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Denver Civic Center National Historic Landmark nomination packet

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Title:
Denver Civic Center National Historic Landmark nomination packet
Creator:
City and County of Denver
Place of Publication:
Washington, D.C.
Publisher:
National Parks Service, United States Department of the Interior
Publication Date:
Language:
English

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Subjects / Keywords:
Civic Center (Denver, Colo.)
Historic preservation
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Denver -- Civic Center

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Auraria Library
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Auraria Library
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Copyright [name of copyright holder or Creator or Publisher as appropriate]. Permission granted to University of Colorado Denver to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Full Text
Site Number: 5DV.161/5DV.11336
Please Note
The Denver Civic Center National Historic
Landmark District does not include all of the original
recorded features and buildings listed within the
Civic Center National Register Historic District
(5DV. 161) and has a different boundary. Therefore,
OAHP has assigned a new site number for the
National Historic Landmark District (5DV.11336).
6/2013
A.Liverman/E. Schmelzer


NATIONAL HISTORIC LANDMARK NOMINATION
NPS Form 10-900 USDFNPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86)
DENVER CIVIC CENTER
United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service__________________
OMB No. 1024-0018
Page 1
National Register of Historic Places Registration Form
1. NAME OF PROPERTY
Historic Name:
Denver Civic Center
Other Name/Site Number: 5DV161
2. LOCATION
Street & Number: Approximately Grant to Cherokee Streets and 14th to Colfax Avenues Not for publication: N/A
City/Town: Denver Vicinity: N/A
State: CO County: Denver Code: 031 Zip Code: 80204
3. CLASSIFICATION
Ownership of Property
Private: ____
Public-Local: X
Public-State: X
Public-Federal:____
Category of Property
Building(s): ________
District: X
Site: ______
Structure: ______
Object: ______
Number of Resources within Property
Contributing
5
1
2
10
18
Noncontributing
___0_ buildings
___0_ sites
___0_ structures
___9_ objects
___9 Total
Number of Contributing Resources Previously Listed in the National Register: 15
Name of Related Multiple Property Listing: N/A


NPS Form 10-900
USDFNPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86)
OMB No. 1024-0018
PROPERTY NAME Page 2
United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form
4. STATE/FEDERAL AGENCY CERTIFICATION
As the designated authority under the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended, I hereby certify
that this____ nomination_______request for determination of eligibility meets the documentation standards for
registering properties in the National Register of Historic Places and meets the procedural and professional
requirements set forth in 36 CFR Part 60. In my opinion, the property_____meets_______does not meet the
National Register Criteria.
Signature of Certifying Official
Date
State or Federal Agency and Bureau
In my opinion, the property_____________meets__________does not meet the National Register criteria.
Signature of Commenting or Other Official
Date
State or Federal Agency and Bureau
5. NATIONAL PARK SERVICE CERTIFICATION
I hereby certify that this property is:
____ Entered in the National Register
____ Determined eligible for the National Register
____ Determined not eligible for the National Register
____ Removed from the National Register
____ Other (explain):
Signature of Keeper
Date of Action


NPS Form 10-900
USDFNPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86)
OMB No. 1024-0018
DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 3
United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form
6. FUNCTION OR USE
Historic: Politics and Government Sub civic center
Landscape Sub park
Entertainment and Recreation Sub outdoor recreation
Transportation Sub pedestrian-related
Current: Politics and Government Sub civic center
Landscape Sub park
Entertainment and Recreation Sub outdoor recreation
Transportation Sub pedestrian-related
7. DESCRIPTION
ARCHITECTURAL CLASSIFICATION: Late 19th and 20th Century Revivals/Beaux Arts/Beaux Arts
Classicism
MATERIALS:
Foundation:
Walls:
Roof:
Other:
Stone/granite
Stone/granite; Stone/marble; Stone/sandstone
Metal; Terra Cotta
Metal/bronze; Stone/granite


NPS Form 10-900
USDFNPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86)
OMB No. 1024-0018
DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 4
United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form
INTRODUCTION
Located immediately south of Denvers central business district, the Denver Civic Center National Historic
Landmark (NHL) is a nationally significant public landscape and collection of public buildings and monuments
highly evocative of the nations City Beautiful movement. As it exists today, the thirty-three-acre civic center
took form in several stages beginning in 1890 and ending in 1935. Despite its lengthy evolution, the center
reflects a continuum of progressive thought about civic betterment, regional character, and public architecture,
while stylistically adhering to overriding principles of formal order, symmetrical balance, and neoclassical
expression.
Today, the Denver Civic Center represents one of the most complete and intact examples of early-twentieth-
century civic center design nationwide. It ranks highly among the handful of City Beautiful civic centers
nationwide that, inspired by the 1900 Macmillan Plan for the nations capital in Washington, D.C., actually
reached a stage of completion. Other notable examples exist in San Francisco and Cleveland. The Denver
example possesses a remarkable degree of artistic quality and historic integrity in its overall synthesis of design,
interpretation of neoclassical elements of design, and representation of American ideals and heritage.
The construction of the Colorado State Capitol on one of the citys highest points between 1890 and 1908
served as the catalyst for the development of a larger, urban park to celebrate the role of Colorado in settling the
American West and provide a dignified setting for the highly important functions of state and local government.
Along the major east-west axis leading away from the statehouse, the public landscape gradually expanded
westward through the development of a sequence of parks, each with its own special function and character,
while integrated into a single, balanced and unified plan. Other stately buildings and monuments were built
opposite the statehouse and at the edge of the parkland. Beaux-Arts principles of spatial organization and a rich
vocabulary of neoclassical features unified the ensemble of built features. Stone construction throughout
showcased Colorados rich deposits of granite, sandstone, and marble, further imparting a sense of permanence
and solidity to the whole. The development of the massive Denver City and County Building and its grounds in
the 1930s formed the western terminus of the landscape, bringing closure physically and figuratively to a design
process that had taken more than four decades and involved some of the nations most accomplished planners,
architects, landscape architects, and artists.
The Denver Civic Center is nationally significant in the areas of community planning and development,
landscape architecture, architecture, and art. Under the theme, Transforming the Environment, the historic
district meets NHL Criterion 1 for its association with the City Beautiful movement, the origins of city planning
in America, and early twentieth-century efforts to define and celebrate the principles of democracy and the vital
role of local and state government in American history and life. Under the theme, Expressing Cultural Values, it
meets NHL Criterion 4 for its embodiment of Beaux-Arts inspired architecture and landscape architecture, its
exemplary physical representation of City Beautiful ideals, and its demonstration of a collaborative design
process that, introduced at the 1893 Worlds Columbian Exposition, characterized the creation of public works
in the United States in the twentieth century. The period of national significance extends from 1890, to include
the date the cornerstone was laid and construction began on the Colorado State Capitol, and extends to 1935 to
recognize the completion of the Denver City and County Building grounds in 1935.
In response to the City Beautiful movement and the emergence of city planning as an essential function of local
government, enumerable plans for civic centers were developed for American cities in the early twentieth
century. Most of these remained plans on paper only, never receiving public support and funding. Denvers
experience was the exception. Mayor Robert Walter Speer, nationally recognized for his progressive leadership,
persistently promoted the concept, gamering support from the various commissions that controlled the city
government as well as the voting public. The design was shaped by a succession of nationally renowned


NPS Form 10-900
USDFNPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86)
OMB No. 1024-0018
DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 5
United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form
designers, including Charles Mulford Robinson, Frederick MacMonnies, Frederick Law Olmsted Jr., and finally
Edward H. Bennett, whose ingenious 1917 plan brought synthesis to a number of earlier proposals, resolved the
functional and aesthetic problems that had hindered previous plans, and gave material form to the civic center
that exists today.
The Denver Civic Center reflects an extraordinary integration of civic arts-a hallmark of the City Beautiful
movement. Some of the nations most distinguished early twentieth-century architects, landscape architects, and
artists contributed to its design. Individual buildings and structures within the district reflect the inspiration of
Elijah E. Myers, renowned for his design of state capitols, and respected Denver architects and architectural
firms, including Frank E. Edbrooke, Fisher and Fisher, Marean and Norton, William N. Bowman, and the
Allied Architects Association. City landscape architects, Reinhard Schuetze and Saco De Boer, influenced site
layout and plantings. Nationally recognized artists of the period produced works of art blending classical forms
with popular regional themes; these individuals included muralist Allen Tupper True and sculptors Frederick
MacMonnies, Alexander Phimister Proctor, Preston Powers, and Robert Garrison.
The Colorado State Capitol, an exceptional example of Renaissance Revival, today continues to dominate the
east end of the civic center and from its west front provides an open vista toward the Front Range of the Rocky
Mountains. At a lower elevation at the west end of the civic center, the Denver City and County Building, a
monumental public building in the Georgian Revival style, provides a dignified counterpoint to the statehouse.
In between, the public grounds of the Capitol, Lincoln Park, Civic Center Park, and the forecourt of the
municipal building are embellished with a variety of landscape features that contribute to an attractive and
inspiring park setting and echo the grandeur and neoclassical vocabulary of the nearby buildings. These features
include groves and borders of trees, expanses of lawn and formal flowerbeds, pedestrian walkways and paved
plazas, elaborate balustrades, fountains, and a reflecting pool.
Marking the termini of a grand transverse axis, two colonnaded structuresthe Voorhies Monumental Gateway
(1921) on the north and the Greek Theater and Colonnade of the Civic Benefactors (1919) on the south
continue to draw the public from the expanding business district nearby and offer a venue for public
entertainment and civic engagement as they did when first constructed. Three additional government buildings
inspired by Beaux-Arts Classicismthe Denver Public Library (1910), Colorado State Museum (1915), and
Colorado State Office Building (1921)surround the public landscape and harmonize with the architecture of
the statehouse and city and county building. Located at the edge of the civic center, the Pioneer Monument
(1911) by nationally renowned sculptor Frederick W. MacMonnies celebrates the settling of the American
West. Throughout the landscape, other heroic and commemorative statuary, as well as murals and allegorical
sculpture, evoke meaningful images of western culture and history.
Describe Present and Historic Physical Appearance.
Located in the center of downtown Denver, the Denver Civic Center is classified as a historic district and
contains twenty-seven resources, eighteen (or 67 percent) of which have been evaluated as contributing (see
Table 1). The eighteen contributing resources include the thirty-three acre public landscape (a contributing site),
five public buildings (contributing buildings), the memorial gateway and outdoor theater (contributing
structures), the Pioneer Monument (a contributing object), and four additional works of sculpture, a pair of Civil
War-era cannons, and several memorial flagpoles and water fountains (contributing objects). All contributing
resources were either constructed or installed on the public grounds during the period of significance, 1890 to
1935. Nine additional commemorative features of substantial size, some artistic in nature, were placed on the
grounds after the period of significance and are classified as noncontributing objects. In accordance with NHL
guidelines, only resources substantial in size and scale or having special importance have been classified as


NPS Form 10-900
USDFNPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86)
OMB No. 1024-0018
DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 6
United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form
buildings, structures, or objects and included in the count of contributing and noncontributing resources. Small
features that make up the landscape are considered integral elements of the overall site but are not counted
separately. These include plantings, lampposts, paths and sidewalks, stairways, curbs and coping, balustrades
and walls, and pylons and piers installed during the historic period that today contribute to the historic
character, setting, and integrity of the civic center. In addition, the civic center today includes a number of
nonhistoric walks, paving materials, memorials, and outdoor furnishings (including benches, plaques, signs,
stone posts, trash cans, and lampposts) that are not considered sufficient in size or scale to be counted
individually but have been considered in the overall assessment of historic integrity.
Representative photographs of the resources are included with the nomination and are identified by number on
the sketch map. Contributing resources, sorted by resource type (site, buildings, structures, and objects), are
described below beginning with the overall contributing site that includes the public landscape in its entirety
and is coterminous with the NHL boundaries. Detailed descriptions of the contributing buildings, structures, and
objects follow the site description; they in turn are followed by detailed descriptions of the noncontributing
resources, all of which are classified as objects. The location of each resource and the vantage point of each
photograph appear on the accompanying sketch map. In addition, historical plans and photographs have been
included as figures. A table of the contributing and noncontributing resources appears at the end of section 7,
and biographies of architects, artists, landscape architects, and planners are alphabetically arranged at the end of
section 8.
CONTRIBUTING RESOURCES
Denver Civic Center Site (Resource 1, Contributing Site)
The Denver Civic Center site extends a distance of six city blocks from Grant Street on the east to Cherokee
Street on the west, and a distance varying from one to two city blocks from Colfax Avenue on the north to 14th
Avenue on the south. The entire site is classified as one contributing site. The design and construction of the
civic center evolved chronologically and expanded geographically in several stages beginning with the
construction of the Colorado State Capitol and the laying out of the Capitol grounds in the years between 1890
and 1906, and ending with the completion of the Denver City and County Building and related landscape
improvements in the 1930s. Through a restrained sense of architectural elegance drawn from Renaissance
interpretations of Classical antiquity, the statehouse overlooks the city from its lofty, mile-high location,
anchoring the east end of the civic center. At a lower elevation on the same grade as the surrounding business
district, the city and county building through its stately Colonial Revival presence and vibrant daily activity
anchors the west end, providing a counterbalance to the statehouse and an equally strong sense of importance
and permanence. Reflecting City Beautiful principles, the references to classical antiquity and the spatial
organization visually and symbolically conveys the cultural forces and political balance that forged the nations
westward expansion. (Photographs 1 & 2)
The introduction of two transverse axes introduced complexity to the design and extended the reach of the civic
center north and south into the surrounding streetscape. The easternmost cross-axis runs through the center of
the statehouse and follows Sherman Street, connecting with the Colorado State Museum on the south and the
Colorado State Office Building on the north. The second cross-axis boldly defines and extends the north and
south boundaries of Civic Center Park. One of most striking features of the civic centers overall spatial
organization, this axis was created about 1920 when two triangular shaped parcels were added on the north and
south sides of the block identified for the future city park that was intended to link the grounds and park in front
of the statehouse with the site proposed for the new city and county building. Shortly after acquisition, the
triangular parcels became the site of the Greek Theater and Colonnade of Civic Benefactors on the south and
the Voorhies Memorial Gateway on the north, articulating the end points of the axis with bold neoclassical
forms. During the period of significance West Colfax and West 14th Avenues were realigned to curve around


NPS Form 10-900
USDFNPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86)
OMB No. 1024-0018
DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 7
United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form
the outside edge of the triangular parcels and enclose what today appears as a pair of symmetrically balanced
semi-elliptical extensions in a city otherwise organized into rigid, rectilinear blocks. (Photographs 3 & 4)
The small triangular parcel on which the Pioneer Monument stands today is another highly important
component of the civic center. Located opposite the northeast comer of Civic Center Park and surrounded by
city streets, this parcel resulted from the earliest efforts of planners to reconcile the east-west orientation of the
statehouse with the existing grid of city streets which was oriented at a forty-five degree angle to the cardinal
compass points. Surrounded on all sides by city streets, the monument is one of the citys first City Beautiful
improvements and today maintains its spatial relationship and historic associations with the Denver Civic
Center. A similar triangular parcel opposite the southeast corner of Civic Center Park was also added to the
civic center during the historic period; now absorbed into the grounds of the new public library, it no longer
retains its historic character and is not included in the district boundaries.
Most of the additions to the grounds since the period of significance stem from its continuing value in
commemorating significant events and recognizing the contributions of special groups to Colorados history.
Most of these consist of additional small-scale memorials and minor landscape features that have been installed
on the Capitol grounds and Lincoln Park. Other alterations relate to the way long-standing commemorative
works are displayed and the need to improve and expand the circulation network within the center due to
increasing visitation by the public. Because of their recent date, they do not contribute to the historical
significance of the Capitol grounds or the overall civic center. Most are not considered of sufficient size or scale
to be counted individually as noncontributing resources.
Despite the long-held purpose and popular support for the integration of varied State and local governmental
functions within the framework of a cohesive public landscape, the completion of the civic center did not occur
until the end of the 1930s. Prior to that decade, the site evolved as four separate but interrelated landscape
components. Set against the backdrop of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, these four landscape
component landscapes today form the central core of the civic center and create a linear mall along the principal
east to west axis from the grounds of the State Capitol on the east and to the forecourt of the city and county
building on the west, with Lincoln Park and Civic Center Park situated in between. Several streets running north
and southLincoln Avenue, Broadway, and Bannock Streetwhich have historically passed through the civic
center continue to geographically separate the component landscapes. The four component landscapes
comprising the contributing civic center site are described below chronologically and in geographical sequence
from east to west.
Colorado State Capitol Grounds (Resource 1: Landscape Component 1)
The design of the Colorado State Capitol and its grounds became the starting point for all subsequent civic
center plans. Designed by landscape architect Reinhard Schuetze between 1895 and 1896, the grounds lie at the
east end of the civic center and occupy two city blocks bounded by East Colfax on the north, East 14th avenue
on the south, Grant Street on the east, and Lincoln Avenue on the west. Sherman Street enters the grounds from
the north and south connecting with an interior loop drive that is roughly elliptical in form and encircles the
statehouse. Today the Capitol grounds contain formal lawns, public sculpture, several memorials, and a variety
of evergreen and deciduous trees, including blue spruce, black walnut, oak, honey locust, catalpa, American
linden, and European beech.
The centerpiece of the grounds is the monumental Colorado State Capitol designed by national renowned
architect Elijah E. Myers in 1885-86 and constructed between 1890 and 1908 under the supervision of Frank E.
Edbrooke (Resource 2). The statehouse occupies the center of grounds with its longer axis measuring 384 feet
north to south and shorter axis measuring 313 feet east to west. Like many state capitols of the period, the
Renaissance Revival building echoes the stately elegance, hilltop setting, and neoclassical form of the United


NPS Form 10-900
USDFNPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86)
OMB No. 1024-0018
DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 8
United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form
States Capitol at Washington D.C. The statehouse has a rock-faced stone foundation, a raised basement with
banded rustication, and walls constructed entirely of gray cut granite from the Aberdeen (Zugelder) quarry in
Gunnison County, Colorado. Monumental porticos on projecting pavilions dominate each elevation, and a
center dome 272 feet high and forty-two feet in diameter rises from a four-story colonnaded drum.1
(Photographs 1 & 5)
Set high on the hill facing the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, the west front of the statehouse was
developed as the primary elevation and today provides spectacular views over the city to the mountain peaks
beyond. Schuetze designed the grounds on the west side as open terraces and sloping lawns that would allow
stately views of the State Capitol from various points in the city while at the same time providing open vistas
towards the Front Range (Photograph 2). The level loop drive encircling the statehouse served the important
aesthetic purpose of visually providing a firm base from which the building emerged, thereby eliminating the
undesirable visual effect of the hilltop building sliding forward. Today the terraced effect is magnified by recent
landscape improvements which have introduced a pair of paved plazas and broadened the central walkway
descending from the west portico to the western boundary. Schuetze was able to extend the public landscape
westward by coordinating the design of the Capitol grounds with that of Lincoln Park, a one-block area at the
base of the hill. As the larger civic center took form in subsequent decades, the axial views expanded to take in
the richly textured landscape of additional parkland and the architectural grandeur of nearby buildings and
monuments.
Historically pedestrian stairways and paths provided entry to the grounds from the northeastern and
southeastern comers of the grounds, while the extension of Sherman Street (closed to through traffic) on the
north and south provided vehicular access from East Colfax and East 14th Avenue and connected with the
interior loop road. The road was laid out on a level grade and forms the outer edge of the elliptical terrace on
which the statehouse was built. Today the road provides circulation in a clockwise direction and is lined with a
narrow concrete sidewalk and parking on each side. The west side of the terrace, like the west portico above it,
provides a magnificent panoramic view of the distant mountain range. Plantings filled the areas within the loop
that flank the comers of the building and framed the wide central stairways that descended from the raised
porticos and served as entrances to the statehouse. Outside the loop drive, the grounds to the east, north, and
south were developed in quadrants as a tree park with informal groupings of deciduous and evergreen trees,
while the hillside on the west was left as an open sloping lawn. From the east grounds, where much of the
historic tree canopy remains today, the tree park wrapped around the corners of the statehouse to frame the
north and south porticos.
One of the most striking features of Schuetzes design was the planting of a continuous double-row of
deciduous trees along the edges of the grounds that bordered city streets on the east, north, and south. A
concrete sidewalk was placed between the two rows of evenly spaced trees, with the overall effect being that of
a formal allee and pleasing promenade. The orderly rows of elms trees were punctuated by symmetrically
balanced walkways and stairways on the east and the openings for Sherman Street on the north and south. In
keeping with nineteenth-century park design, the trees effectively screened the grounds from the traffic and
noise of neighboring city streets. The border plantings, which Schuetze extended into Lincoln Park, also had the
effect of transforming the adjoining streets into tree-lined boulevards and framed views to the west. As the
double-row plantings matured, they accentuated the geometrical structure of the underlying plan and gave bold
relief to the spatial organization of the public landscape.
West Front and West Side Grounds. Schuetzes spatial organization of the sloping west lawn remains the
dominant feature of his work on the Capitol grounds. The grounds framing the principal elevation of the
1 The height of the dome is the equivalent of an average 20-story commercial building, assuming 13 per story.


NPS Form 10-900
USDFNPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86)
OMB No. 1024-0018
DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 9
United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form
Colorado statehouse were developed to draw attention to the refined proportions and restrained elegance of the
statehouse and portray it as a noble citadel when viewed from afar. The west front was further developed to
reveal a series of sweeping, westward vistas. Dominant in the overall design of building and grounds was the
grand central portico with its colossal Corinthian order, bold triangular pediment, and monumental flight of
granite stairs (Photograph 1). The porticos six multi-story columns supported an entablature with a banded
architrave and plain frieze and were linked together at porch level by a balustrade. Surmounting the whole, a
triangular pediment featured a highly moulded raking cornice and a sculptured tympanum depicting in high
relief a pioneer family and gold seekers struggling through the dangerous frontier to the welcoming lands of
Colorado.2
Aligned with the east-west axis of the statehouse, the porticos monumental flight of stairs projected outward
into the surrounding landscape and became the central organizing element in Schuetzes design of the west
grounds. Complementing the exterior materials of the statehouse, the stairway and its sidewalls were
constructed of granite and equipped with brass handrails. Globed lampposts today are mounted on the flanking
side walls. At the base of the stairs, the loop drive was extended outward to form a semi-elliptical viewing bay
below which the front lawn sloped downward. Schuetze designed a central walkway along the east-west axis of
the portico, beginning at the outer edge of the loop drive and descending across the sloping lawn to the base of
the hill. The central walkway divided the west side grounds into a pair of symmetrically balanced quadrants that
extended around the corners of the statehouse to the north and south elevations. The porch of the portico, the
descending granite staircase, the outer edge of the loop drive, and points along the central walkway together
provided a sequence of points from which the city and Front Range could be viewed. As the double rows of
trees along East 14th and East Colfax Avenues matured, they effectively framed the views. During the first
decades of the twentieth century the west slope took the form of an open lawn with grassy terraces extending
outward from a central stairway. Still visible today, the terraces were symmetrically modeled to gradually
diminish and blend into the contours of the natural slope. The central walkway was laid out with a series of
sandstone stairways with intermittent landings which served as viewing terraces. From the base of the hill, the
walkway proceeded into Lincoln Park. Although recently repaved, the central walkway continues to dominate
the west side of the Capitol grounds and descends through a series of terraces and stairways as originally
designed.
In 1909 the Colorado Soldiers Monument was installed in the center of the sloping central walkway to honor
Coloradans who fought in the Civil War (Resource 13). Designed by Captain John D. Howland, a frontier artist
and veteran of the Union Army, the monument consists of an eight-foot bronze statue of a Colorado soldier
facing west toward Lincoln Park and standing atop a high, neoclassically ornamented, granite pedestal
(Photographs 2 & 7). About the same time two Civil War-era cannons were placed nearby on the lawn to either
side of the central walkway (Resources 14 & 15). The monument remains in its original, centrally prominent
location just below the loop drive. The area immediately surrounding it which originally followed the contours
of the downhill slope has been redesigned in the form of a level, paved plaza. Still on its original pedestal, the
statue now rises above a circular planting bed bounded by a raised sandstone wall with round-edged coping.
The Civil War-era cannons, originally placed on pedestals and set on the nearby lawn, are now placed directly
on the plaza pavement in a diagonal orientation several feet north- and southwest of the statue.
The plaza displaying the monument is the smaller of two semi-circular plazas constructed in 1990 between the
west front and the central descending walkway. Decoratively paved, the plazas extend outward from the base of
the west portico in descending tiers along the east-west axis. The decorative patterned pavement of contrasting
2 An unknown artist executed the work. Derek R. Everett, The Colorado State Capitol: History, Politics, Preservation
(Boulder, Colorado: University Press of Colorado, 2005), 67; Federal Writers Project, Guide to 1930s Colorado (New York: Hastings
House, 1941; reprint Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1987), 144.


NPS Form 10-900
USDFNPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86)
OMB No. 1024-0018
DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 10
United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form
sandstone and granite blocks is the most salient feature of the two plazas. The larger, upper plaza extends across
the loop drive and forms a wide viewing terrace. A granite wall with a brass railing separates the upper and
lower levels, and short stairways of the red sandstone descend on each side of the wall to the lower plaza where
the Colorado Soldiers Monument is displayed.
Alterations. Increasing visitation to the Capitol grounds in recent years has necessitated several other changes
on the west grounds. In 1999 a pair of symmetrically balanced walkways was added to west lawn, dividing the
area into roughly triangular areas. The walkways begin at the new central plaza and descend on opposite sides
of the sloping west lawn to the northwest and southwest corners of the Capitol grounds. Today the street corners
have grown up in the form of a tree park, while open grassy areas still flank the central west-facing stairway.
The new walkways are paved with granite, lined by low red sandstone coping and walls, and incorporate
stairways of red sandstone built midway to ease the descent along the steepest sections of the slope (Photograph
6). The location of the paths was based on plans drawn by Reinhard Schuetze about 1900 but not executed
during the historic period.3 Today each walkway forms a graceful elliptical curve, and mirrors the walkways
installed under Schuetzes supervision in nearby Lincoln Park. In 1996, the Colorado Symbols Fence, a hand-
forged work of art four feet high and thirty feet long, was installed across the central walkway at the base of the
west slope. Designed by Colorado artist Rafe Ropek to suggest a gate, it is composed of five hinged and
interconnected steel screens arranged to form a shallow arc. Each screen displays a tracery depicting one of the
official state symbols, such as a bighorn sheep for the state animal, a stegosaurus for the state fossil, and a lark
bunting for the state bird. Small park furnishings include nonhistoric green metal benches and trash receptacles
of design similar to those in Civic Center Park and metal lampposts topped by globe lights.
East Side Grounds. The east side of the Capitol grounds forms the eastern boundary of the civic center. Here
border plantings and tree-covered lawns give the grounds a sense of enclosure and privacy that contrasts with
the open lawns and sweeping vistas that characterize the west grounds. On the east side the grounds are less
expansive and appear subordinate to the grand scale and formality of the projecting porticos and adjoining walls
of the statehouse. While double-rows of evenly spaced deciduous trees and a sidewalk formed the borders
adjacent to East Colfax Avenue, Grant Street, and East 24th Avenue, the inner grounds were characterized by
informal plantings of deciduous and evergreen trees in the form an informally planted tree park. Foundation
plantings, many small evergreen shrubs, were historically planted in the small areas within the loop drive that
flanked the portico stairways and wrapped around the comers of the Capitol building. These helped soften the
transition between the hard-edged surfaces of the building and the tree-covered lawns.
A wide central granite stairway descends from the east portico and merges into a central walkway that,
following the east-west axis of the statehouse, crosses the loop drive and extends to Grant Street. The walkway
divides the east grounds into a pair of symmetrically balanced quadrants each with its innermost comer cut
away by the centrally located loop drive. Schuetze envisioned the loop drive as a narrow carriage road and
designed a pair of pedestrian paths to radiate out from the loop and extend to the northeast and southeast corners
of the grounds, further dividing the quadrants. Because the east end of the grounds lies slightly below the grade
of Grant Street, wide sandstone steps were built at the street corners to allow for adjustments in grade. Wye
intersections with a small triangular swathe of lawn, a convention drawn from nineteenth-century naturalistic
landscape gardening, were introduced on either side of the projecting pavilion to link the radial walkways with
the loop drive. The historic configuration of the pathways remains evident today.
3 Landscape architect Philip E. Flores discovered the ca. 1900 Schuetze plan in showing the planned walkways at the State
Archives. Capitol Complex Facilities, State Historical Fund grant application, 1992-93, A-8, A-15, and 2-1. State Historical Fund,
Colorado Historical Society, Denver, Colorado; Denver Post, 15 May 1999, Bl.


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In 1898 Preston Powerss sculpture, The Closing Era (1893), was placed in the center of the east Capitol
grounds between the grand east portico and Grant Street (Resource 10). Originally displayed at the Worlds
Columbian Exposition, the statue was the first public sculpture installed on the Capitol grounds. The bronze
statue faces east against the backdrop of the east portico and depicts a Native American hunter standing above a
dying buffalo, his bow balanced on the animals shoulder and his left foot resting on its lower back. Supported
on its historic granite pedestal, the sculpture remains on the central pathway in the location selected in 1898
(Photograph 8). In 1996, the area surrounding the sculpture, however, was redesigned in the form of a circular
plaza enclosed by a low sandstone wall with round-edged coping. The plaza has a decorative pavement of
contrasting sandstone and granite blocks, arranged in part to depict a compass rose with embedded metal letters
for the cardinal directions. The plaza is the largest of three similarly designed circular spaces arranged in a row
beneath the mature trees along Grant Street and linked by a red sandstone walkway. The smaller spaces, located
to the north and south, are enclosed by low red sandstone walls, are paved with red sandstone and contrasting
dark gray granite squares, and have centrally placed, octagonal planters made of sandstone (Photograph 9).
Designed as alcoves for outdoor reflection, these areas are designed to display commemorative plaques.4
After the districts period of significance, several additional memorials were placed inside the loop drive at the
northeast corner of the statehouse. The U.S.S. Colorado Memorial (1997), a gray granite bench intersecting a
vertical granite slab featuring a silhouette of the battleship and a list of its significant engagements, is dedicated
to those who served aboard the ship from 1929 to 1959. The bronze Armenian Genocide Memorial Plaque
(1982), set on a low, slanted concrete pedestal, features an Armenian cross in has relief and is dedicated to the
memory of one and one half million Armenians who were victims of the 1915 genocide.5 The Colorado State
Capitol Centennial Cornerstone (1990), dedicated on the one hundredth anniversary of the laying of the original
cornerstone, consists of a subterranean vault holding memorabilia and documents pertaining to present-day
Colorado and is covered by a rectangular slab of Aberdeen granite with an inscription of its significance the
occasion.6
South Side Grounds. On the south side of the Capitol grounds, an extension of Sherman Street provides
automobile access from East 14th Avenue and divides the landscape into two symmetrically balanced quadrants
along the north-south axis of the statehouse. Originally a double row of trees lined the northern edge of East
14th Avenue on either side of Sherman Street. The south portico of the statehouse faces the Sherman Street
entrance and a grand stairway descends to the loop road encircling the statehouse. The widening of the loop
road to provide additional parking has diminished the area originally intended for foundation plantings and the
tree lawn on the south side of the statehouse. A few scattered trees and shrubs, a wide concrete sidewalk, and a
narrow planting strip characterize the landscape today (Photograph 10).
Within the two decades following the completion of the State Capitol, the functions of state government
expanded, necessitating the construction of two new buildings adjacent to the statehouse. The buildings were
placed on opposite sides of the statehouse north of Sherman Street and parallel to the north-south axis of the
statehouse. Beaux-Arts architectural details unified them visually with the statehouse. The first of these was the
Classical Revival, three-story Colorado State Museum (now the Colorado Legislative Services Building),
designed in 1915 by Frank E. Edbrooke, the supervising architect of the Capitol (Resource 5). The square-plan
building featured walls of polished white Colorado Yule marble atop a raised, banded foundation of rusticated
gray granite from the Aberdeen Quarry in Gunnison County, Colorado. By reflecting Beaux-Arts principles of
4Plaques in the south area commemorate Gov. Ralph L. Carr (1939-43) and Camp Amache, a World War II Japanese
American relocation camp in southeast Colorado, while those in the north area honor the Colorado State Society of the Daughters of
the American Revolution and provide a quote from the preamble to the state constitution.
5 Denver Post, 23 April 1990, 2B.
6 Rocky Mountain News, 29 July 1990, 7M and 31 July 1990, 7; Denver Post, 5 August 1990, 4C.


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proportion and massing, marble and granite building materials, and neoclassical embellishments, the 1915
building achieved architectural harmony with the statehouse. The principal entrance on East 14th Avenue faces
north toward the southeastern quadrant of the Capitol grounds, and features a shallow, projecting center portico
with four fluted giant order Ionic columns and a continuous projecting entablature. The portico opens directly
onto a wide flight of granite stairs that descends to the public sidewalk at ground level (Photograph 11). The
stairway has brass handrails and is flanked by stepped granite sidewalls, each of which displays its original
metal lamppost with five light globes. A sidewalk, narrow tree strip, and corner planting beds fill the narrow
space between the building and the street.
North Side Grounds. On the north side of the Capitol grounds, the extension of Sherman Street provides
automobile access from East Colfax Avenue and divides the landscape into two symmetrically balanced
quadrants along the north-south axis of the statehouse. Originally a double row of trees lined the southern edge
of East Colfax Avenue on either side of Sherman Street. The north portico of the statehouse faces the Sherman
Street entrance and a grand stairway descends to the loop road encircling the statehouse. The widening of the
loop road to provide additional parking has diminished the area originally intended for foundation plantings and
a tree lawn on the north side of the statehouse. A few scattered trees and shrubs, a wide concrete sidewalk, and a
narrow planting strip characterize the landscape today.
Between 1920 and 1922 the Colorado State Office Building, a five-story Classical Revival style building
designed by Denver architect William N. Bowman, was constructed at the northeast corner of Sherman Street
and East Colfax Avenue (Resource 6). The square-plan building was primarily composed of blocks of smooth,
light gray Cotopaxi granite from Fremont County, Colorado. The principal entrance on East Colfax Avenue
faces south toward the northeast quadrant of the Capitol grounds and visually echoes the neoclassical
vocabulary and materials of statehouse (Photographs 12 & 13). Instead of repeating the spatial effect of a
projecting grand portico, the building tightly fit its one-block site and the upper walls were organized into bays
by six giant order fluted pilasters that rose to composite capitals. Artistic attention focused on the decorative
development of the centrally located ground-level entrance, which features three sets of recessed, double brass
doors with three-part transoms. A moulded stone architrave surrounds each set of doors and is surmounted by a
three-part stone frieze in low relief with a central shield flanked by foliated ornament and corner rosettes. An
oversized triangular pediment supported by a pair of large scroll brackets surmounts each opening, and a
sculptural frieze of alternating acanthus and volutes stands atop each pediment. Original bronze lanterns flank
the central doorway and two bronze mountain lions, sculpted by Robert Garrison and cast by A. and H.F. Hosek
of Denver, are mounted on low stone pedestals to either side of the stone entry terrace and stairs. A sidewalk,
narrow tree strip, and corner planting beds fill the narrow space between the building and the street.
Lincoln Park (Landscape Component 2)
In 1895 at the same time he was designing the Capitol grounds, Reinhard Schuetze was making plans for a
public park on the block directly west. This enabled him to envision a design that would spatially and visually
extend the Capitol grounds beyond the base of the hill. Just as the introduction of the semi-elliptical loop drive
gave grounding and stability to the statehouse, the development of Lincoln Park countered the downhill pull of
the sloping west grounds by gradually easing the central east-west axis into the gentler grades that characterized
the surrounding city. At the time the park was completed, ideas to extend the public landscape further west were
just emerging. Today the park remains an important landscape link within the civic center, connecting the
Capitol grounds on the east to Civic Center Park on the west.
Bordered by Broadway, Lincoln Street, and East Colfax and East 14th Avenues, Lincoln Park is rectangular in
shape, with the longer dimension running north to south. It slopes slightly downhill to the west and is bisected
by a wide central walkway that extends along an east-west axis and is aligned with the central walkway


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descending the Capitol grounds. Borders of dense, evenly spaced rows of trees flanking the outer sidewalks,
similar to those introduced on the Capitol grounds, enclosed the north, south, and west edges of the park.
Schuetze seems to have applied a naturalistic convention of landscape design called the hanging wood to the
design of plantings for Lincoln Park. The interior plantings of trees were informally arranged within the dense
borders of evenly spaced trees. At ground level these plantings provided shade-covered walks and lawns. When
viewed from the West front of the Capitol, the tree canopy became a verdant treed plateau that contrasted with
the open slopes of the Capitol grounds and built-up city beyond. The hanging wood was intended to enclose the
ground level vistas to the west, screen the park from the traffic on Broadway, and protect the sense of
tranquility and contemplation that the grounds had been designed to create. It also shielded the park and capitol
grounds visually from the disconcerting collision of the street grids that lay outside the parks borders.
While Schuetze laid out a central walkway to align with the principal east-west axis established on the Capitol
grounds, he introduced a plan dependent on a combination of bilateral and radial symmetry. The layout of the
park was centered on a 120-foot tall flagpole dedicated to the Colorado volunteers who served in the Spanish
American War Flagpole and placed at the center of the park in 1898. The plan was dominated by a pair of
lateral walkways that formed graceful elliptical curves extending from north to south to connect opposite
corners of the park (Photograph 14). The walkways were symmetrically reversed on opposite sides of the north-
south axis and arranged to come together as they passed through the center of the park where they intersected
the central walkway. The overall design of the park was simple yet elegant, contributing to the dignified setting
of the State Capitol and at the same time creating a self-contained park with gently curving paths conducive to
strolling and reflection.
Today the eastern lawn is relatively open, while the remainder of the park is more heavily forested, featuring a
variety of deciduous trees, including oaks, crabapples, and elms. The mature trees that mark the site today date
from various plantings projects that have taken place in its more than one-hundred-year history. Schuetzes
original plan for the borders along East Colfax and East 14th Avenues called for double rows of evenly spaced
trees flanking a central walk. Today concrete sidewalks and narrow tree lawns border the south and west edges
of the park, while only sidewalks remain on the north edge. A similar double row of trees was laid out along the
east side of Broadway, which remained the western end of the civic center for several decades. In 1923, the
Sadie Likens Drinking Fountain was installed near the northwest corner of the park.
Lincoln Park has experienced more change than any other part of the district, mostly due to expanding
commemorative functions. The central walkway remains in place today but has been widened and paved with
contrasting blocks of granite and sandstone to form a distinct geometrical pattern that echoes the recently
installed plazas on the Capitol grounds. The greatest change occurred in 1990 with the development of the
Colorado Veterans Monument at the center of the park (Resource 19, noncontributing). In the form of a paved
plaza dominated by a centrally located sandstone obelisk forty-five feet in height, the new memorial replaces
the original flagpole and transforms the simple space where the parks walkways once converged (Photograph
15). In addition to the obelisk, the new plaza also contains rectangular planting beds and a new forty-five-foot
flagpole (Resource 27, noncontributing) dedicated to the states volunteers who served in the Spanish-American
War). The widened central walkway with its decorative pavement intersects the monument, and the original
semi-elliptical walkways have been paved in red flagstone and now converge on the central plaza.
Several smaller memorials have been installed on the grounds since the end of the period of significance
(Photograph 31). Near the center of the park, the statue of U.S. Army Private Joe P. Martinez, Colorados first
recipient of the Medal of Honor for service in World War II, was installed in 1988 (Resource 26,
noncontributing), and a replica of the Liberty Bell was installed in 1986 (Resource 20, noncontributing). In the


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northwest corner, a Ten Commandments monument was installed in 1956 (Resource 23, noncontributing), and
in 2005 a small concrete monument was installed honoring the memory of Rev. Wade Blank, who led efforts to
make local buses wheelchair-accessible.7
Civic Center Park (Landscape Component 3)
Civic Center Park lies between Lincoln Park and the grounds of the Denver City and County Building and
encompasses an area approximately two-and-a-half blocks in size. It is bounded by Broadway on the east,
Bannock Street on the west, West Colfax Avenue on the north, and West 14th Avenue on the south. Today the
popular term Civic Center, in the minds of most citizens and visitors, refers to this public park and the
adjoining city and county building. The selection of the location for the park and the resulting design represent
the most lengthy and complicated stage in the evolution of the Denver Civic Center.
The overall design of Civic Center Park demonstrates Bennetts genius in melding together the most practical
and popular aspects of earlier plans to form a single cohesive whole. The design is the summation of more than
two decades of City Beautiful thinking and practice in applying Beaux-Arts principles of design. This area
presented the most challenging problems, design wise and politically, and it received the most collaboration by
well-known planners and designers. Still reflecting the complex structure and spatial organization that the park
assumed in the 1920s, today it is one of the most widely used public spaces in the city and certainly is the most
popular section of the overall Denver Civic Center. (Photographs 3 & 4)
From the beginning Civic Center Park was conceived and developed as the lynchpin of the larger public
landscape (Photographs 16 & 17). East to west the park is organized as a progression of spaces, each having its
own function and character. It was described in the 2009 Civic Center Design Guidelines:
The two primary park spaces are the Upper and Lower Terraces separated by the formal
Balustrade Wall. The Upper Terrace [along the east edge] includes the Broadway Terrace that
extends the full length of Broadway and incorporates two Red Oak groves and Crabapple trees
flanking a central walkway. The Upper Terrace wraps around on the north to include the
Voorhies Memorial and on the south to include the Greek Theater. The Lower Terrace [to the
west] is set several feet below and includes the promenade connecting the Voorhies Memorial,
the Greek Theater and the Great Lawn.8
The idea for the formally designed public landscape originated with the earliest plans for a larger center of
government that would extend the east-west axial corridor established on the Capitol grounds and Lincoln Park
either to the existing Arapahoe County Court House several blocks to the northwest or an entirely new civic
complex that would combine the functions of both city and county government. The westward extension of the
Capitol grounds was problematic due to the disparity between the east-west orientation of the Capitol grounds
and the rectilinear grid of the city streets north of Colfax Avenue which was oriented at a forty-five degree
angle to the northeast and left an irregular arrangement of triangular parcels on the north side of West Colfax.
The completion of the Pioneer Monument (1911) at Broadway and West Colfax Avenue and the Denver Public
Library (1910) at West Colfax Avenue and Bannock Street further strengthened the logic for the ultimate
location of the civic center and gave momentum to the planning process. It would take several cycles of
planning and three more decades of construction, however, before the west end of the Denver Civic Center as it
exists today would be complete.
This small monument is located near the former bus stop.
8 Mundus Bishop Design, Inc., Denvers Civic Center Design Guidelines (Denver: Denver Parks and Recreation Department,
2009), 26.


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The Pioneer Monument (Resource 9) by renowned American sculptor Frederick MacMonnies, which was
intended as a tribute to the territorial heritage of the state, became an important determinant of the location of
the larger park that exists today (Photograph 18). Although its location in the small triangular block formed by
Broadway, West Colfax Avenue, and Cheyenne Place, was set by 1907, the monument wasnt completed and
dedicated until 1911. Today located on the northern edge of the civic center, the monument is a multi-tiered
fountain thirty-five feet tall featuring three bronze figures typical of frontier life on the lower tier and a heroic,
bronze equestrian statue of Kit Carson on the top tier. The lower sculptures represent a pioneer mother and
child, the hunter or trapper, and the prospector or miner (Photograph 19). The life-size figure of Carson is
depicted astride a west-facing, rearing horse; the western hero looks back toward the east while pointing ahead
to the west. The rich sculptural ornament of the stone basins and central shaft expands the iconography to
include a bountiful cornucopia, garlands of grain, eagle with outstretched wings, skulls of bison and the heads
of mountain lions and mountain trout. The fountain was set on a massive hexagonal base composed of black
and light gray granite and laid up as a series of concentric steps. Although the landscape surrounding the
monument has been changed periodically, the fountain with its granite pedestal and bronze statuary remain
unchanged today.
Another influential factor was the construction of the Denver Public Library (Resource 4) on West Colfax
Avenue several blocks west of the State Capitol between 1907 and 1910. Designed by local architect Albert
Randolph Ross, the Classical Revival building reflects one of the citys earliest responses to the City Beautiful
movement and the search for a unified style of classically inspired architecture worthy of the citys progressive
vision (Photograph 20). Approximately 180 feet long and ninety-one feet deep, the building rests on a
foundation of pink Pikes Peak granite, and its principal facade (north) features a grand colonnade of the
Corinthian order having thirty-foot fluted columns. Its walls and columns are composed of light gray sandstone
from Colorados Turkey Creek quarry.
Charles Mulford Robinsons Plan of 1906 was the first attempt to create a public landscape outside the grounds
of the Capitol and Lincoln Park that would encompass the monument and the library and provide the setting for
additional government buildings. Robinson proposed the creation of a northwest axis from Lincoln Park to the
existing Arapahoe County Court House and the creation of a public park in the narrow block between the site of
the proposed library and Broadway. Although there was general agreement on the sites for the library and the
monument, other aspects of Robinsons plan including the transition from the east-west axis of the statehouse to
a northwest axis to align with the 1880s county courthouse failed to gain support.
MacMonniess visit to Denver in 1907 in conjunction with his work on the pioneer monument gave city
officials the opportunity to seek the sculptors recommendations for the civic center. It was MacMonnies who
suggested that the civic center extend to the wide blocks directly west along the east-west axis of the statehouse
and that a municipal building be built facing the statehouse several blocks west on the same east-west axis.
MacMonnies called for the symmetrical layout of the grounds that lay between the two buildings and introduced
the idea of creating a secondary north-south axis by extending the proposed park to semi-circular areas to the
north and south. MacMonniess plan gained considerable support among city officials and residents and fixed
the location of the final civic center.
By 1913 the area bounded by Broadway and Bannock and West 14th Avenue and West Colfax Avenue, and a
separate parcel north of West Colfax, known as the Bates triangle to the north, had been cleared and developed
as a public park. This was largely the result of a 1912 plan developed by nationally renowned landscape
architect Frederick Law Olmsted Jr. and architect Arnold W. Brunner. The plan provided design details for the
space between Lincoln Park and the grounds of the proposed municipal building. Because the land sloped
gently downhill from east to west they recommended dividing the area into upper and lower terraces and


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planting a dense grove of red oaks on the upper end west of Broadway. A classical balustrade wall was to mark
the edge of the upper terrace and flank a central stairway leading to a sunken garden with paths and parterres
laid out on a north-south cross-axis in the form an oblong space with semi-circular ends. The grove of trees
would extend to an irregular parcel of land on the south side of the park that would be used as an outdoor
concert grove. A great lawn was planned for the west end, and space was reserved across from the Denver
Public Library for a symmetrically balanced, second public building. The plans for the wooded upper terrace
and the great lawn were carried out and remain visible today. An ornamental balustrade wall similar to the one
Olmsted and Brunner proposed for the west edge of the upper terrace was retained in later plans and remains in
place today.
It was Edward H. Bennetts plan presented in 1917 that ultimately translated Mayor Speers vision into the
design of Civic Center Park that exists today. Bennett, who was already an accomplished planner when he came
to Denver, provided a synthesis of earlier recommendations and resolved the myriad practical and aesthetic
considerations that stymied the execution of earlier plans. The formal development of Civic Center Park would
provide an approach and stately setting for the proposed city and county building which would anchor the
western termini of the civic center. It was intended as a great public space that encouraged use by all citizens
and would offer large civic events having broad popular appeal. Wide walkways and paved promenades and
plazas, embellished by neoclassical balustrades, walls, stairways, colonnades and sturdy paved surfaces were to
convey a sense of permanence, durability, and grandeur, providing an infrastructure that could withstand a large
volume of pedestrian use and traffic (Photograph 21).
Bennetts 1917 plan for Broadway Terrace modified the extensive forested area suggested by Olmsted and
Brunner, limiting the dense tree plantings to the quadrants forming the upper terrace. The treesall red oaks
were to be planted in double-rows bordering the outer edges of the quadrants, whose outer corners aligned with
the corners of the surrounding city streets. The interior corners, where the two quadrants met on either side of
the central walkway, were chamfered to conform with a circular arc; the two quadrants came together to frame
the wide central stairway that descended to the sunken plaza of the lower terrace. In the 1990s a pair of curving
concrete walks was constructed through the wooded portions of the upper terrace. The paths begin at the
northeast and southeast corners of the park (at Broadway and West Colfax and Broadway and West 14th
Avenue) and pass through the groves of red oak that form the eastern quadrants and upper terrace of the park,
before meeting at the central plaza. Spatially the two walks merge to form a sweeping elliptical arc that extends
from the parks southeastern corner to the northeastern corner; in its entirety the walk imitates the form of the
back-to-back elliptical paths that Schuetze designed along the north-south axis of Lincoln Park.
The delineation of the quadrants forming the upper terrace in both the Olmsted-Brunner plan and Bennetts final
plan reflected a geometrical precision that was lacking in Schuetzes treatment of the quadrants on the Capitol
grounds and Lincoln Park but would later become a key organizing element in the architectural design of the
Denver City and County Building. Symmetrically balanced on either side of the east-west axis, the western edge
of each quadrant was delineated by a neoclassical balustrade of shimmering light gray sandstone that,
contrasting with the dark foliage to the east, became a striking visual marker that effectively divided the west
and east ends of the linear, mall-like landscape. (Photograph 3)
Like Schuetzes hanging wood, the wooded grove served several purposes. Visually it merged the eastern
section of Civic Center Park with Lincoln Park, effectively screening the parkland from the multi-lane
Broadway and minimizing any sense of border between the park elements. The continuation of the tree-flanked
central walkway from one block to the next further emphasized the horizontality of the public landscape and
provided an almost seamless transition from one space to the next. In this way Bennetts plan overcame the


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stylistic and compositional differences between the new park and the grounds designed by Schuetze two
decades earlier.
Bennetts original idea called for the central walkway on the east end of Civic Center Park to be widened and
paved to form a large outdoor area where crowds could gather. Consequently, the section of the central
walkway extending west from Broadway and the north-south promenade were originally paved in concrete
embedded with contrasting panels of stone, brick, and concrete in an effort to give it a sense of permanence,
enlivenment, and durability. This treatment of the principal axial walkway in Civic Center Park contrasted with
the crowned gravel paths (with gutters) that comprised the north-south promenade and secondary east-west
paths along each side of the Great Lawn. The geometric patterning and contrasting paving materials were
reflected in the historic flooring of the outdoor theater and colonnades.9 Today the central walkway of the upper
terrace is lined on each side by a row of evenly spaced crabapple trees, the result of a 1950s planting program.
In the 1990s the north-south promenade was paved using a similar combination of brick, stone, and concrete.
On the west end of the park, the upper terrace is outlined by a low wall and graceful classical balustrade (also
proposed by Olmsted-Brunner plan). Designed by Edward H. Bennett, the balustrade wall is composed of light
gray sandstone from the states Turkey Creek quarry with lighted columns. The balustrade draws attention to
the western edge of the quadrants that form the east end of the park. To the south, it connects with the
colonnades and upper terrace of the amphitheater. It is a highly significant character defining feature that helps
define the spatial organization of the overall civic center. While providing a striking contrast to the groves of
trees that flank it on the east, it complements the Beaux-Arts features that embellish the sunken garden and
landscape features on the west (Photographs 3 & 16).
Today a wide central stairway divides the balustrade wall, providing an entry to the lower level (Photograph
16). Here the landscape opens up onto an area defined by parterres with flower beds, paved walkways, open
lawns, and the distant view of the Denver City and County Building. The central east-west walkway diverges
into a set of minor east-west pathways set to either side of center, and a wide north-south promenade dominates
the space. Bennett rotated the garden design element proposed in the Olmsted-Brunner design by ninety degrees
so that its eastern end formed a semi-circle and coincided with the chamfered curvilinear edge of the balustrade
wall on the upper terrace. Today the transitional space where the two axes cross is planted with flower beds, and
the paved north-south walkway provides long views of the surrounding modern city.
The most striking of Bennetts contributions to the final plan is the tour de force provided by the wide north-
south promenade along the secondary axis that connects the Greek Theater and Colonnade of Civic Benefactors
(Resource 7) and the Voorhies Memorial Gateway (Resource 8). A pair of columnar pylons is placed at each
end of the north-south promenade, marking the endpoints of the north-south axis and signaling ones entry into
the colonnaded spaces beyond. The balustrade walls, with their decorative panels and end piers and the pylons
remain in place, adding to the formality and grandeur of the space.
Forming the southern terminus of the transverse axis across Civic Center Park, the Greek Theater and
Colonnade of Civic Benefactors (1919) is located in the semi-elliptical extension of the park bordered by West
14th Avenue (Resource 7). The Beaux-Arts inspired structure was designed by Denver architects Willis A.
Marean and Albert J. Norton of Marean and Norton in collaboration with planner Edward H. Bennett. It would
9
Similar paving materials and the idea of geometric patterning were recently adopted in the recent redesign of the central
walkway and construction of paved plazas beginning at the base of the Capitols west portico and extending through Lincoln Park.
The contrasting pavement treatment in the flooring of the Greek Theater and the central walkway of Broadway Terrace has recently
been restored and reflects the original construction according to Bennetts 1917 plan.


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serve as a counterpoint to the memorial gateway and colonnade built several years later on the north side of the
park.
Constructed of smooth, light gray Turkey Creek sandstone, the five-part structure extends approximately 210
feet along the south side of Civic Center Park. The ends of the colonnades curve inward to frame a sunken
orchestra and the floor of the theater. The structure consists of a central pavilion that houses an open stage and a
pair of double colonnades in the Ionic order ending in a square pavilion to each side. A low balustrade wrapped
the inner rows of the colonnades and connected with a balustrade encircling the upper terrace. The east and west
sides of the theater are enclosed by paneled granite walls that extended from the colonnades toward the center
of the park and sheltered a geometrically ordered system of stairways, parapets, balustrades, and corner piers,
much of it rendered in the same light gray sandstone from Colorados Turkey Creek quarry. A pedimented wall
fountain in the Ionic order was incorporated into the design of the walls on opposite sides of the amphitheater;
no longer functional, each fountain consisted of a spigot in the form of a lions head and a semi-circular catch
basin. (Photographs 21 & 22)
Like the theaters of ancient Greece from which it took inspiration, Denvers open-air theater was designed to
host significant civic events and concerts attracting large groups of people accommodated in an urban setting.
The idea of an outdoor theater had originated in the MacMonniess plan, was modified in the form of a forested
concert grove in the Olmsted-Brunner Plan, and finally assumed its current dramatic architectural form as a
result of Bennetts collaboration with architects Marean and Norton. Murals by Allen Tupper True graced the
interior walls of the colonnade depicting popular themes such as the nineteenth-century prospecting
(Photograph 22). Originally the audience was accommodated in wooden chairs mounted on movable wedge-
shaped sections arranged to rise in concentric tiers from the circular orchestra located at foot of the stage. Today
permanent concrete benches provide seating. In addition there are many historic lighting fixtures in the park,
including those on the columns of the balustrade wall and on the monumental pylons at the entrances to the
colonnaded structures. Replicas of original metal light poles designed by Marean and Norton appear throughout
the park set in a pattern reminiscent of the original placement.70
From the beginning the park was intended as a setting for works of art, especially sculpture. The first works -
Alexander Phimister Proctors Broncho Buster and On the War Trail were installed in the early 1920s
(Resources 11 & 12). Both statues are set on a tall granite pedestals prominently sited to face north along the
southernmost east-west walkway near the intersection with the north-south axis leading to the Greek theater
(Photographs 17, 23 & 24). A number of works appeared later on the opposite side of the park.
Forming the northern terminus of the transverse axis across Civic Center Park, the Voorhies Memorial Gateway
and Sea Lion Pool (1921) is located in the semi-elliptical extension of the park bordered by the West Colfax
Avenue near the intersection of Cheyenne Place (Resource 8). Monumental in character and inspired by Beaux-
Arts design, the contributing structure was designed by Denver architects William E. Fisher and Arthur A.
Fisher of Fisher and Fisher. Extending approximately 180 feet east to west on the north side of Civic Center
Park, the gateway was designed to provide a grand entrance to the park and serve as a counterpoint to the Greek
theater and colonnade on the south side of the park. The monumental structure consists of a central arch flanked
to either side by a pair of curvilinear double colonnades and was constructed with the same smooth, light gray
Turkey Creek sandstone as the amphitheater (Photographs 25 & 26). Murals by Allen Tupper True adorn the
interior lunettes of the central arch. A special feature is the elliptical reflecting pool within the arc of the
colonnade; it consists of a shallow basin bound by a low concrete retaining wall with round-edged coping.
Sculptor Robert Garrison designed a pair of bronze fountains for the east and west ends of the pool, each in the
form of a sea lion with an infant riding upon its back with an outstretched arm clinging to its neck. Set atop 10
10 Mundus Bishop Design, Design Guidelines, 42.


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rectangular concrete bases, the sea lions are arranged to face each other so that the arcing jets that spring from
their mouths intersect above the center of the pool.11
The Great Lawn. The central and southern sections of the park west of the north-south axis comprise the Great
Lawn, a level grassy area bordered on the west and south by concrete sidewalks, on the north by the former
public library building. Occasional shade trees line the walkways here (Photograph 17). The west end of the
Great Lawn was organized according to Bennetts plan and featured a central swathe of grass that provided the
foreground of the Denver City and County Building (Photograph 27). The Allied Architects Association, which
designed the city and county government building, proposed changes to the west end of the Great Lawn as a
dignified foreground for the city and county building. Although they proposed a long narrow reflecting pool, in
the end the central lawn was left as a wide open panel of grass flanked on either side by a row of wide-
spreading trees that both frames the view of the monumental building at the parks terminus and gave renewed
emphasis to the central axial corridor.12
The rear elevation of the 1910 Denver Public Library faces the center of the Great Lawn. Because the
construction of the library building predated the development of Civic Center Park, the primary fa9ade with its
fine neoclassical design was oriented to face north on West Colfax Avenue, and the south elevation, which
would later face into Civic Center Park, was considered the rear of the building and received a more functional,
unornamented, and almost austere treatment. The original rear fa9ade remains visible today despite
recommendations by MacMonnies, Olmsted and Brunner, and Bennett that it be redesigned to assume a more
dignified appearance in keeping with its prominent location facing Civic Center Park (Photograph 17).13
Proposals made by MacMonnies, Olmsted and Brunner, and Bennett all reserved the site on the Great Lawn
opposite the library building for a public building of similar scale that would have cultural value such as an art
museum or concert hall. Such construction would provide balance to the overall design of the park and create
symmetry along the central east-west axis. The proposed building was never erected and this portion of the lawn
remains open and bounded by pedestrian walks with a few trees along the edges.
By the end of the 1920s the design and construction of Civic Center Park was complete. It succeeded in giving
definition to the westward extension of the public space in the form of interconnected walkways, classical
balustrades, a great lawn, an outdoor theater, sculptures mounted on pedestals, commemorative objects, and
formal tree groves.
Civic Center Park also contains a few relatively small artistic and commemorative objects installed after the
period of significance. In 1954 a memorial drinking fountain honoring Emily Griffith, the founder of Denvers
Opportunity School, was installed at a location south of the memorial gateway and west of the north-south
transverse axis (Resource 22, noncontributing). Designed by Denver architect John Burrey, the noncontributing
object is four feet in height and consists of a polished black granite shaft set on a gray stone base. In 1975 a
bronze sculpture, In Honor of Christopher Columbus (1970), mounted on a fifteen-foot high concrete pedestal
was installed south of the memorial gateway east of the north-south axis. Designed by Denver sculptor William
F. Joseph, the design is reminiscent of Leonardo Da Vincis VitruvianMan, having four faces, arms, and legs
pointing to the four cardinal directions of the compass and encircled by three rings symbolizing the globe
11 Denver Municipal Facts, August 1921, 15.
12 Changes were made to the spacing of these rows of trees as part of the finally integration of the city and county building into
the overall civic center design in the 1930s. A comparison of photographs and plans indicates that the evergreen trees planted in the
1920s following Bennetts 1917 plan were removed and replaced by two rows of deciduous trees spaced further back to either side of
the central lawn following the Allied Architects 1925 plan. This change provided a more spacious view of the facade and a more
dramatic framing of the west terminus of the civic center.
13 It appears that the library stacks were housed on the south side of the building.


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(Resource 24, noncontributing).14 In 1975 a large untitled work of sculpture, roughly measuring sixteen feet in
height and twenty-two feet in width, was installed on West Colfax Avenue, north of the Carnegie Library.
Designed by Robert Mangold, the piece representing the abstract form of two trees was created from variously
sized welded steel pipes set in a concrete base (Resource 25, noncontributing). In 1983, the thirty- foot United
Nations memorial flagpole (1950) was moved from its original location at Broadway and East 16th Street to its
current location southwest of the Greek Theater (Resource 21, noncontributing). Nonhistoric site furnishings are
found throughout Civic Center Park, including metal benches, moveable chairs, trash receptacles, signs, bicycle
racks, and tree grates. These furnishings, painted the same shade of civic center green, are practical in nature
and simple in design and serve as background features necessary for park function rather than artistic elements.
Denver City and County Building Grounds (Landscape Component 4)
Authorized in 1923 and completed nine years later, the Denver City and County Building (Resource 3)
represented the last major stage of construction within the civic center. The completion of its grounds in 1935
marked the end of the City Beautiful era in Denver. Bounded by West Colfax Avenue, West 14th Avenue,
Bannock Street, and Cherokee Street, the three-story building was designed to occupy most of the city block.
Designed by the Allied Architects Association, the building was constructed between 1929 and 1932 and the
grounds were completed in 1935.
The east elevation of the 1932 building displays a five part faqade with a projecting, monumental entrance
portico and flanking wings. The portico features six fifty-foot giant order Roman Corinthian columns measuring
more than five feet in diameter and rising above three flights of tooled stone stairs.15 The central portico is
embraced by the wings that extend outward from central portico with symmetrically balanced curving walls
toward the southeast and southwest corners of the parcel at West 14th and West Colfax Avenues. (Photographs
27 & 28)
Here against the scenic backdrop of the majestic peaks of the Front Range, the architecture boldly dominates the
western terminus of the civic center. With its central portico, embracing wings, and elegant Colonial Revival
style cupola, the building provides an effective counter balance to the monumental state house. The size and
scale of the facilities designed to accommodate functions related to city and county government rivaled that of
the statehouse on the opposite end of the civic center. Changes proposed by the Allied Architects Association to
the west end of Civic Center Park resulted in adjustments to Bennetts design; most important among these was
the opening up of the west end to reveal a more spacious and dramatic view of the buildings portico and
curving walls and. From its position at the western end of civic center, the front (east) of the City and County
Building provides a deep vista across the main axis across the Great Lawn with its wide allee, Broadway
Terrace, Lincoln Park, and the Capitol grounds toward the monumental statehouse on its elevated site. In
keeping with Beaux Arts principles, the geometry of the building and its grounds echoes the basic quadrant
form with the chamfered comer first introduced on the Capitol grounds and later followed in the shaping of
Broadway Terrace at the eastern end of Civic Center Park.
With Civic Center Park providing the foreground and approach to the Denver City and County Building, the
landscape design of the grounds was limited to the forecourt leading to the buildings grand portico. The
curving wings to each side of the front portico of the city and county building form a balanced pair of quadrants
that embrace a landscaped semi-circular court that includes a central plaza and curving concrete walks and
bands of grass (Photograph 30). The plaza is paved with concrete and includes small areas of grass to the north
14 Denver Post, 25 June 1970, 23; In Honor of Christopher ColumbusDenver, CO accessed at www.waymarking.com on
16 June 2008; Central Denver Park District Points of Interest, accessed at denvergov.org on 20 June 2008.
15 The Corinthian capitals of the columns were carved from 26-ton granite blocks. Federal Writers Project. Guide to 1930s
Colorado. (New York: Hastings House, 1941; reprint, Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1987), 142.


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and south where the pair of memorial flagpoles with drinking fountains, designed by Roland Linder were
installed in 1935 (Resources 17 & 18). The Community Conservation Garden (2005), a rectangular display
garden for native plants adorns the center of the court today. The perimeter of the entire block is bordered by a
wide concrete sidewalk that runs along the street. Narrow panels of grass, with trees at each corner of the
building, fill the area extending to the sidewalk on all sides except the center rear, where two rear paved
courtyards serve as a service entrance and parking area (Photograph 29).
In contrast to the two-block Capitol site where spacious grounds surround the architectural centerpiece and the
overall landscape is divided in quadrants which frame and provide the setting of the building (and whose central
corner is cut by the semi-elliptical curve of the loop road), the reverse is the true on the grounds of the city-
county building where the design of the building literally frames the landscape. The quadrants that repeat the
basic unit of design that repeats throughout the landscape are formed by the structure itself and instead of the
landscape framing the building, here the building frames the landscape.
Colorado State Capitol, 200 East Colfax Avenue, Elijah E. Myers and Frank E. Edbrooke (architects),
1886-1908 (5DV6000, Resource 2)
Describing the building as of the Corinthian order of classic architecture, Elijah E. Myers drafted the initial
plans for the Renaissance Revival style Colorado statehouse in 1885-86.16 One of the last great state capitols of
the Gilded Age, the Colorado capitol features layered classical ornament that contrasts with the more
restrained academically correct neoclassical statehouses built at the tum-of-the-nineteenth century.17 Located on
two city blocks, the cruciform Capitol with its colonnaded dome extends approximately 384 feet north and
south and 313 feet east and west. Constructed entirely of gray cut granite from the Aberdeen (Zugelder) quarry
in Gunnison County, Colorado, the buildings walls are rusticated with each window bay framed by pilasters
supporting full entablatures on each elevation. All stone above the foundation is smoothly dressed except for the
quarry faced foundation. The three-story building includes a full basement and a subbasement. Monumental
porticos on projecting pavilions are supported on an arcaded rusticated base on each faqade. The gilded dome
surmounted by a lantern is 272 feet high and forty-two feet in diameter and rises from a four-story drum. Wood
frame windows throughout the building are one-over-one-light. A cornerstone dated 4 August 1890 lies at the
northeast corner.18
The Capitols primary facade faces west, across Lincoln and Civic Center parks toward the Denver City and
County Building. The central projecting pavilion features a monumental portico, which includes an arcaded first
story with rusticated stone, rectangular columns, and three round arched entrances leading to sets of doors with
circular transoms covered by metal grilles. The portico opens onto monumental granite stairs with brass
railings. Granite sidewalls hold globed lampposts, and there is an intermediate landing with intersecting stairs
descending to the north and south.
Above the first story, the portico features six giant order Corinthian columns, including paired comer columns.
A balustrade links the columns, which support an entablature with a banded architrave and a plain frieze
surmounted by a triangular pediment. Within the tympanum of the pediment are figures in high relief
representing a pioneer family and gold seekers struggling through the dangerous frontier to the welcoming
16 Myers, quoted in Board of Capitol Managers, Second Biennial Report, 1886 accessed at
http://www.colorado.gov/dpa/doit/archives/ cap/archts.htm on 4 February 2011. Myers also designed the Michigan capitol (1872) and
the Texas capitol (1881).
17 This contrast with later state capitols was lessened by the substitution of granite for Myers original choice of sandstone for
the walls. This change was made when he was dismissed in 1889. Henry-Russell Hitchcock and William Seale, Temples of
Democracy The State Capitols of the USA (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1976), 192.
18 The 272-foot height of the dome is the equivalent of an average 20-story commercial building, assuming thirteen feet per
story.


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lands of Colorado.19 Pilasters divide the west wall behind the portico. There are five flat arch windows
between the pilasters, with the second-story windows being taller than those of the third. The spandrels of both
stories feature inset stone panels. The wall is crowned by a full entablature with a stepped architrave, plain
frieze, and cornice with dentils. A parapet with paired corner piers rises above the entablature.
Myers described the central dome as strictly Corinthian, having no unnecessary carving, but ornamented
simply by the embellishments demanded by the Corinthian order.20 The four-story drum of the dome is
composed of cast iron painted gray, with the two lower stories wider than the two upper levels, which are about
the same diameter as the dome itself. The lowest storys rusticated walls are divided by banded pilasters. Four
slightly projecting pavilions on the lowest story form bases for columned porticos on the second story. Between
the pilasters of the lower story are segmental arched windows. The second story features Corinthian columns
aligned above the pilasters of the first story. The tall fluted columns are smooth toward their bases and stand
atop paneled pedestals, with a continuous balustrade between the pedestals. The four projecting porticos are
crowned by segmental pediments. The columns support an entablature with a stepped architrave, plain frieze,
and cornice with dentils and modillions topped by a balustrade between the pediments. The inset second story
wall has tall arch windows with transoms and keystones flanked by Corinthian pilasters aligned behind the
columns. The drum narrows at the third story and has a banded wall divided by pilasters and slightly projecting
bays aligned with the porticos below. Flat arch windows between the pilasters are aligned with the windows of
the lower stories. The fourth story has four projecting porticos flanked by columns and crowned with triangular
pediments. The cast iron wall resembles smooth cut stone and is divided by pilasters, with each bay containing
an arch window.
The circular dome is gilded with gold leaf and divided by ribs into sixteen segments. Each segment contains a
flat arch window with a decorative surround displaying stained glass depicting a Coloradan significant in the
states history. The sixteen windows constitute the Colorado Hall of Fame. The dome is surmounted by a
slender, gilded, cylindrical cupola with a lantern with narrow arch windows flanked by engaged Corinthian
columns and topped by a glass globe with a beacon.
On the west front, setback wings flanking the center pavilion on the north and south are terminated by slightly
projecting hipped roof pavilions. The window bays are divided by pilasters, with banded pilasters on the raised
basement and first story and unfluted giant order pilasters on the upper story. Windows are aligned on each
story in each bay between the pilasters which support a continuous entablature.
Like the west front, the north elevation of the Capitol also features a monumental projecting portico, although it
is narrower than the west. On the first story the portico includes three arched entrances accessed by stone stairs
with metal railings. The first story is surmounted by four giant order Corinthian columns linked by a balustrade
and supporting a pediment with a tympanum of coursed, cut stone and a raking cornice. At the center of the
tympanum is a small oculus. The setback east and west wings feature slightly projecting center bays crowned by
triangular pediments. Banded pilasters are on the first story and unfluted pilasters are on the second and third
stories. The south elevation duplicates the design of the north elevation. The east elevation facing Grant Street
is similar to the west elevation. However, the porticos pediment is filled with coursed stone and has a small
oculus. The entrance on the first story is a center door flanked by arch windows. The stairs accessing the
entrance do not have railings; there are no stairs descending off the intermediate landing to the north and south.
19 An unknown artist executed the work. Derek R. Everett, The Colorado State Capitol: History, Politics, Preservation
(Boulder, Colorado: University Press of Colorado, 2005), 67; Federal Writers Project, Guide to 1930s Colorado (New York: Hastings
House, 1941; reprint Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1987), 144.
20 Myers, quoted in Board of Capitol Managers, Second Biennial Report.


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Interior. The Capitol interior is particularly notable for its display of stone. White marble from Yule Creek in
Gunnison County, Colorado, is featured in stairs and floors.21 Railings, balusters, elevator doors, doorknobs,
and chandeliers are crafted of bronze. Panels of bronze elevator doors depict the history of Colorado. Beulah
red marble (Colorado rose onyx) from Pueblo County is utilized in wainscoting and column bases. It required
seven years and more than two hundred men to extract and install the marble.22 Historian William Pyle found
that the entire known supply of this onyx was used for the interior of the Capitol.23
In Architect Myerss words: The Rotunda is a magnificent feature of the building, and not only adds greatly to
its beauty, but is of great utility also in furnishing an abundance of light to the halls and corridors. It has a
diameter of forty-five feet, being open from the basement to the diaphragm of the dome, and having balconies
surrounding it on a line with several of the floors.24 The walls of the first story of the rotunda display murals
and an associated poem celebrating the significance of water in the states history; these were executed in 1938-
39 by Colorado artist Allen Tupper True and Denver poet Thomas Hornsby Ferril. The coffered apex of the
dome rises 150 feet above the floor below.
A grand staircase, or piano nobile, with marble steps and brass balustrades embellished with oak and olive
leaves and acorns rises from first floor, splitting into two at an intermediate landing to access the second floor in
the rotunda. The second floor contains the legislative halls and former courtroom of the Colorado Supreme
Court. The Senate and House of Representative halls are immense double-height chambers measuring forty-two
feet in height with upper floor balconies and public galleries. The Senate chamber displays stained glass
windows depicting prominent citizens and is known as Colorados Second Hall of Fame. The House of
Representatives features large windows looking onto the west portico.
Denver City and County Building, 1437 Bannock Street, Allied Architects Association (architects), 1929-
32 (5DV5989, Resource 3, contributing building)
The Denver City and County Building at the western terminus of the civic center is a massive roughly H-
shaped, symmetrical, light gray granite building 450 feet wide and 275 feet deep. It occupies a full city block
bounded by Bannock and Cherokee Streets and West Colfax and West 14th Avenues.25 With its central portico,
embracing wings, and elegant Colonial Revival style cupola, the building provides an effective visual response
to the monumental state house. The three-story building has a raised basement level with ashlar masonry. The
east elevation displays a five part facade with a projecting, monumental entrance portico and flanking wings
that curve outward to embrace Civic Center Park. The hexastyle portico features six fifty-foot giant order
Roman Corinthian columns measuring more than five feet in diameter and rising above three flights of tooled
stone stairs.26 The columns support an entablature with a frieze inscribed Erected by the People City and
County of Denver. A triangular pediment with block modillions and dentils surmounts the entablature. The
stone tympanum was left without carving because of economic stringencies at the time of its completion.27 The
This quarry also provided stone for the Lincoln Memorial and the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Arlington Cemetery.
22 State of Colorado, Colorado State Capitol Virtual Tour: Marble and Granite, http://www.Colorado.gov/dpa/doit/
archives/cap/marble.htm (accessed 4 February 2011).
23 William R. Pyle, History of the Colorado State Capitol Complex, M.A. thesis, University of Denver, 1962, 36.
24 Myers, quoted in Board of Capitol Managers, Second Biennial Report, 1886.
25 Cotopaxi, Colorado, and Stone Mountain, Georgia, granite were used in construction of the building. Colorado granite
extends from the foundation to the belt course, and the remainder of the walls are Georgia granite. Diana L. Carroll, History and
Description of the City and County Building, unpublished manuscript for Denver City Council, 1992, 2, Western History and
Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado; Denver Post, 11 September 1931, 7.
26 The Corinthian capitals of the columns were carved from 26-ton granite blocks. Federal Writers Project. Guide to 1930s
Colorado. (New York: Hastings House, 1941; reprint, Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1987), 142.
27 In 1931 the city solicited ideas for design of the tympanum from Denver citizens, indicating that the mayor, supervising
architect, and other officials would select the best of those submitted, calling the sculptural relief the most important point in the
entrance facade." Carvings planned included buffalos, ox-teams, and pioneers. Denver Post, 1 November 1931, 3; Carroll, History


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coffered ceiling of the portico has lights in rosette-shaped fixtures and the floor is sandstone. The wall behind
the portico is composed of coursed cut stone and divided by fifty-foot Corinthian pilasters. The center bay
features a monumental entrance with a stepped stone surround and an entablature with a frieze inscribed AD
MCMXXX. The entrance includes brass and glazed double and single doors, with a fluted band of brass above
the doors. A double-height overdoor is composed of clathri (crossed lattice) windows divided horizontally by a
decorative band embossed City and County Building. Flanking the entrance are large lamps with scroll-
shaped sconces with foliate ornament. The end bays include entrances with double brass doors with clathri
transoms. On the second story, metal frame two-light windows are aligned above these entrances. The third
story has five large clathri windows between the pilasters, with a decorative horizontal band with a Vitruvian
wave motif above a string of dentils.
Above and behind the portico, at the center of the building, a slender tower rests on an octagonal base. Its
design influenced by 18th century Georgian architecture, the multi-stage structure features a round colonnaded
lantern supporting a clock tower modeled after the ChoragicMonument of Lysicrates in Athens (ca. 334
B.C.).28 Mayor Robert W. Speers widow donated the Speer Memorial Chimes produced by the Meneely Bell
Company of Troy, New York, for the bell chamber. 29 This is surmounted by a narrow circular tower with a
Seth Thomas clock with four faces, also donated by Kate Speer. The tower is topped by a narrower, ornamented
pedestal holding a finial in the form of a six-and one-half-foot gold-plated bronze eagle with wings outspread.30
The height of the building from the finished grade to the top of the tower is 175 feet.31
The curvilinear wings to the north and south of the portico are aligned on an east-west axis with the public
library on the north side of the park and the anticipated location of a balancing building on the south side, as
well as a forecourt extending along Bannock Street. These identical flanking wings feature ashlar masonry that
supports second and third story pilasters, behind which are the first and second story windows. The basement
level features fourteen paired, one-over-one-light metal windows and an entrance with double brass doors
ornamented with decorative brass grilles for each wing. Above the basement level, tapered, giant order, engaged
Ionic stone columns rise from the water table to support an entablature. The walls of the first and second stories
are smooth cut stone. Between the columns, windows are aligned on the first and second stories, with the taller
first-story windows having paired one-over-one-light windows with two-part transoms and shorter second-story
windows having no transoms. Each terminating bay, flanked by square, giant order pilasters, features a shallow,
arched niche with scroll keystone on the first story and a panel of pink fleur de peche Italian marble on the
second story.32 The entablature is composed of a stepped architrave, a plain frieze, and a cornice with moldings
and block modillions, and it is topped by a stone balustrade. The slightly recessed attic story of each wing has
shorter, paired one-over-one-light windows aligned above the windows of the lower stories.
The east walls of the north and south wings display identical designs. The basement level of ashlar masonry has
three central paired one-over-one-light windows that corresponding to the bays of the upper stories. The center
three bays of the first and second stories are inset and divided by giant order engaged Ionic columns; the first
story has paired one-over-one-light windows with two-part transoms, while the second story displays paired
one-over-one-light windows without transoms. The outer bays on the first and second stories, flanked by
pilasters, include shallow round arched niches with scroll keystones on the first story and single panels offleur
and Description, 1.
28 Denver Post, 20 February 1932, 1.
29 Kate A. Speer donated six new chimes in 1950. Thomas J. Noel, Buildings of Colorado (New York: Oxford University
Press, 1997), 48; Carroll, History and Description, 8.
30 Rocky Mountain News, 1 November 1932, 3.
31 Carroll, History and Description, 1.
32 Jack A. Murphy, Geology Tour of Denvers Buildings and Monuments (Denver: Historic Denver, Inc., 1995), 24.


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de peche marble on the second story. The slightly recessed attic story has paired one-over-one-light windows in
each bay.
The northeast and southeast comers of the building are chamfered and the south and north walls of those
corners have panels offleur de peche marble on the second story. The broad north and south walls of the
building (facing West Colfax and West 14th Avenues) display identical designs. The basement level has
rusticated ashlar masonry, paired one-over-one-light windows, and a central entrance with a stone surround and
double brass doors with grilles. On each of the upper stories there are fifteen windows of the same design as
those on the east fa9ade. Giant order pilasters divide slightly projecting end pavilions of the first and second
stories into three bays, each with a window on each story. The entablature extends across the top of the second
story, and the attic story has three-bay outer pavilions divided by pilasters.
On the west elevation the rear of the building faces Cherokee Street. A monumental central pavilion extends
westward. Six Roman Ionic columns stand on the rusticated basement story. The first and second stories have
paired one-over-one-light windows between the columns, with taller first-story windows. The attic story is set-
back from the plane of the fa9ade with only the central pavilion featuring a gable roof with a full entablature.
The upper stories have five bays separated by pilasters, four with two-over-two sash and one blind. The
basement level of the west portico has entrances with garage doors flanked by windows on the north and south
sides.
The walls of the wings flanking the portico on the basement level contain double door entrances at each end of a
series of paired one-over-one light windows. The upper story windows are of similar design to those of the east
wall, with the exception of the first story windows nearest the portico, which have stone panels above the doors.
The north wall of the south pavilion and the south wall of the north pavilion display three paired one-over-one-
light windows and an entrance at the east end on the basement level. Two-story pilasters divide the upper
stories, with windows on each story matching the design of the windows on the front (east) facade. The west
walls of the end pavilions display identical designs. The lower story contains three central windows. The upper
stories are divided into five bays by giant order pilasters. There are stone panels in the outer bays of the first and
attic story, and panels offleur de peche marble in the outer bays of the second story. The center three bays have
windows on each story matching the design of the windows of the east wall.
Interior. Among the principal interior spaces of the building are the city council chambers on the top floor, the
mayors offices on the second floor and several courtrooms on the first floor. A variety of marbles from around
the nation and the world grace the interior, including black and gold Italian marble, pink and rose Tennessee
marble, pearl and gray Vermont marble, and white Colorado Yule marble.33 Colorado marble is utilized on
walls and the nineteen-foot columns of the lobby. According to building records, these were the largest
monoliths of the material ever quarried up to that time, with each created from a block of stone weighing 6,600
pounds.34 The columns of the upper two floors are finished in scagliola, painted to resemble natural stone.35
John E. Thompson, who studied at the Art Students League of New York and the Academie Julian in Paris,
became an influential member of the Denver Atelier (discussed below) and supervised the decoration of the
lobby and the selection of colors for the entire building.36
33 Murphy, Geology Tour, 26; Virginia McConnell, For These High Purposes, Colorado Magazine 44 (Summer 1967): 219;
Rocky Mountain News, 1 August 1932, 8.
34 Carroll, History and Description, 2.
35 Murphy, Geology Tour, 24, 26.
36 Denver Post, 16 October 1931, 40.


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Artwork displayed in the building continues the regional themes seen elsewhere in the Denver Civic Center,
including American Indian Orpheus and the Animals, a massive eleven- by six-foot has relief by Colorado artist
Gladys Caldwell Fisher. The work, installed in 1934, consists of two-and-a-half tons of Colorado stone in two
relief panels depicting a Native American and native animals, such as an eagle, bear, and buffalo.37 Plans for the
building in the 1920s included two murals by Allen Tupper True for court offices. Not until 1931, however, did
the artist begin negotiations with the city for the commission, and the pieces were not completed and installed
until 1950. Trues large Miners Court and Frontier Trial remind citizens of the early days of jurisprudence.38
Alterations. The buildings exterior has undergone very few alterations. In 1954 workers removed the original
tile roof, which was judged to be very poor in quality, and installed granite-colored aluminum sheeting on the
sloped surfaces of the roof and tar and gravel on the flat surfaces.39 The original one-ton bronze doors
measuring twenty-six by thirteen feet proved difficult for many people to open. A 1992 description of the
building stated the huge doors and the tracks they slide on weigh fifteen to twenty tons and are moved with the
assistance of pneumatic motors. Smaller doors added in 1959 are used by visitors and the sliding doors are left
undisturbed in their recesses at the outer edge of the main doors.40
Denver Public Library (Denver Carnegie Library), 144 West Colfax Avenue, Albert Randolph Ross
(architect), 1910 (5DV161.4, Resource 4, contributing building)
The city publication Denver Municipal Facts boasted Denver possessed the finest public library in the West
when its first Carnegie library opened in 1910.41 The location, design, and materials of the library influenced the
planning and architectural design of civic center, although its orientation fronting Colfax Avenue did not lend
itself to integration with the parks designs. The neoclassical style two-story building (approximately 180 feet
by 91 feet) rests on a foundation of pink Pikes Peak granite, while its walls and columns are composed of light
gray sandstone from Colorados Turkey Creek quarry 42 A cornerstone at the northeast comer is inscribed
April 11, 1907. A full entablature extends across the front (north), east, west, and portions of the rear (south)
facades. It is composed of a stepped architrave terminated by classical molding, a plain frieze clad with
limestone panels, and a cornice with a band of dentils, moldings, and block modillions. The building has a low
hipped roof with batten seam copper roofing.
The front (north) presents a grand colonnade of giant thirty-foot fluted Corinthian columns in antis supporting
an entablature that crowns the pavilion roof. Behind each column is a corresponding pilaster with a Corinthian
capital. The columns stand atop the raised basement level with rustication masonry and recessed, paired four-
light metal frame windows with security bars. There is a one-story projecting center pavilion with a projecting,
enclosed entrance clad with stone panels that has glazed double doors. A sign covering the transom reads 144
W. Colfax, while other signs above the entrance identify this as the McNichols/Civic Center Building.
Adjacent to the entrance, the walls of the pavilion have decorative metal lanterns and are terminated by
pilasters. The first and second stories have replacement five-part, stacked, metal frame windows. The first-story
window openings were shortened by the addition of limestone panels 43
37 Caldwells work is also known as Montezuma and the Animals. Murphy, Geology Tour, 26.
38 Jere True and Victoria Tupper Kirby, Allen Tupper True: An American Artist (San Francisco, California: Canyon Leap,
2009), 301 and 432.
39 Denver Post, 11 March 1954, 48.
40 Denver Post, 29 August 1956; Rocky Mountain News, 27 August 1959; McConnell, For These High Purposes, 219;
Carroll, History and Description, 6.
41 Denver Municipal Facts, 1 July 1911,2. The building is comparable is scale to architect Albert Randolp Rosss
Washington, D.C. and Columbus, Ohio libraries.
42 Denver Municipal Facts, 14 August 1909, 1; Murphy, Geology Tour, 30.
43 Denver Municipal Facts, 14 August 1909, 4.


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Pilasters divide the identically-designed, four-bay east and west walls above the basement level; paired pilasters
flank the outer comers. The first and second stories display paired five-part metal frame windows and stone
spandrels, as on the north wall. On the west wall, the south window of the first story retains its original height
and there is no spandrel panel between the stories. Six of the window lights are filled with metal panels.
The neoclassical detailing of the front and side elevations continues around portions of the rear elevation,
terminating at the stair towers on each side of a central projecting wing. On the west side of the wing, the first
story has paired ten-light windows, with metal panels covering six central lights and narrow stone panels
between the first and second stories. On the east side, the first story contains three paired five-part windows and
one covered window, as well as wide stone spandrel panels. The upper stories at both ends have paired windows
with five stacked lights, and the easternmost window is covered. In the center of this fa9ade is a multi-bay wing
flanked by neoclassical ornamented stair towers that house the book stacks. The fa9ade of this wing consisted of
trabeated sandstone walls with plain windows and virtually no detailing. In front of the library on the north is a
sunken courtyard enclosed with a low sandstone wall topped by a decorative metal balustrade and accessed by
pink granite stairs with sandstone sidewalls on the east and west. Adjacent to the building at the west end is a
concrete ramp with metal railings. Three tall metal flagpoles stand along the north end of the balustrade. A
paved parking lot is adjacent to the building on the south facing the Great Lawn.
Alterations. After the library moved to a new building across from civic center on the south, the city remodeled
the interior of this building to serve the Board of Water Commissioners and other city offices in 1957. Denver
architect Gordon D. White designed the $600,000 remodeling, which included the removal of the monumental
exterior stairs leading to the original grand entrance on the fa9ade (north) and the creation of a sunken courtyard
and small enclosed entrance at the basement level. The original wood frame windows were replaced with
aluminum windows and limestone panels were added to shorten the windows. Two skylights were removed,
one over the book receiving room and one over the stacks.44 Limestone panels were placed over the inscription
of the fa9ade frieze, which remains underneath. These changes were documented in a 1999 Historic Structure
Assessment45
During the remodeling, original decorative interior plasterwork and ornamental stairways were removed 46 Two
murals painted by Allen Tupper True in 1916, Hopi Potters and Cliff Dwellers, disappeared at that time 47 A
paved drive along the south side of the library was expanded to include a row of surface parking the length of
the building 48
Colorado State Museum, 200 East 14th Avenue, Frank E. Edbrooke (architect), 1915 (5DV5990, Resource
5, contributing building)
Supervising Architect of the State Capitol Frank E. Edbrooke designed the Classical Revival style three-story
Colorado State Museum (now the Colorado Legislative Services Building), which faces the statehouse across
the street to the north. This building is almost an English Regency interpretation of a Renaissance palazzo and is
the smallest of the buildings. The museum (approximately 113 by 107 feet) displays a shallow hipped clay tile
roof, square plan, monumental porticos, and walls of polished white Colorado Yule marble atop a raised,
44 Barbara Norgren and Cynthia Emrick, Civic Center, National Register of Historic Places Registration Form, 10 December
1973 (listed 27 February 1974). Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation, Colorado Historical Society, Denver, Colorado.
45 Slater, Pauli & Associates, Inc., Historic Structure Assessment and Exterior Preservation Plan: City and County of Denver
McNichols Civic Center Building, Final Report (Denver: Slater, Pauli & Associates, Inc., December 1999), 9, Denver Public Library
Western History and Genealogy Department.
46 Slater, Pauli & Associates, Inc., Historic Structure Assessment, 7-9.
47 True and Kirby, Allen Tupper True, 178-79.
48 Slater, Pauli & Associates, Inc., Historic Structure Assessment, 13.


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foundation of rusticated gray granite from the Aberdeen Quarry in Gunnison County, Colorado. Windows of the
building are wood frame one-over-one light; the more elaborate first-story windows include single-light
transoms and are surmounted by flat hoods supported by consoles flanking stone panels, while the second-story
windows display stone surrounds with projecting, bracketed sills.
The front (north) features a projecting center portico with four fluted giant order Ionic columns opening onto a
wide flight of granite stairs with brass railings and granite cheek walls extending to the public sidewalk. Each
stepped sidewall features an original metal lamppost with five light globes and state seals on its base. The first
story of the central bay behind the columns has a central entrance with double doors flanked by windows
surmounted by stone panels. The second story contains three windows aligned with the fenestration of the first
story. The columns support an entablature with a frieze inscribed Colorado State Museum and ornamented
with roundels. The portico is topped by the central, projecting bay of the attic story, on which pilasters are
aligned with the columns of the portico flanking windows. A narrow frieze with closely spaced roundels is
topped by a projecting, molded cornice. Four antefixes decorate the roofline of the portico. The flanking walls
display two windows on each story.
The west wall, facing Sherman Street, is quite similar to the front. It features the same portico, but without an
entrance or stairs. Its ornamentation and windows are the same as the front. The east wall (abutting an alley)
contains a slightly projecting center portico with four giant order pilasters. Fenestration is the same as on the
front. The rear (south) wall features an inset center bay containing a three-story bow window.
Interior. The interior is notable for marble walls, golden oak woodwork, and brass stair railings and trim. The
building also contains a subbasement that originally housed heating and ventilation equipment for other
buildings in the State Capitol Complex.
Colorado State Office Building, 201 East Colfax Avenue, William N. Bowman (architect), 1921
(5DV5991, Resource 6, contributing building)
In 1920-21 Colorado erected a State Office Building despite some citizens objections that it created more
office space than would ever be needed.49 The five-story Classical Revival style building (approximately 113 by
111 feet) at the northeast corner of Sherman Street and East Colfax Avenue faces south toward the State Capitol
across the street. Denver architect William N. Bowman designed the steel frame, clay tile hipped roof, square
plan monumental building with walls composed of blocks of smooth, light gray Cotopaxi granite from Fremont
County, Colorado. There is a set-back attic story.
The front (south) displays a smooth stone foundation and molded, slanting water table below the rustication of
the first story. At the center is the main entrance with three sets of double brass doors with three-part transoms;
the center entrance is flanked by decorative bronze lamps.50 Surmounting the doors are stone panels with foliate
ornament flanked by scroll brackets supporting shallow triangular pediments crowned with antefixes above the
first story cornice. The entrance area is guarded by bronze mountain lions, sculpted by Robert Garrison and cast
by A. and H.F. Hosek of Denver, resting on projecting stone bases. Between the entrance and the street stands a
nonhistoric balustrade with the state seal in the center and concrete end piers. Flanking the entrances on the
south wall are two flat arch windows with gauged stone lintels. At each end of the first story are arch windows
with transoms. A cornerstone at the southwest corner of the building is dated 5 June 1920.51
49 All the History You Ever Wanted to Know About 201 E. Colfax Ave., The Gold Star, December 2009 accessed at
http://www.cde.state.co.us/communications on 4 February 2011.
50 This entrance originally had a revolving door. See All the History You Ever Wanted to Know About 201 E. Colfax Ave.
51 The lions were installed in mid-1922. Denver Post, 2 July 1922, 11; Denver Municipal Facts, May-June 1922, 5; Amy B.
Zimmer, Denvers Capitol Hill Neighborhood, Images of America Series (Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing, 2009), 22.


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The second through fourth stories of the south facade are divided into seven bays by giant order fluted pilasters
with composite capitals. A balustrade extends between the pilasters above the first-story cornice. Inset bays
between the pilasters contain four-light windows with three-light transoms on each story. Window spandrels on
the third and fourth stories are metal, ornamented with plain molding, a band with flowers, torches, garlands,
fluting, and Greek key at the bottom. At each end of the building, the second story features a wide bay with a
two-part window with a clathri transom surmounted by a triangular pediment with scroll brackets. The windows
also have wrought iron balconets supported by stone brackets. The stone entablature consists of a stepped
architrave; a frieze inscribed State Office Building and ornamented with carved panels and roundels; and a
cornice with dentils and modillions. The attic story presents a molded cornice with a frieze ornamented with a
Vitruvian wave motif band above a series of seven central three-part windows flanked by single windows
aligned with the fenestration of the lower stories.
The first story of the west wall (adjacent to Sherman Street) offers a center double door entrance opening onto
concrete steps with brass railings. The entrance is surmounted by a triangular pediment like those of the center
of the south wall and is flanked by tall, tapering, three-sided bronze light standards, each with three sphinx
heads supporting a glass globe and a base of three clawed feet. Flanking the entrance are three four-light
windows with three-light transoms and gauged stone lintels. At each end of the first story are arch windows
with transoms. The second through fifth stories exhibit similar fenestration and ornament to that of the south
wall. The entablature and attic cornice and frieze continue on the west wall.
The north wall is clad with light gray granite, but displays less ornamentation than the south and west walls.
The slightly inset seven-bay center section is flanked by two-bay sections on each end. The first story of the
center section has an off-center entrance (added about 1985) and one-over-one-light metal windows with
decorative security grilles, while the east and west ends with walls of banded rustication contain two four-light
gauged arch windows with transoms. The second through fifth stories have seven one-over-one-light windows
with narrow sidelights in the center section, flanked by two one-over-one-light windows to the east and two
two-light windows with four-light transoms to the west. The wall has a simpler entablature than those on the
south and west, with the sections at the outer ends including dentils.
The east wall is also granite, except for the second through fifth stories of the center section, which are clad
with blonde brick. That section originally consisted of a light well, which was partially filled in during 1983-85
to create additional office space.
Interior. The interior of the building is notable for its two-story lobby with vaulted ceiling, bronze chandeliers,
and Tiffany stained glass skylight. The lobby also features a checkerwork floor composed of black Tennessee
marble displaying fossils and white Colorado Yule marble. Pink Botticino Italian marble is displayed on the
walls of the lobby, while the walls of the remaining floors are clad in Vermont marble.52
Greek Theater and Colonnade of Civic Benefactors, West 14th Avenue and Acoma Street, Willis A.
Marean and Albert J. Norton with Edward H. Bennett (architects), Allen Tupper True (artist), 1919
(5DVI61.12, Resource 7, contributing structure)
At the south end of Civic Center Park near West 14th Avenue, the Greek Theater and the Colonnade of Civic
Benefactors (approximately 210 feet x forty feet) face and balance the Voorhies Memorial Gateway on the
opposite side of the park. Like the theaters of ancient Greece from which it took inspiration, Denvers open-air
theater was designed to host significant civic events attracting large groups of people seated in wedge-shaped
sections of seats in concentric tiers rising from a circular orchestra in front of the stage. The central stage of the
52 Thomas J. Noel, Denver Landmarks and Historic Districts (Denver: Historic Denver, Inc., 1996), 34; James Bretz, Denvers
Early Architecture, Images of America Series (Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing, 2010), 52-53.


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open-air theater pavilion is flanked by double colonnades with forty-foot Corinthian columns atop rusticated
podiums built on the arc of a circle. Behind the semi-circular, projecting stage, the theater pavilion has a flat
proscenium arch supported on fluted Ionic columns and piers with narrow comer pilasters atop massive
rusticated pedestals. The full entablature includes a frieze with patera, and a cornice with classical moldings
surmounted by a parapet. The theater, colonnade, walls, balustrades, pylons, and piers were all constructed of
light gray Turkey Creek sandstone. The rear (south) wall of the stage is open, but it originally featured a glass
and bronze curtain that could be raised and lowered. Steps from the rear lead to a path among crabapple trees
south to West 14th Avenue.53
Extending from either side of the theater pavilion is the Colonnade of Civic Benefactors. Called the most
unique hall of fame in America, it consists of the curvilinear colonnades extending to each side of the central
theater pavilion.54 The colonnades feature double rows of forty-foot, smooth sandstone columns with Ionic
capitals and terminate in square hipped-roof pavilions with vaulted ceilings and grouped comer columns.
Between the columns are stone balustrades. Extending north from the end pavilions, stone walls enclose the
theater space on the east and west, each featuring near the south end a panel with a sculptural lions head that
was originally designed to spout water that would flow into a basin below. The names of civic benefactors are
listed on the stone walls. Some names are spelled with individual bronze letters designed by sculptor Robert
Garrison. Other names are etched in a 1923 metal panel reading: In order to give effect to the oft expressed
intention of the late mayor Robert W. Speer the government of the city and county of Denver Colorado here
records with grateful appreciation the names of civic benefactors who by gifts of material character have added
to the beauty or to the distinction of this city. Another inscription, To the donors of the Pioneer Monument,
the Auditorium curtains, the Welcome Arch, is followed by additional names of men and women. Another
inscription to the donors of the Burns monument and the municipal organ also contains names. Some donors are
cited without reference to a specific gift, and a few acknowledgment plaques were added in later years.55 As
Speer biographer Edgar MacMechen observed, the tribute to civic benefactors is distinguished from other
commemorative works of art in that it is dedicated to all citizens, whether living or dead, who shall have
enriched their city in heart interest as well as in art interest.56
The north end of the amphitheater is elaborated by an east-west balustrade pierced by flights of stairs on the east
and west ends that lead to the central walkway that follows the transverse axis across the park and connects to
the Voorhies Memorial Gateway. Monumental columned pylons and concrete and stone pedestals topped by
bronze lions flank the stairs leading from the floor of the amphitheater to the walkway. Each light gray stone
pylon consists of a cut stone base, paneled and bracketed pedestal, and fluted column with a scroll-shaped
console holding a globed light topped by a stone sphere.
At the interior ends of the colonnades, stairways lead down to two entrances to the theater pavilion: one opening
onto the stage and one into a backstage room. The walls around each entrance are curved, and above the
doorways are niches ornamented with Allen Tupper True murals. As early as 1913, True conceived of a large
mural project that would later be realized in the embellishment of the theater. In 1919 Denver Municipal Facts
announced Mrs. Charles Hanson Toll would donate two murals for niches above the stairs on either side of the
stage pavilion in memory of her late husband, a prominent Denver lawyer.57 The Art Commission reviewed and
approved preliminary sketches of the paintings. In February 1920, Frank Brangwyn advised True concerning
53 The stage is divided into a partially enclosed skene, the structure facing the audience that serves as the background for
performances, and the proscenium, the front part where the actors perform. Flanking the stage are rooms utilized by performers.
54 Denver Municipal Facts, September-October 1919, 2.
55 Denver Post, 21 December 1922; Rocky Mountain News, 6 January 1950, 6.
56 Edgar C. MacMechen, The Court of Honor to Civic Benefactors, Denver, Colorado, Art World 3(1917): 412.
57 Denver Municipal Facts, November 1919, 17.


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the type of medium to use for the murals, commenting: I know of no city which has so fine a civic center. It is
very noble.58 True painted the mural scenes in oil on canvas.59
Completed in 1920, the murals Trapper and Prospector depict pioneers in wilderness settings and reflect the
theme of early life in the West. Prospector (in the east niche) is a spring-summer scene showing a white-
bearded man with a packhorse. The man with a prospecting pan squats next to a stream in a grove of aspens and
flowering columbine (the state flower). Trapper (in the west niche) presents an autumn scene with a man riding
through a forest wearing a fringed buckskin jacket and a blanket, as well as a cap with an upright feather. The
trapper is carrying a musket and his faithful dog travels alongside. Below each mural are two plaques: one
dedicated to the memory of Charles Hansen Toll and one commemorating the restoration of the murals by
Philip Henselman in 1976. In 1920 Denver Municipal Facts reported that the murals connect the architecture
of the Civic Center with the life of the state.60 The same year Reginald Poland, then director of the Denver Art
Museum, expressed his opinion that the murals represented Trues finest work.61
Behind the amphitheater seating is a circular sunken plaza (where, in the past, wood benches stood until winter).
The paved plaza surface has a pattern of squares and diamonds of red and gray bricks bound by concrete
borders. Today tiers of curved concrete benches ring the plaza; together the two seating areas accommodate as
many as 1200 people. A 1919 newspaper article noted: This open air theater is successfully shut off from
intrusion by artistic architectural creations and can be used for public concerts or an open forum.62
Alterations/Restoratiom The theater originally included a large glass curtain that could be lowered to enclose
the rear opening during productions. The curtain served as a sound deflector for the stage, yet permitted the
audience to see West 14th Avenue.63 In the years following the first inscription of the names of civic
benefactors, the city added new names, as was intended.64
Voorhies Memorial Gateway, West Colfax Avenue at Cheyenne Place, William E. Fisher and Arthur A.
Fisher (architects), Allen Tupper True (artist), 1922 (5DV161.13, Resource 8, contributing structure)
At the opposite end of the transverse axis that defines Civic Center Park, lie the curved, double colonnade and
monumental arch of the Voorhies Memorial Gateway (approximately 181 by 25 feet). This structure displays
construction of the same smooth, light gray Turkey Creek sandstone. Double Ionic colonnades flank the
monumental round arched gateway.65 The podium of the structure is sandstone and has tooled sandstone steps.
The central gateway features a round arch elaborated with moldings and supported by paired Ionic columns.
The arch displays a carved keystone and spandrel panels with carved wreaths. The projecting, molded cornice
features a band of dentils.66 There is a plain, unbroken parapet above the cornice.
The west interior wall of the archway contains a plaque indicating that John P. and Georgia H. Voorhies
donated the structure in 1920. Arched lunettes above the entrances to the colonnades contain two Allen Tupper
True murals: Bison (east) and Elk (west). Denver Art Museum Director George W. Eggers, formerly head of the
58 True and Kirby, Allen Tupper True, 244.
59 Rocky Mountain News, Now, 21 November 1976, 20.
60 Denver Municipal Facts, September 1920, 8.
61 Reginald Poland, Artistic Expression in Denver, Denver Municipal Facts, September 1920, 8.
62 Denver Post [1919], undated article in the clipping files of Denver Public Library Western History and Genealogy
Department.
63 Denver Municipal Facts, November 1918, 16.
64 Rocky Mountain News, 6 February 1964, 26. In 1971 former Denver resident Alfred P. Adamo donated the two 450-pound
cast iron lions (one roaring and the other at rest with crossed paws) placed atop pedestals at the north end of the amphitheater. Adamo
acquired the lions (artist and date unknown) at a Detroit estate auction of the Fisher Body Company family. Rocky Mountain News,
24 July 1971, 22.
65 Denver Municipal Facts, September-October 1919, 4 and November 1919, 5.
66 The architects original plans called for an inscription on the frieze.


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Chicago Art Institute, suggested True emulate the style and colors of antique Greek vases in the pieces.67 The
artist completed the murals in 1920 while standing on a scaffold and painting directly on sand-finished plaster.68
The double colonnades flanking the gateway provide covered walkways for promenades. The colonnades have
Ionic columns extending from the gateway, with slightly projecting square pavilions with vaulted ceilings at
each end. The colonnades support an entablature, and the ceiling of the colonnades is vaulted and painted light
blue. The colonnades curve towards the center of the park and embrace a plaza having an elliptical reflecting
pool, just as the Colonnade of Civic Benefactors embraces the Greek theater seating area.
Fisher and Fisher, the local architects who designed the Voorhies Memorial Gateway, envisioned its completion
with a reflecting pool located within the arc of the colonnade.69 The shallow elliptical basin is bounded by a low
concrete retaining wall with a rounded rim. Sculptor Robert Garrison, who frequently collaborated with the
architects, designed a pair of bronze fountains for the east and west ends of the pool, each in the form of a sea
lion with an infant with an outstretched hand clinging to its neck and a jet of water shooting from its mouth and
The sculptures are set atop rectangular concrete bases and face each other across the pool, the jets of water
intersecting above the center.70
Pioneer Monument, Colfax Avenue, northwest corner of Broadway and West Colfax Avenue, Frederick
W. MacMonnies (sculptor), Maurice P. Biscoe (architect of shaft and base), 1911 (5DV161.1, Resource 9,
contributing object)
Planned before the city acquired the grounds for the civic center, the Pioneer Monument played an important
part in determining its final form.71 Located on the northern edge of the district in a small triangular block
formed by Broadway, West Colfax Avenue, and Cheyenne Place, this monumental fountain, designed by
renowned American sculptor and planner Frederick MacMonnies, is thirty-five feet tall and features three
bronze figures typical of frontier life, as well as a heroic equestrian statue of Kit Carson at the top. The stepped
hexagonal base is composed of black and light gray granite 72 Two projecting basins, originally intended as
watering troughs for animals, intersect the base. Another granite basin at the top of the base offers projecting
pedestals holding three bronze statues. The seated figures include: Pioneer Mother and Child (on the northeast,
depicting a woman in a dress holding a rifle and an infant next to a cradle and marked F. MacMonnies and
Jaboeuf & Rouard Fondeurs Paris), The Trapper/Hunter (on the west), modeled after early-day Colorado
scout Jim Baker, who holds a gun and dog, and marked F. MacMonnies and E. Gruet Fondeur Paris), and
The Prospector/Miner (on the southeast, cast by Jaboeuf & Rouard). Water fills the lower basins from two
fountains in the form of the mountain lion heads.
Bronze tablets on the trough and pedestals include: a State of Colorado shield; To the Pioneers of Colorado,
1911; Subscribers to the Pioneer Monument Fund, 1911; Here was the End of the Famous Smoky Hill
Trail, 1936; The Pioneer Monument, 1983; and, below Pioneer Mother, Honoring Pioneer Mothers of
Colorado/Dedicated by Daughters of Colorado/May 14, 1950. The south lions head basin displays a plaque
with names of donors to the fountains restoration by the Park People and the City of Denver, December 1983.
The granite pedestal of the Kit Carson statue rises from a rectangular base with large corner scrolls ornamented
with carved bears. The top of the base is decorated with projecting curvilinear molding surmounted by
sculptural cornucopias. The lower part of the shaft features plaques with carved eagles holding shields inscribed
67 Noel, Denver Landmarks and Historic Districts, 33 and 141.
68 Denver Municipal Facts, March-April 1923, 16; Rocky Mountain News, 18 July 1949, 15.
69 Denver Municipal Facts, September-October 1919, 4
70 Denver Municipal Facts, August 1921, 15.
71 Denver Municipal Facts, October 1918, 4.
72 Denver architect Maurice P. Biscoe designed the shaft and base. Modern Cemetery 21 (1911):627.


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United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form
Dedicated by the Citizens 1910, while the narrower top of the shaft is encircled by sculptural bison skulls and
garlands of grain. A circular upper basin, with trout heads spouting water from its underside, projects outward
above the shaft, providing a base for the Kit Carson equestrian statue at the top. The life-sized figure looks back
toward the east and points with his right hand to the west (the land of new opportunity) while astride a rearing
horse.
The Closing Era, Colorado State Capitol grounds (center of east side), Preston Powers (sculptor), 1893
(installed 1898) (5DVI61.5, Resource 10, contributing object)
Preston Powerss sculpture, The Closing Era, is situated in the center of the east Capitol grounds between the
statehouse and Grant Street. The bronze statue faces east and depicts a Native American hunter standing above
a dying buffalo, his bow balanced on the animals shoulder and his left foot resting on its lower back. The
hunter is clad in a breechcloth and wears three feathers at the back of his head. An 1893 newspaper article
reported it was not Powers intention to represent any particular tribe of Indians, but to represent an Indian as
one of the many tribes that wandered over the plains in the past. However, at the request of his patrons, Powers
endeavored to reproduce to some extent the facial outlines of [Ute Chief] Ouray in his younger days. The
statue is approximately six-and-one-half-feet tall and ten feet long and rests on a battered gray Cotopaxi granite
base with a projecting cap. The monument is placed in a raised circular bed filled with native plants and
surrounded by a low wall capped in red sandstone. The Galli Brothers foundry of Florence, Italy, cast the work.
The use of bronze, instead of the initial choice of red sandstone, permitted Powers to show the Indian with a
bow instead of a rifle and to give him a more graceful pose. For a larger version of the work, Powers
commissioned poet John Greenleaf Whittier to produce a four-line poem, which provided the name, The
Closing Era. After returning from the 1893 Worlds Columbian Exhibition in Chicago, the statue was kept in
storage and then displayed elsewhere on the Capitol grounds until installed in this location in 1898.73
Broncho Buster, Alexander Phimister Proctor (sculptor), north of the Greek Theater and west of the
north-south axis, 191874 (installed 1920) (5DV161.16, Resource 11, contributing object)
One of the countrys most prolific monument sculptors and a former Denver resident, Alexander Phimister
Proctor designed Broncho Buster and its companion piece, On the War Trail. Both works represent regional
themes important to the states history. Denver Municipal Facts observed: In the civic center the Bucking
Broncho and Indian Scout [sic] of Proctor will preserve the picturesque atmosphere of the frontier, a flavor of
which MacMonnies has already given in the Pioneer Monument.75 Many western artists depicted bronco
busters, a popular symbol of the taming of the West76
Sculptor Proctor remembered playing marbles as a boy on the site where his Broncho Buster stands 77 This
monumental bronze equestrian statue depicts a cowboy wearing a hat, scarf, chaps, boots, ammunition belt, and
gun sitting in a saddle on a bucking horse with its rear feet off the ground and its head down. The cowboys
right hand is raised, while his left hand holds the reins. The statue rests on a tall, finely crafted, curvilinear
pedestal of pink granite atop a concrete pad. The statue is inscribed: A. Phimister Proctor and Gorham Co.
Foundry. A bronze plaque on the east side of the base indicates J.K. Mullen, local industrialist, donated the
statue in 1920. A small stone bench rests on the concrete pad below the plaque. Cowboy Slim Ridings, whom
Proctor reportedly bailed out of jail following charges of horse rustling, served as the model.
73 Rocky Mountain News, 14 May 1893, 2 and 14 August 1895, 15; Closing Era Statue, Colorado State Capitol Virtual Tour,
www.colorado.gov/dpa/doit/ archives/cap/close.htm (accessed 27 September 2010).
74 Mae E. Gillis, A History of the Civic Center of Denver, M.A. thesis, Colorado State Teachers College, Greeley, Colorado,
August 1929, 73.
15 Denver Municipal Facts, October 1918, 7.
76 Denver Art Museum, Defining the West: Creating the Cowboy & His World, Exhibition, 2010.
77 Denver Municipal Facts, May-July 1926, 20.


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On the War Trail, Alexander Phimister Proctor (sculptor), north of the Greek Theater and east of the
north-south axis, 1918 (installed 1922) (5DV161.15, Resource 12, contributing object)
Alexander Phimister Proctor produced this dignified representation of an American Indian, one of many works
created by artists that influenced public perception of the nations indigenous peoples.78 Located directly north
of the Greek Theater and opposite the Broncho Buster east of the main north-south axis of civic center, this
monumental bronze equestrian statue depicts a Native American wearing a breechcloth and moccasins, holding
a spear with a triangular point, and carrying a quiver and scabbard on his back. The Indian has braided hair and
is riding a bareback pony. The sculpture is approximately 15 in height. A. Phimister Proctor and Gorham
Co. Foundry are inscribed along the bottom of the statue. The statue rests on a tall oblong pedestal of buff
color Platte Canyon granite atop a concrete and sandstone pad.79 A plaque on the west side of the base reads,
On the War Trail Presented to Denver by Stephen Knight A.D. 1922.
Colorado Soldiers Monument, Colorado State Capitol grounds near west Capitol entrance, Captain John
D. Howland (artist) and J. Otto Schweizer (sculptor), 1909 (5DVI61.6, Resource 13, contributing object)
Captain John D. Howland, a frontier artist and Union veteran of the Battle of Glorieta Pass, New Mexico,
designed this monument to honor Coloradans who fought in the Civil War. J. Otto Schweizer of Philadelphia
modeled the statue, with Bureau Brothers foundry of Philadelphia executing the casting. The monument
consists of an eight-foot tall, 1950-pound, bronze statue of a dismounted Union cavalryman atop a rectilinear
granite pedestal. The mustachioed soldier, wearing a forage cap, cape, and boots with spurs, looks to the
southwest while holding a rifle across his chest. He is also armed with a saber in a scabbard and a holstered
pistol. On each side the granite pedestal has a raised center section with brackets and the inscription, 1861-
1865. A cornice with a decorative architrave is supported by scroll consoles. Each face of the pedestal has a
carved stone plaque with the inscription, Erected by the State of Colorado and a bronze plaque bearing the
names of Colorado Civil War dead. The plaque is bordered by decorative carving and flanked by tapered
pilasters. The monument is set in a circular planting bed surrounded in the front by a low red sandstone wall and
in back a granite wall surmounted by a brass railing.
Civil War Cannon, Number 268, Colorado State Capitol grounds northwest of the Colorado Soldiers
Monument, Revere Copper Company (manufacturer), 1863 (installed ca. 1910) (5DV161.7, Resource 14,
contributing object)
Two Civil War-era cannons are located northwest and southwest of the Colorado Soldiers Monument at the
west front of the Capitol. The Revere Copper Company manufactured the Number 268 twelve-pound Napoleon
cannon in 1863. The muzzle end of the brass barrel is stamped with the name of the manufacturer, a number
(No. 268), the date 1863, 1247 lbs., and the letters T.J.H. The barrel trunnions rest on a carriage
constructed of Honduran mahogany reinforced with metal bands; the large wood spoke wheels have metal rims.
The cannon is located at the northwest edge of the recently installed Colorado Soldiers Monument plaza.80
Civil War Cannon, Number 148, Colorado State Capitol grounds southwest of the Colorado Soldiers
Monument, Revere Copper Company (manufacturer), 1862 (installed ca. 1910) (5DV161.7, Resource 15,
contributing object)
The Revere Copper Company manufactured this twelve-pound Napoleon cannon in 1862. The muzzle end of
the brass barrel is stamped with the name of the manufacturer, a number (No. 148), the date 1862, 1233
lbs., and the letters T.J.H. The barrel trunnions rest on a carriage constructed of Honduran mahogany
78 Denver Art Museum, Defining the West: Picturing American Indians, Exhibition, 2010.
19 Rocky Mountain News, 10 May 1922, 2.
80 Civil War Cannons, Colorado State Capitol Virtual Tom, www.colorado.gov/dpa/doit/ archives/cap/cannon.htm (accessed
18 June 2008); Colorado Historical Society, State Historical Fund, Stabilization of Civil War cannons, grant application, number 94-
02-72, 1 March 1994.


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United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form
reinforced with metal bands; the large wood spoke wheels have metal rims. One of the metal bands on the
carriage is stamped US Watervliet Arsenal. The cannon is located at the southwest edge of the recently
installed Colorado Soldiers Monument plaza. The cannon and its companion have been on display at this
location as early as 1910.81
Sadie M. Likens Drinking Fountain, Lincoln Park near northwest corner, 1923 (5DV161.il, Resource 16,
contributing object)
The Sadie Likens Drinking Fountain, on a slightly raised platform adjacent to the Broadway sidewalk, is a
tapered, black granite, six-foot, six-inch tall pedestal whose north and south edges have a raised, polished foliate
design. The monument features sculptural brass drinking fountains (no longer operational) and identical brass
plaques on its polished north and south faces; the east and west faces are not polished. The plaques dedicate the
monument in memory of Sadie M. Likens 1840-1920 who devoted many years of her life aiding the survivors
of the Civil War and other wars. The Grand Army of the Republic, Affiliated Orders, and friends erected the
monument, which was dedicated on 7 July 1923.82
Edbrooke Memorial Flagpoles and Drinking Fountains, in front of the Denver City and County Building,
Roland L. Linder (architect), 1935 (Resource 17, on the north, & Resource 18, on the south, both contributing
objects)
The two 2000-pound tapered steel flagpoles on the lawn of the city-county building are seventy feet, three
inches, in height. Each shaft emerges from a nine-foot Cotopaxi granite base topped by an octagonal bronze
collar engraved with the words, Memorial/Camilla S. Edbrooke.83 Drinking fountains have been installed on
the north and south sides of the granite bases of each flagpole.84
Noncontributing Resources
There are nine noncontributing resources within the nominated boundary. All are commemorative objects, and,
with the exception of the Colorado Veterans Monument, are relatively small in scale.
Colorado Veterans Monument, near the center of Lincoln Park, Robert Root and Richard Farley
(architects), in association with Noel Copeland and JH/P Architecture, 1990 (Resource 19, noncontributing
object)
The 1990 Colorado Veterans Monument is the largest noncontributing resource within the nominated area.
Located at the center of Lincoln Park, the monument is made of red sandstone from Lyons, Colorado. The
centerpiece is a three-sided obelisk, forty-five feet in height, topped by a pointed, asymmetrical lighted bronze
and onyx beacon. The west face of the obelisk near its base contains five bronze insignia representing the
branches of the U.S. military. An engraving below expresses the people of Colorados gratitude and respect for
the men and women who have proudly served and sacrificed in our nations armed forces. At the base is a
projecting red granite altar stone. The monument is set on a paved plaza paved in red sandstone and granite with
a low north-south wall built into the slope of the land. The resource is assessed as noncontributing due to its
installation after the period of significance.85
81 A photograph of the west front of the Capitol in Denver Municipal Facts shows both cannons flanking the Colorado
Soldiers Monument in November 1910. Denver Municipal Facts, 12 November 1910, 10; Civil War Cannons, Colorado State Capitol
Virtual Tour, www.colorado.gov/dpa/doit/ archives/cap/cannon.htm (accessed 18 June 2008); Colorado Historical Society, State
Historical Fund, Stabilization of Civil War cannons, grant application, number 94-02-72, 1 March 1994.
82 Murphy, Geology Tour, 40-41; Likens Drinking Fountain, Colorado State Capitol Virtual Tour,
www.colorado.gov/dpa/doit/ archives/cap/likens.htm (accessed 18 June 2008).
83 Camilla S. Edbrooke was the wife of noted Denver architect Frank E. Edbrooke, who designed the State Museum. Edbrooke
also served as supervising architect the State Capitol for several years. Rocky Mountain News, 7 November 1935, 15.
84 Carroll, History and Description of the City and County Building. "
85 Veterans Monument, Colorado State Capitol Virtual Tour, www.colorado.gov/dpa/doit/ archives/cap/vets.htm (accessed 18


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DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 36
United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form
Liberty Bell Replica Number 47, Lincoln Park near south center, Paccard Foundry (manufacturer), 1950
(installed 1986) (5DVI61.9, Resource 20, noncontributing object)
This is one of fifty-five, full-sized replicas of the Liberty Bell fabricated in 1950 by the Paccard Foundry, in
Annecy-le-Vieux, France. The original Liberty Bell was cast in 1752 (then recast in 1753) for the Pennsylvania
Statehouse in Philadelphia (now known as Independence Hall). The U.S. Department of the Treasury
commissioned the replicas with funding provided by six major U.S. corporations and distributed them without
charge to the states and territories. Located in the south-central section of Lincoln Park, the three-foot high
Colorado bell stands on an eighteen-foot circular concrete base. The one-piece wood yoke (oriented east-west)
rests in a steel cradle constructed by the American Bridge Company, with the bell hanging from the yoke by
metal U- and eye-bolts. This is the bells third location, having previously been situated in the old Colorado
State Museum Building and at the comer of Sherman Street and East 14th Avenue. It was moved to this site in
1986. The resource is assessed as noncontributing due to its installation after the period of significance.86
United Nations Square and Flagpole, southwest of the Greek Theater, 1950 (relocated 1983) ((Resource
21, noncontributing object).
This commemorative object consists of a two-part octagonal pink granite base; a round granite column tapered
toward the top with decorative moldings, garlands, brackets; a bronze plaque (United Nations Square) on the
south; and a thirty-eight foot, silver metal flagpole crafted by the Union Metal Manufacturing Co. of Canton,
Ohio, hoisting the United States flag and, on a cross-piece, the Colorado and United Nations flags. The flagpole
formerly was located at Broadway and 16th Street. This resource is noncontributing due to its installation after
the period of significance.
Emily Griffith Memorial Drinking Fountain, south of the Voorhies Memorial Gateway and west of the
north-south axis, John Surrey (designer), 1954 (Resource 22, noncontributing object).
Alfred P. Adamo, former Denver resident, donated this object in recognition of the positive influence in his life
of the Opportunity School founded by teacher Emily Griffith.87 The piece consists of a roughly four-foot- tall
drinking fountain with a shaft of polished black granite, carved with information about Emily Griffith, rising
from a gray stone base. Denver architect John Burrey designed the memorial fountain. This resource is
noncontributing due to it installation after the period of significance.
Ten Commandments Monument, Lincoln Park near northwest corner, Fraternal Order of Eagles
National Headquarters (donor), 1956 (5DVI61.10, Resource 23, noncontributing object).
The red granite Ten Commandments Monument is approximately four feet tall and two-and-one-half feet wide
with a double-arched top. The principal face (southwest) of the monument contains engravings of an eagle, an
American flag, and an eye in a triangle surrounded by rays of light (the eye of Providence or the all-seeing
eye of God), flanked by round-arched tablets with writing in Greek. Below is the text of the Biblical Ten
Commandments (or Decalogue) and a scroll noting the monuments donation by the Fraternal Order of Eagles
of Colorado. The sides are rock-faced and the blank rear is tooled. The Colorado chapter of the Eagles placed
the monument here in 1956. The national headquarters of the group designed the monument as part of a national
June 2008); Tim Drago, edMission Accomplished: Building Colorado Veterans Monument (Denver: Colorado Tribute to Veterans
Fund, Inc., 2003); Tim Drago, Denver, Colorado, Telephone Interview by Thomas H. Simmons, 10 December 2010.
86 Liberty Bell Replica, Colorado State Capitol Virtual Tour, www.colorado.gov/dpa/doit/ archives/cap/bell.htm (accessed 18
June 2008); National Park Service, Independence National Historical Park, Liberty Bell Center, website,
http://www.nps.gov/inde/liberty-bell-center.htm (accessed 4 October 2010); Liberty Bell Museum, website,
http://www.libertybellmuseum.com (accessed 18 June 2008); Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Environment,
Michigans Liberty Bell, website, http://www.michigan.gov (accessed 18 June 2008).
87 Emily Griffith Drinking Fountain, Art Inventory Catalog, Smithsonian American Art Museum, accessed at http://siris-
artinventories.si.edu on 16 June 2009 and Rocky Mountain News, 19 June 1954, 21.


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United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form
service campaign and installed the monuments throughout the country.88 This resource is noncontributing due to
its installation after the period of significance.
In Honor of Christopher Columbus, William F. Joseph (sculptor), south of the Voorhies Memorial
Gateway and east of the north-south axis, 1970, installed 1975 (5DV161.14, Resource 24, noncontributing
object).
Italian immigrant and former Denver resident Alfred P. Adamo donated this monument created by Denver
sculptor William F. Joseph to the city to honor Colorado as the first state to recognize Columbus Day as a
holiday.89 This fifteen-foot high work includes an eight-by- ten-foot concrete base topped by a battered concrete
column. Atop the column is a bronze figure reminiscent of Da Vincis Vitruvian Man, having four faces, arms,
and legs pointing to the four cardinal directions of the compass and encircled by three rings suggesting a globe.
A plaque on the base describes the accomplishments of Columbus. A white marble bench is placed below the
statue.90 This resource is noncontributing due to its installation after the period of significance.
Trees or Untitled, West Colfax Avenue, north of the Carnegie Library, Robert Mangold (sculptor), 1975
(relocated) (Resource 25, noncontributing object).
Commissioned as part of an Art in the City project funded by the city and the National Endowment for the Arts,
this roughly sixteen-foot tall and twenty-two foot wide piece consists of two abstract sculptures of trees created
from variously sized welded steel pipes attached to thick center pipes (trunks) set in a concrete base.91 A plaque
reads By Robert Mangold/Untitled/Presented to the City of Denver by Robert Mangold and the Park People
1975. First installed in the median on West Colfax Avenue near Bannock Street, the sculpture was moved into
Civic Center Park. This resource is noncontributing due to its installation after the period of significance.
Joe P. Martinez, Lincoln Park near north center, Emanuel Martinez (sculptor), 1988 (Resource 26,
noncontributing object).
Dedicated in 1988, this memorial honors U.S. Army Private Joe P. Martinez of Ault, Colorados first recipient
of the Medal of Honor in World War II. During action on Attu Island in the Aleutians in May 1943, Private
Martinez led troops against Japanese positions, displaying conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and
beyond the call of duty before his death. The larger-than-life-size bronze statue rests on an eighteen-by-twenty-
two-foot base of concrete and Baltic brown granite from Finland. It faces southwest and depicts the soldier in
combat gear advancing with a Browning automatic rifle. Denver sculptor Emanuel Martinez created the
memorial. This resource is noncontributing due to its installation after the period of significance.92
Colorado Volunteers Flagpole, Lincoln Park near west center, 1990 (5DV161.8, Resource 27,
noncontributing object).
The Colorado Volunteers Flagpole consists of a forty-five-foot flagpole of spun aluminum which rises to a ball
finial. It is set in a cylindrical red sandstone base covered with metal plaques honoring Colorado servicemen
who died in the Spanish American War. The flagpole has a metal shield on the west side just above the base,
indicating it was erected in honor of the Colorado Volunteers of 1898 by the Society of the Sons of the
Revolution and dedicated on 14 June 1898. Originally located in the center of Lincoln Park, the flagpole was
88 Ten Commandments Plaque, Colorado State Capitol Virtual Tour, www.colorado.gov/dpa/doit/ archives/cap/ten.htm
(accessed 18 June 2008); Rocky Mountain News, 23 September 1967, 31.
89 Rocky Mountain News, 13 August 2008, www.rockymountainnews.com (accessed 16 June 2009).
90 Denver Post, 25 June 1970, 23; In Honor of Christopher ColumbusDenver, CO accessed at www.waymarking.com on
16 June 2008; Central Denver Park District Points of Interest, accessed at denvergov.org on 20 June 2008.
91 Trees (or Untitled) by Robert MangoldDenver, CO, accessed at www.waymarking.com on 18 June 2008.
92 Murphy, Geology Tour, 38-39; U.S. Army, Center of Military History, Medal of Honor Recipients-World War II (M-S),
website, http://www.history.army.mil/html/moh/wwII-m-s.html (accessed 28 September 2010); Joseph P. Martinez Statue, Colorado
State Capitol Virtual Tour, www.colorado.gov/dpa/doit/ archives/cap/joe.htm (accessed 18 June 2008).


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USDFNPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86)
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DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 38
United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form
displaced by the construction of the Colorado Veterans Monument and reconstructed in 1990. The metal
flagpole replaced an original wood mast and the sandstone base is not original. The metal shield and plaques are
the only extant parts of the original monument. This resource, counted as contributing in the National Register
nomination prepared in 1974, is noncontributing due to its construction and installation after the period of
significance.93
INTEGRITY
Denver Civic Center displays a high level of historic physical integrity, retaining all of the buildings, structures,
and all but one of the objects completed on the site during the period of significance. Much of the historic
landscape also retains its historic design and elaborating features from the period of significance. Resources
added after the period of significance are generally small and in keeping with the artistic and commemorative
intent envisioned by early planners.
Location. The locations of the contributing resources within the civic center are unchanged since the period of
significance, preserving the important original siting and grouping of the buildings, structures, and objects and
their relationships with each other. Noted planners carefully recommended where each of the buildings,
structures, and objects should be placed to achieve the greatest effect in terms of City Beautiful considerations
such as beauty, inspirational value, harmony, and perspective. Likewise, the major divisions of space within the
landscape remain and retain their original relationship to their surroundings, offering the same opportunities for
appreciation of component areas.
Design. The substantial majority of historic resources in the civic center retain a remarkably high degree of
integrity of design. The Denver Public Library experienced significant exterior alteration to its north elevation
in 1957 as part of the effort to update and reuse the building after its library functions ended. Its redesign as an
office building resulted in removal of monumental stairs leading to the main entrance, which were replaced with
an entrance at the basement level facing a newly-constructed sunken courtyard. The original windows of the
building also were replaced at this time and the openings truncated by the installation of limestone panels. The
frieze inscription on the facade was covered. Despite these changes the library retains its historic character and
remains an essential component of the civic center, representing the first building after the Capitol planned and
completed within the district and one that influenced all plans for the site. The original rear wall of the library
facing Civic Center Park is unchanged, based on historic photographs. In the 1980s a light well on the east alley
side of the State Office Building was partially filled to create additional office space.
The nine noncontributing objects are commemorative and artistic elements that were added to the civic center
after the period of significance. Most are compatible with the original functions and general design ethos of the
civic center site. Relatively small in scale, they do not seriously detract from the original qualities of the
designed landscape, architecture, and artistic objects. The Colorado Veterans Monument, a red sandstone
obelisk forty-five feet in height added at the center of Lincoln Park in 1990, impinges upon the open vista along
the primary east-west axis between the Capitol and the city-county building first proposed by Charles Mulford
Robinson. The relatively short and slender monument replaced the 120-foot tall Colorado Volunteers Flagpole
that had been installed at the center of the park in 1898. The elevated site of the Capitol in relationship to the
lower level of Lincoln Park and the city-county building somewhat mitigates the visual impact of the Veterans
Monument.94
93 Before its move and reconstruction, the flagpole was assessed as contributing in the 1988 National Register district
nomination. Drago, ed., Mission Accomplished', Colorado Legislative Council, Memorials and Art in and Around the Colorado State
Capitol (Denver: Colorado Legislative Council, June 1992), 89.
94 An entirely reconstructed version of the flagpole stands a short distance west of the Veterans Memorial and is about the
same height (forty-five feet) as the shaft of the monument.


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DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 39
United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form
In the 1990s the western Capitol grounds received a plaza extending from the west front of the Capitol around
the Colorado Soldiers Monument, on which the two Civil War cannons are placed. Red sandstone stairs and
walkways across the west lawn from the plaza to the northwest and southwest corners of the block mirror
similar walks in Lincoln Park. Reinhard Schuetze had included such walkways in original plans for the Capitol
grounds, but they were not constructed. In 1996 a circular commemorative area was created on the east lawn of
the Capitol grounds around The Closing Era, flanked by two smaller circular commemorative areas.
The landscape design of Lincoln Park experienced the most change after the period of significance, while the
basic designs of the Capitol grounds, Civic Center Park, and Denver City and County Building grounds retain
substantial historic integrity. In 1989-90 Lincoln Park underwent alterations associated with the construction of
the Colorado Veterans Monument, including the resurfacing of the two elliptical walks established by Reinhard
Schuetze. Reconstruction and resurfacing of the historic east-west walkway west of the Veterans Monument
also occurred. In association with the Veterans Monument, a low curving wall and flagstone-paved courtyard
were constructed. These modifications were in keeping with improvements made to the west front plaza and
central stairway leading down from the west portico of the statehouse.
Civic Center As the 2005 Denvers Civic Center: Park Master Plan concluded:
Civic Centers original composition, as a formal, symmetrically arranged plan defined by two
stepped terraces and a primary axis, is largely intact. Its composition is the parks strongest
defining characteristic. The parks composition closely resembles the constructed park of the
early 1920s that was the result of Edward Bennetts plan of 1917. Today, as in the early 1920s,
the primary park spaces and those features that define its organization remain.95
Changes within Civic Center Park include incorporation of much of the northern sidewalk along the Great Lawn
into a parking lot behind the public library in the 1950s. The south triangle (which was seen as balancing the
north triangle of the Pioneer Monument) is not extant and is no longer part of the civic center. Upon
construction of the new Denver Public Library, the city vacated the street south of the triangle and it became
part of the library grounds. In 2011 the city eliminated the extension of 15th Street to Broadway and
incorporated the previously isolated triangular piece of parkland into the main body of the park.
Drawings for Civic Center Park from 1936 and 1963 show almost no change in the layout of interior walkways;
by 1989 some secondary north-south paths had been eliminated.96 Pedestrian ramps and the central stairs from
the balustrade in Civic Center Park linking the east-west walkway to the lower terrace of the park were built in
the early 1990s. In 2011, two nonhistoric diagonal paved walkways in the Broadway Terrace area were
removed and replaced with two curving concrete sidewalks extending from the northeast and southeast corners
of the park to the west end of the central walkway. The elliptical configuration of the new sidewalks emulates
the design of the walkways in Lincoln Park. Other 2011 changes to Broadway Terrace included: widening the
curving sidewalk east of the balustrade and adding brick pads for benches; adding concrete pads with benches
along the east-west sidewalks bordering the terrace on the north and south; planting additional trees at the north
and south ends; and installing raised granite curbs along some sidewalks. Two rectangular planting beds were
95 Mundus Bishop Design, Inc., Denvers Civic Center Master Plan (Denver: Denver Parks and Recreation Department,
2005), 21-, 76.
96 Civic Center, Denver, 1932, Drawing, April 1932 (updated through 1936). Denver Parks Department Collection, WH1316,
OVFF363, Range Unit 2, Shelf 4, Western History and Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado; E. Johnson,
Civic Center Redevelopment Plan, Drawing, 22 May 1956 (updated through 4 December 1963), Denver Parks Department Collection,
WH1316, OVFF305, Range FFC17, Shelf 18, Western History and Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado;
A. A. Engineers and Associates, Inc., Civic Center Park, Drawing, Denver, Colorado, 24 April 1989, Denver Parks Department
Collection, WH1316, OVFF305, Range FFC17, Shelf 18, Western History and Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library,
Denver, Colorado.


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USDFNPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86)
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created at the center of the promenade along the secondary axis, which was paved in a manner similar to the
historic Broadway Terrace central walkway in the early 1990s.
Setting. The addition of new cultural and governmental buildings on the periphery of the district clearly
differentiates Denver Civic Center from its surroundings. City Beautiful planners encouraged construction of
civic and cultural facilities in adjacent areas, and many of the buildings erected after the period of significance
represent this intention. However, planners such as Charles M. Robinson and Edward H. Bennett suggested any
new construction in the immediate vicinity should represent architecture harmonious in style, materials,
massing, and height, as well as appropriate functions. Despite the abandonment of many of the principles of
architectural harmony, buildings erected adjacent to the civic center do evince similar dignity, importance of
purpose, and quality of design and construction. The architectural styles surrounding the site serve to
differentiate it from the remainder of downtown Denver and emphasize its special sense of place. The later
buildings display styles stemming from different periods of development and are a reminder of the constant
evolution of the city outside the boundary of the district. Several of the buildings qualify as landmarks
themselves and fulfill the City Beautiful role of attracting visitors to the city and providing efficiency through
their proximity to the older buildings of related function.
Materials. Denver Civic Center retains integrity of materials, which to a large extent remain unchanged on the
buildings, structures, and objects. As discussed above, the 1956 remodeling of the library resulted in
replacement of its original windows. Some of the metal streetlights within park areas are replicas.97 Greek
Theater rehabilitation in 2003 rebuilt its flooring and benches using appropriate materials in accordance with
the Secretary of the Interiors standards. Projects beginning in 2009 rehabilitated the Greek Theater and
Colonnade of Civic Benefactors and the Voorhies Memorial Gateway. With the exception of the concrete and
brick center walkway in Broadway Terrace and some perimeter sidewalks, interior Civic Center Park walkways
did not receive a hard surface until the early 1990s.98
After the period of significance, some changes to the existing vegetation occurred. During a dispute over the
disparity between the plantings at Civic Center Park and those of the Capitol grounds in 1936, Denver Public
Works Director George E. Cranmer observed, The trees in Civic Center dont get along with the trees on the
Capitol grounds. He ordered the removal of evergreen trees from around the public library and the planting of
flowering trees and shrubs.99 Crabapple trees were added to the forecourt of the Voorhies Memorial. In 1938
WPA workers removed some English elms planted in 1919 to improve the view between the Capitol and the
city-county building.100
During its 1959 Rush to the Rockies centennial celebration, Denvers Parks Director Dave Abbott suggested:
The Capitol grounds and Civic Center form a single showplace in the center of the city and should be treated
as such.101 The state cooperated with the effort, allowing city workers to replace diseased trees with a variety
of new ones as part of the areas dress-up. The state had undertaken no new landscaping program for many
years, and as W.M. Williams, the planning director, commented, The city is set up to plan and do this work
better than we are.
97 Mundus Bishop Design, Design Guidelines, 56.
98 Historic park drawings label the internal walkways as gravel in 1936, blacktop in 1963, and oil in 1989. Civic Center,
Denver, 1932, Drawing, April 1932 (updated through 1936); E. Johnson, Civic Center Redevelopment Plan, Drawing, 22 May 1956
(updated through 4 December 1963); A. A. Engineers and Associates, Inc., Civic Center Park, Drawing, Denver, Colorado, 24 April
1989.
99 Rocky Mountain News, 19 April 1920, 16.
100 Denver Post, 2 March 1938, 7.
101 Denver Post, 16 May 1959, 6.


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On Broadway Terrace outer rows of the crabapple trees were placed along the central walkway in the 1990s. In
2005 the city planted two flower beds in the forecourt of the city-county building with xeriscaping. The 2009
Design Guidelines identified areas within the park containing historic patterns of vegetation. Historic vegetation
planted before 1932 includes the red oak groves on the Broadway Terrace, scattered trees along Bannock Street,
and a cluster of trees west of the Greek Theater. The northern and southern edges of the park exhibit more
recent tree plantings.102
Workmanship. The Denver Civic Center retains integrity of workmanship, as evidenced in the skill displayed in
the construction of the monumental buildings and structures, the design of the site, and the creation of
embellishing works of art. The labor and craftsmanship embodied in the quarrying and finishing of stone
utilized in the construction of buildings and structures remains a remarkable testament to the industry in
Colorado. Retention of the important elements of the basic landscape design conceived by Frederick Law
Olmsted, Jr., elaborated by Edward H. Bennett, and actualized by local landscape architects such as Reinhard
Schuetze and Saco De Boer, testifies to the quality of its conception and actualization. The works of artists
within the district, including murals and sculptures designed by nationally-recognized professionals, display
integrity of workmanship and continue to add beauty to the setting and represent some of the finest skills of the
era.
Feeling. The retention of all of the original buildings, structures, and all except one object, as well as the
preservation of most of the original landscape, contribute to the integrity offeeling, which enables
understanding of the immense undertaking the historic resources represent. The combination of these elements
illuminates the civic life and municipal aspirations in this urban location during the early twentieth century.
These elements also allow the visitor to understand the enduring legacy of City Beautiful philosophies and
Beaux-Arts design. The dignified setting, framed by the State Capitol and the Denver City and County
Building, enhances a feeling of purpose and inspiration for visitors.
Association. As one of the most complete and intact civic centers in the country, the district conveys its historic
character and provides an important window into the association between the City Beautiful movement, Beaux-
Arts aesthetics, progressive social and political concepts, and the development of Denver embodied in a realized
civic center. All of the buildings and structures and all but one object erected and placed in civic center during
the period of significance are present, associated with its history, and convey its significance, providing a direct
link to an important era of the citys past.
102
Mundus Bishop Design, Design Guidelines, Figure 4.


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DENVER CIVIC CENTER MU
RESOURCES LOCATED WITHIN DISTE HCT BOUNDARY
Res. No. Resource Year Built Designer Resource Type Contributing Status Subarea Location
1 Denver Civic Center Site 1895- 1935 Reinhard Schuetze, Charles Mulford Robinson, Frederick W. MacMonnies, Olmsted Brothers and Arnold Brunner, Edward H. Bennett, Allied Architects Association Site Contributing All
2 Colorado State Capitol, 200 E. Colfax Ave. 1908 Elijah E. Myers and Frank E. Edbrooke Building Contributing Capitol Grounds
3 Denver City and County Building, 1437 Bannock St. 1932 Allied Architects Association Building Contributing City and County Building Grounds
4 Denver Public Library, 144 W. Colfax Ave. 1910 Albert Randolph Ross Building Contributing Civic Center Park
5 Colorado State Museum, 200 E. 14th Ave. 1915 Frank E. Edbrooke Building Contributing Other
6 Colorado State Office Building, 201 E. Colfax Ave. 1921 William N. Bowman Building Contributing Other
7 Greek Theater and Colonnade of Civic Benefactors 1919 Marean and Norton with Edward H. Bennett Structure Contributing Civic Center Park
8 Voorhies Memorial Gateway 1921 Fisher and Fisher Structure Contributing Civic Center Park
9 Pioneer Monument 1911 Frederick MacMonnies Object Contributing Other
10 The Closing Era 1893 Preston Powers (installed 1898) Object Contributing Capitol Grounds
11 Broncho Buster 1918 Alexander Phimister Proctor (installed 1920) Object Contributing Civic Center Park
12 On the War Trail 1918 Alexander Phimister Proctor (installed 1922) Object Contributing Civic Center Park
13 Colorado Soldiers Monument 1909 Capt. John D. Howland and J. Otto Schweizer Object Contributing Capitol Grounds
14 Civil War Cannon (north) 1863 Revere Copper Company (installed ca.1910) Object Contributing Capitol Grounds


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Res. No. Resource Year Built Designer Resource Type Contributing Status Subarea Location
15 Civil War Cannon (south) 1862 Revere Copper Company (installed ca.1910) Object Contributing Capitol Grounds
16 Sadie Likens Drinking Fountain 1923 Unknown Object Contributing Lincoln Park
17 Camilla S. Edbrooke Memorial Flagpole and Drinking Fountain (north) 1935 Roland Linder Object Contributing City and County Building Grounds
18 Camilla S. Edbrooke Memorial Flagpole and Drinking Fountain (south) 1935 Roland Linder Object Contributing City and County Building Grounds
19 Colorado Veterans Monument 1990 Robert Root and Richard Farley in association with Noel Copeland Object Noncontributing Lincoln Park
20 Liberty Bell Replica 1950 Paccard Foundry (installed 1986) Object Noncontributing Lincoln Park
21 United Nations Flagpole 1950 Unknown (installed 1983) Object Noncontributing Civic Center Park
22 Emily Griffith Drinking Fountain 1954 John Burrey Object Noncontributing Civic Center Park
23 Ten Commandments Monument 1956 Fraternal Order of Eagles National Headquarters Object Noncontributing Lincoln Park
24 In Honor of Christopher Columbus 1970 William F. Joseph Object Noncontributing Civic Center Park
25 Trees or Untitled 1975 Robert Mangold Object Noncontributing Civic Center Park
26 Joseph P. Martinez 1988 Emanuel Martinez Object Noncontributing Lincoln Park
27 Colorado Volunteers Flagpole 1990 Unknown Object Noncontributing Lincoln Park
NOTES: Contributing Status: C, contributing; NC, noncontributing.
Location: Other indicates locations north of Colfax Avenue or south of 14th Avenue.
Resource Numbers: Resource numbers are keyed to the narrative description and the sketch map.


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8. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE
Certifying official has considered the significance of this property in relation to other properties
Nationally: X Statewide:_ _ Locally:
Applicable National Register Criteria: AX B_ CJLD
Criteria Considerations (Exceptions): A B C D E F G
NHL Criteria: 1,4
NHL Criteria Exceptions
NHL Theme(s): III Expressing Cultural Values 5. Architecture, landscape architecture, and urban design
Areas of Significance: Community Planning and Development Architecture Art Landscape Architecture
Period(s) of Significance: 1890-1935
Significant Dates: 1904, 1908, 1910, 1911, 1915, 1917, 1921, 1932
Significant Person(s): N/A
Cultural Affiliation: N/A
Architect/Buil der: Allied Architects Association Bennett, Edward H. Bowman, William N. Edbrooke, Frank E. Fisher, William A. and Fisher, Arthur E. Garrison, Robert MacMonnies, Frederick W. Marean, Willis A. and Norton, Albert J. Myers, Elijah E. Powers, Preston Proctor, Alexander Phimister Ross, Albert Randolph Schuetze, Reinhard True, Allen Tupper
Historic Contexts: VII. Political and Military Affairs, 1865-1939 C. The Progressive Era, 1901-1914


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XVI. Architecture
W. Regional and Urban Planning
1. Urban Areas
XVII. Landscape Architecture (it has no subheadings or description)
XXIV. Painting and Sculpture
G. Historical Painting and Sculpture: Memory and Dreams, 1876-1908
H. The 20th Century, 1900-1930
3. Regionalism, 1915-1935


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State Significance of Property, and Justify Criteria, Criteria Considerations, and Areas and Periods of
Significance Noted Above.
SIGNIFICANCE
The Denver Civic Center is nationally significant under the NHL theme Expressing Cultural Values and NHL
Criteria 1 and 4. It is significant under National Historic Landmark Criterion 1, for its outstanding
representation of the widespread impact of the City Beautiful Movement on American cities and the attendant
creation of civic centers during the early twentieth century. This theme is central to the history of American
planning, architecture, art, and landscape architecture and is expressed in the diversity of experiences that
characterized the nations growth and expansion. The property also is significant under Criterion 4 as an
outstanding example of cohesive public landscape design and as a collection of public architecture. The civic
centers artistic merit represents the work of several nationally and regionally prominent planners, architects,
artists, and landscape architects and whose components were executed through many projects extending over
many years. The Denver Civic Center is an exceptional example of an American civic center, reflecting what
has been described as a successful merging of the formality and rational order of the Beaux-Arts tradition with
the democratic ideals and regional splendor of the nations interior landscape and heritage. Its inclusion of the
works of important regional artists and architects conveying imagery of the areas heritage and the perceived
triumph of order and unity over the wild American continent is a representative feature of civic center design
reflecting the emergence and recognition of growing cultural and artistic sophistication paralleled by the
maturation of regional governance. The period of significance for the property begins in 1890, with the laying
of the cornerstone of the Colorado State Capitol, and ends in 1935, with the completion of the City and County
Building grounds. The district is remarkably intact, retaining all of the of buildings, structures, and all but one
object that adorned it during the period of significance, as well as significant features of its historic designed
landscape.
As in communities across the country during the early twentieth century, Denvers civic leaders, most notably
Mayor Robert W. Speer (serving 1904-1912 and 1916-1918) and the Denver Art Commission, called for
improvement and beautification of the urban environment.103 Adopting tenets of the City Beautiful movement
and influenced by the 1902 plan for Washington, D.C., Denver sought to create a grand civic center containing
monumental cultural and governmental buildings of American Beaux-Arts classical design linked by a formally
ordered and inspiring landscape, a rich display of works of art and commemoration, and magnificent vistas. A
series of nationally recognized professionals from a variety of fields prepared plans for the district, including
Charles Mulford Robinson, Frederick MacMonnies, Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., and Edward H. Bennett.
Bennett is credited with harmonizing key elements of previous plans and integrating his own ideas and those of
local leaders into a successfully actualized scheme. The process of achieving a plan approved by the populace
and convincing voters to accept the entailed cost lasted more than a decade, required considerable educational
and political effort, and reflected what noted City Beautiful scholar William H. Wilson called the need for
harmony in politics and design.104
Described as one of the most complete and intact City Beautiful civic centers in the country, Denvers
example contrasts with that of most cities, where the eras civic center aspirations resulted in little or no actual
construction.105 The Denver Civic Center represents a well-conceived plan that took advantage of local
conditions existing at its outset. The civic center encompasses both the Colorado State Capitol and the Denver
City and County Building of the states largest community, which face each other across a swath of open
103 Jon A. Peterson, The Birth of City Planning in the United States, 1840-1917 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press,
2003), 102.
104 William H. Wilson, A Diadem for the City Beautiful, Journal of the West (1983): 82.
105 Mundus Bishop Design, Inc., Master Plan, 1; Draper, Edward H. Bennett, 29.


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parkland. In summary, the NHL district is nationally significant in the areas of community planning and
development, architecture, art, and landscape architecture for the period 1900-40. Information about properties
comparable to the Denver center and the biographical background of its principal planners, architects, artists,
and landscape architects appears at the end of this section.
Criterion 1
The Denver Civic Center is significant in the area of Community Planning and Development as an exceptional
representative of successful planning and implementation of a City Beautiful era civic center accomplished by
staged projects over several decades. During the early twentieth century Denvers civic leaders and interested
organizations articulated and actively pursued projects to improve and aesthetically enhance the city in
accordance with City Beautiful principles. The election of Robert W. Speer as mayor in 1904 coalesced the
interest, means, and political will necessary to achieve diverse community planning goals. As a career politician
with twenty years of experience in Denver government, Speer understood the inner workings of city
administration and built a powerful political organization, leading local newspapers to proclaim him Boss
Speer. Once in office, the mayor became a leading national proponent and practitioner of the City Beautiful
Movements ideals. As architecture critic Nicolai Ouroussoff observed, Emulated in cities like Washington,
Cleveland, Denver, and Detroit, the movement gave the country its first uniform vision of city planning.106
Mayor Speer, who absorbed City Beautiful concepts during a visit to the 1893 Worlds Columbian Exposition
in Chicago and later trips to Europe, strongly supported Denvers Art Commission (established in 1904) in its
efforts to improve the appearance and cultural sophistication of the city. The mayor believed public spaces
ornamented with artistic features such as fountains and sculptures increased the affection of local residents for
their city, attracted tourism that strengthened the economy, increased property values, and stimulated additional
funding for civic improvement. During Speers three terms as mayor, Denver expanded and improved its city
parks, established a parkway system, created an innovative chain of mountain parks, increased private donations
for public improvements, built a municipal auditorium to host a national political convention, and began
comprehensive planning. Historians Lyle D. Dorsett and Michael McCarthy evaluated the mayors
accomplishments as by any standard substantial and remarkable.107
With encouragement from Art Commissioner Henry Read, Speer envisioned the crown jewel of Denvers City
Beautiful efforts as a civic center reflecting its recently attained status as Colorados first unified city and
county and its position as the financial and commercial capital of the Rocky Mountain region. The mayor
encouraged the Art Commission to secure the services of respected City Beautiful proponent and early city
planner Charles Mulford Robinson to produce a civic center plan for Denver. In his 1906 report Robinson
recommended creation of a civic center in the heart of the city that would emphasize Denvers status as the state
capital as well as its magnificent mountain backdrop. Using the existing statehouse as a starting point, and
taking into consideration the location of a planned public library and the difficult juxtaposition of conflicting
street grids, Robinson created the first formal scheme for a civic center in the history of the Rocky Mountain
region. City officials and municipal groups rapidly embarked on a vigorous campaign to gain public funding for
the proposal, but failed to win electoral support for the expensive plan.
The mayor and other civic and business leaders refused to abandon the dream of making Denver a national
leader in civic beautification and cultural attainment, redoubling their educational efforts and employing astute
political strategies to secure funding for the project. During the long period required to settle legal disputes over
acquisition of land and funding, the city solicited advice from other local committees and prominent
professionals, including Frederick MacMonnies and Frederick L. Olmsted, Jr. Each plan built upon previous
106 Nicolai Ouroussoff, An Epoch Locks Its Doors, Week in Review, New York Times, 25 October 2009, 1.
107 Lyle W. Dorsett and Michael McCarthy, The Queen City: A History of Denver (Boulder, Colo.: Pruett Publishing Co.,
1986), 137.


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efforts and considered existing conditions. As the process extended several decades, the mayors office, art and
parks commissions, community organizations, and Denver citizens also reacted to and helped refine the
evolving design. The effort culminated with a 1917 civic center concept produced by renowned City Beautiful
architect and planner Edward H. Bennett, considered the most influential and fully realized of all such proposals
for the city.
Bennetts plan represented the evolution of civic center design from the beginning of the twentieth century up to
World War I in its application of City Beautiful concepts together with a pragmatic approach to what could be
accomplished within the local context. Its success demonstrated the importance of personal relationships in the
planning and creation of civic centers, with Bennett and Speer working together for the essence of the City
Beautiful, rather than its perfect form. 108 According to Professor Wilson, Denvers civic center resulted from
the persuasive presentation of a realistic plan for its construction within the context of effective political
leadership.109 Despite the failure to realize all aspects of Bennetts plan, the center is a pleasing contrast to its
surroundings. Its invitation to relaxation and tranquility belies the bitter struggles involved in its creation.110
The Denver Civic Center is an excellent example of the successful collaboration between a planner who
produced a realistic, yet highly artistic, scheme for improvement and city officials who laid the groundwork and
provided the necessary support to facilitate acceptance of the plan. Bennetts biographer, Joan Draper,
acknowledged: Bennetts plans, like those of his fellow practitioners, had the best chance to guide
development of cities with a strong support for planning where the new schemes incorporated and embellished
the existing structure of the city and pre-existing ideas for public improvements.111 Throughout the process,
Mayor Speer brought all of his political clout, courage, and understanding to bear on the successful outcome,
employing what has been called a full complement of City Beautiful campaign techniques.112 Following
Speers death in office in 1918, subsequent administrations continued Denvers quest to complete its civic
center. As Art Commissioner Theo Merrill Fisher recounted in 1923:
Denver was a pioneer in the whole movement for city planning, as we generally term it, and its
Civic Center is an outstanding example of noble ideas greatly accomplished, for it is much nearer
completion than the similar programs of other cities, which for the most part are still in the
paper stage. It stands as a most adequate and fitting monument to the memory of Robert W.
Speer, a city executive who in his career gradually became revealed as a civic leader of a type
and kind very different from the usual politician.113
Securing public approval and funding and completing the design and construction of final elements of the
district extended until the opening of the city-county building in 1932 and completion of its landscaped grounds
in 1935. The Denver Civic Center thus fulfilled its multi-faceted goals of becoming a center of government and
culture, a green park in the heart of the city, and a grand public gathering space serving as the site for the citys
largest and most significant political and governmental events, commemorative activities, and celebrations, as
well as cultural exhibitions, entertainment, and a diversity of festivals.
108 William H. Wilson, The City Beautiful Movement (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989), 253.
109 Wilson, The City Beautiful Movement, 234.
110 Ibid., 253.
111 Joan E. Draper, EdwardH. Bennett: Architect and City Planner, 1874-1954 (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1982), 26.
112 Wilson, A Diadem, 79.
113 Theo Merrill Fisher, The Denver Civic CentrArchitectural Record 53 (March 1923): 201.


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Criterion 4
Architecture
Denver Civic Center possesses national level of significance under NHL Criterion 4 in the area of Architecture
for its representation of Beaux-Arts Classicism in America, as reflected in the composition of its plan and the
design of its cultural and governmental buildings, embellishing structures, and objects of art. The 1893 Worlds
Columbian Exposition popularized Beaux-Arts design in America, as exemplified in the fairs Court of Honor:
Formally arranged around a central lake and fountain stood gleaming white buildings visually
tied together with a uniform cornice height, a regular spacing of arcades, and a shared language
of massing and detail. Each building, as well as the entire ensemble, displayed the rational and
axial order of Beaux-Arts planning.114
The buildings displayed a style derived from historic motifs of classic Greek and Roman architecture, as
translated by architects trained at the influential Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Architectural unity as a source
of beauty for the grouped buildings of the White City, as the Court of Honor became known, appealed to the
fairs millions of visitors and fixed the taste of a people for a generation.115 As contemporary critic
Ouroussoff remarked, The homogeneity of the architecture, with its classical facades typically arranged around
formal parks, reflected the desire to create a symbolic language of national unity after the Civil War.116
Described as scholarly, self-confident, grand, and lush, Beaux-Arts Classicism seemed entirely appropriate
and desirable for the monumental public architecture of civic centers of the early twentieth century.117 The
Denver Civic Center displays its overall influence in its assemblage of classically inspired buildings of
monumental scale incorporating a variety of components of Beaux-Arts design, including order, balance,
symmetry, dignity, and the blending of art and architecture. The controlling classical vocabulary adds to the
unity and harmony of the district. The buildings and structures exhibit such defining Beaux-Arts characteristics
as stone construction, banded rustication, giant order columns (usually with Ionic or Corinthian capitals), richly
embellished walls, elaborated entablatures, attic stories, low-pitched roofs, and roofline balustrades or parapets.
Most of the building facades are dominated by projecting porticos. Many windows are framed by pilasters and
crowned by entablatures and pediments. Denvers civic center also displays the evolution of Beaux-Arts
Classicism from the first decade of the twentieth century, as reflected in the completion of a State Capitol
modeled on a particular reference, the United States Capitol, to the early years of the Great Depression, with the
1932 city-county building exemplifying a more simplified and liberalized version of the style incorporating
fewer traditional ornamental devices while remaining faithful to its basic tenets.118
A variety of characteristics evident in the Denver Civic Center place it in the Beaux-Arts tradition. A strong
axial arrangement governs the spatial organization of the center, with a principal east-west governmental or
civic axis extending from the State Capitol to the Denver City and County Building and a secondary
cultural transverse axis connecting the symmetrically balanced Greek Theater and Colonnade of Civic
Benefactors on the south to the Voorhies Memorial Gateway on the north and tying the district to downtown
114 Mark Gelemter, A History of American Architecture: Buildings in Their Cultural and Technological Context (Hanover,
New Hampshire: University Press of New England, 1999), 203.
115 Talbot Hamlin, Architecture Through the Ages (New York: G.P. Putnams Sons, 1940), 611.
116 Ouroussoff, An Epoch, 1.
117 James Stevens Curl, Oxford Dictionary of Architecture (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 64; Colorado Historical
Society, Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation, Guide to Colorados Historic Architecture and Engineering: Beaux Arts,
http://coloradohistory-oahp.org/guides/architecture/beauxarts.htm (accessed 11 February 2011).
118 Gelemter, A History of American Architecture, 239; Michael J. Lewis, American Art and Architecture (London: Thames
and Hudson, Ltd., 2006), 229; Astrid Liverman, Colorado National and State Register Coordinator, email to Tom and Laurie
Simmons, 9 March 2011.


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Denver. These structures with their dramatic inward facing double colonnades anchor the public landscape to
the north and south, symbolically and spatially enclosing the central transverse axis and giving to the center of
the city a palpable sense of prominence and grandeur. Buildings are grouped symmetrically, with the Capitol
and the city-county building facing each other across a linear public landscape, while the State Office Building
and State Museum flank the Capitol on the north and south. Plans called for a building at the southwest corner
of Civic Center Park to provide similar balance with the library building. Although this construction did not
occur, the site remains subtly defined by bordering sidewalks.
A light-colored palette of enduring building materials enhances the architectural harmony within the civic
center, with white to light-gray stone serving as the principal wall cladding for all buildings and structures.
Regional distinction is achieved through the use of diverse types of Colorado stone. Builders employed light-
gray granite for the first building erected within the district, the Capitol, as well as the 1920-21 office building
and the 1932 city-county building. The public library, Greek theater and colonnade, and memorial gateway all
exhibit light-gray sandstone. Construction of the state museum utilized white Colorado Yule marble. Sculptural
works also echo this detailing in the utilization of native stone for bases and pedestals to accent their uniformly
bronze compositions.
All of the buildings in the civic center are monumental in scale. Building heights do not vary greatly, ranging
from two to five stories. The Capitol with its gilded dome and the city-county building with its slender tower are
both three stories atop full-height basements. The State Office Building, at five stories, is the tallest building in
the district. Many of the buildings and structures include recessed attic stories, parapets, or balustrades along the
roof that visually lessen their verticality and emphasize the horizontality of the landscape as it approaches the
Front Range.
Beaux-Arts Classicism informed the professions of landscape architecture and architecture in the early
twentieth century. Design emphasized rational order and perspective, focusing on a logical progression through
space and the relationship of component features. Formality derived from geometrical design, classical
proportions, and the dominance of bilateral or radial axial order gave each component landscape an individual
character while integrating it within a single but complex cohesive design. Willis A. Marean, one of the
architects of the Greek Theater and Colonnade of Civic Benefactors, discussed the importance of properly
grouping individual elements around the open space, noting: Buildings to appear at their best should be seen at
sufficient distance to view them in perspective.119 Inspiring vistas from building to building, across the
designed landscape, and to the distant mountains are a primary feature of Denver Civic Center. The city
highlighted the significance of these vistas when encouraging citizens to support the construction of a center,
observing: The view of the snow-clad range from the capitol, the sunny skies of Colorado, and the setting
formed by a city already famed for its beauty, offer additional reasons for creating a plaza that no city in the
world can excel.120
Construction within the center represents the work of a number of talented architects. Elijah E. Myers of
Detroit, the architect of two other state capitols, drew plans for the Colorado State Capitol in 1886 (completed
1908). Ecole des Beaux-Arts-trained Albert Randolph Ross of New York designed the Denver Public Library
and other Carnegie institutions across the country, including the 1903 Washington, D.C., building. The guiding
hand of esteemed Chicago architect and planner Edward H. Bennett influenced the overall plan of the civic
center, contributing to the design and location of the Greek theater and colonnade, as well as reviewing the
design of the memorial gateway and other features of the district. The center also contains the work of some of
Denvers most prominent architects. William E. Fisher and Arthur A. Fisher, founders of one of the largest and
119 Denver Municipal Facts, 28 September 1912, 1.
120 Denver Municipal Facts, 6 March 1909, 3.


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most influential architectural firms in the Rocky Mountain region, designed the memorial gateway and its
associated reflecting pool.121 Nine Fisher and Fisher designs are presently listed in the National Register.
Pioneering Denver architect Frank E. Edbrooke, who served as Supervising Architect of the State Capitol and
designed the National Register-listed Brown Palace Hotel, prepared the plans for the 1915 Colorado State
Museum. William N. Bowman, architect of the 1921 Colorado State Office Building, also designed the National
Register-listed Mountain States Telephone and Telegraph Building in downtown Denver, as well as a number of
schools and county courthouses in the region. A group of thirty-nine Denver architects calling themselves the
Allied Architects Association mounted a collaborative effort with the sole purpose of designing the 1932
Denver City and County Building to complete the civic center.
Art
The Denver Civic Center is significant in the area of Art for representing the essential role American regional
artists played in civic center design, which testified to the growing cultural and artistic sophistication of the
nations cities. As a founding member of the 1893 Denver Artists Club wrote: Back of all Denvers art life
lies a deep desire to see her in the forefront of everything distinctively beautiful.122 City Beautiful proponent
Charles Mulford Robinson echoed these sentiments, finding the city full of faith in itself, of ambition and of
enterprise. It wants to beas it can be, as it would pay it to be, and as, happily, it can now afford to make
itselfone of the beautiful cities of the world.123 The 1911 dedication of the Pioneer Monument, designed by
internationally recognized sculptor Frederick MacMonnies, caused the citys art commissioner to observe
proudly: Denver the Beautiful has been a dream of far reaching import, and we need but glance around to see
the vision is even now taking concrete form.124
In his 1990 treatise on American regional art, William H. Gerdts observed: Of all the Rocky Mountain states, it
was Colorado that most closely followed the same patterns of artistic development as elsewhere in America.125
The varied and magnificent landscape of the region attracted many nineteenth-century artists, such as Albert
Bierstadt, whose widely popular images of mountains and other natural western marvels led to their designation
as the Rocky Mountain School. During the early twentieth century, the focus shifted to the human story, as
revealed in themes of western history incorporated into the work of artists, many of whom grew up in the
state.126 Young local artists followed the tradition of studying with masters at the best schools in the United
States and Europe, including New Yorks Art Students League and the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and Academie
Julian in Paris.127 In Denver, artists clubs and schools formed to support artistic aspirations, including the
Denver Atelier and University of Denvers School of Fine Arts, which sponsored frequent competitions and
exhibitions. Several of the artists whose work enhances the civic center were shaped by their early lives in
Colorado as well as subsequent education and training that strengthened their expression of western themes. In
the words of Peter Hassrick, former director of the Denver Art Museums Petrie Institute of Western American
Art remarked, many artists of the period claimed the American West as muse. The frontier had just closed, and
the West as an experiential phenomenon was thought to be passing quickly into the pages of history.128
121 Rutherford W. Witthus, The Fisher Architectural Records Collection, 1897-1978 (Denver: Denver Public Library,
Western History and Genealogy Department, 1983).
122 Meredith M. Evans, Pioneering Spirits: E. Richardson Cherry and the First Women of the Artists Club of Denver, 1893,
in Petrie Institute, Colorado: The Artists Muse (Denver: Denver Art Museum, 2008), 71.
123 Charles Mulford Robinson, Opening the Center of Denver, Architectural Record 19 (January 1906): 365.
124 Denver Post, 24 June 1911, 4.
125 William H. Gerdts, Art Across America, Two Centuries of Regional Painting, 1710-1920: The Plains States and the West,
Vol. 3 (New York: Abbeville Press, 1990).
126 Petrie Institute, Colorado: The Artists Muse.
127 Evans, Pioneering Spirits, 62.
128 Hassrick in True and Kirby, Allen Tupper True, xvii.


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The symbolism and imagery of the Western experience is a defining feature of the art within the civic center,
which displays some of the countrys finest examples of late nineteenth and early twentieth century regional
expression. Here a national template and ideology for Beaux-Arts Classicism seems to be rendered in regional
termsembracing both the magnificence of the native landscape and the unique cultural history of the interior
West. The first artwork placed on the Capitol grounds reflected this emphasis on western themes significant to
Colorados heritage. The Closing Era, an 1893 sculpture by University of Denver art teacher Preston Powers,
drew acclaim at the Worlds Columbian Exhibition for its Beaux-Arts depiction of a Native American hunter
standing above a dying buffalo, a work that addressed the end of a way of life important to the regions
indigenous history.129 This regionalist approach coincided with a planning principle established during the
earliest consideration of Denver Civic Center. In his 1906 recommendations, Charles Mulford Robinson
encouraged the city to maintain its individuality in the course of undertaking the improvement.130 When Ecole
des Beaux-Arts-trained MacMonnies submitted his first scheme for a fountain honoring pioneers in Denver,
citizens criticized the piece for the symbolism implied in placing an Indian leader at the apex, a design that
disturbed pioneers for whom the frontier era remained close at hand. MacMonnies traveled to the West to talk
with residents and gain an understanding of the citys history in order to produce a more acceptable design, and,
in the process, he made recommendations to city officials that would influence the design of final civic center.
The sculptor returned to his Paris studio and revised the monument, placing an equestrian statue representing
Colorado scout Kit Carson at the top of the fountain and figures of typical pioneers, including a mother and
child, a prospector, and a trapper, along the base.
The works contributed by sculptor Alexander Phimister Proctor also represent regionalist art at its finest.
Trained in New York and Paris, Proctor, who specialized in the painting and sculpture of animals and western
figures, acknowledged the impact on his work of growing up in Denver and meeting its early inhabitants. He
created two bronzes, Broncho Buster and On the War Trail, for the civic center, where he had seen herds of
antelope graze as a boy. According to the 1919 Denver Municipal Facts, a city-produced publication describing
civic progress, the two works represented the early, virile days of the West and would preserve the
picturesque atmosphere of the frontier, a flavor of which MacMonnies has already given in the Pioneer
Monument.131 At the time the statues were proposed Reginald Poland, who was at the time director of the
Denver Art Museum, commented on their lasting value:
Art critics have said Denver needed something to typify its underlying spirit. The two
equestrian figures by Proctor are being rightly placed on the Civic Center. There they will be
seen by all, among whom are the tourists and the transient visitors. Coming to Denver, they will
see that which will remain in their memory as the essential spirit of the city and region. These
statues satisfy that desire. They will give life to the rather formal, classic architecture.132
The murals of Allen Tupper True, whose work has been described as clearly American and decidedly Western
in inspiration, reflect the evolution of approaches to regionalism over time. A native of Colorado, True studied
in London with painter and muralist Frank Brangwyn, before returning to the state, where he created works of
profound importance and extraordinary breadth of vision.133 Designing murals for the public library, the State
Capitol, Civic Center Park, and the city-county building, True sought through his work to:
129 The Closing Era was placed on the Capitol grounds in 1898.
130 Charles Mulford Robinson, The Development of Denver, The American City 1 (September-November 1909): 197.
131 Denver Municipal Facts, April 1919, 3-4
132 Poland, Artistic Expression in Denver, 8.
133 Hassrick in True and Kirby, Allen Tupper True, xix.


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... .aid a little in interesting American people in American art, help a little in bringing to their
understanding the real spirit of the American life, and drawing them away from an absorption in
European art that does not concern us. In the Indians, the history of the cliff dwellers, the
pioneers who laid with hardship and suffering the foundation for the building of this country, we
have the greatest themes ever given to an artist for his work.134
True believed artists previously interpreted American life in bold rough subjects, such as picturesque
cowboys and cunning savages. He wanted to portray what he saw as the authentic nature of western subjects
devoid of earlier assumptions and misconceptions. His depiction of western themes reflected the states growing
distance from its frontier period. The style of his works in the civic center also reflected an evolution in mural
painting, as he abandoned the hampering dictums and confining conceptions of realism.135
Landscape Architecture
The district is significant under Criterion 4 in the area of Landscape Architecture, as an important example of a
civic center with a Beaux-Arts landscape design of the City Beautiful era. Like planners, architects, and artists
of the period, landscape architects recognized the negative social impact of unplanned urban growth and
became interested in the creation of public open space, the general effects of light, color, atmosphere, and
above all, unity in their landscape compositions, and what could be achieved in cooperation with other
professions.136 City Beautiful proponents favored landscapes reflecting axial planning and geometrical design,
as well as the inclusion of less formal areas providing balance to Beaux-Arts Classical architecture.137 The
design of the Denver Civic Center extended beyond formal landscape planning and included: the arrangement,
scale, massing, and materials of buildings; the integration and placement of works of art; consideration of
sightlines into and out of the center, particularly those preserving the vista from the State Capitol west to Rocky
Mountains; and arrangement of areas for public uses such as cultural entertainment, speeches, and other
gatherings. The designed setting incorporated dignity, order, and democratic ideals reflecting Denvers position
as the seat of state and city and county government, and it acknowledged the dominance of the State Capitol in
relationship to the city-county building. The civic center established a landscape of sufficient quality, size, and
sophistication to demonstrate that the brash, cowtown of Denver stood ready to take its place among the leading
urban centers of the nation in terms of municipal improvements.
Among the Beaux-Arts concepts reflected in the Denver Civic Centers landscape design are formality,
symmetry, axial order, respect for vistas, the incorporation of public art, and stylistic harmony of the
architecture and embellishments within the site. At the same time, the concept of regional distinction is
displayed in the choice of some tree and plant species, the works of art, and the spacious views. Reinhard
Schuetzes 1895 plan for the Colorado State Capitol grounds and Lincoln Park (implemented in 1896)
established a Beaux-Arts approach influencing all subsequent development. Schuetzes Capitol grounds
landscape plan created a formal, symmetrical layout that made the view west toward the Front Range of the
Rocky Mountains a major focal element. Denver park historians Carolyn and Don Etter trace the origins of the
civic center idea to Schuetze, who gave Denver a simple and graceful example of the application of City
Beautiful principles.138 The 1904-17 effort to develop a civic center extending from the Capitol not only
134 Allen Tupper True remarks in Denver Times (undated), quoted in True and Kirby, Allen Tupper True, 230.
135 True and Kirby, Allen Tupper True, 231.
136 Melanie Simo, 100 Years of Landscape Architecture: Some Patterns of a Century (Washington, D.C.: ASLA Press, 1999).
137 Elizabeth Barlow Rogers, Landscape Design: A Cultural and Architectural History (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc.,
2001), 370.
138 Don and Carolyn Etter, Forgotten Dreamer: Reinhard Schuetze, Denvers Landscape Architect (Denver: Denver Public
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incorporated Schuetzes original designs for the Capitol grounds and Lincoln Park, but also adopted the
landscape architects sensibility and vision.
The Beaux-Arts concept of a strong axial layout found voice in Frederick MacMonniess 1907 approach, which
extended the civic center due west from the Capitol (forming an east-west axis) and added triangles of land to
the north and south, allowing the creation of a secondary, north-south transverse or cross axis. Edward H.
Bennett, who crafted the 1917 civic center plan that was eventually implemented by the city, retained the axial
arrangement and incorporated elements of a 1912 plan developed by Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., which called
for the planting of a pair of symmetrically placed groves of red oak tree adjacent to Broadway, a curving
Neoclassical balustrade, and a sunken garden. In Bennetts plan, an open air theater and a commemorative
gateway, both flanked by semi- elliptical colonnades, were to balance the opposing ends of the north-south axis,
and a building to house local government was proposed for the western end of the principal east-west axis as a
counterpoint to the State Capitol.
Many landscape architects of the City Beautiful period believed public spaces such as civic centers played an
important role in achieving social goals by bringing together persons from all ranks and classes of society to
share the same recreational, cultural, educational, and civic opportunities.139 Designed landscapes thus
encompassed areas for the quiet individual contemplation of the natural setting and areas for organized events
attracting large crowds. Edward H. Bennett was successful in translating Mayor Speers City Beautiful concept
of the landscape as a gathering place for people of diverse backgrounds and socioeconomic strata into a
practical and aesthetically pleasing plan that created areas for large public gatherings, broad walkways, and an
outdoor theater. This accessible public space represents a vision of American democracy and civic
responsibility that shaped the city and continues to have meaning today. The Etters concluded: Olmsteds and
Bennetts work for Civic Center created a beautiful and treasured space-of national as well as statewide and
local importance.140 141
DEVELOPMENT OF THE DENVER CIVIC CENTER
The history of the campaign to create Denvers civic center reveals the collaboration and cooperation of civic
and business leaders, city planners, artists, architects, landscape architects, and ordinary citizens necessary for
the success of a project of such massive scale. Denvers experience is representative of the long process often
required to realize large and costly municipal improvements from conception through a number of plans and
stages of development. It also reveals the advantage of having a strong leader with unwavering focus on the
effort despite setbacks and changes in the political climate. Mayor Robert W. Speers embrace of City Beautiful
ideals led him to champion the cause for a civic center and other municipal improvements. Utilizing the
direction provided in a series of plans produced by prominent professionals, Denver actualized such related City
Beautiful concepts as an interconnected system of parks and parkways, a chain of mountain parks, and a civic
141
center.
139 Charles E. Beveridge and Paul Rocheleau, Frederick Law Olmsted: Designing the American Landscape, ed. David Larkin
(New York: Rizzoli, 1995), 46.
140 Carolyn and Don Etter, The Olmsted Legacy, Summary Sheet 3Denvers Civic Center Park Master Plan, 2006, in
the files of Denver Public Library, Western History and Genealogy Department.
141 Draper, Edward FI. Bennett, 26; Ann Moss, Denver Mountain Park System, Denver, Colorado, 1912-1941, National
Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination Form; Don Etter, Denver Park and Parkway System, National Register of Historic
Places Inventory-Nomination Form, 1986.


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The City Beautiful Movement And The Influence of Beaux-Arts Classicism in the
United States
Professor Jon Peterson, the recognized authority on the early years of American city planning, observed, Civic
revitalizationthe thorough revamping of city life and valuesrepresented the essence of the City
Beautiful.142 By the late nineteenth century, Americas rapid industrialization, burgeoning urban population,
and increasingly chaotic development led people to seek solutions for problems viewed as arising from city life,
including alienation, poverty, disease, overcrowding, political corruption, and crime. Many reformers believed
that the solution to such evils could be found in a rebirth of community spirit and shared responsibility in
reshaping the city. Adherents asserted the public interest could be discerned through historical experience and
acquired knowledge, supplemented by more recent discoveries and inventions and touted such ideals as
sanitation, moral purity, civic responsibility, and good government. These goals found concrete expression in
visual images such as manicured lawns, beautifully proportioned buildings, and orderly parks. Progressive
social philosophies combined with concepts of civic reawakening developed in the fields of architecture,
landscape architecture, art, and city planning and coalesced in the City Beautiful movement. One of the most
significant and widely considered concepts emerging from the movement was that of the civic center. The civic
center embodied two goals: the strictly architectural objective of grouping of public buildings as a visually
impressive ensemble, and the hopes of urban progressives to give evocative form to their citizenship.143
Many of the leading architects who participated in the creation of American civic centers of the City Beautiful
era studied for several years at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, which provided architectural education from
1819 until 1968. The school limited attendance to persons (including women from the turn of the century on)
between fifteen and thirty years of age, and each advanced at his own rate based on points obtained through
participation in competitions and the award of prizes. Students attended lectures and participated in short- and
long-term design competitions, which constituted the most important component of the schools training. Every
student learned to design in an atelier (a drafting room or studio for teaching a group of pupils at various stages
of advancement) under the guidance of an experienced master, many of whom had won the Grand Prix de
Rome, a competition conferring the schools highest honor. As Richard Chaffee noted in his study of
architectural instruction at the school, Outside of France from the time of the Revolution, an architect who had
studied at the Ecole in Paris won respect simply for having been there.144
More than 500 American architects attended the school and hundreds more received training in Parisian ateliers,
returning home to create buildings of Beaux-Arts composition and to spread its influence.145 Art history
Professor David Van Zanten described the French academic systems teaching of composition as the design of
whole buildings, conceived as three-dimensional entities and seen together in plan, section, and elevation.146
This process included analysis of the most effective interior layout, identification of significant features of the
site, and consideration of the total effect. Ecole des Beaux-Arts principles included close attention to the
classical orders, its fundamental belief in axial organization, and its firm reliance on symmetrical composition,
according to architectural historian Carter Wiseman.147 Other key considerations included the integration of
decorative art and architecture, framing of sites, and physical progression through a designed space.148
142 Peterson, The Birth of City Planning in the United States, 149-150
143 Ibid., 143-46, 149-150, 154, 156-157.
144 Richard Chaffee, The Teaching of Architecture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, in The Architecture of the Ecole des Beaux-
Arts, ed. Arthur Drexler (New York: The Museum of Modem Art, 1977), 85.
145 Neil Levine, The Romantic Idea of Architecture Legibility: Henry Labrouste and the Neo-Grec, 8-9; Chaffee, The
Teaching of Architecture, 62-63, 82, 85, and 88; David Van Zanten, Architectural Composition at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts from
Charles Percierto Charles Gamier, 111-112; Beaux-Arts Buildings in France and America, 464; all in Drexler, The Architecture of
the Ecole des Beaux-Arts.
146 Van Zanten, Architectural Composition, 112.
147 Carter Wiseman, Shaping a Nation: Twentieth Century American Architecture and its Makers (New York: W. W. Norton


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Richard Morris Hunt (1827-1895), the first American to attend the Ecole des Beaux-Arts (1846-55), returned to
the United States to found his own atelier in New York along the lines of the French School. Hunts educational
efforts enormously influenced the countrys subsequent architectural training, and several of his students
became prominent architects who helped spread the concepts of Beaux-Arts design across the country. Referred
to as the dean of American architects, Hunt served as co-founder and the second president of the American
Institute of Architects.148 149
The nations largest architectural firm of the late nineteenth century, McKim, Mead and White, helped establish
Beaux-Arts Classicism as a favored style in the United States. Charles Follen McKim (1847-1909), an Ecole
des Beaux-Arts graduate, designed the offices public buildings, including the Boston Public Library (1887-98),
described as a textbook example of Beaux-Arts doctrine.150 McKim closely collaborated with artists,
including Augustus Saint-Gaudens and Daniel Chester French, in the creation of the building, establishing
widely imitated precedents in American architecture.151 He is also credited with influencing the trend toward
austere severity in early twentieth-century classicism.152
Nineteenth-century landscape architecture provided another foundation for the City Beautiful movement and
prepared citizens for reforms resulting in creation of public parks and playgrounds in urban areas. Before his
untimely death in 1852, Andrew Jackson Downing emphasized the social purpose of tastefully arranging
buildings and plantings in farms and communities and agitated for public parks in cities. He believed urban
residents benefitted from access to green spaces and fresh air and that public parks supported democracy by
increasing social interaction between classes.153
Downings ideas influenced the work of Frederick Law Olmsted (1822-1903), including his groundbreaking
1858-61 design of New Yorks Central Park with Calvert Vaux. Olmsted advanced landscape architecture as a
profession in the United States and led to park system planning throughout the country after the Civil War. As
architectural historian Leland M. Roth observed, Olmsted foresaw the necessity of preserving open space in the
face of industrial growth, and social concern lay at the very heart of his efforts.154 In 1868, Buffalo, with the
innovative guidance of Olmsted and Vaux, became the first city to plan and undertake a comprehensive
interconnected park and parkway system. Olmsteds work at the 1893 Worlds Columbian Exposition in
Chicago directly influenced the City Beautiful movement, including his multi-purpose park and boulevard
planning; promotion of naturalistic beauty in urban areas; and argument that improvement of parks raised the
value of adjacent land, thereby aiding private enterprise. By this time the American profession of landscape
architecture was increasingly coming under the influence of Beaux-Arts formalism and the grand European
traditions of landscape design. The work of the Olmsted firm at the exposition and on the Biltmore estate in
Asheville, North Carolina, demonstrated how formal principles of design, represented by Beaux-Arts principles,
could be as relevant and meaningful in shaping the American landscape, as the informal principles drawn from
the English landscape gardening tradition that had shaped nineteenth century urban parks. This awareness of
style occurred simultaneously with a growing professional advocacy for the preservation of the scenic qualities
of the American landscape. It is not surprising that in the early twentieth century, civic leaders and designers
and Co., 1998), 32-33.
148 Liverman, email to Simmons, 9 March 2011.
149 Wiseman, Shaping a Nation, 32-35.
150 Michael J. Lewis, American Art and Architecture (London: Thames and Hudson, Ltd., 2006), 182.
151 Roth, American Architecture, 292-293; Drexler, The Architecture of the Ecole des Beaux Arts, 491.
152 Drexler, The Architecture of the Ecole des Beaux Arts, 491.
153 Beveridge and Rocheleau, Frederick Law Olmsted, 20.
154 Leland M. Roth, American Architecture: A Tfistory (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 2001), 230.


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alike embraced this plurality of style, seeing formal boulevards and civic centers as important to public
inspiration and engagement as outlying natural reservations and parkways laid out along low-lying streams.155
Olmsted formulated a comprehensive theory of landscape design that included an assertion of the restorative
psychological effect of scenery, which he believed able to refresh and delight the eye and through the eye, the
mind and the spirit.156 He emphasized the importance of expressing the spirit of the place when shaping a
landscape, a concept influential to the regionalism exhibited in many of the nations civic centers and other
public spaces. He preferred the use of native plants, utilizing outside sources only if their exotic character was
evident only to experts in horticulture.157 Of primary importance to Olmsted was the pursuit of social goals
through his lifes work. As explained by Olmsted scholar Charles E. Beveridge, the landscape architect
intended his parks to be public institutions of recreation and popular education that would demonstrate the
viability of the republican experiment in America.158 Like Downing, he believed the American populace would
benefit from the parks function as a meeting ground for citizens of all classes and backgrounds. In park design
he also showed immense concern for the poor, who often had little opportunity to escape crowded living
conditions of the inner city and enjoy the outdoors.159
1893 Worlds Columbian Exposition and Early City Beautiful Planning Efforts
French-trained architects viewed buildings in their broader context, encouraging a growing appreciation of
urban planning and group design. The Worlds Columbian Exposition, celebrating the 400th anniversary of
Columbuss landing in the New World, thoroughly popularized Beaux-Arts classical design in the United States
with its remarkable White City. The fair introduced Americans to the concept of a civic center or grouped
arrangement of civic buildings designed to inspire the populace through their formalism, harmony, balance, and
beauty. Daniel Burnham, as chief of construction, supervised the creation of an immense (633-acre) Olmsted-
designed landscape framed by monumental white buildings of uniform scale exhibiting diverse expressions of
classical style created by some of the nations leading architects working in collaboration noted artists of the
day. The resulting effort offered an image of an ideal city untarnished by the forces of urban decay. The
acclaimed centerpiece, known as the Court of Honor, stimulated public interest in recreating public squares or
city centers as the focus of civic activities and demonstrated the benefit of uniformly designed, grouped
architecture.
Planning historian Mel Scott found that the fair proclaimed the aesthetic principles that would govern the
design of civic centers, malls, boulevards, university and college campuses, waterfronts, and other expositions
for two decades or more.160 The beautiful balance of buildings, lawns, walkways, and water strongly impressed
visitors and critics and influenced the public planning and design of American cities into the first decades of the
twentieth century. The event also stimulated the development of comprehensive city planning, as communities
throughout the United States sought to beautify and create order in their cities. Peterson evaluated the fair as a
high point in the history of the American architectural profession and as a crystallization of a new civic image
reflecting powerful currents of nationalism and reform then emerging in public life.161
155 Mel Scott, American Planning Since 1890:A History Commemorating the Fiftieth Anniversary of the American Institute of
Planners (Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1969), 11; Wilson, The City Beautiful Movement, 9 and 29.
156 Olmsted quoted in Beveridge and Rocheleau, Frederick Law Olmsted, 34.
157 Beveridge and Rocheleau, Frederick Law Olmsted, 43.
158 Ibid., 46.
159 Ibid., 46-49
160 Scott, American City Planning, 36.
161 Peterson, The Birth of City Planning, 57.


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During the remainder of the 1890s civic leaders discussed grouped public buildings, which became a primary
focus of the City Beautiful movements efforts to reform the landscape as one means of improving social order.
The Chicago Expositions comprehensive planning, consistency of style, axial organization, and rational
progression, as well as its many uses of electricity and water, influenced subsequent urban development.162
Advocates contended improvement of the environment and architecture of cities would result in corresponding
benefits for moral growth and civic responsibility. As City Beautiful scholar William H. Wilson described these
concepts: Physical change and institutional reformation would persuade urban dwellers to become more
imbued with civic patriotism and better disposed toward community needs. Beautiful surroundings would
enhance worker productivity and urban economics.163
Pioneering City Beautiful planner Charles M. Robinson described desirable public buildings as large,
substantial, white, and pure with detached columns and perhaps sculptured figures standing clear against the
sky.164 Other design considerations espoused by City Beautiful advocates, derived from Beaux-Arts tradition,
included symmetry and balance; dignity and uniformity; simplicity and order; and harmonious building
materials, with stone considered a noble material. Planners regarded harmony of classical architectural
designs, monumental scale, and uniformity of the cornice lines of principal buildings as essential. Inclusion of
public art, such as murals, statues, and sculptures; utilization of embellishments such as balustrades, arches, and
columns; addition of water features, such as fountains and reflecting pools; and application of landscape
features such as shaded walks and flower beds, terraces and steps, and sunken gardens became vital components
of civic centers.
The 1902 Senate Park Commission Plan for Washington, D.C. (also known as the McMillan Plan), created by a
commission of leading designers of the day headed by Daniel Burnham, expressed many of the ideals of the
emerging City Beautiful movement, including a belief in the power of beauty to transform urban environments
from chaos to harmony, to stimulate civic pride and community spirit leading to social and moral reform, and to
increase architectural quality and property values. The first significant American program to achieve the goals
of City Beautiful municipal planning proceeded in Washington. Peterson stated the significance of the project:
As a plan, its fundamental achievement, historically, was to join for the first time the civic vision
of American architects, especially their recent involvement with large-scale, ensemble design at
the Chicago Worlds Fair, with the older tradition of park system planning for the urban fringe,
thereby encompassing the entire physical city, core and periphery.
Furthermore, the plan was a scheme so spectacular that it... inspired many of the local beautification
organizations then springing up throughout the nation to urge schemes of comparable boldness.165
By 1902 beautification efforts proliferated across the country in towns of every size. Arts organizations
initiated many early projects, as artists, too, considered their work central to the quality of urban life. Civic
improvement groups and municipal art organizations nationwide developed connections and shared ideas. A
professionally designed overall vision or plan for city development increasingly became a primary goal in order
to avoid or control the unplanned, unsafe, and unattractive growth many communities experienced. City
Beautiful advocates believed the resulting pleasing buildings and surrounding landscapes would affect the
outlook of individuals and communities, instilling a sense of civic pride and desire for social harmony among
162 Roth, American Architecture, 320.
163 Peterson, The Birth of City Planning, 55 and 57; Scott, American City Planning, 32-37; Wilson, The City Beautiful
Movement, 1, 90, 92-93.
164 Robinson quoted in Wilson, The City Beautiful Movement, 94.
165 Denvers civic leaders received information about the Washington Plan, which motivated them to consider a civic center.
Scott, American City Planning, 48; Peterson, The Birth of City Planning, 1 and 77.


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urban residents of differing backgrounds and classes. Daniel Burnham and Edward H. Bennetts 1909 Plan of
Chicago became the most celebrated example of a number of comprehensive plans published during the era
before World War I.166
As a principal component of many City Beautiful city plans, the civic center reflected the ideals of efficiency,
cooperation, and convenience by providing a focus for government functions. Civic centers were believed to
inspire patriotism through noble architecture, as well as providing a location for marking holidays and
commemorations and a site for special civic events. Proponents considered a civic center an important gathering
site where all members of society could share views, spend leisure time, enjoy cultural events, and participate in
experiences creating social uplift. As stated in the influential 1903-04 Cleveland Group Plan, the civic center
represented a place where petty struggles for prominence, small successes and failures disappear. Here the
citizens assume their rights and duties and civic pride is born. Advocates believed a civic center influenced
surrounding construction, raising the quality of privately erected buildings and increasing property values.
Pragmatic results expected of beautification efforts also included increases in tourism and the number of new
businesses in the city.167
Because planning for the design, key elements, and interrelationship of a civic center with the rest of the urban
environment was inherently complex, cities generally required the assistance of a professional. During the first
decade of the twentieth century business and civic leaders led the push for City Beautiful planning, guided by
the first experts in the field. Early city planners included Charles Mulford Robinson, described as the nations
foremost expounder of the City Beautiful and its most prolific maker of City Beautiful plans, chiefly for small
and mid-sized cities. In his 1903 book, Modern Civic Art or The City Made Beautiful, Robinson asserted the
administrative center represented the heart of a city and should be distinct and definite. Not only were
groupings of public buildings more efficient, but more majestic, and worthy of a conspicuous site with axial
positions for important buildings and adornment with colonnades, avenues of trees, balustrades, fountains, and
sculpture. The inclusion of an open space for contemplating the monumental buildings and vistas also became
the subject of high design standards and provided an opportunity for embellishment with proper ornaments. As
William Wilson described: The civic center was intended to be a beautiful ensemble, an architectonic triumph
far more breathtaking than a single building, no matter how comely, could be. Grouping buildings around a
park, square, or intersection of radial streets allowed the visual delights of perspectives, open spaces, and the
contrasts between the buildings and their umbrageous settings.168
Successful civic center projects incorporated a harmonious working relationship between the planner and city
leaders with a realistic design. Many of the early improvement schemes found resistance in local communities
due to expense or lack of community consensus. As Peterson observed: By 1917, unable to achieve their
ultimate goal in practice, the champions of the new field [city planning] settled upon implementing whatever
pieces of their overall agenda local circumstances allowed. The City Beautiful movement eventually felt the
impact of social movements concerned with improving living conditions of working class people, a middle class
interest in protecting residential areas from undesirable development, and other groups of critics, resulting in its
166 Wilson, A Diadem, 75.
167 Ibid., 74-75; William H. Wilson, The Denver City and County Building and the Dimensions of Planning, Planning
Perspectives 3 (1988); Cleveland Group Plan quoted in Arnold Brunner, Cleveland Group Plan, Proceedings of the Eighth Annual
Conference on City Planning, Cleveland, June 5-7, 1916 (New York: National Conference on City Planning, 1916), online version
scanned and edited by John W. Reps (accessed at http://www.library.comell.edu/Reps/DOCS/bmnner.htm (accessed on 30 April
2009).
168 Peterson, The Birth of City Planning, 119; Charles Mulford Robinson, Modern Civic Art or the City Made Beautiful, 4th ed.
(New York: The Knickerbocker Press, 1918), Chapter V: The Administrative Centre; Wilson, The City Beautiful Movement, 92.


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adoption of more realistic and practical goals. By 1912, city planning emphasized the City Functional, a
descendant of the reform impulses that came to dominate the profession.169
Origins of the Denver Civic Center Concept and Plans
Denver, originally part of Arapahoe County, became the states first combined city and county after passage of
a 1902 constitutional amendment. The organization of the City and County of Denver incorporated several
adjoining municipalities into the capital city, created a unified school district, increased local civic spirit, and
stimulated a desire to transform the citys reputation from cow town to sophisticated cosmopolitan community.
The 1902 Senate Park Commission Plan for Washington, D.C., stimulated discussion in Denver regarding the
possibility of constructing grouped public buildings. The Municipal Art League gathered in that year to inspect
drawings of the scheme and discuss the feasibility of a smaller project for the city. Composed of representatives
from a variety of civic groups, the League supported the concept of a civic center, as well as the creation of an
art commission.170
A new city charter in 1904 established the Denver Art Commission, giving it broad powers over all matters
relating to art in the city and county, including the design, placement, alteration, and removal of any city
artwork, as well as approval of art-related awards and contracts.171 Commission members were to include the
mayor, a sculptor and another type of artist, an architect, and three persons of other occupations. The group
began its work in 1904, the same year that a new mayor, Robert W. Speer, assumed office with a vision for
beautifying the city. Denver, believing its future lay more in the growth of tourism than industry, turned its
attention to aesthetic development of the city during the early twentieth century. It aspired to accomplish a
beautification program resulting in its comparison with much older European cities in only a decade. With this
concept in mind, the citys leaders initiated planning for an unprecedented construction program.172
Robert Walter Speer (1855-1918)
According to Colorado historian Wilbur Fisk Stone, Robert Walter Speer was a man of vision and the vision
crystallized in Denvers civic greatness.... He was a dreamer of dreams but the dreams took form in practical
effort that placed Denver in many respects in a point of leadership among the great cities on the American
continent.173 Bom and educated in Pennsylvania, Speer worked for the Pennsylvania Railroad as a young man.
In 1877 his sister contracted tuberculosis and he escorted her to Colorado, which attracted many invalids
seeking relief from respiratory diseases. After returning to Pennsylvania to work and study law, he soon fell
victim to the same illness. In early 1878 Speer moved to Colorado with hopes of improving his condition in its
dry, sunny climate. Arriving in such poor condition he could not walk, he soon departed to find a cure in the
fresh air of a mountain cattle ranch. After regaining his health, Speer worked in the capital city as a carpet
salesman with the Daniels and Fisher Department Store and subsequently pursued a career in real estate. In
1882 he entered a happy marriage with Kate A. Thrush, a Pennsylvania schoolmate whose life he had saved in a
boating accident. Speer soon developed an interest in politics, rising quickly within the Democratic Party in
Denver due to his open, frank, and winning nature.174
In 1884 Denver voters chose Speer to serve as city clerk, his first elected office. The following year he received
appointment as postmaster, holding the position four years before returning to real estate. He subsequently
169 Wilson, The City Beautiful Movement, 3; Peterson, The Birth of City Planning, xvii; Scott, American City Planning, 80 and
123.
170 Wilson, A Diadem, 74.
171 Ibid., 74.
112 Denver Municipal Facts, October 1918.
173 Wilbur Fisk Stone, ed., History of Colorado, vol. 2, (Chicago: S.J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1918), 96, 98-100.
174 Charles A. Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer (Denver: Green Mountain Press, 1969), 7; Denver Municipal Facts, May 1918.


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became a member of the Denver Fire and Police Board as police commissioner and later fire commissioner. In
1901 Governor James B. Orman selected him as president of the Denver Board of Public Works, which
controlled improvements within the city. During these years, Speer adopted the best administrative practices of
other large cities, studied solutions to municipal problems, and built the strongest political machine in the citys
history.175
In 1904 Denver, the overgrown country town, elected officials as a unified city and county. Speer became a
successful candidate for mayor despite opposition by the citys newspapers. The dynamic and charismatic
mayor served two consecutive terms and part of a third that marked the transformation of Denver according to a
comprehensive plan embodying City Beautiful principles. Although opponents charged he was a boss who
manipulated elections and favored corporate interests, Speers careful management and fiscal efficiency found
favor among local citizens. His philosophy embraced adding municipal facilities of both beauty and utility, and
he believed planned development essential to the creation of a harmonious city. In his first months the mayors
office initiated ambitious campaigns for a city auditorium, clean up and improvements along Cherry Creek, and
the creation of a civic center to serve as the hub of the city and center of its government.176
Speers first two terms resulted in numerous public improvements, including building viaducts, constructing
modern playgrounds, paving city streets, increasing the number of shade trees by 25 percent, providing
extensive street illumination, placing telephone and telegraph wires underground, establishing flood controls,
constructing sewer systems, adding cultural facilities and offering free municipal entertainment, and creating a
boulevard and parkway system laid out by nationally prominent city planner George E. Kessler.177 Speers
associate and biographer Edgar C. MacMechen noted: Beautification was the keynote of this period. The
general appearance of the city changed completely.178 One factor in the mayors success was his interest in
every detail of city government and understanding of every department, proving to the local citizens the worth
of an official trained in its workings.179
Denvers first definite step toward creation of a civic center came on 30 November 1904, when the Denver Art
Commission responded to Speers request for suggestions regarding municipal improvement by recommending
adoption of a city plan.180 As part of such a plan, commission president Henry Read urged creation of a civic
center focused on a central plaza that connected a group of public buildings including the State Capitol. Cited as
the most potent factor in the development of Denvers civic art, English-born William Henry Read (1847-
1935) studied art at Heatherlys School of Fine Art in London, but pursued a short business career, which
ended in spiritual disgust, broken health and a determination to come to America. Arriving in Denver about
1890, he found an unsophisticated city with a promising future and visualized what it might become. Read
taught at Wolfe Hall, a private school, and in 1895 founded the Students School of Art, teaching young pupils
technique and craftsmanship. He erected a building that also provided space for the Denver Art Museum. In
addition to his career as a painter, he designed Denvers corporate seal. Mayor Speer selected him as an
inaugural member of the commission and Read is often cited as being the first person to suggest to Mayor Speer
the possibility of a civic center for Denver. During the Speer era, th q American Magazine of Art called Read
the artistic power behind the throne for his role in advancing civic art and beautification. Colorado historian
Wilbur Fisk Stone found the commissions work under Reads leadership influenced municipalities throughout
5 Edgar C. MacMechen, ed., Robert W. Speer: A City Builder (Denver: Robert W. Speer Memorial Association, 1919), 9-14;
Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer, 5-6; Stone, History of Colorado, 96-98.
176 Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer, 31.
177 MacMechen, Robert W. Speer, 14-16; Johnson, DenversMayor Speer, 33.
Ibid.,
Ibid.,
15.
15 and 22.
Denver Municipal Facts, April 1919, 4.


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the country. With the artists encouragement and relying on his time and talent, Speer directed the commission
to obtain the services of a city planning professional who could formulate the desired master plan.181
Colorado State Capitol: The Eastern Anchor
The existing Colorado State Capitol, its grounds, and Lincoln Park (the city block lying west of the Capitol)
formed the anchor and obvious starting point for all discussions and plans for a larger civic center. The
buildings scale, design, materials, craftsmanship, associated artwork, and landscaped grounds exerted a
profound influence on everything planned and created, including the 1932 Denver City and County Building.
The statehouse lay on a slight rise christened Browns Bluff in recognition of the areas developer.
Construction of the statehouse extended more than two decades, from the start of excavation in 1886 to final
completion in 1908.
Six years after Congress created the 1861 Colorado territory, the territorial legislature officially designated
Denver as the capital and formed a site selection commission to secure a location for a capitol building, with the
proviso that the land include at least donated ten acres. Henry Cordes Brown, a real estate developer and later
founder of Denvers celebrated Brown Palace Hotel, offered suitable acreage in his H.C. Browns Addition
southeast of the commercial district, on the condition the territory pledge to erect its capitol there. The site
encompassed two city blocks bordered by East Colfax Avenue on the north, Grant Street on the east, East 14th
Avenue on the south, and Lincoln Street on the west, where the land dropped off creating the bluff. Brown
donated the property for business reasons, anticipating construction of the states most important building
would increase real estate values in his addition and insure acceptance of its north-south, east-west street grid,
which differed from the angled alignment of the downtown area.182
Colorado accepted Browns offer and solicited other gifts of land and money to enable construction of a
building. A lack of territorial funds, the push for statehood, and uncertainty over Denvers prospects for
becoming the permanent state capital delayed work on the site. Early Denver historian Jerome C. Smiley
concluded it was fortunate that circumstances prevented the erection of even a temporary structure; otherwise,
in all probability, we should not have had the magnificent State edifice now standing on Capitol Hill.183
Colorado became the nations thirty-eighth state in 1876. After another three years passed without the start of
construction on a capitol building, Brown revoked his gift. The state contested his action, and the ensuing
litigation spanned nearly seven years and included two U.S. Supreme Court appeals. Eventually the courts
determined Brown could not unilaterally revoke his gift since he had not specified a timeframe for completion
of a capitol. By a wide margin voters selected Denver, Colorados largest city, as the permanent capital in 1881,
and the state gained undisputed title to the ten acres in early 1886.
Lincoln Park
In early 1883 the legislature created a seven-member Board of Direction and Supervision to guide construction
of the State Capitol. In the same year the Board purchased the city block lying west of the site donated by
Brown. Bounded by East Colfax Avenue, Lincoln Street, East 14th Avenue, and Broadway, this land became
Lincoln Park. The open space constituted an essential component of the civic center, preserving the immediate
viewshed to the west and preventing incompatible development in front of the Capitol. To celebrate the laying
of the Capitol cornerstone, the state held a barbecue in the park in 1890. The Sanborn fire insurance map of that
181 MacMechen, Robert W. Speer, 46; Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer, 38; Florence N. Levy, ed., American Art Annual, vol.
6, 1907-08 (New York: American Art Annual, 1908), 163.
182 Jerome C. Smiley, History of Denver (Denver: Old Americana Publishing Company, 1978; orig. publ. Denver: Denver
Times, 1901), 506; Margaret Coel, The Colorado State Capitol: The Pride of Our People (Denver: Colorado General Assembly,
1992), 4-6 and 15.
183 Smiley, History of Denver, 506-07.


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year showed the area as part of the Capitol grounds; Lincoln Street was not opened yet. Formal design of the
park came as a result of competitions in 1890 and 1895.184
Capitol Funding and Construction
The 1883 legislation calling for construction of a capitol building limited the total cost to $1 million and
contemplated the erection of one wing of the building at a time. The Board solicited proposals from architects,
but only nine responded and none submitted plans found acceptable. Determining they needed more
information about the process of erecting a statehouse, board members traveled to six Midwest states that had
recently built capitols. The group met with officials and collected information on building materials and
construction specifications, leading them to conclude construction of one wing at a time was unwise, as the
wings would settle at different rates and adversely affect the finished building.185
In its 1885 session the legislature passed a new act providing for erection of the entire building at once, capping
the cost at $1 million, limiting annual expenditures to no more than $200,000, specifying the size and number of
rooms included, offering prizes for architects who submitted plans, and calling for completion by 1 January
1890. The act stipulated that the Capitol shall be built of stone, brick and iron, as far as practicable, and all the
materials used in the construction of the same shall be those found and procured in the State of Colorado. A
Board of Management and Supervision directed the project, announcing a competition for preparation of plans
for the building in April 1885. From the twenty-one designs submitted, the Board selected the work of Detroit
architect Elijah E. Myers, who had designed the 1883 Arapahoe County Courthouse in downtown Denver and
prepared plans for the state capitols of Michigan and Texas and territorial capitols of Idaho and Utah (the latter
was never built). Myers described his design, which echoed that of the national Capitol in Washington, as
Corinthian, and asserted the building, when completed, will be the finest in the State of Colorado, and one of
the finest in the country, of which every citizen of the State may be justly proud.186
In February 1886 the Board received five construction bids, all exceeding the $1 million limit. Two revised
lower bids were submitted, and the award went to William D. Richardson of Springfield, Illinois, who received
a $930,485 contract in April. Myers served as supervising architect for the project, and Peter Gumry, a Denver
builder, as superintendent of construction. The formal start of work began in July 1886 with excavation for the
foundation. In fall 1887, Richardson submitted a claim for additional labor and materials exceeding his contract.
An investigation concluded his original bid underestimated costs, and the Board declared his contract void in
January 1888. The Denver firm of Geddes and Seerie then received the commission to complete the foundation
and stonework.187
The Board soon realized the Capitol as designed by Myers could not be completed within the budget and
schedule authorized. In 1889 the Legislature reconstituted the Board of Capitol Managers as a four-person
body, raised the maximum cost of the building to $2 million, and approved the use of granite for the exterior.
Geddes and Seerie obtained gray granite from the Zugelder Quarry near Aberdeen in Gunnison County and set
up a stonecutting yard at the construction site.188 Capitol historian Margaret Coel described the work:
At the grounds, a small army of almost two hundred skilled men cut and dressed the granite for
exact locations in the superstructure. Diagrams showed the location of each stone and gave the
184 No nineteenth century photographs of the park were located. Smiley, History of Denver, 509; Pyle, History of the
Colorado State Capitol Complex, 16; Sanborn Map Company, Denver, Colorado, fire insurance maps, vol. 1, sheet 20a, 1890.
185 Pyle, History of the Colorado State Capitol Complex, 14.
186 Everett, The Colorado State Capitol, 36-40 and 50; Pyle, History of the Colorado State Capitol Complex, 18-23.
187 Pyle, History of the Colorado State Capitol Complex, 61.
188 Everett, The Colorado State Capitol, 36-40.


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date and hour it was to be ready. Derricks hoisted the stones into place. It was a busy scene,
said a reporter. There is music in the ring of the stone cutters hammers, the creaking derricks,
and the chorus of anvils in the blacksmith shop.189
To reduce costs, the Board dismissed architect Elijah Myers in June 1889. Board member Otto Mears supplied
the groups pragmatic rationale: You see we dont need him. If he stays he gets the commission on the
increased price of the building and that will make him a little fortune to which he has actually no right. The
State has got his plans and they have paid for them. Myers characterized the decision as an indignity,
complaining that for a man of my age and experience this is a most unpleasant occurrence.190 Peter Gumry,
the building superintendent, assumed the duties of Myers.
A 4 July 1890 Masonic ceremony installed a twenty-ton granite cornerstone holding a copper box with state
reports, a U.S. flag, and other items. State Capitol scholar William R. Pyle judged that in many ways it was
Denvers greatest day. At the dedication, former governor Alva Adams idealistically declared: Upon the apex
of the continent our capitol becomes a lighthouse upon a great eminence, and from there it should radiate a
never-fading glow of exalted principals, of high and patriotic examples. Twenty special trains to the capital
city swelled the crowd to roughly 60,000 persons who attended the festivities and filled the citys hotels.
Buntings decorated buildings and a parade wound through downtown to the construction site. The state served a
barbecue and staged fireworks in the evening.191 192
By 1892 completed exterior walls reached the base of the capitol dome. Lane Bridge and Iron of Chicago
erected the cast iron dome in 1893, marking the essential completion of the exterior. Most of the 1893-94 work
focused on interior finishes. By November 1894, the buildings first story opened for partial occupation by the
governor, secretary of state, state treasurer, and other executive offices. The state legislature first convened in
the building in January 1895. The basement housed the collections of the State Historical and Natural History
Society, the Bureau of Mines, and the State Horticultural Society. Work on the interior of the building
continued during the latter part of the 1890s. After Building Superintendent Gumry died in 1895, Denver
architect James Murdoch assumed project oversight until Denver architect Frank E. Edbrooke stepped in as
superintendent in charge in 1898.
Design Modifications and Capitol Completion
Some decisions made by the Board of Capitol Managers altered aspects of Myers original design. Substitution
of granite for sandstone as the exterior wall material was the first major modification. The managers also scaled
back the architects plan for the decoration of the west pediment of the building. On the interior, Beulah red
marble (Colorado rose onyx) replaced oak for wainscoting and column bases and white Colorado Yule marble
became a substitute flooring. The rotunda received a grand staircase of Italian marble and brass. Difficulties in
acquiring, transporting, and installing Colorado marble considerably delayed the completion of the buildings
. . IQ?
interior.
Finishing the final interior projects marked the functional completion of the Colorado State Capitol in January
1901, fifteen years after the start of construction.193 Building and furnishing the building cost approximately
189 Coel, The Colorado State Capitol, 21.
190 Everett, The Colorado State Capitol, 36-40.
191 The mile-high Colorado Capitol is the nations highest statehouse with a point on its west steps exactly 5,280 in elevation.
Everett, The Colorado State Capitol, 66.
192 Everett, The Colorado State Capitol, 91-8.
193 Most sources reference 1908 as the year of the Capitols completion, marking the year the dome was gilded with gold leaf
and the glass globe installed at the apex.


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$2.7 million, the equivalent of about $60 million in 2005 dollars. Construction required 12,000 bricks, 280,000
cubic feet of granite, two acres of marble flooring, and two linear miles of Beulah marble wainscoting.194
Most sources cite 1908 (twenty-two years after the start of construction) as the formal completion date of the
Capitol. Projects of the early 1900s produced the buildings current appearance. The domes original copper
sheathing quickly weathered into shades of green. Many Coloradans found copper an inappropriate choice for
the dome since the state had never been a large producer of the metal and they viewed gold as more suitable.
Superintendent Edbrooke pointed out gold leaf would last for years and give a much better appearance, being
more in harmony with the general color of the building.195 In 1902 the Board recommended coating the dome
with gold leaf, but no funds were appropriated until 1907. In 1908 the dome received a gilding using two
hundred ounces of gold Architect Edbrooke successfully argued for placing a lighted glass globe at the dome
apex, rather than female figure envisioned by Myers. The Board of Capitol Managers agreed that the globe
itself completes the symmetry of the Building and the illumination from the electric lamps is at once unique and
a constant attraction at night.196
The building received overwhelmingly favorable assessments at the time it was completed. The Denver Times
noted the Capitol displayed massive but perfectly harmonious proportions, with that beautiful impress of
symmetry too often lacking in the great piles of stone, steel and mortar serving as seats of government in the
commonwealths.197 Historian Jerome C. Smiley provided an enthusiastic appraisal of the building in 1901:
Our Capitol with its great, lofty dome, massive walls, columns and portals, is an exceptionally
handsome, dignified and well-proportioned edifice; few structures in this country are more
pleasing in their aspects than it as it stands there on its commanding site in a splendid park that
each passing year will make more beautiful.... It would seem that a structure so stately, so
dignified, so harmonious in all its lines and effects, should inspire higher, nobler and better
things than some of the legislative performances that have been enacted within its walls.198
Later evaluations of the building were also positive. Paul D. Hamson, writing in 1958, deemed the Capitol
elegant and imposing and perhaps the most significant public building in the Rocky Mountain West.
Capitol scholar William R. Pyle characterized the statehouse as primarily a monument and a standing
testimonial of Colorados pioneers and early settlers. Noting the extensive use of native Colorado materials in
its walls, wainscoting and floors, and gilded dome, Pyle called it a tribute to Colorados people, its resources,
beauty, and wealth.199 Capitol historian Derek R. Everett recognized the buildings representation of
Colorados sense of place and emerging sophistication:
Through artwork as well as construction, the capitol also represented the end of the American
frontier as traditionally identified by Frederick Jackson Turner and the beginning of a new
regional identity in Colorado and the West. The building stood as a triumph of modem
technology and common potential for many Coloradoans, responding to the perennial feeling of
inferiority when they compared themselves to older parts of the Union. With their capitol
finished, Coloradoans considered the frontier subdued and themselves able to stand as equals
with their fellow Americans.200
4 Everett, The Colorado State Capitol, 99.
195 Everett, The Colorado State Capitol, 106.
196 Ibid., 114.
197 Denver Times, 7 October 1900, 24.
198 Smiley, History of Denver, 513.
199 Pyle, History of the Colorado State Capitol Complex, 100.
200 Everett, The Colorado State Capitol, 101.


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The mass and elevated position of the State Capitol, as well as the magnificent view of the Front Range of the
Rocky Mountains from its west portico made the building an essential component of any civic center plans.
However, development west of the statehouse and Lincoln Park embraced a variety of commercial, residential,
and other land uses. Planning for a civic center incorporated goals of assuring the dominance of the Capitol and
eliminating this conspicuously unlovely section at the buildings doorstep.201
Improvement of the Capitol Grounds and Lincoln Park
As exterior work on the Capitol neared substantial completion, the Board of Capitol Managers sponsored
competitions in 1890 and 1895 for the design of its grounds. Reinhard Schuetze (see biography section below),
a German-born Denver landscape architect, won both competitions for the design and planting plan of the
Capitol grounds and Lincoln Park. Schuetze supervised the work on the Capitol grounds in the spring and
summer of 1895.Schuetzes plans subsequently influenced landscape designs for the remainder of civic center.
According to Denver park historians Don and Carolyn Etter, the 1895 design constituted a melding of an Old
World convention with the ways of the New World, and in his urban domestication of an aristocratic
landscape, he [Schuetze] gave Denver a simple and graceful example of the application of City Beautiful
principles. The landscape architect was the first to emphasize the significance of the splendid mountain view
from the Capitol by creating a western walkway. Viewpoints to establish a sense of place represented a key
ingredient of Schuetzes designs. He surrounded the site with wide public sidewalks shaded by American elms,
created stepped terraces planted in blue grass on the west, and established parterres below the terraces accented
with sentinel plantings of Colorado blue spruce and carefully placed clusters of spring-flowering snowball and
lilac. The Etters concluded: The best test of Schuetzes work for the Capitol Grounds has been the survival of
the landscape and the impact of his planning on the development of Denvers civic center immediately to the
west.202 The Board of Capitol Managers in their 1897-98 report noted it was a matter of pride that the sight of
the grounds during the summer, presenting such a pleasant appearance, received the favorable comment of
every stranger visiting the capitol.203
The Closing Era. Completion of the Capitol grounds permitted the 1898 installation of the sites first work of
art, The Closing Era, a sculpture by Preston Powers. The artist originally planned the monument at the request
of developers of a real estate project south of Denver, producing a small clay model whose final design would
be rendered 30 high in red sandstone. Powers contacted his friend, poet John Greenleaf Whittier, for
composition of a short verse, which supplied the name of the sculpture, to adorn the base of the work. In 1892
after the real estate project fell through, the Denver Fortnightly Club (a group of prominent Denver women led
by Mrs. E.M. Ashley and Mrs. John Routt) raised $10,000 to commission a smaller version of the statue in
bronze. Powers performed the final modeling and casting in Florence, Italy, where his father, noted sculptor
Hiram Powers, maintained a studio. The younger artist exhibited the statue as part of Colorados display at the
1893 Worlds Columbian Exhibition.204
This influential sculpture reflected the eras renewed interest in the history of and concern for the countrys
indigenous inhabitants and native animals, a theme continued in later civic center art. According to an 1893
201 Fisher, The Civic Center, 190.
202 Carolyn and Don Etter, Forgotten Dreamer: Reinhard Schuetze, Denvers Landscape Architect (Denver: Denver Public
Library, 2001), 13-15; Carolyn and Don Etter, Reinhard Schuetze, Revised Biography, August 1998, Denver Parks Collection,
Western History and Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library.
203 Quoted in Etter and Etter, Forgotten Dreamer, 14-15.
204 Henderson studied sculpture with Powers and assisted in the creation of the statue. John R. Henderson, The Indian and
Buffalo Statue on the State Capitol Grounds, Colorado Magazine 13 (September 1936): 183-86; Rocky Mountain News, 14 August
1944; Joyce B. Lohse, First Governor, First Lady: John and Eliza Routt of Colorado (Palmer Lake, Colorado: Filter Press, 2002).


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Rocky Mountain News article, Powers visited the reservations and made numerous sketches from the Indians,
so as to have his Indian perfect in every way.205 206 Salt Lake Citys Deseret Weekly described the work in 1892:
About The Closing Era there is something feelingly pathetic as well as heroically poetic. It
represents a wounded buffalo that has fallen while trying to escape its Indian pursuer. The
prostrate animal, though supposed to be breathing its last, yet gives suggestion of movement.
The Indian hunter affords a fine contrast. His left foot is resting on the haunch of the bison. His
face is in repose, but it seems contemplative. The dying animal suggests to him the extinction of
his own race.
When the Chicago exhibition closed, the statue arrived in Denver to be stored until the Capitol grounds were
completed. The question of a suitable location for the work arose: women of the Fortnightly Club favored a site
on the more prominent west side of the Capitol, while others felt it was inappropriate to place a piece featuring
a Native American there. After standing in a number of locations around the Capitol, The Closing Era found a
permanent home on the east side of the building in 1898, with the state providing funds for the $1,000 Cotopaxi
granite base.207
Colorado Volunteers Flagpole. To honor Colorado soldiers serving in the Spanish-American War, the Sons and
Daughters of the Revolution donated the Colorado Volunteers Flagpole, erected in the center of Lincoln Park.
Dedicated on 14 June 1898, the 120 tall wood flagpole with a horizontal mast dominated the area. Colorado
troops who lost their lives in the war received recognition with small plaques attached to the base.
Influence of the Denver Public Library
At the same time the concept of grouped public buildings drew the interest of local leaders, efforts to secure
funding and construct the citys first public library building influenced the planning, location, and design of the
future civic center. The Denver Library Association organized the citys first public reading room in 1874, but
after its funds dried up the citys readers waited until the chamber of commerce started a publicly accessible
subscription book service in its headquarters in 1886. In 1891 the Denver City Council initiated annual
appropriations for the institution, which was renamed the City Library two years later. Another facility, known
as the Public Library, opened in the west wing of Denver East Side High School in 1889 and continued in
operation for ten years. In 1898, after the Colorado Legislature enacted a law allowing municipalities to
organize and maintain public libraries, Denver established a consolidated public library, whose sizable
collection required a larger building. In January 1902 the citys library board acquired a location on the south
side of Colfax Avenue between Acoma and Bannock Streets (the future library site) containing a large terrace to
house its collections and pursued plans to construct a new building.208
In 1902 industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie offered the city $200,000, enabling it to erect its first
building designed exclusively as a library.209 The building represented the central libraries that were the focus
of Carnegie Foundation efforts during the early twentieth century and upon which they lavished money, time,
and attention to detail.210 The city council agreed to Carnegies conditions that it appropriate at least $30,000
205 Rocky Mountain News, 14 May 1893.
206 Deseret Weekly [Salt Lake City/, 20 February 1892, 279.
207 Rocky Mountain News, 14 August 1895, 15; Denver Republican, 21 May 1897, 3.
208 Denver Public Library, 100th Anniversary Celebration (Denver: Denver Public Library, 1989), 1-7.
209 The total expenditure on the building amounted to $270,000, the land cost $98,000 and furnishings $57,000.
210 Abigail A. Van Slyck, Free to All: Carnegie Libraries & American Culture: 1890-1920 (Chicago: University of Chicago
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each year for library operations and cover the costs associated with acquiring the site.211 However, the civic
leaders desired a much grander building than Carnegie was willing to fund and sponsored a competition for the
library design, with the only requirement that the building be fireproof.212 Since none of the states colleges then
included a department of architecture, the building committee secured an outside professional to advise them in
selection of the design firm.213
In 1904 Mayor Speer appointed an eight-member commission to promote the new facility as a cornerstone of a
city civic center. The commission selected New York architect Albert Randolph Ross (see biographical section)
for the project. A graduate of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and former employee of prominent architects McKim,
Mead and White, Ross notably planned the Central Public Library in Washington, D.C.214 The Carnegie
program preferred experienced architects to design its libraries, leading some firms to specialize in the field.
Rosss office completed a number of such buildings, including those in Atlanta, Nashville, Atlantic City, and
San Diego.215
Many libraries of the early twentieth century displayed similar symmetrical temple-front designs and most
exhibited classical details reflecting local preferences, the Parisian training of architects, and the impact of City
Beautiful concepts.216 217 According to Carnegie library scholar Abigail Van Slyck: The shift toward classicism is
more accurately explained as the Ecole des Beaux-Arts response to the new emphasis on the public nature of the
library 211 Denver Municipal Facts praised the Denver design as substantial in appearance and attractive in
its simplicity, but Andrew Carnegie expressed displeasure with Rosss concept, writing: I am sorry to have my
money wasted in this wayThis is no practical library plan. Too many pillars.218
Despite Carnegies criticism, the city erected the building following Rosss design in 1910. Denvers new
library would become the first new building on the Civic Center Park site. Its planned location, footprint, and
massing were factors considered in all development plans. The materials, design, and style of the building
influenced later architecture in the Denver Civic Center and set a path of quality and dignity adhering to Beaux
Arts and City Beautiful principles for the entire public landscape.
Existing Conditions at the Site
While the Colorado State Capitol presented a logical starting point for a civic center, the locations of other
existing public facilities were givens meriting consideration, including that intended for the public library two
blocks west. The sites of the 1883 Arapahoe County Courthouse two blocks northwest of Broadway and Colfax
Avenue, and the 1883 Denver City Hall at 14th and Larimer Streets, twelve blocks northwest, also influenced
schemes for improvement. In addition, Denver Civic Center planners weighed such factors as Denvers street
grids, existing development patterns, and topography.
211 Denver Municipal Facts, 12 February 1910, 1.
212 Denver Times, 9 September 1902, 12.
213 A newspaper article at the time indicated the Building Committee asked Professor William A. Ware of Columbia
Universitys Department of Architecture to advise them. Denver Times, 13 September 1902, 5.
214Historical Society of Washington, D.C., Carnegie Library, accessed at www.historydc.org on 28 September 2010;
Columbus Metropolitan Library, Columbus in Historic Photographs, accessed at http://digital-collections.columbuslibrary.org. on 28
September 2010.
215 Van Slyck, Free for All, 56; Donald E. Oehlerts, Books and Blueprints: Building Americas Public Libraries (New York:
Greenwood Press, 1991), 66.
216 Abigail A. Van Slyck, Free to All: Carnegie Libraries & American Culture: 1890-1920 (Chicago: University of Chicago
Press, 1995), 44-45.
217 Van Slyck, Free to All, 28.
218 Denver Public Library, 100th Anniversary Celebration, 9; Denver Municipal Facts, 14 August 1909, 1.


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Street Grids. The civic center site is located at the meeting of two conflicting street grids in the central city. In
downtown Denver, north of West Colfax Avenue and west of Broadway, streets are rotated forty-five degrees
from true north following a northwest-southeast and northeast-southwest alignment. This older plan dates to the
early days of Denver City and Auraria, when the settlements were platted to align with the channels of the
South Platte River and Cherry Creek. South of West Colfax Avenue and east of Broadway, streets reflect the
north-south and east-west grid of the rectangular survey system. Blocks in this latter area measure roughly 500
by 318 feet, with the longer axis oriented north-south. Courtland Street originally split the northern third of each
block from its remainder. The intersection of the two systems results in a number of small triangular blocks
along the north side of West Colfax Avenue and the west side of Broadway.
Dealing with the two street grids and their differing axes (northwest and west) provided both challenges and
opportunities as the planning process proceeded. Late twentieth-century architects Kent C. Bloomer and Charles
W. Moore, characterized the collision of the two grids as:
the place where the pattern stutters to produce an edge. Perhaps because traffic snarled at
these special streets, an edge was formed as surely as if a wall had been built. Energy collected
here, and three of the most urbane business districts in the American West [San Francisco,
Denver, and Dallas] were formed.219
Existing Development Patterns. The blocks lying northwest of Colfax and Broadway and west of Lincoln Park
did not comprise a blank slate, but were fully developed. Art Commissioner Theo Merrill Fisher did not view
the two blocks located west of the State Capitol and Lincoln Park as an obstacle to civic center development:
The superb view of the Front Range Rockies from its [the Capitols] western portico was largely
spoiled, however, by the immediate neighborhood as it was at that time, a variegated assortment
of ancient dwellings, a large power house and a fire department station occupying the
foreground. To establish the legitimate dominance of the Capitol and clean up this conspicuously
unlovely section were primary objects in all that followed in planning for a civic center.220
Topography. The topography of the location influenced site planning. The eastern edge of the district at Grant
Street lay at an elevation of 5,290 feet, roughly sixty feet higher than the western boundary. The base of the
State Capitol on Browns Bluff occupied a somewhat lower and flatter elevation (5,280 feet or a mile high on
the west steps), which dropped sharply (about thirty feet) to the level of Lincoln Street, requiring Schuetzes to
grade the slope with terraces. Westward from that point land sloped gently toward the Cherry Creek drainage,
reaching about 5,230 feet at Cherokee Street, the districts western edge.
Denver Art Commission and the Robinson Plan
At the direction of Mayor Speer in 1905, the Denver Art Commission solicited the advice of one of the most
respected municipal beautification experts of the day, Charles Mulford Robinson (see biographical section),
writer of a highly influential City Beautiful treatise, Modern Civic Art, or the City Made Beautiful. During a
ten-day visit to Denver, he surveyed local conditions and prepared a report, Proposed Plans for Improvement of
the City of Denver, dated 18 January 1906. Responding to a suggestion by Commissioner Read supported by
Mayor Speer, Robinson focused on recommending changes in order that Denver may more fully realize its
opportunities for civic beauty, including creation of a civic center.221 He found the city united in its desire to
219 Kent C. Bloomer and Charles W. Moore, with a contribution by Robert J. Yudell, Body, Memory, and Architecture (New
Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1977), 104.
220 Fisher, The Denver Civic Centre, 190.
221 Charles Mulford Robinson, Proposed Plans for the Improvement of the City of Denver (Denver: Art Commission of the


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make itself more attractive, the existence of the commission as evidence of the citys aspirations, and
recognized the commissions effort to obtain a scheme of artistic development for the city illustrative of its
pragmatic nature.222 The civic expert believed the best way to enhance the city was to maintain its
individuality and noted Denvers notable features in this respect: a delightful climate, mountain views, and its
status as the Colorado state capital. Robinsons civic center plan established the statehouse as its crown.223 In
his opinion, the building was very fine, complimented by its central location, commanding height, and
exceptional mountain vistas, and asserted Denvers obligation to the state and itself to highlight these facts in its
development. He strongly advised the enactment of height limits to protect views from the building.224
Addressing the difficult question of how to deal with the conflicting street plats the courthouse location and the
Capitol neighborhood, Robinson saw the problem as an opportunity for radical change and noted the
unremarkable architecture lying between the courthouse, statehouse, and site selected for the library. He saw
the land between these points as an appropriate area for demolishing existing structures, creating sightlines, and
establishing new park areas with tree-lined walkways and a basin with a water jet. His suggestions included
extending 16th Street to the Capitol grounds, creating several triangular parked areas, installing lighting, and
planting the block between the proposed public library and Broadway with grass and trees to provide a new
setting for public buildings. Robinson suggested the installation of the proposed monument to pioneers on one
of the triangular parcels north of the library site and construction of the proposed municipal auditorium west of
the monument. He asserted that if Denver executed his $2 million plan for a civic center, very few cities in the
country would have its like; and in none, perhaps, is it possible to gain so great a result so easily. Robinson
advised the city to always ask itself two questions regarding radical city improvements: First, are they a good
thing in themselves; second, are they worth what they would cost.225
Robinson also proposed creation of a series of boulevards and parkways that would tie scattered city parks into
a cohesive system. He observed that with a civic center Denver would gain an open space with pools,
fountains, trees, benches, and flowers on the edge of the business district, as well as a dignified setting for the
Capitol, preservation of the grand mountain vista, harmony between unrelated public buildings, and
improvement to the awkward junction of two street systems.226 If carried out, it [the plan] will give to Denver
an esplanade of such architectural and decorative possibilities, and in such close connection with the business
district, as to make it, I believe, second only to the Cleveland Plan.227
City leaders studied Robinsons scheme carefully. Although they found several good ideas in it, there were
inherent problems, including the irreconcilable forty-five degree variation between the two street grids, the fact
that the facades of the key buildings (Capitol, library, and courthouse) did not align with each other, and the
large cost of acquiring so much private property and redeveloping the site. Subsequent developments also
impacted some of the reports suggestions, including the citys decision to erect the municipal auditorium seven
blocks to the northwest and growing sentiment in favor of replacing the existing city hall and courthouse with a
new city-county building. Nonetheless, local residents took great interest in the proposal, newspapers gave it
much attention, and government and civic groups advanced the plan at informational meetings. The city
initiated a three-month educational campaign prior to holding a charter amendment vote to decide whether to
proceed with the issuance of long-term bonds funding the project. Mayor Speer spoke to a receptive audience at
a large taxpayers public improvement dinner sponsored by the influential Real Estate Exchange on 7 February
City and County of Denver, 18 January 1906), 2; Fisher, The Denver Civic Centre, 189.
222 Robinson, Opening the Center of Denver,365.
223 Robinson, The Development of Denver, 197.
224 Robinson, Proposed Plans, 3.
225 Ibid., 3-18.
226 Robinson, The Development of Denver, 197.
227 Robinson, Opening the Center of Denver, 365.


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1906. He discussed the potential of a civic center in adding to the citys beauty, providing artistic and
ornamental benefits, raising property values, and advertising the city, as well as the effect it would have on
raising the pride of local residents. However, he indicated the city administration would not try to force the
project on unwilling citizens.228
In rapid response, a property owners association organized opposition to the civic center concept, emphasizing
its high cost (estimated at $3 million) and the potentially negative impact on real estate values. In a special
election on 17 May, voters defeated the proposal by a slim margin. Charles Mulford Robinson reported: No
city ever had a darker outlook for a great Civic Center than had Denver the morning after the May election in
1906.229 Although local citizens viewed the plan as too large and expensive, the concept of a civic center
remained alive. As a result of the defeat city leaders realized the necessity of greater organization, vigorous
agitation, and intensive educational efforts to achieve their goal.230
Additional Planning Activities
1907 Citizens Commission
Undeterred by the defeat of the Robinson Plan, Mayor Speer pushed the idea for a grand civic center to the
forefront of citizens concerns in January 1907:
I believe the time has come to deal definitely with this matter. The decision is of such importance
that I have decided to appoint an independent committee, representing the banking, real estate
and other interests of the city, to investigate and report their findings [as] to the advisability of
purchasing any or all of the land mentioned.231
Speer created a committee of twelve prominent citizens to determine the feasibility of Denver establishing a
civic center or open plaza, around which will be clustered our public and quasi-public buildings.232 The group
included Denver landscape architect Reinhard Schuetze and art commissioner Henry Read. On 19 February the
committee submitted its report, representing a scaled-down, less expensive version of Robinsons scheme that
required about half as much land. The new plan featured a truncated northwest axis and included altering street
patterns to relieve traffic congestion, purchasing the Bates triangle northeast of the public library, placing the
pioneer monument at the northwest comer of Broadway and Colfax, and acquiring land northeast of the Bates
triangle and northwest of the monument site.233 Read called the plan a step in the right direction, but found it
drew serious objections.234 According to historian WilliamWilson:
Deficient civic proposals doomed it. It linked none of the existing or proposed buildings in
Robinsons plan. The three irregularly shaped blocks north and east of the library site could not
be merged without closing major streets and were too small to provide a civic focus. The plan
cost less than Robinsons, but its price was high in terms of planning benefits.235
228 Robinson, The Development of Denver, 198; Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer, 38-39.
229 Robinson, The Development of Denver, 198.
230 Denver Municipal Facts, 3 December 1910, 3; Wilson, ADiadem, 77; Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer, 39. Henry Read,
City Planning and Civic-Center Work in Denver, Journal of the American Institute of Architects, 3(November 1915): 497.
231 Members of the committee included Charles M. Wilcox, J.K. Mullen, Chester S. Morey, David H. Moffat, Jerome S.
Riche, J. A. Thatcher, Frederick J. Chamberlin, Armour C. Anderson, John S. Flower, Jacob Fillius, Reinhard Schuetze, and Henry
Read. Denver Municipal Facts, 6 March 1909,
232 Denver Municipal Facts, 6 March 1909, 3; Robinson, The Development of Denver, 198.
233 The street changes included cutting through Broadway north of civic center and cutting Fifteenth Street through the
southwest comer of Broadway and Colfax Avenue; both were undertaken later. Wilson, A Diadem, 77.
234 Read, City Planning and Civic-Center Work, 497.
235 Wilson, A Diadem, 78.


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George Kessler Studies Denvers Parks and Parkways
Simultaneously with its effort to develop the civic center, Denver studied its existing park system. Given the
citys arid climate, local citizens placed high value on landscaped public spaces. Curtis Park, the citys first
dedicated park, stemmed from creation of a residential subdivision in 1868. Four years later Denver developed
its first parkway, Park Avenue, which featured planted triangles along the thoroughfare. After the 1893 Worlds
Columbian Exposition, former territorial governor John C. Evans with the support of the local chamber of
commerce, proposed the preparation of a comprehensive park and parkway plan to include verdant spaces
scattered throughout the city and connect them by parkways. According to historian Don Etter, by the turn of
the century both the idea of a system and the actual physical beginnings of a system were in place.236
As a result Mayor Speer invited City Beautiful planner and landscape architect George E. Kessler of Kansas
City, Missouri, to visit Denver in 1907. Tasked with systematizing improvements to the parks, parkways,
boulevards, and playgrounds, Kessler examined the city and offered a policy focused on developing existing
parks more fully and connecting them with boulevards and parkways encircling Denver. The plan provided a
series of scenic vistas of the capital city and Front Range from key points. As a result of Kesslers scheme, the
proposed civic center became the central focus of the park and parkway system.237
Frederick MacMonnies Designs a Pioneer Monument and a Plan for Civic Center
A triangular parcel of land at the northwest corner of Broadway and West Colfax Avenue marking the terminus
of the Smoky Hill Trail traveled by 1859-60 gold seekers to reach frontier Denver became the planned site of a
monument to the citys pioneers and an influential component of civic center. A neighboring property owner,
G.R. Weir, hoped the demolition of the old city hose house on the site would increase the value of his nearby
land. Consulting with other owners in the area in 1906, he found many willing to subscribe to a fund to erect a
firehouse elsewhere and turn the triangular piece of land into a park. The installation of a magnificent work of
art on the site as a memorial to Colorados pioneers met with popular approval, and the Real Estate Exchange
took up the cause, placing John S. Flower as chairman of its effort. Fundraising concentrated on the monument
itself, while the city agreed to pay for a new firehouse.238
After celebrated artist Augustus Saint-Gaudens refused the commission for the monument on account of age,
the city turned to Frederick W. MacMonnies (see biographical section), his internationally acclaimed American
student and Ecole des Beaux-Arts graduate. In February 1907 the sculptor sent Flower a preliminary sketch and
description of his proposed work, which envisioned the memorial as a five-tiered fountain depicting archetypal
pioneers, such as miners, trappers, and cowboys, with native wild creatures on the lower levels. At the top of the
fountain he drew an American Indian chief wearing a war bonnet while sitting on a rearing horse and giving a
sign of peace. In its first response to the monument, the Denver Republican recalled the artists creation of
fountains at expositions in Chicago, Buffalo, and St. Louis and described his work as always artistic and
striking.239
However, after examining the drawing and description, local pioneers and their descendants strongly objected to
the design which placed the figure of an Indian at the apex of the fountain. Although MacMonnies argued that
the figure served only as a finial, not the hero of the occasion, he recognized his view of the West needed
further thought and decided to visit Denver on his next trip to the United States. During a two-week stay in the
late summer of 1907, he toured the city and listened intently to critics of the proposed composition. Returning
236 Etter, Denver Park and Parkway System, section 7, 11-16.
237 Municipal Journal & Engineer 22(January-June 1907): 279; City Planning Progress [1917], undated copy in the clipping
files of Denver Public Library Western History and Genealogy Department.
238 Denver Post, 10 June 1911, 11.
739 Denver Republican, 28 June 1906, 1.


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to France with photographs and artifacts to guide his work, the sculptor prepared completely new designs from
top to bottom, replacing the Indian leader with famed western scout Kit Carson and adding to the lower level
three symbolic figures: a mother and child, a trapper/hunter, and a prospector/miner. During the next two years
the artist continued to revise the design with guidance from the city.240
After failing to win support for the Robinson Plan, Denvers leaders quietly consulted a number of professionals
who provided suggestions for an improvement program. Fortuitously, MacMonniess 1907 visit also gave Read,
the art commissioner, an opportunity to seek his advice on the civic center design.241 MacMonnies reported that
during an automobile tour he glanced downward and got the effect of the vistas of wide, clean streets, .
splendid residences and the well balanced architecture of. the business section, and quickly conceived of a
plan that overcame problems inherent in previous civic center proposals.242 Together with Read, the artist
drafted a new, highly influential plan.243
Like Robinson, MacMonnies found that the diagonal grid of Denvers business section as it intersected with the
parallel layout of residential areas created a disconcerting lack of symmetry and caused inconvenience for
traffic. The sculptor suggested the development proceed directly westward from the State Capitol along the
east-west axis of the Capitol grounds, thereby reconciling the opposing plats and distributing traffic more
evenly, as well as providing a suitable setting for public buildings. He contemplated the acquisition of two
already developed blocks west of Broadway, an area containing residences, apartment buildings, and
businesses. All plans thereafter incorporated this east-west axis.244
The sculptor proposed the purchase of the Bates triangle to form the northern terminus of a secondary, north-
south axis which would be balanced on the south by the acquisition of a similar parcel. He envisioned a city
park with a cruciform plaza containing a large, ornamental fountain and a reflecting pool on the east end and a
future municipal building on the west end opposite the Capitol. The plan included the proposed library, with the
suggestion that the plain rear wall facing the park be redesigned to conform to the neoclassical design of its
front facade and other buildings in the civic center. In the south-central portion of the site MacMonnies
suggested an outdoor stadium for gatherings and concerts.245 The addition of a small triangular parcel
southwest of Broadway and West 14th Avenue would balance the triangle proposed as the location of the
pioneer monument.
The Denver Art Commission made small revisions to the drawings reflecting the MacMonnies scheme before
sending them to Speer, the committee of twelve, and other planners and designers, who agreed it constituted a
good alternative. In January 1908 the committee discarded its own plan in favor of the new concept, and the city
formally received the proposal, which included a drawing prepared by local architects to illustrate the
envisioned improvement and an estimate of its cost. The beautiful depiction of the civic center as projected in
the MacMonnies Plan continued to be utilized by the city to gamer support for its efforts until Chicago architect
and planner Edward H. Bennett incorporated many of MacMonniess ideas in the final 1917 plan.
Estimates for the cost of actualizing the MacMonnies Plan came in at half the amount required by Robinsons
scheme. In August 1908 the Art Commission issued an informational pamphlet with the drawing of the civic
240 Mary Smart, A Flight with Fame: The Life and Art of Frederick MacMonnies (Madison, Connecticut: Sound View Press,
1996), 219-220.
241 Denver Municipal Facts, 6 March 1909, 3.
242 Smart, A Flight with Fame, 220 and 245.
243 Although many sources do not credit Read with participation in drafting the plan, he indicates it occurred. See Read, City
Planning and Civic-Center Work, 498.
244 Rocky Mountain News, 11 December 1921, 8; Denver Municipal Facts, 6 March 1909, 3.
245 Rocky Mountain News, 11 December 1921, 8; Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer, 42-43.


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center as it might look when completed.246 A variety of organizations approved the new plan by resolution,
including the art and library commissions, Real Estate Exchange, chamber of commerce, and Colorado Chapter
of the American Institute of Architects. Experts such as MacMonnies, Robinson, Kessler, Albert Randolph
Ross, Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., and painter and sculptor F.D. Millet also publicly endorsed it.247
MacMonnies frequently contacted city officials and business leaders to campaign for a civic center that would
allow Denver to take its place among progressive cities. The artist wrote:
I sincerely hope that the citizens of Denver will profit by the experience of older cities who are
now making up for lost time by extensive improvements at great expense, and will recognize this
as being the most vital moment in the history of Denver, and with courage and foresight lay the
foundation of a great city ... ,248
Throughout 1909 city leaders encouraged local residents to support the MacMonnies Plan, noting Denver was
destined to become the most attractive tourist city in America as a result of its natural advantages. The city
initiated regular publication of an illustrated municipal magazine, Denver Municipal Facts, which explained the
importance of establishing a civic center and other improvements and reported on the progress of such
projects.249 The mayor encouraged each citizen to support the development project to increase the citys beauty.
He asserted a growing sense of civic pride demanded municipal betterment equal to that of other large cities and
announced several wealthy citizens already supported a new monument on the proposed civic center site.250
Denver Municipal Facts observed: The view of the snow-clad range from the capitol, the sunny skies of
Colorado, and the setting formed by a city already famed for its beauty, offer additional reasons for creating a
plaza that no city in the world can excel [emphasis in original].251
In 1909 Denver Chamber of Commerce member Henry Van Kleeck described in City Beautiful language the
citys vision of what the civic center represented and could become, indicating it would not be just a beautiful
plaza or park with monuments, but rather a center from which will flow much of the inspiration and activity of
the city. Distinct from other spots in the city, it would contain a grouping of public buildings, starting with the
State Capitol and its grounds, the public library, state museum, and culminating with a new city hall and
courthouse: These buildings, which Denver civic pride will require to be of the highest architectural beauty,
should be given the great advantage of fronting on the proposed center. The writer urged adoption of an
important element seen in European cities and at the 1893 Worlds Columbian Exposition: a uniform style and
height for all buildings erected within civic center. An equally important consideration was the sites role in
providing a place in the heart of the city where people could gather to relax, celebrate, and enjoy cultural
entertainment in a pleasantly landscaped area containing a few commemorative works of paramount
excellence. Van Kleeck urged preparation of a professional comprehensive plan that would provide direction
for improvement of the site, noting that Cleveland created a commission of nationally respected leaders in civic
beautification to provide such advice. An architecturally mismatched jumble of buildings as found in many
modern cities sadly disturbs our peacefulness and destroys that repose within us, which is the true basis of all
contentment. Let the public authorities, therefore, set an example of simplicity and uniformity.252
246 Wilson, A Diadem, 78.
247 Denver Municipal Facts, 6 March 1909, 4.
248 Denver Municipal Facts, 3 December 1910, 9.
249 The city published the magazine between 1909 and 1931.
250 Denver Municipal Facts, 3 July 1909, 8.
251 Denver Municipal Facts, 6 March 1909, 3; Denver Municipal Facts, 3 December 1910, 4.
252 Denver Republican, 5 October 1909, 12.


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Expansion of State Facilities
While the city of Denver planned, acquired land, and took steps to develop the civic center, the State of
Colorado also added monuments and erected new buildings adjacent to the State Capitol following City
Beautiful principles. Until 1909 no coordinated plans existed for development of the Capitol grounds and Civic
Center. Some civic leaders suggested a combined city and state art commission should be named to join the
park board and mayor in directing the development of the civic center.253 The Colorado legislature created a
State Capitol art commission to work in conjunction with Denvers art commission and enable an artistic
unity between the treatment of the Capitol grounds and the development of the citys civic center. Members of
the citys commission became members of the state commission under the law.254 By 1910 some changes were
made in the layout of the Capitol grounds to conform to plans for the improvement of the civic center.
In 1909 the state installed a memorial to Civil War veterans at the west front of the Capitol consisting of the
Colorado Soldiers Monument and two Civil War cannons. Further improvements over the next two decades
reflected designs having artistic unity, a quality desirable to both commissions. The classically-inspired
Colorado State Museum and the Colorado State Office Building flanked the Capitol on the south and north,
respectively, displaying adherence to the Beaux-Arts architectural concepts guiding the development of the
civic center.
Colorado Soldiers Monument. An effort to acknowledge Coloradans who served in the Civil War, the Colorado
Soldiers Monument, grew out of the 1905 national encampment of the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR), a
fraternal organization of Union veterans. Attendees of the convention in Denver pointed out that the Capitol
grounds lacked a monument honoring Coloradans who fought to preserve the Union during the conflict. A
Colorado Memorial Monument Board of Construction quickly organized, and Captain John D. Howland, a
Union veteran of the Battle of Glorieta Pass in which Colorado troops participated, painted designs featuring a
dismounted cavalryman from which J. Otto Schweizer modeled the statue. Bureau Brothers of Philadelphia
performed the casting and Seerie Brothers fabricated the statues Aberdeen granite base holding plaques with
the names of Colorados Civil War dead. The Colorado Republican characterized the work as a stiff and
rectangular heroic style, while the Denver Times commented that the modeling is exceptionally well done and
the effect is as realistic as a work in bronze can be. The monument cost $20,000, with $5,000 provided by the
State and the remainder coming from the Colorado Pioneers Association. Dedication ceremonies on 24 July
1909 included speeches, music from a Colorado National Guard band, and a twenty-one-gun salute. Colorado
Adjutant General Irving Hale remarked that rather than an officer, the monument appropriately portrayed a
private, as he was the man who packs and fires the gun.255
Civil War Cannons. To complete the Civil War grouping at the west front of the Capitol, two cannons of the era
flanked the Colorado Soldiers Monument by 1910. The two twelve-pound Napoleon fieldpieces could fire solid
and canister shot; one reportedly saw service with a Massachusetts regiment at the Battle of Gettysburg. The
states Chaffee Light Artillery, a unit of the Colorado National Guard, had received the objects in 1878. A
National Guard official, unaware of the cannons significance, sold them for scrap to a New York foundry in
1907. A hurried fundraising campaign saved the weapons from destruction and returned them to the state.256
253 Denver Municipal Facts, 3 December 1910, 5.
254 Kiowa County Press, 5 February 1909; The Survey 22(3 April 1909), 283.
255 Denver Republican, 10 July 1909, 12 and 25 July 1909, 1 and 4; Denver Times, 9 July 1909, 8; Civil War
Monument/Memorial, Colorado State Capitol Virtual Tour, www.colorado.gov/dpa/doit/archives/cap/civwar.htm (accessed 18 June
2008); Colorado Soldiers Monument, Historical Marker Database, www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=4745 (accessed 27 October
2010)', Denver Municipal Facts, 17 July 1909, 6; Everett, The Colorado State Capitol, 111-12.
256 The camions may have been placed somewhere on the Capitol grounds as early as 1907. Other theories of the cannons
provenance (buried by Confederate General Sibley in his 1860s New Mexico campaign and later uncovered or brought back from the
Philippines by Colorado troops in the Spanish-American War) are not supported by contemporary newspaper accounts. An 1894
Denver Republican article about target practice by the Chaffee Light Artillery described these two fieldpieces down to the markings


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Completion of the Public Library
The opening of the Denver Public Library in 1910 heartened supporters of the civic center and assured local
citizens of the citys growing sophistication. Although the groundbreaking for the construction had occurred
three years earlier, legal actions over the contractors work and extended discussions with quarries and unions
regarding the type of stone selected caused delays in its completion.257 Denver citizens, including Governor
Henry A. Buchtel and Mayor Speer, celebrated the laying of the Turkey Creek sandstone cornerstone on 11
April 1907, but it wasnt until 15 April 1909 that the buildings exterior was completed. The hard, light gray
Colorado sandstone utilized for the library influenced future construction in the civic center. The same material
composed the Greek theater and colonnade, as well as the balustrades elaborating the east end of Civic Center
Park. Finishing the interior work, receiving acceptable furniture, and moving and reorganizing books from the
old library led to a belated dedication ceremony on 15 February 19 1 0.258 259 260 The Denver Post judged the building
to be architecturally one of the handsomest structures in Denver, while the Denver Municipal Facts remarked
that from an artistic standpoint it was acknowledged to be without a peer, for a building of its size, in the entire
country. Mayor Speer noted the library gave citizens a glimpse of what the civic center could become.
Denver Municipal Facts described the interior of the building as finished in marble, in extremely simple style,
with no attempt at ornateness.261 The buildings ground floor contained the childrens library, administrative
offices, and newspaper reading rooms. The main floor included a grand entrance flanked by marble staircases,
reference room, executive offices, and an open shelf department where patrons could select their own volumes,
a new and popular feature of the library. The top floor encompassed a large art gallery designed by the
architect for use by the Artists Club of Denver, a group recognized by the city charter. 262 A 300-seat lecture
room and a magazine reading room also occupied the second floor. The librarys book stacks were cited as one
of the wonders of the building.263 The book stack department occupied a rear wing with seven floors seven feet
in height from the base of the building to the roof; the wing contained metal and glass stacks manufactured by
New Jerseys Snead and Company Iron Works. Local boys ran the stairs to search for books in the stacks,
sending them to the circulation desk via dumb waiters.264 The building functioned as the citys central library
until a new library opened adjacent to Civic Center Park at the northwest corner of West 14th Avenue and
Broadway in 1956. The old librarys fate remained uncertain until the Denver Water Board moved its offices
into the building after extensive remodeling.
A Successful Funding Strategy for Acquisition of the Civic Center Park Site
The 1904 city charter created the Denver Park Department and divided the city into four districts, each with the
authority to purchase land for parks and parkways. Since local voters had defeated a bond issue, the city
planned to assess property owners in the East Denver Park District encompassing Civic Center Park for its cost,
as well as for the cost of proposed improvements, such as parkways, boulevards, smaller parks, and
playgrounds. The city proceeded to draft a map showing the land to be acquired and property to be assessed,
and property owners in the district received notice of the cost of improvements.265 Although city officials
on the barrels. Denver Republican, 9 April 1894 and 9 July 1898; Rocky Mountain News, 5 March 1907, 3 February 1952, 7A, 15 June
1958, 33, 15 May 1966, 11; Denver Post, 18 May 1966, 2.
257 Denver Public Library, 100th Anniversary Celebration, 10.
258 Denver Public Library, 100th Anniversary Celebration 9-10; Denver Municipal Facts, 12 February 1920, 1.
259 Denver Post, 15 February 1910, 6; Denver Municipal Facts, 12 February 1910, 1.
260 Denver Municipal Facts, 19 February 1910, 9.
261 Denver Municipal Facts, 14 January 1911, 11.
262 Denver Municipal Facts, 12 February 1910.
263 Denver Municipal Facts, 12 February 1910.
264 Rocky Mountain News, 24 March 1956, 11.
265 Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer, 44.


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benefited from their previous experience in seeking voter approval for the civic center, bitter opposition arose
over the new financing scheme. To stop the project, one-quarter of the property owners needed to file an
objection. Ultimately, opponents were unsuccessful in securing valid protests from more than 20 percent of the
property owners, allowing plans to move ahead.266 267
When the city announced protestors had not secured enough objections to defeat the project, Charles M.
Robinson observed: It has been finally and definitely decided that Denver is to have a great Civic Center, one
of the most costly and pretentious in the United States. Robinson paid tribute to the mayor and other civic
leaders for their foresight and tenacity: She [Denver] has had a big Mayor, with the courage that ought to go
with great ideas; and as president of the Art Commission she has had a man who not merely had a vision, but
who had the patience, persistency and strength to make others see it 261 Denver Municipal Facts reminded
citizens the Capitol and the Beautiful Surroundings would be incorporated into the civic center: From the
Capitol building one of the grandest mountain views in the world may be had. The building of Civic Center will
forever preserve and protect this view, an asset of the state and city which many cities would give most
anything to possess.268 The city believed the creation of center would increase the value of the Capitol by
millions of dollars.269
In December 1910 Mayor Speer further outlined his own vision for the civic center. It would include a central
plaza to protect mountain views from the Capitol and serve as a point from which paths and ornamental lighting
would radiate. The plaza, with electric illumination, would constitute a public location for gatherings of citizens
and visitors surrounded by fountains, flowers, plants, and statues.270 A sunken garden and a means of
honoring the citys great dead were listed among its amenities. Above all, Speer asserted the site should not just
be a civic center for government business, but a place for old and young, rich and poor to gather and enjoy its
beauties. He believed the civic center would serve as an advertisement for the city, attracting tourists, health-
seekers, and homeowners, as well as encouraging the growth of business. The project would result in the
erection of new buildings, provide jobs, increase real estate values, and help the city maintain prosperity. In full
City Beautiful discourse, the mayor contended the development would: increase civic pride and make our
citizens realize that it is worth something to live in the best city in the land. It will pay because a beautiful city
makes better citizens.271
Dedication of the Pioneer Monument
Long-awaited, the installation of the Pioneer Monument delighted local City Beautiful proponents. In 1911
MacMonnies delivered the bronze sculptures to Denver for the fountains unveiling.272 Dedication ceremonies
on 24 June drew several thousand people, including Kit Carsons granddaughter and 300 pioneers who marched
to the site.273 One old-timer commented on the accuracy of the depiction of the scout, stating: Thatr looks
somewhat like Kit. But it makes him look too young. He may have appeared like that at one time in his life, but
not when us 59ers knew him.274 President Taft sent a telegram congratulating the city on the erection of the
memorial, as did Frederick MacMonnies, whom the Rocky Mountain News called the worlds greatest living
sculptor.275 John S. Flower noted the growing desire of local citizens to contribute to the beauty of the city,
266 Denver Municipal Facts, 30 April 1910, 3-5.
267 Robinson, The Development of Denver, 206.
268 Denver Municipal Facts, 3 December 1910, 1 and 5.
269 Denver Municipal Facts, 3 December 1910, 5.
270 Denver Municipal Facts, 3 December 1910, 8.
271 Denver Municipal Facts, 3 December 1910, 8.
272 Smart, A Flight With Fame, 219-220.
273 Denver Post, 24 June 1955, 13 and 2 December 1983, 7; Rocky Mountain News, 25 June 1911, 1.
274 Denver Times, 24 June 1911, 1.
275 Rocky Mountain News, 24 June 1911, 1.


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observing the country is as much to the making of the man as the man is to the making of the country. He
recounted Denvers effort to secure an artist of renown to design the monument.276 Governor Shafroth extolled
the courage of those who settled in the area one explorer referred to as the great American desert.277 The state
contributed $10,000 toward the cost of the $75,000 sculpture, while the Real Estate Exchange, local citizens,
and the city provided the remainder of the funds.278
Art Commissioner Henry Read discussed the monuments representation of the advance of civilization in the
West and the citys growing sophistication: Denver the Beautiful has been a dream of far reaching import, and
we need but glance around to see the vision even now is taking concrete form.279 One observer called the
fountain a landmark in the artistic and civic growth of the city. The Rocky Mountain News called it the most
magnificent monument in the West and one of the most beautiful in the world, and remarked that there would
never again be such an inspiring and majestic sight in Denver as that of the gathering of pioneers for the
dedication.280
Although citizens expressed satisfaction with the fountain at the time of its dedication, later critics found the
scout at the top less rugged than rococo. When author and playwright Julian Street visited Denver in 1914 he
sarcastically commented that Kit Carson looked like something that might have been modeled by a Frenchman
whose acquaintance with this country had been limited to reading of a bad translation of Fenimore Cooper.281
Despite such critiques, Denver continued to prize its work by the great Beaux-Arts sculptor. During the summer
of 1918 the city expanded the monument site to include the entire triangular parcel, and then planted grass and
installed a lighting system that put the structure into relief at night.282
Mayor Speer Travels to Europe, Declines Reelection, and Leaves Office
Robert Speer embarked on his first trip to Europe in 1911, when the Boston Chamber of Commerce selected a
group of city leaders and municipal scholars to observe conditions in continental cities and promote friendship.
Denvers mayor, who had adopted some European city planning principles, welcomed the opportunity to study
and discuss municipal issues, filling several notebooks with ideas.283 Journalist Lincoln Steffens, a member of
the traveling party, discussed civic concerns with the mayor and remarked in his Autobiography. We saw good
things to copy that Mayor Speer sought for Denver. He was Denver, that honest able man; his eyes were
Denvers eyes; his ambition was his citys; his interest was the same as our hosts, to see the best in Europe.284
German cities especially impressed the mayor, who handed out copies of Denver Municipal Facts in each town
he visited.285 According to biographer MacMechen: The trip had a wonderfully broadening effect upon him
and made Denvers mayor a nonpartisan in city government.286 MacMechen asserts that after Speers
European trip he had begun to think, not alone of entertainment for the masses, but of a method by which their
sufferings might be alleviated and better living conditions brought to their hearths.287
276 Denver Times, 24 June 1911, 1 and Denver Post, 24 June 1911, 1.
277 Denver Times, 24 June 1911, 2.
278 Denver Municipal Facts, October 1918, 4; Rocky Mountain News, 25 June 1911, 1.
279 Denver Post, 24 June 1911, 4.
280 Rocky Mountain News, 25 June 1911, 1.
281 Federal Writers Project, WPA Guide to 1930s Colorado, 144.
282 Denver Municipal Facts, July 1918, 17.
283 Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer, 151.
284 Steffens quoted in Johnson, DenversMayor Speer, 156.
285 Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer, 157-158.
286 MacMechen, Robert W. Speer, 30.
287 MacMechen, Robert W. Speer, 30.


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Disgruntled property owners continued to question the legality of the citys actions in acquiring the land for
civic center, arguing the cost of the project should be borne by the city as a whole rather than just property
owners within the East Denver Park District. Following a favorable ruling from the Colorado Supreme Court in
November 1911, the city secured valuations on the parcels to be acquired. Protests arose again over property
appraisals, and condemnation proceedings encompassed another two years. In March 1912 Denver sold $2.7
million in park bonds for the project, the largest sale of improvement bonds by the city up to that time.288
Undeterred, opponents initiated new legal challenges in state courts in 1912 and 1913. Hearings and appeals on
the issue continued until January 1918, when the Colorado Supreme Court sustained the assessment of
properties for acquiring the civic center site.289
Architectural Record heralded Mayor Speer as the city beautiful mayor, and noted that he gained so truly
national a reputation for his effort to secure a civic center.290 MacMechen agreed, stating: It required all of his
[Speers] wonderful tenacity, all his great tact and diplomacy, all of his indomitable will power, to bring the
first step [acquisition of the land] to a successful conclusion.291
The fate of the entire civic center project became uncertain after the mayor declined to run for reelection. Speer
then spent time traveling abroad and studying European municipal improvements and government. County
Assessor Henry J. Arnold, running on a Citizens ticket and promising to institute reforms without a political
machine, succeeded Speer as mayor. He initiated the work of clearing the site for the center in 1912, using as
many day laborers as possible to provide needed employment.
Mayor Arnold supported civic improvement, but also desired to institute economies and reforms promised
during his campaign. Unlike Speer, who followed Charles M. Robinsons advice to proceed slowly and saw
genius in the MacMonnies Plan, Arnold quickly ordered the demolition of existing buildings on the site and
proposed a series of projects without an overall scheme.292 Abandoning the concepts that governed the existing
plans, the new mayor endeavored to erect around the center four public buildings (administrative, court,
treasury, and city board) of similar size and architectural style as the library and announced that the existing
courthouse would be sold to pay for construction. The new buildings would be designed so they could be
enlarged as the city grew without damaging the symmetry or beauty of the site.293 The mayor intended the
construction to be completed within two years.294 Unlike Speer, who envisioned a civic center as a place all
classes of citizens would freely gather, Arnold stated: We do not want the derelicts of humanity to detract from
the beauty of the project.295
Olmsted Brothers and Brunner Produce a Civic Center Plan
In July 1912 landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., (see biographical section) representing the
celebrated Olmsted Brothers firm of Brookline, Massachusetts, arrived in Denver to examine the city
preparatory to producing new plans for its park and boulevard system, mountain park system, and civic center.
To assist him, Olmsted included in the project New York architect Arnold W. Brunner, who had collaborated
with Daniel Burnham and James Carrere on the 1903 Cleveland Group Plan.296 Their 1913 design incorporated
the main central axis extending west from the State Capitol which MacMonnies had proposed.
288 Denver Municipal Facts, 12 and 26 March 1910, 2 March and 6 April 1912; Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer, 44-45.
289 Gillis, A History of the Civic Center of Denver, 33-37.
290 Architectural Record, 32 (July-December 1912): 189.
291 MacMechen, Robert W. Speer, 46.
292 Denver Municipal Facts, April 1919, 5.
293 Denver Post, 14 June 1912, 1.
294 Architectural Record 32 (July-December 1912), 189.
295 Arnold quoted in Wilson, A Diadem, 80.
296 E.W. Robinson, Civic Center and Mountain Park Plans, The City of Denver, 23 May 1914, 5.


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Olmsted treated the area on the park side of the library as a formal lawn, or tapis vert, that would be adorned
with minor decorative features and extend southward to what was still envisioned as the site for a future Beaux-
Arts building, thus enhancing the orderly sightlines and symmetry of the overall plan. The grounds adjacent to
Broadway became an open plaza with ornamental paving, minor architectural and sculptural decorations, and
monumental lighting features. Between the tapis vert and the plaza, a formal garden was planned, with its
central square corresponding with the width of the mountain vista. Taking advantage of the natural topography,
the lawn and garden lay about four feet below the Broadway plaza and its flanking groves, which formed a
nearly level terrace to be supported by an architectural wall topped by a balustrade. The plan proposed semi-
circular areas on the north and south with dense, formal groves of trees shading graveled walks with benches.
The southern area held a concert grove, whereas MacMonnies envisioned an open stadium for concerts.
Olmsted envisioned the Bates triangle as open parkland with a slightly raised promenade planted with American
elms like those then flanking the Capitol grounds. He rejected the concept of carrying 15th Street through to
Broadway because it would create three points of intersecting traffic and weaken the continuity between the
Capitol grounds and the main portion of civic center.297
The planners advised the city that all architectural and ornamental details should be of absolutely the highest
standard of taste and quality in design and in the execution of every detail, regardless of the temptation to get a
bigger and quicker show for the money expended through the use of second rate materials or second rate
designs.298 Only one new building appeared in the plan, an art museum similar in character to the library,
placed as a counterpoint south of the main axis. Olmsted noted the location of the library had influenced all
previous civic center proposals and made such a building artistically essential. He suggested the art facility
also include a symphony hall. He also echoed the idea that the side of the library facing civic center be
remodeled and advised that no buildings be permitted east of the two buildings.
Olmsted and Brunner found it of utmost importance for the sake of the general design that a large and
imposing public building terminate the west end of the composition, and, like MacMonnies, they placed a
future municipal building on the block west of Bannock Street. The plan advised that the municipal building be
strongly horizontal in character to avoid competition with the dome of the capitol and to preclude impertinent
interruption of the sweeping panorama of mountains. Olmsteds proposal for the landscape design of the
intervening civic center was predicated on the assumption that this building would be erected.299
Unlike the widespread acceptance of the MacMonnies Plan, Olmsted and Brunners design for Civic Center
drew much local criticism.300 William Wilson attributed the discord to the administrations failure to provide the
consultants with clear direction, as well as Olmsteds personal desire to recreate the Washington Mall in
miniature. Apparently Olmsted ignored the logic of creating a transverse axis by aligning the Bates triangle
with a similar parcel on the south; nor would he consider any suggestions that detracted from a symmetrical
plan. In Wilsons opinion, Olmsted focused mostly on the city and mountain park systems, spending little time
on the civic center question and producing plans that were too spartan, too elaborate, or esthetically dubious.
In April 1914 Fredericks half-brother, John Olmsted, and Arnold Brunner completed a final report including
costly acquisitions the park board had previously instructed them to delete.301 Despite the citys unenthusiastic
297 Olmsted, Jr., Plan of Developing Civic Center, 4-5.
298 Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., Plan of Developing Civic Center Outlined by Landscape Architect, The City of Denver, 12
April 1913,6.
299 Olmsted, Jr., Plan of Developing Civic Center, 3-4.
300 Wilson, A Diadem, 80.
301 Olmsted reportedly donated his work on the Denver Mountain Parks and Civic Center after some citizens objected to the
amount of his fee. After several months of haggling, in October 1915 Olmsted Brothers and Brunner reached a settlement with the city
for the cost of their work. Wilson, A Diadem, 80-81; Poppum, Walter. Denvers Civic Center. The Green Thumb (Mar.-Apr.


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response to the Olmsted and Brunner Plan, Denver Art Commissioner Theo Merrill Fisher later contended it
established the general pattern of walks, lawns, tree planting, and ornamental lighting that was followed in
developing civic center.302
Denvers Mountain Park System
In addition to the plans for the Denver Civic Center, Olmsted prepared plans for several parkways and another
jewel in the citys crown: the proposed mountain park system. In 1901 the Denver Chamber of Commerce had
suggested the city consider establishing a chain of mountain parks for the enjoyment of its citizens and to
encourage tourism.303 A Special Park Committee formed to study the concept, but no municipal action
ensued. Mayor Speer focused his attention first on establishing a civic center and on the improvement of city
parks, but supported a mountain park system, stating in 1909: The man, or combination of men, who will build
a shaded drive or Apian Way from our city into the mountains, opening into the canons, and to the summit of
our lofty peaks, will be remembered and praised by other generations.304 The following year, real estate
developer John Brisben Walker presented a mountain park concept to the chamber of commerce and real estate
exchange, which supported the project and were involved in its planning. With this support, Speer made
numerous automobile excursions to find suitable mountain land for the project.305
A charter amendment in May 1912 authorized funding with a half-mill levy to create parks and boulevards
outside the citys corporate boundary. The project represented a cooperative effort by all levels of government,
with the state assisting this scheme by allowing Denver to obtain and manage lands in adjacent counties and
congressional legislation enabling the city to acquire other land from the Federal government.306 In a
memorandum to the city, Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., discussed the significance of a mountain park system and
provided direction for its creation and implementation, including the methodology and design concept for the
project.307 From this starting point, the city began its acquisition of a chain of thirty-one foothill and mountain
parks and sixteen parcels that included grand views of the mountain peaks and the plains spreading eastward.
Olmsted submitted a formal plan in January 1914, although the city began acquiring land as soon as it received
his memo.308 The citys landscape architect, Saco De Boer (see biographical section), designed portions of the
system, and local architects such as Jacques B. Benedict and Burnham Hoyt worked on its major buildings and
structures. Improved roads connected the city to mountain parks in Clear Creek, Douglas, and Jefferson
counties, all within a sixty-two-mile radius of Denver.309
Denvers Commission Form of Government and Early Improvements at Civic
Center Park
In 1913 Denver voters thwarted Mayor Arnolds plans for new buildings in the civic center by instituting a
commission form of government with five commissioners and an auditor heading city departments.310 A Park
Board and Commissioner of Property received responsibility for the centers development. Citizens expected
the new government to examine every aspect of the citys programs to eliminate waste and duplication.
However, commissioners spent most of their first year establishing their departments and had little time to
1965): 43.
302 Fisher, The Denver Civic Centre, 190.
303 Moss, Denver Mountain Park System, Denver, Colorado, 1912-1941, section E, 7.
304 MacMechen asserted that Speer originated the idea of a mountain parks system although John Brisben Walker introduced
the idea to the Real Estate Exchange and is usually given credit for it. MacMechen, Robert W. Speer, 71.
305 MacMechen, Robert W. Speer, 71.
306 Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer, 202.
307 Moss, Denver Mountain Park System, section E, 9.
308 Moss, Denver Mountain Park System, section E, 9-10.
309 Moss, Denver Mountain Park System, section E, 1.
310 MacMechen, Robert W. Speer, 54.


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identify ways to save money. The following year they attempted to reduce expenses, causing city services to
decline.311 Speers biographer Charles Johnson concluded that the three-year commission form of government
was neither very good nor very bad, but undistinguished, and the people missed Speers aggressive
leadership, the grandiose civic planning, the visionary approach.312
During this period, the civic center site experienced gradual improvement, including excavation, filling,
grading, installation of water and sewer systems, building walks and curbs, setting trees, and planting grass
according to the Olmsted and Brunner Plan.313 A circa 1913 photograph shows the basic structure of the plan in
place. DeBoer assumed the role of City Landscape Architect from Reinhard Schuetze in 1910 and served in the
position until 1931. He collaborated closely with George E. Kessler and Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., in
planning Denvers park and parkway system. Like Schuetze, DeBoer emphasized Denvers sense of place by
establishing viewsheds and also by importing both mountain and prairie plant material into the city and
arranging this material in flowing, naturalistic patterns. In addition, he supervised the implementation of
Olmsteds red oak groves on the Broadway terrace in 1914.314 According to Olmsted, Denver citizens initially
asserted the local climate allowed only native cottonwoods to survive in their parks, but he convinced them red
oaks would live. None of the species grew in Denver, so the city imported specimen trees from Pennsylvania by
boxcar; after intensive watering they lived.315
Following the publication of the Olmsted and Brunner Plan, the city appointed a Civic Center Commission
composed of leading men in a variety of fields to study issues relating to its improvements.316 In 1916 the
commission produced a public report on previous planning efforts and presented a modified version of the
MacMonnies Plan, proposing more elaborate decoration and offering its opinion that the western location for a
municipal building should at all times be recognized as an essential part of the whole civic center plan.317 The
group recommended the city commit to implementing the plan as soon as funds became available and suggested
it provide an annual appropriation until the completion of permanent improvements. Wilson cites the
commissions report as one of the last gasps of reform government in the city.318
Colorado State Museum Opens
Although planners designed the Capitol to house the entire state government, lack of adequate space for all
departments quickly became apparent. During the first decade of the twentieth century, Progressive
officeholders such as Governor John F. Shafroth advocated a more active role for government, resulting in the
creation of new agencies, boards, and commissions, and the need for additional state office space. One approach
explored in 1907 and 1908 involved extending the east wing of the Capitol, a plan that included preserving the
portico by disassembling and then reassembling it after completing the addition. The state dropped this plan in
favor of constructing a new building nearby.
311 Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer, 200.
312 Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer, 205,
313 Denver Municipal Facts, 11 October 1913, 14; Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer, 200-201.
314 Carolyn and Don Etter, S.R. DeBoer, Revised Biography, August 1998, Western History and Genealogy Department,
Denver Public Library; Don and Carolyn Etter, The Olmsted Legacy in Denvers Park and Parkway System, Summary Sheet 1:
Olmsted & Civic Center and Summary Sheet 2: Olmsted, Bennett, and Civic Center, 2006, Western History and Genealogy
Department, Denver Public Library.
315 Poppum, Denvers Civic Center, 43; S.R. DeBoer, The Denver Civic Center, The Green Thumb, 24(November 1967)6:
173.
316 The committee included F.J. Chamberlin, Maurice B. Biscoe, John S. Fowler, Frank E. Shepard, Henry Read, and J.J.B.
Benedict. Rocky Mountain News, 11 December 1921, 8.
317 Rocky Mountain News, 11 December 1921, 8.
318 Wilson, A Diadem, 81.


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Collections of the State Historical and Natural History Society of Colorado (founded in 1879) in the Capitol
basement constituted a popular tourist draw, but they consumed valuable space in the statehouse. In 1909 the
state legislature authorized the first expansion in state facilities adjacent to the Capitol with passage of an act
providing for erection of the Colorado State Museum. The new building would accommodate the holdings of
the society, thus freeing up space in the Capitol for boards and commissions. The State Board of Capitol
Managers purchased a site immediately south of the statehouse at the southeast corner of East 14th Avenue and
Sherman Street in May 1909. Architect Frank E. Edbrooke, the superintendent of the Capitol, drafted plans for
the building and excavation began in October. In June 1912 Denver Municipal Facts published a photograph of
the partially completed building and optimistically predicted it would be finished by late autumn.319 However,
construction proceeded slowly, and rumors swirled that the $487,000 building might instead be used to house
the Supreme Court or serve as the governors mansion.320 With the building complete in early 1915, after
several months of moving its extensive archeological collection, mineralogical specimens, Civil War relics, and
newspapers, photographs, and Colorado history books, the stat museum opened to the public in September
1915.321
The museum construction featured native Colorado materials, including walls of Colorado Yule marble from
Gunnison County and a granite foundation, harmonizing with the materials used for the Capitol.322 Edbrooke
characterized the style of the building as modified Roman classical. According to historian Thomas J. Noel
the building illustrated Edbrookes ability to make the leap from nineteenth-century Romantic styles to early
twentieth-century Neoclassicism.323 The museum is cited as the last building designed by Edbrooke prior to his
retirement in 1915; the architect died six years later. In a book about Denvers early architecture, Richard
Brettell praised the building:
Its plan is symmetrical, clear, and ample. The classical allusions are no longer piece-meal, nor
are they tempered by elements of other styles from other architectural pasts. Rather, the
classicism is apparently complete and almost archaeological in its effect on the viewer. The
building is architecturally pure and its imagery exudes a hardened pomp and grandeur.324
Speer Returns to Office and Hires Architect and Planner Edward H. Bennett To
Create a Successful Plan
A group of influential citizens convinced Robert Speer to run for office again in 1916. Edgar C. MacMechen
reported the lack of progress on the civic center proved largely instrumental in inducing the former mayor to
come out of retirement.325 A special election in May brought an end to the commission form of government,
which was replaced by a mayor-council administration. It also brought about an amendment to the city charter
(the Speer Amendment), which was crafted to include the best principles of governments Speer had studied as
well as ideas drawn from his many years of public service.326 The amendment reportedly entrusted the mayor
319 Denver Municipal Facts, 15 June 1912, 12.
320 Denver Post, 19 May 1914, 8.
321 The building continued to serve as the headquarters of the historical society until 1977 and then sat vacant until 1986, when
it was rehabilitated into legislative support offices and hearing rooms. Stone, History of Colorado, 213-14; Rocky Mountain News, 22
November 1986, 69.
322 Most sources report that the granite came from Cotopaxi in Fremont County, while Derek Everett identified it as Aberdeen
granite, specially quarried from the now closed site, to blend with the statehouse to the north. Everett, The Colorado State Capitol,
118; Pyle, History of the Colorado State Capitol Complex, 53.
323 Noel, Denver Landmarks and Historic Districts, 34.
321 Richard Brettell. Historic Denver: The Architects and the Architecture, 1858-1893 (Denver: Historic Denver, Inc., 1973),
325 MacMechen, Robert W. Speer, 47.
326 Ibid., 57.
63.


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with broader powers than the executive of any other American municipality; it allowed him to proceed with the
development of civic center as he desired.327 Except for the auditor and election and civil service commissions,
the mayor controlled all appointments and retained ultimate authority over city finances. A new nine-member
city council included four Speer appointees who would serve until the next election. The only potential checks
on the mayors actions were the slow and difficult to implement measures of recall, initiative, and
referendum.328 MacMechen judged the mayors last term to be his greatest, and biographer Charles Johnson
found it characterized by a smoothly functioning government that carried out its established plans for civic
beautification.329
Enjoying much local support and more favorable press, Speer pushed forward with work on the civic center. On
8 December 1916 he presented one of his most effective and memorable public addresses regarding the
importance of Civic Center and citizens support of it. In his famous Give While You Live speech, he
discussed his concept of a Colonnade of Civic Benefactors honoring citizens, living or dead, who have given
in some substantial way to the beauty or the cultural advantages of Denver.330 The mayor believed: Future
monuments will be erected to men for keeping out of war, not for leading armies in battle; for lifting burdens,
not for gathering gold; for starting waves of happiness, rather than currents of selfishness and greed.331 He
spoke to citizens in familiar City Beautiful terms:
Ugly things do not please. It is so much easier to love a thing of beautyand this applies to
cities as well as to persons and things. Fountains, statues, artistic lights, music, playgrounds,
parks, etc., make people love the place in which they live. Every time a private citizen by gift or
otherwise, adds to a citys beauty, he kindles the spirit of pride in other citizens.332
Speer returned to office intent on pursuing further improvement of Civic Center and voicing opposition to the
plan submitted by Olmsted Brothers and Brunner. During his time away from municipal government, the mayor
had returned to Europe and became particularly impressed by German parks; he now wanted Civic Center to
feature a large fountain and a tree-lined mall with statues. Toward the end of the year, the mayor secured the
services of Chicago architect and planner Edward H. Bennett (see biographical section), Daniel Burnhams
former protege, to prepare a plan that would garner the approval of citizens and highlight donations of the citys
benefactors. As DeBoer later observed: The present layout is very largely his [Bennetts] plan.333 Wilson
considered Bennett to be a key factor in the plans success: In Bennett, Speer found a man of independent and
wise judgment who realized the mayors vision while overriding his uninformed enthusiasm.334
The 1917 Bennett Plan
Bennett, drawing upon and integrating the various concepts that had been proposed since Robinsons 1906
analysis, prepared additional and complete civic center plans, with the assistance of Denver architects Marean
and Norton (see biographical section).335 He submitted the Denver Civic Center Plan in February 1917,
emphasizing that the park between Broadway and Bannock Street should become a large open space that could
be used for gatherings of thousands of people rather than a secluded park. In that regard, Bennett believed in
the logic of paving large areas with concrete and brick panels or simply graveling a large section of the center to
327 Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer, 207.
328 Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer, 207-208.
329 MacMechen, Robert W. Speer, 59; Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer, 214.
330 Denver Municipal Facts, May 1918, 17.
331 Edgar C. MacMechen, The Court of Honor, 412.
332 Speers speech quoted in MacMechen, Robert W. Speer, 75.
333 Poppum, Denvers Civic Center, 42; DeBoer, The Denver Civic Center, The Green Thumb, 173.
334 Wilson, A Diadem, 81.
335 Rocky Mountain News, 11 December 1921, 8.


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accommodate large gatherings. He also favored planting a considerable number of trees to provide shade, as
well as the creating small areas with lawns and planting spaces as a suitable background for statues, balustrades,
and other decorative elements.
Like others who had studied the site, Bennett appreciated the dominance of the State Capitol and the importance
of preserving its vista along the main axis to the site west of Bannock Street proposed for the new city-county
building.336 He suggested the new edifice be constructed of white marble in a design harmonizing with that of
the existing library and advised it should include a strong central feature of monumental architecture which
will appear to great advantage in the central vista. Borrowing from MacMonnies for the main feature of this
east-west axis, he proposed a paved plaza with a monumental white marble fountain with a large central jet
capable of spraying water to great heights.
As a counterpoint for the library, Bennett, as had previous planners, envisioned an art museum of the same light
gray stone facing it across the north-south axis. He proposed an underground passageway connecting the two
and a narrow reflecting pool and double row of fountains between the buildings. This area would be adorned
with marble sculpture. Bennett found the library needed room for expansion of reading rooms and stacks to
double its existing size, and, like his predecessors, proposed a suitable faqade be designed for the existing rear
wall facing the central vista.
Bennett felt that the Bates triangle should be a definite part of the composition and adopted an earlier suggestion
for the closing and diversion of West 14th Avenue and the extension of the park block following the arc of a
circle on the north and south. On the north, he did not include a similar diversion of West Colfax Avenue,
which continued to divide the Bates triangle from the rest of the center. A diagonal turnoff (an extension of 15th
Street) cut through the northeast corner of the site, resulting in a small, detached triangle of turf.337 The Pioneer
Monument at the northwest corner of Broadway and Colfax would be balanced with a similar site on the south
containing a state monument (an area now part of the library grounds that never received a monument).
Notably, Bennett added a strong transverse axis to serve as the main entrance from the business district to the
north, elaborated by a monumental gateway on the Bates triangle. To balance the gateway on the south, he
incorporated MacMonnies concept of an open-air theater with seats in a semi-circular arrangement. A
colonnade (to satisfy Speers desire for a memorial displaying the names of civic donors) would provide a
setting and screen for the theater in the West 14th Avenue triangle and provide a southern terminus for the
transverse axis. East of the theater, dense plantings of trees and shrubbery would diminish street noise from
Broadway. As Speer desired, Bennett also addressed the lighting of the center, which he believed should be
abundant and decorative yet without glaring effects, so that the park would serve as a vital part of the city both
day and night. Marean and Norton developed the designs for the metal lampposts.338
Bennett recommended controlling the heights of the buildings facing and within the civic center site. Although
his plan referenced the State Capitol and its grounds, he did not propose significant changes for that area.
Rather, he recommended preparation of a revised plan for the area and future acquisition of additional grounds
around the building: By this means the Government and the municipal centers may be made to contribute to
each other and conform to a thoroughly harmonious whole.339
336 Bennett theorized that columns of white marble might be introduced to the facades of the library and art museum to bring
the materials of all the buildings in closer harmony.
337 Denver Municipal Facts, April 1919, 6.
338 Robert Walter Speer, E.H. Bennett, and Marean and Norton, The Denver Civic Center Plan ([Denver: Brock Haffner Press,
1917]); DeBoer, The Denver Civic Center, The Green Thumb, 174; MacMechen, The Court of Honor, 414.
339 Journal of the American Institute of Architects 5(April 1917): 181.


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A 1917 city publication, Denver the Distinctive, described the civic center as it then appeared and included a
drawing of the proposed Greek theater with a discussion of Bennetts planned elements.340 Bennett continued to
advise the city after submitting the plan, opposing Speers ideas when necessary and reminding the mayor of his
desire to see the best results possible. In 1918 when Speer advocated installing Proctors equestrian statue
Broncho Buster in the center of the plaza, the architect strongly objected that the size of work was not sufficient
for such placement. Together Bennett and Speer worked out the final location of the Voorhies Memorial, with
the architect suggesting the treatment of the Bates triangle as a shallower ellipse than that of the corresponding
parcel on the south side of the park. According to Wilson: With this solution in hand, the city built the center
essentially as it has stood since.341
In the eighteen months after Speers Give While You Live speech, more than a half-million dollars in gifts to
the city poured in.342 When the United States entered World War I some criticized the mayor for continuing the
improvement work while the countrys focus lay on the battlefront, but Denver also supported more than four
thousand victory gardens and established the first municipal training school for soldiers.343 The city continued
to operate with a surplus during the war, as it did during each year of Speers tenure.344 His success in
transforming Denver led him to be known through the United States as the foremost municipal executive in
America.345
Robert W. Speer died while in office after a brief bout with pneumonia on 14 May 1918. The Rocky Mountain
News praised him, saying: He made service to the city his life work. Denvers present commanding place with
the outer world is due to his incessant labors for its upbuilding.346 Charles Johnson wrote: Speer never
displayed personal flamboyance, but his plans for Denver had a certain majestic quality that will forever
distinguish his administrations.347 The citys manager for parks and improvements, William F.R. Mills,
succeeded Speer as mayor. When sworn into office on 18 May 1918, Mills pledged to make every attempt to
emulate Speers policies and ideals, and to complete public works plans initiated or contemplated by him.348 In
an October 1918 article reiterating Speers Give While You Live philosophy, the city outlined reasons why it
needed to complete Civic Center. Denver saw itself as a municipality that chose aesthetic development over the
acquisition of industries due to its history as a tourist destination. In addition, the city wanted to add to the
beauty of the world, especially in response to the destruction of places of cultural importance that had occurred
during World War I.349
Completion of the Greek Theater and Colonnade of Civic Benefactors
The Denver architectural firm of Willis A. Marean and Albert J. Norton (see biographical section) designed the
$203,404 Greek Theater and Colonnade of Civic Benefactors in association with Bennett; Edward Seerie served
as the builder. Completion of the project took on a patriotic aspect during World War I, when the city advised
that in light of the destruction of art in Belgium and northern France residents should provide for compensating
pieces in other parts of the world.350 An additional purpose of the improvement was to create a local hall of
fame dedicated to those people living or dead who demonstrated their love for the city by presenting it with
340 Rocky Mountain News, 11 December 1921, 8.
341 Wilson, A Diadem, 82.
342 MacMechen, Robert W. Speer, 60.
343 Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer, 213; MacMcchcn. Robert W. Speer, 63.
344 MacMechen, Robert W. Speer, 60.
345 Stone, History of Colorado, 96.
346 Ibid., 99-100.
347 Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer, 224.
348 Denver Municipal Facts, May 1918, 17; MacMcchcn. Robert W. Speer, 67.
349 Denver Municipal Facts, October 1918, 3.
350 Ibid.


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works that increased its beauty or culture in a dignified, substantial manner.351 Plans originally called for the
inscription of the names of donors on the columns, but in the completed design names were listed on the walls
at each end of the colonnade. Donors contributed $600,000 in gifts to the city in the two years after the project
was announced.352 A special fund paid by the Telephone Company also covered costs related to the construction
of structure and the decorative balustrades.353 However, completion of the improvement met delays due to
difficulty finding adequate labor to cut the stone during wartime.354
The Greek Theater opened in June 1919, with a special program featuring Red Cross units in uniform and an
address by the organizations director, Dr. Livingston Farrand, who urged citizens to continue to provide
support during the postwar reconstruction process.355 In August Denver officially dedicated the theater and
colonnade with elaborate ceremonies attended by an audience that filled every seat and spread into the
surrounding areas. The municipal band and chorus presented patriotic songs, including one composed especially
for the occasion, and speakers recalled Mayor Speers role in the theaters creation.356 The event tested the
theaters popularity as a location for public meetings and entertainment. Attendees judged the acoustical
properties of theater exceptional for an outdoor forum, and the estimated four thousand people in attendance
took the opportunity to explore the grounds as well as enjoy the speeches and musical program. Public
entertainment occurred almost nightly at the theater thereafter and ranged from plays to vaudeville shows to
concerts.357 Among the theaters functions during its early years was its use as an open forum, with the city
allowing any subject discussed except theology questions involving consideration of the probable end of the
world.358
The Denver Atelier Forms
According to Denver historians Thomas J. Noel and Barbara S. Norgren: Between 1910 and 1940 Denver
realized the classical ideal of marrying art and architecture to a greater extent than ever before or since.359 The
Denver Atelier represented one expression of the ages artistic spirit. The school traced its origins to the Society
of Beaux-Arts Architects founded in New York in 1893 by architects who had studied at the Ecole des Beaux-
Arts and wanted to spread and perpetuate its ideas and method of education to North America. In 1916 the
group chartered the Beaux-Arts Institute of Design in New York City to facilitate expansion of its program of
architectural instruction and competitions based on the curriculum of the Parisian school. The school
subsequently added training in mural painting, sculpture, and interior design. In 1919 the Institute of Design
chartered the Denver Atelier, which trained young architects and artists with the guidance of practicing
professionals and graded competitions. Denver architect Burnham Hoyt, himself a winner of four Society of
Beaux-Arts competitions while living in New York, judged the local entries and submitted the best for national
appraisal.360
351 Denver Municipal Facts, October 1918.
352 Ibid.
353 MacMechen, Robert W. Speer, 48.
354 Denver Municipal Facts, November 1918, 16.
355 Rocky Mountain News, 24 June 1919, 3.
356 Denver Post, 5 August 1919, 22.
357 Denver Municipal Facts, September-October 1919, 15.
358 Controversy over the proper use of Civic Center ensued in 1947 after George Cranmer, the citys Manager of Parks,
prohibited labor union members from using the structure to discuss bills pending in Congress. Cranmer asserted the city charter forbid
use of the theater for political meetings. Rocky Mountain News, 15 June 1920, 16.
359 Noel and Norgren, Denver: The City Beautiful, 139.
360 Noel and Norgren, Denver: The City Beautiful, 139; Beaux-Arts Institute of Design, New York City Landmark
Preservation Commission Landmark Designation Report, accessed 31 January 2011 at
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In 1922 the Colorado AIA Bulletin described the Atelier as the brightest spot in the art life of Denver.
Architects Arthur Fisher, Lester Varian, and Burnham Hoyt, all graduates of Beaux-Arts ateliers in New York,
served as the principal instructors for the Denver studio. Ken Fuller, later a leader of the Allied Architects
Association which designed the Denver City and County Building, described the Denver school as the greatest
thing for us young architects and artists.361 Another Denver architect recalled that the studio united its
members and emphasized history and art and beautiful drawing and draftsmanship 362 Many of Denvers
noted twentieth-century artists and architects spent time at the Denver Atelier.
Voorhies Memorial Gateway and Sea Lion Fountain
Several wealthy Denver citizens participated in Mayor Speers Give While You Live program by donating
funds for construction of monumental gateways at the entrances to public parks. A posthumous gift by John
H.P. Voorhies, an early banker and mining investor who lived opposite the Bates triangle, provided $125,000
for a gateway or entrance to civic center in memory of him and his wife.363 Originally, the city selected the
architectural firm of Marean and Norton to design the gateway. The architects concept included a waterscape,
with an entrance elaborated by two monumental pylons flanked by elevated platforms with seats and backed by
a balustrade terminated by podia bearing recumbent sculptured lions. An ornamental pool spanned by a stone
bridge featured sculptured fountains and cascades.364 The city never built the Marean and Norton design,
instead it called for new proposals.
Bennett came to Denver to help officials select the best design for the gateway in 1918. He was accompanied by
San Francisco sculptor Leo Lentelli, who produced the heroic figures for Denver City Parks Sullivan Gate and
planned to submit a new concept for the memorial.365 The location of the Bates triangle presented difficult
challenges. The mayor and the Art Commission requested any plans provide for diversion of West Colfax
Avenue around the north end of Civic Center, eliminating the avenue between the triangle and the main part of
Civic Center, to create one cohesive area.366 After further delay, in May 1919 the city announced it would call
for new plans in a competitive bidding process.367 In the autumn, city representatives approved a new design by
the architectural firm of William E. and Arthur A. Fisher (see biographical section), which called for the same
variety of stone as the Colonnade of Civic Benefactors.368 The cutting of stone for the structure began the
following January. Allen Tupper True painted murals on lunettes inside the gateway.
In 1921 in conjunction with the plans to close West Colfax Avenue between Broadway and Bannock Streets,
Mayor Dewey C. Bailey (who served 1919-23) decided to build a curved drive around the Voorhies Gateway on
15th Street to lessen traffic congestion. The city extended 15th Street through the northeast corner of Civic
Center Park at Colfax and Broadway to carry traffic heading south on Broadway from downtown.369
After the construction of the Voorhies Memorial Gateway, $15,000 of the money contributed by the donors
estate remained. This amount allowed fulfillment of the original Fisher and Fisher design calling for a reflecting
pool in the arc formed by the colonnade. The architects contracted with sculptor Robert Garrison (see
biographical section) for two bronze groups depicting infants upon sea lions posed at rest on pedestals just
361 Noel and Norgren, Denver: The City Beautiful, 139.
362 Ibid., 139.
363 Denver Municipal Facts, September-October 1919, 4.
364 Denver Municipal Facts, October 1918, 6.
365 Rocky Mountain News, 31 March 1918, 3.
366 Denver Municipal Facts, October 1918, 6.
367 Denver Municipal Facts, May 1919, 17.
368 Denver Municipal Facts, November 1919, 5 and January 1920, 16.
369 Denver Municipal Facts, April-May 1921, 5.


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above the surface of the water. Construction began in the spring of 1921 and ended in May 1922 with the
installation of the sculptures.370
With the completion of the Voorhies Memorial Gateway and its reflecting pool, the city focused on finding or
constructing a suitable art museum and placing within the civic center several sculptural pieces that were
already underway. Sculptor Alexander Phimister Proctor (see biographical section) recalled that during a 1917
Denver visit Mayor Speer drove him around the city, revealing how much had changed since the sculptors
childhood. Two Proctor statues executed in plaster for the Worlds Columbian Exposition (Equestrian Indian
and Cowboy) stood in Denver, but the works had deteriorated. Speer wanted two new pieces for the city, and the
artist displayed a small version of his Broncho Buster. Then in his third term, Speer contacted two prominent
businessmen, J.K. Mullen and Stephen Knight, who agreed to pay Proctors commission and donate the works
to the city.371 In 1920 the city installed Mullens gift, Broncho Buster, and Knights donation, On the War Trail,
was installed two years later. Director Reginald Poland of the Denver Art Museum wrote:
Art critics have said Denver needed something to typify its underlying spirit.... The two
equestrian figures by Proctor are being rightly placed on the Civic Center. There they will be
seen by all, among whom are the tourists and transient visitors. Coming to Denver, they will see
that which will remain in their memory as the essential spirit of the city and region. These statues
satisfy that desire. They will give life to the rather formal, classic architecture.372
Colorado State Office Building and Likens Fountain
State functions and employees continued to grow, with increased duties arising during World War I in
association with the Adjutant General and defense programs. In 1912 the Board of Capitol Managers
recommended purchase of future building sites north and south of the State Capitol. The legislature authorized
funds for such acquisitions in 1917, and three of four sites were obtained. A joint committee investigated spatial
needs and the erection of a new building to house state workers. The legislature selected the northeast comer of
East Colfax Avenue and Sherman Street for the building site and called for construction to begin immediately
so the project would provide jobs to returning soldiers.373
The board commissioned respected Denver architect William N. Bowman (see biographical section) to prepare
plans for the Colorado State Office Building, with the firm of Seerie and Vamum serving as general contractors.
Bowman labeled his design Roman Corinthian. Construction began in August 1919, with the cornerstone laid
in June 1920. The exterior employed Cotopaxi granite, while the interior featured Botticino marble in the lobby
and first story and Vermont marble in the remainder of the five-story edifice.374
The total cost of the building reached $1,494,375, considerably more than the $750,000 initially budgeted. The
Denver Post charged Colorado taxpayers were being mulcted (extorted or swindled) due to mismanagement
of the project by the board. State workers occupied the building in 1921. The following year the state installed
two bronze mountain lion sculptures created by Robert Garrison to either side of the main entrance. Tunnels
carrying heating pipes and power connected the new building to the Capitol and the Colorado State Museum. In
370 Denver Municipal Facts, April-May 1921, 5; Rocky Mountain News, 17 May 1922, 16.
371 Alexander Phimister Proctor, Sculptor in Buckskin: The Autobiography of Alexander Phimister Proctor, Katharine C.
Ebner, ed., 2nd ed., (Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 2009), 177.
372 Poland, Artistic Expression in Denver, 8.
373 Pyle, Ptistory of the Colorado State Capitol Complex, 55-56.
374 Ibid., 57-61.


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the opinion of William R. Pyle, the newest addition to Colorados Capitol complex was functional, timely, and
majestic.375
Lincoln Park gained one small monument in July 1923, with the installation of the Sadie M. Likens Drinking
Fountain near the northwest corner. The dark granite pedestal with two drinking fountains honored Likens, who
lost her husband and other family members in the Civil War and served as a nurse in the conflict. She came to
Denver in 1882, became Denvers first police matron in 1889, and tended wounded soldiers from the Spanish-
American War. Likens helped organize the Womens Relief Corps, an auxiliary of the Grand Army of the
Republic (GAR), which erected the water fountain.376
Steps toward Construction of a City and County Building
Throughout the 1920s, the Denver Post continued to extol the City Beautiful benefits of Civic Center, asserting
in 1928: In summer or winter, spring or autumn, Denver Civic Center fills the purpose of civic recreation,
culture, health and happiness and as the years roll around, its place in the hearts of humanity will become more
and more monumental.377 During the decade, consulting landscape architect Saco R. DeBoer played a
continuing role in developing and maintaining Civic Center Park, including oversight for the planting of annual
flower beds.
Denver leaders focused during the 1920s and early 1930s on acquiring the recommended site for the new
municipal building and proceeding with its construction. Robinsons 1906 plan for the civic center had
proposed using the existing courthouse location northwest of the Capitol, while MacMonnies suggested a
Bannock Street location directly to the west, a choice that subsequent planners including Olmsted, Brunner, and
Bennett endorsed.378 Following the citys acceptance of the Bennett Plan, local officials viewed the location for
the building as a settled question, but the owners of several downtown office buildings opposed the site, fearing
the relocation of county court functions would negatively influence the business district and damage property
values.379
In 1921 the University of Denver took advantage of citys lack of action and purchased the Bannock Street
property for a new three-story classroom. Local residents criticized the universitys action, and concerns about
the completion of the civic center increased. In response, the school announced it would sell the lots at cost to
the city and supported the project by stating: We desire to see our Civic Center not only the finest in America,
but the finest in the whole world.380
Members of civic and commercial groups urged Mayor Bailey to proceed with the concept for the site
developed under the Speer administration.381 Harry W. Bundy, president of the Optimists Club, asserted the city
would be foolish to abandon Speers plans when most people favored them and judged: When we as a city are
stronger financially, we do not want to find our dreams of a better city blotted out by an array of buildings that
would cost a small fortune [to obtain].382 383 Advocates reminded residents that the loss of the land envisioned as
the site of the municipal building since the MacMonnies Plan would severely tarnish the long-held vision for
civic center. However, Mayor Bailey indicated the city would take no definite action on the issue.
375 Pyle, History of the Colorado State Capitol Complex, 57; Denver Post, 22 February 1921, 1 and 2 July 1922, 11.
376 Murphy, Geology Tours, 40-41; Denver Post, 8 July 1923, 5 and 29 May 1999, 3B.
377 Denver Post, 31 December 1928.
378 Denver Municipal Facts, January-Febmary 1923, 3.
379 Denver Planning Commission, Denver Planning Primer, vol. 6, rev. (Denver: Denver Planning Commission, 1940, 29.
380 Denver Municipal Facts, November-December 1921, 15.
381 Rocky Mountain News, 7 December 1921, 4.
382 Rocky Mountain News, 12 December 1921, 1.
383 Rocky Mountain News, 11 December 1921, 1.


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Those in favor of the Bannock Street site believed the civic center would never be completed unless Denver
citizens voted on the issue. A voluntary group of prominent people, calling themselves the Civic Center
Extension Committee, formed to push the question to the forefront, with support from a variety of civic,
business, and labor groups.384 385 In the spring of 1923, Denver Municipal Facts featured an artists visualization of
a new city-county building on the proposed Bannock Street site, with the Front Range forming a dramatic
backdrop.386 Three hundred well known society women distributed literature prepared by the committee
discussing acquisition of the desired land. In May the city asked voters to approve either the purchase of the
block on Bannock Street or the use of the existing Courthouse Square for a new building.387 Local improvement
associations and the Denver Art Commission favored the block on Bannock Street, believing it would
encourage the construction of a building in architectural harmony with the rest of civic center.388 Mayor
Bailey indicated he supported the bond issue, although he viewed either location suitable for the new building.
By about a two-to-one margin Denver voters approved the purchase of the Bannock Street property and a bond
issue of $500,000 to pay for it.389
During the first administration of Mayor Benjamin Stapleton (who served 1923-31) the city moved forward
with plans for a new municipal building and purchase of the block of land for the proposed construction. At this
time officials reiterated the importance of developing a common plan for the improvement of the land between
the new municipal building and the Capitol, and Mayor Stapleton and Governor Teller Ammons cooperated in
securing the first joint document expressing this intent. Opening the vista between the Capitol and the city-
county building site became a focus of the plans. S.R. DeBoer recorded: The design of the City Hall was
drawn on carefully measured profiles so the mountain view from the Capitol would be visible above the new
City Hall.390 In 1924 DeBoer, working as a consulting landscape architect, submitted the Civic Center
Extension Plan, which contemplated the eventual extension of the civic center west to Cherry Creek. The
ambitious new proposal recommended creating a central mall flanked by public buildings, expanding the
library, building a courthouse opposite the library, erecting a group of city and county government buildings,
constructing an art museum and an opportunity school, and developing a park at the west end facing Cherry
Creek.391 The city presented the scheme in Denver Municipal Facts for discussion, but never undertook the
suggested improvements.
Allied Architects Association
In 1924 Allied Architects Association, consisting of thirty-nine leading local architects constituting the local
AIA membership, submitted a proposal for the design of the city-county building. According to the groups
president, Robert K. Fuller, the reasons for its formation as a cooperative venture included completing plans for
the development of the civic center and providing architectural services for the proposed municipal building.
Given widespread interest in the project within the profession it seemed logical to create such an association,
and the importance of the project required the participation of an entity with a high standard of excellence.
The Colorado AIA chapter sponsored the group after becoming convinced it could provide the needed services.
Led by a board of directors, Allied Architects established specialized committees to handle specific aspects of
the design and solve special problems that arose during the design process. At the outset members were required
to submit preliminary drawings for the design of the building, which provided valuable information later during
384 Rocky Mountain News, 6 October 1922, 9.
385 Denver Municipal Facts, May 1923, 4; Carroll, History and Description, 1.
386 Denver Municipal Facts, March-April 1923, 3.
387 Carroll, History and Description, 1.
388 Denver Municipal Facts, May 1923, 4.
389 Ibid.
390 DeBoer, The Denver Civic Center, The Green Thumb, 174.
391 Denver Municipal Facts, September-October 1924, 2-3.


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the development of formal plans. At the conclusion of the buildings construction the association intended to
disband and end its experiment in cooperative enterprise.392 The city selected Allied Architects to prepare plans
for the building in the fall of 1924, and by November 1925 it approved preliminary drawings for approximately
fifty-five percent of the work.393 The architects selected George Koyle (see biographical section) as chief
designer, with F.E. Mountjoy chosen to perform special services associated with the work.394
Envisioning Denver as Americas Paris, Allied Architects sought to create a building that harmonized with its
civic center surroundings and produce one of the municipal beauty spots of the world. Seen as providing
balance to the Capitol, the new edifice repeated some of the older buildings architectural features, including a
monumental pedimented portico and a stately central tower that echoed the older buildings dome, while
representing a sparer, late version of Beaux-Arts classical design. The architects recommended the same
Colorado granite employed for the Capitol and State Office Building be used in the new construction so that the
color and materials would create a close connection between the city and state buildings. The architectural
elements of the nearby library, particularly the engaged colonnade, reverberated in the scale and curving faqade
of the new building.395
In 1924 preliminary work began with the removal of old structures on the construction site, but progress on the
project halted frequently. One delay resulted from a lawsuit over specifications stipulating the use of foreign
materials although state law required Colorado materials. Denvers status as a home rule city ended that
dispute.396 Allied Architects submitted a landscape plan for the grounds of the new building and the western
portion of Civic Center Park the following year. Some local architects, notably the distinguished J. J.B.
Benedict, objected to the selection of the designers and advocated for a more modern design. A court suit
challenging the legality of forming a corporation to practice architecture in Colorado resulted in the State
Supreme Court voiding the architects contract. After the ruling Allied Architects disbanded and Robert K.
Fuller received appointment as supervising architect, followed by George Gray, and Roland L. Linder, who saw
the project to completion.397
During the various delays the city made no attempt to control debris at the construction site, which became an
eyesore adjacent to the completed grounds of Civic Center Park.398 By 1926 Mayor Stapleton and a group of
prominent Denver citizens wanted to have the building erected as soon as possible. However, when the city was
ready to proceed, it did not have available the more than $4 million needed to finish the building.399 To begin
construction the city used funds totaling more than $1.8 million from the Denver Gas & Electric Company and
its successor, the Public Service Company. A $2.5 million bond issue and additional appropriations covered the
final cost of $5,559,588.400
On 26 March 1929, almost six years after the bond issue to purchase the land was passed, the city held a ten-
minute groundbreaking ceremony, during which Mayor Stapletons shovel ironically struck rock. Architect
392 Robert K. Fuller, Office Practice: The Allied Architects Association of Denver, undated reprint from Architectural
Forum in the clipping files of the Denver Public Library Western History and Genealogy Department.
393 Rocky Mountain News, 19 November 1925, 18.
394 Architect F.E. Mountjoy served as general superintendent for the construction, but resigned under pressure in June 1931.394
Denver Post, 12 June 1931, 1.
395 Denver Municipal Facts, November-December 1925, 14.
396 McConnell, For These High Purposes, 219.
397 Carroll, History and Description, 3.
398 Rocky Mountain News, 9 May 1926, 1. The site evoked such ridicule that the citys auditor suggested dumping sand there
for childrens play.
399 Rocky Mountain News, 9 May 1926, 1.
400 Carroll, History and Description, 3.


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Fuller observed: This event today is significant in that it marks the realization of the Civic Center plan.401
Local contractors Varnum and Bate and Fleisher Engineering and Construction of Chicago signed a contract
pledging to complete the building by April 1932 and later agreed Denver labor would be utilized to erect the
building.402
Due to slow progress, the laying of the five-foot-long Cotopaxi granite cornerstone didnt occur until 21
February 1931, when ceremonies were held under the auspices of the Masons. While some observers wondered
if the city would be able to raise enough money to finish the building, Denver Municipal Facts optimistically
commented: In the harmony and perfection of its architectural detail, this building, upon completion, will be
one of the most beautiful city buildings in America, while none can boast a more magnificent setting.403 By
April, builders had completed the steelwork and began pouring concrete.404 Voters approved a bond issue in
May, assuring the buildings future.405
One of the last large granite structures erected in the city, the Denver City and County Building showcased the
light gray granite quarried at Cotopaxi in Fremont County, as well as a similar-colored granite from Stone
Mountain, Georgia (employed for the columns and upper parts of the building).406 The source of stone became
problematic for Mayor Stapleton, who initially had selected two varieties of Colorado granite presumed to be
available in adequate amounts. He then generated controversy at a time of high unemployment in the city and
state by determining that the Cotopaxi stone needed to be supplemented by granite imported from Georgia 407
Construction of the building provided jobs for nearly 400 men during the early years of the Great Depression.408
The task required 14,000 tons of stone. Italian-born, master stone carver John B. Garatti of St. Paul, Minnesota,
led 250 skilled workmen in preparation of 600 carloads of granite for the building. Garattis career included
carving stone ornaments for a number of buildings in Minnesota, as well as the Wisconsin and Missouri state
capitols 409 He expressed disappointment when the city, as a cost-saving measure, eliminated the depictions of
the buffalos, ox-teams, and pioneers originally planned for the east pediment410
The city approved the completed building on 29 April 1932, and it was opened to public inspection on 1 August
1932, a date traditionally celebrated as Colorado Day. Dedication ceremonies began with a flourish of trumpets
by the citys Highlander Boys and a rolling back of the monumental bronze doors. Mayor George D. Begole
and his cabinet greeted citizens, including former Mayor Stapleton, some of buildings architects, and Mayor
Speers widow.411 All city offices, except the police department, jail, and charities department, moved into the
new building, eliminating the necessity of rented quarters and separate locations. The building included space
for all civil divisions of the courts. The fourth floor originally housed the Denver Art Museum, which featured
twelve galleries and a reference library maintained by the public library 412 The museum, displaying a new bust
completed by Arnold Ronnebeck, became one of the most popular spaces in the building until 1949, when the
Schleier Memorial Branch of the Denver Art Museum opened at the northwest corner of West 13th Avenue and
401 Rocky Mountain News, 27 March 1929, 1.
402 Ibid.; Denver Post, 12 June 1931, 1.
403 Denver Municipal Facts, March-April 1931, 13.
404 Denver Post, 31 April 1931, 3.
405 Denver Post, 17 February 1931.
406 Murphy, Geology Tour, 24.
407 Denver Post, 24 December 1930.
408 Denver Post, 31 December 1931, 14C.
409 Denver Post, 21 December 1931.
410 Carroll, History and Description, 1.
411 Ibid., 1.
412 Federal Writers Project, WPA Guide to Colorado, 142.


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Acoma Street.413 414 After reviewing the completed construction journalist Lee Taylor Casey expressed his praise
for the building:
It is a building of many superlatives. It is big, in keeping with the bigness of the West. It
harmonizes with, rather than dominates, the other structures in what is probably the finest civic
center in the nation. It is an enduring monument to the community; to Mayor Speer, who
conceived the idea of the civic center and created it in the face of bitter opposition and personal
abuse; to his successors who strove against similar objections to fulfill his vision; to the men who
designed it; to the thousands of men and women who had the faith that was necessary to see it
finished.... It is built to endure. Centuries hence, it may be Denvers sole reminder of the
existence ot this generation.
The Rocky Mountain News emphasized the importance of the buildings site in conveying a City Beautiful
impression: Sky and mountains combine to make more attractive the shining whiteness of the new home of the
city and county government.415 With the completion of the building, the newspaper announced that no city in
America, with the exception of Washington, will have a finer grouping and setting of public buildings.416
Vertical and oblique aerial photographs of the early 1930s show the configuration of the Denver Civic Center
following the completion of the city-county building.
The final drawings for the city-county building and its grounds called for the placement of two monumental
flagpoles in the forecourt. Camilla S. Edbrooke, widow of Frank E. Edbrooke, died in 1929, leaving $5,000 for
the construction of a public drinking fountain. The city determined the erection of flagpoles in front of the
building would contribute more to the beauty of the civic center 417 Roland Linder (see biographical section),
the supervising architect who saw the building to completion, designed the massive flagpoles incorporating
water fountains into the design 418 Italian-born stonemason and graduate of the University of Milan Art School,
Joseph Rizzi, and his son, Alfred, acquired about one hundred tons of Colorado granite for the bases of the
flagpoles in order to match the color and texture of the buildings walls. They eventually produced two bases
weighing about fifteen tons each. The Rocky Mountain News pronounced they add to the beauty of the
building and Civic Center.419 Veterans organizations led dedication ceremonies for the flagpoles on Armistice
Day in 1935. With the flagpoles in place, the City Beautiful era of improvements on the Denver Civic Center
came to an end.
Civic Center Hosts Public Activities
As the city and state completed improvements within the civic center, the site hosted a broad range of programs
and ceremonies commemorating important events in the nations history. On the opening night of the Greek
Theater in 1919, a somber audience remembered the sacrifices of those who served and died for the country in
World War I, viewed a film recording the devastation in Europe, and heard pleas for support of Red Cross
reconstruction efforts. The theater frequently served as the venue for concerts, speeches, and plays. At a
Burning Issues Forum during the summer of 1920, speakers stood on the stage and addressed subjects of their
choice. An automobile show took place in Civic Center Park in 1921. In the mid-1930s the site accommodated
folk festivals featuring dancing and gymnastics performances traditional to other countries 420 Denver Civic
413 Denver Post, 1 August 1932, 11; McConnell, For These High Purposes, 220.
414 Rocky Mountain News, 9 April 1932, 13.
415 Rocky Mountain News, 1 August 1932, 7.
416 Ibid., 6.
417 Rocky Mountain News, 4 December 1934, 10.
418 Rocky Mountain News, 12 November 1935, 7.
419 Rocky Mountain News, 7 November 1935, 15.
420 Rocky Mountain News, 25 May 1936.


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Center served as the locale for holiday celebrations, such as Fourth of July festivities and extensive winter
holiday displays and parades.
When Denver celebrated its centennial in 1959 with a Rush to the Rockies theme, it established a Pioneer
Village on the grounds of the civic center, complete with a furnished drugstore, saloon, theater, restaurant, post
office, bank, church, school, barber shop, and other facilities. A narrow gauge train traveled through the village,
passing an oil derrick on its outskirts. Visitors could pan for gold or observe reenactments of important events.
To emphasize Americas military strength and Colorados future, a 90 Titan missile stood upright near the
center of Civic Center Park.421 A variety of annual festivals attracting thousands of people held in recent years
include the annual Peoples Fair and the Taste of Colorado culinary and entertainment event. One of the largest
crowds in the centers history participated in a Bronco football team Super Bowl victory celebration in 1998.
National, state, and local political events held in the center included gatherings, speeches, and inaugurations.
National leaders visited the civic center to make public addresses, including Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry
Truman, Richard Nixon, John F. Kennedy, Bill Clinton, and, in 2008, Barrack Obama. Continuing in its role as
a forum for open discussion of all points of view, the civic center accommodated mass gatherings of persons
protesting actions of government. In addition, it fulfilled its intended function as an outdoor center for musical
and theatrical entertainment, beginning with performances of the Denver Municipal Band in 1919 and
continuing to the present day.422
Later Plans for the Civic Center and Development in its Vicinity
In the decades following the completion of the Denver City and County Building, the State of Colorado and
Denver considered plans to alter the civic center and erected additional governmental and civic buildings in
adjacent areas. The new construction buttressed the vicinitys role as the center of state and city and county
government, cultural activities, and judicial proceedings, while providing a buffer of generally low-rise
buildings separating the historic core of the city from newer commercial development. Ultimately, no new
buildings were erected within the civic center.
Planning Proposals. As early as 1936, landscape architect Saco DeBoer developed a detailed plan for changes
to the civic center. The concept included opening the vista between the State Capitol and the city-county
building; adding a formal garden with circular pools to the west lawn of the Capitol; reconfiguring the
walkways in Lincoln Park; adding an oval pool west of the balustrade and a rectangular reflecting pool in the
Great Lawn in Civic Center Park; and erecting four new city buildings, including a large art museum south of
West 14th Avenue. The city did not implement the plan 423
During the 1960s proposals and master plans recommended substantial changes for Civic Center Park. A 1964
scheme envisioned a new eight-story City Hall and a Hall of Justice on the site 424 Master plans prepared for the
city and state in the late 1960s proposed constructing a number of new city and state buildings in and around the
civic center; moving, remodeling, expanding, or removing some of the existing resources; redesigning park
areas; adding underground parking; and opening symbolic vistas for passing motorists 425 While new state
government facilities and commercial buildings rose on its periphery, proposed construction within the center
421 Rocky Mountain News, 17 April 1959, 6; Colorado Heritage, (May/June 2009): 32.
422 Mundus Bishop Design, Master Plan, 21-28.
423 Saco R. DeBoer, City Planner, Plan for the Development of the State and City Grounds, 10 October 1936, Drawing, S.R.
DeBoer Collection, WH1082, FFC5, SF1, FF7, Western History and Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library, Denver,
Colorado.
424 Denver Post, 21 June 1964, 34.
425 Rocky Mountain News, 2 July 1967 and 23 July 1972, 44.


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itself was not implemented, and the area remained substantially intact. DeBoer, writing in 1967, concluded that
since the completion of the city-county building in 1932 very little work has been done in the center, but much
has happened to the surroundings.426
The early 1970s saw proactive efforts to protect the Denver Civic Centers setting by placing controls on its
surroundings. In 1971 the city adopted a Capitol Mountain View Ordinance, which preserved the viewshed of
the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains as seen from the Capitol steps.427 In 1973, Denver City Council
unanimously passed an ordinance restricting building heights in the area of Civic Center 428 The height-
limitation bill affected lands adjacent to the civic center on the north, south, and east, allowing taller buildings
further away. 429 The city hoped the ordinance would preserve the integrity of the Civic Center to protect the
openness of its unique public space as a relief from its intensely developed surroundings.430 The only departure
from this policy, however, was the States placement of the Colorado Veterans Monument, a tall but narrow
obelisk, in the center of Lincoln Park in 1990, a measure which received bi-partisan support in the legislature.
Building Construction. In the vicinity of the Denver Civic Center the state government added two seven-story
office buildings, both clad with white marble after the period of significance: the State Capitol Annex at the
southwest comer of East 14th Avenue and Sherman Street (1940), followed by the State Services Building at the
northwest corner of East Colfax Avenue and Sherman Street (1960). In 1977, the block bounded by Broadway,
Lincoln, and East 13th and 14th Avenues received two new state buildings: the gray granite-clad Colorado
Judicial Heritage Center to the north and the Colorado History Museum, a three-story wedge-shaped building in
charcoal-colored brick. Both were designed by the Denver architectural firm of Rogers, Nagel, Langhart. The
state demolished both of these buildings in 2010 to make way for an expanded Ralph L. Carr Colorado Judicial
Complex occupying the entire block. The center, now under construction, will include a four-story courtroom
section on the north and a twelve-story office tower on the south. In 2005, the state erected a four-story parking
garage at the southeast comer of East 14th Avenue and Lincoln Street.
The City and County of Denver also expanded its facilities in the postwar period through new construction and
the acquisition of existing buildings. Outgrowing the 1910 library at the northwest comer of Civic Center Park,
in 1955 the city erected a four-story, limestone-clad central library to the south on Broadway between West 13th
and 14th Avenues. Remodeled, the old library became the office of the Denver Board of Water Commissioners.
In 1995 the 1955 library building received an addition in the Postmodern style by New York architect Michael
Graves and Klipp Colussy Jenks Dubois Architects of Denver. The resulting seven-story building features a
variety of geometrically-shaped components clad in stone and tinted cast stone of varying colors.
In 1966 the city acquired the 1949 four-story International Style University of Denver Classroom Building
(abutting the former Bates triangle to the northwest) to house city workers. Clad in Indiana limestone, the
building was then known as Annex I. In 2002, Annex I became part of the Webb Municipal Building designed
by David Tryba Architects and RNL Design of Denver, with a monumental atrium connecting it to a new
twelve-story building featuring walls of concrete and stone. The building consolidated city workers from 40
different agencies and divisions previously housed in leased space.
West of the 1955 Denver Public Library, between Acoma and Bannock Streets, a new Denver Art Museum was
built in 1971. Designed by Italian architect Gio Ponti and James Sudler Associates of Denver, the seven-story
426 DeBoer, The Denver Civic Center, The Green Thumb, 174.
427 Denver Post, 9 January 1973, 3.
428 Rocky Mountain News, 27 February 1923, 10.
429 Denver Post, 1 March 1973, 25.
430 Rocky Mountain News, 27 February 1973, 10.


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building represented one of the first vertical art museums in the nation. The twenty-four-sided museum featured
walls clad in reflective gray glass tiles, a variety of narrow windows, and a pierced roof. To many, it resembled
a castle guarding the treasures inside. In 2006 the museum expanded to a site south of West 14th Avenue
through construction of a titanium-clad wing designed by Daniel Libeskind and linked to the older building by a
skybridge.
Continuing Vitality in the Twenty-First Century
The actualization of the Denver Civic Center, from initial planning through completion of the Denver City and
County Building and its grounds, extended more than fifty years, reflecting ongoing commitment from a
number of mayors and city councils, community organizations, and generations of citizens. The centers
continued vitality today testifies to the soundness of the original concept, as well as the willingness of political
leaders, public interest groups, and local residents to defend the resource when threatened.
In the early 2000s, the city displayed continuing interest in Denver Civic Center and its future. Mundus Bishop
Design of Denver prepared a master plan for Civic Center Park in 2005. A 2006 plan to activate or enliven
Civic Center Park prepared by New York architect Daniel Libeskind at the behest of the newly-formed Civic
Center Conservancy faced strong opposition from historic preservationists. Opponents argued that the proposed
changes, which included towers, new buildings, and long aerial walkways, adversely impacted the original City
Beautiful design. The Libeskind Plan never progressed beyond the conceptual stage. Also unsuccessful was a
2007 proposal by the Colorado Historical Society to relocate its museum and offices to a new building on the
southwest corner of the park where early planners had anticipated an art museum and construct underground
exhibit spaces linking the new museum to the 1910 library building.
A 2007 Denver bond issue provided funds to rehabilitate the principal Civic Center Park structures, including
the Greek Theater, Voorhies Gateway, and Broadway Terrace. To ensure future changes to the parks historic
fabric receive adequate review, in April 2009 the citys Landmark Preservation Commission adopted design
guidelines for Civic Center Park as a supplement to the master plan. A number of State Historical Fund grants
have supported rehabilitation of Civic Center resources following the Secretary of Interiors Standards since the
1990s.
Denver Civic Center remains a vital historic community resource in the manner intended by its original
planners. In his analysis of successful City Beautiful improvements William H. Wilson found they included
parks and parkways, tree planting, noble public buildings, and a few civic centers. He reasoned:
All of these public works were, and are, important because they were the physical expression of
an ideal, because they functioned in a limited way as their proponents claimed that they would,
and because they still provide recreation, relaxation, and repose. The public buildings
symbolized a coherent architecture, an idea comprehended if not always achieved.431
Denvers example represents one of the best-preserved and most complete civic centers of the later City
Beautiful era and continues to fulfill all of these functions.
COMPARATIVE PROPERTIES
Although many civic center plans were proposed, Denver is one of comparatively few cities to fully realize such
a comprehensive municipal improvement. As Mel Scott observed: Only a lone city hall or courthouse bears
witness to the enthusiasm with which some [civic centers] were begun; and an incalculable number remained
431
Wilson, The City Beautiful, 2.


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nothing but architectural drawings.432 The Denver Civic Center compares quite favorably with significant City
Beautiful era civic centers constructed in other American cities in terms of scale, quality, and scope of
resources. Comparable civic center districts are discussed below, as well as two individual NHLs, the Nebraska
State Capitol and Santa Barbara County Courthouse, which are similarly recognized for their outstanding
artistic merit and regional symbolism. Apparent in each of these comparable examples is a common democratic
vision and recognition of the role of varying levels of governmental authority in American life. Each reflects the
search for a public architecture that reflects a physical as well as symbolic balance between state and local
government and is a powerful expression of the values and ideals that are national in scope but regional in
character.
San Francisco
In 1959, classical architecture scholar Henry Hope Reed called the San Francisco Civic Center the greatest
architectural ensemble in America.433 Designated a NHL in 1987, the nominated area embraces roughly thirty-
nine acres and includes buildings housing state and city and county functions, both governmental and cultural.
The monumental San Francisco City Hall (1916, designed by John Bakewell, Jr., and Arthur Brown) dominates
the district, featuring a 307-and-one-half-foot tall dome that is reportedly one of the largest in the world. Other
major historic resources within the district include the Exposition Auditorium (1915), Public Library (1916),
California State Building (1926), War Memorial Opera House and Veterans Building (1932), and Civic Center
Plaza (1915), a two-block open space with a central allee flanked by lawns. The Pioneer Monument (1894, by
Frank Happersberger) is the principal commemorative work within the civic center and includes figures from
the Golden States seal (the Minerva, goddess of wisdom, and two other Roman goddesses) and history (a
Spanish mission padre, a vaquero, and a Native American). While Fulton Street, which extends east-west
through the district, is closed to vehicles, the street grid is present in the remainder. The NHL is significant in
the areas of architecture, community planning and development, politics and government, and recreation 434
In 1904-05 Daniel Burnham, with Edward H. Bennett as his principal assistant, developed a city plan for San
Francisco that included a civic center. Jon Peterson observed:
San Francisco was a divided city, riven by sharp ethnic and social class conflict and a long
history of both municipal penury and graft-ridden politics that augured poorly from the start. The
custodial elements who recruited Burnham, known locally as the dreamers, and those with real
power in the city did not know how to work together, only to fight.435
Burnham served as the lead designer for the project, while Bennett held responsibility for the day-to-day tasks,
reports, and client contacts during his employers absence. San Francisco did not implement the firms plan as
proposed, despite the opportunity of a clean slate presented by the 1906 earthquake. In 1909, the city asked
Burnham to revise his earlier plan, and his associate, Willis Polk, developed a semi-circular civic center design
at the corner of Van Ness and Market Streets. A public vote overwhelmingly defeated the proposal.436
The question of a civic center revived in 1911 with the election of James Sunny Jim Rolph as mayor. Rolph
served as vice president of the Panama-Pacific Exposition Company, a firm organized to stage a worlds fair in
the Bay City. As mayor, he favored continuing reforms and implementing practical city improvements. A 1976
National Register nomination form for the San Francisco Civic Center indicated:
432 Scott, American City Planning, 62.
433 Quoted in James H. Charleton, National Park Service, San Francisco Civic Center, National Register of Historic Places
district nomination (additional documentation), 9 November 1984.
434 Charleton, San Francisco Civic Center.
435 Peterson, The Birth of City Planning, 189.
436 Draper stated "Bennett was indirectly connected" with the civic center in San Francisco due to his long promotion of his
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... the idea of a Civic Center, in his [Rolphs] hands, became a catalyst for the rest as a symbol
of the new unity of the population under a new and honest political era. He associated the Civic
Center with the Exposition; the Civic Center would permanently exhibit the grandeur which the
Exposition would only briefly evoke, and it would demonstrate convincingly to the world that
San Francisco had not simply recovered from the earthquake but had become a thriving and
civilized metropolis of international importance.437
Linder Rolph, planning for the civic center moved forward, and, in 1912, San Francisco voters approved an $8.8
million bond issue. In July 1912, a somewhat modified version of a 1909 civic center plan developed by B.J.S.
Cahill saw implementation, and construction extended from 1913 through 1932 when the War Memorial
Complex was completed on the west. The period of significance extends from 1913 through 1951 and
encompasses two internationally significant events occurring within the district: the drafting and signing of the
United Nations Charter in 1945 and the signing of the Treaty of San Francisco (the peace treaty with Japan) in
1951.
Alterations to the San Francisco Civic Center occurred after its period of significance. The 1984 National
Register nomination providing additional documentation noted in reference to Civic Center Plaza the present
landscaping scheme dates from the early 1960s. Two large fountains shown in historic photographs are no
longer extant. Further alterations to the plaza appear to have taken place since the 1960s, including installation
of a number of small-scale art objects. United Nations Plaza (the block of Fulton Street lying between Hyde and
Larkin Streets) was created in 1975. In 1993, the Pioneer Memorial was moved about a block northwest to its
current location. The city erected a new public library within the district in 1996; the old library now houses the
Asian Art Museum. In 1998 the California State Building received a fourteen-story, rear addition in the
Postmodern style. The Denver Civic Center, by contrast, contains substantially more park land, presents a more
sweeping vista, and has avoided the addition of new construction and loss of primary decorative features within
its boundary.
Cleveland
Citizens of Cleveland began discussing the concept of a group plan for public buildings near the Lake Erie
waterfront as early as 1895. The Chamber of Commerce endorsed the idea and began a promotional campaign
four years later. In 1901 mayoral reform candidate Tom L. Johnson authorized a commission to create a plan.
The commission, consisting of Daniel Burnham, John Carrere, and Arnold Brunner, proposed a monumental
building corridor with a Court of Honor in the southern part. The scheme envisioned a T-shaped plan with a
broad, north-south oriented, formally laid out, grassy mall, around which public buildings would be arrayed.
Cleveland, one of the countrys largest cities in the early twentieth century, provided an early and influential
example for other communities. In the opinion of planning historian Jon Peterson, Cleveland did more to
popularize the concept of grouping public buildings as a civic goal than any other city, and the Cleveland
improvement electrified the City Beautiful movement.438
The execution of the Cleveland Plan extended from 1903 to 1938. The public buildings representing three levels
of governmental functions are situated within the civic center: U.S. Post Office, Custom House, and Court
House (1910, by Arnold W. Brunner); Cuyahoga County Court House (1911, by Charles Morris); Cleveland
City Hall (1916, by J. Milton Dyer); Cleveland Public Auditorium (1922, by J. Harold MacDowell and Frederic
H. Betz with Frank R. Walker); Cleveland Public Library (1925, by Walker and Weeks); and Cleveland Board
of Education Building (1930, by Walker and Weeks). The principal buildings vary from four to six stories in
437 Michael R. Corbett, San Francisco Civic Center, National Register nomination, 22 November 1976.
438 Peterson, The Birth of City Planning, 157; Draper, Edward H. Bennett, 47.


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Site Number: 5 DV 161 /5 DV 11336 Please Note The Denver Civic Center National Historic Landmark District does not include all of the original recorded features and buildings listed within the Civic Center National Register Historic District (5DV.161) and has a different boundar y. Therefore, OAHP has assigned a new site number for the National Historic Landmark District (5DV 11336). 6/2013 A.Liverman/E.Schmelzer

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NATIONAL HISTORIC LA NDMARK NOMINATION NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 1 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form 1. NAME OF PROPERTY Historic Name: Denver Civic Center Other Name/Site Number: 5DV161 2. LOCATION Street & Number: Approximately Grant to Cherokee Streets and 14th to Colfax Avenues Not for publication: N/A City/Town: Denver Vicinity: N/A State: CO County: Denver Code: 031 Zip Code: 80204 3. CLASSIFICATION Ownership of Property Category of Property Private: Building(s): ____ Public-Local: X District: X Public-State: X Site: ____ Public-Federal: Structure: ____ Object: ____ Number of Resources within Property Contributing Noncontributing 5 0 buildings 1 0 sites 2 0 structures 10 9 objects 18 9 Total Number of Contributing Resources Previously Listed in the Na tional Register: 15 Name of Related Multiple Property Listing: N/A

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 PROPERTY NAME Page 2 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form 4. STATE/FEDERAL AG ENCY CERTIFICATION As the designated authority under the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended, I hereby certify that this ____ nomination ____ request for determination of eligibil ity meets the documen tation standards for registering properties in the National Register of Historic Places and m eets the procedural and professional requirements set forth in 36 CFR Part 60. In my opinion, the property ____ meets ____ does not meet the National Register Criteria. Signature of Certifying Official Date State or Federal Agency and Bureau In my opinion, the property ____ meets ____ does not meet the National Register criteria. Signature of Commenting or Other Official Date State or Federal Agency and Bureau 5. NATIONAL PARK SERVICE CERTIFICATION I hereby certify that this property is: ___ Entered in the Na tional Register ___ Determined eligible for the National Register ___ Determined not eligible for the National Register ___ Removed from the National Register ___ Other (explain): Signature of Keeper Date of Action

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 3 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form 6. FUNCTION OR USE Historic: Politics and Govern ment Sub: civic center Landscape Sub: park Entertainment and Recreation Sub: outdoor recreation Transportation Sub: pedestrian-related Current: Politics and Government Sub: civic center Landscape Sub: park Entertainment and Recreation Sub: outdoor recreation Transportation Sub: pedestrian-related 7. DESCRIPTION ARCHITECTURAL CLASSI FICATION: Late 19th and 20th Century Revivals/Beaux Arts/Beaux Arts Classicism MATERIALS: Foundation: Stone/granite Walls: Stone/granite; Stone /marble; Stone/sandstone Roof: Metal; Terra Cotta Other: Metal/bronze; Stone/granite

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 4 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form INTRODUCTION Located immediately south of Denvers central business district, the Denver Civic Center National Historic Landmark (NHL) is a nationally significant public lands cape and collection of public buildings and monuments highly evocative of the nations City Beautiful movement. As it exists today, the thirty-t hree-acre civic center took form in several stages beginning in 1890 and ending in 1935. Despite its le ngthy evolution, the center reflects a continuum of progressive thought about civic betterment, regiona l character, and public architecture, while stylistically adhering to overriding principles of formal order, symmetrical balance, and neoclassical expression. Today, the Denver Civic Center represents one of the most complete and in tact examples of early-twentiethcentury civic center design nationwide. It ranks highl y among the handful of City Beautiful civic centers nationwide that, inspired by the 1900 Macmillan Plan for the nations capital in Wa shington, D.C., actually reached a stage of completion. Other notable examples exist in San Francisco and Cleveland. The Denver example possesses a remarkable degree of artistic quality and historic integrity in its overall synthesis of design, interpretation of neoclassical elements of design, a nd representation of American ideals and heritage. The construction of the Colorado State Capitol on one of the citys highest points between 1890 and 1908 served as the catalyst for the development of a larger, urba n park to celebrate the role of Colorado in settling the American West and provide a dignifie d setting for the highly important func tions of state and local government. Along the major east-west axis leadi ng away from the statehouse, the pu blic landscape gradually expanded westward through the development of a sequence of parks, each with its own special function and character, while integrated into a single, bala nced and unified plan. Other stately buildings and monu ments were built opposite the statehouse and at the edge of the parkland. Beau x-Arts principles of spatial organization and a rich vocabulary of neoclassical features unified the ensemble of built fe atures. Stone construction throughout showcased Colorados rich deposits of granite, sandstone, and marble, further imparting a sense of permanence and solidity to the whole. The deve lopment of the massive Denver City and County Building and its grounds in the 1930s formed the western terminus of the landscape, bringing closure physically and figuratively to a design process that had taken more than four decades and involved some of the nations most accomplished planners, architects, landscape arch itects, and artists. The Denver Civic Center is nationa lly significant in the areas of co mmunity planning and development, landscape architecture, architecture, and art. Under th e theme, Transforming the E nvironment, the historic district meets NHL Criterion 1 for its a ssociation with the City Beautiful move ment, the origins of city planning in America, and early twentie th-century efforts to define and celebrate the principles of democracy and the vital role of local and state government in American history and life. Under th e theme, Expressing Cultural Values, it meets NHL Criterion 4 for its embodiment of Beaux-Arts inspired architec ture and landscape architecture, its exemplary physical representation of City Beautiful ideals, and its demonstration of a collaborative design process that, introduced at the 1893 Worlds Columbian Exposition, character ized the creation of public works in the United States in the twentieth century. The peri od of national significance ex tends from 1890, to include the date the cornerstone was laid and construction began on the Colorado St ate Capitol, and extends to 1935 to recognize the completion of the Denver City and County Building grounds in 1935. In response to the City Beautiful m ovement and the emerge nce of city planning as an essential function of local government, enumerable plans for civic centers were developed for American cities in the early twentieth century. Most of these remained plans on paper on ly, never receiving public support and funding. Denvers experience was the exception. Mayor R obert Walter Speer, nationally recognized for his progressive leadership, persistently promoted the concept, garnering support from the various co mmissions that controlled the city government as well as the voting pub lic. The design was shaped by a succession of nationally renowned

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 5 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form designers, including Charles Mulford Robinson, Frederick MacMonnies, Freder ick Law Olmsted Jr., and finally Edward H. Bennett, whose ingenious 1917 plan brought synthesis to a number of earlier proposals, resolved the functional and aesthetic problems that ha d hindered previous plans, and gave material form to the civic center that exists today. The Denver Civic Center reflects an extraordinary integr ation of civic artsa hallm ark of the City Beautiful movement. Some of the nations most distinguished early twentieth-century architects, landscape architects, and artists contributed to its de sign. Individual buildings and structures within the district reflect the inspiration of Elijah E. Myers, renowned for his design of state capitols, and respected Denver architects and architectural firms, including Frank E. Edbrooke, Fisher and Fish er, Marean and Norton, William N. Bowman, and the Allied Architects Association. City landscape architects, Reinhard Schuetze a nd Saco De Boer, influenced site layout and plantings. Nationally recogni zed artists of the period produced wo rks of art blending classical forms with popular regional themes; these individuals include d muralist Allen Tupper True and sculptors Frederick MacMonnies, Alexander Phimister Proctor, Preston Powers, and Robert Garrison. The Colorado State Capitol, an exceptional example of Renaissance Revival, today continues to dominate the east end of the civic center and from its west front provi des an open vista toward the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. At a lower elevation at the west end of the civic center, the Denver City and County Building, a monumental public building in the Geor gian Revival style, provides a dignif ied counterpoint to the statehouse. In between, the public grounds of the Capitol, Lincoln Park, Civic Center Park, and the forecourt of the municipal building are embellished with a variety of lands cape features that contribute to an attractive and inspiring park setting and echo the grandeur and neoclass ical vocabulary of the nearby buildings. These features include groves and borders of trees, expanses of lawn and formal flowerbeds, pedestrian walkways and paved plazas, elaborate balustrades, f ountains, and a reflecting pool. Marking the termini of a grand transverse axis, two colonnaded structuresthe Voorhies Monumental Gateway (1921) on the north and the Greek Theater and Colonna de of the Civic Benef actors (1919) on the south continue to draw the public fr om the expanding business district nearby and offer a venue for public entertainment and civic engagement as they did when first constructed. Three additional government buildings inspired by Beaux-Arts Classicismthe Denver Public Library (1910), Colorado State Museum (1915), and Colorado State Office Building (1921) surround the public la ndscape and harmonize with the architecture of the statehouse and city and county building. Located at the edge of the civic cen ter, the Pioneer Monument (1911) by nationally renowned sculptor Frederick W. MacMonnies celebrat es the settling of the American West. Throughout the landscape, other heroic and commemora tive statuary, as well as murals and allegorical sculpture, evoke meaningful images of western culture and history. Describe Present and Hist oric Physical Appearance. Located in the center of downtown Denve r, the Denver Civic Center is classi fied as a historic district and contains twenty-seven resources, eighteen (or 67 percent) of which have been evaluated as contributing (see Table 1). The eighteen contribu ting resources include the th irty-three acre public lands cape (a contributing site), five public buildings (contributing buildings), th e memorial gateway and out door theater (contributing structures), the Pioneer Monument (a c ontributing object), and four additional works of scul pture, a pair of Civil War-era cannons, and several memorial flagpoles and wa ter fountains (contributing objects). All contributing resources were either constructed or installed on the public grounds durin g the period of significance, 1890 to 1935. Nine additional comm emorative features of substant ial size, some artistic in nature, were placed on the grounds after the period of si gnificance and are classified as noncontri buting objects. In accordance with NHL guidelines, only resources substantial in size and scale or having special importance have been classified as

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 6 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form buildings, structures, or objects and included in the count of contributin g and noncontributing resources. Small features that make up the landscape are considered integral elements of the overall site but are not counted separately. These include plantings, lampposts, paths and sidewalks, stairways, curbs and coping, balustrades and walls, and pylons and piers instal led during the historic period that today contribute to the historic character, setting, and integrity of the civic center. In addition, the civi c center today incl udes a number of nonhistoric walks, paving materials, memorials, and outdoor furnishings (including benches, plaques, signs, stone posts, trash cans, and lampposts) that are not c onsidered sufficient in size or scale to be counted individually but have been considered in the overall assessment of historic integrity. Representative photographs of the re sources are included with the nomination and are identified by number on the sketch map. Contributing resources, sorted by resource type (site, buildings, structures, and objects), are described below beginning with the overa ll contributing site that includes the public landscape in its entirety and is coterminous with the NHL boundaries. Detailed descriptions of the contributin g buildings, structures, and objects follow the site description; th ey in turn are followed by detailed descriptions of the noncontributing resources, all of which are classified as objects. Th e location of each resource and the vantage point of each photograph appear on the accompanying sketch map. In a ddition, historical plans and photographs have been included as figures. A table of the contributing and noncontributing resources appears at the end of section 7, and biographies of architects, artists, landscape architects, and planners are alphabetically arranged at the end of section 8. CONTRIBUTING RESOURCES Denver Civic Center Site (Resource 1, Contributing Site) The Denver Civic Center site extends a distance of six city blocks from Grant Street on the east to Cherokee Street on the west, and a distance varying from one to tw o city blocks from Colfax Avenue on the north to 14th Avenue on the south. The entire site is classified as one contributing si te. The design and construction of the civic center evolved chronol ogically and expanded geographically in several stages beginning with the construction of the Colorado State Capitol and the laying out of the Capito l grounds in the years between 1890 and 1906, and ending with the completion of the Denver City and County Building and related landscape improvements in the 1930s. Through a restrained sense of architectural elegance drawn from Renaissance interpretations of Classical antiqui ty, the statehouse overl ooks the city from its lofty, mile-high location, anchoring the east end of the civic ce nter. At a lower eleva tion on the same grade as the surrounding business district, the city and county buildi ng through its stately Coloni al Revival presence a nd vibrant daily activity anchors the west end, providing a count erbalance to the statehouse and an equally strong sense of importance and permanence. Reflecting City Beautif ul principles, the references to classical antiquity and the spatial organization visually and symbolically conveys the cultura l forces and political balanc e that forged the nations westward expansion. (Photographs 1 & 2) The introduction of two transverse ax es introduced complexity to the design and extended the reach of the civic center north and south into the surrounding streetscape. The easternmost cro ss-axis runs through the center of the statehouse and follows Sher man Street, connecting with the Colorado State Museum on the south and the Colorado State Office Building on the north. The second cross-axis bold ly defines and extends the north and south boundaries of Civic Center Park. One of most striking features of the civic centers overall spatial organization, this axis was created about 1920 when two triangular shaped parcels we re added on the north and south sides of the block identified for the future city park that was intended to link the grounds and park in front of the statehouse with the site pr oposed for the new city and county bu ilding. Shortly afte r acquisition, the triangular parcels became the site of the Greek Theater and Colonnade of Civic Benefactors on the south and the Voorhies Memorial Gateway on the north, articulating the end points of the axis with bold neoclassical forms. During the period of significance West Colfax and West 14th Avenues were realigned to curve around

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 7 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form the outside edge of the triangular par cels and enclose what today appears as a pair of symmetrically balanced semi-elliptical extensions in a city otherwise organized into rigid, rectilinear blocks. (Photographs 3 & 4) The small triangular parcel on which the Pioneer Monument stands today is another highly important component of the civic center. Loca ted opposite the northeast corner of Civic Center Park and surrounded by city streets, this parcel resulted from the earliest efforts of planners to reconcile the east-west orientation of the statehouse with the existi ng grid of city streets which was oriented at a forty-five degree angle to the cardinal compass points. Surrounded on all sides by city streets, th e monument is one of the ci tys first City Beautiful improvements and today maintains its spatial relationshi p and historic associati ons with the Denver Civic Center. A similar triangular parcel opposite the southeast corner of Civic Center Park was also added to the civic center during the historic period; now absorbed into the grounds of the new public library, it no longer retains its historic character and is no t included in the dist rict boundaries. Most of the additions to the grounds since the period of significance st em from its continuing value in commemorating significant even ts and recognizing the contributions of special groups to Colorados history. Most of these consist of additional sm all-scale memorials and minor landscape features that have been installed on the Capitol grounds and Lincoln Park. Other alterations relate to the way long-standing commemorative works are displayed and the need to improve and expa nd the circulation network within the center due to increasing visitation by the public. Because of their r ecent date, they do not contribute to the historical significance of the Capitol grounds or the overall civic center. Most are not considered of su fficient size or scale to be counted individually as noncontributing resources. Despite the long-held purpose and popul ar support for the integration of varied State and local governmental functions within the framework of a cohesive public landscape, the completi on of the civic center did not occur until the end of the 1930s. Prior to that decade, the site evolved as four separate but interrelated landscape components. Set against the backdrop of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountai ns, these four landscape component landscapes today form the cen tral core of the civic center and create a linear mall along the principal east to west axis from the grounds of the State Capitol on the east and to the forec ourt of the city and county building on the west, with Lincoln Park and Civic Center Park situated in between. Several st reets running north and southLincoln Avenue, Broadwa y, and Bannock Streetwhich have historically passed through the civic center continue to geographically separate the component landscapes The four component landscapes comprising the contributing civic center site are descri bed below chronologically a nd in geographical sequence from east to west. Colorado State Capitol Grounds (Res ource 1: Landscape Component 1) The design of the Colorado State Cap itol and its grounds became the starting point for all subsequent civic center plans. Designed by landscape architect Reinhard Schuetze between 1895 and 1896, the grounds lie at the east end of the civic center and occupy two city blocks bounded by East Colfax on the north, East 14th avenue on the south, Grant Street on the east and Lincoln Avenue on the west. Sher man Street enters the grounds from the north and south connecting with an interior loop drive that is roughly el liptical in form and encircles the statehouse. Today the Capitol grounds contain formal lawns, public sculpture, several memorials, and a variety of evergreen and deciduous trees, in cluding blue spruce, black walnut, oa k, honey locust, catalpa, American linden, and European beech. The centerpiece of the gr ounds is the monumental Colorado State Capitol designed by national renowned architect Elijah E. Myers in 1885-86 and constructe d between 1890 and 1908 under the supervision of Frank E. Edbrooke (Resource 2). The statehouse occupies the cente r of grounds with its longer axis measuring 384 feet north to south and shorter axis measuring 313 feet east to west. Like many state capitols of the period, the Renaissance Revival building echoes th e stately elegance, hilltop setting, a nd neoclassical form of the United

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 8 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form States Capitol at Washington D.C. The statehouse has a rock-faced stone foundation, a raised basement with banded rustication, and walls constructe d entirely of gray cut granite from the Aberdeen (Z ugelder) quarry in Gunnison County, Colorado. Monumental porticos on projec ting pavilions dominate each elevation, and a center dome 272 feet high and forty-two feet in diam eter rises from a four-s tory colonnaded drum.1 (Photographs 1 & 5) Set high on the hill facing the Front Range of the Ro cky Mountains, the west fr ont of the statehouse was developed as the primary elevation and today provides spectacular views over the c ity to the mountain peaks beyond. Schuetze designed the grounds on the west side as open terraces and sloping lawns that would allow stately views of the State Capitol from various points in the city while at the same time providing open vistas towards the Front Range (Photograph 2). The level loop drive encircling the state house served the important aesthetic purpose of visually providing a firm base fr om which the building emerged, thereby eliminating the undesirable visual effect of the hillto p building sliding forward. Today the terraced effect is magnified by recent landscape improvements which have introduced a pair of paved plazas and broade ned the central walkway descending from the west portico to the western bounda ry. Schuetze was able to extend the public landscape westward by coordinating the design of the Capitol grounds with that of Li ncoln Park, a one-block area at the base of the hill. As the larger civic center took form in subsequent decades, the axial views expanded to take in the richly textured landscape of a dditional parkland and the architectural grandeur of nearby buildings and monuments. Historically pedestrian stairway s and paths provided entry to th e grounds from the northeastern and southeastern corners of the grounds, while the extension of Sherman Street (closed to through traffic) on the north and south provided vehicular ac cess from East Colfax and East 14th Avenue and connected with the interior loop road. The road was laid out on a level gr ade and forms the outer edge of the elliptical terrace on which the statehouse was built. Today the road provides circ ulation in a clockwise dire ction and is lined with a narrow concrete sidewalk and parking on each side. The west side of the terrace, like the west portico above it, provides a magnificent panoramic view of the distant mount ain range. Plantings filled the areas with in the loop that flank the corners of the buildi ng and framed the wide central stairways that descended from the raised porticos and served as entrances to the statehouse. Outside the loop drive, the grounds to the east, north, and south were developed in quadrants as a tree park with informal groupi ngs of deciduous and evergreen trees, while the hillside on the west was le ft as an open sloping lawn. From th e east grounds, where much of the historic tree canopy remains today, the tree park wrapped around the corner s of the statehouse to frame the north and south porticos. One of the most striking features of Schuetzes design was the planting of a continuous double-row of deciduous trees along the edges of th e grounds that bordered city streets on the east, north, and south. A concrete sidewalk was placed between the two rows of even ly spaced trees, with the overall effect being that of a formal alle and pleasing promenade. The orderly ro ws of elms trees were punctuated by symmetrically balanced walkways and stairways on the east and the openings for Sherman Street on the north and south. In keeping with nineteenth-century park design, the trees effectively screened the grounds from the traffic and noise of neighboring city streets. Th e border plantings, which Schuetze extende d into Lincoln Park, also had the effect of transforming the adjoining streets into tree-l ined boulevards and framed views to the west. As the double-row plantings matured, they accentuated the geomet rical structure of the underlying plan and gave bold relief to the spatial organizati on of the public landscape. West Front and West Side Grounds Schuetzes spatial organization of the sloping west lawn remains the dominant feature of his work on th e Capitol grounds. The grounds framin g the principal elevation of the 1 The height of the dome is the equivalent of an average 20-story commercial building, assuming 13 per story.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 9 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form Colorado statehouse were developed to draw attention to the refined proportions and restrained elegance of the statehouse and portray it as a noble c itadel when viewed from afar. The we st front was further developed to reveal a series of sweeping, westward vistas. Dominant in the overall design of building and grounds was the grand central portico with its colossa l Corinthian order, bold triangular pe diment, and monumental flight of granite stairs (Photograph 1). The porticos six multi-story columns supported an entablature with a banded architrave and plain frieze and were linked together at porch level by a balustrade. Surmounting the whole, a triangular pediment featured a high ly moulded raking cornice and a scul ptured tympanum depicting in high relief a pioneer family and gold seekers struggling th rough the dangerous frontier to the welcoming lands of Colorado.2 Aligned with the east-west axis of the statehouse, the porticos monumental flight of stairs projected outward into the surrounding landscape and became the central or ganizing element in Schuetzes design of the west grounds. Complementing the exterior materials of the statehouse, the stairway and its sidewalls were constructed of granite and equipped w ith brass handrails. Globed lampposts today are mounted on the flanking side walls. At the base of the stairs, the loop drive was extended outward to form a semi-elliptical viewing bay below which the front lawn sloped downward. Schuetze de signed a central walkway al ong the east-west axis of the portico, beginning at the outer edge of the loop drive and descending acro ss the sloping lawn to the base of the hill. The central walkway divided th e west side grounds into a pair of symmetrically balanced quadrants that extended around the corners of the state house to the north and south elevations. The porch of the portico, the descending granite staircase, the outer edge of the loop drive, and point s along the central walkway together provided a sequence of points from which the city and Front Range could be viewed. As the double rows of trees along East 14th and East Colfax Avenues matured, they eff ectively framed the views. During the first decades of the twentieth century the we st slope took the form of an open la wn with grassy terraces extending outward from a central stairway. Stil l visible today, the terraces were symmetrically modeled to gradually diminish and blend into the contours of the natural slope. The central walk way was laid out with a series of sandstone stairways with intermittent landings which serv ed as viewing terraces. From the base of the hill, the walkway proceeded into Lincoln Park. Although recently repaved, the central walkway continues to dominate the west side of the Capitol grounds and descends thr ough a series of terraces a nd stairways as originally designed. In 1909 the Colorado Soldiers Monument was installed in the center of the sloping central walkway to honor Coloradans who fought in the Civil War (Resource 13). Designed by Captain John D. Howland, a frontier artist and veteran of the Union Army, the monument consists of an eight-foot bronze stat ue of a Colorado soldier facing west toward Lincoln Park and standing atop a high, neoclassica lly ornamented, granite pedestal (Photographs 2 & 7). About the same time two Civil War-e ra cannons were placed near by on the lawn to either side of the central walkway (Resources 14 & 15). The monument remains in its original, centrally prominent location just below the loop drive. The area immediat ely surrounding it which originally followed the contours of the downhill slope has been redesigned in the form of a level, paved plaza. Still on its original pedestal, the statue now rises above a circular planting bed bounded by a raised sa ndstone wall with round-edged coping. The Civil War-era cannons, originally placed on pedestal s and set on the nearby lawn, are now placed directly on the plaza pavement in a diagona l orientation several feet northand southwest of the statue. The plaza displaying the monument is the smaller of tw o semi-circular plazas cons tructed in 1990 between the west front and the central descending walkway. Decorative ly paved, the plazas extend outward from the base of the west portico in descending tiers al ong the east-west axis. The decorative patterned pavement of contrasting 2 An unknown artist executed the work. Derek R. Everett, The Colorado State Capitol: History, Politics, Preservation (Boulder, Colorado: University Press of Colorado, 2005), 67; Federal Writers Project, Guide to 1930s Colorado (New York: Hastings House, 1941; reprint Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1987), 144.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 10 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form sandstone and granite blocks is the mo st salient feature of th e two plazas. The larger, upper plaza extends across the loop drive and forms a wide viewing terrace. A gran ite wall with a brass rail ing separates the upper and lower levels, and short stairways of the red sandstone de scend on each side of the wall to the lower plaza where the Colorado Soldiers Monument is displayed. Alterations. Increasing visitation to the Capitol grounds in re cent years has necessitated several other changes on the west grounds. In 1999 a pair of symmetrically balanced walkways wa s added to west lawn, dividing the area into roughly triangular areas. The walkways begin at the new central plaza and descend on opposite sides of the sloping west lawn to the nort hwest and southwest corners of the Cap itol grounds. Today the street corners have grown up in the form of a tree park, while open gr assy areas still flank the cen tral west-facing stairway. The new walkways are paved with granite, lined by low red sandstone coping and walls, and incorporate stairways of red sandstone built midway to ease the descent al ong the steepest sections of the slope (Photograph 6). The location of the paths was based on plans dr awn by Reinhard Schuetze about 1900 but not executed during the historic period.3 Today each walkway forms a graceful ellip tical curve, and mirrors the walkways installed under Schuetzes supervision in nearby Lincoln Park. In 1996, the Colorado Symbols Fence a handforged work of art four feet high and thirty feet long, was instal led across the central walk way at the base of the west slope. Designed by Colorado artist Rafe Ropek to suggest a gate, it is composed of five hinged and interconnected steel screens arranged to form a shallow arc. Each screen disp lays a tracery depicting one of the official state symbols, such as a bigh orn sheep for the state animal, a stegosaurus for the state fossil, and a lark bunting for the state bird. Small park furnishings include nonhistoric green metal benc hes and trash receptacles of design similar to those in Civic Center Pa rk and metal lampposts topped by globe lights. East Side Grounds. The east side of the Capitol grounds forms th e eastern boundary of th e civic center. Here border plantings and tree-covered lawns give the grounds a sense of enclosure and priv acy that contrasts with the open lawns and sweeping vistas that characterize th e west grounds. On the east side the grounds are less expansive and appear subordina te to the grand scale and formality of th e projecting porticos and adjoining walls of the statehouse. While double-rows of evenly spaced deciduous trees and a sidewalk formed the borders adjacent to East Colfax Avenue, Grant Street, and East 24th Avenue, the inner grounds were characterized by informal plantings of deciduous and evergreen trees in the form an in formally planted tree park. Foundation plantings, many small evergreen shrubs, were historically planted in the small areas w ithin the loop drive that flanked the portico stairways and wrapped around the corn ers of the Capitol building. These helped soften the transition between the hard-edged surfaces of the building and the tree-covered lawns. A wide central granite stairway descends from the east portico and merges into a central walkway that, following the east-west axis of the statehouse, crosses th e loop drive and extends to Grant Street. The walkway divides the east grounds into a pair of symmetrically balanced quadrants each with its innermost corner cut away by the centrally located loop drive. Schuetze envi sioned the loop drive as a narrow carriage road and designed a pair of pedestrian paths to radiate out from the loop and extend to the nort heast and southeast corners of the grounds, further dividing the quadrants. Because the east end of the grounds lies slightly below the grade of Grant Street, wide sandstone steps were built at the street corners to allow for adjustments in grade. Wye intersections with a small triangular swathe of lawn, a convention dr awn from nineteenthcentury naturalistic landscape gardening, were introduced on either side of the projecting pavilion to link the radial walkways with the loop drive. The historic configurati on of the pathways remains evident today. 3 Landscape architect Philip E. Flores discovered the ca. 1900 Schuetze plan in showing the planned walkways at the State Archives. Capitol Complex Facilities, State Historical Fund grant application, 1992-93, A-8, A-15, and 2-1. State Historical Fu nd, Colorado Historical Society, Denver, Colorado; Denver Post 15 May 1999, B1.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 11 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form In 1898 Preston Powerss sculpture, The Closing Era (1893), was placed in the center of the east Capitol grounds between the grand east portico and Grant Street (Resource 10). Orig inally displayed at the Worlds Columbian Exposition, the statue was the first public sculpture installed on the Capitol grounds. The bronze statue faces east against the backdrop of the east portico and depicts a Na tive American hunter standing above a dying buffalo, his bow balanced on the animals shoulder and his left foot resting on its lower back. Supported on its historic granite pedestal, the sculpture remains on the central path way in the location selected in 1898 (Photograph 8). In 1996, the area surrounding the sculpture, however, was redesigned in the form of a circular plaza enclosed by a low sandstone wall with round-edged coping. The plaza has a decorative pavement of contrasting sandstone and gran ite blocks, arranged in part to depict a compass rose with embedded metal letters for the cardinal directions. The plaza is the largest of three similarly designed circular spaces arranged in a row beneath the mature trees along Grant Street and linked by a red sandstone walkway. The smaller spaces, located to the north and south, are enclosed by low red sandstone walls, are paved with red sandstone and contrasting dark gray granite squares, and have centrally placed, octagon al planters made of sandstone (Photograph 9). Designed as alcoves for outdoor refl ection, these areas are designed to display commemorative plaques.4 After the districts period of signifi cance, several additional me morials were placed insi de the loop drive at the northeast corner of the statehouse. The U.S.S. Colorado Memorial (1997), a gray granit e bench intersecting a vertical granite slab featuring a silhouette of the battle ship and a list of its significan t engagements, is dedicated to those who served aboard the ship from 1929 to 1959. The bronze Armenian Genocide Memorial Plaque (1982), set on a low, slanted concrete pe destal, features an Armenian cross in bas relief and is dedicated to the memory of one and one half million Armenians who were victims of the 1915 genocide.5 The Colorado State Capitol Centennial Cornerstone (1990), dedicated on the one hundredth anniversary of th e laying of the original cornerstone, consists of a subterranean vault holdi ng memorabilia and documents pertaining to present-day Colorado and is covered by a rectangular slab of Aberdeen granite with an inscription of its significance the occasion.6 South Side Grounds On the south side of the Capitol grounds an extension of Sherman Street provides automobile access from East 14th Avenue and divides the la ndscape into two symmetri cally balanced quadrants along the north-south axis of the statehouse. Originally a double row of trees lined the northern edge of East 14th Avenue on either side of Sherman Street. The sout h portico of the statehouse faces the Sherman Street entrance and a grand stairway descends to the loop road encircling the statehouse. The widening of the loop road to provide additional parking has diminished the area originally intended for foundation plantings and the tree lawn on the south side of the statehouse. A few scat tered trees and shrubs, a wide concrete sidewalk, and a narrow planting strip characterize the landscape today (Photograph 10). Within the two decades following the completion of th e State Capitol, the func tions of state government expanded, necessitating the cons truction of two new buildings adjacent to the statehouse. The buildings were placed on opposite sides of the statehouse north of Sherma n Street and parallel to the north-south axis of the statehouse. Beaux-Arts architectural de tails unified them visually with the statehouse. The first of these was the Classical Revival, three-story Colorado State Museum (now the Colorado Legislative Services Building), designed in 1915 by Frank E. Edbrooke, th e supervising architect of the Ca pitol (Resource 5). The square-plan building featured walls of polished white Colorado Yule marble atop a raised, banded foundation of rusticated gray granite from the Aberdeen Quar ry in Gunnison County, Colorado. By re flecting Beaux-Arts principles of 4Plaques in the south area commemorate Gov. Ralph L. Carr (1939-43) and Camp Amache, a World War II Japanese American relocation camp in southeast Colorado, while those in the north area honor the Colorado State Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution and provide a quote from the preamble to the state constitution. 5 Denver Post 23 April 1990, 2B. 6 Rocky Mountain News 29 July 1990, 7M and 31 July 1990, 7; Denver Post 5 August 1990, 4C.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 12 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form proportion and massing, marble and granite building ma terials, and neoclassical embellishments, the 1915 building achieved architectural ha rmony with the statehouse. The principal entrance on East 14th Avenue faces north toward the southeastern quadrant of the Capitol grounds, and features a shallow, projecting center portico with four fluted giant order Ionic columns and a continuous projecting enta blature. The portico opens directly onto a wide flight of granite stairs that descends to the public sidewalk at ground level (Photograph 11). The stairway has brass handrails and is fl anked by stepped granite sidewalls, e ach of which displays its original metal lamppost with five light globes. A sidewalk, na rrow tree strip, and corner planting beds fill the narrow space between the building and the street. North Side Grounds On the north side of the Capitol grounds the extension of Sherman Street provides automobile access from East Colfax Avenue and divi des the landscape into two symmetrically balanced quadrants along the north-south axis of the statehouse. Originally a double ro w of trees lined the southern edge of East Colfax Avenue on either side of Sherman Stre et. The north portico of the statehouse faces the Sherman Street entrance and a grand stairway descends to the loop road encircling the statehouse. The widening of the loop road to provide additional parkin g has diminished the area originally intended for foundation plantings and a tree lawn on the north side of the statehouse. A few scattered trees and shrubs, a wide concrete sidewalk, and a narrow planting strip charact erize the landscape today. Between 1920 and 1922 the Colorado State Office Building, a five-story Classical Revival style building designed by Denver architect William N. Bowman, was constructed at the northeast corner of Sherman Street and East Colfax Avenue (Resource 6). The square-plan building was primarily compos ed of blocks of smooth, light gray Cotopaxi granite from Fremont County, Colorado. The principal entrance on East Colfax Avenue faces south toward the northeast quadrant of the Ca pitol grounds and visually echoes the neoclassical vocabulary and materials of statehouse (Photographs 12 & 13). Instead of repeating the spatial effect of a projecting grand portico, the building tightly fit its one-blo ck site and the upper walls were organized into bays by six giant order fluted pilasters that rose to composite capitals. Artistic attention focused on the decorative development of the centrally located ground-level entran ce, which features three se ts of recessed, double brass doors with three-part transoms. A m oulded stone architrave surrounds each set of doors and is surmounted by a three-part stone frieze in low relief with a central shield flanked by foliated ornament and corner rosettes. An oversized triangular pediment supported by a pair of large scroll brackets surmounts each opening, and a sculptural frieze of alternating acanthus and volutes st ands atop each pediment. Original bronze lanterns flank the central doorway and two bronze m ountain lions, sculpted by Robert Garrison and cast by A. and H.F. Hosek of Denver, are mounted on low stone pedestals to either side of the stone entry terr ace and stairs. A sidewalk, narrow tree strip, and corner planting beds fill the narrow space between the building and the street. Lincoln Park (Landscape Component 2) In 1895 at the same time he was designing the Cap itol grounds, Reinhard Schuetze was making plans for a public park on the block directly west. This enabled him to envision a design that would spatially and visually extend the Capitol grounds beyond the base of the hill. Ju st as the introduction of th e semi-elliptical loop drive gave grounding and stability to the st atehouse, the development of Lincoln Park countered the downhill pull of the sloping west grounds by gradually easi ng the central east-west axis into th e gentler grades that characterized the surrounding city. At the time the park was completed, ideas to extend the public la ndscape further west were just emerging. Today the park remains an important landscape link within the civic center, connecting the Capitol grounds on the east to Civic Center Pa rk on the west. Bordered by Broadway, Lincoln Stre et, and East Colfax and East 14th Avenues, Lincoln Park is rectangular in shape, with the longer dimension running north to south. It slopes slightly downhill to the west and is bisected by a wide central walkway that exte nds along an east-west axis and is aligned with the central walkway

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 13 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form descending the Capitol grounds. Borders of dense, evenly spaced rows of trees flanking the outer sidewalks, similar to those introduced on the Ca pitol grounds, enclosed the north, so uth, and west edges of the park. Schuetze seems to have applied a naturalistic conven tion of landscape design called the hanging wood to the design of plantings for Lincoln Park. The interior plantings of trees were in formally arranged within the dense borders of evenly spaced trees. At ground level these pl antings provided shade-covere d walks and lawns. When viewed from the West front of the Capitol, the tree canopy became a verdant treed plateau that contrasted with the open slopes of the Capitol grounds and built-up c ity beyond. The hanging wood was intended to enclose the ground level vistas to the west, scr een the park from the traffic on Br oadway, and protect the sense of tranquility and contemplation that the grounds had been designed to create. It also shielded the park and capitol grounds visually from the disconcerting collision of the street grids that lay outsi de the parks borders. While Schuetze laid out a central walkway to align with the principal east-west axis established on the Capitol grounds, he introduced a plan dependen t on a combination of bilateral and radial symmetry. The layout of the park was centered on a 120-foot tall flagpole dedicated to the Colorado volunteers who served in the Spanish American War Flagpole and placed at the center of the park in 1898. The plan was dominated by a pair of lateral walkways that formed gracef ul elliptical curves extending from north to south to connect opposite corners of the park (Photograph 14). The walkways were symmetrically reversed on op posite sides of the northsouth axis and arranged to come toge ther as they passed thro ugh the center of the park where they intersected the central walkway. The overall design of the park was simple yet elegant, contributing to the dignified setting of the State Capitol and at the same time creating a self -contained park with gently curving paths conducive to strolling and reflection. Today the eastern lawn is relatively ope n, while the remainder of the park is more heavily forested, featuring a variety of deciduous trees, including oa ks, crabapples, and elms. The mature trees that mark the site today date from various plantings projects that have taken pl ace in its more than one-hundred-year history. Schuetzes original plan for the borders along East Colfax and East 14th Avenues called for double rows of evenly spaced trees flanking a central walk. Today concrete sidewalks and narrow tree la wns border the south and west edges of the park, while only sidewalks remain on the north e dge. A similar double row of tr ees was laid out along the east side of Broadway, which remained the western end of the civic center for several decades. In 1923, the Sadie Likens Drinking Fountain was installed near the northwe st corner of the park. Lincoln Park has experienced more change than any ot her part of the district, mostly due to expanding commemorative functions. The central walkway remains in place today but has been widened and paved with contrasting blocks of granite and sandstone to form a distinct geometrical pattern that echoes the recently installed plazas on the Capitol groun ds. The greatest change occurred in 1990 with the development of the Colorado Veterans Monument at the center of the park (Resource19, noncontributing). In the form of a paved plaza dominated by a centrally located sandstone obelisk fo rty-five feet in height, the new memorial replaces the original flagpole and transforms the simple space where the parks walkways once converged (Photograph 15). In addition to the obelisk, the new plaza also contai ns rectangular planting beds and a new forty-five-foot flagpole (Resource 27, noncontributing) de dicated to the states volunteers who served in the Spanish-American War). The widened central walkway with its decorative pavement intersec ts the monument, and the original semi-elliptical walkways have been paved in red flagstone and now converge on the central plaza. Several smaller memorials have been installed on the grounds since the end of the period of significance (Photograph 31). Near the center of the park, the statue of U.S. Army Priv ate Joe P. Martinez, Colorados first recipient of the Medal of Honor for service in World War II, was installed in 1988 (Resource 26, noncontributing), and a replica of th e Liberty Bell was installed in 1986 (Resource 20, noncontributing). In the

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 14 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form northwest corner, a Ten Commandments monument was installed in 1956 (Resource 23, noncontributing), and in 2005 a small concrete monument was installed honoring the memory of Rev. Wade Blank, who led efforts to make local buses wheelchair-accessible.7 Civic Center Park (Landscape Component 3) Civic Center Park lies between Lincoln Park and the grounds of the Denver City and County Building and encompasses an area approximately two-and-a-half blocks in size. It is bounded by Broadway on the east, Bannock Street on the west, West Colf ax Avenue on the north, and West 14th Avenue on the south. Today the popular term Civic Center, in the minds of most citizens a nd visitors, refers to th is public park and the adjoining city and county building. The selection of the location for the park and the resulting design represent the most lengthy and complicated stage in th e evolution of the De nver Civic Center. The overall design of Civic Center Park demonstrates Bennetts genius in melding together the most practical and popular aspects of earlier plans to form a single cohesive whole. The design is the summation of more than two decades of City Beautiful thinki ng and practice in applying Beaux-Arts principles of design. This area presented the most challenging problems, design wise and politically, and it received the most collaboration by well-known planners and designers. Still reflecting the complex structure and spatial organization that the park assumed in the 1920s, today it is one of the most widely used public spaces in the city and certainly is the most popular section of the overall Denver Civic Center. (Photographs 3 & 4) From the beginning Civic Center Park was conceived and developed as the lync hpin of the larger public landscape (Photographs 16 & 17). East to west the park is organized as a progression of spaces, each having its own function and character. It was described in the 2009 Civic Center Design Guidelines : The two primary park spaces are the Upper and Lower Terraces separated by the formal Balustrade Wall. The Upper Terrace [along the east edge] includes the Broadway Terrace that extends the full length of Broadway and incorporates two Red Oak groves and Crabapple trees flanking a central walkway. The Upper Terrace wraps around on the no rth to include the Voorhies Memorial and on the south to include the Greek Theater. The Lower Terrace [to the west] is set several feet below and includes th e promenade connecting the Voorhies Memorial, the Greek Theater and the Great Lawn.8 The idea for the formally designed public landscape origin ated with the earliest plan s for a larger center of government that would extend the east-west axial corridor established on the Capitol grounds and Lincoln Park either to the existing Arapahoe Count y Court House several blocks to the northwest or an entirely new civic complex that would combine the functions of both city and county government. The westward extension of the Capitol grounds was problematic due to the disparity be tween the east-west orientat ion of the Capitol grounds and the rectilinear grid of the city streets north of Colfax Avenue which was oriented at a forty-five degree angle to the northeast and left an irregular arrangement of triangular parcels on the north side of West Colfax. The completion of the Pioneer Monument (1911) at Broadway and We st Colfax Avenue and the Denver Public Library (1910) at West Colfax Avenue and Bannock Street further strengthened the logic for the ultimate location of the civic center and gave momentum to the planning process. It would take several cycles of planning and three more decades of construction, however, before the west end of the Denver Civic Center as it exists today would be complete. 7This small monument is located near the former bus stop. 8 Mundus Bishop Design, Inc., Denvers Civic Center Design Guidelines (Denver: Denver Parks and Recreation Department, 2009), 26.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 15 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form The Pioneer Monument (Resource 9) by renowned American sculptor Fred erick MacMonnies which was intended as a tribute to the territorial heritage of the state, became an im portant determinant of the location of the larger park that exists today (Photograph 18). Although its location in the small triangular block formed by Broadway, West Colfax Avenue, and Cheyenne Place, was set by 1907, the monument wasnt completed and dedicated until 1911. Today located on the northern edge of the civic center, the monument is a multi-tiered fountain thirty-five feet tall featuring three bronze figures typical of frontier life on the lower tier and a heroic, bronze equestrian statue of Kit Carson on the top tier. The lower sculptures repr esent a pioneer mother and child, the hunter or trapper, and th e prospector or miner (Photograph 19). The life-size figure of Carson is depicted astride a west-facing, rearing horse; the western hero looks back toward the east while pointing ahead to the west. The rich sculptural or nament of the stone basins and central shaft expands the iconography to include a bountiful cornucopia, garlands of grain, eagle with outstretc hed wings, skulls of bison and the heads of mountain lions and mountain trout. The fountain was set on a massive hexagonal base composed of black and light gray granite and laid up as a series of c oncentric steps. Although th e landscape surrounding the monument has been changed periodica lly, the fountain with its granite pe destal and bronze statuary remain unchanged today. Another influential factor was the construction of the Denver Public Library (Resource 4) on West Colfax Avenue several blocks west of the State Capitol be tween 1907 and 1910. Designed by local architect Albert Randolph Ross, the Classical Revival build ing reflects one of the citys earlie st responses to th e City Beautiful movement and the search for a unified style of classically inspired architecture worthy of the citys progressive vision (Photograph 20). Approximately 180 feet long and ninety-one fe et deep, the building rests on a foundation of pink Pikes Peak granite, and its principa l faade (north) features a grand colonnade of the Corinthian order having thirty-foot fluted columns. Its walls and columns are composed of light gray sandstone from Colorados Turkey Creek quarry. Charles Mulford Robinsons Plan of 1906 was the first a ttempt to create a public land scape outside the grounds of the Capitol and Lincoln Park that would encompass the monument and the library and provide the setting for additional government buildings. Robinson proposed the cr eation of a northwest axis from Lincoln Park to the existing Arapahoe County Court House and the creation of a public park in the narrow bloc k between the site of the proposed library and Broadway. Although there was ge neral agreement on the site s for the library and the monument, other aspects of Robinsons plan including the transition from the east-west axis of the statehouse to a northwest axis to align with the 1880s county courthouse failed to gain support. MacMonniess visit to Denver in 1907 in conjunction w ith his work on the pioneer monument gave city officials the opportunity to seek the sculptors recommendations for the civic center. It was MacMonnies who suggested that the civic center extend to the wide blocks directly west alon g the east-west axis of the statehouse and that a municipal building be built facing the statehouse several blocks west on the same east-west axis. MacMonnies called for the symmetrical layout of the grounds that lay between the two buildings and introduced the idea of creating a secondary north -south axis by extending the proposed pa rk to sem i-circular areas to the north and south. MacMonniess plan ga ined considerable support among city officials and residents and fixed the location of the final civic center. By 1913 the area bounded by Broadway and Bannock and West 14th Avenue and West Colfax Avenue, and a separate parcel north of West Colf ax, known as the Bates triangle to the north, had been cleared and developed as a public park. This was largely the result of a 1912 plan developed by nati onally renowned landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted Jr. a nd architect Arnold W. Brunner. The pl an provided design details for the space between Lincoln Park and the grounds of the pr oposed municipal building. Because the land sloped gently downhill from east to west they recommended dividing the area into upper and lower terraces and

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 16 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form planting a dense grove of red oaks on the upper end west of Broadway. A classical balustrade wall was to mark the edge of the upper terrace and flank a central stairway leading to a sunken garden with paths and parterres laid out on a north-south cross-axis in the form an oblong space with semi -circular ends. The grove of trees would extend to an irregular parcel of land on the south side of the park that would be used as an outdoor concert grove. A great lawn was planned for the we st end, and space was reserved across from the Denver Public Library for a symmetrically balanced, second public building. The plans for the wooded upper terrace and the great lawn were carried out a nd remain visible today. An ornamental balustrade wall similar to the one Olmsted and Brunner proposed for the west edge of the upper terrace was retained in later plans and remains in place today. It was Edward H. Bennetts plan presented in 1917 that ultimately translated Mayor Speers vision into the design of Civic Center Park that exists today. Bennett, who was already an accomplished planner when he came to Denver, provided a synthesis of earlier recommendati ons and resolved the myriad practical and aesthetic considerations that stymied the execu tion of earlier plans. The formal deve lopment of Civic Center Park would provide an approach and stately se tting for the proposed city and count y building which would anchor the western termini of the civic center. It was intended as a great public space that encouraged use by all citizens and would offer large civic events having broad popular appeal. Wide walkways and paved promenades and plazas, embellished by neoclassical balustrades, walls, st airways, colonnades and sturdy paved surfaces were to convey a sense of permanence, durability, and grandeur, prov iding an infrastructure th at could withstand a large volume of pedestrian use and traffic (Photograph 21). Bennetts 1917 plan for Broadway Terrace modified th e extensive forested area suggested by Olmsted and Brunner, limiting the dense tree plantings to the quad rants forming the upper terrace. The treesall red oaks were to be planted in double-rows bo rdering the outer edges of the quadran ts, whose outer corners aligned with the corners of the surrounding city streets. The interior corners, where the two quadran ts met on either side of the central walkway, were chamfered to conform with a ci rcular arc; the two quadrants came together to frame the wide central stairway that descended to the sunken plaza of the lower terrace. In the 1990s a pair of curving concrete walks was constructed through the wooded por tions of the upper terrace. The paths begin at the northeast and southeast corners of th e park (at Broadway and West Colfax and Broadway and West 14th Avenue) and pass through the groves of red oak that form the eastern quadrants and upper terrace of the park, before meeting at the central plaza. Spatially the two walks merge to form a sweeping elliptical arc that extends from the parks southeastern corner to the northeastern corner; in its entire ty the walk imitates the form of the back-to-back elliptical paths that Schuetze desi gned along the north-south axis of Lincoln Park. The delineation of the quadrants forming the upper terrace in both the Olmsted-Brunner plan and Bennetts final plan reflected a geometrical precision that was lacking in Schuetzes treatme nt of the quadrants on the Capitol grounds and Lincoln Park but would later become a key organizing element in the ar chitectural design of the Denver City and County Building. Symmetrically balanced on either side of the east-west axis, the western edge of each quadrant was delineated by a neoclassical balustrade of shim mering light gray sandstone that, contrasting with the dark foliage to th e east, became a striking visual marker that effectively divided the west and east ends of the linear, ma ll-like landscape. (Photograph 3) Like Schuetzes hanging wood, the wooded grove served several purposes. Visually it merged the eastern section of Civic Center Park with Lincoln Park, ef fectively screening the parkland from the multi-lane Broadway and minimizing any sense of border between th e park elements. The continuation of the tree-flanked central walkway from one block to th e next further emphasized the horizon tality of the public landscape and provided an almost seamless transition from one space to the next. In this way Be nnetts plan overcame the

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 17 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form stylistic and compositional differences between the new park and the grounds designed by Schuetze two decades earlier. Bennetts original idea called for the central walkway on th e east end of Civic Center Park to be widened and paved to form a large outdoor area where crowds coul d gather. Consequently, th e section of the central walkway extending west from Broadway and the north-sou th promenade were origin ally paved in concrete embedded with contrasting panels of stone, brick, and concrete in an effort to give it a sense of permanence, enlivenment, and durability. This treatment of the principal axial walkway in Civic Center Park contrasted with the crowned gravel paths (with gutters) that compri sed the north-south promenade and secondary east-west paths along each side of the Great Lawn. The geometri c patterning and contrasting paving materials were reflected in the historic flooring of the outdoor theater and colonnades.9 Today the central walkway of the upper terrace is lined on each side by a row of evenly spaced cr abapple trees, the result of a 1950s planting program. In the 1990s the north-south promenade was paved using a similar combination of brick, stone, and concrete. On the west end of the park, the upper terrace is outlin ed by a low wall and graceful classical balustrade (also proposed by Olmsted-Brunner plan). Desi gned by Edward H. Bennett, the balu strade wall is composed of light gray sandstone from the stat es Turkey Creek quarry with lighted colu mns. The balustrade draws attention to the western edge of the quadrants that form the east end of the park. To the south, it connects with the colonnades and upper terrace of the amph itheater. It is a highly significant ch aracter defining f eature that helps define the spatial organization of the overall civic center. While providing a striking contrast to the groves of trees that flank it on the east, it co mplements the Beaux-Arts features that embellish the sunken garden and landscape features on the we st (Photographs 3 & 16). Today a wide central stairway divides the balustrade wall, providing an entry to the lower level (Photograph 16). Here the landscape opens up onto an area defined by parterres with flower beds, paved walkways, open lawns, and the distant view of th e Denver City and County Building. The central east-west walkway diverges into a set of minor east-west pathways set to either side of center, and a wide north-south promenade dominates the space. Bennett rotated th e garden design element proposed in the Olmsted-Brunner design by ninety degrees so that its eastern end formed a semi -circle and coincided with the chamfere d curvilinear edge of the balustrade wall on the upper terrace. Today the transi tional space where the two axes cross is planted with flower beds, and the paved north-south walkway provides long views of the surrounding modern city. The most striking of Bennetts contri butions to the final plan is the tour de force provided by the wide northsouth promenade along the seconda ry axis that connects the Greek Theater and Colonnade of Civic Benefactors (Resource 7) and the Voorhies Memorial Gateway (Resource 8). A pair of column ar pylons is placed at each end of the north-south promenade, marking the endpoints of the north-south axis a nd signaling ones entry into the colonnaded spaces beyond. The balustrade walls, with their decorative panels an d end piers and the pylons remain in place, adding to the forma lity and grandeur of the space. Forming the southern terminus of the tran sverse axis across Civic Center Park, the Greek Theater and Colonnade of Civic Benefactors (1919) is located in the semi-elliptical extension of the park bordered by West 14th Avenue (Resource 7). The Beaux-Arts inspired structure was designed by Denver architects Willis A. Marean and Albert J. Norton of Mare an and Norton in collaboration with planner Edward H. Bennett. It would 9 Similar paving materials and the idea of geometric patterni ng were recently adopted in the recent redesign of the central walkway and construction of paved plazas begi nning at the base of the Capitols west portico and extending through Lincoln Park The contrasting pavement treatment in the flooring of the Greek Theater and the central walkway of Broadway Terrace has recentl y been restored and reflects the original construction according to Bennetts 1917 plan.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 18 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form serve as a counterpoint to the memorial gateway and colonnade built several years later on the north side of the park. Constructed of smooth, light gray Turkey Creek sandstone, the five-part structur e extends approximately 210 feet along the south side of Civic Ce nter Park. The ends of the colonna des curve inward to frame a sunken orchestra and the floor of the theater. The structure consis ts of a central pavilion that houses an open stage and a pair of double colonnades in the Ioni c order ending in a square pavilion to each side. A low balustrade wrapped the inner rows of the colonnades and connected with a ba lustrade encircling the upper terrace. The east and west sides of the theater are enclosed by paneled granite walls that extended fr om the colonnades toward the center of the park and sheltered a geometrically ordered system of stairways, para pets, balustrades, and corner piers, much of it rendered in the same light gray sandstone from Colorados Turkey Creek quarry. A pedimented wall fountain in the Ionic order was incor porated into the design of the walls on opposite sides of the amphitheater; no longer functional, each fountain consis ted of a spigot in the form of a lions head and a semi-circular catch basin. (Photographs 21 & 22) Like the theaters of ancient Greece from which it took inspiration, Denve rs open-air theater was designed to host significant civic events and concerts attracting la rge groups of people accommodated in an urban setting. The idea of an outdoor theater had origin ated in the MacMonniess plan, was m odified in the form of a forested concert grove in the Olmsted-Brunner Plan, and finally a ssumed its current dramatic architectural form as a result of Bennetts collaboration wi th architects Marean and Norton. Mura ls by Allen Tupper True graced the interior walls of the colonnade de picting popular themes such as th e nineteenth-century prospecting (Photograph 22). Originally the audience was accomm odated in wooden chairs mounted on movable wedgeshaped sections arranged to rise in concentric tiers from the circular orchestra located at foot of the stage. Today permanent concrete benches provide seating. In addition there are many historic ligh ting fixtures in the park, including those on the columns of the balustrade wall a nd on the monumental pylons at the entrances to the colonnaded structures. Replicas of original metal light poles designed by Marean a nd Norton appear throughout the park set in a pattern reminis cent of the original placement.10 From the beginning the park was intended as a setting for works of art, especially sculpture. The first works Alexander Phimister Proctors Broncho Buster and On the War Trail were installed in the early 1920s (Resources 11 & 12). Both statues are set on a tall granite pede stals prominently sited to face north along the southernmost east-west walkway near the intersection with the north-south axis leading to the Greek theater (Photographs 17, 23 & 24). A number of works app eared later on the opposite side of the park. Forming the northern terminus of the transverse axis across Civic Center Park, the Voorhies Memorial Gateway and Sea Lion Pool (1921) is located in the semi-elliptical extension of the park bordered by the West Colfax Avenue near the intersection of Ch eyenne Place (Resource 8). Monumental in character and inspired by BeauxArts design, the contributing structure was designed by Denver architects William E. Fisher and Arthur A. Fisher of Fisher and Fisher. Extending approximately 180 feet east to west on the nor th side of Civic Center Park, the gateway was designed to provi de a grand entrance to th e park and serve as a c ounterpoint to the Greek theater and colonnade on the south side of the park. The monumental structure consists of a central arch flanked to either side by a pair of curvilinear double colonnades and was constructed with the same smooth, light gray Turkey Creek sandstone as the amph itheater (Photographs 25 & 26). Murals by Allen Tupper True adorn the interior lunettes of th e central arch. A special featur e is the elliptical reflecti ng pool within the arc of the colonnade; it consists of a shallow basin bound by a low concrete retaining wa ll with round-edged coping. Sculptor Robert Garrison designed a pa ir of bronze fountains fo r the east and west ends of the pool, each in the form of a sea lion with an infant riding upon its back with an outstretched arm clinging to its neck. Set atop 10 Mundus Bishop Design, Design Guidelines 42.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 19 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form rectangular concrete bases, the sea li ons are arranged to face each other so that the arcing jets that spring from their mouths intersect ab ove the center of the pool.11 The Great Lawn. The central and southern sections of the park we st of the north-south axis comprise the Great Lawn, a level grassy area bordered on the west and s outh by concrete sidewalks, on the north by the former public library building. Occasional shad e trees line the walkways here (P hotograph 17). The west end of the Great Lawn was organized according to Bennetts plan and featured a central swathe of grass that provided the foreground of the Denver City and County Building (Phot ograph 27). The Allied Architects Association, which designed the city and county government building, proposed changes to the we st end of the Great Lawn as a dignified foreground for the city and county building. Although they proposed a long narrow reflecting pool, in the end the central lawn was left as a wide open pane l of grass flanked on either side by a row of widespreading trees that both frames the vi ew of the monumental building at the parks terminus and gave renewed emphasis to the central axial corridor.12 The rear elevation of the 1910 Denver Public Librar y faces the center of the Great Lawn. Because the construction of the library building predated the developm ent of Civic Center Park, th e primary faade with its fine neoclassical design was oriented to face north on West Colfax Avenue, and the south elevation, which would later face into Civic Center Park, was considered the rear of the bui lding and received a more functional, unornamented, and almost austere treatment. The orig inal rear faade remain s visible today despite recommendations by MacMonnies, Olmsted and Brunner, and Bennett that it be redesi gned to assume a more dignified appearance in keeping with its prominen t location facing Civic Cent er Park (Photograph 17).13 Proposals made by MacMonnies, Olmsted and Brunner, and Bennett all reserved the site on the Great Lawn opposite the library building for a public bu ilding of similar scale that would ha ve cultural value such as an art museum or concert hall. Such construction would provide balance to the overall desi gn of the park and create symmetry along the central east-west axis. The proposed bui lding was never erected and this portion of the lawn remains open and bounded by pedestrian walk s with a few trees along the edges. By the end of the 1920s the design and construction of Ci vic Center Park was complete. It succeeded in giving definition to the westward extensi on of the public space in the form of interconnected walkways, classical balustrades, a great lawn, an outdoor theater, sculptures mounted on pede stals, commemorative objects, and formal tree groves. Civic Center Park also contains a few relatively small artistic and commemorative objects installed after the period of significance. In 1954 a memorial drinking fountain honoring Emily Griffith, the founder of Denvers Opportunity School, was installed at a location south of the memorial ga teway and west of the north-south transverse axis (Resource 22, noncontributing). Designed by Denver arch itect John Burrey, the noncontributing object is four feet in heig ht and consists of a polished black granite shaft set on a gray stone base. In 1975 a bronze sculpture, In Honor of Christopher Columbus (1970), mounted on a fifteen-f oot high concrete pedestal was installed south of the memorial gateway east of th e north-south axis. Designed by Denver sculptor William F. Joseph, the design is remini scent of Leonardo Da Vincis Vitruvian Man having four faces, arms, and legs pointing to the four cardinal direct ions of the compass and encircled by three rings sym bolizing the globe 11 Denver Municipal Facts August 1921, 15. 12 Changes were made to the spacing of these rows of trees as pa rt of the finally integration of the city and county building int o the overall civic center design in the 1930s. A comparison of pho tographs and plans indicates th at the evergreen trees planted in the 1920s following Bennetts 1917 plan were rem oved and replaced by two rows of deciduous trees spaced further back to either side of the central lawn following the Allied Architects 1925 plan. This change provided a more spacious view of the faade and a more dramatic framing of the west terminus of the civic center. 13 It appears that the library stacks were housed on the south side of the building.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 20 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form (Resource 24, noncontributing).14 In 1975 a large untitled work of sculpt ure, roughly measuring sixteen feet in height and twenty-two feet in widt h, was installed on West Colfax Ave nue, north of the Carnegie Library. Designed by Robert Mangold, the piece representing the abstract form of tw o trees was created from variously sized welded steel pipes set in a concrete base (Resource 25, noncontributing). In 1983, th e thirtyfoot United Nations memorial flagpole (1950) was moved from its original location at Broadway and East 16th Street to its current location southwest of the Greek Theater (Resour ce 21, noncontributing). Nonhisto ric site furnishings are found throughout Civic Center Park, including metal benche s, moveable chairs, trash receptacles, signs, bicycle racks, and tree grates. These furnishings, painted the same shade of civic center green, are practical in nature and simple in design and serve as background features necessa ry for park function rather than artistic elements. Denver City and County Building Grounds (Landscape Component 4) Authorized in 1923 and completed nine years later, the Denver City and County Building (Resource 3) represented the last major stage of construction within the ci vic center. The completi on of its grounds in 1935 marked the end of the City Beautiful era in Denver. Bounded by West Colfax Avenue, West 14th Avenue, Bannock Street, and Cherokee Street, the three-story build ing was designed to occupy most of the city block. Designed by the Allied Architects Association, the building was cons tructed between 1929 and 1932 and the grounds were completed in 1935. The east elevation of the 1932 building displays a five part faade with a projecting, monumental entrance portico and flanking wings. The portico features six fifty-foot giant order Roman Corint hian columns measuring more than five feet in diameter and rising above three flights of tooled stone stairs.15 The central portico is embraced by the wings that extend outward from central portico with symmetrically balanced curving walls toward the southeast and southwest corners of the parcel at West 14th and West Colfax Avenues. (Photographs 27 & 28) Here against the scenic backdrop of the majestic peaks of the Front Range, the architec ture boldly dominates the western terminus of the civic center. With its central portico, embracing wings, and elegant Colonial Revival style cupola, the building provides an effective counter balance to the monumental state house. The size and scale of the facilities designed to ac commodate functions relate d to city and county govern ment rivaled that of the statehouse on the opposite end of the civic center. Changes proposed by th e Allied Architects Association to the west end of Civic Center Park re sulted in adjustments to Bennetts design; most important among these was the opening up of the west end to reveal a more spaci ous and dramatic view of the buildings portico and curving walls and. From its position at the western end of civic center, the front (east) of the City and County Building provides a deep vista across the main axis across the Great Lawn with its wide alle, Broadway Terrace, Lincoln Park, and the Capitol grounds toward the monumental statehouse on its elevated site. In keeping with Beaux Arts principles, the geometry of the building and its grounds echoes the basic quadrant form with the chamfered corner firs t introduced on the Capitol grounds an d later followed in the shaping of Broadway Terrace at the eastern end of Civic Center Park. With Civic Center Park providing th e foreground and approach to the Denver City and County Building, the landscape design of the grounds was limited to the for ecourt leading to the build ings grand portico. The curving wings to each side of the front portico of the ci ty and county building form a balanced pair of quadrants that embrace a landscaped semi-circular court that in cludes a central plaza and cu rving concrete walks and bands of grass (Photograph 30). The plaza is paved with concrete and includes small areas of grass to the north 14 Denver Post 25 June 1970, 23; In Honor of Christopher ColumbusDenver, CO accessed at www.waymarking.com on 16 June 2008; Central Denve r Park District Points of Interest, acce ssed at denvergov.org on 20 June 2008. 15 The Corinthian capitals of the columns were carved from 26-ton granite blocks. Federal Writers Project. Guide to 1930s Colorado (New York: Hastings House, 1941; reprint, Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1987), 142.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 21 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form and south where the pair of memorial flagpoles with drinking fountains, designed by Roland Linder were installed in 1935 (Resources 17 & 18). The Community Conservation Garden (2005), a rectangular display garden for native plants adorns the ce nter of the court today. The perimeter of the entire block is bordered by a wide concrete sidewalk that runs along the street. Narrow panels of grass, with trees at each corner of the building, fill the area extending to the sidewalk on a ll sides except the center r ear, where two rear paved courtyards serve as a service entran ce and parking ar ea (Photograph 29). In contrast to the two-block Capito l site where spacious grounds surround the architectural centerpiece and the overall landscape is divided in quadrants which frame a nd provide the setting of th e building (and whose central corner is cut by the semi-elliptical cu rve of the loop road), the reverse is the true on the gr ounds of the citycounty building where the design of the building literally frames the landsca pe. The quadrants that repeat the basic unit of design that repeats th roughout the landscape are formed by the structure itself and instead of the landscape framing the building, here the building frames the landscape. Colorado State Capitol, 200 East Colfax Avenue, Elij ah E. Myers and Frank E. Edbrooke (architects), 1886-1908 (5DV6000, Resource 2) Describing the building as of the Corint hian order of classic architecture, Elijah E. Myers drafted the initial plans for the Renaissance Revival style Colorado statehouse in 1885-86.16 One of the last great state capitols of the Gilded Age, the Colorado capitol features layere d classical ornament that contrasts with the more restrained academically correct ne oclassical statehouses built at the turn-of-the-nineteenth century.17 Located on two city blocks, the cruciform Capitol with its col onnaded dome extends approxi mately 384 feet north and south and 313 feet east and west. C onstructed entirely of gray cut granite from the Ab erdeen (Zugelder) quarry in Gunnison County, Colorado, the buildings walls are ru sticated with each window bay framed by pilasters supporting full entablatures on each el evation. All stone above the foundation is smoothly dressed except for the quarry faced foundation. The three-story building include s a full basement and a subbasement. Monumental porticos on projecting pavilions are s upported on an arcaded rusticated base on each faade. The gilded dome surmounted by a lantern is 272 feet high and forty-two feet in diameter and rises from a four-story drum. Wood frame windows throughout the building are one-over-one-light. A cornerst one dated 4 August 1890 lies at the northeast corner.18 The Capitols primary facade faces west, across Lincoln and Civic Center parks toward the Denver City and County Building. The central projecting pavilion features a monumental portico, which includes an arcaded first story with rusticated stone, rectangular columns, and three round arched entrances leading to sets of doors with circular transoms covered by metal grilles. The port ico opens onto monumental gr anite stairs with brass railings. Granite sidewalls hold globed lampposts, and ther e is an intermediate landing with intersecting stairs descending to the north and south. Above the first story, the portico featur es six giant order Corinthian column s, including paired corner columns. A balustrade links the columns, wh ich support an entablatur e with a banded architra ve and a plain frieze surmounted by a triangular pediment. Within the tymp anum of the pediment are figures in high relief representing a pioneer family and gold seekers str uggling through the dangerous frontier to the welcoming 16 Myers, quoted in Board of Capitol Managers, Second Biennial Report 1886 accessed at http://www.colorado.gov/dpa/doit/archives/ cap/archts.htm on 4 Febr uary 2011. Myers also designed the Michigan capitol (1872) and the Texas capitol (1881). 17 This contrast with later state capitols was lessened by the s ubstitution of granite for Myers original choice of sandstone fo r the walls. This change was made when he was dismi ssed in 1889. Henry-Russell Hitchcock and William Seale, Temples of Democracy The State Capitols of the USA (New York: Harcourt Br ace Jovanovich, 1976), 192. 18 The 272-foot height of the dome is the equivalent of an av erage 20-story commercial building, assuming thirteen feet per story.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 22 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form lands of Colorado.19 Pilasters divide the west wall behind th e portico. There are five flat arch windows between the pilasters, with the second -story windows being taller than thos e of the third. The spandrels of both stories feature inset stone panels. The wall is crowned by a full entablature with a stepped architrave, plain frieze, and cornice with dentils. A parapet with paired corner piers rises above the entablature. Myers described the central dome as strictly Corinthian, having no unnecessary carving, but ornamented simply by the embellishments demanded by the Corinthian order.20 The four-story drum of the dome is composed of cast iron painted gray, with the two lower st ories wider than the two upp er levels, which are about the same diameter as the dome itself. The lowest story s rusticated walls are divide d by banded pilasters. Four slightly projecting pavilions on the lo west story form bases for columned porticos on the second story. Between the pilasters of the lower story are segmental arched windows. The second story features Corinthian columns aligned above the pilasters of the first story. The tall fluted columns ar e smooth toward their bases and stand atop paneled pedestals, with a conti nuous balustrade between the pedestals. The four projecting porticos are crowned by segmental pediments. The columns support an entablature with a stepped architrave, plain frieze, and cornice with dentils and modillions topped by a balu strade between the pediments. The inset second story wall has tall arch windows with transoms and keystones flanked by Cori nthian pilasters aligned behind the columns. The drum narrows at the third story and has a banded wall divided by pilaster s and slightly projecting bays aligned with the porticos belo w. Flat arch windows between the pila sters are aligned with the windows of the lower stories. The fourth story has four projecting porticos flanked by columns and crowned with triangular pediments. The cast iron wall resembles smooth cut stone and is divided by pilasters, with each bay containing an arch window. The circular dome is gilded with gol d leaf and divided by ribs into sixteen segments. Each segment contains a flat arch window with a decorative surround displaying st ained glass depicting a Colo radan significant in the states history. The sixteen windows constitute the Colorado Hall of Fame. The dome is surmounted by a slender, gilded, cylindrical cupola with a lantern with narrow arch wi ndows flanked by engaged Corinthian columns and topped by a glass globe with a beacon. On the west front, setback wings fla nking the center pavilion on the north a nd south are terminated by slightly projecting hipped roof pavilions. The window bays are divided by pilasters, with banded pilasters on the raised basement and first story and unflu ted giant order pilasters on the uppe r story. Windows are aligned on each story in each bay between the pilasters which support a continuous entablature. Like the west front, the north elevation of the Capitol also features a monumental projecting portico, although it is narrower than the west. On the first story the portic o includes three arched entran ces accessed by stone stairs with metal railings. The first story is surmounted by four giant order Corinthian co lumns linked by a balustrade and supporting a pediment with a tymp anum of coursed, cut stone and a ra king cornice. At the center of the tympanum is a small oculus. The setback east and west wings feature slightly proj ecting center ba ys crowned by triangular pediments. Banded pilasters are on the first story and unfluted pilasters are on the second and third stories. The south elevation duplicates the design of the north elevation. The east elevation f acing Grant Street is similar to the west elevation. Ho wever, the porticos pediment is fille d with coursed stone and has a small oculus. The entrance on the first story is a center door flanked by arch windows. The stairs accessing the entrance do not have railings; there are no stairs descending off the intermediate landing to the north and south. 19 An unknown artist executed the work. Derek R. Everett, The Colorado State Capitol: History, Politics, Preservation (Boulder, Colorado: University Press of Colorado, 2005), 67; Federal Writers Project, Guide to 1930s Colorado (New York: Hastings House, 1941; reprint Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1987), 144. 20 Myers, quoted in Board of Capitol Managers, Second Biennial Report

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 23 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form Interior The Capitol interior is particular ly notable for its display of stone. White marble from Yule Creek in Gunnison County, Colorado, is featured in stairs and floors.21 Railings, balusters, el evator doors, doorknobs, and chandeliers are crafted of bronze. Panels of bron ze elevator doors depict the history of Colorado. Beulah red marble (Colorado rose onyx) from Pueblo County is utilized in wainscoting and column bases. It required seven years and more than two hundred me n to extract and install the marble.22 Historian William Pyle found that the entire known supply of this onyx wa s used for the interior of the Capitol.23 In Architect Myerss words: The Rotunda is a magnificen t feature of the building, and not only adds greatly to its beauty, but is of great utility also in furnishing an abundance of light to the halls and corridors. It has a diameter of forty-five feet, being open from the base ment to the diaphragm of the dome, and having balconies surrounding it on a line with several of the floors.24 The walls of the first story of the rotunda display murals and an associated poem celebrating th e significance of water in the state s history; these were executed in 193839 by Colorado artist Allen Tupper True and Denver poet Thomas Hornsby Ferril. The coffered apex of the dome rises 150 feet above the floor below. A grand staircase, or piano nobile with marble steps and brass balustrades embellished with oak and olive leaves and acorns rises from first floo r, splitting into two at an intermedia te landing to access the second floor in the rotunda. The second floor contains the legislative halls and former courtroom of the Colorado Supreme Court. The Senate and House of Representative halls are immense double-he ight chambers measuring forty-two feet in height with upper floor balc onies and public galleries. The Sena te chamber displays stained glass windows depicting prominent citizens and is known as Colorados Second Hall of Fame. The House of Representatives features large windo ws looking onto the west portico. Denver City and County Building, 1437 Bannock Street Allied Architects Association (architects), 192932 (5DV5989, Resource 3, contributing building) The Denver City and County Building at the western te rminus of the civic cente r is a massive roughly Hshaped, symmetrical, light gray granite building 450 feet wide and 275 feet deep. It occupies a full city block bounded by Bannock and Cherokee Streets and West Colfax and West 14th Avenues.25 With its central portico, embracing wings, and elegant Colonial Revival style cupola, the building pr ovides an effective visual response to the monumental state house. The three-story building has a raised basement level with ashlar masonry. The east elevation displays a five part faade with a projecting, monumental entrance portico and flanking wings that curve outward to embrace Civic Center Park. The he xastyle portico features si x fifty-foot giant order Roman Corinthian columns measuring more than five feet in diameter and rising above three f lights of tooled stone stairs.26 The columns support an entablature with a fr ieze inscribed Erected by the People City and County of Denver. A triangular pediment with block modillions and dentils surmounts the entablature. The stone tympanum was left without carving because of economic stringencies at the time of its completion.27 The 21 This quarry also provided stone for the Lincoln Memorial and the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Arlington Cemetery. 22 State of Colorado, Colorado State Capitol Virtual Tour: Marble and Granite, http://www.Colorado.gov/dpa/doit/ archives/cap/marble.htm ( accessed 4 February 2011). 23 William R. Pyle, History of the Colorado State Capitol Complex, M.A. thesis, University of Denver, 1962, 36. 24 Myers, quoted in Board of Capitol Managers, Second Biennial Report 1886. 25 Cotopaxi, Colorado, and Stone Mountain, Georgia, granite we re used in construction of the building. Colorado granite extends from the foundation to the belt course, and the remainder of the walls are Georgia granite. Diana L. Carroll, History and Description of the City and County Building, unpublished manuscript for Denver City Council, 1992, 2, Western History and Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado; Denver Post 11 September 1931, 7. 26 The Corinthian capitals of the columns were carved from 26-ton granite blocks. Federal Writers Project. Guide to 1930s Colorado (New York: Hastings House, 1941; reprint, Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1987), 142. 27 In 1931 the city solicited ideas for design of the tympanum from Denver citizens, indicating that the mayor, supervising architect, and other officials would select the best of those submitted, calling the sculptural relief the most important poin t in the entrance faade. Carvings planned includ ed buffalos, ox-teams, and pioneers. Denver Post 1 November 1931, 3; Carroll, History

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 24 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form coffered ceiling of the portico has lights in rosette-shap ed fixtures and the floor is sandstone. The wall behind the portico is composed of coursed cu t stone and divided by fi fty-foot Corinthian p ilasters. The center bay features a monumental entrance with a stepped stone su rround and an entablature with a frieze inscribed AD MCMXXX. The entrance includes brass and glazed double and single doors, w ith a fluted band of brass above the doors. A double-height overdoor is composed of clathri (crossed lattice) windows divided horizontally by a decorative band embossed City and County Building. Fl anking the entrance are la rge lamps with scrollshaped sconces with foliate ornament. The end ba ys include entrances with double brass doors with clathri transoms. On the second story, metal frame two-light windows are aligned above these entrances. The third story has five large clathri windows between the pilasters, with a d ecorative horizontal ba nd with a Vitruvian wave motif above a string of dentils. Above and behind the portico, at the center of the building, a slender towe r rests on an octagonal base. Its design influenced by 18th century Georgian architecture, the multi-st age structure features a round colonnaded lantern supporting a clock tower modeled after the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates in Athens (ca. 334 B.C.).28 Mayor Robert W. Speers widow donated the Speer Memorial Chimes produced by the Meneely Bell Company of Troy, New York, for the bell chamber. 29 This is surmounted by a narrow circular tower with a Seth Thomas clock with four faces, also donated by Kate Speer. The tower is topped by a narrower, ornamented pedestal holding a finial in the form of a six-and one-half-fo ot gold-plated bronze eagle with wings outspread.30 The height of the building from the finished grade to the top of the tower is 175 feet.31 The curvilinear wings to the north an d south of the portico are aligned on an east-west axis with the public library on the north side of the park and the anticipated location of a ba lancing building on the south side, as well as a forecourt extending along Ba nnock Street. These identical flanking wings feature ashlar masonry that supports second and third story pilast ers, behind which are the first and second story windows. The basement level features fourteen paired, one-over-one-light metal windows a nd an entrance with double brass doors ornamented with decorative brass grilles for each wing. Above the basement level, ta pered, giant order, engaged Ionic stone columns rise from the water table to support an entablature. The walls of the first and second stories are smooth cut stone. Between the columns, windows are al igned on the first and second stories, with the taller first-story windows having paired one-over-one-light windows with two-part transoms and shorter second-story windows having no transoms. Each terminating bay, flanked by square, giant order pilasters, features a shallow, arched niche with scroll keystone on the first story and a panel of pink fleur de pche Italian marble on the second story.32 The entablature is composed of a stepped architrave, a plain frieze, and a cornice with moldings and block modillions, and it is topped by a stone balustrade. The slightly re cessed attic story of each wing has shorter, paired one-over-one-light windows aligned above the windows of the lower stories. The east walls of the north and south wings display identi cal designs. The basement level of ashlar masonry has three central paired one-ove r-one-light windows that corre sponding to the bays of the upper stories. The center three bays of the first and second st ories are inset and divided by giant order engaged Ionic columns; the first story has paired one-over-one-light windows with two-part transoms, while the second story displays paired one-over-one-light windows without transoms. The outer bays on the first and s econd stories, flanked by pilasters, include shallow round arched niches with sc roll keystones on the first story and single panels of fleur and Description, 1. 28 Denver Post 20 February 1932, 1. 29 Kate A. Speer donated six new chimes in 1950. Thomas J. Noel, Buildings of Colorado (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 48; Carroll, History and Description, 8. 30 Rocky Mountain News 1 November 1932, 3. 31 Carroll, History and Description, 1. 32 Jack A. Murphy, Geology Tour of Denvers Buildings and Monuments (Denver: Historic Denver, Inc., 1995), 24.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 25 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form de pche marble on the second story. The slightly recessed attic story has paired one-over-one-light windows in each bay. The northeast and southeast corners of the building are chamfered and th e south and north walls of those corners have panels of fleur de pche marble on the second story. The broad north and south walls of the building (facing West Colfax and West 14th Avenues) display identical de signs. The basement level has rusticated ashlar masonry, paired on e-over-one-light windows, and a central entrance with a stone surround and double brass doors with grilles. On each of the upper stories there are fifteen windows of the same design as those on the east faade. Giant order p ilasters divide slightly projecting e nd pavilions of the first and second stories into three bays, each with a window on each stor y. The entablature extends ac ross the top of the second story, and the attic story has three-bay outer pavili ons divided by pilasters. On the west elevation the rear of the building faces Cherokee Street. A monumental central pavilion extends westward. Six Roman Ionic columns stand on the rusticated basement story. The first and second stories have paired one-over-one-light windows betw een the columns, with taller firststory windows. The attic story is setback from the plane of the faade with only the central pavilion featuring a gable roof with a full entablature. The upper stories have five bays separated by pilaster s, four with two-over-two sash and one blind. The basement level of the west portico has entrances with garage doors flanked by windows on the north and south sides. The walls of the wings flanking the portico on the baseme nt level contain double door en trances at each end of a series of paired one-over-one light windows. The upper st ory windows are of similar de sign to those of the east wall, with the exception of the first story windows nearest the portico, which have stone panels above the doors. The north wall of the south pavilion a nd the south wall of the north pavili on display three paired one-over-onelight windows and an entrance at th e east end on the basement level. Two-story pilasters divide the upper stories, with windows on each story matching the design of the windows on the front (east) facade. The west walls of the end pavilions display id entical designs. The lower story cont ains three central windows. The upper stories are divided into five bays by giant order pilasters. There are stone panels in the outer bays of the first and attic story, and panels of fleur de pche marble in the outer bays of the se cond story. The center three bays have windows on each story matching the design of the windows of the east wall. Interior Among the principal interior spaces of the building are the city c ouncil chambers on the top floor, the mayors offices on the second floor and several courtroom s on the first floor. A variety of marbles from around the nation and the world grace the interior, including black and gold Italian marble, pink and rose Tennessee marble, pearl and gray Vermont marble, and white Colorado Yule marble.33 Colorado marble is utilized on walls and the nineteen-foot columns of the lobby. According to building records, th ese were the largest monoliths of the material ever quarried up to that ti me, with each created from a block of stone weighing 6,600 pounds.34 The columns of the upper two floors are finished in scagliola painted to resemble natural stone.35 John E. Thompson, who studied at the Art Students League of New York and the Acadmie Julian in Paris, became an influential member of the Denver Atelier (discussed below) a nd supervised the decoration of the lobby and the selection of colors for the entire building.36 33 Murphy, Geology Tour 26; Virginia McConnell, For These High Purposes, Colorado Magazine 44 (Summer 1967): 219; Rocky Mountain News 1 August 1932, 8. 34 Carroll, History and Description, 2. 35 Murphy, Geology Tour 24, 26. 36 Denver Post 16 October 1931, 40.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 26 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form Artwork displayed in the building c ontinues the regional themes seen elsewhere in the Denver Civic Center, including American Indian Orpheus and the Animals a massive elevenby six-foot bas relief by Colorado artist Gladys Caldwell Fisher. The work, installed in 1934, consis ts of two-and-a-half tons of Colorado stone in two relief panels depicting a Native Am erican and native animals, such as an eagle, bear, and buffalo.37 Plans for the building in the 1920s included two murals by Allen T upper True for court offices. Not until 1931, however, did the artist begin negotiations with the city for the commi ssion, and the pieces were not completed and installed until 1950. Trues large Miners Court and Frontier Trial remind citizens of the early days of jurisprudence.38 Alterations. The buildings exterior has undergone very few alterations. In 1954 workers removed the original tile roof, which was judged to be very poor in quality, and installed granite-color ed aluminum sheeting on the sloped surfaces of the roof and ta r and gravel on the flat surfaces.39 The original one-ton bronze doors measuring twenty-six by thirteen feet proved diffi cult for many people to open. A 1992 description of the building stated the huge doors and the tracks they slide on weigh fifteen to twenty tons and are moved with the assistance of pneumatic motors. Smaller doors added in 1959 are used by visitors and th e sliding doors are left undisturbed in their recesses at th e outer edge of the main doors.40 Denver Public Library (Denver Carnegie Library), 144 West Colfax Avenue Albert Randolph Ross (architect), 1910 (5DV161.4, Resource 4, contributing building) The city publication Denver Municipal Facts boasted Denver possessed the fine st public library in the West when its first Carnegie library opened in 1910.41 The location, design, and materials of the library influenced the planning and architectural design of civic center, although its orientation fronting Colf ax Avenue did not lend itself to integration with the parks designs. The neoclassical style twostory building (approximately 180 feet by 91 feet) rests on a foundation of pink Pikes Peak granit e, while its walls and columns are composed of light gray sandstone from Colorados Turkey Creek quarry.42 A cornerstone at the northeast corner is inscribed April 11, 1907. A full entablature extends across the front (north), east, west and portions of the rear (south) facades. It is composed of a stepped architrave te rminated by classical molding, a plain frieze clad with limestone panels, and a cornice with a band of dentils moldings, and block modillions. The building has a low hipped roof with batten seam copper roofing. The front (north) presents a grand co lonnade of giant thirty-f oot fluted Corinthian columns in antis supporting an entablature that crowns the pavilion roof. Behind each column is a corresponding pilaster with a Corinthian capital. The columns stand atop the raised basement leve l with rustication masonry and recessed, paired fourlight metal frame windows with security bars. There is a one-story projecting center pavilion with a projecting, enclosed entrance clad with stone panels that has gl azed double doors. A sign covering the transom reads W. Colfax, while other signs above the entrance identify this as th e McNichols/Civic Center Building. Adjacent to the entrance, the walls of the pavilion have decorative meta l lanterns and are terminated by pilasters. The first and second storie s have replacement five-part, stacke d, metal frame windows. The first-story window openings were shortened by th e addition of limestone panels.43 37 Caldwells work is also known as Montezuma and the Animals Murphy, Geology Tour 26. 38 Jere True and Victoria Tupper Kirby, Allen Tupper True: An American Artist (San Francisco, California: Canyon Leap, 2009), 301 and 432. 39 Denver Post 11 March 1954, 48. 40 Denver Post 29 August 1956; Rocky Mountain News 27 August 1959; McConnell, For These High Purposes, 219; Carroll, History and Description, 6. 41 Denver Municipal Facts 1 July 1911, 2. The building is comparable is scale to architect Albert Randolp Rosss Washington, D.C. and Columbus, Ohio libraries. 42 Denver Municipal Facts 14 August 1909, 1; Murphy, Geology Tour 30. 43 Denver Municipal Facts 14 August 1909, 4.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 27 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form Pilasters divide the identically-designed, four-bay east a nd west walls above the baseme nt level; paired pilasters flank the outer corners. The first and second stories display paired five-part me tal frame windows and stone spandrels, as on the north wall. On th e west wall, the south window of the fi rst story retains its original height and there is no spandrel panel betw een the stories. Six of the window lights are filled with metal panels. The neoclassical detailing of the front and side elev ations continues around porti ons of the rear elevation, terminating at the stair towers on each side of a central proj ecting wing. On the west si de of the wing, the first story has paired ten-light windows, with metal panels covering six central light s and narrow stone panels between the first and second stories. On the east side, the first story contai ns three paired five-part windows and one covered window, as well as wide stone spandrel panels. The upper stories at both ends have paired windows with five stacked lights, and the easternmost window is c overed. In the center of this faade is a multi-bay wing flanked by neoclassical ornamented stai r towers that house the book stacks. The faade of this wing consisted of trabeated sandstone walls with plain windows and virtually no detailing. In front of th e library on the north is a sunken courtyard enclosed with a lo w sandstone wall topped by a decorative metal balustrade and accessed by pink granite stairs with sands tone sidewalls on the east and west. Adjacent to the building at the west end is a concrete ramp with metal railings. Three tall metal flagpoles stand along the north end of the balustrade. A paved parking lot is adjacent to the bu ilding on the south facing the Great Lawn. Alterations. After the library moved to a new building across fr om civic center on the south, the city remodeled the interior of this build ing to serve the Board of Water Commissi oners and other city offices in 1957. Denver architect Gordon D. White designed the $600,000 remodeling, which included the removal of the monumental exterior stairs leading to the original grand entrance on the faade (north) and the creation of a sunken courtyard and small enclosed entrance at the basement level. The original wood frame wi ndows were replaced with aluminum windows and limestone panels were added to shorten the windows. Two skylights were removed, one over the book receiving room and one over the stacks.44 Limestone panels were pl aced over the inscription of the faade frieze, which remains underneath. These changes were documented in a 1999 Historic Structure Assessment45 During the remodeling, original decorative interior plasterwork and ornamental stairways were removed.46 Two murals painted by Allen Tupper True in 1916, Hopi Potters and Cliff Dwellers disappeared at that time.47 A paved drive along the south side of the library was expanded to include a row of surface parking the length of the building.48 Colorado State Museum, 200 East 14th Avenue, Frank E. Edbrooke (architect), 1915 (5DV5990, Resource 5, contributing building) Supervising Architect of the State Ca pitol Frank E. Edbrooke designed the Classical Revival style three-story Colorado State Museum (now the Colorado Legislative Se rvices Building), which faces the statehouse across the street to the north. This building is almost an English Regency interpre tation of a Renaissance palazzo and is the smallest of the buildings. The museum (approximately 113 by 107 feet) displays a shallow hipped clay tile roof, square plan, monumental porti cos, and walls of polished white Colorado Yule marble atop a raised, 44 Barbara Norgren and Cynthia Emrick, Civic Center, National Register of Historic Places Re gistration Form, 10 December 1973 (listed 27 February 1974). Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation, Colorado Historical Society, Denver, Colorado. 45 Slater, Paull & Associates, Inc., Histori c Structure Assessment and Exterior Preser vation Plan: City and County of Denver McNichols Civic Center Building, Final Repo rt (Denver: Slater, Paull & Associates, Inc., December 1999), 9, Denver Public Libr ary Western History and Genealogy Department. 46 Slater, Paull & Associates, Inc., H istoric Structure Assessment, 7-9. 47 True and Kirby, Allen Tupper True 178-79. 48 Slater, Paull & Associates, Inc., Historic Structure Assessment, 13.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 28 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form foundation of rusticated gray granite from the Aberdeen Quarry in G unnison County, Colorado. Windows of the building are wood frame one-over-one light; the more elabor ate first-story windows include single-light transoms and are surmounted by flat hoods supported by cons oles flanking stone pane ls, while the second-story windows display stone surrounds with projecting, bracketed sills. The front (north) features a projecting center portico with four fluted giant order Ionic columns opening onto a wide flight of granite stairs with brass railings and granite cheek walls extending to the public sidewalk. Each stepped sidewall features an original metal lamppost with five light globes and state seals on its base. The first story of the central bay behind th e columns has a central entrance with double doors flanked by windows surmounted by stone panels. The second story contains th ree windows aligned with the fenestration of the first story. The columns support an entablature with a fri eze inscribed Colorado State Museum and ornamented with roundels. The portico is topped by the central, proj ecting bay of the attic stor y, on which pilasters are aligned with the columns of the por tico flanking windows. A narrow frieze with closely spaced roundels is topped by a projecting, molded cornice. Four antefixes decorate the roofli ne of the portico. The flanking walls display two windows on each story. The west wall, facing Sherman Street, is quite similar to the front. It features the sa me portico, but without an entrance or stairs. Its ornamentation and windows are th e same as the front. The eas t wall (abutting an alley) contains a slightly projecting center portico with four gi ant order pilasters. Fenestration is the same as on the front. The rear (south) wall features an inset center bay containing a th ree-story bow window. Interior The interior is notable for marble walls, golden oak woodwork, and brass stai r railings and trim. The building also contains a subbasement that originally housed heating a nd ventilation equipment for other buildings in the State Capitol Complex. Colorado State Office Building, 201 East Colfax Avenue, William N. Bowman (architect), 1921 (5DV5991, Resource 6, contributing building) In 1920-21 Colorado erected a State Office Building despit e some citizens objections that it created more office space than would ever be needed.49 The five-story Classical Revival style building (approximately 113 by 111 feet) at the northeast corner of Sh erman Street and East Colfax Avenue faces south toward the State Capitol across the street. Denver arch itect William N. Bowman designed the steel frame, clay tile hipped roof, square plan monumental building with walls composed of blocks of smooth, light gray Cotopaxi granite from Fremont County, Colorado. There is a set-back attic story. The front (south) displays a smooth stone foundation and molded, slanting wa ter table below the rustication of the first story. At the center is the ma in entrance with three sets of double brass doors with three-part transoms; the center entrance is flanke d by decorative bronze lamps.50 Surmounting the doors are stone panels with foliate ornament flanked by scroll brackets supporting shallow triangular pediments crowned with antefixes above the first story cornice. The entrance area is guarded by bronze mountain lions, sculpted by Robert Garrison and cast by A. and H.F. Hosek of Denver, resting on projecting stone bases. Between the entrance and the street stands a nonhistoric balustrade with the state s eal in the center and concrete end piers. Flanking the entrances on the south wall are two flat arch windows w ith gauged stone lintels. At each end of the first story are arch windows with transoms. A cornerstone at the southwest corner of th e building is dated 5 June 1920.51 49 All the History You Ever Wanted to Know About 201 E. Colfax Ave., The Gold Star December 2009 accessed at http://www.cde.state.co.us/communications on 4 February 2011. 50 This entrance originally had a revolving door. See All the History You Ever Wanted to Know About 201 E. Colfax Ave. 51 The lions were installed in mid-1922. Denver Post 2 July 1922, 11; Denver Municipal Facts May-June 1922, 5; Amy B. Zimmer, Denvers Capitol Hill Neighborhood, Images of America Series (Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing, 2009), 22.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 29 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form The second through fourth stories of the south facade are divided into seven bays by giant order fluted pilasters with composite capitals. A balustrade extends between th e pilasters above the firststory cornice. Inset bays between the pilasters contain fourlight windows with three-light transo ms on each story. Window spandrels on the third and fourth stories are metal, ornamented with plain molding, a ba nd with flowers, torches, garlands, fluting, and Greek key at the bottom. At each end of the building, the second story features a wide bay with a two-part window with a clathri transom surmounted by a triangular pedi ment with scroll brackets. The windows also have wrought iron balconets supported by stone brack ets. The stone entablatur e consists of a stepped architrave; a frieze inscribed State Office Building a nd ornamented with carved panels and roundels; and a cornice with dentils and modillions. The attic story presen ts a molded cornice with a frieze ornamented with a Vitruvian wave motif band above a series of seven central three-part window s flanked by single windows aligned with the fenestrati on of the lower stories. The first story of the west wall (adjacent to Sherma n Street) offers a center doubl e door entrance opening onto concrete steps with brass railings. The entrance is surmounted by a triangul ar pediment like those of the center of the south wall and is flanked by tall, tapering, threesided bronze light standards, each with three sphinx heads supporting a glass globe and a base of three clawed feet. Flanki ng the entrance are three four-light windows with three-light transoms a nd gauged stone lintels. At each end of the first story are arch windows with transoms. The second through fifth stories exhibit similar fenestration a nd ornament to that of the south wall. The entablature and attic cornice and frieze continue on the west wall. The north wall is clad with light gray granite, but displays less ornament ation than the south and west walls. The slightly inset seven-bay center s ection is flanked by two-bay sections on each end. The first story of the center section has an off-center entrance (added about 1985) and oneover-one-light metal windows with decorative security grilles, while the east and west ends with walls of banded rusticat ion contain two four-light gauged arch windows with transoms. The second through fifth stories have seven one-over-one-light windows with narrow sidelights in the center section, flanked by two one-over-one-l ight windows to the east and two two-light windows with four-light transoms to the west. The wall has a simpler enta blature than those on the south and west, with the sections at the outer ends including dentils. The east wall is also granite, except for the second th rough fifth stories of the cen ter section, which are clad with blonde brick. That section originally consisted of a light well, which was partially filled in during 1983-85 to create additional office space. Interior The interior of the building is notable for its two-stor y lobby with vaulted ceiling, bronze chandeliers, and Tiffany stained glass skylight. Th e lobby also features a checkerwork floor composed of black Tennessee marble displaying fossils and white Colorado Yule marble. Pink Botticino Italian marble is displayed on the walls of the lobby, while the wa lls of the remaining floors ar e clad in Vermont marble.52 Greek Theater and Colonnade of Civic Benefactors, West 14th Avenue and Acoma Street, Willis A. Marean and Albert J. Norton with Edward H. Be nnett (architects), Allen T upper True (artist), 1919 (5DV161.12, Resource 7, contributing structure) At the south end of Civic Center Park near West 14t h Avenue, the Greek Theater and the Colonnade of Civic Benefactors (approximately 210 feet x forty feet) face and balance the Voorhies Memorial Gateway on the opposite side of the park. Like the theaters of ancien t Greece from which it took in spiration, Denvers open-air theater was designed to host significant civic events attracting large groups of people seat ed in wedge-shaped sections of seats in concentr ic tiers rising from a circular orchestra in front of the stage. Th e central stage of the 52 Thomas J. Noel, Denver Landmarks and Historic Districts (Denver: Historic Denver, Inc., 1996), 34; James Bretz, Denvers Early Architecture Images of America Series (Charleston, S outh Carolina: Arcadia Publishing, 2010), 52-53.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 30 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form open-air theater pavilion is flanked by double colonnades with forty-foot Corinthian columns atop rusticated podiums built on the arc of a circle. Behind the semi-circula r, projecting stage, the th eater pavilion has a flat proscenium arch supported on fluted Ionic columns a nd piers with narrow corner pilasters atop massive rusticated pedestals. The full en tablature includes a frieze with patera and a cornice with classical moldings surmounted by a parapet. The theater, co lonnade, walls, balustrades, pylons, and piers were all constructed of light gray Turkey Creek sandstone. The rear (south) wall of the stage is ope n, but it originally featured a glass and bronze curtain that could be raised and lowered. Step s from the rear lead to a path among crabapple trees south to West 14th Avenue.53 Extending from either side of the theater pavilion is the Colonnade of Civic Benefactors. Called the most unique hall of fame in America, it consists of the cu rvilinear colonnades extending to each side of the central theater pavilion.54 The colonnades feature double rows of fortyfoot, smooth sandstone columns with Ionic capitals and terminate in square hi pped-roof pavilions with vaulted ce ilings and grouped corner columns. Between the columns are stone balustrades. Extending north from the end pavilions stone walls enclose the theater space on the east and west, each featuring near th e south end a panel with a sc ulptural lions head that was originally designed to spout wate r that would flow into a basin below. The names of civic benefactors are listed on the stone walls. Some names are spelled with individual bronze le tters designed by sculptor Robert Garrison. Other names are etched in a 1923 metal panel read ing: In order to give e ffect to the oft expressed intention of the late mayor Robert W. Speer the government of the city and county of Denver Colorado here records with grateful appreciation the names of civic be nefactors who by gifts of mate rial character have added to the beauty or to the distinction of this city. Another inscription, To the donors of the Pioneer Monument, the Auditorium curtains, the Welcome Arch, is fo llowed by additional names of men and women. Another inscription to the donors of the Burns monument and the municipal organ also contains names. Some donors are cited without reference to a specific gift, and a fe w acknowledgment plaques we re added in later years.55 As Speer biographer Edgar MacM echen observed, the tribute to civic be nefactors is distinguished from other commemorative works of art in that it is dedicated to all citizens, whether living or dead, who shall have enriched their city in heart interest as well as in art interest.56 The north end of the amphitheater is el aborated by an east-west balustrade pierced by fli ghts of stairs on the east and west ends that lead to the centr al walkway that follows the transverse axis across the park and connects to the Voorhies Memorial Gateway. M onumental columned pylons and conc rete and stone pedestals topped by bronze lions flank the stairs leading from the floor of the amphitheater to the walkway. Each light gray stone pylon consists of a cut stone base, paneled and bracketed pedestal, and fluted column with a scroll-shaped console holding a globed light topped by a stone sphere. At the interior ends of the colonnade s, stairways lead down to two entrances to the th eater pavilion: one opening onto the stage and one into a backstage room. The walls around each entrance are curved, and above the doorways are niches ornamented with Allen Tupper True murals. As early as 1913, True conceived of a large mural project that would later be realized in the embellishm ent of the theater. In 1919 Denver Municipal Facts announced Mrs. Charles Hanson Toll would donate two murals for niches above the stairs on either side of the stage pavilion in memory of her late husband, a prominent Denver lawyer.57 The Art Commission reviewed and approved preliminary sketches of the paintings. In February 1920, Frank Brangw yn advised True concerning 53 The stage is divided into a partially enclosed skene the structure facing the audience that serves as th e background for performances, and the proscenium the front part where the actors perform. Flanking the stage are rooms utilized by performers. 54 Denver Municipal Facts, September-October 1919, 2. 55 Denver Post 21 December 1922; Rocky Mountain News 6 January 1950, 6. 56 Edgar C. MacMechen, The Court of Honor to Civic Benefactors, Denver, Colorado, Art World 3(1917): 412. 57 Denver Municipal Facts November 1919, 17.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 31 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form the type of medium to use for the murals, commenting: I know of no city which has so fine a civic center. It is very noble.58 True painted the mural scenes in oil on canvas.59 Completed in 1920, the murals Trapper and Prospector depict pioneers in wilderness settings and reflect the theme of early life in the West. Prospector (in the east niche) is a spring-summer scene showing a whitebearded man with a packhorse. The man w ith a prospecting pan squats next to a stream in a grove of aspens and flowering columbine (the state flower). Trapper (in the west niche) presents an autumn scene with a man riding through a forest wearing a fringed buckskin jacket and a bl anket, as well as a cap w ith an upright feather. The trapper is carrying a musket and his faithful dog trav els alongside. Below each mural are two plaques: one dedicated to the memory of Charle s Hansen Toll and one commemorating the restoration of the murals by Philip Henselman in 1976. In 1920 Denver Municipal Facts reported that the murals connect the architecture of the Civic Center with the life of the state.60 The same year Reginald Poland, then director of the Denver Art Museum, expressed his opinion that the murals represen ted Trues finest work.61 Behind the amphitheater seating is a ci rcular sunken plaza (where, in the pa st, wood benches stood until winter). The paved plaza surface has a pattern of squares and diamonds of red and gray bricks bound by concrete borders. Today tiers of curved concre te benches ring the plaza; together the two seating areas accommodate as many as 1200 people. A 1919 newspaper ar ticle noted: This open air theater is successfully shut off from intrusion by artistic architectural creations and can be used for public concerts or an open forum.62 Alterations/Restoration : The theater originally included a large gla ss curtain that could be lowered to enclose the rear opening during productions. The curtain served as a sound deflector for the stage, yet permitted the audience to see West 14th Avenue.63 In the years following the first in scription of the names of civic benefactors, the city added new names, as was intended.64 Voorhies Memorial Gateway, West Colfax Avenue at Cheyenne Place, William E. Fisher and Arthur A. Fisher (architects), Allen Tupper True (artist), 1922 (5DV161.13, Resource 8, contributing structure) At the opposite end of the transverse axis that defines Civic Center Par k, lie the curved, double colonnade and monumental arch of the Voorhies Memorial Gateway (approximately 181 by 25 feet). This structure displays construction of the same smooth, light gray Turkey Creek sandstone. Double Ionic colonnades flank the monumental round arched gateway.65 The podium of the structure is sandst one and has tooled sandstone steps. The central gateway features a round arch elaborated with moldings and supported by paired Ionic columns. The arch displays a carved keystone and spandrel pa nels with carved wreaths. The projecting, molded cornice features a band of dentils.66 There is a plain, unbroken pa rapet above the cornice. The west interior wall of the archway contains a pla que indicating that John P. and Georgia H. Voorhies donated the structure in 1920. Arched l unettes above the entrances to the colonnades contain two Allen Tupper True murals: Bison (east) and Elk (west). Denver Art Museum Di rector George W. Eggers, formerly head of the 58 True and Kirby, Allen Tupper True 244. 59 Rocky Mountain News Now 21 November 1976, 20. 60 Denver Municipal Facts September 1920, 8. 61 Reginald Poland, Artistic Expression in Denver, Denver Municipal Facts, September 1920, 8. 62 Denver Post [1919], undated article in the clipping files of Denver Public Library Western History and Genealogy Department. 63 Denver Municipal Facts, November 1918, 16. 64 Rocky Mountain News 6 February 1964, 26. In 1971 former Denver resident Alfred P. Adamo donated the two 450-pound cast iron lions (one roaring and the other at rest with crosse d paws) placed atop pe destals at the north end of the amphitheate r. Adamo acquired the lions (artist and date unknown) at a Detroit estate auction of the Fisher Body Company family. Rocky Mountain News, 24 July 1971, 22. 65 Denver Municipal Facts, September-October 1919, 4 and November 1919, 5. 66 The architects original plans ca lled for an inscription on the frieze.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 32 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form Chicago Art Institute, suggested True emulate the style and colors of antique Greek vases in the pieces.67 The artist completed the murals in 1920 while standing on a s caffold and painting directly on sand-finished plaster.68 The double colonnades flanking the gateway provide cove red walkways for promenades. The colonnades have Ionic columns extending from the gateway, with slightly projecting square pavilions with vaulted ceilings at each end. The colonnades support an entablature, and the ceiling of the colonnades is vaulted and painted light blue. The colonnades curve towards the center of the pa rk and embrace a plaza having an elliptical reflecting pool, just as the Colonnade of Civic Benefact ors embraces the Greek theater seating area. Fisher and Fisher, the local architects who designed th e Voorhies Memorial Gateway, envisioned its completion with a reflecting pool located within the arc of the colonnade.69 The shallow elliptical basin is bounded by a low concrete retaining wall with a round ed rim. Sculptor Robert Garrison, w ho frequently collaborated with the architects, designed a pair of bronze fountains for the east and west ends of the pool, each in the form of a sea lion with an infant with an outstretched hand clinging to its neck and a jet of water shooting from its mouth and The sculptures are set atop rectangular concrete base s and face each other across th e pool, the jets of water intersecting above the center.70 Pioneer Monument Colfax Avenue, northwest corner of Broadway and West Colfax Avenue, Frederick W. MacMonnies (sculptor), Maurice P. Bisc oe (architect of shaft and base), 1911 (5DV161.1, Resource 9, contributing object) Planned before the city acquired th e grounds for the civic center, the Pioneer Monument played an important part in determining its final form.71 Located on the northern edge of the district in a small triangular block formed by Broadway, West Colfax Avenue, and Chey enne Place, this monumental fountain, designed by renowned American sculptor and planner Frederick MacMonnies, is thirty-five feet tall and features three bronze figures typical of frontier lif e, as well as a heroic equestrian statue of Kit Carson at the top The stepped hexagonal base is composed of black and light gray granite.72 Two projecting basins, originally intended as watering troughs for animals, intersect the base. Another granite basin at th e top of the base offers projecting pedestals holding three bronze stat ues. The seated figures include: Pioneer Mother and Child (on the northeast, depicting a woman in a dress holding a rifle and an infant next to a cradle and marked F. MacMonnies and Jaboeuf & Rouard Fondeurs Paris), The Trapper/Hunter (on the west), modeled after early-day Colorado scout Jim Baker, who holds a gun and dog, and marked F. MacMonnies and E. Gruet Fondeur Paris), and The Prospector/Miner (on the southeast, cast by Ja boeuf & Rouard). Water fills the lower basins from two fountains in the form of the mountain lion heads. Bronze tablets on the trough and pedest als include: a State of Colorado sh ield; To the Pioneers of Colorado, 1911; Subscribers to the Pioneer Monument Fund, 1911; Here was the End of the Famous Smoky Hill Trail, 1936; The Pioneer Monument, 1983; and, below Pioneer Mother Honoring Pioneer Mothers of Colorado/Dedicated by Daughters of Colorado/May 14, 1950. The south lions head basin displays a plaque with names of donors to the fountains restoration by the Park People and the City of Denver, December 1983. The granite pedestal of the Kit Carson statue rises from a rectangular base with large corner scrolls ornamented with carved bears. The top of the base is decorated with projecti ng curvilinear molding surmounted by sculptural cornucopias. The lo wer part of the shaft features plaques wi th carved eagles holding shields inscribed 67 Noel, Denver Landmarks and Historic Districts 33 and 141. 68 Denver Municipal Facts March-April 1923, 16; Rocky Mountain News 18 July 1949, 15. 69 Denver Municipal Facts, September-October 1919, 4 70 Denver Municipal Facts August 1921, 15. 71 Denver Municipal Facts, October 1918, 4. 72 Denver architect Maurice P. Biscoe designed the shaft and base. Modern Cemetery 21 (1911):627.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 33 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form Dedicated by the Citizens 1910, while the narrower top of the shaft is enci rcled by sculptural bison skulls and garlands of grain. A circular upper basin, with trout heads spouting water fr om its underside, projects outward above the shaft, providing a base for the Kit Carson equestrian statue at th e top. The life-sized figure looks back toward the east and points with his right hand to the west (the land of new opportunity) while astride a rearing horse. The Closing Era Colorado State Capitol grounds (center of east side), Preston Powers (sculptor), 1893 (installed 1898) (5DV161.5, Resource 10, contributing object) Preston Powerss sculpture, The Closing Era, is situated in the center of the east Capitol grounds between the statehouse and Grant Street. The bronze statue faces eas t and depicts a Native American hunter standing above a dying buffalo, his bow balanced on the animals shoulde r and his left foot resting on its lower back. The hunter is clad in a breechcloth and wears three feathers at the back of his head. An 1893 newspaper article reported it was not Powers intention to represent any particular tr ibe of Indians, but to represent an Indian as one of the many tribes that wandered ove r the plains in the past. However, at the request of his patrons, Powers endeavored to reproduce to some ex tent the facial outlines of [Ute Chief] Ouray in his younger days. The statue is approximately six-and-one-half-feet tall and ten feet long and rests on a battered gray Cotopaxi granite base with a projecting cap. The monument is placed in a raised circular bed filled with native plants and surrounded by a low wall capped in red sandstone. The Galli Br others foundry of Florence, Italy, cast the work. The use of bronze, instead of the initial choice of red sandstone, permitted Powers to show the Indian with a bow instead of a rifle and to give him a more gracef ul pose. For a larger version of the work, Powers commissioned poet John Greenleaf Whittier to produce a four-line poem, which provided the name, The Closing Era. After returning from the 1893 Worlds Columbian E xhibition in Chicago, th e statue was kept in storage and then displayed elsewhere on the Capi tol grounds until installed in this location in 1898.73 Broncho Buster Alexander Phimister Proctor (sculptor), no rth of the Greek Theater and west of the north-south axis, 191874 (installed 1920) (5DV161.16, Resource 11, contributing object) One of the countrys most prolific monument sculptors and a former Denver resi dent, Alexander Phimister Proctor designed Broncho Buster and its companion piece, On the War Trail. Both works represent regional themes important to the states history. Denver Municipal Facts observed: In the civic center the Bucking Broncho and Indian Scout [sic] of Procto r will preserve the picturesque atmos phere of the frontier, a flavor of which MacMonnies has already given in the Pioneer Monument.75 Many western artists depicted bronco busters, a popular symbol of the taming of the West.76 Sculptor Proctor remembered playing marbles as a boy on the site where his Broncho Buster stands.77 This monumental bronze equestrian statue depicts a cowboy wearing a hat, scarf, chaps, boots, ammunition belt, and gun sitting in a saddle on a bucking horse with its r ear feet off the ground and its head down. The cowboys right hand is raised, while his left hand holds the reins. The statue rests on a tall, finely crafted, curvilinear pedestal of pink granite atop a concre te pad. The statue is inscribed: A. Phimister Proctor and Gorham Co. Foundry. A bronze plaque on the east side of the base indicates J.K. Mull en, local industrial ist, donated the statue in 1920. A small stone bench rests on the concrete pad below the plaque. Cowboy Slim Ridings, whom Proctor reportedly bailed out of jail following charges of horse rustling, served as the model. 73 Rocky Mountain News 14 May 1893, 2 and 14 August 1895, 15; Closing Era Statue, Colorado State Capitol Virtual Tour, www.colorado.gov/dpa/doit/ archives/cap/close.htm (accessed 27 September 2010). 74 Mae E. Gillis, A History of the Civic Center of Denver, M. A. thesis, Colorado State Teach ers College, Greeley, Colorado, August 1929, 73. 75 Denver Municipal Facts, October 1918, 7. 76 Denver Art Museum, Defining the West: Creating the Cowboy & His World, Exhibition, 2010. 77 Denver Municipal Facts May-July 1926, 20.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 34 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form On the War Trail Alexander Phimister Proctor (sculptor), north of the Greek Theater and east of the north-south axis, 1918 (installed 1922) (5DV161.15, Resource 12, contributing object) Alexander Phimister Proctor produced this dignified representation of an American Indian, one of many works created by artists that influenced public perception of the nations indigenous peoples.78 Located directly north of the Greek Theater and opposite the Broncho Buster east of the main north-south axis of civic center, this monumental bronze equestrian statue depicts a Native American weari ng a breechcloth and moccasins, holding a spear with a triangular point, and ca rrying a quiver and scabbard on his back. The Indian has braided hair and is riding a bareback pony. The sculptur e is approximately 15 in height. A. Phimister Proctor and Gorham Co. Foundry are inscribed along the bottom of the statue The statue rests on a tall oblong pedestal of buff color Platte Canyon granite atop a concrete and sandstone pad.79 A plaque on the west side of the base reads, On the War Trail Presented to Denver by Stephen Knight A.D. 1922. Colorado Soldiers Monument Colorado State Capitol grounds near west Capitol entrance, Captain John D. Howland (artist) and J. Otto Schweizer (sculptor), 1909 (5DV161.6, Resource 13, contributing object) Captain John D. Howland, a frontier artist and Union veteran of the Ba ttle of Glorieta Pass, New Mexico, designed this monument to honor Coloradans who fought in the Civil War. J. Otto Schweizer of Philadelphia modeled the statue, with Bureau Brothers foundry of Philadelphia ex ecuting the casting. The monument consists of an eight-foot tall, 1950-pound, bronze statue of a dismounted Union cavalryman atop a rectilinear granite pedestal. The mustachioed so ldier, wearing a forage cap, cape, and boots with spurs, looks to the southwest while holding a rifle across his chest. He is also armed with a saber in a scabbard and a holstered pistol. On each side the granite pedestal has a raised center section wi th brackets and the inscription, 1865. A cornice with a decorative architrave is supported by scroll consoles. Each face of the pedestal has a carved stone plaque with the inscript ion, Erected by the State of Colorado and a bronze plaque bearing the names of Colorado Civil War dead. The plaque is bordered by decorativ e carving and flanked by tapered pilasters. The monument is set in a circular planting bed surrounded in the front by a low red sandstone wall and in back a granite wall surm ounted by a brass railing. Civil War Cannon, Number 268, Colorado State Capito l grounds northwest of the Colorado Soldiers Monument, Revere Copper Company (manufacturer), 1863 (installed ca. 1910) (5DV161.7, Resource 14, contributing object) Two Civil War-era cannons are located northwest and so uthwest of the Colorado Soldiers Monument at the west front of the Capitol. The Revere Copper Comp any manufactured the Numb er 268 twelve-pound Napoleon cannon in 1863. The muzzle end of the brass barrel is st amped with the name of the manufacturer, a number (No. 268), the date 1863, lbs., and the letters T.J.H. The ba rrel trunnions rest on a carriage constructed of Honduran mahogany reinfo rced with metal bands; the large wood spoke wheels have metal rims. The cannon is located at the northwest edge of the recently installed Colorado Soldiers Monument plaza.80 Civil War Cannon, Number 148, Colorado State Capitol grounds southwest of the Colorado Soldiers Monument, Revere Copper Company (manufacturer), 1862 (installed ca. 1910) (5DV161.7, Resource 15, contributing object) The Revere Copper Company manufactured this tw elve-pound Napoleon cannon in 1862. The muzzle end of the brass barrel is stamped with the name of the manufacturer, a number (No. 148), the date 1862, lbs., and the letters T.J.H. Th e barrel trunnions rest on a carriag e constructed of Honduran mahogany 78 Denver Art Museum, Defining the West: Picturing American Indians, Exhibition, 2010. 79 Rocky Mountain News 10 May 1922, 2. 80 Civil War Cannons, Colorado State Ca pitol Virtual Tour, www.co lorado.gov/dpa/doit/ archives /cap/cannon.htm (accessed 18 June 2008); Colorado Historical Society, State Historical Fund, Stabilization of Civil War cannons, grant application, numbe r 9402-72, 1 March 1994.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 35 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form reinforced with metal bands; the large wood spoke wh eels have metal rims. One of the metal bands on the carriage is stamped US Watervliet Arsenal. The cannon is located at the southwest edge of the recently installed Colorado Soldiers Monument plaza. The cannon and its companion have been on display at this location as early as 1910.81 Sadie M. Likens Drinking Fountain, Lincoln Park near northwest corner, 1923 (5DV161.11, Resource 16, contributing object) The Sadie Likens Drinking Fountain, on a slightly raised platform adjacent to the Broadway sidewalk, is a tapered, black granite, six-foot, six-inch tall pedestal whose north and sout h edges have a raised, polished foliate design. The monument features sculpt ural brass drinking fountains (no lo nger operational) and identical brass plaques on its polished north and south faces; the east and west faces are not polished. The plaques dedicate the monument in memory of Sadie M. Likens 1840-1920 who devoted many years of her life aiding the survivors of the Civil War and other wars. The Grand Army of the Republic, Affiliated Orders, and friends erected the monument, which was dedicated on 7 July 1923.82 Edbrooke Memorial Flagpoles and Drinking Fountains in front of the Denver City and County Building, Roland L. Linder (architect), 1935 (Resource 17, on the north, & Resource 18, on the south, both contributing objects) The two 2000-pound tapered steel flagpoles on the lawn of the city-county building are seventy feet, three inches, in height. Each shaft emerge s from a nine-foot Cotopaxi granite base topped by an octagonal bronze collar engraved with the words, Memorial/Camilla S. Edbrooke.83 Drinking fountains have been installed on the north and south sides of the granite bases of each flagpole.84 NONCONTRIBUTING RESOURCES There are nine noncontributing resources within the nom inated boundary. All are comm emorative objects, and, with the exception of the Colorado Veterans Monument, are relatively small in scale. Colorado Veterans Monument, near the center of Lincoln Park, Robert Root and Richard Farley (architects), in association with Noel Copeland and JH/P Architecture, 1990 (Resource 19, noncontributing object) The 1990 Colorado Veterans Monument is the largest noncontributing res ource within the nominated area. Located at the center of Lincoln Park, the monument is made of red sandstone from Lyons, Colorado. The centerpiece is a three-sided obelisk, forty-five feet in height, topped by a pointed, asymmetri cal lighted bronze and onyx beacon. The west face of the obelisk near its base contains five bronze insignia representing the branches of the U.S. military. An engraving below expr esses the people of Colorados gratitude and respect for the men and women who have proudly se rved and sacrificed in our nations armed forces. At the base is a projecting red granite altar stone. The monument is set on a paved plaza pave d in red sandstone and granite with a low north-south wall built into the slope of the land. The resource is assessed as noncontributing due to its installation after the period of significance.85 81 A photograph of the west front of the Capitol in Denver Municipal Facts shows both cannons flanking the Colorado Soldiers Monument in November 1910. Denver Municipal Facts 12 November 1910, 10; Civil War Cannons, Colorado State Capitol Virtual Tour, www.colorado .gov/dpa/doit/ archives/cap/c annon.htm (accessed 18 Ju ne 2008); Colorado Hist orical Society, State Historical Fund, Stabilization of Civil War cannons, grant application, number 94-02-72, 1 March 1994. 82 Murphy, Geology Tour 40-41; Likens Drinking Fountain, Colorado State Capitol Virtual Tour, www.colorado.gov/dpa/doit/ archives/cap/likens.htm (accessed 18 June 2008). 83 Camilla S. Edbrooke was the wife of noted Denver architect Frank E. Edbrooke, who designed the State Museum. Edbrooke also served as supervising architect the State Capitol for several years. Rocky Mountain News 7 November 1935, 15. 84 Carroll, History and Description of the City and County Building 85 Veterans Monument, Colorado State Capitol Virtual Tour, www.col orado.gov/dpa/doit/ archives /cap/vets.htm (accessed 18

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 36 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form Liberty Bell Replica Number 47, Lincoln Park near south center, Paccard Foundry (manufacturer), 1950 (installed 1986) (5DV161.9, Resource 20, noncontributing object) This is one of fifty-five, full-sized replicas of the Liberty Bell fabricated in 1950 by the Paccard Foundry, in Annecy-le-Vieux, France. The original Liberty Bell was cast in 1752 (then re cast in 1753) for the Pennsylvania Statehouse in Philadelphia (now known as Independen ce Hall). The U.S. Department of the Treasury commissioned the replicas with fundi ng provided by six major U.S. corporat ions and distributed them without charge to the states and territories. Located in the south-central section of Lincol n Park, the three-foot high Colorado bell stands on an eighteen-foot circular concrete base. The one-piece wood yoke (oriented east-west) rests in a steel cradle constructed by the American Br idge Company, with the bell hanging from the yoke by metal Uand eye-bolts. This is the bells third location, having previously been situated in the old Colorado State Museum Building and at the corn er of Sherman Street and East 14th Avenue. It was moved to this site in 1986. The resource is assessed as noncontributing due to its installation after the period of significance.86 United Nations Square and Flagpole, southwest of the Greek Theater, 1950 (relocated 1983) ( (Resource 21, noncontributing object). This commemorative object consists of a two-part octagonal pink granite base; a round granite column tapered toward the top with decorative moldings, garlands, brackets; a bronze plaque (United Nations Square) on the south; and a thirty-eight foot, silv er metal flagpole crafted by the Un ion Metal Manufacturing Co. of Canton, Ohio, hoisting the United States flag and, on a cross-pie ce, the Colorado and United Na tions flags. The flagpole formerly was located at Broadway and 16th Street. This resource is noncontri buting due to its installation after the period of significance. Emily Griffith Memorial Drinking Fo untain, south of the Voorhies Me morial Gateway and west of the north-south axis, John Burrey (designer), 1954 (Resource 22, noncontributing object). Alfred P. Adamo, former Denver resident, donated this ob ject in recognition of the positive influence in his life of the Opportunity School founded by teacher Emily Griffith. 87 The piece consists of a roughly four-foottall drinking fountain with a shaft of pol ished black granite, carved with in formation about Emily Griffith, rising from a gray stone base. Denver architect John Burrey designed the memorial fountain. This resource is noncontributing due to it installation after the period of significance. Ten Commandments Monument, Lincol n Park near northwest corner, Fraternal Order of Eagles National Headquarters (donor), 1956 (5DV161.10, Resource 23, noncontributing object). The red granite Ten Commandments Monument is approxima tely four feet tall and tw o-and-one-half feet wide with a double-arched top. The principal face (southwest) of the monument contains engr avings of an eagle, an American flag, and an eye in a triangle surrounded by rays of light (the eye of Pr ovidence or the all-seeing eye of God), flanked by round-arched tablets with wr iting in Greek. Below is the text of the Biblical Ten Commandments (or Decalogue) and a sc roll noting the monuments donation by the Fraternal Order of Eagles of Colorado. The sides are rock-faced and the blank rear is tooled. The Colorado chapter of the Eagles placed the monument here in 1956. The nationa l headquarters of the group designed the monument as part of a national June 2008); Tim Drago, ed., Mission Accomplished: Building Colorado Veterans Monument (Denver: Colorado Tribute to Veterans Fund, Inc., 2003); Tim Drago, Denver, Colorado, Telephone Interview by Thomas H. Simmons, 10 December 2010. 86 Liberty Bell Replica, Colorado State Capitol Virtual Tour, www.colorado.gov/dpa /doit/ archives/cap/bell.htm (accessed 18 June 2008); National Park Service, Independence National Historical Park, Liberty Bell Center, website, http://www.nps.gov/inde /liberty-bell-center.htm (accessed 4 Octobe r 2010); Liberty Bell Museum, website, http://www.libertybellmuseum.com (accessed 18 June 2008); Michigan Department of Natural Re sources and Environment, Michigans Liberty Bell, website, http://w ww.michigan.gov (accessed 18 June 2008). 87 Emily Griffith Drinking Fountain, Art Inventory Catalog, Smithsonian Amer ican Art Museum, accessed at http://sirisartinventories.si.edu on 16 June 2009 and Rocky Mountain News 19 June 1954, 21.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 37 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form service campaign and installed th e monuments throughout the country.88 This resource is noncontributing due to its installation after the period of significance. In Honor of Christopher Columbus William F. Joseph (sculptor), south of the Voorhies Memorial Gateway and east of the north-south axis, 1970, installed 1975 (5DV161.14, Resource 24, noncontributing object). Italian immigrant and former Denver resident Alfred P. Adamo donated this monument created by Denver sculptor William F. Joseph to the city to honor Colorado as the first state to recognize Columbus Day as a holiday.89 This fifteen-foot high work includes an eight-byten-foot concrete ba se topped by a battered concrete column. Atop the column is a bronze figure reminiscent of Da Vincis Vitruvian Man, having four faces, arms, and legs pointing to the four cardinal directions of the compass and en circled by three rings suggesting a globe. A plaque on the base describes the accomplishments of Columbus. A white marble bench is placed below the statue.90 This resource is noncontributing due to its in stallation after the pe riod of significance. Trees or Untitled West Colfax Avenue, north of the Carnegie Library, Robert Mangold (sculptor), 1975 (relocated) (Resource 25, noncontributing object). Commissioned as part of an Art in the City project funded by the city and the National Endowment for the Arts, this roughly sixteen-foot tall and twenty-two foot wide piece consists of two abstract sculptures of trees created from variously sized welded steel pipes attached to thick center pipes (trunks) set in a concrete base.91 A plaque reads By Robert Mangold/Untitled/Pr esented to the City of Denver by R obert Mangold and the Park People 1975. First installed in the median on West Colfax Ave nue near Bannock Street, the sculpture was moved into Civic Center Park. This resource is noncontributing due to its installa tion after the period of significance. Joe P. Martinez Lincoln Park near north center, Emanuel Martinez (sculptor), 1988 (Resource 26, noncontributing object). Dedicated in 1988, this memorial honors U.S. Army Private Joe P. Martinez of Ault, Colorados first recipient of the Medal of Honor in World War II. During action on Attu Island in the Aleutians in May 1943, Private Martinez led troops against Japanese positions, displaying conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty before his d eath. The larger-than-life-size bronze st atue rests on an eighteen-by-twentytwo-foot base of concrete and Baltic brown granite from Finland. It faces southwest and depicts the soldier in combat gear advancing with a Browning automatic ri fle. Denver sculptor Emanuel Martinez created the memorial. This resource is noncontributing due to its installation after the period of significance.92 Colorado Volunteers Flagpole, Lincoln Park near west center, 1990 (5DV161.8, Resource 27, noncontributing object). The Colorado Volunteers Flagpole consists of a forty-fi ve-foot flagpole of spun aluminum which rises to a ball finial. It is set in a cylindrical red sandstone base covered with meta l plaques honoring Colorado servicemen who died in the Spanish American Wa r. The flagpole has a metal shield on the west side just above the base, indicating it was erected in honor of the Colorado Volunteers of 1898 by the Society of the Sons of the Revolution and dedicated on 14 June 1898. Originally located in the center of Lincoln Park, the flagpole was 88 Ten Commandments Plaque, Colorado State Capitol Virt ual Tour, www.colorado.gov/dpa/doit/ archives/cap/ten.htm (accessed 18 June 2008); Rocky Mountain News 23 September 1967, 31. 89 Rocky Mountain News 13 August 2008 www.rockymountainnews.com (accessed 16 June 2009). 90 Denver Post 25 June 1970, 23; In Honor of Christopher ColumbusDenver, CO accessed at www.waymarking.com on 16 June 2008; Central Denve r Park District Points of Interest, acce ssed at denvergov.org on 20 June 2008. 91 Trees (or Untitled) by Robert MangoldDenver, CO accessed at www.waymarki ng.com on 18 June 2008. 92 Murphy, Geology Tour 38-39; U.S. Army, Center of Military History, Medal of Honor Recipients -World War II (M-S), website, http://www.history.army.mil/html/moh/ wwII-m-s.html (accessed 28 September 2010); Joseph P. Martinez Statue, Colorado State Capitol Virtual Tour, www.co lorado.gov/dpa/doit/ archives/cap/j oe.htm (accessed 18 June 2008).

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 38 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form displaced by the construc tion of the Colorado Veterans Monument and reconstructed in 1990. The metal flagpole replaced an original wood mast and the sandstone base is not original. The metal shield and plaques are the only extant parts of the original monument. This resource, counted as contributing in the National Register nomination prepared in 1974, is noncont ributing due to its construction a nd installation afte r the period of significance.93 INTEGRITY Denver Civic Center displays a high leve l of historic physical integrity, retain ing all of the buildings, structures, and all but one of the objects completed on the site duri ng the period of significance. Much of the historic landscape also retains its historic design and elaborating features fr om the period of significance. Resources added after the period of significance are generally small and in keeping with the artistic and commemorative intent envisioned by early planners. Location The locations of the contributing resources within the civic center are unchanged since the period of significance, preserving the important or iginal siting and grouping of the buildings, structures, and objects and their relationships with each other. Noted planners carefully reco mmended where each of the buildings, structures, and objects should be placed to achieve the greatest effect in term s of City Beautiful considerations such as beauty, inspirationa l value, harmony, and perspective. Likewise, the major divisions of space within the landscape remain and retain their orig inal relationship to th eir surroundings, offering the same opportunities for appreciation of co mponent areas. Design. The substantial majority of histor ic resources in the civic center re tain a remarkably high degree of integrity of design. The Denver Public Library expe rienced significant exterior alte ration to its north elevation in 1957 as part of the effort to update and reuse the build ing after its library functions ended. Its redesign as an office building resulted in removal of monumental stairs leading to the main entrance, which were replaced with an entrance at the basement level facing a newly-cons tructed sunken courtyard. The original windows of the building also were replaced at this time and the openings truncated by the installation of limestone panels. The frieze inscription on the faade was cove red. Despite these changes the library retains its historic character and remains an essential component of the civic center, repr esenting the first building after the Capitol planned and completed within the district and one th at influenced all plans fo r the site. The original rear wall of the library facing Civic Center Park is unchange d, based on historic photographs. In the 1980s a light well on the east alley side of the State Office Building was partiall y filled to create additional office space. The nine noncontributing objects are commemorative and arti stic elements that were added to the civic center after the period of significance. Most ar e compatible with the original functi ons and general design ethos of the civic center site. Relatively small in scale, they do not seriously detract from the original qualities of the designed landscape, architecture, an d artistic objects. The Colorado Ve terans Monument, a red sandstone obelisk forty-five feet in height ad ded at the center of Lincoln Park in 1990, impinges upon the open vista along the primary east-west axis between the Capitol and the city -county building first prop osed by Charles Mulford Robinson. The relatively short and slender monument repl aced the 120-foot tall Colo rado Volunteers Flagpole that had been installed at the center of the park in 1898. The elevated site of the Capitol in relationship to the lower level of Lincoln Park and the city-county building somewhat mitigates the visual impact of the Veterans Monument.94 93 Before its move and reconstruction, the flagpole was assessed as contributing in the 1988 National Register district nomination. Drago, ed., Mission Accomplished ; Colorado Legislative Council, Memorials and Art in and Around the Colorado State Capitol (Denver: Colorado Legislative Council, June 1992), 89. 94 An entirely reconstructed version of the flagpole stands a short distance west of the Vetera ns Memorial and is about the same height (forty-five feet) as the shaft of the monument.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 39 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form In the 1990s the western Capitol grounds received a pl aza extending from the west front of the Capitol around the Colorado Soldiers Monument, on which the two Ci vil War cannons are placed. Red sandstone stairs and walkways across the west lawn from the plaza to the northwest and southwest corners of the block mirror similar walks in Lincoln Park. Reinhard Schuetze had included such walkways in original plans for the Capitol grounds, but they were not constructed. In 1996 a circul ar commemorative area was cr eated on the east lawn of the Capitol grounds around The Closing Era flanked by two smaller circular commemorative areas. The landscape design of Lincoln Park experienced the mo st change after the period of significance, while the basic designs of the Capitol grounds, Civic Center Park, and Denver City and County Building grounds retain substantial historic integrity. In 1989 -90 Lincoln Park underwent alterations associated with th e construction of the Colorado Veterans Monument, including the resurfacin g of the two elliptical walks established by Reinhard Schuetze. Reconstruction and resurfacing of the histor ic east-west walkway west of the Veterans Monument also occurred. In association with the Veterans Monument, a low curvi ng wall and flagstone-paved courtyard were constructed. These modifications were in keeping with improvements made to the west front plaza and central stairway leading down from th e west portico of the statehouse. Civic Center As the 2005 Denvers Civic Center: Park Master Plan concluded: Civic Centers original compos ition, as a formal, symmetrically arranged plan defined by two stepped terraces and a primary axis, is largely intact. Its composition is the parks strongest defining characteristic. The parks composition closely resembles the constructed park of the early 1920s that was the result of Edward Benne tts plan of 1917. Today, as in the early 1920s, the primary park spaces and those features that define its organization remain.95 Changes within Civic Center Park include incorporation of much of the northern sidewalk along the Great Lawn into a parking lot behind the public lib rary in the 1950s. The south triangle (which was seen as balancing the north triangle of the Pioneer Monum ent) is not extant and is no l onger part of the civic center. Upon construction of the new Denver Public Library, the city vacated the street south of the triangle and it became part of the library grounds. In 2011 the city eliminated the extension of 15th Street to Broadway and incorporated the previously isol ated triangular piece of parkland into the main body of the park. Drawings for Civic Center Park from 1936 and 1963 show al most no change in the layout of interior walkways; by 1989 some secondary north-south paths had been eliminated.96 Pedestrian ramps and the central stairs from the balustrade in Civic Center Park linking the east-west walkway to the lowe r terrace of the park were built in the early 1990s. In 2011, two nonhistoric diagonal paved walkways in the Broadway Terrace area were removed and replaced with two curvi ng concrete sidewalks extending from the northeast and southeast corners of the park to the west end of the central walkway. The elliptical configuration of the new sidewalks emulates the design of the walkways in Lincoln Park. Other 2011 changes to Broadway Terra ce included: widening the curving sidewalk east of the balustrade and adding brick pads for benches; adding concrete pads with benches along the east-west sidewalks bordering the terrace on the north and south; planting additional trees at the north and south ends; and installing raised granite curbs along some sidewalks. Two rectangular planting beds were 95 Mundus Bishop Design, Inc., Denvers Civic Center Master Plan (Denver: Denver Parks and Recreation Department, 2005), 21-, 76. 96 Civic Center, Denver, 1932, Drawing, April 1932 (updated through 1936). Denver Parks Department Collection, WH1316, OVFF363, Range Unit 2, Shelf 4, Western History and Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado; E. Johnson, Civic Center Redevelopment Plan, Drawing, 22 May 1956 (updated through 4 December 1963), Denver Parks Department Collection, WH1316, OVFF305, Range FFC17, Shelf 18, Western History and Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado; A.A. Engineers and Associates, Inc., Civic Center Park, Drawing, Denver, Colorado, 24 April 1989, Denver Parks Department Collection, WH1316, OVFF305, Range FFC17, Shelf 18, Western History and Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 40 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form created at the center of th e promenade along the secondary axis, whic h was paved in a manner similar to the historic Broadway Terrace central walkway in the early 1990s. Setting The addition of new cultural and governmental build ings on the periphery of the district clearly differentiates Denver Civic Center from its surroundings. City Beautiful planners en couraged construction of civic and cultural facilities in adjace nt areas, and many of the buildings er ected after the period of significance represent this intention. However, pl anners such as Charles M. Robinson and Edward H. Bennett suggested any new construction in the immediate vici nity should represent architecture harmonious in style, materials, massing, and height, as well as appropr iate functions. Despite the abandonm ent of many of the principles of architectural harmony, buildings erected adjacent to th e civic center do evince similar dignity, importance of purpose, and quality of design and construction. The architectural styles surr ounding the site serve to differentiate it from the remainder of downtown Denver and emphasize its sp ecial sense of place. The later buildings display styles stemming from different periods of development and are a reminder of the constant evolution of the city outside the boundary of the dist rict. Several of the buildings qualify as landmarks themselves and fulfill the City Beautifu l role of attracting visi tors to the city and providing efficiency through their proximity to the older bui ldings of related function. Materials. Denver Civic Center retains integrity of materials, which to a large extent remain unchanged on the buildings, structures, and objects. As discussed above the 1956 remodeling of the library resulted in replacement of its origin al windows. Some of the metal streetli ghts within park areas are replicas.97 Greek Theater rehabilitation in 2003 rebuilt its flooring and benches using appropri ate materials in accordance with the Secretary of the Interiors st andards. Projects beginning in 2009 re habilitated the Greek Theater and Colonnade of Civic Benefactors and the Voorhies Memorial Gateway. With the exception of the concrete and brick center walkway in Broadway Te rrace and some perimeter sidewalks, in terior Civic Center Park walkways did not receive a hard surface until the early 1990s.98 After the period of significance, some changes to the existing vegetation occurred. During a dispute over the disparity between the plantings at Civic Center Park and those of the Capitol grounds in 1936, Denver Public Works Director George E. Cranmer observed, The trees in Civic Center dont get along with the trees on the Capitol grounds. He ordered the removal of evergreen trees from around the public library and the planting of flowering trees and shrubs.99 Crabapple trees were added to the for ecourt of the Voorhies Memorial. In 1938 WPA workers removed some English elms planted in 1919 to improve the view be tween the Capitol and the city-county building.100 During its 1959 Rush to the Rockies centennial celebra tion, Denvers Parks Director Dave Abbott suggested: The Capitol grounds and Civic Center form a single show place in the center of the city and should be treated as such.101 The state cooperated with the effort, allowing city workers to replace diseased trees with a variety of new ones as part of the areas dress-up. The state ha d undertaken no new lands caping program for many years, and as W.M. Williams, the planning director, commen ted, The city is set up to plan and do this work better than we are. 97 Mundus Bishop Design, Design Guidelines 56. 98 Historic park drawings label the internal walkways as gravel in 1936, blacktop in 1963, and oil in 1989. Civic Center, Denver, 1932, Drawing, April 1932 (updated through 1936); E. Johnson, Civic Center Redevelopment Plan, Drawing, 22 May 1956 (updated through 4 December 1963); A.A. Engineers and Associat es, Inc., Civic Center Park, Draw ing, Denver, Colorado, 24 April 1989. 99 Rocky Mountain News 19 April 1920, 16. 100 Denver Post 2 March 1938, 7. 101 Denver Post 16 May 1959, 6.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 41 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form On Broadway Terrace outer rows of the crabapple trees were placed along the central walkway in the 1990s. In 2005 the city planted two flower beds in the forecourt of the city-county buildi ng with xeriscaping. The 2009 Design Guidelines identified areas with in the park containing hi storic patterns of vege tation. Historic vegetation planted before 1932 includes the red oak groves on the Broadway Terrace, scattere d trees along Bannock Street, and a cluster of trees west of the Greek Theater. The northern and southern edges of the park exhibit more recent tree plantings.102 Workmanship. The Denver Civic Center retains integrity of workmanship, as evidenced in the skill displayed in the construction of the monu mental buildings and structures, the de sign of the site, and the creation of embellishing works of art. The labor and craftsmanship embodied in the quarrying and finishing of stone utilized in the construction of build ings and structures remains a remarkable testament to the industry in Colorado. Retention of the important elements of the basic landscape design conceived by Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., elaborated by Edward H. Bennett, and actualized by local la ndscape architects such as Reinhard Schuetze and Saco De Boer, testifies to the quality of its conception and actualization. The works of artists within the district, includ ing murals and sculptures designed by nationally-recognized professionals, display integrity of workmanship and continue to add beauty to the setting and represent some of the finest skills of the era. Feeling The retention of all of the original buildings, st ructures, and all except one object, as well as the preservation of most of th e original landscape, contri bute to the integrity of feeling which enables understanding of the immense undertaking the historic resources represent. The combination of these elements illuminates the civic life and municipal aspirations in this urban location during the early twentieth century. These elements also allow the visi tor to understand the enduring legacy of City Beautiful philosophies and Beaux-Arts design. The dignified se tting, framed by the State Capitol and the Denver City and County Building, enhances a feeling of purpose and inspiration for visitors. Association As one of the most complete and intact civic centers in the country, the district conve ys its historic character and provides an important window into the association between the City Beautiful movement, BeauxArts aesthetics, progressive social an d political concepts, and the developmen t of Denver embodied in a realized civic center. All of the buildings and structures and all but on e object erected and placed in civic center during the period of significance are present, associated with its history, and convey its significance, providing a direct link to an important era of the citys past. 102 Mundus Bishop Design, Design Guidelines Figure 4.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 42 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form DENVER CIVIC CENTER NHL RESOURCES LOCATED WITH IN DISTRICT BOUNDARY Res. No. Resource Year Built Designer Resource Type Contributing Status Subarea Location 1 Denver Civic Center Site 18951935 Reinhard Schuetze, Charles Mulford Robinson, Frederick W. MacMonnies, Olmsted Brothers and Arnold Brunner, Edward H. Bennett, Allied Architects Association Site Contributing All 2 Colorado State Capitol, 200 E. Colfax Ave. 1908 Elijah E. Myers and Frank E. Edbrooke BuildingContributing Capitol Grounds 3 Denver City and County Building, 1437 Bannock St. 1932 Allied Architects Association BuildingContributing City and County Building Grounds 4 Denver Public Library, 144 W. Colfax Ave. 1910 Albert Randolph Ross BuildingContributing Civic Center Park 5 Colorado State Museum, 200 E. 14th Ave. 1915 Frank E. Edbrooke BuildingContributing Other 6 Colorado State Office Building, 201 E. Colfax Ave. 1921 William N. Bowman BuildingContributing Other 7 Greek Theater and Colonnade of Civic Benefactors 1919 Marean and Norton with Edward H. Bennett Structure Contributing Civic Center Park 8 Voorhies Memorial Gateway 1921 Fisher and Fisher Structure Contributing Civic Center Park 9 Pioneer Monument 1911 Frederick MacMonnies Object Contributing Other 10 The Closing Era 1893 Preston Powers (installed 1898) Object Contributing Capitol Grounds 11 Broncho Buster 1918 Alexander Phimister Proctor (installed 1920) Object Contributing Civic Center Park 12 On the War Trail 1918 Alexander Phimister Proctor (installed 1922) Object Contributing Civic Center Park 13 Colorado Soldiers Monument 1909 Capt. John D. Howland and J. Otto Schweizer Object Contributing Capitol Grounds 14 Civil War Cannon (north) 1863 Revere Copper Company (installed ca.1910) Object Contributing Capitol Grounds

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 43 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form Res. No. Resource Year Built Designer Resource Type Contributing Status Subarea Location 15 Civil War Cannon (south) 1862 Revere Copper Company (installed ca.1910) Object Contributing Capitol Grounds 16 Sadie Likens Drinking Fountain 1923 Unknown Object Contributing Lincoln Park 17 Camilla S. Edbrooke Memorial Flagpole and Drinking Fountain (north) 1935 Roland Linder Object Contributing City and County Building Grounds 18 Camilla S. Edbrooke Memorial Flagpole and Drinking Fountain (south) 1935 Roland Linder Object Contributing City and County Building Grounds 19 Colorado Veterans Monument 1990 Robert Koot and Richard Farley in association with Noel Copeland Object NoncontributingLincoln Park 20 Liberty Bell Replica 1950 Paccard Foundry (installed 1986) Object NoncontributingLincoln Park 21 United Nations Flagpole 1950 Unknown (installed 1983) Object NoncontributingCivic Center Park 22 Emily Griffith Drinking Fountain 1954 John Burrey Object NoncontributingCivic Center Park 23 Ten Commandments Monument 1956 Fraternal Order of Eagles National Headquarters Object NoncontributingLincoln Park 24 In Honor of Christopher Columbus 1970 William F. Joseph Object NoncontributingCivic Center Park 25 Trees or Untitled 1975 Robert Mangold Object NoncontributingCivic Center Park 26 Joseph P. Martinez 1988 Emanuel Martinez Object NoncontributingLincoln Park 27 Colorado Volunteers Flagpole 1990 Unknown Object NoncontributingLincoln Park NOTES: Contributing Status: C, contributing; NC, noncontributing. Location: Other indicates locations no rth of Colfax Avenue or south of 14th Avenue. Resource Numbers: Resource numbers are keyed to the narrative de scription and the sketch map.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 44 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form 8. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE Certifying official has considered the significance of this property in relation to other properties: Nationally: X Statewid e: Locally: Applicable National Register Criteria: A X B C X D Criteria Considerations (Exceptions): A B C D E F G NHL Criteria: 1, 4 NHL Criteria Exceptions: NHL Theme(s): III. Expressing Cultural Values 5. Architecture, landscape architecture, and urban design Areas of Significance: Community Planning and Development Architecture Art Landscape Architecture Period(s) of Significance: 1890-1935 Significant Dates: 1904, 1908, 1910, 1911, 1915, 1917, 1921, 1932 Significant Person(s): N/A Cultural Affiliation: N/A Architect/Builder: Allied Architects Association Bennett, Edward H. Bowman, William N. Edbrooke, Frank E. Fisher, William A. and Fisher, Arthur E. Garrison, Robert MacMonnies, Frederick W. Marean, Willis A. and Norton, Albert J. Myers, Elijah E. Powers, Preston Proctor, Alexander Phimister Ross, Albert Randolph Schuetze, Reinhard True, Allen Tupper Historic Contexts: VII. Politic al and Military Affairs, 1865-1939 C. The Progressive Era, 1901-1914

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 45 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form XVI. Architecture W. Regional and Urban Planning 1. Urban Areas XVII. Landscape Architecture (i t has no subheadings or description) XXIV. Painting and Sculpture G. Historical Painting and Sculpture: Memory and Dreams, 1876-1908 H. The 20th Century, 1900-1930 3. Regionalism, 1915-1935

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 46 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form State Significance of Property, and Justify Criteria, Criteria Considerations, and Areas and Periods of Significance Noted Above. SIGNIFICANCE The Denver Civic Center is nationa lly significant under the NHL theme Expressing Cultural Values and NHL Criteria 1 and 4. It is significant under National Historic Landmark Criteri on 1, for its outstanding representation of the widespr ead impact of the City B eautiful Movement on American cities and the attendant creation of civic centers duri ng the early twentieth century. This theme is central to the history of American planning, architecture, art, and landscap e architecture and is expressed in the diversity of experiences that characterized the nations growth and expansion. The property also is si gnificant under Criterion 4 as an outstanding example of cohesive public landscape design and as a collection of public architecture. The civic centers artistic merit represents the work of several na tionally and regionally prom inent planners, architects, artists, and landscape architects and whose component s were executed through ma ny projects extending over many years. The Denver Civic Center is an exceptional example of an American civic center, reflecting what has been described as a successful merging of the formality and rational order of the Beaux-Arts tradition with the democratic ideals and regional splendor of the nations interior landscape and heritage. Its inclusion of the works of important regional artists a nd architects conveying imagery of the areas heritage and the perceived triumph of order and unity over the wild American contin ent is a representative feat ure of civic center design reflecting the emergence and recogni tion of growing cultural and artistic sophisti cation paralleled by the maturation of regional governance. The period of signifi cance for the property begins in 1890, with the laying of the cornerstone of the Colorado St ate Capitol, and ends in 1935, with th e completion of the City and County Building grounds. The district is remark ably intact, retaining a ll of the of buildings, st ructures, and all but one object that adorned it during the period of significance, as well as signifi cant features of its historic designed landscape. As in communities across the countr y during the early twentiet h century, Denvers civic leaders, most notably Mayor Robert W. Speer (serving 1904-1912 and 1916-1918) and the Denver Art Commission, called for improvement and beautificati on of the urban environment.103 Adopting tenets of the City Beautiful movement and influenced by the 1902 plan for Washington, D.C., De nver sought to create a gr and civic center containing monumental cultural and governmental bui ldings of American Beaux-Arts cl assical design linked by a formally ordered and inspiring landscape, a rich display of works of art and co mmemoration, and magnificent vistas. A series of nationally recognized profes sionals from a variety of fields prep ared plans for the district, including Charles Mulford Robinson, Frederick MacMonnies, Fred erick Law Olmsted, Jr., and Edward H. Bennett. Bennett is credited with harmonizing key elements of previous plans and integrating his own ideas and those of local leaders into a successfully actualized scheme. The process of ach ieving a plan approved by the populace and convincing voters to accept the entailed cost lasted more than a decade, required considerable educational and political effort, and reflected what noted City B eautiful scholar William H. Wilson called the need for harmony in politics and design.104 Described as one of the most comp lete and intact City Beautiful civi c centers in the country, Denvers example contrasts with that of most cities, where the era s civic center aspirations resu lted in little or no actual construction.105 The Denver Civic Center represents a well-c onceived plan that took advantage of local conditions existing at its outset. The civic center encompasses both the Colorado State Capitol and the Denver City and County Building of the st ates largest community, which face each other across a swath of open 103 Jon A. Peterson, The Birth of City Planning in the United States, 1840-1917 (Baltimore: Johns Hopk ins University Press, 2003), 102. 104 William H. Wilson, A Diadem for the City Beautiful, Journal of the West (1983): 82. 105 Mundus Bishop Design, Inc., Master Plan 1; Draper, Edward H. Bennett 29.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 47 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form parkland. In summary, the NHL distri ct is nationally significant in th e areas of community planning and development, architecture, art, a nd landscape architecture for the period 1900-40. Information about properties comparable to the Denver center and th e biographical background of its principal planners architects, artists, and landscape architects appears at the end of this section. CRITERION 1 The Denver Civic Center is significan t in the area of Community Planning and Development as an exceptional representative of successful planning and implementati on of a City Beautiful era civic center accomplished by staged projects over several decades. During the early tw entieth century Denvers civi c leaders and interested organizations articulated and activel y pursued projects to improve and aes thetically enhance the city in accordance with City Beautiful principles. The election of Robert W. Speer as mayor in 1904 coalesced the interest, means, and political will necessary to achieve di verse community planning goal s. As a career politician with twenty years of experience in Denver government, Speer understood the inner workings of city administration and built a powerful po litical organization, leading local newspapers to proclaim him Boss Speer. Once in office, the mayor became a leading na tional proponent and practitione r of the City Beautiful Movements ideals. As architecture critic Nicolai Ouroussoff observed, E mulated in cities like Washington, Cleveland, Denver, and Detroit, the movement gave th e country its first unifor m vision of city planning.106 Mayor Speer, who absorbed City Be autiful concepts during a visit to the 1893 Worlds Columbian Exposition in Chicago and later trips to Europe, strongly supported Denvers Art Commission (established in 1904) in its efforts to improve the appearance and cultural sophist ication of the city. The ma yor believed public spaces ornamented with artistic feat ures such as fountains and sculptures incr eased the affection of local residents for their city, attracted tourism that st rengthened the economy, incr eased property values, a nd stimulated additional funding for civic improvement. During Speers three terms as mayor, Denve r expanded and improved its city parks, established a parkway system, created an innovative chain of mountain parks, increased private donations for public improvements, built a municipal auditorium to host a national political convention, and began comprehensive planning. Historians Lyle D. Do rsett and Michael McCarthy evaluated the mayors accomplishments as by any standard substantial and remarkable.107 With encouragement from Art Commissioner Henry Rea d, Speer envisioned the crown jewel of Denvers City Beautiful efforts as a civic center refl ecting its recently attained status as Colorados first unified city and county and its position as the financial and commerc ial capital of the Rocky Mountain region. The mayor encouraged the Art Commission to secure the services of respected City Beautiful proponent and early city planner Charles Mulford Robinson to produce a civic ce nter plan for Denver. In his 1906 report Robinson recommended creation of a civic center in the heart of the city that would emphasize Denvers status as the state capital as well as its magnificent mountain backdrop. Us ing the existing statehouse as a starting point, and taking into consideration the location of a planned public library and the difficult ju xtaposition of conflicting street grids, Robinson created the first formal scheme for a civic cent er in the history of the Rocky Mountain region. City officials and municipal groups rapidly embarked on a vigorous campaign to gain public funding for the proposal, but failed to win electoral support for the expensive plan. The mayor and other civic and business leaders refuse d to abandon the dream of making Denver a national leader in civic beautification and cultural attainment, redoubling their educational efforts and employing astute political strategies to secure funding for the project. Duri ng the long period required to settle legal disputes over acquisition of land and funding, the city solicited advice from other local committees and prominent professionals, including Frederick MacMonnies and Frederick L. Olmsted, Jr. Each plan built upon previous 106 Nicolai Ouroussoff, An Epoch Lo cks Its Doors, Week in Review, New York Times 25 October 2009, 1. 107 Lyle W. Dorsett and Michael McCarthy, The Queen City: A History of Denver (Boulder, Colo.: Pruett Publishing Co., 1986), 137.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 48 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form efforts and considered existing conditi ons. As the process extended several decades, the mayors office, art and parks commissions, community organizat ions, and Denver citizens also react ed to and helped refine the evolving design. The effort culminated with a 1917 ci vic center concept produced by renowned City Beautiful architect and planner Edward H. Bennett, considered the mo st influential and fully realized of all such proposals for the city. Bennetts plan represented the evoluti on of civic center design from the be ginning of the twentieth century up to World War I in its application of City Beautiful concepts togeth er with a pragmatic approach to what could be accomplished within the local context. Its success demonstr ated the importance of personal relationships in the planning and creation of civi c centers, with Bennett and Speer working to gether for the essence of the City Beautiful, rather than its perfect form. 108 According to Professor Wilson, Denvers civic center resulted from the persuasive presentation of a r ealistic plan for its construction within the context of effective political leadership.109 Despite the failure to realize all aspects of Bennett s plan, the center is a pleasing contrast to its surroundings. Its invitation to relaxati on and tranquility belies the bitter struggles involved in its creation.110 The Denver Civic Center is an excellent example of the successful collaboration between a planner who produced a realistic, yet highly artist ic, scheme for improvement and city officials who laid the groundwork and provided the necessary support to fac ilitate acceptance of the plan. Be nnetts biographer, Joan Draper, acknowledged: Bennetts plans, like those of his fellow practitioners had the best chance to guide development of cities with a strong support for planni ng where the new schemes incorporated and embellished the existing structure of the city and pr e-existing ideas for public improvements.111 Throughout the process, Mayor Speer brought all of his political clout, courage, and understanding to bear on the successful outcome, employing what has been called a full compleme nt of City Beautiful campaign techniques.112 Following Speers death in office in 1918, subsequent administrati ons continued Denvers quest to complete its civic center. As Art Commissioner Theo Merrill Fisher re counted in 1923: Denver was a pioneer in the whole movement for city planning, as we generally term it, and its Civic Center is an outstanding example of noble ideas greatly accomplished, for it is much nearer completion than the similar programs of other cities, which for the most part are still in the paper stage. It stands as a most adequate a nd fitting monument to the memory of Robert W. Speer, a city executive who in his career gradually became revealed as a civic leader of a type and kind very different from the usual politician.113 Securing public approval and funding and completing th e design and construction of final elements of the district extended until the opening of the city-county building in 1932 and completion of its landscaped grounds in 1935. The Denver Civic Center thus fulfilled its multifaceted goals of becoming a center of government and culture, a green park in the heart of the city, and a grand public gathering sp ace serving as the s ite for the citys largest and most significant political and governmental events, commemorative activities, and celebrations, as well as cultural exhibitions, entertainmen t, and a diversity of festivals. 108 William H. Wilson, The City Beautiful Movement (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989), 253. 109 Wilson, The City Beautiful Movement 234. 110 Ibid., 253. 111 Joan E. Draper, Edward H. Bennett: Architect and City Planner, 1874-1954 (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1982), 26. 112 Wilson, A Diadem, 79. 113 Theo Merrill Fisher, The Denver Civic Centre, Architectural Record 53 (March 1923): 201.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 49 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form CRITERION 4 Architecture Denver Civic Center possesses national level of signifi cance under NHL Criterion 4 in the area of Architecture for its representation of Beaux-Arts Cl assicism in America, as reflected in the composition of its plan and the design of its cultural and governmental buildings, embellishi ng structures, and objects of art. The 1893 Worlds Columbian Exposition popularized Beaux-Ar ts design in America, as exemplified in the fairs Court of Honor: Formally arranged around a central lake and fountain stood gleaming white buildings visually tied together with a uniform cornice height, a regular spacing of arcades, and a shared language of massing and detail. Each building, as well as the entire ensemble, di splayed the rational and axial order of Beaux-Arts planning.114 The buildings displayed a style derived from historic motifs of classic Greek a nd Roman architecture, as translated by architects trained at th e influential cole des Bea ux-Arts in Paris. Architect ural unity as a source of beauty for the grouped buildings of the White City, as the Court of Honor beca me known, appealed to the fairs millions of visitors and fixed the taste of a people for a generation.115 As contemporary critic Ouroussoff remarked, The homogeneity of the architecture, with its classical facades typically arranged around formal parks, reflected the desire to create a symbolic language of national unity after the Civil War.116 Described as scholarly, self-confiden t, grand, and lush, Beaux-Arts Clas sicism seemed entirely appropriate and desirable for the monumental public architecture of civic centers of th e early twentieth century.117 The Denver Civic Center displays its overa ll influence in its assemblage of classically inspired buildings of monumental scale incorporating a va riety of components of Beaux-Arts design, including order, balance, symmetry, dignity, and the blending of art and architecture. The controllin g classical vocabulary adds to the unity and harmony of the district. The buildings and structures exhibit such defining Beaux-Arts characteristics as stone construction, banded rustication, giant order columns (usually with Ioni c or Corinthian capitals), richly embellished walls, elaborated entablatures, attic stories, low-pitched roofs, and roofline balustrades or parapets. Most of the building facades are do minated by projecting porticos. Many windows are framed by pilasters and crowned by entablatures and pediment s. Denvers civic center also displa ys the evolution of Beaux-Arts Classicism from the first decade of the twentieth centur y, as reflected in the completion of a State Capitol modeled on a particular reference, the United States Capito l, to the early years of th e Great Depression, with the 1932 city-county building exem plifying a more simplified and liberalized version of the st yle incorporating fewer traditional ornamental devices while remaining faithful to its basic tenets.118 A variety of characteristics evident in the Denver Civi c Center place it in the Bea ux-Arts tradition. A strong axial arrangement governs the spatial organization of the center, with a principal eas t-west governmental or civic axis extending from the State Capitol to the Denver City and County Building and a secondary cultural transverse axis connecting the symmetrica lly balanced Greek Theater and Colonnade of Civic Benefactors on the south to the Voorhies Memorial Ga teway on the north and tying the district to downtown 114 Mark Gelernter, A History of American Architecture: Buildings in Their Cultural and Technological Context (Hanover, New Hampshire: University Press of New England, 1999), 203. 115 Talbot Hamlin, Architecture Through the Ages (New York: G.P. Putnams Sons, 1940), 611. 116 Ouroussoff, An Epoch, 1. 117 James Stevens Curl, Oxford Dictionary of Architecture (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 64; Colorado Historical Society, Office of Archaeolo gy and Historic Preservation, Guide to Colorados Historic Architecture and Engineering: Beaux Arts, http://coloradohistory-oahp.org/gu ides/architecture/beauxarts.ht m (accessed 11 February 2011). 118 Gelernter, A History of American Architecture 239; Michael J. Lewis, American Art and Architecture (London: Thames and Hudson, Ltd., 2006), 229; Astrid Liverman, Colorado National and State Register Coordinator, email to Tom and Laurie Simmons, 9 March 2011.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 50 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form Denver. These structures with their dramatic inward facing double colonnades anch or the public landscape to the north and south, symbolica lly and spatially enclosing the central tran sverse axis and giving to the center of the city a palpable sense of prominence and grandeur. Buildings are grouped symmetrically, with the Capitol and the city-county building facing each other across a linear public landscap e, while the State Office Building and State Museum flank the Capitol on the north and south. Plans called for a building at the southwest corner of Civic Center Park to provide similar balance with the library building. Although this construction did not occur, the site remains subtly defined by bordering sidewalks. A light-colored palette of enduring building materials enhances the arch itectural harmony within the civic center, with white to light-gray stone serving as the principal wall cladding for all buildings and structures. Regional distinction is achieved through the use of diverse types of Colorado stone. Builders employed lightgray granite for the first building erec ted within the district, the Capitol, as well as the 1920-21 office building and the 1932 city-county building. The public library, Greek theater and co lonnade, and memorial gateway all exhibit light-gray sandstone. Construction of the state mu seum utilized white Colorado Yule marble. Sculptural works also echo this detailing in the utilization of nativ e stone for bases and pedestal s to accent their uniformly bronze compositions. All of the buildings in the civic cen ter are monumental in scale. Buildi ng heights do not vary greatly, ranging from two to five stories. The Capito l with its gilded dome and the city-cou nty building with its slender tower are both three stories atop full-height baseme nts. The State Office Building, at five stories, is the ta llest building in the district. Many of the buildings and structures include recessed attic storie s, parapets, or balustrades along the roof that visually lessen their vertic ality and emphasize the horizontality of the landscape as it approaches the Front Range. Beaux-Arts Classicism informed th e professions of landscape architectu re and architecture in the early twentieth century. Design emphasized rational order and perspective, focusing on a logical progression through space and the relationship of compon ent features. Formality derived fr om geometrical design, classical proportions, and the dominance of bilatera l or radial axial order gave each component landscape an individual character while integrating it within a single but complex cohesive desi gn. Willis A. Marean, one of the architects of the Greek Theater and Colonnade of Civic Benefactors, discussed the importance of properly grouping individual elements around the open space, noting: Bu ildings to appear at their best should be seen at sufficient distance to view them in perspective.119 Inspiring vistas from building to building, across the designed landscape, and to the distant mountains are a primary feature of Denver Civic Center. The city highlighted the significance of these vi stas when encouraging citizens to support the construc tion of a center, observing: The view of the snow-clad range from th e capitol, the sunny skies of Colorado, and the setting formed by a city already famed for its beauty, offer addi tional reasons for creating a plaza that no city in the world can excel.120 Construction within the center represents the work of a number of talented architects. Elijah E. Myers of Detroit, the architect of two other state capitols, drew plans for the Colo rado State Capitol in 1886 (completed 1908). cole des Beaux-Arts-trained Albert Randolph Ross of New York designed the Denver Public Library and other Carnegie institutions ac ross the country, including the 1903 Wa shington, D.C., building. The guiding hand of esteemed Chicago architect a nd planner Edward H. Bennett influen ced the overall plan of the civic center, contributing to the design an d location of the Greek theater and colonnade, as well as reviewing the design of the memorial gateway and othe r features of the district. The center also contains the work of some of Denvers most prominent architects. William E. Fisher and Arthur A. Fisher, founders of one of the largest and 119 Denver Municipal Facts 28 September 1912, 1. 120 Denver Municipal Facts 6 March 1909, 3.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 51 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form most influential architectur al firms in the Rocky Mountain region, designed the memorial gateway and its associated reflecting pool.121 Nine Fisher and Fisher designs are presently listed in the National Register. Pioneering Denver architect Frank E. Edbrooke, who served as Supervising Architect of the State Capitol and designed the National Register-liste d Brown Palace Hotel, prepared th e plans for the 1915 Colorado State Museum. William N. Bowman, architect of the 1921 Colo rado State Office Building, also designed the National Register-listed Mountain States Tele phone and Telegraph Building in downtown Denver, as well as a number of schools and county courthouses in the region. A group of thirty-nine Denver ar chitects calling themselves the Allied Architects Association mounted a collaborativ e effort with the sole purpose of designing the 1932 Denver City and County Building to complete the civic center. Art The Denver Civic Center is si gnificant in the area of Art for represen ting the essential role American regional artists played in civic center desi gn, which testified to the growing cultu ral and artistic sophi stication of the nations cities. As a founding member of the 1893 Denver Artists Club wrote: Back of all Denvers art life lies a deep desire to see her in the fore front of everything distinctively beautiful.122 City Beautiful proponent Charles Mulford Robinson echoed these sentiments, finding th e city full of faith in itself, of ambition and of enterprise. It wants to beas it can be as it would pay it to be, and as, happily, it can now afford to make itselfone of the beautiful cities of the world.123 The 1911 dedication of the Pioneer Monument designed by internationally recognized sculptor Frederick MacMonnies, caused the c itys art commissioner to observe proudly: Denver the Beautiful has been a dream of far reaching import, and we need but glance around to see the vision is even now taking concrete form.124 In his 1990 treatise on American regional art, William H. Gerdts observed: Of all the Rocky Mountain states, it was Colorado that most closely followed the same patter ns of artistic development as elsewhere in America.125 The varied and magnificent landscape of the region attract ed many nineteenth-century artists, such as Albert Bierstadt, whose widely popular images of mountains and other natural west ern marvels led to their designation as the Rocky Mountain School. During the early twentieth century, the focus shifted to the human story, as revealed in themes of western hist ory incorporated into the work of artists, many of whom grew up in the state.126 Young local artists followed the tradition of studying with masters at the best schools in the United States and Europe, including New Yo rks Art Students League and the cole des Beaux-Arts and Acadmie Julian in Paris.127 In Denver, artists clubs and schools formed to support artistic aspirations, including the Denver Atelier and University of Denvers School of Fine Arts, which sponsored frequent competitions and exhibitions. Several of the artists w hose work enhances the civic center we re shaped by their early lives in Colorado as well as subsequent educa tion and training that stre ngthened their expression of western themes. In the words of Peter Hassrick, former director of the De nver Art Museums Petrie Ins titute of Western American Art remarked, many artists of the peri od claimed the American West as mu se. The frontier had just closed, and the West as an experiential phenomenon was thought to be passing quickly into the pages of history.128 121 Rutherford W. Witthus, The Fisher Architectural Record s Collection, 1897-1978 (Denver: Denver Public Library, Western History and Genealogy Department, 1983). 122 Meredith M. Evans, Pioneerin g Spirits: E. Richardson Cherry and the First Women of the Artists Club of Denver, 1893, in Petrie Institute, Colorado: The Artists Muse (Denver: Denver Art Museum, 2008), 71. 123 Charles Mulford Robinson, Opening the Center of Denver, Architectural Record 19 (January 1906): 365. 124 Denver Post 24 June 1911, 4. 125 William H. Gerdts, Art Across America, Two Centuries of Regional Painting, 1710-1920: The Plains States and the West, Vol. 3 (New York: Abbeville Press, 1990). 126 Petrie Institute, Colorado: The Artists Muse 127 Evans, Pioneering Spirits, 62. 128 Hassrick in True and Kirby, Allen Tupper True xvii.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 52 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form The symbolism and imagery of the Western experience is a defining feature of the ar t within the civic center, which displays some of the countrys finest examples of late nineteenth and early twentieth century regional expression. Here a national template and ideology for B eaux-Arts Classicism seems to be rendered in regional termsembracing both the magnificence of the native landscape a nd the unique cultural history of the interior West. The first artwork placed on the Capitol grounds refl ected this emphasis on western themes significant to Colorados heritage. The Closing Era an 1893 sculpture by University of Denver art teacher Preston Powers, drew acclaim at the Worlds Columbian Exhibition for its Beaux-Arts depiction of a Native American hunter standing above a dying buffalo, a work that addressed the end of a way of life important to the regions indigenous history.129 This regionalist approach co incided with a planning prin ciple established during the earliest consideration of Denver Civic Center. In his 1906 recommendations, Char les Mulford Robinson encouraged the city to maintai n its individuality in the cour se of undertaking the improvement.130 When cole des Beaux-Arts-trained MacMonnies submitted his first scheme for a fountain honoring pioneers in Denver, citizens criticized the piece for the symbolism implied in placing an Indian leader at the apex, a design that disturbed pioneers for whom the frontier era remained cl ose at hand. MacMonnies travel ed to the West to talk with residents and gain an understanding of the citys history in order to produce a more acceptable design, and, in the process, he made recommendations to city offici als that would influence the design of final civic center. The sculptor returned to his Paris studio and revised the monument, placing an equestrian statue representing Colorado scout Kit Carson at the top of the fountain and figures of typi cal pioneers, including a mother and child, a prospector, and a trapper, along the base. The works contributed by sculptor Alexander Phimister Proctor also represent regionalist art at its finest. Trained in New York and Paris, Proctor, who specialized in the painting and sculpt ure of animals and western figures, acknowledged the impact on his work of growing up in Denver and meeting its early inhabitants. He created two bronzes, Broncho Buster and On the War Trail for the civic center, where he had seen herds of antelope graze as a boy. According to the 1919 Denver Municipal Facts a city-produced publication describing civic progress, the two works repres ented the early, virile days of the West and would preserve the picturesque atmosphere of the fr ontier, a flavor of which MacMonnies has already given in the Pioneer Monument .131 At the time the statues were proposed Reginald Poland, who was at the time director of the Denver Art Museum, commented on their lasting value: Art critics have said Denver needed something to typify its underlying spirit. The two equestrian figures by Proctor are being rightly placed on the Civic Center. There they will be seen by all, among whom are the to urists and the transient visito rs. Coming to Denver, they will see that which will remain in their memory as th e essential spirit of the city and region. These statues satisfy that desire. They will give life to the rather formal, classic architecture.132 The murals of Allen Tupper True, whose work has been described as clearly Amer ican and decidedly Western in inspiration, reflect the evolution of approaches to regionalism ove r time. A native of Colorado, True studied in London with painter and mu ralist Frank Brangwyn, before returning to the state, where he created works of profound importance and extraordinary breadth of vision.133 Designing murals for the public library, the State Capitol, Civic Center Park, and the city-count y building, True sought through his work to: 129 The Closing Era was placed on the Capitol grounds in 1898. 130 Charles Mulford Robinson, The Development of Denver, The American City 1 (September-November 1909): 197. 131 Denver Municipal Facts April 1919, 3-4 132 Poland, Artistic Expression in Denver, 8. 133 Hassrick in True and Kirby, Allen Tupper True xix.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 53 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form .aid a little in interesting American people in Am erican art, help a little in bringing to their understanding the real spirit of the American life, and drawing th em away from an absorption in European art that does not concern us. In the I ndians, the history of the cliff dwellers, the pioneers who laid with hardship and suffering th e foundation for the building of this country, we have the greatest themes ever given to an artist for his work.134 True believed artists previously in terpreted American life in bold r ough subjects, such as picturesque cowboys and cunning savages. He wanted to portray what he saw as the authentic nature of western subjects devoid of earlier assumptions and misconceptions. His depiction of western themes reflected the states growing distance from its frontier period. The styl e of his works in the civic center al so reflected an evolution in mural painting, as he abandoned the hampering dictum s and confining conceptions of realism.135 Landscape Architecture The district is significant under Criterion 4 in the area of Landscape Architecture, as an important example of a civic center with a Beaux-Arts landscape design of the City Beautiful era. Li ke planners, architects, and artists of the period, landscape ar chitects recognized the ne gative social impact of unplanned urban growth and became interested in the creation of public open space, th e general effects of light, color, atmosphere, and above all, unity in their landscape compositions, and what could be achieved in cooperation with other professions.136 City Beautiful proponents favored landscapes reflecting axial planning and geometrical design, as well as the inclusion of less formal areas provi ding balance to Beaux-Arts Classical architecture.137 The design of the Denver Civic Center extended beyond form al landscape planning and included: the arrangement, scale, massing, and materials of buildings; the integration and placement of works of art; consideration of sightlines into and out of the center, particularly those preserving the vista from the State Capitol west to Rocky Mountains; and arrangement of areas for public uses such as cultural en tertainment, speeches, and other gatherings. The designed setting incor porated dignity, order, and democratic ideals reflecting Denvers position as the seat of state and city and county government, a nd it acknowledged the dominance of the State Capitol in relationship to the c ity-county building. The ci vic center established a landscape of sufficient quality, size, and sophistication to demonstrate that th e brash, cowtown of Denver stood ready to take its place among the leading urban centers of the nation in te rms of municipal improvements. Among the Beaux-Arts concepts reflected in the De nver Civic Centers landscape design are formality, symmetry, axial order, respect for vistas, the incor poration of public art, a nd stylistic harmony of the architecture and embellishments within the site. At th e same time, the concept of regional distinction is displayed in the choice of some tree and plant species, the works of art, and the spacious views. Reinhard Schuetzes 1895 plan for the Colorado State Capito l grounds and Lincoln Park (implemented in 1896) established a Beaux-Arts approach influencing all subsequent deve lopment. Schuetzes Capitol grounds landscape plan created a formal, symmetrical layout that made the view west toward the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains a major focal element. Denver park hist orians Carolyn and Don Etter trace the origins of the civic center idea to Schuetze, who g ave Denver a simple and graceful exam ple of the application of City Beautiful principles.138 The 1904-17 effort to develop a civic ce nter extending from the Capitol not only 134 Allen Tupper True remarks in Denver Times (undated), quoted in True and Kirby, Allen Tupper True 230. 135 True and Kirby, Allen Tupper True 231. 136 Melanie Simo, 100 Years of Landscape Architecture: Some Patterns of a Century (Washington, D.C.: ASLA Press, 1999). 137 Elizabeth Barlow Rogers, Landscape Design: A Cultural and Architectural History (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 2001), 370. 138 Don and Carolyn Etter, Forgotten Dreamer: Reinhard Schu etze, Denvers Landscape Architect (Denver: Denver Public Library, 2001).

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 54 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form incorporated Schuetzes original de signs for the Capitol grounds and Li ncoln Park, but also adopted the landscape architects se nsibility and vision. The Beaux-Arts concept of a str ong axial layout found voice in Frederick MacMonniess 1907 approach, which extended the civic center due west from the Capitol (for ming an east-west axis) and added triangles of land to the north and south, allowing the creation of a secondary, north -south transverse or cross axis. Edward H. Bennett, who crafted the 1917 ci vic center plan that was eventually implemented by the city, retained the axial arrangement and incorporated elements of a 1912 plan developed by Frederick Law Ol msted, Jr., which called for the planting of a pair of symm etrically placed groves of red oak tree adjacent to Broadway, a curving Neoclassical balustrade, and a sunke n garden. In Bennetts plan, an ope n air theater and a commemorative gateway, both flanked by semielliptical colonnades, were to balance the opposing ends of the north-south axis, and a building to house local government was proposed for th e western end of the princi pal east-west axis as a counterpoint to the State Capitol. Many landscape architects of the City Beautiful period believed public spaces such as civic centers played an important role in achieving social go als by bringing together persons from all ranks and classes of society to share the same recreational, cultural educational, and civic opportunities.139 Designed landscapes thus encompassed areas for the quiet indivi dual contemplation of the natural sett ing and areas for organized events attracting large crowds. Edward H. Be nnett was successful in translating Mayor Speers City Beautiful concept of the landscape as a gathering place for people of diverse backgrounds and socioeconomic strata into a practical and aesthetically pleasing pl an that created areas for large public gatherings, broad walkways, and an outdoor theater. This accessible public space repres ents a vision of American democracy and civic responsibility that shaped th e city and continues to have meaning toda y. The Etters concluded: Olmsteds and Bennetts work for Civic Center created a beautiful and treasured spaceof national as well as statewide and local importance.140 DEVELOPMENT OF THE DE NVER CIVIC CENTER The history of the campaign to create Denvers civic center reveals the collaboration and cooperation of civic and business leaders, city planners, artists, architects, landscape architects, and ordinary citizens necessary for the success of a project of such massive scale. Denvers experience is representative of the long process often required to realize large and costly municipal improvements from c onception through a number of plans and stages of development. It also reveals the advantage of having a strong leader with unwavering focus on the effort despite setbacks and changes in the political clim ate. Mayor Robert W. Speers embrace of City Beautiful ideals led him to champion the cause for a civic cent er and other municipal improvements. Utilizing the direction provided in a series of plan s produced by prominent professionals, Denver actualized such related City Beautiful concepts as an in terconnected system of parks and parkways, a chain of mountain parks, and a civic center.141 139 Charles E. Beveridge and Paul Rocheleau, Frederick Law Olmsted: Designing the American Landscape ed. David Larkin (New York: Rizzoli, 1995), 46. 140 Carolyn and Don Etter, The Olmsted Legacy, Summary Sheet 3Denvers Civic Center Park Master Plan, 2006, in the files of Denver Public Library, Western History and Genealogy Department. 141 Draper, Edward H. Bennett 26; Ann Moss, Denver Mountain Park System, Denver, Colorado, 1912-1941, National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomi nation Form; Don Etter, Denver Park and Pa rkway System, National Register of Histor ic Places Inventory-Nomination Form, 1986.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 55 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form THE CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT AND THE INFLUENCE OF BEAUX-ARTS CLASSICISM IN THE UNITED STATES Professor Jon Peterson, the recognized authority on the early years of Amer ican city planning, observed, Civic revitalizationthe thorough revampi ng of city life and valuesrepresented the essence of the City Beautiful.142 By the late nineteenth century, Americas ra pid industrialization, burgeoning urban population, and increasingly chaotic development led people to seek so lutions for problems viewed as arising from city life, including alienation, poverty, disease, overcrowding, polit ical corruption, and crime. Many reformers believed that the solution to such evils could be found in a rebirth of community spirit and shared responsibility in reshaping the city. Adherents asserted the public interest could be discer ned through historical experience and acquired knowledge, supplemented by mo re recent discoveries and inven tions and touted such ideals as sanitation, moral purity, civic respon sibility, and good government. These goa ls found concrete expression in visual images such as manicured lawns, beautifully proportioned buildings, and orderly parks. Progressive social philosophies combined with co ncepts of civic reawakening develope d in the fields of architecture, landscape architecture, art, and city planning and coalesced in the City Beautiful movement. One of the most significant and widely consider ed concepts emerging from the movement was that of the civic center. The civic center embodied two goals: the stri ctly architectural objective of groupi ng of public buildings as a visually impressive ensemble, and the hopes of urban progressives to give evocative fo rm to their citizenship.143 Many of the leading architects who partic ipated in the creation of American civic centers of the City Beautiful era studied for several years at the cole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, which provided ar chitectural education from 1819 until 1968. The school limited attendance to persons (i ncluding women from the turn of the century on) between fifteen and thirty years of age, and each adva nced at his own rate based on points obtained through participation in competitions and the award of prizes. St udents attended lectures and participated in shortand long-term design competitions, which constituted the mo st important component of the schools training. Every student learned to design in an atelier (a drafting room or studio for teachi ng a group of pupils at various stages of advancement) under the guidance of an experienced master, many of whom had won the Grand Prix de Rome, a competition conferring the schools highest honor. As Richard Chaffee noted in his study of architectural instruction at the school, Outside of France from the tim e of the Revolution, an architect who had studied at the cole in Paris won re spect simply for having been there.144 More than 500 American architects a ttended the school and hundreds more rece ived training in Parisian ateliers, returning home to create buildings of BeauxArts composition and to spread its influence.145 Art history Professor David Van Zanten described the French academic systems teaching of composition as the design of whole buildings, conceived as three-di mensional entities and seen together in plan, section, and elevation.146 This process included analysis of the most effective interior layout, identification of si gnificant features of the site, and consideration of the total effect. cole des Beaux-Arts principles included close attention to the classical orders, its fundamental belief in axial orga nization, and its firm reliance on symmetrical composition, according to architectural historian Carter Wiseman. 147 Other key considerations included the integration of decorative art and architecture, framing of site s, and physical progressi on through a designed space.148 142 Peterson, The Birth of City Planning in the United States 149-150 143 Ibid., 143-46, 149-150, 154, 156-157. 144 Richard Chaffee, The Teaching of Archit ecture at the cole des Beaux-Arts, in The Architecture of the cole des BeauxArts ed. Arthur Drexler (New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1977), 85. 145 Neil Levine, The Romantic Idea of Architecture Legibilit y: Henry Labrouste and the Ne o-Grec, 8-9; Chaffee, The Teaching of Architecture, 62-63, 82, 85, and 88; David Van Zanten, Architectural Composition at the cole des Beaux-Arts from Charles Percier to Charles Garnier, 111-112; Beaux-Arts Buildings in France and America, 464; all in Drexler, The Architecture of the cole des Beaux-Arts 146 Van Zanten, Architectural Composition, 112. 147 Carter Wiseman, Shaping a Nation: Twentieth Century American Architecture and its Makers (New York: W.W. Norton

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 56 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form Richard Morris Hunt (1827-1895), the firs t American to attend the cole des Beaux-Arts (1846-55), returned to the United States to found his own atelier in New York along the lines of th e French School. Hunts educational efforts enormously influenced the countrys subsequent ar chitectural training, and several of his students became prominent architects who helped spread the con cepts of Beaux-Arts design across the country. Referred to as the dean of American archite cts, Hunt served as co-founder and the second president of the American Institute of Architects.149 The nations largest architectural firm of the late nine teenth century, McKim, Mead and White, helped establish Beaux-Arts Classicism as a favored style in the United States. Charle s Follen McKim (1847-1909), an cole des Beaux-Arts graduate, designed the offices public buildings, including the Boston Public Library (1887-98), described as a textbook exampl e of Beaux-Arts doctrine.150 McKim closely collaborated with artists, including Augustus Saint-Gaudens and Daniel Chester French, in the creation of the building, establishing widely imitated precedents in American architecture.151 He is also credited with influencing the trend toward austere severity in early tw entieth-century classicism.152 Nineteenth-century landscape architecture provided another foundation for the City Beautiful movement and prepared citizens for reforms resulting in creation of public parks and playgrounds in urban areas. Before his untimely death in 1852, Andrew Jackson Downing emphasized the social purpose of tastefully arranging buildings and plantings in farms and communities and agitated for public parks in cities. He believed urban residents benefitted from access to green spaces and fr esh air and that public parks supported democracy by increasing social intera ction between classes.153 Downings ideas influenced the work of Frederic k Law Olmsted (1822-1903), including his groundbreaking 1858-61 design of New Yorks Central Park with Calver t Vaux. Olmsted advanced la ndscape architecture as a profession in the United States and le d to park system planning throughout the country after the Civil War. As architectural historian Leland M. Roth observed, Olmste d foresaw the necessity of preserving open space in the face of industrial growth, and social concer n lay at the very heart of his efforts.154 In 1868, Buffalo, with the innovative guidance of Olmsted and Vaux, became the first city to plan and undertake a comprehensive interconnected park and parkway system. Olmsted s work at the 1893 Worlds Columbian Exposition in Chicago directly influenced the City Beautiful movement, including his multi-purpose park and boulevard planning; promotion of natura listic beauty in urban area s; and argument that improvement of parks raised the value of adjacent land, thereby aiding private enterprise By this time the American profession of landscape architecture was increasingly coming under the influence of Beaux-Arts formalism and the grand European traditions of landscape design. The work of the Olmsted firm at the exposition and on the Biltmore estate in Asheville, North Carolina, demonstrated how formal prin ciples of design, represente d by Beaux-Arts principles, could be as relevant and m eaningful in shaping the American landscape, as the informal principles drawn from the English landscape gardening tradition that had shaped nineteenth century urban parks. This awareness of style occurred simultaneously with a growing professional advocacy for the preservation of the scenic qualities of the American landscape. It is not surprising that in the early twentieth century, civic leaders and designers and Co., 1998), 32-33. 148 Liverman, email to Simmons, 9 March 2011. 149 Wiseman, Shaping a Nation 32-35. 150 Michael J. Lewis, American Art and Architecture (London: Thames and Hudson, Ltd., 2006), 182. 151 Roth, American Architecture 292-293; Drexler, The Architecture of the cole des Beaux Arts, 491. 152 Drexler, The Architecture of the cole des Beaux Arts 491. 153 Beveridge and Rocheleau, Frederick Law Olmsted 20. 154 Leland M. Roth, American Architecture: A History (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 2001), 230.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 57 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form alike embraced this plurality of style, seeing formal boulevards and civic centers as important to public inspiration and engagement as outlyi ng natural reservations and parkways laid out along low-lying streams.155 Olmsted formulated a comprehensive theory of landscape design that included an assertion of the restorative psychological effect of scenery, which he believed able to refresh and delight the ey e and through the eye, the mind and the spirit.156 He emphasized the importance of expressing the spirit of the place when shaping a landscape, a concept influential to th e regionalism exhibited in many of the nations civic centers and other public spaces. He preferred the use of native plants, utiliz ing outside sources only if their exotic character was evident only to experts in horticulture.157 Of primary importance to Olmsted was the pursuit of social goals through his lifes work. As explained by Olmsted scholar Charles E. Beveridge, the landscape architect intended his parks to be public institutions of recr eation and popular education th at would demonstrate the viability of the republican experiment in America.158 Like Downing, he believed the American populace would benefit from the parks function as a meeting ground for citizens of all cl asses and backgrounds. In park design he also showed immense concern for the poor, who of ten had little opportunity to escape crowded living conditions of the inner city and enjoy the outdoors.159 1893 Worlds Columbian Exposition and Early City Beautiful Planning Efforts French-trained architects viewed buildings in their br oader context, encouraging a growing appreciation of urban planning and group design. The World s Columbian Exposition, celebrating the 400th anniversary of Columbuss landing in the New World, thoroughly popularized Beaux-Arts clas sical design in the United States with its remarkable White City. The fair introduced Amer icans to the concept of a civic center or grouped arrangement of civic buildings design ed to inspire the populace through thei r formalism, harmony, balance, and beauty. Daniel Burnham, as chief of construction, supe rvised the creation of an immense (633-acre) Olmsteddesigned landscape framed by monumental white buildings of uniform scale exhibiti ng diverse expressions of classical style created by some of the nations leading ar chitects working in collaboration noted artists of the day. The resulting effort offered an image of an ideal city untarnished by the forces of urban decay. The acclaimed centerpiece, known as the Court of Honor, stimul ated public interest in recreating public squares or city centers as the focus of civic activities and demonstrated the be nefit of uniformly designed, grouped architecture. Planning historian Mel Scott found that the fair procla imed the aesthetic principles that would govern the design of civic centers, malls, boulevar ds, university and college campuses, wa terfronts, and other expositions for two decades or more.160 The beautiful balance of buildings, lawns, walkways, and water strongly impressed visitors and critics and influenced the public planning and design of American cities into the first decades of the twentieth century. The event also stimulated the deve lopment of comprehensive city planning, as communities throughout the United States sought to beau tify and create order in their cities. Peterson evaluated the fair as a high point in the history of the American architectural profession and as a crystallization of a new civic image reflecting powerful currents of nationalism and reform then emerging in public life.161 155 Mel Scott, American Planning Since 1890:A History Commemorating th e Fiftieth Anniversary of the American Institute of Planners (Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1969), 11; Wilson, The City Beautiful Movement 9 and 29. 156 Olmsted quoted in Beveridge and Rocheleau, Frederick Law Olmsted 34. 157 Beveridge and Rocheleau, Frederick Law Olmsted 43. 158 Ibid., 46. 159 Ibid., 46-49 160 Scott, American City Planning 36. 161 Peterson, The Birth of City Planning, 57.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 58 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form During the remainder of the 1890s civic leaders discu ssed grouped public buildings, which became a primary focus of the City Beautiful movements efforts to refo rm the landscape as one means of improving social order. The Chicago Expositions comprehensive planning, consis tency of style, axial organization, and rational progression, as well as its many uses of electricity and water, influenced subsequent urban development.162 Advocates contended improvement of the environment a nd architecture of cities would result in corresponding benefits for moral growth and civic responsibility. As City Beautiful scholar William H. Wilson described these concepts: Physical change and ins titutional reformation would persuade urban dwellers to become more imbued with civic patriotism and better disposed to ward community needs. B eautiful surroundings would enhance worker productivity and urban economics.163 Pioneering City Beautiful planner Charles M. Robinson described desi rable public buildings as large, substantial, white, and pure with detached columns and perhaps sculptur ed figures standing clear against the sky.164 Other design considerations espoused by City Beautiful advocates, de rived from Beaux-Arts tradition, included symmetry and balance; dign ity and uniformity; simplicity a nd order; and harmonious building materials, with stone considered a noble material. Planne rs regarded harmony of classical architectural designs, monumental scale, and uniformity of the cornice lines of principal buildings as essential. Inclusion of public art, such as murals, statues, and sculptures; utilization of embellishments such as balustrades, arches, and columns; addition of water features, such as fountai ns and reflecting pools; a nd application of landscape features such as shaded walks and flower beds, terra ces and steps, and sunken gardens became vital components of civic centers. The 1902 Senate Park Commission Plan for Washington, D.C. (also known as the McMillan Plan), created by a commission of leading designers of the day headed by Da niel Burnham, expressed many of the ideals of the emerging City Beautiful movement, incl uding a belief in the power of beauty to transform urban environments from chaos to harmony, to stimulate civic pride and commun ity spirit leading to social and moral reform, and to increase architectural quality and property values. The first significan t American program to achieve the goals of City Beautiful municipal planning proceeded in Washington. Peterson stated the significance of the project: As a plan, its fundamental achievement, historicall y, was to join for the first time the civic vision of American architects, especia lly their recent involvement with large-scale, ensemble design at the Chicago Worlds Fair, with the older traditio n of park system planning for the urban fringe, thereby encompassing the entire ph ysical city, core and periphery. Furthermore, the plan was a scheme so spectacular that it inspired many of the local beautification organizations then springing up throughout the na tion to urge schemes of comparable boldness.165 By 1902 beautification efforts prolifer ated across the country in towns of every size. Arts organizations initiated many early projects, as artists too, considered their work central to the quality of urban life. Civic improvement groups and municipal art organizations nationwide developed connections and shared ideas. A professionally designed overall vision or plan for city development increasingly became a primary goal in order to avoid or control the unplanned, unsafe, and unattractive growth many communities experienced. City Beautiful advocates believed the resulting pleasing buildings and surrounding landscapes would affect the outlook of individuals and communities, instilling a sense of civic pride and desire for social harmony among 162 Roth, American Architecture 320. 163 Peterson, The Birth of City Planning, 55 and 57; Scott, American City Planning 32-37; Wilson, The City Beautiful Movement 1, 90, 92-93. 164 Robinson quoted in Wilson, The City Beautiful Movement 94. 165 Denvers civic leaders received informati on about the Washington Plan, which motivat ed them to consider a civic center. Scott, American City Planning, 48; Peterson, The Birth of City Planning 1 and 77.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 59 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form urban residents of differing backgr ounds and classes. Daniel Bur nham and Edward H. Bennetts 1909 Plan of Chicago became the most celebrated example of a numb er of comprehensive plans published during the era before World War I.166 As a principal component of many City Beautiful city plan s, the civic center reflected the ideals of efficiency, cooperation, and convenience by providing a focus for gove rnment functions. Civic ce nters were believed to inspire patriotism through noble archite cture, as well as providing a location for marking holidays and commemorations and a site for special civic events. Propone nts considered a civic cente r an important gathering site where all members of society could share views, spe nd leisure time, enjoy cultural events, and participate in experiences creating social uplift. As stated in the influential 1903-04 Cl eveland Group Plan, the civic center represented a place where petty struggles for prominence, small successes and failures disappear. Here the citizens assume their rights and duties and civic pride is born. Advocates believed a civic center influenced surrounding construction, raising the quality of privately erected buildi ngs and increasing property values. Pragmatic results expected of beautif ication efforts also included increas es in tourism and the number of new businesses in the city.167 Because planning for the design, key elem ents, and interrelationship of a civic center with the rest of the urban environment was inherently complex, cities generally re quired the assistance of a pr ofessional. During the first decade of the twentieth century business and civic lead ers led the push for City Beautiful planning, guided by the first experts in the field. Early city planners included Charles Mulford Robinson, described as the nations foremost expounder of the City Beautiful and its most pro lific maker of City Beautiful plans, chiefly for small and mid-sized cities. In his 1903 book, Modern Civic Art or Th e City Made Beautiful Robinson asserted the administrative center represented the heart of a city a nd should be distinct and definite. Not only were groupings of public buildings more effi cient, but more majestic, and wort hy of a conspicuous site with axial positions for important buildings and adornment with col onnades, avenues of trees, balustrades, fountains, and sculpture. The inclusion of an open space for contempla ting the monumental buildings and vistas also became the subject of high design standards and provided an opportunity for embell ishment with proper ornaments. As William Wilson described: The civic center was intended to be a beautiful ensemble, an architectonic triumph far more breathtaking than a single building, no ma tter how comely, could be. Grouping buildings around a park, square, or intersection of radial streets allowed the visual delights of perspectives, open spaces, and the contrasts between the buildings and their umbrageous settings.168 Successful civic center projects inco rporated a harmonious working relationship between the planner and city leaders with a realistic design. Many of the early improvement schemes fo und resistance in local communities due to expense or lack of community consensus. As Peterson observed: By 1917, unable to achieve their ultimate goal in practice, the champions of the new fi eld [city planning] settle d upon implementing whatever pieces of their overall agenda local circumstances allowed. The City Beautiful movement eventually felt the impact of social movements concerned with improving liv ing conditions of working cl ass people, a middle class interest in protecting residential areas from undesirable development, and other groups of critics, resulting in its 166 Wilson, A Diadem, 75. 167 Ibid., 74-75; William H. Wilson, The Denver City and County Building and the Dimensions of Planning, Planning Perspectives 3 (1988); Cleveland Group Plan quoted in Arnold Brunner, Cleveland Group Plan, Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Conference on City Planning Cleveland, June 5-7, 1916 (New York: National Conference on City Planning, 1916), online version scanned and edited by John W. Reps (acces sed at http://www.library.cornell.edu/Reps /DOCS/brunner.htm (accessed on 30 April 2009). 168 Peterson, The Birth of City Planning, 119; Charles Mulford Robinson, Modern Civic Art or the City Made Beautiful 4th ed. (New York: The Knickerbocker Press, 1918), Chap ter V: The Administrative Centre; Wilson, The City Beautiful Movement 92.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 60 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form adoption of more realistic and pr actical goals. By 1912, city planning emphasized the City Functional, a descendant of the reform impulses th at came to dominate the profession.169 ORIGINS OF THE DENVER CIVIC CENTER CONCEPT AND PLANS Denver, originally part of Arapahoe County, became the states first combined city and county after passage of a 1902 constitutional amendment. The organization of the City and Count y of Denver incorporated several adjoining municipalities into the capital city, cr eated a unified school district, in creased local civic spirit, and stimulated a desire to transform the citys reputati on from cow town to sophisticated cosmopolitan community. The 1902 Senate Park Commission Plan for Washington, D. C., stimulated discussion in Denver regarding the possibility of constructing grouped pub lic buildings. The Municipal Art League gathered in that year to inspect drawings of the scheme and discuss th e feasibility of a smaller project for the city. Composed of representatives from a variety of civic groups, the League supported the co ncept of a civic center, as well as the creation of an art commission.170 A new city charter in 1904 established the Denver Art Commission, giving it broad powers over all matters relating to art in th e city and county, including th e design, placement, alteration, and removal of any city artwork, as well as approval of ar t-related awards and contracts.171 Commission members were to include the mayor, a sculptor and another type of artist, an architect, and three pe rsons of other occupations. The group began its work in 1904, the same year that a new mayor Robert W. Speer, assumed office with a vision for beautifying the city. Denver, believing its future lay more in the growth of tourism than industry, turned its attention to aesthetic development of the city during the early twentieth century. It aspired to accomplish a beautification program resulting in it s comparison with much older European cities in only a decade. With this concept in mind, the citys leaders initiated planning for an unprecedented construction program.172 Robert Walter Speer (1855-1918) According to Colorado historian Wilbur Fisk Stone, Robert Walter Speer was a man of vision and the vision crystallized in Denvers civic greatn ess. He was a dreamer of dreams bu t the dreams took form in practical effort that placed Denver in many respects in a point of leadership among the great cities on the American continent.173 Born and educated in Pennsylvania, Speer wo rked for the Pennsylvania Railroad as a young man. In 1877 his sister contracted tuberc ulosis and he escorted her to Co lorado, which attracted many invalids seeking relief from respiratory diseases. After return ing to Pennsylvania to work and study law, he soon fell victim to the same illness. In early 1878 Speer moved to Colorado with hopes of improving his condition in its dry, sunny climate. Arriving in such poor condition he could not walk, he s oon departed to find a cure in the fresh air of a mountain cattle ranch. After regaining his health, Speer worked in the capital city as a carpet salesman with the Daniels and Fisher Department Store and subsequently pursued a career in real estate. In 1882 he entered a happy marriage with Kate A. Thrush, a Pennsylvania schoolmate whose life he had saved in a boating accident. Speer soon developed an interest in po litics, rising quickly within the Democratic Party in Denver due to his open, frank, and winning nature.174 In 1884 Denver voters chose Speer to serve as city clerk, hi s first elected office. The following year he received appointment as postmaster, holding the position four year s before returning to real estate. He subsequently 169 Wilson, The City Beautiful Movement 3; Peterson, The Birth of City Planning, xvii; Scott, American City Planning 80 and 123. 170 Wilson, A Diadem, 74. 171 Ibid., 74. 172 Denver Municipal Facts, October 1918. 173 Wilbur Fisk Stone, ed., History of Colorado vol. 2, (Chicago: S.J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1918), 96, 98-100. 174 Charles A. Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer (Denver: Green Mountain Press, 1969), 7; Denver Municipal Facts May 1918.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 61 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form became a member of the Denver Fire and Police Board as police commissioner and later fire commissioner. In 1901 Governor James B. Orman selected him as president of the Denver Board of Public Works, which controlled improvements within the cit y. During these years, Speer adopted th e best administrative practices of other large cities, studied solutions to municipal problems, and built the strongest political machine in the citys history.175 In 1904 Denver, the overgrown country town, elected officials as a unified city and county. Speer became a successful candidate for mayor despite opposition by the citys newspapers. The dynamic and charismatic mayor served two consecutive terms and part of a third that marked the transformation of Denver according to a comprehensive plan embodying City Beautiful prin ciples. Although opponents charged he was a boss who manipulated elections and favored cor porate interests, Speers careful management and fiscal efficiency found favor among local citizens. His philos ophy embraced adding municipal faciliti es of both beauty and utility, and he believed planned development essent ial to the creation of a harmonious c ity. In his first months the mayors office initiated ambitious campaigns for a city audito rium, clean up and improvements along Cherry Creek, and the creation of a civic center to serve as the hub of the city and center of its government.176 Speers first two terms resulted in numerous public improvements, including build ing viaducts, constructing modern playgrounds, paving city str eets, increasing the number of shad e trees by 25 percent, providing extensive street illumination, plac ing telephone and telegraph wires unde rground, establishing flood controls, constructing sewer systems, adding cultural facilities and offering free municipal entertainment, and creating a boulevard and parkway system laid out by nationally prominent ci ty planner George E. Kessler.177 Speers associate and biographer Edgar C. MacMechen noted: Beautification was the keynote of this period. The general appearance of the city changed completely.178 One factor in the mayors success was his interest in every detail of city government and understanding of every department, proving to the local citizens the worth of an official trained in its workings.179 Denvers first definite step toward creation of a ci vic center came on 30 November 1904, when the Denver Art Commission responded to Speers reque st for suggestions regarding muni cipal improvement by recommending adoption of a city plan.180 As part of such a plan, commission pres ident Henry Read urge d creation of a civic center focused on a central plaza that connected a group of public buildings including the State Capitol. Cited as the most potent factor in the deve lopment of Denvers civic art, English-born William Henry Read (18471935) studied art at Heatherlys School of Fine Art in London, but pursued a short business career, which ended in spiritual disgust, broken health and a determ ination to come to America. Arriving in Denver about 1890, he found an unsophisticated city with a promising fu ture and visualized what it might become. Read taught at Wolfe Hall, a private school, and in 1895 founded the Students School of Art, teaching young pupils technique and craftsmanship. He erec ted a building that also provided space for the Denver Art Museum. In addition to his career as a painter, he designed Denvers corporate seal Mayor Speer selected him as an inaugural member of the commission and Read is often c ited as being the first person to suggest to Mayor Speer the possibility of a civic center for Denver. During the Speer era, the American Magazine of Art called Read the artistic power behind the throne for his role in advancing civic art and beau tification. Colorado historian Wilbur Fisk Stone found the commissions work under R eads leadership influen ced municipalities throughout 175 Edgar C. MacMechen, ed., Robert W. Speer: A City Builder (Denver: Robert W. Speer Memorial Association, 1919), 9-14; Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer 5-6; Stone, History of Colorado 96-98. 176 Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer 31. 177 MacMechen, Robert W. Speer 14-16; Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer, 33. 178 Ibid., 15. 179 Ibid., 15 and 22. 180 Denver Municipal Facts April 1919, 4.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 62 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form the country. With the artists encour agement and relying on his time and ta lent, Speer directed the commission to obtain the services of a city planning professi onal who could formulate the desired master plan.181 COLORADO STATE CAPITOL: THE EASTERN ANCHOR The existing Colorado State Capitol, its grounds, and Lincoln Park (the city block lying west of the Capitol) formed the anchor and obvious starting point for all discussions and plans for a larger civic center. The buildings scale, design, material s, craftsmanship, associated artw ork, and landscaped grounds exerted a profound influence on everything planned and create d, including the 1932 Denver C ity and County Building. The statehouse lay on a slight rise christened Browns Bluff in recognition of the areas developer. Construction of the statehouse extended more than two decades, from the start of excavation in 1886 to final completion in 1908. Six years after Congress created the 1 861 Colorado territory, the territorial legislature offi cially designated Denver as the capital and formed a site selection commission to secure a lo cation for a capitol building, with the proviso that the land include at leas t donated ten acres. Henry Cordes Brown, a real estate developer and later founder of Denvers celebrated Brown Palace Hotel, o ffered suitable acreage in his H.C. Browns Addition southeast of the commercial district, on the condition the territory pledge to erect its capitol there. The site encompassed two city blocks bordered by East Colfax Avenue on the north, Grant Street on the east, East 14th Avenue on the south, and Lincoln Str eet on the west, where the land dro pped off creating the bluff. Brown donated the property for business reas ons, anticipating construction of the states most important building would increase real estate values in his addition and insure acceptance of its north-south, east-west street grid, which differed from the angled alignment of the downtown area.182 Colorado accepted Browns offer and solicited other gift s of land and money to enable construction of a building. A lack of territorial funds, the push for statehood, and uncertainty over Denvers prospects for becoming the permanent state capital delayed work on the site. Early Denver historian Jerome C. Smiley concluded it was fortunate that circ umstances prevented the erection of even a temporary structure; otherwise, in all probability, we should not have had the ma gnificent State edifice now standing on Capitol Hill.183 Colorado became the nations thirty-eighth state in 1876. Af ter another three years pass ed without the start of construction on a capitol building, Brown revoked his gi ft. The state contested his action, and the ensuing litigation spanned nearly seven years and included two U.S. Supreme Cour t appeals. Eventually the courts determined Brown could not unilaterall y revoke his gift since he had not specified a timeframe for completion of a capitol. By a wide margin voters selected Denver, Colorados largest city, as the permanent capital in 1881, and the state gained undisputed titl e to the ten acres in early 1886. Lincoln Park In early 1883 the legislature created a seven-member Board of Direction and Superv ision to guide construction of the State Capitol. In the same year the Board purch ased the city block lying we st of the site donated by Brown. Bounded by East Colfax Av enue, Lincoln Street, East 14th Avenue, and Broadway, this land became Lincoln Park. The open space constitute d an essential component of the ci vic center, preserving the immediate viewshed to the west and preventing incompatible devel opment in front of the Capitol. To celebrate the laying of the Capitol cornerstone, the state held a barbecue in the park in 1890. The Sanborn fi re insurance map of that 181 MacMechen, Robert W. Speer 46; Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer 38; Florence N. Levy, ed., American Art Annual vol. 6, 1907-08 (New York: American Art Annual, 1908), 163. 182 Jerome C. Smiley, History of Denver (Denver: Old Americana Publishing Company, 1978; orig. publ. Denver: Denver Times, 1901), 506; Margaret Coel, The Colorado State Capitol: The Pride of Our People (Denver: Colorado General Assembly, 1992), 4-6 and 15. 183 Smiley, History of Denver 506-07.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 63 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form year showed the area as part of th e Capitol grounds; Lincoln Street was not opened yet. Formal design of the park came as a result of competitions in 1890 and 1895.184 Capitol Funding and Construction The 1883 legislation calling for construction of a cap itol building limited the total cost to $1 million and contemplated the erection of one wing of the building at a time. The Board solicited proposals from architects, but only nine responded and none submitted plans f ound acceptable. Determining they needed more information about the process of erecting a statehouse, boa rd members traveled to six Midwest states that had recently built capitols. The group met with officials and collected information on building materials and construction specifications, leading them to conclude construction of one wing at a time was unwise, as the wings would settle at different rates a nd adversely affect the finished building.185 In its 1885 session the legislature passed a new act providing for erection of the entire building at once, capping the cost at $1 million, limiting annual expenditures to no more than $200,000, specifying the size and number of rooms included, offering prizes for architects who submitted plans, and calling for completion by 1 January 1890. The act stipulated that the Capitol shall be built of stone, brick and iron, as far as practicable, and all the materials used in the construction of the same shall be those found and pr ocured in the State of Colorado. A Board of Management and Supervision directed the pr oject, announcing a competition for preparation of plans for the building in April 1885. From the twenty-one desi gns submitted, the Board selected the work of Detroit architect Elijah E. Myers, who had designed the 1883 Arapahoe County Courthouse in downtown Denver and prepared plans for the state capitols of Michigan and Texa s and territorial capitols of Idaho and Utah (the latter was never built). Myers described his design, which ec hoed that of the national Capitol in Washington, as Corinthian, and asserted the building, when completed, will be the finest in the State of Colorado, and one of the finest in the country, of which every citizen of the State may be justly proud.186 In February 1886 the Board received five construction bids, all exceeding the $1 million limit. Two revised lower bids were submitted, and the award went to William D. Richardson of Springfield, Illinois, who received a $930,485 contract in April. Myers served as supervising architect for the project, and Peter Gumry, a Denver builder, as superintendent of construction. The formal start of work began in July 1886 with excavation for the foundation. In fall 1887, Richardson submitted a claim for a dditional labor and materials exceeding his contract. An investigation concluded his origin al bid underestimated costs, and the Board declared his contract void in January 1888. The Denver firm of Geddes and Seerie th en received the commission to complete the foundation and stonework.187 The Board soon realized the Capito l as designed by Myers could not be completed within the budget and schedule authorized. In 1889 the Legislature reconstitute d the Board of Capitol Managers as a four-person body, raised the maximum cost of the building to $2 milli on, and approved the use of granite for the exterior. Geddes and Seerie obtained gray granite from the Zuge lder Quarry near Aberdeen in Gunnison County and set up a stonecutting yard at the construction site.188 Capitol historian Margaret Coel described the work: At the grounds, a small army of almost two hundr ed skilled men cut and dressed the granite for exact locations in the superstructure. Diagrams showed the location of each stone and gave the 184 No nineteenth century photographs of the park were located. Smiley, History of Denver 509; Pyle, History of the Colorado State Capitol Complex, 16; Sanborn Map Company, Denver, Colorado, fire insurance maps, vol. 1, sheet 20a, 1890. 185 Pyle, History of the Colorado State Capitol Complex, 14. 186 Everett, The Colorado State Capitol 36-40 and 50; Pyle, History of the Colorado State Capitol Complex, 18-23. 187 Pyle, History of the Colorado State Capitol Complex, 61. 188 Everett, The Colorado State Capitol 36-40.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 64 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form date and hour it was to be ready. Derricks hoiste d the stones into place. It was a busy scene, said a reporter. There is musi c in the ring of the st one cutters hammers, the creaking derricks, and the chorus of anvils in the blacksmith shop.189 To reduce costs, the Board dismisse d architect Elijah Myers in June 1889. Board member Otto Mears supplied the groups pragmatic rationale: You see we dont need him. If he st ays he gets the commission on the increased price of the building and that will make hi m a little fortune to which he has actually no right. The State has got his plans and they have paid for them. Myers characterized the decision as an indignity, complaining that for a man of my age and experience this is a most unpleasant occurrence.190 Peter Gumry, the building superintendent, a ssumed the duties of Myers. A 4 July 1890 Masonic ceremony installed a twenty-ton granite cornerstone holdi ng a copper box with state reports, a U.S. flag, and other items. State Capitol schol ar William R. Pyle judged that in many ways it was Denvers greatest day. At the dedica tion, former governor Alva Adams ideal istically declared: Upon the apex of the continent our capitol becomes a lighthouse upon a great eminence, and from there it should radiate a never-fading glow of exalted principals, of high and patr iotic examples. Twenty spec ial trains to the capital city swelled the crowd to roughly 60, 000 persons who attended the festivities and filled the citys hotels. Buntings decorated buildings and a parade wound through downtown to the construction site. The state served a barbecue and staged fireworks in the evening.191 By 1892 completed exterior walls reached the base of the capitol dome. Lane Bridge and Iron of Chicago erected the cast iron dome in 1893, mark ing the essential completion of the exterior. Most of the 1893-94 work focused on interior finishes. By November 1894, the bui ldings first story opened fo r partial occupation by the governor, secretary of state, state trea surer, and other executive offices. Th e state legislature first convened in the building in January 1895. The baseme nt housed the collections of the St ate Historical and Natural History Society, the Bureau of Mines, and the State Horticultural Society. Work on the interior of the building continued during the latter part of the 1890s. After Build ing Superintendent Gumry died in 1895, Denver architect James Murdoch assumed project oversight until Denver architect Frank E. Edbrooke stepped in as superintendent in charge in 1898. Design Modifications and Capitol Completion Some decisions made by the Board of Capitol Managers altered aspects of Myers original design. Substitution of granite for sandstone as the exterior wall material wa s the first major modification. The managers also scaled back the architects plan for the decoration of the west pediment of the building. On the interior, Beulah red marble (Colorado rose onyx) replaced oak for wainscot ing and column bases and white Colorado Yule marble became a substitute flooring. The rotunda received a grand staircase of Italian marble and brass. Difficulties in acquiring, transporting, and installing Colorado marble considerably delayed the completion of the buildings interior.192 Finishing the final interior projects marked the functional completion of the Colorado State Capitol in January 1901, fifteen years after th e start of construction.193 Building and furnishing the building cost approximately 189 Coel, The Colorado State Capitol 21. 190 Everett, The Colorado State Capitol 36-40. 191 The mile-high Colorado Capitol is the nations highest statehouse with a point on its west step s exactly 5,280 in elevation. Everett, The Colorado State Capitol 66. 192 Everett, The Colorado State Capitol 91-8. 193 Most sources reference 1908 as the year of the Capitols completion, marking the y ear the dome was gilded with gold leaf and the glass globe installed at the apex.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 65 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form $2.7 million, the equivalent of about $60 million in 2005 dollars. Construction required 12,000 bricks, 280,000 cubic feet of granite, two acres of marble flooring, and two linear miles of Beulah marble wainscoting.194 Most sources cite 1908 (twenty-two year s after the start of cons truction) as the formal completion date of the Capitol. Projects of the early 1900s produced the buildin gs current appearance. Th e domes original copper sheathing quickly weathered into shades of green. Many Coloradans found copper an inappropriate choice for the dome since the state had never been a large producer of the metal and th ey viewed gold as more suitable. Superintendent Edbrooke pointed out gol d leaf would last for years and g ive a much better appearance, being more in harmony with the general color of the building.195 In 1902 the Board recommended coating the dome with gold leaf, but no funds were appropriated until 1907. In 1908 the dome received a gilding using two hundred ounces of gold Architect Edbrooke successfully argued for placing a lighted glass globe at the dome apex, rather than female figure envisioned by Myers. Th e Board of Capitol Managers agreed that the globe itself completes the symmetry of the Building and the illu mination from the electric lamps is at once unique and a constant attraction at night.196 The building received overwhelmingly favorable assessments at the time it was completed. The Denver Times noted the Capitol displayed massive but perfectly ha rmonious proportions, with that beautiful impress of symmetry too often lacking in the great piles of stone, steel an d mortar serving as seat s of government in the commonwealths.197 Historian Jerome C. Smiley provided an ent husiastic appraisal of the building in 1901: Our Capitol with its great, lofty dome, massive walls, columns and portals, is an exceptionally handsome, dignified and well-propo rtioned edifice; few structures in this country are more pleasing in their aspects than it as it stands there on its commanding site in a splendid park that each passing year will make more beautiful. It would seem that a st ructure so stately, so dignified, so harmonious in all its lines and e ffects, should inspire higher, nobler and better things than some of the legisl ative performances that have been enacted within its walls.198 Later evaluations of the building were also positive. Paul D. Hamson, writing in 1958, deemed the Capitol elegant and imposing and perhaps the most significant public building in the Rocky Mountain West. Capitol scholar William R. Pyle characterized the statehouse as primarily a monument and a standing testimonial of Colorados pioneers and early settlers. Noti ng the extensive use of native Colorado materials in its walls, wainscoting and floors, and gilded dome, Pyle called it a tribute to Colorados people, its resources, beauty, and wealth.199 Capitol historian Derek R. Everett r ecognized the buildings representation of Colorados sense of place a nd emerging sophistication: Through artwork as well as construction, the capi tol also represented the end of the American frontier as traditionally identified by Frederick Jackson Turner and the beginning of a new regional identity in Colorado and the West. Th e building stood as a triumph of modern technology and common potential for many Coloradoa ns, responding to the perennial feeling of inferiority when they compared themselves to older parts of the Un ion. With their capitol finished, Coloradoans considered the frontier sub dued and themselves able to stand as equals with their fellow Americans.200 194 Everett, The Colorado State Capitol 99. 195 Everett, The Colorado State Capitol 106. 196 Ibid., 114. 197 Denver Times 7 October 1900, 24. 198 Smiley, History of Denver 513. 199 Pyle, History of the Colorado State Capitol Complex, 100. 200 Everett, The Colorado State Capitol 101.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 66 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form The mass and elevated position of the State Capitol, as well as the magnificent view of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains from its west portico made the buildi ng an essential component of any civic center plans. However, development west of the statehouse and Lincol n Park embraced a variety of commercial, residential, and other land uses. Planning for a civi c center incorporated goa ls of assuring the domina nce of the Capitol and eliminating this conspicuously unlovely section at the buildings doorstep.201 Improvement of the Capitol Grounds and Lincoln Park As exterior work on the Capitol neared substantial completion, the Board of Ca pitol Managers sponsored competitions in 1890 and 1895 for the design of its grounds. Reinhard Schuetze (see biography section below), a German-born Denver landscape architect, won both comp etitions for the design and planting plan of the Capitol grounds and Lincoln Park. Schuetze supervised the work on the Capitol grounds in the spring and summer of 1895.Schuetzes plans subseque ntly influenced landscape designs fo r the remainder of civic center. According to Denver park historians Don and Carolyn Etter, the 1895 design constituted a melding of an Old World convention with the ways of the New World, a nd in his urban domestica tion of an aristocratic landscape, he [Schuetze] gave Denver a simple and gr aceful example of the appli cation of City Beautiful principles. The landscape architect was the first to emphasize the signi ficance of the splendid mountain view from the Capitol by creating a western walkway. Viewpoi nts to establish a sense of place represented a key ingredient of Schuetzes designs. He surrounded the site with wide public sidewalks shaded by American elms, created stepped terraces plante d in blue grass on the west, and establis hed parterres below the terraces accented with sentinel plantings of Colorado blue spruce and car efully placed clusters of spring-flowering snowball and lilac. The Etters concluded: The best test of Schuetzes work for the Cap itol Grounds has been the survival of the landscape and the impact of his planning on the development of Denvers civic center immediately to the west.202 The Board of Capitol Managers in their 1897-98 repo rt noted it was a matter of pride that the sight of the grounds during the summer, presen ting such a pleasant appearance, r eceived the favorable comment of every stranger visiting the capitol.203 The Closing Era Completion of the Capitol grounds permitted the 1898 installation of the sites first work of art, The Closing Era, a sculpture by Preston Powers. The artist originally planned the monument at the request of developers of a real estate pr oject south of Denver, producing a sma ll clay model whose final design would be rendered 30 high in red sandstone. Powers co ntacted his friend, poet J ohn Greenleaf Whittier, for composition of a short verse, which supplied the name of the sculpture, to adorn the base of the work. In 1892 after the real estate project fell th rough, the Denver Fortnightly Club (a group of prominent Denver women led by Mrs. E.M. Ashley and Mrs. John Routt) raised $10,000 to commission a smaller version of the statue in bronze. Powers performed the final modeling and casting in Florence, Italy, where his father, noted sculptor Hiram Powers, maintained a studio. Th e younger artist exhibited the statue as part of Colorados display at the 1893 Worlds Columbian Exhibition.204 This influential sculpture reflected th e eras renewed interest in the hist ory of and concern for the countrys indigenous inhabitants and native anim als, a theme continued in later civic center art. According to an 1893 201 Fisher, The Civic Center, 190. 202 Carolyn and Don Etter, Forgotten Dreamer: Reinhard Schu etze, Denvers Landscape Architect (Denver: Denver Public Library, 2001), 13-15; Carolyn and Don Etter, Reinhard Schuetze, Revised Biography, August 1998, Denver Parks Collection, Western History and Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library. 203 Quoted in Etter and Etter, Forgotten Dreamer, 14-15. 204 Henderson studied sculpture with Powers and assisted in the creation of the statue. John R. Henderson, The Indian and Buffalo Statue on the State Capitol Grounds, Colorado Magazine 13 (September 1936):183-86; Rocky Mountain News 14 August 1944; Joyce B. Lohse, First Governor, First Lady: John and Eliza Routt of Colorado (Palmer Lake, Colorado: Filter Press, 2002).

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 67 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form Rocky Mountain News article, Powers visited the reservations a nd made numerous sketches from the Indians, so as to have his Indi an perfect in every way.205 Salt Lake Citys Deseret Weekly described the work in 1892: About The Closing Era there is something feeli ngly pathetic as well as heroically poetic. It represents a wounded buffalo that has fallen wh ile trying to escape its Indian pursuer. The prostrate animal, though supposed to be breathin g its last, yet gives suggestion of movement. The Indian hunter affords a fine contrast. His left foot is rest ing on the haunch of the bison. His face is in repose, but it seems contemplative. The dying animal suggests to him the extinction of his own race.206 When the Chicago exhibition closed, the statue arrived in Denver to be stored until the Capitol grounds were completed. The question of a suitable location for the work arose: women of the Fortnightly Club favored a site on the more prominent west side of the Capitol, while others felt it was inappropriate to place a piece featuring a Native American there. After standing in a number of locations around the Capitol, The Closing Era found a permanent home on the east side of the building in 1898, with the state providing funds for the $1,000 Cotopaxi granite base.207 Colorado Volunteers Flagpole To honor Colorado soldiers serving in the Spanish-American War, the Sons and Daughters of the Revolution donated the Colorado Volunteer s Flagpole, erected in th e center of Lincoln Park. Dedicated on 14 June 1898, the 120 ta ll wood flagpole with a horizontal mast dominated the area. Colorado troops who lost their lives in the war received r ecognition with small plaques attached to the base. INFLUENCE OF THE DENVER PUBLIC LIBRARY At the same time the concept of grouped public buildings dr ew the interest of local leaders, efforts to secure funding and construct the city s first public library building influenced the planning, locati on, and design of the future civic center. The Denver Librar y Association organized the citys first public reading room in 1874, but after its funds dried up the citys readers waited un til the chamber of commerce started a publicly accessible subscription book service in its headquarters in 1 886. In 1891 the Denver City Council initiated annual appropriations for the institution, which was renamed the City Library two years late r. Another facility, known as the Public Library, opened in th e west wing of Denver East Side Hi gh School in 1889 and continued in operation for ten years. In 1898, after the Colorado Legislature enacted a law a llowing municipalities to organize and maintain public libraries, Denver esta blished a consolidated public library, whose sizable collection required a larger building. In January 1902 the citys library board acquired a location on the south side of Colfax Avenue between Acoma and Bannock Streets (the future library site) containing a large terrace to house its collections and pursued pl ans to construct a new building.208 In 1902 industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie offered the city $200,000, enabling it to erect its first building designed exclusively as a library.209 The building represented the central libraries that were the focus of Carnegie Foundation efforts during the early twentieth centu ry and upon which they lavished money, time, and attention to detail.210 The city council agreed to Carnegies conditions that it appropriate at least $30,000 205 Rocky Mountain News 14 May 1893. 206 Deseret Weekly [Salt Lake City ] 20 February 1892, 279. 207 Rocky Mountain News 14 August 1895, 15; Denver Republican 21 May 1897, 3. 208 Denver Public Library, 100th Anniversary Celebration (Denver: Denver Public Library, 1989), 1-7. 209 The total expenditure on the building amounted to $270,000, the land cost $98,000 and furnishings $57,000. 210 Abigail A. Van Slyck, Free to All: Carnegie Libraries & American Culture: 1890-1920 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995), 80.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 68 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form each year for library operations and cover th e costs associated w ith acquiring the site.211 However, the civic leaders desired a much grander building than Carnegie wa s willing to fund and sponsored a competition for the library design, with the only requir ement that the building be fireproof.212 Since none of the states colleges then included a department of architecture the building committee secured an outsi de professional to advise them in selection of the design firm.213 In 1904 Mayor Speer appointed an eight -member commission to promote the ne w facility as a cornerstone of a city civic center. The commission sel ected New York architect Albert Ra ndolph Ross (see biogra phical section) for the project. A graduate of the cole des Beaux-Arts and former employee of prominent architects McKim, Mead and White, Ross notably planned the Ce ntral Public Library in Washington, D.C.214 The Carnegie program preferred experienced architects to design its libr aries, leading some firms to specialize in the field. Rosss office completed a number of such buildings, including those in Atlanta, Nashville, Atlantic City, and San Diego.215 Many libraries of the early twentiet h century displayed similar symmetrical temple-front designs and most exhibited classical details reflecting local preferences, the Parisian training of architects, and the impact of City Beautiful concepts.216 According to Carnegie library scholar Abigail Van Slyck: The shift toward classicism is more accurately explained as the cole des Beaux-Arts re sponse to the new emphasis on the public nature of the library.217 Denver Municipal Facts praised the Denver design as substan tial in appearance and attractive in its simplicity, but Andrew Carnegie expr essed displeasure with Rosss concept, writing: I am sorry to have my money wasted in this wayThis is no practical library plan. Too many pillars.218 Despite Carnegies criticism, the city erected th e building following Rosss design in 1910. Denvers new library would become the first new building on the Civic Center Park site. Its pla nned location, footprint, and massing were factors considered in all development pl ans. The materials, design, and style of the building influenced later architecture in the De nver Civic Center and set a path of quality and dignity adhering to Beaux Arts and City Beautiful principles for the entire p ublic landscape. EXISTING CONDITIONS AT THE SITE While the Colorado State Capitol presented a logical star ting point for a civic center, the locations of other existing public facilities were givens meriting consider ation, including that intende d for the public library two blocks west. The sites of the 1883 Arapahoe County Courth ouse two blocks northwest of Broadway and Colfax Avenue, and the 1883 Denver City Hall at 14th and Larimer Streets, twelve bloc ks northwest, also influenced schemes for improvement. In addition, Denver Civic Center planners weighed such factors as Denvers street grids, existing developmen t patterns, and topography. 211 Denver Municipal Facts 12 February 1910, 1. 212 Denver Times 9 September 1902, 12. 213 A newspaper article at the time indicated the Building Committee asked Professor William A. Ware of Columbia Universitys Department of Architecture to advise them. Denver Times 13 September 1902, 5. 214Historical Society of Washington, D. C., Carnegie Library, accessed at www. historydc.org on 28 September 2010; Columbus Metropolitan Library, Columbus in Historic Photographs, acces sed at http://digital-collections.columbuslibrary.org. o n 28 September 2010. 215 Van Slyck, Free for All 56; Donald E. Oehlerts, Books and Blueprints: Building Americas Public Libraries (New York: Greenwood Press, 1991), 66. 216 Abigail A. Van Slyck, Free to All: Carnegie Libraries & American Culture: 1890-1920 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995), 44-45. 217 Van Slyck, Free to All 28. 218 Denver Public Library, 100th Anniversary Celebration 9; Denver Municipal Facts 14 August 1909, 1.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 69 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form Street Grids The civic center site is located at the meeting of two conflicting stre et grids in the central city. In downtown Denver, north of West Colfax Avenue and west of Broadway, streets are rotated forty-five degrees from true north following a northwest-southeast and northeas t-southwest alignment. This older plan dates to the early days of Denver City and Auraria, when the settle ments were platted to align with the channels of the South Platte River and Cherry Creek. South of West Colfax Avenue and ea st of Broadway, streets reflect the north-south and east-west grid of th e rectangular survey syst em. Blocks in this latter area measure roughly 500 by 318 feet, with the longer axis orient ed north-south. Courtland Street originally split the north ern third of each block from its remainder. The intersection of the two sy stems results in a number of small triangular blocks along the north side of West Colfax Ave nue and the west side of Broadway. Dealing with the two street grids and their differing ax es (northwest and west) pr ovided both challenges and opportunities as the planning process proceeded. Late twen tieth-century architects Kent C. Bloomer and Charles W. Moore, characterized the collision of the two grids as: the place where the pattern stutters to produce an edge. Perhaps beca use traffic snarled at these special streets, an edge was formed as surely as if a wall had been built. Energy collected here, and three of the most urbane business di stricts in the American West [San Francisco, Denver, and Dallas] were formed.219 Existing Development Patterns The blocks lying northwest of Colfax and Broadway and west of Lincoln Park did not comprise a blank slate, but were fully devel oped. Art Commissioner Theo Me rrill Fisher did not view the two blocks located west of the St ate Capitol and Lincoln Park as an obstacle to civic center development: The superb view of the Front Range Rockies from its [the Capitols] western portico was largely spoiled, however, by the immediate neighborhood as it was at that time, a variegated assortment of ancient dwellings, a large power house a nd a fire department station occupying the foreground. To establish the legitimate dominance of the Capitol and clean up this conspicuously unlovely section were primary objects in all that followed in planning for a civic center.220 Topography The topography of the location influenced site pla nning. The eastern edge of the district at Grant Street lay at an elevati on of 5,290 feet, roughly sixty feet higher than the western boundary. The base of the State Capitol on Browns Bluff occupied a somewhat lower and flatter elevation (5,2 80 feet or a mile high on the west steps), which dropped sharply (about thirty feet) to the level of Lincoln St reet, requiring Schuetzes to grade the slope with terraces. Westward from that point land sloped gently toward the Cherry Creek drainage, reaching about 5,230 feet at Cherokee Stre et, the districts western edge. DENVER ART COMMISSION AND THE ROBINSON PLAN At the direction of Mayor Speer in 1905, the Denver Art Commission solicited the a dvice of one of the most respected municipal beautification e xperts of the day, Charles Mulford Robinson (see biographical section), writer of a highly influential City Beautiful treatise, Modern Civic Art, or the City Made Beautiful During a ten-day visit to Denver, he surveyed local conditions and prepared a report, Proposed Plans for Improvement of the City of Denver dated 18 January 1906. Responding to a sugge stion by Commissioner Read supported by Mayor Speer, Robinson focused on recommending changes in order that Denver may more fully realize its opportunities for civic beauty, incl uding creation of a civic center.221 He found the city united in its desire to 219 Kent C. Bloomer and Charles W. Moore, with a contribution by Robert J. Yudell, Body, Memory, and Architecture (New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1977), 104. 220 Fisher, The Denver Civic Centre, 190. 221 Charles Mulford Robinson, Proposed Plans for the Improvement of the City of Denver (Denver: Art Commission of the

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 70 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form make itself more attractive, the existence of the co mmission as evidence of th e citys aspirations, and recognized the commissions effort to obtain a scheme of artistic development for th e city illustrative of its pragmatic nature.222 The civic expert believed the best way to enhance the city was to maintain its individuality and noted Denve rs notable features in this respect: a de lightful climate, m ountain views, and its status as the Colorado state capital. Robinsons civic center plan estab lished the statehouse as its crown.223 In his opinion, the building was ver y fine, complimented by its central location, commanding height, and exceptional mountain vistas, and asserted Denvers obligation to the state and its elf to highlight these facts in its development. He strongly advised the enactment of height limits to protect views from the building.224 Addressing the difficult question of how to deal with the conflicting street plats the courthouse location and the Capitol neighborhood, Robinson saw the problem as an opportunity for radical change and noted the unremarkable architecture lying between the courthouse, statehouse, and site selected for the library. He saw the land between these points as an a ppropriate area for demolishing existing structures, creating sightlines, and establishing new park areas with tree -lined walkways and a basin with a water jet. His suggestions included extending 16th Street to the Capitol grounds, creating se veral triangular parked ar eas, installing lighting, and planting the block between the propose d public library and Broadway with grass and trees to provide a new setting for public buildings Robinson suggested the installation of the proposed monument to pioneers on one of the triangular parcels nor th of the library site and construction of the proposed mu nicipal auditorium west of the monument. He asserted that if Denver executed his $2 million plan for a civic center, very few cities in the country would have its like; and in none, perhaps, is it possible to gain so great a result so easily. Robinson advised the city to always ask itself two questions regarding radical city improvements: First, are they a good thing in themselves; second, are they worth what they would cost.225 Robinson also proposed creation of a se ries of boulevards and parkways that would tie scattered city parks into a cohesive system. He observed that with a civic center Denver would gain an open space with pools, fountains, trees, benches, and flowers on the edge of the business district, as well as a dignified setting for the Capitol, preservation of the grand mountain vist a, harmony between unrelat ed public buildings, and improvement to the awkward junc tion of two street systems.226 If carried out, it [the plan] will give to Denver an esplanade of such architectural and decorative possibilities, and in such close connection with the business district, as to make it, I believe, second only to the Cleveland Plan.227 City leaders studied Robinsons scheme carefully. Although they found se veral good ideas in it, there were inherent problems, including the irreconc ilable forty-five degree variation between the two street grids, the fact that the facades of the key buildings (Capitol, library, and courthouse) did not align with each other, and the large cost of acquiring so much priv ate property and redeveloping the si te. Subsequent developments also impacted some of the reports suggesti ons, including the citys decision to erect the municipal auditorium seven blocks to the northwest and growing sentiment in favor of replacing the ex isting city hall and courthouse with a new city-county building. None theless, local residents t ook great interest in the pr oposal, newspapers gave it much attention, and government and civic groups advan ced the plan at informational meetings. The city initiated a three-month educational campaign prior to hol ding a charter amendment vote to decide whether to proceed with the issuance of long-term bonds funding the project. Mayor Speer spoke to a receptive audience at a large taxpayers public improvement di nner sponsored by the influential Real Estate Exchange on 7 February City and County of Denver, 18 January 1906), 2; Fisher, The Denver Civic Centre, 189. 222 Robinson, Opening the Center of Denver,365. 223 Robinson, The Development of Denver, 197. 224 Robinson, Proposed Plans, 3. 225 Ibid., 3-18. 226 Robinson, The Development of Denver, 197. 227 Robinson, Opening the Center of Denver, 365.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 71 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form 1906. He discussed the potential of a civic center in adding to the citys beauty, providing artistic and ornamental benefits, raising property values, and advertising the city, as well as the effect it would have on raising the pride of local residents. However, he indicated the city administration would not try to force the project on unwilling citizens.228 In rapid response, a property owners association orga nized opposition to the civic center concept, emphasizing its high cost (estimated at $3 million) and the potentially negative impact on real estate values. In a special election on 17 May, voters defeated the proposal by a slim margin. Ch arles Mulford Robinson reported: No city ever had a darker outlook for a great Civic Center than had Denver the morning af ter the May election in 1906.229 Although local citizen s viewed the plan as too large and e xpensive, the concep t of a civic center remained alive. As a result of the de feat city leaders realized the necessity of greater organization, vigorous agitation, and intensive educationa l efforts to achieve their goal.230 ADDITIONAL PLANNING ACTIVITIES 1907 Citizens Commission Undeterred by the defeat of the Robinson Plan, Mayor Speer pushed the idea for a grand civic center to the forefront of citizens co ncerns in January 1907: I believe the time has come to deal definitely with this matter. The decision is of such importance that I have decided to appoint an independent committee, repr esenting the banking, real estate and other interests of the city, to investigate and report their findings [as] to the advisability of purchasing any or all of the land mentioned.231 Speer created a committee of twelve prominent citizens to determine the feasibility of Denver establishing a civic center or open plaza, around which will be clustered our public and quasi-public buildings.232 The group included Denver landscape ar chitect Reinhard Schuetze and art commissioner Henry Read. On 19 February the committee submitted its report, representing a scaled-dow n, less expensive version of Robinsons scheme that required about half as much land. The new plan featured a truncated northwest axis and included altering street patterns to relieve traffic congestion, purchasing the Bates triangle northea st of the public library, placing the pioneer monument at the northwest corner of Broadway and Colfax, and acquiring land northeast of the Bates triangle and northwest of the monument site.233 Read called the plan a step in the right direction, but found it drew serious objections.234 According to historian WilliamWilson: Deficient civic proposals doomed it. It linked none of the existing or proposed buildings in Robinsons plan. The three irregularly shaped blocks north and east of the library site could not be merged without closing major streets and were too small to provide a civic focus. The plan cost less than Robinsons, but its price was high in terms of planning benefits.235 228 Robinson, The Development of Denver, 198; Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer, 38-39. 229 Robinson, The Development of Denver, 198. 230 Denver Municipal Facts 3 December 1910, 3; Wilson, A Diadem, 77; Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer 39. Henry Read, City Planning and Civic-Center Work in Denver, Journal of the American Institute of Architects, 3(November 1915): 497. 231 Members of the committee included Charle s M. Wilcox, J.K. Mullen, Chester S. Morey, David H. Moffat, Jerome S. Riche, J.A. Thatcher, Frederick J. Chamberl in, Armour C. Anderson, John S. Flower, Jacob Fillius, Reinhard Schuetze, and Henry Read. Denver Municipal Facts 6 March 1909, 232 Denver Municipal Facts 6 March 1909, 3; Robinson, The Development of Denver, 198. 233 The street changes included cutting through Broadway north of civic center and cutting Fifteenth Street through the southwest corner of Broadway and Colfax Avenue; both were undertaken later. Wilson, A Diadem, 77. 234 Read, City Planning and Civic-Center Work, 497. 235 Wilson, A Diadem, 78.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 72 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form George Kessler Studies De nvers Parks and Parkways Simultaneously with its effort to develop the civic cen ter, Denver studied its exis ting park system. Given the citys arid climate, local citizens placed high value on landscaped public spaces. Curtis Park, the citys first dedicated park, stemmed from creation of a residential subdivision in 1868. Four years later Denver developed its first parkway, Park Avenue, whic h featured planted triangles along th e thoroughfare. After the 1893 Worlds Columbian Exposition, former territorial governor John C. Evans with the support of the local chamber of commerce, proposed the preparation of a comprehensiv e park and parkway plan to include verdant spaces scattered throughout the city and connect them by parkways. According to historian Don Etter, by the turn of the century both the idea of a system and the actual physical begi nnings of a system were in place.236 As a result Mayor Speer invited City Beautiful planner and la ndscape architect George E. Kessler of Kansas City, Missouri, to visit Denver in 1907. Tasked with systematizing improvements to the parks, parkways, boulevards, and playgrounds, Kessler examined the city and offered a policy focu sed on developing existing parks more fully and connecting them with boulevards and parkways encircling De nver. The plan provided a series of scenic vistas of the capital city and Front Range from key points. As a result of Kesslers scheme, the proposed civic center became the central fo cus of the park and parkway system.237 FREDERICK MACMONNIES DESIGNS A PIONEER MONUMENT AND A PLAN FOR CIVIC CENTER A triangular parcel of land at the no rthwest corner of Broadway and West Colfax Avenue marking the terminus of the Smoky Hill Trail trav eled by 1859-60 gold seekers to reach frontie r Denver became the planned site of a monument to the citys pioneers and an influential component of civic center. A neighboring property owner, G.R. Weir, hoped the demolition of the ol d city hose house on the site would increase the value of his nearby land. Consulting with other owners in the area in 1906, he found many willing to subscribe to a fund to erect a firehouse elsewhere and turn the trian gular piece of land into a park. The in stallation of a magnificent work of art on the site as a memorial to Colorados pioneers me t with popular approval, and the Real Estate Exchange took up the cause, placing John S. Flower as chairman of its effort. Fundraising conc entrated on the monument itself, while the city agreed to pay for a new firehouse.238 After celebrated artist Augustus Saint-Gaudens refused the commission for the monument on account of age, the city turned to Frederick W. MacMonnies (see biograp hical section), his internationally acclaimed American student and cole des Beaux-Ar ts graduate. In February 1907 the sculptor sent Flower a preliminary sketch and description of his proposed work, which envisioned the me morial as a five-tiered f ountain depicting archetypal pioneers, such as miners, trappers, a nd cowboys, with native wild creatures on the lower levels. At the top of the fountain he drew an American Indi an chief wearing a war bonnet while sitting on a rearing horse and giving a sign of peace. In its first response to the monument, the Denver Republican recalled the artists creation of fountains at expositions in Chicago, Buffalo, and St. Louis and described his work as always artistic and striking.239 However, after examining the drawing and description, local pioneers and thei r descendants strongly objected to the design which placed the figure of an Indian at the apex of the fountain. Although MacMonnies argued that the figure served only as a finial, not the hero of the occasion, he rec ognized his view of the West needed further thought and decided to visit De nver on his next trip to the United St ates. During a two-week stay in the late summer of 1907, he toured the ci ty and listened intently to critics of the proposed composition. Returning 236 Etter, Denver Park and Parkway System, section 7, 11-16. 237 Municipal Journal & Engineer 22(January-June 1907): 279; City Planning Progress [1917], undated copy in the clipping files of Denver Public Library Western History and Genealogy Department. 238 Denver Post 10 June 1911, 11. 239 Denver Republican 28 June 1906, 1.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 73 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form to France with photographs and artifact s to guide his work, the sculptor pr epared completely new designs from top to bottom, replacing the Indian leader with famed western scout Kit Carson and adding to the lower level three symbolic figures: a mother and child, a trapper/hunter, and a prospect or/miner. During the next two years the artist continued to revise the design with guidance from the city.240 After failing to win support for the Robinson Plan, Denvers leaders quietly consulted a number of professionals who provided suggestions for an improvement program. Fortuitously, MacMonniess 1907 visit also gave Read, the art commissioner, an opportunity to seek his advice on the civic center design.241 MacMonnies reported that during an automobile tour he glanced downward and got th e effect of the vistas of wide, clean streets, splendid residences and the well balan ced architecture of the business section, and quickly conceived of a plan that overcame problems inherent in previous civic center proposals.242 Together with Read, the artist drafted a new, highly influential plan.243 Like Robinson, MacMonnies found that th e diagonal grid of Denvers business section as it inte rsected with the parallel layout of reside ntial areas created a disconcerting lack of symmetry and caused inconvenience for traffic. The sculptor suggested the development proceed directly westward from the State Capitol along the east-west axis of the Capitol grounds thereby reconciling the opposing pl ats and distributing traffic more evenly, as well as providing a suitable setting for public buildings. He contemplated the acquisition of two already developed blocks west of Broadway, an ar ea containing residences, apartment buildings, and businesses. All plans thereafter incorporated this east-west axis.244 The sculptor proposed the purchase of the Bates triangle to form the north ern terminus of a secondary, northsouth axis which would be balanced on the south by the acquisition of a similar parcel. He envisioned a city park with a cruciform plaza containing a large, ornament al fountain and a reflecting pool on the east end and a future municipal building on the west end opposite the Cap itol. The plan included the proposed library, with the suggestion that the plain rear wall faci ng the park be redesigned to conform to the neoclassical design of its front faade and other buildings in th e civic center. In the south-central portion of the site MacMonnies suggested an outdoor stadium for gatherings and concerts. 245 The addition of a small triangular parcel southwest of Broadway and West 14th Avenue would balance the triangl e proposed as the location of the pioneer monument. The Denver Art Commission made small revisions to th e drawings reflecting the MacMonnies scheme before sending them to Speer, the committee of twelve, and othe r planners and designers, who agreed it constituted a good alternative. In January 1908 the committee discarded its own plan in favor of the new concept, and the city formally received the proposal, which included a draw ing prepared by local arch itects to illustrate the envisioned improvement and an estimate of its cost. The beautiful depiction of the civic center as projected in the MacMonnies Plan continued to be ut ilized by the city to garner suppor t for its efforts until Chicago architect and planner Edward H. Bennett in corporated many of MacMonniess ideas in the final 1917 plan. Estimates for the cost of actualizing the MacMonnies Pl an came in at half the amount required by Robinsons scheme. In August 1908 the Art Commission issued an info rmational pamphlet with the drawing of the civic 240 Mary Smart, A Flight with Fame: The Life and Art of Frederick MacMonnies (Madison, Connecticut: Sound View Press, 1996), 219-220. 241 Denver Municipal Facts 6 March 1909, 3. 242 Smart, A Flight with Fame 220 and 245. 243 Although many sources do not credit Read with participation in drafting the plan, he indicates it occurred. See Read, City Planning and Civic-Center Work, 498. 244 Rocky Mountain News 11 December 1921, 8; Denver Municipal Facts 6 March 1909, 3. 245 Rocky Mountain News 11 December 1921, 8; Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer 42-43.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 74 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form center as it might look when completed.246 A variety of organizations a pproved the new plan by resolution, including the art and library commissions, Real Estate Exchange, chamber of commerce, and Colorado Chapter of the American Institute of Ar chitects. Experts such as MacMonni es, Robinson, Kessler, Albert Randolph Ross, Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., and painter and sculptor F.D. Millet also publicly endorsed it.247 MacMonnies frequently contacted city officials and business leaders to campa ign for a civic center that would allow Denver to take its place among pr ogressive cities. The artist wrote: I sincerely hope that the citizen s of Denver will profit by the expe rience of older cities who are now making up for lost time by extensive improveme nts at great expense, and will recognize this as being the most vital moment in the history of Denver, and w ith courage and foresight lay the foundation of a great city .248 Throughout 1909 city leaders encouraged local residents to support the MacMonnies Pl an, noting Denver was destined to become the most attractive tourist city in America as a result of its natural advantages. The city initiated regular publication of an illustrated municipal magazine, Denver Municipal Facts which explained the importance of establishing a civic center and othe r improvements and reported on the progress of such projects.249 The mayor encouraged each citizen to support the development project to in crease the citys beauty. He asserted a growing sense of civic pride demanded municipal betterment equa l to that of other large cities and announced several wealthy citizens already supported a new monument on the proposed civic center site.250 Denver Municipal Facts observed: The view of the snow-clad range from the capitol, the sunny skies of Colorado, and the setting formed by a city already famed for its beauty, offer additio nal reasons for creating a plaza that no city in the world can excel [emphasis in original].251 In 1909 Denver Chamber of Commerce member Henry Van Kleeck described in City Beautiful language the citys vision of what the civic cente r represented and could become, indicati ng it would not be just a beautiful plaza or park with monuments, but rather a center from which will flow much of the inspiration and activity of the city. Distinct from other spots in the city, it would contain a groupin g of public buildings, starting with the State Capitol and its grounds, the pu blic library, state museum, and culm inating with a new city hall and courthouse: These buildings which Denver civic pride will require to be of the highest ar chitectural beauty, should be given the great advantag e of fronting on the proposed center. The writer urged adoption of an important element seen in European cities and at the 1893 Worlds Columbian Exposition: a uniform style and height for all buildings erected within civic center. An equally important c onsideration was the sites role in providing a place in the heart of the city where people could gather to relax, celebrate, and enjoy cultural entertainment in a pleasantly landscaped area co ntaining a few commemorative works of paramount excellence. Van Kleeck urged preparation of a professional comprehensive plan that would provide direction for improvement of the site, noting that Cleveland created a commission of nationally respected leaders in civic beautification to provide such advice An architecturally mismatched ju mble of buildings as found in many modern cities sadly disturbs our pea cefulness and destroys that repose within us, which is the true basis of all contentment. Let the public authorities, therefore, set an example of si mplicity and uniformity.252 246 Wilson, A Diadem, 78. 247 Denver Municipal Facts 6 March 1909, 4. 248 Denver Municipal Facts 3 December 1910, 9. 249 The city published the magazine between 1909 and 1931. 250 Denver Municipal Facts 3 July 1909, 8. 251 Denver Municipal Facts 6 March 1909, 3; Denver Municipal Facts 3 December 1910, 4. 252 Denver Republican 5 October 1909, 12.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 75 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form EXPANSION OF STATE FACILITIES While the city of Denver planned, acquired land, and t ook steps to develop the ci vic center, the State of Colorado also added monuments and erected new buildings adjacent to the State Capitol following City Beautiful principles. Until 1909 no coor dinated plans existed for developmen t of the Capitol grounds and Civic Center. Some civic leaders suggested a combined city and state art commission should be named to join the park board and mayor in directing the development of the civic center.253 The Colorado legislature created a State Capitol art commission to work in conjunction with Denvers art commission and enable an artistic unity between the treatment of the Capitol grounds and the development of the citys civic center. Members of the citys commission became members of the state commission under the law.254 By 1910 some changes were made in the layout of the Capitol grounds to conform to plans for the improvement of the civic center. In 1909 the state installed a memorial to Civil War veterans at the west fr ont of the Capitol consisting of the Colorado Soldiers Monument and two Civil War cannons. Further improvements over the next two decades reflected designs having artistic uni ty, a quality desirable to both co mmissions. The classically-inspired Colorado State Museum and the Colorado State Office Bu ilding flanked the Capitol on the south and north, respectively, displaying adherence to the Beaux-Arts architectural con cepts guiding the development of the civic center. Colorado Soldiers Monument An effort to acknowledge Coloradans who served in the Civil War, the Colorado Soldiers Monument, grew out of the 1905 national encampment of the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR), a fraternal organization of Union vetera ns. Attendees of the convention in Denver pointed out that the Capitol grounds lacked a monument honoring Coloradans who foug ht to preserve the Uni on during the conflict. A Colorado Memorial Monument Board of Construction quickly organized, and Captain John D. Howland, a Union veteran of the Battle of Glorieta Pass in which Colorado troops partic ipated, painted designs featuring a dismounted cavalryman from which J. Otto Schweizer m odeled the statue. Bureau Brothers of Philadelphia performed the casting and Seerie Brothe rs fabricated the statues Aberdeen granite base holding plaques with the names of Colorados Civil War dead. The Colorado Republican characterized the work as a stiff and rectangular heroic style, while the Denver Times commented that the modeli ng is exceptionally well done and the effect is as realistic as a work in bronze can be. The monument cost $20,000, with $5,000 provided by the State and the remainder coming from the Colorado Pi oneers Association. Dedication ceremonies on 24 July 1909 included speeches, music from a Colorado Nationa l Guard band, and a twenty-one-gun salute. Colorado Adjutant General Irving Hale remarked that rather than an officer, the monument appropriately portrayed a private, as he was the ma n who packs and fires the gun.255 Civil War Cannons To complete the Civil War grouping at the west front of the Capitol, two cannons of the era flanked the Colorado Soldiers Monument by 1910. The tw o twelve-pound Napoleon fieldpieces could fire solid and canister shot; one reportedly saw service with a Ma ssachusetts regiment at the Battle of Gettysburg. The states Chaffee Light Artillery, a un it of the Colorado National Guard, ha d received the objects in 1878. A National Guard official, unaware of the cannons significance, sold them fo r scrap to a New York foundry in 1907. A hurried fundraising campaign saved the weapons fr om destruction and return ed them to the state.256 253 Denver Municipal Facts 3 December 1910, 5. 254 Kiowa County Press 5 February 1909; The Survey 22(3 April 1909), 283. 255 Denver Republican 10 July 1909, 12 and 25 July 1909, 1 and 4; Denver Times 9 July 1909, 8; Civil War Monument/Memorial, Colorado State Capito l Virtual Tour, www.colorado. gov/dpa/doit/archives/cap/civ war.htm (accessed 18 June 2008); Colorado Soldiers Monument, Hist orical Marker Database, ww w.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker= 4745 (accessed 27 October 2010); Denver Municipal Facts 17 July 1909, 6; Everett, The Colorado State Capitol 111-12. 256 The cannons may have been placed somewhere on the Capitol grounds as early as 1907. Other theories of the cannons provenance (buried by Confederate General Sibley in his 1860s New Mexico campaign and later uncovered or brought back from the Philippines by Colorado troops in the Spanish-American War) are not supported by contemporary newspaper accounts. An 1894 Denver Republican article about target practice by the Chaffee Light Artille ry described these two fieldpieces down to the markings

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 76 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form COMPLETION OF THE PUBLIC LIBRARY The opening of the Denver Public Library in 1910 hearte ned supporters of the civic center and assured local citizens of the citys growing s ophistication. Although the groundbreaking for the construction had occurred three years earlier, legal actions ove r the contractors work and extended discussions with quarries and unions regarding the type of stone selected caused delays in its completion.257 Denver citizens, including Governor Henry A. Buchtel and Mayor Speer, celebrated the laying of the Turkey Creek sandstone cornerstone on 11 April 1907, but it wasnt until 15 April 1909 that the buildings exterior wa s completed. The hard, light gray Colorado sandstone utilized for the library influenced futu re construction in the civic center. The same material composed the Greek theater and colonnade, as well as the balustrades elaborating the east end of Civic Center Park. Finishing the interior work, receiving acceptabl e furniture, and moving and reorganizing books from the old library led to a belated de dication ceremony on 15 February 1910.258 The Denver Post judged the building to be architecturally one of the hand somest structures in Denver, while the Denver Municipal Facts remarked that from an artistic standpoint it was acknowledged to be without a peer, for a building of its size, in the entire country.259 Mayor Speer noted the library gave citizens a glimpse of what the civic center could become.260 Denver Municipal Facts described the interior of the building as finished in marble in extremely simple style, with no attempt at ornateness.261 The buildings ground floor contained the childrens libra ry, administrative offices, and newspaper reading rooms. The main floor in cluded a grand entrance fl anked by marble staircases, reference room, executive offices, and an open shelf depa rtment where patrons could select their own volumes, a new and popular feature of the lib rary. The top floor encompassed a large art gallery designed by the architect for use by the Artists Club of De nver, a group recognized by the city charter. 262 A 300-seat lecture room and a magazine reading room also occupied the second floor. The librarys book stacks were cited as one of the wonders of the building.263 The book stack department occupied a re ar wing with seven floors seven feet in height from the base of the bu ilding to the roof; the wing contained metal and glass stacks manufactured by New Jerseys Snead and Company Iron Works. Local boys ran the stairs to search for books in the stacks, sending them to the circulat ion desk via dumb waiters.264 The building functioned as the citys central library until a new library opened adjacent to Civic Cent er Park at the northwest corner of West 14th Avenue and Broadway in 1956. The old librarys fate remained un certain until the Denver Water Board moved its offices into the building after extensive remodeling. A SUCCESSFUL FUNDING STRATEGY FOR ACQUISITION OF THE CIVIC CENTER PARK SITE The 1904 city charter created the Denver Park Department and divided the city into four districts, each with the authority to purchase land for parks and parkways. Si nce local voters had defeated a bond issue, the city planned to assess property ow ners in the East Denver Park District en compassing Civic Center Park for its cost, as well as for the cost of proposed improvements, such as parkways, boulevards, smaller parks, and playgrounds. The city proceeded to draft a map showing the land to be acquired and property to be assessed, and property owners in the district recei ved notice of the cost of improvements.265 Although city officials on the barrels. Denver Republican 9 April 1894 and 9 July 1898; Rocky Mountain News 5 March 1907, 3 February 1952, 7A, 15 June 1958, 33, 15 May 1966, 11; Denver Post 18 May 1966, 2. 257 Denver Public Library, 100th Anniversary Celebration 10. 258 Denver Public Library, 100th Anniversary Celebration 9-10; Denver Municipal Facts 12 February 1920, 1. 259 Denver Post 15 February 1910, 6; Denver Municipal Facts 12 February 1910, 1. 260 Denver Municipal Facts 19 February 1910, 9. 261 Denver Municipal Facts 14 January 1911, 11. 262 Denver Municipal Facts 12 February 1910. 263 Denver Municipal Facts 12 February 1910. 264 Rocky Mountain News 24 March 1956, 11. 265 Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer 44.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 77 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form benefited from their previous experience in seeking voter approval for the civic cente r, bitter opposition arose over the new financing scheme. To stop the project, onequarter of the property owne rs needed to file an objection. Ultimately, opponents were unsuccessful in securing valid protests from more than 20 percent of the property owners, allowing plans to move ahead.266 When the city announced protestors had not secured enough objections to defeat the project, Charles M. Robinson observed: It has been finally and definitely decided that Denver is to have a great Civic Center, one of the most costly and pretentious in the United States. Robinson paid tribute to the mayor and other civic leaders for their foresight and tenacity: She [Denver] has had a big Mayor, with the courage that ought to go with great ideas; and as pr esident of the Art Commission she has had a man who not merely had a vision, but who had the patience, persistency and strength to make others see it.267 Denver Municipal Facts reminded citizens the Capitol and the Beautiful Surroundings woul d be incorporated into th e civic center: From the Capitol building one of the grandest mountain views in the world may be ha d. The building of Civic Center will forever preserve and protect this view, an asset of the state and city which many cities would give most anything to possess.268 The city believed the creation of center would increase the value of the Capitol by millions of dollars.269 In December 1910 Mayor Speer further outlined his own visi on for the civic center. It would include a central plaza to protect mountain views from the Capitol and serv e as a point from which paths and ornamental lighting would radiate. The plaza, with electric illumination, woul d constitute a public location for gatherings of citizens and visitors surrounded by fountains, flowers, plants, and statues.270 A sunken garden and a means of honoring the citys great dead were listed among its amenities. Above all, Speer asserted the site should not just be a civic center for government business, but a place for old and young, rich and poor to gather and enjoy its beauties. He believed the civic center would serve as an advertisement for the city, attracting tourists, healthseekers, and homeowners, as well as encouraging the growth of business. The pr oject would result in the erection of new buildings, provide jobs, in crease real estate values, and help the city maintain prosperity. In full City Beautiful discourse, the mayor contended the development would: increase civic pride and make our citizens realize that it is worth something to live in the best city in the land It will pay because a beautiful city makes better citizens.271 DEDICATION OF THE PIONEER MONUMENT Long-awaited, the installation of the Pioneer Monument delighted local City Beautiful proponents. In 1911 MacMonnies delivered the bronze sculptures to Denver for the fountains unveiling.272 Dedication ceremonies on 24 June drew several thousand people, including Kit Carsons granddaughter and 300 pioneers who marched to the site.273 One old-timer commented on the accuracy of the de piction of the scout, st ating: Thatr looks somewhat like Kit. But it makes him look too young. He may have appeared like that at one time in his life, but not when us ers knew him.274 President Taft sent a telegram congrat ulating the city on the erection of the memorial, as did Frederick MacMonnies, whom the Rocky Mountain News called the worlds greatest living sculptor.275 John S. Flower noted the growing desire of local citizens to contribute to the beauty of the city, 266 Denver Municipal Facts 30 April 1910, 3-5. 267 Robinson, The Development of Denver, 206. 268 Denver Municipal Facts 3 December 1910, 1 and 5. 269 Denver Municipal Facts 3 December 1910, 5. 270 Denver Municipal Facts 3 December 1910, 8. 271 Denver Municipal Facts 3 December 1910, 8. 272 Smart, A Flight With Fame 219-220. 273 Denver Post 24 June 1955, 13 and 2 December 1983, 7; Rocky Mountain News 25 June 1911, 1. 274 Denver Times 24 June 1911, 1. 275 Rocky Mountain News 24 June 1911, 1.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 78 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form observing the country is as much to the making of the man as the man is to the making of the country. He recounted Denvers effort to secure an artist of re nown to design the monument.276 Governor Shafroth extolled the courage of those who settled in the area one explorer referred to as the great American desert.277 The state contributed $10,000 toward the cost of the $75,000 sculpture, while the Real Estate Exchange, local citizens, and the city provided the remainder of the funds.278 Art Commissioner Henry Read discussed the monuments representation of the advance of civilization in the West and the citys growing sophisti cation: Denver the Beautiful has been a dream of far reaching import, and we need but glance around to see the visi on even now is taking concrete form.279 One observer called the fountain a landmark in the artistic an d civic growth of the city. The Rocky Mountain News called it the most magnificent monument in the West and one of the most beautiful in the world, and remarked that there would never again be such an inspiring an d majestic sight in Denver as that of the gathering of pioneers for the dedication.280 Although citizens expressed satisfaction with the fountain at th e time of its dedication, later critics found the scout at the top less rugged than rococo. When author and playwright Julian Street visited Denver in 1914 he sarcastically commented that Kit Ca rson looked like something that might have been modeled by a Frenchman whose acquaintance with this country had been limited to reading of a bad translation of Fenimore Cooper.281 Despite such critiques, Denver continued to prize its wo rk by the great Beaux-Arts sculptor. During the summer of 1918 the city expanded the monument site to include the entire triangular parcel, and then planted grass and installed a lighting system that put the structure into relief at night.282 MAYOR SPEER TRAVELS TO EUROPE, DECLINES REELECTION, AND LEAVES OFFICE Robert Speer embarked on his first trip to Europe in 1911, when the Boston Chamber of Commerce selected a group of city leaders and municipal scholars to observe c onditions in contin ental cities and promote friendship. Denvers mayor, who had adopted some European city planning principles, welcomed the opportunity to study and discuss municipal issues, fill ing several notebooks with ideas.283 Journalist Lincoln Steffens, a member of the traveling party, discussed civic concer ns with the mayor and remarked in his Autobiography: We saw good things to copy that Mayor Speer sought for Denver. He was Denver, that honest able man; his eyes were Denvers eyes; his ambition was his citys; his interest wa s the same as our hosts, to see the best in Europe.284 German cities especially impressed the mayor, who handed out copies of Denver Municipal Facts in each town he visited.285 According to biographer MacM echen: The trip had a wonderfully broadening effect upon him and made Denvers mayor a nonpartisan in city government.286 MacMechen asserts that after Speers European trip he had begun to think, not alone of ente rtainment for the masses, but of a method by which their sufferings might be alleviated and better living conditions brought to their hearths.287 276 Denver Times, 24 June 1911, 1 and Denver Post, 24 June 1911, 1. 277 Denver Times 24 June 1911, 2. 278 Denver Municipal Facts October 1918, 4; Rocky Mountain News 25 June 1911, 1. 279 Denver Post 24 June 1911, 4. 280 Rocky Mountain News 25 June 1911, 1. 281 Federal Writers Project, WPA Guide to 1930s Colorado 144. 282 Denver Municipal Facts July 1918, 17. 283 Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer 151. 284 Steffens quoted in Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer 156. 285 Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer 157-158. 286 MacMechen, Robert W. Speer 30. 287 MacMechen, Robert W. Speer 30.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 79 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form Disgruntled property owners continued to question the legality of the citys acti ons in acquiring the land for civic center, arguing the cost of the project should be borne by the city as a whole rather than just property owners within the East Denver Park District. Following a favor able ruling from the Colorado Supreme Court in November 1911, the city secured valuations on the parcels to be acquired. Protests arose again over property appraisals, and condemnation proceedings encompasse d another two years. In March 1912 Denver sold $2.7 million in park bonds for the project, the largest sale of improvement bonds by the city up to that time.288 Undeterred, opponents initiated new lega l challenges in state courts in 19 12 and 1913. Hearings and appeals on the issue continued until January 1918, when the Colorado Supreme C ourt sustained the assessment of properties for acquiring the civic center site.289 Architectural Record heralded Mayor Speer as the city beautiful mayor, and noted that he gained so truly national a reputation for his e ffort to secure a civic center.290 MacMechen agreed, stating: It required all of his [Speers] wonderful tenacity, all his great tact and diplomacy, all of his indomitable will power, to bring the first step [acquisition of the la nd] to a successful conclusion.291 The fate of the entire civic center project became uncerta in after the mayor declined to run for reelection. Speer then spent time traveling abroad and studying European municipal improvements and government. County Assessor Henry J. Arnold, running on a Citizens ticket and promising to institute reforms without a political machine, succeeded Speer as mayor. He initiated the work of clearing the site for th e center in 1912, using as many day laborers as possible to provide needed employment. Mayor Arnold supported civic improve ment, but also desired to institute economies and reforms promised during his campaign. Unlike Speer, who followed Charle s M. Robinsons advice to proceed slowly and saw genius in the MacMonnies Plan, Arnold quickly ordere d the demolition of existing buildings on the site and proposed a series of project s without an overall scheme.292 Abandoning the concepts that governed the existing plans, the new mayor endeavored to erect around the center four public buildings (administrative, court, treasury, and city board) of similar si ze and architectural style as the lib rary and announced that the existing courthouse would be sold to pay for construction. The new buildings would be designed so they could be enlarged as the city grew without damaging the symmetry or beauty of the site.293 The mayor intended the construction to be completed within two years.294 Unlike Speer, who envisioned a civic center as a place all classes of citizens would freel y gather, Arnold stated: We do not want the derelicts of humanity to detract from the beauty of the project.295 OLMSTED BROTHERS AND BRUNNER PRODUCE A CIVIC CENTER PLAN In July 1912 landscape architect Frederick Law Olmste d, Jr., (see biographical sect ion) representing the celebrated Olmsted Brothers firm of Brookline, Mass achusetts, arrived in Denve r to examine the city preparatory to producing new plans for its park and boul evard system, mountain park system, and civic center. To assist him, Olmsted included in the project New York architect Arnold W. Br unner, who had collaborated with Daniel Burnham and James Carr re on the 1903 Cleveland Group Plan.296 Their 1913 design incorporated the main central axis extending west from the State Capitol which MacMonnies had proposed. 288 Denver Municipal Facts 12 and 26 March 1910, 2 March and 6 April 1912; Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer, 44-45. 289 Gillis, A History of the Civic Center of Denver, 33-37. 290 Architectural Record 32 (July-December 1912): 189. 291 MacMechen, Robert W. Speer 46. 292 Denver Municipal Facts April 1919, 5. 293 Denver Post 14 June 1912, 1. 294 Architectural Record 32 (July-December 1912), 189. 295 Arnold quoted in Wilson, A Diadem, 80. 296 E.W. Robinson, Civic Center and Mountain Park Plans, The City of Denver, 23 May 1914, 5.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 80 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form Olmsted treated the area on the park side of the library as a formal lawn, or tapis vert, that would be adorned with minor decorative features and extend southward to wh at was still envisioned as th e site for a future BeauxArts building, thus enhancing the orde rly sightlines and symmetry of the ove rall plan. The grounds adjacent to Broadway became an open plaza with ornamental paving, minor architectural and sc ulptural decorations, and monumental lighting features. Between the tapis vert and the plaza, a formal garden was planned, with its central square corresponding with the width of the mountain vista. Ta king advantage of the natural topography, the lawn and garden lay about four feet below the Broadway plaza and its flanking groves, which formed a nearly level terrace to be supported by an architectural wall topped by a balustrade. The plan proposed semicircular areas on the north and south w ith dense, formal groves of trees sh ading graveled walks with benches. The southern area held a concert grove, whereas MacMonnies envisioned an open stadium for concerts. Olmsted envisioned the Bates triangle as open parkland with a slightly rais ed promenade planted with American elms like those then flanking the Capitol grounds. He re jected the concept of carry ing 15th Street through to Broadway because it would create thr ee points of intersecting traffic and weaken the continuity between the Capitol grounds and the main portion of civic center.297 The planners advised the city that al l architectural and ornamental details should be of absol utely the highest standard of taste and quality in design and in the execution of every detail, regardless of the temptation to get a bigger and quicker show for the money expended through the use of second rate materials or second rate designs.298 Only one new building appeared in the plan, an art museum similar in character to the library, placed as a counterpoint south of the main axis. Olmste d noted the location of the library had influenced all previous civic center proposals and made such a building artistically essential. He suggested the art facility also include a symphony hall. He also echoed the idea that the side of the library facing civic center be remodeled and advised that no buildings be permitted east of the two buildings. Olmsted and Brunner found it of utmost importance for th e sake of the general de sign that a large and imposing public building terminate the west end of the composition, and, like MacMonnies, they placed a future municipal building on the block west of Bannock St reet. The plan advised that the municipal building be strongly horizontal in character to avoid competition with th e dome of the capitol and to preclude impertinent interruption of the sweeping panorama of mountains. Olmsteds proposal for the landscape design of the intervening civic center was pred icated on the assumption that th is building would be erected.299 Unlike the widespread acceptance of the MacMonnies Pl an, Olmsted and Brunners design for Civic Center drew much local criticism.300 William Wilson attributed the discord to the administrations failure to provide the consultants with clear direction, as well as Olmsted s personal desire to recrea te the Washington Mall in miniature. Apparently Olmsted ignore d the logic of creating a transverse axis by aligning the Bates triangle with a similar parcel on the south; nor would he consider an y suggestions that detracted from a symmetrical plan. In Wilsons opinion, Olmsted focused mostly on th e city and mountain park systems, spending little time on the civic center question and produci ng plans that were too spartan, too elaborate, or esthetically dubious. In April 1914 Fredericks half-brother, John Olmsted, and Arnold Brunner completed a final report including costly acquisitions the park board had pr eviously instructed them to delete.301 Despite the citys unenthusiastic 297 Olmsted, Jr., Plan of Developing Civic Center, 4-5. 298 Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., Plan of Developing Civic Center Outlined by Landscape Architect, The City of Denver 12 April 1913, 6. 299 Olmsted, Jr., Plan of Developing Civic Center, 3-4. 300 Wilson, A Diadem, 80. 301 Olmsted reportedly donated his work on the Denver Mountain Parks and Civic Center after some citizens objected to the amount of his fee. After several months of haggling, in October 1915 Olmsted Brothers and Brunner reached a settlement with the city for the cost of their work. Wilson, A Diadem, 80-81; Poppum, Walter. Denvers Civic Center. The Green Thumb (Mar.-Apr.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 81 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form response to the Olmsted and Brunner Plan, Denver Art Co mmissioner Theo Merrill Fi sher later contended it established the general patte rn of walks, lawns, tree planting, and or namental lighting that was followed in developing civic center.302 Denvers Mountain Park System In addition to the plans for the Denver Civic Center, Ol msted prepared plans for several parkways and another jewel in the citys crown: the pr oposed mountain park system. In 1901 the Denver Chamber of Commerce had suggested the city consider establis hing a chain of mountain parks for th e enjoyment of its citizens and to encourage tourism.303 A Special Park Committee formed to st udy the concept, but no municipal action ensued. Mayor Speer focused his attention first on esta blishing a civic center and on the improvement of city parks, but supported a mountain park system, stating in 1909: The man, or combination of men, who will build a shaded drive or Apian Way from our city into the mountains, opening into the canons, and to the summit of our lofty peaks, will be remembered and praised by other generations.304 The following year, real estate developer John Brisben Walker presente d a mountain park concept to the ch amber of commerce and real estate exchange, which supported the projec t and were involved in its planni ng. With this support, Speer made numerous automobile excursions to fi nd suitable mountain land for the project.305 A charter amendment in May 1912 authorized funding with a half-mill levy to create parks and boulevards outside the citys corporate boundary. Th e project represented a cooperative effort by all levels of government, with the state assisting this scheme by allowing Denver to obtain and manage land s in adjacent counties and congressional legislation enabli ng the city to acquire other la nd from the Federal government.306 In a memorandum to the city, Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., discussed the significance of a mountain park system and provided direction for its creation and implementation, including the me thodology and design concept for the project.307 From this starting point, the city began its acquisi tion of a chain of thirty -one foothill and mountain parks and sixteen parcels that includ ed grand views of the mountain peaks and the plains spreading eastward. Olmsted submitted a formal plan in January 1914, although the city began acquiring land as soon as it received his memo.308 The citys landscape architect, Saco De Boer (s ee biographical section), designed portions of the system, and local architects such as Jacques B. Benedi ct and Burnham Hoyt worked on its major buildings and structures. Improved roads connected the city to mountain parks in Clear Cr eek, Douglas, and Jefferson counties, all within a sixtytwo-mile radius of Denver.309 DENVERS COMMISSION FORM OF GOVERNMENT AND EARLY IMPROVEMENTS AT CIVIC CENTER PARK In 1913 Denver voters thwarted Mayor Arnolds plans fo r new buildings in the ci vic center by instituting a commission form of government with five commissi oners and an auditor h eading city departments. 310 A Park Board and Commissioner of Property received responsibil ity for the centers development. Citizens expected the new government to examine every aspect of the citys programs to eliminate waste and duplication. However, commissioners spent most of their first year establishing their departme nts and had little time to 1965): 43. 302 Fisher, The Denver Civic Centre, 190. 303 Moss, Denver Mountain Park System, Denver, Colorado, 1912-1941, section E, 7. 304 MacMechen asserted that Speer originat ed the idea of a mountain parks system although John Brisben Walker introduced the idea to the Real Estate Exchange and is usually given credit for it. MacMechen, Robert W. Speer, 71. 305 MacMechen, Robert W. Speer 71. 306 Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer 202. 307 Moss, Denver Mountain Park System, section E, 9. 308 Moss, Denver Mountain Park System, section E, 9-10. 309 Moss, Denver Mountain Park System, section E, 1. 310 MacMechen, Robert W. Speer 54.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 82 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form identify ways to save money. The following year they at tempted to reduce expenses, causing city services to decline.311 Speers biographer Charles Johnson concluded that the three-year commission form of government was neither very good nor very ba d, but undistinguished, and the people missed Speers aggressive leadership, the grandiose civic planning, the visionary approach.312 During this period, the civic center site experienced gradual improvement, including excavation, filling, grading, installation of water and sewe r systems, building walks and curbs, setting trees, and planting grass according to the Olmsted and Brunner Plan.313 A circa 1913 photograph shows the basic structure of the plan in place. DeBoer assumed the role of City Landscape Archit ect from Reinhard Schuetze in 1910 and served in the position until 1931. He collaborated closely with George E. Kessler and Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., in planning Denvers park and parkway system. Like Sc huetze, DeBoer emphasized Denvers sense of place by establishing viewsheds and also by importing both mountain and prairie pl ant material into the city and arranging this material in flowing, naturalistic patterns. In addition, he supervised the implementation of Olmsteds red oak groves on the Broadway terrace in 1914.314 According to Olmsted, Denver citizens initially asserted the local climate a llowed only native cottonwoods to survive in their parks, but he convinced them red oaks would live. None of the species grew in Denver, so the city imported specimen trees from Pennsylvania by boxcar; after intensive watering they lived.315 Following the publication of the Olmsted and Brunner Plan, the city appointed a Civic Center Commission composed of leading men in a variety of fields to study issues rela ting to its improvements.316 In 1916 the commission produced a public report on previous planning efforts and pres ented a modified version of the MacMonnies Plan, proposing more elaborate decoration an d offering its opinion that the western location for a municipal building should at all times be recognized as an essentia l part of the whole civic center plan. 317 The group recommended the city commit to implementing the plan as soon as funds became available and suggested it provide an annual appropriation until the completion of permanent improvements. Wilson cites the commissions report as one of the last gasps of reform government in the city.318 COLORADO STATE MUSEUM OPENS Although planners designed the Capitol to house the enti re state government, lack of adequate space for all departments quickly became appare nt. During the first decade of th e twentieth century, Progressive officeholders such as Governor John F. Shafroth advocat ed a more active role for government, resulting in the creation of new agencies, boards, and commissions, and the need for additi onal state office space. One approach explored in 1907 and 1908 involved extendi ng the east wing of the Capitol, a plan that included preserving the portico by disassembling and then reassembling it after completing the addition. The state dropped this plan in favor of constructing a new building nearby. 311 Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer 200. 312 Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer 205, 313 Denver Municipal Facts 11 October 1913, 14; Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer, 200-201. 314 Carolyn and Don Etter, S.R. DeBoer, Revised Biography, August 1998, Western History and Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library; Don and Carolyn Etter, The Olmsted Legacy in Denvers Park and Parkway System, Summary Sheet 1: Olmsted & Civic Center and Summary Sheet 2: Olmsted, Bennett, and Civic Center, 2006, Western History and Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library. 315 Poppum, Denvers Civic Center, 43; S.R. DeBoer, The Denver Civic Center, The Green Thumb 24(November 1967)6: 173. 316 The committee included F.J. Chamberlin, Maurice B. Biscoe, John S. Fo wler, Frank E. Shepard, Henry Read, and J.J.B. Benedict. Rocky Mountain News 11 December 1921, 8. 317 Rocky Mountain News 11 December 1921, 8. 318 Wilson, A Diadem, 81.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 83 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form Collections of the State Historical and Natural History Society of Co lorado (founded in 1879) in the Capitol basement constituted a popular tourist draw, but they consumed valuable space in the statehouse. In 1909 the state legislature authorized the first expansion in state facilitie s adjacent to the Capitol with passage of an act providing for erection of the Colorado State Museum The new building would accommodate the holdings of the society, thus freeing up space in the Capitol for boa rds and commissions. The State Board of Capitol Managers purchased a site immediat ely south of the statehouse at the southeast corner of East 14th Avenue and Sherman Street in May 1909. Architect Frank E. Edbrooke, the superintendent of the Capitol, drafted plans for the building and excavation bega n in October. In June 1912 Denver Municipal Facts published a photograph of the partially completed building and optimistically predicted it would be finished by late autumn.319 However, construction proceeded slowly, and rumors swirled th at the $487,000 building might instead be used to house the Supreme Court or serve as the governors mansion.320 With the building comp lete in early 1915, after several months of moving its extensive archeologi cal collection, mineralogical sp ecimens, Civil War relics, and newspapers, photographs, and Colorado history books, the stat museum open ed to the public in September 1915.321 The museum construction featured na tive Colorado materials, including walls of Colorado Yule marble from Gunnison County and a granite foundation, harmonizi ng with the materials used for the Capitol.322 Edbrooke characterized the style of the building as modified Roma n classical. According to historian Thomas J. Noel the building illustrated Edbrookes ability to make the l eap from nineteenth-century Romantic styles to early twentieth-century Neoclassicism.323 The museum is cited as the last bu ilding designed by Edbrooke prior to his retirement in 1915; the architect died six years later. In a book about Denvers ea rly architecture, Richard Brettell praised the building: Its plan is symmetrical, clear, and ample. The classical allusions are no longer piece-meal, nor are they tempered by elements of other styles from other architectur al pasts. Rather, the classicism is apparently complete and almost archaeological in its effect on the viewer. The building is architecturally pure and its im agery exudes a hardened pomp and grandeur.324 SPEER RETURNS TO OFFICE AND HIRES ARCHITECT AND PLANNER EDWARD H. BENNETT TO CREATE A SUCCESSFUL PLAN A group of influential citizens convin ced Robert Speer to run for office again in 1916. Edgar C. MacMechen reported the lack of progress on the ci vic center proved largely instrument al in inducing the former mayor to come out of retirement.325 A special election in May brought an e nd to the commission form of government, which was replaced by a mayor-council ad ministration. It also brought about an amendment to the city charter (the Speer Amendment), which was craf ted to include the best principles of governments Speer had studied as well as ideas drawn from his many years of public service.326 The amendment reportedl y entrusted the mayor 319 Denver Municipal Facts 15 June 1912, 12. 320 Denver Post 19 May 1914, 8. 321 The building continued to serve as the headquarters of the historical society until 1977 and then sat vacant until 1986, when it was rehabilitated into legislative support offices and hearing rooms. Stone, History of Colorado, 213-14; Rocky Mountain News 22 November 1986, 69. 322 Most sources report that the granite came from Cotopaxi in Fremont County, while Derek Everett identified it as Aberdeen granite, specially quarried from the now closed site, to blend with the statehouse to the north. Everett, The Colorado State Capitol 118; Pyle, History of the Colorado State Capitol Complex, 53. 323 Noel, Denver Landmarks and Historic Districts 34. 324 Richard Brettell, Historic Denver: The Architects and the Architecture, 1858-1893 (Denver: Historic Denver, Inc., 1973), 63. 325 MacMechen, Robert W. Speer 47. 326 Ibid., 57.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 84 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form with broader powers than the executive of any other American municipality; it allowed him to proceed with the development of civic center as he desired.327 Except for the auditor and elec tion and civil service commissions, the mayor controlled all appointments and retained u ltimate authority over city finances. A new nine-member city council included four Speer appointees who would serve until the next election. The only potential checks on the mayors actions were the slow and difficult to implement measures of recall, initiative, and referendum.328 MacMechen judged the mayors la st term to be his greatest, and biographer Charles Johnson found it characterized by a smoothly functioning government that carried out its established plans for civic beautification.329 Enjoying much local support and more favorable press, Sp eer pushed forward with work on the civic center. On 8 December 1916 he presented one of his most effec tive and memorable public addresses regarding the importance of Civic Center and citi zens support of it. In his famous Give While You Live speech, he discussed his concept of a Colonnade of Civic Benefactors honoring citize ns, living or dead, who have given in some substantial way to the beauty or the cultural advantages of Denver.330 The mayor believed: Future monuments will be erected to men for keeping out of war, not for leading armies in battle; for lifting burdens, not for gathering gold; for starting waves of happiness, rather than cu rrents of selfishness and greed.331 He spoke to citizens in familia r City Beautiful terms: Ugly things do not please. It is so much easier to love a thin g of beautyand this applies to cities as well as to persons and things. Fountai ns, statues, artistic lig hts, music, playgrounds, parks, etc., make people love the place in which th ey live. Every time a private citizen by gift or otherwise, adds to a citys beauty, he kindles the spirit of pride in other citizens.332 Speer returned to office intent on pursuing further impr ovement of Civic Center a nd voicing opposition to the plan submitted by Olmsted Brothers and Brunner. Duri ng his time away from municipal government, the mayor had returned to Europe and became particularly impresse d by German parks; he now wanted Civic Center to feature a large fountain and a tree-lined mall with statues. Toward th e end of the year, the mayor secured the services of Chicago architect and planner Edward H. Bennett (see biographical s ection), Daniel Burnhams former protg, to prepare a plan that would garner the approval of citizen s and highlight donati ons of the citys benefactors. As DeBoer later obs erved: The present layout is ve ry largely his [Bennetts] plan.333 Wilson considered Bennett to be a key factor in the plans success: In Bennett, Speer found a man of independent and wise judgment who realized the mayors vision while overriding his uninformed enthusiasm.334 The 1917 Bennett Plan Bennett, drawing upon and integrating the various con cepts that had been proposed since Robinsons 1906 analysis, prepared additional and complete civic center pl ans, with the assistance of Denver architects Marean and Norton (see biographical section).335 He submitted the Denver Civic Center Plan in February 1917, emphasizing that the park between Broadway and Bannock Street should become a large open space that could be used for gatherings of thousands of people rather than a secluded park. In that regard, Bennett believed in the logic of paving large areas with conc rete and brick panels or simply grav eling a large section of the center to 327 Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer 207. 328 Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer 207-208. 329 MacMechen, Robert W. Speer 59; Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer 214. 330 Denver Municipal Facts, May 1918, 17. 331 Edgar C. MacMechen, The Court of Honor, 412. 332 Speers speech quoted in MacMechen, Robert W. Speer 75. 333 Poppum, Denvers Civic Center, 42; DeBoer, The Denver Civic Center, The Green Thumb, 173. 334 Wilson, A Diadem, 81. 335 Rocky Mountain News 11 December 1921, 8.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 85 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form accommodate large gatherings. He also favored planting a considerable number of trees to provide shade, as well as the creating small areas with la wns and planting spaces as a suitable background for statues, balustrades, and other decorative elements. Like others who had studied the site Bennett appreciated the dominance of the State Capitol and the importance of preserving its vista along the main axis to the site west of Bannock Street proposed for the new city-county building.336 He suggested the new edifice be constructed of white marble in a design harmonizing with that of the existing library and advised it sh ould include a strong central feature of monumental architecture which will appear to great advant age in the central vista. Borrowing from MacMonnies for the main feature of this east-west axis, he proposed a paved plaza with a monume ntal white marble fountain with a large central jet capable of spraying water to great heights. As a counterpoint for the library, Benne tt, as had previous planners, envisione d an art museum of the same light gray stone facing it across the north-south axis. He proposed an underground passa geway connecting the two and a narrow reflecting pool and doubl e row of fountains between the build ings. This area would be adorned with marble sculpture. Bennett found the library needed room for expansion of reading rooms and stacks to double its existing size, and, like his pr edecessors, proposed a suitable faad e be designed for the existing rear wall facing the central vista. Bennett felt that the Bates triangle shoul d be a definite part of the compos ition and adopted an earlier suggestion for the closing and diversion of West 14th Avenue and the extension of the park block following the arc of a circle on the north and south. On the north, he did not include a similar diversion of West Colfax Avenue, which continued to divide the Bates triangle from the re st of the center. A diagonal turnoff (an extension of 15th Street) cut through the northeast corner of the site, resulting in a small, detached triangle of turf.337 The Pioneer Monument at the northwest corner of Broadway and Colfax would be balanced with a similar site on the south containing a state monument (an area now part of the library grounds that never received a monument). Notably, Bennett added a strong transverse axis to serve as the main entran ce from the business district to the north, elaborated by a monumental gateway on the Bates triangle. To balance the gateway on the south, he incorporated MacMonnies conc ept of an open-air theat er with seats in a semi-circular arrangement. A colonnade (to satisfy Speers desire for a memorial di splaying the names of civic donors) would provide a setting and screen for the theater in the West 14th Avenue triangle and provide a southern terminus for the transverse axis. East of the theater, dense plantings of trees and shrubbery would diminish street noise from Broadway. As Speer desired, Bennett also addressed the lighting of the center, which he believed should be abundant and decorative yet without glaring effects, so that the park would serve as a vital part of the city both day and night. Marean and Norton devel oped the designs for the metal lampposts.338 Bennett recommended controlli ng the heights of the build ings facing and within th e civic center site. Although his plan referenced the State Cap itol and its grounds, he did not propos e significant changes for that area. Rather, he recommended preparation of a revised plan for the area and futu re acquisition of additional grounds around the building: By this means the Government and th e municipal centers may be made to contribute to each other and conform to a thoroughly harmonious whole.339 336 Bennett theorized that columns of white marble might be introd uced to the facades of the library and art museum to bring the materials of all the buildings in closer harmony. 337 Denver Municipal Facts April 1919, 6. 338 Robert Walter Speer, E.H. Bennett, and Marean and Norton, The Denver Civic Center Plan ([Denver: Brock Haffner Press, 1917]); DeBoer, The Denver Civic Center, The Green Thumb 174; MacMechen, The Court of Honor, 414. 339 Journal of the American Institute of Architects 5(April 1917): 181.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 86 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form A 1917 city publication, Denver the Distinctive described the civic center as it then appeared and included a drawing of the proposed Greek theater with a discussion of Bennetts planned elements.340 Bennett continued to advise the city after submitting the plan, opposing Speers ideas when necessary and reminding the mayor of his desire to see the best results possible. In 1918 when Speer advocated installing Pr octors equestrian statue Broncho Buster in the center of the plaza, the architect strongly objected that th e size of work was not sufficient for such placement. Together Bennett and Speer worked out the final location of the Voorhies Memorial, with the architect suggesting the treatment of the Bates triangl e as a shallower ellipse th an that of the corresponding parcel on the south side of the park. According to Wilson: With this solution in hand, the city built the center essentially as it has stood since.341 In the eighteen months after Speers Give While You Live speech, more than a half-million dollars in gifts to the city poured in.342 When the United States entered World War I some criticized the mayor for continuing the improvement work while the countrys focus lay on the ba ttlefront, but Denver also supported more than four thousand victory gardens and established the first municipal traini ng school for soldiers.343 The city continued to operate with a surplus during the war, as it did during each year of Speers tenure.344 His success in transforming Denver led him to be known through the Unit ed States as the foremost municipal executive in America.345 Robert W. Speer died while in office after a brief bout with pneumonia on 14 May 1918. The Rocky Mountain News praised him, saying: He made service to the city his life work. Denvers present commanding place with the outer world is due to his incessant labors for its upbuilding.346 Charles Johnson wrote: Speer never displayed personal flamboyance, but his plans for Denver had a certain majestic quality that will forever distinguish his administrations.347 The citys manager for parks and improvements, William F.R. Mills, succeeded Speer as mayor. When sworn into office on 18 May 1918, Mills pledged to make every attempt to emulate Speers policies and ideals, and to complete public works plans initiated or contemplated by him.348 In an October 1918 article reiterating Sp eers Give While You Live philosophy, the city outlined reasons why it needed to complete Civic Center. Denver saw itself as a municipality that chose aesthetic development over the acquisition of industries due to its hist ory as a tourist destination. In addi tion, the city wanted to add to the beauty of the world, especially in re sponse to the destruction of places of cultural importance that had occurred during World War I.349 Completion of the Greek Theater a nd Colonnade of Civic Benefactors The Denver architectural firm of Willis A. Marean and Al bert J. Norton (see biographical section) designed the $203,404 Greek Theater and Colonnade of Ci vic Benefactors in association with Bennett; Edward Seerie served as the builder. Completion of the proj ect took on a patriotic aspect during Wo rld War I, when the city advised that in light of the destruction of art in Belgium and northern France residents should provide for compensating pieces in other parts of the world.350 An additional purpose of the improve ment was to create a local hall of fame dedicated to those peopl e living or dead who demonstrated thei r love for the city by presenting it with 340 Rocky Mountain News 11 December 1921, 8. 341 Wilson, A Diadem, 82. 342 MacMechen, Robert W. Speer 60. 343 Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer 213; MacMechen, Robert W. Speer 63. 344 MacMechen, Robert W. Speer 60. 345 Stone, History of Colorado 96. 346 Ibid., 99-100. 347 Johnson, Denvers Mayor Speer 224. 348 Denver Municipal Facts May 1918, 17; MacMechen, Robert W. Speer 67. 349 Denver Municipal Facts, October 1918, 3. 350 Ibid.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 87 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form works that increased its beauty or cultu re in a dignified, substantial manner.351 Plans originally called for the inscription of the names of donors on the columns, but in the completed design names were listed on the walls at each end of the colonnade. Donors contributed $600,000 in gifts to the city in the two years after the project was announced.352 A special fund paid by the Telephone Company al so covered costs relate d to the construction of structure and the d ecorative balustrades.353 However, completion of the improvement met delays due to difficulty finding adequate labor to cut the stone during wartime.354 The Greek Theater opened in June 1919, with a special program featuring Red Cross units in uniform and an address by the organizations director Dr. Livingston Farrand, who urged citizens to continue to provide support during the postwar reconstruction process.355 In August Denver officially dedicated the theater and colonnade with elaborate ceremonies attended by an audi ence that filled every se at and spread into the surrounding areas. The municipal band and chorus presented patriotic songs, including one composed especially for the occasion, and speakers recalled Mayor Speers role in the theaters creation.356 The event tested the theaters popularity as a location for public meetings and entertainment. Atte ndees judged the acoustical properties of theater exceptional for an outdoor forum, and the estimated four thousand people in attendance took the opportunity to explore the grounds as well as enjoy the speeches and musical program. Public entertainment occurred almost nightly at the theater thereafter and ranged from pl ays to vaudeville shows to concerts.357 Among the theaters functions duri ng its early years was its use as an open forum, with the city allowing any subject discussed except theology questions involving consideration of the probable end of the world.358 The Denver Atelier Forms According to Denver historians Thomas J. Noel a nd Barbara S. Norgren: Between 1910 and 1940 Denver realized the classical ideal of marrying art and architectur e to a greater extent than ever before or since.359 The Denver Atelier represented one expression of the ages artistic spirit. The school traced its origins to the Society of Beaux-Arts Architects founded in New York in 1893 by architects who had studied at the cole des BeauxArts and wanted to spread and perp etuate its ideas and method of edu cation to North America. In 1916 the group chartered the Beaux-Arts Institute of Design in New York City to faci litate expansion of its program of architectural instruction and competitions based on the curriculum of the Parisian school. The school subsequently added training in mural painting, sculpture, and interior design. In 191 9 the Institute of Design chartered the Denver Atelier, which trained young architects and artist s with the guidance of practicing professionals and graded competitions. Denver architect Burnham Hoyt, himself a winner of four Society of Beaux-Arts competitions while living in New York, judge d the local entries and submitted the best for national appraisal.360 351 Denver Municipal Facts October 1918. 352 Ibid. 353 MacMechen, Robert W. Speer 48. 354 Denver Municipal Facts, November 1918, 16. 355 Rocky Mountain News 24 June 1919, 3. 356 Denver Post 5 August 1919, 22. 357 Denver Municipal Facts, September-October 1919, 15. 358 Controversy over the proper use of Civic Center ensued in 1947 after George Cranmer, the citys Manager of Parks, prohibited labor union members from using the structure to discuss bills pending in Congress. Cranmer asserted the city charter forbid use of the theater for political meetings. Rocky Mountain News 15 June 1920, 16. 359 Noel and Norgren, Denver: The City Beautiful 139. 360 Noel and Norgren, Denver: The City Beautiful 139; Beaux-Arts Institute of Design, New York City Landmark Preservation Commission Landmark Designation Report, accessed 31 January 2011 at http://www.neighborhoodpreservationcenter.org.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 88 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form In 1922 the Colorado AIA Bulletin described the Atelier as the bright est spot in the art life of Denver. Architects Arthur Fisher, Lester Vari an, and Burnham Hoyt, all graduates of Beaux-Arts ateliers in New York, served as the principal instructors for the Denver studi o. Ken Fuller, later a leader of the Allied Architects Association which designed the Denver City and County Building, described the Denver school as the greatest thing for us young architects and artists.361 Another Denver architect reca lled that the studio united its members and emphasized history and art a nd beautiful drawing and draftsmanship.362 Many of Denvers noted twentieth-century artists and archite cts spent time at the Denver Atelier. Voorhies Memorial Gatew ay and Sea Lion Fountain Several wealthy Denver citizens participated in Ma yor Speers Give While You Live program by donating funds for construction of monumental gateways at the entrances to publ ic parks. A posthumous gift by John H.P. Voorhies, an early banker and mining investor who lived opposite the Bates triangle, provided $125,000 for a gateway or entrance to civic ce nter in memory of him and his wife.363 Originally, the city selected the architectural firm of Marean and Norton to design th e gateway. The architects concept included a waterscape, with an entrance elaborated by two m onumental pylons flanked by elevated platforms with seats and backed by a balustrade terminated by podia bearing recumbent sc ulptured lions. An ornament al pool spanned by a stone bridge featured sculptur ed fountains and cascades.364 The city never built the Marean and Norton design, instead it called for new proposals. Bennett came to Denver to help officials select the be st design for the gateway in 1918. He was accompanied by San Francisco sculptor Leo Le ntelli, who produced the heroic figures fo r Denver City Parks Sullivan Gate and planned to submit a new concept for the memorial.365 The location of the Bates triangle presented difficult challenges. The mayor and the Art Commission requested any plans provide for di version of West Colfax Avenue around the north end of Civic Center, eliminating the avenue between the tria ngle and the main part of Civic Center, to create one cohesive area.366 After further delay, in May 191 9 the city announced it would call for new plans in a competitive bidding process.367 In the autumn, city representatives approved a new design by the architectural firm of William E. and Arthur A. Fish er (see biographical section), which called for the same variety of stone as the Colonnade of Civic Benefactors.368 The cutting of stone for the structure began the following January. Allen Tupper True painted murals on lunettes inside the gateway. In 1921 in conjunction with the plans to close West Colfax Avenue betw een Broadway and Bannock Streets, Mayor Dewey C. Bailey (who served 191923) decided to build a curved dr ive around the Voorhies Gateway on 15th Street to lessen traffic c ongestion. The city extended 15th Street through the north east corner of Civic Center Park at Colfax and Broadway to carry traffic heading south on Broadway from downtown.369 After the construction of the Voorhies Memorial Gateway, $15,000 of the money contributed by the donors estate remained. This amount allowed fulfillment of the or iginal Fisher and Fisher design calling for a reflecting pool in the arc formed by the colonnade. The archite cts contracted with scul ptor Robert Garrison (see biographical section) for two bronze groups depicting infants upon sea lions posed at rest on pedestals just 361 Noel and Norgren, Denver: The City Beautiful 139. 362 Ibid., 139. 363 Denver Municipal Facts, September-October 1919, 4. 364 Denver Municipal Facts, October 1918, 6. 365 Rocky Mountain News 31 March 1918, 3. 366 Denver Municipal Facts, October 1918, 6. 367 Denver Municipal Facts, May 1919, 17. 368 Denver Municipal Facts, November 1919, 5 and January 1920, 16. 369 Denver Municipal Facts, April-May 1921, 5.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 89 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form above the surface of the water. Construction began in the spring of 1921 and ended in May 1922 with the installation of the sculptures.370 With the completion of the Voorhies Memorial Gatewa y and its reflecting pool, the city focused on finding or constructing a suitable art museum and placing within th e civic center several sculptural pieces that were already underway. Sculptor Alexander Ph imister Proctor (see biographical se ction) recalled that during a 1917 Denver visit Mayor Speer drove him around the city, rev ealing how much had change d since the sculptors childhood. Two Proctor statues executed in plaster for the Worlds Columbian Exposition ( Equestrian Indian and Cowboy ) stood in Denver, but the works ha d deteriorated. Speer wanted two new pieces for the city, and the artist displayed a small version of his Broncho Buster Then in his third term, Speer contacted two prominent businessmen, J.K. Mullen and Stephen Knight, who agreed to pay Proctors comm ission and donate the works to the city.371 In 1920 the city installed Mullens gift, Broncho Buster and Knights donation, On the War Trail was installed two years later. Director Regi nald Poland of the Denver Art Museum wrote: Art critics have said Denver needed somethi ng to typify its underlying spirit. The two equestrian figures by Proctor are being rightly placed on the Civic Center. There they will be seen by all, among whom are the tourists and tran sient visitors. Coming to Denver, they will see that which will remain in their memory as the es sential spirit of the city and region. These statues satisfy that desire. They will give life to the rather formal, classic architecture.372 COLORADO STATE OFFICE BUILDING AND LIKENS FOUNTAIN State functions and employees continued to grow, with increased duties arising during World War I in association with the Adjutant General and defens e programs. In 1912 the Board of Capitol Managers recommended purchase of future building sites north and so uth of the State Capitol. The legislature authorized funds for such acquisitions in 1917, and three of four si tes were obtained. A joint committee investigated spatial needs and the erection of a new building to house state workers. The legislature select ed the northeast corner of East Colfax Avenue and Sherman Street for the buildi ng site and called for constr uction to begin immediately so the project would provide jobs to returning soldiers.373 The board commissioned respected Denver architect Willia m N. Bowman (see biographical section) to prepare plans for the Colorado State Office Building, with the firm of Seerie and Varnum serving as general contractors. Bowman labeled his design Roman Co rinthian. Construction began in August 1919, with the cornerstone laid in June 1920. The exterior employed Cotopaxi granite, whil e the interior featured Botticino marble in the lobby and first story and Vermont marble in th e remainder of the five-story edifice.374 The total cost of the building reached $1,494,375, considerably more than the $750,000 initially budgeted. The Denver Post charged Colorado taxpayers were being mulcted (extorted or swindled) due to mismanagement of the project by the board. State workers occupied the building in 1921. The following year the state installed two bronze mountain lion sculptures created by Robert Garrison to either side of the main entrance. Tunnels carrying heating pipes and power conn ected the new building to the Capitol and the Colorado State Museum. In 370 Denver Municipal Facts, April-May 1921, 5; Rocky Mountain News 17 May 1922, 16. 371 Alexander Phimister Proctor, Sculptor in Buckskin: The Autobiography of Alexander Phimister Proctor Katharine C. Ebner, ed., 2nd ed., (Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 2009), 177. 372 Poland, Artistic Expression in Denver, 8. 373 Pyle, History of the Colorado State Capitol Complex 55-56. 374 Ibid., 57-61.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 90 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form the opinion of William R. Pyle, the newest addition to Colorados Capitol complex was functional, timely, and majestic.375 Lincoln Park gained one small monument in July 1923, with the installation of the Sadie M. Likens Drinking Fountain near the northwest corner. The dark granite pe destal with two drinking fo untains honored Likens, who lost her husband and other family members in the Civil Wa r and served as a nurse in the conflict. She came to Denver in 1882, became Denvers first police matron in 1889, and tended wounded soldiers from the SpanishAmerican War. Likens helped organize the Womens Re lief Corps, an auxiliary of the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR), which erected the water fountain.376 STEPS TOWARD CONSTRUCTION OF A CITY AND COUNTY BUILDING Throughout the 1920s, the Denver Post continued to extol the City Beautifu l benefits of Civic Center, asserting in 1928: In summer or winter, spring or autumn, Denver Civic Center fills the purpose of civic recreation, culture, health and happiness and as the years roll around, its place in the hearts of hu manity will become more and more monumental.377 During the decade, consulting landscape architect Saco R. DeBoer played a continuing role in developing and maintaining Civic Cent er Park, including oversight for the planting of annual flower beds. Denver leaders focused during the 1920s and early 1930s on acquiring th e recommended site for the new municipal building and proceeding w ith its construction. Robinsons 1906 plan for the civic center had proposed using the existing courthouse location northw est of the Capitol, while MacMonnies suggested a Bannock Street location direc tly to the west, a choice th at subsequent planners including Olmsted, Brunner, and Bennett endorsed.378 Following the citys acceptance of the Bennett Plan, local officials viewed the location for the building as a settled question, but the owners of several downtown offi ce buildings opposed the site, fearing the relocation of county court functi ons would negatively influence the bu siness district and damage property values.379 In 1921 the University of Denver took advantage of citys lack of acti on and purchased the Bannock Street property for a new three-stor y classroom. Local residents criticized the universitys action, and concerns about the completion of the civic center incr eased. In response, the school announced it would sell the lots at cost to the city and supported the project by stat ing: We desire to see our Civic Cent er not only the finest in America, but the finest in the whole world.380 Members of civic and commercial gr oups urged Mayor Bailey to procee d with the concept for the site developed under the Speer administration.381 Harry W. Bundy, president of the Optimists Club, asserted the city would be foolish to abandon Speers plans when most people favored them a nd judged: When we as a city are stronger financially, we do not want to find our dreams of a better city bl otted out by an array of buildings that would cost a small fortune [to obtain].382 Advocates reminded residents that the loss of the land envisioned as the site of the municipal building since the MacMonnies Plan would severely tarnis h the long-held vision for civic center.383 However, Mayor Bailey indicated the city would take no defin ite action on the issue.384 375 Pyle, History of the Colorado State Capitol Complex 57; Denver Post 22 February 1921, 1 and 2 July 1922, 11. 376 Murphy, Geology Tours 40-41; Denver Post 8 July 1923, 5 and 29 May 1999, 3B. 377 Denver Post 31 December 1928. 378 Denver Municipal Facts January-February 1923, 3. 379 Denver Planning Commission, Denver Planning Primer, vol. 6, rev. (Denver: Denver Planning Commission, 1940, 29. 380 Denver Municipal Facts November-December 1921, 15. 381 Rocky Mountain News 7 December 1921, 4. 382 Rocky Mountain News 12 December 1921, 1. 383 Rocky Mountain News 11 December 1921, 1.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 91 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form Those in favor of the Bannock Street site believed th e civic center would never be completed unless Denver citizens voted on the issue. A voluntary group of promin ent people, calling themse lves the Civic Center Extension Committee, formed to push the question to th e forefront, with support fr om a variety of civic, business, and labor groups.385 In the spring of 1923, Denver Municipal Facts featured an artist s visualization of a new city-county building on the proposed Bannock Street site, with the Front Range forming a dramatic backdrop.386 Three hundred well known society women dist ributed literature prepared by the committee discussing acquisition of the desired land. In May the city asked voters to approve ei ther the purchase of the block on Bannock Street or the use of the ex isting Courthouse Square for a new building.387 Local improvement associations and the Denver Art Commission favo red the block on Bannock Street, believing it would encourage the construction of a bui lding in architectural harmony w ith the rest of civic center.388 Mayor Bailey indicated he supported the bond issue, although he viewed either location suitable for the new building. By about a two-to-one margin Denv er voters approved the purchase of th e Bannock Street property and a bond issue of $500,000 to pay for it.389 During the first administration of Mayor Benjamin Stapleton (who served 1923-31) the city moved forward with plans for a new municipal building and purchase of th e block of land for the prop osed construction. At this time officials reiterated the importa nce of developing a common plan for the improvement of the land between the new municipal building and the Capitol, and Mayor Stapleton and Governor Tell er Ammons cooperated in securing the first joint document expressing this intent Opening the vista between the Capitol and the citycounty building site became a focus of the plans. S.R. DeBoer recorded: The de sign of the City Hall was drawn on carefully measured profiles so the mountain view from the Cap itol would be visible above the new City Hall.390 In 1924 DeBoer, working as a consulting landscape architect, submitted the Civic Center Extension Plan, which contemplated the eventual exte nsion of the civic center west to Cherry Creek. The ambitious new proposal recommended creating a centr al mall flanked by public buildings, expanding the library, building a courthouse opposite the library, erec ting a group of city and county government buildings, constructing an art museum and an opportunity school, a nd developing a park at th e west end facing Cherry Creek.391 The city presented the scheme in Denver Municipal Facts for discussion, but never undertook the suggested improvements. Allied Architects Association In 1924 Allied Architects Association, consisting of thir ty-nine leading loca l architects constituting the local AIA membership, submitted a proposal for the design of the city-county building. According to the groups president, Robert K. Fuller, the re asons for its formation as a cooperativ e venture included completing plans for the development of the civic center and providing architectural services for the proposed municipal building. Given widespread interest in the proj ect within the profession it seemed logical to crea te such an association, and the importance of the project required the participati on of an entity with a high standard of excellence. The Colorado AIA chapter sponsored the group after beco ming convinced it could prov ide the needed services. Led by a board of directors, Allied Architects established specialized comm ittees to handle specific aspects of the design and solve special problems th at arose during the design process. At the outset members were required to submit preliminary drawings for the design of the build ing, which provided valuab le information later during 384 Rocky Mountain News, 6 October 1922, 9. 385 Denver Municipal Facts May 1923, 4; Carroll, History and Description, 1. 386 Denver Municipal Facts March-April 1923, 3. 387 Carroll, History and Description, 1. 388 Denver Municipal Facts May 1923, 4. 389 Ibid. 390 DeBoer, The Denver Civic Center, The Green Thumb 174. 391 Denver Municipal Facts September-October 1924, 2-3.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 92 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form the development of formal plans. At the conclusion of the buildings construction the association intended to disband and end its experiment in cooperative enterprise.392 The city selected Allied Architects to prepare plans for the building in the fall of 1924, and by November 1925 it approved preliminary drawings for approximately fifty-five percent of the work.393 The architects selected George Koyl e (see biographical section) as chief designer, with F.E. Mountjoy chosen to perform special services associated with the work.394 Envisioning Denver as Americas Paris, Allied Architects sought to create a building that harm onized with its civic center surroundings and produce one of the municipal beauty sp ots of the world. Seen as providing balance to the Capitol, the new edifice repeated some of the older buildings architectural features, including a monumental pedimented portico and a stately central tower that echoe d the older buildi ngs dome, while representing a sparer, late versi on of Beaux-Arts classi cal design. The architects recommended the same Colorado granite employed for the Capitol and State Office Building be used in the new construction so that the color and materials would create a close connection be tween the city and state bu ildings. The architectural elements of the nearby library, particul arly the engaged colonnade, reverberat ed in the scale and curving faade of the new building.395 In 1924 preliminary work began with the removal of old structures on the constructio n site, but progress on the project halted frequently. One delay resulted from a lawsuit over specificat ions stipulating the use of foreign materials although state law required Co lorado materials. Denvers status as a home rule city ended that dispute.396 Allied Architects submitted a landscape plan fo r the grounds of the new building and the western portion of Civic Center Park the fo llowing year. Some local architects, notably the distinguished J.J.B. Benedict, objected to the selection of the designers and advocated for a more modern design. A court suit challenging the legality of forming a corporation to practice architecture in Colorado resulted in the State Supreme Court voiding the architects contract. After the ruling Allied Architects disbanded and Robert K. Fuller received appointment as supe rvising architect, followed by George Gray, and Roland L. Linder, who saw the project to completion.397 During the various delays the city made no attempt to co ntrol debris at the construction site, which became an eyesore adjacent to the completed grounds of Civic Center Park.398 By 1926 Mayor Stap leton and a group of prominent Denver citizens wanted to ha ve the building erected as soon as possible. However, when the city was ready to proceed, it did not have available the mo re than $4 million needed to finish the building.399 To begin construction the city used funds totaling more than $1.8 million from the Denver Gas & Electric Company and its successor, the Public Service Company. A $2.5 m illion bond issue and additional appropriations covered the final cost of $5,559,588.400 On 26 March 1929, almost six years after the bond issue to purchase the land was passed, the city held a tenminute groundbreaking ceremony, during whic h Mayor Stapletons shovel iron ically struck rock. Architect 392 Robert K. Fuller, Office Practice: The Allied Architects Association of Denver, undated reprint from Architectural Forum in the clipping files of the Denver Public Library Western History and Genealogy Department. 393 Rocky Mountain News 19 November 1925, 18. 394 Architect F.E. Mountjoy served as general superintendent for the construction, but resigned under pressure in June 1931.394 Denver Post 12 June 1931, 1. 395 Denver Municipal Facts November-December 1925, 14. 396 McConnell, For These High Purposes, 219. 397 Carroll, History and Description, 3. 398 Rocky Mountain News 9 May 1926, 1. The site evoked such ridicule that the citys auditor suggested dumping sand there for childrens play. 399 Rocky Mountain News 9 May 1926, 1. 400 Carroll, History and Description, 3.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 93 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form Fuller observed: This event today is significant in that it marks the realization of the Civic Center plan.401 Local contractors Varnum and Bate and Fleisher Engi neering and Construction of Chicago signed a contract pledging to complete the building by April 1932 and later agreed Denver labor would be utilized to erect the building.402 Due to slow progress, the laying of the five-foot-l ong Cotopaxi granite cornerstone didnt occur until 21 February 1931, when ceremonies were held under the au spices of the Masons. While some observers wondered if the city would be able to rais e enough money to finish the building, Denver Municipal Facts optimistically commented: In the harmony and perfection of its archit ectural detail, this build ing, upon completion, will be one of the most beautiful city bu ildings in America, while none can boast a more magnificent setting.403 By April, builders had completed the st eelwork and began pouring concrete.404 Voters approved a bond issue in May, assuring the buildings future.405 One of the last large granite structures erected in th e city, the Denver City and County Building showcased the light gray granite quarried at Cot opaxi in Fremont County, as well as a similar-colored granite from Stone Mountain, Georgia (employed for the colu mns and upper parts of the building).406 The source of stone became problematic for Mayor Stapleton, who in itially had selected two varieties of Colorado granite presumed to be available in adequate amounts. He then generated controversy at a time of high unemployment in the city and state by determining that the Cotopa xi stone needed to be supplemented by granite imported from Georgia.407 Construction of the building provided jobs for nearly 400 men during the early years of the Great Depression.408 The task required 14,000 tons of stone. Italian-born, master stone carver John B. Garatti of St. Paul, Minnesota, led 250 skilled workmen in preparation of 600 carloads of granite for the buildi ng. Garattis career included carving stone ornaments for a number of buildings in Mi nnesota, as well as the Wisconsin and Missouri state capitols.409 He expressed disappointment when the city, as a co st-saving measure, elimin ated the depictions of the buffalos, ox-teams, and pioneers orig inally planned for the east pediment.410 The city approved the completed building on 29 April 1932, and it was opened to public inspection on 1 August 1932, a date traditionally celebrated as Colorado Day. Dedica tion ceremonies began with a flourish of trumpets by the citys Highlander Boys and a rolling back of the monumental bronze doors. Mayor George D. Begole and his cabinet greeted citizens, incl uding former Mayor Stapleton, some of buildings architects, and Mayor Speers widow.411 All city offices, except the police department, jail, and charities department, moved into the new building, eliminating the necessity of rented quarters and separate locations. The building included space for all civil divisions of the courts The fourth floor originally housed the Denver Art Museum, which featured twelve galleries and a reference libr ary maintained by the public library.412 The museum, displaying a new bust completed by Arnold Ronnebeck, became one of the most popular spaces in the building until 1949, when the Schleier Memorial Branch of the Denver Art Museum ope ned at the northwest corner of West 13th Avenue and 401 Rocky Mountain News 27 March 1929, 1. 402 Ibid.; Denver Post, 12 June 1931, 1. 403 Denver Municipal Facts, March-April 1931, 13. 404 Denver Post 31 April 1931, 3. 405 Denver Post 17 February 1931. 406 Murphy, Geology Tour 24. 407 Denver Post 24 December 1930. 408 Denver Post 31 December 1931, 14C. 409 Denver Post 21 December 1931. 410 Carroll, History and Description, 1. 411 Ibid., 1. 412 Federal Writers Project, WPA Guide to Colorado 142.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 94 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form Acoma Street.413 After reviewing the completed construction journalist Lee Taylor Casey expressed his praise for the building: It is a building of many superla tives. It is big, in keeping with the bigness of the West. It harmonizes with, rather than dominates, the other structures in wh at is probably the finest civic center in the nation. It is an enduring monument to the community; to Mayor Speer, who conceived the idea of the civic center and create d it in the face of bitter opposition and personal abuse; to his successors who strove against similar objections to fulfill his vision; to the men who designed it; to the thousands of men and women w ho had the faith that was necessary to see it finished.... It is built to endur e. Centuries hence, it may be Denvers sole reminder of the existence of this generation.414 The Rocky Mountain News emphasized the importance of the buildi ngs site in conveying a City Beautiful impression: Sky and mountains combine to make more attractive the shining whiteness of the new home of the city and county government.415 With the completion of th e building, the newspaper ann ounced that no city in America, with the exception of Wa shington, will have a finer grouping and setti ng of public buildings.416 Vertical and oblique aerial photographs of the early 1930s show the configuration of the Denver Civic Center following the completion of the city-county building. The final drawings for the city-coun ty building and its grounds called fo r the placement of two monumental flagpoles in the forecourt. Camilla S. Edbrooke, wi dow of Frank E. Edbrooke, died in 1929, leaving $5,000 for the construction of a public drinking fountain. The city determined the erection of flagpoles in front of the building would contribute more to the beauty of the civic center.417 Roland Linder (see biographical section), the supervising architect who saw the building to completion, designe d the massive flagpoles incorporating water fountains into the design.418 Italian-born stonemason and graduate of the University of Milan Art School, Joseph Rizzi, and his son, Alfred, acquired about one hundred tons of Colorado granite for the bases of the flagpoles in order to match the color and texture of the buildings walls. They eventually produced two bases weighing about fifteen tons each. The Rocky Mountain News pronounced they add to the beauty of the building and Civic Center.419 Veterans organizations led dedication ce remonies for the flagpoles on Armistice Day in 1935. With the flagpoles in place, the City Beau tiful era of improvements on the Denver Civic Center came to an end. CIVIC CENTER HOSTS PUBLIC ACTIVITIES As the city and state completed improvements within the civic center, the site hoste d a broad range of programs and ceremonies commemorating important events in the nations history. On the opening night of the Greek Theater in 1919, a somber audience reme mbered the sacrifices of those who served and died for the country in World War I, viewed a film record ing the devastation in Europe, and heard pleas for support of Red Cross reconstruction efforts. The theater frequently served as the venue for concerts, speeches, and plays. At a Burning Issues Forum during the su mmer of 1920, speakers stood on the stag e and addressed subjects of their choice. An automobile show took place in Civic Center Park in 1921. In the mid-1930s the site accommodated folk festivals featuring dancing and gymnastics performances traditional to other countries.420 Denver Civic 413 Denver Post 1 August 1932, 11; McConnell, For These High Purposes, 220. 414 Rocky Mountain News 9 April 1932, 13. 415 Rocky Mountain News 1 August 1932, 7. 416 Ibid., 6. 417 Rocky Mountain News 4 December 1934, 10. 418 Rocky Mountain News 12 November 1935, 7. 419 Rocky Mountain News, 7 November 1935, 15. 420 Rocky Mountain News 25 May 1936.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 95 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form Center served as the locale for holiday celebrations, su ch as Fourth of July fes tivities and extensive winter holiday displays and parades. When Denver celebrated its centenni al in 1959 with a Rush to the Rockie s theme, it established a Pioneer Village on the grounds of the civic center, complete with a furnished drugstore, saloon, theater, restaurant, post office, bank, church, school, barber s hop, and other facilities. A narrow gauge train traveled through the village, passing an oil derrick on its outskirts. Visitors could pan for gold or observe reenactments of important events. To emphasize Americas military strength and Colorados future, a 90 Titan missile stood upright near the center of Civic Center Park. 421 A variety of annual festivals attracting thousands of people held in recent years include the annual Peoples Fair and th e Taste of Colorado culinary and entertainment event. One of the largest crowds in the centers history part icipated in a Bronco football team Super Bowl victory celebration in 1998. National, state, and local political events held in the center included gatherings, speeches, and inaugurations. National leaders visited the civic center to make public addresses, including Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry Truman, Richard Nixon, John F. Kennedy, Bill Clinton, and, in 2008, Barrack Obama. Continuing in its role as a forum for open discussion of all points of view, the civic center accommodated mass gatherings of persons protesting actions of government. In addition, it fulfilled its intended function as an outdoor center for musical and theatrical entertainment, beginning with perf ormances of the Denver Municipal Band in 1919 and continuing to the present day.422 LATER PLANS FOR THE CIVIC CENTER AND DEVELOPMENT IN ITS VICINITY In the decades following the comple tion of the Denver City and County Building, the State of Colorado and Denver considered plans to alter the civic center and erected additional governmental and civic buildings in adjacent areas. The new construction buttressed the vicinity s role as the center of state and city and county government, cultural activities, and judicial proceedings while providing a buffer of generally low-rise buildings separating the historic core of the city from newer commercial deve lopment. Ultimately, no new buildings were erected within the civic center. Planning Proposals. As early as 1936, landscape architect Saco De Boer developed a detailed plan for changes to the civic center. The concept in cluded opening the vista between th e State Capitol and the city-county building; adding a formal garden with circular pools to the west lawn of the Capitol; reconfiguring the walkways in Lincoln Park; adding an oval pool west of the balustrade and a recta ngular reflecting pool in the Great Lawn in Civic Center Park; an d erecting four new city buildings, in cluding a large art museum south of West 14th Avenue. The city did not implement the plan.423 During the 1960s proposals and master plans recommended substantial cha nges for Civic Center Park. A 1964 scheme envisioned a new eight-story City Hall and a Hall of Justice on the site.424 Master plans prepared for the city and state in the late 1960s propo sed constructing a number of new city and state buildings in and around the civic center; moving, remode ling, expanding, or removing some of th e existing resources; redesigning park areas; adding underground parking; and opening symbolic vistas for passing motorists.425 While new state government facilities and commercial bui ldings rose on its periphery, proposed construction within the center 421 Rocky Mountain News 17 April 1959, 6; Colorado Heritage (May/June 2009): 32. 422 Mundus Bishop Design, Master Plan 21-28. 423 Saco R. DeBoer, City Planner, Plan fo r the Development of the State and City Grounds, 10 October 1936, Drawing, S.R. DeBoer Collection, WH1082, FFC5, SF1, FF7, Western History and Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado. 424 Denver Post 21 June 1964, 34. 425 Rocky Mountain News 2 July 1967 and 23 July 1972, 44.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 96 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form itself was not implemented, and the area remained substa ntially intact. DeBoer, writ ing in 1967, concluded that since the completion of the ci ty-county building in 1932 ver y little work has been done in the center, but much has happened to the surroundings.426 The early 1970s saw proactive efforts to protect the Denver Civic Centers setti ng by placing controls on its surroundings. In 1971 the city adopted a Capitol Mountain View Ordinance, which preserved the viewshed of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains as seen from the Capitol steps.427 In 1973, Denver City Council unanimously passed an ordinance restricting bui lding heights in the area of Civic Center.428 The heightlimitation bill affected lands adjacent to the civic cente r on the north, south, and east, allowing taller buildings further away. 429 The city hoped the ordinance would preserve th e integrity of the Civic Center to protect the openness of its unique public space as a relief from its intensely developed surroundings.430 The only departure from this policy, however, was the States placement of the Colorado Veterans Monument, a tall but narrow obelisk, in the center of Lincoln Park in 1990, a measure wh ich received bi-partisan s upport in the legislature. Building Construction In the vicinity of the Denver Civic Center the state government added two seven-story office buildings, both clad with white marble after the period of significanc e: the State Capitol Annex at the southwest corner of East 14th Avenue and Sherman Street (1940), follo wed by the State Services Building at the northwest corner of East Colfax Avenue and Sherman Street (1960). In 1977, the block bounded by Broadway, Lincoln, and East 13th and 14th Avenues received two new state build ings: the gray granite-clad Colorado Judicial Heritage Center to the no rth and the Colorado History Museum, a three-story wedge-shaped building in charcoal-colored brick. Both were designed by the Denver arch itectural firm of Roge rs, Nagel, Langhart. The state demolished both of these buildi ngs in 2010 to make way for an expa nded Ralph L. Carr Colorado Judicial Complex occupying the entire block. The center, now under construction, w ill include a four-story courtroom section on the north and a tw elve-story office tower on the south. In 2005, the state erected a four-story parking garage at the southeast corner of East 14th Avenue and Lincoln Street. The City and County of Denver also expanded its facilities in the postwar period through new construction and the acquisition of existing buildings. Ou tgrowing the 1910 library at the northw est corner of Civic Center Park, in 1955 the city erected a four-story, limestone-clad central library to th e south on Broadway between West 13th and 14th Avenues. Remodeled, the old library became the of fice of the Denver Board of Water Commissioners. In 1995 the 1955 library building received an addition in the Postmodern style by New York architect Michael Graves and Klipp Colussy Jenks Duboi s Architects of Denver. The result ing seven-story building features a variety of geometrically-shaped co mponents clad in stone and tinte d cast stone of varying colors. In 1966 the city acquired the 1949 fou r-story International Style Univer sity of Denver Classroom Building (abutting the former Bates triangle to the northwest) to house city workers. Clad in Indiana limestone, the building was then known as Annex I. In 2002, Annex I b ecame part of the Webb M unicipal Building designed by David Tryba Architects and RNL Design of Denver, with a monumental atrium connecting it to a new twelve-story building featuring walls of concrete and stone. The building consolidated city workers from 40 different agencies and divisions previously housed in leased space. West of the 1955 Denver Public Library, between Acom a and Bannock Streets, a new Denver Art Museum was built in 1971. Designed by Italian architect Gio Ponti and James Sudler Associates of Denver, the seven-story 426 DeBoer, The Denver Civic Center, The Green Thumb ,174. 427 Denver Post 9 January 1973, 3. 428 Rocky Mountain News 27 February 1923, 10. 429 Denver Post 1 March 1973, 25. 430 Rocky Mountain News 27 February 1973, 10.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 97 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form building represented one of the first vertical art museums in the nation. Th e twenty-four-sided museum featured walls clad in reflective gray glass ti les, a variety of narrow windows, a nd a pierced roof. To many, it resembled a castle guarding the treasures inside. In 2006 the museum expanded to a site south of West 14th Avenue through construction of a titanium-cla d wing designed by Daniel Libeskind and linked to the older building by a skybridge. CONTINUING VITALITY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY The actualization of the Denver Civic Center, from initial planning through completion of the Denver City and County Building and its grounds, extended more than fifty years, reflecting ongoing commitment from a number of mayors and city councils community organizations, and generations of citizens. The centers continued vitality today testifies to the soundness of the original concept, as well as the willingness of political leaders, public interest groups, and local residents to defend th e resource when threatened. In the early 2000s, the city displayed continuing interest in Denver Civic Center and its future. Mundus Bishop Design of Denver prepared a master plan for Civic Ce nter Park in 2005. A 2006 plan to activate or enliven Civic Center Park prepared by New York architect Daniel Libeskind at the behest of the newly-formed Civic Center Conservancy faced strong opposition from historic preservationists. Opponents argued that the proposed changes, which included towers, new buildings, and long aerial walkways, adversely imp acted the original City Beautiful design. The Libeskind Plan never progressed be yond the conceptual stage. Also unsuccessful was a 2007 proposal by the Colorado Historical Society to relocate its museum and offices to a new building on the southwest corner of the park where early planners had anticipated an art museum and construct underground exhibit spaces linking the new muse um to the 1910 library building. A 2007 Denver bond issue provided funds to rehabilitate th e principal Civic Center Pa rk structures, including the Greek Theater, Voorhies Gateway, and Broadway Terrace. To ensure future change s to the parks historic fabric receive adequate review, in April 2009 the c itys Landmark Preservation Commission adopted design guidelines for Civic Center Pa rk as a supplement to the master plan. A number of State Historical Fund grants have supported rehabilitation of Civic Center resources following the Secretary of Interiors Standards since the 1990s. Denver Civic Center remains a vita l historic community resource in the manner intended by its original planners. In his analysis of succe ssful City Beautiful improvements William H. Wilson found they included parks and parkways, tree planting, noble public build ings, and a few civic cen ters. He reasoned: All of these public works were, a nd are, important because they were the physical expression of an ideal, because they functioned in a limited way as their proponents claimed that they would, and because they still prov ide recreation, relaxation, and repose. The public buildings symbolized a coherent architecture, an idea comprehended if not always achieved.431 Denvers example represents one of the best-preserved and most complete civic centers of the later City Beautiful era and continues to fu lfill all of th ese functions. COMPARATIVE PROPERTIES Although many civic center plans were proposed, Denver is one of comparatively few cities to fully realize such a comprehensive municipal improvement. As Mel Scott obs erved: Only a lone city hall or courthouse bears witness to the enthusiasm with which some [civic cen ters] were begun; and an in calculable number remained 431 Wilson, The City Beautiful 2.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 98 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form nothing but architectural drawings.432 The Denver Civic Center compares qu ite favorably with significant City Beautiful era civic centers construc ted in other American cities in terms of scale, quality, and scope of resources. Comparable civic center districts are discussed below, as well as two individual NHLs, the Nebraska State Capitol and Santa Barbara County Courthouse, which are similarly recognized for their outstanding artistic merit and regional symbolism. Apparent in each of these comparable examples is a common democratic vision and recognition of the role of va rying levels of governmental authority in American life. Each reflects the search for a public architecture that reflects a physical as well as symbolic balance between state and local government and is a powerful expression of the values and ideals that are national in scope but regional in character. San Francisco In 1959, classical architecture scholar Henry Hope Reed called the San Francisco Civic Center the greatest architectural ensemble in America.433 Designated a NHL in 1987, the nominated area embraces roughly thirtynine acres and includes build ings housing state and city and county functions, both g overnmental and cultural. The monumental San Francisco City Hall (1916, designed by John Bakewell, Jr., and Arthur Br own) dominates the district, featuring a 307-and-one-hal f-foot tall dome that is reportedly one of the la rgest in the world. Other major historic resources within the district include the Exposition Auditorium (1915), Public Library (1916), California State Building (1926), War Memorial Opera House and Veterans Buildi ng (1932), and Civic Center Plaza (1915), a two-block open space with a central alle flanked by lawns. The Pioneer Monument (1894, by Frank Happersberger) is the principa l commemorative work within the ci vic center and includes figures from the Golden States seal (the Mi nerva, goddess of wisdom, and two other Roman goddesses) and history (a Spanish mission padre, a vaquero and a Native American). While Fulton Street, which extends east-west through the district, is closed to vehicl es, the street grid is present in the remainder. The NHL is significant in the areas of architecture, community planning and development, politics and government, and recreation.434 In 1904-05 Daniel Burnham, with Edward H. Bennett as hi s principal assistant, deve loped a city plan for San Francisco that included a civic center. Jon Peterson observed: San Francisco was a divided city, riven by shar p ethnic and social cl ass conflict and a long history of both municipal penury and graft-ridden politics that augur ed poorly from the start. The custodial elements who recruited Burnham, known locally as the dreamers, and those with real power in the city did not know how to work together, only to fight.435 Burnham served as the lead designer for the project, while Bennett held res ponsibility for the day-to-day tasks, reports, and client contacts during hi s employers absence. San Francisco did not implement the firms plan as proposed, despite the opportunity of a clean slate presented by the 1906 earthquake. In 1909, the city asked Burnham to revise his earlier plan, and his associate, Willis Polk, developed a semi-circular civic center design at the corner of Van Ness and Market Streets. A public vote overwhelmingl y defeated the proposal.436 The question of a civic center revive d in 1911 with the election of Jame s Sunny Jim Rolph as mayor. Rolph served as vice president of the Panama-Pacific Exposition Company, a firm organized to stage a worlds fair in the Bay City. As mayor, he favored continuing reforms and implementing pr actical city improvements. A 1976 National Register nomination form for th e San Francisco Civic Center indicated: 432 Scott, American City Planning 62. 433 Quoted in James H. Charleton, National Park Service, San Francisco Civic Center National Register of Historic Places district nomination (additional documentation), 9 November 1984. 434 Charleton, San Francisco Civic Center. 435 Peterson, The Birth of City Planning, 189. 436 Draper stated "Bennett was indirectly co nnected" with the civic center in San Francisco due to his long promotion of his and Burnham's plan. Draper, Edward H. Bennett 47.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 99 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form the idea of a Civic Center, in his [Rolphs] hands, became a cat alyst for the rest as a symbol of the new unity of the population under a new an d honest political era. He associated the Civic Center with the Exposition; the Civic Center would permanently exhibit the grandeur which the Exposition would only briefly evoke, and it would demonstrate convincingly to the world that San Francisco had not simply recovered from the earthquake but had become a thriving and civilized metropolis of international importance.437 Under Rolph, planning for the civic center moved forw ard, and, in 1912, San Francisco voters approved an $8.8 million bond issue. In July 1912, a somewhat modified ve rsion of a 1909 civic center plan developed by B.J.S. Cahill saw implementation, and construction extende d from 1913 through 1932 when the War Memorial Complex was completed on the west. The period of significance extends from 1913 through 1951 and encompasses two internationally significant events occurr ing within the district: th e drafting and signing of the United Nations Charter in 1945 and the signing of the Treaty of San Francisco (the peace treaty with Japan) in 1951. Alterations to the San Francisco Civic Center occurred after its pe riod of significance. The 1984 National Register nomination providing additiona l documentation noted in reference to Civic Center Plaza the present landscaping scheme dates from the early 1960s. Two la rge fountains shown in historic photographs are no longer extant. Further alterations to the plaza appear to have taken place since the 1960s, including installation of a number of small-scale art objects. United Nations Pl aza (the block of Fulton Street lying between Hyde and Larkin Streets) was created in 1975. In 1993, the Pioneer Memorial was moved about a block northwest to its current location. The city erected a ne w public library within the district in 1996; the old library now houses the Asian Art Museum. In 1998 the California State Buildi ng received a fourteen-sto ry, rear addition in the Postmodern style. The Denver Civic Ce nter, by contrast, contains substantia lly more park land, presents a more sweeping vista, and has avoided the a ddition of new construction and loss of primary decorative features within its boundary. Cleveland Citizens of Cleveland began discussing the concept of a group plan for public buildin gs near the Lake Erie waterfront as early as 1895. The Ch amber of Commerce endorsed the idea and began a promotional campaign four years later. In 1901 mayoral reform candidate Tom L. Johnson authorized a comm ission to create a plan. The commission, consisting of Daniel Burnham, John Carrre, and Arnold Brunner, proposed a monumental building corridor with a Court of Honor in the southern part. The scheme envisioned a T-shaped plan with a broad, north-south oriented, formally laid out, grassy mall, around which public buildings would be arrayed. Cleveland, one of the countrys larges t cities in the early twen tieth century, provided an early and influential example for other communities. In the opinion of planning hi storian Jon Peterson, Cleveland did more to popularize the concept of grouping public buildings as a civic goal than any other city, and the Cleveland improvement electrified the City Beautiful movement.438 The execution of the Cleveland Plan extended from 1903 to 1938. The public buildings representing three levels of governmental functions are situated within the civic center: U.S. Post Office, Custom House, and Court House (1910, by Arnold W. Brunner); Cuyahoga County C ourt House (1911, by Charles Morris); Cleveland City Hall (1916, by J. Milton Dyer); Cleveland Public A uditorium (1922, by J. Harold MacDowell and Frederic H. Betz with Frank R. Walker); Cl eveland Public Library (1925, by Walker and Weeks); and Cleveland Board of Education Building (1930, by Walker and Weeks). The principal buildings vary from four to six stories in 437 Michael R. Corbett, San Francisco Civic Center, National Register nomination, 22 November 1976. 438 Peterson, The Birth of City Planning, 157; Draper, Edward H. Bennett 47.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 100 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form height and are clad in limestone, granite, marble and sandstone. A 2005 draft NHL nomination for the Cleveland Mall describes the architectural style as Twentieth Century Revival: Beaux-Arts (American Renaissance). Artistic elements include numerous mura ls, statues inside several buildings, and sculpture adorning the Cuyahoga County Court House.439 The boundary of the draft nomination incl uded an area of twenty-s ix acres and argued that the district is the earliest and most completely executed civic center plan for a major city in the United States outside of Washington, D.C. It is a harmonious grouping of massi ve and classically inspired civic buildings and open spaces, built to represent the cohesive civic and social progressivism of the City Beautiful Movement.440 However, the planned buildings along the western side of the mall were no t constructed within the period of significance. Alterations within the di strict include additions to some bu ildings, as well as the 1964 Cleveland Memorial Fountain (Fountain of Eternal Life), the tenstory 1966 Stokes Wing of the Cleveland Public Library, installation of small art obj ects, and additions and changes to the la ndscape design of the central mall. By comparison, the Denver Civic Center was more fully real ized during the City Beau tiful era and has escaped major building additions and new construction. Chicago In the early twentieth century Daniel Burnham and Edward H. Bennett began work on one of their most successful and influential projects, a comprehensive plan for Chica go. Commissioned by the Commercial Club, the Chicago Plan became the elder architects last majo r planning project and the task that launched Bennetts career as a consulting city planner. From 1913 thr ough 1930 Bennett served as consulting architect to the Chicago Plan Commission during impleme ntation of the project. The Chicago Plan envisioned public works to modernize and beautify the city, illu strated with maps and drawings prepared by artists under Bennetts direction. The plan considered exis ting conditions, regional influences, and means of implementation. Proposed elements included a park system, a civic center, reconfi guration of railroad tracks a nd terminals, reorganization of lakefront facilities, co ordination of streets and hi ghways, and the construction of new public buildings. Burnham and Bennetts 1909 Plan of Chicago became the most celebrated example of a number of comprehensive plans publishe d prior to World War I.441 More of Bennetts recomme ndations became reality in Chicago than any other city, and th e scale of the effort was immense.442 A 1929 study of the plan found that w ith the exception of the civic center all of the major projects of that early plan have been accomplished [emphasis added]. Th e 1909 plan envisioned a Chi cago Civic Center at a convergence of radial boulevards at Congress and Halsted Streets, incl uding a massive domed city hall and other governmental buildings facing a broad plaza. Co mplicating the Burnham-Bennett scheme was a combined Chicago city hall-Cook County building already under construction a mile northeast of the planned location. The civic center proposed in the 1909 plan was never built, and the site now holds a massive highway interchange. In 1949, the Chicago Plan Commission announced a $100 million civic center consolidating federal, state, and local government offices on a fort y-one-acre campus on the Chi cago River north of Congress Street. The project failed to go forw ard. In 1965 the Chicago Civic Center (now Daley Center), a thirty-onestory International style building with a plaza containing a large Pablo Picasso sculpture, rose east of the 1911 city-county building.443 Denver is distinguished from Chicago in that it represents one of the few plans in the 439 The description of the district is drawn from the draft NHL nomination. Deanna Bremer Fisher, Cleveland Group Plan Historic District, Cuyahoga County, OH, Nati onal Historic Landmark Nomination, draft, December 2005, in the files of the Ohio Historical Society, Columbus, Ohio. 440 Fisher, Cleveland Group Plan Historic District. 441 Wilson, A Diadem, 75. 442 Draper, Edward H. Bennett 26. 443 Peterson, The Birth of City Planning, 215 and 300; Draper, Edward H. Bennett, 30; Chicago Landmarks, City of Chicago, http://webapps.cityofch icago.org/landmarksweb ( accessed 12 January 2011); Lee Bey, Lee Beys Chi cago, Unbuilt Ch icago: The

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 101 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form nation for a civic center of grouped build ings and structures, landscaped parks, and works of art to actually be funded, executed, and reach a stage of completion. Pasadena, California The sixty-three-acre Pasadena Civic Cent er Historic District is listed in th e National Register at a national level of significance. Following the creation of the Pasadena City Planning Commission in 1922, member George Ellery Hale, a California Inst itute of Technology professor, urged the preparation of a plan to meet the citys pressing need for facilities. The city selected the firm of Bennett, Parsons, and Frost of Chicago to prepare plans for a civic center containing an en semble of municipal bui ldings. Led by Edward H. Bennett, the planners envisioned Holly Street as a principa l east-west axis terminated by the Pasa dena City Hall on the east. Garfield Avenue, the minor north-south axis, featured the public libra ry at its north end and th e city auditorium at its south. The plan also addressed stre et circulation problems in the downt own area. In 1923, Pasadena voters approved a $3.5 million bond issue to implement the plan.444 The 1927 Pasadena City Hall, with its towering open dom e, dominates the civic center and faces a small plaza to the west. The city council had expressed its desire for an official building of imposing beauty, massive yet graceful, and suited to a land of flow ers and sunshine. Architects John Bakewell, Jr., and Arthur Brown, who earlier designed the San Francisco City Hall, delivered a monumental Mediterranean style buildin g reflecting regional influences. Other pr incipal civic buildings within the distri ct included the Pasadena Public Library (1925, by Myron Hunt and H.C. Chambers), Hall of Ju stice (1930, by Joseph J. Blic k and W.W. Warren), and the Pasadena Civic Auditorium (1932, by Edwin Bergst rom, Cyril Bennett, and Fitch Haskell). A YMCA building (1910, addition 1925) and YWCA (1920) facility (the latter by arch itect Julia Morgan ) and commercial buildings are also present in the distri ct. The planners incorporated the exis ting U.S. Post Office (1915) into the civic center layout. In contrast to ot her civic centers, where public buildin gs were grouped around parkland, in Pasadena the principal open space is Memorial Park in the northwest corner of the area, which contains a bandshell and Civil War monuments. The preparers of the 1976 National Register nominati on concluded that the Pasa dena Civic Center is a nationally significant example of civic art in the City Beautiful style of the 1920s. The main features of the plan were actually executed, and the key buildings act ually built, by nationally r ecognized architects in a homogenous style. The Mediterranean Revival style employed within the district displays such characteristics as smooth stucco walls, arch window and door openings, red tile roofs, and horizontalit y. In contrast to Denver, the Pasadena area never contained purely governmental and cultural functions, but included commercial and religious buildings as well. Since it s designation, a number of buildings wi thin the district have received additions. Substantial infill construction has occurred, pa rticularly in the southern portion. The use of the Mediterranean Revival style in Pasadena stands in contrast to the Beaux-Arts Classicism of the Denver Civic Center improvements.445 Nebraska State Capitol The Nebraska State Capitol (The Tower of the Plains) in Lincoln, designated an NHL in 1976, replaced an older capitol building. New York architect Bertram Gr osvenor Goodhue won a national competition to design the building with a plan breaking fr om traditional classical capitol motifs and employing a modernistic, streamlined approach. The building features a 400 foot central skys craper office tower flanked by low 1949 Civic Center Plan, 1 J une 2010, http://www.wbez. org (accessed 12 January 2011); Chicago Civic Cent er, Chicago, Illinois, Skidmore, Owings & Merr ill, http://www.som.com ( accessed 12 January 2011). 444 Pasadena Herita ge, Pasadena Civic Center District, National Register of Historic Places nomination, 15 September 1978. 445 Ibid.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 102 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form horizontal wings that form four interi or courtyards (a cross-in-square pl an). Construction ex tended from 1922 to 1932 and cost $9.8 million.446 The building displays a high level of ornamentation, with extensive use of regional themes. Sculptor Lee Lawries The Sower, a monumental nineteen-foot, bronze figure weighing eight and one half tons, caps the dome of the tower, highlighting the major role of agriculture in the history of the state. Lawrie, who began working with Goodhue in 1895, also inco rporated sculptural elements into the buildings Indiana limestone exterior, including bison, panels illustrating lawgivers and philosophers throughout the ages, and column capitals with corn, sunflowers, and bi son images. Artist Hildreth Meiere, who studied in Italy, New York, and San Francisco, crafted the murals and mosaics for the building. Walkways extend from the building to the street in each cardinal direction. The fou r-block site has perimeter sidewalks with tree lawns. A lawn with clusters of trees fills the area between the capitol and the sidewalk. The west walkway features a stat ue of Abraham Lincoln sculpted by Daniel Chester French and installed in 1912 in front of the previous capitol building. French worked w ith architect Henry Bacon to create the stat ues setting, including a Rhode Island granite wall inscribed with the Gettysburg Address. The statue faces west toward the Lincoln Mall, a parkway with a grassy median.447 The Nebraska State Capitol is a rema rkable individual building with high artistic values on its exterior and interior. The building pays tribute to the Cornhusker States pi oneer history, Native Americans, and agricultural iconography. However, in contrast to the Denver Civic Center, the capitol is a single building and not part of a planned ensemble of government buildings. Although the statehouse was not a direct response to City Beautiful-era planning, it did share th e propensity of the Denver center to celebrate its regi onal heritage and bring together professional designers, from a wide spect rum of the fine artspaintin g, sculpture, architecture, and landscape architecture. In comparison, both demonstrate the role that str ong state government, regional identity, and artistic excellence played in shap ing the urban landscape of the interior West. Santa Barbara County Court House Architect Charles Moore described the 1929 Santa Barb ara County Court House as the grandest Spanish Colonial Revival structure ever bui lt. Its 2005 NHL nomination characterizes the resource as a modified Spanish castle plan. The building in cludes an administration/court compone nt, a hall of records, a service annex, and a jail on a full city block with terraced lawn s and sunken gardens covering four and seven tenths of an acre. The William Mooser Company designed the facility, with William Mooser III, who trained at the cole des Beaux-Arts, serving as lead ar chitect. The building, which roughly follows an L-shaped plan, features smooth stucco walls, red clay tile roof, a tall clock towe r, galleries, and interconnecti ng arches and bridges. The courthouse is lavishly ornamented with murals, decorative tiles, painted ceilings, sculpture, wrought iron gates, and copper panels re flecting regional themes. Artis ts participating in the project included muralist Dan Sayre Groesbeck, sculptor Ettore Cadorin, metalsmith Al bert Yann, and painter John B. Smeraldi. Some of the statuary follows classical themes, wh ile the murals depict scenes from Santa Barbara history, including Native Americans and Spanish missions.448 Compared to the Denver Civic Cent er, the Santa Barbara Courthouse does not comprise a civic center, typically defined as a grouping of buildings. No r does it represent an expression of 446 Carolyn Pitts, National Park Service, Nebr aska State Capitol, National Register of Historic Places nomination, July 1975; Nebraska State Capitol website, http ://capitol.org (accessed 21 January 2011). 447 Nebraska State Capitol, National Register of Historic Pl aces nomination, July 1975; Nebraska State Capitol website, http://capitol.or g (accessed 21 January 2011). 448 Robert Ooley, Santa Barbara County Courthouse, National Historic Landmark nomination, 19 April 2004; Santa Barbara County Courthouse website, http://www.santabarbara countycourthouse.org (acce ssed 1 February 2011).

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 103 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form Beaux-Arts design in terms of symmetry, axial arrangement, and classical composition, whereas the architects of Denver Civic Center followed Beaux-Arts concepts favor ed during the City Beautiful era. Like the Nebraska State Capitol, the Santa Barbara courthouse was not a direct response to the City Beautiful-era planning, but instead it represents a remarkable glorif ication of regional culture and heritage as expressed in art, architecture and landscape architecture. This common characteristic links these three nationally significant public works together as extraordinary re flections of the NHL theme, Expressing Cultural Value. ARCHITECTS, PLANNERS, LANDSCAP E ARCHITECTS, AND ARTISTS Eminent architects, artists, lands cape architects, and planners cont ributed to the planning, design, and completion of Denver Civic Center resources. Brief prof iles appear below in alphabetical order by last name. Edward H. Bennett Nationally recognized architect and city planner Edward Herbert Benne tt (1874-1954) developed the 1917 plan that guided the realization of Denver Civic Center. Born in England, Be nnett attended the Merchant Venturers School in Bristol, which emphasized applied arts and sciences through cl asses such as drawing and modeling and building construction. His father wanted Bennett to become a rancher in California, sending him to San Francisco in 1890. Within two years the young man aba ndoned ranching and entered the employ of architect Robert White, a designer of houses and small commercial bu ildings, and also joined th e circle of Ralph Bernard Maybeck, becoming acquainted with architects Willis Polk and Arthur Brown, Jr., and philanthropist Phoebe Apperson Hearst. Mrs. Hearst provided scholarships for students inspired by Maybeck to attend the cole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, and Benne tt benefited from her largess.449 Bennett entered the cole in 1895 and studi ed in the Julien Guadet and Edmond Paulin ateliers. The education, friendships, and experiences of his Paris years influenced him for the rest of his life. During 1897-99 he worked for a London architect before returning to Paris to continue his studies. Bennett received a diplm par le gouvernement (D.P.L.G.) from the cole in June 1901.450 Back in the United States in 1902, he acquired a job in the New York office of George B. Post, one of the c ountrys largest and most respected architectural firms, whose work included the Manufacturers and Liberal Ar ts Building of the 1893 Worlds Columbian Exposition. According to Bennetts biographer Joan Draper, Early in 1903, Post agr eed to loan Bennett to Chicago architect Daniel H. Burnham, who had been asked to enter the competition for new buildings at the United States Military Academy at West Point and needed so meone to work out his ideas. Bennett became Burnhams protg and associate for nine years, and the West Point competition pr ovided him with his first opportunity to plan, under Burnhams guidance, a co mplex of monumental buildings. Although the firm did not win the West Point contract Burnham already was engaged in the design of the Cleveland Group Plan. In September 1904, Bennett accomp anied his employer to San Francisco to commence research for that citys comprehensiv e plan and prepared detailed studies, reports, and presentation drawings, as well as coordinating the project, which was completed in September 1905. As with many later assignments, Bennett dealt with a private group of civic leaders who offered their own proposals, transforming a variety of ideas into a comprehensive scheme for the ideal developmen t of the city. As Draper st ated, A new civic center, 449 Biographical information within this section was extracted primarily from Joan E. Drapers Edward H. Bennett: Architect and City Planner, 1874-1954 an exhibition catalogue produced for the Art Institute of Chicago. Draper examined Bennetts papers in the Institutes Burnham Library of Architecture and an alyzed his career and its impact on American cities. 450 Marie-Laure Crosnier Leconte, Chief Conservator of Pa trimony, Institut national d-histoire de lart, Paris (Etats-Unis et cole des Beaux-arts: Du modle thorique a la ralit du terrain ), email to Astrid Liverman, National and State Register Coordinator, History Colorado, Denver, Colorado, 31 March 2011.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 104 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form over a mile from the retail center, was to be the focus of a network of new diagonal and ring streets.451 However, the city never executed Burnham and Bennetts pl an due to factors such as local political upheaval and the earthquake of April 1906. When a civic center was built during the years 1909 to 1912, local architects ignored Burnham and Bennetts plan. Dr aper observed: This frus trating pattern of events was to be variously repeated throughout Bennetts care er, albeit without earthquakes.452 In 1906, Burnham and Bennett began work on one of their most successful and influential projects, a comprehensive plan for Chicago. Commissioned by the ci tys Commercial Club, the Chicago Plan became the elder architects last major planning effo rt and the task that launched Bennetts career as a city planner, one of the most respected members of the second genera tion. Draper found: the Chicago Plan and the Commissions promotion of it represented the state of th e art of city planning for nearly a decade, and Bennett was hired by civic groups which desired a repeat performance by Burnhams protg.453 During the years 1905 to 1911, Burnham assigned Bennett work on the design of field houses and other architectural elements for the South Pa rk District of Chicago, a series of parks laid out by Olmsted Brothers. He also planned the landscaping and architectural ornaments for Grant Park, built between 1916 and 1930. From January 1913 through August 1930 Bennett served as consulting architect to the Chicago Plan Commission, developing important personal connections that would lead to future comm issions. Draper assessed the impact of this work: Whether large or small, every Bennett project displayed the infl uence of the Chicago Plan.454 After 1906, Burnham declined requests for city plans and directed all such inquiries to Bennett. As Draper indicated: From this time on, the young mans practice had less to do with buildings and became increasingly independent of D.H. Burnham & Co., although he contin ued to work part-time on the firms jobs .455 By 1910, Bennett operated an entirely separate Chicago office from his mentor, establishing a nationwide practice; William E. Parsons and Harry Frost later joined the firm and became partners. The office specialized in city planning and did little design work; fo r architectural projects its members principally served as advisors. Bennett became a charter member of the American C ity Planning Institute, pred ecessor of the American Planning Association. In 1909 the firm received commissions for city plans for Detroit and Portland, Oregon, followed by Minneapolis in 1910, and Brooklyn and Ottawa in 1912. Hire d as a planning consultant, Bennett did not design any buildings, bridges, or parks in these cities. By 1915 the aura of Burnham, who had died in 1912, diminished and Bennett gained projects based on his own reputation and connections. Between 1915 and 1919 his office received ten commi ssions for plans in addition to the Chi cago work, including a 1917 request from Denvers Mayor Speer to produce a desi gn for the citys Civic Center. In the 1920s, Bennett, Parsons and Frost prospered through their work for city planning commissions, the federal government, and wealthy patrons. The firm produced seven civic center plans, as well as te n comprehensive plans, and numerous landscape, public building, and subdivision plans. As the nature of planning work changed following World War I, the products produced by Bennetts firm evolved from City Beautiful to City Functional visions. For example, th e 1922 plan for St. Paul contained a modest civic center proposal with st atistics regarding floor space and aba ndoned lavish color renderings of the 451 Draper, Edward H. Bennett, 11. 452 Ibid., 13. 453 Ibid., 26. 454After leaving the commission in 1930 Be nnett argued against elements of the new direction the group adopted. For example, he spoke out (unsuccessfully) against subsequent changes made to Burnhams plan for a civic center, including the loca tion of the site and placemen t of buildings. Draper, Edward H. Bennett, 13. 455Draper, Edward H. Bennett, 13.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 105 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form earlier period for simple line drawings. However, in 1923 Bennett demonstrated his continued adherence to basic City Beautiful pr inciples, stating: The finest purpose of city planni ng is to create a beautiful setti ng for human life and activities, to plan the setting of everyday life as well as those suited to great publ ic events. In planning our cities it is well always to have in mind the trut h of the Greek saying: To make our city loved we must make our city lovely.456 As a leader in city planning, Bennett also contributed to the New York Re gional Plan, which represented the most extensive effort to coordinate development in a metropolitan area yet attempted in the United States.457 Influenced by the regional approach of the Chicago Plan, the New York do cument consisted of several volumes published between 1927 and 1931. During the Great Depression, Bennett, Parsons and Frost received no commi ssions for civic centers, municipal plans, or zoning studies, and the firms work on the Ch icago Plan also ended. The partners completed several monumental and ornamental projects, and Bennett concentrated on two special jobs in the late 1920s and 1930s. During 1927 to 1937 he served as chairman of the Board of Architects and coordinated the design of the Federal Triangle, a complex of government offices in Washington, D.C., as well as receiving commissions for his firm to design the Apex Building, the Botanic Gardens Conservatory, and landscaping for th e triangle and an area between the United States Capitol and Union Station in accordance with the 1901-02 McMillan Plan. In 1928 he became a designer of six major buildings for the pl anned 1933 Worlds Fair in Chicago, the Century of Progress Exposition. These two commissions resembled the wo rk of Bennetts early career more than any other projects in intervening years and occupied the firm until its members were ready to retire from active practice.458 Bennett closed the office in 1944 and spent his time traveling between three residences and pursuing his first love, watercolor painting, until his death in 1954. William N. Bowman Denver architect William N. Bowman (1868-1944) desi gned the 1921 Colorado State Office Building. Born in Carthage, New York, he grew up there and in Jackson, Mi chigan. After his fathers injury in an industrial accident, Bowman left school at age eleven to work in a woolen mill. In the evenings he studied mathematics and drawing, eventually securing empl oyment with an architectural firm in Jackson. He also worked as a carpenters apprentice and for architect s in Detroit and Indianapolis befo re moving to Denver in 1910. Opening his own practice, Bowman undertook nume rous Colorado projects, including the design of ten buildings listed in the National Register, among them the Mountai n States Telephone and Telegraph Building, Norman Apartments, and Montrose and Weld county courthouses. He served as president of the Colorado chapter of the American Institute of Architects (19 17-19) and, as a member of the State Board of Architectural Examiners, participated in the Mountain Division of the Architects Small House Bureau, and joined the Allied Architects Association, which designed the Denv er City and County Building (1929-32).459 Saco Rienk DeBoer Dutch-born Saco Rienk DeBoer ( 1883-1974) studied engineering and landscape architecture in the Netherlands and Germany before ope ning a landscaping firm in his hometown of Ureterp. Contracting 456 Bennett quoted in Draper, Edward H. Bennett, 16. 457 Draper, Edward H. Bennett, 34. 458 Ibid. 34. 459 Bowman also prepared plans for Mountain States Telephone, and Telegraph buildings in Phoenix, Arizona, and Cheyenne, Wyoming. Noel and Norgren, Denver: The City Beautiful 191-92; Denver Post 29 August 1944, 1; William N. Bowman, Colorado Architects Biographical Sketch, Colorado Hi storical Society, Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation, 22 January 2008; William N. Bowman, Portrait and Biographical Memoirs, Indian apolis and Marion County, Indiana, www.countyhistory.com.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 106 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form tuberculosis in 1908, DeBoer sought a better climate in the United States, living in New Mexico before moving to Denver. After working briefly as a draftsma n for an irrigation company, DeBoer secured a position with the Denver Park Department in 1910. He gained Mayor Speers attention after developing a plan for Sunken Gardens Park on the west bank of Cherry Creek. Following Reinhard Schuetzes death in 1910, DeBoer served as City Landscape Ar chitect until embarking on a career as a consultant with partner Walter Pesman in 1919. The partnership dissolved in 1924, and DeBoer established his own company. In addition to landscape plans for individual houses, the firm devel oped subdivision plans for Bonnie Brae and Greenwood Village in the Denver area.460 As a consultant to the City of Denver, a relationship that lasted until 1958, DeBoer developed planting plans for parks and parkways, designed Alamo Placita Park and Ar lington Park (now Hungarian Freedom Park), played an instrumental role in the adoption of the 1926 Denve r zoning code, and assisted in crafting the 1929 Denver Plan. During the Depression and early 1940s, DeBoer also worked for the National Resources Planning Board, a New Deal agency. He developed a pl an for the first federally sponsored model city in Boulder City, Nevada. In the postwar years, DeBoer resumed an active privat e consulting business, whose planning projects assisted Colorado cities and several nearby states. He remain ed active until his death in 1974. Historian Don Etter argued DeBoers career reflected a personal crusade to plan for beauty and thus livab ility; to make the city a garden by weaving public parks and parkways together with private front yards into a floral tapestry; to plant big trees; to preserve urban calm in the face of noisy, nerve-racking, ill-smelling, dust-raising automobiles.461 Frank E. Edbrooke One of Denvers most successful an d respected early architects, Frank E. Edbrooke (1840-1921) supervised the final stages of construction of the Colorado State Capitol (1898-1908) a nd designed the Colorado State Museum Building (1915). Born in Lake County, Illinois, he grew up in Chicago and learned architecture from his father, an English-born builder. The younger Edbrooke served with the Twelfth Illinois Infant ry in the Civil War and then joined his father rebuilding st ructures after the 1871 Chicago fire. He designed depots and hotels for the Union Pacific Railroad before moving to Colorado in 1879. In Denver Edbrooke supervised construction of two important early buildings, the Tabor Opera House and Tabor Block, designed by his brother Willoughby. He remained to lead a successful archit ectural consulting business for more than three decades. Edbrookes designs included commercial, domestic, and instit utional buildings displaying a variety of styles. At least sixteen of his buildings are listed in the National Register, including th e remarkable Brown Palace Hotel (1892), designed for the donor of the State Capitol site. Af ter his retirement in 1915, Edbrooke lived in Glendale, California, until his death. The Trail eulogized him as Denvers Greatest Builder, and art historian Richard R. Brettells study of Denvers early architecture found Edbrooke almost singlehandedly responsible for th e architectural maturity of Denvers downtown in the late 1880s and 1890s.462 Fisher and Fisher Brothers William E. Fisher (1871-1 937) and Arthur A. Fisher (1878-1965) planned the Voorhies Memorial Gateway. Natives of Ontario, Canada, the Fishers came w ith their father to Denver in 1885. William, the elder brother, worked in the office of Balcomb and Rice be fore opening his own practice in 1892. After the end of a 1901-05 partnership with Daniel Huntington, Arthur A. Fisher joined hi s brothers firm and became a full 460 Denver Public Library, S.R. DeBoer Papers Finding Aid, Western History and Genealogy Department, 2009. 461 Denver Public Library, S.R. DeBoer Papers Finding Aid; Bonnie Hardwick, S.R. DeBoer (Denver: Denver Public Library, 1983); Don Etter, S.R. DeBoer, in Charles A. Birnbaum and Robin Karson, eds., Pioneers of American Landscape Design (New York: McGraw -Hill, 2000), 86. 462 Frank E. Edbrooke, Colorado Architects Biographical Sketch Colorado Historical Societ y, Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation, revised 10 October 2002; Rocky Mountain News 5 May 1921; Thomas J. Noel and Barbara S. Norgren, Denver: The City Beautiful and Its Architects, 1893-1941 (Denver: Historic Denver, Inc., 1987), 195-96; Richard R. Brettell, Historic Denver: The Architects and the Architecture, 1858-1893 (Denver: Historic Denver, Inc., 1973), 33; The Trail, May 1921.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 107 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form partner in 1910. Arthur graduated from the Atelier Barber of the Beaux-Arts Instit ute of Design in New York. The Fisher office received commissions for residences, commercial buildings, and schools, by the 1920s emerging as one of the largest a nd most influential arch itectural firms in the Rocky Mountain region.463 William, a founder and president of the Mountain Divisi on of the Architects Small House Service Bureau in 1920, served as a regional director of the American In stitute of Architects (AIA ) in 1922. Nine properties designed by Fisher and Fisher listed in the National Register include majo r commercial buildings in downtown Denver, such as the Neusteter Department Store, the Denver Tramway Building, the U.S. National Bank Building, and the A.C. Foster Building. In 1929 the fi rm received an AIA Rocky Mountain region medal in recognition of distinctive ach ievement in architecture.464 A profile of the company prepared by the Colorado Office of Archaeology and Historic Pr eservation observed that few familie s have impacted the look of Denver as the architects of the Fisher family.465 Robert K. Fuller Robert K. Fuller (1886-1966) was the supervising arch itect for the Denver City and County Building and president of the Allied Architects Association. He gr ew up in Fort Collins, Colorado, where his father, Montezuma Fuller, was the citys fi rst licensed architect. Th e younger man received a mechanical engineering degree from Colorado A&M, and after a year in his father s office attended Cornell University, graduating with an architectural degree in 1908. After tw o additional years working with his father, Fuller entered the office of respected Denver architect Robert S. Roeschlaub. When the elder archite ct retired in 1917, Fuller established his own firm, receiving contracts for many public buildings across the state. In 1941 he became a Fellow of the AIA, later receiving a Distinguished Service Award from the Colorado chapter. Fuller continued to practice architecture in a firm he created w ith his sons until hi s retirement in 1965.466 Robert Garrison Robert Garrison (1895-1945), whom some call Denvers fi rst important twentieth ce ntury sculptor, was born in Fort Dodge, Iowa, and studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and with John Gutzon Borglum, the sculptor of Mount Rushmore.467 Garrison, who worked in stone and bronze, moved to Denver in 1919 and became a director of the Denver Academy of Applied Art, where he taught modeling, applied design, and drawing. His early work in the city included two pieces for the civic center: the pair of bronze mountain lions for the entrance of the State Office Building and the f ountain figures for the Voorhi es Memorial pool. Garrison received Denver commissions for many architectural orna ments in the later 1920s, including works for the Ideal Building, Midland Savings Building, National Jewish Ho spitals Bnai Brith Bu ilding, Park Hill Branch Library, Denver Universitys football stadium, and S outh High School. The artist moved to New York about 1930 and completed projects there and around the countr y, including three sculptur al panels for the RKO Building in New York Citys Rockefeller Center, a heroic figure at West Point, and sculptural details for the Boston Avenue Methodist Church, a Na tional Historic Landmark in Tulsa, Oklahoma. A veteran of World War I, Garrison also enlisted during World War II. In 1943 he died in an accident while teaching camouflage painting.468 463 Rutherford W. Witthus, The Fisher Architectural Record s Collection, 1897-1978 (Denver: Denver Public Library, Western History and Genealogy Department, 1983). 464 Noel and Norgren, Denver: The City Beautiful and Its Architects 200. 465 William Ellsworth Fisher, Arthur Addison Fisher, Alan Berney Fisher, Colorado Architects Biographical Sketch, Colorado Historical Society, Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation, Denver, Colorado, 11 July 2000. 466 Noel and Norgren, Denver: The City Beautiful, 200-201. 467 Schlosser, Modern Sculpture in Denver, 15. 468 Ibid.; Glenn B. Opitz, ed., Mantle Fieldings Dictionary of American Painters, Sculptors and Engravers (Apollo: Poughkeepsie, New York, 1987); Gray, Stone Carvings, The Tiger, 20 November 1931, 4; Diane Wray, Midland Savings Building Colorado State Register of Historic Properties Nomination Form, 1999.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 108 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form John D. Howland John D. Howland (1843-1914) designed the 1909 Colora do Soldiers Monument on th e grounds of the Colorado Capitol. Described as a pioneer arti st, Captain Howland served with the First Colorado Cavalry in the Civil War, seeing action in the Battle of Glorieta Pass in New Mexico. An Ohio native, he studied art in Europe and Mexico and studied with Armand Du meresq. Howland became a founder of the Denver Art Club in 1886. His work primarily focused on scenes of the West, including Native Americans, cowboys, and the buffalo.469 George Koyle George Koyle (1885-1975) was the firs t supervising architect for the Denver City and County Building. He was born in Evanston, Wyoming, lived in Denver with his widowed mother and siblings by 1900. He received degrees in architecture from the Un iversity of Pennsylvania and duri ng 1911-14 studied at the American Academy in Rome. Returning to America, he taught ar chitecture at the Carnegie Institute in Pittsburgh and entered the New York City offices of Cass Gilbert and McKim, Mead and White. After establishing his own practice, which included design of the National Regist er-listed 1928 Milliken Memorial Community House in Elkton, Kentucky, he returned to Philadelphia as the Dean of the School of Fine Arts at the University of Pennsylvania in 1932. Following his retirement from th at position in 1950, he served as Professor of Architecture for five years and edited two editions of the American Architects Directory Koyle died in Philadelphia.470 Roland L. Linder Nebraska native Roland L. Linder (1893-1977) was the la st supervising architect for the Denver City and County Building. He spent his youth in Colorado and attended the University of Colorado and the University of Michigan. For five years he studied at the Denver Atelie r. Following service in World War I, he returned to Colorado and became a licensed architect, working for Eugene G. Groves from 1921 through 1929. After completing his work on the city-cou nty building, he operated his own firm from 1931 to 1951, thereafter working in partnership with other architects.471 Among the projects Linder desi gned are wing additions to the Denver Museum of Natural History, Midwest Steel and Iron Works office, and Larimer County Courthouse.472 Frederick W. MacMonnies Internationally recognized painter and sculptor Frederick William MacMonnies (1863-1937) designed Pioneer Fountain and a 1907 plan for the Denver Civic Center. Bo rn in Brooklyn Heights, New York, MacMonnies began working in the studio of famed sculptor Augustu s Saint-Gaudens at the age of sixteen, while in the evenings attending the National Academy of Design and the Art Students League.473 At the age of twenty-one, he departed for study at academies in Muni ch and Paris. In 1887 and 1888 he won the prix datelier, the highest award available for foreign student s at the cole des Beaux-Arts. In 1888 MacMonnies opened a studio and began entering his work for competition in the Paris Salon. In 1889 he gained an honorable mention in 469 Nolie Mumey, The Art and Activities of John Dare (Jack) Howland: Painter, Soldier, Indian Trader, and Pioneer (Boulder: Johnson Publishing Company, 1973); Thurman Wilkins and Caroline Lawson Hinkley, Thomas Moran: Artist of the Mountains (Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998), 275; U.S. Census Bureau, Census of Population, 1900, manuscript returns, Arapahoe County, Colorado. 470 Architectural Archives, University of Pennsylvania, George S. Koyl [sic]: Finding Aid for Architectural Drawings and Papers, 1908-1955, http://www.ph iladelphiabuildings.org (accessed on 3 January 2011); United States Census 1900, 1 910, 1920, 1930, www.ancestry.com (accessed on 3 January 2011); Social Security Death Index, www.ancestry.com (accessed on 3 January 2011). 471 Noel and Norgren, Denver: The City Beautiful 209-210. 472 Colorado Historical Society, Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation, Architects of Colorado Biographical Sketch: Roland L. Linder. 473 Samuels Peggy and Harold Samuels, The Illustrated Biographical Encyclopedi a of Artists of the American West (New York: Doubleday, 1976), 299.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 109 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form sculpture, the highest award yet won by an American. Two years later he received a gold medal, the first awarded to an American sculptor. MacMonnies designed a highly praised a llegorical Beaux-Arts fountain for the central lagoon at the 1893 Worlds Columbian Exposition, establishing his position as a world classsculptor and international celebrity, according to biographer Mary Smart.474 He then entered a highly productive period that brought him numerous major commi ssions in America and resu lted in dissemination of his work to cities throughout the coun try. The artist traveled yearly to consult on projects in the United States, returning to France to work. The Gruet foundry cast most of MacMonnies sculpt ures modeled in France.475 Smart observed that, as the Beaux-arts style fell out of favor in the late teen s and twenties, MacMonnies experienced an associated decline in commissions. Although the sculptor incorporat ed modernism into the controversial Civic Virtue for New Yorks City Hall Fountains in 1915, he returned to the style that had brought him success with his widely-praised Battle of the Marne Memorial (1932). Marean and Norton Partners Willis A. Marean (1853-1939) and Albert J. Norton (1867-1944) designed the Greek Theater and Colonnade of Civic Benefactors in as sociation with Edward H. Bennett. Marean, born in Woodhull, New York, attended the State Normal School in Geneseo, worked as a carpenter and joiner, and studied under architects in New York City and Rochester. In 1880 he moved to Denve r and secured a position in th e architectural office of Frank E. Edbrooke. He remained with the firm until 1895, wh en he established a practice with Albert J. Norton. Norton, also a native of New York, received a degree in architecture from Cornell University. He worked for architects in New York and Bost on before arriving in Denver in 1890 and gaining employment with the prominent firms of Varian and Sterner and Frank E. Edbrooke. The Marean and Norton partnership produced designs for commercial, institutional, governmental, and domes tic buildings. Four of their buildings are listed in the National Register, including the Denver Orphans Home, Denver Chamber of Commerce Building, Cheesman-Boettcher Mansion (now the Colorado Governors Mansion), and Fort Morgan City Hall. Marean and Norton also prepared the plans for the 1908 Ch eesman Park Pavilion erec ted during Denvers City Beautiful era. The partners were active in municipa l planning efforts and both served on the Denver Art Commission; Marean also became a member of the Civic Center and Parks and Parkway commissions. The partnership continued until 1936, when Marean retired.476 Elijah E. Myers Detroit architect Elijah E. Myers (1832-1909) won an 1885 competition to design the Colorado State Capitol. A native of Philadelphia, Myers studied law before taking up carpentry and arch itecture. He never received formal training in building design, but reported ly apprenticed to Philadelphia arch itect Samuel Sloan. Myers served as an engineer in the Union army during the Civil War. In 1863 he settled in Sp ringfield, Illinois, and received his first major commission for the Macoupin County Cour thouse in Carlinville. In 1872 the architect won a competition to design the Michigan State Capitol and move d his practice to Detroit. He subsequently prepared plans for statehouses in Texas, Idaho (Territorial Capitol), and Utah (Te rritorial Capitol; unbuilt), as well as several courthouses and city halls, including the 1883 Arapahoe County Courthouse in Denver.477 According to historical architect Paul Go eldner, Myer had one of the most geogra phically extensive architectural practices of the late nineteenth century. Henry-Russell Hitchc ock and William Seale paid him tribute, observing that viewing one of Elijah Myerss capitols from across the op en land was to feel the immensity of its scale and the 474 Smart, A Flight with Fame ix. 475 Frederick MacMonnies, accessed at 222.bronze-gallery.com on 19 June 2008. 476 Willis A. Marean, Colorado Architects Biographical Sketch Colorado Historical Society, Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation, revised 31 October 2003; Albert J. Norton, Colorado Architects Biographical Sketch, Colorado Historical Society, Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation, revised 31 October 2003; Willis Adams Marean, National Cyclopedia of American Biography (New York: James T. White and Company, 1904), 322; Noel and Norgren, Denver: The City Beautiful and Its Architects, 211 and 214; Denver Post 20 February 1939, 36 and 12 February 1944. 477 Denver served as the county seat of Arapahoe County until 1902.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 110 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form vigor of its decoration. However, hi s career was tinged with controversy, with some projects creating cost overruns that led to the architects dismissal.478 Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. (1870-1957), representing the firm of Olmsted Brothers, prepared a 1913 plan for the Denver Civic Center with New York architect Arnold Brunner. Son of the distinguished father of American landscape architecture, Frederick Law Olmsted, he was born in New York and attended the Roxbury Latin School in Boston. Before attending college the younger Ol msted worked in his fathers office in Brookline, Massachusetts, gaining experi ence on projects such as the Worlds Columbian Exhibition and the landscape of the Biltmore estate in Asheville, North Carolina. Afte r graduating from Harvard, he entered his fathers office in 1895 with little formal training in landscape architecture, but there re ceived intensive instruction. In 1898 Frederick, Jr., became a partner in Olmsted Brothers with his stepbrother John Charles Olmsted, who had joined his fathers firm in 1875 and became a senior part ner in 1895. John bore immense responsibility for park planning during the final decade of his fathers career. In 1899, Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., became a founding member of the American Society of Landscape Architects and served as its president for two terms. His first importa nt appointment was to the Senate Park Commission Plan for Washington, D.C. in 1901. This work stimulated interest in municipal planning and improvement and enhanced the firms profile. Olmsted Br others engaged in landscape design and city planning throughout the nation, and Frederick, Jr., served as presiden t of the National Conf erence on City Planning (1910) and participated in the organization of the Amer ican City Planning Institut e (1917). His city plans included projects for Newport, Rhode Island; Boul der, Colorado; Rochester, New York; New Haven, Connecticut; and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He advised th e National Park Service for three decades for such parks as Acadia, Everglades, and Yosemite, and consulted on various state park system s. He served as senior partner in Olmsted Brothers from the time of Johns death in 1920 until 1950 and died in 1957. Susan L. Kraus observed that for over half a century Olmsted had been a preeminent practitioner and spokesman for landscape architecture and comprehensive planning, both intere sted in the interrelations hip of people and their environment.479 Preston Powers Preston Powers (1843-1931), while an art instru ctor at the University of Denver, created The Closing Era (1893), which received praise at th e Worlds Columbian Exhibition in Ch icago and now stands on the State Capitol grounds. Born in Florence, It aly, Powers pursued other occupations and served in the U.S. Navy before returning to Florence to study under his father, noted sculptor Hiram Powers. The younger Powers focused mostly on portraits, including many busts executed in marble. Among his best-known works are a statue of Senator Jacob Collamer of Vermont in the National St atuary Hall Collection and busts of Charles Sumner, Ulysses S. Grant, Louis Agassiz, Emanuel Swedenborg, and John Greenleaf Whittier. His depiction of Job M. Nash is in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Boston Transcript observed in the late 1870s: Powers style of work reproduces that of his fa ther, and is remarkable for delicacy and finish. 480 Denver art specialist Elizabeth Schlosser has identified Powers as Denvers first important resident sculptor.481 478 Everett, The Colorado State Capitol 37-39; Paul Goeldner, The Desi gning Architect: Elijah E. Myers, Southwestern Historical Quarterly 92 (October 1988): 271; Henry-Russell Hitchcock and William Seale, Temples of Democracy: The State Capitols of the U.S.A. (New York: Harcourt Brace Jova novich, 1976); Ronald D. Rari ck, A Michigan Ar chitect in Indiana: Elijah E. Myers and the Business of Public Arch itecture in the Gilded Age, Michigan Historical Review 26 (Sept. 2000): 148. 479 Susan L. Klaus, Frederick Law Olms ted, Jr., National Association for Olms ted Parks, http://www. olmsted.org (accessed 10 January 2011); Beveridge and Rocheleau, Frederick Law Olmsted 266; Rolf Diamant, Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., National Park Service: The First 75 Years, Biographical Vignettes, h ttp://www.nps.gov (accessed 10 January 2011); Susan L. Klaus, Frede rick Law Olmsted, Jr., in Birnbaum and Karson, Pioneers of American Landscape Design 273-76. 480 Quoted in Clara Erskine Clement and Laurence Hutton, Artists of the Nineteenth Century and Their Works vol. II (Boston:

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 111 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form Alexander Phimister Proctor Alexander Phimister Proctor (1862-1950), who produced On the War Trail and Broncho Buster for the civic center, specialized in painting and sc ulpture of animals and western figu res. As western art scholar Peter Hassrick explained: Early on he pledged himself to the highest professional standards as an artist, and in his sixty years of creative practice, Proctor attained national and international fame.482 Born in Canada, Proctor traveled with his family to the United States by covered wagon, moving to Denver in 1871 and spending summers camping, hunting, and trapping in the Rocky Mount ains while developing skills at sketching western subjects. As a youth he met trappers, pr ospectors, and cowboys in the still-d eveloping state, reporting: I was born during the frontier period of the Unite d States and grew up in Colorado in the best of it. It colored my life and influenced me greatly.483 Proctors father encouraged his early interest in ar t and arranged lessons from professionals living in Denver. In 1887 he left for New York City to receive training at the National Academy of Design and the Art Students League, where he really began to learn how to draw and further developed his interest in depicting animals and American Indians.484 To pursue his artistic career and fulfill his need for the wilderness, he studied in New York dur ing the fall and winter, traveling to Colorado and other western states in the spring and summer.485 His sculpture attracted the attention of painter and sculptor Frank Millet, who commissioned Proctor to create life -size wild animal statues to decora te bridges at the Worlds Columbian Exposition. Proctors plaster exposition sculptures, Indian and Cowboy received attenti on across the country. Daniel H. Burnham also admired the young mans work a nd introduced him to other notable mentors, including architect Charles McKim and sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens. In 1893 he studied at the Acadmie Julien, receiving an award in its annual competition. Saint-Gaudens asked him to return to Ne w York to create models of the horse s for the elder sculptors statues of General Logan and General Sherman. Proctor also bega n making small animal bronzes that provided a steady income and increased interest in his work. In 1896 he again studied in Paris at the Acadmie Julien and Acadmie Colarossi. In 1900 he received a commission to produce the Quadri ga for the American Pavilion at the Paris International Exposition. Returning to New Yo rk, the artist completed a tremendous amount of work, including pieces for the Pan-American Exposition in Bu ffalo in 1901, the McKinley Monument marble lions in 1903, the 1904 St. Louis Louisiana Purchase Exposition griffins and Louis Joliet statue, and the Princeton Tigers in 1908. The Pendleton Roundup in Oregon adopted a modified figure of the cowboy in Denvers Broncho Buster as its official symbol. Wester n art collector Franz R. Stenzel observed: During his lifetime, there were few major cities which did not have Proctors life-sized bronze figures, and historian J. Frank Dobie called the artist the nations master sculptor of horses.486 Charles Mulford Robinson In 1906 journalist and planner Charle s Mulford Robinson (1869-1917) prepared Denvers first formal plan for the civic center. Robinson emerged in the early twentie th century as the nation s foremost expounder of the Houghton, Osgood, and Company, 1879), 190-91. 481 Schlosser, Modern Sculpture in Denver 11; Ann Lee Morgan, The Oxford Dictionary of American Art and Artists (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2007), 391; Justin Smith Morrill Smithsonian American Art Museum, http://www.americanart.si.edu/collections (accessed 4 October 2010); Job M. Nash Works of Art, American paintings and Sculpture, Metropolitan Museum of Art, http://www.metmuseum.org/Works_O f_Art (accessed 19 June 2008). 482 Peter H. Hassrick, F oreword, in Proctor, Sculptor in Buckskin vii. 483 Rocky Mountain News 5 January 1922, 5; Proctor, Sculptor in Buckskin 216. 484 Proctor, Sculptor in Buckskin 76-78. 485 Proctor, Sculptor in Buckskin 78. 486 Central Denver Park District Points of Interest, denvergov.org (accessed 20 June 2008); Ale xander Phimister Proctor, www.proctormuseum accessed (accessed 25 October 2010); An Art Perspective of the Historic Pacific Northwest: From the Collection of Dr. and Mrs. Franz R. Stenzel, Portland, Oregon (Helena, Montana: Montana Hist orical Society and Spokane, 1963); Vivian A. Paladin, Phimister Proctor: Master Sculptor of Horses, Montana: The Magazine of Western History 14(1964)1: 18.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 112 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form City Beautiful and its most prolific ma ker of City Beautiful plan s, chiefly for small and mid-sized cities. Born in Rochester, New York, he worked as a newspaperm an there and in Philadelphia. In 1893, he attended the pivotal Worlds Columbian Exposition in Chicago and published an illustrated guide to the event, The Fair of Spectacle Robinson subsequently produced a number of early, influential books on municipal planning, including The Improvement of Cities and Towns (1901) and Modern Civic Art or The City Made Beautiful (1903), in which he espoused the cause of comprehensive planning in improving cities. Other books followed, including The Width and Arrangement of Streets (1911) and City Planning (1916). He actively consulted in city planning, creating for many communities wh at historian Jon Peterson labeled a civic vignette plan, an artfully worded form of City Beautiful pl anning that only Robinson, as the mast er scrivener of the beautification movement, could have produced. He undertook projects in Detroit, Los Angeles, Honolulu, Colorado Springs, Oakland, Cedar Rapids and Dubuque, Iowa, and El Paso. In 1913, the University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign appointed Robinson the first Professor of City Planning in the country. He died of influenza in 1917 at age forty-nine.487 Albert Randolph Ross Albert Randolph Ross (1869-1948) desi gned the Denver Public Library. He apprenticed in his fathers architectural firm from 1884 to 1887 and with Buffalo architect Charles D. Swan from 1889 to 1890. Ross was then employed by the prestigious New York firm of McKim, Mead and White from 1891 to 1897. He cofounded Ackerman & Ross, which operated from 1898 to 1901. Ross designed twelve Carnegie libraries, the Milwaukee County Courthouse (1927), and the Daughters of the American Revolution Memorial (1929) in Washington, D.C.488 The architect lived in Maine from 1901 until his death in 1948. Rheinhard Schuetze Rheinhard Schuetze (1860-1910) prepared landscape plans for the Colorado State Capitol grounds and Lincoln Park in the Denver Civic Center. Schuetze, born in Bothkamp, a German-speaking Danish duchy, trained at the Royal Prussian Horticultural School (Sanssouci) and at the Royal Forestry Academy at Eberswalde.489 He immigrated to the United States in 1889 and formed an association with Robert C. Greiner in Denver. Schuetzes first major commission in the city was development of a landscape plan for Fairmount Cemetery in east Denver. In 1891 the cemetery employed Schuetze as its landscape ar chitect. Historians Don and Carolyn Etter asserted Schuetzes plan for Fairm ount had a seminal impact on how the people of Denver saw their city and in turn how the city itself was shaped in the decades following 1890.490 In 1893, the recently-created Denver Park Commissi on engaged Schuetze as the citys first landscape architect. In that position he developed plans for City, Washington, and Congress (later Chees man) parks, as well as smaller municipal green spaces. He also engaged in private consulting, creating garden and landscape plans for a number of prominent citizens. Schuetze served on th e committee appointed by Mayor Speer to assist in planning for the Denver Civic Ce nter project. He died of tuberculosis in April 1910.491 J. Otto Schweizer Using drawings created by John D. Howland, Philadel phian J. Otto Schweizer (1863-1955) sculpted the Colorado Soldiers Monument (1909). Born in Zurich, Sw itzerland, Schweizer studied ar t at the Industrial Art School in Zurich and the Royal Academy of Art in Dres den and spent five years in Florence. He immigrated 487 Peterson, The Birth of City Planning, 119 and 190-97. 488 Historical Society of Washington, D.C., Carnegie Library, www.historydc.org (accessed 28 September 2010); Columbus Metropolitan Library, Col umbus in Historic Photog raphs, http://digital-collections.colum buslibrary.org (accessed 28 September 2010). 489 Etter and Etter, Forgotten Dreamer 1. Much of the information in this section is derived from Forgotten Dreamer 490 Etter and Etter, Forgotten Dreamer 8. 491 Denver Municipal Facts September 1920, 9; Don Etter, Reinhard Schuetze, in Birnbaum and Karson, Pioneers of American Landscape Design 332-35.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 113 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form to the United States in 1894 and the following year settled in Philadelphia, where he worked for a lithographic company until 1906. In addition to the statue at the Colorado State Capito l, Schweizer produced many others related to the Civil War, including seven bronze figures at the Gettysburg Battlefield, more than any other sculptor represented there. Some of Sc hweizers other notable works include: Baron von Steuben (1914); Molly Pitcher (1916); Heinrich Muhlenberg Memorial (1917); Fort Stevens Monument (1920); Confederate Mother (1913); and All Wars Memorial to Colored Soldiers and Sailors (1934).492 Allen Tupper True Denver artist Allen Tupper Tr ue (1881-1955) created murals at five lo cations in the Denver Civic Center: the Greek Theater, Voorhies Memorial Gateway, Colorado State Capitol, Denver Public Library (murals no longer extant), and Denver City and County Building. True, w hose work is described as clearly American and decidedly Western in inspiration, was born in Colorado Springs. He graduated from Manual Training High School in Denver and attended the Univ ersity of Denver and Corcoran Art School in Washington, D.C., where he came under the tutelage of illustrator Howard Pyle While a student, True became an illustrator for such publications as Saturday Evening Post and Scribners Magazine. In 1908 he entered an apprenticeship in London with celebrated British oil painter and muralist Frank Brangwyn. Back in Colorado, True had a solo exhibition at the Denver library in 19 10, and in 1912 sold his first mural, Free Trappers. His work increasingly addressed the influence of th e West on American identity.493 In 1912-13 True produced several murals for branch libraries in Denver and assisted Brangwyn in London with works for the Pa nama Pacific Exposition. Exhibitions of Trues art appeared in major cities across the country during the first half of the twentieth century. He produced murals and paintings for numerous significant public and priv ate buildings in Denver, including the National Regi ster-listed Mountain Stat es Telephone and Telegraph Building and Colorado National Bank. Commissions in other st ates included murals for the Wyom ing and Missouri state capitols and design of the bucking bronco logo for the Wyoming license plate. True supplied mag azine illustrations that often depicted Colorado scenes and served as a color consultant in th e design of new buildings. During 1934-42 the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation employed him to create color schemes and ornamentation for several dams and associated powerhouses, including Hoover Da m. In 1955 he completed his last mural, Native American Eagle Dance for the University of Colorado Student Union in B oulder. Trues work refl ected his thorough knowledge of western history, especial ly pioneer, cowboy, and American Indian cu ltures and lifestyles. According to Peter H. Hassrick, director of the Petrie Institute of Wester n American Art at the Denver Art Museum, Trues mural and decorative embellishments for monumental architecture projects throughout the West affirm his role as an artist of profound importance and extraordinary breadth of vision.494 492 David F. Cross, A Tale of Two Statues: The Willia m Wells Statues at Gettysburg and Burlington, Vermont, Vermont History 73 (Winter/Spring 2005):54-55; Ernst Jockers, J. Otto Schweizer: The Man and His Work (Philadelphia: International Printing Company, 1953); Andrea Gomez, Valley Forge National Historical Park: von Steuben Monument, 14 August 2008, http://www.nps.gov/vafo/history culture/steubenmonument.htm (accessed 7 December 2010). 493 Blake Milteer, Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center Director, quoted in Colorado Springs Independent Coverage of Exhibit Opening, accessed 31 January 2011 at allentuppertrueanamericanartist.com. 494 True and Kirby, Allen Tupper True xix, et passim; Doris Ostrander Dawdy, Artists of the American West: A Biographical Dictionary, vol. 3 (Chicago: Sage Books,1985).

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 114 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form 9. MAJOR BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES A.A. Engineers and Associates, In c. Civic Center Park. Drawing. De nver, Colorado. 24 April 1989. Denver Parks Department Collection, WH1316, OVFF305, Range FFC17, Shelf 18. We stern History and Genealogy Department, Denver Pub lic Library, Denver, Colorado. All the History You Ever Wanted to Know About 201 E. Colfax Avenue. The Gold Star (December 2009). http://www.cde.state.co.us/communi cation (accessed 4 February 2011). Architectural Archives, University of Pennsylvania. George S. Koyl [sic]: Finding Aid for Architectural Drawings and Papers, 1908-1955. http://www.philadelphiabuildings.org (accessed 3 January 2011). Architectural Record 32 (July-December 1912): 189. An Art Perspective of the Historic Pacific Northwest: From the Collectio n of Dr. and Mrs. Franz R. Stenzel, Portland, Oregon Helena, Montana: Montan a Historical Society, 1963. Beaux-Arts Buildings in France and America. In The Architecture of the cole des Beaux-Arts ed. Arthur Drexler, 417-493. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1977. Beaux-Arts Institute of Design. New York City Landmark Preservation Comm ission Landmark Designation Report. http://www.neighborhoodpreservation center.org (accessed 31 January 2011). Beveridge, Charles E. and Paul Rocheleau. Frederick Law Olmsted: Designing the American Landscape ed. David Larkin. New York: Rizzoli, 1995. Birnbaum, Charles A. and Robin Karson, eds. Pioneers of American Landscape Design. New York: McGrawHill, 2000. Bloomer, Kent C. and Charles W. Moore. Body, Memory, and Architecture New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1977. William N. Bowman. Portrait and Biographical Memoirs, I ndianapolis and Marion County, Indiana www.countyhistory.com (accessed 10 December 2010). Brettell, Richard. Historic Denver: The Architect s and the Architecture, 1858-1893 Denver: Historic Denver, Inc., 1973. Bretz, James. Denvers Early Architecture Images of America Series. Ch arleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing, 2010. Capitol Complex Facilities, State Historical Fund grant application, 1992-93. State Historical Fund, Colorado Historical Society, Denver, Colorado. Carroll, Diana L. History and Description of the C ity and County. Unpublished manuscript for Denver City Council, 1992. Western History and Genealogy Department, Denver Pub lic Library, Denver, Colorado.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 115 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form Chaffee, Richard. The Teaching of Archite cture at the cole des Beaux-Arts. In The Architecture of the cole des Beaux-Arts ed. Arthur Drexler, 60-109. New York : The Museum of Modern Art, 1977. City Planning Progress [1917]. Undated copy in clipping files. Western History and Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado. Civic Center, Denver, 1932. Drawing. April 1932 ( updated through 1936). Denver Parks Department Collection, WH1316, OVFF363, Range Unit 2, Shelf 4. Western History and Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado. Civic Center Historic District. Denver Landmark District Nu mber 6. Application materials. Listed 23 April 1976. Civic Center Historic Di strict (Boundary Revision and Updated Inform ation). National Register of Historic Places Registration Form. 14 November 1988. Offi ce of Archaeology and Hi storic Preservation, Colorado Historical Society, Denver, Colorado. Clement, Clara Erskine and Laurence Hutton. Artists of the Nineteenth Century and Their Works Vol. II. Boston: Houghton, Osgood, and Company, 1879. Coel, Margaret. The Colorado State Capitol: The Pride of Our People. Denver: Colorado General Assembly, 1992. Colorado Historical Society, Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. William N. Bowman. Architects of Colorado Biographical Sketch. http://coloradohistor y-oahp.org (accessed 22 January 2008). __________. Frank E. Edbrooke. Architects of Colo rado Biographical Sketch. 10 October 2002. http://coloradohistory-oahp.org (accessed 22 January 2008). __________. William Ellsworth Fisher, Arthur Addison Fisher, Alan Berney Fisher. Architects of Colorado Biographical Sketch. 11 July 2000. http://coloradohistory-oahp.org (accessed 22 January 2008). __________. Guide to Colorados Historic Archit ecture and Engineering: Beaux Arts. http://coloradohistoryoahp.org/guides/architecture/beauxa rts.htm (accessed 11 February 2011). __________. Roland L. Linder. Architects of Co lorado Biographical Sketch. 2 June 2007. http://coloradohistory-oahp.org (accessed 22 January 2008). __________. Willis A. Marean. Architects of Colorado Biographical Sketch. 31 October 2003. http://coloradohistory-oahp.org (accessed 22 January 2008). __________. Albert J. Norton. Architects of Colorado Biographical Sketch. 31 October 2003. http://coloradohistory-oahp.org (accessed 22 January 2008). Colorado Legislative Council. Memorials and Art in and Around the Colorado State Capitol Denver: Colorado Legislative Council, June 1992.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 116 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form Colorado Soldiers Monument. Historical Mark er Database. www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=4745 (accessed 27 October 2010). Colorado State Archives. Colorado State Capitol Virtual Tour. www. colorado.gov/dpa/doit/ archives/cap (accessed 18 June 2008). Columbus Metropolitan Library. Columbus in Historic Photographs. http://digitalcollections.columbuslibrary.org (accessed 28 September 2010). Convery, William J., III. Pride of the Rockies: The Life of Co lorado Premiere Irish Patron John Kernan Mullen Boulder, Colorado: Univer sity Press of Colorado, 2000. Corson, Dan W. Architect J.J.B. Benedict and His Magnificent Unbuilt Buildings. Colorado Heritage (Summer 1997): 16-30. Cross, David F. A Tale of Two Statues: The William Wells Statues at Gettysburg and Burlington, Vermont. Vermont History 73 (Winter/Spring 2005): 40-62. Curl, James Stevens. Oxford Dictionary of Architecture Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Dawdy, Doris Ostrander. Artists of the American West : A Biographical Dictionary. Vol. 3. Chicago: Sage Books, 1985. DeBoer, S.R. The Denver Civic Center. The Engineers Bulletin (March 1960): 22-27. __________. The Denver Civic Center. The Green Thumb 24 (November 1967): 18-25. __________, City Planner. Plan for the Development of the State and City Grounds 10 October 1936. Drawing. S.R. DeBoer Collection, WH1082, FFC5, SF1, FF7. Western History and Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado. Denver, City and County. Central De nver Park District Points of Inte rest. denvergov.org (accessed 20 June 2008). __________. Denver Parks Department Collection. WH1316. Western History and Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado. The Denver Civic Center. Journal of the American Institute of Architects 5 (April 1917): 178-81. Denver Municipal Facts 1909-31. Denver Planning Commission. Denver Planning Primer. Vol. 6, rev. Denver: Denver Planning Commission, 1940. Denver Post 1910-99. Denver Public Library. 100th Anniversary Celebration. Denver: Denver Public Library, 1989.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 117 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form __________. S.R. DeBoer Papers Finding Aid. Western Hi story and Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado, 2009. Denver Republican 1894-09. Denver Times 1900-11. Deseret Weekly 1892. Diamant, Rolf. Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. National Park Service: The First 75 Years, Biographical Vignettes http://www.nps.gov (acc essed 10 January 2011) Dorsett, Lyle W. and Michael McCarthy. The Queen City: A History of Denver 2nd ed. Boulder, Colo.: Pruett Publishing Co., 1986. Drago, Tim, ed. Mission Accomplished: Building Colorado Veterans Monument Denver: Colorado Tribute to Veterans Fund, Inc., 2003. Draper, Joan E. Edward H. Bennett: Architect and City Planner, 1874-1954 Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1982. Drexler, Arthur, ed. The Architecture of the cole des Beaux-Arts New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1977. Edbrooke, Frank E. State Capitol Grounds Showing Electri c, Water, and Sewerage Systems. Drawing. 7 June 1912. Denver Parks Department Collection, WH1316, OVFF363, Range Unit 2, Shelf 4. Western History and Genealogy Department, Denve r Public Library, Denver, Colorado. Etter, Carolyn and Don Etter. Forgotten Dreamer: Reinhard Schuetze, Denvers Landscape Architect Denver: Denver Public Library, 2001. __________. The Olmsted Legacy in Denvers Park and Parkway System. 2006. Copy on file in Western History and Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library. __________. Reinhard Schuetze, Revised Biography. August 1998. Denver Parks Collection. Western History and Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library. Etter, Don. Denver Park and Parkway System. Nationa l Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination Form, 1986. Evans, Meredith M. Pioneering Spirits: E. Richards on Cherry and the First Women of the Artists Club of Denver, 1893. In Colorado: The Artists Muse, Petrie Institute of Wester n American Art, Denver Art Museum. Denver: Denver Art Museum, 2008. Everett, Derek R. The Colorado State Capitol: Hi story, Politics, Preservation Boulder, Colorado: University Press of Colorado, 2005.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 118 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form Federal Writers Project. Guide to 1930s Colorado New York: Hastings House, 1941; reprint, Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1987. Fisher, Theo Merrill. The Denver Civic Center. American Magazine of Art 14 (April 1923): 173-81. __________. The Denver Civic Centre. Architectural Record 53 (March 1923): 189-201. Fuller, Robert K. Office Practice: The Allied Archite cts Association of Denver. Undated reprint from Architectural Forum In the clipping files of the Denver Publ ic Library Western History and Genealogy Department. Gelernter, Mark. A History of American Architecture: Buildings in Their Cultural and T echnological Context. Hanover, New Hampshire: University Press of New England, 1999. Gerdts, William H. Art Across America, Two Centuries of Regional Painting, 1710-1920: The Plains States and the West. Vol. 3. New York: Abbeville Press, 1990. Gillis, Mae E. A History of the Civic Center of Denver. MA thes is. Colorado State Teachers College, Greeley, Colorado, August 1929. Goeldner, Paul. The Designing Architect: Elijah E. Myers. Southwestern Historical Quarterly 92 (October 1988): 271-88. Gomez, Andrea. Valley Forge National Histor ical Park: von Steuben Monument. 14 August 2008. http://www.nps.gov/vafo/historyculture/steubenmonument.htm (accessed 7 December 2010). Hamlin, Talbot. Architecture Through the Ages New York: G.P. Putnams Sons, 1940. Hardwick, Bonnie. S.R. DeBoer Denver: Denver Public Library, 1983. Hassrick, Peter H. Foreword to Alexander Phimister Proctor Sculptor in Buckskin: The Autobiography of Alexander Phimister Proctor edited by Katharine C. Ebner, 2nd ed. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 2009. Henderson, John R. The Indian and Buffal o Statue on the State Capitol Grounds. Colorado Magazine 13 (September 1936): 183-86. Historical Society of Washington, D.C. Carnegie Library. www.historydc.org (a ccessed 28 September 2010). Hitchcock, Henry-Russell and William Seale. Temples of Democracy: The St ate Capitols of the U.S.A. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1976. Jockers, Ernst. J. Otto Schweizer: The Man and His Work Philadelphia: Internat ional Printing Company, 1953. Johnson, Charles A. Denvers Mayor Speer. Denver: Green Mountain Press, 1969.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 119 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form Johnson, E. Civic Center Redevelopment Plan. Dr awing. 22 May 1956 (updated through 4 December 1963). Denver Parks Department Colle ction, WH1316, OVFF305, Range FFC1 7, Shelf 18. Western History and Genealogy Department, Denver P ublic Library, Denver, Colorado. Klaus, Susan L. Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. Nationa l Association for Olmsted Parks. http://www.olmsted.org (accessed 10 January 2011). Leconte, Marie-Laure Crosnier, Chief Conservator of Pa trimony. Institut national d-histoire de lart, Paris ( Etats-Unis et cole des Be aux-arts: Du modle thori que a la ralit du terrain ). Email to Astrid Liverman, National and State Register Coordina tor, History Colorado, Denver, Colorado. 31 March 2011. Leonard, Stephen J. and Thomas J. Noel. Denver: Mining Camp to Metropolis Niwot, Colo.: University Press of Colorado, 1990. Levine, Neil. The Romantic Idea of Architecture Legibility: Henry Labrouste and the Neo-Grec. In The Architecture of the cole des Beaux-Arts ed. Arthur Drexler, 324-416. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1977. Levy, Florence N., ed. American Art Annual. Vol. 6, 1907-08. New York: American Art Annual, 1908. Lewis, Michael J. American Art and Architecture London: Thames and Hudson, Ltd., 2006. Liberty Bell Museum. http://www.libert ybellmuseum.com (accessed 18 June 2008). Liberty Bell Replica. Colorado State Capitol Virtua l Tour. www.colorado.gov/dpa/do it/archives/cap/bell.htm (accessed 18 June 2008). Liverman, Astrid. Colorado National a nd State Register Coordinator. Em ail to Tom and Laurie Simmons. 9 March 2011. Lohse, Joyce B. First Governor, First Lady: John and Eliza Routt of Colorado Palmer Lake, Colorado: Filter Press, 2002. MacMehen, Edgar C. The Court of Honor to Civic Benefactors, Denver, Colorado. Art World 3 (1917): 412. __________., ed. Robert W. Speer: A City Builder. Denver: Robert W. Speer Memorial Association, 1919. Marean, W.A. Developing Denvers Civic Center. Denver Municipal Facts 28 September 1912. Marean and Norton, architects. Ligh ting Fixtures, Denver Civic Center. Drawing. Denver Parks Department Collection, WH1316, OVFF248, Range FFC17, Shelf 5. Western Histor y and Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado. Marean, Willis Adams. National Cyclopedia of American Biography New York: James T. White and Company, 1904. McConnell, Virginia. For These High Purposes. Colorado Magazine 44 (Summer 1967): 204-23.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 120 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Environment. Michigans Liberty Bell. http://www.michigan.gov (accessed 18 June 2008). Milteer, Blake, Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center Director. Quoted in Colorado Springs Independent Coverage of Exhibit Opening. allentuppertru eanamericanartist.com (accessed 31 January 2011). Mitchell, J. Paul. Boss Speer and the City Functional. Pacific Northwest Quarterly 63 (October 1972):155-64. Morgan, Ann Lee. The Oxford Dictionary of American Art and Artists Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2007. Moss, Ann. Denver Mountain Parks. Na tional Register of Hist oric Places, Multiple Property Documentation Form. 20 October 1988. Mumey, Nolie. The Art and Activities of John Dare (Jack) Howland: Painter, Soldi er, Indian Trader, and Pioneer Boulder: Johnson Publishing Company, 1973. Mundus Bishop Design, Inc. Denvers Civic Center Design Guidelines. Denver: Denver Parks and Recreation Department, 2009. __________. Denvers Civic Center Master Plan Denver: Denver Parks and Recreation Department, 2005. Municipal Journal & Engineer 22(January-June 1907): 279. Murphy, Jack A. Geology Tour of Denvers Buildings and Monuments. Denver: Historic Denver, Inc., 1995. National Park Service. Independen ce National Historical Park, Libert y Bell Center. ht tp://www.nps.gov/inde/ liberty-bell-center.htm (accessed 4 October 2010). Noel, Thomas J. Buildings of Colorado New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. __________. Denver Landmarks and Historic Districts Denver: Historic Denver, Inc., 1996. Noel, Thomas J. and Barbara S. Norgren. Denver: The City Beautiful and Its Architects, 1893-1941 Denver: Historic Denver, Inc., 1987. Norgren, Barbara and Cynthia Emrick. Civic Center. Na tional Register of Historic Places Registration Form. 10 December 1973 (listed 27 February 1974). Office of Archaeology and Hi storic Preservation, Colorado Historical Society, Denver, Colorado. Oehlerts, Donald E. Books and Blueprints: Building Americas Public Libraries New York: Greenwood Press, 1991. Olmsted Brothers. Plan for Rough Grading of Area to be Occupied by Civic Center. Drawing. Brookline, Massachusetts. Denver Parks Department Coll ection, WH1316, OVFF248, Range FFC17, Shelf 5. Western History and Geneal ogy Department, Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 121 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form Olmsted, Frederick Law, Jr. Plan of Developing Civic Center Outlined by Landscape Architect, The City of Denver, 12 April 1913. Olmsted, Frederick Law, Jr., Landscape Architect, a nd Arnold W. Brunner, archit ect. Civic Centre [sic], Denver, Colorado. Drawing. Undated. Denver Pa rks Department Collection, WH1316, OVFF363, Range Unit 2, Shelf 4. Western Hi story and Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado. Opitz, Glenn B. ed., Mantle Fieldings Dictionary of Amer ican Painters, Sculptors and Engravers. Poughkeepsie, New York: Apollo, 1987. Ouroussoff, Nicolai. An Epoch Locks Its Doors. Week in Review, New York Times 25 October 2009. Paladin, Vivian A. Phimister Procto r: Master Sculptor of Horses. Montana: The Magazine of Western History 14 (1964) 1: 18. Peterson, Jon A. The Birth of City Planning in the United States, 1840-1917 Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003. Petrie Institute of Western Am erican Art, Denver Art Museum. Colorado: The Artists Muse. Denver: Denver Art Museum, 2008. Poland, Reginald. Artistic Expression in Denver. Denver Municipal Facts, September 1920. Poppum, Walter. Denvers Civic Center. The Green Thumb (Mar.-Apr. 1965): 40-43. Proctor, Alexander Phimister. Alexander Phimister Proctor, Sculptor in Buckskin: The Autobiography of Alexander Phimister Proctor 2nd ed. edited by Katharine C. Ebner. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 2009. Alexander Phimister Proctor. www.procto rmuseum.com (accessed 25 October 2010). Pyle, William R. History of the Colorado State Capito l Complex. M.A. thesis. University of Denver, 1962. Rarick, Ronald D. A Michigan Architect in Indiana: El ijah E. Myers and the Business of Public Architecture in the Gilded Age. Michigan Historical Review 26 (Sept. 2000): 148-59. Read, Henry. City Planning and Ci vic-Center Work in Denver. Journal of the American Institute of Architects 3 (November 1915): 497-500. Robinson, Charles Mulford. The Development of Denver. The American City 1 (Sept.-Nov.1909): 197-207. __________. Modern Civic Art or The City Made Beautiful 4th ed. New York: G.P. Putnams Sons, 1918 (orig. publ. 1903). __________. Opening the Center of Denver. Architectural Record 19 (January 1906): 365-67.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 122 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form __________. Proposed Plans for the Improvem ent of the City of Denver. Denver: Art Commission of the City and County of Denver, 18 January 1906. Robinson, E.W. Civic Center and Mountain Park Plans. The City of Denver 23 May 1914. Rocky Mountain News 1893-2008. Rogers, Elizabeth Barlow. Landscape Design: A Cultural and Architectural History New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 2001. Roth, Leland M. American Architecture: A History. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 2001. Samuels, Peggy and Harold Samuels. The Illustrated Biographical Encycl opedia of Artists of the American West New York: Doubleday, 1976. Schlosser, Elizabeth. Modern Sculpture in Denver (1919-1960): Twelve Denver Sculptors Denver: Ocean View Books, 1995. Scott, Mel. American Planning Since 1890: A History Commemorati ng the Fiftieth Annive rsary of the American Institute of Planners Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1969. Simo, Melanie. 100 Years of Landscape Architectu re: Some Patterns of a Century Washington, D.C.: ASLA Press, 1999. Slater, Paull & Associates, Inc. Historic Structure Assessment and Exterior Preservation Plan: City and County of Denver McNichols Civic Center Building, Final Report. Denver: Sl ater, Paull & Associates, Inc., December 1999. Smart, Mary. A Flight with Fame: The Life and Art of Frederick MacMonnies Madison, Connecticut: Sound View Press, 1996. Smiley, Jerome C. History of Denver Denver: Denver Times, 1901; reprint, Denver: Old Americana Publishing Company, 1978. Speer, Robert Walter, E.H. Bennett, consulting ar chitect, and Marean and Norton, local architects. The Denver Civic Center Plan [Denver: Brock Ha ffner Press, 1917]. Stone, Wilbur Fisk, ed. History of Colorado. Vol. 2. Chicago: S.J. Clarke Publishing Co., 1918. Stone Carvings. The Tiger. 20 November 1931, 4. The Survey 22 (3 April 1909):283. Taft, Lorado, sculptor, and J.R.M. Morrison, architect. Monumental Fount ain, the Gift of Joseph Addison Thatcher for Civic Center, Denver, Colorado. Drawings. Chicago, Illinois. Undated. Denver Parks Department Collection, WH1316, OVFF248, Range FFC 17, Shelf 5. Western Hi story and Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 123 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form Ten Commandments Plaque. Colorado State Capitol Virtual Tour. www.colorado.gov/dpa/doit/ archives/cap/ten.htm (accessed 18 June 2008). This Is Colorado Special Centennial Magazine Section. Denver Post 21 June 1959. True, Jere and Victoria Tupper Kirby. Allen Tupper True: An American Artist. San Francisco, California: Canyon Leap, 2009. Van Slyck, Abigail A. Free to All: Carnegie Librar ies & American Culture: 1890-1920 Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995. Van Zanten, David. Architectural Composition at the c ole des Beaux-Arts from Charles Percier to Charles Garnier. In The Architecture of the cole des Beaux-Arts ed. Arthur Drexler, 110-323. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1977. Wilkins, Thurman and Caroline Lawson Hinkley. Thomas Moran: Artist of the Mountains Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998. Wilson, William H. The City Beautiful Movement Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989. __________. The Denver City and County Buildi ng and the Dimensions of Planning. Planning Perspectives 3 (1988): 269-81. __________. A Diadem for the City Beautiful: The Development of Denvers Civic Center. Journal of the West 22 (April 1983): 73-83. Wiseman, Carter. Shaping a Nation: Twentieth Century American Architecture and its Makers New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1998. Witthus, Rutherford W. The Fisher Architectural Records Collection, 1897-1978. Denver: Denver Public Library, Western History a nd Genealogy Department, 1983. Wray, Diane Midland Savings Building. Colorado State Register of Historic Pr operties Nomination Form, 1999. Zimmer, Amy B. Denvers Capitol Hill Neighborhood Images of America. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing, 2009. Previous documentation on file (NPS): Preliminary Determination of Individual Listing (36 CFR 67) has been requested. X Previously Listed in the National Register. Previously Determined Eligible by the National Register. Designated a National Historic Landmark. Recorded by Historic American Buildings Survey Recorded by Historic American Engineering Record

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 124 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form Primary Location of Additional Data: X State Historic Preservation Office Other State Agency Federal Agency Local Government University X Other (Specify Repository): Denver Public Library, Western History and Genealogy Department 10. GEOGRAPHICAL DATA Acreage of Property: 33 acres UTM References: Zone Easting Northing A 13 500744 4398797 B 13 501483 4398797 C 13 501483 4398400 D 13 500744 4398400 The coordinates above (in NAD 27) describe bounding polygon ABCD, wher ein the boundary of the nominated area is contained (see USGS Location Map). Verbal Boundary Description The nominated area, delineated on the accompanying sketch ma p (drawn to scale), is situ ated in the central part of the City and County of Denver, im mediately south of the central business district. The boundary is described as follows: beginning at the intersection of East Colfax Avenue and Grant Street; th ence south along the west edge of Grant Street to its intersect ion with the north edge of East 14th Avenue; thence west for approximately 169 to the east property lin e (extended) of 200 East 14th Avenue (the former State Museum Building); thence south and west along the property line of that building to its intersection w ith the east edge of Sherman Street; thence north along Sherman Street to the north edge of East 14th Avenue; thence west along the north edge of 14th Avenue to its intersection with th e east edge of Cherokee Street; then ce north along Cherokee Street to its intersection with the south edge of West Colfax Avenue; thence east alo ng the south edge of West Colfax Avenue to Cheyenne Place; thence northeast along the south edge of Cheyenne Place to the west edge of Broadway; thence south along the west edge of Broadway to its intersection with the s outh edge of West Colfax Avenue; thence east along the south edge of East Colfax Avenue to its intersection with the east edge of Sherman Street; thence north along Sher man Street to its intersection with the north property line of 201 East Colfax Avenue (the State Office Building, excluding the parking lot to north); then ce east and south along the property line to its intersection with the south edge of Ea st Colfax Avenue; and then ce east along the south edge of East Colfax Avenue to the point of beginning at Grant Street. Boundary Justification The boundaries of the Denver Civic Center encompass the public landscape and rela ted government buildings that were developed between 1890 and 1935 and form the core of Denvers center of state and local government. Although other government buildings lie outside the proposed bounda ries, the boundaries are

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 125 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form drawn to include only those that reflect the City Beautiful origins of the civic center, historic plans dating from 1885 to 1932, and unifying influence of Beaux Arts design.

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NPS Form 10-900 USDI/NPS NRHP Registration Form (Rev. 8-86) OMB No. 1024-0018 DENVER CIVIC CENTER Page 126 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Registration Form 11. FORM PREPARED BY Name/Title: R. Laurie Simmons and Thomas H. Simmons, historians Address: Front Range Research Associates, Inc. 3635 W. 46th Avenue Denver, Colorado 80211 Telephone: (303) 477-7597 E-mail: frraden@msn.c om Website: www.frhistory.com Date: March 31, 2011 Edited by: Linda F lint McClelland National Park Service National Historic Landmarks Survey 1849 C St., NW (2280) Washington, DC 20240 (202) 354-2258 Roger Reed National Park Service National Historic Landmarks Survey 1849 C St., NW (2280) Washington, DC 20240 (202) 354-2278 NATIONAL HISTORIC LANDMARKS PROGRAM March 16, 2012

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NPS F o DE N United o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f P h C P h P h B M I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nation h otograph 1. C ivic Center P h otograph b y h otograph 2. B uilding from M onument (1 9 R al Park Service Denver Civ i P ark with the C y Roger Whit a Denver Civ i the west fro n 9 09) in the fo r USDI/NPS NRH P i c Cente r Vi e C olorado Ve t a cre. i c Center. Vi e n t of the Colo r eground. Ph o P Registration Form ( e w east towar t erans Monu m e w west towa r rado State C a o tograph by R (Rev. 8-86) r d Colorado S m ent (obelisk r d Denver Ci a pitol with th e R oger Whitac National Re g S tate Capitol f k ) in the midd l ty and Count y e Colorado S c re. P g ister of Historic Pla f rom l e ground. y S oldiers OMB No. 1024-00 1 P hoto g raph a ces Registration For m 8 s m

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NPS F o DE N United o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f P h u p T G P h t r M I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nation h otograph 3. p per terrace a T heater and C o G ateway (at u p h otograph 4. r ansverse (no r M emorial Gat e R al Park Service Civic Center a t right, sunk e o lonnade of C p per left). Ph o Civic Cente r r th-south) ax i e way (center ) USDI/NPS NRH P Park. View o e n garden, an d C ivic Benefa c o tograph by T r Park. View i s and connec ) Photograp h P Registration Form ( o verlooking B d cross-axial c tors (in the f o T homas H. S i north along p ts the Greek T h by Roger W h (Rev. 8-86) B roadway Te r promenade c fo reground) a n i mmons. p aved prome n T heater (fore hitacre. National Re g r race with its onnecting th e n d Voo r hies M n ade that for m ground) and V P g ister of Historic Pla wooded e Greek M emorial m s the V oorhies OMB No. 1024-00 1 P hoto g raph a ces Registration For m 8 s m

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NPS F o DE N United Phot o dom e Phot o rece n sout h o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f o graph 5 (lef t e and southw e o graph 6 (rig h n tly construc t h side of the w I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nation t ). Colorado e st corner of h t). Colorad o t ed granite w a w est lawn. P h R al Park Service State Capitol stathouse. P h o State Capit o a lkway with t h otograph by R USDI/NPS NRH P View north e h otograph by R o l. View nort h ooled sandst o R oger Whita c P Registration Form ( e ast showing R oger Whita c h east showin g o ne stairs on t c re. (Rev. 8-86)gilded c re. g t he National Re g P g ister of Historic Pla OMB No. 1024-00 1 P hoto g raph a ces Registration For m 8 s m

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NPS F o DE N United o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f I C CENTE R f the Interior, NationPhoto g portic o M onu m R al Park Service g raph 7. Col o o with tympa n m ent in the f o USDI/NPS NRH P o rado State C n um sculptur e o reground. P h P Registration Form ( C apitol. View e in bas relie f h otograph by T (Rev. 8-86)north towar d f and Colora d Thomas H. S National Re g d west d o Soldiers S immons. P g ister of Historic Pla OMB No. 1024-00 1 P hoto g raph a ces Registration For m 8 s m

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NPS F o DE N United o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f P h E by P h c o I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nation h otograph 8. E ra (cast 189 3 y Thomas H. h otograph 9. o nstructed m e R al Park Service Colorado St a 3 installed 18 Simmons. Colorado St a em orial alco v USDI/NPS NRH P a te Capitol. V 98) by sculp t a te Capitol. V v es on the eas P Registration Form ( V iew toward e t or Preston P o V iew south o v t grounds. P h (Rev. 8-86) e as t -facing p o o wers in the f v erlooking tr e h otograph by National Re g o rtico with T h f oreground. P e e park and r e Thomas H. S P g ister of Historic Pla h e Closing P hotograph e cently S immons. OMB No. 1024-00 1 P hoto g raph a ces Registration For m 8 s m

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NPS F o DE N United o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f P h P h P h e l I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nation h otograph 1 0 h otograph b y h otograph 11 l evation faci n R al Park Service 0 Colorado S y Thomas H. S Colorado S n g the stateho u USDI/NPS NRH P S tate Capitol. S immons. S tate Museu m u se. Photogr a P Registration Form ( View of sou t m (1915). Vie w a ph by Thom a (Rev. 8-86) t h-facing ele v w southeast s h a s H. Simmo n National Re g v ation of the s h owing front n s. P g ister of Historic Pla s tatehouse. (north) OMB No. 1024-00 1 P hoto g raph a ces Registration For m 8 s m

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NPS F o DE N United o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f P h a n P h w P h I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nation h otograph 1 2 n d south elev h otograph 1 3 w ith pediment h otograph by R al Park Service 2 Colorado S ations. Photo Colorado S e d doorway s y Thomas H. S USDI/NPS NRH P S tate Office B graph by Th o S tate Office B s sculptural r e S immons. P Registration Form ( B uilding (192 1 o mas H. Sim m B uilding. Sou t e lief, and bro (Rev. 8-86) 1 ). View nor t m ons. t h entrance f a o nze mountai n National Re g t heast showi n a cing the stat e n lion figures P g ister of Historic Pla n g west e house OMB No. 1024-00 1 P hoto g raph a ces Registration For m 8 s m

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NPS F o DE N United o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f P h 1 9 W I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nation h otograph 1 4 9 90 Colorad o W hitacre. R al Park Service 4 Lincoln Pa r o Veterans M o USDI/NPS NRH P r k. View eas t o nument (ce n P Registration Form ( t from the pa v n te r ) and stat e (Rev. 8-86) v ed central w a e house. Phot o National Re g alkway towa r o graph by Ro g P g ister of Historic Pla r d the g er OMB No. 1024-00 1 P hoto g raph a ces Registration For m 8 s m

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NPS F o DE N United o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f P h w P h B D I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nation h otograph 1 5 w ith original b h otograph 1 6 B uilding (193 2 D enver Public R al Park Service 5 Lincoln Pa r b u t newly pa v 6 Civic Cent e 2 ) from Broa d Library (at r i USDI/NPS NRH P r k. View nor t v ed curving w e r Park. Vie w d way Terrac e i ght). Photog r P Registration Form ( t heast towar d w alkway. Pho t w west towar d e with the bal u r aph by Rog e (Rev. 8-86) d center of pa r t ograph by T h d the Denver C u strade wall ( e r Whitacre. National Re g r k showing tr h omas H. Si m C ity and Co u ( foreground) P g ister of Historic Pla ee park m mons. u nty and OMB No. 1024-00 1 P hoto g raph a ces Registration For m 8 s m

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NPS F o DE N United o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f P h e q P h w P h I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nation h otograph 1 7 q uestrian stat u h otograph 1 8 w ith equestria n h otograph b y R al Park Service 7 Civic Cent e u es and the G 8 Pioneer M o n statue of K i y Thomas H. S USDI/NPS NRH P e r Park. Vie w G reat Lawn. P o nument (19 1 i t Carson and S immons. P Registration Form ( w northwest s h P hotograph b y 1 1). View of f other sculpt u (Rev. 8-86) h owing cross y Roger Whit f ountain by F u re depicting National Re g s -axial prome n t acre. F rederick Ma c Colorados h P g ister of Historic Pla n ade with c Monnies h eritage. OMB No. 1024-00 1 P hoto g raph a ces Registration For m 8 s m

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NPS F o DE N United o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f P h T H P h w I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nation h otograph 1 9 T r apper/Hunt e H Simmons. h otograph 2 0 w est elevation R al Park Service 9 Pioneer M o e r, modeled a 0 Denver P u s. Photograp h USDI/NPS NRH P o nument (19 1 a fter famous C u blic Library ( h by Thomas P Registration Form ( 1 1). View of b C olorado sco ( 1910). Vie w H. Simmons. (Rev. 8-86) b ronze sculp t o ut Jim Baker w southeast sh National Re g t ure, The Photograph h owing front ( P g ister of Historic Pla Thomas ( north) and OMB No. 1024-00 1 P hoto g raph a ces Registration For m 8 s m

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NPS F o DE N United o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f P h n e s a W P h P P h I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nation h otograph 21 e oclassical b a a ndstone. De n W hitacre. h otograph 2 2 P rospecto r b y h otograph by R al Park Service Greek The a a lustrade wal l n ver Art Mus 2 Greek The a muralist All e y Thomas H. S USDI/NPS NRH P a ter and Col o l s, columnar p eum (1971) i a ter and Col o e n Tupper Tr u S immons. P Registration Form ( o nnade of Ci v p ylons, and s t s visible in b a o nnade of Ci v u e on the eas t (Rev. 8-86) v ic Benefacto r t airsways of T a ckground. P v ic Benefacto r t wall of the t h National Re g r s (1919) wit h T urkey Cree k P hotograph b y r s (1919). Vi e t heater pavili o P g ister of Historic Pla h k y Roger e w of The o n. OMB No. 1024-00 1 P hoto g raph a ces Registration For m 8 s m

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NPS F o DE N United o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f P h s c R P h s c P h I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nation h otograph 2 3 c ulpture byA l R oger Whitac r h otograph 2 4 c ulpture by A h otograph b y R al Park Service Civic Cent e l exander Phi m r e. 4 Civic Cent e A lexander Phi m y Roger Whit a USDI/NPS NRH P e r Park. Vie w m inster Proct o e r Park. Vie w m inster Proc t a cre. P Registration Form ( w west showi n o r which was w west showi n t or which wa s (Rev. 8-86) n g B roncho B installed in 1 n g On the W a s installed in t National Re g B uste r an eq u 1 920. Photog r a r Trai l an e q t he park in 1 9 P g ister of Historic Pla u estrian r aph by q uestrian 9 22. OMB No. 1024-00 1 P hoto g raph a ces Registration For m 8 s m

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NPS F o DE N United o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f P h d e S P h a s I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nation h otograph 2 5 e picting sea l immons. h otograph 2 6 s it appears i n R al Park Service 5 Voorhies M ions and infa n 6 Voorhies M n the east lun e USDI/NPS NRH P M emorial Gat n ts b y sculpt o M emorial Gat e tte. Photogr a P Registration Form ( eway. View n o r Robert Ga r eway. The Bi a ph by Thom a (Rev. 8-86) n orthwest sh o r rison. Photo g i son by mur a a s H. Simmo n National Re g o wing bronze g raph by Th o a list Allen Tu p n s. P g ister of Historic Pla fountains o mas H. p per True, OMB No. 1024-00 1 P hoto g raph a ces Registration For m 8 s m

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NPS F o DE N United o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f P h e l T P h p o I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nation h otograph 2 7 l evation look i T homas H. Si m h otograph 2 8 o rtico and cl o R al Park Service 7 Denver Ci t i ng west fro m m mons. 8 Denver Ci t o cktower. P h USDI/NPS NRH P t y and Count y m the Great L a t y and Count y h otograph by T P Registration Form ( y Building (1 9 a wn of Civic y Building. V T homas H. S i (Rev. 8-86) 9 32). View o f Center Park. V iew northwe s i mmons. National Re g f the front (e a Photograph b s t toward eas t P g ister of Historic Pla a s t ) b y t -facing OMB No. 1024-00 1 P hoto g raph a ces Registration For m 8 s m

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NPS F o DE N United o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f P h e l I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nation h otograph 2 9 l evation. Pho t R al Park Service 9 Denver Ci t t ograph by T h USDI/NPS NRH P t y and Count y h omas H. Si m P Registration Form ( y Building. V m mons. (Rev. 8-86) V iew northeas t National Re g t toward rear P g ister of Historic Pla(west) OMB No. 1024-00 1 P hoto g raph a ces Registration For m 8 s m

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NPS F o DE N United P B M P P s J o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f P hotograph 3 0 B uilding (19 3 M emorial Fla P hotograph b y P hotograph 3 s tatue honori n J oe P. Martin e I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nation 0 (left). Gro u 3 5). View nor t gpole (cente r y Thomas H. 1 (right). Li n n g World Wa r e z. Photogra p R al Park Service u nds of the D e t h across for e r ) and Colora d Simmons. n coln Park. V i r II Medal of p h by Thom a USDI/NPS NRH P e nver City a n e court with C a d o blue spruc i ew northeas t Honor recipi a s H. Simmo n P Registration Form ( n d County a milla S. Ed b e (right). t with 1988 en t n s. (Rev. 8-86) b rooke National Re g P g ister of Historic Pla OMB No. 1024-00 1 P hoto g raph a ces Registration For m 8 s m

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NPS F o DE N United o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f Figure 1 (l e Arapahoe C the Denver Denver Pu b Figure 2 (r i linking the north-sout h May 1910. I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nation e ft). The 190 C ounty Court h Public Libra r b lic Library. i ght). The M a Colorado St a h axis linking Courtesy of t R al Park Service 6 Robinson p h ouse (upper r y (center lef t a cMonnies 1 9 a te Capitol (c e semi-circula r t he City and C USDI/NPS NRH P p lan connecte d left) using a n t ). SOURCE: 9 07 plan pro p e nter right) a n r areas to the C ounty of De n P Registration Form ( d the Colora d n orthwest ax i D enver Mu n p osed a sym m n d a new mu n north and so u n ver and Mu n (Rev. 8-86) d o State Capi t i s and placed n icipal Facts m etrical layo u n icipal buildi n u th. SOURC E n dus Bishop D National Re g t ol (center ri g the Pioneer M 14 May 191 0 u t with a stro n n g (center le f E : D enver M u D esign, Inc. g ister of Historic Pla g ht) to the for m M onument n o 0 Courtesy o n g eas t -west a f t) and a seco n u nicipal Fact s OMB No. 1024-00 1 Fi g ure a ces Registration For m m er o rth of o f the a xis n dary s 14 8 s m

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NPS F o DE N United o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f Figure 3. be used f o I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nation This map ap p o r the propos e R al Park Service p eared in D e n e d civic cent e USDI/NPS NRH P n ver Munici p e r project. Co u P Registration Form ( p al Facts, Jul y u rtesy of the (Rev. 8-86) y 1909, depic Denver Publ i National Re g ct ing the lots t i c Library. g ister of Historic Pla t hat would li k OMB No. 1024-00 1 Fi g ure a ces Registration For m k ely 8 s m

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NPS F o DE N United o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f F p e F I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nationigure 4. Den e rspective vi e F acts 11 Mar c R al Park Service v er architect s e w interpreti n c h 1911. Co u USDI/NPS NRH P s Maurice B. B n g the 1907 M u rtesy of the D P Registration Form ( B iscoe and H M acMonnies p D enver Publi c (Rev. 8-86) H enry H. He w p lan. SOUR C c Library. National Re g w itt prepared t C E: D enver M g ister of Historic Pla t his M unicipal OMB No. 1024-00 1 Fi g ure a ces Registration For m 8 s m

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NPS F o DE N United F i w li b S o C o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f i gure 5. The w est of Broad w b rary, a mun i o urce: Origi n C ivic Center o I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nation1912 plan b y w ay (center r i i cipal buildin g n al plan from f Denve r Co R al Park Service y Frederick L a i ght), a balus t g in the west e Engineers O urtesy of the USDI/NPS NRH P a w Olmsted J t rade wall an d e rnmost b loc k O ffice, City a n University o f P Registration Form ( J r. and Arnol d d sunken gar d k (center left) n d County of f Northern C o (Rev. 8-86) d W. Brunne r d en (center le ) and a wood Denver repr o o lorado, Gre e National Re g r proposed fo r ft), a new b u i ed concert g r o duced in Gil l e ley. g ister of Historic Pla r mal groves o i lding opposi t r ove (lower c e l is, A Histo r OMB No. 1024-00 1 Fi g ure a ces Registration For m o f trees t e the e nter). r y of the 8 s m

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NPS F o DE N United o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f Figure 6. June 191 3 F s e t h r e D I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nation A 1913 pers p 3 Courtesy o f igure 7. Ol m e parate the u p h e west. Alth o e tained in su b D enver Public R al Park Service p ective view f the Denver P m sted and Bru n p per wooded t o ugh the desi g b sequent plan s Library. USDI/NPS NRH P depicting th e P ublic Libra r n ner propose d t errace of Ci v g n changed, t s SOURCE: P Registration Form ( e Olmsted-Br u r y. d using a lo w v ic Center Pa r t he basic con c City of Denv e (Rev. 8-86) u nne r plan. S w wall topped r k from the o c ept of the ba er 14 June 1 9 National Re g OURCE: Cit y by a balustr a pen sunken g a lustrade wal l 913. Courtes y g ister of Historic Pla y of Denve r a de to g arden to l was y of the OMB No. 1024-00 1 Fi g ure a ces Registration For m 14 8 s m

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NPS F o DE N United o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f F t h G H I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nationigure 8. Thi s h e OlmstedB G eorge L. Be a H istory and G e R al Park Service s 1913 view w B runner plan i n a m photograp h e nealogy De p USDI/NPS NRH P w est from the n the earliest h image nu m p artment, De n P Registration Form ( Colorado St a design of C i m ber GB-749 2 n ver Public L i (Rev. 8-86) a te Capitol s h i vic Center P a 2 1913. Cou r ibrary. National Re g h ows the infl u a rk (center). S r tesy of the W g ister of Historic Pla u ence of S OURCE: W estern OMB No. 1024-00 1 Fi g ure a ces Registration For m 8 s m

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NPS F o DE N United Figu r sout h to th e mun i Den v Colo o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f r e 9. Bennett' h axis (lower e south, an e n i cipal buildin v er, reproduc e rado, Greele y I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nations 1917 plan f center to up p n larged publi c g to the west e d in Gillis, y R al Park Service f or Civic Cen t er center), a c c library with (center left). A History o f USDI/NPS NRH P t er Park incl u c entral monu m a building o p SOURCE: O f the Civic Ce n P Registration Form ( u ded the prin c m ental fount a p posite to the O riginal plan f n ter of Denv e (Rev. 8-86) c ipal east-we s a in, a concert south, a rect a f rom the Eng i er Courtesy National Re g s t axis (left t o garden in th e a ngular refle c i neers Offic e of the Univ e g ister of Historic Pla o right), a sec o e semi-ellipti c c ting pool, a n e City and C o e rsity of Nort h OMB No. 1024-00 1 Fi g ure a ces Registration For m o ndary north c al extension n d a large o unty of h ern 8 s m

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NPS F o DE N United Fig u Pla n o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f u re 10. Ben n n SOURCE: O I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nation n ett engaged J O riginal fro m Civic Cent e R al Park Service J ules Gurin t m the Engine e e r of Denve r USDI/NPS NRH P t o produce th i e rs Office, C i Courtesy o f P Registration Form ( i s perspectiv e i ty and Coun t f the Universi t (Rev. 8-86) e drawing (vi e t y of Denver, t y of Norther n National Re g e w wes t -sout h reproduced i n Colorado, G g ister of Historic Pla h west) depic t i n Gillis, A H G reeley. OMB No. 1024-00 1 Fi g ure a ces Registration For m t ing his 1917 H istory of th e 8 s m e

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NPS F o DE N United o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f Figure 11 Park. SO U Denver P a Western H Figure 12 (1910) to 1911), i m Public Li b I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nation (left). Denv e U RCE: Mare a a rks Depart m H istory and G (right). Fre d the southwe s m age number X b rary. R al Park Service e r architects M a n and Norto n m ent Collecti o G enealogy De d erick MacM o s t (at left). S O X -28771. Co u USDI/NPS NRH P M arean and N n architects, n, WH1316, partment, De o nniess Pio n O URCE: Roc k u rtesy of the W P Registration Form ( N orton design e Lighting Fix t OVFF248, R nver Public L n eer Monume k y Mountain P W estern Hist o (Rev. 8-86) e d the metal l t ures, Denve r R ange FFC17, L ibrary. e nt (1911) wi t P hoto Comp a o ry and Gen e National Re g l ampposts fo r r Civic Cente r Shelf 5. Co u t h the Denve r a ny photogra p e alogy Depar t g ister of Historic Pla r Civic Cente r r Drawing, u rtesy of the r Public Libr a p h, undated ( c t ment, Denv e OMB No. 1024-00 1 Fi g ure a ces Registration For m r a ry c a. e r 8 s m

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NPS F o DE N United o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f F P C n u D F g r i m S I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nationigure 2. Ca. ark showing b C olorado Vol u u mber MCC D epartment, D igure 14. Thi r ounds (at ri g m age number ociety. R al Park Service 1910 view o f b orders of de u nteers Flagp o 1015, ca. 19 1 D enver Public s early 1920 s g ht) and Linc o CHS-B1957 USDI/NPS NRH P f the recently ciduous tree s o le (at right). 1 0. Courtesy o Library. s aerial view s o ln Park (at l e Courtesy o f P Registration Form ( completed C o s t he terrace d SOURCE: L o f the Weste r s hows the lay e ft). SOURC E f History Col o (Rev. 8-86) o lorado State d west lawn ( c L .C. McClure r n History an d y out of the C o E : Harry H. B orado, the C o National Re g e Capitol and c enter), and t h photograph, d Genealogy o lorado State C B uckwalter p h o lorado Histo r g ister of Historic Pla Lincoln h e 1898 image C apitol h otograph, r ical OMB No. 1024-00 1 Fi g ure a ces Registration For m 8 s m

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NPS F o DE N United o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f F W O i m G F 1 9 m B S t h I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nationigure 15. 19 2 W a r era cann o O ffice Buildi n m age number G enealogy De p igure 16. La t 9 20s view. S e m ark opposite Br oadway Ter r OURCE: L. C h e Western H R al Park Service 2 0s view of t h o ns on the w e n g in the dista n MCC-2873, p artment, De n t e afternoon s e t upon grani t sides of the t r ace (center r C McClure p h istory and G e USDI/NPS NRH P h e Colorado S e st lawn of th e n ce (at right) undated (ca. n ver Public L s hadows cros s t e pedestals, B t ransverse no r r ight) and the h otograph, i m e nealogy De p P Registration Form ( S oldiers Mo n e Colorado S t SOURCE: L 1920s). Cou r L ibrary. s the gravel p B roncho Bus t r th-south axi s Colorado St a m age number M p artment, De n (Rev. 8-86) n ument (1909 ) t ate Capitol w L .C. McClur e r tesy of the W p aths in Civic t e r and On th s To the east a te Capitol (c e MCC-3024, c n ver Public L i National Re g ) and a pair o w ith the Colo r e photograph W estern Histo r Center Park e War Trai l ( the b alustra d enter left) ar e c a. 1929. Co u i brary. g ister of Historic Plaf Civil r ado State collection, r y and in this late ( at right) d e of e visible. u rtesy of OMB No. 1024-00 1 Fi g ure a ces Registration For m 8 s m

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NPS F o DE N United Figu r a cu r Orig i of D e o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f r e17. The 19 r vilinear entr a i nal plan fro m e nve r Cour t I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nation25Allied Ar c a nce court an d m the Engine e t esy of the U n R al Park Service hitects Asso c d an open vie w e rs Office, C n iversity of N USDI/NPS NRH P c iation plan f o w across the ity and Coun t N orthern Colo P Registration Form ( o r the wester n Great Lawn f t y of Denver, rado, Greele y (Rev. 8-86) n portion of t h f ramed by tw o reproduced i y National Re g h e Denver Ci v o rows of de c i n Gillis, A H g ister of Historic Pla v ic Center pr c iduous trees. H istory of th e OMB No. 1024-00 1 Fi g ure a ces Registration For m oposed SOURCE: e Civic Cent e 8 s m r

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NPS F o DE N United o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f Figure 18 early 193 0 (upper le f forming t h photogra p Departm e I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nation. This obliqu e 0 s. Colfax A v f t) and stateh o h e boundary b p h, image nu m e nt, Denver P u R al Park Service e aerial view v enue extend s o use (lower r i b etween Lin c m ber X-2398 9 u blic Library USDI/NPS NRH P northwest sh o s from the up p i ght). Broad w c oln Park and 9 ca. 1931-3 5 P Registration Form ( o ws the Den v p er left to lo w w ay cuts diag Civic Cente r 5 Courtesy o (Rev. 8-86) v er Civic Ce n w er right nor t g onally from t r Park. SOU R o f the Wester n National Re g n ter as it was r t h of the cityt he lower left R CE: Denver n History an d g ister of Historic Pla r ealized by t h county build i to upper rig h Photo Comp a d Genealogy OMB No. 1024-00 1 Fi g ure a ces Registration For m h e i ng ht a ny 8 s m

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NPS F o DE N United o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f Figur e 1930s throu g and C o numb e Librar y I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nation e 19. This obl i Aligned wi t g h Civic Cent e o unty Buildi n e r Z-2089. C o y R al Park Service i que aerial vi e t h the princip e r Park with i n g (at upper c e o urtesy of the USDI/NPS NRH P e w shows th e al eas t -west a i ts north-sout h e nter). SOU R Western His t P Registration Form ( e west end of a xis, it exten d h transverse a R CE: Denver t ory and Gen (Rev. 8-86)the Denver C d s from Linc o a xis (in the c e Photo Comp a n ealogy Depa r National Re g C ivic Center i n o ln Park (at l o e nter), to the D a ny photogra p r tment, Denv e g ister of Historic Pla n the early o wer center), D enver City p h, image e r Public OMB No. 1024-00 1 Fi g ure a ces Registration For m 8 s m

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NPS F o DE N United o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f F s p s p p h G F B n u H I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nationigure 20. Fr o p eeches, reli g p onsored by t h otograph, i m G enealogy De p igure 21. Th e B roadway Ter r u mber X-20 5 H istory and G e R al Park Service o m its compl e g ious observa n t he Denver a n m age number p artment, De n e completed D r ace b alustra d 5 25, undated ( e nealogy De p USDI/NPS NRH P e tion, the Gre n ces, and oth n d Rio Grand e GB-5115, ca n ver Public L D enver City a d e, with the B ( ca. late 1930 p artment, De n P Registration Form ( ek Theater h o e r activities. S e Railroad. S O 1920s. Cou r L ibrary. a nd County B B roncho Bust e s), WHC alb u n ver Public L i (Rev. 8-86) o sted concert s S hown here i O URCE: Ge o r tesy of the W B uilding is sh o er statue (at l e u m #111. Co u ibrary. National Re g s plays, poli t i s a 1920s ba n o rge L. Bea m W estern Histo r o wn here fro m e f t ). SOURC E u rtesy of the W g ister of Historic Pla t ical n d contest m r y and m the E : Image W estern OMB No. 1024-00 1 Fi g ure a ces Registration For m 8 s m

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NPS F o DE N United Figu r patte SO U City o rm 10-900 N VER CIV I States Department o f r e 22. The 2 0 rns of trees f o U RCE: D enve r and County o I C CENTE R f the Interior, Nation 0 09 D esign G u o und in the s a r s Civic Cen o f Denve r an d R al Park Service u idelines for a me location s ter Design G d Mundus Bi s USDI/NPS NRH P C ivic Center s as the pre-1 9 uidelines 20 0 s hop Design, P Registration Form ( Park identifi e 9 32 trees (cr o 0 9 (simplifie d Inc. (Rev. 8-86) e d trees pres e o ss-hatched). d and conver t National Re g e nt in 1932 ( h The north-so u t ed to black a g ister of Historic Pla h atched) and c u th axis runs a nd whi t e). C o OMB No. 1024-00 1 Fi g ure a ces Registration For m c ontributing left to right. o urtesy of th e 8 s m e

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