preservation and eventual construction of trail facilities. Implementation of the Emerald Strands plan, a multi-jurisdictional planning effort, is not proceeding as it should. The public entities have competing demands for limited resources, and the private development community is not strongly behind the plan. The private sector can be instrumental in the creation of the trails system through the establishment of special districts attached to the development of residential communities and commercial areas. Major Missing Links Northeast Neighborhoods

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32DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 DRCOG has only two of these trails included in their Metrovision 2020 Master Plan. TEA-21 funding is not available for these trails if they are not included in the regional master plan. (Additionally, the DRCOG project selection criteria places an emphasis on the population and employment adjacent to the project site this makes it difficult to fund trails prior to the adjoining sites being fully developed and “ built -out.”) I n d i v i d u a l i s s u e s i n t h e n o r t h e a s t n e i g h b o r h o o d s a r e d i s c u s s e d b e l o w : First Creek Crossing from 48th Avenue and Picadilly Road to the eastern boundary of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal along the Pea Boulevard corridor. Second Creek from Picadilly Road north across the Pea Boulevard corridor. The main area of concentration at this time by those jurisdictions involved in the Emerald Strands Plan, including Denver Parks & Recreation. Derby Lateral/High Line Canal from the High Line Canal in Green Valley Ranch, across the Pea Boulevard corridor, north to the Rocky Mountain Arsenal. High Line Canal north of I-70 meanders through Green Valley Ranch to connect to the First Creek Trail at 48th Avenue and Picadilly Road. Pea Blvd In 2000, DIA granted permission for bicyclists to use the shoulders of the existing Pea Blvd for bicycle travel. An off-street trail proposed on west side of corridor. Crossing at E-470 will probably have to jog to the north along Second Creek (East) corridor and then return to the Pea Blvd alignment. E-470 Trail trail ROW within highway corridor. Construction not set because no funding in place. Sand Creek Aurora, Denver and Commerce City constructing trail improvements. Westerly Creek Trail improvements proposed through Stapleton. Peoria Street Upgrade and extend the existing bikeway to reach 37th Avenue.G r i d R o u t e s : Extend the City’s grid system on 40th, 48th and 56th Avenue and north/south streets parallel to Tower Road (Waco Street and Argonne Street). Create new east-west grid routes D-2A, D2B and D-2C and new northsouth grid Routes D-23 and D25. All five of these potential routes would uphold the onemile bicycle route grid concept in place throughout the rest of the city. 56th Avenue An off-street route along the north side of the street in cooperation with the Rocky Mountain Arsenal. Grade-separated interchanges provide access across the Pea Boulevard corridor, connecting the neighborhoods on the east and west. 48th Avenue Mayor’s Bicycle Advisory Committee requested that 48th Avenue have an offstreet bicycle trail 40th Avenue serves as a connection from Montbello to Green Valley Ranch; there is no room to accommodate an on-street trail due to existing development and infrastructure; the existing sidewalks are wide with minimal curb-cuts. Tower Road This is not an appropriate street for either an on-street or off-street bike path because of continuing development as a major arterial thoroughfare.P r i o r i t i z a t i o n / I m p l e m e n t a t i o n : Near-Term implementation priority Pursue ROW acquisition and preservation now for future improvement Mid-term implementation priority Grid Route extension Long-term implementation priority Drainage corridor trai construction Major Missing Links

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 33 WE S THA R V A R DGU L C H C O N N E C-T I O N T O T H EPL A T T ERI V E R( RO U T ED -2 2 0 ) : The existing West Harvard Gulch trail ends east of Pecos Street as it approaches the west side of the BNSF railroad corridor. A social trail connection is already in place passing below the existing railroad bridge, indicating the desire to travel along this path to connect to the Platte River Trail to the east. The three main constraints are: 1) Minimizing conflicts with two existing sanitary sewer lines on the west side of the BNSF corridor 2) Designing and value-engineering an ADA compliant and maintenance vehicle accessible trail to pass below the railroad bridge, and; 3) Securing Public Utilities Commission and railroad agreement to have a public trail defined across the BNSF corridor. The City of Englewood is working with the City of Denver Parks and Recreation Department to complete this connection. R e c o m m e n d a t i o n : Fund and construct the connection between the existing terminus of the West Harvard Gulch and the Platte River Trail. Resolve the issues with the Public Utilities Commission and BNSF railroad to secure a trail easement and construction permits. Acquire needed land from the Xcel Energy power plant. P r i o r i t i z a t i o n / I m p l e m e n t a t i o n : Near-term implementation priorityMajor Missing Links West Harvard Gulch connection to the Platte River

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34DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 4 3R DAV E P E D E S T R I A N B R I D G E O V E R R A I L R O A D T R A C K S B E T W E E NFO X A N DIN C A( RO U T ED -2 2 ) : This missing link would provide east/west neighborhood and route D-2 access. It would improve bicycle, wheelchair and skate connection from the Northwest Denver neighborhood through Globeville to the Platte River trail. The wooden stair towers have been set afire at several locations and are structurally deteriorated. The existing access to the narrow bridge span is via unsheltered stairways, which, by definition, are not ADA compliant (with no possibility of maintenance vehicle access). The design and construction of any new crossing would have to be sensitive to operations in the Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) rail yard.R e c o m m e n d a t i o n : Demolish the existing 43rd Avenue bridge. Reconstruct the bridge with access ramps that are ADA compliant and maintenance vehicle accessible. Provide a paved connection to Fox Street on the east side of the bridge. P r i o r i t i z a t i o n / I m p l e m e n t a t i o n : Mid-term implementation priority Major Missing Links 43rd Ave Pedestrian Bridge

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 35 Major Missing Links 4 6T HAV E N U E F R O MPL A T T ERI V E R T ONA T I O N A LWE S T E R N( RO U T ED -2 2 ) : The 46th Avenue connection on Route D-2 serves neighborhoods in the northern part of the city. The City recently built a ramp from the Platte River Trail to 46th Avenue. In the same area, the Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) is rebuilding the I-70 viaduct and will construct a 10-foot bicycle trail on the north side of 46th Avenue below the reconstructed viaduct, across the southern frontage of the National Western Stock Show Complex. Between the Platte River Trail and the Stock Show Complex, the proposed bicycle connection is on the northern sidewalk along 46th Avenue. The existing sidewalk is problematic because of its narrow width, high volumes of turning truck traffic at the intersection of 46th Avenue and National Western Drive, and an underpass that is narrow, dark and uninviting. Every January during the Stock Show, the street and bicycle connections are closed. R e c o m m e n d a t i o n : In the near term, provide a connection from the Platte River Trail at 38th Street to Arkins Court. Construct an off-street trail connection around the gates to the National Western Complex parking lot. Route the trail along Arkins Court south of the parking lots to the eastern side of the Denver Coliseum, to the signalized intersection at 46th Avenue and Humboldt Street. In the long term, improve the sidewalk in the 46th Avenue underpass in conjunction with the reconstruction of the railroad overpass. Continue to improve the connection by constructing sidewalk ramps at the intersection with National Western Drive, and reconfigure the intersection to improve sight lines for motorists exiting the underpass and to encourage slower speeds for turning traffic. Investigate the possibility of widening the sidewalk on the 46th Avenue bridge over the Platte River. Pursue a provision with the National Western Stock Show to maintain bicycle access through the Complex during the Stock Show, either on 46th Avenue or along another route north of 46th Avenue. Pursue opportunities via National Park Service planning assistance. P r i o r i t i z a t i o n / I m p l e m e n t a t i o n : Near-term implementation priority Conceptual cost estimates in 2002 dollars for the major missing links are shown in the table to the right.46th Avenue from Platte River to National Western

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38DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 Tinted red recovery zone increases safety for trail users. I n t r o d u c t i o n / O v e r v i e w The 1993 DBMP recognized the importance of the off-street, multi-use paths in the City and County of Denver. This system of trails allows users of all types, include recreational bicyclist and commuters, to ride safely without the worries of riding with motorized vehicle traffic. The purpose of this section is to answer questions that may arise concerning safety standards when constructing and modifying bike paths. This document sets design and construction standards in the City & County of Denver (CCD) that promote the health, safety and welfare of the population who use the off-street recreational paths. The CCD Bike Path Standards conform to accessibility standards set forth by the Americans with Disabilities Act and guidelines established by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities. In some cases, CCD standards may override the AASHTO guidelines (which are typically requirements on federally funded projects). This document also serves the City and County of Denver Parks and Recreation Department (CCD Parks) in the maintenance and modification of existing paths within the City's off-street system. In addition, the design and construction of new paths shall comply with the standards described in this text to ensure consistency throughout the system. Any deviations from these standards shall be subject to review and approval by the CCD Parks and Recreation Department with the advice of the Mayor's Bicycle Advisory Committee (MBAC) regarding bicycling issues. B i c y c l e T r a i l S t a n d a r d s : D e s i g n C o n s i d e r a t i o n s All off-street bicycle facilities shall be designed with respect to the following considerations: User Operating Space Figure 1 (AASHTO)shows the physical dimensions that accommodate a cyclist's comfortable operating space. This space measures 40 inches in width and 100 inches in height. User Type Profile In addition to the operating space required by a Parks & Trails Figure 1. User Operating Space.

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 39 Adjoinging soft surface trails are useful for runners and walkers. cyclist, consideration must be given to the ability of the user. User type profiles were developed in a 1994 Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) report. (See Table 1.) Paths should be designed to accommodate all levels of riders. D e s i g n S p e e d The design speed for all geometrics shall be 20 mph (per AASHTO). H o r i z o n t a l Minimum horizontal curvature along the centerline of the path shall be 90 feet. This minimum curvature applies where the cross slope of the path is 2% and the assumed lean angle of the bicyclist is 20 degrees. At trail intersections, access ramps, etc, the minimum inside radius is 20 feet to ensure maintenance vehicle accessibility (for sweeping and snowplowing). Pavement markings and signs shall be provided to alert cyclists to any possible obstructions. However, stopping sight distance is an essential design element particularly with maintenance vehicles operating on the trail. The safety of all users depends on the ability to respond to and avoid potential path obstructions. Per Figure 19 of AASHTO, the minimum stopping sight distance for a 20 mph design speed and 5% descending grade is 140 feet. The AASHTO guide can be used to determine the required lengths for other geometric conditions. It should be emphasized that the distances in shown in the diagram are the distances required for oneway traffic only and are minimums. Every effort should be made to provide stopping sight distances greater than the distances recommended in the diagram. Table 4 of the AASHTO guide shall be used to determine Parks &Trails T a b l e 1 U s e r T y p e P r o f i l e s User TypeDescription A A dvanced or experienced riders who are comfortable with on street riding amongst motorized vehicles. B B asic adult riders who are comfortable riding on low-volume streets, off-street paths, and bike lanes. C C hildren, who require an adequate buffer zone or delineated path to ride along. Downtown trails provide urban bicyclists great access in Chicago.

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40DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 the minimum lateral clearance required to maintain the appropriate stopping sight distance for pathside obstructions. Intersections of off-street paths and all roadways shall be designed to comply with the recommendations set forth in the AASHTO guide and City & County of Denver standards. V e r t i c a l Steep grades can encourage quick descents and difficult climbs for an average user. Off-street paths in Denver must conform to the accessibility standards set forth by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Therefore, the absolute maximum longitudinal grade for off-street paths shall not exceed 5% for more than 800 feet in length. Maximum grades of 3% are preferable. Additionally, the effects of grade on erosion and drainage must be addressed. Attention should be given specifically to areas of rapid grade changes, where ponding may be a problem. The entrance/exit ramps for shared-use paths shall also comply with ADA standards. Ramps that exceed 5% in grade, up to a maximum 8.33%, shall provide 5' long rest plateaus every 30' horizontal travelled to allow users the opportunity to rest. T y p i c a l S e c t i o n s There are optimal dimensions for safe operational conditions on shared-use paths (see pages 4049 for typical sections). Designers must be aware of the similarities between bicycles and motor vehicles when accommodating pedestrians. In areas of heavy pedestrian traffic, specific lanes should be designated for each of the uses. Such areas are designed for two-way travel, but must include a lane specifically for walkers, joggers, and other pedestrians. In the absence of available space for divided lanes, a single paved path is acceptable, provided that standard widths are used. The minimum width for a two-directional shared-use path shall be 8 feet (preferred width is 10 feet). The minimum 8-foot width also accommodates use by maintenance and emergency vehicles with reduced risk of edge break-up. Paths shall be constructed with a 2% cross slope, which is the maximum allowed by ADA, with the Parks & Trails The Cherry Creek Corridor in Denver.

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 41 low point on the pavement on the downhill side. This slope will help prevent ponding and ice formation on the path. A clear zone of 3 feet (2 foot minimum) graded at 6:1 shall be provided on each side of the trail. Within the 3-foot clear zone, a vertical clearance of 8 feet, 4 inches shall be maintained. Paved shoulders shall be provided as zone of recovery for cyclists to regain their balance in areas where a maximum sideslope of 6:1 cannot be accommodated and particularly in areas where pathside obstructions are present within the established clear zone of 3 feet (retaining walls, rocky slopes, waterways, etc.). This recovery zone shall be a 3 feet in width (2 foot minimum) and shall be finished with 3/8-inch tooled joints on 1 foot centers to provide a tactile warning to users that they have strayed off the path. The specifications for the pavement structure for multi-use paths is defined in the attached typical sections. In general, the pavement shall be 6 inches in thickness and placed over a properly compacted subgrade. Pavement shall be concrete for all regional, shared-use paths. Other pavement types shall be approved by the CCD Parks and Recreation Department. Surface finishes shall address two primary concerns: the maintenance and durability of the pavement, and the smoothness of the surface as it relates to comfort and safety of users. Cracks, vertical offsets and potholes create safety hazards for the users, and such surface imperfections also increase the possibility of damage due to freeze/thaw cycles. Cracks and vertical offsets can also catch the blade of a snow plow, damaging both the blade and the path surface. Control joints shall be perpendicular saw cuts 1/8-inch wide, one quarter depth of slab on 10 feet centers along the length of the path. Zip strips may be used instead of saw cuts. The surface of the pavement shall be a broom finish. Railings shall be used only in areas where there is great concern for safety. Railings shall be provided at any location where the adjacent drop-off is greater than 30 inches. Areas with a drop-off of greater than 18 inches or Parks & Trails The last remaining wooden bridge across the Platte River between Alameda and 6th Avenues.

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52DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 Parks & Trails sideslopes steeper than 1:1 should be considered for railings. It should also be noted that railings can be potential obstructions for cyclists. Railings shall be designed so that the vertical posts are set back from the actual railing. Also, railings should be placed near the edge of the clear zone when possible. If the railing is to be placed at the edge of the traveled way, a taper of 9 feet shall be provided to transition the railing from the edge of the clear zone to the edge of traveled way. Railings shall be a minimum of 42 inches in height. D r a i n a g e Sideslope treatment shall be 6:1 maximum for 3 feet offset from the edge of the path. In general, the high side of the typical cross section shall incorporate an interceptor ditch adjacent to the paved trail to divert the surface runoff before it reaches the path pavement. The interceptor ditch shall be a minimum of 1 foot deep. Landscaping or shoulder treatments shall be finished at 1 inch below the edge of pavement to help prevent ponding on the path. Drainage grates and covers should be placed outside of a shared-use path (and, when possible, outside of the clear zone). Also, the ends of cross-path drainage structures shall extend beyond the edge of the clear zone so as not to present pathside obstructions. S t r u c t u r e s The widths of structures (bridges, etc.) along the trails should maintain the widths of the trail segments they are connecting. Overpass structures must be a minimum of 10 feet in width. Although the design loads shall be project specific, the minimum design shall accommodate a 10,000-pound vehicle (H5 loading factor) to withstand loading from sweeping and snowplowing maintenance vehicles. In most conditions, bridge decks should be broom-finished concrete. Underpass structures shall provide 10 feet of vertical clearance (8 foot minimum). To route base flows of drainage and reduce the formation of algae and ice on the trail, a 2-inch deep by 6-inch wide drainage gutter shall be provided at the low edge of the path through tunnel structures. Improved trail geometry at the new Platte River Trail bridge at Overland Pond.

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 53 I n t e r s e c t i o n s Where feasible, grade-separated intersections shall be provided where trails cross arterial and collector streets. When an at-grade intersection must be designed, the following issues shall be considered: Traffic control devices, including regulatory, warning and guide signs shall be installed per the MUTCD and per the recommendations of AASHTO. Stopping sight distance shall be provided per the previous discussion in this report (Horizontal design section). Ramps, curb cuts, and refuge islands shall be provided per City accessibility standards and AASHTO recommendations. Paths adjacent to roadways shall be set back a minimum of 5 feet from the back of curb. If the 5 foot set back cannot be achieved, a barrier or railing shall be installed to protect users from vehicular traffic on roadways with speed limits exceeding 35 mph. L i g h t i n g Lighting for underpasses shall consist of 150-watt, high-pressure sodium vapor light fixtures with vandal-resistant lexan enclosures. Lighting level shall be 2 footcandle minimum. To reduce glare while maximizing illumination on the trail and reducing vandalism possibilities, lighting fixtures shall be overhead-mounted wherever possible. Wallmounted lighting is also acceptable if clearance requirements cannot be met with overhead-mounted fixtures. S i g n i n g & S t r i p i n g All signing and pavement markings shall follow the specifications set forth by the MUTCD. A yellow centerline stripe shall be provided at all approaches to underpasses to separate opposing lanes of traffic. Yellow centerlines, used to define no-passing zones, should otherwise be used sparingly so that, when used, trail users recognize that there truly is a trail alignment condition which requires that all users keep to their right. E n v i r o n m e n t a l / C o n s e r v a t i o n I s s u e s Off-street trails are often built along streamways and other environmentally-sensitive corridors. A 50-foot buffer zone (10 feet minimum) shall be maintained between an off-street trail and an Parks & Trails Denver trails are regularly swept and plowed.

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54DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 adjacent sensitive conservation area. Also, trail designers should follow the guidelines described in the publication "Planning Trails with Wildlife in Mind A Hand book for Trail Planners” (Trails and Wildlife Task Force, Colorado State Parks, and Hellmund Associates, September, 1998). Where possible, native vegetation should be used to revegetate the site following construction of new trails. E x i s t i n g T r a i l s A n a l y s i s : The City and County of Denver Department of Parks and Recreation is primarily responsible for the maintenance and reconstruction of off-street recreational trails within the city limits. As part of the Update, CCD Parks requested an analysis of the existing off-street trails for the purposes of prioritizing future capital improvement funds. In 1997, CCD Parks authorized a study of the existing trail conditions and user counts for the following trails: South Platte River Trail Cherry Creek Trail High Line Canal Trail Bear Creek Trail Lakewood/Dry Gulch Trail Sanderson Gulch Trail Weir Gulch Trail For the Update, additional surveys were collected for the trails listed below: Wagon Trail Leewood Lake of Lakes Trail Westwood Trail West Harvard Gulch Trail East Harvard Gulch Trail Clear Creek Trail Goldsmith Gulch Trail A n a l y s i s M e t h o d o l o g y : Each of the surveyed trails was broken down into segments defined by logical break points (street crossings, boundaries, etc.) along the trail. Establishing categories of significance in the citywide system allows the Parks Department to more fairly distribute resources for maintenance and capital improvements, recognizing that each trail had a different level of importance in the citywide system. The categories were established as follows: Regional Trails essential routes in the citywide system, such as the Cherry Creek Trail, Platte River Parks & Trails Potential connection to the Pepsi Center from the Cherry Creek trail alongside the new Central Platte Valley light rail line beneath the Speer Boulevard viaduct.

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 55 Trail, Bear Creek Trail, High Line Canal Trail, and Clear Creek Trail Minor Trails links to the regional routes, such as Lakewood/Dry Gulch, Sanderson Gulch, Goldsmith Gulch, Weir Gulch, West Harvard Gulch, and East Harvard Gulch Neighborhood Trails recreational loops or trails through a neighborhood, sometimes linking neighborhood destinations, such as Wagon Trail, Lake of Lakes Trail, and Westwood Trail Segments were numbered and evaluated according to seven primary criteria and eight additional conditions. The seven primary criteria are surface condition, curve radius, sight distance, recovery zone, drainage, grade, and fluidity. Scoring based on the analysis criteria served as an indication of the condition of each segment with respect to its overall safety and user-friendliness. R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s : The prioritized recommendations for trail maintenance and improvements are: R egional T rails Sand Creek High Line Canal through Green Valley Ranch Cherry Creek High Line Canal to I-225 High Line Canal Leetsdale Drive to Florida Avenue High Line Canal Yosemite Street to Cherry Creek High Line Canal Cherry Creek Trail intersection to Iliff Avenue (west of Los Verdes Golf Course), with bridge replacements Platte River 15th Street to 19th Street (West Side) Minor T rails Lakewood Gulch through Martinez Park to Tennyson Street Lakewood/Dry Gulch through Rude Park Sanderson Gulch Weir Gulch Neighborhood T rails Wagon Trail west of Saratoga Place to east of Saratoga Lake of Lakes Trail Parks & Trails Parallel bikeway warning sign.

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56DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 F u t u r e O f f -S S t r e e t T r a i l C o n n e c t i o n s:The bicycle system for the City of Denver consists primarily of on-street bicycle routes and offstreet trails. The Parks and Recreation Department directs the construction and maintenance of nearly all the off-street trail system, coordinating with the appropriate City agencies. The off-street trails provide recreational opportunities and supplement the transportation emphasis of the grid bicycle route system. Off-street trails provide an inviting place for novice riders and families to get into the habit of bicycling. People who bicycle for recreational purposes are more likely to, eventually, bicycle for transportation purposes than people that never bicycle at all. Therefore trails can function as a host for all levels of recreational riders. Throughout the City of Denver, there are several locations for the Parks and Recreation Department to oversee the construction of off-street trail connections. CCD Parks can partner with special districts or pursue alternate funding sources for construction and maintenance of off-street trails. The project team examined several sources such as Parks Department maintenance maps and aerial photographs and conducted site visits to determine candidate locations for off-street trails. The criteria for placement of off-street trails included the location of undeveloped parcels, drainage corridors or open space, Parks Department ownership or maintenance responsibility, and connectivity to existing trails or public facilities such as schools, libraries and community centers. The proposed off-street connections exhibit common characteristics. Many existing drainageways carry low water volumes in small channels that do not provide sufficient space (such as the crosssectional width, or vertical clearance) for grade-separated street crossings. As a result these proposed trail connections do not provide the advantage of complete separation from automobile traffic. Trail users must cross neighborhood streets at grade, requiring frequent or diagonal crossings. In other locations where undeveloped parcels and open space provide space for off-street connections, trail users still must cross streets at grade. Where trail Parks & Trails Typical Cherry Creek Corridor. Cowell Public School to Lakewood Gulch Connection (2) Barnum North Park Connection (3) Westwood Trail (4)

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 57 Parks & Trails 1. Clear Creek connection 2. Cowell Public School connection to Martinez Park 3. Barnum Park-Weir Gulch connection to the Platte River Trail 4. Westwood Trail connection to Huston Lake Park 5. Sanderson Gulch to Platte River 6. West Harvard Gulch 7. Dartmouth Gulch Park 8. Lake of Lakes Park connection 9. Wagon Trail to Kiping Street 10. Wagon Trail to Belleview Avenue 11. Quincy Avenue to Lowell Boulevard and Bear Creek Trail 12. Cherry Creek Trail to Washington Park to Buchtel Trail 13. East Harvard Gulch 14. Oneida Street connection to High Line Canal Trail 15. Hutchinson Park connection to Holm Public School/Hamilton Middle School 16. Goldsmith Gulch connection across Hampden Avenue 17. Goldsmith Gulch to Rosamond Park 18. Air Force Finance Center redevelopment 19. Westerly Creek 20. Derby Lateral/High Line Canal 21. High Line Canal north of I-70 22. First Creek 23. Second Creek 24. Pea Boulevard Trail 25. E-470 Trail 26. Bow Mar to Grant Ranch connection Future Off-Street Trail Recommendations

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58DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 crossings occur at grade, they should occur at established intersections and where there is adequate sight distance. Where future arterials and collectors cross existing drainageways, the design should provide adequate clearance for grade-separation of bicycles and pedestrians. A n a l y s i s The Appendix to this document contains the analysis leading to the following recommendations. R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s The recommended connections are numbered as shown on the Off-Street Trail Connections map on page 45. Please note that the recommendations are unprioritized. Construct a trail parallel to C l e a r C r e e k ( 1 ) to complete the connection through Denver. Create a trail connection from C o w e l l P u b l i c S c h o o l t o L a k e w o o d G u l c h ( 2 ) through the vacant land south of 9th Avenue at Vrain Street. Create an off-street trail connection along L a k e w o o d G u l c h t o M a r t i n e z P a r k ( 2 ) Create an off-street trail in B a r n u m N o r t h P a r k ( 3 ) along the improved 8th Avenue. Extend the W e s t w o o d T r a i l ( 4 ) via the construction an offstreet connection in the utility easement between Westwood Park and the current terminus of the Westwood Trail at Kentucky Avenue near Raleigh Street. Complete the gaps in the W e s t w o o d T r a i l ( 4 ) between Raleigh Street and Kepner Middle School. Sign and stripe an off-street connection through the parking lot of the Westwood Library between Lowell Boulevard and Knox Court along the Tennessee Avenue alignment. Extend the W e s t w o o d T r a i l ( 4 ) east of Federal Boulevard by constructing an off-street connection through the utility easement along Tennessee Avenue between Federal Boulevard and Zuni Street. Improve the crossing of Federal Boulevard at Tennessee Avenue. Provide a connection to Huston Lake Park from the Westwood Trail through the alley near Bryant Street or Alcott Street between Parks & Trails Future upgrades are needed at Shoemaker Plaza on the Platte River Trail. Lake of Lakes Park (8) and Wagon Trail (9 & 10) Lowell Boulevard to Bear Creek Trail along Quincy Avenue (11) Washington Park Connection (12)

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 59 The Cherry Creek Trail is a unique urban amenity. Tennessee Avenue and Kentucky Avenue. The S a n d e r s o n G u l c h ( 5 ) connection on the north side of Florida Avenue, while still a very viable option, is not a high priority due to the existing offstreet connection on the south side of Florida Avenue (Route D-18). If redevelopment of the north side of Florida Avenue takes place, a new connection should then be established to enhance the access along this corridor. The W e s t H a r v a r d G u l c h ( 6 ) connection is included in the Major Missing Links section of the DBMPU (see pages 20-36). D a r t m o u t h G u l c h ( 7 ) was considered to be very low on the priority list because there is currently no through-connection that can be identified. An investigation of the property ownership along the ditch to Decatur Street may help to identify a way to link Dartmouth Avenue to College View Elementary School along Decatur Street. Improve the existing trail in L a k e o f L a k e s P a r k ( 8 ) as part of a loop around Little Lake Henry. Ensure the completion of the trail around Little Lake Henry and the on-street connection on Balsam Way. Monitor the development of the farm property between Kipling Street and Garrison Street Park south of Stanford Avenue. When the owner seeks to develop this property, pursue the acquisition of right-of-way or procure an easement to extend W a g o n T r a i l w e s t t o K i p l i n g S t r e e t ( 9 ) Construct an off-street trail along the drainage corridor connecting W a g o n T r a i l t o B e l l e v i e w A v e n u e ( 1 0 ) CCD Parks and Public Works should coordinate with the City of Sheridan and the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Fort Logan to construct a planned bikeway that connects L o w e l l B o u l e v a r d t o t h e B e a r C r e e k T r a i l a l o n g Q u i n c y A v e n u e ( 1 1 ) Provide a connection from W a s h i n g t o n P a r k ( 1 2 ) through the South High School/All City Stadium properties if the proParks & Trails Oneida Street (14) and Goldsmith Gulch to Rosamond Park (17)

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60DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 posed pedestrian/bicycle bridge is built across I-25 at High Street. If this bridge is built, construct an off-street trail from route D-18 adjacent to Iowa Avenue and Vine Street through Veterans Park to connect with the University light rail station. Install signage to direct trail users from the end of the E a s t H a r v a r d G u l c h T r a i l ( 1 3 ) at Ogden Street along the northern side of Harvard Avenue to the signalized crossing at Downing Street where the Harvard Gulch Trail begins again. Construct an off-street trail linking O n e i d a S t r e e t ( 1 4 ) south of Evans Avenue to the High Line Canal Trail. Construct an off-street connection through H u t c h i n s o n E a s t P a r k ( 1 5 ) between Tamarac Street and Holm Public School/Hamilton Middle School. Monitor the redevelopment of the retail centers north and south of Hampden Avenue along the Goldsmith Gulch corridor. Use the future redevelopment as an opportunity to improve the Goldsmith Gulch trail connection, eventually constructing a grade-separated crossing at Hampden Avenue. Extend the G o l d s m i t h G u l c h t r a i l n o r t h t o H u t c h i n s o n P a r k a n d s o u t h t o R o s a m o n d P a r k ( 1 6 1 7 ) Construct grade-separated crossings at Rosemary Way and Mansfield Avenue. Investigate off-street connection possibilities through A i r F o r c e F i n a n c e C e n t e r ( 1 8 ) redevelopment. Improve the connection between the Lowry and Stapleton redevelopment areas via the existing on-street bicycle routes on Syracuse Street (Route D-19) and Yosemite Street (Route D21). Coordinate the connections between these routes and the W e s t e r l y C r e e k T r a i l s ( 1 9 ) in Lowry and Stapleton. Parks & Trails Hutchinson East Park (15) and Goldsmith Gulch to Hutchinson Park (16) Air Force Finance Center (18) Westerly Creek Trails (19)

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 61 Coordinate trail construction of the D e r b y L a t e r a l ( 2 0 ) along this City-owned right-of-way. Coordinate right-of-way preservation and trail construction of H i g h L i n e C a n a l n o r t h o f I -7 7 0 ( 2 1 ) Provide a safe crossing where the High Line Canal Trail crosses 48th Avenue at Picadilly Road. Preserve the right-of-way along the F i r s t C r e e k ( 2 2 ) drainage corridor. Coordinate construction of the trail through the Gateway area. Coordinate rightof-way preservation and trail construction with City agencies, local developers and property owners. Preserve the right-of-way along the S e c o n d C r e e k ( 2 3 ) drainage corridor. Construct these trails through the Gateway area. Coordinate right-of-way preservation and trail construction with City agencies, local developers and property owners. Construct the recreational trail to the north and west of P e a B o u l e v a r d ( 2 4 ) to connect the First Creek Trail to the Second Creek Trail, the E-470 Trail and Denver International Airport. Encourage the E-470 Authority to construct the E -4 4 7 0 R e c r e a t i o n a l T r a i l ( 2 5 ) in the land acquired for the highway right-of-way. Pursue the trail connections from B o w M a r t o G r a n t R a n c h ( 2 6 ) south of Marston Lake, with a crusher fine trail through Mary's Meadow. Parks & Trails Newly improved Platte River Trail along Overland Golf Course. Derby Lateral (20), High Line Canal North of I-70 (21), First Creek (22), Second Creek (23), Pea Boulevard (24), and E-470 Recreational Trail (25) Connections(20) (21) (25) (22) (24) (23)

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62DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 Afavorable setback from traffic reduces user concerns on this portion of the First Avenue sidewalk used by the Cherry Creek Trail. F a m i l y B i c y c l e L o o p s Although bicycle loops exist within Cheesman, Sloan Lake, and City Parks, other routes may be possible. By creating loops which incorporate existing offstreet trails with designated onstreet trails, possibilities for family/recreational loops can be found in most areas of the city. The following list describes loops that follow the above suggested scenario: 1.Bear Creek Loop: Bear Creek Trail to Raleigh Street (D-1) to Yale Avenue (D-20) to Lamar Street (Bear Valley neighborhood route). 2.West Harvard Gulch Loop: West Harvard Gulch Trail (D-20) to Zuni Street (D-5) to Sanderson Gulch Trail (D-18) to Irving Street (D-3). 3.Sanderson Gulch Loop: Sanderson Gulch (D-18) to Irving Street (D-3) to Westwood Trail to Raleigh Street (D-1). 4.Cheesman Park Loop: Cheesman Park Loop (D11) to 12th Avenue (D10) to Sherman Street (D-9) to 7th Avenue (D12) to Williams Street (Cheesman Park/D-11). 5.Washington Park Loop: Washington Park Loop (D-11) to Exposition Avenue/Bonnie Brae Boulevard (D-16) to Steele Street (D-13) to Florida/Race/Louisiana (D-18). 6.Bible Park Loop: High Line Canal to Yale/Oneida (D-17) to Iliff Avenue (D-20) to Holly and High Line Canal. 7.High Line Canal Loop: High Line Canal (D-18) to Cherry Creek Trail/Cherry Creek Drive South (D-19) to Florida Avenue (D-18). Recreational Bicycling Family Bicycle Loops Recommendations -Designate family bicycle loops to encourage recreational riding. Place directional signage along the loop routes.

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 63 Mountain biking is part of the “Colorado Lifestyle.” B i c y c l e R a c i n g Bicycle racing emerged as an issue in the Update because racers and fitness riders wanted a place they could train. Users of the offstreet trail system also stated this as an issue because of the potential conflicts on the trails between higher speed bicyclists and slower speed pedestrians, joggers, and recreational bicyclists. D e f i n i t i o n This section refers to “bicycle racing” as a competition or training for a competition. Racers want to ride at a continuous pace for a length of time without interruption or undue impediment. Bicycle racing comes in many forms including road bike racing, mountain bike racing, BMX (“Bicycle Moto Cross”) racing, track racing in a velodrome, and hand bike racing for disabled athletes. D e s i r a b l e V e n u e s For bicycle racing and training, roads with low to medium levels of traffic and few stop signs or traffic signals are preferable. On streets with speed limits from 25 to 30 MPH, racers are traveling at speeds similar to vehicle traffic. The road should have a wide curb lane, shoulder, or bike lane, or be low speed and volume. Low volumes of turning traffic characterize favorable training routes. Often, routes with traffic calming devices such as chokers, chicanes, and traffic circles deter bicycle racers from using them. In general, streets that are better for bicycle race training are essentially those in the Denver onstreet bicycle route system. The trail system in Denver is appealing for training because it is continuous with few stop signs or traffic signals, has no vehicular traffic, and has well maintained surfaces. However, the use of trails for training should be discouraged because the bicyclists become to pedestrians what motorists are to bicyclists on the street: vehicles moving at a much higher rate of speed in the same travel area. The best areas for racers to ride exist outside the City and County of Denver in more suburban/rural locations where traffic volumes are lower and there are few traffic signals to interrupt training. One area in Denver where these conditions exist is in the northeast. As development occurs in this area, Recreational Bicycling Mountain Biking at Corona Pass looking west towards Winter Park.

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64DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 Many weekend recreational bicyclists could become weekday urban cyclists. the desirability of the routes for training will decrease without careful planning and consideration. C o m p e t i t i v e B i c y c l i n g Road racing has several forms. Criterium racing involves racing around a short circuit as small as 3 or 4 city blocks for a specified amount of time or number of laps. This type of racing requires total road closures and strict traffic control to protect the racers from collisions with vehicles. Time trials involve racing from one point to another and generally require long sections of road that at a minimum are closed to motorists travelling in the same direction. Street sprinting is a type of road race and typically takes place on a closed road that is one to four blocks long. Track bicyclists ride fixed gear bikes, which require that they pedal anytime that the bicycle is in motion. Track racing takes place in a velodrome a short oval of racing surface with steeply banked curves to allow for speeds in excess of 35 MPH. A good example is the velodrome in Colorado Springs where the Olympic team trains and others race on a weekly basis. There has been some interest in creating a velodrome within the City of Denver, with specific opportunities in the Stapleton or Prospect redevelopment areas. Mountain bike racing comes in several forms, including point-topoint cross-country racing and downhill racing. BMX racing and training requires a separate BMX track made of dirt with jumps and other terrain features. Denver could combine a BMX facility with a circuit mountain bike racing facility and even a velodrome on a relatively limited amount of land. O b t a i n i n g R a c e P e r m i t s The process of obtaining permission from the City and County of Denver to hold a bicycle race is difficult and the criteria are not well defined. The only bicycle races held regularly in the City of Denver are the City Park Criterium and the Bannock Street Criterium, with the 2001 season featuring a street sprint race in Lower Downtown. General guidelines would help applicants negotiate the process more effectively and help to further develop Denver as a racing venue. Recreational Bicycling “ The where is the most difficult part; to find a good velodrome at altitude. I want to do it (World Hour Record) one time, do it well and never do it again. But it’s hard to find a fast indoor velodrome at altitude. One thing we’ve talked about is to build a track in America. It should be at about 6,000 feet altitude.”Lance Armstrong, Tour De France winner in 1999, 2000, and 2001 expressing an interest in a velodrome around 6,000 feet above sea level in America World Mountain Bike Championships at Vail.

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 65 D e v e l o p m e n t o f B i c y c l e R a c i n g P a r t i c i p a t i o n : Overall, there is a large untapped potential in further developing the sport of bicycle racing in Denver. Many professional bicycle racers choose to live in Colorado. While schools and recreation centers generally offer training and facilities for a variety of other sports, allowing candidate athletes to find a sport at which they can excel, bicycle racing does not have a corresponding level of promotion. Recreational Bicycling Mountain biking amongst the aspens approaching Boreas Pass. Bicycle Racing Recommendations -Continue to improve maintenance such as pavement defects and sweeping for the on-street route system. Install signage for all routes. Ensure safe conditions for bicyclists if traffic calming measures are installed on the bicycle route system streets. -Investigate possible locations for a BMX/Velodrome/Mountain Bike Circuit facility in vacant or redeveloping areas within the city. Plan bicycle racing and training routes in Denver. Develop general guidelines for acceptable street closures for bicycle races. -Encourage the development of new bicycle racers via the juniors, seniors and citizens categories of bike racing.

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66DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 Anew bike/pedestrian bridge on the Iliff Ave. alignment would connect the Platte River Trail to the Light Rail Station at Evans Ave. O v e r v i e w : The Regional Transportation District (RTD) is the Denver metropolitan areaÂ’s local mass transit provider. RTD understands that one of its great opportunities is the bicycle / pedestrian element, since these patrons have already begun their trip without the use of their automobile and therefore could rely on transit more than those commuters who began their trip in their personal automobile. Although the CityÂ’s Bicycle Master Plan Update process is a separate effort from RTDÂ’s bicycle planning, the two must work in unison to facilitate a modal shift. In the 1993 DBMP, there were several issues that related to transit, transit stations, and RTD in general. The Plan stated the following regarding light rail: R T D L i g h t R a i l L i n e : Develop safe bicycle access to, and parking at light rail stations. (Ongoing) Explore the possibility of accommodating bicycles on trains. (Ongoing) Future improvements could be made, including rolling stock that will carry bikes without creating vestibule conflicts. While the T-REX extension will continue to operate with high-floor vehicles, future light rail vehicle purchases could be low-floor models (that include folding seats as well as suspension hooks from the ceiling.) Provide lockers and racks for long-term parking at intercept stations at the transit stations. (Ongoing) Provide directional information, including bicycle route information, to major civic attractions. (Ongoing) In the downtown area, reduce bicycle hazards at nonperpendicular bicycle crossings of light rail tracks through use of warning signs. (Ongoing. Future rail stations should make necessary rail crossings as smooth as possible for both pedesTransit Access and Accommodations Light rail and trail bridge in Calgary. Good planning resulted in accommodating both light rail and trail users.

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 67 Typical valet bicycle parking at a Dutch commuter rail station. trians and bicyclists.) Many of these issues have been implemented as part of the light rail station construction and station upgrades, but this must be an ongoing process. B i c y c l e C o n n e c t i o n s t o R T D F a c i l i t i e s Bike access to transit facilities is a key component of RTDÂ’s future development. As RTDÂ’s service increases within neighborhoods, there is an opportunity to increase non-motorized trips to transit stations and local bus stops. The full value of these transit services will not be realized without bicycle and pedestrian friendly connections around new and existing transit stops. Established in 1998, RTDÂ’s Bike on Bus program provides busmounted bike racks to serve the bicyclist market, which increase the distance that bicyclists can travel. Today RTDÂ’s bike racks can carry two bikes on every RTD Local, Limited, Express, and Regional bus. RTD estimates that their buses carry more than 500,000 bikes a year or about 1.4% of all summer weekday bus boardings. Because of the location of the light rail stations and park-nRides along major arterials and railroad corridors, bicycle access can be difficult. RTD has built pedestrian bridges/underpasses at the Westminster park-n-Ride, the Mineral Avenue Light Rail Station and the Thornton park-nRide. Bike/pedestrian bridges were initially requested and considered for several T-REX Stations but due to financial constraints were not included in the final alternative. The Nine-Mile Station at I-225 and Parker Road is currently the only proposed location for a pedestrian/bicycle underpass in the entire T-REX project area. Several important connections are missing in the CityÂ’s bicycle grid route system which are also bicycle and pedestrian connections to light rail stations (as defined by both the City of DenverÂ’s Bicycle Master Plan as well as by RTD). These include the following: The Broadway Station from the Platte River trail and from Washington Park/West Washington Park neighborhoods: A Transit Access and Accommodations Bicyclists must obtain an RTD Bike Permit to bring their bikes on board the light rail vehicles.

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68DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 Temporary bicycle parking at community events. bicycle/pedestrian bridge at East Ohio Avenue across Lincoln Street and Broadway, or at East Mississippi Avenue across I-25 should be constructed to connect to and from the east. From the west, a connection on Acoma Street parallel to the light rail tracks, between the existing buildings to the east and the tracks could provide direct bicycle access to the station; access across or under the light rail tracks is necessary just south of the station. Station area redevelopment plans should include a bicycle/pedestrian bridge to carry people over the BNSF and UP railroad tracks and connect with the Platte River Trail adjacent to Vanderbilt Park and the West Mississippi Avenue commercial district. The Evans Avenue Station from the Platte River Trail and Overland neighborhood: A new bicycle/pedestrian bridge across Santa Fe Drive on the Iliff Avenue or Warren Avenue alignments should be built to connect Overland neighborhood residents to the Evans Avenue Station. Additionally, this bridge would connect residents from the Rosedale, University and University Park neighborhoods to the Platte River Trail. Overall, this bridge would resolve a major missing link in bike route D-20. The Colorado Center from the Virginia Vale neighborhood: A new bicycle/pedestrian bridge crossing I-25 on the Bellaire Street alignment should be built, as discussed in the major missing links section. Connection to the south would require upgrading the existing traffic signal at Evans and Birch to a four-way signal with bicycle detection. T -R R E X C o n s t r u c t i o n B i c y c l e S t r a t e g i e s Bike access to transit is a component of the T-REX project that Transit Access and Accommodations The constuction of the Central Platte Valley light rail tracks leaves space for a bicycle connection under the Speer viduct to reach the Pepsi Center from the Cherry Creek Trail

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 69 Denver invented the bike/ped detour sign. Transit Access and Accommodations needs to be resolved in the long term. In the near term, the immediate issue is how to accommodate bicyclists throughout the area during construction. The TREX team is currently developing the construction phasing plans for the project. The Southeast Corridor EIS: Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan (which was prepared prior to the project being renamed as the T-REX project) acknowledges that during construction, there will be street closures and detours, particularly between Logan Street and Evans Avenue where bridges will be replaced. With the phasing plans in place, a major emphasis will be handling emergency vehicles that must traverse I-25 in a timely manner. This will be a great benefit for bicycle connections, as two nearby bridges will likely remain open at any one time and no two adjacent bridges will likely be replaced concurrently. The Southeast Corridor EIS: Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan suggests that detours during construction should be well marked and as much advance notice as possible should be given to insure the safety of both bicyclists and motorists. More importantly, a detour plan must be laid out that will ensure that bicyclists do not have to travel a great distance out of their way to cross over I-25. Northern Portion of I-25: The northern segment which stretches from Broadway to University Boulevard is depressed for much of its length with bike route D-9 crossing on Logan Street and bike routes D-11 and D-18 crossing on Franklin Street (both of which are non-interchange bridges). This section of the I-25 corridor will be the greatest challenge during construction due to the many bridge structures that must be replaced within a very short distance. Two adjoining bridges should remain open at any one time and no two adjacent bridges should be replaced concurrently. The possibility of a phased demolition of the Franklin Street bridge should be considered (corresponding to the phased demolition of the Steele/St.

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70DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 RTD provides bicycle racks on the front of its buses with space for two bicycles. Paul Street bridge). Advance warning signage along the route should extend well beyond the construction area to give bicyclists ample warning of the detour around the construction areas. Central Portion of I-25: The central portion of the corridor, which stretches from University Boulevard to Evans Avenue, has only bike route D-13 that crosses I-25 at Steele Street (a non-interchange bridge). The phased demolition of the Steele/St. Paul Street Bridge resolves the need for any bicycle and pedestrian detour. Southern Portion of I-25 (including I-225): The southern portion of the corridor has a suburban character, as highway exits and the associated overpasses and underpasses are generally spaced at least a mile apart. This portion includes the proposed bicycle/pedestrian bridge connection adjacent to Iliff Avenue and Dahlia Street for routes D-15 and D-20, the High Line Canal Trail underpass between the Yale Avenue and Hampden Avenue interchanges, and bike route D-22 crossing at Quincy Avenue (a non-interchange bridge). R e c o m m e n d e d D e t a i l s : The following temporary detours should be used during construction of the T-REX project: High Line Canal Underpass: During construction, the Yale Avenue interchange should be used as the temporary detour to cross I-25 when the High Line Canal Underpass is reconstructed. Quincy Avenue (Route D22): The likeliest detour will be via Monaco Street, Union Avenue and Quebec Street. Bicyclists who feel comfortable using Happy Canyon Road and Quincy Avenue under current conditions Transit Access and Accommodations Bicyclists and light rail share the road in Basel, Switzerland.

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 71 The original Bikestation in Long Beach, California. may not be willing to use this detour route. As part of the detour, signage should be installed to remind motorists to “Share the Road”. Quebec Street (Route D17): Quebec Street is the best link to the Denver Tech Center but Yosemite also offers very good access. The Yosemite and Quebec Street Bridges should not be replaced concurrently. Yosemite Street (Route D19): The Yosemite and Quebec Street Bridges should not be replaced concurrently. Goldsmith Gulch Trail: The Goldsmith trail provides access to the Denver Tech Center and should serve as an alternate route if both Quebec and Yosemite Street bridges are reconstructed concurrently. L i g h t R a i l / B i c y c l e A c c o m m o d a t i o n s Currently, 24 cities in North America have light rail systems, including eighteen in the United States. Each light rail system has its own rules to accommodate bicycles on trains. Because of high passenger volumes on light rail vehicles, in many cases bicycle access to trains is secondary to function and efficiency for other users. RTD rules permit two bicycles per train. Originally, RTD allowed bicycles on trains only during off-peak times; it now also allows bicycles on light rail vehicles during the peak period, but only in the reverse peak direction. This should be revisited when service along I-25 begins in 2008, especially if the reverse commute to the Denver Tech Center becomes significant, as is currently the case with automobile traffic. B i k e R a c k s o n L i g h t R a i l V e h i c l e s RTD should consider installing bike racks inside the current fleet of light rail vehicles. Future light rail vehicle procurements should be low-floor models (like those in Portland) that are equipped with Transit Access and Accommodations

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72DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 folding seats and ceiling suspension hooks in designated areas. These modifications will benefit multiple users, as passengers with baby strollers or other larger items will be able to fit them more easily on the light rail vehicles, as well as for bicyclists. Currently, bicyclists must carry their bicycles up the stairs, then stand and hold their bicycles in the vestibules at the end of cars. Bicycles are not allowed in the front vestibule of the train near the driver. This creates conflicts with other passengers who need to pass through the vestibules when entering and exiting the light rail vehicle. Additionally, RTD requires bicyclists to carry a permit while riding on light rail with their bicycles. These permits are available for free at several locations as well as on the RTD website: www.RTD-Denver.com. S i g n a g e Signage should be placed around all existing and future light rail stations and park-n-Ride facilities. The signage should be consistent with existing directional signage. These signs should be placed in locations that make them obvious to bicyclists and pedestrians, as well as to motorists. Currently the signage that defines connections to the bike route and trail system is poor or non-existent at many stations. Extensive work is needed to better connect light rail stations and park-n-Ride facilities with the CityÂ’s bicycle route and trail system. For on-street routes, signage should be placed so that motorists can see it to increase their awareness of the likely presence of bicyclists. Signage assemblies with station name destination plaques included can also act as a marketing device to encourage and facilitate a modal shift from driving to bicycling and transit. P a r k i n g Bicycle parking at light rail stations, park-n-Rides and bus stops has become a central element of RTDÂ’s bike plan since many bike/transit passengers do not need their bike at their final destination. For these passengers, safe and convenient bike parking is needed at their origin light rail station, park-n-Ride or bus stop. RTD has offered bike racks at Transit Access and Accommodations Solid color bus and bike lanes in Austraila.

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 73 Transit Access and Accommodations The location of RTD Park-n-Rides in relation to the grid routes.

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74DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 most park-n-Rides since the 1980’s, and bike lockers at various locations since the 1990's. RTD’s bike plan categorizes bike parking into two tiers of security: Tier 1 includes bike racks and bike lockers, and Tier 2 includes Bike Corrals and Bikestations. RTD currently has approximately 500 “Inverted U” type bike racks located at 76 different locations throughout the District. There are also more than 500 bike lockers available at 42 park-n-Rides and Stations district wide. B i k e s t a t i o n s Bike Corrals or Bikestations are two innovative approaches to park a large number of bikes commonly used in Europe, Japan, and California. A Bike Corral is a fully secured enclosure that is designed to offer access to a limited number of people via a “smart card” (or electronic card key). Bikes can be secured on the inside with the use of individual locks for added security. Bikestations, first developed in Long Beach in 1996, are staffed facilities that offer services and amenities such as bicycle parking, bicycle repair, bicycle rentals, bicycle accessories, restrooms, changing facilities and snack bars. RTD has approved the construction of a Bikestation at Union Station (DUT), and is considering additional facilities in Boulder and Cherry Creek North. The Union Station Bikestation (also referred to as “The Hub”) is currently programmed and budgeted for an anticipated opening date of 2003. The Hub will include bike parking, bike repair, bike rentals, a commuter store, and alternative modes information. Additional services such as showers and lockers, food vendors and a patio seating area, electric vehicles, and ski rentals may be included. A second Bikestation is envisioned for the Boulder Terminal at 14th and Walnut in downtown Boulder. Transportation Solutions, the TMA for the Cherry Creek area is sponsoring the Cherry Creek North Bikestation, scheduled to open in 2002. Several other locations for Bikestations have also been identified, including the University Boulevard station, the Colorado Center light rail station, and the Broadway and I-25 light rail station/park-n-ride. Outside of Denver, the Mineral Avenue Transit Access and Accommodations Proposed Bikestation design for Denver Union Terminal location. Bicycle accommodations on board Amtrak.

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 75 Station is a good candidate also. Bikestation use should be monitored and if patronage is significant, others should be implemented especially as the future light rail stations along the T-REX project are constructed. These Bikestations should be a joint venture between the City of Denver, RTD, developers, and the local business community. Transit Access and Accommodations Central Platte Valley light rail crossing of the Cherry Creek Trail.

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76DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 Bike to Work Day events are held annually at Civic Center Park. Denver is a great city for bicycling due to the moderate yearround climate and efforts made by city staff and the Mayor’s Bicycle Advisory Committee (MBAC) over the past 10 years. This is a critical and exciting time for bicycling in Denver the ground work has been done, now is the time to expand and promote bicycling in Denver as a viable, safe and convenient mode of transportation for the 21st Century. In 1993 the Denver Bicycle Master Plan (DBMP) noted, that there was “no organized entity that serves as the voice of the bicycle community in Denver.” At that time the MBAC, established in 1990, had begun to fill this advocacy role. The recommendations of the DBMP were to: Further strengthen the role of MBAC Encourage more public inclusion in the process Create and distribute a newsletter The MBAC continues to work with the city’s bicycle planner and various city departments and city officials to review systemic and programmatic bicycle improvements. Other bicycle groups exist in Denver but are social in nature, primarily focused on recreational riding. As the Update process began, there was not a bicycle group in Denver actively involved in bicycle advocacy. A d v o c a c y i n O t h e r M u n i c i p a l i t i e s Bicycle advocacy groups are active in other municipalities within the United States. Some exemplary groups include the Cascade Club in Seattle, WA; Bicycle Transportation Alliance, Portland, OR; Washington Area Bicycle Association, Washington, D.C., the San Francisco Bicycle Coalition; and Transportation Alternatives in New York City. (See Appendix for additional information.) S t r a t e g y t o I n c r e a s e A d v o c a c y E f f o r t s i n D e n v e r The public meetings held during the Update process were opportunities for local bicyclists to sign up as participants in advocacy efforts. The excitement level for advocacy efforts at both public meetings was higher than expected, with more than 50% of the attendees at the first public meeting signing up, and an additional Advocacy “Share the Road” signage alerts motorists to the likely presence of bicyclists and encourages cooperation between modes.

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 77 20% of attendees at the second public meeting. The advocates indicated their areas of interest, resulting in the formation of five groups: Access Communication/PR/Safety Events Education Youth The advocates held an open-house meeting and organized themselves as Bike Denver. They continue to meet on a regular basis and have already proven to be critical in the process of RTD Board approval of the Bikestation funding. Advocacy www.bikedenver.orgBikeDenver recently organized to give bicyclists in Denver a unified voice. Advocacy Recommendations and Next Steps: An organized advocacy group should spur increased interest and participation by the bicycling community and other alternative transportation mode commuters to make bicycling in Denver a safe, convenient, desirable and healthy mode of transportation. -The advocacy group should actively advocate and support bicycle/alternative transportation plans in the Denver metro-area, such as the recommendations of this Update and other plans. -The advocacy group should not be an extension of the MBAC, the City & County of Denver, or any other local government. The group should function independently. Ideally, BikeDenver should define and champion: Collaborative program development Potential bicycle/alternative transportation day promotions Education efforts, such as collaborative efforts with the Denver Public Schools and the Cycle Safety Circus for Kids An action plan for public/private promotions of bicycling/alternative modes Public and private funding roles and opportunities The City & County of Denver and MBAC as well as other metro-area local governments should work collectively with the advocacy group to foster and develop programs, coordinate planning efforts and support alternative transportation in general.

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78DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 GR I DRO U T ESY S T E MGOAL: Identify the next round of priorities for expanding the grid and neighborhood route system. R esponsibility T ask T ar get Date Public WorksComplete signage on 2002 D-5 and D-22. Sign the central portions of routes D-16 and D-20. Public WorksSign D-3 and D-7. 2003 Public WorksSeek funding to complete 2004-2012 signage of the rest of the route system. Public WorksSeek opportunities to Ongoing work with neighborhoods to identify and sign neighborhood bike routes. Public WorksWork with maintenance to Ongoing improve checks for vandalism, fading, and other sign improvements. DO W N T O W NBI C Y C L I N GGOAL: Make Downtown Denver bicycle friendly. R esponsibility T ask T ar get Date Public WorksCreate a system of Summer 2002 Downtown bicycle lanes. Public Works Propose changes to theSummer 2002 16th Street Mall ordinance. Public WorksPropose bicycle messenger Fall 2002 and pedal cab ordinance to regulate, promote, and formalize these services. Public Works Work with the Denver Police Winter 2002 Department to increase enforcement of existing and secure city council approval of proposed, new bicycle-related ordinances. Implementation

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DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 79 MA J O RMI S S I N GLI N K SGOAL: Close the gaps in the existing bicycle routes to complete the bicycle grid route system. R esponsibility T ask T ar get Date CityPursue the necessary 1-2 projects/year funding to implement the projects identified in the Major Missing Links section. CitySeek opportunities to 1-2 projects/year eliminate major missing links as part of other projects. PA R K S& TR A I L SGOAL: To enhance a system of off-street, multi-use trails to allow users of all types an opportunity to recreate and commute safely without the worries of riding with motorized vehicle traffic. R esponsibility T ask T ar get Dates Parks and Communicate Ongoing Recreationregularly with Public Works and the MBAC about upcoming projects and funding opportunities Public WorksSeek funding and Ongoing partnership opportunities with parks and private developers to establish these parks connections RE C R E A T I O N A LBI C Y C L I N GGOAL: Increase opportunities for recreational bicycling. R esponsibility T ask T ar get Date Bicycle Racing Implement training programOngoing Communityto attract new racers. Bicycle RacingSolicit funding for race Ongoing Communityevents, training facilities and velodrome. Implementation The City of Denver has installed thousands of bike racks.

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80DENVERBICYCLEMASTERPLANUPDATE2001 TR A N S I TAC C E S S A N DAC C O M M O D A T I O N SGOAL: Make bicycle and transit travel work in a seamless manner. R esponsibility T ask T ar get Date Public WorksImplement the 2002-2006 identified bicycle routes to the Broadway, Evans and Colorado Center stations. Public WorksCoordinate with Continuous CDOT to ensure 2002-2007 continuous bicycle access during Southeast Corridor T-REX construction. Public WorksSupport RTD policy As opportunities changes and Bikestations arise RTDImplement the 2007 recommendations to improve the accommodation of bicycles on new and existing light rail vehicles and at transit facilities. AD V O C A C YGOAL: Organize bicycle enthusiasts to promote bicycling in Denver. R esponsibility T ask T ar get Date MayorÂ’s BicycleCoordinate the Ongoing Advisory activities of bicycle Committeegroups towards achieving common goals. Advocacy GroupForm an independent Winter 2001 advocacy group from the bicycle community to promote bicycling in Denver. Implementation

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